WorldWideScience

Sample records for plate driving forces

  1. Driving Forces of Plate Tectonics and Evolution of the Oceanic Lithosphere and Asthenosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, D. W.

    2017-12-01

    As plate tectonics became established as an excellent kinematic description of the relative motions of different blocks of the Earth's lithosphere, many investigators also began exploring the forces involved in driving the plate motions. Because the plates move at nearly constant velocities over long periods of time and inertial terms are unimportant, driving forces must always be balanced by resisting forces in a way that regulates the velocities. Forsyth and Uyeda (1975) incorporated the balancing of torques on the individual plates to help constrain the relative importance of the driving and resisting forces, as parameterized in a way based on prior model investigations of individual parts of the convecting system. We found that the primary driving force was sinking of subducting lithosphere at trenches, balanced largely by viscous resisting forces in the sub-asthenospheric mantle; that viscous drag beneath the oceanic plates was negligible; and that mid-ocean ridges provided a relatively small push. One of the early questions was whether there was buoyant upwelling on a large scale beneath mid-ocean ridges as part of a whole mantle convection system with subduction of the plates representing the downwelling limb. If so, then it would be likely that the plates were just riding on top of large convection cells. Seismic tomography has demonstrated that, on average, there are no deep roots beneath mid-ocean ridges, so that active, buoyant upwelling from the deep mantle does not exist beneath spreading centers. However, more recent tomographic studies have found asymmetry of the shear velocity structure beneath ridges in some areas, pointing to a smaller scale of active convection in the shallow mantle perhaps induced by melt retention buoyancy or the local effects of ridge/hotspot interaction.

  2. Subduction Drive of Plate Tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, W. B.

    2003-12-01

    shrinking oceans, forcing rapid Pacific spreading. Slabs suck forward overriding arcs and continental lithosphere, plus most subjacent mantle above the transition zone. Changes in sizes of oceans result primarily from transfer of oceanic lithosphere, so backarcs and expanding oceans spread only slowly. Lithosphere parked in, or displaced from, the transition zone, or mixed into mid-upper mantle, is ultimately recycled, and regional variations in age of that submerged lithosphere may account for some regional contrasts in MORB. Plate motions make no kinematic sense in either the "hotspot" reference frame (HS; the notion of fixed plumes is easily disproved) or the no-net-rotation frame (NNR) In both, for example, many hinges roll forward, impossible with gravity drive. Subduction-drive predictions are fulfilled, and paleomagnetic data are satisfied (as they are not in HS and NNR), in the alternative framework of propulsionless Antarctica fixed relative to sluggish lower mantle. Passive ridges migrate away from Antarctica on all sides, and migration of these and other ridges permits tapping fresh asthenosphere. (HS and NNR tend to fix ridges). Ridge migration and spreading rates accord with subduction drive. All trenches roll back when allowance is made for back-arc spreading and intracontinental deformation. Africa rotates slowly toward subduction systems in the NE, instead of moving rapidly E as in HS and NNR. Stable NW Eurasia is nearly stationary, instead of also moving rapidly, and S and E Eurasian deformation relates to subduction and rollback. The Americas move Pacificward at almost the full spreading rates of passive ridges behind them. Lithosphere has a slow net westward drift. Reference: W.B. Hamilton, An alternative Earth, GSA Today, in press.

  3. Spirit Begins Drive Around Home Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The hazard avoidance camera on the front of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this image after a drive by Spirit on the 1,829th Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's mission on the surface of Mars (Feb. 24, 2009). On Sol 1829, Spirit drove 6.29 meters (21 feet) northwestward, away from the northern edge of the low plateau called 'Home Plate.' The track dug by the dragged right-front wheel as the rover drove backward is visible in this image, receding toward the southeast. Rock layers of the northern slope of Home Plate are visible in the upper right portion of the image. In sols prior to 1829, the rover team had been trying to maneuver Spirit to climb onto the northern edge of Home Plate, ready to drive southward across the top of the plateau toward science destinations south of Home Plate. The Sol 1829 drive was the first move of a revised strategy to circle at least partway around Home Plate on the trek toward the sites south of the plateau.

  4. Controlling Casimir force via coherent driving field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Rashid; Abbas, Muqaddar; Ahmad, Iftikhar; Qamar, Sajid

    2016-04-01

    A four level atom-field configuration is used to investigate the coherent control of Casimir force between two identical plates made up of chiral atomic media and separated by vacuum of width d. The electromagnetic chirality-induced negative refraction is obtained via atomic coherence. The behavior of Casimir force is investigated using Casimir-Lifshitz formula. It is noticed that Casimir force can be switched from repulsive to attractive and vice versa via coherent control of the driving field. This switching feature provides new possibilities of using the repulsive Casimir force in the development of new emerging technologies, such as, micro-electro-mechanical and nano-electro-mechanical systems, i.e., MEMS and NEMS, respectively.

  5. Technology as a driving force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torvund, T [Norsk Hydro A/S (Norway)

    1994-12-31

    The competitiveness of the Norwegian Continental shelf has been put firmly on the agenda in Norway since the report from a working group set up by the Ministry of Industry and Energy was released in February this year. If there is to be secured a long future for oil and gas activities, a reduction in the time and costs used in the projects of the order of 40-50%, without jeopardizing the high safety and environmental standards achieved in Norway. The paper addresses how technology can be a driving force in achieving these aims. But technology alone cannot do the job. Progress and changes in several other areas are also necessary, and the new scenario also calls for improved relations between all actors in the North Sea, authorities, oil companies, contractors and labour unions. 15 figs.

  6. Technology as a driving force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torvund, T.

    1994-01-01

    The competitiveness of the Norwegian Continental shelf has been put firmly on the agenda in Norway since the report from a working group set up by the Ministry of Industry and Energy was released in February this year. If there is to be secured a long future for oil and gas activities, a reduction in the time and costs used in the projects of the order of 40-50%, without jeopardizing the high safety and environmental standards achieved in Norway. The paper addresses how technology can be a driving force in achieving these aims. But technology alone cannot do the job. Progress and changes in several other areas are also necessary, and the new scenario also calls for improved relations between all actors in the North Sea, authorities, oil companies, contractors and labour unions. 15 figs

  7. Chemical driving force for rafting in superalloys

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nabarro, FRN

    1997-08-15

    Full Text Available The author provides a brief overview of the chemical driving forces for rafting in superalloys. Until recently, all theories of the driving force for rafting have considered the compositions of the two phases to be fixed, although accepting...

  8. Reconstruction of driving forces through recurrence plots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanio, Masaaki; Hirata, Yoshito; Suzuki, Hideyuki

    2009-01-01

    We consider the problem of reconstructing one-dimensional driving forces only from the observations of driven systems. We extend the approach presented in a seminal paper [M.C. Casdagli, Physica D 108 (1997) 12] and propose a method that is robust and has wider applicability. By reinterpreting the work of Thiel et al. [M. Thiel, M.C. Romano, J. Kurths, Phys. Lett. A 330 (2004) 343], we formulate the reconstruction problem as a combinatorial optimization problem and relax conditions by assuming that a driving force is continuous. The method is demonstrated by using a tent map driven by an external force.

  9. Global Models of Ridge-Push Force, Geoid, and Lithospheric Strength of Oceanic plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahatsente, Rezene

    2017-12-01

    An understanding of the transmission of ridge-push related stresses in the interior of oceanic plates is important because ridge-push force is one of the principal forces driving plate motion. Here, I assess the transmission of ridge-push related stresses in oceanic plates by comparing the magnitude of the ridge-push force to the integrated strength of oceanic plates. The strength is determined based on plate cooling and rheological models. The strength analysis includes low-temperature plasticity (LTP) in the upper mantle and assumes a range of possible tectonic conditions and rheology in the plates. The ridge-push force has been derived from the thermal state of oceanic lithosphere, seafloor depth and crustal age data. The results of modeling show that the transmission of ridge-push related stresses in oceanic plates mainly depends on rheology and predominant tectonic conditions. If a lithosphere has dry rheology, the estimated strength is higher than the ridge-push force at all ages for compressional tectonics and at old ages (>75 Ma) for extension. Therefore, under such conditions, oceanic plates may not respond to ridge-push force by intraplate deformation. Instead, the plates may transmit the ridge-push related stress in their interior. For a wet rheology, however, the strength of young lithosphere (stress may dissipate in the interior of oceanic plates and diffuses by intraplate deformation. The state of stress within a plate depends on the balance of far-field and intraplate forces.

  10. Isolated resonator gyroscope with a drive and sense plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challoner, A. Dorian (Inventor); Shcheglov, Kirill V. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    The present invention discloses a resonator gyroscope comprising a vibrationally isolated resonator including a proof mass, a counterbalancing plate having an extensive planar region, and one or more flexures interconnecting the proof mass and counterbalancing plate. A baseplate is affixed to the resonator by the one or more flexures and sense and drive electrodes are affixed to the baseplate proximate to the extensive planar region of the counterbalancing plate for exciting the resonator and sensing movement of the gyroscope. The isolated resonator transfers substantially no net momentum to the baseplate when the resonator is excited.

  11. Driving forces in the Greenlandic urbanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Kåre

    2014-01-01

    Generally urbanization is recognised as a natural development where the population is mowing into the larger towns driven by e.g. better job opportunities, larger product and service supply and better education and health services, and it is often argued that this is also the driving forces...... support and with limited export oriented value creation. It will be disused how the previous and present urbanization interact with a sustainable development and what is the core prerequisites for sustainable towns and settlements....

  12. Forces Between a Permanent Magnet and a Soft Magnetic Plate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beleggia, Marco; Vokoun, David; De Graef, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Forces between a hard/permanent magnet of arbitrary shape and an ideally soft magnetic plate in close proximity are derived analytically from the image method applied to magnetostatics. We found that the contact force, defined as the force required to detach the hard magnet from the plate, coinci...

  13. Concurrent Validity of a Portable Force Plate Using Vertical Jump Force-Time Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Jason; Mundy, Peter; Comfort, Paul; McMahon, John J; Suchomel, Timothy J; Carden, Patrick

    2018-05-29

    This study examined concurrent validity of countermovement vertical jump (CMJ) reactive strength index modified and force-time characteristics recorded using a one dimensional portable and laboratory force plate system. Twenty-eight men performed bilateral CMJs on two portable force plates placed on top of two in-ground force plates, both recording vertical ground reaction force at 1000 Hz. Time to take-off, jump height, reactive strength index modified, braking and propulsion impulse, mean net force, and duration were calculated from the vertical force from both force plate systems. Results from both systems were highly correlated (r≥.99). There were small (dbraking impulse, braking mean net force, propulsion impulse, and propulsion mean net force (psystem (95% CL: .9% to 2.5%), indicating very good agreement across all of the dependent variables. The largest limits of agreement belonged to jump height (2.1%), time to take-off (3.4%), and reactive strength index modified (3.8%). The portable force plate system provides a valid method of obtaining reactive strength measures, and several underpinning force-time variables, from unloaded CMJ and practitioners can use both force plates interchangeably.

  14. The Secret Driving Force Behind Mongolia’s Successful Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    the nation’s democracy movement its earliest stages. Courtesy of the Democratic Union of Mongolia PRISM 6, no. 1 FROM THE FIELD | 141 The Secret Driving...assistance and trade. Our state budget PRISM 6, no. 1 FROM THE FIELD | 143 THE SECRET DRIVING FORCE BEHIND MONGOLIA’S SUCCESSFUL DEMOCRACY collapsed; we...O yungerel Tsedevdam ba (2006) PRISM 6, no. 1 FROM THE FIELD | 145 THE SECRET DRIVING FORCE BEHIND MONGOLIA’S SUCCESSFUL DEMOCRACY significantly as

  15. [Experimental study on carbon fiber reinforced plastic plate--analysis of stabilizing force required for plate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizuka, H

    1990-11-01

    Plates currently in use for the management of bone fracture made of metal present with various problems. We manufactured carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) plates from Pyrofil T/530 puriplegs overlaid at cross angles of +/- 10 degrees, +/- 20 degrees, and +/- 30 degrees for trial and carried out an experimental study on rabbit tibiofibular bones using 316L stainless steel plates of comparable shape and size as controls. The results indicate the influence of CFRP plate upon cortical bone was milder than that of stainless steel plate, with an adequate stabilizing force for the repair of fractured rabbit tibiofibular bones. CFRP has the advantages over metals of being virtually free from corrosion and fatigue, reasonably radiolucent and able to meet a wide range of mechanical requirements. This would make CFRP plate quite promising as a new devices of treating fracture of bones.

  16. Glenohumeral contact force during flat and topspin tennis forehand drives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blache, Yoann; Creveaux, Thomas; Dumas, Raphaël; Chèze, Laurence; Rogowski, Isabelle

    2017-03-01

    The primary role of the shoulder joint in tennis forehand drive is at the expense of the loadings undergone by this joint. Nevertheless, few studies investigated glenohumeral (GH) contact forces during forehand drives. The aim of this study was to investigate GH compressive and shearing forces during the flat and topspin forehand drives in advanced tennis players. 3D kinematics of flat and topspin forehand drives of 11 advanced tennis players were recorded. The Delft Shoulder and Elbow musculoskeletal model was implemented to assess the magnitude and orientation of GH contact forces during the forehand drives. The results showed no differences in magnitude and orientation of GH contact forces between the flat and topspin forehand drives. The estimated maximal GH contact force during the forward swing phase was 3573 ± 1383 N, which was on average 1.25 times greater than during the follow-through phase, and 5.8 times greater than during the backswing phase. Regardless the phase of the forehand drive, GH contact forces pointed towards the anterior-superior part of the glenoid therefore standing for shearing forces. Knowledge of GH contact forces during real sport tasks performed at high velocity may improve the understanding of various sport-specific adaptations and causative factors for shoulder problems.

  17. Computation of the homogeneous and forced solutions of a finite length, line-driven, submerged plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPerna, Daniel T; Blake, William K; DiPerna, Xingguang Z

    2006-12-01

    A formulation is developed to predict the vibration response of a finite length, submerged plate due to a line drive. The formulation starts by describing the fluid in terms of elliptic cylinder coordinates, which allows the fluid loading term to be expressed in terms of Mathieu functions. By moving the fluid loading term to the right-hand side of the equation, it is considered to be a force. The operator that remains on the left-hand side is the same as that of the in vacuo plate: a fourth-order, constant coefficient, ordinary differential equation. Therefore, the problem appears to be an inhomogeneous ordinary differential equation. The solution that results has the same form as that of the in vacuo plate: the sum of a forced solution, and four homogeneous solutions, each of which is multiplied by an arbitrary constant. These constants are then chosen to satisfy the structural boundary conditions on the two ends of the plate. Results for the finite plate are compared to the infinite plate in both the wave number and spatial domains. The theoretical predictions of the plate velocity response are also compared to results from finite element analysis and show reasonable agreement over a large frequency range.

  18. Rigid two-axis MEMS force plate for measuring cellular traction force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Jung, Uijin G; Shimoyama, Isao; Kan, Tetsuo; Tsukagoshi, Takuya; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Cellular traction force is one of the important factors for understanding cell behaviors, such as spreading, migration and differentiation. Cells are known to change their behavior according to the mechanical stiffness of the environment. However, the measurement of cell traction forces on a rigid environment has remained difficult. This paper reports a micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) force plate that provides a cellular traction force measurement on a rigid substrate. Both the high force sensitivity and high stiffness of the substrate were obtained using piezoresistive sensing elements. The proposed force plate consists of a 70 µ m  ×  15 µ m  ×  5 µ m base as the substrate for cultivating a bovine aortic smooth muscle cell, and the supporting beams with piezoresistors on the sidewall and the surface were used to measure the forces in both the horizontal and vertical directions. The spring constant and force resolution of the fabricated force plate in the horizontal direction were 0.2 N m −1 and less than 0.05 µ N, respectively. The cell traction force was measured, and the traction force increased by approximately 1 µ N over 30 min. These results demonstrate that the proposed force plate is applicable as an effective traction force measurement. (paper)

  19. Entropic forces drive contraction of cytoskeletal networks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Braun, M.; Lánský, Zdeněk; Hilitski, F.; Dogic, Z.; Diez, S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 5 (2016), s. 474-481 ISSN 0265-9247 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-17488S; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:86652036 Keywords : cytoskeleton * depletion forces * entropic forces Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.441, year: 2016

  20. OSHA Laboratory Standard: Driving Force for Laboratory Safety!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Kenneth R.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA's) Laboratory Safety Standards as the major driving force in establishing and maintaining a safe working environment for teachers and students. (Author)

  1. Driving Force Filtering and Driving Mechanism Analysis of Urban Agricultural Development in Weifang County, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUI Fei-fei

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As an agricultural nation, the agricultural landscape is the basic appearance and existence in China, but the common existence often be neglected and contempted. As a new type of design and ideology, the development of urban agricultural landscape will greatly affect the texture and structure of the urban space. According to the urban agricultural production data and the socio-economic data of Weifang County, a set of evaluation index system that could analyze quantitatively the driving force of urban agricultural production changes and the internal drive mechanism was built. The original driving force indicators of economy, society, resources and environment from the time-series were chosen, and then 15 driving forces from the original driving forces by correlation analysis and principal component analysis were selected. The degree of influence was analyzed and the driving forces model by means of partial least squares(PLS was built. The results demonstrated that the factors greatly influenced the increase of urban agricultural output value in Weifang County were per capita net income of rural residents, agricultural machinery total power, effective irrigation area, centralized treatment rate of urban sewage, with the driving exponents 0.2509, 0.1019, 0.1655, 0.1332, respectively. The negative influence factor was the use amount of agricultural plastic film and the driving exponent was-0.2146. The research provides a reference for the development of urban agriculture, as well as a reference for the related study.

  2. The Driving Forces of Subsidiary Absorptive Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schleimer, Stephanie C.; Pedersen, Torben

    2013-01-01

    The study investigates how a multinational corporation (MNC) can promote the absorptive capacity of its subsidiaries. The focus is on what drives the MNC subsidiary's ability to absorb marketing strategies that are initiated by the MNC parent, as well as how the subsidiary enacts on this absorptive...... as a purposeful response to this dual embeddedness. An analysis of marketing strategy absorptions undertaken by 213 subsidiaries reveals that MNCs can assist their subsidiaries to compete in competitive and dynamic focal markets by forming specific organizational mechanisms that are conducive to the development...

  3. Processes and driving forces in changing cultural landscapes across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bürgi, Matthias; Bieling, Claudia; Von Hackwitz, Kim

    2017-01-01

    Context: Cultural landscapes evolve over time. However, the rate and direction of change might not be in line with societal needs and more information on the forces driving these changes are therefore needed. Objectives: Filling the gap between single case studies and meta-analyses, we present...... perceived landscape changes, and remembered driving forces. Land cover and landscape changes were analysed regarding change, conversions and processes. For all case study areas, narratives on mapped land cover change, perceived landscape changes and driving forces were compiled. Results: Despite a very high...... diversity in extent, direction and rates of change, a few dominant processes and widespread factors driving the changes could be identified in the six case study areas, i.e. access and infrastructure, political shifts, labor market, technological innovations, and for the more recent period climate change...

  4. A guide for statewide impaired-driving task forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of the guide is to assist State officials and other stakeholders who are interested in establishing an : Impaired-Driving Statewide Task Force or who are exploring ways to improve their current Task Force. The guide : addresses issues suc...

  5. Model to Analyze Micro Circular Plate Subjected to Electrostatic Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Tian-Jie

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a distributed model with three possible static modes was presented to investigate the behavior of the plate subjected to electrostatic force and uniform hydrostatic pressure both before pull in and beyond pull in. The differential governing equation of the micro circular plate specifically used for numerical solution of the three modes, in which the singularity at the center of the micro plate did not occur, was presented based on the classical thin plate theory, Taylor's series expansion and Saint-Venant's principle. The numerical solution to the differential governing equation for the different mode was mainly attributed to solve for one unknown boundary condition and the applied voltage, which could be obtained by using a two-fold method of bisection based on the shooting method. The voltage ranges over which the three modes could exist and the points where transitions occurred between the modes were computed. Incorporating the above numerical solution to the applied voltage at the normal mode with some constrained optimization method, pull-in voltage and the corresponding pull-in position can automatically be obtained. In examples, the entire mechanical behavior of the circular plate over the operational voltage ranges was investigated and the effects of different parameters on pull-in voltage were studied. The obtained results were compared with the existing results and good agreement has been achieved.

  6. Motive, desire, drive: the discourse of force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Blum

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A review of the original paper on motive by Blum and McHugh (1971 is used as an occasion to make transparent an approach to social theory as it has developed over the years in their work. This method, in treating motive as an illustration, engages it as an example of the status of the signifier as a symptom of interpretive conflict endemic to any situation of action, always inviting an analysis of the symbolic order and imaginative structure that sustains the distinction as a force in social life. In this paper, motive in particular is unpacked to show how it serves as an indication of fundamental ambiguity with respect to a problem-solving situation, revealing in this case constant perplexity in relation to the enigmatic character of what comes to view on any occasion and the recurrent contestation that is released.

  7. Wall relaxation and the driving forces for cell expansive growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, D. J.

    1987-01-01

    When water uptake by growing cells is prevented, the turgor pressure and the tensile stress in the cell wall are reduced by continued wall loosening. This process, termed in vivo stress relaxation, provides a new way to study the dynamics of wall loosening and to measure the wall yield threshold and the physiological wall extensibility. Stress relaxation experiments indicate that wall stress supplies the mechanical driving force for wall yielding. Cell expansion also requires water absorption. The driving force for water uptake during growth is created by wall relaxation, which lowers the water potential of the expanding cells. New techniques for measuring this driving force show that it is smaller than believed previously; in elongating stems it is only 0.3 to 0.5 bar. This means that the hydraulic resistance of the water transport pathway is small and that rate of cell expansion is controlled primarily by wall loosening and yielding.

  8. Sequential reconstruction of driving-forces from nonlinear nonstationary dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güntürkün, Ulaş

    2010-07-01

    This paper describes a functional analysis-based method for the estimation of driving-forces from nonlinear dynamic systems. The driving-forces account for the perturbation inputs induced by the external environment or the secular variations in the internal variables of the system. The proposed algorithm is applicable to the problems for which there is too little or no prior knowledge to build a rigorous mathematical model of the unknown dynamics. We derive the estimator conditioned on the differentiability of the unknown system’s mapping, and smoothness of the driving-force. The proposed algorithm is an adaptive sequential realization of the blind prediction error method, where the basic idea is to predict the observables, and retrieve the driving-force from the prediction error. Our realization of this idea is embodied by predicting the observables one-step into the future using a bank of echo state networks (ESN) in an online fashion, and then extracting the raw estimates from the prediction error and smoothing these estimates in two adaptive filtering stages. The adaptive nature of the algorithm enables to retrieve both slowly and rapidly varying driving-forces accurately, which are illustrated by simulations. Logistic and Moran-Ricker maps are studied in controlled experiments, exemplifying chaotic state and stochastic measurement models. The algorithm is also applied to the estimation of a driving-force from another nonlinear dynamic system that is stochastic in both state and measurement equations. The results are judged by the posterior Cramer-Rao lower bounds. The method is finally put into test on a real-world application; extracting sun’s magnetic flux from the sunspot time series.

  9. Driving reconnection in sheared magnetic configurations with forced fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongkitiwanichakul, Peera; Makwana, Kirit D.; Ruffolo, David

    2018-02-01

    We investigate reconnection of magnetic field lines in sheared magnetic field configurations due to fluctuations driven by random forcing by means of numerical simulations. The simulations are performed with an incompressible, pseudo-spectral magnetohydrodynamics code in 2D where we take thick, resistively decaying, current-sheet like sheared magnetic configurations which do not reconnect spontaneously. We describe and test the forcing that is introduced in the momentum equation to drive fluctuations. It is found that the forcing does not change the rate of decay; however, it adds and removes energy faster in the presence of the magnetic shear structure compared to when it has decayed away. We observe that such a forcing can induce magnetic reconnection due to field line wandering leading to the formation of magnetic islands and O-points. These reconnecting field lines spread out as the current sheet decays with time. A semi-empirical formula is derived which reasonably explains the formation and spread of O-points. We find that reconnection spreads faster with stronger forcing and longer correlation time of forcing, while the wavenumber of forcing does not have a significant effect. When the field line wandering becomes large enough, the neighboring current sheets with opposite polarity start interacting, and then the magnetic field is rapidly annihilated. This work is useful to understand how forced fluctuations can drive reconnection in large scale current structures in space and astrophysical plasmas that are not susceptible to reconnection.

  10. Driving forces for texture transformation in thin Ag films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, Elizabeth A.; Chmielus, Markus; Lin, Ming-Tzer; Joress, Howie; Visser, Kyle; Woll, Arthur; Vinci, Richard P.; Brown, Walter L.; Baker, Shefford P.

    2016-01-01

    The well-known thickness-dependent (111)-to-(100) texture transformation in thin FCC films is usually attributed to a competition between interface and strain energies. In this model, thin films retain their (111) texture due to the lower energy of the (111) interface, while thick films transform to (100) due to the lower stiffness and thus strain energy of a (100) film. However, recent work has called this model into question, suggesting that neither the stress nor the interface energy play a dominant role in texture transformation. We investigated the driving forces involved in this transformation by using a bulge test apparatus to induce different stresses in thin Ag films under identical annealing conditions. In situ synchrotron XRD measurements show the change in texture during annealing, and reveal that applied stresses have no effect on the transformation. Stress analysis shows that differences in driving forces for texture transformation due to applied bulge pressure were significant (≈200 kJ/m 3 ), suggesting that a different, much larger driving force must be responsible. Reduction in defect energy has been proposed as an alternative. However, vacancy and dislocation densities must be exceptionally high to significantly exceed the strain energy and do not provide obvious orientation selection mechanisms. Nanotwins in reported densities are shown to provide greater driving force (≈1000 kJ/m 3 ) and may account for orientation selection. The large difference between the calculated strain and defect energies and the driving force for grain growth (21,100 kJ/m 3 ) casts doubt on the applicability of a simple thermodynamic model of texture transformation.

  11. WP/084 Measuring Industry Agglomeration and Identifying the Driving Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howard, Emma; Tarp, Finn; Newman, Carol

    Understanding industry agglomeration and its driving forces is critical for the formulation of industrial policy in developing countries. Crucial to this process is the definition and measurement of agglomeration. We propose a new measure and examine what it reveals about the importance of transp......Understanding industry agglomeration and its driving forces is critical for the formulation of industrial policy in developing countries. Crucial to this process is the definition and measurement of agglomeration. We propose a new measure and examine what it reveals about the importance...... of transport costs, labour market pooling, and technology transfer for agglomeration processes. We contrast this analysis with insights from existing measures in the literature and find very different underlying stories at work. An exceptionally rich set of data from Vietnam makes us confident that our measure...

  12. Measuring Industry Coagglomeration and Identifying the Driving Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howard, Emma; Newman, Carol; Tarp, Finn

    2015-01-01

    Understanding industry agglomeration and its driving forces is critical for the formulation of industrial policy in developing countries. Crucial to this process is the definition and measurement of agglomeration. We construct a new coagglomeration index based purely on the location of firms. We...... underlying stories at work. We conclude that in conducting analyses of this kind giving consideration to the source of agglomeration economies, employees or entrepreneurs, and finding an appropriate measure for agglomeration, are both crucial to the process of identifying agglomerative forces....

  13. Forces that Drive Nanoscale Self-assembly on Solid Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suo, Z.; Lu, W.

    2000-01-01

    Experimental evidence has accumulated in the recent decade that nanoscale patterns can self-assemble on solid surfaces. A two-component monolayer grown on a solid surface may separate into distinct phases. Sometimes the phases select sizes about 10 nm, and order into an array of stripes or disks. This paper reviews a model that accounts for these behaviors. Attention is focused on thermodynamic forces that drive the self-assembly. A double-welled, composition-dependent free energy drives phase separation. The phase boundary energy drives phase coarsening. The concentration-dependent surface stress drives phase refining. It is the competition between the coarsening and the refining that leads to size selection and spatial ordering. These thermodynamic forces are embodied in a nonlinear diffusion equation. Numerical simulations reveal rich dynamics of the pattern formation process. It is relatively fast for the phases to separate and select a uniform size, but exceedingly slow to order over a long distance, unless the symmetry is suitably broken

  14. Drive frequency dependent phase imaging in piezoresponse force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bo Huifeng; Kan Yi; Lu Xiaomei; Liu Yunfei; Peng Song; Wang Xiaofei; Cai Wei; Xue Ruoshi; Zhu Jinsong

    2010-01-01

    The drive frequency dependent piezoresponse (PR) phase signal in near-stoichiometric lithium niobate crystals is studied by piezoresponse force microscopy. It is clearly shown that the local and nonlocal electrostatic forces have a great contribution to the PR phase signal. The significant PR phase difference of the antiparallel domains are observed at the contact resonances, which is related to the electrostatic dominated electromechanical interactions of the cantilever and tip-sample system. Moreover, the modulation voltage induced frequency shift at higher eigenmodes could be attributed to the change of indention force depending on the modulation amplitude with a piezoelectric origin. The PR phase of the silicon wafer is also measured for comparison. It is certificated that the electrostatic interactions are universal in voltage modulated scanning probe microscopy and could be extended to other phase imaging techniques.

  15. Gait Analysis Study of Runner Using Force Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviana Catherine

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Humans do regular physical activities such as running. Gait is forward  propulsion of the human body using lower extremities as a thrust. Humans gait pattern is characterized by their limbs movement in terms of velocity, ground reaction force, work, kinetic energy and potential energy cycle . Human gait analysis is used to assess, to plan, and to deliver the treatment for individuals based on the conditions that affect their ability to move. Gait analysis is commonly used in running sport to improve the efficiency of athletes in running and to identify problems related to their posture or movement. The aim of this research is to do running gait analysis study of human, using force plate which equipped by track board. The benefit of this study is to provide information, ideas and new perspectives about running and its prevention over an injury. The main method that will be discussed in this study is system design of gait analysis with specific setting, hardware and software, in order to acquire data(s.

  16. Impact assessment of land use planning driving forces on environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Longgao, E-mail: chenlonggao@163.com [Institute of Land Resources, Jiangsu Normal University (JSNU), Xuzhou 221116 (China); Yang, Xiaoyan [Institute of Land Resources, Jiangsu Normal University (JSNU), Xuzhou 221116 (China); School of Environment and Spatial Informatics, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116 (China); Chen, Longqian [School of Environment and Spatial Informatics, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116 (China); Li, Long [Department of Geography, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels 1050 (Belgium)

    2015-11-15

    Land use change may exert a negative impact on environmental quality. A state–impact–state (SIS) model describing a state transform under certain impacts has been integrated into land use planning (LUP) environmental impact assessment (LUPEA). This logical model is intuitive and easy to understand, but the exploration of impact is essential to establish the indicator system and to identify the scope of land use environmental impact when it is applied to a specific region. In this study, we investigated environmental driving forces from land use planning (LUPF), along with the conception, components, scope, and impact of LUPF. This method was illustrated by a case study in Zoucheng, China. Through the results, we concluded that (1) the LUPF on environment are impacts originated from the implementation of LUP on a regional environment, which are characterized by four aspects: magnitude, direction, action point, and its owner; (2) various scopes of LUPF on individual environmental elements based on different standards jointly define the final scope of LUPEA; (3) our case study in Zoucheng demonstrates the practicability of this proposed approach; (4) this method can be embedded into LUPEA with direction, magnitudes, and scopes of the LUPF on individual elements obtained, and the identified indicator system can be directly employed into LUPEA and (5) the assessment helps to identify key indicators and to set up a corresponding strategy to mitigate the negative impact of LUP on the environment, which are two important objectives of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) in LUP. - Highlights: • Environmental driving forces from land use planning (LUPF) are investigated and categorized. • Our method can obtains the direction, magnitudes and scopes of environmental driving forces. • The LUPEA scope is determined by the combination of various scopes of LUPF on individual elements. • LUPF assessment can be embedded into LUPEA. • The method can help to

  17. Variation along liquid isomorphs of the driving force for crystallization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ulf Rørbæk; Adrjanowicz, Karolina; Niss, Kristine

    2017-01-01

    at a reference temperature. More general analysis allows interpretation of experimental data for molecular liquids such as dimethyl phthalate and indomethacin, and suggests that the isomorph scaling exponent γ in these cases is an increasing function of density, although this cannot be seen in measurements......We investigate the variation of the driving force for crystallization of a supercooled liquid along isomorphs, curves along which structure and dynamics are invariant. The variation is weak, and can be predicted accurately for the Lennard-Jones fluid using a recently developed formalism and data...

  18. Driving forces and barriers for environmental technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Driving forces and barriers behind development and usage of environmental technology is discussed, and also whether there are certain characteristics related to environmental innovations compared to other innovations in general. The development of environmental technology is in principle dominated by the same drivers and barriers as any other technology, but the order and strength of the various factors may be different. This examination as well as other empirical studies shows that regulations play a greater part for environmental technology than 'pure market forces'. To many participants it is important to be one step ahead of the regulations, i.e. the expected regulations are equally important as the factual ones in driving the technology development. Players in the business community express that it is important that the authorities cooperate with them when introducing new regulations. This will increase acceptance for the regulations and facilitate the necessary adjustments. The most important barrier in the development and use of the technologies studied is probably the lack of demand

  19. Segregation in ternary alloys: an interplay of driving forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luyten, J.; Helfensteyn, S.; Creemers, C.

    2003-01-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) simulations combined with the constant bond energy (CBE) model are set up to explore and understand the general segregation behaviour in ternary alloys as a function of composition and more in particular the segregation to Cu-Ni-Al (1 0 0) surfaces. Besides its simplicity, allowing swift simulations, which are necessary for a first general survey over all possible compositions, one of the advantages of the CBE model lies in the possibility to clearly identify the different driving forces for segregation. All simulations are performed in the Grand Canonical Ensemble, using a new algorithm to determine the chemical potential of the components. Notwithstanding the simplicity of the CBE model, one extra feature is evidenced: depending on the values of the interatomic interaction parameters, in some regions of the ternary diagram, a single solid solution becomes thermodynamically unstable, leading to demixing into two conjugate phases. The simulations are first done for three hypothetical systems that are however representative for real alloy systems. The three systems are characterised by different sets of interatomic interaction parameters. These extensive simulations over the entire composition range of the ternary alloy yield a 'topographical' segregation map, showing distinct regions where different species segregate. These distinct domains originate from a variable interplay between the driving forces for segregation and attractive/repulsive interactions in the bulk of the alloy. The results on these hypothetical systems are very helpful for a better understanding of the segregation behaviour in Cu-Ni-Al and other ternary alloys

  20. Driving force for hydrophobic interaction at different length scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangi, Ronen

    2011-03-17

    We study by molecular dynamics simulations the driving force for the hydrophobic interaction between graphene sheets of different sizes down to the atomic scale. Similar to the prediction by Lum, Chandler, and Weeks for hard-sphere solvation [J. Phys. Chem. B 1999, 103, 4570-4577], we find the driving force to be length-scale dependent, despite the fact that our model systems do not exhibit dewetting. For small hydrophobic solutes, the association is purely entropic, while enthalpy favors dissociation. The latter is demonstrated to arise from the enhancement of hydrogen bonding between the water molecules around small hydrophobes. On the other hand, the attraction between large graphene sheets is dominated by enthalpy which mainly originates from direct solute-solute interactions. The crossover length is found to be inside the range of 0.3-1.5 nm(2) of the surface area of the hydrophobe that is eliminated in the association process. In the large-scale regime, different thermodynamic properties are scalable with this change of surface area. In particular, upon dimerization, a total and a water-induced stabilization of approximately 65 and 12 kJ/mol/nm(2) are obtained, respectively, and on average around one hydrogen bond is gained per 1 nm(2) of graphene sheet association. Furthermore, the potential of mean force between the sheets is also scalable except for interplate distances smaller than 0.64 nm which corresponds to the region around the barrier for removing the last layer of water. It turns out that, as the surface area increases, the relative height of the barrier for association decreases and the range of attraction increases. It is also shown that, around small hydrophobic solutes, the lifetime of the hydrogen bonds is longer than in the bulk, while around large hydrophobes it is the same. Nevertheless, the rearrangement of the hydrogen-bond network for both length-scale regimes is slower than in bulk water. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  1. A Development of Force Plate for Biomechanics Analysis of Standing and Walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardoyo, S.; Hutajulu, P. T.; Togibasa, O.

    2016-08-01

    Force plates are known as an excellent teaching aid to demonstrate the kinematics and dynamics of motion and commonly used in biomechanics laboratories to measure ground forces involved in the motion of human. It is consist of a metal plate with sensors attached to give an electrical output proportional to the force on the plate. Moreover, force plates are useful for examining the kinetic characteristics of an athlete's movement. They provide information about the external forces involved in movement that can aid a coach or sports scientist to quantitatively evaluate the athlete's skill development. In this study, we develop our prototype of force plate with less than 100,- simply by using flexible force transducer attached inside rubber matt, in the form of square blocks (dimension: 250 mm × 150 mm × 10 mm), with maximum load up to 60 kg. The handmade force plate was tested by applying biomechanics analysis for standing and walking. The testing was done on Experimental Soccer Courses’ students at the Department of Physical Education, Health and Recreation, University of Cenderawasih. The design of the force plate system together with biomechanics analysis will be discussed.

  2. Novel parallel plate condenser for single particle electrostatic force measurements in atomic force microscope

    KAUST Repository

    Kwek, Jin Wang

    2011-07-01

    A combination of small parallel plate condenser with Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) glass slides as electrodes and an atomic force microscope (AFM) is used to characterize the electrostatic behavior of single glass bead microparticles (105-150 μm) glued to the AFM cantilever. This novel setup allows measurements of the electrostatic forces acting on a particle in an applied electrical field to be performed in ambient air conditions. By varying the position of the microparticle between the electrodes and the strength of the applied electric field, the relative contributions of the particle net charge, induced and image charges were investigated. When the microparticle is positioned in the middle of the electrodes, the force acting on the microparticle was linear with the applied electric field and proportional to the microparticle net charge. At distances close to the bottom electrode, the force follows a parabolic relationship with the applied electric field reflecting the contributions of induced and image charges. The method can be used for the rapid evaluation of the charging and polarizability properties of the microparticle as well as an alternative to the conventional Faraday\\'s pail technique. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  3. The driving forces of landscape change in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plieninger, Tobias; Draux, Hélène; Fagerholm, Nora

    2016-01-01

    , we find that distinct combinations of mainly political/institutional, cultural, and natural/spatial underlying drivers are determining landscape change, rather than single key drivers. Our systematic review indicates knowledge gaps that can be filled by: (a) expanding the scope of studies to include...... because landscape research is spread across many domains and disciplines. We here provide a systematic synthesis of 144 studies that identify the proximate and underlying drivers of landscape change across Europe. First, we categorize how driving forces have been addressed and find that most studies......; low Gross Domestic Product; boreal, steppic, and arctic landscapes; as well as forestland systems are underrepresented in the literature. Third, our review shows that land abandonment/extensification is the most prominent (62% of cases) among multiple proximate drivers of landscape change. Fourthly...

  4. Discharge switch driving by Lorentz force and its characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Kunikazu; Hasegawa, Mitsuo; Ueno, Isao

    1999-01-01

    Our newly developed 'Rotary-Arc mode Discharge Switch' have featured longer life expectancy and lower inductance-wise by extremely minimizing the insulation deterioration and consumable main electrode through installation of permanent magnet, simplified construction and careful attention on the demagnetization. Resultantly, highly efficient and larger capacitive discharge switch have been available at such economical cost. In addition, by having derived an experimental formula for the driving speed of the arc, the required design parameters of the discharge switch have been determined, and then it has been well noted that any affections of electro-magnetic Lorentz force toward the starting characteristics have been negligible small. All these have made it possible to materialize such discharge switch which will satisfy the required conditions. (author)

  5. Orbital Forcing driving climate variability on Tropical South Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, A. S.; Baker, P. A.; Silva, C. G.; Dwyer, G. S.; Chiessi, C. M.; Rigsby, C. A.; Ferreira, F.

    2017-12-01

    Past research on climate response to orbital forcing in tropical South America has emphasized on high precession cycles influencing low latitude hydrologic cycles, and driving the meridional migration of Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ).However, marine proxy records from the tropical Pacific Ocean showed a strong 41-ka periodicities in Pleistocene seawater temperature and productivity related to fluctuations in Earth's obliquity. It Indicates that the western Pacific ITCZ migration was influenced by combined precession and obliquity changes. To reconstruct different climate regimes over the continent and understand the orbital cycle forcing over Tropical South America climate, hydrological reconstruction have been undertaken on sediment cores located on the Brazilian continental slope, representing the past 1.6 million years. Core CDH 79 site is located on a 2345 m deep seamount on the northern Brazilian continental slope (00° 39.6853' N, 44° 20.7723' W), 320 km from modern coastline of the Maranhão Gulf. High-resolution XRF analyses of Fe, Ti, K and Ca are used to define the changes in precipitation and sedimentary input history of Tropical South America. The response of the hydrology cycle to orbital forcing was studied using spectral analysis.The 1600 ka records of dry/wet conditions presented here indicates that orbital time-scale climate change has been a dominant feature of tropical climate. We conclude that the observed oscillation reflects variability in the ITCZ activity associated with the Earth's tilt. The prevalence of the eccentricity and obliquity signals in continental hydrology proxies (Ti/Ca and Fe/K) as implicated in our precipitation records, highlights that these orbital forcings play an important role in tropics hydrologic cycles. Throughout the Quaternary abrupt shifts of tropical variability are temporally correlated with abrupt climate changes and atmospheric reorganization during Mid-Pleistocene Transition and Mid-Brunhes Events

  6. Three-axis optical force plate for studies in small animal locomotor mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, S. Tonia

    2006-01-01

    The use of force plates to measure whole-body locomotor mechanics is a well-established technique. However, commercially available force plates are not sensitive enough for use on small-bodied vertebrates or invertebrates. The standard design for single- and multiple-axis, high-sensitivity force plates built by individual research groups uses semiconductor foil strain gauges to measure deflections; yet foil strain gauges are highly temperature and position sensitive, resulting in a drifting base line and nonlinear responses. I present here a design for a three-axis optical force plate that was successfully calibrated to measure forces as small as 1.5 mN and is capable of determining the position of center of pressure with a mean error of 0.07 cm along the X axis and 0.13 cm along the Y axis. Using optical sensors instead of foil strain gauges to measure deflection, this force plate is not subject to temperature-related drift and is more robust against slight positioning inaccuracies. This force plate was used to measure forces produced by amphibious fishes weighing less than 2 g as they jumped off the force platform

  7. On the driving force for crack growth during thermal actuation of shape memory alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxevanis, T.; Parrinello, A. F.; Lagoudas, D. C.

    2016-04-01

    The effect of thermomechanically induced phase transformation on the driving force for crack growth in polycrystalline shape memory alloys is analyzed in an infinite center-cracked plate subjected to a thermal actuation cycle under mechanical load in plain strain. Finite element calculations are carried out to determine the mechanical fields near the static crack and the crack-tip energy release rate using the virtual crack closure technique. A substantial increase of the energy release rate - an order of magnitude for some material systems - is observed during the thermal cycle due to the stress redistribution induced by large scale phase transformation. Thus, phase transformation occurring due to thermal variations under mechanical load may result in crack growth if the crack-tip energy release rate reaches a material specific critical value.

  8. Output Force Enhancement of Scratch Drive Actuator in Low-Voltage Region by Using Flexible Joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn CHEN

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Here a low-voltage scratch drive actuator (LVSDA is proposed by incorporating flexible joint into the conventional SDA to improve performance in low-voltage region. Experimental results show that, at the same total plate length of 80 mm and width of 65 mm, the proposed LVSDA can be actuated as low as 40 V, much lower than 80 V, the minimum required input voltage of the conventional SDA. From finite element analysis by CosmosWorks, yielding effect is found to be a critical factor. Before yielding, LVSDA can provide better performance than SDA at the same input voltage. However, the yielding stress in flexible joint would limit the achievable maximum output force in high-voltage region. By varying joint length, width, or location, LVSDA is shown to be operated in low-voltage region where the conventional SDA can not be operated, and can still provide comparable performance as SDA in high-voltage region.

  9. Towards measurement of the Casimir force between parallel plates separated at sub-mircon distance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Syed Nawazuddin, M.B.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Berenschot, Johan W.; de Boer, Meint J.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2011-01-01

    Ever since its prediction, experimental investigation of the Casimir force has been of great scientific interest. Many research groups have successfully attempted quantifying the force with different device geometries; however measurement of the Casimir force between parallel plates with sub-micron

  10. DRIVING VEHICLES SUBJECT TO A CUSTOMS RESTRICTIONS AGREEMENT WITH ORDINARY SWISS NUMBER PLATES

    CERN Document Server

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2001-01-01

    The Swiss Permanent Mission to the International Organisations in Geneva has just confirmed to CERN that it is not necessary to hold a carte de légitimation or an attestation de fonctions issued by the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs to drive a vehicle subject to a customs restrictions agreement (engagement douanier), i.e. purchased or imported free of tax and customs duty, provided that the vehicle concerned is registered on ordinary Swiss number plates and not on diplomatic plates. We should like to remind you that the documents published by the Relations with the Host States Service since 1996 can be consulted on the Service's Web pages (http://www.cern.ch/relations/), which are updated as soon as new information is received from the Authorities of the Host States.

  11. A device for testing the dynamic performance of in situ force plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Rebecca H; Noble, Jonathan J; Arscott, Richard A; Shortland, Adam P

    2017-09-01

    Force plates are often incorporated into motion capture systems for the calculation of joint kinetic variables and other data. This project aimed to create a system that could be used to check the dynamic performance of force plate in situ. The proposed solution involved the design and development of an eccentrically loaded wheel mounted on a weighted frame. The frame was designed to hold a wheel mounted in two orthogonal positions. The wheel was placed on the force plate and spun. A VICON™ motion analysis system captured the positional data of the markers placed around the rim of the wheel which was used to create a simulated force profile, and the force profile was dependent on spin speed. The root mean square error between the simulated force profile and the force plate measurement was calculated. For nine trials conducted, the root mean square error between the two simultaneous measures of force was calculated. The difference between the force profiles in the x- and y-directions is approximately 2%. The difference in the z-direction was under 0.5%. The eccentrically loaded wheel produced a predictable centripetal force in the plane of the wheel which varied in direction as the wheel was spun and magnitude dependent on the spin speed. There are three important advantages to the eccentrically loaded wheel: (1) it does not rely on force measurements made from other devices, (2) the tests require only 15 min to complete per force plate and (3) the forces exerted on the plate are similar to those of paediatric gait.

  12. Use of a tibial accelerometer to measure ground reaction force in running: A reliability and validity comparison with force plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raper, Damian P; Witchalls, Jeremy; Philips, Elissa J; Knight, Emma; Drew, Michael K; Waddington, Gordon

    2018-01-01

    The use of microsensor technologies to conduct research and implement interventions in sports and exercise medicine has increased recently. The objective of this paper was to determine the validity and reliability of the ViPerform as a measure of load compared to vertical ground reaction force (GRF) as measured by force plates. Absolute reliability assessment, with concurrent validity. 10 professional triathletes ran 10 trials over force plates with the ViPerform mounted on the mid portion of the medial tibia. Calculated vertical ground reaction force data from the ViPerform was matched to the same stride on the force plate. Bland-Altman (BA) plot of comparative measure of agreement was used to assess the relationship between the calculated load from the accelerometer and the force plates. Reliability was calculated by intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) with 95% confidence intervals. BA plot indicates minimal agreement between the measures derived from the force plate and ViPerform, with variation at an individual participant plot level. Reliability was excellent (ICC=0.877; 95% CI=0.825-0.917) in calculating the same vertical GRF in a repeated trial. Standard error of measure (SEM) equalled 99.83 units (95% CI=82.10-119.09), which, in turn, gave a minimum detectable change (MDC) value of 276.72 units (95% CI=227.32-330.07). The ViPerform does not calculate absolute values of vertical GRF similar to those measured by a force plate. It does provide a valid and reliable calculation of an athlete's lower limb load at constant velocity. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Petroleum Development in Russian Barents sea: Driving Forces and Constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moe, Arild; Joergensen, Anne-Kristin

    2000-01-01

    The potential of the Barents Sea for petroleum production has attracted interest for many years. In the Russian sector of this ocean, enormous gas finds and substantial oil resources have now been proven, and the first real licensing for field development in the area has just begun. Despite the area's potential, there are strong conflicts of interest. The report examines the forces alternatively driving and hindering offshore hydrocarbon development in the Russian sector of the Barents Sea. It describes exploration activities beginning during the Soviet period and extending to the present. The status of the major development projects financed in part with foreign capital, and conflicting regional and central government interests involved in such development, is described and evaluated. Coverage includes a discussion of the various regional interests in petroleum activities, with a particular focus on the conversion of naval yards in the area and the emergence of Rosshelf, an oil/gas conglomerate formed to facilitate such conversion. It also reviews the planned licensing rounds and the results of the first round. Finally, it discusses supplies from the Barents Sea in the context of overall Russian energy supply and energy development strategies. (author)

  14. Probabilistic analysis for identifying the driving force of protein folding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokunaga, Yoshihiko; Yamamori, Yu; Matubayasi, Nobuyuki

    2018-03-01

    Toward identifying the driving force of protein folding, energetics was analyzed in water for Trp-cage (20 residues), protein G (56 residues), and ubiquitin (76 residues) at their native (folded) and heat-denatured (unfolded) states. All-atom molecular dynamics simulation was conducted, and the hydration effect was quantified by the solvation free energy. The free-energy calculation was done by employing the solution theory in the energy representation, and it was seen that the sum of the protein intramolecular (structural) energy and the solvation free energy is more favorable for a folded structure than for an unfolded one generated by heat. Probabilistic arguments were then developed to determine which of the electrostatic, van der Waals, and excluded-volume components of the interactions in the protein-water system governs the relative stabilities between the folded and unfolded structures. It was found that the electrostatic interaction does not correspond to the preference order of the two structures. The van der Waals and excluded-volume components were shown, on the other hand, to provide the right order of preference at probabilities of almost unity, and it is argued that a useful modeling of protein folding is possible on the basis of the excluded-volume effect.

  15. Forced and free convection hydromagnetic flow past a vertical flat plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelkhalek, M.M.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of magnetic field and temperature heat source on the free and forced convection flow past an infinite vertical plate is studied analytically. Solutions of the reduced equation appropriate in the forced convection and free convection regime are obtained using perturbation technique. The expression for the velocity field, skin friction and Nusselt number have been obtained

  16. Small and Medium Sized Reactors: Driving Forces and Technology Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gowin, P.J.; Kupitz, J.

    2002-01-01

    There will be growing demands for energy in the coming decades. One aspect of particular importance is that prospects for nuclear energy will to a considerable extent be influenced by developing countries. Since population growth will occur primarily in developing countries nuclear energy cannot play a significant global role without being a viable option in these countries. Since new power plants to be built will have to be compatible with regional electricity grids, this may result in a greater focus on plants in the small and medium range, defined by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to produce up to 700 Megawatt of electrical power. This paper first examines the driving forces that could influence the development of nuclear energy in general and of Small and Medium Sized Reactors (SMRs) in particular in the next decades and identifies key factors in that process. Concerns over climate change may to a certain extent influence the discussion on future energy options. Other factors of equal importance for the future of nuclear are a continued emphasis on maintaining high safety standards, the implementation of acceptable solutions for spent fuel and radioactive waste disposal and a globally accepted non-proliferation regime, factors that may in turn have an impact on public acceptance. Economic competitiveness of nuclear energy is an additional important factor, and without being commercially viable, no energy source can in the long run represent a major and stable component in a competitive energy sector. The introduction of SMRs in developing countries poses additional challenges, such as investment limitations. Technology development plays an important role in keeping the nuclear option open for countries wishing to use nuclear reactors to meet their energy needs, and advances in reactor design will be important to enable a significant nuclear component in developing countries. This paper considers the contribution that nuclear science and

  17. Autoimmunity as a Driving Force of Cognitive Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Nataf

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, increasingly robust experimental approaches have formally demonstrated that autoimmunity is a physiological process involved in a large range of functions including cognition. On this basis, the recently enunciated “brain superautoantigens” theory proposes that autoimmunity has been a driving force of cognitive evolution. It is notably suggested that the immune and nervous systems have somehow co-evolved and exerted a mutual selection pressure benefiting to both systems. In this two-way process, the evolutionary-determined emergence of neurons expressing specific immunogenic antigens (brain superautoantigens has exerted a selection pressure on immune genes shaping the T-cell repertoire. Such a selection pressure on immune genes has translated into the emergence of a finely tuned autoimmune T-cell repertoire that promotes cognition. In another hand, the evolutionary-determined emergence of brain-autoreactive T-cells has exerted a selection pressure on neural genes coding for brain superautoantigens. Such a selection pressure has translated into the emergence of a neural repertoire (defined here as the whole of neurons, synapses and non-neuronal cells involved in cognitive functions expressing brain superautoantigens. Overall, the brain superautoantigens theory suggests that cognitive evolution might have been primarily driven by internal cues rather than external environmental conditions. Importantly, while providing a unique molecular connection between neural and T-cell repertoires under physiological conditions, brain superautoantigens may also constitute an Achilles heel responsible for the particular susceptibility of Homo sapiens to “neuroimmune co-pathologies” i.e., disorders affecting both neural and T-cell repertoires. These may notably include paraneoplastic syndromes, multiple sclerosis as well as autism, schizophrenia and neurodegenerative diseases. In the context of this theoretical frame, a specific

  18. A balanced ATP driving force module for enhancing photosynthetic biosynthesis of 3-hydroxybutyrate from CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Jason T; Lan, Ethan I

    2018-03-01

    Using engineered photoautotrophic microorganisms for the direct chemical synthesis from CO 2 is an attractive direction for both sustainability and CO 2 mitigation. However, the behaviors of non-native metabolic pathways may be difficult to control due to the different intracellular contexts between natural and heterologous hosts. While most metabolic engineering efforts focus on strengthening driving forces in pathway design to favor biochemical production in these organisms, excessive driving force may be detrimental to product biosynthesis due to imbalanced cellular intermediate distribution. In this study, an ATP-hydrolysis based driving force module was engineered into cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 to produce 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB), a valuable chemical feedstock for the synthesis of biodegradable plastics and antibiotics. However, while the ATP driving force module is effective for increasing product formation, uncontrolled accumulation of intermediate metabolites likely led to metabolic imbalance and thus to cell growth inhibition. Therefore, the ATP driving force module was reengineered by providing a reversible outlet for excessive carbon flux. Upon expression of this balanced ATP driving force module with 3HB biosynthesis, engineered strain produced 3HB with a cumulative titer of 1.2 g/L, a significant increase over the initial strain. This result highlighted the importance of pathway reversibility as an effective design strategy for balancing driving force and intermediate accumulation, thereby achieving a self-regulated control for increased net flux towards product biosynthesis. Copyright © 2018 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Investigating the effect of clamping force on the fatigue life of bolted plates using volumetric approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esmaeili, F.; Chakherlou, T. N.; Zehsaz, M.; Hasanifard, S.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the effects of bolt clamping force on the fatigue life for bolted plates made from Al7075-T6 have been studied on the values of notch strength reduction factor obtained by volumetric approach. To attain stress distribution around the notch (hole) which is required for volumetric approach, nonlinear finite element simulations were carried out. To estimate the fatigue life, the available smooth S-N curve of Al7075-T6 and the notch strength reduction factor obtained from volumetric method were used. The estimated fatigue life was compared with the available experimental test results. The investigation shows that there is a good agreement between the life predicted by the volumetric approach and the experimental results for various specimens with different amount of clamping forces. Volumetric approach and experimental results showed that the fatigue life of bolted plates improves because of the compressive stresses created around the plate hole due to clamping force.

  20. Effect of a powered drive on pushing and pulling forces when transporting bariatric hospital beds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggermann, Neal

    2017-01-01

    Powered drives designed to assist with moving hospital beds are commercially available but no studies have evaluated whether they reduce the push and pull forces likely contributing to injury in caregivers. This study measured hand forces of 10 caregivers maneuvering a manual and powered bariatric bed through simulated hospital environments (hallway, elevator, and ramp). Peak push and pull forces exceeded previously established psychophysical limits for all activities with the manual bed. For the powered bed, peak forces were significantly (p pushing did not differ between beds. Powered drive may reduce the risk of injury or the number of caregivers needed for transport. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Social Innovation : Driving Forces of Social Innovation in MNC

    OpenAIRE

    Tam, Hoising; Osadcha, Liudmyla

    2017-01-01

    Multinational Corporations (MNCs) currently face not only a dynamic business environment and challenging profit target, but also increased expectations from the public to take responsibility for addressing social, economic, and environmental issues. There is a tendency that the leading companies in the global market, especially MNCs, put more effort to the Social Innovation (SI). This study is to investigate what drives the MNCs to be involved in social innovation. In order to find out the re...

  2. A feedback control system for vibration of magnetostrictive plate subjected to follower force using sinusoidal shear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghorbanpour Arani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the vibrational behavior of magnetostrictive plate (MsP as a smart component is studied. The plate is subjected to an external follower force and a magnetic field in which the vibration response of MsP has been investigated for both loading combinations. The velocity feedback gain parameter is evaluated to study the effect of magnetic field which is generated by the coil. Sinusoidal shear deformation theory is utilized due to its accuracy of polynomial function with respect to other plate theories. Equations of motion are derived using Hamilton’s principle and solved by differential quadrature method (DQM considering general boundary conditions. The effects of aspect ratio, thickness ratio, follower force and velocity feedback gain are investigated on the frequency response of MsP. Results indicate that magneto-mechanical coupling in MsM helps to control vibrational behaviors of systems such as electro-hydraulic actuator, wireless linear Motors and sensors.

  3. Remark on the role of the driving force in BWR instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dykin, V.; Pazsit, I.

    2009-01-01

    Simple models of BWR instability, used e.g. in understanding the role of the various oscillation modes in the overall stability of the plant, assume that each oscillation mode can be described by a second order system (a damped harmonic oscillator) driven by a white noise driving force. Change of the decay ratio (DR) of the observed signal is, as a rule, associated with the changing of the parameters of the damped oscillator, mainly its damping coefficient, and is interpreted in terms of the change of the stability of the system. However, conceptually, one cannot exclude cases when the change of the response of a driven damped oscillator is due to the change of the properties of the driving force. In this work we investigate the effect of a non-white driving force on the behaviour of the system. A question of interest is how changes of the spectrum of the driving force influence the observed autocorrelation function (ACF) of the resulting signal. Hence we calculate the response of a damped harmonic oscillator driven by a non-white driving force, corresponding to the reactivity effect of propagating density fluctuations in two-phase flow. It is shown how in some special cases such a driving force, when interpreting the neutron noise as if induced by a white noise driving source, can lead to an erroneous conclusion regarding the stability of the system. It is also concluded that in the practically interesting cases the effect of the coloured driving force, arising from propagating density fluctuations, is negligible.

  4. On the forces that drive and resist deformation of the south-central Mediterranean: a mechanical model study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijholt, Nicolai; Govers, Rob; Wortel, Rinus

    2018-04-01

    The geodynamics of the Mediterranean comprises a transitional setting in which slab rollback and plate convergence compete to shape the region. In the central Mediterranean, where the balance of driving and resisting forces changes continuously and rapidly since the Miocene, both kinematic and seismo-tectonic observations display a strong variation in deformation style and, therefore possibly, lithospheric forces. We aim to understand the current kinematics in southern Italy and Sicily in terms of lithospheric forces that cause them. The strong regional variation of geodetic velocities appears to prohibit such simple explanation. We use mechanical models to quantify the deformation resulting from large-scale Africa-Eurasia convergence, ESE retreat of the Calabrian subduction zone, pull by the Aegean slab, and regional variations in gravitational potential energy (topography). A key model element is the resistance to slip on major regional fault zones. We show that geodetic velocities, seismicity and sense of slip on regional faults can be understood to result from lithospheric forces. Our most important new finding is that regional variations in resistive tractions are required to fit the observations, with notably very low tractions on the Calabrian subduction contact, and a buildup towards a significant earthquake in the Calabrian fore-arc. We also find that the Calabrian net slab pull force is strongly reduced (compared to the value possible in view of the slab's dimensions) and that trench suction tractions are negligible. Such very small contributions to the present-day force balance in the south-central Mediterranean suggest that the Calabrian arc is now further transitioning towards a setting dominated by Africa-Eurasia plate convergence, whereas during the past 30 Myrs slab retreat continually was the dominant factor.

  5. Boomers and seniors: The driving force behind leisure participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynda J. Sperazza; Priya Banerjee

    2010-01-01

    The 76 million Americans in the Baby Boomer population are the force behind the changing demographic picture of society today. Boomers' spending habits and lifestyle choices will also have a powerful influence on retirement and leisure in the coming decades. Boomers will redefine retirement and are expected to demand more than current senior programs and...

  6. An introductory handbook for state task forces to combat drunk driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    In June 1982 Governor Robb created a task force to identify and assess efforts under way in Virginia to address the problem of drunken driving and to make recommendations. This booklet was prepared to assist the task force in its deliberations.

  7. COMPETITIVENESS IN SERVICES, DRIVING FORCE OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    RAMONA PÎRVU; MARIA DANATIE ENESCU

    2012-01-01

    The competitiveness of a nation is ensured by the profitable activity of firms. They strengthen their position in the domestic and international markets through global strategies whose purpose is to increase productivity and maintain it at a high level. For this, the company must take into account both the internal economic environment which ensures operating conditions and the external economic environment’s development. The five competitive forces determine the industry’s profitability beca...

  8. Force sensor for chameleon and Casimir force experiments with parallel-plate configuration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almasi, A.; Brax, P.; Iannuzzi, D.; Sedmik, R.

    2015-01-01

    The search for non-Newtonian forces has been pursued following many different paths. Recently it was suggested that hypothetical chameleon interactions, which might explain the mechanisms behind dark energy, could be detected in a high-precision force measurement. In such an experiment, interactions

  9. Position and force control of a vehicle with two or more steerable drive wheels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reister, D.B.; Unseren, M.A.

    1992-10-01

    When a vehicle with two or more steerable drive wheels is traveling in a circle, the motion of the wheels is constrained. The wheel translational velocity divided by the radius to the center of rotation must be the same for all wheels. When the drive wheels are controlled independently using position control, the motion of the wheels may violate the constraints and the wheels may slip. Consequently, substantial errors can occur in the orientation of the vehicle. A vehicle with N drive wheels has (N - 1) constraints and one degree of freedom. We have developed a new approach to the control of a vehicle with N steerable drive wheels. The novel aspect of our approach is the use of force control. To control the vehicle, we have one degree of freedom for the position on the circle and (N - 1) forces that can be used to reduce errors. Recently, Kankaanranta and Koivo developed a control architecture that allows the force and position degrees of freedom to be decoupled. In the work of Kankaanranta and Koivo the force is an exogenous input. We have made the force endogenous by defining the force in terms of the errors in satisfying the rigid body kinematic constraints. We have applied the control architecture to the HERMIES-III robot and have measured a dramatic reduction in error (more than a factor of 20) compared to motions without force control.

  10. Gravity: one of the driving forces for evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkmann, D; Baluska, F

    2006-12-01

    Mechanical load is 10(3) larger for land-living than for water-living organisms. As a consequence, antigravitational material in form of compound materials like lignified cell walls in plants and mineralised bones in animals occurs in land-living organisms preferentially. Besides cellulose, pectic substances of plant cell walls seem to function as antigravitational material in early phases of plant evolution and development. A testable hypothesis including vesicular recycling processes into the tensegrity concept is proposed for both sensing of gravitational force and responding by production of antigravitational material at the cellular level.

  11. Crack Driving Forces in a Multilayered Coating System for Ceramic Matrix Composite Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosn, Louis J.; Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of the top coating thickness, modulus and shrinkage strains on the crack driving forces for a baseline multilayer Yttria-Stabilized-Zirconia/Mullite/Si thermal and environment barrier coating (TEBC) system for SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite substrates are determined for gas turbine applications. The crack driving forces increase with increasing modulus, and a low modulus thermal barrier coating material (below 10 GPa) will have no cracking issues under the thermal gradient condition analyzed. Since top coating sintering increases the crack driving forces with time, highly sintering resistant coatings are desirable to maintain a low tensile modulus and maintain a low crack driving force with time. Finite element results demonstrated that an advanced TEBC system, such as ZrO2/HfO2, which possesses improved sintering resistance and high temperature stability, exhibited excellent durability. A multi-vertical cracked structure with fine columnar spacing is an ideal strain tolerant coating capable of reducing the crack driving forces to an acceptable level even with a high modulus of 50 GPa.

  12. Multi-axis force sensing using a resonant composite piezoelectric plate: model and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaño-Cano, Davinson; Grossard, Mathieu; Hubert, Arnaud

    2015-05-01

    Wrist force/torque sensors used in robotic applications increase the performances and flexibility of the automated tasks. They also offer new possibilities in the manufacturing process, where physical contact between the work-piece and environment is required. The wide spreading of these sensors is for now restricted by their features. As an alternative to the existing strain-gauges force sensors, this paper presents a resonant composite structure, which is sensitive to multiple components of force that are considered via the pre-stress effect. Structurally bonded piezoelectric patches are used to bring the structure to its resonance, which is shifted according to applied forces. The relationship between force and frequency shift is modelled considering the multi-physics of this smart structure. This model is built using Hamilton's principle and takes into account pre-stress phenomena. A finite element model (FEM) based on Mindlin theory for plates, has been derived from the analytical model. The FEM model is implemented in MATLAB and compared with commercial FE software. Finally, an experimental prototype validates the model, and shows that it is possible to measure multiple force-components with one single sensing element such as a plate.

  13. Multi-axis force sensing using a resonant composite piezoelectric plate: model and experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaño-Cano, Davinson; Grossard, Mathieu; Hubert, Arnaud

    2015-01-01

    Wrist force/torque sensors used in robotic applications increase the performances and flexibility of the automated tasks. They also offer new possibilities in the manufacturing process, where physical contact between the work-piece and environment is required. The wide spreading of these sensors is for now restricted by their features. As an alternative to the existing strain-gauges force sensors, this paper presents a resonant composite structure, which is sensitive to multiple components of force that are considered via the pre-stress effect. Structurally bonded piezoelectric patches are used to bring the structure to its resonance, which is shifted according to applied forces. The relationship between force and frequency shift is modelled considering the multi-physics of this smart structure. This model is built using Hamilton's principle and takes into account pre-stress phenomena. A finite element model (FEM) based on Mindlin theory for plates, has been derived from the analytical model. The FEM model is implemented in MATLAB and compared with commercial FE software. Finally, an experimental prototype validates the model, and shows that it is possible to measure multiple force-components with one single sensing element such as a plate. (paper)

  14. Evaluating the Energetic Driving Force for Cocrystal Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Christopher R; Day, Graeme M

    2018-02-07

    We present a periodic density functional theory study of the stability of 350 organic cocrystals relative to their pure single-component structures, the largest study of cocrystals yet performed with high-level computational methods. Our calculations demonstrate that cocrystals are on average 8 kJ mol -1 more stable than their constituent single-component structures and are very rarely (intuition, the presence of hydrogen or halogen bond interactions is not necessarily a good predictor of stability. Finally, we investigate the correlation of the relative stability with simple chemical descriptors: changes in packing efficiency and hydrogen bond strength. We find some broad qualitative agreement with chemical intuition-more densely packed cocrystals with stronger hydrogen bonding tend to be more stable-but the relationship is weak, suggesting that such simple descriptors do not capture the complex balance of interactions driving cocrystallization. Our conclusions suggest that while cocrystallization is often a thermodynamically favorable process, it remains difficult to formulate general rules to guide synthesis, highlighting the continued importance of high-level computation in predicting and rationalizing such systems.

  15. Solar Radiation as Driving Force In Early Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.; Peterson, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) has provided an evolutionary challenge to life on Earth in that it is both an agent of mutation and as well as a selective force. Today surface fluxes of UVR vary diurnally, seasonally, etc. Still, the UVR flux was probably substantially higher during the early phases of evolution, suggesting that its role in evolution was even more prominent during this time. In this presentation, the creative role of UVR in evolution is discussed, specifically in connection with the role that UVR may have played in the evolution of early microbial ecosystems. The presentation will include discussions of the direct influence of UVR on such processes as photosynthesis and genetic damage, as well as the indirect influence of UVR as mediated through the production of reactive oxygen species. These biological effects of UVR will be viewed against the backdrop of the physical nature of the early Earth, surely a very different place then than now.

  16. Hypoxia: The Force that Drives Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qiangwei; Colgan, Sean P; Shelley, Carl Simon

    2016-01-01

    In the United States the prevalence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) reached epidemic proportions in 2012 with over 600,000 patients being treated. The rates of ESRD among the elderly are disproportionally high. Consequently, as life expectancy increases and the baby-boom generation reaches retirement age, the already heavy burden imposed by ESRD on the US health care system is set to increase dramatically. ESRD represents the terminal stage of chronic kidney disease (CKD). A large body of evidence indicating that CKD is driven by renal tissue hypoxia has led to the development of therapeutic strategies that increase kidney oxygenation and the contention that chronic hypoxia is the final common pathway to end-stage renal failure. Numerous studies have demonstrated that one of the most potent means by which hypoxic conditions within the kidney produce CKD is by inducing a sustained inflammatory attack by infiltrating leukocytes. Indispensable to this attack is the acquisition by leukocytes of an adhesive phenotype. It was thought that this process resulted exclusively from leukocytes responding to cytokines released from ischemic renal endothelium. However, recently it has been demonstrated that leukocytes also become activated independent of the hypoxic response of endothelial cells. It was found that this endothelium-independent mechanism involves leukocytes directly sensing hypoxia and responding by transcriptional induction of the genes that encode the β2-integrin family of adhesion molecules. This induction likely maintains the long-term inflammation by which hypoxia drives the pathogenesis of CKD. Consequently, targeting these transcriptional mechanisms would appear to represent a promising new therapeutic strategy. PMID:26847481

  17. MEMS two-axis force plate array used to measure the ground reaction forces during the running motion of an ant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Thanh-Vinh, Nguyen; Jung, Uijin G; Shimoyama, Isao; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    A terrestrial insect can perform agile running maneuvers. However, the balance of ground reaction forces (GRFs) between each leg in an insect have remained poorly characterized. In this report, we present a micro force plate array for the simultaneous measurement of the anterior and vertical components of GRFs of multiple legs during the running motion of an ant. The proposed force plate, which consists of a 2000 µm × 980 µm × 20 µm plate base as the contact surface of an ant's leg, and the supported beams with piezoresistors on the sidewall and surface are sufficiently compact to be adjacently arrayed along the anterior direction. Eight plates arrayed in parallel were fabricated on the same silicon-on-insulator substrate to narrow the gap between each plate to 20 µm. We compartmented the plate surface into 32 blocks and evaluated the sensitivities to two-axis forces in each block so that the exerted forces could be detected wherever a leg came into contact. The force resolutions in both directions were under 1 µN within ±20 µN. Using the fabricated force plate array, we achieved a simultaneous measurement of the GRFs of three legs on one side while an ant was running. (paper)

  18. Information driving force and its application in agent-based modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting-Ting; Zheng, Bo; Li, Yan; Jiang, Xiong-Fei

    2018-04-01

    Exploring the scientific impact of online big-data has attracted much attention of researchers from different fields in recent years. Complex financial systems are typical open systems profoundly influenced by the external information. Based on the large-scale data in the public media and stock markets, we first define an information driving force, and analyze how it affects the complex financial system. The information driving force is observed to be asymmetric in the bull and bear market states. As an application, we then propose an agent-based model driven by the information driving force. Especially, all the key parameters are determined from the empirical analysis rather than from statistical fitting of the simulation results. With our model, both the stationary properties and non-stationary dynamic behaviors are simulated. Considering the mean-field effect of the external information, we also propose a few-body model to simulate the financial market in the laboratory.

  19. Forced convection heat transfer correlation for finned plates in a duct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Myeong-Seon; Moon, Je-Young; Chung, Bum-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Forced convection heat transfer experiments were conducted for plate-fin in a duct using various fin spacing, fin height, duct width, Reynolds number for Prandtl numbers 2,014. Based upon analogy concept, mass transfer rate were measured instead of heat transfer rates. The heat transfer rates were enhanced with the increase of fin height and decrease of fin spacing as they increase the heat transfer area. Meanwhile, heat transfer rates were impaired with the increase of the duct width as the bypass flows increased to tip clearance region. Forced convection heat transfer correlations were developed for laminar and turbulent flow conditions and for narrow and wide ducts. The work draws attention to the tip clearance on the heat transfer of the finned plate in a duct. (author)

  20. Four-plate piezoelectric actuator driving a large-diameter special optical fiber for nonlinear optical microendoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Li, Zhi; Liang, Xiaobao; Fu, Ling

    2016-08-22

    In nonlinear optical microendoscope (NOME), a fiber with excellent optical characteristics and a miniature scanning mechanism at the distal end are two key components. Double-clad fibers (DCFs) and double-clad photonic crystal fibers (DCPCFs) have shown great optical characteristics but limited vibration amplitude due to large diameter. Besides reducing the damping of fiber cantilever, optimizing the structural of the actuator for lower energy dissipation also contributes to better driving capability. This paper presented an optimized actuator for driving a particular fiber cantilever in the view point of energy. Firstly, deformation energy of a bending fiber cantilever operating in resonant mode is investigated. Secondly, strain and stress analyses revealed that the four-plate actuator achieved lower energy dissipation. Then, finite-element simulations showed that the large-diameter fiber yielded an adequate vibration amplitude driven by a four-plate actuator, which was confirmed by experiments of our home-made four-plate actuator prototypes. Additionally, a NOME based on a DCPCF with a diameter of 350 μm driven by four-plate piezoelectric actuator has been developed. The NOME can excite and collect intrinsic second-harmonic and two-photon fluorescence signals with the excitation power of 10-30 mW and an adequate field of view of 200 μm, which suggest great potential applications in neuroscience and clinical diagnoses.

  1. COMPETITIVENESS IN SERVICES, DRIVING FORCE OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAMONA PÎRVU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The competitiveness of a nation is ensured by the profitable activity of firms. They strengthen their position in the domestic and international markets through global strategies whose purpose is to increase productivity and maintain it at a high level. For this, the company must take into account both the internal economic environment which ensures operating conditions and the external economic environment’s development. The five competitive forces determine the industry’s profitability because they configure firms’ selling prices, production costs and investments needed to be competitive in the field. The threat of new competitors limits the potential profit since they involve new production units and the opportunities for market expansion. Economic strength of the buyers and bidders attracts profits to them. Rivalry among existing competitors erodes profits by increasing costs of competition (like advertising, selling expenses or those required for research and development. The presence of substitutive goods or services limits competitors’ prices through buyers’ transfer phenomena limiting and eroding market share of industry / firm in the total production output.

  2. Frictional characteristics of erythrocytes on coated glass plates subject to inclined centrifugal forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandori, Takashi; Hayase, Toshiyuki; Inoue, Kousuke; Funamoto, Kenichi; Takeno, Takanori; Ohta, Makoto; Takeda, Motohiro; Shirai, Atsushi

    2008-10-01

    In recent years a diamond-like carbon (DLC) film and a 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) polymer have attracted attention as coating materials for implantable artificial organs or devices. When these materials are coated on vascular devices, compatibility to blood is an important problem. The present paper focuses on friction characteristics of erythrocytes to these coating materials in a medium. With an inclined centrifuge microscope developed by the authors, observation was made for erythrocytes moving on flat glass plates with and without coating in a medium of plasma or saline under the effect of inclined centrifugal force. Friction characteristics of erythrocytes with respect to these coating materials were then measured and compared to each other to characterize DLC and MPC as coating materials. The friction characteristics of erythrocytes in plasma using the DLC-coated and noncoated glass plates are similar, changing approximately proportional to the 0.5th power of the cell velocity. The cells stick to these plates in saline as well, implying the influence of plasma protein. The results using the MPC-coated plate in plasma are similar to those of the other plates for large cell velocities, but deviate from the other results with decreased cell velocity. The results change nearly proportional to the 0.75th power of the cell velocity in the range of small velocities. The results for the MPC-coated plate in saline are similar to that in plasma but somewhat smaller, implying that the friction characteristics for the MPC-coated plate are essentially independent of plasma protein.

  3. On Optimizing Steering Performance of Multi-axle Vehicle Based on Driving Force Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Zhicheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The steering performance of multi-axle vehicle with independent driving system is affected by the distribution of the wheel driving force. A nonlinear vehicle dynamics model including magic formula tire model for describing 11 DoF four-axle vehicle with dual-front-axle-steering (DFAS system was presented. The influence of different driving force distribution scheme on the steering performance of the vehicle was analyzed. A control strategy for improving the steady response and transient response of the vehicle steering is proposed. The results show: For the steady response, setting different drive force for internal and external wheels according to the actual steering characteristics of the vehicle can effectively improve its steering characteristics; For the transient response, adopting the zero sideslip angle control strategy and using the PID control algorithm to control the driving force of the outside wheel of tear-two-axle, under angle step input, the vehicle sideslip angle can quickly stabilize to 0 and yaw rate also significantly decreases.

  4. A wearable force plate system for the continuous measurement of triaxial ground reaction force in biomechanical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Tao; Inoue, Yoshio; Shibata, Kyoko

    2010-01-01

    The ambulatory measurement of ground reaction force (GRF) and human motion under free-living conditions is convenient, inexpensive and never restricted to gait analysis in a laboratory environment and is therefore much desired by researchers and clinical doctors in biomedical applications. A wearable force plate system was developed by integrating small triaxial force sensors and three-dimensional (3D) inertial sensors for estimating dynamic triaxial GRF in biomechanical applications. The system, in comparison to existent systems, is characterized by being lightweight, thin and easy-to-wear. A six-axial force sensor (Nitta Co., Japan) was used as a verification measurement device to validate the static accuracy of the developed force plate. To evaluate the precision during dynamic gait measurements, we compared the measurements of the triaxial GRF and the center of pressure (CoP) by using the developed system with the reference measurements made using a stationary force plate and an optical motion analysis system. The root mean square (RMS) differences of the two transverse components (x- and y-axes) and the vertical component (z-axis) of the GRF were 4.3 ± 0.9 N, 6.0 ± 1.3 N and 12.1 ± 1.1 N, respectively, corresponding to 5.1 ± 1.1% and 6.5 ± 1% of the maximum of each transverse component and 1.3 ± 0.2% of the maximum vertical component of GRF. The RMS distance between the two systems' CoP traces was 3.2 ± 0.8 mm, corresponding to 1.2 ± 0.3% of the length of the shoe. Moreover, based on the results of the assessment of the influence of the system on natural gait, we found that gait was almost never affected. Therefore, the wearable system as an alternative device can be a potential solution for measuring CoP and triaxial GRF in non-laboratory environments

  5. Preliminary Experimental Results for Indirect Vector-Control of Induction Motor Drives with Forced Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Vittek

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution presents an extension of indirect vector control of electric drives employing induction motors to 'Forced Dynamic Control'. This method of control offers an accurate realisation of dynamic response profiles, which can be selected by the user. The developed system can be integrated into a drive with a shaft position encoder or a shaft sensoriess drive, in which only the stator currents are measured. The applied stator voltages are determined by a computed inverter switching algorithm. Simulation results and preliminary experimental results for indirect vector control of an idle running induction motor indicate good agreement with the theoretical predictions.

  6. Development of an innovative reflector drive mechanism using magnetic repulsion force for 4S reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, K.; Watanabe, M.; Inagaki, H.; Nishikawa, A.; Takahashi, H.; Wakamatsu, M.; Matsumiya, H.; Nishiguchi, Y.

    2001-01-01

    A small sized fast reactor 4S: (Super Safe Small and Simple) which has a core of 10 - 30 years life time is controlled by reflectors. The reflector is required to be risen at very low speed to make up for the reactivity swing during operation. This report shows the development of an innovative reflector drive mechanism using magnetic repulsion force that can move at a several micrometer per one step. This drive mechanism has a passive shut down capability, and can eliminate reflector drive line. (author)

  7. Study on electromagnetism force of CARR control rod drive mechanism experimental machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Xuewei; Zhen Jianxiao; Wang Yulin; Jia Yueguang; Yang Kun; Yin Haozhe

    2015-01-01

    With the aim of acquiring electromagnetic force and electromagnetic field distributions of control rod drive mechanism (CRDM) in China Advanced Research Reactor (CARR), the force analysis on the CRDM was taken. Manufacturing the experimental machine, the electromagnetic force experiment was taken on it. The electromagnetic field and electromagnetic force simulation analyses of experimental machine were taken, working out distribution data of electromagnetic force and magnetic induction intensity distribution curve, and the effects of permanent magnetic field on electromagnetic field and structure parameters on electromagnetic force. The simulation value is accord with experiment value, the research results provide a reference to electromagnetic force study on CRDM in CARR, and also provide a reference to design of the same type CRDM. (authors)

  8. Preliminary experiments using light-initiated high explosive for driving thin flyer plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benham, R.A.

    1980-02-01

    Light-initiated high explosive, silver acelytide - silver-nitrate (SASN), has been used to produce simulated x ray blow-off impulse loading on reentry vehicles to study the system structural response. SASN can be used to accelerate thin flyer plates to high terminal velocities which, in turn, can deliver a pressure pulse that can be tailored to the target material. This process is important for impulse tests where both structural and material response is desired. The theories used to calculate the dynamic state of the flyer plate prior to impact are summarized. Data from several experiments are presented which indicate that thin flyer plates can be properly accelerated and that there are predictive techniques available which are adequate to calculate the motion of the flyer plate. Recommendations are made for future study that must be undertaken to make the SASN flyer plate technique usable

  9. Identification of impact force acting on composite laminated plates using the radiated sound measured with microphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atobe, Satoshi; Nonami, Shunsuke; Hu, Ning; Fukunaga, Hisao

    2017-09-01

    Foreign object impact events are serious threats to composite laminates because impact damage leads to significant degradation of the mechanical properties of the structure. Identification of the location and force history of the impact that was applied to the structure can provide useful information for assessing the structural integrity. This study proposes a method for identifying impact forces acting on CFRP (carbon fiber reinforced plastic) laminated plates on the basis of the sound radiated from the impacted structure. Identification of the impact location and force history is performed using the sound pressure measured with microphones. To devise a method for identifying the impact location from the difference in the arrival times of the sound wave detected with the microphones, the propagation path of the sound wave from the impacted point to the sensor is examined. For the identification of the force history, an experimentally constructed transfer matrix is employed to relate the force history to the corresponding sound pressure. To verify the validity of the proposed method, impact tests are conducted by using a CFRP cross-ply laminate as the specimen, and an impulse hammer as the impactor. The experimental results confirm the validity of the present method for identifying the impact location from the arrival time of the sound wave detected with the microphones. Moreover, the results of force history identification show the feasibility of identifying the force history accurately from the measured sound pressure using the experimental transfer matrix.

  10. Divergent plate motion drives rapid exhumation of (ultra)high pressure rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jie; Malusà, Marco G.; Zhao, Liang; Baldwin, Suzanne L.; Fitzgerald, Paul G.; Gerya, Taras

    2018-06-01

    Exhumation of (ultra)high pressure [(U)HP] rocks by upper-plate divergent motion above an unbroken slab, first proposed in the Western Alps, has never been tested by numerical methods. We present 2D thermo-mechanical models incorporating subduction of a thinned continental margin beneath either a continental or oceanic upper plate, followed by upper-plate divergent motion away from the lower plate. Results demonstrate how divergent plate motion may trigger rapid exhumation of large volumes of (U)HP rocks directly to the Earth's surface, without the need for significant overburden removal by erosion. Model exhumation paths are fully consistent with natural examples for a wide range of upper-plate divergence rates. Exhumation rates are systematically higher than the divergent rate imposed to the upper plate, and the modeled size of exhumed (U)HP domes is invariant for different rates of upper-plate divergence. Major variations are instead predicted at depth for differing model scenarios, as larger amounts of divergent motion may allow mantle-wedge exhumation to shallow depth under the exhuming domes. The transient temperature increase, due to ascent of mantle-wedge material in the subduction channel, has a limited effect on exhumed continental (U)HP rocks already at the surface. We test two examples, the Cenozoic (U)HP terranes of the Western Alps (continental upper plate) and eastern Papua New Guinea (oceanic upper plate). The good fit between model predictions and the geologic record in these terranes encourages the application of these models globally to pre-Cenozoic (U)HP terranes where the geologic record of exhumation is only partly preserved.

  11. Estimation of Muscle Force Based on Neural Drive in a Hemispheric Stroke Survivor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Chenyun; Zheng, Yang; Hu, Xiaogang

    2018-01-01

    Robotic assistant-based therapy holds great promise to improve the functional recovery of stroke survivors. Numerous neural-machine interface techniques have been used to decode the intended movement to control robotic systems for rehabilitation therapies. In this case report, we tested the feasibility of estimating finger extensor muscle forces of a stroke survivor, based on the decoded descending neural drive through population motoneuron discharge timings. Motoneuron discharge events were obtained by decomposing high-density surface electromyogram (sEMG) signals of the finger extensor muscle. The neural drive was extracted from the normalized frequency of the composite discharge of the motoneuron pool. The neural-drive-based estimation was also compared with the classic myoelectric-based estimation. Our results showed that the neural-drive-based approach can better predict the force output, quantified by lower estimation errors and higher correlations with the muscle force, compared with the myoelectric-based estimation. Our findings suggest that the neural-drive-based approach can potentially be used as a more robust interface signal for robotic therapies during the stroke rehabilitation.

  12. The marriage between welfare services and tourism - A driving force for innovation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalager, Anne Mette

    2006-01-01

    -based sectors are well connected with other sectors, including the voluntary sector. Both internal and external driving forces are continuously challenging the Danish welfare model. The pressures and the opportunities are transmitted to tourism, albeit not uniformly. There are good reasons for commercial...

  13. Transmission of government spending shocks in the Euro area: time variation and driving forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirchner, M.; Cimadomo, J.; Hauptmeier, S.

    This paper applies structural vector autoregressions with time-varying parameters in order to investigate changes in the effects of government spending shocks in the euro area, and the driving forces of those changes. Our contribution is two-fold. First, we present evidence that the short-run impact

  14. The driving force of the Na+/Ca2+-exchanger during metabolic inhibition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baartscheer, Antonius; Schumacher, Cees A.; Coronel, Ruben; Fiolet, Jan W. T.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Metabolic inhibition causes a decline in mechanical performance and, if prolonged, myocardial contracture and cell death. The decline in mechanical performance is mainly due to altered intracellular calcium handling, which is under control of the Na+/Ca2+-exchanger (NCX) The driving force

  15. Emission of greenhouse gases 1990-2010. Trends and driving forces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-03-01

    Emissions of greenhouse gases in Norway from 1990-2010 - trends and driving forces, a report that presents emission trends in Norway with the analysis of the main drivers and trends, and a review and analysis of the effectiveness of implemented measures.(Author)

  16. Experimental Investigation of the Effect of Burnishing Force on Service Properties of AISI 1010 Steel Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharbi, F.; Sghaier, S.; Morel, F.; Benameur, T.

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents the results obtained with a new ball burnishing tool developed for the mechanical treatment of large flat surfaces. Several parameters can affect the mechanical behavior and fatigue of workpiece. Our study focused on the effect of the burnishing force on the surface quality and on the service properties (mechanical behavior, fatigue) of AISI 1010 steel hot-rolled plates. Experimental results assert that burnishing force not exceeding 300 N causes an increase in the ductility. In addition, results indicated that the effect of the burnishing force on the residual surface stress was greater in the direction of advance than in the cross-feed direction. Furthermore, the flat burnishing surfaces did not improve the fatigue strength of AISI 1010 steel flat specimens.

  17. A modified synthetic driving force method for molecular dynamics simulation of grain boundary migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Liang; Li, Saiyi

    2015-01-01

    The synthetic driving force (SDF) molecular dynamics method, which imposes crystalline orientation-dependent driving forces for grain boundary (GB) migration, has been considered deficient in many cases. In this work, we revealed the cause of the deficiency and proposed a modified method by introducing a new technique to distinguish atoms in grains and GB such that the driving forces can be imposed properly. This technique utilizes cross-reference order parameter (CROP) to characterize local lattice orientations in a bicrystal and introduces a CROP-based definition of interface region to minimize interference from thermal fluctuations in distinguishing atoms. A validation of the modified method was conducted by applying it to simulate the migration behavior of Ni 〈1 0 0〉 and Al 〈1 1 2〉 symmetrical tilt GBs, in comparison with the original method. The discrepancies between the migration velocities predicted by the two methods are found to be proportional to their differences in distinguishing atoms. For the Al 〈1 1 2〉 GBs, the modified method predicts a negative misorientation dependency for both the driving pressure threshold for initiating GB movement and the mobility, which agree with experimental findings and other molecular dynamics computations but contradict those predicted using the original method. Last, the modified method was applied to evaluate the mobility of Ni Σ5 〈1 0 0〉 symmetrical tilt GB under different driving pressure and temperature conditions. The results reveal a strong driving pressure dependency of the mobility at relatively low temperatures and suggest that the driving pressure should be as low as possible but large enough to trigger continuous migration.

  18. Current Reversal Due to Coupling Between Asymmetrical Driving Force and Ratchet Potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ai Baoquan; Xie Huizhang; Liu Lianggang

    2006-01-01

    Transport of a Brownian particle moving in a periodic potential is investigated in the presence of an asymmetric unbiased external force. The asymmetry of the external force and the asymmetry of the potential are the two ways of inducing a net current. It is found that the competition of the spatial asymmetry of potential with the temporal asymmetry of the external force leads to the phenomena like current reversal. The competition between the two opposite driving factors is a necessary but not a sufficient condition for current reversals.

  19. Force analysis of the advanced neutron source control rod drive latch mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damiano, B.

    1989-01-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source reactor (ANS), a proposed Department of Energy research reactor currently undergoing conceptual design at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), will generate a thermal neutron flux approximating 10 30 M -2 emdash S -1 . The compact core necessary to produce this flux provides little space for the shim safety control rods, which are located in the central annulus of the core. Without proper control rod drive design, the control rod drive magnets (which hold the control rod latch in a ready-to-scram position) may be unable to support the required load due to their restricted size. This paper describes the force analysis performed on the control rod latch mechanism to determine the fraction of control rod weight transferred to the drive magnet. This information will be useful during latch, control rod drive and magnet design. 5 refs., 12 figs

  20. Vehicle Dynamics Control of In-wheel Electric Motor Drive Vehicles Based on Averaging of Tire Force Usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaki, Nobuo; Iwano, Haruo; Kamada, Takayoshi; Nagai, Masao

    For in-wheel electric motor drive vehicles, a new vehicle dynamics control which is based on the tire force usage rate is proposed. The new controller adopts non-linear optimal control could manage the interference between direct yaw-moment control and the tire force usage rate. The new control is considered total longitudinal and transverse tire force. Therefore the controller can prevent tire force saturation near tire force limit during cornering. Simulations and test runs by the custom made four wheel drive in-wheel motor electric vehicle show that higher driving stability performance compared to the performance of the same vehicle without control.

  1. Pull-in voltage of microswitch rough plates in the presence of electromagnetic and acoustic Casimir forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palasantzas, George

    2007-01-01

    In this work, we investigate the combined influence of electromagnetic and acoustic Casimir forces on the pull-in voltage of microswitches with self-affine rough plates. It is shown that for plate separations within the micron range the acoustic term arising from pressure fluctuations can influence

  2. Driving-forces model on individual behavior in scenarios considering moving threat agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuying; Zhuang, Jun; Shen, Shifei; Wang, Jia

    2017-09-01

    The individual behavior model is a contributory factor to improve the accuracy of agent-based simulation in different scenarios. However, few studies have considered moving threat agents, which often occur in terrorist attacks caused by attackers with close-range weapons (e.g., sword, stick). At the same time, many existing behavior models lack validation from cases or experiments. This paper builds a new individual behavior model based on seven behavioral hypotheses. The driving-forces model is an extension of the classical social force model considering scenarios including moving threat agents. An experiment was conducted to validate the key components of the model. Then the model is compared with an advanced Elliptical Specification II social force model, by calculating the fitting errors between the simulated and experimental trajectories, and being applied to simulate a specific circumstance. Our results show that the driving-forces model reduced the fitting error by an average of 33.9% and the standard deviation by an average of 44.5%, which indicates the accuracy and stability of the model in the studied situation. The new driving-forces model could be used to simulate individual behavior when analyzing the risk of specific scenarios using agent-based simulation methods, such as risk analysis of close-range terrorist attacks in public places.

  3. Force Plate Assessment of Quiet Standing Balance Control: Perspectives on Clinical Application within Stroke Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avril Mansfield

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of balance control is essential to guide physical rehabilitation poststroke. However, current observational assessment tools available to physiotherapists provide limited information about underlying dyscontrol. This paper describes a force plate-based assessment of quiet standing balance control that we have implemented for individuals attending inpatient stroke rehabilitation. The assessment uses two force plates to measure location of ground reaction forces to maintain stability in quiet standing in five conditions (eyes open, eyes closed, standing symmetrically, and maximal loading on the less-affected and more-affected limbs. Measures of interest are variability of the centers of pressure under each foot and both feet combined, weight-bearing asymmetry, and correlation of center of pressure fluctuations between limbs. We present representative values for the above-mentioned measures and case examples to illustrate how the assessment can reveal patient-specific balance control problems and direct treatment. We identify limitations to our current assessment and recommendations for future research.

  4. A Study of the Effect of the Fringe Fields on the Electrostatic Force in Vertical Comb Drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Else Gallagher

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The equation that describes the relationship between the applied voltage and the resulting electrostatic force within comb drives is often used to assist in choosing the dimensions for their design. This paper re-examines how some of these dimensions—particularly the cross-sectional dimensions of the comb teeth—affect this relationship in vertical comb drives. The electrostatic forces in several vertical comb drives fabricated for this study were measured and compared to predictions made with four different mathematical models in order to explore the amount of complexity required within a model to accurately predict the electrostatic forces in the comb drives.

  5. Agricultural land use change and associated driving forces over the past 180 years in two municipalities of the Brazilian Cerrado

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arruda, de Murilo Rodrigues; Slingerland, Maja; Santos, José Zilton Lopes; Giller, Ken E.

    2018-01-01

    This paper aims to test the hypothesis that a single driving force from the local, national, or global level is capable of triggering land use changes, including large scale deforestation, within a historical context. To reach this goal we describe and explain the driving forces from the global to

  6. Position Control of Linear Synchronous Motor Drives with Exploitation of Forced Dynamics Control Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Vittek

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Closed-loop position control of mechanisms directly driven by linear synchronous motors with permanent magnets is presented. The control strategy is based on forced dynamic control, which is a form of feedback linearisation, yielding a non-liner multivariable control law to obtain a prescribed linear speed dynamics together with the vector control condition of mutal orthogonality between the stator current and magnetic flux vectors (assuming perfect estimates of the plant parameters. Outer position control loop is closed via simple feedback with proportional gain. Simulations of the design control sysstem, including the drive with power electronic switching, predict the intended drive performance.

  7. Analyzing the Long Term Cohesive Effect of Sector Specific Driving Forces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonatan Berman

    Full Text Available Financial markets are partially composed of sectors dominated by external driving forces, such as commodity prices, infrastructure and other indices. We characterize the statistical properties of such sectors and present a novel model for the coupling of the stock prices and their dominating driving forces, inspired by mean reverting stochastic processes. Using the model we were able to explain the market sectors' long term behavior and estimate the coupling strength between stocks in financial markets and the sector specific driving forces. Notably, the analysis was successfully applied to the shipping market, in which the Baltic dry index (BDI, an assessment of the price of transporting the major raw materials by sea, influences the shipping financial market. We also present the analysis of other sectors-the gold mining market and the food production market, for which the model was also successfully applied. The model can serve as a general tool for characterizing the coupling between external forces and affected financial variables and therefore for estimating the risk in sectors and their vulnerability to external stress.

  8. The Influence of Flexibility Coefficient on the Size of Internal Forces and Deformations in Circular Plates on Elastic Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şandru Mirela

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analytical study which deals with the behavior of the circular plates in bending theory, considering the soil-structure interaction under Winkler's hypothesis. It was intended to illustrate the variation of internal forces and deformations according to the flexibility coefficient of plates considering three models: a fixed solid circular plate subjected to a uniformly distributed load, a fixed solid circular plate acted by a displacement applied on the exterior contour and a solid plate subjected to a temperature gradient. For this study the computation relations were written as a product between a dimensional and a non-dimensional factor, the last one indicating the variation of internal forces and deformations. For each type of action there are presented results obtained using the finite element method to illustrate the differences between this method and the analytical computation.

  9. A global limit load solution for plates with surface cracks under combined end force and cross-thickness bending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Yuebao; Fox, Mike J.H.

    2011-01-01

    A global limit load solution for rectangular surface cracks in plates under combined end force and cross-thickness bending is derived, which allows any combination of positive/negative end force and positive/negative cross-thickness moment. The solution is based on the net-section plastic collapse concept and, therefore, gives limit load values based on the Tresca yielding criterion. Solutions for both cases with and without crack face contact are derived when whole or part of the crack is located in the compressive stress zone. From the solution, particular global limit load solutions for plates with extended surface cracks and through-thickness cracks under the same loading conditions are obtained. The solution is consistent with the limit load solution for surface cracks in plates under combined tension and positive bending due to Goodall and Webster and Lei when both the applied end force and bending moment are positive. The solution reduces to the limit load solution for plain plates under combined end force and cross-thickness bending when the crack vanishes. - Highlights: → A global limit load solution for plates with surface cracks in plates is derived. → Combined positive/negative end force and positive/negative cross-thickness moment are considered. → The solution is based on the net-section plastic collapse concept.

  10. The effect of drive frequency and set point amplitude on tapping forces in atomic force microscopy: simulation and experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legleiter, Justin

    2009-01-01

    In tapping mode atomic force microscopy (AFM), a sharp probe tip attached to an oscillating cantilever is allowed to intermittently strike a surface. By raster scanning the probe while monitoring the oscillation amplitude of the cantilever via a feedback loop, topographical maps of surfaces with nanoscale resolution can be acquired. While numerous studies have employed numerical simulations to elucidate the time-resolved tapping force between the probe tip and surface, until recent technique developments, specific read-outs from such models could not be experimentally verified. In this study, we explore, via numerical simulation, the impact of imaging parameters, i.e. set point ratio and drive frequency as a function of resonance, on time-varying tip-sample force interactions, which are directly compared to reconstructed tapping forces from real AFM experiments. As the AFM model contains a feedback loop allowing for the simulation of the entire scanning process, we further explore the impact that various tip-sample force have on the entire imaging process.

  11. What drives microplate motion and deformation in the northeastern Caribbean plate boundary region?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Benthem, S.A.C.; Govers, R.; Wortel, R.

    2014-01-01

    The north Caribbean plate boundary zone is a broad deformation zone with several fault systems and tectonic blocks that move with different velocities. The indentation by the Bahamas Platform (the “Bahamas Collision”) is generally invoked as a cause of this fragmentation. We propose that a second

  12. Production bias: A proposed modification of the driving force for void swelling under cascade damage conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, C.H.; Garner, F.A.

    1991-11-01

    A new concept of point-defect production as the main driving force for void swelling under cascade damage conditions is proposed. This concept takes into account the recombination and formation of immobile clusters and loops of vacancies and interstitials in the cascade region. The life times of the clusters and loops due to desolution are strong functions of the temperature, as well as their vacancy and interstitial nature. The resulting biased production of free point defects from the internal sources is shown to be a strong driving force for void swelling. The characteristics of void swelling due to production bias are described and compared with experimental results. We conclude that the production bias concept provides a good description of void swelling under cascade damage conditions

  13. Production bias: A proposed modification of the driving force for void swelling under cascade damage conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, C.H.; Singh, B.N.; Garner, F.A.

    1992-01-01

    A new concept of point defect production as the main driving force for void swelling under cascade damage conditions is proposed. This concept takes into account the recombination and formation of immobile clusters and loops of vacancies and interstitials in the cascade region. The lifetimes of the clusters and loops due to desolution are strong functions of the temperature, as well as their vacancy and interstitial nature. The resulting biased production of free point defects from the internal sources is shown to be a strong driving force for void swelling. The characteristics of void swelling due to production bias are described and compared with experimental results. We conclude that the production bias concept provides a good description of void swelling under cascade damage conditions. (orig.)

  14. An analytical study of the free and forced vibration response of a ribbed plate with free boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tian Ran; Zhang, Kai

    2018-05-01

    An analytical study to predict the vibration response of a ribbed plate with free boundary conditions is presented. The analytical solution was derived using a double cosine integral transform technique and then utilized to study the free and forced vibration of the ribbed plate, as well as the effect of the rib on the modal response of the uniform plate. It is shown that in addition to the three zero-frequency rigid body modes of the plate, the vibration modes of the uniform plate can be classified into four mode groups according to the symmetric properties of the plate with respect to the two orthogonal middle lines parallel to the plate edges. The four mode groups correspond to a double symmetric group, a double anti-symmetric group and two symmetric/anti-symmetric groups. Whilst the inclusion of the rib to the plate is shown to cause distortion to the distribution of vibration modes, most modes can still be traced back to the original modes of the uniform plate. Both the mass and stiffness of the rib are shown to affect the modal vibration of the uniform plate, whereby a dominant effect from the rib mass leads to a decrease in the modal frequency of the plate, whereas a dominant effect from the rib stiffness leads to an increase in plate modal frequency. When the stiffened rib behaves as an effective boundary to the plate vibration, an original plate mode becomes a pair of degenerate modes, whereby one mode has a higher frequency and the other mode has a lower frequency than that of the original mode.

  15. Rolling Force Prediction in Heavy Plate Rolling Based on Uniform Differential Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate prediction of the rolling force is critical to assuring the quality of the final product in steel manufacturing. Exit thickness of plate for each pass is calculated from roll gap, mill spring, and predicted roll force. Ideal pass scheduling is dependent on a precise prediction of the roll force in each pass. This paper will introduce a concept that allows obtaining the material model parameters directly from the rolling process on an industrial scale by the uniform differential neural network. On the basis of the characteristics that the uniform distribution can fully characterize the solution space and enhance the diversity of the population, uniformity research on differential evolution operator is made to get improved crossover with uniform distribution. When its original function is transferred with a transfer function, the uniform differential evolution algorithms can quickly solve complex optimization problems. Neural network structure and weights threshold are optimized by uniform differential evolution algorithm, and a uniform differential neural network is formed to improve rolling force prediction accuracy in process control system.

  16. Testing thermal gradient driving force for grain boundary migration using molecular dynamics simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Xian-Ming; Zhang, Yongfeng; Tonks, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Strong thermal gradients in low-thermal-conductivity ceramics may drive extended defects, such as grain boundaries and voids, to migrate in preferential directions. In this work, molecular dynamics simulations are conducted to study thermal gradient driven grain boundary migration and to verify a previously proposed thermal gradient driving force equation, using uranium dioxide as a model system. It is found that a thermal gradient drives grain boundaries to migrate up the gradient and the migration velocity increases under a constant gradient owing to the increase in mobility with temperature. Different grain boundaries migrate at very different rates due to their different intrinsic mobilities. The extracted mobilities from the thermal gradient driven simulations are compared with those calculated from two other well-established methods and good agreement between the three different methods is found, demonstrating that the theoretical equation of the thermal gradient driving force is valid, although a correction of one input parameter should be made. The discrepancy in the grain boundary mobilities between modeling and experiments is also discussed.

  17. Electronic structure and driving forces in {beta}-cyclodextrin: Diclofenac inclusion complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdan, Diana [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, Donath street 71-103, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Morari, C. [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, Donath street 71-103, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)]. E-mail: cristim@s3.itim-cj.ro

    2007-07-02

    We investigate the geometry and electronic structure for complexes of {beta}-cyclodextrin with diclofenac using DFT calculations. The effect of solvent is explicitly taken into account. This investigation allows us to draw meaningful conclusions upon the stability of the complex and the nature of the driving forces leading to the complexation process. In particular we emphasize the role of the water, by pointing out the changes in the solvent's electronic structure for different docking geometries.

  18. Electronic structure and driving forces in β-cyclodextrin: Diclofenac inclusion complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdan, Diana; Morari, C.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the geometry and electronic structure for complexes of β-cyclodextrin with diclofenac using DFT calculations. The effect of solvent is explicitly taken into account. This investigation allows us to draw meaningful conclusions upon the stability of the complex and the nature of the driving forces leading to the complexation process. In particular we emphasize the role of the water, by pointing out the changes in the solvent's electronic structure for different docking geometries

  19. The world food situation: New driving forces and required actions [In Chinese

    OpenAIRE

    von Braun, Joachim

    2008-01-01

    "The world food situation is currently being rapidly redefined by new driving forces. Income growth, climate change, high energy prices, globalization, and urbanization are transforming food consumption, production, and markets. The influence of the private sector in the world food system, especially the leverage of food retailers, is also rapidly increasing. Changes in food availability, rising commodity prices, and new producer–consumer linkages have crucial implications for the livelihoods...

  20. Spatiotemporal Variation of Driving Forces for Settlement Expansion in Different Types of Counties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanglong Dong

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the process of settlement expansion and the spatiotemporal variation of driving forces is the foundation of rational and specific planning for sustainable development. However, little attention has been paid to the spatiotemporal differences of driving forces among different counties, especially when they are representatives of different development types. This study used Guanyun, Kunshan and Changshu as case studies, and binary logistic regression was employed. The results showed that the expansion rates of Kunshan and Changshu were 5.55 and 3.93 times higher than that of Guanyun. The combinations and relative importance of drivers varied with counties and periods. The change in the number of driving forces can be divided into three stages: increasing stage, decreasing stage, and stable stage. In the relatively developed counties, Kunshan and Changshu, the importance of population is decreased, while it remain an important factor in the less developed county, Guanyun. In addition, the effect of GDP stays the same in Kunshan while it becomes the most important factor in Changshu. The distance to the main road and the distance to town are increasingly important in Kunshan and Guanyun, and distance to town has been the only common factor in the last period, indicating the discrepancy is increased. The relative importance of distance to a lake in Kunshan and Changshu increased, reflecting the role of increasing tourism in accelerating settlement expansion.

  1. A COMPARISON OF GROUND REACTION FORCES DETERMINED BY PORTABLE FORCE-PLATE AND PRESSURE-INSOLE SYSTEMS IN ALPINE SKIING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke Nakazato

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available For the determination of ground reaction forces in alpine skiing, pressure insole (PI systems and portable force plate (FP systems are well known and widely used in previous studies. The purposes of this study were 1 to provide reference data for the vertical component of the ground reaction forces (vGRF during alpine skiing measured by the PI and FP systems, and 2 to analyze whether the differences in the vGRF measured by the PI and the FP depend on a skier's level, skiing mode and pitch. Ten expert and ten intermediate level skiers performed 10 double turns with the skiing technique "Carving in Short Radii" as High Dynamic Skiing mode and "Parallel Ski Steering in Long Radii" as Low Dynamic Skiing mode on both the steep (23 ° and the flat (15 ° slope twice. All subjects skied with both the PI and the FP system simultaneously. During the outside phase, the mean vGRF and the maximum vGRF determined by the FP are greater than the PI (p < 0.01. Additionally during the inside phase, the mean vGRF determined by the FP were greater than the PI (p < 0.01. During the edge changing phases, the mean vGRF determined by the FP were greater than the PI (p < 0.01. However, the minimum vGRF during the edge changing phases determined by the FP were smaller than the PI (p < 0.01 in the High-Steep skiing modes of Experts and Intermediates (p < 0.001. We have found that generally, the PI system underestimates the total vGRF compared to the FP system. However, this difference depends not only the phase in the turn (inside, outside, edge changing, but also is affected by the skier's level, the skiing mode performed and pitch.

  2. Magnetostatic torsional actuator with embedded nickel structures for the improvement of driving force and wobble motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Tsung-Lin; Fang, Weileun

    2011-01-01

    This study demonstrates the magnetostatic torsional actuator consisting in a Si–Ni compound frame to significantly improve the driving force. The present design has three merits: (1) it employs a Si mold to simultaneously electroplate/pattern thick Ni, and the Ni and Si structures respectively provide magnetostatic force and superior mechanical properties, (2) the embedded Ni structures not only increase the ferromagnetic material volume but also enhance magnetization strength to enlarge magnetostatic torque, (3) the Si–Ni compound structure, which is nearly symmetric about the torsional axis in the out-of-plane direction, can decrease the moment of inertia and also reduce the wobble motion. In applications, one-axis torsional actuator is implemented and characterized. The experiments show that the Si–Ni compound scanner has an optical scan angle θ optical = 90° with the input power 81 mW. The input power is decreased as compared with the existing scanner. Moreover, the out-of-plane wobble motion is only 44 nm at θ optical = 15°. Compared with the existing designs consisted of asymmetric structures in the out-of-plane direction, such as electroplated film and silicon rib, about the torsional axis, the equivalent eccentric force is reduced nearly two-fold. In short, the proposed design not only increases the driving force but also decreases the wobble motion

  3. Mechanisms driving variability in the ocean forcing of Pine Island Glacier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Benjamin G M; Heywood, Karen J; Stevens, David P; Dutrieux, Pierre; Abrahamsen, E Povl; Jenkins, Adrian; Jacobs, Stanley S; Ha, Ho Kyung; Lee, Sang Hoon; Kim, Tae Wan

    2017-02-17

    Pine Island Glacier (PIG) terminates in a rapidly melting ice shelf, and ocean circulation and temperature are implicated in the retreat and growing contribution to sea level rise of PIG and nearby glaciers. However, the variability of the ocean forcing of PIG has been poorly constrained due to a lack of multi-year observations. Here we show, using a unique record close to the Pine Island Ice Shelf (PIIS), that there is considerable oceanic variability at seasonal and interannual timescales, including a pronounced cold period from October 2011 to May 2013. This variability can be largely explained by two processes: cumulative ocean surface heat fluxes and sea ice formation close to PIIS; and interannual reversals in ocean currents and associated heat transport within Pine Island Bay, driven by a combination of local and remote forcing. Local atmospheric forcing therefore plays an important role in driving oceanic variability close to PIIS.

  4. Physical driving force of actomyosin motility based on the hydration effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Makoto; Mogami, George; Ohsugi, Hideyuki; Watanabe, Takahiro; Matubayasi, Nobuyuki

    2017-12-01

    We propose a driving force hypothesis based on previous thermodynamics, kinetics and structural data as well as additional experiments and calculations presented here on water-related phenomena in the actomyosin systems. Although Szent-Györgyi pointed out the importance of water in muscle contraction in 1951, few studies have focused on the water science of muscle because of the difficulty of analyzing hydration properties of the muscle proteins, actin, and myosin. The thermodynamics and energetics of muscle contraction are linked to the water-mediated regulation of protein-ligand and protein-protein interactions along with structural changes in protein molecules. In this study, we assume the following two points: (1) the periodic electric field distribution along an actin filament (F-actin) is unidirectionally modified upon binding of myosin subfragment 1 (M or myosin S1) with ADP and inorganic phosphate Pi (M.ADP.Pi complex) and (2) the solvation free energy of myosin S1 depends on the external electric field strength and the solvation free energy of myosin S1 in close proximity to F-actin can become the potential force to drive myosin S1 along F-actin. The first assumption is supported by integration of experimental reports. The second assumption is supported by model calculations utilizing molecular dynamics (MD) simulation to determine solvation free energies of a small organic molecule and two small proteins. MD simulations utilize the energy representation method (ER) and the roughly proportional relationship between the solvation free energy and the solvent-accessible surface area (SASA) of the protein. The estimated driving force acting on myosin S1 is as high as several piconewtons (pN), which is consistent with the experimentally observed force. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Experiments on forced convection form a horizontal heated plate in a packed bed of glass spheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renken, K.J. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee (USA)); Poulikakos, D. (Univ. of Illinois, Chicago (USA))

    1989-02-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation of boundary-layer forced convective heat transfer from a flat isothermal plate in a packed bed of spheres. Extensive experimental results are reported for the thermal boundary-layer thickness, the temperature field, and the local wall heat flux (represented by the local Nusselt number). Theoretical findings of previous investigations using the Darcy flow model as well as a general model for themomentum equation accouting for flow inertia and macroscopic shear wtih and without variable porosity are used to evaluate the theoretical models. Several trends are revealed regarding the conditions of validity of these flow models. Overall the general flow model including variable porosity appears to perform better, even through the need for serious improvements in modeling becomes apparent.

  6. Thermally developing forced convection and the corresponding thermal stresses in a porous plate channel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiao; LIU Xuemei

    2007-01-01

    Based on the Darcy fluid model, by considering the effects of viscous dissipation due to the interaction between solid skeleton and pore fluid flow and thermal conduction in the direction of the fluid flow, the thermally developing forced convection of the local thermal equili- brium and the corresponding thermal stresses in a semi- infmite saturated porous plate channel are investigated in this paper. The expressions of temperature, local Nusselt number and corresponding thermal stresses are obtained by means of the Fourier series, and the distributions of the same are also shown. Furthermore, influences of the Péclet number (Pe) and Brinkman number (Br) on temperature, Nusselt number (Nu) and thermal stress are revealed numerically.

  7. Validity Study of a Jump Mat Compared to the Reference Standard Force Plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogan, Slavko; Radlinger, Lorenz; Imhasly, Caroline; Kneubuehler, Andrea; Hilfiker, Roger

    2015-12-01

    In the field of vertical jump diagnostics, force plates (FP) are the reference standard. Recently, despite a lack of evidence, jump mats have been used increasingly. Important factors in favor of jumping mats are their low cost and portability. This validity study compared the Haynl-Elektronik jump mat (HE jump mat) with the reference standard force plate. Ten healthy volunteers participated and each participant completed three series of five drop jumps (DJ). The parameters ground contact time (GCT) and vertical jump height (VJH) from the HE jump mat and the FP were used to evaluate the concurrent validity. The following statistical calculations were performed: Pearson's correlation (r), Bland-Altman plots (standard and for adjusted trend), and regression equations. The Bland-Altman plots suggest that the HE jump mat measures shorter contact times and higher jump heights than the FP. The trend-adjusted Bland-Altman plot shows higher mean differences and wider wing-spreads of confidence limits during longer GCT. During the VJH the mean differences and the wing-spreads of the confidence limits throughout the range present as relatively constant. The following regression equations were created, as close as possible to the true value: GCT = 5.920385 + 1.072293 × [value HE jump mat] and VJH = -1.73777 + 1.011156 × [value HE jump mat]. The HE jump mat can be recommended in relation to the validity of constraints. In this study, only a part of the quality criteria were examined. For the final recommendation it is advised to examine the HE jump mat on the other quality criteria (test-retest reliability, sensitivity change).

  8. ANALYTICAL SYNTHESIS OF FORCED PULSE ELECTRONIC DRIVE CONTROL OF A TRACKING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Abufanas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of analytical synthesis of a control signal by a linear dynamical system is considered. As an optimization criterion, it is proposed to consider the transition time of the system from the initial state to a given final state. This type of control is called forced, providing the maximum system speed. The principle of solving this problem is considered on the basis of application of uncertain Lagrange multipliers and the Pontryagin maximum principle. Expressions are obtained for the matrix of transitions of the system and the control signal in a vector form.As an example, the electric drive described by the widespread second-order mathematical model is considered to evaluate the efficiency of the proposed method. Qualitative illustrations of the operability of the proposed approach, obtained by modeling in the Mathcad environment, and quantitative characteristics of the change in the input and output signals of the hypothetical control system are presented. It is shown that the use of forced control does not lead to the output of variables characterizing the state of the system, beyond the limits of admissible values.The use of forced control makes it possible to synthesize the control law in the form of a sequence of rectangular pulses of constant amplitude determined by the power source, variable duty cycle and polarity. This approach can be used for the control of DC-type DC motors used in various tracking systems used on unmanned aerial vehicles. Key words: forced control, target function, electric drive, pulse train. The use of forced control makes it possible to synthesize the control law in the form of a sequence of rectangular pulses of constant amplitude determined by the power source, variable duty cycle and polarity. This approach can be used for the control of DC-type DC motors used in various tracking systems used on unmanned aerial vehicles.

  9. Finite Element Analysis of the Vertical Levitation Force in an Electrostatic MEMS Comb Drive Actuator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wooldridge, J; Blackburn, J; Muniz-Piniella, A; Stewart, M; Shean, T A V; Weaver, P M; Cain, M G

    2013-01-01

    A vertical levitation electrostatic comb drive actuator was manufactured for the purpose of measuring piezoelectric coefficients in small-scale materials and devices. Previous modelling work on comb drive levitation has focussed on control of the levitation in standard poly-silicon devices in order to minimize effects on lateral modes of operation required for the accelerometer and gyroscope applications. The actuator developed in this study was manufactured using a 20 μm electroplated Ni process with a 25 μm trench created beneath the released structure through chemical wet etching. A finite element analysis using ZINC was used to model electrostatic potential around a cross section of one static and one movable electrode, from which the net levitation force per unit electrode was calculated. The model was first verified using the electrode geometry from previously studied systems, and then used to study the variation of force as a function of decreasing substrate-electrode distance. With the top electrode surfaces collinear the calculated force density is 0.00651 ε 0 V 2 M μm −1 , equivalent to a total force for the device of 36.4 μN at an applied voltage of V M =100 V, just 16% larger than the observed value. The measured increase in force with distance was smaller than predicted with the FEA, due to the geometry of the device in which the electrodes at the anchored ends of the supporting spring structure displace by a smaller amount than those at the centre

  10. Confirmation of the extraterrestrial forces decisive effect on earthquake triggering and lithospheric plates movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrihansky, L.; Kalenda, P.

    2012-04-01

    In contrast to unsuccessful searching for biweekly tides earthquakes triggering the Earth's rotation variations give the unambiguous answer that the extreme positions of the Earth's acceleration and deceleration trigger earthquakes. In addition to it, an important repetition of earthquakes with 19 years period of the Meton's cycle and nutation has been found. Further, it has been found that the continental heating by the Sun and formation of the thermoelastic wave is an important factor of affecting of the Earth's surface and the plate movement. For this the special static vertical pendulum serves with the optimum length of several tens of meters, which after its refinement will be an important instrument for confirmation of stated claims. This problem is so far important that the scientific community advocates an opinion that earthquakes are caused by fluently acting forces in the Earth's interior, i.e. by forces causing absolutely unpredictable disturbances of the Earth' crust. This work is in outstanding interest of the European Union because the volcanic eruptions in Iceland, till now unpredictable, disturb the air-traffic in Europe in spite that just earthquakes in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge show unequivocal earthquake triggering in rhythm of the Earth's rotation variations.

  11. Trends and driving forces of ecological training and education in the context of ecological education environment of the technical university

    OpenAIRE

    Danilenkova V. A.

    2017-01-01

    common patterns of ecological training and education in the technical university are analyzed in this article, their descriptions are defined. Driving forces of ecological training and education in the context of ecological education environment are discovered and proved. According to conducted research the author makes a proposition to point out at ecological risks as driving forces, searching for which improves the efficiency and effectiveness of ecological education environment. The resear...

  12. Force Sensitive Handles and Capacitive Touch Sensor for Driving a Flexible Haptic-Based Immersive System

    OpenAIRE

    Covarrubias, Mario; Bordegoni, Monica; Cugini, Umberto

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we present an approach that uses both two force sensitive handles (FSH) and a flexible capacitive touch sensor (FCTS) to drive a haptic-based immersive system. The immersive system has been developed as part of a multimodal interface for product design. The haptic interface consists of a strip that can be used by product designers to evaluate the quality of a 3D virtual shape by using touch, vision and hearing and, also, to interactively change the shape of the virtual object...

  13. Remote sensing monitoring and driving force analysis to forest and greenbelt in Zhuhai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliang Qiao, Pro.

    As an important city in the southern part of Chu Chiang Delta, Zhuhai is one of the four special economic zones which are opening up to the outside at the earliest in China. With pure and fresh air and trees shading the street, Zhuhai is a famous beach port city which is near the mountain and by the sea. On the basis of Garden City, the government of Zhuhai decides to build National Forest City in 2011, which firstly should understand the situation of greenbelt in Zhuhai in short term. Traditional methods of greenbelt investigation adopt the combination of field surveying and statistics, whose efficiency is low and results are not much objective because of artificial influence. With the adventure of the information technology such as remote sensing to earth observation, especially the launch of many remote sensing satellites with high resolution for the past few years, kinds of urban greenbelt information extraction can be carried out by using remote sensing technology; and dynamic monitoring to spatial pattern evolvement of forest and greenbelt in Zhuhai can be achieved by the combination of remote sensing and GIS technology. Taking Landsat5 TM data in 1995, Landsat7 ETM+ data in 2002, CCD and HR data of CBERS-02B in 2009 as main information source, this research firstly makes remote sensing monitoring to dynamic change of forest and greenbelt in Zhuhai by using the combination of vegetation coverage index and three different information extraction methods, then does a driving force analysis to the dynamic change results in 3 months. The results show: the forest area in Zhuhai shows decreasing tendency from 1995 to 2002, increasing tendency from 2002 to 2009; overall, the forest area show a small diminution tendency from 1995 to 2009. Through the comparison to natural and artificial driving force, the artificial driving force is the leading factor to the change of forest and greenbelt in Zhuhai. The research results provide a timely and reliable scientific basis

  14. Driving forces behind the Chinese public's demand for improved environmental safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Ting; Wang, Jigan; Ma, Zongwei; Bi, Jun

    2017-12-15

    Over the past decades, the public demand for improved environmental safety keeps increasing in China. This study aims to assess the driving forces behind the increasing public demand for improved environmental safety using a provincial and multi-year (1995, 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2014) panel data and the Stochastic Impacts by Regression on Population, Affluence, and Technology (STIRPAT) model. The potential driving forces investigated included population size, income levels, degrees of urbanization, and educational levels. Results show that population size and educational level are positively (Pdemand for improved environmental safety. No significant impact on demand was found due to the degree of urbanization. For the impact due to income level, an inverted U-shaped curve effect with the turning point of ~140,000 CNY GDP per capita is indicated. Since per capita GDP of 2015 in China was approximately 50,000 CNY and far from the turning point, the public demand for improved environmental safety will continue rising in the near future. To meet the increasing public demand for improved environmental safety, proactive and risk prevention based environmental management systems coupled with effective environmental risk communication should be established. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Negotiating EU CO2/energy taxation. Political economic driving forces and barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klok, Jacob

    2001-11-01

    The primary objective of this project is to identify the main political economic driving forces behind and barriers against the creation of an EU agreement on CO 2 /energy taxation. The analysis is based on a theoretical framework for understanding European integration and on detailed historical investigations into a process of EU negotiations concerning CO 2 /energy taxation that took place from the 1980s to 1994. Following the historical analysis of political economic driving forces and barriers, some overall perspectives on possible future developments within the field of EU CO 2 /energy taxation are finally advanced. The secondary objective of the project is to consider the possible effects on the EU negotiation process of Danish efforts to push the CO 2 /energy tax proposal from the late 1980s to 994. This analysis is based on the preceding historical analysis of the EU negotiation process, as well as further investigations into the national Danish development within the field of CO 2 /energy taxation, including accounts of Denmark's particular relations with the EU during the period in question. Finally, based on the likely future developments in the field EU CO 2 /energy taxation. Denmark's strategic opportunities are outlined. (BA)

  16. Driving forces behind the construction of an eco-compensation mechanism for wetlands in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changhai

    2016-09-01

    This research revealed important driving forces behind the construction of an eco-compensation mechanism for wetlands (DFEMW) in China. Using China's provincial panel data from 1978 to 2008, a fixed-effects model was used to analyze the impacts of agricultural production systems on wetlands. We identified three DFEMW as follows: the change of wetland resources and protection measures in China; declaration and implementation of the provincial Wetland Protection Ordinance; and wetland degradation by agricultural production systems, which necessitated the establishment of a wetland eco-compensation mechanism. In addition to the DFEMW, a significant positive correlation between wetland area and both rural population and gross agricultural production was identified, in addition to a negative correlation with chemical fertilizer usage, reservoir storage capacity, and irrigation area. The underlying reasons for the serious degradation and inadequate protection of wetlands were market failure and government failure; these were the driving forces behind the need to establish a wetland eco-compensation mechanism. From a governmental perspective, it has been difficult to rectify market failures in resource distribution and thus to prevent wetland degradation. Factors include conflicts of interest, lack of investment, effective special laws, a simple means to protect wetlands, and a multidisciplinary management system. Therefore, the key factor is the coordination of interest relationships between those who utilize wetlands and those who seek to minimize wetland degradation and effectively protect wetlands.

  17. Driving forces and barriers for environmental technology development; Drivkrefter og barrierer for utvikling av miljoeteknologi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Driving forces and barriers behind development and usage of environmental technology is discussed, and also whether there are certain characteristics related to environmental innovations compared to other innovations in general. The development of environmental technology is in principle dominated by the same drivers and barriers as any other technology, but the order and strength of the various factors may be different. This examination as well as other empirical studies shows that regulations play a greater part for environmental technology than 'pure market forces'. To many participants it is important to be one step ahead of the regulations, i.e. the expected regulations are equally important as the factual ones in driving the technology development. Players in the business community express that it is important that the authorities cooperate with them when introducing new regulations. This will increase acceptance for the regulations and facilitate the necessary adjustments. The most important barrier in the development and use of the technologies studied is probably the lack of demand.

  18. Salticid predation as one potential driving force of ant mimicry in jumping spiders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin-Nan; Cheng, Ren-Chung; Li, Daiqin; Tso, I-Min

    2011-01-01

    Many spiders possess myrmecomorphy, and species of the jumping spider genus Myrmarachne exhibit nearly perfect ant mimicry. Most salticids are diurnal predators with unusually high visual acuity that prey on various arthropods, including conspecifics. In this study, we tested whether predation pressure from large jumping spiders is one possible driving force of perfect ant mimicry in jumping spiders. The results showed that small non-ant-mimicking jumping spiders were readily treated as prey by large ones (no matter whether heterospecific or conspecific) and suffered high attack and mortality rates. The size difference between small and large jumping spiders significantly affected the outcomes of predatory interactions between them: the smaller the juvenile jumping spiders, the higher the predation risk from large ones. The attack and mortality rates of ant-mimicking jumping spiders were significantly lower than those of non-ant-mimicking jumping spiders, indicating that a resemblance to ants could provide protection against salticid predation. However, results of multivariate behavioural analyses showed that the responses of large jumping spiders to ants and ant-mimicking salticids differed significantly. Results of this study indicate that predation pressure from large jumping spiders might be one selection force driving the evolution of nearly perfect myrmecomorphy in spiders and other arthropods. PMID:20961898

  19. Human health and the water environment: using the DPSEEA framework to identify the driving forces of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry-Shields, Jennifer; Bartram, Jamie

    2014-01-15

    There is a growing awareness of global forces that threaten human health via the water environment. A better understanding of the dynamic between human health and the water environment would enable prediction of the significant driving forces and effective strategies for coping with or preventing them. This report details the use of the Driving Force-Pressure-State-Exposure-Effect-Action (DPSEEA) framework to explore the linkage between water-related diseases and their significant driving forces. The DPSEEA frameworks indicate that a select group of driving forces, including population growth, agriculture, infrastructure (dams and irrigation), and climate change, is at the root cause of key global disease burdens. Construction of the DPSEEA frameworks also allows for the evaluation of public health interventions. Sanitation was found to be a widely applicable and effective intervention, targeting the driver/pressure linkage of most of the water-related diseases examined. Ultimately, the DPSEEA frameworks offer a platform for constituents in both the health and environmental fields to collaborate and commit to a common goal targeting the same driving forces. © 2013.

  20. Stochastic Lorentz forces on a point charge moving near the conducting plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsiang, J.-T.; Wu, T.-H.; Lee, D.-S.

    2008-01-01

    The influence of quantized electromagnetic fields on a nonrelativistic charged particle moving near a conducting plate is studied. We give a field-theoretic derivation of the nonlinear, non-Markovian Langevin equation of the particle by the method of Feynman-Vernon influence functional. This stochastic approach incorporates not only the stochastic noise manifested from electromagnetic vacuum fluctuations, but also dissipation backreaction on a charge in the form of the retarded Lorentz forces. Since the imposition of the boundary is expected to anisotropically modify the effects of the fields on the evolution of the particle, we consider the motion of a charge undergoing small-amplitude oscillations in the direction either parallel or normal to the plane boundary. Under the dipole approximation for nonrelativistic motion, velocity fluctuations of the charge are found to grow linearly with time in the early stage of the evolution at the rather different rate, revealing strong anisotropic behavior. They are then asymptotically saturated as a result of the fluctuation-dissipation relation, and the same saturated value is found for the motion in both directions. The observational consequences are discussed

  1. Driving forces for adsorption of amphiphilic peptides to the air-water interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engin, Ozge; Villa, Alessandra; Sayar, Mehmet; Hess, Berk

    2010-09-02

    We have studied the partitioning of amphiphilic peptides at the air-water interface. The free energy of adsorption from bulk to interface was calculated by determining the potential of mean force via atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. To this end a method is introduced to restrain or constrain the center of mass of a group of molecules in a periodic system. The model amphiphilic peptides are composed of alternating valine and asparagine residues. The decomposition of the free energy difference between the bulk and interface is studied for different peptide block lengths. Our analysis revealed that for short amphiphilic peptides the surface driving force dominantly stems from the dehydration of hydrophobic side chains. The only opposing force is associated with the loss of orientational freedom of the peptide at the interface. For the peptides studied, the free energy difference scales linearly with the size of the molecule, since the peptides mainly adopt extended conformations both in bulk and at the interface. The free energy difference depends strongly on the water model, which can be rationalized through the hydration thermodynamics of hydrophobic solutes. Finally, we measured the reduction of the surface tension associated with complete coverage of the interface with peptides.

  2. The impact force acting on a flat plate exposed normally to a rarefied plasma plume issuing from an annular or circular nozzle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Xi, E-mail: cx-dem@mail.tsinghua.edu.c [Department of Engineering Mechanics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-08-11

    With the indirect thrust measurement of electric thrusters working at a low vacuum chamber pressure as the research background, this paper analyses the impact force acting on a flat plate exposed normally to a rarefied plasma plume issuing from a thruster with an annular or circular exit section for the free-molecule flow regime (at large Knudsen numbers). The constraint relation proposed by Cai and Boyd (2007 J. Spacecr. Rockets 44 619, 1326) about the velocity components of gas particles leaving a location on the nozzle exit section and arriving at a given spatial point outside the nozzle has been employed here to derive the analytical expressions for calculating the impact force. Sample calculation results show that if the flat plate is sufficiently large, the impact force acting on the flat plate calculated for the case without accounting for gas particle reflection at the plate surface agrees well with the axial momentum flux calculated at the thruster exit or the theoretical thrust force of the studied thruster, while accounting for the contribution of gas particles reflected from the plate surface to the impact force production may significantly increase the calculated impact force acting on the flat plate. For a Hall-effect thruster in which the thrust force is dominantly produced by the ions with high directional kinetic energy and the ions are not directly reflected from the plate surface, the contribution to the impact force production of atom species and of gas particles reflected from the plate surface is negligibly small and thus the measured axial impact force acting on a sufficiently large plate can well represent the thrust force of the thruster. On the other hand, if the contribution of the gas particles reflected from the plate surface to the impact force production cannot be neglected (e.g. for the electric thrusters with comparatively low thruster exit temperatures), appreciable error would appear in the indirect thrust measurement.

  3. Driving forces shaping advanced reactor designs: Near-term and long-term prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sholly, S.C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper explores the forces which have driven and which in the opinion of the author should be driving advanced reactor development programs. Four general driving forces are identified: cost, safety, environmental concerns, and non-proliferation concerns. It is suggested that the primary driving forces should be cost and safety concerns. It is suggested that advanced reactors need to demonstrate the following characteristics: (a) A design which explicitly accounts for severe accidents, including severe external events (not necessarily limited to contemporary design basis events) and which results in a frequency of severe core damage substantially lower than in current plants. The goal for the frequency of severe core damage should reflect a reasonable assurance that a severe core damage accident will not occur during the operating lifetime of a fleet' of such plants. (b) A design which explicitly accounts for severe accidents in terms of accident mitigation, resulting in a very low conditional likelihood of a substantial fission product release given a severe accident. (c) A design which utilizes near-passive and passive concepts (whose safety and reliability are demonstrable by experiment and/or full-scale test) for both accident prevention and accident mitigation to the maximum extent feasible. (d) A design which allows f a suitably long time between refueling outages, with a balance struck between refueling outage duration and refueling outage frequency so as to maximize availability and capacity factor. (e) A design which emphasizes modular construction and exceptional quality control. (f) A design which de emphasizes the importance of maintenance and human reliability more generally to assure that safety functions are performed with acceptable reliability, and to assure that passive safety characteristics are not compromised by design, manufacturing, or installation defects. It is further suggested that key factors in gaining public acceptance are the early

  4. Driving forces shaping advanced reactor designs: Near-term and long-term prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sholly, S C [MHB Technical Associates, San Jose, CA (United States)

    1990-07-01

    This paper explores the forces which have driven and which in the opinion of the author should be driving advanced reactor development programs. Four general driving forces are identified: cost, safety, environmental concerns, and non-proliferation concerns. It is suggested that the primary driving forces should be cost and safety concerns. It is suggested that advanced reactors need to demonstrate the following characteristics: (a) A design which explicitly accounts for severe accidents, including severe external events (not necessarily limited to contemporary design basis events) and which results in a frequency of severe core damage substantially lower than in current plants. The goal for the frequency of severe core damage should reflect a reasonable assurance that a severe core damage accident will not occur during the operating lifetime of a fleet' of such plants. (b) A design which explicitly accounts for severe accidents in terms of accident mitigation, resulting in a very low conditional likelihood of a substantial fission product release given a severe accident. (c) A design which utilizes near-passive and passive concepts (whose safety and reliability are demonstrable by experiment and/or full-scale test) for both accident prevention and accident mitigation to the maximum extent feasible. (d) A design which allows f a suitably long time between refueling outages, with a balance struck between refueling outage duration and refueling outage frequency so as to maximize availability and capacity factor. (e) A design which emphasizes modular construction and exceptional quality control. (f) A design which de emphasizes the importance of maintenance and human reliability more generally to assure that safety functions are performed with acceptable reliability, and to assure that passive safety characteristics are not compromised by design, manufacturing, or installation defects. It is further suggested that key factors in gaining public acceptance are the early

  5. The Impact of Evolutionary Driving Forces on Human Complex Diseases: A Population Genetics Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr T. M. Saeb

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigating the molecular evolution of human genome has paved the way to understand genetic adaptation of humans to the environmental changes and corresponding complex diseases. In this review, we discussed the historical origin of genetic diversity among human populations, the evolutionary driving forces that can affect genetic diversity among populations, and the effects of human movement into new environments and gene flow on population genetic diversity. Furthermore, we presented the role of natural selection on genetic diversity and complex diseases. Then we reviewed the disadvantageous consequences of historical selection events in modern time and their relation to the development of complex diseases. In addition, we discussed the effect of consanguinity on the incidence of complex diseases in human populations. Finally, we presented the latest information about the role of ancient genes acquired from interbreeding with ancient hominids in the development of complex diseases.

  6. Robust 2-Qubit Gates in a Linear Ion Crystal Using a Frequency-Modulated Driving Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Pak Hong; Landsman, Kevin A.; Figgatt, Caroline; Linke, Norbert M.; Monroe, Christopher; Brown, Kenneth R.

    2018-01-01

    In an ion trap quantum computer, collective motional modes are used to entangle two or more qubits in order to execute multiqubit logical gates. Any residual entanglement between the internal and motional states of the ions results in loss of fidelity, especially when there are many spectator ions in the crystal. We propose using a frequency-modulated driving force to minimize such errors. In simulation, we obtained an optimized frequency-modulated 2-qubit gate that can suppress errors to less than 0.01% and is robust against frequency drifts over ±1 kHz . Experimentally, we have obtained a 2-qubit gate fidelity of 98.3(4)%, a state-of-the-art result for 2-qubit gates with five ions.

  7. Design and Synthesis of Distillation Systems using a Driving Force Based Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bek-Pedersen, Erik; Gani, Rafiqul

    2004-01-01

    A new integrated framework for synthesis, design and operation of distillation-based separation schemes is presented here. This framework is based on the driving force approach, which provides a measure of the differences in chemical/physical properties between two co-existing phases...... in a separation unit. A set of algorithms has been developed within this framework for design of simple as well as complex distillation columns, for the sequencing of distillation trains, for the determination of appropriate conditions of operation and for retrofit of distillation columns. The main feature of all...... these algorithms is that they provide a simple "visual" method to obtain near-optimal solutions in terms of energy consumption without rigorous simulation and/or optimisation. Several illustrative examples highlighting the application of the integrated approach are also presented. (C) 2003 Published by Elsevier B.V....

  8. Driving forces: Motor vehicle trends and their implications for global warming, energy strategies, and transportation planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKenzie, J.J.; Walsh, M.P.

    1990-01-01

    Cars, trucks, and other vehicles have long been linked to smog and other urban pollution, but the part they play in the larger complex of atmospheric and energy ills that we now face is often overlooked. In Driving Forces: Motor Vehicle Trends and Their Implications for Global Warming, Energy Strategies, and Transportation Planning, James J. MacKenzie, senior associate in World Resources Institute's Program in Climate, Energy, and Pollution, and Michael P. Walsh, an international consultant on transportation and environmental issues, fill in this knowledge gap with new data and analyses. They spell out four policy shifts that can help hold the line on global warming: improve new-vehicle efficiency; make transportation more efficient; cut other greenhouse gas emissions; create the green car of the future. The report focuses especially on the US, which pioneered the automotive revolution and leads the world in oil imports and emissions

  9. Computational simulations of direct contact condensation as the driving force for water hammer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceuca, Sabin-Cristian

    2015-01-01

    An analysis, based on Computer Simulations of the Direct Contact Condensation as the Driving Force for the Condensation Induced Water Hammer phenomenon is performed within this thesis. The goal of the work is to develop a mechanistic HTC model, with predictive capabilities for the simulation of horizontal or nearly horizontal two-phase ows with complex patterns including the e ect of interfacial heat and mass transfer. The newly developed HTC model was implemented into the system code ATHLET and into the CFD tools ANSYS CFX and OpenFOAM. Validation calculations have been performed for horizontal or nearly horizontal ows, where simulation results have been compared against the local measurement data such as void and temperature or area averaged data delivered by a wire mesh sensor.

  10. Greatest Happiness Principle in a Complex System: Maximisation versus Driving Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Martinás

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available From philosophical point of view, micro-founded economic theories depart from the principle of the pursuit of the greatest happiness. From mathematical point of view, micro-founded economic theories depart from the utility maximisation program. Though economists are aware of the serious limitations of the equilibrium analysis, they remain in that framework. We show that the maximisation principle, which implies the equilibrium hypothesis, is responsible for this impasse. We formalise the pursuit of the greatest happiness principle by the help of the driving force postulate: the volumes of activities depend on the expected wealth increase. In that case we can get rid of the equilibrium hypothesis and have new insights into economic theory. For example, in what extent standard economic results depend on the equilibrium hypothesis?

  11. An analysis of the driving forces of CO2 emissions embodied in Japan-China trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Yanli; Ishikawa, Masanobu; Liu Xianbing; Wang Can

    2010-01-01

    By using the latest China-Japan input-output data sets and the index decomposition analysis (IDA) approach, this article analyzes the driving forces of CO 2 emissions embodied in trade between the two countries during 1990-2000. We found that the growth of trade volume had a large influence on the increase of CO 2 emissions embodiments in bilateral trade. The dramatic decline in carbon intensity of the Chinese economy is a primary cause in offsetting CO 2 emissions exported from China to Japan over 1995-2000. We argue that a better understanding of the factors affecting CO 2 emissions embodied in international trade will assist in seeking more effective climate policies with wider participation in the post-Kyoto regime.

  12. Computational simulations of direct contact condensation as the driving force for water hammer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceuca, Sabin-Cristian

    2015-04-27

    An analysis, based on Computer Simulations of the Direct Contact Condensation as the Driving Force for the Condensation Induced Water Hammer phenomenon is performed within this thesis. The goal of the work is to develop a mechanistic HTC model, with predictive capabilities for the simulation of horizontal or nearly horizontal two-phase ows with complex patterns including the e ect of interfacial heat and mass transfer. The newly developed HTC model was implemented into the system code ATHLET and into the CFD tools ANSYS CFX and OpenFOAM. Validation calculations have been performed for horizontal or nearly horizontal ows, where simulation results have been compared against the local measurement data such as void and temperature or area averaged data delivered by a wire mesh sensor.

  13. Changing and Differentiated Urban Landscape in China: Spatiotemporal Patterns and Driving Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Chuanglin; Li, Guangdong; Wang, Shaojian

    2016-03-01

    Urban landscape spatiotemporal change patterns and their driving mechanisms in China are poorly understood at the national level. Here we used remote sensing data, landscape metrics, and a spatial econometric model to characterize the spatiotemporal patterns of urban landscape change and investigate its driving forces in China between 1990 and 2005. The results showed that the urban landscape pattern has experienced drastic changes over the past 15 years. Total urban area has expanded approximately 1.61 times, with a 2.98% annual urban-growth rate. Compared to previous single-city studies, although urban areas are expanding rapidly, the overall fragmentation of the urban landscape is decreasing and is more irregular and complex at the national level. We also found a stair-stepping, urban-landscape changing pattern among eastern, central, and western counties. In addition, administrative level, urban size, and hierarchy have effects on the urban landscape pattern. We also found that a combination of landscape metrics can be used to supplement our understanding of the pattern of urbanization. The changes in these metrics are correlated with geographical indicators, socioeconomic factors, infrastructure variables, administrative level factors, policy factors, and historical factors. Our results indicate that the top priority should be strengthening the management of urban planning. A compact and congregate urban landscape may be a good choice of pattern for urban development in China.

  14. Stabilization of car-caravan combination using independent steer and drive/or brake forces distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ossama Mokhiamar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Once a combined vehicle becomes unstable, it is very difficult for a driver to stabilize it especially under severe driving conditions, such as turning with braking. This is mainly due to the effect of the towed vehicle on the towing vehicle through the hitch jackknifing. This effect makes the handling characteristics of a car-caravan combination different from those of a single vehicle. Therefore, this paper proposes a control design concept for an optimum distribution of longitudinal and lateral forces of the four tires of a towing vehicle. The mean objectives of the control system were to stabilize the motion of an articulated vehicle utilizing the tires entire ability in both longitudinal and lateral directions as well as to make the handling characteristics of an articulated vehicle similar to those of a single one. The sliding control law based on vehicle planar equations of motion is used to derive the control laws. The proposed control system is evaluated under severe driving conditions and compared with the results of integrated control systems. The robustness of the articulated vehicle motion with the proposed control against the coefficient of friction variation is discussed.

  15. Driving forces for home-based reablement; a qualitative study of older adults' experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjelle, Kari Margrete; Tuntland, Hanne; Førland, Oddvar; Alvsvåg, Herdis

    2017-09-01

    As a result of the ageing population worldwide, there has been a growing international interest in a new intervention termed 'reablement'. Reablement is an early and time-limited home-based intervention with emphasis on intensive, goal-oriented and interdisciplinary rehabilitation for older adults in need of rehabilitation or at risk of functional decline. The aim of this qualitative study was to describe how older adults experienced participation in reablement. Eight older adults participated in semi-structured interviews. A qualitative content analysis was used as the analysis strategy. Four main themes emerged from the participants' experiences of participating in reablement: 'My willpower is needed', 'Being with my stuff and my people', 'The home-trainers are essential', and 'Training is physical exercises, not everyday activities'. The first three themes in particular reflected the participants' driving forces in the reablement process. Driving forces are intrinsic motivation in interaction with extrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation was based on the person's willpower and responsibility, and extrinsic motivation was expressed to be strengthened by being in one's home environment with 'own' people, as well as by the co-operation with the reablement team. The reablement team encouraged and supported the older adults to regain confidence in performing everyday activities as well as participating in the society. Our findings have practical significance for politicians, healthcare providers and healthcare professionals by contributing to an understanding of how intrinsic and extrinsic motivation influence reablement. Some persons need apparently more extrinsic motivational support also after the time-limited reablement period is completed. The municipal health and care services need to consider individualised follow-up programmes after the intensive reablement period in order to maintain the achieved skills to perform everyday activities and participate in

  16. The Key Driving Forces for Geo-Economic Relationships between China and ASEAN Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shufang Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available With the rise of China and the implementation of the “21st Century Maritime Silk Road” strategy, research on geo-economics between China and ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations countries has become increasingly important. Current studies mainly focus on influencing factors, while there is little consideration about how these influencing factors act on geo-economic relationships. Therefore, this paper explores the key driving forces for geo-economic relationships between China and ASEAN countries by use of the structural equation modeling based on Partial Lease Squares. There are three main findings: (1 Economic factors have the greatest impact on geo-economic relationships and the total path effect is 0.778. Geo-location, geopolitics and geo-culture act on geo-economic relationships directly and indirectly. Their total path effects are 0.731, 0.645 and 0.513, respectively. (2 Indirect effects of geo-location, geopolitics and geo-culture impacting geo-economic relationships are far greater than direct effects. Geo-culture, in particular, has a vital mediating effect on geo-economic relationships. (3 Economic drivers promote geo-economic relationships through market, industrial policy, technical, network and benefit-sharing mechanisms. Political drivers improve geo-economic relationships through cooperation, negotiation, coordination and institutional mechanisms. Cultural drivers enhance geo-economic relationships through transmission mechanism. Location drivers facilitate geo-economic relationships through selection mechanism. We provide new insights on the geo-economic relationships through quantitative analysis and enrich the existing literature by revealing the key driving forces and mechanisms for geo-economic relationships.

  17. Casimir interaction between a cylinder and a plate at finite temperature: Exact results and comparison to proximity force approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teo, L. P.

    2011-01-01

    We study the finite temperature Casimir interaction between a cylinder and a plate using the exact formula derived from the Matsubara representation and the functional determinant representation. We consider the scalar field with Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. The asymptotic expansions of the Casimir free energy and the Casimir force when the separation a between the cylinder and the plate is small are derived. As in the zero temperature case, it is found that the leading terms of the Casimir free energy and the Casimir force agree with those derived from the proximity force approximation when rT>>1, where r is the radius of the cylinder. Specifically, when aT 5/2 whereas, for the Casimir force, it is of order T 7/2 . In this case, the leading terms are independent of the separation a. When 1 3/2 , whereas, for the force, it is inversely proportional to a 5/2 . The first order corrections to the proximity force approximations in different temperature regions are computed using the perturbation approach. In the zero temperature case, the results agree with those derived in [M. Bordag, Phys. Rev. D 73, 125018 (2006)].

  18. Forced convection on a heated horizontal flat plate with finite thermal conductivity in a non-Darcian porous medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luna, N. [Direccion de Operacion Petrolera, Direccion General de Exploracion y Explotacion de Hidrocarburos, Secretaria de Energia, 03100 Mexico DF (Mexico); Mendez, F. [Facultad de Ingenieria, UNAM, 04510 Mexico DF (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The steady-state analysis of conjugated heat transfer process for the hydrodynamically developed forced convection flow on a heated flat plate embedded in a porous medium is studied. The governing equations for the fluid-saturated porous medium are solved analytically using the integral boundary layer approximation. This integral solution is coupled to the energy equation for the flat plate, where the longitudinal heat conduction effects are taken into account. The resulting equations are then reduced to an integro-differential equation which is solved by regular perturbation techniques and numerical methods. The analytical and numerical predictions for the temperature profile of the plate and appropriate local and average Nusselt numbers are plotted for finite values of the conduction parameter, {alpha}, which represents the presence of the longitudinal heat conduction effects. (authors)

  19. Effect of Chord Splice Joints on Force Distribution and Deformations in Trusses with Punched Metal Plate Fasteners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The span of roof trusses with punched metal plate fasteners (nail plates) makes it often necessary to use splice joints in the top and bottom chords. In the finite element models used for design of the trusses these splice joints are normally assumed to be either rotationally stiff or pinned....... Timber-to-timber contact and non-linear elastic behaviour are included in the model. Results from tests with joints under fourpoint bending are compared with predictions given by TrussLab, and a good agreement is found. Splice joints in trusses with nail plates may be assumed to be rotationally stiff...... if their deformation has no significant effect upon the distribution of member forces according to Eurocode 5. Two simple guidelines for the design and location of splice joints are given in Eurocode 5 for treating the splice joints as rotationally stiff. The reasonability of these guidelines and the influence...

  20. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and force-plate analysis of gait in dogs with healed femora after leg-lengthening plate fixation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muir, P.; Markel, M.D.; Bogdanske, J.J.; Johnson, K.A.

    1995-01-01

    Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry was used to measure bone mineral density of four regions in healed femora of nine dogs after fracture fixation with a leg-lengthening plate. Six to 85 months (mean, 46 months) after surgery, the bone mineral density of healed femora was not significantly different from the contralateral uninjured femora (P > .05; power = 0.8 at delta = 15%). Radiolucencies around the proximal screws, apparently associated with screw loosening, were seen on radiographic views of the healed femora of three dogs. In one of these dogs, one screw in the proximal metaphysis had broken. Force-plate analysis of gait was also performed on dogs at the time of bone mineral density measurement. Peak vertical force was decreased in the pelvic limb with the healed fracture compared with the contralateral unoperated limb (P < 0.05). Clinically apparent lameness in three dogs did not appear to be associated with altered bone mineral density and may have been caused by hip osteoarthritis, a nondisplaced hairline diaphyseal fracture, and screw loosening in conjunction with extensive post-traumatic soft tissue injury

  1. The impact of previous knee injury on force plate and field-based measures of balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltich, Jennifer; Whittaker, Jackie; Von Tscharner, Vinzenz; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; Nigg, Benno M; Emery, Carolyn

    2015-10-01

    Individuals with post-traumatic osteoarthritis demonstrate increased sway during quiet stance. The prospective association between balance and disease onset is unknown. Improved understanding of balance in the period between joint injury and disease onset could inform secondary prevention strategies to prevent or delay the disease. This study examines the association between youth sport-related knee injury and balance, 3-10years post-injury. Participants included 50 individuals (ages 15-26years) with a sport-related intra-articular knee injury sustained 3-10years previously and 50 uninjured age-, sex- and sport-matched controls. Force-plate measures during single-limb stance (center-of-pressure 95% ellipse-area, path length, excursion, entropic half-life) and field-based balance scores (triple single-leg hop, star-excursion, unipedal dynamic balance) were collected. Descriptive statistics (mean within-pair difference; 95% confidence intervals) were used to compare groups. Linear regression (adjusted for injury history) was used to assess the relationship between ellipse-area and field-based scores. Injured participants on average demonstrated greater medio-lateral excursion [mean within-pair difference (95% confidence interval); 2.8mm (1.0, 4.5)], more regular medio-lateral position [10ms (2, 18)], and shorter triple single-leg hop distances [-30.9% (-8.1, -53.7)] than controls, while no between group differences existed for the remaining outcomes. After taking into consideration injury history, triple single leg hop scores demonstrated a linear association with ellipse area (β=0.52, 95% confidence interval 0.01, 1.01). On average the injured participants adjusted their position less frequently and demonstrated a larger magnitude of movement during single-limb stance compared to controls. These findings support the evaluation of balance outcomes in the period between knee injury and post-traumatic osteoarthritis onset. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  2. The Conflicting Forces Driving Future Avionics Acquisition (Les Arguments Contradictoires pour les Futurs Achats d’Equipements d’Avionique)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    Sep 1983 "Reliability Parameter of Additive Plated Through Hoics," William E. Greiner , Kollmorgen Corporation, 1rAnnual "Guidelines for Surface Mounting...Militare Etat-Major delIs Force Adienne Ufficio del Delegato Nazionaic all*AGARD Quartier Reine Elisabeth Aeroporto Pratica di Mare Rue d’Evere, 1140

  3. NATURE AND DRIVING FORCES OF STRIKE MOVEMENT IN MOLDOVA IN LATE 1980S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Галина Евгеньевна Слободянюк

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discloses the nature and driving forces of the republican protest strike movement in Moldova in the period of perestroika reformsand its impact on the emergence and development of the civil conflict,which became the catalyst for the territorial division of the republic and the creation of the self-proclaimed Transnistrian statehood.In the article there is presented the analysis of the process of formationand activity of the strike movement. The author shows that the United Council of LabourUnionswas the initiator, organizer and the main acting force of the protest of the workers' movement, defending the civil and constitutional rights of the Russian-speaking population of the Transdnistrian region of the Moldavian SSR. The article allows getting an idea of the ways and methods of struggle of the working movement against the Soviet Moldavia nationalist representatives of the Popular front, which operated on the territory of the republic of Moldova. Particular attention is paid to the reasons of occurrence and major activities of the strike movement.Moreover, there are analyzed the consequences of these actions for the further political development of Moldova.

  4. Predictions of the effect of stratification on superimposed forced and free convection between vertical parallel plates for various boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, G.H.; Irvine, T.J. Jr.; Quarini, G.L.

    1983-01-01

    The velocity and temperature equations for laminar buoyancy and forced convection flows between vertical flat parallel plates are presented. The thermal boundary conditions on the plate define the buoyancy driven field, while the channel Reynolds number defines the forced flow field. Specific examples relating to tall narrow channels with laminar convention and to closed high ratio cavities (as may be found in the proposed active and passive insulation systems for sodium cooled fast reactors) are presented. The analysis is limited to the laminar flow regimes, whilst some reactor situations are likely to be turbulent, hence a proposal for a simple extension of this analysis to the turbulent regime is made. It is shown how the analysis can be made to apply to fluids of various Prandtl numbers. (author)

  5. EXTERNAL FORCES DRIVING CHANGE IN THE ROMANIAN SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roiban Roxana Nadina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Change is a constant in everyday life confronting organizations to continuously adapt their strategy, structure, processes, and culture in order to survive and stay competitive on the market. Implementing organizational change is one of the most important skills required for managers and in the meantime the most difficult one. The forces driving change within an organization, that can be either external or internal, are those that propel a company forward towards change and in order to identify the need for change and make the proper changes, managers have to develop a tool that allows them to analyze how does the environment influence their business activities. A vision for change will clarify the directions in which the organization needs to move, starting from its current state and taking in consideration the existing opportunities and threats from the environment that allow to move to a future desired state. The purpose of this paper is to identify the concern for change in the Romanian small and medium sized enterprises by presenting and explaining the past and present influences of the main external forces that have determined the need for change in the last 3-5 years and to make recommendations about future possible changes that have to be performed by managers for a better harmonization with the environment. The research method used for this study is the interview on a sample that contains some of the most relevant SME’s from the western side of Romania, from different industries. We analyzed the main external forces that had an impact on the small and medium sized enterprises and how were they generating the need for organizational change, in order to see which present and future changes are required.

  6. Pyrolysis and Boundary Layer Combustion of a Non-Charring Solid Plate Under Forced Flow

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ananth, Ramagopal

    2003-01-01

    Solutions of Navier-Stokes (NS) equations were obtained for burning rate Nu and temperature distributions for a flat PMMA plate using an iterative method to impose steady-state, pyrolysis kinetics at the surface...

  7. Laser Induced Forced Motion and Stress Waves in Plates and Shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    the plate at the center, normal to the plate surface. The Laser used was a Holobeam model 630-QNd glass system. This Laser produces an output power (in...V o 0 0 I lue ceill I Ii 1)r1 i 11im and hot nchary\\ cond i t i ons S or tile i n it i aI I St ate toget her with ji(. 38c ) iiav he u ISed to

  8. Some Exact Solutions of Boundary Layer Flows along a Vertical Plate with Buoyancy Forces Combined with Lorentz Forces under Uniform Suction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asterios Pantokratoras

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Exact analytical solutions of boundary layer flows along a vertical porous plate with uniform suction are derived and presented in this paper. The solutions concern the Blasius, Sakiadis, and Blasius-Sakiadis flows with buoyancy forces combined with either MHD Lorentz or EMHD Lorentz forces. In addition, some exact solutions are presented specifically for water in the temperature range of 0∘C≤≤8∘C, where water density is nearly parabolic. Except for their use as benchmarking means for testing the numerical solution of the Navier-Stokes equations, the presented exact solutions with EMHD forces have use in flow separation control in aeronautics and hydronautics, whereas the MHD results have applications in process metallurgy and fusion technology. These analytical solutions are valid for flows with strong suction.

  9. Electric field and dielectrophoretic force on a dielectric particle chain in a parallel-plate electrode system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Techaumnat, B; Eua-arporn, B; Takuma, T

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents results of calculations of the electric field and dielectrophoretic force on a dielectric particle chain suspended in a host liquid lying between parallel-plate electrodes. The method of calculation is based on the method of multipole images using the multipole re-expansion technique. We have investigated the effect of the particle permittivity, the tilt angle (between the chain and the applied field) and the chain arrangement on the electric field and force. The results show that the electric field intensification rises in accordance with the increase in the ratio of the particle-to-liquid permittivity, Γ ε . The electric field at the contact point between the particles decreases with increasing tilt angle, while the maximal field at the contact point between the particles and the plate electrodes is almost unchanged. The maximal field can be approximated by a simple formula, which is a quadratic function of Γ ε . The dielectrophoretic force depends significantly on the distance from other particles or an electrode. However, for the tilt angles in this paper, the horizontal force on the upper particle of the chain always has the direction opposite to the shear direction. The maximal horizontal force of a chain varies proportional to (Γ ε - 1) 1.7 if the particles in the chain are still in contact with each other. The approximated force, based on the force on an isolated chain, has been compared with our calculation results. The comparison shows that no approximation model agrees well with our results throughout the range of permittivity ratios

  10. Solvent driving force ensures fast formation of a persistent and well-separated radical pair in plant cryptochrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lüdemann, Gesa; Solov'yov, Ilia; Kubar, Tomás

    2015-01-01

    upon the electron transfer. This approach allows us to follow the time evolution of the electron transfer in an unbiased fashion and to reveal the molecular driving force which ensures fast electron transfer in cryptochrome guaranteeing formation of a persistent radical pair suitable...

  11. Blood pressure is the major driving force for plaque formation in aortic-constricted ApoE-/- mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Maria E.; Wickman, Anna; Skøtt, Ole

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Using an aortic constriction model in mice, we studied whether the increase in pressure or the activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and its main receptors is the main driving force for plaque progression. METHODS: Male ApoE mice underwent sham surgery or placement of a supr...

  12. Rising electricity consumption: Driving forces and consequences. The case of rural Zanzibar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winther, Tanja [Centre for Development and the Environment (SUM), Univ. of Oslo (Norway)

    2007-07-01

    The paper addresses the current, rising electricity consumption in the southern, rural locality of Zanzibar and seeks to account for the range of driving forces behind people's changed practices. The author argues that these forces are, on the one hand, determined by the availability of new technologies and through global and national institutions and influences such as Islam, commercials and changes in the governmental sector (health, education). On the other hand, the paper explores the way such influences interplay with the internal dynamics related to increasing consumption. Through an analysis of the particular character and dynamics of social and cultural life in this region, the author explains why some practices are less likely to change than other practices. For example, people in Zanzibar keep electricity (freezers and stoves) at a distance from their food. By contrast, electric light is perceived as intimately related to education, as illustrated when school children are sent to school for night classes before important exams. To which extent may general approaches to the study of energy consumption draw on this empirical case from Zanzibar? In other contexts, the patterns of people's electricity use certainly differ. In terms of sustainable energy policies, each locality has a particular set of challenges and goals, which to varying degree may be related to poverty reduction and concern for the environment. Methodologically, however, the author argues that the phenomenon of energy consumption may be studied and understood within the same framework of analysis; one that pays attention to both external and internal dynamics, the material and social aspects of technologies and the importance of power relations, gender and negotiations.

  13. Assessing LULC changes over Chilika Lake watershed in Eastern India using Driving Force Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadav, S.; Syed, T. H.

    2017-12-01

    Rapid population growth and industrial development has brought about significant changes in Land Use Land Cover (LULC) of many developing countries in the world. This study investigates LULC changes in the Chilika Lake watershed of Eastern India for the period of 1988 to 2016. The methodology involves pre-processing and classification of Landsat satellite images using support vector machine (SVM) supervised classification algorithm. Results reveal that `Cropland', `Emergent Vegetation' and `Settlement' has expanded over the study period by 284.61 km², 106.83 km² and 98.83 km² respectively. Contemporaneously, `Lake Area', `Vegetation' and `Scrub Land' have decreased by 121.62 km², 96.05 km² and 80.29 km² respectively. This study also analyzes five major driving force variables of socio-economic and climatological factors triggering LULC changes through a bivariate logistic regression model. The outcome gives credible relative operating characteristics (ROC) value of 0.76 that indicate goodness fit of logistic regression model. In addition, independent variables like distance to drainage network and average annual rainfall have negative regression coefficient values that represent decreased rate of dependent variable (changed LULC) whereas independent variables (population density, distance to road and distance to railway) have positive regression coefficient indicates increased rate of changed LULC . Results from this study will be crucial for planning and restoration of this vital lake water body that has major implications over the society and environment at large.

  14. Climatic driving forces in inter-annual variation of global FPAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Dailiang; Liu, Liangyun; Yang, Xiaohua; Zhou, Bin

    2012-09-01

    Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FPAR) characterizes vegetation canopy functioning and its energy absorption capacity. In this paper, we focus on climatic driving forces in inter-annual variation of global FPAR from 1982 to 2006 by Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN-Monthly) data. Using FPAR-Simple Ratio Vegetation Index (SR) relationship, Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was used to estimate FPAR at the global scale. The correlation between inter-annual variation of FPAR and temperature, precipitation derived from GHCN-Monthly was examined, during the periods of March-May (MAM), June-August (JJA), September-November (SON), and December-February (DJF) over from 1982 to 2006. The analysis of climatic influence on global FPAR revealed the significant correlation with temperature and precipitation in some meteorological stations area, and a more significant correlation with precipitation was found than which with temperature. Some stations in the regions between 30° N and 60° N and around 30° S in South America, where the annual FPAR variation showed a significant positive correlation with temperature (P forest of Africa and Amazon during the dry season of JJA and SON.

  15. Force Sensitive Handles and Capacitive Touch Sensor for Driving a Flexible Haptic-Based Immersive System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto Cugini

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we present an approach that uses both two force sensitive handles (FSH and a flexible capacitive touch sensor (FCTS to drive a haptic-based immersive system. The immersive system has been developed as part of a multimodal interface for product design. The haptic interface consists of a strip that can be used by product designers to evaluate the quality of a 3D virtual shape by using touch, vision and hearing and, also, to interactively change the shape of the virtual object. Specifically, the user interacts with the FSH to move the virtual object and to appropriately position the haptic interface for retrieving the six degrees of freedom required for both manipulation and modification modalities. The FCTS allows the system to track the movement and position of the user’s fingers on the strip, which is used for rendering visual and sound feedback. Two evaluation experiments are described, which involve both the evaluation and the modification of a 3D shape. Results show that the use of the haptic strip for the evaluation of aesthetic shapes is effective and supports product designers in the appreciation of the aesthetic qualities of the shape.

  16. Force sensitive handles and capacitive touch sensor for driving a flexible haptic-based immersive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covarrubias, Mario; Bordegoni, Monica; Cugini, Umberto

    2013-10-09

    In this article, we present an approach that uses both two force sensitive handles (FSH) and a flexible capacitive touch sensor (FCTS) to drive a haptic-based immersive system. The immersive system has been developed as part of a multimodal interface for product design. The haptic interface consists of a strip that can be used by product designers to evaluate the quality of a 3D virtual shape by using touch, vision and hearing and, also, to interactively change the shape of the virtual object. Specifically, the user interacts with the FSH to move the virtual object and to appropriately position the haptic interface for retrieving the six degrees of freedom required for both manipulation and modification modalities. The FCTS allows the system to track the movement and position of the user's fingers on the strip, which is used for rendering visual and sound feedback. Two evaluation experiments are described, which involve both the evaluation and the modification of a 3D shape. Results show that the use of the haptic strip for the evaluation of aesthetic shapes is effective and supports product designers in the appreciation of the aesthetic qualities of the shape.

  17. The Driving Forces of Cultural Complexity : Neanderthals, Modern Humans, and the Question of Population Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Laurel; Wakano, Joe Yuichiro; Feldman, Marcus W; Aoki, Kenichi

    2017-03-01

    The forces driving cultural accumulation in human populations, both modern and ancient, are hotly debated. Did genetic, demographic, or cognitive features of behaviorally modern humans (as opposed to, say, early modern humans or Neanderthals) allow culture to accumulate to its current, unprecedented levels of complexity? Theoretical explanations for patterns of accumulation often invoke demographic factors such as population size or density, whereas statistical analyses of variation in cultural complexity often point to the importance of environmental factors such as food stability, in determining cultural complexity. Here we use both an analytical model and an agent-based simulation model to show that a full understanding of the emergence of behavioral modernity, and the cultural evolution that has followed, depends on understanding and untangling the complex relationships among culture, genetically determined cognitive ability, and demographic history. For example, we show that a small but growing population could have a different number of cultural traits from a shrinking population with the same absolute number of individuals in some circumstances.

  18. Casualisation of the nursing workforce in Australia: driving forces and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creegan, Reta; Duffield, Christine; Forrester, Kim

    2003-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the extent of casualisation of the nursing workforce in Australia, focusing on the impact for those managing the system. The implications for nurse managers in particular are considerable in an industry where service demand is difficult to control and where individual nurses are thought to be increasingly choosing to work casually. While little is known of the reasons behind nurses exercising their preference for casual work arrangements, some reasons postulated include visa status (overseas trained nurses on holiday/working visas); permanent employees taking on additional shifts to increase their income levels; and those who elect to work under casual contracts for lifestyle reasons. Unknown is the demography of the casual nursing workforce, how these groups are distributed within the workforce, and how many contracts of employment they have across the health service--either through privately managed nursing agencies or hospital managed casual pools. A more detailed knowledge of the forces driving the decisions of this group is essential if health care organisations are to equip themselves to manage this changing workforce and maintain a standard of patient care that is acceptable to the community.

  19. Driving forces of organic carbon spatial distribution in the tropical seascape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, L. G.; Belshe, F. E.; Ziegler, A. D.; Bouma, T. J.

    2017-02-01

    An important ecosystem service of tropical coastal vegetation including seagrass beds and mangrove forests is their ability to accumulate carbon. Here we attempt to establish the driving forces for the accumulation of surface organic carbon in southern Thailand coastal systems. Across 12 sites we found that in line with expectations, seagrass beds (0.6 ± 0.09%) and mangrove forests (0.9 ± 0.3%) had higher organic carbon in the surface (top 5 cm) sediment than un-vegetated mudflats (0.4 ± 0.04%). Unexpectedly, however, mangrove forests in this region retained organic carbon, rather than outwell it, under normal tidal conditions. No relationship was found between organic carbon and substrate grain size. The most interesting finding of our study was that climax and pioneer seagrass species retained more carbon than mixed-species meadows, suggesting that plant morphology and meadow characteristics can be important factors in organic carbon accumulation. Insights such as these are important in developing carbon management strategies involving coastal ecosystems such as offsetting of carbon emissions. The ability of tropical coastal vegetation to sequester carbon is an important aspect for valuing the ecosystems. Our results provide some initial insight into the factors affecting carbon sequestration in these ecosystems, but also highlight the need for further research on a global scale.

  20. Study on anti-seismic test of control rod driving system suspended by magnetic force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhihua; Qian Dazhi; Xu Xianqi; Huang Hongwen; Zhang Zhengming; Wu Xinxin; Hu Xiao

    2012-01-01

    To verify the stability, reliability and security function in extreme conditions, the anti-seismic test of control rod drive line was conducted. Drop-time of control rod drive line in different earthquake intensities was got. The response and strain values of control rod drive line acceleration on SL-1, SL-2 level were measured. Safety functions of control rod drive line were validated in different work conditions. Anti-seismic test data shows that the driving system can keep the structure's integrality and realize operation function under OBE and SSE. (authors)

  1. Detachment of polystyrene particles from collector surfaces by surface tension forces induced by air-bubble passage through a parallel plate flow chamber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, PJ; vanderMei, HC; Busscher, HJ

    1997-01-01

    By allowing an air-bubble to pass through a parallel plate flow chamber with negatively charged, colloidal polystyrene particles adhering to the bottom collector plate of the chamber, the detachment of adhering particles stimulated by surface tension forces induced by the passage of a liquid-air

  2. Experimental study of oscillating plates in viscous fluids: Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the flow physics and hydrodynamic forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Bishwash; Ahsan, Syed N.; Aureli, Matteo

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we present a comprehensive experimental study on harmonic oscillations of a submerged rigid plate in a quiescent, incompressible, Newtonian, viscous fluid. The fluid-structure interaction problem is analyzed from both qualitative and quantitative perspectives via a detailed particle image velocimetry (PIV) experimental campaign conducted over a broad range of oscillation frequency and amplitude parameters. Our primary goal is to identify the effect of the oscillation characteristics on the mechanisms of fluid-structure interaction and on the dynamics of vortex shedding and convection and to elucidate the behavior of hydrodynamic forces on the oscillating structure. Towards this goal, we study the flow in terms of qualitative aspects of its pathlines, vortex shedding, and symmetry breaking phenomena and identify distinct hydrodynamic regimes in the vicinity of the oscillating structure. Based on these experimental observations, we produce a novel phase diagram detailing the occurrence of distinct hydrodynamic regimes as a function of relevant governing nondimensional parameters. We further study the hydrodynamic forces associated with each regime using both PIV and direct force measurement via a load cell. Our quantitative results on experimental estimation of hydrodynamic forces show good agreement against predictions from the literature, where numerical and semi-analytical models are available. The findings and observations in this work shed light on the relationship between flow physics, vortex shedding, and convection mechanisms and the hydrodynamic forces acting on a rigid oscillating plate and, as such, have relevance to various engineering applications, including energy harvesting devices, biomimetic robotic system, and micro-mechanical sensors and actuators.

  3. Oxidized cholesterol as the driving force behind the development of Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola eGamba

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD, the most common neurodegenerative disorder associated with dementia, is typified by the pathological accumulation of amyloid β peptides and neurofibrillary tangles within the brain. Considerable evidence indicates that many events contribute to AD progression, including oxidative stress, inflammation, and altered cholesterol metabolism.The brain’s high lipid content makes it particularly vulnerable to oxidative species, with the consequent enhancement of lipid peroxidation and cholesterol oxidation, and the subsequent formation of end products, mainly 4-hydroxynonenal and oxysterols, respectively from the two processes. The chronic inflammatory events observed in the AD brain include activation of microglia and astrocytes, together with enhancement of inflammatory molecule and free radical release. Along with glial cells, neurons themselves have been found to contribute to neuroinflammation in the AD brain, by serving as sources of inflammatory mediators. Oxidative stress is intimately associated with neuroinflammation, and a vicious circle has been found to connect oxidative stress and inflammation in AD. Alongside oxidative stress and inflammation, altered cholesterol metabolism and hypercholesterolemia also significantly contribute to neuronal damage and to progression of AD. Increasing evidence is now consolidating the hypothesis that oxidized cholesterol is the driving force behind the development of AD, and that oxysterols are the link connecting the disease to altered cholesterol metabolism in the brain and hypercholesterolemia; this is because of the ability of oxysterols, unlike cholesterol, to cross the blood brain barrier. The key role of oxysterols in AD pathogenesis has been strongly supported by research pointing to their involvement in modulating neuroinflammation, Aβ accumulation, and cell death.This review highlights the key role played by cholesterol and oxysterols in the brain in AD pathogenesis.

  4. How metal films de-wet substrates-identifying the kinetic pathways and energetic driving forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarty, Kevin F; Hamilton, John C; Thuermer, Konrad; Jones, Frank; Talin, A Alec; Bartelt, Norman C; Sato, Yu; K Schmid, Andreas; Saa, Angela; Figuera, Juan de la; Stumpf, Roland

    2009-01-01

    We study how single-crystal chromium films of uniform thickness on W(110) substrates are converted to arrays of three-dimensional (3D) Cr islands during annealing. We use low-energy electron microscopy (LEEM) to directly observe a kinetic pathway that produces trenches that expose the wetting layer. Adjacent film steps move simultaneously uphill and downhill relative to the staircase of atomic steps on the substrate. This step motion thickens the film regions where steps advance. Where film steps retract, the film thins, eventually exposing the stable wetting layer. Since our analysis shows that thick Cr films have a lattice constant close to bulk Cr, we propose that surface and interface stress provide a possible driving force for the observed morphological instability. Atomistic simulations and analytic elastic models show that surface and interface stress can cause a dependence of film energy on thickness that leads to an instability to simultaneous thinning and thickening. We observe that de-wetting is also initiated at bunches of substrate steps in two other systems, Ag/W(110) and Ag/Ru(0001). We additionally describe how Cr films are converted into patterns of unidirectional stripes as the trenches that expose the wetting layer lengthen along the W[001] direction. Finally, we observe how 3D Cr islands form directly during film growth at elevated temperature. The Cr mesas (wedges) form as Cr film steps advance down the staircase of substrate steps, another example of the critical role that substrate steps play in 3D island formation.

  5. Analysis of the Driving Forces in Vegetation Variation in the Grain for Green Program Region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Hao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese government introduced six ecological restoration programs to improve its natural environment. Although these programs have proven successful in improving local environmental conditions, some studies have questioned their effectiveness when regions suffer from extreme weather conditions. Using the Grain for Green Program (GGP region as a study area, we estimated vegetation activities in the GGP region from 2000 to 2010 to clarify the trends in vegetation growth and their driving forces. The results showed that: (1 vegetation activities improved in the GGP region during 2000-2010, with 58.94% of the area showing an increased trend in the NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index; (2 26.33% of the increased vegetation was caused by human interference, and 11.61% by climate variation, human activity was the dominant cause, and resulted in 54.68% of the degradation compared to 4.74% from climate change; and, (3 the contribution of different land use types to the NDVI interannual variations showed that high contribution regions were focused in the arid and semiarid areas, where the vegetation growth is associated with variations in recipitation and temperature. However, conversions between farmland and grassland or forest had a significant effect on the change in the NDVI trend. Therefore, although climate conditions can affect vegetation growth, human activities are more important in vegetation changes, and appropriate human activities would contribute to its continual improvement. Hence, we recommend establishing an assessment and scientific management mechanism for eco-risks in the design and management of ecosystem restoration programs.

  6. A study on the fundamental mechanism and the evolutionary driving forces behind aerobic fermentation in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagman, Arne; Piškur, Jure

    2015-01-01

    Baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae rapidly converts sugars to ethanol and carbon dioxide at both anaerobic and aerobic conditions. The later phenomenon is called Crabtree effect and has been described in two forms, long-term and short-term effect. We have previously studied under fully controlled aerobic conditions forty yeast species for their central carbon metabolism and the presence of long-term Crabtree effect. We have also studied ten steady-state yeast cultures, pulsed them with glucose, and followed the central carbon metabolism and the appearance of ethanol at dynamic conditions. In this paper we analyzed those wet laboratory data to elucidate possible mechanisms that determine the fate of glucose in different yeast species that cover approximately 250 million years of evolutionary history. We determine overflow metabolism to be the fundamental mechanism behind both long- and short-term Crabtree effect, which originated approximately 125-150 million years ago in the Saccharomyces lineage. The "invention" of overflow metabolism was the first step in the evolution of aerobic fermentation in yeast. It provides a general strategy to increase energy production rates, which we show is positively correlated to growth. The "invention" of overflow has also simultaneously enabled rapid glucose consumption in yeast, which is a trait that could have been selected for, to "starve" competitors in nature. We also show that glucose repression of respiration is confined mainly among S. cerevisiae and closely related species that diverged after the whole genome duplication event, less than 100 million years ago. Thus, glucose repression of respiration was apparently "invented" as a second step to further increase overflow and ethanol production, to inhibit growth of other microbes. The driving force behind the initial evolutionary steps was most likely competition with other microbes to faster consume and convert sugar into biomass, in niches that were semi-anaerobic.

  7. A study on the fundamental mechanism and the evolutionary driving forces behind aerobic fermentation in yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Hagman

    Full Text Available Baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae rapidly converts sugars to ethanol and carbon dioxide at both anaerobic and aerobic conditions. The later phenomenon is called Crabtree effect and has been described in two forms, long-term and short-term effect. We have previously studied under fully controlled aerobic conditions forty yeast species for their central carbon metabolism and the presence of long-term Crabtree effect. We have also studied ten steady-state yeast cultures, pulsed them with glucose, and followed the central carbon metabolism and the appearance of ethanol at dynamic conditions. In this paper we analyzed those wet laboratory data to elucidate possible mechanisms that determine the fate of glucose in different yeast species that cover approximately 250 million years of evolutionary history. We determine overflow metabolism to be the fundamental mechanism behind both long- and short-term Crabtree effect, which originated approximately 125-150 million years ago in the Saccharomyces lineage. The "invention" of overflow metabolism was the first step in the evolution of aerobic fermentation in yeast. It provides a general strategy to increase energy production rates, which we show is positively correlated to growth. The "invention" of overflow has also simultaneously enabled rapid glucose consumption in yeast, which is a trait that could have been selected for, to "starve" competitors in nature. We also show that glucose repression of respiration is confined mainly among S. cerevisiae and closely related species that diverged after the whole genome duplication event, less than 100 million years ago. Thus, glucose repression of respiration was apparently "invented" as a second step to further increase overflow and ethanol production, to inhibit growth of other microbes. The driving force behind the initial evolutionary steps was most likely competition with other microbes to faster consume and convert sugar into biomass, in niches that

  8. A drastic reorganization of industry in the world.What is the driving force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Naruo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to show the method and model to analyze the driving force to reorganize the industry. Due to the global economy, many large scale M&A and affiliations are happening in the world. The business alliance and integration are happening in the advanced countries, the transition countries, and the developing countries. There are some factors to impact the reorganization of industry. One is government policy. Another is the market economy. The government has the industrial policy. It guides and leads the industrial structure of the country. Advanced countries had experienced the advancement of industrial structure. On the process of industrial structure advancement, the country improved national income (GNP. Through the process, the enterprise in the industry had experienced integration and separation in the industry. The theory of industrial structure supports the framework of this approach.On the other hand, the market economy also had influenced to the reorganization of industry. Business cycle, competition, and innovation had influenced the reorganization of industry. In capitalism, the shareholder of the company pushes the company to maximize the profit. The shareholder’s pressure could influence the decision of M&A.The theory of industrial organization supports the framework of this approach.The enterprise is in the business environment. Top management of the company is responsible to make a decision to merge or acquire the company. However, the decision is affected by other factors out of business environment. The shareholder influenced the individual enterprise decision. The government policy influenced the industrial structure. This could impose the enterprise to accept the amalgamation in the industry.Both of two influence the reorganization of industry.

  9. Directed motion of spheres induced by unbiased driving forces in viscous fluids beyond the Stokes' law regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado-Pascual, Jesús

    2018-03-01

    The emergence of directed motion is investigated in a system consisting of a sphere immersed in a viscous fluid and subjected to time-periodic forces of zero average. The directed motion arises from the combined action of a nonlinear drag force and the applied driving forces, in the absence of any periodic substrate potential. Necessary conditions for the existence of such directed motion are obtained and an analytical expression for the average terminal velocity is derived within the adiabatic approximation. Special attention is paid to the case of two mutually perpendicular forces with sinusoidal time dependence, one with twice the period of the other. It is shown that, although neither of these two forces induces directed motion when acting separately, when added together, the resultant force generates directed motion along the direction of the force with the shortest period. The dependence of the average terminal velocity on the system parameters is analyzed numerically and compared with that obtained using the adiabatic approximation. Among other results, it is found that, for appropriate parameter values, the direction of the average terminal velocity can be reversed by varying the forcing strength. Furthermore, certain aspects of the observed phenomenology are explained by means of symmetry arguments.

  10. Sector trends and driving forces of global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions: focus in industry and buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Khrushch, Marta

    1999-09-01

    Disaggregation of sectoral energy use and greenhouse gas emissions trends reveals striking differences between sectors and regions of the world. Understanding key driving forces in the energy end-use sectors provides insights for development of projections of future greenhouse gas emissions. This report examines global and regional historical trends in energy use and carbon emissions in the industrial, buildings, transport, and agriculture sectors, with a more detailed focus on industry and buildings. Activity and economic drivers as well as trends in energy and carbon intensity are evaluated. The authors show that macro-economic indicators, such as GDP, are insufficient for comprehending trends and driving forces at the sectoral level. These indicators need to be supplemented with sector-specific information for a more complete understanding of future energy use and greenhouse gas emissions.

  11. Differences in Pattern and Driving Forces between Urban and Rural Settlements in the Coastal Region of Ningbo, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxing Chen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid urbanization on the coast of China has attracted much attention. The objective of this study was to explore the differences in dynamics and related driving forces between urban and rural settlements. Applying the quantitative method, we demonstrate that substantial heterogeneity in settlement growth, landscape pattern metrics, change, land sources and driving forces is exhibited across the different types of urban and rural settlements. The spatial growth of urban settlements is dominated by in situ expansion, while rural settlements tend to be scattered and shrinking rapidly. The sprawl of human settlements has mainly occupied farm land, but reclamation projects are increasingly becoming important land sources for urban settlements. Local government has played a critical role in urban settlements, while the expansion of rural settlements is mainly driven by individual choice and village collective organizations. Such differences may account for differential options for the management of human settlements scientifically.

  12. Deformation-induced martensitic transformation in a 201 austenitic steel: The synergy of stacking fault energy and chemical driving force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moallemi, M., E-mail: m.moallemi@ma.iut.ac.ir [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kermanpur, A. [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Najafizadeh, A. [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fould Institute of Technology, Fouladshahr, Isfahan, 8491663763 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rezaee, A.; Baghbadorani, H. Samaei; Nezhadfar, P. Dastranjy [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-01-20

    The present study deals with the correlation of stacking fault energy's synergy and driving force in the formation of deformation-induced martensitic transformation in a 201 austenitic stainless steel. The fraction of deformation-induced martensite was characterized by means of X-ray diffraction and magnetic induction techniques. The kinetics of the martensite formation versus applied strain was evaluated through the sigmoidal model. It was shown that the volume fraction of ά-martensite is closely related to the driving force/SFE ratio of the alloy. The results also showed that the martensite content is similar in both XRD and magnetic methods and the applied sigmoidal model was consistent with the obtained experimental data.

  13. Sector trends and driving forces of global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions: focus in industry and buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Khrushch, Marta

    1999-01-01

    Disaggregation of sectoral energy use and greenhouse gas emissions trends reveals striking differences between sectors and regions of the world. Understanding key driving forces in the energy end-use sectors provides insights for development of projections of future greenhouse gas emissions. This report examines global and regional historical trends in energy use and carbon emissions in the industrial, buildings, transport, and agriculture sectors, with a more detailed focus on industry and buildings. Activity and economic drivers as well as trends in energy and carbon intensity are evaluated. The authors show that macro-economic indicators, such as GDP, are insufficient for comprehending trends and driving forces at the sectoral level. These indicators need to be supplemented with sector-specific information for a more complete understanding of future energy use and greenhouse gas emissions

  14. Uncovering driving forces on greenhouse gas emissions in China’ aluminum industry from the perspective of life cycle analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Zhe; Geng, Yong; Adams, Michelle; Dong, Liang; Sun, Lina; Zhao, Jingjing; Dong, Huijuan; Wu, Jiao; Tian, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy-related GHG emission trajectories, features and driving forces of CAI are analyzed from the perspective of LCA. • CAI experienced a rapid growth of energy-related GHG emissions from 2004 to 2013. • Energy-scale effect is the main driving force for energy-related GHG emissions increase in CAI. • Construction and transportation-related activities account for more than 40% of the total embodied emissions. • Policy implications such as developing secondary aluminum industry, improving energy mix etc, are raised. - Abstract: With the rapid growth of aluminum production, reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in China’s aluminum industry (CAI) is posing a significant challenge. In this study, the energy-related GHG emission trajectories, features and driving forces of CAI are analyzed from the perspective of life cycle analysis (LCA) from 2004 to 2013. Results indicate that CAI experienced a rapid growth of energy-related GHG emissions with an average annual growth of 28.5 million tons CO_2e from 2004 to 2013. Energy-scale effect is the main driving force for energy-related GHG emissions increase in CAI, while emission-factor effect of secondary aluminum production plays a marginal effect. Construction and transportation-related activities account for the bulk of the embodied emissions, accounting for more than 40% of the total embodied emissions from CAI. Policy implications for GHG mitigation within the CAI, such as developing secondary aluminum industry, improving energy mix and optimizing resource efficiency of production, are raised.

  15. Meeting the challenges of the new energy industry: The driving forces facing electric power generators and the natural gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The proceedings of the IGT national conference on meeting the challenges of the New Energy Industry: The driving forces facing Electric Power Generators and the Natural Gas Industry are presented. The conference was held June 19-21, 1995 at the Ambassador West Hotel in Downtown Chicago, Illinois. A separate abstract and indexing for each of the 18 papers presented for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  16. The Driving Forces for the Practice of Strategic Planning in SMEs: Evidence from Harare Metropolitan Province, Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Maxwell Sandada; Raynold Tinomudaishe Chikwama

    2016-01-01

    Despite Zimbabwe sharing with the rest of the world, the notion that SMEs are the impeccable engines to economic revival, growth and development, many of the nation`s SMEs are plagued with high failure rates. Previous studies carried out in most foreign countries suggested that the high failure rate of SMEs was attributable to lack of strategic planning among a host of other factors. Against this backdrop, the purpose of this study was to examine the driving forces for the practic...

  17. Meeting the challenges of the new energy industry: The driving forces facing electric power generators and the natural gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The proceedings of the IGT national conference on meeting the challenges of the New Energy Industry: The driving forces facing Electric Power Generators and the Natural Gas Industry are presented. The conference was held June 19-21, 1995 at the Ambassador West Hotel in Downtown Chicago, Illinois. A separate abstract and indexing for each of the 18 papers presented for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  18. Measuring Risky Driving Behavior Using an mHealth Smartphone App: Development and Evaluation of gForce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Amisha D; Espey, Benjamin G; Stanley, Sean T; Garmendia, Marcial A; Pursley, Randall; Ehsani, Johnathon P; Simons-Morton, Bruce G; Pohida, Thomas J

    2018-01-01

    Background Naturalistic driving studies, designed to objectively assess driving behavior and outcomes, are conducted by equipping vehicles with dedicated instrumentation (eg, accelerometers, gyroscopes, Global Positioning System, and cameras) that provide continuous recording of acceleration, location, videos, and still images for eventual retrieval and analyses. However, this research is limited by several factors: the cost of equipment installation; management and storage of the large amounts of data collected; and data reduction, coding, and analyses. Modern smartphone technology includes accelerometers built into phones, and the vast, global proliferation of smartphones could provide a possible low-cost alternative for assessing kinematic risky driving. Objective We evaluated an in-house developed iPhone app (gForce) for detecting elevated g-force events by comparing the iPhone linear acceleration measurements with corresponding acceleration measurements obtained with both a custom Android app and the in-vehicle miniDAS data acquisition system (DAS; Virginia Tech Transportation Institute). Methods The iPhone and Android devices were dashboard-mounted in a vehicle equipped with the DAS instrumentation. The experimental protocol consisted of driving maneuvers on a test track, such as cornering, braking, and turning that were performed at different acceleration levels (ie, mild, moderate, or hard). The iPhone gForce app recorded linear acceleration (ie, gravity-corrected). The Android app recorded gravity-corrected and uncorrected acceleration measurements, and the DAS device recorded gravity-uncorrected acceleration measurements. Lateral and longitudinal acceleration measures were compared. Results The correlation coefficients between the iPhone and DAS acceleration measurements were slightly lower compared to the correlation coefficients between the Android and DAS, possibly due to the gravity correction on the iPhone. Averaging the correlation coefficients for

  19. Driving force of PCMI failure under reactivity initiated accident conditions and influence of hydrogen embrittlement on failure limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomiyasu, Kunihiko; Sugiyama, Tomoyuki; Nakamura, Takehiko; Fuketa, Toyoshi

    2005-09-01

    In order to clarify the driving force of PCMI (Pellet/Cladding Mechanical Interaction) failure on high burnup fuels and to investigate the influence of hydrogen embrittlement on failure limit under RIA (Reactivity Initiated Accident) conditions, RIA-simulation experiments were performed on fresh fuel rods in the NSRR (Nuclear Safety Research Reactor). The driving force of PCMI was restricted only to thermal expansion of pellet by using fresh UO 2 pellets. Fresh claddings were pre-hydrided to simulate hydrogen absorption of high burnup fuel rods. In seven experiments out of fourteen, test rods resulted in PCMI failure, which has been observed in the NSRR tests on high burnup PWR fuels, in terms of the transient behavior and the fracture configuration. This indicates that the driving force of PCMI failure is sufficiently explained with thermal expansion of pellet and a contribution of fission gas on it is small. A large number of incipient cracks were generated in the outer surface of the cladding even on non-failed fuel rods, and they stopped at the boundary between hydride rim, which was a hydride layer localized in the periphery of the cladding, and metallic layer. It suggests that the integrity of the metallic layer except for the hydride rim has particular importance for failure limit. Fuel enthalpy at failure correlates with the thickness of hydride rim, and tends to decrease with thicker hydride layer. (author)

  20. Quantifying the Driving Forces of Informal Urbanization in the Western Part of the Greater Cairo Metropolitan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taher Osman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the driving forces (DFs of informal urbanization (IU in the greater Cairo metropolitan region (GCMR using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP. The IU patterns in the GCMR have been extremely influenced by seven DFs: geographical characteristics, availability of life facilities, economic incentives, land demand and supply, population increase, administrative function, and development plans. This research found that these forces vary significantly in how they influence urban growth in the three study sectors, namely, the middle, north, and south areas in the western part of the GCMR. The forces with the highest influence were economic incentives in the middle sector, population increase in the north sector, and the administrative function in the south sector. Due to the lower availability of buildable land in the middle sector, the land demand and supply force had a lesser influence in this sector compared to in the north and south sectors. The development plans force had medium influence in all sectors. The geographical characteristics force had little influence in both the middle and the north sectors, but higher influence than economic incentives, availability of life facilities, and development plans in the south sector. Because of the spatial variances in life facilities organizations in the GCMR, the life facilities availability force had little effect on IU in the south sector.

  1. Driving forces of main landscape change processes from past 200 years in Central Europe - differences between old democratic and post-socialist countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skokanová Hana

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article compares and points out differences in driving forces of four main landscape change processes that shaped post-socialist countries and old democratic countries of Central Europe during the last two centuries. Studying landscape change processes and corresponding driving forces helps in understanding patterns of present landscape and can help among others in better prediction of future landscape change trends. Here, the presented results are based on review of scientific articles published in peer-reviewed journals between 2000 and 2014. Driving forces affecting these processes were grouped into four categories. Economic forces drove mainly agricultural intensification; agricultural land abandonment and urbanisation and were pronounced especially in the second half of the 20th century and at the beginning of the 21st century. Technological driving forces affected agricultural intensification especially in the 19th century and the second half of the 20th century while cultural driving forces had the biggest impact on urbanisation at the beginning of the 21st century. Political driving forces affected agricultural intensification, urbanisation as well as agricultural land abandonment and were pronounced mainly during the second half of the 20th century in the post-socialist countries. Political forces in the form of subsidies drove agricultural extensification at the beginning of the 21st century. The drivers for the agricultural intensification as well as urbanisation seem to be similar for both old democratic and post-socialist countries. In contrast, agricultural land abandonment in the old democratic countries was driven by technological, cultural and economic driving forces while in the post-socialist countries the political driving forces were mainly responsible. Changes in systems for subsidies and changes in the agricultural commodity markets are also responsible for different frequencies and rates of extensification of

  2. Analysis and optimization of kinematic pair force in control rod drive mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Zhenguo; Liu Sen; Ran Xiaobing; Dai Changnian; Li Yuezhong

    2015-01-01

    Function expressions of kinematic pair force with latch dimensions, friction coefficient, link angle and external load was obtained by theoretical analysis, and the expression was verified by the motion analysis software. Key parameters of kinematic pair were confirmed, and their effect trends with force of parts were obtained. They show that the available method of kinematic pair optimization is increasing the space of latch holes. Using the motion analysis software, the forces of parts before and after optimization was compared. The result shows that the forces of parts were improved after the optimization. (authors)

  3. A code for calculating force and temperature of a bitter plate type toroidal field coil system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, U.

    1989-01-01

    To assist the design effort of the TF coils for CIT, a set of programs was developed to calculate the transient spatial distribution of the current density, the temperature and the forces in the TF coil conductor region. The TF coils are of the Bitter (disk) type design and therefore have negligible variation of current density in the toroidal direction. During the TF pulse, voltages are induced which cause the field and current to diffuse in the minor radial direction. This penetration, combined with the increase of resistance due to the temperature rise determines the distribution of the current. After the current distribution has been determined, the in-plane (TF-TF) and the out-of-plane (TF-PF) forces in the conductor are computed. The predicted currents and temperatures have been independently corroborated using the SPARK code which has been modified for this type of problem. 6 figs

  4. Understanding the driving forces behind the losses of soil carbon across England and Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellamy, Patricia

    2010-05-01

    More than twice as much carbon is held in soils as in vegetation or the atmosphere, and changes in soil carbon content can have a large effect on the global carbon budget. The possibility that climate change is being reinforced by increased carbon dioxide emissions from soils owing to rising temperature is the subject of a continuing debate. But evidence for the suggested feedback mechanism has to date come solely from small-scale laboratory and field experiments and modelling studies. Here we use data from the National Soil Inventory of England and Wales obtained between 1978 and 2003 to show that carbon was lost from soils across England and Wales over the survey period at a mean rate of 0.6% yr-1 (relative to the existing soil carbon content). We find that the relative rate of carbon loss increased with soil carbon content and was more than 2% yr-1 in soils with carbon contents greater than 100 g kg-1. The relationship between rate of carbon loss and carbon content is irrespective of land use, suggesting a link to climate change. Our findings indicate that losses of soil carbon in England and Wales—and by inference in other temperate regions—are likely to have been offsetting absorption of carbon by terrestrial sinks. To investigate the possible driving forces of the measured losses of soil carbon we applied a simple model of soil carbon turnover to evaluate alternative explanations for the observed trends. We find that neither changes in decomposition resulting from the effects of climate change on soil temperature and moisture, nor changes in carbon input from vegetation, could account on their own for the overall trends. Of other explanations, results indicate that past changes in land use and management were probably dominant. The climate change signal, such as it is, is masked by these other changes. A more sophisticated model of carbon change (DAYCENT) has now been applied across the whole range of soils in England and Wales. This model has been

  5. Free and Forced Vibration of the Moderately Thick Laminated Composite Rectangular Plate on Various Elastic Winkler and Pasternak Foundations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongyan Shi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An improved Fourier series method (IFSM is applied to study the free and forced vibration characteristics of the moderately thick laminated composite rectangular plates on the elastic Winkler or Pasternak foundations which have elastic uniform supports and multipoints supports. The formulation is based on the first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT and combined with artificial virtual spring technology and the plate-foundation interaction by establishing the two-parameter foundation model. Under the framework of this paper, the displacement and rotation functions are expressed as a double Fourier cosine series and two supplementary functions which have no relations to boundary conditions. The Rayleigh-Ritz technique is applied to solve all the series expansion coefficients. The accuracy of the results obtained by the present method is validated by being compared with the results of literatures and Finite Element Method (FEM. In this paper, some results are obtained by analyzing the varying parameters, such as different boundary conditions, the number of layers and points, the spring stiffness parameters, and foundation parameters, which can provide a benchmark for the future research.

  6. Disruptive Innovations as a Driving Force for the Change of Wireless Telecommunication Infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyoseva, Tsvetoslava; Poulkov, Vladimir; Mihaylov, Mihail Rumenov

    2014-01-01

    the current trends in mobile communications, we reason that the emergence of new telecommunication architectures and infrastructures is inevitable. An important consideration in the analysis is the driving role of disruptive technologies for the future of telecommunications. Based on a model for evaluating...

  7. FDR (drive-dynamics-control) - a new driving safety system with active control of brake and drive forces in the dynamic fringe range; FDR, ein neues Fahrsicherheitssystem mit aktiver Regelung der Brems- und Antriebskraefte im fahrdynamischen Grenzbereich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erhardt, R. [Bosch (R.) GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany); Zanten, A.T. van [Bosch (R.) GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    BOSCH is going to introduce a new driving safety system in 1995, the FDR (drive-dynamics-control). Using the measured and estimated dynamic magnitudes as a basis, the system calculates inhowfar the actual vehicle motion differs from the desired stable trace- and direction-consistent handling properties. Depending on the driving situation and driver`s wishes the braking and driving forces at the wheels are adjusted with a considerable divergence in order to achieve the desired handling properties. The system improves the driving stability in all operating states as soon as the dynamic limiting range is reached. It even reduces the risk of skidding in case of extreme steering manoeuvres and also enables the safe control of the vehicle in critical traffic situations. Furthermore the system offers improved basic anti-skid braking system and anti-slip control functions. Due to these advantages it can be expected that the FDR is going to make an important contribution to avoiding accidents and reducing damage. (orig.) [Deutsch] Mit FDR (Fahr-Dynamik-Regelung) wird BOSCH 1995 ein neues Fahrsicherheitssystem einfuehren. Das System berechnet auf der Basis gemessener und geschaetzter fahrdynamischer Groessen, wie stark die tatsaechliche Fahrzeugbewegung von einem gewuenschten stabilen, spur- und richtungstreuen Fahrverhalten abweicht. Die Brems- und Antriebskraefte an den Raedern werden bei deutlicher Abweichung abhaengig von Fahrsituation und Fahrerwunsch so eingestellt, dass die Abweichung minimiert und das gewuenschte Fahrverhalten weitgehend erreicht wird. Das System verbessert die Fahrstabilitaet in allen Betriebszustaenden, sobald der fahrdynamische Grenzbereich erreicht wird. Es reduziert selbst bei extremen Lenkmanoevern die Schleudergefahr drastisch und ermoeglicht auch in kritischen Verkehrssituationen die sicherere Beherrschung des Fahrzeugs. Darueberhinaus bietet das System verbesserte ABS- und ASR-Grundfunktionen. Diese Vorteile lassen erwarten, dass FDR einen

  8. Counterevidence to the ion hammering scenario as a driving force for the shape elongation of embedded nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amekura, H.; Okubo, N.; Tsuya, D.; Ishikawa, N.

    2017-08-01

    Counterevidence is provided in the ion-hammering scenario as a driving force for the shape elongation of embedded nanoparticles (NPs) under swift heavy ion irradiation (SHII). Ion-induced compaction and the hammering, which are both induced in silica under SHII, dominate at low and high fluences, respectively, causing a crossover between them around a fluence of ˜4 × 1012 ions/cm2. Nevertheless, the shape elongation of NPs detected by the optical dichroism exhibits nearly linear dependence in a wide fluence range between ˜1 × 1011 and 2 × 1013 ions/cm2, indicating that the hammering does not play an important role.

  9. Driving forces of Indian summer monsoon on Milankovitch and sub-Milankovitch time scales: A review

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naidu, P.D.

    A scientific consensus exists that tectonic evolution of Himalaya is the main cause of monsoon initiation and evolution in southeast Asia. Several forcing factors such as tectonic, solar insolation, latent heat transport, albedo of the earth surface...

  10. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Forced Convection Heat Transfer in Heat Sink with Rectangular Plates at Varying Inclinations on Vertical Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Harshal Bhauso; Dingare, Sunil Vishnu

    2018-03-01

    Heat exchange upgrade is a vital territory of research area. Utilization of reasonable systems can bring about noteworthy specialized points of interest coming about reserve funds of cost. Rectangular plates are viewed as best balance arrangement utilized for heat exchange improvement. This gives an enlargement strategy to heat exchange with beginning of limit layer and vortex development. To assess and look at the rate of heat exchange enhancement by rectangular plate fins with differing inclinations (0°-30°-60°), shifting Re and heat supply under forced convection are the principle destinations of this study. The study is done by fluctuating introductions of fins with various inclinations, input heat supply and Re under forced convection. The coefficient of heat transfer increments observed with the expansion in air speed for all the examined designs. The coefficient of the heat transfer is discovered higher at the edge of introduction of fins at 30° for inline arrangement and 0° for staggered arrangement. Looking at both the arrangements, it is discovered that the heat transfer coefficient in 0° fin staggered arrangement is about 17% higher than 30° inline arrangement and 76% higher than the vertical plate fin. For plate fin heat sink, boundary layer formation and growth results in decrease of the coefficient of heat transfer in forced convection. This issue is overcome by accommodating some rectangular fins on the plate fin. It brings about increment of heat transfer coefficient of the RPFHS under the states of trial factors. As indicated by past research, it is discovered that examination of the plate fin heat sink with various sorts of fins for horizontal orientation is done yet but this investigation expects to discover the upgrade of transfer coefficient of plate fin heat sink for its vertical position with rectangular plates at different inclinations under the shifting scopes of heat input supply, fin arrangements and Reynolds number (Re).

  11. ASEAN-5 Passenger Car Industry Outlook: The Driving Forces, Opportunities and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Quek, Wu Kheng

    2010-01-01

    Global automotive industry is growing at an unprecedented speed in the past decade, primarily due to the strong and fastest growing demand from the Asian emerging economies. ASEAN-5 is an economic block with huge potential. It is an attractive alternative destination for business compare with other emerging economies. Total population is 420 million people and combined economic size of $1,355 billion in this region. ASEAN-5 countries are one of the major driving markets contributed to the rap...

  12. Measuring Risky Driving Behavior Using an mHealth Smartphone App: Development and Evaluation of gForce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freidlin, Raisa Z; Dave, Amisha D; Espey, Benjamin G; Stanley, Sean T; Garmendia, Marcial A; Pursley, Randall; Ehsani, Johnathon P; Simons-Morton, Bruce G; Pohida, Thomas J

    2018-04-19

    Naturalistic driving studies, designed to objectively assess driving behavior and outcomes, are conducted by equipping vehicles with dedicated instrumentation (eg, accelerometers, gyroscopes, Global Positioning System, and cameras) that provide continuous recording of acceleration, location, videos, and still images for eventual retrieval and analyses. However, this research is limited by several factors: the cost of equipment installation; management and storage of the large amounts of data collected; and data reduction, coding, and analyses. Modern smartphone technology includes accelerometers built into phones, and the vast, global proliferation of smartphones could provide a possible low-cost alternative for assessing kinematic risky driving. We evaluated an in-house developed iPhone app (gForce) for detecting elevated g-force events by comparing the iPhone linear acceleration measurements with corresponding acceleration measurements obtained with both a custom Android app and the in-vehicle miniDAS data acquisition system (DAS; Virginia Tech Transportation Institute). The iPhone and Android devices were dashboard-mounted in a vehicle equipped with the DAS instrumentation. The experimental protocol consisted of driving maneuvers on a test track, such as cornering, braking, and turning that were performed at different acceleration levels (ie, mild, moderate, or hard). The iPhone gForce app recorded linear acceleration (ie, gravity-corrected). The Android app recorded gravity-corrected and uncorrected acceleration measurements, and the DAS device recorded gravity-uncorrected acceleration measurements. Lateral and longitudinal acceleration measures were compared. The correlation coefficients between the iPhone and DAS acceleration measurements were slightly lower compared to the correlation coefficients between the Android and DAS, possibly due to the gravity correction on the iPhone. Averaging the correlation coefficients for all maneuvers, the longitudinal and

  13. Bilateral deficit in explosive force production is not caused by changes in agonist neural drive.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W Buckthorpe

    Full Text Available Bilateral deficit (BLD describes the phenomenon of a reduction in performance during synchronous bilateral (BL movements when compared to the sum of identical unilateral (UL movements. Despite a large body of research investigating BLD of maximal voluntary force (MVF there exist a paucity of research examining the BLD for explosive strength. Therefore, this study investigated the BLD in voluntary and electrically-evoked explosive isometric contractions of the knee extensors and assessed agonist and antagonist neuromuscular activation and measurement artefacts as potential mechanisms. Thirteen healthy untrained males performed a series of maximum and explosive voluntary contractions bilaterally (BL and unilaterally (UL. UL and BL evoked twitch and octet contractions were also elicited. Two separate load cells were used to measure MVF and explosive force at 50, 100 and 150 ms after force onset. Surface EMG amplitude was measured from three superficial agonists and an antagonist. Rate of force development (RFD and EMG were reported over consecutive 50 ms periods (0-50, 50-100 and 100-150 ms. Performance during UL contractions was compared to combined BL performance to measure BLD. Single limb performance during the BL contractions was assessed and potential measurement artefacts, including synchronisation of force onset from the two limbs, controlled for. MVF showed no BLD (P = 0.551, but there was a BLD for explosive force at 100 ms (11.2%, P = 0.007. There was a BLD in RFD 50-100 ms (14.9%, P = 0.004, but not for the other periods. Interestingly, there was a BLD in evoked force measures (6.3-9.0%, P<0.001. There was no difference in agonist or antagonist EMG for any condition (P≥0.233. Measurement artefacts contributed minimally to the observed BLD. The BLD in volitional explosive force found here could not be explained by measurement issues, or agonist and antagonist neuromuscular activation. The BLD in voluntary and evoked explosive force

  14. Balance assessment during squatting exercise: A comparison between laboratory grade force plate and a commercial, low-cost device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengarelli, Alessandro; Verdini, Federica; Cardarelli, Stefano; Di Nardo, Francesco; Burattini, Laura; Fioretti, Sandro

    2018-04-11

    Testing balance through squatting exercise is a central part of many rehabilitation programs and sports and plays also an important role in clinical evaluation of residual motor ability. The assessment of center of pressure (CoP) displacement and its parametrization is commonly used to describe and analyze squat movement and the laboratory-grade force plates (FP) are the gold standard for measuring balance performances from a dynamic view-point. However, the Nintendo Wii Balance Board (NWBB) has been recently proposed as an inexpensive and easily available device for measuring ground reaction force and CoP displacement in standing balance tasks. Thus, this study aimed to compare the NWBB-CoP data with those obtained from a laboratory FP during a dynamic motor task, such as the squat task. CoP data of forty-eight subjects were acquired simultaneously from a NWBB and a FP and the analyses were performed over the descending squatting phase. Outcomes showed a very high correlation (r) and limited root-mean-square differences between CoP trajectories in anterior-posterior (r > 0.99, 1.63 ± 1.27 mm) and medial-lateral (r > 0.98, 1.01 ± 0.75 mm) direction. Spatial parameters computed from CoP displacement and ground reaction force peak presented fixed biases between NWBB and FP. Errors showed a high consistency (standard deviation < 2.4% of the FP outcomes) and a random spread distribution around the mean difference. Mean velocity is the only parameter which exhibited a tendency towards proportional values. Findings of this study suggested the NWBB as a valid device for the assessment and parametrization of CoP displacement during squatting movement. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Frequency response of rectangular plates with free-edge openings and carlings subjected to point excitation force and enforced displacement at boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae Seung Cho

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a numerical procedure for the natural vibration analysis of plates with openings and carlings based on the assumed mode method is extended to assess their forced response. Firstly, natural response of plates with openings and carlings is calculated from the eigenvalue equation derived by using Lagrange's equation of motion. Secondly, the mode superposition method is applied to determine frequency response. Mindlin theory is adopted for plate modelling and the effect of openings is taken into account by subtracting their potential and kinetic energies from the corresponding plate energies. Natural and frequency response of plates with openings and carlings subjected to point excitation force and enforced acceleration at boundaries, respectively, is analysed by using developed in-house code. For the validation of the developed method and the code, extensive numerical results, related to plates with different opening shape, carlings and boundary conditions, are compared with numerical data from the relevant literature and with finite element solutions obtained by general finite element tool.

  16. Polyphilic Interactions as Structural Driving Force Investigated by Molecular Dynamics Simulation (Project 7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Peschel

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of fluorinated molecules on dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC bilayers by force-field molecular dynamics simulations. In the first step, we developed all-atom force-field parameters for additive molecules in membranes to enable an accurate description of those systems. On the basis of this force field, we performed extensive simulations of various bilayer systems containing different additives. The additive molecules were chosen to be of different size and shape, and they included small molecules such as perfluorinated alcohols, but also more complex molecules. From these simulations, we investigated the structural and dynamic effects of the additives on the membrane properties, as well as the behavior of the additive molecules themselves. Our results are in good agreement with other theoretical and experimental studies, and they contribute to a microscopic understanding of interactions, which might be used to specifically tune membrane properties by additives in the future.

  17. Identifying the driving forces of urban expansion and its environmental impact in Jakarta-Bandung mega urban region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravitasari, A. E.; Rustiadi, E.; Mulya, S. P.; Setiawan, Y.; Fuadina, L. N.; Murtadho, A.

    2018-05-01

    The socio-economic development in Jakarta-Bandung Mega Urban Region (JBMUR) caused the increasing of urban expansion and led to a variety of environmental damage such as uncontrolled land use conversion and raising anthropogenic disaster. The objectives of this study are: (1) to identify the driving forces of urban expansion that occurs on JBMUR and (2) to analyze the environmental quality decline on JBMUR by producing time series spatial distribution map and spatial autocorrelation of floods and landslide as the proxy of anthropogenic disaster. The driving forces of urban expansion in this study were identified by employing Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) model using 6 (six) independent variables, namely: population density, percentage of agricultural land, distance to the center of capital city/municipality, percentage of household who works in agricultural sector, distance to the provincial road, and distance to the local road. The GWR results showed that local demographic, social and economic factors including distance to the road spatially affect urban expansion in JBMUR. The time series spatial distribution map of floods and landslide event showed the spatial cluster of anthropogenic disaster in some areas. Through Local Moran Index, we found that environmental damage in one location has a significant impact on the condition of its surrounding area.

  18. Land use changes and its driving forces in hilly ecological restoration area based on gis and rs of northern china

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peng; Niu, Xiang; Wang, Bing; Zheng, Yunlong

    2015-01-01

    Land use change is one of the important aspects of the regional ecological restoration research. With remote sensing (RS) image in 2003, 2007 and 2012, using geographic information system (GIS) technologies, the land use pattern changes in Yimeng Mountain ecological restoration area in China and its driving force factors were studied. Results showed that: (1) Cultivated land constituted the largest area during 10 years, and followed by forest land and grass land; cultivated land and unused land were reduced by 28.43% and 44.32%, whereas forest land, water area and land for water facilities and others were increased. (2) During 2003–2007, forest land change showed the largest, followed by unused land and grass land; however, during 2008–2012, water area and land for water facilities change showed the largest, followed by grass land and unused land. (3) Land use degree was above the average level, it was in the developing period during 2003–2007 and in the degenerating period during 2008–2012. (4) Ecological Restoration Projects can greatly change the micro topography, increase vegetation coverage, and then induce significant changes in the land use distribution, which were the main driving force factors of the land use pattern change in the ecological restoration area. PMID:26047160

  19. Exciplexes versus Loose Ion Pairs: How Does the Driving Force Impact the Initial Product Ratio of Photoinduced Charge Separation Reactions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Many donor–acceptor systems can undergo a photoinduced charge separation reaction, yielding loose ion pairs (LIPs). LIPs can be formed either directly via (distant) electron transfer (ET) or indirectly via the dissociation of an initially formed exciplex or tight ion pair. Establishing the prevalence of one of the reaction pathways is challenging because differentiating initially formed exciplexes from LIPs is difficult due to similar spectroscopic footprints. Hence, no comprehensive reaction model has been established for moderately polar solvents. Here, we employ an approach based on the time-resolved magnetic field effect (MFE) of the delayed exciplex luminescence to distinguish the two reaction channels. We focus on the effects of the driving force of ET and the solvent permittivity. We show that, surprisingly, the exciplex channel is significant even for an exergonic ET system with a free energy of ET of −0.58 eV and for the most polar solutions studied (butyronitrile). Our findings demonstrate that exciplexes play a crucial role even in polar solvents and at moderate driving forces, contrary to what is usually assumed. PMID:25243054

  20. Relative importance of driving force and electrostatic interactions in the reduction of multihaem cytochromes by small molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintas, Pedro O; Cepeda, Andreia P; Borges, Nuno; Catarino, Teresa; Turner, David L

    2013-06-01

    Multihaem cytochromes are essential to the energetics of organisms capable of bioremediation and energy production. The haems in several of these cytochromes have been discriminated thermodynamically and their individual rates of reduction by small electron donors were characterized. The kinetic characterization of individual haems used the Marcus theory of electron transfer and assumed that the rates of reduction of each haem by sodium dithionite depend only on the driving force, while electrostatic interactions were neglected. To determine the relative importance of these factors in controlling the rates, we studied the effect of ionic strength on the redox potential and the rate of reduction by dithionite of native Methylophilus methylotrophus cytochrome c″ and three mutants at different pH values. We found that the main factor determining the rate is the driving force and that Marcus theory describes this satisfactorily. This validates the method of the simultaneous fitting of kinetic and thermodynamic data in multihaem cytochromes and opens the way for further investigation into the mechanisms of these proteins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Inhibiting and driving forces for the digitalization of security systems: security officers’ view on the issue

    OpenAIRE

    Lahtinen, Markus

    2007-01-01

    This memo reports on factors that drive and inhibit the digitalization of security systems. The reported factors are as follows: Technology-push factors • Need to lower costs on the end-user side, i.e. replacing labour with technology • Perceived convenience and ease-of-use of digital systems • Digital products can be connected to the current enterprise network; enabling an expanding set of security features • Firms holding the IP-capability (IP=Internet Protocol) and not h...

  2. External and internal influences as driving forces and/or stumbling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development of national and institutional quality assurance and management systems is often forced (rightfully or wrongly) into a specific direction by external and internal environmental influences. In South Africa such influences play a major role in both the national higher education policy developments and the ...

  3. Use of the Nintendo Wii Balance Board for Studying Standing Static Balance Control: Technical Considerations, Force-Plate Congruency, and the Effect of Battery Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Tyler B; Ma, Christine; Laing, Andrew C

    2017-02-01

    The Nintendo Wii Balance Board (WBB) has become popular as a low-cost alternative to research-grade force plates. The purposes of this study were to characterize a series of technical specifications for the WBB, to compare balance control metrics derived from time-varying center of pressure (COP) signals collected simultaneously from a WBB and a research-grade force plate, and to investigate the effects of battery life. Drift, linearity, hysteresis, mass accuracy, uniformity of response, and COP accuracy were assessed from a WBB. In addition, 6 participants completed an eyes-closed quiet standing task on the WBB (at 3 battery life levels) mounted on a force plate while sway was simultaneously measured by both systems. Characterization results were all associated with less than 1% error. R 2 values reflecting WBB sensor linearity were > .99. Known and measured COP differences were lowest at the center of the WBB and greatest at the corners. Between-device differences in quiet stance COP summary metrics were of limited clinical significance. Lastly, battery life did not affect WBB COP accuracy, but did influence 2 of 8 quiet stance WBB parameters. This study provides general support for the WBB as a low-cost alternative to research-grade force plates for quantifying COP movement during standing.

  4. Sila kojom vazduh pritiska pokretnu ploču/Force of the air pressure on a moving plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid Ivanovich Gretchihin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available U radu je razrađena matematički model gasodinamičkog opstrujavanja ravne ploče pri njenom kretanju sa pozitivnim i negativnim napadnim uglom. Pokazano je da pri malim brzinama kretanja, silu uzgona i čeoni otpor određuje gasodinamički tok vazduha u izlaznoj oblasti opstrujavanja, a pri brzinama kretanja koje su bliske brzini zvuka odlučujuću ulogu vrši uzajamno udarno dejstvo ploče sa molekulima okružujuće sredine u ulaznoj oblasti opstrujavanja. Otcepljena struja iza ploče se ne pojavljuje pri malim brzinama kretanja. Određeni su uslovi kada čeoni otpor i sila uzgona ploče menjaju znak. / (ruski Razrabotana matematičeskaja model' gazodinamičeskogo obtekanija ploskoj plastiny pri ee dviženii s položitel'nym i otricatel'nym uglom ataki. Pokazano, čto pri malyh skorostjah dviženija plastiny pod''emnaja sila i lobovoe soprotivlenie opredeljajutsja gazodinamikoj tečenija vozduha v tyl'noj oblasti, a pri skorostjah dviženija blizkih k skorosti zvuka rešajuščuju rol' vypolnjaet udarnoe vzaimodejstvie plastiny s molekulami okružajuščej sredy v perednej oblasti. Sryvnoe tečenie za plastinoj pri malyh skorostjah dviženija ne voznikaet. Opredeleny uslovija, kogda lobovoe soprotivlenie i pod''emnaja sila plastiny izmenjaet znak. / This paper developed a mathematical model of gas dynamic fluid flow for a flat plate during its movement with positive and negative angles of attack. It is shown that at low velocities, the lifting force and the frontal resistance are determined by gasdynamic air flow in the fluid flow exit areawhile at velocities close to the speed of sound the decisive role is played by a mutualeffect of the pplate coliding with molecules of the surrounding environment in the fluid flow incidence field. The airflow behind the plate does not appear at low velocities. The conditions when the frontal resistance and the lifting force change the sign are determined.

  5. Evaluation on driving force of natural circulation in downcomer for passive residual heat removal system in JAERI passive safety reactor JPSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunii, Katsuhiko; Iwamura, Takamichi; Murao, Yoshio

    1997-01-01

    The driving-force of the natural circulation in the residual heat removal (RHR) system for the JPSR (JAERI Passive Safety Reactor) is given as a gravity force of the density difference between hotter coolant in core and upper plenum and cooler coolant in downcomer. The amount of density difference and time to achieve the enough density difference for the RHR system change directly dependent on the thermal fluid flow pattern in downcomer of annulus flow pass. The purposes of the present study are to investigate the possibilities of the followings by evaluating the three-dimensional thermal fluid flow in downcomer by numerical analysis using the STREAM code; 1) promotion of making the flow pattern uniform in downcomer by installing a baffle, 2) achievement of an enough driving-force of the natural circulation, 3) validity of one-point assumption, that is, complete mixing down-flow assumption for the three-dimensional thermal fluid flow in downcomer to evaluate the function of the passive RHR system. The following conclusions were obtained: (1) The effect of baffle on the thermal fluid flow and driving-force is little, (2) The driving-force required for natural circulation cooling can be obtained in wide range of inlet velocity even if the flow is multi-dimensional, (3) Both in initial transient stage and in steady-state, the one-point assumption can be applied to evaluate the driving-force of natural circulation in the passive RHR system. (author)

  6. Control rod drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watando, Kosaku; Tanaka, Yuzo; Mizumura, Yasuhiro; Hosono, Kazuya.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To provide a simple and compact construction of an apparatus for driving a drive shaft inside with a magnetic force from the outside of the primary system water side. Structure: The weight of a plunger provided with an attraction plate is supported by a plunger lift spring means so as to provide a buffer action at the time of momentary movement while also permitting the load on lift coil to be constituted solely by the load on the drive shaft. In addition, by arranging the attraction plate and lift coil so that they face each other with a small gap there-between, it is made possible to reduce the size and permit efficient utilization of the attracting force. Because of the small size, cooling can be simply carried out. Further, since there is no mechanical penetration portion, there is no possibility of leakage of the primary system water. Furthermore, concentration of load on a latch pin is prevented by arranging so that with a structure the load of the control rod to be directly beared through the scrum latch. (Kamimura, M.)

  7. Dynamics of aeolian desertification and its driving forces in the Horqin Sandy Land, Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Han-chen; Wang, Tao; Xue, Xian; Liu, Shu-lin; Guo, Jian

    2014-10-01

    Aeolian desertification is one of the most serious environmental and socioeconomic problems in arid, semi-arid, and dry subhumid zones. Understanding desertification processes and causes is important to provide reasonable and effective control measures for preventing desertification. With satellite remote sensing images as data source to assess the temporal and spatial dynamics of desertification from 1975 to 2010 in the Horqin Sandy Land, dynamic changes of aeolian desertification were detected using the human-machine interactive interpretation method. The driving factors of local desertification were analyzed based on natural and socioeconomic data. The results show that aeolian desertified land in the study area covered 30,199 km(2) in 2010, accounting for 24.1% of the study area. The total area of aeolian desertified land obviously expanded from 30,884 km(2) in 1975 to 32,071 km(2) in 1990, and gradually decreased to 30,199 km(2) in 2010; aeolian desertified land represented an increasing trend firstly and then decreased. During the past 35 years, the gravity centers of desertified lands that are classified as extremely severe and severe generally migrated to the northeast, whereas those that are moderate and slight migrated to the northwest. The migration distance of severely desertified land was the largest, which indicated the southern desertified lands were improved during the last few decades. In addition, the climatic variation in the past 35 years has been favorable to desertification in the Horqin Sandy Land. Aeolian desertified land rapidly expanded from 1975 to 1990 under the combined effects of climate changes and unreasonable human activities. After the 1990s, the main driving factors responsible for the decrease in desertification were positive human activities, such as the series of antidesertification and ecological restoration projects.

  8. Spatial Patterns and Driving Forces of Greenhouse Land Change in Shouguang City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohua Yu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available As an important facet of modern agricultural development, greenhouses satisfy ever-increasing demands for agricultural production and, therefore, constitute a growing proportion of global agriculture. However, just a handful of countries regularly collect statistics on the land cover of greenhouse infrastructure. Even when collected, these data cannot provide the detailed spatial information required for environmental risk assessment. It is, therefore, important to map spatial changes in greenhouse land cover using remote sensing (RS approaches to determine the underlying factors driving these changes. In this paper, we apply a support vector machine (SVM algorithm to identify greenhouse land cover in Shouguang City, China. Enhanced thematic mapper (ETM images were selected as the data source for land use classification in this study as they can be freely acquired and offer the necessary spatial resolution. We then used a binary logistic regression model to quantitatively discern the mechanisms underlying changes in greenhouse land cover. The results of this study show that greenhouse land cover in Shouguang increased by 50.51% between 2000 and 2015, and that 90.39% of this expansion took place between 2010 and 2015. Elevation, slope, precipitation, and the distance to the nearest rural settlements and coastline are all significant factors driving expansion in greenhouse land cover, while distance to the nearest urban areas, rivers, roads, railways, and coastline have contributed to contractions in this land use type. Our research provided a practical approach to allow the detection of changes in greenhouse land cover in the countries with using free or low-cost satellite images.

  9. Driving forces of rapid CO2 emissions growth: A case of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong-Gun; Yoo, Jonghyun; Oh, Wankeun

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate Korea's final demand structure and its impacts on CO 2 emissions in order to reduce CO 2 emissions and develop environmental policy directions. Based on the environmentally extended input–output model, this study adopts a two-step approach: (1) to estimate the embodied emissions and their intensities for 393 sectors induced by final demand; and (2) to calculate the driving factors of emission growth between 2003 and 2011 and then evaluate the result by using Structural Decomposition Analysis (SDA). The findings of this study demonstrate that the impact of composition change in export with less embodied emission intensities tends to offset the increase in CO 2 emission by the export scale growth. The relatively low residential electricity price has resulted in the rapid growth of household electricity consumption and significantly contributed to emissions growth. The result of SDA indicates that Korea's final demand behavior yielded high carbonization over the same period. The findings suggest that Korean government should promote exports in industries with less embedded CO 2 in order to protect environments. In addition, emission information of each product and service should be provided for consumers to change their purchase patterns towards contributing to low carbon emissions as active players. -- Highlights: •We investigate Korea's final demand structure and its contribution to CO 2 emissions. •Using SDA, we evaluate the driving factors of emission growth from 2003 to 2011. •Exports play a critical role in Korea's CO 2 emissions growth. •The relatively low residential electricity price has contributed to emission growth. •Korea's final demand behavior yielded high carbonization over the same period

  10. Forces and Moments on Flat Plates of Small Aspect Ratio with Application to PV Wind Loads and Small Wind Turbine Blades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Ortiz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available To improve knowledge of the wind loads on photovoltaic structures mounted on flat roofs at the high angles required in high latitudes, and to study starting flow on low aspect ratio wind turbine blades, a series of wind tunnel tests were undertaken. Thin flat plates of aspect ratios between 0.4 and 9.0 were mounted on a sensitive three-component instantaneous force and moment sensor. The Reynolds numbers varied from 6 × 104 to 2 × 105. Measurements were made for angles of attack between 0° and 90° both in the free stream and in wall proximity with increased turbulence and mean shear. The ratio of drag to lift closely follows the inverse tangent of the angle of incidence for virtually all measurements. This implies that the forces of interest are due largely to the instantaneous pressure distribution around the plate and are not significantly influenced by shear stresses. The instantaneous forces appear most complex for the smaller aspect ratios but the intensity of the normal force fluctuations is between 10% and 20% in the free-steam but can exceed 30% near the wall. As the wind tunnel floor is approached, the lift and drag reduce with increasing aspect ratio, and there is a reduction in the high frequency components of the forces. It is shown that the centre of pressure is closer to the centre of the plates than the quarter-chord position for nearly all cases.

  11. Effect of Magnetic Field on Entropy Generation Due to Laminar Forced Convection Past a Horizontal Flat Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh'd A. Al-Nimr

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic field effect on local entropy generation due to steady two-dimensional laminar forced convection flow past a horizontal plate was numerically investigated. This study was focused on the entropy generation characteristics and its dependency on various dimensionless parameters. The effect of various dimensionless parameters, such as Hartmann number (Ha, Eckert number (Ec, Prandtl number (Pr, Joule heating parameter (R and the free stream temperature parameter (θ∞ on the entropy generation characteristics is analyzed. The dimensionless governing equations in Cartesian coordinate were solved by an implicit finite difference technique. The solutions were carried out for Ha2=0.5-3, Ec=0.01-0.05, Pr=1-5 and θ∞=1.1-2.5. It was found that, the entropy generation increased with increasing Ha, Ec and R. While, increasing the free stream temperature parameter, and Prandtl number tend to decrease the local entropy generation.

  12. Prerequisites and driving forces behind an extended working life among older workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovbrandt, Pia; Håkansson, Carita; Albin, Maria; Carlsson, Gunilla; Nilsson, Kerstin

    2017-11-28

    Reforms are changing pension systems in many European countries, in order to both restrict early retirement and force people to extend their working life. From occupational therapy and occupational science perspectives, studies focusing on aspects of working life that motivate the older worker is urgent. The aim was to describe incentives behind an extended working life among people over age 65. Focus group methodology was used, with participants ages 66-71, from varying work fields: construction and technical companies and the municipal elderly care sector. Work was considered important and valuable to the degree of how challenging work was, the possibilities for inclusion in a team of colleagues and the chances for better personal finances. Amongst all, the participants expressed a feeling of a strengthened identity by being challenged and having the opportunity to manage working tasks. The finding showed the actual reasons behind an extended working life among older workers. However, a risk of rising social inequity may appear with increased working life if older people are forced to extend their working life due to a difficult financial situation as a pensioner. A variety of retirement options and initiatives in order to support older workers are justified.

  13. Geological and climatic forces driving speciation in the continentally distributed trilling chorus frogs (Pseudacris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmon, Emily Moriarty; Lemmon, Alan R; Cannatella, David C

    2007-09-01

    Tertiary geological events and Quaternary climatic fluctuations have been proposed as important factors of speciation in the North American flora and fauna. Few studies, however, have rigorously tested hypotheses regarding the specific factors driving divergence of taxa. Here, we test explicit speciation hypotheses by correlating geologic events with divergence times among species in the continentally distributed trilling chorus frogs (Pseudacris). In particular, we ask whether marine inundation of the Mississippi Embayment, uplift of the Appalachian Mountains, or modification of the ancient Teays-Mahomet River system contributed to speciation. To examine the plausibility of ancient rivers causing divergence, we tested whether modern river systems inhibit gene flow. Additionally, we compared the effects of Quaternary climatic factors (glaciation and aridification) on levels of genetic variation. Divergence time estimates using penalized likelihood and coalescent approaches indicate that the major lineages of chorus frogs diversified during the Tertiary, and also exclude Quaternary climate change as a factor in speciation of chorus frogs. We show the first evidence that inundation of the Mississippi Embayment contributed to speciation. We reject the hypotheses that Cenozoic uplift of the Appalachians and that diversion of the Teays-Mahomet River contributed to speciation in this clade. We find that by reducing gene flow, rivers have the potential to cause divergence of lineages. Finally, we demonstrate that populations in areas affected by Quaternary glaciation and aridification have reduced levels of genetic variation compared to those from more equable regions, suggesting recent colonization.

  14. Research Problems Associated with Limiting the Applied Force in Vibration Tests and Conducting Base-Drive Modal Vibration Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharton, Terry D.

    1995-01-01

    The intent of this paper is to make a case for developing and conducting vibration tests which are both realistic and practical (a question of tailoring versus standards). Tests are essential for finding things overlooked in the analyses. The best test is often the most realistic test which can be conducted within the cost and budget constraints. Some standards are essential, but the author believes more in the individual's ingenuity to solve a specific problem than in the application of standards which reduce problems (and technology) to their lowest common denominator. Force limited vibration tests and base-drive modal tests are two examples of realistic, but practical testing approaches. Since both of these approaches are relatively new, a number of interesting research problems exist, and these are emphasized herein.

  15. Seasonal changes and driving forces of inflow and outflow through the Bohai Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhixin; Qiao, Fangli; Guo, Jingsong; Guo, Binghuo

    2018-02-01

    This work focuses on analyzing seasonal variation of inflow and outflow through the Bohai Strait that greatly affect the marine environment in the Bohai Sea, using observational data including sea bed mounted acoustic Doppler current profiler currents, CTD salinity data on deck, sea level anomalies of coastal tide gauge stations, and climatological monthly sea level anomalies from Archiving, Validation and Interpretation of Satellite Oceanographic data. Our results show three patterns of outflow and inflow through the Bohai Strait. The first is such that outflow and inflow occur respectively in the southern and northern parts of the strait, as in the traditional understanding. Our results suggest that this pattern occurs only in autumn and winter. Beginning in late September, Ekman currents driven by the northwesterly monsoon carry Bohai Sea water that piles up in the southern part of that sea and then exits eastward to the Yellow Sea. In this process, the pressure and current fields are continuously adjusted, until a quasi balance state between wind stress, Coriolis force and pressure gradient force is reached in winter. Inflow with a compensating property through the northern channel is close to the outflow through the southern channel in winter. The second pattern is a single inflow in spring, and the current and pressure fields are in adjustment. In early spring, the northwesterly monsoon ceases, Yellow Sea water enters the Bohai Sea under the pressure gradient force. With southeasterly monsoon establishment and strengthening, northern Yellow Sea water continually flows into the Bohai Sea and causes sea level rise northward. In the third pattern, outflow is much greater than inflow in summer. The currents run eastward in the central Bohai Sea and then enter the northern Yellow Sea through the northern channel and upper layer of the southern channel, while a westward current with a compensating property enters via the lower layer of the southern channel. Larger

  16. Analyzing driving forces behind changes in energy vulnerability of Spanish electricity generation through a Divisia index-based method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández González, P.; Moreno, B.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We propose and develop the LMDI approach to factorize changes in electricity bill vulnerability. • Spanish vulnerability (1995–2011) markedly grew mainly by increasing gas dependence. • Fuel price increase and growing importance of electricity damage energy security. • Energy intensity advances & fuel diversification: insufficient to drive vulnerability. • Main recommendation: enhance internal energy market and common external EU strategy. - Abstract: High energy dependence on fossil raises vulnerability concerns about security of supply and energy cost. This research examines the impact of high dependence of imported fuels for power generation in Spain through the quantification and analysis of the driving forces behind the change in its electricity bill. Following logarithmic mean Divisia indexes approach, we present and perform a new method that enables a complete decomposition of changes in electricity vulnerability into contributions from several drivers. In fact, we identify five predefined factors behind the variations in vulnerability in Spain during the 1998–2011 period: fuel price, average heat rate, fuel dependence, degree of electricity importance and energy intensity. The application of this approach reveals a significant increase in Spanish vulnerability in the last two decades, promoted by increments in fuel price and importance of electricity over the primary energy consumption, but especially by increasing fuel dependence (particularly gas dependence). Therefore, findings mainly advocate for those strategies aimed at reducing Spanish energy dependence. Also those improving thermal efficiency and energy intensity are indicated

  17. Mining spatial information to investigate the evolution of karst rocky desertification and its human driving forces in Changshun, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Erqi; Zhang, Hongqi; Li, Mengxian

    2013-08-01

    The processes of karst rocky desertification (KRD) have been found to cause the most severe environmental degradation in southwestern China. Understanding the driving forces that cause KRD is essential for managing and restoring the areas that it impacts. Studies of the human driving forces of KRD are limited to the county level, a specific administrative unit in China; census data are acquired at this scale, which can lead to scale biases. Changshun County is studied here as a representative area and anthropogenic influences in the county are accounted for by using Euclidean distances for the proximity to roads and settlements. We propose a standard coefficient of human influence (SOI) that standardizes the Euclidean distances for different KRD transformations to compare the effects of human activities in different areas. In Changshun County, the individual influences of roads and settlements share similar characteristics. The SOIs of improved KRD transformation types are almost negative, but the SOIs of deteriorated types are nearly positive except for one form of KRD turning to the extremely severe KRD. The results indicated that the distribution and evolution of the KRD areas from 2000 to 2010 in Changshun were affected positively by human activities (e.g., KRD restoration projects) and also negatively (e.g., by intense and irrational land use). Our results demonstrate that the spatial techniques and SOI used in this study can effectively incorporate information concerning human influences and internal KRD transformations. This provides a suitable approach for studying the relationships between human activities and KRD processes at fine scales. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Tendency to occupy a statistically dominant spatial state of the flow as a driving force for turbulent transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekmarev, Sergei F

    2013-03-01

    The transition from laminar to turbulent fluid motion occurring at large Reynolds numbers is generally associated with the instability of the laminar flow. On the other hand, since the turbulent flow characteristically appears in the form of spatially localized structures (e.g., eddies) filling the flow field, a tendency to occupy such a structured state of the flow cannot be ruled out as a driving force for turbulent transition. To examine this possibility, we propose a simple analytical model that treats the flow as a collection of localized spatial structures, each of which consists of elementary cells in which the behavior of the particles (atoms or molecules) is uncorrelated. This allows us to introduce the Reynolds number, associating it with the ratio between the total phase volume for the system and that for the elementary cell. Using the principle of maximum entropy to calculate the most probable size distribution of the localized structures, we show that as the Reynolds number increases, the elementary cells group into the localized structures, which successfully explains turbulent transition and some other general properties of turbulent flows. An important feature of the present model is that a bridge between the spatial-statistical description of the flow and hydrodynamic equations is established. We show that the basic assumptions underlying the model, i.e., that the particles are indistinguishable and elementary volumes of phase space exist in which the state of the particles is uncertain, are involved in the derivation of the Navier-Stokes equation. Taking into account that the model captures essential features of turbulent flows, this suggests that the driving force for the turbulent transition is basically the same as in the present model, i.e., the tendency of the system to occupy a statistically dominant state plays a key role. The instability of the flow at high Reynolds numbers can then be a mechanism to initiate structural rearrangement of

  19. The driving forces for nitrogen and phosphorus flows in the food chain of china, 1980 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Y; Ma, L; Gao, Z L; Wang, F H; Sims, J T; Ma, W Q; Zhang, F S

    2013-07-01

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) use and losses in China's food chain have accelerated in the past three decades, driven by population growth, rapid urbanization, dietary transition, and changing nutrient management practice. There has been little detailed quantitative analysis of the relative magnitude of these driving forces throughout this period. Therefore, we analyzed changes in N and P flows and key drivers behind changes in the food (production and consumption) chain at the national scale from 1980 to 2010. Food (N and P) consumption increased by about fivefold in urban settings over this period but has decreased in rural settings since the 1990s. For urban settings, the integrated driving forces for increased food consumption were population growth, which accounted for ∼60%, and changing urban diets toward a greater emphasis on the consumption of animal products. Nutrient inputs and losses in crop and animal productions have continuously increased from 1980 to 2010, but the rates of decadal increase were greatly different. Increased total inputs and losses in crop production were primarily driven by increased crop production for food demand (68-96%) in the 1980s but were likely offset in the 2000s by improved nutrient management practices, as evidenced by decreased total inputs to and losses from cropland for harvesting per nutrient in crop. The contributions of animal production to total N and P losses to waters from the food chain increased by 34 and 60% from 1980 to 2010. These increases were caused mainly by decreased ratios of manure returned to cropland. Our study highlights a larger impact of changing nutrient management practice than population growth on elevated nutrient flows in China's food chain. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  20. Transitions in Land Use Architecture under Multiple Human Driving Forces in a Semi-Arid Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issa Ouedraogo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to detect the main shifts in land-use architecture and assess the factors behind the changes in typical tropical semi-arid land in Burkina Faso. Three sets of time-series LANDSAT data over a 23-year period were used to detect land use changes and their underpinning drivers in multifunctional but vulnerable ecologies. Group discussions in selected villages were organized for mapping output interpretation and collection of essential drivers of change as perceived by local populations. Results revealed profound changes and transitions during the study period. During the last decade, shrub and wood savannahs exhibited high net changes (39% and −37% respectively with a weak net positive change for cropland (only 2%, while cropland and shrub savannah exhibited high swap (8% and 16%. This suggests that the area of cropland remained almost unchanged but was subject to relocation, wood savannah decreased drastically, and shrub savannah increased exponentially. Cropland exhibited a null net persistence while shrub and wood savannahs exhibited positive and negative net persistence (1.91 and −10.24, respectively, indicating that there is movement toward agricultural intensification and wood savannah tended to disappear to the benefit of shrub savannah. Local people are aware of the changes that have occurred and support the idea that illegal wood cutting and farming are inappropriate farming practices associated with immigration; absence of alternative cash generation sources, overgrazing and increasing demand for wood energy are driving the changes in their ecosystems. Policies that integrate restoration and conservation of natural ecosystems and promote sustainable agroforestry practices in the study zone are highly recommended.

  1. The reliability of linear position transducer, force plate and combined measurement of explosive power-time variables during a loaded jump squat in elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Keir T; Cronin, John B; Newton, Michael J

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the between day reliability of power-time measures calculated with data collected using the linear position transducer or the force plate independently, or a combination of the two technologies. Twenty-five male rugby union players performed three jump squats on two occasions one week apart. Ground reaction forces were measured via a force plate and position data were collected using a linear position transducer. From these data, a number of power-time variables were calculated for each method. The force plate, linear position transducer and a combined method were all found to be a reliable means of measuring peak power (ICC = 0.87-0.95, CV = 3.4%-8.0%). The absolute consistency of power-time measures varied between methods (CV = 8.0%-53.4%). Relative consistency of power-time measures was generally comparable between methods and measures, and for many variables was at an acceptable level (ICC = 0.77-0.94). Although a number of time-dependent power variables can be reliably calculated from data acquired from the three methods investigated, the reliability of a number of these measures is below that which is acceptable for use in research and for practical applications.

  2. Sequential actin-based pushing forces drive meiosis I chromosome migration and symmetry breaking in oocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Kexi; Rubinstein, Boris; Unruh, Jay R.; Guo, Fengli; Slaughter, Brian D.

    2013-01-01

    Polar body extrusion during oocyte maturation is critically dependent on asymmetric positioning of the meiotic spindle, which is established through migration of the meiosis I (MI) spindle/chromosomes from the oocyte interior to a subcortical location. In this study, we show that MI chromosome migration is biphasic and driven by consecutive actin-based pushing forces regulated by two actin nucleators, Fmn2, a formin family protein, and the Arp2/3 complex. Fmn2 was recruited to endoplasmic reticulum structures surrounding the MI spindle, where it nucleated actin filaments to initiate an initially slow and poorly directed motion of the spindle away from the cell center. A fast and highly directed second migration phase was driven by actin-mediated cytoplasmic streaming and occurred as the chromosomes reach a sufficient proximity to the cortex to activate the Arp2/3 complex. We propose that decisive symmetry breaking in mouse oocytes results from Fmn2-mediated perturbation of spindle position and the positive feedback loop between chromosome signal-induced Arp2/3 activation and Arp2/3-orchestrated cytoplasmic streaming that transports the chromosomes. PMID:23439682

  3. Thermodynamic Description of Synergy in Solvent Extraction: II Thermodynamic Balance of Driving Forces Implied in Synergistic Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, J; Bley, M; Dufrêche, J-F; Gourdin, S; Pellet-Rostaing, S; Zemb, T; Dourdain, S

    2017-11-21

    In the second part of this study, we analyze the free energy of transfer in the case of synergistic solvent extraction. This free energy of the transfer of an ion in dynamic equilibrium between two coexisting phases is decomposed into four driving forces combining long-range interactions with the classical complexation free energy associated with the nearest neighbors. We demonstrate how the organometallic complexation is counterbalanced by the cost in free energy related to structural change on the colloidal scale in the solvent phase. These molecular forces of synergistic extraction are driven not only by the entropic term associated with the tight packing of electrolytes in the solvent and by the free energy cost of coextracting water toward the hydrophilic core of the reverse aggregates present but also by the entropic costs in the formation of the reverse aggregate and by the interfacial bending energy of the extractant molecules packed around the extracted species. Considering the sum of the terms, we can rationalize the synergy observed, which cannot be explained by classical extraction modeling. We show an industrial synergistic mixture combining an amide and a phosphate complexing site, where the most efficient/selective mixture is observed for a minimal bending energy and maximal complexation energy.

  4. Selective forces and mutational biases drive stop codon usage in the human genome: a comparison with sense codon usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotta, Edoardo

    2016-05-17

    The three stop codons UAA, UAG, and UGA signal the termination of mRNA translation. As a result of a mechanism that is not adequately understood, they are normally used with unequal frequencies. In this work, we showed that selective forces and mutational biases drive stop codon usage in the human genome. We found that, in respect to sense codons, stop codon usage was affected by stronger selective forces but was less influenced by neutral mutational biases. UGA is the most frequent termination codon in human genome. However, UAA was the preferred stop codon in genes with high breadth of expression, high level of expression, AT-rich coding sequences, housekeeping functions, and in gene ontology categories with the largest deviation from expected stop codon usage. Selective forces associated with the breadth and the level of expression favoured AT-rich sequences in the mRNA region including the stop site and its proximal 3'-UTR, but acted with scarce effects on sense codons, generating two regions, upstream and downstream of the stop codon, with strongly different base composition. By favouring low levels of GC-content, selection promoted labile local secondary structures at the stop site and its proximal 3'-UTR. The compositional and structural context favoured by selection was surprisingly emphasized in the class of ribosomal proteins and was consistent with sequence elements that increase the efficiency of translational termination. Stop codons were also heterogeneously distributed among chromosomes by a mechanism that was strongly correlated with the GC-content of coding sequences. In human genome, the nucleotide composition and the thermodynamic stability of stop codon site and its proximal 3'-UTR are correlated with the GC-content of coding sequences and with the breadth and the level of gene expression. In highly expressed genes stop codon usage is compositionally and structurally consistent with highly efficient translation termination signals.

  5. Supply Chain Management as a Driving Force for Generating Competitive Advantage for Dairy Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Olegovna Poleshkina

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to uncover the reserves to generate competitive advantages for the participants of the market of perishables in the case of the dairy sector due to the formation of effective supply chains, as this category of goods is the most demanding in terms of periods and conditions of transportation and terms of preservation. The research technique is based on the concepts of value chains and supply chain management. In order to optimize the distribution of functions between the participants of the dairy chain a process-based approach has been applied. The research has revealed the main reasons for high aggregate costs and the places of their formation at each stage of the dairy supply chain. The article proposes the mechanisms to address three main problems arising from the process of building relations between the participants of the dairy supply chain in Russia. These problems are associated with a disproportionate margin distribution between the participants of the chain, with non-compliance of the quality of raw milk with the requirements for the production of specific types of dairy products, and with distrust of the supply chain participants, which increases transaction costs and forces to create reserve supplies which reduce the competitiveness of the whole dairy supply chain in general. In order to improve the competitiveness of all participants in the dairy chain, the article presents several mechanisms for solving these problems. The first is margin distribution based on the costs incurred by each participant of the dairy chain. The second is the use of a mathematical model to determine the assortment of goods of a dairy enterprise on the basis of the incoming volume and quality of raw milk according to the seasonal factor and the demand for dairy products. The third is the feasibility of refusal from the formation of reserve supplies by all participants of the dairy chain, which will not only minimize aggregate costs, but also

  6. High temperature reactor: Driving force to convert CO2 to fuel - HTR2008-58132

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormick, J. L.

    2008-01-01

    The rapidly increasing cost of petroleum products and uncertainty of long-term supply have prompted the U.S. military to aggressively pursue production of alternative fuels (synfuels) such as coal-to-liquids (CTL). U.S. Air Force is particularly active in this effort while the entire military is involved in simultaneously developing fuel specifications for alternative fuels that enable a single fuel for the entire battle space; all ground vehicles, aircraft and fuel cells. By limiting its focus on coal, tar sands and oil shale resources, the military risks violating federal law which requires the use of synfuels that have life cycle greenhouse gas emissions less than or equal to emissions from conventional petroleum fuels. A climate-friendly option would use a high temperature nuclear reactor to split water. The hydrogen (H 2 ) would be used in the reverse water gas shift (RWGS) to react with carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) to produce carbon monoxide (CO) and water. The oxygen (O 2 ) would be fed into a supercritical (SC) coal furnace. The flue gas CO 2 emissions would be stripped of impurities before reacting with H 2 in a RWGS process. Resultant carbon monoxide (CO) is fed, with additional H2, (extra H 2 needed to adjust the stoichiometry: 2 moles H 2 to one mole CO) into a conventional Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) to produce a heavy wax which is cracked and isomerized and refined to Jet Propulsion 8 (JP-8) and Jet Propulsion 5 (JP-5) fuels. The entire process offers valuable carbon-offsets and multiple products that contribute to lower syn-fuel costs and to comply with the federal limitation imposed on syn-fuel purchases. While the entire process is not commercially available, component parts are being researched; their physical and chemical properties understood and some are state-of-the-art technologies. An international consortium should complete physical, chemical and economic flow sheets to determine the feasibility of this concept that, if pursued, has broad

  7. Measuring the efficacy of flunixin meglumine and meloxicam for lame sows using a GAITFour pressure mat and an embedded microcomputer-based force plate system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pairis-Garcia, M D; Johnson, A K; Abell, C A; Coetzee, J F; Karriker, L A; Millman, S T; Stalder, K J

    2015-05-01

    Pain associated with lameness on farm is a negative affective state and has a detrimental impact on individual farm animal welfare. Animal pain can be managed utilizing husbandry tools and through pharmacological approaches. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs including meloxicam and flunixin meglumine are compounds used in many species for pain management because they are easy to administer, long lasting, and cost-effective. Assessing an animal's biomechanical parameters using such tools as the embedded microcomputer-based force plate system and GAITFour pressure mat gait analysis walkway system provides an objective, sensitive, and precise means to detect animals in lame states. The objectives of this study were to determine the efficacy of meloxicam and flunixin meglumine for pain mitigation in lame sows using the embedded microcomputer-based force plate system and GAITFour pressure mat gait analysis walkway system. Lameness was induced in 24 mature mixed-parity sows using a chemical synovitis model and compared 3 treatments: meloxicam (1.0 mg/kg per os), flunixin meglumine (2.2 mg/kg intramuscular) and sterile saline (intramuscular). Weight distribution (kg) for each foot was collected twice per second for a total of 5 min for each time point using the embedded microcomputer-based force plate system. Stride time, stride length, maximum pressure, activated sensors, and stance time were collected using 3 quality walks (readings) for each time point using the GAITFour pressure mat gait analysis walkway system. Sows administered flunixin meglumine or meloxicam tolerated more weight on their lame leg compared with saline sows (P embedded microcomputer-based force plate system and GAITFour pressure mat gait analysis walkway system. Analgesic drugs may be a key tool to manage negative pain affective states associated with lameness.

  8. Driving forces behind the increasing cardiovascular treatment intensity.A dynamic epidemiologic model of trends in Danish cardiovascular drug utilization.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildemoes, Helle Wallach; Andersen, Morten

    . Objectives: To investigate the driving forces behind the increasing treatment prevalence of cardiovascular drugs, in particular statins, by means of a dynamic epidemiologic drug utilization model. Methods: Material: All Danish residents older than 20 years by January 1, 1996 (4.0 million inhabitants), were...

  9. Driving forces behind the increasing cardiovascular treatment intensity.A dynamic epidemiologic model of trends in Danish cardiovascular drug utilization.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildemoes, Helle Wallach; Andersen, Morten

    . Objectives: To investigate the driving forces behind the increasing treatment prevalence of cardiovascular drugs, in particular statins, by means of a dynamic epidemiologic drug utilization model. Methods: Material: All Danish residents older than 20 years by January 1, 1996 (4.0 million inhabitants), were...

  10. Is personality a driving force for socioeconomic differences in young adults' health care use? A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Maren; Arts, Koos; Traag, Tanja; Otten, Ferdy; Bosma, Hans

    2017-09-01

    To relate personality characteristics at the age of 12 to socioeconomic differences in health care use in young adulthood. And thereby examining the extent to which socioeconomic differences in the use of health care in young adulthood are based on differences in personality characteristics, independent of the (parental) socioeconomic background. Personality of more than 13,000 Dutch 12-year old participants was related to their health and socioeconomic position after a follow-up of 13 years (when the participants had become young adults). In young adulthood, low socioeconomic status was related to high health care use (e.g. low education -hospital admission: OR = 2.21; low income -GP costs: OR = 1.25). Odds ratios (for the socioeconomic health differences) did not decrease when controlled for personality. In this Dutch sample of younger people, personality appeared not to be a driving force for socioeconomic differences in health care use. Findings thus do not support the personality-related, indirect selection perspective on the explanation of socioeconomic differences in health.

  11. Driving forces in energy-related CO2 emissions in south and east coastal China: commonality and variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, C.; Liu, Y.; Jin, J.; Wei, T.

    2015-12-01

    East and south coastal China contributes to respectively about 30% and 8% of CO2 emissions in China and the world, and therefore play a critical role in achieving the national goal of emission reduction to mitigate the global warming. It also serves as a benchmark for the less developed regions of China, in terms of achieving the developed world's human development standard under lower per capita emissions. We analyze the driving forces of emissions in this region and their provincial characteristics by applying the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index method. Our findings show that emissions have been doubled during the period from 2000 to 2012, along with three and two folds increase in economy and energy consumption, respectively. This suggests a persistent lock between economic growth and emissions, even in this socioeconomically advanced region in China. Provincial difference in annual emission growth reveals three distinguished low-carbon developmental stages, owning mainly to the effectiveness of energy efficiency in reducing emission growth. This may explain why previous climate policies have aimed to reduce carbon intensity. These results indicate that targeted measures on enhancing energy efficiency in the short term and de-carbonization of both the economic and energy structure in the long term can lower the emission growth more effectively and efficiently. They also suggest that factor-driven emission reduction strategies and policies are needed in the geographically and socioeconomically similar regions.

  12. Spatiotemporal Pattern and Driving Forces of Arable Land-Use Intensity in China: Toward Sustainable Land Management Using Emergy Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hualin Xie

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The level of arable land-use intensity has important impacts on food security and rural sustainable development. Using the emergy method, we investigate the spatial disparities and driving forces of arable land-use intensity in China from 1999 to 2008 at the national, regional and provincial levels. The empirical results show that chemical fertilizer was the largest component of agricultural inputs and that agricultural diesel oil recorded the highest growth rate. The degree of heterogeneities in arable land-use intensity in China showed a decreasing trend, which resulted mainly from the differences among the eastern, northeastern, central and western regions. The regional disparities in labor, pesticides and plastic sheeting decreased from 1999 to 2008. The per capita annual net incomes of household operations and the agricultural policies had a significant positive correlation with total inputs, fertilizer inputs, pesticide inputs and agricultural plastic sheeting. In addition, the nonagricultural population had a greater impact on agricultural plastic sheeting. Finally, we suggest that there is an urgent need to focus on the effects of chemical fertilizer and pesticide inputs on the ecological environment. Agricultural support policies should be introduced for the poor agricultural production provinces.

  13. Application of driving force- Pressure- State- Impact- Response (DPSIR Framework for Analyzing the Human habitat in City of Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmail Salehi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Human habitat change is a complicated issue that many factors play different roles in its formation and distribution. Considering this complication, a more comprehensive and holistic approach is needed for a better understanding and management of those factors. The causal frameworks are among systemic and integrated methods for addressing the causes of environmental problems and the relationships that exist between the environmental systems for proposing proper solutions. The DPSIR model is a functional analysis framework to depict the cause-effect relationships that exist in creating environmental problems. Tehran is one of the major megacities in the Middle East that faces environmental consequences of over population and unplanned urban sprawl, and because of its location in arid region, its vulnerable to rise of environmental problem. In this research, by using the DPSIR framework, different aspects of habitat condition of Tehran are analyzed and later with the help of this conceptual framework, strategies for controlling urban environment. The results show that urbanization is the major driving force that is induced by overpopulation and the need for further urban sprawl, which cause pressure on natural resources. The state of housing and rapid land use changes have brought about unfavorable living conditions that result in unfavorable impacts on public health and safety, which are the results of ineffective policies and solutions.

  14. Empirical Validation of a Hypothesis of the Hormetic Selective Forces Driving the Evolution of Longevity Regulation Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Gomez-Perez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Exogenously added lithocholic bile acid and some other bile acids slow down yeast chronological aging by eliciting a hormetic stress response and altering mitochondrial functionality. Unlike animals, yeast cells do not synthesize bile acids. We therefore hypothesized that bile acids released into an ecosystem by animals may act as interspecies chemical signals that generate selective pressure for the evolution of longevity regulation mechanisms in yeast within this ecosystem. To empirically verify our hypothesis, in this study we carried out a 3-step process for the selection of long-lived yeast species by a long-term exposure to exogenous lithocholic bile acid. Such experimental evolution yielded 20 long-lived mutants, 3 of which were capable of sustaining their considerably prolonged chronological lifespans after numerous passages in medium without lithocholic acid. The extended longevity of each of the 3 long-lived yeast species was a dominant polygenic trait caused by mutations in more than two nuclear genes. Each of the 3 mutants displayed considerable alterations to the age-related chronology of mitochondrial respiration and showed enhanced resistance to chronic oxidative, thermal and osmotic stresses. Our findings empirically validate the hypothesis suggesting that hormetic selective forces can drive the evolution of longevity regulation mechanisms within an ecosystem.

  15. The Driving Forces for the Practice of Strategic Planning in SMEs: Evidence from Harare Metropolitan Province, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxwell Sandada

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite Zimbabwe sharing with the rest of the world, the notion that SMEs are the impeccable engines to economic revival, growth and development, many of the nation`s SMEs are plagued with high failure rates. Previous studies carried out in most foreign countries suggested that the high failure rate of SMEs was attributable to lack of strategic planning among a host of other factors. Against this backdrop, the purpose of this study was to examine the driving forces for the practice of strategic planning in SMEs. A quantitative cross sectional study was conducted among active SMEs who are registered with the Ministry of Small and Medium Enterprises and Cooperative Development in Zimbabwe. The study revealed that globalisation, business ownership motivations, environmental dynamism and innovation & technological advancement have a positive and statistically significant influence on the adoption or practice of strategic planning among SMEs. The study has important implications for the practice and implementation of strategic planning among SMEs especially in the context of a developing country such as Zimbabwe.

  16. Similarity Solution for Combined Free-Forced Convection Past a Vertical Porous Plate in a Porous Medium with a Convective Surface Boundary Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garg P.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the mathematical implications of the two dimensional viscous steady laminar combined free-forced convective flow of an incompressible fluid over a semi infinite fixed vertical porous plate embedded in a porous medium. It is assumed that the left surface of the plate is heated by convection from a hot fluid which is at a temperature higher than the temperature of the fluid on the right surface of the vertical plate. To achieve numerical consistency for the problem under consideration, the governing non linear partial differential equations are first transformed into a system of ordinary differential equations using a similarity variable and then solved numerically under conditions admitting similarity solutions. The effects of the physical parameters of both the incompressible fluid and the vertical plate on the dimensionless velocity and temperature profiles are studied and analysed and the results are depicted both graphically and in a tabular form. Finally, algebraic expressions and the numerical values are obtained for the local skin-friction coefficient and the local Nusselt number.

  17. Land use change and its driving forces toward mutual conversion in Zhangjiakou City, a farming-pastoral ecotone in Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Xu, Yueqing; Sun, Piling; Huang, An; Zheng, Weiran

    2017-09-14

    Land use/cover change (LUCC), a local environmental issue of global importance, and its driving forces have been crucial issues in geography and environmental research. Previous studies primarily focused on major driving factors in various land use types, with few explorations of differences between driving forces of mutual land use type conversions, especially in fragile eco-environments. In this study, Zhangjiakou City, in a farming-pastoral ecotone in Northern China, was taken as an example to analyze land use change between 1989 and 2015, and explore the driving forces of mutual land use type conversions using canonical correlation analysis. Satellite images and government statistics, including social-economic and natural data, were used as sources. Arable land, forestland, and grassland formed the main land use structure. From 1989 to 2015 forestland, orchard land, and construction land significantly increased, while arable land, grassland, unused land, and water areas decreased. Conversions from grassland to forestland; from arable land to orchard land, forestland and construction land; and from unused land to grassland and forestland were the primary land use changes. Among these, the conversion from grassland to forestland had the highest ranking. Average annual precipitation and per capita net income of rural residents positively affected the conversion of arable land to forestland and unused land to grassland. GDP, total population, and urbanization rate contributed most significantly to converting arable land to construction land; total retail sales of social consumer goods, average annual temperature, and GDP had important positive influences in converting arable land to orchard land.

  18. Estimation of Longitudinal Force and Sideslip Angle for Intelligent Four-Wheel Independent Drive Electric Vehicles by Observer Iteration and Information Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Te; Chen, Long; Xu, Xing; Cai, Yingfeng; Jiang, Haobin; Sun, Xiaoqiang

    2018-04-20

    Exact estimation of longitudinal force and sideslip angle is important for lateral stability and path-following control of four-wheel independent driven electric vehicle. This paper presents an effective method for longitudinal force and sideslip angle estimation by observer iteration and information fusion for four-wheel independent drive electric vehicles. The electric driving wheel model is introduced into the vehicle modeling process and used for longitudinal force estimation, the longitudinal force reconstruction equation is obtained via model decoupling, the a Luenberger observer and high-order sliding mode observer are united for longitudinal force observer design, and the Kalman filter is applied to restrain the influence of noise. Via the estimated longitudinal force, an estimation strategy is then proposed based on observer iteration and information fusion, in which the Luenberger observer is applied to achieve the transcendental estimation utilizing less sensor measurements, the extended Kalman filter is used for a posteriori estimation with higher accuracy, and a fuzzy weight controller is used to enhance the adaptive ability of observer system. Simulations and experiments are carried out, and the effectiveness of proposed estimation method is verified.

  19. Influence of inclined Lorentz force on micropolar fluids in a square cavity with uniform and nonuniform heated thin plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Periyadurai, K. [Department of Mathematics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641046, Tamil Nadu (India); Muthtamilselvan, M., E-mail: muthtamill@yahoo.co.in [Department of Mathematics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641046, Tamil Nadu (India); Doh, Deog-Hee [Division of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering,Korea Maritime Ocean University, Busan 606781 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    In the present study, the effect of inclined magnetic field on natural convection of micro-polar fluid in a square cavity with uniform and nonuniform heated thin plate built in centrally is investigated numerically. The vertical walls are cooled while the top and bottom walls are insulated. The thin plate is assumed to be isothermal with a linearly varying temperature. The governing equations were solved by finite volume method using second order central difference scheme and upwind differencing scheme. The numerical investigation is carried out for different governing parameters namely, the Hartmann number, inclination angle of magnetic field, Rayleigh number, vortex viscosity and source non-uniformity parameters. The result shows that the heat transfer rate is decreased when increasing Hartmann number, inclination angle of magnetic field and vortex viscosity parameter. It is found that the non-uniformity parameter affects the fluid flow and temperature distribution especially for the high Rayleigh numbers. Finally, the overall heat transfer rate of micro-polar fluids is found to be smaller than that of Newtonian fluid. - Highlights: • We investigate the effect of inclined magnetic field on micropolar fluid in a cavity. • The effects of uniform and non-uniform heated plate are studied. • The present numerical results are compared with the experimental results. • The addition of vortex viscosity parameter declines the heat transfer performance. • The high heat transfer rate occurs in the vertical plate compared to the horizontal one.

  20. Analysis of a rectangular ceramic plate in electrically forced thickness-twist vibration as a piezoelectric transformer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiashi; Liu, Jinjin; Li, Jiangyu

    2007-04-01

    A rectangular ceramic plate with appropriate electrical load and operating mode is analyzed for piezoelectric transformer application. An exact solution from the three-dimensional equations of linear piezoelectricity is obtained. The solution simulates the real operating situation of a transformer as a vibrating piezoelectric body connected to a circuit. Transforming ratio, input admittance, and efficiency of the transformer are obtained.

  1. Changes in quality management for light water reactor fuel manufacturing: A utility's view of driving forces and status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huettmann, A.; Skusa, J.; Ketteler, M.

    2000-01-01

    Quality management in LWR fuel manufacturing for the use in German reactors is based on international guidelines and national/local authority requirements defined in operational licenses. The quality management is twofold and comprises a quality assurance system and the check of manufacturing documents including witnessing of fabrication processes and inspections. Utility and authority appointed technical expert witness manufacturing and take part in inspections performed by the manufacturer where the scope is strictly defined and does not provide possibilities of flexible responses to manufacturing occurrences. For future developments in quality management HEW supports strengthening the ideas of quality planning. Analysis of all factors influencing fuel reliability shall be performed prior to manufacturing. This will increase the efforts in reviewing of drawings and specifications. Included here shall be a review of processes that will be used in manufacturing. The qualification and robustness of processes shall be demonstrated with special qualification programs and analysis of manufacturing statistics. Instead of product/project related inspections the use of all manufacturing data will provide a complete picture of the manufacturing quality. By applying statistical methods it will be possible to identify trends in manufacturing before deviations occur. So the basic driving force to implement statistical process control for the utilities is the wish to get comprehensive information of delivered quality, whereas for manufacturers it might be to increase production yields and thus to lower costs. The introduction and full use of statistical process control requires open information about manufacturing processes and inspection results by the manufacturers. This might include data judged to be economically sensitive. It also requires changes in attitude at the utilities and appointed experts. HEW has started to review and change internal guidelines to allow

  2. Driving forces and their contribution to the recent decrease in sediment flux to ocean of major rivers in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tong; Wang, Shuai; Liu, Yanxu; Fu, Bojie; Zhao, Wenwu

    2018-09-01

    Understanding the mechanisms behind land-ocean sediment transport processes is crucial, due to the resulting impacts on the sustainable management of water and soil resources. This study investigated temporal trends and historical phases of sediment flux delivered to the sea by nine major rivers in China, while also quantifying the contribution of key anthropogenic and natural driving forces. During the past six decades, sediment flux from these nine major rivers exhibited a statistically significant negative trend, decreasing from 1.92Gtyr -1 during 1954-1968 to 1.39Gtyr -1 , 0.861Gtyr -1 and 0.335Gtyr -1 during 1969-1985, 1986-1999 and 2000-2016, respectively. We used a recently developed Sediment Identity approach and found that the sharp decrease in sediment load observed across China was mainly (~95%) caused by a reduction in sediment concentration. Reservoir construction exerted the strongest influence on land-ocean sediment fluxes, while soil conservation measures represented a secondary driver. Before 1999, soil erosion was not controlled effectively in China and reservoirs, especially large ones, played a dominant role in reducing riverine sediments. After 1999, soil erosion has gradually been brought under control across China, so that conservation measures directly accounted for ~40% of the observed decrease in riverine sediments. With intensifying human activities, it is predicted that the total sediment flux delivered to the sea by the nine major rivers will continue to decrease in the coming decades, although at a slower rate, resulting in severe challenges for the sustainable management of drainage basins and river deltas. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The Impact of Nitinol Staples on the Compressive Forces, Contact Area, and Mechanical Properties in Comparison to a Claw Plate and Crossed Screws for the First Tarsometatarsal Arthrodesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiyer, Amiethab; Russell, Nicholas A; Pelletier, Matthew H; Myerson, Mark; Walsh, William R

    2016-06-01

    Background The optimal fixation method for the first tarsometatarsal arthrodesis remains controversial. This study aimed to develop a reproducible first tarsometatarsal testing model to evaluate the biomechanical performance of different reconstruction techniques. Methods Crossed screws or a claw plate were compared with a single or double shape memory alloy staple configuration in 20 Sawbones models. Constructs were mechanically tested in 4-point bending to 1, 2, and 3 mm of plantar displacement. The joint contact force and area were measured at time zero, and following 1 and 2 mm of bending. Peak load, stiffness, and plantar gapping were determined. Results Both staple configurations induced a significantly greater contact force and area across the arthrodesis than the crossed screw and claw plate constructs at all measurements. The staple constructs completely recovered their plantar gapping following each test. The claw plate generated the least contact force and area at the joint interface and had significantly greater plantar gapping than all other constructs. The crossed screw constructs were significantly stiffer and had significantly less plantar gapping than the other constructs, but this gapping was not recoverable. Conclusions Crossed screw fixation provides a rigid arthrodesis with limited compression and contact footprint across the joint. Shape memory alloy staples afford dynamic fixation with sustained compression across the arthrodesis. A rigid polyurethane foam model provides an anatomically relevant comparison for evaluating the interface between different fixation techniques. Clinical Relevance The dynamic nature of shape memory alloy staples offers the potential to permit early weight bearing and could be a useful adjunctive device to impart compression across an arthrodesis of the first tarsometatarsal joint. Therapeutic, Level V: Bench testing. © 2015 The Author(s).

  4. Forces and Moments on Flat Plates of Small Aspect Ratio with Application to PV Wind Loads and Small Wind Turbine Blades

    OpenAIRE

    Xavier Ortiz; David Rival; David Wood

    2015-01-01

    To improve knowledge of the wind loads on photovoltaic structures mounted on flat roofs at the high angles required in high latitudes, and to study starting flow on low aspect ratio wind turbine blades, a series of wind tunnel tests were undertaken. Thin flat plates of aspect ratios between 0.4 and 9.0 were mounted on a sensitive three-component instantaneous force and moment sensor. The Reynolds numbers varied from 6 × 10 4 to 2 × 10 5 . Measurements were made for angles of attack between 0°...

  5. New Jersey's license plate decal requirement for graduated driver licenses: attitudes of parents and teenagers, observed decal use, and citations for teenage driving violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartt, Anne T; Oesch, Nathan J; Williams, Allan F; Powell, Tara Casanova

    2013-01-01

    On May 1, 2010, New Jersey implemented a law requiring teenagers with learner's permits or probationary licenses to display reflective decals on the front and rear license plates when they drive. The current study examined attitudes of parents and teenagers toward this requirement, use of decals, and reported violations and police enforcement of the graduated driver license law. Statewide telephone surveys of representative samples of parents and teenagers were conducted in February to April 2010 and March to June 2011. Use of decals among probationary license holders was observed at 4 high schools in fall 2010 and in spring 2011 and hand-out surveys were distributed. Data on citations issued for violations of the graduated driver license law were obtained. When interviewed in spring 2011, a large majority of parents of probationary license holders, parents of learner's permit holders, and teenagers with probationary licenses disapproved of decals for probationary licenses. About two thirds of both sets of parents and about half of teenagers disapproved of decals for learner's permits. Support for decals for both license types declined significantly from 2010 to 2011. For parents and teenagers alike, opposition was mainly attributed to concern about identifying and/or targeting teenage drivers by other drivers, predators, or police. In 2011, 77 percent of parents of probationary license holders said that their teenagers had decals for the vehicles driven most often; 46 percent said their teenagers always used decals. Fifty-six percent of parents of learner's permit holders said that their teenagers had decals for the vehicles driven most often; 37 percent said that their teenagers always used decals. Teenagers' reported violations of license restrictions either increased or were similar in 2011 compared to 2010. Observed rates of decal use by probationary license holders at high schools in spring 2011 ranged from 24 to 64 percent. The number of statewide citations

  6. DropBot: An open-source digital microfluidic control system with precise control of electrostatic driving force and instantaneous drop velocity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fobel, Ryan; Fobel, Christian; Wheeler, Aaron R.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce DropBot: an open-source instrument for digital microfluidics (http://microfluidics.utoronto.ca/dropbot). DropBot features two key functionalities for digital microfluidics: (1) real-time monitoring of instantaneous drop velocity (which we propose is a proxy for resistive forces), and (2) application of constant electrostatic driving forces through compensation for amplifier-loading and device capacitance. We anticipate that this system will enhance insight into failure modes and lead to new strategies for improved device reliability, and will be useful for the growing number of users who are adopting digital microfluidics for automated, miniaturized laboratory operation.

  7. [Spatio-temporal change of sand-fixing function and its driving forces in desertification control ecological function area of Hunshandake, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lu; Tian, Mei-rong; Gao, Ji-xi; Qian, Jin-ping

    2016-01-01

    Soil erosion is an important ecological and environmental problem in Hunshandake Desert, and the sand-fixing function determines the degree of ecological security in the entire region. In order to clarify the situation of windbreak and sand fixation in Hunshandake area, and to guide the prevention and treatment of desertification on regional scale, based on the meteorological and remote sensing data, this paper quantitatively analyzed the temporal and spatial pattern of windbreak and sand fixation ability between 2000-2010 by the revised wind erosion equation (RWEQ) model, meanwhile, the driving forces for each county ( or banner) in the functional zone were analyzed with the method of principal component analysis. The results showed that there was a fluctuation of the sand fixing capacity in Hunshandake over time, generally rendering a decline trend. The coniferous forest and grassland had strong windbreak and sand fixation capacity in unit area among the various land categories. In terms of spatial distribution, the windbreak and sand fixation function in western and southeastern region was weak and needed to be strengthened with ecological restoration efforts. Through the study of the social driving forces of each administrative region in the function zone, there were 3 main social driving forces of soil erosion in the administrative functions: the intensity of input-output, the level of economic development and the level of agriculture-husbandry development.

  8. Photoinduced electron transfer in covalent ruthenium-anthraquinone dyads: relative importance of driving-force, solvent polarity, and donor-bridge energy gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankache, Jihane; Wenger, Oliver S

    2012-02-28

    Four rigid rod-like molecules comprised of a Ru(bpy)(3)(2+) (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine) photosensitizer, a 9,10-anthraquinone electron acceptor, and a molecular bridge connecting the two redox partners were synthesized and investigated by optical spectroscopic and electrochemical means. An attempt was made to assess the relative importance of driving-force, solvent polarity, and bridge variation on the rates of photoinduced electron transfer in these molecules. Expectedly, introduction of tert-butyl substituents in the bipyridine ligands of the ruthenium complex and a change in solvent from dichloromethane to acetonitrile lead to a significant acceleration of charge transfer rates. In dichloromethane, photoinduced electron transfer is not competitive with the inherent excited-state deactivation processes of the photosensitizer. In acetonitrile, an increase in driving-force by 0.2 eV through attachment of tert-butyl substituents to the bpy ancillary ligands causes an increase in electron transfer rates by an order of magnitude. Replacement of a p-xylene bridge by a p-dimethoxybenzene spacer entails an acceleration of charge transfer rates by a factor of 3.5. In the dyads from this study, the relative order of importance of individual influences on electron transfer rates is therefore as follows: solvent polarity ≥ driving-force > donor-bridge energy gap.

  9. Local deforestation patterns and their driving forces of tropical dry forest in two municipalities in Southern Oaxaca, Mexico (1985-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Galicia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The tropical dry forest is an ecosystem that is undergoing rapid changes. Although global driving forces behind these changes have been addressed at a local scale, spatio-temporal dynamics are still largely unknown. The main objective of this study was to identify the causes governing the dynamics of changes in land use and land cover in the tropical dry forest in two municipalities in Southern México. Satellite imagery and air photographs were used in a GIS context to produce maps of land use and land cover for 1985, 1995 and 2006. A number of statistical methods (Markov chains, general lineal models and regression tree analysis were applied to identify the proximate and the underlying causes of deforestation, agriculture being the most important one. When agriculture is mainly for self consumption, topographic factors determine its location. Increasing job opportunities in the tourism sector has resulted in the abandonment of agricultural land; consequently, the forest has recovered. Different studies have examined the dynamics of local deforestation and its driving forces in México; however, this study considered both spatial and temporal elements in order to identify the most important underlying driving forces of deforestation and its dynamics at local scale, and also compared two neighboring municipalities.

  10. Polarization-dependent force driving the Eg mode in bismuth under optical excitation: comparison of first-principles theory with ultra-fast x-ray experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahy, Stephen; Murray, Eamonn

    2015-03-01

    Using first principles electronic structure methods, we calculate the induced force on the Eg (zone centre transverse optical) phonon mode in bismuth immediately after absorption of a ultrafast pulse of polarized light. To compare the results with recent ultra-fast, time-resolved x-ray diffraction experiments, we include the decay of the force due to carrier scattering, as measured in optical Raman scattering experiments, and simulate the optical absorption process, depth-dependent atomic driving forces, and x-ray diffraction in the experimental geometry. We find excellent agreement between the theoretical predictions and the observed oscillations of the x-ray diffraction signal, indicating that first-principles theory of optical absorption is well suited to the calculation of initial atomic driving forces in photo-excited materials following ultrafast excitation. This work is supported by Science Foundation Ireland (Grant No. 12/IA/1601) and EU Commission under the Marie Curie Incoming International Fellowships (Grant No. PIIF-GA-2012-329695).

  11. Plate Tearing by a Cone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    1997-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with steady-state plate tearing by a cone. This is a scenario where a cone is forced through a ductile metal plate with a constant lateral tip penetration in a motion in the plane of the plate. The considered process could be an idealisaton of the damage, which...... as for the out-of-plane reaction force....

  12. Experimental investigation of forced-convection in a finned rhombic tube of the flat-plate solar collectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taherian, Hessam; Yazdanshenas, Eshagh

    2006-01-01

    Due to scarcity of literature on forced-convection heat transfer in a solar collector with rhombic cross-section absorbing tubes, a series of experiments was arranged and conducted to determine heat transfer coefficient. In this study, a typical rhombic cross-section finned tube of flat...

  13. A square-plate ultrasonic linear motor operating in two orthogonal first bending modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhijiang; Li, Xiaotian; Chen, Jianguo; Dong, Shuxiang

    2013-01-01

    A novel square-plate piezoelectric ultrasonic linear motor operated in two orthogonal first bending vibration modes (B₁) is proposed. The piezoelectric vibrator of the linear motor is simply made of a single PZT ceramic plate (sizes: 15 x 15 x 2 mm) and poled in its thickness direction. The top surface electrode of the square ceramic plate was divided into four active areas along its two diagonal lines for exciting two orthogonal B₁ modes. The achieved driving force and speed from the linear motor are 1.8 N and 230 mm/s, respectively, under one pair orthogonal voltage drive of 150 V(p-p) at the resonance frequency of 92 kHz. The proposed linear motor has advantages over conventional ultrasonic linear motors, such as relatively larger driving force, very simple working mode and structure, and low fabrication cost.

  14. Plate tectonics

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chaubey, A.K.

    's continental drift theory was later disproved, it was one of the first times that the idea of crustal movement had been introduced to the scientific community; and it has laid the groundwork for the development of modern plate tectonics. In the early... of the structure of the atom was to physical sciences and the theory of evolution was to the life sciences. Tectonics is the study of the forces within the Earth that give rise to continents, ocean basins, mountain ranges, earthquake belts and other large-scale...

  15. Beyond barriers – A case study on driving forces for improved energy efficiency in the foundry industries in Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Spain, and Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thollander, Patrik; Backlund, Sandra; Trianni, Andrea; Cagno, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Results are based on a questionnaire in the European foundry industry. • The energy efficiency potential is assed to be 7.5% of the total energy use. • Most important drivers to and barriers for energy efficiency are financial followed by organizational. • EPC is used among 23% of the foundries, third party financing among 12%. • Large energy management improvement potentials are uncovered. - Abstract: Energy management plays an important role in the transformation of industrial energy systems towards improved energy efficiency and increased sustainability. This paper aims to study driving forces for improved energy efficiency in some European energy-intensive foundry industries. The investigation has been conducted as a multiple case study involving 65 foundries located in Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Spain, and Sweden. The most relevant perceived driving forces were found to be financially related, followed by organizational driving forces. Nevertheless, some differences can be appreciated according to the firm’s size and country. Almost half of the studied foundries lack a long-term energy strategy, about one-fourth stated that they have used Energy Performance Contracting (EPC), and only approximately one in ten foundries have used Third Party Financing (TPF). Among the studied foundries, three out of five have conducted an energy audit. On average, the energy saving potential according to the respondents is stated to be 7.5%. In conclusion, energy management in the European foundry industry, despite increasing energy prices and extensive energy policy actions taken by the EU, still seems to have great improvement potential, calling for future research and policy actions in the field

  16. The effect of electric field geometry on the performance of electromembrane extraction systems: Footprints of a third driving force along with migration and diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moazami, Hamid Reza [School of Physics and Accelerators, NSTRI, P. O. Box, 11365-8486, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hosseiny Davarani, Saied Saeed, E-mail: ss-hosseiny@sbu.ac.ir [Faculty of Chemistry, Shahid Beheshti University, G. C., 1983963113, Evin, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohammadi, Jamil; Nojavan, Saeed [Faculty of Chemistry, Shahid Beheshti University, G. C., 1983963113, Evin, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abrari, Masoud [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G. C., 1983963113, Evin, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-09-03

    The distribution of electric field vectors was first calculated for electromembrane extraction (EME) systems in classical and cylindrical electrode geometries. The results showed that supported liquid membrane (SLM) has a general field amplifying effect due to its lower dielectric constant in comparison with aqueous donor/acceptor solutions. The calculated norms of the electric field vector showed that a DC voltage of 50 V can create huge electric field strengths up to 64 kV m{sup −1} and 111 kV m{sup −1} in classical and cylindrical geometries respectively. In both cases, the electric field strength reached its peak value on the inner wall of the SLM. In the case of classical geometry, the field strength was a function of the polar position of the SLM whereas the field strength in cylindrical geometry was angularly uniform. In order to investigate the effect of the electrode geometry on the performance of real EME systems, the analysis was carried out in three different geometries including classical, helical and cylindrical arrangements using naproxen and sodium diclofenac as the model analytes. Despite higher field strength and extended cross sectional area, the helical and cylindrical geometries gave lower recoveries with respect to the classical EME. The observed decline of the signal was proved to be against the relations governing migration and diffusion processes, which means that a third driving force is involved in EME. The third driving force is the interaction between the radially inhomogeneous electric field and the analyte in its neutral form. - Highlights: • Electric field vectors have been calculated in EME systems. • A new driving force has been proposed in EME systems. • EME can be theoretically applied to nonionic polarizable analytes.

  17. The effect of electric field geometry on the performance of electromembrane extraction systems: Footprints of a third driving force along with migration and diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moazami, Hamid Reza; Hosseiny Davarani, Saied Saeed; Mohammadi, Jamil; Nojavan, Saeed; Abrari, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    The distribution of electric field vectors was first calculated for electromembrane extraction (EME) systems in classical and cylindrical electrode geometries. The results showed that supported liquid membrane (SLM) has a general field amplifying effect due to its lower dielectric constant in comparison with aqueous donor/acceptor solutions. The calculated norms of the electric field vector showed that a DC voltage of 50 V can create huge electric field strengths up to 64 kV m −1 and 111 kV m −1 in classical and cylindrical geometries respectively. In both cases, the electric field strength reached its peak value on the inner wall of the SLM. In the case of classical geometry, the field strength was a function of the polar position of the SLM whereas the field strength in cylindrical geometry was angularly uniform. In order to investigate the effect of the electrode geometry on the performance of real EME systems, the analysis was carried out in three different geometries including classical, helical and cylindrical arrangements using naproxen and sodium diclofenac as the model analytes. Despite higher field strength and extended cross sectional area, the helical and cylindrical geometries gave lower recoveries with respect to the classical EME. The observed decline of the signal was proved to be against the relations governing migration and diffusion processes, which means that a third driving force is involved in EME. The third driving force is the interaction between the radially inhomogeneous electric field and the analyte in its neutral form. - Highlights: • Electric field vectors have been calculated in EME systems. • A new driving force has been proposed in EME systems. • EME can be theoretically applied to nonionic polarizable analytes.

  18. Using geoinformatics and cultural anthropology to identify links between land change, driving forces and actors in the Okavango catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röder, Achim; Stellmes, Marion; Pröpper, Michael; Schneibel, Anne

    2015-04-01

    intensive uses, although the same processes are likely to occur in parts of the Okavango region in the future. Literature: Banwart, S. (2011). "Save our soils." Nature 474: 151-152. Bürgi, M., A. M. Hersperger, et al. (2004). "Driving forces of landscape change - current and new directions." Landscape Ecology 19: 857-868. Butchart, S. H. M., M. Walpole, et al. (2010). "Global Biodiversity: Indicators of Recent Declines." Science 328(5982): 1164-1168. Ellis, E. C. and N. Ramankutty (2008). "Putting people in the map: anthropogenic biomes of the world." Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 6(8): 439-447. Foley, J. A., R. Defries, et al. (2005). "Global consequences of land use." Science 309(5734): 570-574. Geist, H. J. and E. F. Lambin (2002). "Proximate causes and underlying driving forces of tropical deforestation." BioScience 52(2): 143-150. Haub, C. (2012) World Population Data Sheet. World Population Hein, L., K. van Koppen, et al. (2006). "Spatial scales, stakeholders and the valuation of ecosystem services." Ecological Economics 57: 209-228. Hersperger, A. M., M.-P. Gennaio, et al. (2010). "Linking land change with driving forces and actors: four conceptual models." Ecology and Society 15(4): 1-17. Huang, C., L. S. Davis, et al. (2002). "An assessment of support vector machines for land cover classification." International Journal of Remote Sensing 23(4): 725-749. IPCC (2013). Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. T. F. Stocker, G. Qin, G.-K. Plattneret al. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Jönsson, P. and L. Eklundh (2004). "TIMESAT - a program for analysing time-series of satellite sensor data." Computers and Geosciences 30(833-845). Kowalski, B., N. Azebaze, et al. (2013). "Mashare - The People." Biodiversity & Ecology 5: 121-128. Lal, R. (2013). "Climate-strategic agriculture and the water-soil-waste nexus." Journal of Plant

  19. Smart management - Driving forces and conditions for the development of advanced electricity networks; Smart ledning - Drivkrafter och foerutsaettningar foer utveckling av avancerade elnaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Oerjan; Staahl, Benjamin (Blue Inst., Stockholm (Sweden))

    2011-02-15

    This report describes the development of Intelligent Networks, or Smart Grids. It is divided into two sections. The first section highlights the basics of what is called 'smart' grid technology, what the underlying driving forces are and how the conditions for market looks like. It also depicts the impact on consumers, emerging business logics and ongoing investment and incentives in the world. The first part ends with an operator map of the market. The second part takes a closer look on some key areas and includes a simple reminder of technology related to smart grids

  20. First-principles calculation of the polarization-dependent force driving the Eg mode in bismuth under optical excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Eamonn; Fahy, Stephen

    2014-03-01

    Using first principles electronic structure methods, we calculate the induced force on the Eg (zone centre transverse optical) phonon mode in bismuth immediately after absorption of polarized light. When radiation with polarization perpendicular to the c-axis is absorbed in bismuth, the distribution of excited electrons and holes breaks the three-fold rotational symmetry and leads to a net force on the atoms in the direction perpendicular to the axis. We calculate the initial excited electronic distribution as a function of photon energy and polarization and find the resulting transverse and longitudinal forces experienced by the atoms. Using the measured, temperature-dependent rate of decay of the transverse force[2], we predict the approximate amplitude of induced atomic motion in the Eg mode as a function of temperature and optical fluence. This work is supported by Science Foundation Ireland and a Marie Curie International Incoming Fellowship.

  1. How We Got to the Northern Hemisphere Ice Ages: Late Miocene Global Cooling and Plate Tectonic CO2 Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, T.; Dalton, C. A.; Carchedi, C.

    2017-12-01

    The evolution of Earth's climate between "refrigeration" of East Antarctica and the onset of cyclic Northern Hemisphere glaciation spanned more than 11 Myr. In the latest Miocene (Messinian) time, approximately half way on this journey, changes on land, ranging from the expansion of arid zones to major floral and faunal ecosystem shifts, accelerated. Recent compilations of marine surface temperatures reveal that global cooling from the Miocene Optimum (14-16Ma) also accelerated in late Miocene (7-5.35 Ma) time to reach temperatures not much above Holocene conditions. Both hemispheres cooled in parallel, with the changes amplified at higher latitudes in comparison to the tropics. Despite the strong circumstantial case for CO2 decline as the dominant cause of late Miocene climatic and evolutionary change, proxy indicators of CO2concentrations paint an equivocal picture of greenhouse forcing. Here we provide evidence that global sea floor spreading (SFS) rates decelerated at exactly the times of major climatic cooling, linking a decline in tectonic degassing (at both subduction zones and mid-ocean ridges) to fundamental shifts in the global carbon cycle. Our work utilizes newly available global compilations of seafloor fabric and marine magnetic anomalies provided by the NSF-funded Global Seafloor Fabric and Magnetic Lineation Data Base Project. Previous global compilations of SFS typically binned estimates over 10 Myr increments, losing critical resolution on the timescale of late Neogene climate changes. We further improve the signal:noise of SFS estimates by incorporating recent advances in the astronomical calibration of the Miocene geomagnetic polarity timescale. We use two approaches to compile spreading rate estimates over the past 20 Myr at each spreading system: optimized finite rotation calculations, and averages of sea floor-spreading derived from the distances of magnetic lineations along flow lines on the sea floor. Weighted by ridge length, we find an 25

  2. Driving Forces of Dynamic Changes in Soil Erosion in the Dahei Mountain Ecological Restoration Area of Northern China Based on GIS and RS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao; Niu, Xiang; Wang, Bing; Gao, Peng; Liu, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic change in soil erosion is an important focus of regional ecological restoration research. Here, the dynamic changes of soil erosion and its driving forces in the Dahei Mountain ecological restoration area of northern China were analyzed by LANDSAT TM remote sensing captured via geographic information system (GIS) technologies during three typical periods in 2004, 2008 and 2013. The results showed the following: (1) a decrease in intensive erosion and moderate erosion areas, as well as an increase in light erosion areas, was observed during two periods: one from 2004 to 2008 and the other from 2008 to 2013. (2) Between 2004 and 2008, the variation in the range of slight erosion was the largest (24.28%), followed by light erosion and intensive erosion; between 2008 and 2013, the variation in the range of intensive erosion area was the largest (9.89%), followed by slight erosion and moderate erosion. (3) Socioeconomic impact, accompanied by natural environmental factors, was the main driving force underlying the change in soil erosion within the ecological restoration area. In particular, the socioeconomic factors of per capita forest area and land reclamation rate, as well as the natural environmental factor of terrain slope, significantly influenced soil erosion changes within the ecological restoration area.

  3. Driving forces behind the stagnancy of China's energy-related CO2 emissions from 1996 to 1999: the relative importance of structural change, intensity change and scale change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libo Wu; Kaneko, S.; Matsuoka, S.

    2005-01-01

    It is noteworthy that income elasticity of energy consumption in China shifted from positive to negative after 1996, accompanied by an unprecedented decline in energy-related CO 2 emissions. This paper therefore investigate the evolution of energy-related CO 2 emissions in China from 1985 to 1999 and the underlying driving forces, using the newly proposed three-level 'perfect decomposition' method and provincially aggregated data. The province-based estimates and analyses reveal a 'sudden stagnancy' of energy consumption, supply and energy-related CO 2 emissions in China from 1996 to 1999. The speed of a decrease in energy intensity and a slowdown in the growth of average labor productivity of industrial enterprises may have been the dominant contributors to this 'stagnancy'. The findings of this paper point to the highest rate of deterioration of state-owned enterprises in early 1996, the industrial restructuring caused by changes in ownership, the shutdown of small-scale power plants, and the introduction of policies to improve energy efficiency as probable factors. Taking into account the characteristics of those key driving forces, we characterize China's decline of energy-related CO 2 emissions as a short-term fluctuation and incline to the likelihood that China will resume an increasing trend from a lower starting point in the near future. (author)

  4. Structure and relative importance of ponderomotive forces and current drive generated by converted fast waves in pre-heated low aspect ratio tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuperman, S.; Bruma, C.; Komoshvili, K

    2003-05-12

    The generation in low aspect ratio tokamaks (LARTs) of ponderomotive forces and non-inductive current drive by the resonant fast wave-plasma interaction with mode conversion to kinetic Alfven waves (KAWs) and subsequent deposition, mainly by resonant electron Landau damping, is considered. The calculations follow the rigorous solution of the full wave equations upon using a dielectric tensor operator consisting of (i) a parallel conductivity including both kinetic effects (collisionless Landau damping on passing electrons) and collisional damping on both trapped electrons and passing electrons+ions and (ii) perpendicular components provided by the resistive two-fluid model equations. The fast waves are launched by an antenna located on the low field side and extending {+-}45 deg. about the equatorial plane. A parametric investigation of the structure and importance of the various components of the ponderomotive forces and current drive generated in START-like plasmas is carried out and their suitability for supplementing the required non-rf toroidal equilibrium current is demonstrated.

  5. Analyzing the driving forces behind CO2 emissions and reduction strategies for energy-intensive sectors in Taiwan, 1996–2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Yun-Hsun; Wu, Jung-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Between 1996 and 2006, CO 2 emissions in Taiwan increased by approximately 60%, with the industrial sector accounting for 50% of that increase. Among all industrial sectors, iron and steel, petrochemicals, electronics, textiles, pulp and paper and cement accounted for approximately three-quarters of the total industrial CO 2 emissions. Identifying the driving forces behind increased CO 2 emissions in these six sectors could be valuable for the development of effective environmental policy. This study used two-tier KLEM input–output structural decomposition analysis (I-O SDA) to analyze the factors that lead to changes in CO 2 emissions. Empirical results obtained in Taiwan reveal that increased exports level and elevated domestic autonomous final demand level were the main reasons for increases in CO 2 emissions. Technological changes in materials and labor tended to decrease CO 2 emissions, while the power generation mix contributed significantly to the increase. Relevant strategies for reducing CO 2 emissions from energy-intensive sectors are also highlighted. - Highlights: • Identifying the driving forces behind increased CO 2 emissions is important. • This study uses two-tier KLEM I-O SDA to analyze the changes in CO 2 emissions. • Three issues are identified to achieve future CO 2 emissions reduction in Taiwan

  6. Driving forces and barriers to improved energy performance of buildings: an analysis of energy performance of Swedish buildings, 2000-2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuglseth, Bente Beckstroem

    2008-06-15

    The building sector is responsible for a substantial part of energy use and green house gas emissions in Europe. This report explores driving forces and barriers to improved energy performance of buildings, using the Swedish building sector as a case. The development of energy performance of buildings in Sweden from 2000 until 2006 is explored by applying a threefold understanding of energy performance of buildings: substitution from fossil fuels to renewable energy, conversion from electrical heating to thermal energy and reduction in energy demand. Three explanatory approaches are used to analyse driving forces and barriers to improved energy performance: the techno-economic approach stresses the physical aspects of infrastructure and technologies, the institutional approach emphasizes the role of institutional factors, while the regulative approach focuses on formal rules and laws. The study concludes that all factors have promoted substitution of fossil fuels with renewable energy, while they have prevented conversion from electrical heating to thermal energy and reduction in energy demand. (author). 95 refs

  7. A piezo motor based on a new principle with high output force, rigidity and integrity: The Tuna Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaolong; Lu, Qingyou

    2012-11-01

    We present a linear piezoelectric motor as simple as one piezoelectric scanner tube (PST) spring-clamping a central shaft at both ends with roughly equal clamping forces. The clamping points are aligned with ±X electrodes at one end and ±Y electrodes at the other end. Thus, the ±X (or ±Y) push-pull motions of the PST can cause the push-pull motions of the clamping points on the shaft (called push-pull rubbing), which reduces the total dynamic friction force at one (or the other) end of the PST. This new piezo motor advances one step by fast push-pull rubbing at one end while slowly retracting the PST followed by fast push-pull rubbing at the other end while slowly elongating the PST. Apart from the obvious advantages of simplicity, rigidity, integrity, etc., we will also show that this motor can produce a large output force, which we believe is because of the huge drop of the clamping friction force when the push-pull rubbing occurs.

  8. Up-regulation of Rho/ROCK signaling in sarcoma cells drives invasion and increased generation of protrusive forces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rosel, D.; Brabek, J.; Tolde, O.; Mierke, C.T.; Zitterbart, D.P.; Raupach, C.; Bicanova, K.; Kollmannsberger, P.; Pánková, D.; Veselý, Pavel; Folk, P.; Fabry, B.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 9 (2008), s. 1410-1420 ISSN 1541-7786 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : Rho kinase ROCK * traction force microscopy * ameboid invasion Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.533, year: 2008

  9. Varieties of flood risk governance in Europe: How do countries respond to driving forces and what explains institutional change?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiering, M.A.; Kaufmann, M.; Mees, H.; Schellenberger, T.; Ganzevoort, W.; Hegger, D.L.T.; Larrue, C.; Matczak, P.

    2017-01-01

    Floods are challenging the resilience of societies all over the world. In many countries there are discussions on diversifying the strategies for flood risk management, which implies some sort of policy change. To understand the possibilities of such change, a thorough understanding of the forces of

  10. Waveguide module comprising a first plate with a waveguide channel and a second plate with a raised portion in which a sealing layer is forced into the waveguide channel by the raised portion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassner, II, Bernd H.; Liedtke, Richard; McDonald, Jacob Jeremiah; Halligan, Matthew

    2018-04-17

    The various technologies presented herein relate to utilizing a sealing layer of malleable material to seal gaps, etc., at a joint between edges of a waveguide channel formed in a first plate and a surface of a clamping plate. A compression pad is included in the surface of the clamping plate and is dimensioned such that the upper surface of the pad is less than the area of the waveguide channel opening on the first plate. The sealing layer is placed between the waveguide plate and the clamping plate, and during assembly of the waveguide module, the compression pad deforms a portion of the sealing layer such that it ingresses into the waveguide channel opening. Deformation of the sealing layer results in the gaps, etc., to be filled, improving the operational integrity of the joint.

  11. The Importance of Lower Mantle Structure to Plate Stresses and Plate Motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, W. E.; Wang, X.; Ghosh, A.

    2016-12-01

    Plate motions and plate stresses are widely assumed as the surface expression of mantle convection. The generation of plate tectonics from mantle convection has been studied for many years. Lithospheric thickening (or ridge push) and slab pull forces are commonly accepted as the major driving forces for the plate motions. However, the importance of the lower mantle to plate stresses and plate motions remains less clear. Here, we use the joint modeling of lithosphere and mantle dynamics approach of Wang et al. (2015) to compute the tractions originating from deeper mantle convection and follow the method of Ghosh et al. (2013) to calculate gravitational potential energy per unit area (GPE) based on Crust 1.0 (Laske et al., 2013). Absolute values of deviatoric stresses are determined by the body force distributions (GPE gradients and traction magnitudes applied at the base of the lithosphere). We use the same relative viscosity model that Ghosh et al. (2013) used, and we solve for one single adjustable scaling factor that multiplies the entire relative viscosity field to provide absolute values of viscosity throughout the lithosphere. This distribution of absolute values of lithosphere viscosities defines the magnitudes of surface motions. In this procedure, the dynamic model first satisfies the internal constraint of no-net-rotation of motions. The model viscosity field is then scaled by the single factor until we achieve a root mean square (RMS) minimum between computed surface motions and the kinematic no-net-rotation (NNR) model of Kreemer et al. (2006). We compute plate stresses and plate motions from recently published global tomography models (over 70 based on Wang et al., 2015). We find that RMS misfits are significantly reduced when details of lower mantle structure from the latest tomography models are added to models that contain only upper and mid-mantle density distributions. One of the key reasons is that active upwelling from the Large Low Shear

  12. Plate Tectonics as a Far-From-Equilibrium Self-Organized Dissipative System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D. L.

    2001-12-01

    A fluid above the critical Rayleigh number is far from equilibrium and spontaneously organizes itself into patterns involving the collective motion of large numbers of molecules which are resisted by the viscosity of the fluid. No external template is involved in forming the pattern. In 1928 Pearson showed that Bénard's experiments were driven by variations in surface tension at the top of the fluid and the surface motions drove convection in the fluid. In this case, the surface organized itself AND the underlying fluid. Both internal buoyancy driven flow and flow driven by surface forces can be far-from-equilibrium self-organized open systems that receive energy and matter from the environment. In the Earth, the cold thermal boundary layer at the surface drives plate tectonics and introduces temperature, shear and pressure gradients into the mantle that drive mantle convection. The mantle provides energy and material but may not provide the template. Plate tectonics is therefore a candidate for a far-from-equilibrium dissipative self-organizing system. Alternatively, one could view mantle convection as the self-organized system and the plates as simply the surface manifestation. Lithospheric architecture also imposes lateral temperature gradients onto the mantle which can drive and organize flow. Far-from-equilibrium self-organization requires; an open system, interacting parts, nonlinearities or feedbacks, an outside steady source of energy or matter, multiple possible states and a source of dissipation. In uniform fluids viscosity is the source of dissipation. Sources of dissipation in the plate system include bending, breaking, folding, shearing, tearing, collision and basal drag. These can change rapidly, in contrast to plate driving forces, and introduce the sort of fluctuations that can reorganize far-from-equilibrium systems. Global plate reorganizations can alternatively be thought of as convective overturns of the mantle, or thermal weakening of plates

  13. A theoretical model and experiments on the nonlinear dynamics of parallel plates subjected to laminar/turbulent squeeze-film forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piteau, Philippe; Antunes, Jose

    2012-01-01

    Squeeze film dynamical effects are relevant in many industrial contexts, bearings and seals being the most conspicuous applications, but also in other industrial contexts, for instance when dealing with the seismic excitation of spent fuel racks. The significant nonlinearity of the squeeze-film forces which arise prevents the use of linearized flow models, and a fully nonlinear formulation must be used for adequate computational predictions. Because it can easily accommodate both laminar and turbulence flow effects, a simplified bulk-flow model based on gap-averaged Navier-Stokes equations, incorporating all relevant inertial and dissipative terms was previously developed by the authors, assuming a constant skin-friction coefficient. In this paper we develop an improved theoretical formulation, where the dependence of the friction coefficient on the local flow velocity is explicitly accounted for, such that it can be applied to laminar, turbulent and mixed flows. Numerical solutions for both the basic and improved nonlinear one-dimensional time-domain formulations are presented in the paper. Furthermore, we present and discuss the results of an extensive series of experiments performed at CEA/Saclay, which were performed on a test rig consisting on a long gravity-driven instrumented plate of rectangular shape colliding with a planar surface. Theoretical results stemming from both theoretical flow models are confronted with the experimental measurements, in order to assert the strengths and drawbacks of the simpler original model, as well as the improvements brought by the new but more involved flow formulation. (authors)

  14. Orbital-scale nonlinear response of East Asian summer monsoon to its potential driving forces in the late Quaternary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Liang; Shi, Zhengguo; Tan, Liangcheng; Deng, Chenglong

    2018-03-01

    We conducted a statistical study to characterize the nonlinear response of the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) to its potential forcing factors over the last 260 ka on orbital timescales. We find that both variation in solar insolation and global ice volume were responsible for the nonlinear forcing of orbital-scale monsoonal variations, accounting for 80% of the total variance. Specifically, EASM records with dominated precession variance exhibit a more sensitive response to changes in solar insolation during intervals of enhanced monsoon strength, but are less sensitive during intervals of reduced monsoon strength. In the case of global ice volume with 100-ka variance, this difference is not one of sensitivity but rather a difference in baseline conditions, such as the relative areas of land and sea which affected the land-sea thermal gradient. We therefore suggest that EASM records with dominated precession variance recorded the signal of a shift in the location of the Inter-tropical Convergence Zone, and the associated changes in the incidence of torrential rainfall; while for proxies with dominated 100-ka variance, it recorded changes in the land-sea thermal gradient via its effects on non-torrential precipitation.

  15. Spontaneous formation of small unilamellar vesicles by pH jump: A pH gradient across the bilayer membrane as the driving force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauser, H.; Mantsch, H.H.; Casal, H.L.

    1990-01-01

    31 P NMR and infrared spectroscopic methods have been used to study the formation of small unilamellar vesicles by the pH-jump method. It is shown that increasing the pH of different lamellar phospholipid dispersions (phosphatidic acids and phosphatidylserines) induces a pH gradient. This pH gradient is estimated to be 4 ± 1 pH units, and its direction is such that the inner monolayer of the vesicles is at lower pH. There is spectroscopic evidence for tighter packing of the lipid hydrocarbon chains in the inner monolayer, probably due to the constraints imposed by the high curvature of the small vesicles formed. These results are discussed in terms of the driving force of the spontaneous vesiculation

  16. Dehydrogenation Kinetics and Modeling Studies of MgH2 Enhanced by Transition Metal Oxide Catalysts Using Constant Pressure Thermodynamic Driving Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saidi Temitope Sabitu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of transition metal oxide catalysts (ZrO2, CeO2, Fe3O4 and Nb2O5 on the hydrogen desorption kinetics of MgH2 was investigated using constant pressure thermodynamic driving forces in which the ratio of the equilibrium plateau pressure (pm to the opposing plateau (pop was the same in all the reactions studied. The results showed Nb2O5 to be vastly superior to other catalysts for improving the thermodynamics and kinetics of MgH2. The modeling studies showed reaction at the phase boundary to be likely process controlling the reaction rates of all the systems studied.

  17. Driving forces of redistribution of elements during quasicrystalline phase formation under heating of mechanically alloyed Al65Cu23Fe12 powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tcherdyntsev, V. V.; Kaloshkin, S. D.; Shelekhov, E. V.; Principi, G.; Rodin, A. O.

    2008-02-01

    Al65Cu23Fe12 alloys were prepared by ball milling of the elemental powders mixture. Phase and structural transformations at heating of as-milled powders were investigated by X-ray diffraction analysis. Precision analysis of Mössbauer spectra was performed to check the adequacy of the fitting of X-ray diffraction patterns. The results were compared with the data of differential scanning and solution calorimetry, as well as with the thermodynamic literature data, in order to estimate the driving forces of redistribution of elements that preceded the formation of single-phase quasicrystalline structure. The heat of elements mixing, which is positive for Cu-Fe system and negative for Al-Fe and Al-Cu systems, was supposed to be a decisive factor for phase transformations during heating of the alloy. The correlation between sequence of phase transformations during heating and the thermodynamic data was discussed and the scheme describing phase transformations observed was proposed.

  18. Bimodal atomic force microscopy driving the higher eigenmode in frequency-modulation mode: Implementation, advantages, disadvantages and comparison to the open-loop case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebeling, Daniel; Solares, Santiago D

    2013-01-01

    We present an overview of the bimodal amplitude-frequency-modulation (AM-FM) imaging mode of atomic force microscopy (AFM), whereby the fundamental eigenmode is driven by using the amplitude-modulation technique (AM-AFM) while a higher eigenmode is driven by using either the constant-excitation or the constant-amplitude variant of the frequency-modulation (FM-AFM) technique. We also offer a comparison to the original bimodal AFM method, in which the higher eigenmode is driven with constant frequency and constant excitation amplitude. General as well as particular characteristics of the different driving schemes are highlighted from theoretical and experimental points of view, revealing the advantages and disadvantages of each. This study provides information and guidelines that can be useful in selecting the most appropriate operation mode to characterize different samples in the most efficient and reliable way.

  19. Gibbs energy modelling of the driving forces and calculation of the fcc/hcp martensitic transformation temperatures in Fe-Mn and Fe-Mn-Si alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotes, S.; Fernandez Guillermet, A.; Sade, M.

    1999-01-01

    Very recent, accurate dilatometric measurements of the fcc hcp martensitic transformation (MT) temperatures are used to develop a new thermodynamic description of the fcc and hcp phases in the Fe-Mn-Si system, based on phenomenological models for the Gibbs energy function. The composition dependence of the driving forces for the fcc→hcp and the hcp→fcc MTs is established. Detailed calculations of the MT temperatures are reported, which are used to investigate the systematic effects of Si additions upon the MT temperatures of Fe-Mn alloys. A critical comparison with one of the most recent thermodynamic analyses of the Fe-Mn-Si system, which is due to Forsberg and Agren, is also presented. (orig.)

  20. Analysis of Urban-Rural Land-Use Change during 1995-2006 and Its Policy Dimensional Driving Forces in Chongqing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guihua Dong

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the urban-rural land-use change of Chongqing and its policydimensional driving forces from 1995 to 2006, using high-resolution Landsat TM(Thematic Mapper data of 1995, 2000 and 2006, and socio-economic data from bothresearch institutes and government departments. The outcomes indicated that urban-ruralland-use change in Chongqing can be characterized by two major trends: First, thenon-agricultural land increased substantially from 1995 to 2006, thus causing agriculturalland especially farmland to decrease continuously. Second, the aggregation index of urbansettlements and rural settlements shows that local urban-rural development experienced aprocess of changing from aggregation (1995-2000 to decentralization (2000-2006.Chongqing is a special area getting immersed in many important policies, which includethe establishment of the municipality directly under the Central Government, the buildingof Three Gorges Dam Project, the Western China Development Program and theGrain-for-Green Programme, and bring about tremendous influences on its land-usechange. By analyzing Chongqing’s land-use change and its policy driving forces, someimplications for its new policy of ‘Urban-rural Integrated Reform’ are obtained. That ismore attentions need to be paid to curbing excessive and idle rural housing andconsolidating rural construction land, and to laying out a scientific land-use plan for its rural areas taking such rural land-use issues as farmland occupation and rural housing landmanagement into accounts, so as to coordinate and balance the urban-rural development.

  1. Plate Tearing by a Cone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    1998-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with steady-state plate tearing by a cone. This is a scenario where a cone is forced through a ductile metal plate with a constant lateral tip penetration in a motion in the plane of the plate. The considered process could be an idealisation of the damage, which...... as for the out-of-plane reaction force. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  2. Crystal structure of a trapped catalytic intermediate suggests that forced atomic proximity drives the catalysis of mIPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelon, Kelly; Roberts, Mary F; Stec, Boguslaw

    2011-12-07

    1-L-myo-inositol-phosphate synthase (mIPS) catalyzes the first step of the unique, de novo pathway of inositol biosynthesis. However, details about the complex mIPS catalytic mechanism, which requires oxidation, enolization, intramolecular aldol cyclization, and reduction, are not fully known. To gain further insight into this mechanism, we determined the crystal structure of the wild-type mIPS from Archaeoglobus fulgidus at 1.7 Å, as well as the crystal structures of three active-site mutants. Additionally, we obtained the structure of mIPS with a trapped 5-keto-glucose-6-phosphate intermediate at 2 Å resolution by a novel (to our knowledge) process of activating the crystal at high temperature. A comparison of all of the crystal structures of mIPS described in this work suggests a novel type of catalytic mechanism that relies on the forced atomic proximity of functional groups. The lysine cluster is contained in a small volume in the active site, where random motions of these side chains are responsible for the progress of the complex multistep reaction as well as for the low rate of catalysis. The mechanism requires that functional groups of Lys-274, Lys-278, Lys-306, and Lys-367 assume differential roles in the protonation/deprotonation steps that must occur during the mIPS reaction. This mechanism is supported by the complete loss of activity of the enzyme caused by the Leu-257 mutation to Ala that releases the lysine containment. Copyright © 2011 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The sixth Euratom framework programme 2003-2006: a driving force for the construction of the Nuclear European Research Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Ruiz, P.; Forsstroem, H.; Goethem, G. van

    2005-01-01

    At the Lisbon 2000 summit, a strategic goal was proposed for the European Union: 'to become the most competitive knowledge-based economy with more and better employment and social cohesion by 2010'. Overall, in particular in the community of nuclear fission research, this EC initiative was well accepted by the main stakeholders. In Europe, the main stakeholders (i.e. suppliers and/or demanders) of nuclear research are actually: the research organisations (with mixed public/private funding), the manufacturing industry (or vendors), the utilities (or engineering companies), the regulatory bodies (or technical safety organisations) and the academia (or universities). In response to the Lisbon 2000 objectives, Commissioner P. BUSQUIN launched the concept of European Research Area (ERA) which sets also the frame for the FP-6. In this invited lecture, research and training in nuclear fission are looked at from a nuclear ERA perspective with emphasis on the three success factors of any European integration policy, namely: needs, vision and instruments, that ought to be strongly shared amongst the stakeholders in the EU-25. The following questions are addressed. What is driving the current EU trend towards more research, more education and more training in general? Regarding nuclear fission, in particular, who are the end-users of Euratom 'research and training' and what are their expectations (needs) from EU programmes? Do all stakeholders share the same vision about European research and training in nuclear fission? What are the instruments proposed by the Commission to the end-users to conduct joint research programmes? The above questions are all linked to nuclear knowledge management. It is shown that, in Community research, production of knowledge remains the most important objective, be it to generate products or services. However, dissemination/transfer (e.g. education and training) and exploitation (e.g. innovation) of knowledge become equally important as

  4. Mediterranean coastal dune vegetation: Are disturbance and stress the key selective forces that drive the psammophilous succession?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccarelli, Daniela

    2015-11-01

    Plant communities of coastal dunes are distributed along a characteristic sea-inland gradient. Generally, there is a shift from annual and short height species with small leaves in the initial successional stages to perennial tall shrubs with tough leaves in later phases. Assessing the community-weighted mean (CWM) trait values is used in plant ecology to describe ecosystem properties especially during succession. In particular, CSR (Competitive, Stress-tolerant, and Ruderal strategy) classification allows us to explore community functional shifts in terms of disturbance, stress and competition selective forces. The functional basis of the psammophilous succession was studied based on the following questions: (1) Can we circumscribe different functional types among plant species of Mediterranean coastal dunes? (2) How do CWM trait values vary along the environmental sea-inland gradient? (3) What is the relative importance of competition, stress and disturbance in the processes of plant community assembling? (4) Can we postulate that along primary successions there is generally a shift from ruderality to stress-tolerance? An explorative analysis of functional groups was performed by Non-Metric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS) analysing nine morpho-functional traits measured for 45 taxa from 880 dune plots localised in Tuscany (central Italy, Europe). NMDS ordination showed a scattered distribution of psammophytes that could not be delimited in precise plant functional types. The first NMDS axis has been interpreted as a leaf economics axis because it was correlated to leaf area (LA) and leaf dry matter content (LDMC), while the second one was a plant size axis because of its correlation with canopy height. Along the sea-inland gradient, pioneer plant communities of upper beach were dominated by ruderals (with the lowest values of LDMC and specific leaf area - SLA), well-adapted to the harsh environmental conditions of coastal dunes. More distant from the sea, where

  5. Cold plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marroquin, Christopher M.; O' Connell, Kevin M.; Schultz, Mark D.; Tian, Shurong

    2018-02-13

    A cold plate, an electronic assembly including a cold plate, and a method for forming a cold plate are provided. The cold plate includes an interface plate and an opposing plate that form a plenum. The cold plate includes a plurality of active areas arranged for alignment over respective heat generating portions of an electronic assembly, and non-active areas between the active areas. A cooling fluid flows through the plenum. The plenum, at the non-active areas, has a reduced width and/or reduced height relative to the plenum at the active areas. The reduced width and/or height of the plenum, and exterior dimensions of cold plate, at the non-active areas allow the non-active areas to flex to accommodate surface variations of the electronics assembly. The reduced width and/or height non-active areas can be specifically shaped to fit between physical features of the electronics assembly.

  6. Plating laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seamster, A.G.; Weitkamp, W.G.

    1984-01-01

    The lead plating of the prototype resonator has been conducted entirely in the plating laboratory at SUNY Stony Brook. Because of the considerable cost and inconvenience in transporting personnel and materials to and from Stony Brook, it is clearly impractical to plate all the resonators there. Furthermore, the high-beta resonator cannot be accommodated at Stony Brook without modifying the set up there. Consequently the authors are constructing a plating lab in-house

  7. Preliminary aseismic analysis on bolts of driving mechanism in absorption sphere shutdown system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Feng; Li Tianjin; Zhang Zhengming; Huang Zhiyong; Bo Hanliang

    2012-01-01

    The absorption sphere shutdown system performs an important role in reactivity regulating and control. Driving mechanism is a set of key mechanical moving parts which is used to control falling of absorption spheres in absorption sphere shutdown system. It is about 5 m for driving mechanism with the slim structure, which is connected with the upper supported plate of metal reactor internals through storage vessel with bolts. Both the storage vessel and driving mechanism are equipment of seismic classification I. It is significant to calculate and check the bolts strength of driving mechanism. In this paper, complicate structure of driving mechanism was simplified to three variable cross sections and statically indeterminate problem was solved. The bolts at the bottom and on the top of the storage vessel were calculated and checked. The preliminary results indicate that the bolts strength is reliable and safe, and the supporting force at the most weak point of driving mechanism is as well obtained. (authors)

  8. Nature of macroeconomic equilibrium and driving force of economic cycles in the light of difference between money and exergy forms in cost estimations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandura, A.V. [National Politechnical Univ., Kiev (Ukraine); Brodianskii, V.M. [Moscow Power Engineering Inst. Technical Univ. (Russian Federation)

    1996-11-01

    The main problem of exergy application directly in economic analysis is to find valid correlation between money-based cost and exergy based one (including exergy expenses of labour) and to define exergy cost as an economic category among the existing traditional economic ones. The present report is aimed to search the way for this macroeconomic problems` solution. It is demonstrated that exergy-based cost can be recalculated in a monetary form using a coefficient, defined as a ratio between money supply and the total exergy of all natural resources involved in production process, i.e. as a ratio between monetary and exergy bases. The difference between `natural` and current prices (P) can be used directly both for general quantitative characteristics of an economic cycles driving force and for control of market relationship imperfection. It is shown that for the period of time with the positive P, that is, current price is lower than a `natural` one, the recoveries in business cycles are observed. For the period of time with the negative P, that is, current price is higher than a natural one, economic recessions are observed. The moment of time when P = 0 corresponds to the turning point of a business cycle. In such a way the possibility to predict the turning points of business cycles is demonstrated. 14 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  9. Molecular dynamics simulations shed light on the enthalpic and entropic driving forces that govern the sequence specific recognition between netropsin and DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolenc, Jozica; Gerster, Sarah; van Gunsteren, Wilfred F

    2010-09-02

    With the aim to gain a better understanding of the various driving forces that govern sequence specific DNA minor groove binding, we performed a thermodynamic analysis of netropsin binding to an AT-containing and to a set of six mixed AT/GC-containing binding sequences in the DNA minor groove. The relative binding free energies obtained using molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations show significant variations with the binding sequence. While the introduction of a GC base pair in the middle or close to the middle of the binding site is unfavorable for netropsin binding, a GC base pair at the end of the binding site appears to have no negative influence on the binding. The results of the structural and energetic analyses of the netropsin-DNA complexes reveal that the differences in the calculated binding affinities cannot be explained solely in terms of netropsin-DNA hydrogen-bonding or interaction energies. In addition, solvation effects and entropic contributions to the relative binding free energy provide a more complete picture of the various factors determining binding. Analysis of the relative binding entropy indicates that its magnitude is highly sequence-dependent, with the ratio |TDeltaDeltaS|/|DeltaDeltaH| ranging from 0.07 for the AAAGA to 1.7 for the AAGAG binding sequence, respectively.

  10. Daylighting as the Driving Force of the Design Process: from the Results of a Survey to the Implementation into an Advanced Daylighting Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio R.M. Lo Verso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study for the transformation of an industrial area in Turin, Italy. The area hosts two buildings (one of which appointed as listed to be transformed into dwellings. A synergic approach was adopted which combined expertise from architecture, social-economics, psychology and building physics sciences. Building physics sciences lead the research team. A user-centered design was pursued, using a bottom-up approach. A specifically developed questionnaire was submitted on-line to potential users. The survey showed that ‘amount of daylight’, ‘size of rooms’, ‘tranquility of the area’ and ‘presence of a private garden’ were perceived by users to be the most positive aspects of both their present and future, ideal home. These results were then implemented into the project. The exploitation of daylight became the driving force of the transformation project. Especially for the listed building, skylights and light wells were designed to bring daylight into the cores of the buildings, which host common spaces such as libraries or study rooms. The amount of daylight was assessed through the legislative index of the average daylight factor and through a climate-based modeling approach, calculating dynamic metrics such as the spatial daylight autonomy and the Useful Daylight Illuminance. The paper critically compares and discusses these two approaches. Finally, the energy demand for lighting was also calculated to analyze how the increased exploitation of daylight may imply a reduced need for electricity for lighting.

  11. Very high geothermal gradient in near surface of the Whataroa Valley adjacent to the Alpine Fault: topographic driving forces and permeable mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upton, P.; Sutherland, R.; Townend, J.; Coussens, J.; Capova, L.

    2015-12-01

    The first phase of the Deep Fault Drilling Project (DFDP-1B) yielded a geothermal gradient of 62.6 ± 2.1 °C/km from a depth of 126 m where it intersected the Alpine Fault principal slip surface beneath Gaunt Creek (Sutherland et al. 2012). Ambient fluid pressures in DFDP-2B at Whataroa River were 8-10% above hydrostatic and a geothermal gradient of >130°C/km was determined, the geothermal gradient being considerably higher than we had predicted previously. 3D coupled thermal/fluid flow models have been generated of the Whataroa Valley and the DFDP-2 drill site. Modelling confirms that the following features, present in the Whataroa Valley, are a requirement for a geothermal gradient of >130°C/km at a depth of 1km beneath the valley; high topography, permeability on the order of 10-15 m2 in both the mountains and beneath the valleys to depths of > 1km below the valley floor, and abundant fluid. The high permeability and large topographic driving force leads to abundant meteoric water flowing downward through the mountains, hitting the permeability barrier of the Alpine Fault and being pushed upward into the valleys. The high geothermal gradient of the DFDP-2B borehole implies that the valleys also have a very high permeability which is likely a result of rock damage along the Alpine Fault.

  12. The Driving Forces of Guest Substitution in Gas Hydrates—A Laser Raman Study on CH4-CO2 Exchange in the Presence of Impurities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Beeskow-Strauch

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The recovery of CH4 gas from natural hydrate formations by injection of industrially emitted CO2 is considered to be a promising solution to simultaneously access an unconventional fossil fuel reserve and counteract atmospheric CO2 increase. CO2 obtained from industrial processes may contain traces of impurities such as SO2 or NOx and natural gas hydrates may contain higher hydrocarbons such as C2H6 and C3H8. These additions have an influence on the properties of the resulting hydrate phase and the conversion process of CH4-rich hydrates to CO2-rich hydrates. Here we show results of a microscopic and laser Raman in situ study investigating the effects of SO2-polluted CO2 and mixed CH4-C2H6 hydrate on the exchange process. Our study shows that the key driving force of the exchange processes is the establishment of the chemical equilibrium between hydrate phase and the surrounding phases. The exchange rate is also influenced by the guest-to-cavity ratio as well as the thermodynamic stability in terms of p-T conditions of the original and resulting hydrate phase. The most effective molecule exchange is related to structural changes (sI-sII which indicates that hydrate decomposition and reformation processes are the occurring processes.

  13. North America as driving force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunwald, Markus

    2012-07-01

    The fact that Europe is comparably small in size and densely populated puts limits to the use of PV solar trackers. But that's no reason for the tracker manufacturers to throw in the towel. Those prepared to take a look abroad may yet feel their hearts beat faster.

  14. Driving forces of researchers mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargiulo, Floriana; Carletti, Timoteo

    2014-05-01

    Starting from the dataset of the publication corpus of the APS during the period 1955-2009, we reconstruct the individual researchers trajectories, namely the list of the consecutive affiliations for each scholar. Crossing this information with different geographic datasets we embed these trajectories in a spatial framework. Using methods from network theory and complex systems analysis we characterise these patterns in terms of topological network properties and we analyse the dependence of an academic path across different dimensions: the distance between two subsequent positions, the relative importance of the institutions (in terms of number of publications) and some socio-cultural traits. We show that distance is not always a good predictor for the next affiliation while other factors like ``the previous steps'' of the career of the researchers (in particular the first position) or the linguistic and historical similarity between two countries can have an important impact. Finally we show that the dataset exhibit a memory effect, hence the fate of a career strongly depends from the first two affiliations.

  15. The driving force behind all

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zischka, A.

    1988-01-01

    The book reviews the history of energy uses in the world, arranging the material into three main sections corresponding to the three historical revolutions in the development of man's capacity to use the energy available in the world for his own purposes. These three mile posts are the mastering and utilization of fire, the Neolithic revolution, and the industrial revolution. The author tells the story excitingly and in a fascinating way explaining the very first steps and the long way mankind took, to achieve the technological systems we have now. Concentrating on the developments and interactions of significance to today's situation, the author presents data and information that brings life into history and fosters independent thinking. Right answers need the right questions, so the author tries to find out what has become indispensable for us, since when we have it, and who found it, and why, and what the consequences are for the present generation. The author mentions the persons, their biographies, and their achievements, showing that all knowledge and success was achieved by hard work. (orig./DG) [de

  16. Development of magnetic drive packless valves for commercial purpose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Sung Tai; Choi, J. H.; Jeong, K. C.; Jeong, J. Y.; Choi, Y. D.; Kwon, S. W.; Kim, B. H.

    1997-01-01

    A study on development of magnetic drive packless valves for commercial purpose showed the results as follows: 1) characteristics and principle of the valve 2) study on the radial rays effecting to the permanent magnets 3) effects of temperature on the magnetic driving device a) temperature-dependency of the Nd-casting magnets b) effects of temperature on the heat releasing fins of high-temperature valve 4) optimization of torque a) arranging method of permanent magnets b) measuring method and results of torque 5) enlargement of magnetic rotating force a) experiments for the torque enlargement 6) calculation and pressure test for the pressure-resisting structure of magnetic power transmitting device a) calculation for the flat circular plates under pressure b) pressure test of the separating plate 7) design and manufacture of the valve 8) patent application. (author). 1 ref., 18 tabs., 38 figs

  17. 多倍化是杂草起源与演化的驱动力%Polyploidization, one of the driving forces for weed origin and evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李君; 强胜

    2012-01-01

    杂草及外来植物入侵给全球经济发展及生态环境都带来了严重危害,研究其起源与演化将有助于它们的管理与控制.多倍化是植物进化的主要驱动力量,然而多倍化在杂草起源与演化中的作用还停留在种类统计以及零碎的研究案例证据上.本文综述了植物多倍体基因组结构及基因表达的研究进展以及染色体加倍后的生态学效应.多倍化促进了基因组水平与表型水平的进化,影响物种或群体生存竞争能力和繁殖扩展能力,提高物种或群体生态适应性.这一遗传过程可能促使外来种在新的生境中的成功入侵进而转变为杂草,并提出重视开展对杂草及外来入侵植物的多倍化研究的设想.%Weeds and alien invasive plants have caused tremendously ecological and socio-economic damages and loses worldwide, therefore,it is important to study origin and evolution of weeds for their effective management. Polyploidy is believed to be the main driving force of plant evolution, however, its playing the role in weeds origin and evolution is poorly understood. In this paper we review the progresses on the polyploid genome structure and gene expression and the ecological consequences of chromosome doubling. The polyploidy promotes the evolution of genomic and phenotype, affects the species survival competition, reproduction and expansion capability, and improves the ecological adaptability. Polyploidization can drive the successful invasion of invasive alien species and consequently evolution into a weed in new habitats. In addition, it is proposed that the research works on invasive alien plants may focus on polyploidization function in weed evolution and alien plant invasion.

  18. Revealing the Driving Forces of Mid-Cities Urban Growth Patterns Using Spatial Modeling: a Case Study of Los Ángeles, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio I. Aguayo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available City growth and changes in land-use patterns cause various important social and environmental impacts. To understand the spatial and temporal dynamics of these processes, the factors that drive urban development must be identified and analyzed, especially those factors that can be used to predict future changes and their potential environmental effects. Our objectives were to quantify the relationship between urban growth and its driving forces and to predict the spatial growth pattern based on historical land-use changes for the city of Los Ángeles in central Chile. This involved the analysis of images from 1978, 1992, and 1998 and characterization of the spatial pattern of land-use change; the construction of digital coverage in GIS; the selection of predictive variables through univariate analysis; the construction of logistic regression models using growth vs. nongrowth for 1978-1992 as the dependent variable; and the prediction of the probability of land-use change by applying the regression model to the 1992-1998 period. To investigate the influence of spatial scale, we constructed several sets of models that contained (1 only distance variables, e.g., distance to highways; (2 only scale-dependent density variables, e.g., density of urban area within a 600-m radius; (3 both distance and density variables; and (4 both distance and density variables at several spatial scales. The environmental variables were included in all models. The combination of distance and density variables at several scales is required to appropriately capture the multiscale urban growth process. The best models correctly predict ~90% of the observed land-use changes for 1992-1998. The distance to access roads, densities of the urban road system and urbanized area at various scales, and soil type were the strongest predictors of the growth pattern. Other variables were less important or not significant in explaining the urban growth process. Our approach, which

  19. Assessing driving forces of land use and land cover change by a mixed-method approach in north-eastern Ghana, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleemann, Janina; Baysal, Gülendam; Bulley, Henry N N; Fürst, Christine

    2017-07-01

    Land use and land cover change (LULCC) is the result of complex human-environmental interactions. The high interdependencies in social-ecological systems make it difficult to identify the main drivers. However, knowledge of key drivers of LULCC, including indirect (underlying) drivers which cannot be easily determined by spatial or economic analyses, is essential for land use planning and especially important in developing countries. We used a mixed-method approach in order to detect drivers of LULCC in the Upper East Region of northern Ghana by different qualitative and quantitative methods which were compared in a confidence level analysis. Viewpoints from experts help to answer why the land use is changing, since many triggering effects, especially non-spatial and indirect drivers of LULCC, are not measurable by other methodological approaches. Geo-statistical or economic analyses add to validate the relevance of the expert-based results. First, we conducted in-depth interviews and developed a list of 34 direct and indirect drivers of LULCC. Subsequently, a group of experts was asked in a questionnaire to select the most important drivers by using a Likert scale. This information was complemented by remote sensing analysis. Finally, the driver analysis was compared to information from literature. Based on these analyses there is a very high confidence that population growth, especially in rural areas, is a major driver of LULCC. Further, current farming practice, bush fires, livestock, the road network and climate variability were the main direct drivers while the financial capital of farmers and customary norms regarding land tenure were listed as important indirect drivers with high confidence. Many of these driving forces, such as labour shortage and migration, are furthermore interdependent. Governmental laws, credits, the service by extension officers, conservational agriculture and foreign agricultural medium-scale investments are currently not driving

  20. Comparison of the Resistance to Bending Forces of the 4.5 LCP Plate-rod Construct and of 4.5 LCP Alone Applied to Segmental Femoral Defects in Miniature Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Urbanová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with the determination of mechanical properties, namely resistance to bending forces, of flexible buttress osteosynthesis using two different bone-implant constructs stabilizing experimental segmental femoral bone defects (segmental ostectomy in a miniature pig ex vivo model using 4.5 mm titanium LCP and a 3 mm intramedullary pin (“plate and rod” construct (PR-LCP, versus the 4.5 mm titanium LCP alone (A-LCP. The “plate and rod” fixation (PR-LCP of the segmental femoral defect is significantly more resistant (p in vivo experiments in the miniature pig to investigate bone defect healing after transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells in combination with biocompatible scaffolds.

  1. Contrasting evolution patterns between glacier-fed and non-glacier-fed lakes in the central Tibetan Plateau and driving force analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, C.; Sheng, Y.

    2015-12-01

    High-altitude lakes in the Tibetan Plateau (TP) showed strong spatio-temporal variability during past decades. The lake dynamics can be associated with several key factors including lake type, supply of glacial meltwater, local climate variations. It is important to differentiate these factors when analyzing the driving force of lakes dynamics. With a focus on lakes over the Tanggula Mountains of the central TP, this study investigates the temporal evolution patterns of lake area and water level of different types: glacier-fed closed lake, non-glacier-fed closed lake and upstream lake (draining into closed lakes). We collected all available Landsat archive data and quantified the inter-annual variability of lake extents. Results show accelerated expansions of both glacier-fed and non-glacier-fed lakes during 1970s-2013, and different temporal patterns of the two types of lakes: the non-glacier-fed lakes displayed a batch-wise growth pattern, with obvious growth in 2002, 2005 and 2011 and slight changes in other years, while glacier-fed lakes showed steady expanding tendency. The contrasting patterns are confirmed by the distinction of lake level change between the two groups derived from satellite altimetry during 2003-2009. The upstream lakes remained largely stable due to natural drainage regulation. The intermittent expansions for non-glacier-fed lakes were found to be related to excessive precipitation events and positive "precipitation-evaporation". In contrast, glacier-fed lake changes showed weak correlations with precipitation variations, which imply a joint contribution from glacial meltwater to water budgets. A simple estimation reveals that the increased water storage for all of examined lakes contributed from precipitation/evaporation (0.31±0.09 Gt/yr) slightly overweighed the glacial meltwater supply (0.26±0.08 Gt/yr).

  2. No quantum friction between uniformly moving plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philbin, T G; Leonhardt, U [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS, Scotland (United Kingdom)], E-mail: tgp3@st-andrews.ac.uk

    2009-03-15

    The Casimir forces between two plates moving parallel to each other at arbitrary constant speed are found by calculating the vacuum electromagnetic stress tensor. The perpendicular force between the plates is modified by the motion but there is no lateral force on the plates. Electromagnetic vacuum fluctuations do not therefore give rise to 'quantum friction' in this case, contrary to previous assertions. The result shows that the Casimir-Polder force on a particle moving at constant speed parallel to a plate also has no lateral component.

  3. No quantum friction between uniformly moving plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philbin, T G; Leonhardt, U

    2009-01-01

    The Casimir forces between two plates moving parallel to each other at arbitrary constant speed are found by calculating the vacuum electromagnetic stress tensor. The perpendicular force between the plates is modified by the motion but there is no lateral force on the plates. Electromagnetic vacuum fluctuations do not therefore give rise to 'quantum friction' in this case, contrary to previous assertions. The result shows that the Casimir-Polder force on a particle moving at constant speed parallel to a plate also has no lateral component.

  4. Drive Stands

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electrical Systems Laboratory (ESL)houses numerous electrically driven drive stands. A drive stand consists of an electric motor driving a gearbox and a mounting...

  5. A Quadruped Micro-Robot Based on Piezoelectric Driving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Su

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Inspired by a way of rowing, a new piezoelectric driving quadruped micro-robot operating in bending-bending hybrid vibration modes was proposed and tested in this work. The robot consisted of a steel base, four steel connecting pins and four similar driving legs, and all legs were bonded by four piezoelectric ceramic plates. The driving principle is discussed, which is based on the hybrid of first order vertical bending and first order horizontal bending vibrations. The bending-bending hybrid vibration modes motivated the driving foot to form an elliptical trajectory in space. The vibrations of four legs were used to provide the driving forces for robot motion. The proposed robot was fabricated and tested according to driving principle. The vibration characteristics and elliptical movements of the driving feet were simulated by FEM method. Experimental tests of vibration characteristics and mechanical output abilities were carried out. The tested resonance frequencies and vibration amplitudes agreed well with the FEM calculated results. The size of robot is 36 mm × 98 mm × 14 mm, its weight is only 49.8 g, but its maximum load capacity achieves 200 g. Furthermore, the robot can achieve a maximum speed of 33.45 mm/s.

  6. Estímulos ao Desenvolvimento Tecnológico: Influência do Mercado Driving Forces for Technology Development: Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José de A. Cid

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Hoje em dia não se discute mais a importância da Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento para a sobrevivência e longevidade de uma Empresa. Todo tipo de indústria sente o impacto do aumento da competição e da velocidade dos avanços tecnológicos. Entretanto, os recursos estão escassos, tanto para as despesas necessárias às atividades de negócio quanto para a pesquisa, o que deixa os gerentes com a difícil tarefa de decidir onde os recursos serão aplicados. Anos atrás, quando os recursos eram (aparentemente ilimitados a força que impulsionava a pesquisa era o desafio da descoberta do novo. A complexidade do processo, os intricados métodos de análise, a quebra de barreiras do conhecimento, alimentavam as mentes dos cientistas. Depois da pesquisa, os profissionais de marketing deveriam encontrar mercados para os novos produtos. Atualmente a pesquisa de mercado, as ferramentas de análise de negócio e outros aspectos outrora desconhecidos dos cientistas dominam as mesas dos gerentes. Este artigo descreve três diferentes abordagens na distribuição de recursos para pesquisa e resume alguns dos princípios que ajudam as empresas a funcionar melhor.Nowadays the importance of Research and Development to a Company survival and longevity is well known. Virtually every industry feels the impact of increased competition and the fast pace of technology change. However, resources are getting scarce, both for doing business and research as well, leaving managers with the tough job of selecting which project will get funding. Years ago, when money was (seemingly unlimited the driving force to research was the challenge of inventing something new. The process complexity, the intricate analysis methods, the breaking of new frontiers were the food for the scientists inquiring minds. Then marketing professionals had to work to find or create market. Now market research, business analysis tools and other aspects once unknown to scientists rule. This article

  7. Study on HCl Driving Force for the Reaction of NaCl-Maleic Acid Mixing Single Droplet Using Micro-FTIR Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiang; Zhang, Yunhong

    2016-04-01

    Chemical aging is the one of the most important physicochemical process in atmospheric aerosols. Mixing of sea salt and water-soluble organic components has profound effects on the volatile characteristic and evolving chemical composition of the anthropogenic origin aerosols, which are poorly understood. In this study, the chemical reaction behavior of the mixture of NaCl and maleic acid (H2MA) micron-level single droplet was investigated using a gas-flow system combined with microscopic Fourier transform infrared (micro-FTIR) spectrometer over the range of relative humidity (63˜95% RH) for the first time. The results showed that the mixture of NaCl and H2MA single droplet could react to form monosodium maleate salt (NaHMA) at the constant RH from the characterization of the FTIR. The reaction is a result of an acid displacement reaction R1, which is driven by high volatility of the HCl product. NaCl(aq)+H2MA(aq)=NaHMA(aq)+HCl(aq,g) (R1) According to the change tendency of the absorbance values of 1579 cm-1 COO- stretching band of the NaHMA dependent upon reaction times at different RHs, the growth range of the trend which could lead to the faster reaction rate was obvious at lower RH. The water content of the droplet was also more likely to reduce rapidly with the loss of the RH from the absorbance changes of 3400 cm-1H2O stretching band dependent upon reaction times. These may be due to irreversible evaporation of HCl gas which is the main driving force for this type of reaction and the NaHMA is a less hygroscopic component compared to H2MA. And the HCl gas is more likely to evaporate faster from the single droplet and promote the reaction rate and the consumption of water content at lower RH. These results could help in understanding the chemical conversion processes of water-soluble dicarboxylic acids to dicarboxylate salts, as well as the consumption of Cl in sea salt aerosols by organic acids in the atmosphere.

  8. Dementia & Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have to give up driving. Many people associate driving with self-reliance and freedom; the loss of driving privileges ... familiar roads and avoid long distances. Avoid heavy traffic and heavily traveled roads. Avoid driving at night and in bad weather. Reduce the ...

  9. Hydroelasticity of a Floating Plate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, X.; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Cui, W.

    2003-01-01

    The membrane forces are included in the hydroelastic analysis of a floating plate undergoing large vertical deflections in regular monochromatic multidirectional waves. The first-order vertical displacements induced by the linear wave exciting forces are calculated by the mode expansion method in...

  10. On the effects from the simultaneous occurrence of the critical Casimir and dispersion forces between conical colloid particle and a thick plate immersed in nonpolar critical fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valchev Galin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we study the interplay between the van der Waals (vdWF and critical Casimir forces (CCF, as well as the total force (TF between a conical colloid particle and a thick planar slab. We do that using general scaling arguments and mean-field type calculations utilizing the so-called “surface integration approach”, a generalization of the well known Derjaguin approximation. Its usage in the present research, requires knowledge on the forces between two parallel slabs, confining in between some fluctuating fluid medium characterized by its temperature T and chemical potential μ. The surfaces of the colloid particle and the slab are assumed coated by thin layers exerting strong preference to the liquid phase of a simple fluid, or one of the components of a binary mixture, modeled by strong adsorbing local surface potentials, ensuring the so-called (+,+ boundary conditions. On the other hand, the core region of the slab and the particle, influence the fluid by long-ranged competing dispersion potentials. We demonstrate that for a suitable set of colloid-fluid, slab-fluid, and fluid-fluid coupling parameters the competition between the effects due to the coatings and the core regions of the objects, result, when one changes T or μ, in sign change of the Casimir force (CF and the TF acting between the colloid and the slab. Such an effect can provide a strategy for solving problems with handling, feeding, trapping and fixing of microparts in nanotechnology.

  11. A self-similar solution of a curved shock wave and its time-dependent force variation for a starting flat plate airfoil in supersonic flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zijun CHEN

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The problem of aeroelasticity and maneuvering of command surface and gust wing interaction involves a starting flow period which can be seen as the flow of an airfoil attaining suddenly an angle of attack. In the linear or nonlinear case, compressive Mach or shock waves are generated on the windward side and expansive Mach or rarefaction waves are generated on the leeward side. On each side, these waves are composed of an oblique steady state wave, a vertically-moving one-dimensional unsteady wave, and a secondary wave resulting from the interaction between the steady and unsteady ones. An analytical solution in the secondary wave has been obtained by Heaslet and Lomax in the linear case, and this linear solution has been borrowed to give an approximate solution by Bai and Wu for the nonlinear case. The structure of the secondary shock wave and the appearance of various force stages are two issues not yet considered in previous studies and has been studied in the present paper. A self-similar solution is obtained for the secondary shock wave, and the reason to have an initial force plateau as observed numerically is identified. Moreover, six theoretical characteristic time scales for pressure load variation are determined which explain the slope changes of the time-dependent force curve. Keywords: Force, Self-similar solution, Shock-shock interaction, Shock waves, Unsteady flow

  12. Distracted driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... including maps) The Dangers of Talking on the Phone While Driving You are four times more likely to get ... of reach. If you are caught using a phone while driving, you may risk a ticket or fine. Most ...

  13. Distracted Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and increased awareness of distracted driving using radio advertisements, news stories, and similar media. After the projects ... available at www.trafficsafetymarketing.gov . Distracted Driving Enforcement – TV Ads (Paid). For re-tagging, go to: www. ...

  14. [Innovation drive is the original motive force of discipline construction: the developing road of Department of Burns and Plastic Surgery in the 309th Hospital of PLA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, C Y

    2018-03-20

    Discipline construction is a systematic project, covering clinic, teaching, scientific research, management, and humanity. Based on the perspective of innovation drive, from the aspects of discipline structure setting, specialized laboratory construction, sub-specialty formation, clinical characteristic and advantage formation, and management concept update, this article summarizes the growth process of Department of Burns and Plastic Surgery in the 309th Hospital of PLA.

  15. [Driving forces of carbon emission from energy consumption in China old industrial cities: a case study of Shenyang City, Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wan-Xia; Geng, Yong; Xue, Bing

    2012-10-01

    To quantitatively analyze the effects of anthropogenic factors on regional environmental quality is a hot topic in the field of sustainable development research. Taking the typical old industrial city Shenyang in Northeast China as a case, and by using the IPCC method for calculating carbon emission from energy consumption, this paper estimated the carbon emission from energy consumption in the city in 1978-2009, and a time series analysis on the anthropogenic factors driving this carbon emission was made by the STIRPAT model based upon Kaya equation and ridge regression. In 1978-2009, the carbon emission in the city had a slow increase first, slow decrease then, and a rapid increase thereafter. The total carbon emission in 2009 was 4.6 times of that in 1978. Population growth was the main factor driving the growth of the emission, and there existed an equal-proportional variation between the population growth and the carbon emission growth. Urbanization was another main driving factor followed by population growth, and the per capita GDP was positively correlated with the carbon emission. Kuznets curve did not exist for the relationship between economic development and carbon emission in Shenyang. Energy source intensity reduction (representing technology improvement) was the main factor driving the reduction of the total carbon emission.

  16. Voluntary drive-dependent changes in vastus lateralis motor unit firing rates during a sustained isometric contraction at 50% of maximum knee extension force.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruiter, C.J.; Elzinga, M.J.; Verdijk, PW; van Mechelen, W.; de Haan, A.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to relate the expected inter-subject variability in voluntary drive of the knee extensor muscles during a sustained isometric contraction to the changes in firing rates of single motor units. Voluntary activation, as established with super-imposed electrical

  17. Steel-plate composite (SC) walls for safety related nuclear facilities: Design for in-plane forces and out-of-plane moments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varma, Amit H.; Malushte, Sanjeev R.; Sener, Kadir C.; Lai, Zhichao

    2014-01-01

    Steel-concrete (SC) composite walls being considered and used as an alternative to conventional reinforced concrete (RC) walls in safety-related nuclear facilities due to their construction economy and structural efficiency. However, there is a lack of standardized codes for SC structures, and design guidelines and approaches are still being developed. This paper presents the development and verification of: (a) mechanics based model, and (b) detailed nonlinear finite element model for predicting the behavior and failure of SC wall panels subjected to combinations of in-plane forces. The models are verified using existing test results, and the verified models are used to explore the behavior of SC walls subjected to combinations of in-plane forces and moments. The results from these investigations are used to develop an interaction surface in principle force (S p1 –S p2 ) space that can be used to design or check the adequacy of SC wall panels. The interaction surface is easy to develop since it consists of straight line segments connecting anchor points defined by the SC wall section strengths in axial tension, in-plane shear, and compression. Both models and the interaction surface (for design) developed in this paper are recommended for future work. However, in order to use these approaches, the SC wall section should be detailed with adequate shear connector and tie bar strength and spacing to prevent non-ductile failure modes

  18. Electric drives

    CERN Document Server

    Boldea, Ion

    2005-01-01

    ENERGY CONVERSION IN ELECTRIC DRIVESElectric Drives: A DefinitionApplication Range of Electric DrivesEnergy Savings Pay Off RapidlyGlobal Energy Savings Through PEC DrivesMotor/Mechanical Load MatchMotion/Time Profile MatchLoad Dynamics and StabilityMultiquadrant OperationPerformance IndexesProblemsELECTRIC MOTORS FOR DRIVESElectric Drives: A Typical ConfigurationElectric Motors for DrivesDC Brush MotorsConventional AC MotorsPower Electronic Converter Dependent MotorsEnergy Conversion in Electric Motors/GeneratorsPOWER ELECTRONIC CONVERTERS (PECs) FOR DRIVESPower Electronic Switches (PESs)The

  19. Characterizing Spatiotemporal Pattern of Land Use Change and Its Driving Force Based on GIS and Landscape Analysis Techniques in Tianjin during 2000–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yafei Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The spatial and temporal characteristics and driving factors analysis of regional land use are the core scientific problems in the research of ecological environment and human sustainable development. It is also an important basis for the government to formulate land management policy. Based on the land use maps of 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2015, this article analyzed the spatiotemporal pattern of land use change in Tianjin, and determined the relative importance of each driving factor of land use change. The main features of land use change were the continuous expansion of built-up land (1386.89 km2/74.73% gains and the decrease of arable land area (1181.60 km2/16.84% losses. The area and intensity of land use change were not completely consistent, such as Wuqing and Jixian. The hotspots of land use change mainly were located in the main urban region in Tianjin, around the suburban settlements and Binhai New Area. The landscape pattern in the research region has also changed significantly. The Largest patch index (LPI and largest shape index (LSI of arable land showed an increasing trend, and the degree of landscape fragmentation of arable land was deepened. The trend of landscape index of built-up land was similar to that of arable land, but the change intensity was more severe. In addition, the article also used the stepwise regression analysis in the multiple regression to analyze the relative importance of various driving factors, indicating that the driving factors of the built-up land and arable land change were obviously different in different periods. Government policies also have a significant impact on land use change, such as establishing the Tianjin Binhai New Area (TBNA.

  20. Earth's Decelerating Tectonic Plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forte, A M; Moucha, R; Rowley, D B; Quere, S; Mitrovica, J X; Simmons, N A; Grand, S P

    2008-08-22

    Space geodetic and oceanic magnetic anomaly constraints on tectonic plate motions are employed to determine a new global map of present-day rates of change of plate velocities. This map shows that Earth's largest plate, the Pacific, is presently decelerating along with several other plates in the Pacific and Indo-Atlantic hemispheres. These plate decelerations contribute to an overall, globally averaged slowdown in tectonic plate speeds. The map of plate decelerations provides new and unique constraints on the dynamics of time-dependent convection in Earth's mantle. We employ a recently developed convection model constrained by seismic, geodynamic and mineral physics data to show that time-dependent changes in mantle buoyancy forces can explain the deceleration of the major plates in the Pacific and Indo-Atlantic hemispheres.

  1. Robot Arm with Tendon Connector Plate and Linear Actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor); Bridgwater, Lyndon (Inventor); Nguyen, Vienny (Inventor); Millerman, Alexander (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A robotic system includes a tendon-driven end effector, a linear actuator, a flexible tendon, and a plate assembly. The linear actuator assembly has a servo motor and a drive mechanism, the latter of which translates linearly with respect to a drive axis of the servo motor in response to output torque from the servo motor. The tendon connects to the end effector and drive mechanism. The plate assembly is disposed between the linear actuator assembly and the tendon-driven end effector and includes first and second plates. The first plate has a first side that defines a boss with a center opening. The second plate defines an accurate through-slot having tendon guide channels. The first plate defines a through passage for the tendon between the center opening and a second side of the first plate. A looped end of the flexible tendon is received within the tendon guide channels.

  2. Multiregional Input-Output Analysis of Spatial-Temporal Evolution Driving Force for Carbon Emissions Embodied in Interprovincial Trade and Optimization Policies: Case Study of Northeast Industrial District in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hao; Dong, Suocheng; Li, Fujia; Yang, Yang; Li, Shantong; Li, Yu

    2018-01-02

    In the counties with rapid economy and carbon emissions (CEs) growth, CEs embodied in interprovincial trade (CEs-PT) significantly impacts the CEs amount and structure and represents a key issue to consider in CEs reduction policies formulation. This study applied EEBT and two-stage SDA model to analyze the characteristics and driving force of spatial-temporal evolution for net CEs-PT outflow in the Northeast Industrial District of China (NID). We found that, during 1997-2007, the net CEs-PT flowed out from NID to 16 south and east provinces, then to 23 provinces all over China, and its amount has increased 216.798Mt (by 211.67% per year). The main driving forces are technology and demand (further decomposed into structure and scale matrix); the contribution are 71.6418 Mt and 145.1562 Mt. Then, we constructed coupling relationship model and took the top three industries with the greatest net CEs-PT outflow (farming, forestry, animal husbandry and fisheries, electricity and heat production and supply, petroleum processing, coking, and nuclear fuel processing) as examples, adjusted the interprovincial trade constructions, scales, and objects, to reduce the CEs-PT with lower costs, greater effect, and more equitability. The achievement could provide reference for formulating CEs reduction policies for similar areas in the world characterized by rapid growth of economy and CEs.

  3. Pile Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Machine-oriented structural engineering firm TERA, Inc. is engaged in a project to evaluate the reliability of offshore pile driving prediction methods to eventually predict the best pile driving technique for each new offshore oil platform. Phase I Pile driving records of 48 offshore platforms including such information as blow counts, soil composition and pertinent construction details were digitized. In Phase II, pile driving records were statistically compared with current methods of prediction. Result was development of modular software, the CRIPS80 Software Design Analyzer System, that companies can use to evaluate other prediction procedures or other data bases.

  4. Sign change in the net force in sphere-plate and sphere-sphere systems immersed in nonpolar critical fluid due to the interplay between the critical Casimir and dispersion van der Waals forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valchev, Galin; Dantchev, Daniel

    2017-08-01

    We study systems in which both long-ranged van der Waals and critical Casimir interactions are present. The latter arise as an effective force between bodies when immersed in a near-critical medium, say a nonpolar one-component fluid or a binary liquid mixture. They are due to the fact that the presence of the bodies modifies the order parameter profile of the medium between them as well as the spectrum of its allowed fluctuations. We study the interplay between these forces, as well as the total force (TF) between a spherical colloid particle and a thick planar slab and between two spherical colloid particles. We do that using general scaling arguments and mean-field-type calculations utilizing the Derjaguin and the surface integration approaches. They both are based on data of the forces between two parallel slabs separated at a distance L from each other, confining the fluctuating fluid medium characterized by its temperature T and chemical potential μ. The surfaces of the colloid particles and the slab are coated by thin layers exerting strong preference to the liquid phase of the fluid, or one of the components of the mixture, modeled by strong adsorbing local surface potentials, ensuring the so-called (+,+) boundary conditions. On the other hand, the core region of the slab and the particles influence the fluid by long-ranged competing dispersion potentials. We demonstrate that for a suitable set of colloids-fluid, slab-fluid, and fluid-fluid coupling parameters, the competition between the effects due to the coatings and the core regions of the objects involved result, when one changes T, μ, or L, in sign change of the Casimir force (CF) and the TF acting between the colloid and the slab, as well as between the colloids. This can be used for governing the behavior of objects, say colloidal particles, at small distances, say in colloid suspensions for preventing flocculation. It can also provide a strategy for solving problems with handling, feeding

  5. Sign change in the net force in sphere-plate and sphere-sphere systems immersed in nonpolar critical fluid due to the interplay between the critical Casimir and dispersion van der Waals forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valchev, Galin; Dantchev, Daniel

    2017-08-01

    We study systems in which both long-ranged van der Waals and critical Casimir interactions are present. The latter arise as an effective force between bodies when immersed in a near-critical medium, say a nonpolar one-component fluid or a binary liquid mixture. They are due to the fact that the presence of the bodies modifies the order parameter profile of the medium between them as well as the spectrum of its allowed fluctuations. We study the interplay between these forces, as well as the total force (TF) between a spherical colloid particle and a thick planar slab and between two spherical colloid particles. We do that using general scaling arguments and mean-field-type calculations utilizing the Derjaguin and the surface integration approaches. They both are based on data of the forces between two parallel slabs separated at a distance L from each other, confining the fluctuating fluid medium characterized by its temperature T and chemical potential μ . The surfaces of the colloid particles and the slab are coated by thin layers exerting strong preference to the liquid phase of the fluid, or one of the components of the mixture, modeled by strong adsorbing local surface potentials, ensuring the so-called (+,+) boundary conditions. On the other hand, the core region of the slab and the particles influence the fluid by long-ranged competing dispersion potentials. We demonstrate that for a suitable set of colloids-fluid, slab-fluid, and fluid-fluid coupling parameters, the competition between the effects due to the coatings and the core regions of the objects involved result, when one changes T , μ , or L , in sign change of the Casimir force (CF) and the TF acting between the colloid and the slab, as well as between the colloids. This can be used for governing the behavior of objects, say colloidal particles, at small distances, say in colloid suspensions for preventing flocculation. It can also provide a strategy for solving problems with handling, feeding

  6. Fringe Capacitance of a Parallel-Plate Capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, D. P.

    1978-01-01

    Describes an experiment designed to measure the forces between charged parallel plates, and determines the relationship among the effective electrode area, the measured capacitance values, and the electrode spacing of a parallel plate capacitor. (GA)

  7. A new force emerges from the dark side: evidence is growing that an intrinsic property of the universe is helping to drive its expansion

    CERN Multimedia

    Cookson, C

    2003-01-01

    "Astronomical surveys over the past five years have forced cosmologists to conclude that ordinary matter - in the form of familiar stars, planets and interstellar dust or more exotic objects, such as quasars and neutron stars - makes up only 4 per cent of the universe" (1 page).

  8. A square-plate piezoelectric linear motor operating in two orthogonal and isomorphic face-diagonal-bending modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ci, Penghong; Chen, Zhijiang; Liu, Guoxi; Dong, Shuxiang

    2014-01-01

    We report a piezoelectric linear motor made of a single Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 square-plate, which operates in two orthogonal and isomorphic face-diagonal-bending modes to produce precision linear motion. A 15 × 15 × 2 mm prototype was fabricated, and the motor generated a driving force of up to 1.8 N and a speed of 170 mm/s under an applied voltage of 100 Vpp at the resonance frequency of 136.5 kHz. The motor shows such advantages as large driving force under relatively low driving voltage, simple structure, and stable motion because of its isomorphic face-diagonal-bending mode.

  9. Buckling analysis for axially compressed flat plates, structural sections, and stiffened plates reinforced with laminated composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, A. V.; Soong, T.; Miller, R. E., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    A classical buckling analysis is developed for stiffened, flat plates composed of a series of linked plate and beam elements. Plates are idealized as multilayered orthotropic elements. Structural beads and lips are idealized as beams. The loaded edges of the stiffened plate are simply-supported and the conditions at the unloaded edges can be prescribed arbitrarily. The plate and beam elements are matched along their common junctions for displacement continuity and force equilibrium in an exact manner. Offsets between elements are considered in the analysis. Buckling under uniaxial compressive load for plates, sections, and stiffened plates is investigated. Buckling loads are the lowest of all possible general and local failure modes, and the mode shape is used to determine whether buckling is a local or general instability. Numerical correlations with existing analysis and test data for plates, sections, and stiffened plates including boron-reinforced structures are discussed. In general correlations are reasonably good.

  10. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Plate Share Create Your Plate ! Share: Seven Simple Steps to Create Your Plate It's simple and effective ... foods within each food category. Try these seven steps to get started: Using your dinner plate, put ...

  11. Control rod drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawke, B.C.

    1986-01-01

    A reactor core, one or more control rods, and a control rod drive are described for selectively inserting and withdrawing the one or more control rods into and from the reactor core, which consists of: a support structure secured beneath the reactor core; control rod positioning means supported by the support structure for movably supporting the control rod for movement between a lower position wherein the control rod is located substantially beneath the reactor core and an upper position wherein at least an upper portion of the control rod extends into the reactor core; transmission means; primary drive means connected with the control rod positioning means by the transmission means for positioning the control rod under normal operating conditions; emergency drive means for moving the control rod from the lower position to the upper position under emergency conditions, the emergency drive means including a weight movable between an upper and a lower position, means for movably supporting the weight, and means for transmitting gravitational force exerted on the weight to the control rod positioning means to move the control rod upwardly when the weight is pulled downwardly by gravity; the transmission means connecting the control rod positioning means with the emergency drive means so that the primary drive means effects movement of the weight and the control rod in opposite directions under normal conditions, thus providing counterbalancing to reduce the force required for upward movement of the control rod under normal conditions; and restraint means for restraining the fall of the weight under normal operating conditions and disengaging the primary drive means to release the weight under emergency conditions

  12. Impaired Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Get the Facts What Works: Strategies to Increase Car Seat and Booster Seat ... narcotics. 3 That’s one percent of the 111 million self-reported episodes of alcohol-impaired driving among U.S. ...

  13. Dual role of an ac driving force and the underlying two distinct order–disorder transitions in the vortex phase diagram of Ca3Ir4Sn13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Santosh; Singh, Ravi P.; Thamizhavel, A.; Tomy, C.V.; Grover, A.K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • This work pertains to new findings related to a broad SMP anomaly. • Broad SMP prima facie encompasses two phase transformations in vortex matter. • We demarcated two phase boundaries pertaining to order–disorder transitions which have quasi first-order nature. - Abstract: We present distinct demarcation of the Bragg glass (BG) to multi-domain vortex glass (VG) transition line and the eventual amorphization of the VG phase in a weakly pinned single crystal of the superconducting compound Ca 3 Ir 4 Sn 13 on the basis of comprehension of the different yields about the second magnetization peak (SMP) anomaly in the dc magnetization and the corresponding anomalous feature in the ac susceptibility measurements. The shaking by a small ac magnetic field, inevitably present in the ac susceptibility measurements, is seen to result in contrasting responses in two different portions of the field-temperature (H, T) phase space of the multi-domain VG. In one of the portions, embracing the BG to VG transition across the onset of the SMP anomaly, the ac drive is surprisingly seen to assist the transformation of the well ordered BG phase to a lesser ordered VG phase. The BG phase exists as a superheated state over a small portion of the VG space and this attests to the first order nature of the BG to VG transition

  14. Pacific plate slab pull and intraplate deformation in the early Cenozoic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. P. Butterworth

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Large tectonic plates are known to be susceptible to internal deformation, leading to a~range of phenomena including intraplate volcanism. However, the space and time dependence of intraplate deformation and its relationship with changing plate boundary configurations, subducting slab geometries, and absolute plate motion is poorly understood. We utilise a buoyancy-driven Stokes flow solver, BEM-Earth, to investigate the contribution of subducting slabs through time on Pacific plate motion and plate-scale deformation, and how this is linked to intraplate volcanism. We produce a series of geodynamic models from 62 to 42 Ma in which the plates are driven by the attached subducting slabs and mantle drag/suction forces. We compare our modelled intraplate deformation history with those types of intraplate volcanism that lack a clear age progression. Our models suggest that changes in Cenozoic subduction zone topology caused intraplate deformation to trigger volcanism along several linear seafloor structures, mostly by reactivation of existing seamount chains, but occasionally creating new volcanic chains on crust weakened by fracture zones and extinct ridges. Around 55 Ma, subduction of the Pacific-Izanagi ridge reconfigured the major tectonic forces acting on the plate by replacing ridge push with slab pull along its northwestern perimeter, causing lithospheric extension along pre-existing weaknesses. Large-scale deformation observed in the models coincides with the seamount chains of Hawaii, Louisville, Tokelau and Gilbert during our modelled time period of 62 to 42 Ma. We suggest that extensional stresses between 72 and 52 Ma are the likely cause of large parts of the formation of the Gilbert chain and that localised extension between 62 and 42 Ma could cause late-stage volcanism along the Musicians volcanic ridges. Our models demonstrate that early Cenozoic changes in Pacific plate driving forces only cause relatively minor changes in Pacific

  15. Indonesian Landforms and Plate Tectonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Th. Verstappen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v5i3.103The horizontal configuration and vertical dimension of the landforms occurring in the tectonically unstable parts of Indonesia were resulted in the first place from plate tectonics. Most of them date from the Quaternary and endogenous forces are ongoing. Three major plates – the northward moving Indo-Australian Plate, the south-eastward moving SE-Asian Plate and the westward moving Pacific Plate - meet at a plate triple-junction situated in the south of New Guinea’s Bird’s Head. The narrow North-Moluccan plate is interposed between the Asia and Pacific. It tapers out northward in the Philippine Mobile Belt and is gradually disappearing. The greatest relief amplitudes occur near the plate boundaries: deep ocean trenches are associated with subduction zones and mountain ranges with collision belts. The landforms of the more stable areas of the plates date back to a more remote past and, where emerged, have a more subdued relief that is in the first place related to the resistance of the rocks to humid tropical weathering Rising mountain ranges and emerging island arcs are subjected to rapid humid-tropical river erosions and mass movements. The erosion products accumulate in adjacent sedimentary basins where their increasing weight causes subsidence by gravity and isostatic compensations. Living and raised coral reefs, volcanoes, and fault scarps are important geomorphic indicators of active plate tectonics. Compartmental faults may strongly affect island arcs stretching perpendicular to the plate movement. This is the case on Java. Transcurrent faults and related pull-apart basins are a leading factor where plates meet at an angle, such as on Sumatra. The most complicated situation exists near the triple-junction and in the Moluccas. Modern research methods, such as GPS measurements of plate movements and absolute dating of volcanic outbursts and raised coral reefs are important tools. The mega-landforms resulting

  16. Activation of lysosomal P2X4 by ATP transported into lysosomes via VNUT/SLC17A9 using V‐ATPase generated voltage gradient as the driving force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xi Zoë; Cao, Qi; Sun, Xue

    2016-01-01

    Key points SLC17A9 proteins function as a lysosomal ATP transporter responsible for lysosomal ATP accumulation.P2X4 receptors act as lysosomal ion channels activated by luminal ATP.SLC17A9‐mediated ATP transport across the lysosomal membrane is suppressed by Bafilomycin A1, the V‐ATPase inhibitor.SLC17A9 mainly uses voltage gradient but not pH gradient generated by the V‐ATPase as the driving force to transport ATP into the lysosome to activate P2X4. Abstract The lysosome contains abundant ATP which plays important roles in lysosome functions and in cell signalling. Recently, solute carrier family 17 member 9 (SLC17A9, also known as VNUT for vesicular nucleotide transporter) proteins were suggested to function as a lysosomal ATP transporter responsible for lysosomal ATP accumulation, and P2X4 receptors were suggested to be lysosomal ion channels that are activated by luminal ATP. However, the molecular mechanism of SLC17A9 transporting ATP and the regulatory mechanism of lysosomal P2X4 are largely unknown. In this study, we report that SLC17A9‐mediated ATP transport across lysosomal membranes is suppressed by Bafilomycin A1, the V‐ATPase inhibitor. By measuring P2X4 activity, which is indicative of ATP transport across lysosomal membranes, we further demonstrated that SLC17A9 mainly uses voltage gradient but not pH gradient as the driving force to transport ATP into lysosomes. This study provides a molecular mechanism for lysosomal ATP transport mediated by SLC17A9. It also suggests a regulatory mechanism of lysosomal P2X4 by SLC17A9. PMID:27477609

  17. Plumes do not Exist: Plate Circulation is Confined to Upper Mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, W. B.

    2002-12-01

    key to kinematics. Arcs advance and collide, fast-spreading Pacific shrinks, etc. A fore-arc basin atop an overriding plate shows that hinge and non-shortening plate front there track together: velocities of rollback and advance are equal. Convergence velocity commonly also equals rollback velocity but often is greater. Slabs sinking broadside push upper mantle back under incoming plates and force rapid Pacific spreading, whereas overriding plates flow forward with retreating hinges. Backarc basins open behind island arcs migrating with hinges. Slabs settle on uncrossable 660-km discontinuity. (Contrary tomographic claims reflect sampling and smearing artifacts, notably due to along-slab raypaths.) Plates advance over sunken slabs and mantle displaced rearward by them, and ridges spread where advancing plates pull away. Ridges migrate over asthenosphere, producing geophysical and bathymetric asymmetry, and tap fresh asthenosphere into which slab material is recycled upward. Sluggish deep-mantle circulation is decoupled from rapid upper-mantle circulation, so plate motions can be referenced to semistable lower mantle. Global plate motions make kinematic sense if Antarctica, almost ringed by departing ridges and varying little in Cenozoic paleomagnetic position, is stationary: hinges roll back, ridges migrate, and directions and velocities of plate rotations accord with subduction, including sliding and crowding of oceanic lithosphere toward free edges, as the dominant drive. (The invalid hotspot and no-net-rotation frames minimize motions of hinges and ridges, and their plate motions lack kinematic sense.) Northern Eurasia also is almost stationary, Africa rotates very slowly counterclockwise toward Aegean and Zagros, Pacific plate races toward surface-exit subduction systems, etc.

  18. Heavy metal(loid)s and organic contaminants in groundwater in the Pearl River Delta that has undergone three decades of urbanization and industrialization: Distributions, sources, and driving forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guanxing; Zhang, Ming; Liu, Chunyan; Li, Liangping; Chen, Zongyu

    2018-09-01

    Urbanization and industrialization have increased groundwater resource demands, and may drive the change of heavy metal(loid)s and organic chemicals in groundwater in the Pearl River Delta (PRD), southern China. Thus, a comprehensive understanding of the distributions, sources, and driving forces of heavy metal(loid)s and organic chemicals in groundwater in the PRD is vital for water resource management in this region. In this study, eight heavy metal(loid)s and fifty-five organic chemicals in groundwater across the PRD were investigated. The results show that undrinkable groundwater related to heavy metal(loid)s was mainly due to high concentrations of Fe (19.3%) and As (6.8%). Eighteen organic contaminants were detected in groundwater in the PRD, where the most frequently detected organic contaminant was naphthalene, and its detection rate was 2.51%. In 5.3% of all groundwater samples, one or more organic contaminants were found. All detected organic contaminants, except ones without allowable limits, in groundwater were at concentrations below allowable limits of China. The mean concentrations of heavy metal(loid)s in granular aquifers were higher than those in fissured and karst aquifers, especially for Fe and As. Except Se, the mean concentrations of other heavy metal(loid)s and the frequency of detection of organic contaminants in groundwater in urbanized and peri-urban areas were higher than those in non-urbanized areas, especially for Hg, Co, and organic contaminants. Fe, As, and Se in groundwater mainly originated from the release of Fe/As/Se rich sediments. The former two were driven by reduction reactions, while the latter was driven by oxidation resulting from the infiltration of NO 3 - . In contrast, other five heavy metal(loid)s and organic contaminants in groundwater mainly originated from the anthropogenic sources, such as the infiltration of industrial sewage. It is evident that urbanization and industrialization are two powerful driving forces for

  19. Vegetation dynamics and its driving forces from climate change and human activities in the Three-River Source Region, China from 1982 to 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Chaobin; Wang, Zhaoqi; Chen, Yizhao; Gang, Chengcheng [School of Life Science, Nanjing University, Xianlin Road 163, Qixia District, Nanjing, 210046 (China); An, Ru [School of Earth Science and Engineering, Hohai University, Xikang Road 129, Nanjing, 210098 (China); Li, Jianlong, E-mail: lijianlongnju@163.com [School of Life Science, Nanjing University, Xianlin Road 163, Qixia District, Nanjing, 210046 (China)

    2016-09-01

    The Three-River Source Region (TRSR), a region with key importance to the ecological security of China, has undergone climate changes and a shift in human activities driven by a series of ecological restoration projects in recent decades. To reveal the spatiotemporal dynamics of vegetation dynamics and calculate the contributions of driving factors in the TRSR across different periods from 1982 to 2012, net primary productivity (NPP) estimated using the Carnegie–Ames–Stanford approach model was used to assess the status of vegetation. The actual effects of different climatic variation trends on interannual variation in NPP were analyzed. Furthermore, the relationships of NPP with different climate factors and human activities were analyzed quantitatively. Results showed the following: from 1982 to 2012, the average NPP in the study area was 187.37 g cm{sup −2} yr{sup −1}. The average NPP exhibited a fluctuation but presented a generally increasing trend over the 31-year study period, with an increase rate of 1.31 g cm{sup −2} yr{sup −2}. During the entire study period, the average contributions of temperature, precipitation, and solar radiation to NPP interannual variation over the entire region were 0.58, 0.73, and 0.09 g cm{sup −2} yr{sup −2}, respectively. Radiation was the climate factor with the greatest influence on NPP interannual variation. The factor that restricted NPP increase changed from temperature and radiation to precipitation. The average contributions of climate change and human activities to NPP interannual variation were 1.40 g cm{sup −2} yr{sup −2} and − 0.08 g cm{sup −2} yr{sup −2}, respectively. From 1982 to 2000, the general climate conditions were favorable to vegetation recovery, whereas human activities had a weaker negative impact on vegetation growth. From 2001 to 2012, climate conditions began to have a negative impact on vegetation growth, whereas human activities made a favorable impact on vegetation

  20. Vegetation dynamics and its driving forces from climate change and human activities in the Three-River Source Region, China from 1982 to 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Chaobin; Wang, Zhaoqi; Chen, Yizhao; Gang, Chengcheng; An, Ru; Li, Jianlong

    2016-01-01

    The Three-River Source Region (TRSR), a region with key importance to the ecological security of China, has undergone climate changes and a shift in human activities driven by a series of ecological restoration projects in recent decades. To reveal the spatiotemporal dynamics of vegetation dynamics and calculate the contributions of driving factors in the TRSR across different periods from 1982 to 2012, net primary productivity (NPP) estimated using the Carnegie–Ames–Stanford approach model was used to assess the status of vegetation. The actual effects of different climatic variation trends on interannual variation in NPP were analyzed. Furthermore, the relationships of NPP with different climate factors and human activities were analyzed quantitatively. Results showed the following: from 1982 to 2012, the average NPP in the study area was 187.37 g cm"−"2 yr"−"1. The average NPP exhibited a fluctuation but presented a generally increasing trend over the 31-year study period, with an increase rate of 1.31 g cm"−"2 yr"−"2. During the entire study period, the average contributions of temperature, precipitation, and solar radiation to NPP interannual variation over the entire region were 0.58, 0.73, and 0.09 g cm"−"2 yr"−"2, respectively. Radiation was the climate factor with the greatest influence on NPP interannual variation. The factor that restricted NPP increase changed from temperature and radiation to precipitation. The average contributions of climate change and human activities to NPP interannual variation were 1.40 g cm"−"2 yr"−"2 and − 0.08 g cm"−"2 yr"−"2, respectively. From 1982 to 2000, the general climate conditions were favorable to vegetation recovery, whereas human activities had a weaker negative impact on vegetation growth. From 2001 to 2012, climate conditions began to have a negative impact on vegetation growth, whereas human activities made a favorable impact on vegetation recovery. - Highlights: • Partitioned the

  1. Driving things

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nevile, Maurice Richard

    2015-01-01

    I explore how participants organise involvement with objects brought into the car, relative to the demands of driving and social activity. Objects in cars commonly include phones or other technologies, food, body care products, texts, clothing, bags and carry items, toys, and even animals...... 2004, Haddington et al. 2012). I focus here especially on how the practical and interactional work of locating, seeing, placing, handling, hearing, and relinquishing, is ordered and accomplished relative to the emerging and contingent demands of both driving and social participation......, such that involvement with objects is constituted as secondary to driving in a multiactivity setting (e.g. Haddington et al. 2014). We see how events with, for, of, and even by objects can occur as predictable, planned and even designed for (e.g. changing glasses, applying body lotion), or might be unexpected...

  2. A high force of plasmodium vivax blood-stage infection drives the rapid acquisition of immunity in papua new guinean children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Koepfli

    Full Text Available When both parasite species are co-endemic, Plasmodium vivax incidence peaks in younger children compared to P. falciparum. To identify differences in the number of blood stage infections of these species and its potential link to acquisition of immunity, we have estimated the molecular force of blood-stage infection of P. vivax ((molFOB, i.e. the number of genetically distinct blood-stage infections over time, and compared it to previously reported values for P. falciparum.P. vivax (molFOB was estimated by high resolution genotyping parasites in samples collected over 16 months in a cohort of 264 Papua New Guinean children living in an area highly endemic for P. falciparum and P. vivax. In this cohort, P. vivax episodes decreased three-fold over the age range of 1-4.5 years.On average, children acquired 14.0 new P. vivax blood-stage clones/child/year-at-risk. While the incidence of clinical P. vivax illness was strongly associated with mol FOB (incidence rate ratio (IRR = 1.99, 95% confidence interval (CI95 [1.80, 2.19], (molFOB did not change with age. The incidence of P. vivax showed a faster decrease with age in children with high (IRR = 0.49, CI95 [0.38, 0.64] p<0.001 compared to those with low exposure (IRR = 0.63, CI95[0.43, 0.93] p = 0.02.P. vivax (molFOB is considerably higher than P. falciparum (molFOB (5.5 clones/child/year-at-risk. The high number of P. vivax clones that infect children in early childhood contribute to the rapid acquisition of immunity against clinical P. vivax malaria.

  3. 3-D subduction dynamics in the western Pacific: Mantle pressure, plate kinematics, and dynamic topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, A. F.; Royden, L.; Becker, T. W.; Faccenna, C.

    2017-12-01

    While it is well established that the slab pull of negatively buoyant oceanic plates is the primary driving force of plate tectonics, the dynamic "details" of subduction have proved difficult to pin down. We use the Philippine Sea Plate region of the western Pacific as a site to explore links between kinematic observables (e.g. topography and plate motions) and the dynamics of the subduction system (e.g. mantle flow, mantle pressure). To first order, the Philippine Sea Plate can be considered to be the central plate of a double slab system containing two slabs that dip in the same direction, to the west. This subduction configuration presents the opportunity to explore subduction dynamics in a setting where two closely spaced slabs interact via subduction-induced mantle flow and stresses transmitted through the intervening plate. We use a 3-D numerical approach (e.g. Holt et al., 2017), augmented by semi-analytical models (e.g. Jagoutz et al., 2017), to develop relationships between dynamic processes and kinematic properties, including plate velocities, lithospheric stress state, slab dip angles, and topography. When combined with subduction zone observables, this allows us to isolate the first order dynamic processes that are in operation in the Philippine Sea Plate region. Our results suggest that positive pressure build-up occurs in the asthenosphere between the two slabs (Izu-Bonin-Mariana and Ryukyu-Nankai), and that this is responsible for producing much of the observed kinematic variability in the region, including the steep dip of the Pacific slab at the Izu-Bonin-Mariana trench, as compared to the flat dip of the Pacific slab north of Japan. We then extend our understanding of the role of asthenospheric pressure to examine the forces responsible for the plate kinematics and dynamic topography of the entire Western Pacific subduction margin(s). References:Holt, A. F., Royden, L. H., Becker, T. W., 2017. Geophys. J. Int., 209, 250-265Jagoutz, O., Royden, L

  4. Control rod drive mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, Katsuyuki.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To restrict the reduction in performance due to stress corrosion cracks by making use of condensate produced in a turbine steam condenser. Structure: Water produced in a turbine steam condenser is forced into a condensed water desalting unit by low pressure condensate pump. The condensate is purified and then forced by a high pressure condensate pump into a feedwater heater for heating before it is returned to the reactor by a feedwater pump. Part of the condensate issuing from the condensate desalting unit is branched from the remaining portion at a point upstream the pump and is withdrawn into a control rod drive water pump after passing through a motordriven bypass valve, an orifice and a condenser water level control valve, is pressurized in the control rod drive water desalting unit and supplied to a control rod drive water pressure system. The control rod is vertically moved by the valve operation of the water pressure system. Since water of high oxygen concentration does not enter during normal operation, it is possible to prevent the stress cracking of the stainless steel apparatus. (Nakamura, S.)

  5. Community Drive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Rikke

    2018-01-01

    Schools and educational institutions are challenged by not adequately educating students for independent knowledge collaboration and solving of complex societal challenges (Bundsgaard & Hansen, 2016; Slot et al., 2017). As an alternative strategy to formal learning has Community-driven research...... opportunity to break boundaries between research institutions and surrounding communities through the involvement of new types of actors, knowledge forms and institutions (OECD, 2011). This paper presents the project Community Drive a three year cross disciplinary community-driven game– and data-based project....... In the paper we present how the project Community Drive initiated in May 2018 is based on results from pilot projects conducted from 2014 – 2017. Overall these studies showed that it is a strong motivational factor for students to be given the task to change their living conditions through redesign...

  6. [Study on the types and water pollution driving forces of the typical and medium-small-sized cities in the southern China based on the analysis of water environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Shi-Xing; Wang, La-Chun; Huo, Yu; Chen, Chang-Chun; Teng, Juan

    2009-07-15

    According to the major pollution sources of urban water environment, 10 indexes such as industrial sewage quantity were closen to establish evaluation indexes system about the types and influencing factors of the typical and medium-small-sized cities in the southern China. Case studies of 16 typical and medium-small-sized cities were taken in Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Hubei and Anhui provinces. Combined with SPSS 11.0 cluster analysis results, city types were divided in reference to the values of water resources comprehensive pollution indexes and economical development indexes. The driving forces about city water environment pollution were studied by principal component analysis method. The result indicates that the 16 cities belong to two categories and four sub-categories, which are rich economy as well as light pollution of water environment and poor economy as well as heavy pollution of water environment. The influencing factors of water environment pollution are in sequence of industrial water pollution, agricultural no-point source pollution and urban domestic water pollution. The main factors of water environment pollution influenced I category cities, II as well as IV category cities and III category cities are industrial water pollution, urban domestic pollution and agricultural no-point source pollution respectively.

  7. Electric drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-10-01

    Several electric vehicles have been tested in long-term tests, i.e. an electric passenger car (maximum speed 115 km/h) and several busses for use in pedestrians' zones, spas, airports, natural reserves, and urban transportation (DUO busses). The ICE high-speed train is discussed in some detail, i.e. its aeroacoustic and aerodynamic design, running gear, computer-controlled drives and brakes, diagnostic systems, and electrical equipment. The Berlin Maglev system is mentioned as well as current inverters in rail vehicles. (HWJ).

  8. The community as a driving force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    A Workshop on Effective Strategies for Sustainable Community-based Family Planning (FP) and Maternal and Child Health (MCH) was held on October 14-23, 1993, as part of an Asian regional project focusing on women. Bangladesh, China, Laos, Nepal, the Philippines, and Viet Nam were represented at the workshop. The program introduced participants to effective community participation strategies in FP and MCH in Indonesia and allowed for the exchange of information. The UN Population Fund expressed support and encouragement for the exchange and recognition of Indonesia's government support for efforts at regional exchanges. Indonesia established integrated service posts or "Posyandu" in villages during the 1980s for women volunteers as health advocates. FP/MCH was later integrated in these health posts. The service posts aim to reduce infant mortality and maternal mortality through growth monitoring of children aged under five years, provision of FP, nutrition services for pregnant mothers, immunization, and monitoring of high-risk pregnancies. Trained volunteers and community people are aides to either government personnel or nongovernmental (NGO) workers. The Indonesian government FP program evolved from a program "for" the people, to "with" the people, and finally "by" the people. Fees for contraception, which are still below retail prices, are being introduced as a means of achieving sustainability. The government trains doctors and midwives in FP. NGOs such as Yayasan Kusuma Buana (YKB) in Jakarta provide a mix of quality services. YKB is active in promoting awareness of FP. Community outreach is achieved through mothers' classes, urban Posyandu services, and training of traditional birth attendants. The Indonesian Planned Parenthood Association maintains self-reliance programs in FP/MCH. Day-care centers and youth counseling centers are used in promoting FP/MCH. YKB methods were demonstrated for workshop participants (posters used in local shops and awareness activities for school health programs). Workshop participants were exposed to many activities in FP/MCH. Participants learned the importance of government commitment and the importance of people's acceptance that FP is necessary for improving the quality of life.

  9. Driving Force Based Design of Cyclic Distillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Fjordbak; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Abildskov, Jens

    2017-01-01

    with mixed phase feeds. A range of binary test cases, benzene toluene, methanol water, and ethanol water, are evaluated. The advantage of the design approach in cyclic distillation is shown to be analogous to the advantages obtained in conventional continuous distillation, including a minimal utility...

  10. Amenity migration - driving force for rural development?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartoš, Michael; Kušová, Drahomíra; Těšitel, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 4, 3-4 (2007), s. 57-69 ISSN 1841-0375 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA403/07/0714 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Amenity migration * tourism * rural development Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography

  11. Thermodynamic driving force for rafting in superalloys

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nabarro, FRN

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available - and three-dimensional systems behave similarly. The initial plastic strain in gamma' is anelastic and in principle reversible. When the plastic strain exceeds m delta, platelets perpendicular to the stress axis are formed if the product sigma delta...

  12. The driving force role of ruthenacyclobutanes

    KAUST Repository

    Vummaleti, Sai V. C.

    2015-02-07

    DFT calculations have been used to determine the thermodynamic and kinetic preference for ruthenacyclobutanes resulting from the experimentally proposed interconversion pathways (olefin and alkylidene rotations) through the investigation of cross-metathesis reaction mechanism for neutral Grubbs catalyst, RuCl2(=CHEt)NHC (A), with ethylene and 1-butene as the substrates. Our results show that although the proposed interconversions are feasible due to the predicted low energy barriers (2-6 kcal/mol), the formation of ruthenacyclobutane is kinetically favored over the competitive reactions involving alkylidene rotations. In comparison with catalyst A, the reaction energy profile for cationic Piers catalyst [RuCl2(=CHPCy3)NHC+] (B) is more endothermic in nature with both ethylene and 1-butene substrates.

  13. The driving force role of ruthenacyclobutanes

    KAUST Repository

    Vummaleti, Sai V. C.; Cavallo, Luigi; Poater, Albert

    2015-01-01

    DFT calculations have been used to determine the thermodynamic and kinetic preference for ruthenacyclobutanes resulting from the experimentally proposed interconversion pathways (olefin and alkylidene rotations) through the investigation of cross-metathesis reaction mechanism for neutral Grubbs catalyst, RuCl2(=CHEt)NHC (A), with ethylene and 1-butene as the substrates. Our results show that although the proposed interconversions are feasible due to the predicted low energy barriers (2-6 kcal/mol), the formation of ruthenacyclobutane is kinetically favored over the competitive reactions involving alkylidene rotations. In comparison with catalyst A, the reaction energy profile for cationic Piers catalyst [RuCl2(=CHPCy3)NHC+] (B) is more endothermic in nature with both ethylene and 1-butene substrates.

  14. SINEs as driving forces in genome evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, J

    2012-01-01

    SINEs are short interspersed elements derived from cellular RNAs that repetitively retropose via RNA intermediates and integrate more or less randomly back into the genome. SINEs propagate almost entirely vertically within their host cells and, once established in the germline, are passed on from generation to generation. As non-autonomous elements, their reverse transcription (from RNA to cDNA) and genomic integration depends on the activity of the enzymatic machinery of autonomous retrotransposons, such as long interspersed elements (LINEs). SINEs are widely distributed in eukaryotes, but are especially effectively propagated in mammalian species. For example, more than a million Alu-SINE copies populate the human genome (approximately 13% of genomic space), and few master copies of them are still active. In the organisms where they occur, SINEs are a challenge to genomic integrity, but in the long term also can serve as beneficial building blocks for evolution, contributing to phenotypic heterogeneity and modifying gene regulatory networks. They substantially expand the genomic space and introduce structural variation to the genome. SINEs have the potential to mutate genes, to alter gene expression, and to generate new parts of genes. A balanced distribution and controlled activity of such properties is crucial to maintaining the organism's dynamic and thriving evolution. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Tourism: spatial dimension and driving force

    OpenAIRE

    Lourenço, Nelson; Jorge, Rosário

    2003-01-01

    Spatial and socio-economic impacts of tourism have been quite significant in some regions, causing changes in the economic structure, stimulating some sectors and displacing others. Tourism creates pressures on different domains—natural resources and environment, the built environment, and hospitality and cultural resources. The tourism infrastructure has impacted on the existing social, economic, and environmental dynamics of Goan society. Some of the tourism-related influences are discu...

  16. Pattern-formation under acoustic driving forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Jose Manuel

    2015-07-01

    Chemical and metallurgical processes enhanced by high intensity acoustic waves, thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators, fuel rods in nuclear reactors, heat exchanger tubes, offshore and vibrating structures, solar thermal collectors, acoustic levitators, microfluidic devices, cycling, musical acoustics, blood flow through veins/arteries, hearing in the mammalian ear, carbon nanotube loudspeakers, etc. The evolution of a myriad of processes involving the oscillation of viscous fluids in the presence of solid boundaries is up to a certain extent influenced by acoustic streaming. In addition to the sound field, viscous energy dissipation at the fluid-solid boundary causes a time-independent fluid circulation, which can lead to a significant enhancement of heat, mass and momentum transfer at large oscillation amplitudes. A particularly relevant phenomenon that can be notably affected by acoustic streaming is the promotion of sound waves by temperature gradients or viceversa (thermoacoustics), which is at the basis of potentially efficient and environmental friendly engines and refrigerators that have attracted a renewed interest in the last years. In the present manuscript, historical developments and the underlying basic physics behind acoustic streaming and thermoacoustics are reviewed from an unifying perspective.

  17. Radiation shielding plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Torakichi; Sugawara, Takeo.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce the weight and stabilize the configuration of a radiation shielding plate which is used in close contact with an object to be irradiated with radiation rays. Constitution: The radiation shielding plate comprises a substrate made of lead glass and a metallic lead coating on the surface of the substrate by means of plating, vapor deposition or the like. Apertures for permeating radiation rays are formed to the radiation shielding plate. Since the shielding plate is based on a lead glass plate, a sufficient mechanical strength can be obtained with a thinner structure as compared with the conventional plate made of metallic lead. Accordingly, if the shielding plate is disposed on a soft object to be irradiated with radiation rays, the object and the plate itself less deform to obtain a radiation irradiation pattern with distinct edges. (Moriyama, K.)

  18. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furumitsu, Yutaka.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the reliability of a device for driving an LMFBR type reactor control rod by providing a buffer unit having a stationary electromagnetic coil and a movable electromagnetic coil in the device to thereby avord impact stress at scram time and to simplify the structure of the buffer unit. Constitution: A non-contact type buffer unit is constructed with a stationary electromagnetic coil, a cable for the stationary coil, a movable electromagnetic coil, a spring cable for the movable coil, and a backup coil spring or the like. Force produced at scram time is delivered without impact by the attracting or repelling force between the stationary coil and the movable coil of the buffer unit. Accordingly, since the buffer unit is of a non-contact type, there is no mechanical impact and thus no large impact stress, and as it has simple configuration, the reliability is improved and the maintenance can be conducted more easily. (Yoshihara, H.)

  19. Safe driving for teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driving and teenagers; Teens and safe driving; Automobile safety - teenage drivers ... months before taking friends as passengers. Teenage-related driving deaths occur more often in certain conditions. OTHER SAFETY TIPS FOR TEENS Reckless driving is still a ...

  20. Flow of nanofluid past a Riga plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Adeel, E-mail: adeelahmed@comsats.edu.pk [Department of Mathematics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Park Road, Chak Shahzad, 44000 Islamabad (Pakistan); Laboratoire J.A. Dieudonné, Université de Nice Sophia Antipolis, Parc Valrose, 06108 Nice (France); Asghar, Saleem [Department of Mathematics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Park Road, Chak Shahzad, 44000 Islamabad (Pakistan); Department of Mathematics, King Abdul Aziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Afzal, Sumaira [Department of Mathematics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Park Road, Chak Shahzad, 44000 Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2016-03-15

    This paper studies the mixed convection boundary layer flow of a nanofluid past a vertical Riga plate in the presence of strong suction. The mathematical model incorporates the Brownian motion and thermophoresis effects due to nanofluid and the Grinberg-term for the wall parallel Lorentz force due to Riga plate. The analytical solution of the problem is presented using the perturbation method for small Brownian and thermophoresis diffusion parameters. The numerical solution is also presented to ensure the reliability of the asymptotic method. The comparison of the two solutions shows an excellent agreement. The correlation expressions for skin friction, Nusselt number and Sherwood number are developed by performing linear regression on the obtained numerical data. The effects of nanofluid and the Lorentz force due to Riga plate, on the skin friction are discussed. - Highlights: • Mixed convection flow of a nanofluid past a vertical Riga plate. • The Brownian motion and thermophoresis effects due to nanofluid are incorporated. • Grinberg-term represents the wall parallel Lorentz force due to Riga plate. • The correlation expressions for skin friction, Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are developed. • The effects of nanofluid and the Lorentz force on the skin friction are discussed.

  1. Research on micromanipulator’s clamping force sensing based on static wirerope tension of a surgical robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingtao Yu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The micromanipulator’s force feedback is one of the key research contents of minimally invasive surgical robotic system. Because the micromanipulator is a kind of compact construction which is suitable for valve installation with small space in surgery, especially for the influence of disinfection method, there are major difficulties and limitations to integrate compact sensors in the end of micromanipulator. This article focuses on the 3-degree-of-freedom micromanipulator’s clamping force sensing, and these three joints are actuated by wirerope driving. A clamping force sensing method is proposed based on static tension of wirerope driving, and a static model between the clamping force and wirerope’s static tension is established considering the influence of real friction resistance in the mechanical system. Finally, an equivalent experimental test platform for 3-degree-of-freedom micromanipulator’s clamping force sensing is set up, and then a series of experiments of the clamping force are studied. The frictional resistances of wirerope between the guide plate and guide pulley mechanism are tested, and a calibration and correction method of the experimental clamping force is proposed. The final experiment results show that the total average accuracy of experimental clamping force is about 78.3%, and it can be the basic measurement force to realize micromanipulator’s clamping force feedback of a minimally invasive surgical robot.

  2. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... foods you want, but changes the portion sizes so you are getting larger portions of non-starchy ... plate. Then on one side, cut it again so you will have three sections on your plate. ...

  3. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the differences in types of vegetables. When creating your plate at home, remember that half of ... effective for both managing diabetes and losing weight. Creating your plate lets you still choose the foods ...

  4. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely Get And ... Plate Create Your Plate is a simple and effective way to manage your blood glucose levels and ...

  5. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with ... Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart-Healthy ...

  6. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal ... Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook ...

  7. Characterization of New Isolates of Apricot vein clearing-associated virus and of a New Prunus-Infecting Virus: Evidence for Recombination as a Driving Force in Betaflexiviridae Evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armelle Marais

    Full Text Available Double stranded RNAs from Prunus samples gathered from various surveys were analyzed by a deep-sequencing approach. Contig annotations revealed the presence of a potential new viral species in an Azerbaijani almond tree (Prunus amygdalus and its genome sequence was completed. Its genomic organization is similar to that of the recently described Apricot vein clearing associated virus (AVCaV for which two new isolates were also characterized, in a similar fashion, from two Japanese plums (Prunus salicina from a French germplasm collection. The amino acid identity values between the four proteins encoded by the genome of the new virus have identity levels with those of AVCaV which fall clearly outside the species demarcation criteria. The new virus should therefore be considered as a new species for which the name of Caucasus prunus virus (CPrV has been proposed. Phylogenetic relationships and nucleotide comparisons suggested that together with AVCaV, CPrV could define a new genus (proposed name: Prunevirus in the family Betaflexiviridae. A molecular test targeting both members of the new genus was developed, allowing the detection of additional AVCaV isolates, and therefore extending the known geographical distribution and the host range of AVCaV. Moreover, the phylogenetic trees reconstructed with the amino acid sequences of replicase, movement and coat proteins of representative Betaflexiviridae members suggest that Citrus leaf blotch virus (CLBV, type member of the genus Citrivirus may have evolved from a recombination event involving a Prunevirus, further highlighting the importance of recombination as a driving force in Betaflexiviridae evolution. The sequences reported in the present manuscript have been deposited in the GenBank database under accession numbers KM507061-KM504070.

  8. Limiting Impact Force Due to Yielding and Buckling of the Plates and Internal Structural Frame at the Bow of a Barge during Its Head-on Impact with a Bullnose or Cellular Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    Locks and Dam. ERDC/ITL TR-09-3 16 The proposed flexible approach walls at Lock and Dams 22 and 25 consist of precast concrete beams supported...Figures 2.3 and 2.5. The rounded hull plate connecting the front and side hull plates (in blue) is shown in brown in Figures 2.2 and 2.3. Figure 2.4...approach angle column in Table 3.1 is of no consequence for these analyses. Table 3.1. Three design load condition categories, frequency of loadings

  9. Modeling and Simulation of Nonlinear Micro-electromechanical Circular Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Chia Liu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the hybrid differential transformation and finite difference method is applied to analyze the dynamic behavior of the nonlinear micro-electromechanical circular plate actuated by combined DC / AC loading schemes. The analysis takes account of the axial residual stress and hydrostatic pressure acting on micro circular plate upper surface. The dynamic response of the plate as a function of the magnitude of the AC driving voltage is explored. Moreover, the effect of the initial gap height on the pull-in voltage of the plate is systematically explored.

  10. Mechanical obstacles to the movement of continent-bearing plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowman, P. D., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Selected geophysical problems associated with the concept of continental drift as an incidental corollary of plate movement are discussed. The problems include the absence of a suitable plate-driving mechanism for plates with continental leading edges, the absence of the low-velocity zone under shields, and continental roots of 400 to 700 km depths. It is shown that if continental drift occurs, it must use mechanisms not now understood, or that it may not occur at all, plate movement being confined to ocean basins.

  11. Spirit Beside 'Home Plate,' Sol 1809

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images assembled into this 120-degree view southward after a short drive during the 1,809th Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's mission on the surface of Mars (February 3, 2009). Spirit had driven about 2.6 meters (8.5 feet) that sol, continuing a clockwise route around a low plateau called 'Home Plate.' In this image, the rocks visible above the rovers' solar panels are on the slope at the northern edge of Home Plate. This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  12. Paper microzone plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrilho, Emanuel; Phillips, Scott T; Vella, Sarah J; Martinez, Andres W; Whitesides, George M

    2009-08-01

    This paper describes 96- and 384-microzone plates fabricated in paper as alternatives to conventional multiwell plates fabricated in molded polymers. Paper-based plates are functionally related to plastic well plates, but they offer new capabilities. For example, paper-microzone plates are thin (approximately 180 microm), require small volumes of sample (5 microL per zone), and can be manufactured from inexpensive materials ($0.05 per plate). The paper-based plates are fabricated by patterning sheets of paper, using photolithography, into hydrophilic zones surrounded by hydrophobic polymeric barriers. This photolithography used an inexpensive formulation photoresist that allows rapid (approximately 15 min) prototyping of paper-based plates. These plates are compatible with conventional microplate readers for quantitative absorbance and fluorescence measurements. The limit of detection per zone loaded for fluorescence was 125 fmol for fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled bovine serum albumin, and this level corresponds to 0.02 the quantity of analyte per well used to achieve comparable signal-to-noise in a 96-well plastic plate (using a solution of 25 nM labeled protein). The limits of detection for absorbance on paper was approximately 50 pmol per zone for both Coomassie Brilliant Blue and Amaranth dyes; these values were 0.4 that required for the plastic plate. Demonstration of quantitative colorimetric correlations using a scanner or camera to image the zones and to measure the intensity of color, makes it possible to conduct assays without a microplate reader.

  13. The Casimir Effect Upon A Single Plate

    OpenAIRE

    Hoodbhoy, Pervez

    2004-01-01

    In the presence of an external field, the imposition of specific boundary conditions can lead to interesting new manifestations of the Casimir effect. In particular, it is shown here that even a single conducting plate may experience a non-zero force due to vacuum fluctuations. The origins of this force lie in the change induced by the external potential in the density of available quantum states.

  14. Development of a shear force measurement dummy for seat comfort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Guk Kim

    Full Text Available Seat comfort is one of the main factors that consumers consider when purchasing a car. In this study, we develop a dummy with a shear-force sensor to evaluate seat comfort. The sensor has dimensions of 25 mm × 25 mm × 26 mm and is made of S45C. Electroless nickel plating is employed to coat its surface in order to prevent corrosion and oxidation. The proposed sensor is validated using a qualified load cell and shows high accuracy and precision (measurement range: -30-30 N; sensitivity: 0.1 N; linear relationship: R = 0.999; transverse sensitivity: <1%. The dummy is manufactured in compliance with the SAE standards (SAE J826 and incorporates shear sensors into its design. We measure the shear force under four driving conditions and at five different speeds using a sedan; results showed that the shear force increases with speed under all driving conditions. In the case of acceleration and deceleration, shear force significantly changes in the lower body of the dummy. During right and left turns, it significantly changes in the upper body of the dummy.

  15. Development of a shear force measurement dummy for seat comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong Guk; Ko, Chang-Yong; Kim, Dong Hyun; Song, Ye Eun; Kang, Tae Uk; Ahn, Sungwoo; Lim, Dohyung; Kim, Han Sung

    2017-01-01

    Seat comfort is one of the main factors that consumers consider when purchasing a car. In this study, we develop a dummy with a shear-force sensor to evaluate seat comfort. The sensor has dimensions of 25 mm × 25 mm × 26 mm and is made of S45C. Electroless nickel plating is employed to coat its surface in order to prevent corrosion and oxidation. The proposed sensor is validated using a qualified load cell and shows high accuracy and precision (measurement range: -30-30 N; sensitivity: 0.1 N; linear relationship: R = 0.999; transverse sensitivity: <1%). The dummy is manufactured in compliance with the SAE standards (SAE J826) and incorporates shear sensors into its design. We measure the shear force under four driving conditions and at five different speeds using a sedan; results showed that the shear force increases with speed under all driving conditions. In the case of acceleration and deceleration, shear force significantly changes in the lower body of the dummy. During right and left turns, it significantly changes in the upper body of the dummy.

  16. Interplay between geometry and temperature for inclined Casimir plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Alexej; Gies, Holger

    2009-01-01

    We provide further evidence for the nontrivial interplay between geometry and temperature in the Casimir effect. We investigate the temperature dependence of the Casimir force between an inclined semi-infinite plate above an infinite plate in D dimensions using the worldline formalism. Whereas the high-temperature behavior is always found to be linear in T in accordance with dimensional-reduction arguments, different power-law behaviors at small temperatures emerge. Unlike the case of infinite parallel plates, which shows the well-known T D behavior of the force, we find a T D-1 behavior for inclined plates, and a ∼T D-0.3 behavior for the edge effect in the limit where the plates become parallel. The strongest temperature dependence ∼T D-2 occurs for the Casimir torque of inclined plates. Numerical as well as analytical worldline results are presented.

  17. Vortex Dynamics of Asymmetric Heave Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusch, Curtis; Maurer, Benjamin; Polagye, Brian

    2017-11-01

    Heave plates can be used to provide reaction forces for wave energy converters, which harness the power in ocean surface waves to produce electricity. Heave plate inertia includes both the static mass of the heave plate, as well as the ``added mass'' of surrounding water accelerated with the object. Heave plate geometries may be symmetric or asymmetric, with interest in asymmetric designs driven by the resulting hydrodynamic asymmetry. Limited flow visualization has been previously conducted on symmetric heave plates, but flow visualization of asymmetric designs is needed to understand the origin of observed hydrodynamic asymmetries and their dependence on the Keulegan-Carpenter number. For example, it is hypothesized that the time-varying added mass of asymmetric heave plates is caused by vortex shedding, which is related to oscillation amplitude. Here, using direct flow visualization, we explore the relationship between vortex dynamics and time-varying added mass and drag. These results suggest potential pathways for more advanced heave plate designs that can exploit vortex formation and shedding to achieve more favorable hydrodynamic properties for wave energy converters.

  18. Divertor plate for thermonuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Seiichiro; Sato, Keisuke; Nishio, Satoshi.

    1993-01-01

    In a divertor plate for a thermonuclear reactor, adjacent cooling pipes are electrically insulated from each other and pipes made of a gradient functional material prepared by compositing ceramics having an insulation property and metals are metallurgically joined to at least one portion of each of the cooling pipes. Electric current caused upon occurrence of plasma disruption is interrupted by the insulation portion, so that a large circuit is not formed and electromagnetic force is decreased to such a extent that the divertor plate is not ruptured. Since a header of the cooling pipes can be installed at any optional position, the installation space can be reduced. Further, since inlet and exit collection headers can be disposed on both ends of the cooling pipes, it is possible to shorten the length of the cooling pipe of the divertor plate corresponded to high heat fluxes and reduce the pressure loss on the side of coolants to about 1/2. Further, turn back portions of small radius of curvature of the cooling pipes are eliminated to reduce the cost and extend the lifetime and, in addition, protection tiles can be attached easily. (N.H.)

  19. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oonuki, Koji.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To increase the driving speed of control rods at rapid insertion with an elongate control rod and an extension pipe while ensuring sufficient buffering performance in a short buffering distance, by providing a plurality of buffers to an extension pipe between a control rod drive source and a control rod in LMFBR type reactor. Constitution: First, second and third buffers are respectively provided to an acceleration piston, an extension pipe and a control rod respectively and the insertion positions for each of the buffers are displaced orderly from above to below. Upon disconnection of energizing current for an electromagnet, the acceleration piston, the extension pipe and the control rod are rapidly inserted in one body. The first, second and third buffers are respectively actuated at each of their falling strokes upon rapid insertion respectively, and the acceleration piston, the extension pipe and the control rod receive the deceleration effect in the order correspondingly. Although the compression force is applied to the control rod only near the stroke end, it does not cause deformation. (Kawakami, Y.)

  20. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Type 2 Diabetes Know Your Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law ... Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart- ...

  1. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday ... Carbohydrates Types of Carbohydrates Carbohydrate Counting Make Your Carbs ...

  2. Rotating magnetic field current drive-theory and experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, I.J.

    1989-01-01

    Rotating magnetic fields have been used to drive plasma current and establish a range of compact torus configurations, named rotamaks. The current drive mechanism involves a ponderomotive force acting on the electron fluid. Recent extensions of the theory indicate that this method is most suitable for driving currents in directions perpendicular to the steady magnetic fields

  3. Current Drive in a Ponderomotive Potential with Sign Reversal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N.J. Fisch; J.M. Rax; I.Y. Dodin

    2003-07-30

    Noninductive current drive can be accomplished through ponderomotive forces with high efficiency when the potential changes sign over the interaction region. The effect can practiced upon both ions and electrons. The current drive efficiencies, in principle, might be higher than those possible with conventional radio-frequency current-drive techniques, since different considerations come into play.

  4. Current Drive in a Ponderomotive Potential with Sign Reversal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisch, N.J.; Rax, J.M.; Dodin, I.Y.

    2003-01-01

    Noninductive current drive can be accomplished through ponderomotive forces with high efficiency when the potential changes sign over the interaction region. The effect can practiced upon both ions and electrons. The current drive efficiencies, in principle, might be higher than those possible with conventional radio-frequency current-drive techniques, since different considerations come into play

  5. Biomechanical study: resistance comparison of posterior antiglide plate and lateral plate on synthetic bone models simulating Danis-Weber B malleolar fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Buscharino

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE : The purpose of this study was to compare different positions of plates in lateral malleolar Danis-Weber B fractures on synthetic bone: a lateral plate and a posterior antiglide plate. METHODS : Short oblique fractures of distal fibula at the level of the syndesmosys were simulated with a fibular osteotomy in sixteen synthetic fibula bones (Synbone®. Eight fractures were fixed with lateral plating associated with an independent lag screw, and the other eight were fixed with posterior antiglide plating with a lag screw through the plate. A strain gage was installed at the center of each plate at the osteotomy site. Supination and external rotation forces were applied to each of the two groups at the bend. RESULTS : The lateral position plate group suffered more deformity in response to supination forces compared to the group with the posterior antiglide plate, but this result was not statistically significant. In the tests with external rotation forces, the posterior antiglide plating group had significantly higher resistance (p < 0.05. CONCLUSION : When subjected to external rotation forces, osteosynthesis with posterior antiglide plate models simulating type B fractures of the lateral malleolus of the ankle is more resistant than that of the neutralization plate.

  6. Efficient Driving of Piezoelectric Transducers Using a Biaxial Driving Technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Pichardo

    Full Text Available Efficient driving of piezoelectric materials is desirable when operating transducers for biomedical applications such as high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU or ultrasound imaging. More efficient operation reduces the electric power required to produce the desired bioeffect or contrast. Our preliminary work [Cole et al. Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter. 2014;26(13:135901.] suggested that driving transducers by applying orthogonal electric fields can significantly reduce the coercivity that opposes ferroelectric switching. We present here the experimental validation of this biaxial driving technique using piezoelectric ceramics typically used in HIFU. A set of narrow-band transducers was fabricated with two sets of electrodes placed in an orthogonal configuration (following the propagation and the lateral mode. The geometry of the ceramic was chosen to have a resonance frequency similar for the propagation and the lateral mode. The average (± s.d. resonance frequency of the samples was 465.1 (± 1.5 kHz. Experiments were conducted in which each pair of electrodes was driven independently and measurements of effective acoustic power were obtained using the radiation force method. The efficiency (acoustic/electric power of the biaxial driving method was compared to the results obtained when driving the ceramic using electrodes placed only in the pole direction. Our results indicate that the biaxial method increases efficiency from 50% to 125% relative to the using a single electric field.

  7. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... In Memory In Honor Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community ... Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Create Your Plate Create Your Plate is a ...

  8. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal Planning ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans and a Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets ...

  9. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart- ... Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods ...

  10. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... ready, you can try new foods within each food category. Try these seven steps to get started: Using your dinner plate, put a line down the middle of the plate. Then on one side, cut it ... and starchy foods. See this list of grains and starchy foods . ...

  11. Towards stacked zone plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, S; Rehbein, S; Guttman, P; Heim, S; Schneider, G

    2009-01-01

    Fresnel zone plates are the key optical elements for soft and hard x-ray microscopy. For short exposure times and minimum radiation load of the specimen the diffraction efficiency of the zone plate objectives has to be maximized. As the efficiency strongly depends on the height of the diffracting zone structures the achievable aspect ratio of the nanostructures determines these limits. To reach aspect ratios ≥ 20:1 for high efficient optics we propose to superimpose zone plates on top of each other. With this multiplication approach the final aspect ratio is only limited by the number of stacked zone plate layers. For the stack process several nanostructuring process steps have to be developed and/or improved. Our results show for the first time two layers of zone plates stacked on top of each other.

  12. Extended driving impairs nocturnal driving performances.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Sagaspe

    Full Text Available Though fatigue and sleepiness at the wheel are well-known risk factors for traffic accidents, many drivers combine extended driving and sleep deprivation. Fatigue-related accidents occur mainly at night but there is no experimental data available to determine if the duration of prior driving affects driving performance at night. Participants drove in 3 nocturnal driving sessions (3-5 am, 1-5 am and 9 pm-5 am on open highway. Fourteen young healthy men (mean age [+/-SD] = 23.4 [+/-1.7] years participated Inappropriate line crossings (ILC in the last hour of driving of each session, sleep variables, self-perceived fatigue and sleepiness were measured. Compared to the short (3-5 am driving session, the incidence rate ratio of inappropriate line crossings increased by 2.6 (95% CI, 1.1 to 6.0; P<.05 for the intermediate (1-5 am driving session and by 4.0 (CI, 1.7 to 9.4; P<.001 for the long (9 pm-5 am driving session. Compared to the reference session (9-10 pm, the incidence rate ratio of inappropriate line crossings were 6.0 (95% CI, 2.3 to 15.5; P<.001, 15.4 (CI, 4.6 to 51.5; P<.001 and 24.3 (CI, 7.4 to 79.5; P<.001, respectively, for the three different durations of driving. Self-rated fatigue and sleepiness scores were both positively correlated to driving impairment in the intermediate and long duration sessions (P<.05 and increased significantly during the nocturnal driving sessions compared to the reference session (P<.01. At night, extended driving impairs driving performances and therefore should be limited.

  13. 东北老工业区生态安全动态演变过程及驱动力%Dynamic evolution and driving forces of ecological security in the Traditional Industrial Area of northeastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐呈瑞; 逯承鹏; 杨青; 姜璐; 任婉侠; 薛冰

    2017-01-01

    Ecological security is as important as national,economic,and financial security and has become the main constraint of future socio-economic security.The Traditional Industrial Area of northeastern China is an important traditional industrial and grain production base of China,and its ecological security is related to the implementation of sustainable development strategies.Based on the emergy-ecological footprint model,the ecological security in Traditional Industrial Area of northeastern China was quantitatively evaluated from 2000 to 2014,followed by a scenario analysis on the driving forces of the ecological security using a principal component analysis method.The results showed that,the value of emergy ecological-capacity per capita decreased from 0.66 to 0.64 hm2/cap,whereas the emergy-ecological footprint increased from 10.58 to 19.85 hm2/cap,which indicated that an ecological deficit existed in the Traditional Industrial Area of northeastern China.The ecological pressure in this area increased,showing an unsustainable development trend from 2000 to 2014.The ecological pressure index and ecological security levels gradually increasing,ecological security situation is deteriorating,ecological security issues to be urgent resolved.The ecological stress tended to be serious as a result of a combination of several factors,such as social,economic,population,resource,environmental,technological level,and land use degree.Finally,effective management strategies and suggestions to improve the ecological security of the Traditional Industrial Area of northeastern China were proposed.%生态安全与国防安全、经济安全、金融安全等已具有同等重要的战略地位,并成为未来经济社会安全的主要约束.东北老工业区作为我国重要的老工业基地及粮食生产基地,其生态安全状况关系着中国可持续发展战略的实施.采用能值-生态足迹模型,对东北老工业区2000-2014年生态安全动态演变过程进行

  14. LAND-USE CHANGE AND ITS DRIVING FORCES OF "THREE PARALLEL RIVERS" IN NORTHWEST YUNNAN PROVINCE%滇西北三江并流区土地利用变化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金亮; 蒋莲芳; 李瑞林

    2005-01-01

    counties that prefectures located (such as Shangri-la, Lushui and Lijiang) was faster than of that othercounties. (5) The main driving forces of LUCC of this area were social-economy factors, including population growth,science technology development, growth of economy, inheritance and development of ethnic cultures, changes of policy and laws related to resources use and environmental protection.

  15. Quantitative assessment of growth plate activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harcke, H.T.; Macy, N.J.; Mandell, G.A.; MacEwen, G.D.

    1984-01-01

    In the immature skeleton the physis or growth plate is the area of bone least able to withstand external forces and is therefore prone to trauma. Such trauma often leads to premature closure of the plate and results in limb shortening and/or angular deformity (varus or valgus). Active localization of bone seeking tracers in the physis makes bone scintigraphy an excellent method for assessing growth plate physiology. To be most effective, however, physeal activity should be quantified so that serial evaluations are accurate and comparable. The authors have developed a quantitative method for assessing physeal activity and have applied it ot the hip and knee. Using computer acquired pinhole images of the abnormal and contralateral normal joints, ten regions of interest are placed at key locations around each joint and comparative ratios are generated to form a growth plate profile. The ratios compare segmental physeal activity to total growth plate activity on both ipsilateral and contralateral sides and to adjacent bone. In 25 patients, ages 2 to 15 years, with angular deformities of the legs secondary to trauma, Blount's disease, and Perthes disease, this technique is able to differentiate abnormal segmental physeal activity. This is important since plate closure does not usually occur uniformly across the physis. The technique may permit the use of scintigraphy in the prediction of early closure through the quantitative analysis of serial studies

  16. Motion of the Rivera plate since 10 Ma relative to the Pacific and North American plates and the mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMets, Charles; Traylen, Stephen

    2000-03-01

    .6 to 1.0 Ma along the entire plate boundary, followed by a resumption of trench-normal subduction along the southern half of the Rivera-North America plate boundary after 1.0 Ma. Motion of the Rivera plate relative to the underlying mantle since 10 Ma has oscillated between periods of landward motion and seaward motion. The evidence suggests that the torque exerted by slab pull on this young and hot oceanic plate is either minimal or is effectively counterbalanced by forces that resist its motion.

  17. THE EFFECT OF SUPPORT PLATE ON DRILLING-INDUCED DELAMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navid Zarif Karimi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Delamination is considered as a major problem in drilling of composite materials, which degrades the mechanical properties of these materials. The thrust force exerted by the drill is considered as the major cause of delamination; and one practical approach to reduce delamination is to use a back-up plate under the specimen. In this paper, the effect of exit support plate on delamination in twist drilling of glass fiber reinforced composites is studied. Firstly, two analytical models based on linear fracture mechanics and elastic bending theory of plates are described to find critical thrust forces at the beginning of crack growth for drilling with and without back-up plate. Secondly, two series of experiments are carried out on glass fiber reinforced composites to determine quantitatively the effect of drilling parameters on the amount of delamination. Experimental findings verify a large reduction in the amount of delaminated area when a back-up plate is placed under the specimen.

  18. HARMONIC DRIVE SELECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr FOLĘGA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The variety of types and sizes currently in production harmonic drive is a problem in their rational choice. Properly selected harmonic drive must meet certain requirements during operation, and achieve the anticipated service life. The paper discusses the problems associated with the selection of the harmonic drive. It also presents the algorithm correct choice of harmonic drive. The main objective of this study was to develop a computer program that allows the correct choice of harmonic drive by developed algorithm.

  19. Mechanical design of multiple zone plates precision alignment apparatus for hard X-ray focusing in twenty-nanometer scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, Deming; Liu, Jie; Gleber, Sophie C.; Vila-Comamala, Joan; Lai, Barry; Maser, Jorg M.; Roehrig, Christian; Wojcik, Michael J.; Vogt, Franz Stefan

    2017-04-04

    An enhanced mechanical design of multiple zone plates precision alignment apparatus for hard x-ray focusing in a twenty-nanometer scale is provided. The precision alignment apparatus includes a zone plate alignment base frame; a plurality of zone plates; and a plurality of zone plate holders, each said zone plate holder for mounting and aligning a respective zone plate for hard x-ray focusing. At least one respective positioning stage drives and positions each respective zone plate holder. Each respective positioning stage is mounted on the zone plate alignment base frame. A respective linkage component connects each respective positioning stage and the respective zone plate holder. The zone plate alignment base frame, each zone plate holder and each linkage component is formed of a selected material for providing thermal expansion stability and positioning stability for the precision alignment apparatus.

  20. Analysis of Vehicle Steering and Driving Bifurcation Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianbin Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The typical method of vehicle steering bifurcation analysis is based on the nonlinear autonomous vehicle model deriving from the classic two degrees of freedom (2DOF linear vehicle model. This method usually neglects the driving effect on steering bifurcation characteristics. However, in the steering and driving combined conditions, the tyre under different driving conditions can provide different lateral force. The steering bifurcation mechanism without the driving effect is not able to fully reveal the vehicle steering and driving bifurcation characteristics. Aiming at the aforementioned problem, this paper analyzed the vehicle steering and driving bifurcation characteristics with the consideration of driving effect. Based on the 5DOF vehicle system dynamics model with the consideration of driving effect, the 7DOF autonomous system model was established. The vehicle steering and driving bifurcation dynamic characteristics were analyzed with different driving mode and driving torque. Taking the front-wheel-drive system as an example, the dynamic evolution process of steering and driving bifurcation was analyzed by phase space, system state variables, power spectral density, and Lyapunov index. The numerical recognition results of chaos were also provided. The research results show that the driving mode and driving torque have the obvious effect on steering and driving bifurcation characteristics.

  1. Anisotropic elastic plates

    CERN Document Server

    Hwu, Chyanbin

    2010-01-01

    As structural elements, anisotropic elastic plates find wide applications in modern technology. The plates here are considered to be subjected to not only in plane load but also transverse load. In other words, both plane and plate bending problems as well as the stretching-bending coupling problems are all explained in this book. In addition to the introduction of the theory of anisotropic elasticity, several important subjects have are discussed in this book such as interfaces, cracks, holes, inclusions, contact problems, piezoelectric materials, thermoelastic problems and boundary element a

  2. High loading uranium plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiencek, T.C.; Domagala, R.F.; Thresh, H.R.

    1990-01-01

    Two embodiments of a high uranium fuel plate are disclosed which contain a meat comprising structured uranium compound confined between a pari of diffusion bonded ductile metal cladding plates uniformly covering the meat, the meat hiving a uniform high fuel loading comprising a content of uranium compound greater than about 45 Vol. % at a porosity not greater than about 10 Vol. %. In a first embodiment, the meat is a plurality of parallel wires of uranium compound. In a second embodiment, the meat is a dispersion compact containing uranium compound. The fuel plates are fabricated by a hot isostatic pressing process

  3. Flow patterns and heat transfer characteristics of flat plate pulsating heat pipes with various asymmetric and aspect ratios of the channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Dong Soo; Lee, Joo Seong; Ahn, Jae Hwan; Kim, Dongwoo; Kim, Yongchan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Flat plate pulsating heat pipes with asymmetric and aspect ratios were tested. • Flow patterns were investigated according to channel geometry and flow condition. • Heat transfer characteristics were analyzed with various heat inputs. • Optimum asymmetric and aspect ratios were suggested for maximum thermal performance. - Abstract: The thermal performance of flat plate pulsating heat pipes (PHPs) in compact electronic devices can be improved by adopting asymmetric channels with increased pressure differences and an unbalanced driving force. The objective of this study is to investigate the heat transfer characteristics of flat plate PHPs with various asymmetric ratios and aspect ratios in the channels. The thermal performance and flow pattern of the flat plate PHPs were measured by varying the asymmetric ratio from 1.0 to 4.0, aspect ratio from 2.5 to 5.0, and heat input from 2 to 28 W. The effects of the asymmetric ratio and aspect ratio on the thermal resistance were analyzed with the measured evaporator temperature and flow patterns at various heat inputs. With heat inputs of 6 W and 12 W, the optimum asymmetric ratio and aspect ratio for the flat plate PHPs were determined to be 4.0 and 2.5, respectively. With the heat input of 18 W, the optimum asymmetric ratio and aspect ratio were determined to be 1.5 and 2.5, respectively.

  4. Design and operation of AFC ramp plates for track clearance on longwall faces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, I R

    1975-10-01

    A study of the use of AFC ramp plates carried out in the University of Newcastle upon Tyne is reported. A 1/4-scale ramp plate test rig was designed and the effects of pushing force, ramp plate toe angle, track width and other factors were studied.

  5. An experimental study of an explosively driven flat plate launcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, Philip; Haroz, Erik; Armstrong, Chris; Perry, Lee; M Division Team

    2017-06-01

    For some upcoming experiments it is desired to impact a large explosive assembly with one or more moderate diameter flat metal plates traveling at high velocity (2-3 km s-1). The time of arrival of these plates will need to carefully controlled and delayed (i.e. the time(s) of arrival known to approximately a microsecond). For this reason, producing a flyer plate from more traditional gun assemblies is not possible. Previous researchers have demonstrated the ability to throw reasonably flat metal flyers from the so-called Forest flyer geometry. The defining characteristics of this design are a carefully controlled reduction in explosive area from a larger explosive plane-wave-lens and booster pad to a smaller flyer plate to improve the planarity of the drive available and an air gap between the explosive booster and the plate to reduce the peak tensile stresses generated in the plate to suppress spalling. This experimental series comprised a number of different design variants and plate and explosive drive materials. The aim was to calibrate a predictive computational modeling capability on this kind of system in preparation for later more radical design ideas best tested in a computer before undertaking the expensive business of construction.

  6. Ultrasonic Low-Friction Containment Plate for Thermal and Ultrasonic Stir Weld Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Karl; Short, Matt

    2013-01-01

    The thermal stir welding (TSW) process is finding applications in fabrication of space vehicles. In this process, workpieces to be joined by TSW are drawn, by heavy forces, between "containment plates," past the TSW tool that then causes joining of the separate plates. It is believed that the TSW process would be significantly improved by reducing the draw force, and that this could be achieved by reducing the friction forces between the workpieces and containment plates. Based on use of high-power ultrasonics in metal forming processes, where friction reduction in drawing dies has been achieved, it is believed that ultrasonic vibrations of the containment plates could achieve similar friction reduction in the TSW process. By applying ultrasonic vibrations to the containment plates in a longitudinal vibration mode, as well as by mounting and holding the containment plates in a specific manner such as to permit the plates to acoustically float, friction between the metal parts and the containment plates is greatly reduced, and so is the drawing force. The concept was to bring in the ultrasonics from the sides of the plates, permitting the ultrasonic hardware to be placed to the side, away from the equipment that contains the thermal stir tooling and that applies clamping forces to the plates. Tests demonstrated that one of the major objectives of applying ultrasonics to the thermal stir system, that of reducing draw force friction, should be achievable on a scaled-up system.

  7. Hydroelastic Oscillations of a Circular Plate, Resting on Winkler Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondratov, D. V.; Mogilevich, L. I.; Popov, V. S.; Popova, A. A.

    2018-01-01

    The forced hydroelastic oscillations of a circular plate resting on elastic foundation are investigated. The oscillations are caused by a stamp vibration under interaction with a plate through a thin layer of viscous incompressible liquid. The axis-symmetric problem for the regime of the steady-state harmonic oscillations is considered. On the basis of hydroelasticity problem solution the laws of plate deflection and pressure in the liquid are found. The functions of the amplitudes deflection distribution and liquid pressure along the plate are constructed. The presented mathematical model provides for investigating viscous liquid layer interaction dynamics with a circular plate resting on an elastic foundation. The above-mentioned model makes it possible to define the plate oscillations resonance frequencies and the corresponding amplitudes of deflection and liquid pressure, as well.

  8. Free Vibration of Rectangular Plates with Attached Discrete Sprung Masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A direct approach is used to derive the exact solution for the free vibration of thin rectangular plates with discrete sprung masses attached. The plate is simply supported along two opposite edges and elastically supported along the two other edges. The elastic support can represent a range of boundary conditions from free to clamped supports. Considering only the compatibility of the internal forces between the plate and the sprung masses, the equations of the coupled vibration of the plate-spring-mass system are derived. The exact expressions for mode and frequency equations of the coupled vibration of the plate and sprung masses are determined. The solutions converge steadily and monotonically to exact values. The correctness and accuracy of the solutions are demonstrated through comparison with published results. A parametric study is undertaken focusing on the plate with one or two sprung masses. The results can be used as a benchmark for further investigation.

  9. Interaction Between the Himalaya and the Flexed Indian Plate--Spatial Fluctuations in Seismic Hazard in India in the Past Millennium?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilham, Roger; Szeliga, Walter

    2008-01-01

    Between the tenth and early 16th centuries three megaquakes allowed most of the northern edge of the Indian plate to slip 20-24 m northward relative to the overlying Himalaya. Although the renewal time for earthquakes with this large amount of slip is less than 1300 years given a geodetic convergence rate of 16-20 mm/yr, recently developed scaling laws for the Himalaya suggest that the past 200 years of great earthquakes may be associated with slip of less than 10 m and renewal times of approximately 500 years. These same theoretical models show that the rupture lengths of the Himalaya's Medieval earthquakes (300-600 km) are too short to permit 24 m of slip given the relationships demonstrated by recent events. There is thus reason to suppose that recent earthquakes may have responded to different elastic driving forces from those that drove the megaquakes of Medieval times.An alternative source of energy to drive Himalayan earthquakes exists in the form of the elastic and gravitational energy stored in flexure of the Indian plate. The flexure is manifest in the form of a 200-450 m high bulge in central India, which is sustained by the forces of collision and by the end-loading of the plate by the Himalaya and southern Tibet. These flexural stresses are responsible for earthquakes in the sub-continent. The abrupt release of stress associated with the northward translation of the northern edge of the Indian plate by 24 m, were the process entirely elastic, would result in a deflation of the crest of the bulge by roughly 0.8 m. Geometrical changes, however, would be moderated by viscous rheologies in the plate and by viscous flow in the mantle in the following centuries.The hypothesized relaxation of flexural geometry following the Himalayan megaquake sequence would have the effect of backing-off stresses throughout central India resulting in quiescence both in the Himalaya and the Indian plate. The historical record shows an absence of great Himalayan earthquakes in

  10. Heat insulating plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, J.A.F.

    1976-10-28

    Micro-porous insulation plates are dealt with, for example, how they are used in the insulation of heat storage devices. Since one side of such plates is exposed to a temperature of over 700/sup 0/C, a shrinkage of the glass texture of the covering can occur, which can exceed the shrinkage of the inner micro-porous material, so that cracks and splits in the high temperature side of the covering can come about. The task of the invention is to design the plate in such a way as to prevent this from happening. For this purpose the plate is provided, according to invention specifications, with flutes, waves, ribs, waffle or grid patterns and the covering is set into the recesses originating from this.

  11. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Plate is a simple and effective way to manage your blood glucose levels and lose weight. With ... been easier. It can be a challenge to manage portion control wherever you are. Now, our best- ...

  12. Create Your Plate

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  13. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans and a Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets ...

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  20. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... these seven steps to get started: Using your dinner plate, put a line down the middle of ... Fitness Food Recipes Planning Meals What Can I Eat Weight Loss Fitness In My Community Calendar of ...

  1. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Food MyFoodAdvisor Recipes Association Cookbook Recipes Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal ...

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    Full Text Available ... Us in the Fight for a Cure Your tax-deductible gift today can fund critical diabetes research ... Close www.diabetes.org > Food and Fitness > Food > Planning Meals > Create Your Plate Share: Print Page Text ...

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    Full Text Available ... 800-342-2383) Give by Mail Close ... your plate with more non-starchy veggies and smaller portions of starchy foods and protein—no special tools or counting required! You can ...

  6. Humvee Armor Plate Drilling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    When drilling holes in hard steel plate used in up-armor kits for Humvee light trucks, the Anniston Army Depot, Anniston, Alabama, requested the assistance of the National Center for Defense Manufacturing and Machining (NCDMM...

  7. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ... Complications Health Insurance For Parents & Kids Know Your Rights We Can Help Enroll in the Living WIth ...

  9. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ... today and help fund grants supporting next generation scientists. Donate Today We Can Help - we-can-help. ...

  10. BAO Plate Archive Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickaelian, A. M.; Gigoyan, K. S.; Gyulzadyan, M. V.; Paronyan, G. M.; Abrahamyan, H. V.; Andreasyan, H. R.; Azatyan, N. M.; Kostandyan, G. R.; Samsonyan, A. L.; Mikayelyan, G. A.; Farmanyan, S. V.; Harutyunyan, V. L.

    2017-12-01

    We present the Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory (BAO) Plate Archive Project that is aimed at digitization, extraction and analysis of archival data and building an electronic database and interactive sky map. BAO Plate Archive consists of 37,500 photographic plates and films, obtained with 2.6m telescope, 1m and 0.5m Schmidt telescopes and other smaller ones during 1947-1991. The famous Markarian Survey (or the First Byurakan Survey, FBS) 2000 plates were digitized in 2002-2005 and the Digitized FBS (DFBS, www.aras.am/Dfbs/dfbs.html) was created. New science projects have been conducted based on this low-dispersion spectroscopic material. Several other smaller digitization projects have been carried out as well, such as part of Second Byurakan Survey (SBS) plates, photographic chain plates in Coma, where the blazar ON 231 is located and 2.6m film spectra of FBS Blue Stellar Objects. However, most of the plates and films are not digitized. In 2015, we have started a project on the whole BAO Plate Archive digitization, creation of electronic database and its scientific usage. Armenian Virtual Observatory (ArVO, www.aras.am/Arvo/arvo.htm) database will accommodate all new data. The project runs in collaboration with the Armenian Institute of Informatics and Automation Problems (IIAP) and will continues during 4 years in 2015-2018. The final result will be an Electronic Database and online Interactive Sky map to be used for further research projects. ArVO will provide all standards and tools for efficient usage of the scientific output and its integration in international databases.

  11. Consistent Automation Solutions for Electrohydraulic Drives in Times of Industry 4.0

    OpenAIRE

    Köckemann, Albert; Birke, Benno

    2016-01-01

    Electrohydraulic drives are primarily used whenever a low power/weight ratio, a compact build and/or large forces are required for individual applications. These drives are often used together with electric drive technology in machines. However, in terms of automation, unlike electric drives, electrohydraulic drives are still largely connected via analog interfaces and centralized closed control loops today. To compensate for this competitive disadvantage of hydraulic drive technology and, at...

  12. Neutron imaging plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niimura, Nobuo

    1995-01-01

    Imaging plates have been used in the field of medical diagnosis since long ago, but their usefulness was verified as the two-dimensional detector for analyzing the X-ray crystalline structure of high bio molecules like protein, and they have contributed to the remarkable progress in this field. The great contribution is due to the excellent features, such as the detection efficiency of about 100%, the positional resolution smaller than 0.2 mm, the dynamic range of five digits, and the area of several hundreds mm square. The neutron imaging plates have not yet obtained the sufficient results. It was planned to construct the neutron diffractometer for biological matters, and to put imaging plate neutron detectors (IP-ND) to practical use as the detector. The research on the development of IP-NDs was carried out, and the IPp-NDs having the performance comparable with that for X-ray were able to be produced. Imaging plates are the integral type two-dimensional radiation detector using photostimulated luminescence matters, and their principle is explained. As to neutron imaging plates, the converter, neutron detection efficiency and the flight of secondary particles in photo-stimulated luminescence matters are described. As for the present state of development of neutron imaging plates, the IP-NDs made for trial, the dynamic range, the positional resolution, the detection efficiency and the kinds of converters, and the application of IP-NDs are reported. (K.I.)

  13. Push plate, mounting assembly, circuit board, and method of assembling thereof for ball grid array packages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Mark R.; Montague, Stephen

    2017-05-16

    A push plate that includes springs in the form of cantilever flexures and an inspection window is disclosed. The push plate provides a known, uniform, down force and minimal torque to a package to be tested. The cantilevers have a known, calculable down force producing stiffness. The window provides for viewing of the package during testing.

  14. A liquid helium piston pump with a superconducting drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, C.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter describes a bellows pump where the driving force is achieved by an arrangement of three superconducting coils. The pump was designed for use in the supercritical helium flow circuit of the LCT-conductor test facility. The main advantage of the superconducting drive, compared to conventional pumps with external drive, is the compact design. Force transferring parts between 4.2 K and room temperature are not necessary. The pump was tested in a closed loop arrangement. The superconducting drive for a piston pump consists of a moving coil in a constant background field. Other coil configurations and the upscaling of the pump design are discussed

  15. Combination spindle-drive system for high precision machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerth, Howard L.

    1977-07-26

    A combination spindle-drive is provided for fabrication of optical quality surface finishes. Both the spindle-and-drive utilize the spindle bearings for support, thereby removing the conventional drive-means bearings as a source of vibration. An airbearing spindle is modified to carry at the drive end a highly conductive cup-shaped rotor which is aligned with a stationary stator to produce torque in the cup-shaped rotor through the reaction of eddy currents induced in the rotor. This arrangement eliminates magnetic attraction forces and all force is in the form of torque on the cup-shaped rotor.

  16. Electric Vehicle - Economical driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, VCE, Steen V.; Schøn, Henriette

    1999-01-01

    Instruct the reader in getting most satisfaction out of an EV, especially concerning driving and loading.......Instruct the reader in getting most satisfaction out of an EV, especially concerning driving and loading....

  17. Dementia and driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000028.htm Dementia and driving To use the sharing features on ... please enable JavaScript. If your loved one has dementia , deciding when they can no longer drive may ...

  18. Gear bearing drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavroidis, Constantinos (Inventor); Vranish, John M. (Inventor); Weinberg, Brian (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A gear bearing drive provides a compact mechanism that operates as an actuator providing torque and as a joint providing support. The drive includes a gear arrangement integrating an external rotor DC motor within a sun gear. Locking surfaces maintain the components of the drive in alignment and provide support for axial loads and moments. The gear bearing drive has a variety of applications, including as a joint in robotic arms and prosthetic limbs.

  19. Design of reinforced concrete plates and shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, M.

    1984-01-01

    Nowadays, the internal forces of reinforced concrete laminar structures can be easily evaluated by the finite element procedures. The longitudinal design in each direction is not adequate, since the whole set of internal forces in each point must be concomitantly considered. The classic formulation for the design and new design charts which bring reduction of the amount of necessary reinforcement are presented. A rational reinforced concrete mathematical theory which makes possible the limit state design of plates and shells is discussed. This model can also be applied to define the constitutive relationships of laminar finite elements of reinforced concrete. (Author) [pt

  20. Spreading continents kick-started plate tectonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Patrice F; Coltice, Nicolas; Flament, Nicolas

    2014-09-18

    Stresses acting on cold, thick and negatively buoyant oceanic lithosphere are thought to be crucial to the initiation of subduction and the operation of plate tectonics, which characterizes the present-day geodynamics of the Earth. Because the Earth's interior was hotter in the Archaean eon, the oceanic crust may have been thicker, thereby making the oceanic lithosphere more buoyant than at present, and whether subduction and plate tectonics occurred during this time is ambiguous, both in the geological record and in geodynamic models. Here we show that because the oceanic crust was thick and buoyant, early continents may have produced intra-lithospheric gravitational stresses large enough to drive their gravitational spreading, to initiate subduction at their margins and to trigger episodes of subduction. Our model predicts the co-occurrence of deep to progressively shallower mafic volcanics and arc magmatism within continents in a self-consistent geodynamic framework, explaining the enigmatic multimodal volcanism and tectonic record of Archaean cratons. Moreover, our model predicts a petrological stratification and tectonic structure of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle, two predictions that are consistent with xenolith and seismic studies, respectively, and consistent with the existence of a mid-lithospheric seismic discontinuity. The slow gravitational collapse of early continents could have kick-started transient episodes of plate tectonics until, as the Earth's interior cooled and oceanic lithosphere became heavier, plate tectonics became self-sustaining.

  1. Antihistamines and driving safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hanlon, J F

    1988-10-27

    The results of two placebo-controlled driving performance studies confirm laboratory data showing that the nonsedating antihistamine terfenadine does not influence the driving performance of users. The amplitude of vehicle weaving calculated for drivers who received this agent did not differ from control values. Neither terfenadine nor loratadine, another nonsedating antihistamine, potentiated the adverse effects of alcohol on driving performance.

  2. Driving After a Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 23,2015 Can I drive after a stroke? Driving is often a major concern after someone has a stroke. It’s not unusual for stroke survivors to want to drive. Being able to get around after a stroke is important. Safety behind the wheel is even more important after ...

  3. Sequential Dependencies in Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Anup; Tran, Cuong; Wilder, Matthew H.; Mozer, Michael C.; Trivedi, Mohan M.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of recent experience on current behavior has been studied extensively in simple laboratory tasks. We explore the nature of sequential effects in the more naturalistic setting of automobile driving. Driving is a safety-critical task in which delayed response times may have severe consequences. Using a realistic driving simulator, we find…

  4. Simple Driving Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    2002-01-01

    -like language. Our aim is to extract a simple notion of driving and show that even in this tamed form it has much of the power of more general notions of driving. Our driving technique may be used to simplify functional programs which use function composition and will often be able to remove intermediate data...

  5. Stride length: the impact on propulsion and bracing ground reaction force in overhand throwing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Dan K; Crotin, Ryan L

    2018-03-26

    Propulsion and bracing ground reaction force (GRF) in overhand throwing are integral in propagating joint reaction kinetics and ball velocity, yet how stride length effects drive (hind) and stride (lead) leg GRF profiles remain unknown. Using a randomised crossover design, 19 pitchers (15 collegiate and 4 high school) were assigned to throw 2 simulated 80-pitch games at ±25% of their desired stride length. An integrated motion capture system with two force plates and radar gun tracked each throw. Vertical and anterior-posterior GRF was normalised then impulse was derived. Paired t-tests identified whether differences between conditions were significant. Late in single leg support, peak propulsion GRF was statistically greater for the drive leg with increased stride. Stride leg peak vertical GRF in braking occurred before acceleration with longer strides, but near ball release with shorter strides. Greater posterior shear GRF involving both legs demonstrated increased braking with longer strides. Conversely, decreased drive leg propulsion reduced both legs' braking effects with shorter strides. Results suggest an interconnection between normalised stride length and GRF application in propulsion and bracing. This work has shown stride length to be an important kinematic factor affecting the magnitude and timing of external forces acting upon the body.

  6. Cadmium plating replacements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, M.J.; Groshart, E.C.

    1995-03-01

    The Boeing Company has been searching for replacements to cadmium plate. Two alloy plating systems seem close to meeting the needs of a cadmium replacement. The two alloys, zinc-nickel and tin-zinc are from alloy plating baths; both baths are neutral pH. The alloys meet the requirements for salt fog corrosion resistance, and both alloys excel as a paint base. Currently, tests are being performed on standard fasteners to compare zinc-nickel and tin-zinc on threaded hardware where cadmium is heavily used. The Hydrogen embrittlement propensity of the zinc-nickel bath has been tested, and just beginning for the tin-zinc bath. Another area of interest is the electrical properties on aluminum for tin-zinc and will be discussed. The zinc-nickel alloy plating bath is in production in Boeing Commercial Airplane Group for non-critical low strength steels. The outlook is promising that these two coatings will help The Boeing Company significantly reduce its dependence on cadmium plating.

  7. Bending and stretching of plates

    CERN Document Server

    Mansfield, E H; Hemp, W S

    1964-01-01

    The Bending and Stretching of Plates deals with elastic plate theory, particularly on small- and large-deflexion theory. Small-deflexion theory concerns derivation of basic equations, rectangular plates, plates of various shapes, plates whose boundaries are amenable to conformal transformation, plates with variable rigidity, and approximate methods. Large-deflexion theory includes general equations and some exact solutions, approximate methods in large-deflexion theory, asymptotic large-deflexion theories for very thin plates. Asymptotic theories covers membrane theory, tension field theory, a

  8. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 2451 Crystal Drive, Suite 900 Arlington , VA 22202 1-800-DIABETES (800-342-2383) Copyright 1995-2018. American Diabetes Association. All rights reserved. Use of this website constitutes acceptance of ...

  9. The Modeling of Viscoelastic Circular Plates for Use as Waveguide Absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    oncituoe Security Ciasstircation) X THE MODELING OF VISCOELASTIC CIRCULAR PLATES FOR USE AS WAVEGUIDE ABSORBERS C 12 PERSONAL AUTmO ?S) -Hettema...33mvU3dT’U Figure 67. Experimental Jmainiey Part ot the Driving Point Jmpedancs of a 6 in Radius Elastic Plate, With and Without aaker and Mount Conecon, In

  10. Buckling analysis for structural sections and stiffened plates reinforced with laminated composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, A. V.; Soong, T.-C.; Miller, R. E., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A classical buckling analysis is developed for stiffened, flat plates composed of a series of linked flat plate and beam elements. Plates are idealized as multilayered orthotropic elements; structural beads and lips are idealized as beams. The loaded edges of the stiffened plate are simply supported and the conditions at the unloaded edges can be prescribed arbitrarily. The plate and beam elements are matched along their common junctions for displacement continuity and force equilibrium in an exact manner. Offsets between elements are considered in the analysis. Buckling under uniaxial compressive load for plates, sections and stiffened plates is investigated. Buckling loads are found as the lowest of all possible general and local failure modes and the mode shape is used to determine whether buckling is a local or general instability. Numerical correlations with existing analysis and test data for plates, sections and stiffened plates including boron-reinforced structures are discussed. In general, correlations are reasonably good.

  11. Plating on Zircaloy-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dini, J.W.; Johnson, H.R.; Jones, A.

    1979-03-01

    Zircaloy-2 is a difficult alloy to coat with an adherent electroplate because it easily forms a tenacious oxide film in air and aqueous solutions. Procedures reported in the literature and those developed at SLL for surmounting this problem were investigated. The best results were obtained when specimens were first etched in either an ammonium bifluoride/sulfuric acid or an ammonium bifluoride solution, plated, and then heated at 700 0 C for 1 hour in a constrained condition. Machining threads in the Zircaloy-2 for the purpose of providing sites for mechanical interlocking of the plating also proved satisfactory

  12. NICKEL PLATING PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, T.B.; Zava, T.E.

    1959-05-12

    A simplified process is presented for plating nickel by the vapor decomposition of nickel carbonyl. In a preferred form of the invention a solid surface is nickel plated by subjecting the surface to contact with a mixture containing by volume approximately 20% nickel carbonyl vapor, 2% hydrogen sulfide and .l% water vapor or 1% oxygen and the remainder carbon dioxide at room temperature until the desired thickness of nickel is obtained. The advantage of this composition over others is that the normally explosive nickel carbonyl is greatly stabilized.

  13. Hydrodynamics of a flexible plate between pitching rigid plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junyoung; Kim, Daegyoum

    2017-11-01

    The dynamics of a flexible plate have been studied as a model problem in swimming and flying of animals and fluid-structure interaction of plants and flags. Motivated by fish schooling and an array of sea grasses, we investigate the dynamics of a flexible plate closely placed between two pitching rigid plates. In most studies on passive deformation of the flexible plate, the plate is immersed in a uniform flow or a wavy flow. However, in this study, the flexible plate experiences periodic deformation by the oscillatory flow generated by the prescribed pitching motion of the rigid plates. In our model, the pitching axes of the rigid plates and the clamping position of the flexible plate are aligned on the same line. The flexible plate shows various responses depending on length and pitching frequency of rigid plates, thickness of a flexible plate, and free-stream velocity. To find the effect of each variable on the response of the flexible plate, amplitude of a trailing edge and modal contribution of a flapping motion are compared, and flow structure around the flexible plate is examined.

  14. Subatomic forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, C.

    1989-01-01

    Inside the atom, particles interact through two forces which are never felt in the everyday world. But they may hold the key to the Universe. These ideas on subatomic forces are discussed with respect to the strong force, the electromagnetic force and the electroweak force. (author)

  15. Dilemma in pediatric mandible fractures: resorbable or metallic plates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylan Filinte, Gaye; Akan, İsmail Mithat; Ayçiçek Çardak, Gülçin Nujen; Özkaya Mutlu, Özay; Aköz, Tayfun

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency of resorbable and metallic plates in open reduction and internal fixation of mandible fractures in children. Thirty-one patients (mean age, 8.05 years; range 20 months-14 years) were operated on various fractures of the mandible (26 [60.4%] symphysis- parasymphysis, 12 [27.9%] condylar-subcondylar fractures, 5 [11.6%] angulus and ramus fractures). Twelve patients were treated with resorbable plates and 19 patients with metallic plates. Mean follow-up time was 41 months (11-74 months) in the metallic hardware group and was 22 months (8-35 months) in the resorbable plate group. Both groups were investigated for primary bone healing, complications, number of operations, and mandibular growth. The results were discussed below. Both groups demonstrated primary bone healing. Minor complications were similar in both groups. The metallic group involved secondary operations for plate removal. Mandibular growth was satisfactory in both groups. Resorbable plates cost more than the metallic ones; however, when the secondary operations are included in the total cost, resorbable plates were favourable. As mandibular growth and complication parameters are similar in both groups, resorbable plates are favored due to avoidance of potential odontogenic injury, elimination of long-term foreign body retention and provision of adequate stability for rapid bone healing. However, learning curve and concerns for decreased stability against heavy forces of mastication accompanied with the resorbable plates when compared to the metallic ones should be kept in mind.

  16. The death drive in tourism studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buda, Dorina Maria

    2015-01-01

    The psychoanalytical concept of the death drive postulated by Freud and Lacan refers to a constant force at the junction between life and death, which is not understood in a biological sense of physical demise of the body, nor in opposition to life. Tourist experiences in conflict zones can be more

  17. Crack-arrest behavior in SEN wide plates of low-upper-shelf base metal tested under nonisothermal conditions: WP-2 series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.; Keeney-Walker, J.; Bass, B.R.; Robinson, G.C. Jr.; Iskander, S.K.; Alexander, D.J.; Fields, R.J.; deWit, R.; Low, S.R.; Schwartz, C.W.

    1990-08-01

    The Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory under the sponsorship of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission is conducting analytical and experimental studies aimed at understanding the circumstances that would initiate the growth of an existing crack in a reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and the conditions leading to arrest of a propagating crack. Objectives of these studies are to determine (1) if the material will exhibit crack-arrest behavior when the driving force on a crack exceeds the ASME limit, (2) the relationship between K Ia and temperature, and (3) the interaction of fracture modes (arrest, stable crack growth, unstable crack growth, and tensile instability) when arrest occurs at high temperatures. In meeting these objectives, crack-arrest data are being developed over an expanded temperature range through tests involving large thermally shocked cylinders, pressurized thermally shocked vessels, and wide-plate specimens. The wide-plate specimens provide the opportunity for a significant number of data points to be obtained at relatively affordable costs. These tests are designed to provide fracture-toughness measurements approaching or above the onset of the Charpy upper-shelf regime in a rising toughness region and with an increasing driving force. This document discusses test methodology and results. 23 refs., 92 figs., 25 tabs

  18. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... meal-planning, . In this section Food Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans and a Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods donate en -- A Future Without Diabetes - a-future-without-diabetes-2.html A Future ...

  19. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... tool is not to scale because of the differences in types of vegetables. When creating your plate ... function (data) { $('#survey-errors').remove(); $('.survey-form .form-group .survey-alert-wrap').remove(); if (data.submitSurveyResponse.success == ' ...

  20. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods donate en -- A Future Without Diabetes - a-future-without-diabetes-2.html A Future Without Diabetes Donate towards research today and your gift will be matched. Donate ...

  1. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Planning Meals > Create Your Plate Share: Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Create ... Type 2 Education Series Hear audio clips and full recordings of past Q&A events at your ...

  2. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More Sites Search ≡ Are ... Fitness Home Food MyFoodAdvisor Recipes Association Cookbook Recipes Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten ...

  3. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tax-deductible gift today can fund critical diabetes research and support vital diabetes education services that improve the ... effective way to manage your blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ...

  4. Microchannel plate photodetectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majka, R.

    1977-01-01

    A review is given the status of development work on photodetectors using microchannel plates (MCP) as the electron gain element. Projections are made and opinions are presented on what might be available in the next few years. Several uses for these devices at ISABELLE are mentioned

  5. Parallel plate detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardes, D.; Volkov, P.

    1981-01-01

    A 5x3cm 2 (timing only) and a 15x5cm 2 (timing and position) parallel plate avalanche counters (PPAC) are considered. The theory of operation and timing resolution is given. The measurement set-up and the curves of experimental results illustrate the possibilities of the two counters [fr

  6. Flat plate collector. Solarflachkollektor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raab, N

    1979-03-29

    The invention refers to a flat solar collector with an absorber plate, which is arranged on a support and is covered by a transparent window, between which and the plate there is an air space. The previously known structures of this type had the disadvantage that the thermal expansion of the enclosed air caused considerable difficulties. The purpose of the invention is therefore to create a collector, which can be used on the modular system, retains its properties and is safe in spite of the great temperature variations. According to the invention this problem is solved by providing a compensating space in the collector, which is separated by a diaphragm from the airspace between the plate and the covering window. The airspace therefore remains sealed against the atmosphere, so that no dirt, corrosion of the inside and no condensation can reduce the efficiency of the collector. A rise in pressure due to an increase in temperature is immediately reduced by expansion of the diaphragm, which enters the compensation space. In order to increase the pressure in the airspace above the plate for increases in temperature, the compensation space is connected to the atmosphere. The diaphragm can be mirrored on the side towards the absorber, which makes the diaphragm into an insulating element, as it reflects radiated heat from the absorber.

  7. Control rod drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okutani, Tetsuro.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a simple and economical control rod drive using a control circuit requiring no pulse circuit. Constitution: Control rods in a BWR type reactor are driven by hydraulic pressure and inserted or withdrawn in the direction of applying the hydraulic pressure. The direction of the hydraulic pressure is controlled by a direction control valve. Since the driving for the control rod is extremely important in view of the operation, a self diagnosis function is disposed for rapid inspection of possible abnormality. In the present invention, two driving contacts are disposed each by one between the both ends of a solenoid valve of the direction control valve for driving the control rod and the driving power source, and diagnosis is conducted by alternately operating them. Therefore, since it is only necessary that the control circuit issues a driving instruction only to one of the two driving contacts, the pulse circuit is no more required. Further, since the control rod driving is conducted upon alignment of the two driving instructions, the reliability of the control rod drive can be improved. (Horiuchi, T.)

  8. From Plate Tectonic to Continental Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, P. H.

    2017-12-01

    By the early 1970s, the basics of plate tectonics were known. Although much understanding remained to be gained, as a topic of research, plate tectonics no longer defined the forefront of earth science. Not only had it become a foundation on which to build, but also the methods used to reveal it became tools to take in new directions. For me as a seismologist studying earthquakes and active processes, the deformation of continents offered an obvious topic to pursue. Obviously examining the deformation of continents and ignoring the widespread geologic evidence of both ongoing and finite deformation of crust would be stupid. I was blessed with the opportunity to learn from and collaborate with two of the best, Paul Tapponnier and Clark Burchfiel. Continental deformation differed from plate tectonics both because deformation was widespread but more importantly because crust shortens (extends) horizontally and thickens (thins), processes that can be ignored where plate tectonics - the relative motion of rigid plates - occurs. Where a plate boundary passes into a continent, not only must the forces that move plates do work against friction or other dissipative processes, but where high terrain is created, they must also do work against gravity, to create gravitational potential energy in high terrain. Peter Bird and Kenneth Piper and Philip England and Dan McKenzie showed that a two-dimensional thin viscous sheet with vertically averaged properties enabled both sources of resistance to be included without introducing excessive complexity and to be scaled by one dimensionless number, what the latter pair called the Argand number. Increasingly over the past thirty years, emphasis has shifted toward the role played by the mantle lithosphere, because of both its likely strength and its negative buoyancy, which makes it gravitationally unstable. Despite progress since realizing that rigid plates (the essence of plate tectonics) provides a poor description of continental

  9. Astrometric properties of the Tautenburg Plate Scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunzendorf, Jens; Meusinger, Helmut

    The Tautenburg Plate Scanner (TPS) is an advanced plate-measuring machine run by the Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg (Karl Schwarzschild Observatory), where the machine is housed. It is capable of digitising photographic plates up to 30 cm × 30 cm in size. In our poster, we reported on tests and preliminary results of its astrometric properties. The essential components of the TPS consist of an x-y table movable between an illumination system and a direct imaging system. A telecentric lens images the light transmitted through the photographic emulsion onto a CCD line of 6000 pixels of 10 µm square size each. All components are mounted on a massive air-bearing table. Scanning is performed in lanes of up to 55 mm width by moving the x-y table in a continuous drift-scan mode perpendicular to the CCD line. The analogue output from the CCD is digitised to 12 bit with a total signal/noise ratio of 1000 : 1, corresponding to a photographic density range of three. The pixel map is produced as a series of optionally overlapping lane scans. The pixel data are stored onto CD-ROM or DAT. A Tautenburg Schmidt plate 24 cm × 24 cm in size is digitised within 2.5 hours resulting in 1.3 GB of data. Subsequent high-level data processing is performed off-line on other computers. During the scanning process, the geometry of the optical components is kept fixed. The optimal focussing of the optics is performed prior to the scan. Due to the telecentric lens refocussing is not required. Therefore, the main source of astrometric errors (beside the emulsion itself) are mechanical imperfections in the drive system, which have to be divided into random and systematic ones. The r.m.s. repeatability over the whole plate as measured by repeated scans of the same plate is about 0.5 µm for each axis. The mean plate-to-plate accuracy of the object positions on two plates with the same epoch and the same plate centre has been determined to be about 1 µm. This accuracy is comparable to

  10. Fracture Characteristics Analysis of Double-layer Rock Plates with Both Ends Fixed Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Wang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to research on the fracture and instability characteristics of double-layer rock plates with both ends fixed, the three-dimension computational model of double-layer rock plates under the concentrated load was built by using PFC3D technique (three-dimension particle flow code, and the mechanical parameters of the numerical model were determined based on the physical model tests. The results showed the instability process of the double-layer rock plates had four mechanical response phases: the elastic deformation stage, the brittle fracture of upper thick plate arching stage, two rock-arch bearing stage and two rock-arch failure stage; moreover, with the rock plate particle radius from small to large change, the maximum vertical force of double rock-arch appeared when the particle size was a certain value. The maximum vertical force showed an upward trend with the increase of the rock plate temperature, and in the case of the same thickness the maximum vertical force increased with the increase of the upper rock plate thickness. When the boundary conditions of double-layer rock plates changed from the hinged support to the fixed support, the maximum horizontal force observably decreased, and the maximum vertical force showed small fluctuations and then tended towards stability with the increase of cohesive strength of double-layer rock plates.

  11. Using driving simulators to assess driving safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Linda Ng; Lee, John D

    2010-05-01

    Changes in drivers, vehicles, and roadways pose substantial challenges to the transportation safety community. Crash records and naturalistic driving data are useful for examining the influence of past or existing technology on drivers, and the associations between risk factors and crashes. However, they are limited because causation cannot be established and technology not yet installed in production vehicles cannot be assessed. Driving simulators have become an increasingly widespread tool to understand evolving and novel technologies. The ability to manipulate independent variables in a randomized, controlled setting also provides the added benefit of identifying causal links. This paper introduces a special issue on simulator-based safety studies. The special issue comprises 25 papers that demonstrate the use of driving simulators to address pressing transportation safety problems and includes topics as diverse as neurological dysfunction, work zone design, and driver distraction. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Biomechanical analysis of acromioclavicular joint dislocation treated with clavicle hook plates in different lengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Cheng-Min; Huang, Kui-Chou; Pan, Chien-Chou; Lee, Cheng-Hung; Su, Kuo-Chih

    2015-11-01

    Clavicle hook plates are frequently used in clinical orthopaedics to treat acromioclavicular joint dislocation. However, patients often exhibit acromion osteolysis and per-implant fracture after undergoing hook plate fixation. With the intent of avoiding future complications or fixation failure after clavicle hook plate fixation, we used finite element analysis (FEA) to investigate the biomechanics of clavicle hook plates of different materials and sizes when used in treating acromioclavicular joint dislocation. Using finite element analysis, this study constructed a model comprising four parts: clavicle, acromion, clavicle hook plate and screws, and used the model to simulate implanting different types of clavicle hook plates in patients with acromioclavicular joint dislocation. Then, the biomechanics of stainless steel and titanium alloy clavicle hook plates containing either six or eight screw holes were investigated. The results indicated that using a longer clavicle hook plate decreased the stress value in the clavicle, and mitigated the force that clavicle hook plates exert on the acromion. Using a clavicle hook plate material characterized by a smaller Young's modulus caused a slight increase in the stress on the clavicle. However, the external force the material imposed on the acromion was less than the force exerted on the clavicle. The findings of this study can serve as a reference to help orthopaedic surgeons select clavicle hook plates.

  13. Experimental investigation of the unsteady two-phase flow through perforated plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tartaglia, G.P.

    1985-07-01

    The coolant flow across the perforated dip-plate during a hypothetical core disruptive accident (HCDA) in a liquid metal fast breeder reactor was simulated in a one-dimensional model. Experiments with a water-air mixture as fluid were run by varying the following parameters: geometry of the dip-plate (perforation ratio, number of the holes), height of the fluid head over the dip-plate, air volumetric fraction, size of the air bubbles, acceleration of the fluid. The pressure drop across the dip-plate, the forces acting on the dip-plate and on the upper plate, acceleration and displacement of the piston, the air volumetric fraction and the size of the air bubbles were measured in a wide range of Strouhal and acceleration numbers. The flow pattern downstream the dip-plate was filmed with a high-speed camera. The following correlations were investigated: resistance coefficients as a function of the acceleration and Strouhal number, time delay of the force on the upper plate as a function of the cavitation number, and forces and impulses acting on the upper plate compared with those acting on the dip-plate. Finally, using high-speed film pictures, the formation of fluid jets downstream the dip-plate was investigated. The following relations were obtained: displacement of the mixture surface and of the jets as a function of the perforation ratio and of the air volumetric fraction, and cavitation volume as a function of the cavitation number. (orig.) [de

  14. Optimization of spent fuel pool weir gate driving mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Du, Lin; Tao, Xinlei; Wang, Shijie; Shang, Ertao; Yu, Jianjiang

    2018-04-01

    Spent fuel pool is crucial facility for fuel storage and nuclear safety, and the spent fuel pool weir gate is the key related equipment. In order to achieve a goal of more efficient driving force transfer, loading during the opening/closing process is analyzed and an optimized calculation method for dimensions of driving mechanism is proposed. The result of optimizing example shows that the method can be applied to weir gates' design with similar driving mechanism.

  15. Current drive in a ponderomotive potential with sign reversal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisch, N.J.; Dodin, I.Y.; Rax, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Noninductive current drive can be accomplished through ponderomotive forces with high efficiency when the potential changes sign over the interaction region. The effect, which operates somewhat like a Maxwell demon, can be practiced upon both ions and electrons. The current-drive efficiencies, in principle, might be higher than those possible with conventional rf current-drive techniques. It remains, however, for us to identify how the effect might be implemented in a magnetic fusion device in a practical manner

  16. Superluminal warp drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Diaz, Pedro F. [Colina de los Chopos, Centro de Fisica ' Miguel A. Catalan' , Instituto de Matematicas y Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: p.gonzalezdiaz@imaff.cfmac.csic.es

    2007-09-20

    In this Letter we consider a warp drive spacetime resulting from that suggested by Alcubierre when the spaceship can only travel faster than light. Restricting to the two dimensions that retains most of the physics, we derive the thermodynamic properties of the warp drive and show that the temperature of the spaceship rises up as its apparent velocity increases. We also find that the warp drive spacetime can be exhibited in a manifestly cosmological form.

  17. PMBLDC motor drive with power factor correction controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    George, G.J.; Ramachandran, Rakesh; Arun, N.

    2012-01-01

    reliability, and low maintenance requirements. The proposed Power Factor Controller topology improves power quality by improving performance of PMBLDCM drive, such as reduction of AC main current harmonics, near unity power factor. PFC converter forces the drive to draw sinusoidal supply current in phase...

  18. Proceedings of the international conference on maglev and linear drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains papers presented at a conference on Maglev and linear drives. Topics covered include: Development of superconducting magnets for the Canadian electrodynamic Maglev vehicle; Power supply system to drive HSST - Expo '86; and Thrust and levitation force characteristics of linear synchronous motors

  19. CAE DEVELOPMENT OF PRECESSIONAL DRIVES USING AUTODESK INVENTOR PLATFORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion BOSTAN

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the modelling and simulation of precessional drives designed in two variants capable of high transmission ratio and torque for one stage compact construction. The constructions were designed in Inventor and also as multi body systems in otionInventor. The simulations of the drives provide information concerning positions, velocities, accelerations, point trajectories, forces and moments, energies, as well as contact forces at the contact between gear teeth and satellite teeth and other data concerning the system.

  20. Use of local and global limit load solutions for plates with surface cracks under tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei, Y. [British Energy Generation Ltd, Barnett Way, Bamwood, Gloucester GL4 3RS (United Kingdom)], E-mail: yuebao.lei@british-energy.com

    2007-09-15

    Some available experimental results for the ductile failure of plates with surface cracks under tension are reviewed. The response of crack driving force, J, and the ligament strain near the local and global limit loads are investigated by performing elastic-perfectly plastic finite element (FE) analysis of a plate with a semi-elliptical crack under tension. The results show that a ligament may survive until the global collapse load is reached when the average ligament strain at the global collapse load, which depends on the uniaxial strain corresponding to the flow stress of the material and the crack geometry, is less than the true fracture strain of the material obtained from uniaxial tension tests. The FE analysis shows that ligament yielding corresponding to the local limit load has little effect on J and the average ligament strain, whereas approach to global collapse corresponds to a sharp increase in both J and the average ligament strain. The prediction of the FE value of J using the reference stress method shows that the global limit load is more relevant to J-estimation than the local one.