WorldWideScience

Sample records for plate count techniques

  1. Rapid Detection of Viable Microorganisms Based on a Plate Count Technique Using Arrayed Microelectrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behraad Bahreyni

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Development of a miniaturized biosensor system that can be used for rapid detection and counting of microorganisms in food or water samples is described. The developed microsystem employs a highly sensitive impedimetric array of biosensors to monitor the growth of bacterial colonies that are dispersed across an agar growth medium. To use the system, a sample containing the bacteria is cultured above the agar layer. Using a multiplexing network, the electrical properties of the medium at different locations are continuously measured, recorded, and compared against a baseline signal. Variations of signals from different biosensors are used to reveal the presence of bacteria in the sample, as well as the locations of bacterial colonies across the biochip. This technique forms the basis for a label-free bacterial detection for rapid analysis of food samples, reducing the detection time by at least a factor of four compared to the current required incubation times of 24 to 72 hours for plate count techniques. The developed microsystem has the potential for miniaturization to a stage where it could be deployed for rapid analysis of food samples at commercial scale at laboratories, food processing facilities, and retailers.

  2. Collaborative study comparing the spiral plate and aerobic plate count methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilchrist, J E; Donnelly, C B; Peeler, J T; Campbell, J E

    1977-07-01

    The spiral plate count method is a semiautomated plating technique that greatly reduces manpower and material costs normally associated with the pour plating technique. In this collaborative study, 8 laboratories compared the spiral and pour plating techniques, using 4 samples each of 3 products: frozen pumpkin pie, frozen chicken pot pie, and shampoo. The results show that 10 of the 12 comparisons of means of the pour and spiral methods were not significantly different; 2 values were significant at alpha = 0.01. Overall, the components of variance were less than that of the current milk standard, and the replicate per cent coefficient of variation was satisfactory. This study indicates that the spiral plate method is an acceptable alternative to the pour plate method; the spiral plate method has been adopted as official first action.

  3. Cautions on the Use of National Standard Method for Aerobic Plate Count in Food and Rapid Detection Techniques for Aerobic Plate Count%食品中茵落总数的国标法测定注意事项及快速检测技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄维雅

    2012-01-01

    菌落总数是食品微生物检测的一个重要项目,也是评价食品卫生安全性最常用的指标之一,其结果的准确度和可信度直接影响评价的可靠性。该文总结了食品中菌落总数的国标法检测注意事项,并介绍了近年来常用的几种食品菌落总数的快速检测技术。%The aerobic plate count is important in the food microbiological examination and widely used in evaluation of food hygiene and safety. The reliability of evaluations is depended on the accuracy and the credibility of the aerobic plate count. This paper summarized some cautions on the use of national standard method for aerobic plate count in food microbiological examination, and reviewed some common rapid detection techniques for aerobic plate count in food microbiological study in recent years.

  4. High counting rate resistive-plate chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peskov, V.; Anderson, D. F.; Kwan, S.

    1993-05-01

    Parallel-plate avalanche chambers (PPAC) are widely used in physics experiments because they are fast (less than 1 ns) and have very simple construction: just two parallel metallic plates or mesh electrodes. Depending on the applied voltage they may work either in spark mode or avalanche mode. The advantage of the spark mode of operation is a large signal amplitude from the chamber, the disadvantage is that there is a large dead time (msec) for the entire chamber after an event. The main advantage of the avalanche mode is high rate capability 10(exp 5) counts/mm(sup 2). A resistive-plate chamber (RPC) is similar to the PPAC in construction except that one or both of the electrodes are made from high resistivity (greater than 10(exp 10) Omega(cm) materials. In practice RPC's are usually used in the spark mode. Resistive electrodes are charged by sparks, locally reducing the actual electric field in the gap. The size of the charged surface is about 10 mm(sup 2), leaving the rest of the detector unaffected. Therefore, the rate capability of such detectors in the spark mode is considerably higher than conventional spark counters. Among the different glasses tested the best results were obtained with electron type conductive glasses, which obey Ohm's law. Most of the work with such glasses was done with high pressure parallel-plate chambers (10 atm) for time-of-flight measurements. Resistive glasses have been expensive and produced only in small quantities. Now resistive glasses are commercially available, although they are still expensive in small scale production. From the positive experience of different groups working with the resistive glasses, it was decided to review the old idea to use this glass for the RPC. This work has investigated the possibility of using the RPC at 1 atm and in the avalanche mode. This has several advantages: simplicity of construction, high rate capability, low voltage operation, and the ability to work with non-flammable gases.

  5. Multiregional evaluation of the SimPlate heterotrophic plate count method compared to the standard plate count agar pour plate method in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, R W; Osborne, K; Barnes, G; Jolliff, C; Zamani, D; Roll, B; Stillings, A; Herzog, D; Cannon, S; Loveland, S

    2000-01-01

    A new SimPlate heterotrophic plate count (HPC) method (IDEXX Laboratories, Westbrook, Maine) was compared with the pour plate method at 35 degrees C for 48 h. Six laboratories tested a total of 632 water samples. The SimPlate HPC method was found to be equivalent to the pour plate method by regression analysis (r = 0. 95; y = 0.99X + 0.06).

  6. Multiregional Evaluation of the SimPlate Heterotrophic Plate Count Method Compared to the Standard Plate Count Agar Pour Plate Method in Water

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, R. Wayne; Osborne, Karen; Barnes, Gary; Jolliff, Carol; Zamani, Dianna; Roll, Bruce; Stillings, Amy; Herzog, David; Cannon, Shelly; Loveland, Scott

    2000-01-01

    A new SimPlate heterotrophic plate count (HPC) method (IDEXX Laboratories, Westbrook, Maine) was compared with the pour plate method at 35°C for 48 h. Six laboratories tested a total of 632 water samples. The SimPlate HPC method was found to be equivalent to the pour plate method by regression analysis (r = 0.95; y = 0.99X + 0.06).

  7. Heterotrophic plate count methodology in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reasoner, Donald J

    2004-05-01

    In the United States (US), the history of bacterial plate counting (BPC) methods used for water can be traced largely through Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (Standard Methods). The bacterial count method has evolved from the original Standard Methods (1st edition, 1905) plate count which used nutrient gelatin and incubation at 20 degrees C for 48 h, to the HPC method options in the latest edition of Standard Methods that provide greater flexibility of application, depending on the data needs of the water analyst. The use of agar-agar as a gelling agent, replacing gelatin, allowed the use of higher incubation temperatures and resulted in the "body temperature count" (37 degrees C) found in the 3rd through the 8th edition of Standard Methods. The change from 37 degrees C incubation to 35+/-0.5 degrees C accommodated laboratories that did both milk and water analyses. By using a single temperature, fewer incubators were needed. The term "standard plate count" (SPC) first appeared in 1960 (11th edition) along with plate count agar. Incubation at 20 degrees C for the plate count was dropped from the 13th to 15th editions and few changes were made in the SPC method from the 11th edition through the 13th editions. Plate count analysis of bottled waters was included in the 14th edition (1975), calling for incubation at 35+/-0.5 degrees C for 72+/-4 h. Perhaps the most significant changes in plate count methods occurred with the 16th edition (1985). The term heterotrophic plate count replaced the standard plate count, and the spread plate (SP) and membrane filter (MF) methods were added along with new media for pour and spread plates (R2A agar and NWRI agar, both low nutrient) and for the membrane filter method (mHPC medium). The use of low nutrient media, lower incubation temperature, and longer incubation times, results in higher plate count results for most water samples. The options currently available, including low and high nutrient media

  8. Repeatability of differential goat bulk milk culture and associations with somatic cell count, total bacterial count, and standard plate count

    OpenAIRE

    Koop, G.; Dik, N; Nielen, M; Lipman, L. J. A.

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess how different bacterial groups in bulk milk are related to bulk milk somatic cell count (SCC), bulk milk total bacterial count (TBC), and bulk milk standard plate count (SPC) and to measure the repeatability of bulk milk culturing. On 53 Dutch dairy goat farms, 3 bulk milk samples were collected at intervals of 2 wk. The samples were cultured for SPC, coliform count, and staphylococcal count and for the presence of Staphylococcus aureus. Furthermore, SCC ...

  9. Repeatability of differential goat bulk milk culture and associations with somatic cell count, total bacterial count, and standard plate count

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koop, G.; Dik, N.; Nielen, M.; Lipman, L.J.A.

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess how different bacterial groups in bulk milk are related to bulk milk somatic cell count (SCC), bulk milk total bacterial count (TBC), and bulk milk standard plate count (SPC) and to measure the repeatability of bulk milk culturing. On 53 Dutch dairy goat farms,

  10. HETEROTROPHIC PLATE COUNT (HPC) METHODOLOGY IN THE UNITED STATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACT In the United States (U.S.), the history of bacterial plate counting methods used for water can be traced largely through Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (Standard Methods). The bacterial count method has evolved from the original St...

  11. A THUMBNAIL HISTORY OF HETEROTROPHIC PLATE COUNT (HPC) METHODOLOGY IN THE UNITED STATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the past 100 years, the method of determining the number of bacteria in water, foods or other materials has been termed variously as: bacterial plate count, total plate count, total viable plate count, aerobic plate count, standard plate cound and more recently, heterotrophi...

  12. Evaluation of DAPI direct count, computer assisted and plate count methods

    OpenAIRE

    Chivu, Bogdan

    2010-01-01

    The feasibility of using automatic counting of bacteria stained with highly specific and sensitive fluorescing DNA stain DAPI, 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, and direct manual counting to enumerate both pure culture of Pseudomonas putida overnight culture and sea water enhanced culture, was tested in correlation with plate direct counting, turbidity and absorbance at 600nm, to obtain cross validation. Six diluted samples from overnight pure culture of Pseudomonas putida and sea water culture ...

  13. Comparison of Limulus assay, standard plate count, and total coliform count for microbiological assessment of renovated wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, J H; Lee, J C; Alexander, G A; Wolf, H W

    1979-05-01

    The Limulus endotoxin assay was compared to the standard plate count and total coliform count for assessment of the bacteriological quality of reclaimed wastewater. A total of 48 water samples from an advanced waste treatment plant in Dallas, Tex. were examined by the three techniques. Limulus assays were technically simpler to perform and provided results much sooner than conventional culture methods. However, the endotoxin values did not correlate extremely well with determinations of viable bacterial numbers. This lack of correlation may have been due to alterations in the normal ratio of viable gram-negative cells to endotoxin caused by water reclamation procedures.

  14. Comparison of plate counts, Petrifilm, dipslides, and adenosine triphosphate bioluminescence for monitoring bacteria in cooling-tower waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Sherry A; Anderson, James E; Kim, Byung R; Ball, James C

    2009-04-01

    Effective bacterial control in cooling-tower systems requires accurate and timely methods to count bacteria. Plate-count methods are difficult to implement on-site, because they are time- and labor-intensive and require sterile techniques. Several field-applicable methods (dipslides, Petrifilm, and adenosine triphosphate [ATP] bioluminescence) were compared with the plate count for two sample matrices--phosphate-buffered saline solution containing a pure culture of Pseudomonas fluorescens and cooling-tower water containing an undefined mixed bacterial culture. For the pure culture, (1) counts determined on nutrient agar and plate-count agar (PCA) media and expressed as colony-forming units (CFU) per milliliter were equivalent to those on R2A medium (p = 1.0 and p = 1.0, respectively); (2) Petrifilm counts were not significantly different from R2A plate counts (p = 0.99); (3) the dipslide counts were up to 2 log units higher than R2A plate counts, but this discrepancy was not statistically significant (p = 0.06); and (4) a discernable correlation (r2 = 0.67) existed between ATP readings and plate counts. For cooling-tower water samples (n = 62), (1) bacterial counts using R2A medium were higher (but not significant; p = 0.63) than nutrient agar and significantly higher than tryptone-glucose yeast extract (TGE; p = 0.03) and PCA (p ATP readings and plate counts varied from system to system, was poor (r2 values ranged from ATP method was not sufficiently sensitive to measure counts below approximately 10(4) CFU/mL.

  15. Optimization of high count rate event counting detector with Microchannel Plates and quad Timepix readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tremsin, A.S., E-mail: ast@ssl.berkeley.edu; Vallerga, J.V.; McPhate, J.B.; Siegmund, O.H.W.

    2015-07-01

    Many high resolution event counting devices process one event at a time and cannot register simultaneous events. In this article a frame-based readout event counting detector consisting of a pair of Microchannel Plates and a quad Timepix readout is described. More than 10{sup 4} simultaneous events can be detected with a spatial resolution of ~55 µm, while >10{sup 3} simultaneous events can be detected with <10 µm spatial resolution when event centroiding is implemented. The fast readout electronics is capable of processing >1200 frames/sec, while the global count rate of the detector can exceed 5×10{sup 8} particles/s when no timing information on every particle is required. For the first generation Timepix readout, the timing resolution is limited by the Timepix clock to 10–20 ns. Optimization of the MCP gain, rear field voltage and Timepix threshold levels are crucial for the device performance and that is the main subject of this article. These devices can be very attractive for applications where the photon/electron/ion/neutron counting with high spatial and temporal resolution is required, such as energy resolved neutron imaging, Time of Flight experiments in lidar applications, experiments on photoelectron spectroscopy and many others.

  16. Hydrophobic grid membrane filter method for aerobic plate count in foods: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entis, P

    1986-01-01

    Twenty-one laboratories participated in a collaborative study to validate a hydrophobic grid membrane filter (HGMF) method for aerobic plate count by comparing its performance against the AOAC/APHA pour plate method. Raw milk, raw poultry, whole egg powder, flours, and spices were included in the study. Counts obtained by the HGMF and pour plate methods did not differ significantly, except in the case of whole egg powder, for which the HGMF method produced significantly higher counts. The hydrophobic grid membrane filter method for aerobic plate count in foods has been adopted official first action.

  17. Evaluation of heterotrophic plate and chromogenic agar colony counting in water quality laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallas, Gary; Monis, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The enumeration of bacteria using plate-based counts is a core technique used by food and water microbiology testing laboratories. However, manual counting of bacterial colonies is both time and labour intensive, can vary between operators and also requires manual entry of results into laboratory information management systems, which can be a source of data entry error. An alternative is to use automated digital colony counters, but there is a lack of peer-reviewed validation data to allow incorporation into standards. We compared the performance of digital counting technology (ProtoCOL3) against manual counting using criteria defined in internationally recognized standard methods. Digital colony counting provided a robust, standardized system suitable for adoption in a commercial testing environment. The digital technology has several advantages:•Improved measurement of uncertainty by using a standard and consistent counting methodology with less operator error.•Efficiency for labour and time (reduced cost).•Elimination of manual entry of data onto LIMS.•Faster result reporting to customers.

  18. Flow cytometric bacterial cell counts challenge conventional heterotrophic plate counts for routine microbiological drinking water monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nevel, S; Koetzsch, S; Proctor, C R; Besmer, M D; Prest, E I; Vrouwenvelder, J S; Knezev, A; Boon, N; Hammes, F

    2017-04-15

    Drinking water utilities and researchers continue to rely on the century-old heterotrophic plate counts (HPC) method for routine assessment of general microbiological water quality. Bacterial cell counting with flow cytometry (FCM) is one of a number of alternative methods that challenge this status quo and provide an opportunity for improved water quality monitoring. After more than a decade of application in drinking water research, FCM methodology is optimised and established for routine application, supported by a considerable amount of data from multiple full-scale studies. Bacterial cell concentrations obtained by FCM enable quantification of the entire bacterial community instead of the minute fraction of cultivable bacteria detected with HPC (typically water samples per day, depending on the laboratory and selected staining procedure(s). Moreover, many studies have shown FCM total (TCC) and intact (ICC) cell concentrations to be reliable and robust process variables, responsive to changes in the bacterial abundance and relevant for characterising and monitoring drinking water treatment and distribution systems. The purpose of this critical review is to initiate a constructive discussion on whether FCM could replace HPC in routine water quality monitoring. We argue that FCM provides a faster, more descriptive and more representative quantification of bacterial abundance in drinking water.

  19. Correlation between standard plate count and somatic cell count milk quality results for Wisconsin dairy producers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borneman, Darand L; Ingham, Steve

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if a correlation exists between standard plate count (SPC) and somatic cell count (SCC) monthly reported results for Wisconsin dairy producers. Such a correlation may indicate that Wisconsin producers effectively controlling sanitation and milk temperature (reflected in low SPC) also have implemented good herd health management practices (reflected in low SCC). The SPC and SCC results for all grade A and B dairy producers who submitted results to the Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade, and Consumer Protection, in each month of 2012 were analyzed. Grade A producer SPC results were less dispersed than grade B producer SPC results. Regression analysis showed a highly significant correlation between SPC and SCC, but the R(2) value was very small (0.02-0.03), suggesting that many other factors, besides SCC, influence SPC. Average SCC (across 12 mo) for grade A and B producers decreased with an increase in the number of monthly SPC results (out of 12) that were ≤ 25,000 cfu/mL. A chi-squared test of independence showed that the proportion of monthly SCC results >250,000 cells/mL varied significantly depending on whether the corresponding SPC result was ≤ 25,000 or >25,000 cfu/mL. This significant difference occurred in all months of 2012 for grade A and B producers. The results suggest that a generally consistent level of skill exists across dairy production practices affecting SPC and SCC.

  20. Enumeration and characterization of standard plate count bacteria in chlorinated and raw water supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeChevallier, M W; Seidler, R J; Evans, T M

    1980-11-01

    Nearly 700 standard plate count (SPC) bacteria were isolated from drinking water and untreated surface water and identified according to a scheme developed to permit the rapid, simple classification of microorganisms to genus, species, or group. Actinomycetes and Aeromonas species were the two most common groups of SPC bacteria in chlorinated distribution water. Aeromonas spp. and Enterobacter agglomerans were the two most common groups of SPC bacteria in raw water. Identification of bacterial populations before and after contact with chlorine (1 to 2 mg/liter) for 1 h revealed that chlorination selected for gram-positive bacteria. Water that contained high densities of bacteria known to be antagonistic to coliforms had low coliform isolation rates. The membrane filtration technique for enumerating SPC bacteria recovered significantly higher numbers (P standard pour plate technique.

  1. HETEROTROPHIC PLATE COUNT BACTERIA - WHAT IS THEIR SIGNIFICANCE IN DRINKING WATER?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The possible health significance of heterotrophic plate count (HPC) bacteria, also know in earlier terminology as standard plate count (SPC) bacteria, in drinking water has been debated for decades. While the literature documents the universal occurrence of HPC bacteria in soil, ...

  2. Flow cytometric bacterial cell counts challenge conventional heterotrophic plate counts for routine microbiological drinking water monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Van Nevel, S.

    2017-02-08

    Drinking water utilities and researchers continue to rely on the century-old heterotrophic plate counts (HPC) method for routine assessment of general microbiological water quality. Bacterial cell counting with flow cytometry (FCM) is one of a number of alternative methods that challenge this status quo and provide an opportunity for improved water quality monitoring. After more than a decade of application in drinking water research, FCM methodology is optimised and established for routine application, supported by a considerable amount of data from multiple full-scale studies. Bacterial cell concentrations obtained by FCM enable quantification of the entire bacterial community instead of the minute fraction of cultivable bacteria detected with HPC (typically < 1% of all bacteria). FCM measurements are reproducible with relative standard deviations below 3% and can be available within 15 min of samples arriving in the laboratory. High throughput sample processing and complete automation are feasible and FCM analysis is arguably less expensive than HPC when measuring more than 15 water samples per day, depending on the laboratory and selected staining procedure(s). Moreover, many studies have shown FCM total (TCC) and intact (ICC) cell concentrations to be reliable and robust process variables, responsive to changes in the bacterial abundance and relevant for characterising and monitoring drinking water treatment and distribution systems. The purpose of this critical review is to initiate a constructive discussion on whether FCM could replace HPC in routine water quality monitoring. We argue that FCM provides a faster, more descriptive and more representative quantification of bacterial abundance in drinking water.

  3. A new medium for determining the total plate count in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C F; Townsend, D E

    1999-12-01

    SimPlate for Total Plate Count-Color Indicator (TPC-CI, IDEXX Laboratories, Inc., Westbrook, Me.) is a new medium that incorporates the redox dye resazurin to detect and quantify bacteria in food. Enumeration is achieved by the most probable number method using a SimPlate device. Viable bacteria are detected in each well of the SimPlate device by the biochemical reduction of resazurin, which is blue, to the pink resorufin or the clear dihydroresorufin indicators. Results after 24 h of incubation for TPC-CI are highly correlated with standard plate count agar after 48 h of incubation. Correlation coefficients from studies conducted at five laboratories ranged from 0.94 to 0.98 in side-by-side comparisons against standard plate count agar. Four additional test sites, using alternative methods for determining the aerobic plate count in food, reported similar results in comparison studies (r = 0.91 to 0.97). The slopes from linear regression analysis at all sites ranged from 0.91 to 0.98, with y intercepts ranging from 0.11 to 0.84. Samples used for the validation of TPC-CI included raw food products (i.e., liver and grains), which may contain natural enzymes that interfere with enzyme-based detection methods. No interference was seen from the foods tested. These results suggest that TPC-CI is a suitable alternative to existing plate count methods and has reduced incubation time.

  4. 3M Petrifilm enterobacteriaceae count plate method for enumeration of enterobacteriaceae in selected foods: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbernagel, Karen M; Lindberg, Kathryn G

    2003-01-01

    The practice of detecting and enumerating all oxidase-negative, glucose-fermenting-Gram-negative rods (i.e., the family Enterobacteriaceae) is used to indicate unsanitary or inadequate food processing conditions. The objective of this interlaboratory collaborative study was to evaluate and compare the methods described in Standard Methods for the Examination of Dairy Products (SMEDP) and the Compendium of Methods for the Microbiological Examination of Foods (Compendium) with a commercial product, the 3M Petrifilm Enterobacteriaceae Count Plate, for the recovery of Enterobacteriaceae in foods. Six foods--cheddar cheese, milk, flour, frozen prepared meals, frozen broccoli, and nut pieces--were analyzed for Enterobacteriaceae by 12 collaborating laboratories. For each food tested, the collaborators received 8 blind test portions consisting of a control test portion and 3 levels of inoculated test portion, each in duplicate. Each test portion was tested by the Petrifilm Enterobacteriaceae Count Plate method as well as the SMEDP or Compendium methods. The precision estimates (repeatability or within-laboratory variation, and reproducibility or between-laboratory variation) were calculated with standard statistical techniques.

  5. Comparative detection of bacterial adhesion to Caco-2 cells with ELISA, radioactivity and plate count methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Blay, Gwenaëlle; Fliss, Ismaïl; Lacroix, Christophe

    2004-11-01

    Different methods are used to study bacterial adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells, which is an important step in pathogenic infection as well as in probiotic colonization of the intestinal tract. The aim of this study was to compare the ELISA-based method with more conventional plate count and radiolabeling methods for bacterial adhesion detection. An ELISA-based assay was optimized for the detection of Bifidobacterium longum and Escherichia coli O157:H7, which are low and highly adherent bacteria, respectively. In agreement with previous investigations, a percentage of adhesion below 1% was obtained for B. longum with ELISA. However, high nonspecific background and low positive signals were measured due to the use of polyclonal antibodies and the low adhesion capacity with this strain. In contrast, the ELISA-based method developed for E. coli adhesion detected a high adhesion percentage (15%). For this bacterium the three methods tested gave similar results for the highest bacterial concentrations (6.8 Log CFU added bacteria/well). However, differences among methods increased with the addition of decreased bacterial concentration due to different detection thresholds (5.9, 5.6 and 2.9 Log CFU adherent bacteria/well for radioactivity, ELISA and plate count methods, respectively). The ELISA-based method was shown to be a good predictor for bacterial adhesion compared to the radiolabeling method when good quality specific antibodies were used. This technique is convenient and allows handling of numerous samples.

  6. Short communication: Repeatability of differential goat bulk milk culture and associations with somatic cell count, total bacterial count, and standard plate count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koop, G; Dik, N; Nielen, M; Lipman, L J A

    2010-06-01

    The aims of this study were to assess how different bacterial groups in bulk milk are related to bulk milk somatic cell count (SCC), bulk milk total bacterial count (TBC), and bulk milk standard plate count (SPC) and to measure the repeatability of bulk milk culturing. On 53 Dutch dairy goat farms, 3 bulk milk samples were collected at intervals of 2 wk. The samples were cultured for SPC, coliform count, and staphylococcal count and for the presence of Staphylococcus aureus. Furthermore, SCC (Fossomatic 5000, Foss, Hillerød, Denmark) and TBC (BactoScan FC 150, Foss) were measured. Staphylococcal count was correlated to SCC (r=0.40), TBC (r=0.51), and SPC (r=0.53). Coliform count was correlated to TBC (r=0.33), but not to any of the other variables. Staphylococcus aureus did not correlate to SCC. The contribution of the staphylococcal count to the SPC was 31%, whereas the coliform count comprised only 1% of the SPC. The agreement of the repeated measurements was low. This study indicates that staphylococci in goat bulk milk are related to SCC and make a significant contribution to SPC. Because of the high variation in bacterial counts, repeated sampling is necessary to draw valid conclusions from bulk milk culturing.

  7. Single ion counting with a MCP (microchannel plate) detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tawara, Hiroko; Sasaki, Shinichi; Miyajima, Mitsuhiro [National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Shibamura, Eido

    1996-07-01

    In this study, a single-ion-counting method using alpha-particle-impact ionization of Ar atoms is demonstrated and the preliminary {epsilon}{sub mcp} for Ar ions with incident energies of 3 to 4.7 keV is determined. The single-ion counting by the MCP is aimed to be performed under experimental conditions as follows: (1) A signal from the MCP is reasonably identified as incidence of single Ar-ion. (2) The counting rate of Ar ions is less than 1 s{sup -1}. (3) The incident Ar ions are not focused on a small part of an active area of the MCP, namely, {epsilon}{sub mcp} is determined with respect to the whole active area of the MCP. So far, any absolute detection efficiency has not been reported under these conditions. (J.P.N.)

  8. Plating of patella fractures: techniques and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Benjamin C; Mehta, Sanjay; Castaneda, Joaquin; French, Bruce G; Blanchard, Chris

    2014-09-01

    Operative treatment of displaced patella fractures with tension band fixation remains the gold standard, but is associated with a significant rate of complications and symptomatic implants. Despite the evolution of tension band fixation to include cannulated screws, surprisingly little other development has been made to improve overall patient outcomes. In this article, we present the techniques and outcomes of patella plating for displaced patella fractures and patella nonunions.

  9. Evaluation of the 3M™ Petrifilm™ Rapid Yeast and Mold Count Plate for the Enumeration of Yeast and Mold in Food: Collaborative Study, First Action 2014.05.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Patrick; Flannery, Jonathan; Crowley, Erin; Agin, James; Goins, David; Jechorek, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The 3M™ Petrifilm™ Rapid Yeast and Mold (RYM) Count Plate is a simple, ready-to-use chromogenic culture method for the rapid detection and enumeration of yeast and mold in food products. The 3M Petrifilm RYM Count Plate method was compared to the U. S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual (FDA BAM) Chapter 18, Yeasts, Molds and Mycotoxins and the ISO 21527:2008 Microbiology of Food and Animal Feeding Stuffs-Horizontal Method for the Enumeration for Yeast and Molds - Part 1: Colony Count Technique in Products with Water Activity Greater Than 0.95 and Part 2: Colony Count Technique in Products with Water Activity Less Than or Equal to 0.95 reference methods for raw almonds and raw frozen ground beef patties (77% lean). The 3M Petrifilm RYM Count Plate method was evaluated using a paired study design in a multi-laboratory collaborative study following the current AOAC Validation Guidelines. Three target contamination levels (low, 10-100 CFU/g; medium, 100-1000 CFU/g; high 1000-10 000 CFU/g) as well as an uninoculated control level (0 CFU/g) were evaluated for each matrix. Samples evaluated by the 3M Petrifilm RYM Count Plate method were prepared in duplicate and incubated at both 25°C and 28°C. Plates at both temperatures were enumerated after 48 and 60 h of incubation. No significant difference was observed between the 3M Petrifilm RYM Count Plate method and the FDA BAM or ISO 21527 reference methods for each contamination level. No statistical differences were observed between samples analyzed by the 3M Petrifilm RYM Count Plate method (at either 25°C or 28°C) and the reference methods. No statistical significant differences were observed between enumeration of colonies at 48 and 60 h on the 3M Petrifilm RYM Count Plate method and the reference methods.

  10. Photon counting techniques with silicon avalanche photodiodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dautet, H; Deschamps, P; Dion, B; Macgregor, A D; Macsween, D; McIntyre, R J; Trottier, C; Webb, P P

    1993-07-20

    The properties of avalanche photodiodes and associated electronics required for photon counting in the Geiger and the sub-Geiger modes are reviewed. When the Geiger mode is used, there are significant improvements reported in overall photon detection efficiencies (approaching 70% at 633 nm), and a timing jitter (under 200 ps) is achieved with passive quenching at high overvoltages (20-30 V). The results obtained by using an active-mode fast quench circuit capable of switching overvoltages as high as 15 V (giving photon detection efficiencies in the 50% range) with a dead time of less than 50 ns are reported. Larger diodes (up to 1 mm in diameter) that are usable in the Geiger mode and that have quantum efficiencies over 80% in the 500-800-nm range are also reported.

  11. Spiral plate count method for the examination of raw and pasteurized milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, C B; Gilchrist, J E; Peeler, J T; Campbell, J E

    1976-07-01

    The spiral plate count method (SPLPC) was compared with the standard plate count (SPC) method by examining 201 samples of raw and pasteurized milk. Although the means of the two methods differed significantly at alpha = 0.01,the difference was less than 10% and was not considered to be of any practical importance. The pooled replicate variances of both methods were less than 0.003, indicating good agreement between duplicate plates, with the variance of the SPLPC slightly less than that of the SPC. We believe this study indicates that the SPLPC could be substituted for the SPC in the bacteriological examination of milk.

  12. A Comparison of Galaxy Counting Techniques in Spectroscopically Undersampled Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specian, Mike A.; Szalay, Alex S.

    2016-11-01

    Accurate measures of galactic overdensities are invaluable for precision cosmology. Obtaining these measurements is complicated when members of one’s galaxy sample lack radial depths, most commonly derived via spectroscopic redshifts. In this paper, we utilize the Sloan Digital Sky Survey’s Main Galaxy Sample to compare seven methods of counting galaxies in cells when many of those galaxies lack redshifts. These methods fall into three categories: assigning galaxies discrete redshifts, scaling the numbers counted using regions’ spectroscopic completeness properties, and employing probabilistic techniques. We split spectroscopically undersampled regions into three types—those inside the spectroscopic footprint, those outside but adjacent to it, and those distant from it. Through Monte Carlo simulations, we demonstrate that the preferred counting techniques are a function of region type, cell size, and redshift. We conclude by reporting optimal counting strategies under a variety of conditions.

  13. Mini-FLOTAC for counting Toxoplasma gondii oocysts from cat feces--comparison with cell counting plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djokic, Vitomir; Blaga, Radu; Rinaldi, Laura; Le Roux, Delphine; Ducry, Tamara; Maurelli, Maria Paola; Perret, Catherine; Djurkovic Djakovic, Olgica; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Boireau, Pascal

    2014-12-01

    Oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii represent one of the most common environmental contaminants causing the zoonotic infection toxoplasmosis. The aim of the present study was to compare the Mini-FLOTAC device with traditional cell counting plates (Kova Slide) for the detection of T. gondii oocysts from feline feces. Two types of experiments were performed: (i) purified oocysts were counted in different dilutions and (ii) specific pathogen free T. gondii-negative cat feces was inoculated with numbers of purified oocysts and counting was performed directly from feces. Our analysis showed a thousand times higher sensitivity of Mini-FLOTAC (5 × 10(2) oocysts) compared to Kova Slide (5 × 10(5) oocysts). Also, when compared by McNemar's test, counting of the purified oocysts showed a higher sensitivity of Mini-FLOTAC compared to Kova Slide, for a dilution of 10(3) oocysts/ml (chi(2) = 6.1; P microscopes in any laboratory or field conditions. We therefore recommend its use for regular screening. Further studies are needed to validate Mini-FLOTAC for the detection of oocysts in soil and water samples in field conditions.

  14. Calibration of photon counting imaging microchannel plate detectors for EUV astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegmund, O. H. W.; Vallerga, J.; Jelinsky, P.

    1986-01-01

    The calibration of photon counting imaging detectors for satellite based EUV astronomy is a complex process designed to ensure the validity of the data received 'in orbit'. The methods developed to accomplish calibration of microchannel plate detectors for the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer are described and illustrated. The characterization of these detectors can be subdivided into three categories: stabilization, performance tests, and environmental tests.

  15. Application of microbiological method direct epifluorescence filter techique/aerobic plate count agar in the identification of irradiated herbs and spices

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Concetta Campagna; Maria Teresa Di Schiavi; Marina Foti; Maria Cristina Mosconi; Giuseppina Mattiolo; Roberta Cavallina

    2014-01-01

    Irradiation is a preservation technology used to improve the safety and hygienic quality of food. Aim of this study was to assess the applicability and validity of the microbiological screening method direct epifluorescence filter technique (DEFT)/aerobic plate count (APC) (EN 13783:2001) for the identification of irradiated herbs and spices. Tests on non-irradiated and irradiated samples of dried herbs and spices were performed. The method was based on the comparison of APC and count obtaine...

  16. Atomic layer deposited borosilicate glass microchannel plates for large area event counting detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegmund, O. H. W.; McPhate, J. B.; Tremsin, A. S.; Jelinsky, S. R.; Hemphill, R.; Frisch, H. J.; Elam, J.; Mane, A.; Lappd Collaboration

    2012-12-01

    Borosilicate glass micro-capillary array substrates with 20 μm and 40 μm pores have been deposited with resistive, and secondary electron emissive, layers by atomic layer deposition to produce functional microchannel plates. Device formats of 32.7 mm and 20 cm square have been fabricated and tested in analog and photon counting modes. The tests show amplification, imaging, background rate, pulse shape and lifetime characteristics that are comparable to standard glass microchannel plates. Large area microchannel plates of this type facilitate the construction of 20 cm format sealed tube sensors with strip-line readouts that are being developed for Cherenkov light detection. Complementary work has resulted in Na2KSb bialkali photocathodes with peak quantum efficiency of 25% being made on borosilicate glass. Additionally GaN (Mg) opaque photocathodes have been successfully made on borosilicate microchannel plates.

  17. Atomic layer deposited borosilicate glass microchannel plates for large area event counting detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegmund, O.H.W., E-mail: ossy@ssl.berkeley.edu [Experimental Astrophysics Group, Space Sciences Laboratory, 7 Gauss Way, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); McPhate, J.B.; Tremsin, A.S.; Jelinsky, S.R.; Hemphill, R. [Experimental Astrophysics Group, Space Sciences Laboratory, 7 Gauss Way, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Frisch, H.J. [Enrico Fermi Institute, 5640 S. Ellis Avenue University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Elam, J.; Mane, A. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Collaboration: LAPPD Collaboration

    2012-12-11

    Borosilicate glass micro-capillary array substrates with 20 {mu}m and 40 {mu}m pores have been deposited with resistive, and secondary electron emissive, layers by atomic layer deposition to produce functional microchannel plates. Device formats of 32.7 mm and 20 cm square have been fabricated and tested in analog and photon counting modes. The tests show amplification, imaging, background rate, pulse shape and lifetime characteristics that are comparable to standard glass microchannel plates. Large area microchannel plates of this type facilitate the construction of 20 cm format sealed tube sensors with strip-line readouts that are being developed for Cherenkov light detection. Complementary work has resulted in Na{sub 2}KSb bialkali photocathodes with peak quantum efficiency of 25% being made on borosilicate glass. Additionally GaN (Mg) opaque photocathodes have been successfully made on borosilicate microchannel plates.

  18. Microbial quality of lamb carcasses during processing and the acridine orange direct count technique (a modified DEFT) for rapid enumeration of total viable counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, M L; Sheridan, J J; McGuire, L

    1997-04-29

    This study was designed to set up a hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) system for sheep slaughtering operations at four different plants in Ireland and to determine the differences between plants in terms of microbial contamination. A single carcass area, the abdomen, was examined by swabbing and a microbiological profile was determined at different stages along the slaughter line. The level of contamination was assessed from the total bacteria counts, Enterobacteriaceae and Listeria spp. For the total counts, a modified direct epifluorescent filter technique (acridine orange direct count technique (AODC)) was developed and tested. No significant differences were found among plants in the levels of bacterial contamination. This was observed for all groups of organisms. The rapid direct technique (AODC) was found to be very successful. A correlation coefficient of 0.87 was obtained for this method and the standard plate count. Each test could be carried out in about 10-15 min and could be used to predict the standard plate count.

  19. Evaluation of Petrifilm™ Select E. coli Count Plate medium to discriminate antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen Lars

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Screening and enumeration of antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli directly from samples is needed to identify emerging resistant clones and obtain quantitative data for risk assessment. Aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of 3M™ Petrifilm™ Select E. coli Count Plate (SEC plate supplemented with antimicrobials to discriminate antimicrobial-resistant and non-resistant E. coli. Method A range of E. coli isolates were tested by agar dilution method comparing the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC for eight antimicrobials obtained by Mueller-Hinton II agar, MacConkey agar and SEC plates. Kappa statistics was used to assess the levels of agreement when classifying strains as resistant, intermediate or susceptible. Results SEC plate showed that 74% of all strains agreed within ± 1 log2 dilution when comparing MICs with Mueller-Hinton II media. High agreement levels were found for gentamicin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol and cefotaxime, resulting in a kappa value of 0.9 and 100% agreement within ± 1 log2 dilution. Significant variances were observed for oxytetracycline and sulphamethoxazole. Further tests showed that the observed discrepancy in classification of susceptibility to oxytetracycline by the two media could be overcome when a plate-dependent breakpoint of 64 mg/L was used for SEC plates. For sulphamethoxazole, SEC plates provided unacceptably high MICs. Conclusion SEC plates showed good agreement with Mueller-Hinton II agar in MIC studies and can be used to screen and discriminate resistant E. coli for ampicillin, cephalothin, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, cefotaxime and gentamicin using CLSI standardized breakpoints, but not for sulphamethoxazole. SEC plates can also be used to discriminate oxytetracycline-resistant E. coli if a plate-dependent breakpoint value of 64 mg/L is used.

  20. High gain micro-channel plate multipliers for particle tracking or single photo-electron counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oba, K.; Rehak, P.; Smith, S.D.

    1980-01-01

    Micro-channel plate multipliers have been used to detect the passage of relativistic charged particles. Measurements of the detection efficiency and pulse height response versus micro-channel plate gain are presented for one, two and three micro-channel plate arrays. Values describing temporal response and transit time jitter are also given. In a separate measurement, the response of a single micro-channel plate to individual slow electrons (less than or equal to 1 keV) was studied. By using a special technique output bunches as small as three electrons may be seen for low average micro-channel plate gain. The results of attempts to improve the micro-channel plate response are also presented.

  1. Comparison of bulk-tank standard plate count and somatic cell count for Wisconsin dairy farms in three size categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingham, S C; Hu, Y; Ané, C

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate possible claims by advocates of small-scale dairy farming that milk from smaller Wisconsin farms is of higher quality than milk from larger Wisconsin farms. Reported bulk tank standard plate count (SPC) and somatic cell count (SCC) test results for Wisconsin dairy farms were obtained for February to December, 2008. Farms were sorted into 3 size categories using available size-tracking criteria: small (≤118 cows; 12,866 farms), large (119-713 cattle; 1,565 farms), and confined animal feeding operations (≥714 cattle; 160 farms). Group means were calculated (group=farm size category) for the farms' minimum, median, mean, 90th percentile, and maximum SPC and SCC. Statistical analysis showed that group means for median, mean, 90th percentile, and maximum SPC and SCC were almost always significantly higher for the small farm category than for the large farm and confined animal feeding operations farm categories. With SPC and SCC as quality criteria and the 3 farm size categories of ≤118, 119 to 713, and ≥714 cattle, the claim of Wisconsin smaller farms producing higher quality milk than Wisconsin larger farms cannot be supported.

  2. Advanced time-correlated single photon counting techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Wolfgang

    2005-01-01

    Time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) is a remarkable technique for recording low-level light signals with extremely high precision and picosecond-time resolution. TCSPC has developed from an intrinsically time-consuming and one-dimensional technique into a fast, multi-dimensional technique to record light signals. So this reference and text describes how advanced TCSPC techniques work and demonstrates their application to time-resolved laser scanning microscopy, single molecule spectroscopy, photon correlation experiments, and diffuse optical tomography of biological tissue. It gives practical hints about constructing suitable optical systems, choosing and using detectors, detector safety, preamplifiers, and using the control features and optimising the operating conditions of TCSPC devices. Advanced TCSPC Techniques is an indispensable tool for everyone in research and development who is confronted with the task of recording low-intensity light signals in the picosecond and nanosecond range.

  3. Campylobacter inoculation and quantification from broiler cecal samples to compare two plate counting methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderlise Borsoi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacteriosis is a zoonosis, a disease transmitted to humans from animals or animal products. The primarily source of Campylobacter infection in human is believed to be the handling and/or consumption of contaminated meat, especially poultry meat. Although in humans such infections are generally self-limiting, complications can arise and may include bacteraemia, Guillain-Barré syndrome, reactive arthritis and abortion. In this study, 32 birds were divided in 2 groups: a control (C group and an inoculated (I group, with 16 birds each. The I group was inoculated orally with 108 CFU/mL of Campylobacter jejuni ATCC 33291, whereas the C group was inoculated with a saline solution. Four chicks per group were euthanized by cervical dislocation at 0, 7, 14 and 21 days post-inoculation (pi. Cecum samples were collected for microbiological analyses. The samples were processed by two plate count methodologies, one developed by the USDA (United States Department of Agriculture in 2011 (B method and the other a serial dilution direct count method (A method. All birds from the C group remained negative until day 21. For the I group, the B method was found to be statistically superior to the A method for counting the recovered cells from the cecal contents at 7, 14 and 21 days pi. The microbiological direct plating counting method is a cost effective and rapid method to determine the level of contamination in broilers to help risk assessment programs at the industry level.

  4. Comparative study of some factors affecting enumeration of moulds using dilution plate techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragulat, M R; Abarca, M L; Bruguera, M T; Cabañes, F J

    1992-11-01

    The influence of dilution plating technique, nature of diluent, culture media and incubation period on the enumeration of moulds have been studied. Three new culture media containing Auramine, Gentian Violet and Malachite Green respectively have been induced in this study. No significant differences were observed between results obtained after 3, 5 and 7 days of incubation. Significantly higher recoveries were obtained using the surface-spread method than pour plate method. Using the first technique no effect of diluent was observed, and among the different culture media studied higher counts were obtained with medium containing Auramine.

  5. Temperature-independent pectin gel method for aerobic plate count in dairy and nondairy food products: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, J N

    1988-01-01

    Ten laboratories participated in a collaborative study to compare the pectin-based plate count (PC) Redigel method with the aerobic plate count and standard plate count agar-based standard methods for the estimation of total bacterial counts in 9 different nondairy food and dairy food products. The foods were cream, homogenized milk, raw milk, cheese, raw chicken, raw oysters, frozen broccoli, flour, and spices. Each laboratory analyzed 6 samples (3 sample pairs) of each food group. Counts obtained by the pectin-based plate count and agar-based plate count methods differed significantly (P less than 0.05) only for homogenized milk, where the pectin gel method resulted in higher counts. The actual counts were higher in the pectin gel method in 8 of the 9 food groups. The log means for pectin gel and agar-based media, respectively, for the 9 food groups were: cream 8.106 and 7.844; homogenized milk 8.642 and 8.231; raw milk 8.711 and 8.423; chicken 7.654 and 7.645; oysters 7.201 and 7.180; broccoli 7.102 and 6.798; cheese 8.045 and 8.055; flour 4.112 and 3.988; spice 5.379 and 5.314. The repeatability standard deviations favored the pectin gel method in 6 of the 9 foods tested. The reproducibility standard deviations favored the pectin gel method in 7 of the 9 foods tested. These results strongly support the suitability of the pectin gel method as an alternative to agar-based plate count and other methods for total bacterial counts in nondairy and dairy food products. The pectin gel method has been adopted official first action.

  6. Authentic Active Learning Activities Demonstrating the Use of Serial Dilutions and Plate Counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordon K. March

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Serial dilution and plate counting is often taught in courses for both microbiology and allied health students. Lecture examples and examination questions addressing how the method is used can sometimes be contrived: artificial data sets may have little or no meaning other than to have students perform a calculation. Here we provide a set of activities employing data sets acquired from the primary literature. Our objective was to have the students think critically about a real scenario in which serial dilution and plate count was used. Each activity requires students to read a paragraph describing the study, predict the results, perform the appropriate calculations, and then evaluate the results in light of their predictions. To test the efficacy of these activities, a pretest quiz was given to approximately 100 students in an allied health/general microbiology course. After a lecture on how microbes are enumerated, students were given a different quiz. The class was then divided randomly into groups of three or four students and assigned one of the activities. A postactivity quiz was also administered. Approximately two weeks later, a serial dilution/plate count question was used on an examination and served as a final posttest. Standardized learning gains were calculated for the quiz administered after each learning activity. Even though learning gains were significantly higher after the lecture, there was also a significant improvement between the lecture and the activity. Using an exercise based on an authentic set of data significantly improved student learning gains, and is a useful practice for teaching microbiology.

  7. A double layer plaque assay using spread plate technique for enumeration of bacteriophage MS2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, Jiemin; Janes, Marlene

    2014-02-01

    Bacteriophage MS2 is used widely as a model organism to estimate pathogenic virus survival in various environments, and is usually quantified by plaque assay. Although current plaque assays work well in enumeration of MS2 in environmental samples, quantification of MS2 calls for better visibility and higher consistency. In an attempt to improve the visibility and consistency of the current plaque assay, spread plate technique was introduced, instead of the pour plate technique used commonly in existing methods. Other parameters that influence the outcome of the plaque assay were also compared. Using spread plate technique resulted in an increase of plaque size by approximately 50% and contributed to a better visibility. Addition of supplements (glucose, CaCl2 and thiamine); reduction of agar thickness and hardness, also contributed to enhanced plaque visibility and increased plaque count. Among all the conditions tested, a supplemented thin bottom agar (10ml 1% agar) and a supplemented thin top agar (10ml 0.45% agar) with spread plate technique gave the maximum countable plaques with a minimum standard deviation. When compared to other methods, it produced significantly higher plaque count and lower variation. The optimized plaque assay significantly improved visibility and consistency of the existing plaque assay methods and could be used in quantification of MS2.

  8. Counting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许有国

    2005-01-01

    Most people began to count in tens because they had ten fingers on their hands. But in some countries, people counted on one hand and used the three parts of their four fingers. So they counted in twelves, not in tens.

  9. Enumeration of total aerobic microorganisms in foods by SimPlate Total Plate Count-Color Indicator methods and conventional culture methods: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldsine, Philip T; Leung, Stephanie C; Lienau, Andrew H; Mui, Linda A; Townsend, David E

    2003-01-01

    The relative efficacy of the SimPlate Total Plate Count-Color Indicator (TPC-CI) method (SimPlate 35 degrees C) was compared with the AOAC Official Method 966.23 (AOAC 35 degrees C) for enumeration of total aerobic microorganisms in foods. The SimPlate TPC-CI method, incubated at 30 degrees C (SimPlate 30 degrees C), was also compared with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 4833 method (ISO 30 degrees C). Six food types were analyzed: ground black pepper, flour, nut meats, frozen hamburger patties, frozen fruits, and fresh vegetables. All foods tested were naturally contaminated. Nineteen laboratories throughout North America and Europe participated in the study. Three method comparisons were conducted. In general, there was count difference in recovery among the SimPlate methods and their corresponding reference methods. Mean log counts between the 2 reference methods were also very similar. Repeatability (Sr) and reproducibility (SR) standard deviations were similar among the 3 method comparisons. The SimPlate method (35 degrees C) and the AOAC method were comparable for enumerating total aerobic microorganisms in foods. Similarly, the SimPlate method (30 degrees C) was comparable to the ISO method when samples were prepared and incubated according to the ISO method.

  10. Development of Microelectrode Arrays Using Electroless Plating for CMOS-Based Direct Counting of Bacterial and HeLa Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niitsu, Kiichi; Ota, Shoko; Gamo, Kohei; Kondo, Hiroki; Hori, Masaru; Nakazato, Kazuo

    2015-10-01

    The development of two new types of high-density, electroless plated microelectrode arrays for CMOS-based high-sensitivity direct bacteria and HeLa cell counting are presented. For emerging high-sensitivity direct pathogen counting, two technical challenges must be addressed. One is the formation of a bacteria-sized microelectrode, and the other is the development of a high-sensitivity and high-speed amperometry circuit. The requirement for microelectrode formation is that the gold microelectrodes are required to be as small as the target cell. By improving a self-aligned electroless plating technique, the dimensions of the microelectrodes on a CMOS sensor chip in this work were successfully reduced to 1.2 μm × 2.05 μm. This is 1/20th of the smallest size reported in the literature. Since a bacteria-sized microelectrode has a severe limitation on the current flow, the amperometry circuit has to have a high sensitivity and high speed with low noise. In this work, a current buffer was inserted to mitigate the potential fluctuation. Three test chips were fabricated using a 0.6- μm CMOS process: two with 1.2 μm × 2.05 μm (1024 × 1024 and 4 × 4) sensor arrays and one with 6- μm square (16 × 16) sensor arrays; and the microelectrodes were formed on them using electroless plating. The uniformity among the 1024 × 1024 electrodes arranged with a pitch of 3.6 μm × 4.45 μm was optically verified. For improving sensitivity, the trenches on each microelectrode were developed and verified optically and electrochemically for the first time. Higher sensitivity can be achieved by introducing a trench structure than by using a conventional microelectrode formed by contact photolithography. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements obtained using the 1.2 μm × 2.05 μm 4 × 4 and 6- μm square 16 × 16 sensor array with electroless-plated microelectrodes successfully demonstrated direct counting of the bacteria-sized microbeads and HeLa cells.

  11. Comparison of Primary Models to Predict Microbial Growth by the Plate Count and Absorbance Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pla, María-Leonor; Oltra, Sandra; Esteban, María-Dolores; Andreu, Santiago; Palop, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    The selection of a primary model to describe microbial growth in predictive food microbiology often appears to be subjective. The objective of this research was to check the performance of different mathematical models in predicting growth parameters, both by absorbance and plate count methods. For this purpose, growth curves of three different microorganisms (Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Escherichia coli) grown under the same conditions, but with different initial concentrations each, were analysed. When measuring the microbial growth of each microorganism by optical density, almost all models provided quite high goodness of fit (r(2) > 0.93) for all growth curves. The growth rate remained approximately constant for all growth curves of each microorganism, when considering one growth model, but differences were found among models. Three-phase linear model provided the lowest variation for growth rate values for all three microorganisms. Baranyi model gave a variation marginally higher, despite a much better overall fitting. When measuring the microbial growth by plate count, similar results were obtained. These results provide insight into predictive microbiology and will help food microbiologists and researchers to choose the proper primary growth predictive model.

  12. A Novel Technique to Perform Plating on Printed Circuit Board

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Jayapoorani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This research attempts to optimize the parameters for pulse plating of silver on printed circuit board. The idea here is to use pulse plating technique which is metal deposition by pulsed electrolysis method. Approach: Printed Circuit Boards (PCB plays a major role in all communication and electronics industry. Silver is a ductile and malleable metal which has 7% higher conductivity than copper. Here the electro deposit is influenced by current density, silver concentration in the bath, applied current type. Pulse plating technique is used in double sided printed circuit board especially in the case of plated through hole technique. Here exist a necessity to do plating which will deposit a metal wall in the substrate and it will connect between the components. Results: This method of pulse plating proves that it avoids the disadvantage of rough deposition that is caused due to DC plating in PCB's. Conclusion: The surface morphology and the grain size is measured using XRD analysis and it proves that the number of pin holes is reduced.

  13. Comparison of a quantitative microtiter method, a quantitative automated method, and the plate-count method for determining microbial complement resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M D; Wooley, R E; Brown, J; Spears, K R; Nolan, L K; Shotts, E B

    1991-01-01

    A quantitative microtiter method for determining the degree of complement resistance or sensitivity of microorganisms is described. The microtiter method is compared with a quantitative automated system and the standard plate-count technique. Data were accumulated from 30 avian Escherichia coli isolates incubated at 35 C with either chicken plasma or heat-inactivated chicken plasma. Analysis of data generated by the automated system and plate-count techniques resulted in a classification of the microorganisms into three groups: those sensitive to the action of complement; those of intermediate sensitivity to the action of complement; and those resistant to the action of complement. Although the three methods studied did not agree absolutely, there were statistically significant correlations among them.

  14. Multiple quantum spin counting techniques with quadrupolar nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Andrew J; van Eck, Ernst R H

    2004-01-01

    Phase incremented and continuous irradiation multiple spin correlation methods are applied to spin [Formula: see text] nuclei with small quadrupole couplings such as (7)Li in LiCl and are shown to successfully produce a coherently coupled dipolar spin network. Application to the analogous Na salt shows successful spin correlation evolving at a slower rate due to the weaker homonuclear dipolar coupling strength between Na nuclei. The results are analysed using a statistical approach. Spin counting is non-trivial as not only multiple quantum coherences between spins are generated but also within the quadrupolar spin levels. Na(2)C(2)O(4) is investigated as a material with non-negligible quadrupole coupling and it is in this limit that the spin correlation techniques are found to break down.

  15. Evaluation of the 3M Petrifilm Enterobacteriaceae Count plate method for the enumeration of Enterobacteriaceae in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbernagel, Karen M; Lindberg, Kathryn G

    2002-09-01

    Results of the 3M Petrifilm Enterobacteriaceae Count (EB) plate method were compared with those of the standard violet red bile glucose agar (VRBG) method for the detection and enumeration of Enterobacteriaceae. Studies involving 107 bacterial strains demonstrated that the Petrifilm EB plate method is as sensitive as and more selective than the VRBG method. Sixty of the 62 pure Enterobacteriaceae cultures were recovered by both methods. In addition, 38 of the 45 non-Enterobacteriaceae organisms did not grow on the Petrifilm EB plate, while 28 of the 45 non-Enterobacteriaceae organisms did not grow on the VRBG plate. Colony counts from 174 naturally contaminated and 120 artificially inoculated dairy and nondairy food samples showed that the Petrifilm EB plate method performed as well as or better than the standard VRBG method for the enumeration of Enterobacteriaceae.

  16. Technical note: enumeration of mesophilic aerobes in milk: evaluation of standard official protocols and Petrifilm aerobic count plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, R; Nero, L A; Carvalho, A F

    2009-07-01

    Enumeration of mesophilic aerobes (MA) is the main quality and hygiene parameter for raw and pasteurized milk. High levels of these microorganisms indicate poor conditions in production, storage, and processing of milk, and also the presence of pathogens. Fifteen raw and 15 pasteurized milk samples were submitted for MA enumeration by a conventional plating method (using plate count agar) and Petrifilm Aerobic Count plates (3M, St. Paul, MN), followed by incubation according to 3 official protocols: IDF/ISO (incubation at 30 degrees C for 72 h), American Public Health Association (32 degrees C for 48 h), and Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture (36 degrees C for 48 h). The results were compared by linear regression and ANOVA. Considering the results from conventional methodology, good correlation indices and absence of significant differences between mean counts were observed, independent of type of milk sample (raw or pasteurized) and incubation conditions (IDF/ISO, American Public Health Association, or Ministry of Agriculture). Considering the results from Petrifilm Aerobic Count plates, good correlation indices and absence of significant differences were only observed for raw milk samples. The microbiota of pasteurized milk interfered negatively with the performance of Petrifilm Aerobic Count plates, probably because of the presence of microorganisms that poorly reduce the dye indicator of this system.

  17. Health concerns of heterotrophic plate count (HPC) bacteria in dental equipment water lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Martin J; Edberg, Stephen C

    2016-06-01

    There is an unsubstantiated concern as to the health relevance of HPC (heterotrophic plate count) bacteria in dental equipment waterlines. The American Dental Association (ADA) web site includes guidelines for controlling HPC populations and implies that HPC populations >500 CFU/mL as a "health" benchmark. The world-wide published literature including the United Nations fully examined this situation and concluded that HPC bacteria are not a health risk, but merely a general water quality parameter for all waters including dental water lines. This review provides documentation that the standard measurement of HPC bacteria in waters alone do not pose a health risk and the ADA already provides appropriate practices to minimize HPC bacteria in dental equipment water.

  18. Improved aerobic colony count technique for hydrophobic grid membrane filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrington, L J; Sharpe, A N; Peterkin, P I

    1993-09-01

    The AOAC International official action procedure for performing aerobic colony counts on hydrophobic grid membrane filters (HGMFs) uses Trypticase soy-fast green FCF agar (FGA) incubated for 48 h. Microbial growths are various shades of green on a pale green background, which can cause problems for automated as well as manual counting. HGMFs which had been incubated 24 or 48 h at 35 degrees C on Trypticase soy agar were flooded underneath with 1 to 2 ml of 0.1% triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) solution by simply lifting one corner of the filter while it was still on the agar and adding the reagent. Microbial growths on HGMFs were counted after color had been allowed to develop for 15 min at room temperature. With representative foods, virtually all colonies stained pink to red. Automated electronic counts made by using the MI-100 HGMF Interpreter were easier and more reliable than control HGMF counts made by the AOAC International official action procedure. Manual counting was easier as well because of increased visibility of the microbial growths. Except in the case of dairy products, 24-h TTC counts did not differ significantly from 48-h FGA counts, whereas the FGA counts at 24 h were always significantly lower, indicating that for many food products the HGMF TTC flooding method permits aerobic colony counts to be made after 24 h.

  19. Petrifilm rapid S. aureus Count Plate method for rapid enumeration of Staphylococcus aureus in selected foods: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbernagel, K M; Lindberg, K G

    2001-01-01

    A rehydratable dry-film plating method for Staphylococcus aureus in foods, the 3M Petrifilm Rapid S. aureus Count Plate method, was compared with AOAC Official Method 975.55 (Staphylococcus aureus in Foods). Nine foods-instant nonfat dried milk, dry seasoned vegetable coating, frozen hash browns, frozen cooked chicken patty, frozen ground raw pork, shredded cheddar cheese, fresh green beans, pasta filled with beef and cheese, and egg custard-were analyzed for S. aureus by 13 collaborating laboratories. For each food tested, the collaborators received 8 blind test samples consisting of a control sample and 3 levels of inoculated test sample, each in duplicate. The mean log counts for the methods were comparable for pasta filled with beef and cheese; frozen hash browns; cooked chicken patty; egg custard; frozen ground raw pork; and instant nonfat dried milk. The repeatability and reproducibility variances of the Petrifilm Rapid S. aureus Count Plate method were similar to those of the standard method.

  20. Tubularized incised plate technique for recurrent hypospadias: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    primary techniques are unsatisfactory. ... TIP urethroplasty in the management of recurrent ... was used for quantitative data. .... erection and the risk of infection, especially in patients .... currently considered the best tool for complicated .... 10 Mustafa M. The concept of tubularized incised plate hypospadias repair for different ...

  1. Biomechanical Evaluation of a Mandibular Spanning Plate Technique Compared to Standard Plating Techniques to Treat Mandibular Symphyseal Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Richardson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this study is to compare the biomechanical behavior of the spanning reconstruction plate compared to standard plating techniques for mandibular symphyseal fractures. Materials and Methods. Twenty-five human mandible replicas were used. Five unaltered synthetic mandibles were used as controls. Four experimental groups of different reconstruction techniques with five in each group were tested. Each synthetic mandible was subjected to a splaying force applied to the mandibular angle by a mechanical testing unit until the construct failed. Peak load and stiffness were recorded. The peak load and stiffness were analyzed using ANOVA and the Tukey test at a confidence level of 95% (P<0.05. Results. The two parallel plates’ group showed statistically significant lower values for peak load and stiffness compared to all other groups. No statistically significant difference was found for peak load and stiffness between the control (C group, lag screw (LS group, and the spanning plate (SP1 group. Conclusions. The spanning reconstruction plate technique for fixation of mandibular symphyseal fractures showed similar mechanical behavior to the lag screw technique when subjected to splaying forces between the mandibular gonial angles and may be considered as an alternative technique when increased reconstructive strength is needed.

  2. Laser shockwave technique for characterization of nuclear fuel plate interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perton, M.; Lévesque, D.; Monchalin, J.-P.; Lord, M.; Smith, J. A.; Rabin, B. H.

    2013-01-01

    The US National Nuclear Security Agency is tasked with minimizing the worldwide use of high-enriched uranium. One aspect of that effort is the conversion of research reactors to monolithic fuel plates of low-enriched uranium. The manufacturing process includes hot isostatic press bonding of an aluminum cladding to the fuel foil. The Laser Shockwave Technique (LST) is here evaluated for characterizing the interface strength of fuel plates using depleted Uranium/Mo foils. LST is a non-contact method that uses lasers for the generation and detection of large amplitude acoustic waves and is therefore well adapted to the quality assurance of this process. Preliminary results show a clear signature of well-bonded and debonded interfaces and the method is able to classify/rank the bond strength of fuel plates prepared under different HIP conditions.

  3. Posterior coronal plating for tibial fractures: technique and advantages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montu Jain

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Tibial shaft fractures are straightforward to treat but when associated with soft tissue injury particularly at the nail entry/plate insertion site or there is significant comminution proximally or a large butterfly fragment/a second split component in the posterior coronal plane, it is a challenge to the treating surgeon. The aim of the present report is to describe the technique of posterior coronal plating in such a scenario and its advantages. Methods:Between July 2008 and June 2011, 12 patients were pro spectively treated by this approach using 4.5 mm broad dynamic compression plates. Results:The time of bony consolidation and full weight bearing averaged 21.7 weeks (range, 16-26 weeks. Patients were followed up for at least 24 months (range, 24-48 months. At 1 year postoper atively, no loss in reduction or alignment was observed. Mean Hospital for Lower Extremity Measurement Functional Score was 72.8 (range, 64-78. All patients were satisfied with their treatment outcomes. Conclusion:Direct posterior approach and fixation using prone position helps to visualise the fracture fragments and provide rigid fixation. The approach is simple and extensile easily, apart from advantages of less soft tissue and hardware problems compared to standard medial or lateral plating. Key words: Tibial fractures; Bone plates; Orthopedic procedures

  4. Dry rehydratable film method for rapid enumeration of coliforms in foods (3M Petrifilm Rapid Coliform Count plate): collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinneberg, Karen M; Lindberg, Kathryn G

    2002-01-01

    A rehydratable dry-film plating method for coliforms in foods, the 3M Petrifilm Rapid Coliform Count plate method, was compared with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual method for nondairy foods and the American Public Health Association's Standard Methods for the Examination of Dairy Products (SMEDP) method for dairy foods. Six food types, vanilla ice cream, cheddar cheese, fresh refrigerated uncooked pasta, wheat flour, prepared frozen macaroni and cheese, and frozen hash browns, were analyzed for coliforms by 11 collaborating laboratories. For each food product tested, the collaborators received 8 blind samples consisting of a control sample and 3 levels of inoculated sample, each in duplicate. The mean log counts for the methods were comparable. The repeatability and reproducibility variances of the Petrifilm Rapid Coliform Count method at 14 and 24 h were not significantly different from those of the standard methods.

  5. 3M Petrifilm Staph Express Count plate method for the enumeration of Staphylococcus aureus in selected dairy foods: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbernagel, Karen M; Jechorek, Robert P; Carver, Charles N; Horter, Barbara L; Lindberg, Kathryn G

    2003-01-01

    The 3M Petrifilm Staph Express Count plate method was compared with AOAC Official Method 975.55 for the enumeration of Staphylococcus aureus in selected foods. Five foods--ice cream, raw milk, yogurt, whey powder, and cheese--were analyzed for S. aureus by 12 collaborating laboratories. For each food tested, the collaborators received 8 blind test samples consisting of a control sample, a low inoculation level, a medium inoculation level, and a medium inoculation level with background flora, each in duplicate. The mean log10 counts for the methods were comparable for all 5 foods. The repeatability and reproducibility variances of the 24 h Petrifilm Staph Express Count plate method were similar to those of the 72 h standard method.

  6. Selection of antibiotic-resistant standard plate count bacteria during water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, J L; Calomiris, J J; Seidler, R J

    1982-08-01

    Standard plate count (SPC) bacteria were isolated from a drinking-water treatment facility and from the river supplying the facility. All isolates were identified and tested for their resistance to six antibiotics to determine if drug-resistant bacteria were selected for as a consequence of water treatment. Among the isolates surviving our test procedures, there was a significant selection (P less than 0.05) of gram-negative SPC organisms resistant to two or more of the test antibiotics. These bacteria were isolated from the flash mix tank, where chlorine, alum, and lime are added to the water. Streptomycin resistance in particular was more frequent in this population as compared with bacteria in the untreated river water (P less than 0.01). SPC bacteria from the clear well, which is a tank holding the finished drinking water at the treatment facility, were also more frequently antibiotic resistant than were the respective river water populations. When 15.8 and 18.2% of the river water bacteria were multiply antibiotic resistant, 57.1 and 43.5%, respectively, of the SPC bacteria in the clear well were multiply antibiotic resistant. Selection for bacteria exhibiting resistance to streptomycin was achieved by chlorinating river water in the laboratory. We concluded that the selective factors operating in the aquatic environment of a water treatment facility can act to increase the proportion of antibiotic-resistant members of the SPC bacterial population in treated drinking water.

  7. Improved Aerobic Colony Count Technique for Hydrophobic Grid Membrane Filters

    OpenAIRE

    Parrington, Lorna J.; Sharpe, Anthony N.; Peterkin, Pearl I.

    1993-01-01

    The AOAC International official action procedure for performing aerobic colony counts on hydrophobic grid membrane filters (HGMFs) uses Trypticase soy-fast green FCF agar (FGA) incubated for 48 h. Microbial growths are various shades of green on a pale green background, which can cause problems for automated as well as manual counting. HGMFs which had been incubated 24 or 48 h at 35°C on Trypticase soy agar were flooded underneath with 1 to 2 ml of 0.1% triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) sol...

  8. The Minimally Invasive Plate Osteosynthesis (MIPO Technique with a Locking Compression Plate for Femoral Lengthening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsunaga,Tomonori

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis technique using a locking compression plate (LCP has been used widely in trauma cases. Its advantages are that the MIPO technique does not interfere with the fracture site and thus provides improved biological healing, and that the LCP has excellent angular stability. Its use in bone lengthening, however, has not been established. In such cases, it is desirable to shorten the external skeletal fixation period as much as possible. Here, the MIPO technique using an LCP was applied to femoral distraction osteogenesis in an attempt to shorten the external skeletal fixation period. For femoral lengthening, the MIPO technique was performed in 2 stages. Orthofix external fixators (Orthofix, England were used to insert screws from the anterolateral side rather than from the lateral side of the femur for bone lengthening. When sufficient callus formation was detected postoperatively at the site of bone lengthening, and the absence of infection was ensured, limb draping was performed, including a whole external fixator, and then the MIPO technique was applied with an LCP. In 3 cases (5 limbs, the average duration of external skeletal fixation was 134days, the average external-fixation index was 24days/cm, and the average consolidation index was 22days/cm. The MIPO technique using an LCP made it possible to shorten the external skeletal fixation-wearing period in femoral lengthening.

  9. Photon-counting techniques with silicon avalanche photodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dautet, Henri; Deschamps, P.; Dion, Bruno; MacGregor, Andrew D.; MacSween, D.; McIntyre, Robert J.; Trottier, C.; Webb, Paul P.

    1993-05-01

    Silicon avalanche photodiodes (APD) have been used for photon counting for a number of years. This paper reviews their properties and the associated electronics required for photon counting in the Geiger mode. Significant improvements are reported in overall photon detection efficiencies (approaching 75% at 633 nm), and timing jitter (under 200 ps) achieved at high over-voltages (20 - 30 V). Results obtained using an active-mode fast quench circuit capable of switching over-voltages as high as 20 V (giving photon detection efficiencies in the 50% range), are reported with a dead-time of less than 50 ns. Larger diodes (up to 1 mm diameter), usable in the Geiger mode, which have quantum efficiencies over 80% in the 500 - 800 nm range also are reported.

  10. Aerobic plate counts and ATP levels correlate with Listeria monocytogenes detection in retail delis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammons, Susan R; Stasiewicz, Matthew J; Roof, Sherry; Oliver, Haley F

    2015-04-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that causes an estimated 1,591 cases of illness and 255 deaths annually in the United States, the majority of which are attributed to ready-to-eat deli meats processed in retail delis. Because retail delis distribute product directly to consumers, rapid methods to validate cleaning and sanitation are needed to improve retail food safety. This study investigated the relationships among ATP levels, standard aerobic plate count (APC), and L. monocytogenes presence in fully operational delis. Fifteen full-service delis were concurrently sampled for ATP, APC, and L. monocytogenes during preoperational hours once monthly for 3 months. Fifteen additional delis were recruited for 6 months of operational sampling (n = 30). A 1-log increase in APC was equivalent to a 3.3-fold increase in the odds of detecting L. monocytogenes (P < 0.001) and a 1.9-log increase in L monocytogenes population (P = 0.03). An ATP level increase of 1 log relative light unit correlated to a 0.22-log increase in APC (P < 0.001). A preoperational ATP level mean increase by 1 log relative light unit increased the odds of detecting L. monocytogenes concurrently fourfold. A 0.5-log increase in mean ATP level during preoperational sampling corresponded to a 2% increase in the predicted L. monocytogenes prevalence during operation (P < 0.01). Additionally, 10 statistically representative sites were identified and recommended for use in sanitation monitoring programs. Our data support the use of ATP as a rapid method to validate effective cleaning and sanitation to reduce L. monocytogenes in retail delis.

  11. Heterotrophic plate count and consumer's health under special consideration of water softeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambsch, Beate; Sacré, Clara; Wagner, Ivo

    2004-05-01

    The phenomenon of bacterial growth in water softeners is well known since years. To upgrade the hygienic safety of water softeners, the German DIN Standard 19636 was developed, to assure that the distribution system could not be contaminated by these devices and that the drinking water to be used in the household still meets the microbiological standards according to the German drinking water guidelines, i.e. among others heterotrophic plate count (HPC) below 100 CFU/ml. Moreover, the standard for the water softeners includes a test for contamination with Pseudomonas aeruginosa which has to be disinfected during the regeneration phase. This is possible by sanitizing the resin bed during regeneration by producing chlorine. The results of the last 10 years of tests of water softeners according to DIN 19636 showed that it is possible to produce water softeners that comply with that standard. Approximately 60% of the tested models were accepted. P. aeruginosa is used as an indicator for potentially pathogenic bacteria being able to grow also in low nutrient conditions which normally prevail in drinking water. Like other heterotrophs, the numbers of P. aeruginosa increase rapidly as stagnation occurs. Normally P. aeruginosa is not present in the distributed drinking water. However, under certain conditions, P. aeruginosa can be introduced into the drinking water distribution system, for instance, during construction work. The occurrence of P. aeruginosa is shown in different cases in treatment plants, public drinking water systems and in-house installations. The compliance with DIN 19636 provides assurance that a water softener will not be a constant source of contamination, even if it is once inoculated with a potentially pathogenic bacterium like P. aeruginosa.

  12. Application of microbiological method direct epifluorescence filter techique/aerobic plate count agar in the identification of irradiated herbs and spices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Concetta Campagna

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Irradiation is a preservation technology used to improve the safety and hygienic quality of food. Aim of this study was to assess the applicability and validity of the microbiological screening method direct epifluorescence filter technique (DEFT/aerobic plate count (APC (EN 13783:2001 for the identification of irradiated herbs and spices. Tests on non-irradiated and irradiated samples of dried herbs and spices were performed. The method was based on the comparison of APC and count obtained using DEFT. In accordance with the standard reference, this method is not applicable to samples with APC<103 colony forming units (CFU/g and this is its main limit. The results obtained in our laboratories showed that in 50% of cases of non-irradiated samples and in 96% of the samples treated with ionising radiation, the method was not applicable due to a value of CFU/g<103.

  13. Application of Microbiological Method Direct Epifluorescence Filter Techique/Aerobic Plate Count Agar in the Identification of Irradiated Herbs and Spices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Schiavi, Maria Teresa; Foti, Marina; Mosconi, Maria Cristina; Mattiolo, Giuseppina; Cavallina, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    Irradiation is a preservation technology used to improve the safety and hygienic quality of food. Aim of this study was to assess the applicability and validity of the microbiological screening method direct epifluorescence filter technique (DEFT)/aerobic plate count (APC) (EN 13783:2001) for the identification of irradiated herbs and spices. Tests on non-irradiated and irradiated samples of dried herbs and spices were performed. The method was based on the comparison of APC and count obtained using DEFT. In accordance with the standard reference, this method is not applicable to samples with APC<103 colony forming units (CFU)/g and this is its main limit. The results obtained in our laboratories showed that in 50% of cases of non-irradiated samples and in 96% of the samples treated with ionising radiation, the method was not applicable due to a value of CFU/g <103. PMID:27800348

  14. Microbiological assessment of house and imported bottled water by comparison of bacterial endotoxin concentration, heterotrophic plate count, and fecal coliform count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Mayra I; Pérez, Cynthia M; Negrón, Edna L

    2008-03-01

    Consumers increasingly use bottled water and home water treatment systems to avoid direct tap water. According to the International Bottled Water Association (IBWA), an industry trade group, 5 billion gallons of bottled water were consumed by North Americans in 2001. The principal aim of this study was to assess the microbial quality of in-house and imported bottled water for human consumption, by measurement and comparison of the concentration of bacterial endotoxin and standard cultivable methods of indicator microorganisms, specifically, heterotrophic and fecal coliform plate counts. A total of 21 brands of commercial bottled water, consisting of 10 imported and 11 in-house brands, selected at random from 96 brands that are consumed in Puerto Rico, were tested at three different time intervals. The Standard Limulus Amebocyte Lysate test, gel clot method, was used to measure the endotoxin concentrations. The minimum endotoxin concentration in 63 water samples was less than 0.0625 EU/mL, while the maximum was 32 EU/mL. The minimum bacterial count showed no growth, while the maximum was 7,500 CFU/mL. Bacterial isolates like P. fluorescens, Corynebacterium sp. J-K, S. paucimobilis, P. versicularis, A. baumannii, P. chlororaphis, F. indologenes, A. faecalis and P. cepacia were identified. Repeated measures analysis of variance demonstrated that endotoxin concentration did not change over time, while there was a statistically significant (p count over time. In addition, multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that a unit change in the concentration of endotoxin across time was associated with a significant (p count. This analysis evidenced a significant time effect in the average log bacteriological cell count. Although bacterial growth was not detected in some water samples, endotoxin was present. Measurement of Gram-negative bacterial endotoxins is one of the methods that have been suggested as a rapid way of determining bacteriological water quality.

  15. Comparison of a rapid ATP bioluminescence assay and standard plate count methods for assessing microbial contamination of consumers' refrigerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fur-Chi; Godwin, Sandria L

    2006-10-01

    The feasibility of using an ATP bioluminescence assay for assessing microbial contamination of home refrigerators was evaluated and compared with the standard culture methods. Samples of refrigerator surfaces were collected from 123 households by swabbing an area of 100 cm2 on three locations in the refrigerator with premoisturized sterile swabs. Microbial contaminations were determined by aerobic plate count (APC; incubated at 35 degrees C for 48 h) and psychrotrophic plate count (PPC; incubated at 7 degrees C for 10 days) on plate count agar. The results were compared to the readings from the microbial ATP (mATP) bioluminescence assay. The correlation coefficient (r) between mATP and PPC (r = 0.851) was slightly higher than that between mATP and APC (r = 0.823). Our results indicated a potential discrepancy in the population of mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria in the refrigerator samples. Nevertheless, mATP appeared to be a reliable indication of the average of APC and PPC (r = 0.895). The mATP bioluminescence assay would provide a rapid and convenient test for researchers in field studies to assess microbial contamination in refrigerators.

  16. Lamb Wave Technique for Ultrasonic Nonlinear Characterization in Elastic Plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Tae Hun; Kim, Chung Seok; Jhang, Kyung Young [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    Since the acoustic nonlinearity is sensitive to the minute variation of material properties, the nonlinear ultrasonic technique(NUT) has been considered as a promising method to evaluate the material degradation or fatigue. However, there are certain limitations to apply the conventional NUT using the bulk wave to thin plates. In case of plates, the use of Lamb wave can be considered, however, the propagation characteristics of Lamb wave are completely different with the bulk wave, and thus the separate study for the nonlinearity of Lamb wave is required. For this work, this paper analyzed first the conditions of mode pair suitable for the practical application as well as for the cumulative propagation of quadratic harmonic frequency and summarized the result in for conditions: phase matching, non-zero power flux, group velocity matching, and non-zero out-of-plane displacement. Experimental results in aluminum plates showed that the amplitude of the secondary Lamb wave and nonlinear parameter grew up with increasing propagation distance at the mode pair satisfying the above all conditions and that the ration of nonlinear parameters measured in Al6061-T6 and Al1100-H15 was closed to the ratio of the absolute nonlinear parameters

  17. Standard plate counts of drinking water: a comparison between incubation temperatures of 20 and 30 degrees C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinedi, C; Gisin, M

    1990-08-01

    Standard plate counts of 5085 drinking water samples gathered in the Region of Basle were carried out over a period of 9 years (1977 to 1985). Two conditions of incubation were evaluated: 20 degrees C and 30 degrees C for 72 h. In ground water samples (3048 samples) colony forming units (cfu) at 30 degrees C were found to be higher than counts at 20 degrees C incubation, 45% of the samples contained greater than or equal to 2 cfu/ml at 30 degrees versus 35% at 20 degrees C. The median was 1 cfu/ml at both temperatures. In spring water samples (2036 samples) bacterial counts at 20 degrees C were found to be higher than counts at 30 degrees C incubation, 61% of the samples contained greater than 10 cfu/ml at 20 degrees C versus 51% at 30 degrees C. The median was 19 cfu/ml at 20 degrees C incubation versus 11 cfu/ml at 30 degrees C. These differences were statistically significant with p less than 0.001 (Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test). No correlation was found between bacterial counts at 20 degrees C and bacterial counts at 30 degrees C, nor between bacterial counts and original water temperatures. It appears that incubation temperatures of 20 degrees C and 30 degrees C favor the growth of different populations of bacteria and temperature is not the only factor. However, from a practical point of view the use of only one incubation temperature seems to be justified for the purpose of judging the sanitary quality of drinking water.

  18. Improvements in Boron Plate Coating Technology for Higher Efficiency Neutron Detection and Coincidence Counting Error Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menlove, Howard Olsen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Henzlova, Daniela [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-25

    This informal report presents the measurement data and information to document the performance of the advanced Precision Data Technology, Inc. (PDT) sealed cell boron-10 plate neutron detector that makes use of the advanced coating materials and procedures. In 2015, PDT changed the boron coating materials and application procedures to significantly increase the efficiency of their basic corrugated plate detector performance. A prototype sealed cell unit was supplied to LANL for testing and comparison with prior detector cells. Also, LANL had reference detector slabs from the original neutron collar (UNCL) and the new Antech UNCL with the removable 3He tubes. The comparison data is presented in this report.

  19. Simple counting technique for measuring mixtures of two pure beta-emitting radionuclides

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyngaardt, WM

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A simple counting technique to measure mixtures of two pure beta-emitting radionuclides is described. The method is based on elements of two liquid scintillation techniques that are widely used to measure single-radionuclide solutions, namely...

  20. Effect of methamidophos on soil fungi community in microcosms by plate count, DGGE and clone library analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xinyu; ZHANG Huiwen; WU Minna; ZHANG Yan; ZHANG Chenggang

    2008-01-01

    Methamidophos was widely used a pesticide in northern China. The potential influences of methamidophos on soil fungal community in black soil were assessed by plate count, 28S rDNA-PCR-DGGE, and clone library analysis. Three methamidophos levels (50, 150, and 250 mg/kg) were tested in soil microcosms. Results from plate count during a 60-d microcosm experiment showed that high concentrations of methamidophos (250 mg/kg) could significantly stimulate fungal populations. DCGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) fingerprinting patterns showed a significant difference between the responses of culturable and total fungi communities under the stress of methamidophos. Shannon diversity indices calculated from DGGE profiles indicated that culturable fungi in all microcosms with methamidophos treatment increased after 1 week of incubation. However, the diversity indices of total fungi decreased in the first week, as compared to the stimulation of culturable fungi. At the 8th week, however, all the microcosms treated by methamidophos were similar to the control microcosms in community structure as suggested by the Shannon diversity indices for both culturable and total fungi. In contrast, after 1 week the fungal structure of culturable and unculturable both were disturbed to different extent under the stresses of methamidophos by clustering analysis. Clone sequencing analysis indicated the stimulation of pathogenic and unculturable fungal populations by methamidophos treatment, suggetsing potential risks of plant disease outbreak.

  1. PENGARUH PERENDAMAN EKSTRAK BAWANG PUTIH (Allium sativum TERHADAP TOTAL PLATE COUNT DAN SIFAT ORGANOLEPTIK BAKSO DAGING SAPI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunita Pustikayanti

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian untuk mengetahui alternatif pengganti boraks pada bahan pangan yang dapat diaplikasikan produsen bakso. Penelitian eksperimen dengan populasi 4 bakso berbagai perlakuan dan 10 panelis menggunakan instrumen alat uji mikrobiologi dan formulir penilaian sifat organoleptik. Analisis data dilakukan secara univariat dan bivariat (Repeated Anova. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bakso paling disukai adalah bakso tambahan karagenan yang direndam ekstrak bawang putih 30%. Nilai Total Plate Count bakso jam ke-24 yang dibawah 1×105 adalah bakso menggunakan tambahan karagenan dan bakso menggunakan boraks. Ada pengaruh perendaman ekstrak bawang putih terhadap tekstur (0,013, warna (0,022, aroma (0,001. Saran bagi pemerintah hendaknya mensosialisasikan penggunaan bahan tambahan pangan yang lebih aman. BPOM bekerjasama dengan instansi lainnya menyelenggarakan program produk pangan bebas boraks di Indonesia dan mengharuskan produsen bakso mengirimkan sampel bakso ke Laboratorium pengujian makanan untuk diuji keamanan pangannya. Bagi peneliti selanjutnya disarankan meneliti perbedaan nilai Total Plate Count dan sifat organoleptik bakso pada suhu ruang, suhu dingin, dan suhu beku. Serta menambahkan perlakuan bakso dengan penambahan Sodium Tri Poly Phospat (STPP

  2. Thickness Evaluation of Aluminium Plate Using Pulsed Eddy Current Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurpartap; Bapat, Harsh Madhukar; Singh, Bhanu Pratap; Bandyopadhyay, Manojit; Puri, Rakesh Kumar; Badodkar, Deepak Narayanrao

    2013-10-01

    This paper describes a pulsed eddy current (PEC) based non-destructive testing system used for detection of thickness variation in aluminium plate. A giant magneto-resistive sensor has been used instead of pick up coil for detecting resultant magnetic field. The PEC response signals obtained from 1 to 5 mm thickness change in aluminium plate were investigated. Two time domain features, namely peak value and time to peak, of PEC response were used for extracting information about thickness variation in aluminium plate. The variation of peak value and time to peak with thickness was compared. A program was developed to display the thickness variation of the tested sample.

  3. Improved Zone Plate Coded Imaging Technique by Using Four Special Designed Gabor Zone Plates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Lei-Feng; SHEN Yu-Ji; ZHENG Zhi-Jian; DING Yong-Kun

    2005-01-01

    @@ Direct-current component, high-order artifacts, and side lobe distortion provide serious drawbacks in the application of Fresnel zone plate coded imaging (ZPCI).The presentation provided here proposes a novel way to resolve all the above-mentioned problems.Four different Gabor zone plates are suggested to substitute the one Fresnel zone plate used in the conventional ZPCI.Perfect reconstruction will be obtained when integrally analysing the four coded images.Primary numerical simulation provided here shows good result.

  4. An Offline Technique for Localization of License Plates for Indian Commercial Vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Satadal; Nasipuri, Mita; Basu, Dipak Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Automatic License Plate Recognition (ALPR) is a challenging area of research due to its importance to variety of commercial applications. The overall problem may be subdivided into two key modules, firstly, localization of license plates from vehicle images, and secondly, optical character recognition of extracted license plates. In the current work, we have concentrated on the first part of the problem, i.e., localization of license plate regions from Indian commercial vehicles as a significant step towards development of a complete ALPR system for Indian vehicles. The technique is based on color based segmentation of vehicle images and identification of potential license plate regions. True license plates are finally localized based on four spatial and horizontal contrast features. The technique successfully localizes the actual license plates in 73.4% images.

  5. Comparison of three different plating techniques for the dorsum of the distal radius: a biomechanical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peine, R; Rikli, D A; Hoffmann, R; Duda, G; Regazzoni, P

    2000-01-01

    Three different plating techniques were used on experimentally produced dorsally displaced distal radius fractures in cadavers and were tested in 4-point bending: a AO 3.5-mm T plate (group 1), two 2. 0-mm titanium plates 60 degrees to each other (group 2), and the AO pi plate (group 3). A metaphyseal defect was simulated by a dorsally open wedge osteotomy. The tests show that the 2-mm double-plating technique has superior stiffness and statistically equivalent bending and bone gap to failure compared with the AO 3.5-mm T plate or the pi plate when applied to the unstable distal radius fracture model. (J Hand Surg 2000; 25A:29-33. Copyright 2000 by the American Society for Surgery of the Hand.).

  6. Do different standard plate counting (IDF/ISSO or AOAC) methods interfere in the conversion of individual bacteria counts to colony forming units in raw milk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassoli, L D; Lima, W J F; Esguerra, J C; Da Silva, J; Machado, P F; Mourão, G B

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to establish the correlation between individual bacterial count (IBC) obtained by flow cytometry and the number of colony forming units (CFU) determined by standard plate count (SPC) in raw milk using two different reference methodologies: the methodology of the International Dairy Federation (IDF) - International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 4833, incubation for 72 h at 30°C and the methodology of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC), incubation for 48 h at 35°C. For this, 100 bovine milk samples (80 ml) from different farms were collected in a sterile bottle and maintained refrigerated at 4°C and were delivered to the laboratory. In the laboratory, the samples were divided into two vials of 40 ml each. Then, half of the vials were forwarded for the SPC analysis, and the other half were analysed using the equipment BactoScan FC. The analyses by flow cytometry and SPC were performed at the same time (maximum deviation of +/- 1 h). To transform the data from IBC ml(-1) to CFU ml(-1) (IDF or AOAC methodology), a standard linear regression equation was used, as recommended by IDF/ISO-196. The difference between the reference methodologies affects the equation that transforms IBC into CFU and therefore the accuracy of the results. The results estimated by the equation using the ISO 4833 methodology were on average 0·18 log units higher than the results estimated using the equation using the AOAC methodology. After the comparison of the methodologies, it was concluded that there is an impact of the reference methodologies on the conversion of the results from IBC to CFU. Depending on the methodology adopted by each laboratory or country, there may not be equivalence in the results. Hence, the laboratories specialized in milk quality analysis that have changed their methodology for analysis, passing from the MAPA (AOAC) methodology to the IDF standard, need to develop new conversion equations to make their

  7. Evaluation of the petrifilm aerobic count plate for enumeration of aerobic marine bacteria from seawater and Caulerpa lentillifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudaka, Jun; Horii, Toru; Tamanaha, Koji; Itokazu, Kiyomasa; Nakamura, Masaji; Taira, Katsuya; Nidaira, Minoru; Okano, Sho; Kitahara, Akio

    2010-08-01

    The enumeration and evaluation of the activity of marine bacteria are important in the food industry. However, detection of marine bacteria in seawater or seafood has not been easy. The Petrifilm aerobic count plate (ACP) is a ready-to-use alternative to the traditional enumeration media used for bacteria associated with food. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of a simple detection and enumeration method utilizing the Petrifilm ACP for enumeration of aerobic marine bacteria from seawater and an edible seaweed, Caulerpa lentillifera. The efficiency of enumeration of total aerobic marine bacteria on Petrifilm ACP was compared with that using the spread plate method on marine agar with 80 seawater and 64 C. lentillifera samples. With sterile seawater as the diluent, a close correlation was observed between the method utilizing Petrifilm ACP and that utilizing the conventional marine agar (r=0.98 for seawater and 0.91 for C. lentillifera). The Petrifilm ACP method was simpler and less time-consuming than the conventional method. These results indicate that Petrifilm ACP is a suitable alternative to conventional marine agar for enumeration of marine microorganisms in seawater and C. lentillifera samples.

  8. Development of a single-photon-counting camera with use of a triple-stacked micro-channel plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Naruomi; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Katafuchi, Tetsuro

    2016-01-01

    At the quantum-mechanical level, all substances (not merely electromagnetic waves such as light and X-rays) exhibit wave–particle duality. Whereas students of radiation science can easily understand the wave nature of electromagnetic waves, the particle (photon) nature may elude them. Therefore, to assist students in understanding the wave–particle duality of electromagnetic waves, we have developed a photon-counting camera that captures single photons in two-dimensional images. As an image intensifier, this camera has a triple-stacked micro-channel plate (MCP) with an amplification factor of 10(6). The ultra-low light of a single photon entering the camera is first converted to an electron through the photoelectric effect on the photocathode. The electron is intensified by the triple-stacked MCP and then converted to a visible light distribution, which is measured by a high-sensitivity complementary metal oxide semiconductor image sensor. Because it detects individual photons, the photon-counting camera is expected to provide students with a complete understanding of the particle nature of electromagnetic waves. Moreover, it measures ultra-weak light that cannot be detected by ordinary low-sensitivity cameras. Therefore, it is suitable for experimental research on scintillator luminescence, biophoton detection, and similar topics.

  9. Improving Photoelectron Counting and Particle Identification in Scintillation Detectors with Bayesian Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Akashi-Ronquest, M; Batygov, M; Beltran, B; Bodmer, M; Boulay, M G; Broerman, B; Buck, B; Butcher, A; Cai, B; Caldwell, T; Chen, M; Chen, Y; Cleveland, B; Coakley, K; Dering, K; Duncan, F A; Formaggio, J A; Gagnon, R; Gastler, D; Giuliani, F; Gold, M; Golovko, V V; Gorel, P; Graham, K; Grace, E; Guerrero, N; Guiseppe, V; Hallin, A L; Harvey, P; Hearns, C; Henning, R; Hime, A; Hofgartner, J; Jaditz, S; Jillings, C J; Kachulis, C; Kearns, E; Kelsey, J; Klein, J R; Kuzniak, M; LaTorre, A; Lawson, I; Li, O; Lidgard, J J; Liimatainen, P; Linden, S; McFarlane, K; McKinsey, D N; MacMullin, S; Mastbaum, A; Mathew, R; McDonald, A B; Mei, D -M; Monroe, J; Muir, A; Nantais, C; Nicolics, K; Nikkel, J A; Noble, T; O'Dwyer, E; Olsen, K; Gann, G D Orebi; Ouellet, C; Palladino, K; Pasuthip, P; Perumpilly, G; Pollmann, T; Rau, P; Retiere, F; Rielage, K; Schnee, R; Seibert, S; Skensved, P; Sonley, T; Vazquez-Jauregui, E; Veloce, L; Walding, J; Wang, B; Wang, J; Ward, M; Zhang, C

    2014-01-01

    Many current and future dark matter and neutrino detectors are designed to measure scintillation light with a large array of photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The energy resolution and particle identification capabilities of these detectors depend in part on the ability to accurately identify individual photoelectrons in PMT waveforms despite large variability in pulse amplitudes and pulse pileup. We describe a Bayesian technique that can identify the times of individual photoelectrons in a sampled PMT waveform without deconvolution, even when pileup is present. To demonstrate the technique, we apply it to the general problem of particle identification in single-phase liquid argon dark matter detectors. Using the output of the Bayesian photoelectron counting algorithm described in this paper, we construct several test statistics for rejection of backgrounds for dark matter searches in argon. Compared to simpler methods based on either observed charge or peak finding, the photoelectron counting technique improves ...

  10. Interdigitated craniotomy: a simple technique to fix a bone flap with only a single plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Noboru; Fujiwara, Kazunori; Saito, Keiichi; Tominaga, Teiji

    2015-10-01

    In pterional craniotomy, fixation plates cause artifacts on postoperative radiological images; furthermore, they often disfigure the scalp in hairless areas. The authors describe a simple technique to fix a cranial bone flap with only a single plate underneath the temporalis muscle in an area with hair, rather than using a plate in a hairless area. The key to this technique is to cut the anterior site of the bone flap at alternate angles on the cut surface. Interdigitation between the bone flap and skull enables single-plate fixation in the area with hair, which reduces artifacts on postoperative radiological images and provides excellent postoperative cosmetic results.

  11. Assessment of the efficiency of SimPlate™ total plate count color indicator (TPC CI to quantify mesophilic aerobic microorganisms in pasteurized milk Avaliação da eficiência do SimPlate™ Total Plate Count Color Indicator (TPC CI para enumeração de microrganismos aeróbios mesófilos em leite pasteurizado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Augusto Nero

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The SimPlate™ TPC CI system is a rapid method to count mesophilic aerobic microorganisms (MAM in foods, based on the use of resazurine to indicate bacterial growth. Its efficiency in pasteurized milk was evaluated using 142 pasteurized milk samples (38 type A, 43 type B and 61 type C collected in Londrina, PR. The standard plating method, using Plate Count Agar (PCA was used for comparison. The plates of both systems were incubated at 35ºC and read after 24h and 48h. The occurrence of false-positive and false-negative wells and the predominant microorganisms in them were also evaluated. The results were compared by simple correlation and mean variance analyses. The correlation (r and mean variance values were 0.6811 and 0.7583 for the results obtained after 24h, respectively, and 0.9126 and 0.0842 for the results obtained after 48h, respectively. These results indicate that the performance of the system increases when the plates are incubated for 48h. When the three types of milk were evaluated separately, these values were 0.9285 and 0.0817 for type A milk, 0.9231 and 0.0466 for type B milk and 0.7209 and 0.1082 for type C milk. These results indicate that the better the quality of the milk the better the performance of SimPlate™ TPC CI. False-negative wells, found more frequently in samples with high MAM counts, were caused by Gram positive microorganisms, poorly detected by the SimPlate™ TPC CI system because they grew slowly and had low reduction capacity. The results indicated a higher efficiency of the SimPlate™ TPC CI system in the reading at 48h.O sistema SimPlate™ TPC CI é um método rápido para enumeração de microrganismos aeróbios mesófilos (MAM em alimentos que utiliza a resazurina como substância indicadora de crescimento bacteriano. Para avaliar sua eficiência em leite pasteurizado, 142 amostras (38 de leite tipo A, 43 de leite tipo B e 61 de leite tipo C foram colhidas em Londrina, PR, e analisadas pelo SimPlate

  12. Evaluation of the 3M™ Petrifilm™ Rapid Aerobic Count Plate for the Enumeration of Aerobic Bacteria: Collaborative Study, First Action 2015.13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Patrick; Flannery, Jonathan; Crowley, Erin; Agin, James; Goins, David; Jechorek, Robert

    2016-05-01

    The 3M™ Petrifilm™ Rapid Aerobic Count (RAC) Plate is a sample-ready culture medium system containing dual-sensor indicator technology for the rapid quantification of aerobic bacteria in food products. The 3M Petrifilm RAC Plate was compared to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual (FDA BAM) Chapter 3 (Aerobic Plate Count) for the enumeration of aerobic bacteria in raw easy-peel shrimp and the Standard Methods for the Examination of Dairy Products (SMEDP) Chapter 6 (Standard Plate Count Method) for the enumeration of aerobic bacteria in pasteurized skim milk and instant nonfat dry milk (instant NFDM). The 3M Petrifilm RAC Plate was evaluated using a paired study design in a multilaboratory collaborative study following current AOAC validation guidelines. Three target contamination levels (low, 10-100 CFU/g; medium, 100-1000 CFU/g; and high 1000-10 000 CFU/g) were evaluated for naturally occurring aerobic microflora for each matrix. For raw easy-peel shrimp, duplicate 3M Petrifilm RAC Plates were enumerated after 24 ± 2 h incubation at both 32 and 35°C. Pasteurized skim milk 3M Petrifilm RAC Plates were enumerated after 24 ± 2 h incubation at 32°C, and instant NFDM 3M Petrifilm RAC Plates were enumerated after 48 ± 3 h incubation at 32°C. No statistical difference was observed between 3M Petrifilm RAC Plate and FDA BAM or SMEDP reference methods for each contamination level.

  13. Comparison of 3M Petrifilm Aerobic Count Plates to standard plating methodology for use with AOAC antimicrobial efficacy methods 955.14, 955.15, 964.02, and 966.04 as an alternative enumeration procedure: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Maria T; LaBudde, Robert A; Tomasino, Stephen F; Pines, Rebecca M

    2013-01-01

    A multilaboratory study was conducted to determine the equivalence of the 3M Petrifilm Aerobic Count Plate and standard plating methodology for measuring viable bacteria and spores recovered from hard-surface carriers (stainless steel and porcelain), also known as "control carrier counts," used in AOAC antimicrobial efficacy test methods. Six laboratories participated in the study in which carriers inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enterica, and spores of Bacillus subtilis were evaluated using 3M Petrifilm Aerobic Count (AC) plates and standard plating side-by-side. The data were analyzed using a matched-pair t-test to determine the between-method effect with confidence intervals. For all test organisms pooled across all laboratories, the mean difference in log10 concentration between the standard plate count method and 3M Petrifilm AC Plates was -0.012, with a 95% confidence interval of (-0.090, +0.066), which was well within the -0.5, +0.5 interval established as the acceptance criterion. The between-carrier SD averaged 0.139; the between-replicate SD was 0.050. The carrier reproducibility, given that a single replicate per carrier is done, was estimated to be 0.148. Although differences were seen in the final concentrations of the test organisms among laboratories, there were no statistical differences between the enumeration methods. Based on the results from this study, 3M Petrifilm AC Plates are equivalent to standard plating methodology and can be used as an alternative procedure for the enumeration of test organisms used in AOAC Methods 955.14, 955.15, 964.02, and 966.04.

  14. Lack of correlation between Legionella colonization and microbial population quantification using heterotrophic plate count and adenosine triphosphate bioluminescence measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Scott; Baron, Julianne L; Wagener, Marilyn M; Vidic, Radisav D; Stout, Janet E

    2015-07-01

    This investigation compared biological quantification of potable and non-potable (cooling) water samples using pour plate heterotrophic plate count (HPC) methods and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration measurement using bioluminescence. The relationship between these measurements and the presence of Legionella spp. was also examined. HPC for potable and non-potable water were cultured on R2A and PCA, respectively. Results indicated a strong correlation between HPC and ATP measurements in potable water (R = 0.90, p ATP and HPC were much weaker but statistically significant (make-up water: R = 0.37, p = 0.005; cooling tower 1: R = 0.52, p ATP. However, ATP measurements showed higher microbial concentrations than HPC measurements. Following chlorination of the cooling towers, ATP measurements indicated very low bacterial concentrations (1000 CFU/mL) which consisted primarily of non-tuberculous mycobacteria. HPC concentrations have been suggested to be predictive of Legionella presence, although this has not been proven. Our evaluation showed that HPC or ATP demonstrated a fair predictive capacity for Legionella positivity in potable water (HPC: receiver operating characteristic (ROC) = 0.70; ATP: ROC = 0.78; p = 0.003). However, HPC or ATP correctly classified sites as positive only 64 and 62% of the time, respectively. No correlation between HPC or ATP and Legionella colonization in non-potable water samples was found (HPC: ROC = 0.28; ATP: ROC = 0.44; p = 0.193).

  15. 3M Petrifilm Staph Express Count plate method for the enumeration of Staphylococcus aureus in selected types of meat, seafood, and poultry: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Wendy A; Aleo, Victoria A; Schultz, Ann M; Horter, Barbara L; Lindberg, Kathryn G

    2003-01-01

    The 3M Petrifilm Staph Express Count plate method was compared with AOAC Official Method 975.55 for the enumeration of Staphylococcus aureus in selected foods. Four foods--cooked, diced chicken; cured ham; smoked salmon; and pepperoni--were analyzed for S. aureus by 12 collaborating laboratories. For each food tested, the collaborators received 8 blind test samples consisting of a control sample, a low inoculation level, a medium inoculation level, and a medium inoculation level with background flora, each in duplicate. The mean log10 counts for the methods were comparable for all 4 foods. The repeatability and reproducibility variances of the 24 h Petrifilm Staph Express Count plate method were similar to those of the 72 h standard method.

  16. 3M Petrifilm Staph Express Count plate method for the enumeration of Staphylococcus aureus in selected types of processed and prepared foods: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbernagel, Karen M; Jechorek, Robert P; Carver, Charles N; Horter, Barbara L; Lindberg, Kathryn G

    2003-01-01

    The 3M Petrifilm Staph Express Count plate method was compared with AOAC Official Method 975.55 for the enumeration of Staphylococcus aureus in selected foods. Five foods--frozen lasagna, custard, frozen mixed vegetables, frozen hashbrowns, and frozen batter-coated mushrooms--were analyzed for S. aureus by 13 collaborating laboratories. For each food tested, the collaborators received 8 blind test samples consisting of a control sample, a low inoculation level, a medium inoculation level, and a medium inoculation level with background flora, each in duplicate. The mean log10 counts for the methods were comparable for all 5 foods. The repeatability and reproducibility variances of the 24 h Petrifilm Staph Express Count plate method were similar to those of the 72 h standard method.

  17. Real-time ArcGIS and heterotrophic plate count based chloramine disinfectant control in water distribution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xiaohui; Zhi, Xinghua; Zhu, Huifeng; Meng, Mingqun; Zhang, Mingde

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of chloramine residual on bacteria growth and regrowth and the relationship between heterotrophic plate counts (HPCs) and the concentration of chloramine residual in the Shanghai drinking water distribution system (DWDS). In this study, models to control HPCs in the water distribution system and consumer taps are also developed. Real-time ArcGIS was applied to show the distribution and changed results of the chloramine residual concentration in the pipe system by using these models. Residual regression analysis was used to get a reasonable range of the threshold values that allows the chloramine residual to efficiently inhibit bacteria growth in the Shanghai DWDS; the threshold values should be between 0.45 and 0.5 mg/L in pipe water and 0.2 and 0.25 mg/L in tap water. The low residual chloramine value (0.05 mg/L) of the Chinese drinking water quality standard may pose a potential health risk for microorganisms that should be improved. Disinfection by-products (DBPs) were detected, but no health risk was identified.

  18. A new model to predict weak-lensing peak counts III. Filtering technique comparisons

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Chieh-An; Pires, Sandrine

    2016-01-01

    This is the third in a series of papers that develop a new and flexible model to predict weak-lensing (WL) peak counts, which have been shown to be a very valuable non-Gaussian probe of cosmology. In this paper, we compare the cosmological information extracted from WL peak counts using different filtering techniques of the galaxy shear data, including linear filtering with a Gaussian and two compensated filters (the starlet wavelet and the aperture mass), and the nonlinear filtering method MRLens. We present improvements to our model that account for realistic survey conditions, which are masks, shear-to-convergence transformations, and non-constant noise. We create simulated peak counts from our stochastic model, from which we obtain constraints on the matter density $\\Omega_\\mathrm{m}$, the power spectrum normalization $\\sigma_8$, and the dark-energy parameter $w_0^\\mathrm{de}$. We use two methods for parameter inference, a copula likelihood, and approximate Bayesian computation (ABC). We measure the conto...

  19. A Nondestructive Real-Time Detection Method of Total Viable Count in Pork by Hyperspectral Imaging Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochun Zheng

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A nondestructive method was developed for assessing total viable count (TVC in pork during refrigerated storage by using hyperspectral imaging technique in this study. The hyperspectral images in the visible/near-infrared (VIS/NIR region of 400–1100 nm were acquired for fifty pork samples, and their VIS/NIR diffuse reflectance spectra were extracted from the images. The reference values of TVC in pork samples were determined by classical microbiological plating method. Both partial least square regression (PLSR model and support vector machine regression model (SVR of TVC were built for comparative analysis to achieve better results. Different transformation methods and filtering methods were applied to improve the models. The results show that both the optimized PLSR model and SVR model can predict the TVC very well, while the SVR model based on second derivation was better, which achieved with RP (correlation coefficient of prediction set = 0.94 and SEP (standard error of prediction set = 0.4570 log CFU/g in the prediction set. An image processing algorithm was then developed to transfer the prediction model to every pixel of the image of the entire sample; the visualizing map of TVC would be displayed in real-time during the detection process due to the simplicity of the model. The results demonstrated that hyperspectral imaging is a potential reliable approach for non-destructive and real-time prediction of TVC in pork.

  20. INTEGRATED USE OF RAPID PROTOTYPING AND METAL PLATING TECHNIQUES FOR DEVELOPMENT OF MICRO AIR VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. K. ELANGOVAN,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the synergistic application of rapid prototyping and metal plating technologies for development of micro air vehicles (MAV with high strength-to-weight characteristic. Stereolithography and fused deposition techniques are employed to fabricate complex thermoplastic MAV prototypes with significant time-compression in production cycle. Electroless and electrolytic deposition processes are custom developed to deposit thin metallic foils of nickel and chromium over thermoplastic MAV prototypes. Plating plant with inherent provision for variation of process parameters is established and proof-of-concept studies are carried on plating of MAV prototypes. Experiments are conducted on metal plated thermoplastic test specimens for evaluating the mechanical behaviour and structural integrity properties. Present study is a conclusive demonstration of the use of layered manufacturing techniques in quick realisation of flight-worthy MAV systems.

  1. Improvements of the smearing technique for cross-stiffened thin rectangular plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luan, Yu; Ohlrich, Mogens; Jacobsen, Finn

    2011-01-01

    New developments in the simplified smearing technique for modeling vibrations of cross-stiffened, thin rectangular plates are presented. The computationally efficient smearing technique has been known for many years, but so far the accuracy of, say, predicted natural frequencies has been inadequa...

  2. Systematic and Statistical Errors Associated with Nuclear Decay Constant Measurements Using the Counting Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koltick, David; Wang, Haoyu; Liu, Shih-Chieh; Heim, Jordan; Nistor, Jonathan

    2016-03-01

    Typical nuclear decay constants are measured at the accuracy level of 10-2. There are numerous reasons: tests of unconventional theories, dating of materials, and long term inventory evolution which require decay constants accuracy at a level of 10-4 to 10-5. The statistical and systematic errors associated with precision measurements of decays using the counting technique are presented. Precision requires high count rates, which introduces time dependent dead time and pile-up corrections. An approach to overcome these issues is presented by continuous recording of the detector current. Other systematic corrections include, the time dependent dead time due to background radiation, control of target motion and radiation flight path variation due to environmental conditions, and the time dependent effects caused by scattered events are presented. The incorporation of blind experimental techniques can help make measurement independent of past results. A spectrometer design and data analysis is reviewed that can accomplish these goals. The author would like to thank TechSource, Inc. and Advanced Physics Technologies, LLC. for their support in this work.

  3. High-accuracy thickness measurement of a transparent plate with the heterodyne central fringe identification technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Wang-Tsung; Hsieh, Hung-Chih; Chang, Wei-Yao; Chen, Yen-Liang; Su, Der-Chin

    2011-07-20

    In a modified Twyman-Green interferometer, the optical path variation is measured with the heterodyne central fringe identification technique, as the light beam is focused by a displaced microscopic objective on the front/rear surface of the test transparent plate. The optical path length variation is then measured similarly after the test plate is removed. The geometrical thickness of the test plate can be calculated under the consideration of dispersion effect. This method has a wide measurable range and a high accuracy in the measurable range.

  4. Influence of Heat Shock Temperatures and Fast Freezing on Viability of Probiotic Sporeformers and the Issue of Spore Plate Count Versus True Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Jafari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to investigate effects of various heat shock conditions and fast freezing and subsequent thawing on the viability and recovery of Bacillus coagulans and Bacillus subtilis as probiotic sporeformers, and also to compare spore plate and microscopic counts. Materials and Methods: After preparing the final suspensions of B. coagulans and Bacillus subtilis subsp. Natto spores, they were spread-plated before and after fast freezing treatment (-70°C for about 1 min. Heat shock treatments of the spores were carried out at 68oC for 15, 20, and 30 min as well as at 80oC for 10 and 15 min. Concentrations of the examined probiotic sporeformers were determined simultaneously by plate enumerations and microscopically determined counts. Student’s t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA of SPSS were used for statistical analysis of the data. Analysis of DoE results was carried out using Minitab. Results: The results presented here show that the highest recovery rates for B. coagulans (14.75 log CFU/mL and B. subtilis spores (14.80 log CFU/mL were under a heat shock condition of 68°C for 20 min in nutrient agar (p<0.05. In addition, the survival rates of B. coagulans and B. subtilis spores under the fast freezing and subsequent thawing condition were about 90% and 88%, respectively. Plate counts differed significantly from counts determined microscopically, with differences of almost 0.5 and 0.8 log for B. coagulans and B. subtilis spores, respectively (p<0.05. In addition, DoE results of the study revealed that both factors of spore count method and only freezing factor in fast freezing treatment have a significant effect on concentrations of the spores examined (p<0.05. Conclusions: Heat shock conditions, freezing and subsequent thawing circumstances, and plate counts or enumerations determined microscopically have significant influences on the viability of probiotic sporeformers and

  5. Pulsed remote field eddy current technique applied to non-magnetic flat conductive plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Binfeng; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Zhanbin

    2013-12-01

    Non-magnetic metal plates are widely used in aviation and industrial applications. The detection of cracks in thick plate structures, such as multilayered structures of aircraft fuselage, has been challenging in nondestructive evaluation societies. The remote field eddy current (RFEC) technique has shown advantages of deep penetration and high sensitivity to deeply buried anomalies. However, the RFEC technique is mainly used to evaluate ferromagnetic tubes. There are many problems that should be fixed before the expansion and application of this technique for the inspection of non-magnetic conductive plates. In this article, the pulsed remote field eddy current (PRFEC) technique for the detection of defects in non-magnetic conducting plates was investigated. First, the principle of the PRFEC technique was analysed, followed by the analysis of the differences between the detection of defects in ferromagnetic and non-magnetic plain structures. Three different models of the PRFEC probe were simulated using ANSYS. The location of the transition zone, defect detection sensitivity and the ability to detect defects in thick plates using three probes were analysed and compared. The simulation results showed that the probe with a ferrite core had the highest detecting ability. The conclusions derived from the simulation study were also validated by conducting experiments.

  6. Low Profile Mesh Plating for Patella Fractures: Video of a Novel Surgical Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeek, Diederik O; Hickerson, Lindsay E; Warner, Stephen J; Helfet, David L; Lorich, Dean G

    2016-08-01

    Patella fractures can be challenging to treat particularly in the presence of inferior pole comminution. In this video we present a novel surgical technique for the treatment of patella fractures using a small fragment low profile mesh plate. Key points are the surgical exposure with direct visualization of the articular reduction, the preparation of the mesh plate to accommodate patellar anatomy and the augmentation of the construct using Krackow sutures to address inferior pole comminution. Low profile mesh plating allows for multiplanar fixation of patella fractures while avoiding implant and fixation problems related to tension band fixation. Our early experience with this technique is encouraging and it appears that this technique is useful for the treatment of the majority of patella fractures.

  7. Comparison between bioluminescence imaging technique and CFU count for the study of oropharyngeal candidiasis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielli, Elena; Roselletti, Elena; Luciano, Eugenio; Sabbatini, Samuele; Mosci, Paolo; Pericolini, Eva

    2015-05-01

    We recently described a bioluminescence in vivo imaging technique, representing a powerful tool to test the real-time progression of oropharyngeal candidiasis, hence potentially useful to evaluate the efficacy of antifungal therapies. In this study, the in vivo imaging technique was compared with CFU measurement of target organs (tongue, esophagus and stomach) for monitoring and quantifying oropharyngeal candidiasis. We have correlated these two analytical methods at different times post-infection using engineered, luminescent Candida albicans in mice rendered susceptible to oral candidiasis by cortisone-acetate. Scatter plots, Pearson correlation and Student's t test were used to compare the methods. We observed that the bioluminescence in vivo imaging technique was more reliable than CFU counts in detecting early infection of, and its extent in, the oral cavity of the mouse. This was also evident following the introduction of a variable such as treatment with fluconazole. The results described in this study could validate the bioluminescence in vivo imaging technique as a method to monitor and quantify oropharyngeal candidiasis and to assess early discovery of active compounds in vivo.

  8. A simple technique for double plating of extraarticular distal humeral shaft fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharaby, Mohamed; Elhawary, Ahmed

    2012-12-01

    Plate fixation of extraarticular distal humeral shaft fracture is often difficult. Traditional techniques do not allow for stable fixation. A single DCP plate may have inadequate purchase in the distal fragment. The use of large plates extending distally over the lateral supracondylar ridge is often associated with pain and sometimes interferes with elbow range of motion. In this study, 22 patients with extra articular distal humeral fractures were managed with dual plating using a paratricipital approach. The first plate--a narrow DCP--was fixed on the dorsal surface of the humerus. The second plate--a small 3.5 reconstruction plate--was fixed on the dorsolateral surface. Elbow motion was started immediately after surgery. The average follow-up duration was 25 months. The mean elbow flexion/extension are was 4 degrees to 138 degrees. Infection was reported in two cases and was managed successfully with conservative measures. Postoperative radial nerve contusion was reported in one case with complete resolution within 3 months.

  9. Impact localization for a composite plate using the spatial focusing properties of advanced signal processing techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Hyunjo; Cho, Sungjong [Wonkwang Univ., Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    A structural health monitoring technique for locating impact position in a composite plate is presented in this paper. The method employs a single sensor and spatial focusing properties of time reversal(TR) and inverse filtering(IF). We first examine the spatial focusing efficiency of both approaches at the impact position and its surroundings through impact experiments. The imaging results of impact localization show that the impact location can be accurately estimated in any position of the plate. Compared to existing techniques for locating impact or acoustic emission source, the proposed method has the benefits of using a single sensor and not requiring knowledge of anisotropic material properties and geometry of structures. Furthermore, it does not depend on a particular mode of dispersive Lamb waves that is frequently used in other ultrasonic testing of plate like structures.

  10. Application of Freeman Chain Codes: An Alternative Recognition Technique for Malaysian Car Plates

    CERN Document Server

    Jusoh, Nor Amizam

    2011-01-01

    Various applications of car plate recognition systems have been developed using various kinds of methods and techniques by researchers all over the world. The applications developed were only suitable for specific country due to its standard specification endorsed by the transport department of particular countries. The Road Transport Department of Malaysia also has endorsed a specification for car plates that includes the font and size of characters that must be followed by car owners. However, there are cases where this specification is not followed. Several applications have been developed in Malaysia to overcome this problem. However, there is still problem in achieving 100% recognition accuracy. This paper is mainly focused on conducting an experiment using chain codes technique to perform recognition for different types of fonts used in Malaysian car plates.

  11. 培养条件对海水中菌落总数测定的影响%Effects of culture condition on aerobic plate count of seawater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢昭聪; 郑文丽; 徐立俊; 李小燕; 黄明燕; 袁新竹; 杜林

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解平板计数法测定海水中菌落总数时适宜的培养条件:培养基、培养温度和培养时间.方法 深圳水域的海水样品在不同培养基、培养温度条件下,经过不同培养时间培养后进行菌落总数计数.结果 在培养温度为25t,3090,36℃条件下,在相同培养时间内,2216E琼脂的菌落总数明显高于营养琼脂的菌落总数及平板计数琼脂的菌落总数(P < 0.05);采用2216E琼脂进行菌落总数测定,在培养温度30℃培养96h后,菌落总数达到最高,且菌落总数高于25℃和36℃培养时的菌落总数(P < 0.05).结论 海水中菌落总数测定时应注意培养时间的控制.2216E琼脂适合用于海水菌落总数测定.深圳区域海水中菌落总数测定适宜采用2216E琼脂于30℃培养96h.有关国家标准中海水中菌落总数测定方法所规定的培养温度、培养时间应考虑进行修订完善以准确检测水温较高的南方区域海水.%Objective To study studied the suitable medium, culture temperature and culture time, and to determine the aerobic plate count of seawater. Methods Samples of seawater from Shenzhen area were cultured in different media, temperature, after different time colony-forming unit were counted. Results In culture temperature of 25℃, 30℃, 36℃, with the same culture time, colonies numbers on 2216E agar were obviously more than on the nutrient agar and the plate count agar (P < 0.05); using 2216E agar for aerobic plate count in temperature 30℃ reached the highest number of colonies after 96 h, and the numbers of colony are higher than in 25℃ and 36℃ (P < 0.05). Conclusion Culture time should be well controlled when the aerobic plate count of seawater was detected. 2216E agar is a suitable medium for aerobic plate count of seawater in Shenzhen area. In order to accurately detect the aerobic plate count of seawater of the South region where water temperature is relatively high, the necessary amendments to

  12. Simulation techniques for spatially evolving instabilities in compressible flow over a flat plate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wasistho, B.; Geurts, B.J.; Kuerten, J.G.M.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we present numerical techniques suitable for a direct numerical simulation in the spatial setting. We demonstrate the application to the simulation of compressible flat plate flow instabilities. We compare second and fourth order accurate spatial discretization schemes in combination w

  13. A Hybrid Technique for Real Time License Plate Localization with the aid of FFBPNNAPSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reji PI

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle License Plate Recognition (VLPR is an imperative constituent in Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS, which encircles three foremost phases essentially License Plate Localization (LPL, Character Segmentation (CS, Character Recognition (CR. In this paper, we have intended to introduce a novel License Plate Localization algorithm subjected to Artificial Neural Networks (ANN. This proposed scheme involves distinct phases of pre-processing, image de-noising and enhancement, feature extraction, Neural Network training and License Plate detection. Followed by the mining of assorted statistical features, geometrical features, edge features and texture features from the vehicular image, they are given as the input to Feed Forward Back Propagation Neural Network (FFBPNN in order to localize the License Plate. During the training process, the parameters of the FFBPNN will be optimized using the eminent Adaptive Particle Swarm Optimization (APSO algorithm in order to improve the Neural Network convergence performance. The License Plate Localization of our proposed technique is analyzed with simple Feed Forward Back propagation Neural Network (FFBPNN in terms of accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. The experimental outcomes demonstrate that the proposed procedure proficiently accomplishes an extremely high localization rate with elevated specificity (91.3%.

  14. PLATE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kling, Joyce; Hjulmand, Lise-Lotte

    2008-01-01

    ’s level of English is sufficient for the increasing number of courses offered in English each semester. This paper addresses these concerns and describes a pilot project initiated in 2003 at CBS to gauge the overall English language proficiency of those teaching content courses in English. Through......Copenhagen Business School (CBS) finds itself needing to address the issue of English-medium instruction for its increasing number of foreign exchange and full degree students. With internationalisation as a main pillar of the institution’s agenda, there are concerns whether the teaching faculty...... the Project in Language Assessment for Teaching in English (PLATE) language professionals from CBS’s Language Center observe teachers and provide feedback using evaluation criteria from the Common European Framework for Reference (CEFR) supplemented by some additional criteria which take the LSP nature...

  15. PLATE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kling, Joyce; Hjulmand, Lise-Lotte

    2008-01-01

    Copenhagen Business School (CBS) finds itself needing to address the issue of English-medium instruction for its increasing number of foreign exchange and full degree students. With internationalisation as a main pillar of the institution’s agenda, there are concerns whether the teaching faculty......’s level of English is sufficient for the increasing number of courses offered in English each semester. This paper addresses these concerns and describes a pilot project initiated in 2003 at CBS to gauge the overall English language proficiency of those teaching content courses in English. Through...... the Project in Language Assessment for Teaching in English (PLATE) language professionals from CBS’s Language Center observe teachers and provide feedback using evaluation criteria from the Common European Framework for Reference (CEFR) supplemented by some additional criteria which take the LSP nature...

  16. Inspection of Space Station Cold Plate Using Visual and Automated Holographic Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Arthur J.; Melis, Matthew E.; Weiland, Kenneth E.

    1999-01-01

    Real-time holography has been used to confirm the presence of non-uniformity in the construction of an International Space Station cold plate. Ultrasonic C-scans have previously shown suspected areas of cooling fin disbonds. But both neural-net processed and visual holography did not evidence any progressive permanent changes resulting from 3000 pressurization and relaxation cycles of a Dash 8 cold plate. Neural-net and visual inspections were performed of characteristic patterns generated from electronic time-average holograms of the vibrating cold plate. Normal modes of vibration were excited at very low amplitudes for this purpose, The neural nets were trained to flag very small changes in the mode shapes as encoded in the characteristic patterns. Both the whole cold plate and a zoomed region were inspected. The inspections were conducted before, after, and during pressurization and relaxation cycles of the cold plate. A water-filled cold plate was pressurized to 120 psig (827 kPa) and relaxed for each cycle. Each cycle required 5 seconds. Both the artificial neural networks and the inspectors were unable to detect changes in the mode shapes of the relaxed cold plate. The cold plate was also inspected visually using real-time holography and double-exposure holography. Regions of non-uniformity correlating with the C-scans were apparent, but the interference patterns did not change after 3000 pressurization and relaxation cycles. These tests constituted the first practical application of a neural-net inspection technique developed originally with support from the Director's Discretionary Fund at the Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field.

  17. Improving prediction of total viable counts in pork based on hyperspectral scattering technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Feifei; Peng, Yankun; Song, Yulin; Guo, Hui; Chao, Kuanglin

    2012-05-01

    A hyperspectral scattering technique was investigated for predicting the total viable counts (TVC) of pork in the article. Fresh pork was purchased from a local market and stored at 4°C for 1-15 days. Totally 35 samples were used in the experiment and 2-4 samples were taken out randomly each day for collecting hyperspectral images and reference microbiological tests. Gompertz function was applied to fit the scattering profiles of pork and Teflon, and the fitting results were pretty good in the spectral range of 470-1010 nm. Both individual parameters and integrated parameters were explored to develop the multi-linear regression models for predicting pork TVC, and the results indicated that individual Gompertz parameter α was superior to other individual parameters, while the integrated parameters can perform better. The best result for predicting pork TVC was achieved by the form of (α, β, ɛ), with the RCV of 0.963. The study demonstrated that hyperspectral scattering technique combined with Gompertz function was potential for rapid determination of pork TVC, and would be a valid tool for monitoring the quality and safety attributes of meat in the future.

  18. Evaluation of the petrifilm aerobic count plate for enumeration of aerobic marine bacteria from seawater and Caulerpa lentillifera

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kudaka, Jun; Horii, Toru; Tamanaha, Koji; Itokazu, Kiyomasa; Nakamura, Masaji; Taira, Katsuya; Nidaira, Minoru; Okano, Sho; Kitahara, Akio

    2010-01-01

    ... and an edible seaweed, Caulerpa lentillifera. The efficiency of enumeration of total aerobic marine bacteria on Petrifilm ACP was compared with that using the spread plate method on marine agar with 80...

  19. Review of the Potential of the Ni/Cu Plating Technique for Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atteq ur Rehman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Developing a better method for the metallization of silicon solar cells is integral part of realizing superior efficiency. Currently, contact realization using screen printing is the leading technology in the silicon based photovoltaic industry, as it is simple and fast. However, the problem with metallization of this kind is that it has a lower aspect ratio and higher contact resistance, which limits solar cell efficiency. The mounting cost of silver pastes and decreasing silicon wafer thicknesses encourages silicon solar cell manufacturers to develop fresh metallization techniques involving a lower quantity of silver usage and not relying pressing process of screen printing. In recent times nickel/copper (Ni/Cu based metal plating has emerged as a metallization method that may solve these issues. This paper offers a detailed review and understanding of a Ni/Cu based plating technique for silicon solar cells. The formation of a Ni seed layer by adopting various deposition techniques and a Cu conducting layer using a light induced plating (LIP process are appraised. Unlike screen-printed metallization, a step involving patterning is crucial for opening the masking layer. Consequently, experimental procedures involving patterning methods are also explicated. Lastly, the issues of adhesion, back ground plating, process complexity and reliability for industrial applications are also addressed.

  20. Comparison of Petrifilm Staph Express Count System with the bacteriological analytical manual direct-plating method for enumeration of Staphylococcus aureus in artificially contaminated hard cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedio, Willis M; Wendakoon, Chitra N; Zapata, Ruben; Carrillo, Christina; Browning, Paul

    2008-01-01

    The 3M Petrifilm Staph Express Count System was compared with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM) direct-plate count method for the enumeration of Staphylococcus aureus in 6 types of artificially contaminated hard cheese (Asiago, Cheddar, Gruyère, Parmesan, Romano, and Swiss). Five different samples of each cheese type were inoculated with S. aureus (ATCC 25923) to achieve low, medium, and high inoculum levels. S. aureus was enumerated by the Petrifilm and BAM methods, and the results were compared. Multivariate analysis of variance revealed no significant differences (P<0.05) between the 2 methods. The Petrifilm method compared favorably with the BAM procedure. The rapid method was more convenient to use, considerably faster, and less expensive to perform than the BAM method.

  1. Guided-wave tomography imaging plate defects by laser-based ultrasonic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jun Pil; Lim, Ju Young; Cho, Youn Ho [School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Contact-guided-wave tests are impractical for investigating specimens with limited accessibility and rough surfaces or complex geometric features. A non-contact setup with a laser-ultrasonic transmitter and receiver is quite attractive for guided-wave inspection. In the present work, we developed a non-contact guided-wave tomography technique using the laser-ultrasonic technique in a plate. A method for Lamb-wave generation and detection in an aluminum plate with a pulsed laser-ultrasonic transmitter and Michelson-interferometer receiver was developed. The defect shape and area in the images obtained using laser scanning, showed good agreement with the actual defect. The proposed approach can be used as a non-contact online inspection and monitoring technique.

  2. Metallic glass coating on metals plate by adjusted explosive welding technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, W.D. [LTCS and Department of Mechanics and Aerospace Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Liu, K.X., E-mail: kliu@pku.edu.cn [LTCS and Department of Mechanics and Aerospace Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Center for Applied Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Chen, Q.Y.; Wang, J.T. [LTCS and Department of Mechanics and Aerospace Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Yan, H.H.; Li, X.J. [Department of Engineering Mechanics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2009-09-15

    Using an adjusted explosive welding technique, an aluminum plate has been coated by a Fe-based metallic glass foil in this work. Scanning electronic micrographs reveal a defect-free metallurgical bonding between the Fe-based metallic glass foil and the aluminum plate. Experimental evidence indicates that the Fe-based metallic glass foil almost retains its amorphous state and mechanical properties after the explosive welding process. Additionally, the detailed explosive welding process has been simulated by a self-developed hydro-code and the bonding mechanism has been investigated by numerical analysis. The successful welding between the Fe-based metallic glass foil and the aluminum plate provides a new way to obtain amorphous coating on general metal substrates.

  3. Metallic glass coating on metals plate by adjusted explosive welding technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W. D.; Liu, K. X.; Chen, Q. Y.; Wang, J. T.; Yan, H. H.; Li, X. J.

    2009-09-01

    Using an adjusted explosive welding technique, an aluminum plate has been coated by a Fe-based metallic glass foil in this work. Scanning electronic micrographs reveal a defect-free metallurgical bonding between the Fe-based metallic glass foil and the aluminum plate. Experimental evidence indicates that the Fe-based metallic glass foil almost retains its amorphous state and mechanical properties after the explosive welding process. Additionally, the detailed explosive welding process has been simulated by a self-developed hydro-code and the bonding mechanism has been investigated by numerical analysis. The successful welding between the Fe-based metallic glass foil and the aluminum plate provides a new way to obtain amorphous coating on general metal substrates.

  4. Characterization and analysis of surface notches on Ti-alloy plates fabricated by additive manufacturing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kwai S.

    2015-12-01

    Rectangular plates of Ti-6Al-4V with extra low interstitial (ELI) were fabricated by layer-by-layer deposition techniques that included electron beam melting (EBM) and laser beam melting (LBM). The surface conditions of these plates were characterized using x-ray micro-computed tomography. The depth and radius of surface notch-like features on the LBM and EBM plates were measured from sectional images of individual virtual slices of the rectangular plates. The stress concentration factors of individual surface notches were computed and analyzed statistically to determine the appropriate distributions for the notch depth, notch radius, and stress concentration factor. These results were correlated with the fatigue life of the Ti-6Al-4V ELI alloys from an earlier investigation. A surface notch analysis was performed to assess the debit in the fatigue strength due to the surface notches. The assessment revealed that the fatigue lives of the additively manufactured plates with rough surface topographies and notch-like features are dominated by the fatigue crack growth of large cracks for both the LBM and EBM materials. The fatigue strength reduction due to the surface notches can be as large as 60%-75%. It is concluded that for better fatigue performance, the surface notches on EBM and LBM materials need to be removed by machining and the surface roughness be improved to a surface finish of about 1 μm.

  5. Key techniques and applications of adaptive growth method for stiffener layout design of plates and shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiaohong; Ji, Xuerong; Ma, Man; Hou, Jianyun

    2013-11-01

    The application of the adaptive growth method is limited because several key techniques during the design process need manual intervention of designers. Key techniques of the method including the ground structure construction and seed selection are studied, so as to make it possible to improve the effectiveness and applicability of the adaptive growth method in stiffener layout design optimization of plates and shells. Three schemes of ground structures, which are comprised by different shell elements and beam elements, are proposed. It is found that the main stiffener layouts resulted from different ground structures are almost the same, but the ground structure comprised by 8-nodes shell elements and both 3-nodes and 2-nodes beam elements can result in clearest stiffener layout, and has good adaptability and low computational cost. An automatic seed selection approach is proposed, which is based on such selection rules that the seeds should be positioned on where the structural strain energy is great for the minimum compliance problem, and satisfy the dispersancy requirement. The adaptive growth method with the suggested key techniques is integrated into an ANSYS-based program, which provides a design tool for the stiffener layout design optimization of plates and shells. Typical design examples, including plate and shell structures to achieve minimum compliance and maximum bulking stability are illustrated. In addition, as a practical mechanical structural design example, the stiffener layout of an inlet structure for a large-scale electrostatic precipitator is also demonstrated. The design results show that the adaptive growth method integrated with the suggested key techniques can effectively and flexibly deal with stiffener layout design problem for plates and shells with complex geometrical shape and loading conditions to achieve various design objectives, thus it provides a new solution method for engineering structural topology design optimization.

  6. New Approaches on Quantification of Campylobacter jejuni in Poultry Samples: The Use of Digital PCR and Real-time PCR against the ISO Standard Plate Count Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papić, Bojan; Pate, Mateja; Henigman, Urška; Zajc, Urška; Gruntar, Igor; Biasizzo, Majda; Ocepek, Matjaž; Kušar, Darja

    2017-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis is the most frequently reported bacterial food-borne illness in the European Union and contaminated broiler meat is considered the most important source of infection in humans. The aim of the present study was to evaluate real-time PCR (qPCR) and digital PCR (dPCR) for quantification of Campylobacter jejuni in 75 broiler neck-skin samples collected from a poultry slaughterhouse, and to compare them with the ISO 10272-2 standard plate count method. For qPCR standard curve, C. jejuni-negative neck-skin samples were spiked with C. jejuni suspension with a known number of bacterial cells. The observed CFU/g values by qPCR correlated greatly with the expected values and qPCR showed good performance with the reliable limit of detection (rLOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of three and 31 target copies per reaction, respectively. However, both rLOD (1219 CFU/g) and LOQ (12,523 CFU/g) were beyond the EFSA-proposed critical limit of 500–1,000 CFU/g of neck skin. Although C. jejuni cell counts were ≤1,000 CFU/g in only 7/75 samples by plate counting, they were ≤LOQ in 60/75 and ≤rLOD in 26/75 (≤1,000 CFU/g in 24/75) samples by qPCR. A strong and statistically significant correlation was observed between qPCR and dPCR. Both PCR-based methods correlated significantly with the plate count method; however, the correlation was moderate. Using the Bland–Altman analysis, an average agreement was noted between all three methods, although with a large standard deviation. A significant bias toward overestimation in dPCR was observed, probably due to the relatively high number of false positive calls. The linear dynamic range was comparable in both PCR-based methods; however, qPCR proved to be more suitable for routine use. In the future, the establishment of a reliable molecular quantification of C. jejuni in poultry samples showing a wide range of contamination levels down to the proposed critical limit is needed to enable time- and cost

  7. Risk factors associated with bulk tank standard plate count, bulk tank coliform count, and the presence of Staphylococcus aureus on organic and conventional dairy farms in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicconi-Hogan, K M; Gamroth, M; Richert, R; Ruegg, P L; Stiglbauer, K E; Schukken, Y H

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the association of bulk tank milk standard plate counts, bulk tank coliform counts (CC), and the presence of Staphylococcus aureus in bulk tank milk with various management and farm characteristics on organic and conventional dairy farms throughout New York, Wisconsin, and Oregon. Data from size-matched organic farms (n=192), conventional nongrazing farms (n=64), and conventional grazing farms (n=36) were collected at a single visit for each farm. Of the 292 farms visited, 290 bulk tank milk samples were collected. Statistical models were created using data from all herds in the study, as well as exclusively for the organic subset of herds. Because of incomplete data, 267 of 290 herds were analyzed for total herd modeling, and 173 of 190 organic herds were analyzed for the organic herd modeling. Overall, more bulk tanks from organic farms had Staph. aureus cultured from them (62% of organic herds, 42% conventional nongrazing herds, and 43% of conventional grazing herds), whereas fewer organic herds had a high CC, defined as ≥50 cfu/mL, than conventional farms in the study. A high standard plate count (×1,000 cfu/mL) was associated with decreased body condition score of adult cows and decreased milk production in both models. Several variables were significant only in the model created using all herds or only in organic herds. The presence of Staph. aureus in the bulk tank milk was associated with fewer people treating mastitis, increased age of housing, and a higher percentage of cows with 3 or fewer teats in both the organic and total herd models. The Staph. aureus total herd model also showed a relationship with fewer first-lactation animals, higher hock scores, and less use of automatic takeoffs at milking. High bulk tank CC was related to feeding a total mixed ration and using natural service in nonlactating heifers in both models. Overall, attentive management and use of outside resources were useful with regard to CC

  8. Novel thin plate element theory based on a continuity re-relaxed technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Thin plate problem has been receiving much interest due to its wide application in engineering.In this paper,a novel thin plate element theory is proposed based on a continuity re-relaxed technique to avoid the high continuity requirement for thin plate formulation which needs the high computation cost.The problem is first discretized into a set of background cells with field nodes,and only deflection field is treated as the field variable.On top of the background cells,the integration domains are further formed.The curvatures over integration domains are restructured through the divergence theorem,and the continuity requirement of the trial deflection function for thin plate problems can be re-relaxed.The Galerkin weak form is then used to create the discretized system equations.The curvatures in the integration domains are constant,and the stiffness matrix of the system can be computed directly without numerical integration.The rotational essential boundary conditions are imposed in the process of curvature field construction.Some numerical examples are computed using the RPIM approximation function.The excellent results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method.

  9. A quantitative damage imaging technique based on enhanced CCRTM for composite plates using 2D scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiaze; Yuan, Fuh-Gwo

    2016-10-01

    A two-dimensional (2D) non-contact areal scan system was developed to image and quantify impact damage in a composite plate using an enhanced zero-lag cross-correlation reverse-time migration (E-CCRTM) technique. The system comprises a single piezoelectric wafer mounted on the composite plate and a laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) for scanning a region in the vicinity of the PZT to capture the scattered wavefield. The proposed damage imaging technique takes into account the amplitude, phase, geometric spreading, and all of the frequency content of the Lamb waves propagating in the plate; thus, a reflectivity coefficients of the delamination is calculated and potentially related to damage severity. Comparisons are made in terms of damage imaging quality between 2D areal scans and 1D line scans as well as between the proposed and existing imaging conditions. The experimental results show that the 2D E-CCRTM performs robustly when imaging and quantifying impact damage in large-scale composites using a single PZT actuator with a nearby areal scan using LDV.

  10. Flaw Imaging Technique for Plate-Like Structures Using Scanning Laser Source Actuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changgil Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the longitudinal, shear, and surface waves have been very widely used as ultrasonic wave-based exploration methods to identify internal defects of host structures. In this context, a noncontact nondestructive testing (NDT method is proposed to detect the damage of plate-like structures and to identify the location of the damage. To achieve this goal, a scanning laser source actuation technique is utilized to generate a guided wave and scans a specific area to find damage location more precisely. The ND:YAG pulsed laser is used to generate Lamb wave and a piezoelectric sensor is installed to measure the structural responses. The measured responses are analyzed using 3-dimensional Fourier transformation (3D FT. The damage-sensitive features are extracted by wavenumber filtering based on the 3D FT. Then, flaw imaging techniques of a plate-like structure are conducted using the damage-sensitive features. Finally, the plates with notches are investigated to verify the effectiveness and the robustness of the proposed NDT approach.

  11. Discrete algebraic reconstruction technique: a new approach for superresolution reconstruction of license plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei Zefreh, Karim; van Aarle, Wim; Batenburg, K. Joost; Sijbers, Jan

    2013-10-01

    A new superresolution algorithm is proposed to reconstruct a high-resolution license plate image from a set of low-resolution camera images. The reconstruction methodology is based on the discrete algebraic reconstruction technique (DART), a recently developed reconstruction method. While DART has already been successfully applied in tomographic imaging, it has not yet been transferred to the field of camera imaging. DART is introduced for camera imaging through a demonstration of how prior knowledge of the colors of the license plate can be directly exploited during the reconstruction of a high-resolution image from a set of low-resolution images. Simulation experiments show that DART can reconstruct images with superior quality compared to conventional reconstruction methods.

  12. Standard practice for monitoring atmospheric SO2 using the sulfation plate technique

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1997-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers a weighted average effective SO2 level for a 30-day interval through the use of the sulfation plate method, a technique for estimating the effective SO2 content of the atmosphere, and especially with regard to the atmospheric corrosion of stationary structures or panels. This practice is aimed at determining SO2 levels rather than sulfuric acid aerosol or acid precipitation. 1.2 The results of this practice correlate approximately with volumetric SO2 concentrations, although the presence of dew or condensed moisture tends to enhance the capture of SO2 into the plate. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  13. New technique to count mosquito adults: using ImageJ software to estimate number of mosquito adults in a trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesavaraju, Banugopan; Dickson, Sammie

    2012-12-01

    A new technique is described here to count mosquitoes using open-source software. We wanted to develop a protocol that would estimate the total number of mosquitoes from a picture using ImageJ. Adult mosquitoes from CO2-baited traps were spread on a tray and photographed. The total number of mosquitoes in a picture was estimated using various calibrations on ImageJ, and results were compared with manual counting to identify the ideal calibration. The average trap count was 1,541, and the average difference between the manual count and the best calibration was 174.11 +/- 21.59, with 93% correlation. Subsequently, contents of a trap were photographed 5 different times after they were shuffled between each picture to alter the picture pattern of adult mosquitoes. The standard error among variations stayed below 50, indicating limited variation for total count between pictures of the same trap when the pictures were processed through ImageJ. These results indicate the software could be utilized efficiently to estimate total number of mosquitoes from traps.

  14. ROLE OF LOW PROFILE PRECONTOURED DISTAL TIBIAL LOCKING PLATE USING MIPPO TECHNIQUE IN PILON FRACTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Sunder

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available : Tibial pilon fracture – Spectrum of injury ranging from fractures caused by low energy rotational foces to fractures caused by high energy axial compression forces due to RTA/ fall from height with significant metaphyseal communition articular communition with diaphyseal extension. Almost 80% patients will have fibula fracture. The aim of the study is study the efficacy of LP PD DTP in the management of closed pilon fractures (OTA type A Type B and Type C 1 and open pilon fractures (Grade 1 Grade II Grade III A (Gustilo Anterson grading. 1. I have studied 21 patients of pilon fracture classified using AO/OTA classification Type A-metaphyseal; Type B–Partially articular; Type C Metaphyseal fracture with articular involvement. 2. Used LP/ PC/ Distal tibial plate using MIPPO technique in OTA–A, B and C 1 closed & grade I II Grade III A compound fractures. OBSERVATIONS: 1. In contrary to stages protocol (Ist external fixation with fibular plating after 2-3 Weeks ORIF/MIPPO with/Without bone grafting, it is done percutaneously or minimally invasive and it can be done on day 1 without any major soft tissue problem & post-operative infection. 2. Duration of stay in the hospital can be reduced. 3. Since it is done through calcaneal traction or femoral distractor – fibula length restored & plating may not be necessary all the time and fibula plating can be avoid if the soft tissue condition is not favorable for plating laterally. 4. Since it is done through calcaneal traction/femoral distractor inspite of ground glass communition–good reduction is almost always possible. 5. Since MIPPO–need for bone grafting in less. 6. As in staged protocol more time is spent in soft tissue healing and after 2–3 weeks, fractures reduction if difficult and almost impossible with indirect reduction and may warrant open reduction. I conclude that LP PC distal tibial plate using MIPPO technique offers several advantages over two staged protocol and improved

  15. A high resolution, high frame rate detector based on a microchannel plate read out with the Medipix2 counting CMOS pixel chip.

    CERN Document Server

    Mikulec, Bettina; McPhate, J B; Tremsin, A S; Siegmund, O H W; Clark, Allan G; CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    The future of ground-based optical astronomy lies with advancements in adaptive optics (AO) to overcome the limitations that the atmosphere places on high resolution imaging. A key technology for AO systems on future very large telescopes are the wavefront sensors (WFS) which detect the optical phase error and send corrections to deformable mirrors. Telescopes with >30 m diameters will require WFS detectors that have large pixel formats (512x512), low noise (<3 e-/pixel) and very high frame rates (~1 kHz). These requirements have led to the idea of a bare CMOS active pixel device (the Medipix2 chip) functioning in counting mode as an anode with noiseless readout for a microchannel plate (MCP) detector and at 1 kHz continuous frame rate. First measurement results obtained with this novel detector are presented both for UV photons and beta particles.

  16. 进口葡萄酒菌落总数检验结果分析%Analysis on the results of aerobic plate count in imported wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周毅; 李金华; 徐晔; 段宏安; 曹洁

    2013-01-01

    目的:了解进口葡萄酒微生物污染状况及主要污染微生物.方法:对394份进口葡萄酒样品菌落总数进行测定,并对主要污染微生物进行鉴定.结果:5份葡萄酒样品菌落总数超标,生化鉴定表明,主要污染微生物为酿酒酵母.结论:进口葡萄酒整体卫生状况较好,但进出口管理部门应加强对进口葡萄酒产品微生物指标的检测,确保产品质量符合相关标准要求.%Objective:A survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of microbiological contamination in im-ported wine,and find the main microbe leading to pollution.Methods:A total of 394 imported wine samples were analyzed for aerobic plate count determination,then microbial identification was applied to these contaminated microbes.Results:Aerobic plate count of 5 wine samples was found over-limit.The results of biochemical identification showed that the main microorganism causing pollution is Saccharomyces cerevisiae.Conclusion:The overall prevalence of microbiological contamination in wine is relatively low,but the import and export administrative department still should strengthen the microbiological test on imported wine,to make sure that the product quality can meet revelant standards requirement.

  17. The preparation technique optimization of epoxy/compressed expanded graphite composite bipolar plates for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Chao; Ming, Pingwen; Hou, Ming; Fu, Jie; Fu, Yunfeng; Luo, Xiaokuan; Shen, Qiang; Shao, Zhigang; Yi, Baolian

    Vacuum resin impregnation method has been used to prepare polymer/compressed expanded graphite (CEG) composite bipolar plates for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). In this research, three different preparation techniques of the epoxy/CEG composite bipolar plate (Compression-Impregnation method, Impregnation-Compression method and Compression-Impregnation-Compression method) are optimized by the physical properties of the composite bipolar plates. The optimum conditions and the advantages/disadvantages of the different techniques are discussed respectively. Although having different characteristics, bipolar plates obtained by these three techniques can all meet the demands of PEMFC bipolar plates as long as the optimum conditions are selected. The Compression-Impregnation-Compression method is shown to be the optimum method because of the outstanding properties of the bipolar plates. Besides, the cell assembled with these optimum composite bipolar plates shows excellent stability after 200 h durability testing. Therefore the composite prepared by vacuum resin impregnation method is a promising candidate for bipolar plate materials in PEMFCs.

  18. A simplified technique for anterior cervical discectomy and fusion using a screw-plate implanted over the Caspar distractor pins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransen, Patrick

    2010-08-01

    The author presents a simplified technique for midline screw-plate fixation in fusion procedures after anterior cervical discectomy, in which the plate is introduced over the Caspar distractor pins. The Uniplate system used, with a single screw in each vertebral body, minimizes bone damage to the vertebral body as the screws can be fixed in the holes previously used for the Caspar distractor pins. This simplified version of the classical anterior cervical fusion technique saves surgical time, facilitates screw insertion, and obviates the need for manipulations to stabilize the plate before the screws are inserted. It provides immediate stability comparable to other plate systems. To the author's knowledge, this is the first report on cervical fusion with the Uniplate system with the plate being introduced over the Caspar distractor pins.

  19. Cross strip anode readouts for large format, photon counting microchannel plate detectors: developing flight qualified prototypes of the detector and electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallerga, John; Raffanti, Rick; Cooney, Michael; Cumming, Harley; Varner, Gary; Seljak, Andrej

    2014-07-01

    Photon counting microchannel plate (MCP) imagers have been the detector of choice for most UV astronomical missions over the last two decades (e.g. EUVE, FUSE, COS on Hubble etc.). Over this duration, improvements in the MCP laboratory readout technology have resulted in better spatial resolution (x10), temporal resolution (x1000) and output event rate (x100), all the while operating at lower gain (x 10) resulting in lower high voltage requirements and longer MCP lifetimes. One such technology is the parallel cross strip (PXS) readout. Laboratory versions of PXS electronics have demonstrated count rates on the order of 2 MHz, and temporal resolution of ~ 1ns. In 2012 our group at U.C. Berkeley, along with our partners at the U. Hawaii, received a Strategic Astrophysics Technology grant to raise the TRL of the PXS detector and electronics from 4 to 6 by replacing most of the high powered electronics with application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) which will lower the power, mass and volume requirements of the PXS detector. We were also tasked to design and fabricate a "standard" 50mm square active area MCP detector incorporating these electronics that can be environmentally qualified for flight (temperature, vacuum, vibration). The first ASICs designed for this program have been fabricated and are undergoing testing. We present the latest progress on these ASIC designs and performance and show imaging results from the new 50 x 50 mm XS detector.

  20. Studies on the ecology of aquatic bacteria of the lower Niger Delta: multiple antibiotic resistance among the standard plate count organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogan, M T; Nwiika, D E

    1993-05-01

    The ecology of multiple antibiotic resistant (MAR) bacteria in the fresh-waters of the lower Niger Delta was studied in the Port Harcourt area, Rivers State. On the basis of decreasing pollution levels three zones, A, B, C, were recognized. Cell recovery by two viable count media, casein-peptone-starch (CPS) and plate count (PC) agar containing chloramphenicol, tetracycline, penicillin, streptomycin or ampicillin were compared in an initial study. Higher numbers of antibiotic resistant (AR) bacteria were recovered on CPS containing tetracycline, penicillin, streptomycin and ampicillin from the faecally-polluted New Calabar River (zone A) than on SPC agar containing similar antibiotics but the reverse was observed for forest stream (zone B) samples. Differences between the two media were also observed at individual sample sites. The proportions of strains of AR bacteria resistant to their primary isolation antibiotic varied from 55% (zone B) to 72% in the least polluted Isiokpo and Elele-Alimini streams (zone C), for ampicillin, and mostly count media without antibiotics included mainly species of Bacillus (12) and enterobacteria (18). Between five and 10 strains were resistant to > or = three antibiotics; seven were resistant to all five. The antibiograms of most strains were variable and depended on the method of drug application (discs or incorporation into agar), media and temperature of incubation (25 degrees, 37 degrees or 44.5 degrees C). Twenty-one strains were consistently resistant to ampicillin by the two methods; 10 to 19 were consistent for chloramphenicol, tetracycline and penicillin.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Changes in Aerobic Plate and Escherichia coli-Coliform Counts and in Populations of Inoculated Foodborne Pathogens on Inshell Walnuts during Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frelka, John C; Davidson, Gordon R; Harris, Linda J

    2016-07-01

    After harvest, inshell walnuts are dried using low-temperature forced air and are then stored in bins or silos for up to 1 year. To better understand the survival of bacteria on inshell walnuts, aerobic plate counts (APCs) and Escherichia coli?coliform counts (ECCs) were evaluated during commercial storage (10 to 12°C and 63 to 65% relative humidity) over 9 months. APCs decreased by 1.4 to 2.0 log CFU per nut during the first 5 months of storage, and ECCs decreased by 1.3 to 2.2 log CFU per nut in the first month of storage. Through the remaining 4 to 8 months of storage, APCs and ECCs remained unchanged (P > 0.05) or decreased by CFU per nut per month. Similar trends were observed on kernels extracted from the inshell walnuts. APCs and ECCs were consistently and often significantly higher on kernels extracted from visibly broken inshell walnuts than on kernels extracted from visibly intact inshell walnuts. Parameters measured in this study were used to determine the survival of five-strain cocktails of E. coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella inoculated onto freshly hulled inshell walnuts (∼8 log CFU/g) after simulated commercial drying (10 to 12 h; 40°C) and simulated commercial storage (12 months at 10°C and 65% relative humidity). Populations declined by 2.86, 5.01, and 4.40 log CFU per nut for E. coli O157:H7, L. monocytogenes, and Salmonella, respectively, after drying and during the first 8 days of storage. Salmonella populations changed at a rate of -0.33 log CFU per nut per month between days 8 and 360, to final levels of 2.83 ± 0.79 log CFU per nut. E. coli and L. monocytogenes populations changed by -0.17 log CFU per nut per month and -0.26 log CFU per nut per month between days 8 and 360, respectively. For some samples, E. coli or L. monocytogenes populations were below the limit of detection by plating (0.60 log CFU per nut) by day 183 or 148, respectively; at least one of the six samples was positive at each subsequent sampling

  2. X-ray photon-counting detector based on a micro-channel plate for pulsar navigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baomei Chen; Baosheng Zhao; Huijun Hu; Qiurong Yan; Lizhi Sheng

    2011-01-01

    The pulse time of arrival (TOA) is a determining parameter for accurate timing and positioning in X-ray pulsar navigation. The pulse TOA can be calculated by comparing the measured arrival time with the predicted arrival time of the X-ray pulse for pulsar. In this study, in order to research the measurement of pulse arrival time, an experimental system is set up. The experimental system comprises a simulator of the X-ray pulsar, an X-ray detector, a time-measurement system, and a data-processing system. An X-ray detector base is proposed on the basis of the micro-channel plate (MCP), which is sensitive to soft X-ray in the 1-10 keV band. The MCP-based detector, the structure and principle of the experimental system, and results of the pulse profile are described in detail. In addition, a discussion of the effects of different X-ray pulse periods and the quantum efficiency of the detector on pulse-profile signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is presented. Experimental results reveal that the SNR of the measured pulse profile becomes enhanced as the quantum efficiency of the detector increases. The SNR of the pulse profile is higher when the period of the pulse is smaller at the same integral.%@@ The pulse time of arrival (TOA) is a determining parameter for accurate timing and positioning in X-ray pulsar navigation.The pulse TOA can be calculated by comparing the measured arrival time with the predicted arrival time of the X-ray pulse for pulsar.In this study, in order to research the measurement of pulse arrival time, an experimental system is set up.The experimental system comprises a simulator of the X-ray pulsar, an X-ray detector, a time-measurement system, and a data-processing system.An X-ray detector base is proposed on the basis of the micro-channel plate (MCP), which is sensitive to soft X-ray in the 1-10 keV band.The MCP-based detector, the structure and principle of the experimental system,and results of the pulse profile are described in detail.In addition, a

  3. Thermal performance of plate-fin heat exchanger using passive techniques: vortex-generator and nanofluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshvaght-Aliabadi, Morteza

    2016-04-01

    This experimental study investigates the effects of vortex-generator (VG) and Cu/water nanofluid flow on performance of plate-fin heat exchangers. The Cu/water nanofluids are produced by using a one-step method, namely electro-exploded wire technique, with four nanoparticles weight fractions (i.e. 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4 %). Required properties of nanofluids are systematically measured, and empirical correlations are developed. A highly precise test loop is fabricated to obtain accurate results of the heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics. Experiments are conducted for nanofluids flow inside the plain and VG channels. Based on the experimental results, utilizing the VG channel instead of the plain channel enhances the heat transfer rate, remarkably. Also, the results show that the VG channel is more effective than the nanofluid on the performance of plate-fin heat exchangers. It is observed that the combination of the two heat transfer enhancement techniques has a noticeably high thermal-hydraulic performance, about 1.67. Finally, correlations are developed to predict Nusselt number and friction factor of nanofluids flow inside the VG channel.

  4. Lamb-Wave-Based Tomographic Imaging Techniques for Hole-Edge Corrosion Monitoring in Plate Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dengjiang Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a novel monitoring method for hole-edge corrosion damage in plate structures based on Lamb wave tomographic imaging techniques. An experimental procedure with a cross-hole layout using 16 piezoelectric transducers (PZTs was designed. The A0 mode of the Lamb wave was selected, which is sensitive to thickness-loss damage. The iterative algebraic reconstruction technique (ART method was used to locate and quantify the corrosion damage at the edge of the hole. Hydrofluoric acid with a concentration of 20% was used to corrode the specimen artificially. To estimate the effectiveness of the proposed method, the real corrosion damage was compared with the predicted corrosion damage based on the tomographic method. The results show that the Lamb-wave-based tomographic method can be used to monitor the hole-edge corrosion damage accurately.

  5. A technique using a stellar spectrographic plate to measure terrestrial ozone column depth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, A.Y.

    1995-08-01

    This thesis examines the feasibility of a technique to extract ozone column depths from photographic stellar spectra in the 5000--7000 Angstrom spectral region. A stellar spectrographic plate is measured to yield the relative intensity distribution of a star`s radiation after transmission through the earth`s atmosphere. The amount of stellar radiation absorbed by the ozone Chappuis band is proportional to the ozone column depth. The measured column depth is within 10% the mean monthly value for latitude 36{degree}N, however the uncertainty is too large to make the measurement useful. This thesis shows that a 10% improvement to the photographic sensitivity uncertainty can decrease the column depth uncertainty to a level acceptable for climatic study use. This technique offers the possibility of measuring past ozone column depths.

  6. A technique using a stellar spectrographic plate to measure terrestrial ozone column depth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Alec Y. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1995-08-01

    This thesis examines the feasibility of a technique to extract ozone column depths from photographic stellar spectra in the 5000--7000 Angstrom spectral region. A stellar spectrographic plate is measured to yield the relative intensity distribution of a star`s radiation after transmission through the earth`s atmosphere. The amount of stellar radiation absorbed by the ozone Chappuis band is proportional to the ozone column depth. The measured column depth is within 10% the mean monthly value for latitude 36{degree}N, however the uncertainty is too large to make the measurement useful. This thesis shows that a 10% improvement to the photographic sensitivity uncertainty can decrease the column depth uncertainty to a level acceptable for climatic study use. This technique offers the possibility of measuring past ozone column depths.

  7. New explosive welding technique to weld aluminum alloy and stainless steel plates using a stainless steel intermediate plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hokamoto, K.; Fujita, M. (Kumamoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Izuma, T. (Asahi Chemical Industry Co., Ltd., Siga (Japan))

    1993-10-01

    Various aluminum alloys and stainless steel were explosively welded using a thin stainless steel intermediate plate inserted between the aluminum alloy driver and stainless steel base plates. At first. the velocity change of the driver plate with flying distance is calculated using finite-difference analysis. Since the kinetic energy lost by collision affects the amount of the fused layer generated at the interface between the aluminum alloy and stainless steel, the use of a thin stainless steel intermediate plate is effective for decreasing the energy dissipated by the collision. The interfacial zone at the welded interface is composed of a fine eutectic structure of aluminum and Fe[sub 4]Al[sub 13], and the explosive welding, process of this metal combination proceeds mainly by intensive deformation of the aluminum alloy. The weldable region for various aluminum alloys is decided by the change in collision velocity and kinetic energy lost by collision, and the weldable region is decreased with the increase in the strength of the aluminum alloy.

  8. Fractal characterization of fracture networks: An improved box-counting technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ankur; Perfect, Edmund; Dunne, William M.; McKay, Larry D.

    2007-12-01

    Box counting is widely used for characterizing fracture networks as fractals and estimating their fractal dimensions (D). If this analysis yields a power law distribution given by N ∝ r-D, where N is the number of boxes containing one or more fractures and r is the box size, then the network is considered to be fractal. However, researchers are divided in their opinion about which is the best box-counting algorithm to use, or whether fracture networks are indeed fractals. A synthetic fractal fracture network with a known D value was used to develop a new algorithm for the box-counting method that returns improved estimates of D. The method is based on identifying the lower limit of fractal behavior (rcutoff) using the condition ds/dr → 0, where s is the standard deviation from a linear regression equation fitted to log(N) versus log(r) with data for r sequentially excluded. A set of 7 nested fracture maps from the Hornelen Basin, Norway was used to test the improved method and demonstrate its accuracy for natural patterns. We also reanalyzed a suite of 17 fracture trace maps that had previously been evaluated for their fractal nature. The improved estimates of D for these maps ranged from 1.56 ± 0.02 to 1.79 ± 0.02, and were much greater than the original estimates. These higher D values imply a greater degree of fracture connectivity and thus increased propensity for fracture flow and the transport of miscible or immiscible chemicals.

  9. SU-E-I-77: A Noise Reduction Technique for Energy-Resolved Photon-Counting Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam Ng, A; Ding, H; Cho, H; Molloi, S [University of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Finding the optimal energy threshold setting for an energy-resolved photon-counting detector has an important impact on the maximization of contrast-to-noise-ratio (CNR). We introduce a noise reduction method to enhance CNR by reducing the noise in each energy bin without altering the average gray levels in the projection and image domains. Methods: We simulated a four bin energy-resolved photon-counting detector based on Si with a 10 mm depth of interaction. TASMIP algorithm was used to simulate a spectrum of 65 kVp with 2.7 mm Al filter. A 13 mm PMMA phantom with hydroxyapatite and iodine at different concentrations (100, 200 and 300 mg/ml for HA, and 2, 4, and 8 mg/ml for Iodine) was used. Projection-based and Image-based energy weighting methods were used to generate weighted images. A reference low noise image was used for noise reduction purposes. A Gaussian-like weighting function which computes the similarity between pixels of interest was calculated from the reference image and implemented on a pixel by pixel basis for the noisy images. Results: CNR improvement compared to different methods (Charge-Integrated, Photon-Counting and Energy-Weighting) and after noise reduction was highly task-dependent. The CNR improvement with respect to the Charge-Integrated CNR for hydroxyapatite and iodine were 1.8 and 1.5, respectively. In each of the energy bins, the noise was reduced by approximately factor of two without altering their respective average gray levels. Conclusion: The proposed noise reduction technique for energy-resolved photon-counting detectors can significantly reduce image noise. This technique can be used as a compliment to the current energy-weighting methods in CNR optimization.

  10. Combustion water purification techniques influence on OBT analysing using liquid scintillation counting method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varlam, C.; Vagner, I.; Faurescu, I.; Faurescu, D. [National Institute for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies, Valcea (Romania)

    2015-03-15

    In order to determine organically bound tritium (OBT) from environmental samples, these must be converted into water, measurable by liquid scintillation counting (LSC). For this purpose we conducted some experiments to determine OBT level of a grass sample collected from an uncontaminated area. The studied grass sample was combusted in a Parr bomb. However usual interfering phenomena were identified: color or chemical quench, chemiluminescence, overlap over tritium spectrum because of other radionuclides presence as impurities ({sup 14}C from organically compounds, {sup 36}Cl as chloride and free chlorine, {sup 40}K as potassium cations) and emulsion separation. So the purification of the combustion water before scintillation counting appeared to be essential. 5 purification methods were tested: distillation with chemical treatment (Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} and KMnO{sub 4}), lyophilization, chemical treatment (Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} and KMnO{sub 4}) followed by lyophilization, azeotropic distillation with toluene and treatment with a volcanic tuff followed by lyophilization. After the purification step each sample was measured and the OBT measured concentration, together with physico-chemical analysis of the water analyzed, revealed that the most efficient method applied for purification of the combustion water was the method using chemical treatment followed by lyophilization.

  11. Investigation on using neutron counting techniques for online burnup monitoring of pebble bed reactor fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhongxiang

    Modular Pebble Bed Reactor (MPBR) is a high temperature gas-cooled nuclear power reactor. This project investigated the feasibility of using the passive neutron counting and active neutron/gamma counting for the on line fuel burnup measurement for MPBR. To investigate whether there is a correlation between neutron emission and fuel burnup, the MPBR fuel depletion was simulated under different irradiation conditions by ORIGEN2. It was found that the neutron emission from an irradiated pebble increases with burnup super-linearly and reaches to 104 neutron/sec/pebble at the discharge burnup. The photon emission from an irradiated pebble was found to be in the order of 1013 photon/sec/pebble at all burnup levels. Analysis shows that the neutron emission rate of an irradiated pebble is sensitive to its burnup history and the spectral-averaged one-group cross sections used in the depletion calculations, which consequently leads to large uncertainty in the correlation between neutron emission and burnup. At low burnup levels, the uncertainty in the neutron emission/burnup correlation is too high and the neutron emission rate is too low so that it is impossible to determine a pebble's burnup by on-line neutron counting at low burnup levels. At high burnup levels, the uncertainty in the neutron emission rate becomes less but is still large in quantity. However, considering the super-linear feature of the correlation, the uncertainty in burnup determination was found to be ˜7% at the discharge burnup, which is acceptable. Therefore, total neutron emission rate of a pebble can be used as a burnup indicator to determine whether a pebble should be discharged or not. The feasibility of using passive neutron counting methods for the on-line burnup measurement was investigated by using a general Monte Carlo code, MCNP, to assess the detectability of the neutron emission and the capability to discriminate gamma noise by commonly used neutron detectors. It was found that both He-3

  12. A new technique for thick source alpha counting determination of U and Th

    CERN Document Server

    Michael, C T

    2000-01-01

    A new technique for the calculation of U and Th concentration is presented based on the alpha particle spectrum taken from a thick sample by using a silicon detector. Four approaches to the analysis of the experimental data are presented, one being an improvement on the known pairs technique. By the proposed technique it is possible to calculate the concentrations of certain daughter nuclides in the two series, or the sum of the activity concentrations of others. This allows the detection of secular disequilibrium in our samples. This technique also has the advantage of being more accurate and provides the opportunity to cross-check the results derived from the different approaches.

  13. A Technique for Removal of Forearm Dynamic Compression Plate with Stripped Screws: A Report of Three Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CK Lee

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Removal of plates is a procedure commonly performed by orthopaedic surgeons and stripped screws are probably the most common problem encountered during this procedure. Stripped screws are caused by slippage between the screwdriver and the screw. Due to the inherent difficulty in removing such screws, surgeons should be knowledgeable in techniques for their removal and should be equipped with the proper instruments to expedite the procedure. There are few published articles about such techniques. This report describes a technique for removal of plates with stripped screws. The tip of a stripped screw is approached from the far cortex and then reamed with a trephine reamer in the direction of the screw until both cortices are cleared. The plate is then removed with stripped screws attached. All the removals utilizing this technique to date have been successful with no complications, and this method is safe, efficient and technically easy to learn.

  14. A Baseline-Free Defect Imaging Technique in Plates Using Time Reversal of Lamb Waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hyunjo Jeong; Sungjong Cho; Wei Wei

    2011-01-01

    @@ We present an analytical investigation for a baseline-free imaging of a defect in plate-like structures using the time-reversal of Lamb waves.We first consider the flexural wave (A mode) propagation in a plate containing a defect, and reception and time reversal process of the output signal at the receiver.The received output signal is then composed of two parts: a directly propagated wave and a scattered wave from the defect.The time reversal of these waves recovers the original input signal, and produces two additional sidebands that contain the time-of- flight information on the defect location.One of the side-band signals is then extracted as a pure defect signal.A defect localization image is then constructed from a beamforming technique based on the time-frequency analysis of the side band signal for each transducer pair in a network of sensors.The simulation results show that the proposed scheme enables the accurate, baseline-free imaging of a defect.

  15. The Deflection Plate Analyzer: A Technique for Space Plasma Measurements Under Highly Disturbed Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kenneth H., Jr.; Dutton, Ken; Martinez, Nelson; Smith, Dennis; Stone, Nobie H.

    2004-01-01

    A technique has been developed to measure the characteristics of space plasmas under highly disturbed conditions; e.g., non-Maxwellian plasmas with strong drifting populations and plasmas contaminated by spacecraft outgassing. The present method is an extension of the capabilities of the Differential Ion Flux Probe (DIFP) to include a mass measurement that does not include either high voltage or contamination sensitive devices such as channeltron electron multipliers or microchannel plates. This reduces the complexity and expense of instrument fabrication, testing, and integration of flight hardware as compared to classical mass analyzers. The new instrument design is called the Deflection Plate Analyzer (DPA) and can deconvolve multiple ion streams and analyze each stream for ion flux intensity (density), velocity (including direction of motion), mass, and temperature (or energy distribution). The basic functionality of the DPA is discussed. The performance characteristics of a flight instrument as built for an electrodynamic tether mission, the Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS), and the instrument s role in measuring key experimental conditions are also discussed.

  16. A multi-technique chemical characterization of a Stradivari decorated violin top plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malagodi, M.; Canevari, C.; Bonizzoni, L.; Galli, A.; Maspero, F.; Martini, M.

    2013-08-01

    This paper focuses on the characterization of the materials of a violin top plate made by Antonio Stradivari (17th century), with different diagnostic techniques and with an integrated and non-destructive analytical methodology to study surface coatings and decorations. The UV-induced visible fluorescence, optical digital microscopy, ED-XRF associated with micro-FTIR spectroscopy analysis, and dendrochronology were performed. The investigations were aimed to identify the presence of original varnish layers and to characterize the composition of the decorations, either the inlaid purflings or the composite false-inlay strip between them. Several results were achieved: (i) evidence of the absence of varnish layers on the surface as a result of extended and inappropriate restoring; (ii) identification of the dye used for the black layers of the purflings; (iii) characterization of the black matrix and the white elements of the decoration. Furthermore, a dendrochronological dating was performed. A copy of the top plate was realized with materials similar to those identified on the Stradivari original; the same analyses performed on the original model were carried out on the same areas of the copy.

  17. Comparison of the compact dry TC method with the standard pour plate method (AOAC official method 966.23) for determining aerobic colony counts in food samples: Performance-tested method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodaka, Hidemasa; Mizuochi, Shingo; Teramura, Hajime; Nirazuka, Tadanobu

    2005-01-01

    Compact Dry TC qualifies as a rapid method kit for determining aerobic colony counts in foods. The plates are presterilized and contain culture medium and a cold-soluble gelling agent. The medium is rehydrated by inoculating 1 mL diluted sample into the center of the self-diffusible medium and allowing the solution to diffuse by capillary action. The plates can then be incubated and the colonies counted without any additional steps. The Compact Dry TC method was validated with 5 different raw meats. The performance tests were conducted at 35 degrees and 30 degrees C. In all required performance studies, no apparent differences were observed between the Compact Dry TC method and the Standard Pour Plate method (AOAC Official Method 966.23) for the detection level of aerobic microorganisms. For the accuracy claim (n = 60), a correlation factor of r2(35) = 0.9977 (35 degrees C) and r2(30) = 0.9932 (30 degrees C) could be assigned, as stated in the application for "Performance Tested Method." Quality consistency and storage robustness studies, showed no significant variations in plate count results with different production lots or plates of diverse storage age.

  18. Standard Test Method for Oxygen Content Using a 14-MeV Neutron Activation and Direct-Counting Technique

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the measurement of oxygen concentration in almost any matrix by using a 14-MeV neutron activation and direct-counting technique. Essentially, the same system may be used to determine oxygen concentrations ranging from over 50 % to about 10 g/g, or less, depending on the sample size and available 14-MeV neutron fluence rates. Note 1 - The range of analysis may be extended by using higher neutron fluence rates, larger samples, and higher counting efficiency detectors. 1.2 This test method may be used on either solid or liquid samples, provided that they can be made to conform in size, shape, and macroscopic density during irradiation and counting to a standard sample of known oxygen content. Several variants of this method have been described in the technical literature. A monograph is available which provides a comprehensive description of the principles of activation analysis using a neutron generator (1). 1.3 The values stated in either SI or inch-pound units are to be regarded...

  19. Fast identification of substance by measuring two Raman peaks with dual strip silicon photomultipliers and gated photon counting technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guoqing; Hu, Xiaobo; Cheng, Yue; Zhang, Chunling; Liu, Lina; Yang, Ru; Liang, Kun; Han, Dejun

    2011-08-20

    In this report, we use carbon tetrachloride as an example to demonstrate that substance can be quickly identified through the measurement of the two Raman peaks simply by an integrated module of dual strip silicon photomultipliers operating at room temperature in conjunction with a gated photon counting technique. Both the peak positions and the relative intensity ratio of the two Raman peaks are used to identify the substance with a reduced false acceptance rate. A complete Raman spectrum of the substance can also be measured by using this method combined with a scanning monochromator. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  20. Measurement of refractive index of biaxial potassium titanyl phosphate crystal plate using reflection spectroscopic ellipsometry technique

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A K Chaudhary; A Molla; A Asfaw

    2009-10-01

    The paper reports the measurement of refractive indices and anisotropic absorption coefficients of biaxial potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) crystal in the form of thin plate using reflection ellipsometry technique. This experiment is designed in the Graduate Optics Laboratory of the Addis Ababa University and He–Ne laser ( = 632.8 nm), diode laser ( = 670.0 nm) and temperature-tuned diode laser ( = 804.4 and 808.4 nm), respectively have been employed as source. The experimental data for , are fitted to the Marquardt–Levenberg theoretical model of curve fitting. The obtained experimental data of refractive indices are compared with different existing theoretical and experimental values of KTP crystals and found to be in good agreement with them.

  1. Preparation and characterization of molybdenum powders with copper coating by the electroless plating technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Guangjun; WANG Dezhi

    2008-01-01

    Molybdenum powders with a diameter of approximately 3 μm were coated with copper using the electroless plating technique in the pH 12.5-13 and temperature range of 55-75℃.The optimization of the electroless copper bath was evaluated through the combination of process parameters like pH and temperature.The optimized values of pH and temperature were found to be 12.5 and 60℃,respectively,which attributes to the bright maroon color of the coating with an increase in weight of 46%.The uncoated and coated powders were subjected to microstructural studies using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the phases were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD).An attempt was made to understand the growth mechanism of the coating.The diffusion-shrinkage autocatalytic model was suggested for copper growth on the molybdenum surface.

  2. Single stage dorsal inlay buccal mucosal graft with tubularized incised urethral plate technique for hypospadias reoperations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Jing Ye; Ping Ping; Yi-Dong Liu; Zheng Li; Yi-Ran Huang

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To report the experience with single stage dorsal inlay buccal mucosal grafts using the Snodgrass technique for complex redo cases. Methods: From May 2004 to December 2005, a total of 53 patients aged from 3 to 34 years old(average 11.62 ± 7.18 years) with failed previous hypospadias surgery were included in the present study. Indica- tions included urethral strictures and repair breakdown. The unhealthy urethra was unroofed from the meatus in the ventral midline, a buccal mucosal graft was inlayed between the incised urethral plate and fixed to the corporacavemosa. The neourethra was tubularized, and covered with subcutaneous (dartos) tissue and penile skin. Glanuloplasty was also performed in all cases. Outcome analysis included clinical follow-up, and endoscopy in 2 selected cases. Results: The buccal mucosal graft was 3.0-7.5 cm in length and 0.7-2.0 cm in width. All patients required glanuloplasty, with buccal mucosal grafts extended to the tip of the glans. After a follow-up of 14-30 months (mean 22.6 months), the total complication rate was 15.1%, with five cases of fistula and three cases of stricture. Conclusion: Inlaying dorsal buccal mucosal grafts applying the Snodgrass technique is a reliable method for creating a substitute urethral plate for tubularization. The recurrent rate of urethral stricture and fistula is at an acceptable level for redo cases. This approach represents an effective, simple and safe option for reoperations. (Asain J Androl 2008 Jul; 10: 682- 686)

  3. Photon efficiency optimization in time-correlated single photon counting technique for fluorescence lifetime imaging systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgeman, Lior; Fixler, Dror

    2013-06-01

    In time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) systems, the maximum signal throughput is limited by the occurrence of pile-up and other effects. In many biological applications that exhibit high levels of fluorescence intensity (FI), pile-up-related distortions yield serious distortions in the fluorescence lifetime (FLT) calculation as well as significant decrease in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Recent developments that allow the use of high-repetition-rate light sources (in the range of 50-100 MHz) in fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) experiments enable minimization of pile-up-related distortions. However, modern TCSPC configurations that use high-repetition-rate excitation sources for FLIM suffer from dead-time-related distortions that cause unpredictable distortions of the FI signal. In this study, the loss of SNR is described by F- value as it is typically done in FLIM systems. This F-value describes the relation of the relative standard deviation in the estimated FLT to the relative standard deviation in FI measurements. Optimization of the F-value allows minimization of signal distortion, as well as shortening of the acquisition time for certain samples. We applied this method for Fluorescein, Rhodamine B, and Erythrosine fluorescent solutions that have different FLT values (4 ns, 1.67 ns, and 140 ps, respectively).

  4. Research on the Forecast Model of Total Viable Count on Bacon Based on Hyper spectral Imaging Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Junhua

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The total viable count (TVC in bacon overweight can cause serious damage to human health. In order to find a rapid and nondestructive method of TVC, hyper spectral imaging technique was applied to quantitatively analysis of TVC on bacon. Comprehensively comparing the pretreatment method of multiple scattering, derivative method and so on finally the multiple scattering for pretreatment was used. And the interval optimization method of least squares model was set up to predict, and get a good prediction results. The correlation coefficient of the calibration and predictions respectively was 0.808 and 0.808, interactive authentication root mean square error was 0.115 and 0.198 respectively. Therefore, hyper spectral imaging technique combining iPLS can be used for the rapid detection of TVC on bacon.

  5. Detecting Trichinella infections using inverse microscopy and an improved larval counting technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makrutzki, G; Riehn, K; Hamedy, A; Petroff, D; Hasenclever, D; Meiler, H; Lücker, E

    2014-12-01

    Several methods for the detection of Trichinella in meat are legally prescribed in regulation (EC) No 2075/2005, which prescribes the magnetic stirrer method for pooled sample digestion (MSM) as the reference method. However, the MSM's multistage protocol requires several preparatory steps that seem to be accountable for the loss of larvae. Here we present a modified MSM (mMSM) based on: (1) an inversion of the optical path using inverse microscopy; and (2) a modified larval counting basin (mLCB, 'Trichoview'). This enables one to examine samples of up to 40 ml and reduces the examination area from 72 to 10.3 cm2. Preparatory steps that might cause the loss of Trichinella larvae are eliminated from the new protocol. Correspondingly, the overall analytical time is reduced. In a direct and blinded comparison using 60 digest samples containing spiked vital Trichinella larvae (1-90 L1), both methods performed well for both small and large numbers of L1. However, 1278 of 1285 L1 (99.4%) were detected using the mMSM, while MSM recovered only 1225 L1 (95.3%). The improvement stems largely from samples with small numbers of L1: in all samples spiked with fewer than 10 L1, the recovery rate of mMSM was 100% compared to only 93% with MSM. Our data suggest that the use of the mMSM can improve the recovery rate by about 4% and therefore reduce the chances of a false-negative result in a sample containing 5 larvae by a factor of about 4.

  6. A refractive tilting-plate technique for measurement of dynamic contact angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedley, Gregory T; Coles, Donald E

    2005-06-01

    The contact angle is a critical parameter in liquid interface dynamics ranging from liquid spreading on a solid surface on earth to liquid motion in partially filled containers in space. A refractive tilting-plate technique employing a scanning laser beam is developed to conduct an experimental study of a moving contact line, with the intention of making accurate measurements of the contact angle. The technique shows promise as an accurate and potentially fully automated means to determine the velocity dependence of the contact angle at the intersection of the interface between two transparent fluids with a transparent solid surface. Ray tracing calculations are included to reinforce the measurement concept. The principal experiments were conducted at speeds ranging from 0.05 to 1.00 mm/s, both advancing and receding, using an immiscible liquid pair (nonane/formamide) in contact with glass. The contact angle was found to depend for practical purposes only on the sign of the velocity and not on its magnitude for the range of velocities studied. Other observations revealed a bimodal behavior of the contact line that depends on which liquid first contacts the glass, with resulting drift in the dynamic contact angle with time.

  7. Comparison of the compact dry TC and 3M petrifilm ACP dry sheet media methods with the spiral plate method for the examination of randomly selected foods for obtaining aerobic colony counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, P; Meldrum, R

    2002-02-01

    Two hundred thirty-six randomly selected food and milk samples were examined to obtain aerobic colony counts by two dry sheet media methods and a standard Public Health Laboratory Service spiral plate method. Results for 40 samples were outside the limits of detection for one or more of the tested methods and were not considered. (The limits of detection for the spiral plate method were 200 to 1 x 10(8) CFU/ml for the spiral plate method and 100 to 3 x 10(6) CFU/ml for the dry sheet media methods.) The remaining 196 sets of results were analyzed further. When the results from the three methods were compared, correlation coefficients were all >0.80 and slopes and intercepts were close to 1.0 and 0.0, respectively. Mean log values and standard deviations were very similar for all three methods. The results were evaluated according to published UK guidelines for ready-to-eat foods sampled at the point of sale, which include a quality acceptability assessment that is based on aerobic colony counts. Eighty-six percent of the comparable results gave the same verdict with regard to acceptability according to the aerobic colony count guidelines. Both dry sheet media methods were comparable to the spiral plate method and can be recommended for the examination of food.

  8. Association of Parathyroid Gland Biopsy Excision Technique With Ex Vivo Radiation Counts During Radioguided Parathyroid Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinson, Andrew M; Lawson, Bradley R; Franco, Aime T; Stack, Brendan C

    2017-06-01

    Parathyroid biopsy represents a means for normal and hyperfunctional glands to be distinguished intraoperatively. However, no data exist to guide surgeons regarding how much of a parathyroid gland must be biopsied to satisfy the 20% rule. To quantify the relative proportion of a hyperfunctional parathyroid gland that must be evaluated with the gamma probe to satisfy the 20% rule. A retrospective review of surgical data for 24 consecutive patients (16 women, 18 men; mean [SD] age, 66.6 [10] years; range, 51-83 years) who underwent surgery for primary hyperparathyroidism between May and October, 2015, in a tertieary academic medical center. Extirpated parathyroid glands were sectioned into parallel or pie-shaped biopsies and evaluated ex vivo with a gamma probe to determine what percentage of a hyperfunctional gland must be sampled to meet the Norman 20% rule. The hypothesis was formulated during data collection. In total, 253 ex vivo biopsy specimens were obtained from 33 surgically removed parathyroid glands. Parathyroid biopsies satisfied the 20% rule with an accuracy that depended on the relative proportion of the parent gland represented: half or more (96.6%; 95% CI, 91.7%-100.0%), a quarter to one-half (87.0%; 95% CI, 79.3%-94.7%), less than a quarter (63.6%; 95% CI, 54.5%-72.8%). When less than a quarter of the gland was removed, pie-shaped biopsies were more likely to satisfy the 20% rule compared with parallel biopsies of the same weight (78.4% vs 56.2%; absolute difference, 22.2%; 95% CI, 4.7%-39.7%). Unless half of a parathyroid gland is biopsied during radioguided parathyroidectomy, the 20% rule cannot reliably rule out the presence of a hyperfunctional parathyroid lesion. Pie-shaped biopsies originating from the center of the gland are associated with a lower rate of false-negative results compared with peripheral biopsies of similar size. Pie-shaped biopsies and biopsy of half or more of each nonexcised parathyroid gland for ex vivo counts may increase

  9. Numerical Study Of The Heat Transfer Phenomenon Of A Rectangular Plate Including Void, Notch Using Finite Difference Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb Nath, S. K.; Peyada, N. K.

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, we have developed a code using Matlab software for solving a rectangular aluminum plate having void, notch, at different boundary conditions discretizing a two dimensional (2D) heat conduction equation by the finite difference technique. We have solved a 2D mixed boundary heat conduction problem analytically using Fourier integrals (Deb Nath et al., 2006; 2007; 2007; Deb Nath and Ahmed, 2008; Deb Nath, 2008; Deb Nath and Afsar, 2009; Deb Nath and Ahmed, 2009; 2009; Deb Nath et al., 2010; Deb Nath, 2013) and the same problem is also solved using the present code developed by the finite difference technique (Ahmed et al., 2005; Deb Nath, 2002; Deb Nath et al., 2008; Ahmed and Deb Nath, 2009; Deb Nath et al., 2011; Mohiuddin et al., 2012). To verify the soundness of the present heat conduction code results using the finite difference method, the distribution of temperature at some sections of a 2D heated plate obtained by the analytical method is compared with those of the plate obtained by the present finite difference method. Interpolation technique is used as an example when the boundary of the plate does not pass through the discretized grid points of the plate. Sometimes hot and cold fluids are passed through rectangular channels in industries and many types of technical equipment. The distribution of temperature of plates including notches, slots with different temperature boundary conditions are studied. Transient heat transfer in several pure metallic plates is also studied to find out the required time to reach equilibrium temperature. So, this study will help find design parameters of such structures.

  10. Numerical Study Of The Heat Transfer Phenomenon Of A Rectangular Plate Including Void, Notch Using Finite Difference Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deb Nath S.K.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we have developed a code using Matlab software for solving a rectangular aluminum plate having void, notch, at different boundary conditions discretizing a two dimensional (2D heat conduction equation by the finite difference technique. We have solved a 2D mixed boundary heat conduction problem analytically using Fourier integrals (Deb Nath et al., 2006; 2007; 2007; Deb Nath and Ahmed, 2008; Deb Nath, 2008; Deb Nath and Afsar, 2009; Deb Nath and Ahmed, 2009; 2009; Deb Nath et al., 2010; Deb Nath, 2013 and the same problem is also solved using the present code developed by the finite difference technique (Ahmed et al., 2005; Deb Nath, 2002; Deb Nath et al., 2008; Ahmed and Deb Nath, 2009; Deb Nath et al., 2011; Mohiuddin et al., 2012. To verify the soundness of the present heat conduction code results using the finite difference method, the distribution of temperature at some sections of a 2D heated plate obtained by the analytical method is compared with those of the plate obtained by the present finite difference method. Interpolation technique is used as an example when the boundary of the plate does not pass through the discretized grid points of the plate. Sometimes hot and cold fluids are passed through rectangular channels in industries and many types of technical equipment. The distribution of temperature of plates including notches, slots with different temperature boundary conditions are studied. Transient heat transfer in several pure metallic plates is also studied to find out the required time to reach equilibrium temperature. So, this study will help find design parameters of such structures.

  11. Noise Reduction Techniques and Scaling Effects towards Photon Counting CMOS Image Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assim Boukhayma

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of the read noise in CMOS image sensors (CISs based on four-transistors (4T pixels, column-level amplification and correlated multiple sampling. Starting from the input-referred noise analytical formula, process level optimizations, device choices and circuit techniques at the pixel and column level of the readout chain are derived and discussed. The noise reduction techniques that can be implemented at the column and pixel level are verified by transient noise simulations, measurement and results from recently-published low noise CIS. We show how recently-reported process refinement, leading to the reduction of the sense node capacitance, can be combined with an optimal in-pixel source follower design to reach a sub-0.3 \\(e^{-}_{rms}\\ read noise at room temperature. This paper also discusses the impact of technology scaling on the CIS read noise. It shows how designers can take advantage of scaling and how the Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (MOS transistor gate leakage tunneling current appears as a challenging limitation. For this purpose, both simulation results of the gate leakage current and 1/f noise data reported from different foundries and technology nodes are used.

  12. Radiative neutron capture as a counting technique at pulsed spallation neutron sources: a review of current progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schooneveld, E. M.; Pietropaolo, A.; Andreani, C.; Perelli Cippo, E.; Rhodes, N. J.; Senesi, R.; Tardocchi, M.; Gorini, G.

    2016-09-01

    Neutron scattering techniques are attracting an increasing interest from scientists in various research fields, ranging from physics and chemistry to biology and archaeometry. The success of these neutron scattering applications is stimulated by the development of higher performance instrumentation. The development of new techniques and concepts, including radiative capture based neutron detection, is therefore a key issue to be addressed. Radiative capture based neutron detectors utilize the emission of prompt gamma rays after neutron absorption in a suitable isotope and the detection of those gammas by a photon counter. They can be used as simple counters in the thermal region and (simultaneously) as energy selector and counters for neutrons in the eV energy region. Several years of extensive development have made eV neutron spectrometers operating in the so-called resonance detector spectrometer (RDS) configuration outperform their conventional counterparts. In fact, the VESUVIO spectrometer, a flagship instrument at ISIS serving a continuous user programme for eV inelastic neutron spectroscopy measurements, is operating in the RDS configuration since 2007. In this review, we discuss the physical mechanism underlying the RDS configuration and the development of associated instrumentation. A few successful neutron scattering experiments that utilize the radiative capture counting techniques will be presented together with the potential of this technique for thermal neutron diffraction measurements. We also outline possible improvements and future perspectives for radiative capture based neutron detectors in neutron scattering application at pulsed neutron sources.

  13. A technique for the absolute measurement of the W-value for X-rays in counting gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinagre, F.L.R. E-mail: fleonor@saturno.fis.uc.pt; Conde, C.A.N

    2000-08-11

    A technique was developed for the absolute measurement of the W-value (the mean energy for the production of an electron-ion pair) for low-energy X-rays in a wide range of gases at atmospheric pressures, with a standard uncertainty better than 1%. This technique is based on the absolute measurement of the primary ionization charge produced by X-ray photons from a constant intensity monoenergetic X-ray source, e.g. a long lifetime radioactive source. The ionization charge is calibrated by the number of X-ray photons absorbed in the gas, counted with a photon detector. For this purpose, a hybrid detector system was tested and its use in W-value measurements was investigated. The technique was applied to pure xenon at 825 Torr with 5.9 keV X-rays and a W-value of 21.61{sub -0.10}{sup +0.14} eV was obtained for a 68% confidence level. The required corrections and the different factors contributing to the accuracy of the results are discussed. The advantages and limitations of this technique are explored and future developments are discussed.

  14. Uncertainty evaluation of aerobic plate count by proficiency testing%能力验证菌落总数测定结果不确定度的评定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海华; 兰茜

    2015-01-01

    目的:对实验室能力验证样品菌落总数进行不确定度评定。方法能力验证菌落总数依据 GB 4789.2-2010《食品安全国家标准食品微生物学检验菌落总数测定》以及能力验证计划参试指导书来进行测定和结果判断,再根据JJF 1059.1-2012《测量不确定度评定与表示》的规定,对测定过程中引入的不确定度分量进行评定,然后采用合成的方法来计算和评定菌落总数的不确定度。结果菌落总数测定结果合成不确定度为0.05042,扩展不确定度为0.1008(以对数计)。结论本研究建立的方法可以对能力验证样品的菌落总数进行不确定度评定,此方法适合于类似检测条件下菌落总数不确定度的评定。%ABSTRACT:Objective To evaluate the uncertainty of aerobic plate count by proficiency testing. Methods Proficiency testing of aerobic plate count was conducted under the direction of GB 4789.2-2010 National food safety standard microbiological examination in food:Aerobic plate count and CFAPA-024 Reference book for microbiological ability verification plan in food. Then, the uncertainty components introduced in the experiment were determined according to JJF1059.1-2012 Evaluation and expression of uncertainty in measurements. Finally, synthetic method was used to calculate and assess the uncertainty of aerobic plate count. Results The combined uncertainty of aerobic plate count was 0.05042, the expanded uncertainty was U(1og)=0.1008. Conclusion The method established in this study can be used in the uncertainty evaluation of aerobic plate count under similar circumstances.

  15. Sampling methods for rumen microbial counts by Real-Time PCR techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Puppo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Fresh rumen samples were withdrawn from 4 cannulated buffalo females fed a fibrous diets in order to quantify bacteria concentration in the rumen by Real-Time PCR techniques. To obtain DNA of a good quality from whole rumen fluid, eight (M1-M8 different pre-filtration methods (cheese cloths, glass-fibre and nylon filter in combination with various centrifugation speeds (1000, 5000 and 14,000 rpm were tested. Genomic DNA extraction was performed either on fresh or frozen samples (-20°C. The quantitative bacteria analysis was realized according to Real-Time PCR procedure for Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens reported in literature. M5 resulted the best sampling procedure allowing to obtain a suitable genomic DNA. No differences were revealed between fresh and frozen samples.

  16. Correlations between total cell concentration, total adenosine tri-phosphate concentration and heterotrophic plate counts during microbial monitoring of drinking water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Hammes

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The general microbial quality of drinking water is normally monitored by heterotrophic plate counts (HPC. This method has been used for more than 100 years and is recommended in drinking water guidelines. However, the HPC method is handicapped because it is time-consuming and restricted to culturable bacteria. Recently, rapid and accurate detection methods have emerged, such as adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP measurements to assess microbial activity in drinking water, and flow cytometry (FCM to determine the total cell concentration (TCC. It is necessary and important for drinking water quality control to understand the relationships among the conventional and new methods. In the current study, all three methods were applied to 200 drinking water samples obtained from two local buildings connected to the same distribution system. Samples were taken both on normal working days and weekends, and the correlations between the different microbiological parameters were determined. TCC in the samples ranged from 0.37–5.61×105 cells/ml, and two clusters, the so-called high (HNA and low (LNA nucleic acid bacterial groups, were clearly distinguished. The results showed that the rapid determination methods (i.e., FCM and ATP correlated well (R2=0.69, but only a weak correlation (R2=0.31 was observed between the rapid methods and conventional HPC data. With respect to drinking water monitoring, both FCM and ATP measurements were confirmed to be useful and complimentary parameters for rapid assessing of drinking water microbial quality.

  17. Evaluation of the limulus amoebocyte lysate test in conjunction with a gram negative bacterial plate count for detecting irradiation of chicken

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotter, Susan L.; Wood, Roger; McWeeny, David J.

    A study to evaluate the potential of the Limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) test in conjuction with a Gram negative bacteria (GNB) plate count for detecting the irradiation of chicken is described. Preliminary studies demonstrated that chickens irradiated at an absorbed dose of 2.5 kGy could be differentiated from unirradiated birds by measuring levels of endotoxin and of numbers of GNB on chicken skin. Irradiated birds were found to have endotoxin levels similar to those found in unirradiated birds but significantly lower numbers of GNB. In a limited study the test was found to be applicable to birds from different processors. The effect of temperature abuse on the microbiological profile, and thus the efficacy of the test, was also investigated. After temperature abuse, the irradiated birds were identifiable at worst up to 3 days after irradiation treatment at the 2.5 kGy level and at best some 13 days after irradiation. Temperature abuse at 15°C resulted in rapid recovery of surviving micro-organisms which made differentiation of irradiated and unirradiated birds using this test unreliable. The microbiological quality of the bird prior to irradiation treatment also affected the test as large numbers of GNB present on the bird prior to irradiation treatment resulted in larger numbers of survivors. In addition, monitoring the developing flora after irradiation treatment and during subsequent chilled storage also aided differentiation of irradiated and unirradiated birds. Large numbers of yeasts and Gram positive cocci were isolated from irradiated carcasses whereas Gram negative oxidative rods were the predominant spoilage flora on unirradiated birds.

  18. Arsenic risk mapping in Bangladesh: a simulation technique of cokriging estimation from regional count data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, M Manzurul; Atkins, Peter J

    2007-10-01

    Risk analysis with spatial interpolation methods from a regional database on to a continuous surface is of contemporary interest. Groundwater arsenic poisoning in Bangladesh and its impact on human health has been one of the "biggest environmental health disasters" in current years. It is ironic that so many tubewells have been installed in recent times for pathogen-free drinking water but the water pumped is often contaminated with toxic levels of arsenic. This paper seeks to analyse the spatial pattern of arsenic risk by mapping composite "problem regions" in southwest Bangladesh. It also examines the cokriging interpolation method in analysing the suitability of isopleth maps for different risk areas. GIS-based data processing and spatial analysis were used for this research, along with state-of-the-art decision-making techniques. Apart from the GIS-based buffering and overlay mapping operations, a cokriging interpolation method was adopted because of its exact interpolation capacity. The paper presents an interpolation of regional estimates of arsenic data for spatial risk mapping that overcomes the areal bias problem for administrative boundaries. Moreover, the functionality of the cokriging method demonstrates the suitability of isopleth maps that are easy to read.

  19. Numerical-perturbation technique for stability of flat-plate boundary layers with suction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, H. L.; Nayfeh, A. H.

    1986-01-01

    A numerical-perturbation scheme is proposed for determining the stability of flows over plates with suction through a finite number of porous suction strips. The basic flow is calculated as the sum of the Blasius flow and closed-form linearized triple-deck solutions of the flow due to the strips. A perturbation technique is used to determine the increment a(ij) in the complex wavenumber at a given location x(j) due to the presence of a strip centered at x(i). The end result is a set of influence coefficients that can be used to determine the growth rates and amplification factors for any suction levels without repeating the calculations. The numerical-perturbation results are verified by comparison with interacting boundary layers for the case of six strips and the experimental data of Reynolds and Saric for single- and multiple-strip configurations. The influence coefficient form of the solution suggests a scheme for optimizing the strip configuration. The results show that one should concentrate the suction near branch I of the neutral stability curve, a conclusion verified by the experiments.

  20. Study on kinetics of hydrogen dissolution and hydrogen solubility in oxides using imaging plate technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashizume, K., E-mail: hashi@nucl.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Science, Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Ogata, K.; Nishikawa, M.; Tanabe, T. [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Science, Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Abe, S.; Akamaru, S.; Hatano, Y. [Hydrogen Isotope Research Center, Univ. of Toyama, Toyama (Japan)

    2013-11-15

    Using a tritium imaging plate technique, kinetics of tritium dissolution and its solubility in several oxides were examined. Mirror-polished single crystals of alumina, spinel and zirconia were used as specimens, which were exposed to 133 Pa of a tritium(T)–deuterium(D) gas mixture (T/(T + D) ∼ 0.17) at temperatures ranging from 673 to 973 K for 1–5 h. The T surface activity on the specimens increased with increasing temperature and exposure time, it almost saturated at 873 K and reached 2 × 10{sup 5} Bq/cm{sup 2} (1 × 10{sup 14} T/cm{sup 2}), and no clear difference appeared among the types of specimens. The T activity in the oxide bulk also increased with temperature, in which there was a trend for the oxides: spinel ≧ zirconia ≧ alumina. In the T dissolution process for all oxides, the concentration gradient due to its diffusion was not observed even for short exposure times: the T density was almost uniform over the specimens in transition states and increased with exposure time up to the saturated value. These experimental results suggested that the rate-controlling process of T dissolution in the temperature region should be not its diffusion in the oxides but dissociation of hydrogen molecules (T–D mixture in this case) into atoms, its adsorption on the surface and/or T penetration from the surface into the bulk.

  1. A pulse-shaping technique to investigate the behaviour of brittle materials subjected to plate-impact tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forquin, Pascal; Zinszner, Jean-Luc

    2017-01-01

    Owing to their significant hardness and compressive strengths, ceramic materials are widely employed for use with protective systems subjected to high-velocity impact loadings. Therefore, their mechanical behaviour along with damage mechanisms need to be significantly investigated as a function of loading rates. However, the classical plate-impact testing procedures produce shock loadings in the brittle sample material which cause unrealistic levels of loading rates. Additionally, high-pulsed power techniques and/or functionally graded materials used as flyer plates to smooth the loading pulse remain costly, and are generally difficult to implement. In this study, a shockless plate-impact technique based on the use of either a wavy-machined flyer plate or buffer plate that can be produced by chip-forming is proposed. A series of numerical simulations using an explicit transient dynamic finite-element code have been performed to design and validate the experimental testing configuration. The calculations, conducted in two-dimensional (2D) plane-strain or in 2D axisymmetric modes, prove that the `wavy' contact surface will produce a pulse-shaping effect, whereas the buffer plate will produce a homogenizing effect of the stress field along the transverse direction of the sample. In addition, `wavy-shape' geometries of different sizes provide an easy way to change the level of loading rate and rise time in an experimentally tested ceramic specimen. Finally, when a shockless compression loading method is applied to the sample, a Lagrangian analysis of data is made possible by considering an assemblage of ceramic plates of different thicknesses in the target, so the axial stress-strain response of the brittle sample material can be provided. This article is part of the themed issue 'Experimental testing and modelling of brittle materials at high strain rates'.

  2. Improved sample preparation and counting techniques for enhanced tritium measurement sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, J.; Aalseth, C.; Bailey, V. L.; Mace, E. K.; Overman, C.; Seifert, A.; Wilcox Freeburg, E. D.

    2015-12-01

    Tritium (T) measurements offer insight to a wealth of environmental applications including hydrologic tracking, discerning ocean circulation patterns, and aging ice formations. However, the relatively short half-life of T (12.3 years) limits its effective age dating range. Compounding this limitation is the decrease in atmospheric T content by over two orders of magnitude (from 1000-2000 TU in 1962 to low background proportional counters which, when combined, offer improved T measurement sensitivity (~4.5 mmoles of H2 equivalent) and will help expand the application of T age dating to smaller sample sizes linked to persistent environmental questions despite the limitations above. For instance, this approach can be used to T date ~ 2.2 mmoles of CH4 collected from sample-limited systems including microbial communities, soils, or subsurface aquifers and can be combined with radiocarbon dating to distinguish the methane's formation age from C age in a system. This approach can also expand investigations into soil organic C where the improved sensitivity will permit resolution of soil C into more descriptive fractions and provide direct assessments of the stability of specific classes of organic matter in soils environments. We are employing a multiple step sample preparation system whereby organic samples are first combusted with resulting CO2 and H2O being used as a feedstock to synthesize CH4. This CH4 is mixed with Ar and loaded directly into an ultra-low background proportional counter for measurement of T β decay in a shallow underground laboratory. Analysis of water samples requires only the addition of geologic CO2 feedstock with the sample for methane synthesis. The chemical nature of the preparation techniques enable high sample throughput with only the final measurement requiring T decay with total sample analysis time ranging from 2 -5 weeks depending on T content.

  3. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Carbohydrates Carbohydrate Counting Make Your Carbs Count Glycemic ... to manage portion control wherever you are. Now, our best-selling, sectioned to-go plate with easy-sealing ...

  4. An Experimentally Validated Numerical Modeling Technique for Perforated Plate Heat Exchangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, M J; Nellis, G F; Kelin, S A; Zhu, W; Gianchandani, Y

    2010-11-01

    Cryogenic and high-temperature systems often require compact heat exchangers with a high resistance to axial conduction in order to control the heat transfer induced by axial temperature differences. One attractive design for such applications is a perforated plate heat exchanger that utilizes high conductivity perforated plates to provide the stream-to-stream heat transfer and low conductivity spacers to prevent axial conduction between the perforated plates. This paper presents a numerical model of a perforated plate heat exchanger that accounts for axial conduction, external parasitic heat loads, variable fluid and material properties, and conduction to and from the ends of the heat exchanger. The numerical model is validated by experimentally testing several perforated plate heat exchangers that are fabricated using microelectromechanical systems based manufacturing methods. This type of heat exchanger was investigated for potential use in a cryosurgical probe. One of these heat exchangers included perforated plates with integrated platinum resistance thermometers. These plates provided in situ measurements of the internal temperature distribution in addition to the temperature, pressure, and flow rate measured at the inlet and exit ports of the device. The platinum wires were deposited between the fluid passages on the perforated plate and are used to measure the temperature at the interface between the wall material and the flowing fluid. The experimental testing demonstrates the ability of the numerical model to accurately predict both the overall performance and the internal temperature distribution of perforated plate heat exchangers over a range of geometry and operating conditions. The parameters that were varied include the axial length, temperature range, mass flow rate, and working fluid.

  5. The constraint method: A new finite element technique. [applied to static and dynamic loads on plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, C.; Szabo, B. A.

    1973-01-01

    An approch to the finite element method which utilizes families of conforming finite elements based on complete polynomials is presented. Finite element approximations based on this method converge with respect to progressively reduced element sizes as well as with respect to progressively increasing orders of approximation. Numerical results of static and dynamic applications of plates are presented to demonstrate the efficiency of the method. Comparisons are made with plate elements in NASTRAN and the high-precision plate element developed by Cowper and his co-workers. Some considerations are given to implementation of the constraint method into general purpose computer programs such as NASTRAN.

  6. Development of nondestructive testing techniques for plated-through holes in multilayer printed circuit boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, P. L.; Mcmurtrey, J. E.

    1971-01-01

    The development of a nondestructive test with the capability to interrogate plated-through holes as small as 0.51 millimeters inside diameter is discussed. The system can detect defects such as holes, voids, cracks, and thin spots that reduce the current carrying capability of plates-through interconnects by 20 percent or more. Efforts were directed toward the design and fabrication of magnetic circuitry mutual coupling probes and to evaluate the effectiveness of these devices for detecting in multilayer board plated-through holes.

  7. STUDY OF OUTCOME OF DISTAL TIBIAL FRACTURES TREATED WITH LOCKING COMPRESSION PLATES: BY BOTH OPEN REDUCTION AND MIPO TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravikiran Nandiraju

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Tibia being the most common fractured long bone of the body; 1. Distal metaphyseal fractures comprise 5-7% of these injures; 2. With or without involving the articular surface. Encouraging results for open reduction and internal fixation (Plate osteosynthesis and closed manual reduction with osteosynthesis with minimal invasive percutaneous locking plates has been noted for lower third tibial fractures. Locking compression plate provides the advantage of anatomic reduction, stable fixation, preservation of blood supply, preventing joint stiffness, less soft tissue injury. METHODS AND MATERIAL This study included (40 patients with distal tibia fractures between 18-65 years presenting in the Department of Orthopaedics in Osmania Medical College and Osmania General Hospital .This is prospective study. These patients are treated with locking compression plates. RESULTS Patients were evaluated using AOFAS7 score for hindfoot scale (100 points. Excellent - 26 (65%, Good - 12 (30%, Fair - 2 (5% comparable to other studies. CONCLUSION Reduction and internal fixation of distal tibial fractures using locking compression plate medially by open and MIPO technique is one of the acceptable forms of treatment for lower third tibia including the articular surface with or without communication.

  8. Silver and tin plating as medieval techniques of producing counterfeit coins and their identification by means of micro-XRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hložek, M.; Trojek, T.

    2017-08-01

    Archaeological surveys and metal detector prospecting yield a great amount of coins from the medieval period. Naturally, some of these are counterfeit which an experienced numismatist can determine without using chemical methods. The production of counterfeit coins in the middle ages took place in castles, caves or other remote areas where waste from this activity can still be found today - copper sheets, technical ceramics and counterfeit coins. Until recently, it has been assumed that medieval counterfeit coins are made by silver-plating copper blanks using an amalgam. However, the performed analyses reveal that there are many more techniques of counterfeiting of coins. Other techniques were based on e.g. tin amalgam plating of the blanks or alloying so-called white metal with silver-like appearance from which the coins were minted. Current chemical analyses indicate that the coins were often tinned by hot dipping with no amalgamation. Micro-X-ray fluorescence analysis has been chosen as a suitable non-destructive method to identify present chemical elements in investigated artifacts and to quantify their concentrations. In addition, a quick technique telltale the plating was applied. This technique utilizes the detected fluorescence ratio Kα/Kβ of copper, which is the main ingredient of a lot of historical metallic materials.

  9. A new technique of fixation of radial head fractures using a modified tubular plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guha A

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Radial head fractures are fairly common, occurring in 17-44% of all elbow injuries. Mason Type 2 fractures may be fixed using mini fragment screws, this fixation often needing augmentation with a plate to make the construct rotationally stable. However, the drill holes needed to fix the plate to the radial head, carry the risk of inflicting more injury to the fractured fragments. In our case, the radial head fracture was fixed with a modified one-third tubular plate. The plate was cut through the distal hole and the two cut ends were bent into hooks. These two hooks were engaged into two breaches made on the margin of the radial head and this provided rotational stability to the head without causing further damage. The fracture healed well and the patient regained full movement in the elbow. We conclude that this method may be used to fix fractures of the radial head, which require additional support with a plate.

  10. Application of the coincidence counting technique to DD neutron spectrometry data at the NIF, OMEGA, and Z.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahmann, B; Milanese, L M; Han, W; Gatu Johnson, M; Séguin, F H; Frenje, J A; Petrasso, R D; Hahn, K D; Jones, B

    2016-11-01

    A compact neutron spectrometer, based on a CH foil for the production of recoil protons and CR-39 detection, is being developed for the measurements of the DD-neutron spectrum at the NIF, OMEGA, and Z facilities. As a CR-39 detector will be used in the spectrometer, the principal sources of background are neutron-induced tracks and intrinsic tracks (defects in the CR-39). To reject the background to the required level for measurements of the down-scattered and primary DD-neutron components in the spectrum, the Coincidence Counting Technique (CCT) must be applied to the data. Using a piece of CR-39 exposed to 2.5-MeV protons at the MIT HEDP accelerator facility and DD-neutrons at Z, a significant improvement of a DD-neutron signal-to-background level has been demonstrated for the first time using the CCT. These results are in excellent agreement with previous work applied to DT neutrons.

  11. Application of the coincidence counting technique to DD neutron spectrometry data at the NIF, OMEGA, and Z

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahmann, B.; Milanese, L. M.; Han, W.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Séguin, F. H.; Frenje, J. A.; Petrasso, R. D.; Hahn, K. D.; Jones, B.

    2016-11-01

    A compact neutron spectrometer, based on a CH foil for the production of recoil protons and CR-39 detection, is being developed for the measurements of the DD-neutron spectrum at the NIF, OMEGA, and Z facilities. As a CR-39 detector will be used in the spectrometer, the principal sources of background are neutron-induced tracks and intrinsic tracks (defects in the CR-39). To reject the background to the required level for measurements of the down-scattered and primary DD-neutron components in the spectrum, the Coincidence Counting Technique (CCT) must be applied to the data. Using a piece of CR-39 exposed to 2.5-MeV protons at the MIT HEDP accelerator facility and DD-neutrons at Z, a significant improvement of a DD-neutron signal-to-background level has been demonstrated for the first time using the CCT. These results are in excellent agreement with previous work applied to DT neutrons.

  12. Application of the coincidence counting technique to DD neutron spectrometry data at the NIF, OMEGA, and Z

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahmann, B., E-mail: lahmann@mit.edu; Milanese, L. M.; Han, W.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Séguin, F. H.; Frenje, J. A.; Petrasso, R. D. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Hahn, K. D.; Jones, B. [Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87123 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    A compact neutron spectrometer, based on a CH foil for the production of recoil protons and CR-39 detection, is being developed for the measurements of the DD-neutron spectrum at the NIF, OMEGA, and Z facilities. As a CR-39 detector will be used in the spectrometer, the principal sources of background are neutron-induced tracks and intrinsic tracks (defects in the CR-39). To reject the background to the required level for measurements of the down-scattered and primary DD-neutron components in the spectrum, the Coincidence Counting Technique (CCT) must be applied to the data. Using a piece of CR-39 exposed to 2.5-MeV protons at the MIT HEDP accelerator facility and DD-neutrons at Z, a significant improvement of a DD-neutron signal-to-background level has been demonstrated for the first time using the CCT. These results are in excellent agreement with previous work applied to DT neutrons.

  13. Extensive Characterisation of Copper-clad Plates, Bonded by the Explosive Technique, for ITER Electrical Joints

    CERN Document Server

    Langeslag, S A E; Libeyre, P; Gung, C Y

    2015-01-01

    Cable-in-conduit conductors will be extensively implemented in the large superconducting magnet coils foreseen to confine the plasma in the ITER experiment. The design of the various magnet systems imposes the use of electrical joints to connect unit lengths of superconducting coils by inter-pancake coupling. These twin-box lap type joints, produced by compacting each cable end in into a copper - stainless steel bimetallic box, are required to be highly performing in terms of electrical and mechanical prop- erties. To ascertain the suitability of the first copper-clad plates, recently produced, the performance of several plates is studied. Validation of the bonded interface is carried out by determining microstructural, tensile and shear characteristics. These measure- ments confirm the suitability of explosion bonded copper-clad plates for an overall joint application. Additionally, an extensive study is conducted on the suitability of certain copper purity grades for the various joint types.

  14. Reduction of metal artifact in single photon-counting computed tomography by spectral-driven iterative reconstruction technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radin A Nasirudin

    Full Text Available The exciting prospect of Spectral CT (SCT using photon-counting detectors (PCD will lead to new techniques in computed tomography (CT that take advantage of the additional spectral information provided. We introduce a method to reduce metal artifact in X-ray tomography by incorporating knowledge obtained from SCT into a statistical iterative reconstruction scheme. We call our method Spectral-driven Iterative Reconstruction (SPIR.The proposed algorithm consists of two main components: material decomposition and penalized maximum likelihood iterative reconstruction. In this study, the spectral data acquisitions with an energy-resolving PCD were simulated using a Monte-Carlo simulator based on EGSnrc C++ class library. A jaw phantom with a dental implant made of gold was used as an object in this study. A total of three dental implant shapes were simulated separately to test the influence of prior knowledge on the overall performance of the algorithm. The generated projection data was first decomposed into three basis functions: photoelectric absorption, Compton scattering and attenuation of gold. A pseudo-monochromatic sinogram was calculated and used as input in the reconstruction, while the spatial information of the gold implant was used as a prior. The results from the algorithm were assessed and benchmarked with state-of-the-art reconstruction methods.Decomposition results illustrate that gold implant of any shape can be distinguished from other components of the phantom. Additionally, the result from the penalized maximum likelihood iterative reconstruction shows that artifacts are significantly reduced in SPIR reconstructed slices in comparison to other known techniques, while at the same time details around the implant are preserved. Quantitatively, the SPIR algorithm best reflects the true attenuation value in comparison to other algorithms.It is demonstrated that the combination of the additional information from Spectral CT and

  15. Evaluating surface energy components of asphalt binders using Wilhelmy Plate and Sessile Drop Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Bahramian, Anohe

    2012-01-01

    In this Study, the surface energy was investigated for six penetration grade 70/100 bitumen binders. Wilhelmy Plate and the Sessile Drop were used to determine the contact angles. The purpose of this study was to compare the Wilhelmy Plate method with the Sessile Drop method, and to compare the significance of Owens-Wendt model with the significance of Acid Base model by correlating surface energy components. Better R2 –values were found for surface energy components by using the Owens-Wendt ...

  16. Experimental techniques for subnanosecond resolution of laser-launched plates and impact studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paisley, D.L.; Warnes, R.H.; Stahl, D.B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Dynamic Experimentation Div.

    1994-09-01

    Miniature laser-launched plates have applications in shock wave physics, studying dynamic properties of materials and can be used to generate experimental data in a manner similar to a laboratory gas gun for one-dimensional impact experiments. Laser-launched plates have the advantage of small size, low kinetic energy, and can be launched with ubiquitous laboratory lasers. Because of the small size and high accelerations (10{sup 7}--10{sup 10} g`s), improved temporal resolution and optical non-contact methods to collect data are required. Traditional mechanical in-situ gauges would significantly impair the data quality and do not have the required time response.

  17. 3-D thermo-mechanical laboratory modeling of plate-tectonics: modeling scheme, technique and first experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Boutelier

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We present an experimental apparatus for 3-D thermo-mechanical analogue modeling of plate tectonic processes such as oceanic and continental subductions, arc-continent or continental collisions. The model lithosphere, made of temperature-sensitive elasto-plastic analogue materials with strain softening, is submitted to a constant temperature gradient causing a strength reduction with depth in each layer. The surface temperature is imposed using infrared emitters, which allows maintaining an unobstructed view of the model surface and the use of a high resolution optical strain monitoring technique (Particle Imaging Velocimetry. Subduction experiments illustrate how the stress conditions on the interplate zone can be estimated using a force sensor attached to the back of the upper plate and adjusted via the density and strength of the subducting lithosphere or the lubrication of the plate boundary. The first experimental results reveal the potential of the experimental set-up to investigate the three-dimensional solid-mechanics interactions of lithospheric plates in multiple natural situations.

  18. Characterization of Bond Strength of U-Mo Fuel Plates Using the Laser Shockwave Technique: Capabilities and Preliminary Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. A. Smith; D. L. Cottle; B. H. Rabin

    2013-09-01

    This report summarizes work conducted to-date on the implementation of new laser-based capabilities for characterization of bond strength in nuclear fuel plates, and presents preliminary results obtained from fresh fuel studies on as-fabricated monolithic fuel consisting of uranium-10 wt.% molybdenum alloys clad in 6061 aluminum by hot isostatic pressing. Characterization involves application of two complementary experimental methods, laser-shock testing and laser-ultrasonic imaging, collectively referred to as the Laser Shockwave Technique (LST), that allows the integrity, physical properties and interfacial bond strength in fuel plates to be evaluated. Example characterization results are provided, including measurement of layer thicknesses, elastic properties of the constituents, and the location and nature of generated debonds (including kissing bonds). LST provides spatially localized, non-contacting measurements with minimum specimen preparation, and is ideally suited for applications involving radioactive materials, including irradiated materials. The theoretical principles and experimental approaches employed in characterizing nuclear fuel plates are described, and preliminary bond strength measurement results are discussed, with emphasis on demonstrating the capabilities and limitations of these methods. These preliminary results demonstrate the ability to distinguish bond strength variations between different fuel plates. Although additional development work is necessary to validate and qualify the test methods, these results suggest LST is viable as a method to meet fuel qualification requirements to demonstrate acceptable bonding integrity.

  19. Detection methods of aerobic plate count on food microbiological proficiency testing%食品微生物能力验证样品菌落总数检验方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖剑; 李慧琴; 陈楷; 梁美丹; 林秀敏

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨菌落总数能力验证的检验方法及注意事项。方法采用PCA直接倾注法、增加覆盖一层琼脂培养基的方法、添加 TTC 方法、陶瓦盖代替平皿盖的方法同时进行试验,并采用提前观察、增加观察的频率和培养时间,加强计数准确性。结果在前期培养过程中加强观察能够有助于计数,而延迟培养时间则可避免迟缓生长的细菌漏检;采用含有0.5%TTC 培养基进行培养或陶瓦盖平板法能有效抑制蔓延菌生长,且不影响总体计数结果。结论采用多种检验方法有助于菌落总数能力验证试验结果的准确报告。%ObjectiveTodiscuss the methods and precaution of aerobic plate count proficiency testing. MethodsFour methods were tested including pouring plate count agar directly, covering a layer of agar me-dium, adding TTC and using terracotta cover instead of petri dish. Meanwhile, using the early observation, in-creasing the frequency of observation and the time of cultivation to strengthen count accuracy.Results The results showed that the accuracy of results during the pre-cultivation counting was improved, and the missing of slow growing bacteria extending the time of cultivation was also avoided. In addition, it was effective to inhibit the spread of bacteria by culturing with the medium containing 0.5%TTC or using terracotta cover, and these methods did not affect the overall count results.Conclusion It is conductive to get accurate results by variety of methods for aerobic plate count proficiency testing.

  20. Synthesis of Corrosion-resistant Nanocrystalline Nickle-copper Alloy Coatings by Pulse-plating Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Ghosh

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Bright and smooth nanocrystalline Monel-type Ni-Cu alloy gets deposited from complex citrate electrolyte by pulse electrolysis. Transmission electron microscopy studies have revealedthat the deposited Ni-Cu alloy was nanocrystalline in nature and it comprised a two-phase (fcc+Ll, mixture. The presence of twins could be seen in the nanocrystals. The Ni-Cu alloysprepared by pulse electrolysis were finer grained (- 2.5-28.5 nm than those deposited by direct current method. Nelson-Riley function has been used to calculate the lattice parameters for both the pulse current-plated and direct current-plated alloys from x-ray diffraction analysis. The microhardness values for pulse current-plated alloys were higher than for the direct currentplated alloys. The internal stresses of both the pulse current-deposited and the direct currentdeposited alloys have also been measured; the values were lower for pulse current-plated alloys. Potentiodynamic polarisation studies were carried out in aerated and deaerated neutral 3.0 Wt per cent NaCl solution and instantaneous corrosion current density of the plated alloy was determined and compared with the Monel-400 alloy. It was found that nanocrystalline pulse current-N,-35 8 Wt p;r cent copper alloy uxh~bitedlo wer instantaneous value of corros~onc urrent densirv than that of soeclrnens with direct current method and Monel-400 allov The d~ssolut~on ~ ~~~~-~ behaviour ofthe deposited nanocrystalline material was found to be more like general corrosion rather than localised corrosion as in the case of Monel-400 alloy.

  1. Repositioning and stabilization of the radial styloid process in comminuted fractures of the distal radius using a single approach: the radio-volar double plating technique

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobi Matthias; Wahl Peter; Kohut Georges

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background A possible difficulty in intra-articular fracture of the distal radius is the displacement tendency of the radial styloid process due to the tension of the brachioradialis tendon. Methods Ten patients treated within one year for complex distal radius fractures by double-plating technique with a radial buttress plate and volar locking plate, through a single volar approach, were followed prospectively during 24 months. Outcome measures included radiographic follow-up, range...

  2. Three-contrast, metal test pattern (Snellen E-plate) in evaluation of imaging techniques in clinical chest radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manninen, H.

    A metal test pattern based on a minified Snellen-type E-plate was evaluated in testing six imaging techniques for chest radiography. The device consisted of three contrast zones and it was attached to the patient's back over the right lung during chest radiography. The values for visual detectability of the E-figures were compared with the film scores obtained by grading the radiographs with respect to visibility of diagnostically important anatomic details. The test plate proved to be a simple, quick and reproducible tool for testing several imaging techniques at the same time. The E-plate results were similar to those of the visual grading analysis in most respects. A few discrepancies existed, which were probably due to the inability of the test pattern to fully consider the effect of motion unsharpness and varying scattering conditions within the human thorax, as well as to great differences in roentgen ray absorption properties between Au and tissues. (orig.).

  3. Coracoid bone graft osteolysis after Latarjet procedure: A comparison study between two screws standard technique vs mini-plate fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomo, Giovanni Di; Costantini, Alberto; de Gasperis, Nicola; De Vita, Andrea; Lin, Bernard K H; Francone, Marco; Beccaglia, Mario A Rojas; Mastantuono, Marco

    2013-01-01

    One of the reason for Latarjet procedure failure may be coracoid graft osteolysis. In this study, we aimed to understand if a better compression between the coracoid process and the glenoid, using a mini-plate fixation during the Latarjet procedure, could reduce the amount of coracoid graft osteolysis. A computed tomography scan analysis of 26 prospectively followed-up patients was conducted after modified Latarjet procedure using mini-plate fixation technique to determine both the location and the amount of coracoid graft osteolysis in them. We then compared our current results with results from that of our previous study without using mini-plate fixation to determine if there is any statistical significant difference in terms of corcacoid bone graft osteolysis between the two surgical techniques. The most relevant osteolysis was represented by the superficial part of the proximal coracoid, whereas the deep part of the proximal coracoid graft is least involved in osteolysis and has best bone healing. The current study showed a significant difference only for the deep part of the distal coracoid with our previous study (P Latarjet procedure. Our study suggests that there is a significant difference only for the deep part of the distal coracoid in terms of osteolysis. At clinical examination, this difference did not correspond with any clinical findings. Level 4. Prospective case series, Treatment study.

  4. Application of Petrifilm Colony Count Plate in Microbial Detection for Cosmetics%大肠菌群测试片在化妆品微生物检测中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱世真; 王立芳; 王尊文

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究评价大肠菌群测试片( Petrifilm)在化妆品微生物检测中的应用。方法:通过对14批化妆品人工添加3种常见试验菌,采用《化妆品卫生规范》和Petrifilm菌落总数测试方法进行比对。结果:用两种方法检测结果差异不明显,经t检验,P>0.05,统计学数据表明两种方法相比差异无统计学意义。结论: Petrifilm菌落总数测试片法因其轻便、快速、简易的优势在化妆品的微生物检测中具有重要意义。%Objective:To study the application of petrifilm colony count plate in the microbial detection for cosmetics. Methods:Three common microbials in 14 batches of cosmetics were respectively detected by the method described in hygienic standard for cos-metics and petrifilm colony count plate, and the results were compared. Results:The results shown by the two methods had no statisti-cally significant difference (P>0. 05). Conclusion: Petrifilm colony count plate with light weight, fast and easy operation exhibits significance in the microbial detection for cosmetics.

  5. Non-destructive evaluation of the cladding thickness in LEU fuel plates by accurate ultrasonic scanning technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borring, J.; Gundtoft, H.E.; Borum, K.K.; Toft, P. [Riso National Lab. (Denmark)

    1997-08-01

    In an effort to improve their ultrasonic scanning technique for accurate determination of the cladding thickness in LEU fuel plates, new equipment and modifications to the existing hardware and software have been tested and evaluated. The authors are now able to measure an aluminium thickness down to 0.25 mm instead of the previous 0.35 mm. Furthermore, they have shown how the measuring sensitivity can be improved from 0.03 mm to 0.01 mm. It has now become possible to check their standard fuel plates for DR3 against the minimum cladding thickness requirements non-destructively. Such measurements open the possibility for the acceptance of a thinner nominal cladding than normally used today.

  6. Clinical and radiological outcome after mini-open Latarjet technique with fixation of coracoid with Arthrex wedge mini-plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Deepak; Goyal, Ankit; Joshi, Deepak; Jain, Vineet; Mohindra, Mukul; Mehta, Nitin

    2016-01-01

    Technical faults leading to coracoid fractures during screw insertion and coracoid graft osteolysis are concerns with standard screw fixation techniques in Latarjet procedure. The purpose of this study is to share our experience using Arthrex wedge profile plate with mini-open technique for graft fixation, that ensures better load distribution between coracoid graft and glenoid. We did retrospective analysis of 24 patients with recurrent anterior shoulder instability after failed arthroscopic Bankart's repair. Arthroscopic examination of affected shoulder was done in lateral position before making patient supine for open Latarjet. A low profile wedge plate (Arthrex) with two screws was used for the procedure. CT analysis was performed post-operatively at 6 months to see graft union and results were evaluated using the Rowe and Walch Duplay score. Mean follow-up time was 26 months. Postoperatively, mean forward elevation was 170.6 + 4.6° (loss of average 5.9°) and mean external rotation was 42.5 + 5.3° (loss of average 3.1°). All patients returned to their previous occupation. None reported to be having any recurrent subluxation. Functional assessment done using Rowe score and Walch Duplay score showed statistically significant improvement (p value 0.034). There were no implant-related complications and no case of coracoid graft osteolysis. Mini-open Latarjet with graft fixation with Arthrex mini-plate provides satisfactory outcome in patients who require reoperation due to dramatic bone loss and failed soft tissue reconstruction. The modified incision improves exposure enabling plate fixation and the secure fixation accelerates rehabilitation.

  7. Dissimilar material welding of rapidly solidified foil and stainless steel plate using underwater explosive welding technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hokamoto, Kazuyuki [Shock Wave and Condensed Matter Research Center, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan)], E-mail: hokamoto@mech.kumamoto-u.ac.jp; Nakata, Kazuhiro [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Mori, Akihisa [Shock Wave and Condensed Matter Research Center, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Tsuda, Shota [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University (Japan); Tsumura, Takuya [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Inoue, Akihisa [Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2009-03-20

    Rapidly solidified amorphous and metallic glass thin foils clad on a stainless steel base plate is attempted by employing underwater shock wave assembly. The conditions of the explosive welding are numerically analyzed and discussed based on the earlier welding limits. The thin foils successfully welded along the length of 50 mm show clear waves typically found in explosively welded interface. The interfacial microstructure characterized through optical and scanning electron microscopes shows evidence of excessive melting generated due to the trapping of metal jet in limited area.

  8. Design of an Automated Secure Garage System Using License Plate Recognition Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afaz Uddin Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern technologies have reached our garage to secure the cars and entrance to the residences for the demand of high security and automated infrastructure. The concept of intelligent secure garage systems in modern transport management system is a remarkable example of the computer interfaced controlling devices. License Plate Recognition (LPR process is one of the key elements of modern intelligent garage security setups. This paper presents a design of an automated secure garage system featuring LPR process. A study of templates matching approach by using Optical Character Recognition (OCR is implemented to carry out the LPR method. We also developed a prototype design of the secured garage system to verify the application for local use. The system allows only a predefined enlisted cars or vehicles to enter the garage while blocking the others along with a central-alarm feature. Moreover, the system maintains an update database of the cars that has left and entered into the garage within a particular duration. The vehicle is distinguished by the system mainly based on their registration number in the license plates. The tactics are tried on several samples of license plate’s image in both indoor and outdoor setting.

  9. A new technique for monitoring inhomogeneous deformation during flyer plate impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, James D.; Grosch, Donald J.; Chocron, Sidney; Dannemann, Kathryn A.; Bigger, Rory P.; Moore, Thomas Z.; Kirchdoerfer, Trenton T.

    2017-01-01

    A new and unique experimental configuration was developed and demonstrated to measure the inhomogeneous deformation of heterogeneous materials during flyer plate impact tests. Flyer plate experiments were performed on a granite material with a small scale structure; strain rates ranged from 105 to 107 s-1. A cross section of an impacted target was monitored and photographed during, and immediately following, passage of the shock wave through the material. Up to fourteen images were taken during passage of the shock wave. This was accomplished using an ultra-high speed Imacon camera with very short exposure times; for example, in one experiment the exposure time was 5 nanoseconds with a framing rate of 5 million frames per second. Continuous wave lasers were used as the illumination source. Edge and notch filters were used to lessen the intensity of the impact flash in the image. The photographic data was analyzed using a digital image correlation (DIC) system. These experiments examined inhomogeneous deformation on a cut plane within an inhomogeneous geological (granite) target.

  10. Coracoid bone graft osteolysis after Latarjet procedure: A comparison study between two screws standard technique vs mini-plate fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Di Giacomo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: One of the reason for Latarjet procedure failure may be coracoid graft osteolysis. In this study, we aimed to understand if a better compression between the coracoid process and the glenoid, using a mini-plate fixation during the Latarjet procedure, could reduce the amount of coracoid graft osteolysis. Materials and Methods: A computed tomography scan analysis of 26 prospectively followed-up patients was conducted after modified Latarjet procedure using mini-plate fixation technique to determine both the location and the amount of coracoid graft osteolysis in them. We then compared our current results with results from that of our previous study without using mini-plate fixation to determine if there is any statistical significant difference in terms of corcacoid bone graft osteolysis between the two surgical techniques. Results: The most relevant osteolysis was represented by the superficial part of the proximal coracoid, whereas the deep part of the proximal coracoid graft is least involved in osteolysis and has best bone healing. The current study showed a significant difference only for the deep part of the distal coracoid with our previous study (P < 0.01. Discussion: To our knowledge, there are no studies in literature that show the causes of coracoid bone graft osteolysis after Latarjet procedure. Conclusion: Our study suggests that there is a significant difference only for the deep part of the distal coracoid in terms of osteolysis. At clinical examination, this difference did not correspond with any clinical findings. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Clinical Relevance: Prospective case series, Treatment study.

  11. Image-based ELISA on an activated polypropylene microtest plate--a spectrophotometer-free low cost assay technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parween, Shahila; Nahar, Pradip

    2013-10-15

    In this communication, we report ELISA technique on an activated polypropylene microtest plate (APPµTP) as an illustrative example of a low cost diagnostic assay. Activated test zone in APPµTP binds a capture biomolecule through covalent linkage thereby, eliminating non-specific binding often prevalent in absorption based techniques. Efficacy of APPµTP is demonstrated by detecting human immunoglobulin G (IgG), human immunoglobulin E (IgE) and Aspergillus fumigatus antibody in patient's sera. Detection is done by taking the image of the assay solution by a desktop scanner and analyzing the color of the image. Human IgE quantification by color saturation in the image-based assay shows excellent correlation with absorbance-based assay (Pearson correlation coefficient, r=0.992). Significance of the relationship is seen from its p value which is 4.087e-11. Performance of APPµTP is also checked with respect to microtiter plate and paper-based ELISA. APPµTP can quantify an analyte as precisely as in microtiter plate with insignificant non-specific binding, a necessary prerequisite for ELISA assay. In contrast, paper-ELISA shows high non-specific binding in control sera (false positive). Finally, we have carried out ELISA steps on APPµTP by ultrasound waves on a sonicator bath and the results show that even in 8 min, it can convincingly differentiate a test sample from a control sample. In short, spectrophotometer-free image-based miniaturized ELISA on APPµTP is precise, reliable, rapid, and sensitive and could be a good substitute for conventional immunoassay procedures widely used in clinical and research laboratories.

  12. Flat-plate techniques for measuring reflectance of macro-algae (Ulva curvata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Elijah W.; Rangoonwala, Amina; Thomsen, Mads Solgaard; Schwarzschild, Arthur

    2012-01-01

    We tested the consistency and accuracy of flat-plate spectral measurements (400–1000 nm) of the marine macrophyte Ulva curvata. With sequential addition of Ulva thallus layers, the reflectance progressively increased from 6% to 9% with six thalli in the visible (VIS) and from 5% to 19% with ten thalli in the near infrared (NIR). This progressive increase was simulated by a mathematical calculation based on an Ulva thallus diffuse reflectance weighted by a transmittance power series. Experimental and simulated reflectance differences that were particularly high in the NIR most likely resulted from residual water and layering structure unevenness in the experimental progression. High spectral overlap existed between fouled and non-fouled Ulva mats and the coexistent lagoon mud in the VIS, whereas in the NIR, spectral contrast was retained but substantially dampened by fouling.

  13. Depth profiling of hydrogen in ferritic/martensitic steels by means of a tritium imaging plate technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otsuka, Teppei, E-mail: t-otsuka@nucl.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, Hakozaki 6-10-1, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Tanabe, Tetsuo [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, Hakozaki 6-10-1, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: ► We applied a tritium imaging plate technique to depth profiling of hydrogen in bulk. ► Changes of hydrogen depth profiles in the steel by thermal annealing were examined. ► We proposed a release model of plasma-loaded hydrogen in the steel. ► Hydrogen is trapped at trapping sites newly developed by plasma loading. ► Hydrogen is also trapped at surface oxides and hardly desorbed by thermal annealing. -- Abstract: In order to understand how hydrogen loaded by plasma in F82H is removed by annealing at elevated temperatures in vacuum, depth profiles of plasma-loaded hydrogen were examined by means of a tritium imaging plate technique. Owing to large hydrogen diffusion coefficients in F82H, the plasma-loaded hydrogen easily penetrates into a deeper region becoming solute hydrogen and desorbs by thermal annealing in vacuum. However the plasma-loading creates new hydrogen trapping sites having larger trapping energy than that for the intrinsic sites beyond the projected range of the loaded hydrogen. Some surface oxides also trap an appreciable amount of hydrogen which is more difficult to remove by the thermal annealing.

  14. Novel management of distal tibial and fibular fractures with Acumed fibular nail and minimally invasive plating osteosynthesis technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tie-Jun; Ju, Wei-Na; Qi, Bao-Chang

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Anatomical characteristics, such as subcutaneous position and minimal muscle cover, contribute to the complexity of fractures of the distal third of the tibia and fibula. Severe damage to soft tissue and instability ensure high risk of delayed bone union and wound complications such as nonunion, infection, and necrosis. Patient concerns: This case report discusses management in a 54-year-old woman who sustained fractures of the distal third of the left tibia and fibula, with damage to overlying soft tissue (swelling and blisters). Plating is accepted as the first choice for this type of fracture as it ensures accurate reduction and rigid fixation, but it increases the risk of complications. Diagnosis: Closed fracture of the distal third of the left tibia and fibula (AO: 43-A3). Interventions: After the swelling was alleviated, the patient underwent closed reduction and fixation with an Acumed fibular nail and minimally invasive plating osteosynthesis (MIPO), ensuring a smaller incision and minimal soft-tissue dissection. Outcomes: At the 1-year follow-up, the patient had recovered well and had regained satisfactory function in the treated limb. The Kofoed score of the left ankle was 95. Lessons: Based on the experience from this case, the operation can be undertaken safely when the swelling has been alleviated. The minimal invasive technique represents the best approach. Considering the merits and good outcome in this case, we recommend the Acumed fibular nail and MIPO technique for treatment of distal tibial and fibular fractures. PMID:28328865

  15. How to optimize the drop plate method for enumerating bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herigstad, B; Hamilton, M; Heersink, J

    2001-03-01

    The drop plate (DP) method can be used to determine the number of viable suspended bacteria in a known beaker volume. The drop plate method has some advantages over the spread plate (SP) method. Less time and effort are required to dispense the drops onto an agar plate than to spread an equivalent total sample volume into the agar. By distributing the sample in drops, colony counting can be done faster and perhaps more accurately. Even though it has been present in the laboratory for many years, the drop plate method has not been standardized. Some technicians use 10-fold dilutions, others use twofold. Some technicians plate a total volume of 0.1 ml, others plate 0.2 ml. The optimal combination of such factors would be useful to know when performing the drop plate method. This investigation was conducted to determine (i) the standard deviation of the bacterial density estimate, (ii) the cost of performing the drop plate procedure, (iii) the optimal drop plate design, and (iv) the advantages of the drop plate method in comparison to the standard spread plate method. The optimal design is the combination of factor settings that achieves the smallest standard deviation for a fixed cost. Computer simulation techniques and regression analysis were used to express the standard deviation as a function of the beaker volume, dilution factor, and volume plated. The standard deviation expression is also applicable to the spread plate method.

  16. 235U Determination using In-Beam Delayed Neutron Counting Technique at the NRU Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, M. T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bentoumi, G. [Canadian Nuclear Labs., Chalk River, ON (Canada); Corcoran, E. C. [Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, ON (United States); Dimayuga, I. [Canadian Nuclear Labs., Chalk River, ON (Canada); Kelly, D. G. [Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, ON (United States); Li, L. [Canadian Nuclear Labs., Chalk River, ON (Canada); Sur, B. [Canadian Nuclear Labs., Chalk River, ON (Canada); Rogge, R. B. [Canadian Nuclear Labs., Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    2015-11-17

    This paper describes a collaborative effort that saw the Royal Military College of Canada (RMC)’s delayed neutron and gamma counting apparatus transported to Canadian Nuclear Laboratories (CNL) for use in the neutron beamline at the National Research Universal (NRU) reactor. Samples containing mg quantities of fissile material were re-interrogated, and their delayed neutron emissions measured. This collaboration offers significant advantages to previous delayed neutron research at both CNL and RMC. This paper details the determination of 235U content in enriched uranium via the assay of in-beam delayed neutron magnitudes and temporal behavior. 235U mass was determined with an average absolute error of ± 2.7 %. This error is lower than that obtained at RMCC for the assay of 235U content in aqueous solutions (3.6 %) using delayed neutron counting. Delayed neutron counting has been demonstrated to be a rapid, accurate, and precise method for special nuclear material detection and identification.

  17. 图像处理在车牌识别技术中的应用%Application of image processing in license plate recognition technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘萌

    2014-01-01

    该课题论述了在车牌识别中运用到的各种数字图像处理技术,经过图像摄取、车牌图像预处理、VLP检测、字符分割、OCR、车牌识别几个过程构成了车牌牌照自动识别系统。图像处理在车牌识别技术中的应用方便了人们的生活。%This paper discusses all kinds of digital image processing technology to use in vehicle license plate recognition,image after ingestion,the license plate image preprocessing,VLP detection,character segmentation,OCR,license plate recognition process consists of automatic recognition system of vehicle license plate.Application of image processing in license plate recognition technique to facilitate people's life.

  18. 大肠菌群测试片中冷水可凝凝固剂初步研究%PRELIMINARY STUDY ON COLD-WATER-COAGULABLE COAGULATOR FOR COLIFORM COUNT PLATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓珑; 董煜; 陈灿映; 张晓峰; 李文杰

    2013-01-01

    In comparison with the tilt-pour method of the national standard, we studied the colloidal property of a self-made cold-water-coagulable coagulator (XGP) to evaluate the feasibility to serve as the coagulator of a coliform count plate, and also studied the water retention property, pH value, microorganism decomposition and utilization degree and antibacterial effect of XGP as well as the specificity, sensitivity and food sample detection rate after assembling to a count plate. The results showed that XGP was neutral, had no inhibition effect on 10 kinds of test strains, did not support microorganism growth in short time (5 days), and was difficult to be decomposed. In comparison with the tilt-pour method, the XGP had good water retention property (P0.05). Accordingly, the XGP had high specificity, high sensitivity, high economic property, and could be used in the coliform count plate as the medium carrier.%与国标倾注培养法比对,研究自制冷水可凝凝固剂(XGP)的胶体性能,评价其作为大肠菌群测试片凝固剂的可行性.对XGP的保水性能、pH值、微生物分解利用程度和抑菌效果进行研究,组装成测试片后进行特异性、灵敏度和食品样品检验.研究结果显示,XGP对10种试验菌株均无抑制作用,pH为中性,在短时间(5 d)内不支持微生物生长,不易被分解利用.与国标倾注培养法相比,其具有良好的保水性能(P<0.05),所检出的大肠菌群菌落数、灵敏度及食品样品阳性检出率差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).XGP具有特异性强、灵敏度高及经济性好等优良特性,可作为培养基载体应用于大肠菌群测试片中.

  19. ATP生物发光法快速测定物体表面的菌落总数%Rapid determination of aerobic plate count on solid surfaces by ATP bioluminescent method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯玉柱; 田雨; 柯润辉; 尹建军; 宋全厚

    2015-01-01

    In this paper Escherichia coli was used as an indicator to evaluate the surface hygiene by ATP bioluminescent method.We also simulated hygienic control from food factory to laboratory and determined the aerobic plate count of representative surface in laboratory by this method.Meanwhile,it was analyzed and compared with national standard microbiological examination.The results showed a good linear relationship between ATP fluorescence values and aerobic plate counts of E.coli,and their correlation coefficient R2 was 0.982 6.The designated laboratory surfaces were taken as blind samples.There was a good linear relationship between their ATP fluorescence values and aerobic plate counts,and their correlation coefficient R2 was 0.915 9.It illustrated that ATP bioluminescent method could assessed and determined accurately solid surface hygiene.%以大肠埃希氏菌作为指示菌考量了ATP生物发光法测定物体表面卫生状况的准确性,并在实验室内模拟食品企业卫生管控,采用ATP生物发光法对具有代表性的台面进行细菌总数测定,与国家标准微生物检测方法进行了比对分析.结果显示:大肠埃希氏菌的ATP荧光值与菌落总数的线性相关性良好,相关系数R2为0.982 6;以实验室内指定台面作为盲样进行对比测定,其ATP荧光值与菌落总数的线性相关性良好,相关系数R2达到0.915 9,说明ATP生物发光法能够准确评估和测定物体表面的卫生状况.

  20. Non-contact ultrasonic technique for Lamb wave characterization in composite plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harb, M S; Yuan, F G

    2016-01-01

    A fully non-contact single-sided air-coupled and laser ultrasonic non-destructive system based on the generation and detection of Lamb waves is implemented for the characterization of A0 Lamb wave mode dispersion in a composite plate. An air-coupled transducer (ACT) radiates acoustic pressure on the surface of the composite and generates Lamb waves within the structure. The out-of-plane velocity of the propagating wave is measured using a laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV). In this study, the non-contact automated system focuses on measuring A0 mode frequency-wavenumber, phase velocity dispersion curves using Snell's law and group velocity dispersion curves using Morlet wavelet transform (MWT) based on time-of-flight along different wave propagation directions. It is theoretically demonstrated that Snell's law represents a direct link between the phase velocity of the generated Lamb wave mode and the coincidence angle of the ACT. Using Snell's law and MWT, the former three dispersion curves of the A0 mode are easily and promptly generated from a set of measurements obtained from a rapid ACT angle scan experiment. In addition, the phase velocity and group velocity polar characteristic wave curves are also computed to analyze experimentally the angular dependency of Lamb wave propagation. In comparison with the results from the theory, it is confirmed that using the ACT/LDV system and implementing simple Snell's law method is highly sensitive and effective in characterizing the dispersion curves of Lamb waves in composite structures as well as its angular dependency.

  1. Counting carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carb counting; Carbohydrate-controlled diet; Diabetic diet; Diabetes-counting carbohydrates ... Many foods contain carbohydrates (carbs), including: Fruit and fruit juice Cereal, bread, pasta, and rice Milk and milk products, soy milk Beans, legumes, ...

  2. Seal Counts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Database of seal counts from aerial photography. Counts by image, site, species, and date are stored in the database along with information on entanglements and...

  3. Platelet Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their spleen removed surgically Use of birth control pills (oral contraceptives) Some conditions may cause a temporary (transitory) increased ... increased platelet counts include estrogen and birth control pills (oral contraceptives). Mildly decreased platelet counts may be seen in ...

  4. Thermal radiation effects on MHD convecture flow over a vertical porous plate embedded in a porous medium by perturbation technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sivasankaran

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the influence of thermal radiation on the problem of unsteady magneto-convection flow of an electrically conducting fluid past a semi-infinite vertical porous plate embedded in a porous medium with time dependent suction. Perturbation technique is applied to transform the non-linear coupled governing partial differential equations in dimensionless form into a system of ordinary differential equations. The resulting equations are solved analytically and the solutions for the velocity and temperature fields are obtained. For different values of the flow parameters, the values for Nusselt number and skin-friction co-efficient are calculated. It is observed that the increase in the radiation parameter implies the decrease in the boundary layer thickness and enhances the rate of heat transfer. The velocity decreases as the existence of magnetic field becomes stronger.

  5. MyPlate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our stage of life, situations, preferences, access to food, culture, traditions, and the personal decisions we make over time. All your food and beverage choices count. MyPlate offers ideas and ...

  6. Heat Transfer Analysis of Flat Plate Subjected to Multi-Jet Air Impingement using Principal Component Analysis and Computational Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palaniappan Chandramohan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to investigate experimentally the variation in temperature, heat transfer coefficient and Nusselt number of a hot plate subjected to multi-jet air impingement cooling to use the multi-objective optimization technique to arrive at optimum conditions. A flat plate of 15 cm x 10 cm is heated through a heating foil with a constant heat flux of 7667 W/m2. Air jets with and without swirling action are considered, fixing the distance of target surface from nozzle exit at 2D, 4D and 6D. Reynolds numbers 18000, 20000and 22000 and pipe diameters 8mm, 10mm and 12 mm have been considered for investigation. Experiments are designed and analyzed using Taguchi’s technique, coupled with principal component analysis for multi-variate optimization by calculating multi-response performance index (MRPI. Based on the observations made, it is concluded that lower H/D ratio and higher Reynolds number result in higher heat transfer coefficient, in accordance with the first principles. Heat transfer coefficient obtained for jets with swirl is compared with that of jet without swirling for the same Reynolds number and H/D ratio. Furthermore, it is concluded that introducing swirl results in increase of heat transfer coefficients for all the test conditions for 10mm and 12mm diameter jets. However for 8mm jet, introduction of swirl reduced the heat transfer rate for all the test conditions. From Analysis of Variance (ANOVA, it is found that significant contributions on outputs are due to the effect of H/D ratio and Reynolds number. Confirmation experiments with optimum condition result in improved heat transfer coefficient and Nusselt number. Numerical simulation has also been performed with the optimum condition. It is observed that the simulation results are in consistence with the experimental results.

  7. Analysis of bacterial diversity during the fermentation of inyu, a high-temperature fermented soy sauce, using nested PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and the plate count method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chia-Li; Chao, Shiou-Huei; Tsai, Wen-Bin; Lee, Pei-Shan; Tsau, Nai-Hung; Chen, Jhih-Shan; Lai, Wen-Lin; Tu, James Ching-Yueh; Tsai, Ying-Chieh

    2013-04-01

    The diversity of bacteria associated with the fermentation of inyu, also known as black soy sauce, was studied through the nested PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of samples collected from the fermentation stages of the inyu production process. The DGGE profiles targeted the bacterial 16S rDNA and revealed the presence of Citrobacter farmeri, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter hormaechei, Enterococcus faecium, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pantoea agglomerans, Salmonella enterica, Serratia marcescens, Staphylococcus sciuri and Weissella confusa. The bacterial compositions of 4 fermented samples were further elucidated using the plate count method. The bacteria isolated from the koji-making stage exhibited the highest diversity; Brachybacterium rhamnosum, E. hormaechei, K. pneumoniae, Kurthia gibsonii, Pantoea dispersa, Staphylococcus gallinarum, Staphylococcus kloosii and S. sciuri were identified. Koji collected during the preincubation stage presented the largest cell counts, and E. hormaechei, K. pneumoniae, E. cloacae and Enterobacter pulveris were identified. In brine samples aged for 7 and 31 days, the majority of the bacteria isolated belonged to 4 Bacillus species, but 4 Staphylococcus species and Delftia tsuruhatensis were also detected. This study demonstrates the benefits of using a combined approach to obtain a more complete picture of microbial populations and provides useful information for the control or development of bacterial flora during inyu fermentation.

  8. Electroless-plating technique for fabricating thin-wall convective heat-transfer models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, D. E.; Ballard, G. K.; Wilson, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    A technique for fabricating uniform thin-wall metallic heat-transfer models and which simulates a Shuttle thermal protection system tile is described. Two 6- by 6- by 2.5-in. tiles were fabricated to obtain local heat transfer rates. The fabrication process is not limited to any particular geometry and results in a seamless thin-wall heat-transfer model which uses a one-wire thermocouple to obtain local cold-wall heat-transfer rates. The tile is relatively fragile because of the brittle nature of the material and the structural weakness of the flat-sided configuration; however, a method was developed and used for repairing a cracked tile.

  9. Comparison of an automated most-probable-number technique with traditional plating methods for estimating populations of total aerobes, coliforms, and Escherichia coli associated with freshly processed broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Line, J E; Stern, N J; Oakley, B B; Seal, B S

    2011-09-01

    An instrument (TEMPO) has been developed to automate the most-probable-number (MPN) technique and reduce the effort required to estimate some bacterial populations. We compared the automated MPN technique with traditional microbiological plating methods and Petrifilm methods for estimating the total viable count of aerobic microorganisms (TVC), total coliforms (CC), and Escherichia coli populations (EC) on freshly processed broiler chicken carcasses (postchill whole carcass rinse [WCR] samples) and cumulative drip-line samples from a commercial broiler processing facility. Overall, 120 broiler carcasses, 36 prechill drip-line samples, and 40 postchill drip-line samples were collected over 5 days (representing five individual flocks) and analyzed by the automated MPN and direct agar plating and Petrifilm methods. The TVC correlation coefficient between the automated MPN and traditional methods was very high (0.972) for the prechill drip samples, which had mean log-transformed values of 3.09 and 3.02, respectively. The TVC correlation coefficient was lower (0.710) for the postchill WCR samples, which had lower mean log values of 1.53 and 1.31, respectively. Correlations between the methods for the prechill CC and EC samples were 0.812 and 0.880, respectively. The estimated number of total aerobes was generally greater than the total number of coliforms or E. coli recovered for all sample types (P methods and the automated MPN method.

  10. Plate measurement techniques and reduction methods used by the West German satellite observers, and resulting consequences for the observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deker, H.

    1971-01-01

    The West German tracking stations are equipped with ballistic cameras. Plate measurement and plate reduction must therefore follow photogrammetric methods. Approximately 100 star positions and 200 satellite positions are measured on each plate. The mathematical model for spatial rotation of the bundle of rays is extended by including terms for distortion and internal orientation of the camera as well as by providing terms for refraction which are computed for the measured coordinates of the star positions on the plate. From the measuring accuracy of the plate coordinates it follows that the timing accuracy for the exposures has to be about one millisecond, in order to obtain a homogeneous system.

  11. High precision refractometry based on Fresnel diffraction from phase plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavassoly, M Taghi; Naraghi, Roxana Rezvani; Nahal, Arashmid; Hassani, Khosrow

    2012-05-01

    When a transparent plane-parallel plate is illuminated at a boundary region by a monochromatic parallel beam of light, Fresnel diffraction occurs because of the abrupt change in phase imposed by the finite change in refractive index at the plate boundary. The visibility of the diffraction fringes varies periodically with changes in incident angle. The visibility period depends on the plate thickness and the refractive indices of the plate and the surrounding medium. Plotting the phase change versus incident angle or counting the visibility repetition in an incident-angle interval provides, for a given plate thickness, the refractive index of the plate very accurately. It is shown here that the refractive index of a plate can be determined without knowing the plate thickness. Therefore, the technique can be utilized for measuring plate thickness with high precision. In addition, by installing a plate with known refractive index in a rectangular cell filled with a liquid and following the described procedures, the refractive index of the liquid is obtained. The technique is applied to measure the refractive indices of a glass slide, distilled water, and ethanol. The potential and merits of the technique are also discussed.

  12. Near-field reflection backscattering apertureless optical microscopy: Application to spectroscopy experiments on opaque samples, comparison between lock-in and digital photon counting detection techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diziain, S. [Institut Charles Delaunay, CNRS FRE 2848, Laboratoire de Nanotechnologie et d' Instrumentation Optique, Universite de technologie de Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes cedex (France); Bijeon, J.-L. [Institut Charles Delaunay, CNRS FRE 2848, Laboratoire de Nanotechnologie et d' Instrumentation Optique, Universite de technologie de Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes cedex (France)]. E-mail: bijeon@utt.fr; Adam, P.-M. [Institut Charles Delaunay, CNRS FRE 2848, Laboratoire de Nanotechnologie et d' Instrumentation Optique, Universite de technologie de Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes cedex (France); Lamy de la Chapelle, M. [Institut Charles Delaunay, CNRS FRE 2848, Laboratoire de Nanotechnologie et d' Instrumentation Optique, Universite de technologie de Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes cedex (France); Thomas, B. [Institut Charles Delaunay, CNRS FRE 2848, Laboratoire de Nanotechnologie et d' Instrumentation Optique, Universite de technologie de Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes cedex (France); Deturche, R. [Institut Charles Delaunay, CNRS FRE 2848, Laboratoire de Nanotechnologie et d' Instrumentation Optique, Universite de technologie de Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes cedex (France); Royer, P. [Institut Charles Delaunay, CNRS FRE 2848, Laboratoire de Nanotechnologie et d' Instrumentation Optique, Universite de technologie de Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes cedex (France)

    2007-01-15

    An apertureless scanning near-field optical microscope (ASNOM) in reflection backscattering configuration is designed to conduct spectroscopic experiments on opaque samples constituted of latex beads. The ASNOM proposed takes advantage of the depth-discrimination properties of confocal microscopes to efficiently extract the near-field optical signal. Given their importance in a spectroscopic experiment, we systematically compare the lock-in and synchronous photon counting detection methods. Some results of Rayleigh's scattering in the near field of the test samples are used to illustrate the possibilities of this technique for reflection backscattering spectroscopy.

  13. Bicortical screw fixation of distal fibula fractures with a lateral plate: an anatomic and biomechanical study of a new technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Brenton F; Mercer, Deana; Firoozbakhsh, Keikhosrow; Larsen, Kenna; Decoster, Thomas A; Miller, Richard A

    2007-01-01

    One of the potential drawbacks of lateral plating of distal fibula fractures is less than satisfactory fixation of unicortical screws commonly placed in the distal fragment to avoid implant penetration of the ankle joint. This study examines the anatomy of the distal fibula, proposes new techniques for bicortical screw fixation and radiographic evaluation of screw placement, and compares pullout strength of unicortical versus bicortical screws in this area. Sixteen pairs of human cadaver feet were used in this study. It was found that a large percentage of the surface area of the distal fibula is nonarticular and that the distal fibula could be divided into 3 zones with distinct anatomic features. Zone I is defined as the distal most 1.5 cm of the fibula, zone II is the next 1 cm of fibula proximal to zone I, and zone III is defined as the fibula above the ankle joint, starting at just over 2.5 cm proximal to the tip of the fibula. We determined a safe corridor for bicortical screw placement by means of a lateral plate in each zone. An improved radiographic view is described for confirmation of extraarticular screw placement. Screw pullout testing was performed on 8 pairs of fresh-frozen human cadaver fibulas. In both zone I and zone II, the bicortical screw fixation was significantly stronger than the unicortical screw fixation. In zone I, the average pullout strength for the bicortical screw fixation was 2.3 times higher than the unicortical screw fixation. In zone II, the average pullout strength for the bicortical screw fixation was 3.3 times higher than the unicortical screw fixation. This study shows that not only is bicortical screw placement in the distal fibula technically feasible, but it is also biomechanically stronger than unicortical placement in this area.

  14. A simple technique to reduce evaporation of crystallization droplets by using plate lids with apertures for adding liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipper, Lauren E; Aristide, Xavier; Bishop, Dylan P; Joshi, Ishita; Kharzeev, Julia; Patel, Krishna B; Santiago, Brianna M; Joshi, Karan; Dorsinvil, Kahille; Sweet, Robert M; Soares, Alexei S

    2014-12-01

    A method is described for using plate lids to reduce evaporation in low-volume vapor-diffusion crystallization experiments. The plate lids contain apertures through which the protein and precipitants were added to different crystallization microplates (the reservoir was filled before fitting the lids). Plate lids were designed for each of these commonly used crystallization microplates. This system minimizes the dehydration of crystallization droplets containing just a few nanolitres of protein and precipitant, and results in more reproducible diffraction from the crystals. For each lid design, changes in the weight of the plates were used to deduce the rate of evaporation under different conditions of temperature, air movement, droplet size and precipitant. For comparison, the state of dehydration was also visually assessed throughout the experiment. Finally, X-ray diffraction methods were used to compare the diffraction of protein crystals that were conventionally prepared against those that were prepared on plates with plate lids. The measurements revealed that the plate lids reduced the rate of evaporation by 63-82%. Crystals grown in 5 nl drops that were set up with plate lids diffracted to higher resolution than similar crystals from drops that were set up without plate lids. The results demonstrate that plate lids can be instrumental for improving few-nanolitre crystallizations.

  15. A simple technique to reduce evaporation of crystallization droplets by using plate lids with apertures for adding liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zipper, Lauren E. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Binghamton University, 4400 Vestal Parkway East, Vestal, NY 13902 (United States); Aristide, Xavier [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); North Babylon High School, 1 Phelps Lane North, Babylon, NY 11703 (United States); Bishop, Dylan P. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Northport High School, 154 Laurel Hill Road, Northport, NY 11768 (United States); Joshi, Ishita [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); St Augustine Catholic High School, 2188 Rodick Road, Markham, ON L6C 1S3 (Canada); Kharzeev, Julia [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Earl L. Vandermeulen High School, 350 Old Post Road, Port Jefferson, NY 11777 (United States); Patel, Krishna B. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); John P. Stevens High School, 855 Grove Avenue, Edison, NJ 08820 (United States); Santiago, Brianna M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Connetquot High School, 190 7th Street, Bohemia, NY 11716 (United States); Joshi, Karan [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Department of Electronics and Electrical Communication Engineering, PEC University of Technology, Chandigarh (India); Dorsinvil, Kahille [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Sweet, Robert M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Soares, Alexei S., E-mail: soares@bnl.gov [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States)

    2014-11-28

    This article describes the use of evaporation control lids that are fitted to crystallization plates to improve the reproducibility of trials using as little as 5 nl. The plate lids contain apertures which are large enough for the transfer of protein containing droplets, but small enough to greatly reduce the rate of evaporation during the time needed to prepare the plate. A method is described for using plate lids to reduce evaporation in low-volume vapor-diffusion crystallization experiments. The plate lids contain apertures through which the protein and precipitants were added to different crystallization microplates (the reservoir was filled before fitting the lids). Plate lids were designed for each of these commonly used crystallization microplates. This system minimizes the dehydration of crystallization droplets containing just a few nanolitres of protein and precipitant, and results in more reproducible diffraction from the crystals. For each lid design, changes in the weight of the plates were used to deduce the rate of evaporation under different conditions of temperature, air movement, droplet size and precipitant. For comparison, the state of dehydration was also visually assessed throughout the experiment. Finally, X-ray diffraction methods were used to compare the diffraction of protein crystals that were conventionally prepared against those that were prepared on plates with plate lids. The measurements revealed that the plate lids reduced the rate of evaporation by 63–82%. Crystals grown in 5 nl drops that were set up with plate lids diffracted to higher resolution than similar crystals from drops that were set up without plate lids. The results demonstrate that plate lids can be instrumental for improving few-nanolitre crystallizations.

  16. A high-resolution imaging technique using a whole-body, research photon counting detector CT system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, S.; Yu, Z.; Halaweish, A.; Kappler, S.; Hahn, K.; Henning, A.; Li, Z.; Lane, J.; Levin, D. L.; Jorgensen, S.; Ritman, E.; McCollough, C.

    2016-03-01

    A high-resolution (HR) data collection mode has been introduced to a whole-body, research photon-counting-detector CT system installed in our laboratory. In this mode, 64 rows of 0.45 mm x 0.45 mm detector pixels were used, which corresponded to a pixel size of 0.25 mm x 0.25 mm at the iso-center. Spatial resolution of this HR mode was quantified by measuring the MTF from a scan of a 50 micron wire phantom. An anthropomorphic lung phantom, cadaveric swine lung, temporal bone and heart specimens were scanned using the HR mode, and image quality was subjectively assessed by two experienced radiologists. High spatial resolution of the HR mode was evidenced by the MTF measurement, with 15 lp/cm and 20 lp/cm at 10% and 2% modulation. Images from anthropomorphic phantom and cadaveric specimens showed clear delineation of small structures, such as lung vessels, lung nodules, temporal bone structures, and coronary arteries. Temporal bone images showed critical anatomy (i.e. stapes superstructure) that was clearly visible in the PCD system. These results demonstrated the potential application of this imaging mode in lung, temporal bone, and vascular imaging. Other clinical applications that require high spatial resolution, such as musculoskeletal imaging, may also benefit from this high resolution mode.

  17. Low-Intrusion Techniques and Sensitive Information Management for Warhead Counting and Verification: FY2011 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarman, Kenneth D.; Robinson, Sean M.; McDonald, Benjamin S.; Gilbert, Andrew J.; Misner, Alex C.; Pitts, W. Karl; White, Timothy A.; Seifert, Allen; Miller, Erin A.

    2011-09-01

    Future arms control treaties may push nuclear weapons limits to unprecedented low levels and may entail precise counting of warheads as well as distinguishing between strategic and tactical nuclear weapons. Such advances will require assessment of form and function to confidently verify the presence or absence of nuclear warheads and/or their components. Imaging with penetrating radiation can provide such an assessment and could thus play a unique role in inspection scenarios. Yet many imaging capabilities have been viewed as too intrusive from the perspective of revealing weapon design details, and the potential for the release of sensitive information poses challenges in verification settings. A widely held perception is that verification through radiography requires images of sufficient quality that an expert (e.g., a trained inspector or an image-matching algorithm) can verify the presence or absence of components of a device. The concept of information barriers (IBs) has been established to prevent access to relevant weapon-design information by inspectors (or algorithms), and has, to date, limited the usefulness of radiographic inspection. The challenge of this project is to demonstrate that radiographic information can be used behind an IB to improve the capabilities of treaty-verification weapons-inspection systems.

  18. The coincidence counting technique for orders of magnitude background reduction in data obtained with the magnetic recoil spectrometer at OMEGA and the NIF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, D T; Frenje, J A; Séguin, F H; Li, C K; Rosenberg, M J; Rinderknecht, H; Manuel, M J-E; Gatu Johnson, M; Schaeffer, J C; Frankel, R; Sinenian, N; Childs, R A; Petrasso, R D; Glebov, V Yu; Sangster, T C; Burke, M; Roberts, S

    2011-07-01

    A magnetic recoil spectrometer (MRS) has been built and successfully used at OMEGA for measurements of down-scattered neutrons (DS-n), from which an areal density in both warm-capsule and cryogenic-DT implosions have been inferred. Another MRS is currently being commissioned on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) for diagnosing low-yield tritium-hydrogen-deuterium implosions and high-yield DT implosions. As CR-39 detectors are used in the MRS, the principal sources of background are neutron-induced tracks and intrinsic tracks (defects in the CR-39). The coincidence counting technique was developed to reduce these types of background tracks to the required level for the DS-n measurements at OMEGA and the NIF. Using this technique, it has been demonstrated that the number of background tracks is reduced by a couple of orders of magnitude, which exceeds the requirement for the DS-n measurements at both facilities.

  19. Low-Intrusion Techniques and Sensitive Information Management for Warhead Counting and Verification: FY2012 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarman, Kenneth D.; McDonald, Benjamin S.; Robinson, Sean M.; Gilbert, Andrew J.; White, Timothy A.; Pitts, W. Karl; Misner, Alex C.; Seifert, Allen

    2012-11-01

    Progress in the second year of this project is described by the series of technical reports and manuscripts that make up the content of this report. These documents summarize successes in our goals to develop our robust image-hash templating and material-discrimination techniques and apply them to test image data.

  20. Development and application of a monoclonal-antibody technique for counting Aureococcus anophagefferens, an alga causing recurrent brown tides in the Mid-Atlantic United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, David A; Dennett, Mark R; Moran, Dawn M; Schaffner, Rebecca A; Lonsdale, Darcy J; Gobler, Christopher J; Nuzzi, Robert; McLean, Tim I

    2003-09-01

    A method was developed for the rapid detection and enumeration of Aureococcus anophagefferens, the cause of harmful algal blooms called "brown tides" in estuaries of the Mid-Atlantic United States. The method employs a monoclonal antibody (MAb) and a colorimetric, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay format. The MAb obtained exhibits high reactivity with A. anophagefferens and very low cross-reactivities with a phylogenetically diverse array of other protists and bacteria. Standard curves are constructed for each 96-well microtiter plate by using known amounts of a preserved culture of A. anophagefferens. This approach allows estimation of the abundance of the alga in natural samples. The MAb method was compared to an existing method that employs polyclonal antibodies and epifluorescence microscopy and to direct microscopic counts of A. anophagefferens in samples with high abundances of the alga. The MAb method provided increased quantitative accuracy and greatly reduced sample processing time. A spatial survey of several Long Island estuaries in May 2000 using this new approach documented a range of abundances of A. anophagefferens in these bays spanning nearly 3 orders of magnitude.

  1. SEGMENTAL FRACTURE OF PROXIMAL SHAFT FEMUR OF POLIO AFFECTED PARALYTIC LIMB TREATED WITH 95 DEGREE ANGLED PLATE FIXATION BY MIPO TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Subtrochanteric fractures extending below lesser trochanter are always difficult to treat and their higher incidence of unsatisfactory results are noted after operative treatment. There are various implants available for fixation but in this study we did 95 DEG ANGLED PLATE FIXATION BY MIPO TECHNIQUE

  2. Self-Reported Alcohol Consumption and Sexual Behavior in Males and Females: Using the Unmatched-Count Technique to Examine Reporting Practices of Socially Sensitive Subjects in a Sample of University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Jeffrey A.; Braithwaite, Jeremy

    2008-01-01

    This work, drawing on the literature on alcohol consumption, sexual behavior, and researching sensitive topics, tests the efficacy of the unmatched-count technique (UCT) in establishing higher rates of truthful self-reporting when compared to traditional survey techniques. Traditional techniques grossly underestimate the scope of problems…

  3. Determination of hydrogen diffusion coefficients in F82H by hydrogen depth profiling with a tritium imaging plate technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higaki, M.; Otsuka, T.; Hashizume, K. [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering and Sciences, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan); Tokunaga, K. [Research Institute of Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan); Ezato, K.; Suzuki, S.; Enoeda, M.; Akiba, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency - JAEA, Naka, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2015-03-15

    Hydrogen diffusion coefficients in a reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel (F82H) and an oxide dispersion strengthened F82H (ODS-F82H) have been determined from depth profiles of plasma-loaded hydrogen with a tritium imaging plate technique (TIPT) in the temperature range from 298 K to 523 K. Data on hydrogen diffusion coefficients, D, in F82H, are summarized as D [m{sup 2}*s{sup -1}] =1.1*10{sup -7}exp(-16[kJ mol{sup -1}]/RT). The present data indicate almost no trapping effect on hydrogen diffusion due to an excess entry of energetic hydrogen by the plasma loading, which results in saturation of the trapping sites at the surface and even in the bulk. In the case of ODS-F82H, data of hydrogen diffusion coefficients are summarized as D [m{sup 2}*s{sup -1}] =2.2*10{sup -7}exp(-30[kJ mol{sup -1}]/RT) indicating a remarkable trapping effect on hydrogen diffusion caused by tiny oxide particles (Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) in the bulk of F82H. Such oxide particles introduced in the bulk may play an effective role not only on enhancement of mechanical strength but also on suppression of hydrogen penetration by plasma loading.

  4. Multiplicity Counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geist, William H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This set of slides begins by giving background and a review of neutron counting; three attributes of a verification item are discussed: 240Pueff mass; α, the ratio of (α,n) neutrons to spontaneous fission neutrons; and leakage multiplication. It then takes up neutron detector systems – theory & concepts (coincidence counting, moderation, die-away time); detector systems – some important details (deadtime, corrections); introduction to multiplicity counting; multiplicity electronics and example distributions; singles, doubles, and triples from measured multiplicity distributions; and the point model: multiplicity mathematics.

  5. Real-time measurement of the fast axis angle of a quarter-wave plate based on simultaneous phase shifting technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun Yang; Aijun Zeng; Xiangzhao Wang; Hua Wang; Feng Tang

    2008-01-01

    Real-time measurement of the fast axis angle of a quarter-wave plate based on simultaneous phase shifting technique is presented. The simultaneous phase shifting function is realized by an orthogonal grating, a diaphragm, an analyzer array, and a 4-quadrant detector. The intensities of the light beams from the four analyzers with different azimuths are measured simultaneously. The fast axis angle of the quarter-wave plate is obtained through the four light intensity values. In this method, rotating elements are not required, so real-time measurement is achieved.

  6. Rainflow counting revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soeker, H. [Deutsches Windenergie-Institut (Germany)

    1996-09-01

    As state of the art method the rainflow counting technique is presently applied everywhere in fatigue analysis. However, the author feels that the potential of the technique is not fully recognized in wind energy industries as it is used, most of the times, as a mere data reduction technique disregarding some of the inherent information of the rainflow counting results. The ideas described in the following aim at exploitation of this information and making it available for use in the design and verification process. (au)

  7. Processless offset printing plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Mahović Poljaček

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With the implementation of platesetters in the offset printing plate making process, imaging of the printing plate became more stable and ensured increase of the printing plate quality. But as the chemical processing of the printing plates still highly influences the plate making process and the graphic reproduction workflow, development of printing plates that do not require chemical processing for offset printing technique has been one of the top interests in graphic technology in the last few years. The main reason for that came from the user experience, where majority of the problems with plate making process could be connected with the chemical processing of the printing plate. Furthermore, increased environmental standards lead to reducing of the chemicals used in the industrial processes. Considering these facts, different types of offset printing plates have been introduced to the market today. This paper presents some of the processless printing plates.

  8. Detection of Thermal Sublethal Injury in Escherichia coli via the Selective Medium Plating Technique: Mechanisms and Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espina, Laura; García-Gonzalo, Diego; Pagán, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    In food preservation, the synergistic combination of different technologies aims to maximize the total lethality of the process and minimize the intensity of each hurdle. This is especially the case when at least one of the treatments can cause sublethal (reparable) injury in a great proportion of the population, so that sublethally injured cells can end up being entirely inactivated by the other hurdle(s). The selective medium plating technique (SMPT) is extensively used to enumerate bacterial sublethal injury after inimical treatments, being sodium chloride added to the recovery medium to detect damaged bacterial envelopes. However, little work has been done to explain the reasons for the inability of sublethally injured cells to outgrow in selective agar media, whereas they are able to grow in non-selective agar. In the present paper, the performance of SMPT on Escherichia coli cells after heat treatments is explored by applying different selective agents in the recovery media, using mutants lacking factors involved in osmoregulation, and also by examining the integrity of the cytoplasmic membrane. In view of the results, the possibility of a specific toxic effect of Na+ as the main mechanism under SMPT was discarded, since the same level of sublethal injury was detected using KCl instead of NaCl. The synthesis of the osmoprotectant trehalose determined the maximum osmotolerance of intact cells to the selective agents, but was not crucial in the quantification of sublethal injury. Moreover, for the first time, the extent of sublethal injury detected via SMPT was directly correlated with the physical loss of integrity of the cell membrane in 99.999% of the initial population. This was achieved through statistical analysis of flow cytometry data using propidium iodide-exclusion technique when that dye was added before thermal treatments. The present work confirms the adequacy of SMPT as a tool for detecting the occurrence and quantity of sublethally injured cells

  9. EcoCount

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip P. Allen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Techniques that analyze biological remains from sediment sequences for environmental reconstructions are well established and widely used. Yet, identifying, counting, and recording biological evidence such as pollen grains remain a highly skilled, demanding, and time-consuming task. Standard procedure requires the classification and recording of between 300 and 500 pollen grains from each representative sample. Recording the data from a pollen count requires significant effort and focused resources from the palynologist. However, when an adaptation to the recording procedure is utilized, efficiency and time economy improve. We describe EcoCount, which represents a development in environmental data recording procedure. EcoCount is a voice activated fully customizable digital count sheet that allows the investigator to continuously interact with a field of view during the data recording. Continuous viewing allows the palynologist the opportunity to remain engaged with the essential task, identification, for longer, making pollen counting more efficient and economical. EcoCount is a versatile software package that can be used to record a variety of environmental evidence and can be installed onto different computer platforms, making the adoption by users and laboratories simple and inexpensive. The user-friendly format of EcoCount allows any novice to be competent and functional in a very short time.

  10. Sublattice Counting and Orbifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Hanany, Amihay; Reffert, Susanne

    2010-01-01

    Abelian orbifolds of C^3 are known to be encoded by hexagonal brane tilings. To date it is not known how to count all such orbifolds. We fill this gap by employing number theoretic techniques from crystallography, and by making use of Polya's Enumeration Theorem. The results turn out to be beautifully encoded in terms of partition functions and Dirichlet Series. The same methods apply to counting orbifolds of any toric non-compact Calabi-Yau singularity. As additional examples, we count the orbifolds of the conifold, of the L^{aba} theories, and of C^4.

  11. Reticulocyte count

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... radiation therapy, or infection) Cirrhosis of the liver Anemia caused by low iron levels, or low levels of vitamin B12 or folate Chronic kidney disease Reticulocyte count may be higher during pregnancy.

  12. Uncertainty Evaluation for Enumeration of Coliforms with Plate Counting Method in Food%食品中大肠菌群平板计数法不确定度的评定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何晓玲

    2014-01-01

    采用GB 4789.3-2010《食品安全国家标准食品微生物学检验大肠菌群计数》第二法大肠菌群平板计数法进行检验,建立数学模型,对测量不确定度的来源进行分析,建立了简明的食品中大肠菌群平板计数法检测结果的不确定度评定方法,实验室的扩展不确定度为0.050,适用于食品中大肠菌群平板计数法检验的不确定度评定。%According to GB 4789.3-2010 National food safety standard Food microbiological examination Enumeration of coliforms to inspection, established mathematical model, analyzed the sources of the uncertainty of measurement, established a concise method for uncertainty evaluation for plate counting method in food. the expanded uncertainty of laboratory was 0.050. The method is suitable for the uncertainty assessment of the coliform group in food inspection .

  13. Every partridge counts, successful techniques used in the captive conservation breeding programme for wild grey partridge in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buckley, K.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Between 1998 and 2001 the last remaining wild grey partridge (Perdix perdix population in Ireland faced imminent extinction with an estimated spring population of 4–6 pairs, and an autumn population of 22–24 birds. A captive breeding programme began in 2002 with two pairs of grey partridge. In the most successful year in 2010, 39 pairs produced a total of 510 chicks. Average chick survival rate was 65.13%. At 88.9 the highest chick survival rate was achieved in 2011. Chick survival of parent–reared birds in captivity is defined by the number of juveniles surviving at age six weeks: similar to estimations used for wild populations of grey partridge. Family coveys were released in late summer to early autumn. In most instances the entire family cohort was released as one unit. However, in coveys of twenty or above, an average of five parent–reared poults were held back as breeding stock for the following year. In early spring of the following year, birds held back were paired with single males or females trapped from the wild. The techniques we used were traditional and labour intensive but highly effective. We recommend that other grey partridge recovery projects should consider captive breeding using the methods employed in this programme to compliment other game management methods used.

  14. High Reproducibility of ELISPOT Counts from Nine Different Laboratories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundararaman, Srividya; Karulin, Alexey Y; Ansari, Tameem

    2015-01-01

    laboratories. We plated PBMC at four different concentrations, 24 replicates each, in an IFN-γ ELISPOT assay with HCMV pp65 antigen. The ELISPOT plate, and an image file of the plate was counted in nine different laboratories using ImmunoSpot® Analyzers by (A) Basic Count™ relying on subjective counting...

  15. Hybrid Decompression and Fixation Technique Versus Plated 3-Vertebra Corpectomy for 4-Segment Cervical Myelopathy: Analysis of 81 Cases With a Minimum 2-Year Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odate, Seiichi; Shikata, Jitsuhiko; Kimura, Hiroaki; Soeda, Tsunemitsu

    2016-07-01

    A retrospective comparative study. The purpose of this study was to compare the stability and outcomes of a hybrid technique with those of a 3-vertebra corpectomy in the management of 4-segment cervical myelopathy. Patients with primarily ventral disease and loss of cervical lordosis are considered good candidates for anterior surgery. Cervical corpectomy is commonly performed in patients with multilevel cervical myelopathy. Corpectomies including >3 vertebraes entail an extremely high risk of reconstruction failure. To avoid the need to perform a 3-vertebra corpectomy, we use a hybrid decompression and fixation technique. This hybrid technique is a technique to obtain optimum decompression and fixation in patients with multilevel cervical myelopathy. A total of 81 patients with multilevel cervical myelopathy who underwent 4-segment cervical fixation with a minimum 2-year follow-up were included. The hybrid technique involved combining a plated 2-vertebra corpectomy and single-level discectomy with stand-alone cage fixation. This technique was performed in 39 patients, and the plated 3-vertebra corpectomy was performed in 42 patients. Nine patients (21%) who underwent the plated 3-vertebra corpectomy were treated with halo immobilization, but no patient in the hybrid group required this treatment (P=0.002). There were fewer instances of reconstruction failure in the hybrid group than in the 3-vertebra corpectomy group (0% vs. 10%, respectively; P=0.048) and fewer instances of C5 palsy (3% vs. 17%, respectively; P vertebra corpectomy for 4-segment cervical fixation: a shorter graft bone and plate are required; the fixed segment has greater initial stability; postoperative external immobilization is simplified; and the risk of reconstruction failure and postoperative C5 palsy is reduced markedly.

  16. LATERAL APPROACH UNDER FLUROSCOPIC GUIDANCE WITH NONLOCKING CALCANEAL PLATE IS AN EFFECTIVE TECHNIQUE FOR CLOSED CALCANEAL FRACTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Sobhan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Intra-articular calcaneal fractures which accounts for about 75% of calcaneal fractures is usually associated with poor functional outcome. The present was under taken to evaluate the efficacy of open reduction and internal fixation of displaced articular fractures of calcaneum in adults through lateral approach under fluroscopic guidance with non-locking calcaneal plate and ipsilateral iliac crest bone graft. 30 adult patients (25 males and 5 females with closed displaced intra articular fractures of calcaneum of less than 15 days constituted the study group. All cases were operated by lateral approach as described by Seligson, a modification of Gould’s technique under spinal anaesthesia. All machers Arthrosis Rating Scale were used for the evaluation of posttraumatic posterior facet degenerative changes. Primarily27 of all 35 wounds (77% healed without any form of wound complications. Excellent to good results noted in 3 (100% patients with preoperative Bohler´s angle larger or equal to 20° (n = 3 whereas patients with preoperative Bohler´s angle smaller than 20° (n=32 achieved excellent to good results in 16 cases (50% Clinically significant subtalararthrosis (Allmacher grade 2-4 noted in 7 cases (20% cases with Bohler´s angle smaller than 20° (n=32. In 5 cases, clinically significant complaints (Allmachers Arthrosis Rating Scale grades II to V noted. Therapeutic success of such fracture depends on timely open reduction and internal fixation with proper fracture reduction and early rehabilitation. Thus management of these injuries as well as complications should be performed in a specialized orthopaedics or traumatology center.

  17. A new technique for insertion of barrel plate over dynamic hip/compression lag screw:a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sameer Naranje; Vivek Trikha

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic hip/compression screw (DHS/DCS) is one of the most commonly performed surgeries in orthopaedic practice.Sliding barrel plate over the DHS/DCS lag screw is one of the very crucial and at times uncomfortable and time consuming steps of DHS/DCS surgery especially when it comes to inexperienced surgeons and residents.Also in developing countries where not all standard instrumentation is always available,this crucial step becomes more time consuming.Here we present a case report of 58-year-old male patient with intertrochanteric fracture,in which we used a new device for insertion of barrel plate over DHS/DCS lag screw and found that a small DHS/DCS lag screw extension (sliding jig of barrel plate)can be very helpful to slide barrel plate over the DHS/DCS lag screw.

  18. A rapid technique for estimating the depth and width of a two-dimensional plate from self-potential data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehanee, Salah; Essa, Khalid S.; Smith, Paul D.

    2011-09-01

    Rapid techniques for self-potential (SP) data interpretation are of prime importance in engineering and exploration geophysics. Parameters (e.g. depth, width) estimation of the ore bodies has also been of paramount concern in mineral prospecting. In many cases, it is useful to assume that the SP anomaly is due to an ore body of simple geometric shape and to use the data to determine its parameters. In light of this, we describe a rapid approach to determine the depth and horizontal width of a two-dimensional plate from the SP anomaly. The rationale behind the scheme proposed in this paper is that, unlike the two- (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) SP rigorous source current inversions, it does not demand a priori information about the subsurface resistivity distribution nor high computational resources. We apply the second-order moving average operator on the SP anomaly to remove the unwanted (regional) effect, represented by up to a third-order polynomial, using filters of successive window lengths. By defining a function F at a fixed window length (s) in terms of the filtered anomaly computed at two points symmetrically distributed about the origin point of the causative body, the depth (z) corresponding to each half-width (w) is estimated by solving a nonlinear equation in the form ξ(s, w, z) = 0. The estimated depths are then plotted against their corresponding half-widths on a graph representing a continuous curve for this window length. This procedure is then repeated for each available window length. The depth and half-width solution of the buried structure is read at the common intersection of these various curves. The improvement of this method over the published first-order moving average technique for SP data is demonstrated on a synthetic data set. It is then verified on noisy synthetic data, complicated structures and successfully applied to three field examples for mineral exploration and we have found that the estimated depth is in good agreement with

  19. Biomechanical comparison of anterior Caspar plate and three-level posterior fixation techniques in a human cadaveric model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traynelis, V C; Donaher, P A; Roach, R M; Kojimoto, H; Goel, V K

    1993-07-01

    Traumatic cervical spine injuries have been successfully stabilized with plates applied to the anterior vertebral bodies. Previous biomechanical studies suggest, however, that these devices may not provide adequate stability if the posterior ligaments are disrupted. To study this problem, the authors simulated a C-5 teardrop fracture with posterior ligamentous instability in human cadaveric spines. This model was used to compare the immediate biomechanical stability of anterior cervical plating, from C-4 to C-6, to that provided by a posterior wiring construct over the same levels. Stability was tested in six modes of motion: flexion, extension, right and left lateral bending, and right and left axial rotation. The injured/plate-stabilized spines were more stable than the intact specimens in all modes of testing. The injured/posterior-wired specimens were more stable than the intact spines in axial rotation and flexion. They were not as stable as the intact specimens in the lateral bending or extension testing modes. The data were normalized with respect to the motion of the uninjured spine and compared using repeated measures of analysis of variance, the results of which indicate that anterior plating provides significantly more stability in extension and lateral bending than does posterior wiring. The plate was more stable than the posterior construct in flexion loading; however, the difference was not statistically significant. The two constructs provide similar stability in axial rotation. This study provides biomechanical support for the continued use of bicortical anterior plate fixation in the setting of traumatic cervical spine instability.

  20. Based on the matlab license plate identification technique%基于matlab的车牌识别技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冀光强

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,it will introduce a license plate recognition system which is based on MATLAB image processing,and put my own design after analyzing of the existing license plate recognition. In this paper, I adopt a kind of license plate location algorithm which is based on edge detection and morphological processing . The algorithm is faster and better real-time, on the plate size; as- pect ratio, plate type, license plate information such as whether the border is robust.%本文以MATLAB图像处理技术为基础,在分析了现有的车牌处理系统基础上提出了自己的设计方法。本文采用了基于边缘检测和形态学处理的车牌定位的算法,该算法速度较快且实时性较好,对车牌大小、宽高比、车牌类型、是否有边框等车牌信息具有鲁棒性。

  1. Paper Plate Fractions: The Counting Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Ann; Barnett, Joann; Stine, Tammy

    2016-01-01

    Without a doubt, fractions prove to be a stumbling block for many children. Researchers have suggested a variety of explanations for why this is the case. The introduction of symbolization and operations before the development of conceptual understanding of fractions, a lack of understanding of the role of the numerator and denominator, and an…

  2. Effect of irradiation and storage post-irradiation of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) on counts of microorganisms hygienic indicator using methods of conventional analysis and PETRIFILM{sup TM} plates; Efeito da irradiacao e do armazenamento pos-irradiacao da pimenta preta (Piper nigrum L.) na contagem de microorganismos indicadores de higiene usando metodos de analise convencionais e placas PETRIFILM{sup TM}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaimes, Marcial Ibo Silva

    1988-07-01

    Fifteen samples of ground black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) purchased in Sao Paulo local stores, were submitted to irradiation in doses of 3, 6 and 10 kGy. All irradiated samples, including non-irradiated controls, were submitted to counts of yeasts and molds, aerobes (APC), coliforms and mesophilic aerobic spore formers (MASC), using conventional plate count methods and PETRIFILM {sup TM} plates. For yeasts and molds count, acidified potato dextrose agar (PDA) an PETRIFILM {sup TM} PFYM plates were used. For aerobes, plate count agar (PCA) and PETRIFILM {sup TM} PFAC plates were used. Violet red bile agar (VRBA) and PETRIFILM {sup TM} PFEC plates were employed for enumeration of coliforms. Counts of these groups of microorganisms obtained through the traditional plating procedures did not differ significantly from those using the corresponding PETRIFILM {sup TM} plates. In samples submitted to irradiation, a dose of 10 kGy caused a decrease of the yeasts and molds count from 10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} to less than 10 cfu/g. The same dose caused a decrease of the aerobic counts from 10{sup 7}-10{sup 8} to 10{sup 2}-10{sup 3} cfu/g, of coliforms from 10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} to less than 10 cfu/g and MASC from 10{sup 6}-10{sup 7} cfu/g to 10-10{sup 2} cfu/g. The introduction of a injury repair step in the counting procedure resulted in a 32 to 89% increase in the number of coliforms. However, this additional step did not improve significantly the counts of MASC. After 270 days of storage of samples irradiated with 3 kGy, a decrease in the yeasts and molds population from 10{sup 3} to 20 cfu/g was observed. The APC population in these samples was reduced from 5,0x10{sup 6} to 2,4x10{sup 4} cfu/g; in those irradiated with 6 kGy the reduction was from 4,0x10{sup 4} to 5,0x10{sup 3} cfu/g and in those irradiated with 10 kGy the counts were reduced from 30 to less than 10 cfu/g. After the same time of storage, the coliform population in non irradiated samples decreased from 2,8x10{sup

  3. Modeling seismic wave propagation across the European plate: structural models and numerical techniques, state-of-the-art and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Andrea; Danecek, Peter; Molinari, Irene; Postpischl, Luca; Schivardi, Renata; Serretti, Paola; Tondi, Maria Rosaria

    2010-05-01

    Together with the building and maintenance of observational and data banking infrastructures - i.e. an integrated organization of coordinated sensor networks, in conjunction with connected data banks and efficient data retrieval tools - a strategic vision for bolstering the future development of geophysics in Europe should also address the essential issue of improving our current ability to model coherently the propagation of seismic waves across the European plate. This impacts on fundamental matters, such as correctly locating earthquakes, imaging detailed earthquake source properties, modeling ground shaking, inferring geodynamic processes. To this extent, we both need detailed imaging of shallow and deep earth structure, and accurate modeling of seismic waves by numerical methods. Our current abilities appear somewhat limited, but emerging technologies may enable soon a significant leap towards better accuracy and reliability. To contribute to this debate, we present here the state-of-the-art of knowledge of earth structure and numerical wave modeling in the European plate, as the result of a comprehensive study towards the definition of a continental-scale reference model. Our model includes a description of crustal structure (EPcrust) merging information deriving from previous studies - large-scale compilations, seismic prospection, receiver functions, inversion of surface wave dispersion measurements and Green functions from noise correlation. We use a simple description of crustal structure, with laterally-varying sediment and cristalline layers thickness, density, and seismic parameters. This a priori crustal model improves the overall fit to observed Bouguer anomaly maps over CRUST2.0. The new crustal model is then used as a constraint in the inversion for mantle shear wave speed, based on fitting Love and Rayleigh surface wave dispersion. The new mantle model sensibly improves over global S models in the imaging of shallow asthenospheric (slow) anomalies

  4. An application of CCD read-out technique to neutron distribution measurement using the self-activation method with a CsI scintillator plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohtomi, Akihiro; Kurihara, Ryosuke; Kinoshita, Hiroyuki; Honda, Soichiro; Tokunaga, Masaaki; Uno, Heita; Shinsho, Kiyomitsu; Wakabayashi, Genichiro; Koba, Yusuke; Fukunaga, Junichi; Umezu, Yoshiyuki; Nakamura, Yasuhiko; Ohga, Saiji

    2016-10-01

    In our previous paper, the self-activation of an NaI scintillator had been successfully utilized for detecting photo-neutrons around a high-energy X-ray radiotherapy machine; individual optical pulses from the self-activated scintillator are read-out by photo sensors such as a photomultiplier tube (PMT). In the present work, preliminary observations have been performed in order to apply a direct CCD read-out technique to the self-activation method with a CsI scintillator plate using a Pu-Be source and a 10-MV linac. In conclusion, it has been revealed that the CCD read-out technique is applicable to neutron measurement around a high-energy X-ray radiotherapy machine with the self-activation of a CsI plate. Such application may provide a possibility of novel method for simple neutron dose-distribution measurement.

  5. Counting Belief Propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Kersting, Kristian; Natarajan, Sriraam

    2012-01-01

    A major benefit of graphical models is that most knowledge is captured in the model structure. Many models, however, produce inference problems with a lot of symmetries not reflected in the graphical structure and hence not exploitable by efficient inference techniques such as belief propagation (BP). In this paper, we present a new and simple BP algorithm, called counting BP, that exploits such additional symmetries. Starting from a given factor graph, counting BP first constructs a compressed factor graph of clusternodes and clusterfactors, corresponding to sets of nodes and factors that are indistinguishable given the evidence. Then it runs a modified BP algorithm on the compressed graph that is equivalent to running BP on the original factor graph. Our experiments show that counting BP is applicable to a variety of important AI tasks such as (dynamic) relational models and boolean model counting, and that significant efficiency gains are obtainable, often by orders of magnitude.

  6. Understanding Blood Counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lab and Imaging Tests Understanding Blood Counts Understanding Blood Counts Understanding Blood Counts SHARE: Print Glossary Blood cell counts give ... your blood that's occupied by red cells. Normal Blood Counts Normal blood counts fall within a range ...

  7. White Blood Cell Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? White Blood Cell Count Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... Count; Leukocyte Count; White Count Formal name: White Blood Cell Count Related tests: Complete Blood Count , Blood Smear , ...

  8. OSTEOSYNTHESIS OF PROXIMAL HUMERAL END FRACTURES WITH FIXED-ANGLE PLATE AND LOCKING SCREWS: TECHNIQUE AND RESULTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Marcio; Amaral, Marcus Vinicius; Monteiro, Martim; Brandão, Bruno Lobo; Motta Filho, Geraldo Rocha

    2015-01-01

    Describe the results of proximal humeral fractures surgically treated with the Philos locking plate system. Method: Between March 2003 and October 2004 we prospectively reviewed 24 of 26 patients with proximal humerus fractures treated with a Philos plate. The mean follow-up time was 12 months and the mean age of patients was 57 years. Six patients had four-part proximal humerus fractures, 11 patients had three-part proximal humerus fractures, and nine patients had two-part proximal humerus fractures. Clinical evaluation was performed using the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) criteria. Results: The mean UCLA score was 30 points (17-34). All fractures showed union. Three patients showed fracture union at varus position. The mean UCLA score for these patients was 27 points. Conclusion: Osteosynthesis with Philos plate provides a stable fixation method with good functional outcome. PMID:26998460

  9. Rolling--a new application technique for luminescent bacteria on high-performance thin-layer chromatography plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Vera; Hohl, Christopher; Schwack, Wolfgang

    2011-05-13

    High-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) coupled with bioluminescence detection using Vibrio fischeri bacteria can be used for screening for unknown substances. This is accomplished by dipping the HPTLC plate in an aqueous bacteria solution. Especially polar substances, however, can start to dissolve during this process, which leads to blurring and tailing of the zones on the plate. To overcome this disadvantage, we applied the bacteria solution by rolling. This method has been described for chemical derivatizations, but is very rarely used. The rolling device was made of commercially available household articles. Using octhilinone and methylparaben as test compounds, rolling was compared with dipping. Despite of performing the rolling process manually, the results were reproducible. Depending on the substance and its amount on the HPTLC plate, peaks were narrower, up to a factor of 4 higher and with a higher signal-to-noise ratio than after dipping.

  10. X-Ray diffraction technique applied to study of residual stresses after welding of duplex stainless steel plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monin, Vladimir Ivanovitch; Assis, Joaquim Teixeira de [Instituto Politecnico do Rio e Janeiro (IPRJ), Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil); Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu; Turibus, Sergio Noleto; Payao Filho, Joao C., E-mail: sturibus@nuclear.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    Duplex stainless steel is an example of composite material with approximately equal amounts of austenite and ferrite phases. Difference of physical and mechanical properties of component is additional factor that contributes appearance of residual stresses after welding of duplex steel plates. Measurements of stress distributions in weld region were made by X-ray diffraction method both in ferrite and austenite phases. Duplex Steel plates were joined by GTAW (Gas Tungsten Arc Welding) technology. There were studied longitudinal and transverse stress components in welded butt joint, in heat affected zone (HAZ) and in points of base metal 10 mm from the weld. Residual stresses measured in duplex steel plates jointed by welding are caused by temperature gradients between weld zone and base metal and by difference of thermal expansion coefficients of ferrite and austenite phases. Proposed analytical model allows evaluating of residual stress distribution over the cross section in the weld region. (author)

  11. Counting Penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Mike; Kader, Gary

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity on the simplification of penguin counting by employing the basic ideas and principles of sampling to teach students to understand and recognize its role in statistical claims. Emphasizes estimation, data analysis and interpretation, and central limit theorem. Includes a list of items for classroom discussion. (ASK)

  12. Counting Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    Scientists use sampling to get an estimate of things they cannot easily count. A population is made up of all the organisms of one species living together in one place at the same time. All of the people living together in one town are considered a population. All of the grasshoppers living in a field are a population. Scientists keep track of the…

  13. Knowledge and behavior in an animal disease outbreak - Evidence from the item count technique in a case of African swine fever in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randrianantoandro, Tiana N; Kono, Hiroichi; Kubota, Satoko

    2015-03-01

    Pig production in Madagascar is not sufficient for domestic consumption. Unfortunately, African swine fever (ASF), which is a severe disease, is endemic in Madagascar and constitutes a constant threat for farmers. Therefore, ASF must be eradicated in order to guarantee the development of pig production. One of the main strategies in controlling ASF is stamping out which requires the farmers' collaboration in reporting cases or suspected cases. The objective of this study was to estimate the proportion of farmers who knowingly sell ASF-infected meat without reporting. Since selling ASF-infected meat is prohibited by the government, we used the item count technique (ICT), an indirect questioning technique appropriate for measuring the proportion of people engaged in sensitive behavior, for one subsample, while another subsample was asked directly whether they sell ASF-infected meat. Based on the ICT, approximately 73.2% of farmers who have experienced ASF sell the ASF-infected meat. This estimate was not statistically different from that obtained by direct questioning. In the 28% of interviewed farmers who believe ASF can affect humans, the ICT yielded a higher estimate than did direct questioning, indicating that pig farmers who sell ASF-infected meat hide that fact because of their belief that infected meat might harm human consumers, not because of the law. The ICT was thus a suitable technique to address the problem of sensitive behavior. In the case of ASF outbreaks, the Malagasy government should enforce the law more strictly and provide compensation as incentive for reporting cases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Scale-up from microtiter plate to laboratory fermenter: evaluation by online monitoring techniques of growth and protein expression in Escherichia coli and Hansenula polymorpha fermentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engelbrecht Christoph

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past decade, an enormous number of new bioprocesses have evolved in the biotechnology industry. These bioprocesses have to be developed fast and at a maximum productivity. Up to now, only few microbioreactors were developed to fulfill these demands and to facilitate sample processing. One predominant reaction platform is the shaken microtiter plate (MTP, which provides high-throughput at minimal expenses in time, money and work effort. By taking advantage of this simple and efficient microbioreactor array, a new online monitoring technique for biomass and fluorescence, called BioLector, has been recently developed. The combination of high-throughput and high information content makes the BioLector a very powerful tool in bioprocess development. Nevertheless, the scalabilty of results from the micro-scale to laboratory or even larger scales is very important for short development times. Therefore, engineering parameters regarding the reactor design and its operation conditions play an important role even on a micro-scale. In order to evaluate the scale-up from a microtiter plate scale (200 μL to a stirred tank fermenter scale (1.4 L, two standard microbial expression systems, Escherichia coli and Hansenula polymorpha, were fermented in parallel at both scales and compared with regard to the biomass and protein formation. Results Volumetric mass transfer coefficients (kLa ranging from 100 to 350 1/h were obtained in 96-well microtiter plates. Even with a suboptimal mass transfer condition in the microtiter plate compared to the stirred tank fermenter (kLa = 370-600 1/h, identical growth and protein expression kinetics were attained in bacteria and yeast fermentations. The bioprocess kinetics were evaluated by optical online measurements of biomass and protein concentrations exhibiting the same fermentation times and maximum signal deviations below 10% between the scales. In the experiments, the widely applied green

  15. Bone splint technique and plating application in adolescent high-energy comminuted fracture of distal femur with bone defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hui; DING Zhen-qi; ZHAI Wen-liang; KANG Liang-qi; YAO Xiao-tao

    2008-01-01

    @@ Comminuted fracture of distal femur is a common lower limb injury from traffic accidents, especially from motor accidents. Routine dynamic condylar screw ( DCS ) or 95-degree condylar plate ( CP ) sometimes cannot solve the bone defect in the center of alignment and contralateral diaphysis for the reason of absent screw anchor point, especially for AO C2. 2-2. 3 types.

  16. Neutron counting with cameras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Esch, Patrick; Crisanti, Marta; Mutti, Paolo [Institut Laue Langevin, Grenoble (France)

    2015-07-01

    A research project is presented in which we aim at counting individual neutrons with CCD-like cameras. We explore theoretically a technique that allows us to use imaging detectors as counting detectors at lower counting rates, and transits smoothly to continuous imaging at higher counting rates. As such, the hope is to combine the good background rejection properties of standard neutron counting detectors with the absence of dead time of integrating neutron imaging cameras as well as their very good spatial resolution. Compared to Xray detection, the essence of thermal neutron detection is the nuclear conversion reaction. The released energies involved are of the order of a few MeV, while X-ray detection releases energies of the order of the photon energy, which is in the 10 KeV range. Thanks to advances in camera technology which have resulted in increased quantum efficiency, lower noise, as well as increased frame rate up to 100 fps for CMOS-type cameras, this more than 100-fold higher available detection energy implies that the individual neutron detection light signal can be significantly above the noise level, as such allowing for discrimination and individual counting, which is hard to achieve with X-rays. The time scale of CMOS-type cameras doesn't allow one to consider time-of-flight measurements, but kinetic experiments in the 10 ms range are possible. The theory is next confronted to the first experimental results. (authors)

  17. Development of a technique to evaluate the performance of cooling headers and its applications in POSCO plate mills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Jong-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hundreds of thousands of liquid jet nozzles are widely used in controling cooling equipment to accelerate the cooling of hot plates. The holes of these nozzles become clogged or the hole size becomes smaller as foreign substances like grease, scrap, and mud containing cooling water are flushed through. In this case, cooling water sprays abnormally through the partially clogged or restricted nozzle. This causes inhomogeneous cooling of hot plates. The objective of this study is to develop an evaluation system of cooling headers including nozzles. This paper presents the method to evaluate the conditions of spraying nozzles. The sensor developed in this research measures the liquid column of spraying nozzles using differential pressure between the inside sensor block and ambient air. In addition, the results of a field test in a real, large factory are introduced in this paper.

  18. Development of a technique to evaluate the performance of cooling headers and its applications in POSCO plate mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jong-Hoon; Lee, Pil-Jong

    2016-03-01

    Hundreds of thousands of liquid jet nozzles are widely used in controling cooling equipment to accelerate the cooling of hot plates. The holes of these nozzles become clogged or the hole size becomes smaller as foreign substances like grease, scrap, and mud containing cooling water are flushed through. In this case, cooling water sprays abnormally through the partially clogged or restricted nozzle. This causes inhomogeneous cooling of hot plates. The objective of this study is to develop an evaluation system of cooling headers including nozzles. This paper presents the method to evaluate the conditions of spraying nozzles. The sensor developed in this research measures the liquid column of spraying nozzles using differential pressure between the inside sensor block and ambient air. In addition, the results of a field test in a real, large factory are introduced in this paper.

  19. LAWRENCE RADIATION LABORATORY COUNTING HANDBOOK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Group, Nuclear Instrumentation

    1966-10-01

    The Counting Handbook is a compilation of operational techniques and performance specifications on counting equipment in use at the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, Berkeley. Counting notes have been written from the viewpoint of the user rather than that of the designer or maintenance man. The only maintenance instructions that have been included are those that can easily be performed by the experimenter to assure that the equipment is operating properly.

  20. Applying the digital-image-correlation technique to measure the deformation of an old building’s column retrofitted with steel plate in an in situ pushover test

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shih-Heng Tung; Ming-Hsiang Shih; Wen-Pei Sung

    2014-06-01

    An in situ pushover test is carried out on an old building of Guan-Miao elementary school in south Taiwan. Columns of this building are seismically retrofitted with steel plate. The DIC (digital-image-correlation) technique is used to measure the deformation of the retrofitted column. The result shows that the DIC technique can be successfully applied to measure the relative displacement of the column. Additionally, thismethod leads to the measurement of relative displacements formany points on the column simultaneously. Hence, the column deformation curve, rotation and curvature can be determined using interpolation method. The resulting curvaturediagram reveals that the phenomenon of plastic hinge occurs at about 2% storey drift ratio, and that the DIC technique can be applied to measure column deformation in a full scale in situ test.

  1. Counting Possibilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Tomasetta

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Timothy Williamson supports the thesis that every possible entity necessarily exists and so he needs to explain how a possible son of Wittgenstein’s, for example, exists in our world:he exists as a merely possible object (MPO, a pure locus of potential. Williamson presents a short argument for the existence of MPOs: how many knives can be made by fitting together two blades and two handles? Four: at the most two are concrete objects, the others being merely possible knives and merely possible objects. This paper defends the idea that one can avoid reference and ontological commitment to MPOs. My proposal is that MPOs can be dispensed with by using the notion of rules of knife-making. I first present a solution according to which we count lists of instructions - selected by the rules - describing physical combinations between components. This account, however, has its own difficulties and I eventually suggest that one can find a way out by admitting possible worlds, entities which are more commonly accepted - at least by philosophers - than MPOs. I maintain that, in answering Williamson’s questions, we count classes of physically possible worlds in which the same instance of a general rule is applied.

  2. An application of CCD read-out technique to neutron distribution measurement using the self-activation method with a CsI scintillator plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nohtomi, Akihiro, E-mail: nohtomi@hs.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Kurihara, Ryosuke; Kinoshita, Hiroyuki; Honda, Soichiro; Tokunaga, Masaaki; Uno, Heita [Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Shinsho, Kiyomitsu [Graduate School of Human Sciences, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 7-2-10 Higashi-oku, Arakawa-ku, Tokyo 116-8551 (Japan); Wakabayashi, Genichiro [Atomic Energy Research Institute, Kinki University, 3-4-1 Kowakae, Higashiosaka-shi, Osaka 577-8502 (Japan); Koba, Yusuke [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Fukunaga, Junichi; Umezu, Yoshiyuki; Nakamura, Yasuhiko [Department of Radiology, Kyushu University Hospital, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Ohga, Saiji [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)

    2016-10-01

    In our previous paper, the self-activation of an NaI scintillator had been successfully utilized for detecting photo-neutrons around a high-energy X-ray radiotherapy machine; individual optical pulses from the self-activated scintillator are read-out by photo sensors such as a photomultiplier tube (PMT). In the present work, preliminary observations have been performed in order to apply a direct CCD read-out technique to the self-activation method with a CsI scintillator plate using a Pu-Be source and a 10-MV linac. In conclusion, it has been revealed that the CCD read-out technique is applicable to neutron measurement around a high-energy X-ray radiotherapy machine with the self-activation of a CsI plate. Such application may provide a possibility of novel method for simple neutron dose-distribution measurement. - Highlights: • Preliminary observations have been performed by a CCD for the CsI self-activation method. • It has been revealed that the CCD read-out technique is applicable to neutron measurement. • Such application may provide a novel method for simple neutron distribution measurement.

  3. AN IMPROVED TECHNIQUE ON NUTIONAL GB NUTRIENT AGAR FOR COUNTING BACTERIA RIENT AGAR FOR COUNTING BACTERIA%国家标准测定食品细菌总数培养基的改进研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘坚真; 陈国寿; 李海波; 周海涛; 梁艳彦

    2001-01-01

    应用我国国家标准营养琼脂(GB4789 2-94简称NA)与美国食品药品管理局(FDA)标准平板(简称SA)两种培养基对动植物食品中细菌总数进行检测对比,结果表明FDA标准平板比GB营养琼脂效果较好,前者比后者的检出率高出23.9%。且菌落大而明显。为此,对这两种培养基进行优化筛选试验,并优选出C8培养基。扩大试验结果表明C8培养基的检出率较GB营养琼脂及FDA标准平板分别高出35.8%和9.5%。%Both Chinese GB nutrient agar and American FDA standard method agar are commonly used for counting bacteria in food inspection. A number of our experiments showed that the count of bacteria by FDA standard method agar is 23.9% higher than that by GB nutrient agar. The present C8 medium is an improved medium based on the composition of the two media mentioned above The result of our comparison experiment showed that the C8 medium used for counting bacteria was 35.8% higher than that by GB nutrient agar and 9.5% higher than that by FDA standard method agar respectively.

  4. The Plate-Joystick technique to reduce proximal humeral fractures and nonunions with a varus deformity through the extended deltoid-splitting approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, C Michael; Inman, Dominic; Phillips, Sally-Anne

    2011-10-01

    Fractures and nonunions in which there is a varus deformity of the humeral head producing posterinferior subluxation of the articular surface are increasingly recognized as an important subgroup of proximal humeral fractures. Operative open reduction and internal fixation of these injuries is often recommended when the varus deformity is severe. We describe a simple technique to assist in the open reduction and locking plate stabilization of this challenging and complex fracture subtype using tools and implants that are readily available in most modern orthopaedic trauma operating rooms.

  5. [Blood Count Specimen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Takako

    2015-12-01

    The circulating blood volume accounts for 8% of the body weight, of which 45% comprises cellular components (blood cells) and 55% liquid components. We can measure the number and morphological features of blood cells (leukocytes, red blood cells, platelets), or count the amount of hemoglobin in a complete blood count: (CBC). Blood counts are often used to detect inflammatory diseases such as infection, anemia, a bleeding tendency, and abnormal cell screening of blood disease. This count is widely used as a basic data item of health examination. In recent years, clinical tests before consultation have become common among outpatient clinics, and the influence of laboratory values on consultation has grown. CBC, which is intended to count the number of raw cells and to check morphological features, is easily influenced by the environment, techniques, etc., during specimen collection procedures and transportation. Therefore, special attention is necessary to read laboratory data. Providing correct test values that accurately reflect a patient's condition from the laboratory to clinical side is crucial. Inappropriate medical treatment caused by erroneous values resulting from altered specimens should be avoided. In order to provide correct test values, the daily management of devices is a matter of course, and comprehending data variables and positively providing information to the clinical side are important. In this chapter, concerning sampling collection, blood collection tubes, dealing with specimens, transportation, and storage, I will discuss their effects on CBC, along with management or handling methods.

  6. Study of axial mixing, holdup and slip velocity of dispersed phase in a pulsed sieve plate extraction column using radiotracer technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghiyas Ud Din [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences -PIEAS, P.O Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Isotope Application Division, Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology - PINSTECH, P.O Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)], E-mail: fac192@pieas.edu.pk; Imran Rafiq Chughtai; Mansoor Hameed Inayat [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences - PIEAS, P.O Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Iqbal Hussain Khan [Isotope Application Division, Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology - PINSTECH, P.O Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2009-07-15

    Axial mixing, holdup and slip velocity of dispersed phase which are parameters of fundamental importance in the design and operation of liquid-liquid extraction pulsed sieve plate columns have been investigated. Experiments for residence time distribution (RTD) analysis have been carried out for a range of pulsation frequency and amplitude in a liquid-liquid extraction pulsed sieve plate column with water as dispersed and kerosene as continuous phase using radiotracer technique. The column was operated in emulsion region and {sup 99m}Tc in the form of sodium pertechnetate eluted from a {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc generator was used to trace the dispersed phase. Axial dispersed plug flow model with open-open boundary condition and two points measurement method was used to simulate the hydrodynamics of dispersed phase. It has been observed that the axial mixing and holdup of dispersed phase increases with increase in pulsation frequency and amplitude until a maximum value is achieved while slip velocity decreases with increase in pulsation frequency and amplitude until it approaches a minimum value. Short lived and low energy radiotracer {sup 99m}Tc in the form of sodium pertechnetate was found to be a good water tracer to study the hydrodynamics of a liquid-liquid extraction pulsed sieve plate column operating with two immiscible liquids, water and kerosene. Axial dispersed plug flow model with open-open boundary condition was found to be a suitable model to describe the hydrodynamics of dispersed phase in the pulsed sieve plate extraction column.

  7. An Evaluation Method for the Suppression of Pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum by Soil Microorganisms Using the Dilution Plate Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuboshi, Masahiro; Kioka, Yuuzou; Noguchi, Katsunori; Asakawa, Susumu

    2016-09-29

    Soil-borne diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms are one of the main factors responsible for the decline in crop yields in farmlands. Pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum causes serious damage to various crops, and, thus, a feasible diagnostic method for soil-borne diseases is required. We herein examined a simple method to evaluate the suppressiveness of soil microorganisms against a pathogen by co-cultivating indigenous soil microorganisms and a pathogenic fungus (F. oxysporum f. sp. spinaciae). We inoculated F. oxysporum onto the center of agar medium plates mixed with a dilution series of a suspension of organic fertilizers or soil. After an approximately one-week cultivation, the growth degree of F. oxysporum was estimated based on the size of the colonies that formed on the plates. The growth degree of F. oxysporum significantly differed among the organic fertilizers tested, indicating the usefulness of the method for evaluating suppressiveness by organic fertilizers. Differences in the growth degrees of F. oxysporum were associated with the incidence of disease in spinach on soil treated with organic fertilizers and inoculated with a pathogenic F. oxysporum strain. These results suggested that this method provides some useful information on the suppressiveness of organic fertilizers and soil against Fusarium wilt.

  8. A comparison of different NDE signal processing techniques based on waveform entropies applied to long fiber-graphite/epoxy-plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larche, Michael; Prowant, Mathew; Bruillard, Paul; Hagge, Tobias; Fifield, Leonard S.; Hughes, Michael; Sun, Xin

    2017-04-01

    This study compares different approaches for imaging the internal architecture of graphite/epoxy composites using backscattered ultrasound. Two cases are studied. In the first, near-surface defects in a thin graphite/epoxy plates are imaged. The backscattered waveforms were used to produce peak-to-peak, logarithm of signal energy, as well as entropy images of different types. All of the entropy images exhibit better border delineation and defect contrast than either the peak-to-peak or the logarithm of signal energy. The best results are obtained using the joint entropy of the backscattered waveforms with a reference function. Two different references are examined. The first is a reflection of the insonifying pulse from a stainless steel reflector. The second is an approximate optimum obtained from an iterative parametric search. The joint entropy images produced using this reference exhibit three times the contrast obtained in previous studies. These plates were later destructively analyzed to determine size and location of near-surface defects and the results are found to agree with the defect location and shape as indicated by the entropy images. In the second study, images of long carbon fibers (50% by weight) in polypropylene thermoplastic were obtained as a first step toward ultrasonic determination of the distributions of fiber position and orientation.

  9. A Comparison of Different NDE Signal Processing Techniques Based on Waveform Entropies Applied to Long Fiber Graphite/Epoxy Plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larche, Michael R.; Prowant, Matthew S.; Bruillard, Paul J.; Hagge, Tobias J.; Fifield, Leonard S.; Hughes, Michael S.; Sun, Xin

    2017-04-19

    This study compares different approaches for imaging the internal architecture of graphite/epoxy composites using backscattered ultrasound. Two cases are studied. In the first, near-surface defects in a thin graphite/epoxy plates are imaged. The same backscattered waveforms were used to produce peak-to-peak, logarithm of signal energy, as well as entropy images of different types. All of the entropy images exhibit better border delineation and defect contrast than the either peak-to-peak or logarithm of signal energy. The best results are obtained using the joint entropy of the backscattered waveforms with a reference function. Two different references are examined. The first is a reflection of the insonifying pulse from a stainless steel reflector. The second is an approximate optimum obtained from an iterative parametric search. The joint entropy images produced using this reference exhibit three times the contrast obtained in previous studies. These plates were later destructively analyzed to determine size and location of near-surface defects and the results found to agree with the defect location and shape as indicated by the entropy images. In the second study, images of long carbon graphite fibers (50% by weight) in polypropylene thermoplastic are obtained as a first step toward ultrasonic determination of the distributions of fiber position and orientation.

  10. Comparison of the Tight Rope Technique and Clavicular Hook Plate for the Treatment of Rockwood Type III Acromioclavicular Joint Dislocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Leyi; Wang, Te; Lu, Di; Hu, Wei; Hong, Jianjun; Chen, Hua

    2017-04-12

    Acromioclavicular joint dislocation is one of the most common shoulder problems and may lead to instability or degenerative changes. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes of the Tight Rope system and clavicular hook plate for Rockwood type III acromioclavicular joint dislocation in adults. This was a prospective, randomized study in a hospital setting. From January 2012 to December 2014, 69 patients with type III injury were reviewed. Patients were randomly divided into two groups: Group A was treated using the TightRope system and Group B with the clavicular hook plate. All participants were followed up for 12 months. Clinical outcomes, radiological results and postoperative complications were recorded. The length of incision was significantly shorter in Goup A than that in Group B. The blood loss of surgery was significantly less in the Group A. Significant difference could be found between the two groups regarding the Visual Analogue Scale scores one day after surgery, at the 3 and 12 months follow-up. There were no differences according to the improvement of the Constant-Murley score and the coracoclavicular distance between the groups. The two groups have similar clinical and radiological outcomes. Both treatments could relieve the pain of dislocation, improve the function of Acromioclavicular joint and rectify the coracoclavicular distance measured in plain films. However, the TightRope system exhibited some advantages in terms of length of incision, blood loss of surgery, the pain postoperatively and no need for a second surgery.

  11. Characterization of 2.25Cr1Mo welded ferritic steel plate by using diffractometric and ultrasonic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cernuschi, F.; Ghia, S. [Ente Nazionale per l`Energia Elettrica, Milan (Italy); Albertini, G.; Ceretti, M.; Rustichelli, F. [Ancona Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Medica; Castelnuovo, A.; Depero, L. [Univ. degli studi, Brescia.Fac. di ingegneria, dip. di ingegneria meccanica (Italy); Giamboni, S.; Gori, M. [Centro Elettrotecnico Sperimentale Italiano (CESI), Milan (Italy)

    1995-12-01

    Four different techniques (X-ray and neutron diffraction, ultrasonic birefringence and incremental hole drilling method) were applied for evaluating residual stress in a butt-welded ferritic steel palte. Measurements were carried out both before and after welding. Effects of post-welding heat treatment is also considered. A comparison between results obtained by using four different techniques is done.

  12. Effect of noncoliforms on coliform detection in potable groundwater: improved recovery with an anaerobic membrane filter technique.

    OpenAIRE

    Franzblau, S G; Hinnebusch, B J; Kelley, L M; Sinclair, N A

    1984-01-01

    A total of 529 well and distribution potable water samples were analyzed for total coliforms by the most-probable-number and membrane filter (MF) techniques. Standard plate count bacteria and MF noncoliform bacteria were also enumerated. Frequency of coliform detection, turbidity in most-probable-number tubes, and extensive overgrowth by noncoliforms on MF filters were directly proportional to standard plate counts. Recovery of coliforms was greatest by the MF method at low (less than 100 CFU...

  13. Thermal neutron imaging using microchannel plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, George W.; Pearson, James F.; Al-Horayess, O. S.; Feller, W. Bruce; Cook, Lee M.

    1993-02-01

    Microchannel plates (MCPs) are compact electron multipliers of high gain, widely used for the high resolution imaging of charged particles and photons. In this paper, we consider the use of lead glass MCPs for the imaging of thermal neutrons. Two contrasting techniques are described. The first method involves direct neutron detection within a special channel plate structure containing lithium and/or boron. We review the constraints of glass chemistry on the attainable lithium oxide and boron oxide fractions and, hence, on the maximum neutron detection efficiency. The second method involves the detection, using MCPs of standard glass composition, of the internal conversion electrons from a thin gadolinium foil. We present the first measurements of the detection efficiency, pulse height resolution and imaging properties of a pulse-counting MCP/Gd detector system.

  14. 21 CFR 1210.16 - Method of bacterial count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Inspection and Testing § 1210.16 Method of bacterial count. The bacterial count of milk and cream refers to the number of viable bacteria as determined by the standard plate method of... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Method of bacterial count. 1210.16 Section...

  15. Comparação entre os métodos rápidos SimplateR TPC- CI e PetrifilmR AC e os métodos convencionais de contagem em placas para a enumeração de aeróbios mesófilos em sorvetes Comparasion of SimplateR test and Petrifilm with plate count agar method for detection and enumeration of bacteria in ice cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson de Souza Sant'ana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A contagem de aeróbios mesófilos ou contagem padrão em placas em um produto alimentício reflete a qualidade da matéria-prima, bem como as condições de processamento, manuseio e estocagem. O método de contagem em placas tradicionais requer 48h de incubação para a posterior leitura dos resultados. Comparou-se dois métodos que parecem ser uma boa alternativa para a contagem padrão em placas: SimplateR TPC-CI e PetrifilmR AC. Também avaliou-se a capacidade inibitória do 2, 3, 5 cloreto de trifeniltetrazólio quando adicionado ao Agar Plate Count. Este corante é incolor na forma oxidada e vermelho quando reduzido pelos microrganismos, devido à formação de formazano. O coe-ficiente de correlação obtido, através de estudos conduzidos com 60 amostras de sorvetes, entre 0,866-0,979 indicou uma equivalente sensibilidade dos métodos testados. Somente a contagem padrão em placas com TTC diferiu signicativamente da contagem padrão em placas.The mesophilic aerobic plate count or standard plate count (SPC of fresh food product reflects conditions of raw product quality, processing, handling and storage. Current standard methods require a 48h incubation period to obtain the results. Two rapid alterantive methods: SimplateTM TPC-CI and PetrifilmTM Aerobic Count (AC Plate were compared to standard methods. Also, we evaluated the inhibitory effect of 2, 3, 5 triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC when added to Plate Count Agar. This dye is colorless in the oxidized form and red when reduced by microorganisms, due to the formation of formazan. Sixty ice cream samples were used in this study to obtain correlation coefficients, which ranged from 0.866-0.979, indicating equivalent sensitivities to existing methods. Only plate count with TTC differed significantly from the standard plate count.

  16. Repositioning template for mandibular reconstruction with fibular free flaps: an alternative technique to pre-plating and virtual surgical planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrone, M; Crosetti, E; Succo, G

    2014-08-01

    Oral malignancies involving the mandibular bone require a complex reconstructive plan. Mandibular reconstruction with a fibular free flap is currently considered the best choice for functional and aesthetic rehabilitation after oncological surgery. This flap can be modelled with multiple osteotomies and can provide bone, muscle and skin for composite reconstruction. One of the most delicate aspects of mandibular reconstruction is the technique of bone modelling; the risk of prolonging the period of ischaemia and not restoring the correct maxillomandibular and occlusal relationships can ultimately lead to a higher rate of complications as well as poor aesthetic and functional results. Recently, there has been rising interest in virtual surgical planning and computer-assisted mandibular reconstruction in pre-operative planning; however, this is not always possible because of the costs involved and the set-up time for the entire procedure. In this paper, we present a simple and inexpensive technique for fibular free flap modelling and repositioning after segmental resection of the mandible; the technique entails the pre-operative preparation of a resin repositioning template on a stereolithographic model. This technique has been successfully applied in four cases: two cases underwent resection involving only the mandibular body, one case involving the mandibular body and symphysis and one case in which a ramus to ramus resection was performed. In this preliminary report, we show that the resin repositioning template is an easy, safe and useful tool for mandibular reconstruction with a fibular free flap.

  17. 应用钩钢板内固定技术治疗mallet骨折%Treatment of Mallet fractures with internal fixation using hook plate technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李忠哲; 易传军; 胡琪; 田光磊

    2009-01-01

    目的 介绍应用钩钢板内固定技术治疗mallet骨折的手术方法 及疗效.方法 2006年8月-2008年2月,应用钩钢板内固定技术治疗25例mallet骨折患者,其中Ⅰ B型18例,ⅡB型7例.采用2.0 mm Medicon微型直钢板制备1孔钩钢板,切开复位内固定骨折,术后行限制性远指间关节早期功能锻炼.结果 所有患者术后获2~18个月(平均10个月)随访,骨折均顺利愈合,愈合时间平均5周.术后疼痛程度和关节屈伸活动度评价:优14例,良9例,可2例,差0例;优良率为92%.术后未发生严重并发症.结论 应用钩钢板切开复位内固定技术治疗mllet骨折,复位牢固可靠,内固定物不固定骨折块和关节,允许早期关节活动,有效降低术后关节疼痛和关节活动受限,是治疗撕脱骨折块大于末节指骨基底关节面1/3 mallet骨折的有效方法 .%Objective To introduce the surgical techniques and clinical outcomes of trestment of Mallet fractures using hook plate internal fixation. Methods From August 2006 to February 2008, 25 cases of Mallet fractures were treated with hook plate internal fixation. There were 18 cases of Ⅰ B type fractures and 7 cases of Ⅱ B type fractures. Open reduction and internal fixation was performed using a one-hole hook plate fabricated from a 2.0 mm Medicon straight plate. Early postoperative protected motion of the distal interphalangeal (DIP) joint was allowed. Results All the cases were followed up for 2 to 18 months, with an average of 10 months. All the fractures healed successfully, with an average bone union time of 5 weeks. Functional evaluation included degree of pain and DIP joint flexion and extension. The results were rated as excellent in 14 cases, good in 9 cases, fair in 2 cases and poor in 0 case. The overall good-excellent rate was 92%. There were no postoperative complications. Conclusion Treatment of Mallet fractures with hook plate internal fixation technique can achieve more tellable fixation

  18. Acoustic Emission tomography based on simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique to visualize the damage source location in Q235B steel plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yu; Xu, Feiyun; Xu, Bingsheng

    2015-12-01

    Acoustic Emission (AE) tomography based on Simultaneous Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (SART), which combines the traditional location algorithm with the SART algorithm by using AE events as its signal sources, is a new visualization method for inspecting and locating the internal damages in the structure. In this paper, the proposed method is applied to examine and visualize two man-made damage source locations in the Q235B steel plate to validate its effectiveness. Firstly, the Q235B steel plate with two holes specimen is fabricated and the pencil lead break (PLB) signal is taken as the exciting source for AE tomography.Secondly, A 6-step description of the SART algorithm is provided and the three dimensional(3D)image contained the damage source locations is visualized by using the proposed algorithm in terms of a locally varying wave velocity distribution. It is shown that the AE tomography based on SART has great potential in the application of structure damage detection. Finally, to further improve the quality of 3D imaging, the Median Filter and the Adaptive Median Filter are used to reduce the noises resulting from AE tomography. The experiment results indicate that Median Filter is the optimal method to remove Salt & Pepper noises.

  19. What Is the Best Method to Fit Time-Resolved Data? A Comparison of the Residual Minimization and the Maximum Likelihood Techniques As Applied to Experimental Time-Correlated, Single-Photon Counting Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santra, Kalyan; Zhan, Jinchun; Song, Xueyu; Smith, Emily A; Vaswani, Namrata; Petrich, Jacob W

    2016-03-10

    The need for measuring fluorescence lifetimes of species in subdiffraction-limited volumes in, for example, stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy, entails the dual challenge of probing a small number of fluorophores and fitting the concomitant sparse data set to the appropriate excited-state decay function. This need has stimulated a further investigation into the relative merits of two fitting techniques commonly referred to as "residual minimization" (RM) and "maximum likelihood" (ML). Fluorescence decays of the well-characterized standard, rose bengal in methanol at room temperature (530 ± 10 ps), were acquired in a set of five experiments in which the total number of "photon counts" was approximately 20, 200, 1000, 3000, and 6000 and there were about 2-200 counts at the maxima of the respective decays. Each set of experiments was repeated 50 times to generate the appropriate statistics. Each of the 250 data sets was analyzed by ML and two different RM methods (differing in the weighting of residuals) using in-house routines and compared with a frequently used commercial RM routine. Convolution with a real instrument response function was always included in the fitting. While RM using Pearson's weighting of residuals can recover the correct mean result with a total number of counts of 1000 or more, ML distinguishes itself by yielding, in all cases, the same mean lifetime within 2% of the accepted value. For 200 total counts and greater, ML always provides a standard deviation of <10% of the mean lifetime, and even at 20 total counts there is only 20% error in the mean lifetime. The robustness of ML advocates its use for sparse data sets such as those acquired in some subdiffraction-limited microscopies, such as STED, and, more importantly, provides greater motivation for exploiting the time-resolved capacities of this technique to acquire and analyze fluorescence lifetime data.

  20. Repositioning template for mandibular reconstruction with fibular free flap: an alternative technique to pre-plating and virtual surgical planning

    OpenAIRE

    Berrone, M.; Crosetti, E.; Succo, G

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Oral malignancies involving the mandibular bone require a complex reconstructive plan. Mandibular reconstruction with a fibular free flap is currently considered the best choice for functional and aesthetic rehabilitation after oncological surgery. This flap can be modelled with multiple osteotomies and can provide bone, muscle and skin for composite reconstruction. One of the most delicate aspects of mandibular reconstruction is the technique of bone modelling; the risk of prolonging...

  1. Analysis of Dynamic Fracture Parameters in Functionally Graded Material Plates with Cracks by Graded Finite Element Method and Virtual Crack Closure Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ming Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the finite element software ABAQUS and graded element method, we developed a dummy node fracture element, wrote the user subroutines UMAT and UEL, and solved the energy release rate component of functionally graded material (FGM plates with cracks. An interface element tailored for the virtual crack closure technique (VCCT was applied. Fixed cracks and moving cracks under dynamic loads were simulated. The results were compared to other VCCT-based analyses. With the implementation of a crack speed function within the element, it can be easily expanded to the cases of varying crack velocities, without convergence difficulty for all cases. Neither singular element nor collapsed element was required. Therefore, due to its simplicity, the VCCT interface element is a potential tool for engineers to conduct dynamic fracture analysis in conjunction with commercial finite element analysis codes.

  2. Evaluation of result of minimally invasive plating osteosynthesis (MIPO technique in the treatment of fracture distal tibia: a prospective follow-up study from Chhattisgarh, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravin Kumar Jangde

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background High speed motor vehicle accidents are on the rise over the past few years, a major cause of complex fractures of tibia. The main treatment aim of this type of fractures is reinstatement of the normal alignment and articular congruity. Although different surgical techniques are available, but minimally invasive plating osteosynthesis (MIPO is most popular in minimal articular comminution and damage of soft tissue envelope. MIPO advantages are no periosteal dissections, no disruption of hematoma, stable fixation, early mobilization, less complications and relatively higher rates of union. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the functional and clinical outcomes of distal tibia fracture patients, treated by internal fixation by MIPO technique with locking compression plate (LCP. Methods Twenty patients with closed distal tibia fracture with or without intra articular extension treated with MIPO with LCP were prospectively followed for average duration of 18.45 months (range 5-30 months. Fractures were classified according AO classification into broad types. Results Average duration of injury-surgery interval was 12days. The age incidence was an average of 38.95 yrs. High occurrence of fracture was seen in labourer (65%, maximum cases (50% mode of injury was due to road traffic accidents. 75% of the patients showed radiologic union in 13-16 weeks, full weight bearing was achieved in 13-16 weeks. Overall achievement was 75% excellent, 10% good, 10% fair and 5% with poor result. Conclusion The present study confirmed that MIPO with LCP is an effective and safe treatment method in terms of union time and complications rate for distal tibia fracture.

  3. Application of the Cluster Counting/Timing techniques to improve the performances of high transparency Drift Chamber for modern HEP experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarello, G.; Chiri, C.; Cocciolo, G.; Corvaglia, A.; Grancagnolo, F.; Panareo, M.; Pepino, A.; Renga, F.; Tassielli, G. F.; Voena, C.

    2017-07-01

    Ultra-low mass and high granularity Drift Chambers seems to be a better choice for modern HEP experiments, to achieve a good momentum resolution on the charged particle. We present how, in Helium based gas mixture, by counting and measuring the arrival time of each individual ionization cluster and by using statistical tools, it is possible to reconstruct a bias free estimate of the impact parameter and a more discriminant Particle Identification.

  4. "Paraffin wax-overlay of pour plate", a method for the isolation and enumeration of purple non-sulfur bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archana, A; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch V; Arunasri, K

    2004-12-01

    A modification of pour plate technique with an overlay of wax was used for isolation and enumeration of purple non-sulfur bacteria (PNSB) with equal efficiency as that of agar shake culture. The total count of PNSB ranged from 10(5)-10(8) CFU g dry soil(-1) and belonged to the genera of Rhodobacter, Rhodopseudomonas, Rhodocista and Rubrivivax.

  5. Vehicle License Plate Recognition Syst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi,R. B. Dubey

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The vehicle license plate recognition system has greater efficiency for vehicle monitoring in automatic zone access control. This Plate recognition system will avoid special tags, since all vehicles possess a unique registration number plate. A number of techniques have been used for car plate characters recognition. This system uses neural network character recognition and pattern matching of characters as two character recognition techniques. In this approach multilayer feed-forward back-propagation algorithm is used. The performance of the proposed algorithm has been tested on several car plates and provides very satisfactory results.

  6. Aerial Population Estimates of Wild Horses (Equus caballus) in the Adobe Town and Salt Wells Creek Herd Management Areas Using an Integrated Simultaneous Double-Count and Sightability Bias Correction Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubow, Bruce C.; Ransom, Jason I.

    2007-01-01

    An aerial survey technique combining simultaneous double-count and sightability bias correction methodologies was used to estimate the population of wild horses inhabiting Adobe Town and Salt Wells Creek Herd Management Areas, Wyoming. Based on 5 surveys over 4 years, we conclude that the technique produced estimates consistent with the known number of horses removed between surveys and an annual population growth rate of 16.2 percent per year. Therefore, evidence from this series of surveys supports the validity of this survey method. Our results also indicate that the ability of aerial observers to see horse groups is very strongly dependent on skill of the individual observer, size of the horse group, and vegetation cover. It is also more modestly dependent on the ruggedness of the terrain and the position of the sun relative to the observer. We further conclude that censuses, or uncorrected raw counts, are inadequate estimates of population size for this herd. Such uncorrected counts were all undercounts in our trials, and varied in magnitude from year to year and observer to observer. As of April 2007, we estimate that the population of the Adobe Town /Salt Wells Creek complex is 906 horses with a 95 percent confidence interval ranging from 857 to 981 horses.

  7. [Unstable fracture of the distal radius and its treatment: comparison of three techniques: external fixation, intramedullary pinning and AO plates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sennwald, G R; Della Santa, D

    2001-06-01

    This retrospective study compares 94 distal radius fractures. Sixty one women (median age 66) and 33 men (median age 42) were reviewed clinically and radiologically by a surgeon not involved in treatment. Fractures were classified into three AO groups. Standard X-rays were used for radiological evaluation. Fractures of the distal ulna were evaluated separately. Chi-square tests, Wilcoxon, Mann-Whitney and Fisher's tests were used for statistical evaluation. Women presented mainly "A" type fractures. They were treated by intramedullary pinning. Forty two fractures were grafted, using autogenous bone for young patients and bone substitute for the elderly. Twelve scapholunate dissociations were recorded, all but one were detected in women, 50 years of age or more. Four were painfree, two presented climatic pain and six claimed pain during effort; none had snapping. Radio-ulnar laxity was similar with or without styloid fractures. External fixator and autogenous grafts appeared the most efficient technique for maintaining radial length. Ulnar head fractures were related to a significant higher incidence of sympathetic dystrophy with reduced prono-supination, a correlation not previously noted to your knowledge. This suggests that radius and ulnar head fracture should be classified independently. The amount of pain was not related to classification, internal fixation or gender.

  8. Total viable bacterial count using a real time all-fibre spectroscopic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogomolny, E; Swift, S; Vanholsbeeck, F

    2013-07-21

    Rapid, accurate and sensitive enumeration of bacterial populations in the natural environment is an essential task for many research fields. Widely used standard methods for counting bacteria such as heterotrophic plate count require 1 to 8 days of incubation time for limited accuracy, while more accurate and rapid techniques are often expensive and may require bulky equipment. In the present study, we have developed a computerized optical prototype for bacterial detection. The goal of this research was to estimate the potential of this optical system for Total Viable Bacterial Count in water. For this purpose, we tested water batches with different microbiological content. Bacterial detection was based on fluorescence enhanced by nucleic acid staining. High sensitivity was achieved by a stable diode pumped solid state laser, sensitive CCD spectrometer and in situ excitation and signal collection. The results have shown that the bacterial count from different water origins using our optical setup along with multivariate analysis presents a higher accuracy and a shorter detection time compared to standard methods. For example, in a case where the fluorescence signal is calibrated to the water batch regression line, the relative standard deviation of the optical system enumeration varies between 21 and 36%, while that of the heterotropic plate count counterpart varies between 41 and 59%. In summary, we conclude that the all-fibre optical system may offer the following advantages over conventional methods: near real time examinations, portability, sensitivity, accuracy and ability to detect 10(2) to 10(8) CFU per ml bacterial concentrations.

  9. Short communication: appropriate and alternative methods to determine viable bacterial counts in cow milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loss, G; Apprich, S; Kneifel, W; von Mutius, E; Genuneit, J; Braun-Fahrländer, C

    2012-06-01

    Farm milk consumption is reported to be inversely related to the development of asthma and atopy in children and it has been hypothesized that microorganisms in milk might contribute to this protective effect. The GABRIEL study was designed to investigate this hypothesis in a large population of European children, calling for a rapid alternative to classical culture techniques to determine bacteriological properties of milk samples. One objective was to evaluate 2 different rapid methods to determine bacteriological properties in a large number of cow milk samples collected under field conditions. BactoScan (Foss Analytical, Hillerød, Denmark), an automated standard flow cytometric method utilized for routine testing of milk quality, and TEMPO (bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France), an automated most-probable-number method, were used to assess the total viable bacterial count in farm and commercial milk samples. Both methods were compared with standard plate count method and each other. Measurements based on the TEMPO method were in good agreement with the standard plate count method and showed reliable results, whereas BactoScan results did not correlate with standard plate count measurements and yielded higher bacteria counts in heat-treated milk samples compared with raw milk samples. Most likely, these discrepant results were due to inferences with staining reactions and detection of bacteria in heat-treated milk samples. We conclude that, in contrast to the routinely used BactoScan method, the TEMPO method is an inexpensive and rapid alternative to standard culture methods suitable to assess total bacterial counts in processed and raw milk samples.

  10. Comparative study of the structure and corrosion behavior of Zr-20%Cr and Zr-20%Ti alloy films deposited by multi-arc ion plating technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Farhat, E-mail: ilatahraf@yahoo.com [National Centre for Nanotechnology, Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering (DMME), Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), PO Nilore, Islamabad 45650 (Pakistan); Mehmood, Mazhar, E-mail: mazhar@pieas.edu.pk [National Centre for Nanotechnology, Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering (DMME), Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), PO Nilore, Islamabad 45650 (Pakistan); Qasim, Abdul Mateen; Ahmad, Jamil; Naeem-ur-Rehman [National Centre for Nanotechnology, Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering (DMME), Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), PO Nilore, Islamabad 45650 (Pakistan); Iqbal, Muhammad [Physics Division, Pakistan Institute of Science and Technology (PINSTECH), Islamabad 45650 (Pakistan); Qureshi, Ammad H. [Materials Division, Pakistan Institute of Science and Technology (PINSTECH), Islamabad 45650 (Pakistan)

    2014-08-01

    The primary focus of the present work was to perform comparative study of the structure as well as corrosion behavior of two Zr-rich alloy films, i.e. Zr-20%Cr and Zr-20%Ti, as well as metallic Ti, Cr and Zr films, formed by multi-arc ion plating technique. The required alloy film composition was obtained by co-deposition with proper choice of current for the targets of the constituent metals. The deposited alloy film composition was determined by energy dispersion X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) techniques, which were in close agreement with each other. The film thickness lied in the range of 550-620 nm. The crystal structure was studied by X-ray diffraction, which revealed the formation of nanocrystalline and semi-amorphous structures. The corrosion rates of the films were determined through weight loss measurement in 1 M, 6 M and 12 M hydrochloric acid (HCl) by ICP-AES analysis of the solution after immersion for 200-350 h. Anodic (potentiodynamic) polarization was also performed. Zr-20%Cr alloy film exhibited the best corrosion resistance, and its dissolution rate was less than 0.5 μm/year in 6 M HCl and about 4 μm/year in 12 M HCl. - Highlights: • Fine control over the stoichiometry of each alloy film • Development of either nano-crystalline or semi-amorphous alloy films • Development of highly corrosion resistant films.

  11. First principle active neutron coincidence counting measurements of uranium oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Braden; Charlton, William; Peerani, Paolo

    2014-03-01

    Uranium is present in most nuclear fuel cycle facilities ranging from uranium mines, enrichment plants, fuel fabrication facilities, nuclear reactors, and reprocessing plants. The isotopic, chemical, and geometric composition of uranium can vary significantly between these facilities, depending on the application and type of facility. Examples of this variation are: enrichments varying from depleted (~0.2 wt% 235U) to high enriched (>20 wt% 235U); compositions consisting of U3O8, UO2, UF6, metallic, and ceramic forms; geometries ranging from plates, cans, and rods; and masses which can range from a 500 kg fuel assembly down to a few grams fuel pellet. Since 235U is a fissile material, it is routinely safeguarded in these facilities. Current techniques for quantifying the 235U mass in a sample include neutron coincidence counting. One of the main disadvantages of this technique is that it requires a known standard of representative geometry and composition for calibration, which opens up a pathway for potential erroneous declarations by the State and reduces the effectiveness of safeguards. In order to address this weakness, the authors have developed a neutron coincidence counting technique which uses the first principle point-model developed by Boehnel instead of the "known standard" method. This technique was primarily tested through simulations of 1000 g U3O8 samples using the Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) code. The results of these simulations showed good agreement between the simulated and exact 235U sample masses.

  12. Identification and characterization of elevated microbial counts in bulk tank raw milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, M C; Ralyea, R D; Murphy, S C; Carey, N R; Scarlett, J M; Boor, K J

    2001-01-01

    The bacterial composition of bulk tank milk from 13 farms was examined over a 2-wk period to characterize sudden elevations in the total bacterial count referred to as "spikes." Bulk tank milk samples collected at each pick-up were analyzed for standard plate count, Petrifilm aerobic count, somatic cell count, gram-negative organisms, and streptococci. Twenty standard plate count spikes were observed: 12 associated with streptococci, 4 associated with gram-negative organisms, 2 associated with streptococci and gram-negative organisms, and 2 that were not definitively characterized. Spikes ranged from 14,000 to 600,000 cfu/ml. Streptococcus uberis was isolated as the predominant organism from 11 spikes, and Escherichia coli was isolated from 4 spikes. Statistical analysis of total bacterial counts indicated a high correlation (r = 0.94) between standard plate counts and Petrifilm aerobic count. Regression analysis of standard plate counts and Petrifilm aerobic counts yielded the equation log10 (standard plate count) = 0.73 + 0.85log10 (Petrifilm aerobic count), indicating that the correlation, although strong, is not one to one. In a related pilot study, triplicate bulk tank milk samples were collected and analyzed for total bacterial count and presumptive streptococcus, gram-negative, and staphylococcus counts. Two-way ANOVA of these triplicate data indicated a lack of significant variation among the triplicate samples, suggesting that one sample can reliably gauge the microbial status of the entire bulk tank.

  13. 原料乳中菌落总数检测方法的比较研究%Study on the detection methods of the total plate count in raw milk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张名爱; 李洁慧; 于翠芳; 杜中彩

    2013-01-01

    Three detection methods of the total count of bacteria was compared in raw milk. GB/T4789.2—2010, IDF100A:1987 and FDA BAM—2001 were used respectively to test the total count of bacteria in raw milk. The result showed that there were significant differences among the three methods. The detection rate of IDF100A:1987 was the highest, and the bacteria colo⁃nies on the medium were easily distinguished, but the test period of IDF100A:1987 was longer than other two methods, so it wasn't applied to rapid detection. The FDA BAM—2001 was bet⁃ter than GB/T 4789.2—2010 in raw milk, and the common advantages of them were simplicity of operation and the shorter inspection periods.%  试验比较原料乳中三种菌落总数的测定方法.分别采用国家标准GB/T4789.2—2010、世界乳品联合会国际标准IDF100A:1987和美国食品与药品监督局FDA BAM—2001标准中三种菌落总数的检测方法对原料乳中菌落总数进行测定比较分析.结果表明,3种检测方法之间存在显著性差异,IDF100A:1987的检出率最高,菌落易于分辨,但检验周期较长,不利于快速检测;在检测原料乳上,FDA BAM—2001优于GB/T 4789.2—2010,其共同优点为方法简单,检验周期短.

  14. Graphite nodule count and size distribution in thin-walled ductile cast iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl Martin; Tiedje, Niels Skat

    2008-01-01

    Graphite nodule count and size distribution have been analysed in thin walled ductile cast iron. The 2D nodule counts have been converted into 3D nodule count by using Finite Difference Method (FDM). Particles having a diameter smaller than 5 µm should be neglected in the nodule count...... as these are inclusions and micro porosities that do not influence the solidification morphology. If there are many small graphite nodules as in thin walled castings only 3D nodule count calculated by FDM will give reliable results. 2D nodule count and 3D nodule count calculated by simple equations will give too low...... results. The 3D size distribution showed presence of primary graphite nodules in hypereutectic castings. In thin plates the nodule count is similar in eutectic and hypereutectic plates. In thicker plates the hypereutectic casting has the highest nodule count....

  15. 菌落总数检测纸片法与国标方法的比较研究%A Comparative Study of Petrifilm and GB Traditional Agar Plate in Bacteria Counting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宇; 姚卢悦

    2012-01-01

    在利用微生物快速测试纸片和国标法所规定的倾注平板计数法在食品、空气和环节表面环境卫生等几个食品生产企业普遍关注的卫生控制环节进行比较研究和统计分析,力求找出两种测试方法之间的相关性,为全面提升食品企业生产效率,缩短检测流程,以及更好地适应现代化食品品质管理原则提供了新的思路和方法。参照国标GB4789.2—2010和GB15982—1995测试方法,对市场上随机抽取的150份焙烤食品和75个空气及环节表面细菌的采样点,分别用纸片法和国标法进行比对试验。经统计分析,纸片法在食品和空气自然沉降菌检测中与传统的国标方法没有显著差异(p〉0.05),但在环节表面细菌菌落计数检测中与传统的国标方法差异显著(p〈0.05),所得计数结果明显高于传统国标法。%Try to find out the relativity between the new Petrifilm test and the traditional test through total bacteria count tested in food. The air and the surface areas which were very important quality control points in food manufacture. According to the test guideline from the standards GB 4789.2 and GB 15982, compare the total bacteria count difference in food, the air and the surface between the Petrifilm and the traditional methods. Based on the statistic analysis, in food hygiene test and air bacterial sampling test, the result from Petrifilm test was the same with the traditional test shows; in the surface bacterial sampling test, the results showed that the Petrifilm test was much better than the traditional ones.

  16. Automatic counting and classification of bacterial colonies using hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detection and counting of bacterial colonies on agar plates is a routine microbiology practice to get a rough estimate of the number of viable cells in a sample. There have been a variety of different automatic colony counting systems and software algorithms mainly based on color or gray-scale pictu...

  17. A Method for Assessing the Total Viable Count of Fresh Meat Based on Hyperspectral Scattering Technique%光学扩散特征的生鲜肉细菌总数的无损检测方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋育霖; 彭彦昆; 郭辉; 张雷蕾; 赵娟

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a hyperspectral imaging system to predict the bacteria total viable count in fresh pork .The hyperspectral scattering data were curvefitted by different fitting methods ,and correlation differences of models were compared based on the bacteria total viable count of fresh pork ,thus providing modeling basis of device for future study . Total 63 fresh pork samples which was used in the experiment were stored at 4 ℃ in the refrigerator of constant temperature . Experiment was performed everyday for 15 days .4 or 5 random samples were used each day for the experiment .Hyperspectral scattering images and spectral scattering optical data in the wavelength region of 400 to 1 100 nm were acquired from the surface of all of the pork samples .Lorentz and Gompertz function and the modified function was applied to fit the scattering profiles of pork samples .Different parameters could be obtained by Lorentz and Gompertz fitting and the modified function fitting .The dif-ferent parameters could represent the optical characteristic of the scattering profiles .The standard values of the bacteria total vi-able count of pork were obtained by classical microbiological plating methods .Because the standard value of the bacteria total via-ble count was big ,log10 of the bacteria total viable count obtained by classical microbiological plating was used to simplify the calculation .Both individual parameters and integrated parameters were explored to develop the models .The multi-linear regres-sion statistical approach was used to establish the models for predicting pork the bacteria total viable count .Both Lorentz and Gompertz function and the modified function included three and four parameters formula .The results showed that correlation co-efficient of the models is higher with Lorentz three parameters combination ,Lorentz four parameters combination and Gompertz four parameters combination than the individual parameters and other two or

  18. Experimental Study on a Certain Antenna′s Microchannel Cold-plates Machined by Two Techniques%两种工艺下某天线微通道冷板特性的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁夏

    2016-01-01

    目的 研究不同工艺下微通道冷板的特性及成因.方法 以实验研究为基础,对两种工艺方式(增材制造和真空钎焊)下的某天线微通道冷板进行流动和传热分析.另外,还使用CT技术对两种冷板的内部结构进行成像.结果 获得了冷板特性数据和内部成像图片.结论 分析表明,增材制造的微通道冷板具有良好的性能,具备工程应用的潜力.%Objective To study the characteristics of microchannel cold-plates machined by different techniques and analyze the corresponding cause of formation. Methods Based on experimental study, the features of flow and heat transfer of the microchannel cold-plates processed by material additive manufacturing and vacuum brazing were analyzed. In addition, CT technology was used to image the inner structures of the two types of microchannel cold-plates. Results The characteristics and inner images of the cold-plates were obtained. Conclusion The analysis results indicated that the microchannel cold-plates machined by material additive manufacturing had good performance and could be applied in engineering projects.

  19. The Big Pumpkin Count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coplestone-Loomis, Lenny

    1981-01-01

    Pumpkin seeds are counted after students convert pumpkins to jack-o-lanterns. Among the activities involved, pupils learn to count by 10s, make estimates, and to construct a visual representation of 1,000. (MP)

  20. 钢板-混凝土组合受弯加固梁疲劳性能试验研究%Experimental research on fatigue behavior of RC beams strengthened by steel plate-concrete composite technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂建国; 王宇航

    2011-01-01

    Based on fatigue experiments on eight RC beams strengthened by steel plate-concrete composite (SPCC) technique, fatigue life and variation trend of strain under constant amplitude fatigue loading were studied.The experimental results show that the fatigue failure mode of steel plate-concrete composite beam is fatigue failure of the steel plates.The initial fatigue crack in steel plates appears near the welded toe of stud and then expansion though.But different from general RC beams, the fatigue failure mode of specimens is ductile.Amplitude of stress in steel plate has most important influence on fatigue behavior of RC beams strengthened by SPCC technique.Level and amplitude of stress in steel plate should be controlled strictly in practical design and high strength steel and thin steel plate are not suitable for RC beams strengthened by SPCC technique.The pre-stress in steel plate can improve fatigue life of RC beams strengthened by SPCC technique.The S-N relation for tension steel plate welded with studs provided in ' Code for railway steel bridges design' is safe enough for the design of steel plates in RC beams strengthened by SPCC technique.The calculational method for fatigue life is proposed considering effects of stress level and stress amplitude.%通过对8根钢板-混凝土组合受弯加固简支梁(以下简称组合加固梁)的等幅疲劳加载试验,研究了组合加固梁在疲劳荷载作用下的寿命及应变变化规律.试验结果表明:组合加固梁的疲劳破坏是由钢板裂纹从栓钉焊趾处开始缓慢扩展直至贯通导致的,与普通钢筋混凝上梁相比,组合加固梁的疲劳破坏具有较好的延性;钢板应力幅对组合加同梁的疲劳性能影响较大,实际设计时应严格控制钢板的应力幅和应力上限,不宜采用高强钢材和较薄的钢板;加固层预应力可有效提高组合加固梁的疲劳性能;按TB 10002.2-2005中规定的焊有栓钉的受拉钢板的S-N关系对钢板-混凝

  1. Making environmental DNA count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Ryan P

    2016-01-01

    The arc of reception for a new technology or method--like the reception of new information itself--can pass through predictable stages, with audiences' responses evolving from 'I don't believe it', through 'well, maybe' to 'yes, everyone knows that' to, finally, 'old news'. The idea that one can sample a volume of water, sequence DNA out of it, and report what species are living nearby has experienced roughly this series of responses among biologists, beginning with the microbial biologists who developed genetic techniques to reveal the unseen microbiome. 'Macrobial' biologists and ecologists--those accustomed to dealing with species they can see and count--have been slower to adopt such molecular survey techniques, in part because of the uncertain relationship between the number of recovered DNA sequences and the abundance of whole organisms in the sampled environment. In this issue of Molecular Ecology Resources, Evans et al. (2015) quantify this relationship for a suite of nine vertebrate species consisting of eight fish and one amphibian. Having detected all of the species present with a molecular toolbox of six primer sets, they consistently find DNA abundances are associated with species' biomasses. The strength and slope of this association vary for each species and each primer set--further evidence that there is no universal parameter linking recovered DNA to species abundance--but Evans and colleagues take a significant step towards being able to answer the next question audiences tend to ask: 'Yes, but how many are there?'

  2. Bayesian model selection techniques as decision support for shaping a statistical analysis plan of a clinical trial: An example from a vertigo phase III study with longitudinal count data as primary endpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrion Christine

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A statistical analysis plan (SAP is a critical link between how a clinical trial is conducted and the clinical study report. To secure objective study results, regulatory bodies expect that the SAP will meet requirements in pre-specifying inferential analyses and other important statistical techniques. To write a good SAP for model-based sensitivity and ancillary analyses involves non-trivial decisions on and justification of many aspects of the chosen setting. In particular, trials with longitudinal count data as primary endpoints pose challenges for model choice and model validation. In the random effects setting, frequentist strategies for model assessment and model diagnosis are complex and not easily implemented and have several limitations. Therefore, it is of interest to explore Bayesian alternatives which provide the needed decision support to finalize a SAP. Methods We focus on generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs for the analysis of longitudinal count data. A series of distributions with over- and under-dispersion is considered. Additionally, the structure of the variance components is modified. We perform a simulation study to investigate the discriminatory power of Bayesian tools for model criticism in different scenarios derived from the model setting. We apply the findings to the data from an open clinical trial on vertigo attacks. These data are seen as pilot data for an ongoing phase III trial. To fit GLMMs we use a novel Bayesian computational approach based on integrated nested Laplace approximations (INLAs. The INLA methodology enables the direct computation of leave-one-out predictive distributions. These distributions are crucial for Bayesian model assessment. We evaluate competing GLMMs for longitudinal count data according to the deviance information criterion (DIC or probability integral transform (PIT, and by using proper scoring rules (e.g. the logarithmic score. Results The instruments under study

  3. Guidelines for monitoring bulk tank milk somatic cell and bacterial counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayarao, B M; Pillai, S R; Sawant, A A; Wolfgang, D R; Hegde, N V

    2004-10-01

    This study was conducted to establish guidelines for monitoring bulk tank milk somatic cell count and bacterial counts, and to understand the relationship between different bacterial groups that occur in bulk tank milk. One hundred twenty-six dairy farms in 14 counties of Pennsylvania participated, each providing one bulk tank milk sample every 15 d for 2 mo. The 4 bulk tank milk samples from each farm were examined for bulk tank somatic cell count and bacterial counts including standard plate count, preliminary incubation count, laboratory pasteurization count, coagulase-negative staphylococcal count, environmental streptococcal count, coliform count, and gram-negative noncoliform count. The milk samples were also examined for presence of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Mycoplasma. The bacterial counts of 4 bulk tank milk samples examined over an 8-wk period were averaged and expressed as mean bacterial count per milliliter. The study revealed that an increase in the frequency of isolation of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae was significantly associated with an increased bulk tank somatic cell count. Paired correlation analysis showed that there was low correlation between different bacterial counts. Bulk tank milk with low (standard plate count also had a significantly low level of mean bulk tank somatic cell count (count (count (counts (count (count was less likely to be associated with somatic cell or other bacterial counts. Herd size and farm management practices had considerable influence on somatic cell and bacterial counts in bulk tank milk. Dairy herds that used automatic milking detachers, sand as bedding material, dip cups for teat dipping instead of spraying, and practiced pre-and postdipping had significantly lower bulk tank somatic cell and/or bacterial counts. In conclusion, categorized bulk tank somatic cell and bacterial counts could serve as indicators and facilitate monitoring of herd udder health and milk

  4. Evaluation of lugol solution used for counting rumen ciliates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta D'Agosto

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study proposes a modification of the technique described by PURSER & MOIR (1959 for the quantitative evaluation of rumen ciliate based on an adaptation described by DEHORITY (I984. The modifying process includes: the replacement of two drops of brilliant green dye, for at least four hours, by three drops of lugol solution, for at least 15 minutes. It was made a comparative evaluation of these stainings. It was concluded that lugol solution can replace the brilliant green dye showing the following advantages: staining time reduction and subsequent speeding of sample processing; evidence of skeletal plates of entodiniomorphs making its identification easier; improved observation of small ciliates and inconspicuous structures; improved total counting and generic identification of the ciliates.

  5. Immunological techniques as tools to characterize the subsurface microbial community at a trichloroethylene contaminated site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fliermans, C.B.; Dougherty, J.M.; Franck, M.M.; McKinzey, P.C.; Hazen, T.C.

    1992-12-31

    Effective in situ bioremediation strategies require an understanding of the effects pollutants and remediation techniques have on subsurface microbial communities. Therefore, detailed characterization of a site`s microbial communities is important. Subsurface sediment borings and water samples were collected from a trichloroethylene (TCE) contaminated site, before and after horizontal well in situ air stripping and bioventing, as well as during methane injection for stimulation of methane-utilizing microorganisms. Subsamples were processed for heterotrophic plate counts, acridine orange direct counts (AODC), community diversity, direct fluorescent antibodies (DFA) enumeration for several nitrogen-transforming bacteria, and Biolog {reg_sign} evaluation of enzyme activity in collected water samples. Plate counts were higher in near-surface depths than in the vadose zone sediment samples. During the in situ air stripping and bioventing, counts increased at or near the saturated zone, remained elevated throughout the aquifer, but did not change significantly after the air stripping. Sporadic increases in plate counts at different depths as well as increased diversity appeared to be linked to differing lithologies. AODCs were orders of magnitude higher than plate counts and remained relatively constant with depth except for slight increases near the surface depths and the capillary fringe. Nitrogen-transforming bacteria, as measured by serospecific DFA, were greatly affected both by the in situ air stripping and the methane injection. Biolog{reg_sign} activity appeared to increase with subsurface stimulation both by air and methane. The complexity of subsurface systems makes the use of selective monitoring tools imperative.

  6. Immunological techniques as tools to characterize the subsurface microbial community at a trichloroethylene contaminated site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fliermans, C.B.; Dougherty, J.M.; Franck, M.M.; McKinzey, P.C.; Hazen, T.C.

    1992-01-01

    Effective in situ bioremediation strategies require an understanding of the effects pollutants and remediation techniques have on subsurface microbial communities. Therefore, detailed characterization of a site's microbial communities is important. Subsurface sediment borings and water samples were collected from a trichloroethylene (TCE) contaminated site, before and after horizontal well in situ air stripping and bioventing, as well as during methane injection for stimulation of methane-utilizing microorganisms. Subsamples were processed for heterotrophic plate counts, acridine orange direct counts (AODC), community diversity, direct fluorescent antibodies (DFA) enumeration for several nitrogen-transforming bacteria, and Biolog [reg sign] evaluation of enzyme activity in collected water samples. Plate counts were higher in near-surface depths than in the vadose zone sediment samples. During the in situ air stripping and bioventing, counts increased at or near the saturated zone, remained elevated throughout the aquifer, but did not change significantly after the air stripping. Sporadic increases in plate counts at different depths as well as increased diversity appeared to be linked to differing lithologies. AODCs were orders of magnitude higher than plate counts and remained relatively constant with depth except for slight increases near the surface depths and the capillary fringe. Nitrogen-transforming bacteria, as measured by serospecific DFA, were greatly affected both by the in situ air stripping and the methane injection. Biolog[reg sign] activity appeared to increase with subsurface stimulation both by air and methane. The complexity of subsurface systems makes the use of selective monitoring tools imperative.

  7. 对GB 19301-2010《生乳》中蛋白质和菌落总数的指标验证和建议%Indexes verification of protein and aerobic plate count in GB 19301-2010 and its recommendations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡忠华; 李宏梁; 孙雯; 魏莉娟

    2014-01-01

    Objective To complete the project of GB 19301-2010, National Food Safety StandardRaw milk, tracking assessment.MethodTotally 111 raw milk and raw goat milk samples were collected from 7 Shaanxi dairy companies, including 51 samples in summer and 60 samples in winter, and GB 5009.5 and GB 4789.2 were used to measure the protein and aerobic plate count.ResultsThe protein content of all samples is qualified, and the measured values were not less than 3.6 g/100 g and 2.8 g/100 g in winter and summer, the protein content of 16 percent of raw goat milk in summer was 2.8 g/100 g which was just the protein limited value. Aerobic plate count in only 4 samples was more than 2.0×106 CFU/mL which was its limited value, and the measured values were less than 1.0×105 CFU/mL and 1.0×106 CFU/mL in winter and summer.Conclu-sion:The protein and aerobic plate count in raw milk were scientific and reasonable, and the protein limited value of raw goat milk in summer was recommended to be revised to 2.6 g/100 g.%目的:完成“GB 19301-2010《生乳》跟踪评价项目”。方法对陕西省7家乳企使用的原料生乳进行了7次采样,样本量为111份,其中夏季51份,冬季60份,采用GB 5009.5和GB 4789.2分别对样本中的蛋白质和菌落总数进行了测定。结果所有样本的蛋白质含量都是合格的,冬季、夏季生乳蛋白质含量分别均不低于3.6 g/100 g、2.8 g/100 g,其中16%的夏季生羊乳蛋白质检测值为2.8 g/100 g,是“生乳蛋白质指标”的界限值。所有样本中,只有夏季4份样本的菌落总数超过了2.0×106 CFU/mL 的指标界限值,冬季、夏季生乳菌落总数平均值分别低于1.0×105CFU/mL、1.0×106CFU/mL。结论GB 19301规定的生乳蛋白质、菌落总数指标值是科学合理的,建议将夏季生羊乳的蛋白质指标修订为≥2.6 g/100 g。

  8. Open reduction and internal fixation of OTA type C2-C4 fractures of the calcaneus with a triple-plate technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Alexander; Müller, Jochen; Regazzoni, Pietro; Babst, Reto

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to present a surgical technique of open reduction and internal fixation of displaced intra-articular calcaneal fractures with 3 AO mini-fragment plates and to evaluate the clinical and radiological outcome of a consecutive group of patients after a mean follow-up of 41.7 months. A series of 54 patients (16 women and 38 men) with 62 calcaneal fractures were treated over a period of 6.5 years. Forty-five patients with 50 calcaneal fractures were completely clinically and radiologically followed up. Clinical follow-up included assessment of range of motion, pain according to a visual analogue scale, the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society hindfoot score, and the short-form 36 health survey. Radiological follow-up included plain axial and lateral radiographs and measurement of the Böhler's angle and Gissane's angle. Independent Student's t test and paired Student's t test were used alongside the chi-square test to compare clinical and radiological data and score values between different groups of patients. Eleven patients showed breakage of the osteosynthesis material during the healing process and 2 patients sustained deep wound infection requiring revision surgery. At the final follow-up all fractures had healed. The average range of motion was supination 26.4° (range 0° to 50°; SD 11.6°), pronation 15.4° (range 0° to 30°; SD 6.4°), dorsal extension 14.3° (range -10° to 30°; SD 8.0°), and plantarflexion 39.6° (range 20° to 65°; SD 11.7°). Patients with OTA type C4 fractures achieved significantly lower supination (p fracture types. The mean visual analog scale pain score was 3.6 (range 0 to 8; SD 2.3) points, average American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society hindfoot score was 70.8 (range 33 to 100; SD 17.1) points, and the mean short-form 36 score was 60.98 (range 22.9 to 93.0; SD 18.4) points. The mean postoperative Böhler's angle was 28.9° (range 8° to 38°; SD 7.1°), which decreased to 23.6° (range 4

  9. Undercooling and nodule count in thin walled ductile iron castings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl Martin; Tiedje, Niels Skat

    2007-01-01

    Casting experiments have been performed with eutectic and hypereutectic castings with plate thick¬nesses from 2 to 8 mm involving both temperature measurements during solidification and micro¬structural examination afterwards. The nodule count was the same for the eutectic and hypereutectic...... castings in the thin plates ( 4.3 mm) while in the 8 mm plate the nodule count was higher in the hypereutectic than in the eutectic castings. The minimum temperature prior to the eutectic recalescence (Tmin) was 15 to 20C lower for the eutectic than the hypereutectic castings. This is due to nucleation...... of graphite nodules which begins at a lover temperature in the eutectic than in the hypereutectic castings The recalescence (Trec) was however also larger for the eutectic casting and in the thin plates the maximum temperature after recalescence (Tmax) was the same in the eutectic and hypereutectic plates...

  10. Undercooling and nodule count in thin walled ductile iron castings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl Martin; Tiedje, Niels Skat

    2007-01-01

    Casting experiments have been performed with eutectic and hypereutectic castings with plate thicknesses from 2 to 8 mm involving both temperature measurements during solidification and microstructural examination afterwards. The nodule count was the same for the eutectic and hypereutectic castings...... in the thin plates (≤4.3 mm) while in the 8 mm plate the nodule count was higher in the hypereutectic than in the eutectic castings. The minimum temperature before the eutectic recalescence (Tmin) was 15 to 20ºC lower for the eutectic than for the hypereutectic castings. This is due to nucleation of graphite...... nodules which begins at a lower temperature in the eutectic than in the hypereutectic castings. The recalescence ∆Trec was however also larger for the eutectic casting and in the thin plates the maximum temperature after recalescence (Tmax) was the same in the eutectic and hypereutectic plates...

  11. Plate shell structures of glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Anne

    . This modelling technique is used to model a plate shell structure with a span of 11.5 meters in the FE software \\textsc{Abaqus}. The structure is analyzed with six different connection details with varying stiffness characteristics, to investigate the influence of these characteristics on the structural effects...... University, a script has been developed for an automated generation of a given plate shell geometry and a corresponding finite element (FE) model. A suitable FE modelling technique is proposed, suggesting a relatively simple method of modelling the connection detail's stiffness characteristics....... Based on these investigations, and FE analysis of other plate shell models, the structural behaviour is described. Possible methods of estimating the stresses in a given plate shell structure are proposed. The non-linear behaviour of a plate shell structure is investigated for varying parameters...

  12. VersaCount: customizable manual tally software for cell counting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeRisi Joseph L

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The manual counting of cells by microscopy is a commonly used technique across biological disciplines. Traditionally, hand tally counters have been used to track event counts. Although this method is adequate, there are a number of inefficiencies which arise when managing large numbers of samples or large sample sizes. Results We describe software that mimics a traditional multi-register tally counter. Full customizability allows operation on any computer with minimal hardware requirements. The efficiency of counting large numbers of samples and/or large sample sizes is improved through the use of a "multi-count" register that allows single keystrokes to correspond to multiple events. Automatically updated multi-parameter values are implemented as user-specified equations, reducing errors and time required for manual calculations. The user interface was optimized for use with a touch screen and numeric keypad, eliminating the need for a full keyboard and mouse. Conclusions Our software provides an inexpensive, flexible, and productivity-enhancing alternative to manual hand tally counters.

  13. [Optimisation of the visualisation technique for optical paths through intraocular lenses for characterisation of multifocal imaging properties of Fresnel-zone plates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiß, S; Forbrig, J; Guthoff, R F; Terwee, T; Stolz, H; Siewert, S; El-Tamer, A; Hinze, U; Chichkov, B N; Stachs, O

    2014-12-01

    The utilisation of the diffractive properties of Fresnel zone plates offers the possibility of intraocular lens designs with multiple foci. Such intraocular lenses can be manufactured by two-photon polymerisation (2PP). This paper explains the underlying concept and shows the principles for visualisation of the focus properties of such implants.

  14. Progress in Research of Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducer Technique for the Plate-Like Structure Defect Detection%板状结构缺陷电磁超声导波检测技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘燕; 王悦民; 孙丰瑞; 申传俊

    2012-01-01

    The recent research advances in Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducer technique for the plate-ike structure defect detection were reviewed. An important introduction about progresses in Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducer Technique for the plate-like structure defect detection was given including lamb wave generation with EMAT, design and optimization of EMAT, ultrasonic guided wave focusing technique and imaging technique. Some direction or issues which should be further researched and its benefit for this technique to be popularized and applied were put out also.%概述了国内外板状结构缺陷电磁超声导波检测技术的研究进展。从激发兰姆波的电磁超声换能器(EMAT)技术、EMAT的优化设计、超声导波聚焦、EMAT接收信号超声波成像技术等方面,对板状结构缺陷无损检测技术取得的突破进行了评述。提出了有待进一步解决的问题。

  15. Anterior cervical plating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonugunta V

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Although anterior cervical instrumentation was initially used in cervical trauma, because of obvious benefits, indications for its use have been expanded over time to degenerative cases as well as tumor and infection of the cervical spine. Along with a threefold increase in incidence of cervical fusion surgery, implant designs have evolved over the last three decades. Observation of graft subsidence and phenomenon of stress shielding led to the development of the new generation dynamic anterior cervical plating systems. Anterior cervical plating does not conclusively improve clinical outcome of the patients, but certainly enhances the efficacy of autograft and allograft fusion and lessens the rate of pseudoarthrosis and kyphosis after multilevel discectomy and fusions. A review of biomechanics, surgical technique, indications, complications and results of various anterior cervical plating systems is presented here to enable clinicians to select the appropriate construct design.

  16. Measurement uncertainty evaluation of 3M PetrifilmTM aerobic count plate method for drinking water%生活饮用水3M PetrifilmTM菌落总数测试片法的不确定度评定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭和平; 叶德萍; 沈兴中; 唐祥凯; 王智

    2012-01-01

    对3M PetrifilmTM菌落总数测试片法检测生活饮用水中菌落总数的测量结果进行了不确定度评定,评述了引起测量结果不确定度的主要因素,对样品稀释及方法精密度因素进行了详细评价,并对单一样品重复测量10次及30个样品每个样品平行测量2次的两种情况,分别进行了重复性标准偏差评价.结果显示:单一样品重复测量时,测量结果的不确定度主要由样品稀释和重复性标准偏差引起,扩展不确定度U95为20 CFU/mL,k=2;多个样品每个样品平行测量2次时,测量结果的不确定度主要由重复性标准偏差引起,在95%的置信度时,扩展不确定度U(/lgxj)为0.093,k=2.75.%The aerobic plate count in drinking water was determined with 3M Petrifilm? Aerobic count plate, and their measurement uncertainties were evaluated in this study. Firstly, the main components of measurement uncertainty were discussed and analyzed. Then, two most important components, sample dilution and measurement precision were evaluated in detail. And for the precision, the authors evaluated two kinds of precision commonly used in routine work, the repeatability of 10 repeated measurements of single sample and those of double repeated measurements of thirty samples. Experimental results show the sample dilution affects the measurement uncertainty obviously for the case of single-sample test, and the standard deviation of repeated measurement is the most important source of uncertainty for that case and the case of multi -sample test. The expandeduncertainty f/95 was 20CFU/mL(A;=2) for the former case and the expanded uncertainty UilgXj ) was0.093 (k=2.75) for the latter when the degree of confidence is 95%.

  17. Health Physics counting room

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    The Health Physics counting room, where the quantity of induced radioactivity in materials is determined. This information is used to evaluate possible radiation hazards from the material investigated.

  18. Extending the range of low energy electron diffraction (LEED) surface structure determination: Co-adsorbed molecules, incommensurate overlayers and alloy surface order studied by new video and electron counting LEED techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogletree, D.F.

    1986-11-01

    LEED multiple scattering theory is briefly summarized, and aspects of electron scattering with particular significance to experimental measurements such as electron beam coherence, instrument response and phonon scattering are analyzed. Diffuse LEED experiments are discussed. New techniques that enhance the power of LEED are described, including a real-time video image digitizer applied to LEED intensity measurements, along with computer programs to generate I-V curves. The first electron counting LEED detector using a ''wedge and strip'' position sensitive anode and digital electronics is described. This instrument uses picoampere incident beam currents, and its sensitivity is limited only by statistics and counting times. Structural results on new classes of surface systems are presented. The structure of the c(4 x 2) phase of carbon monoxide adsorbed on Pt(111) has been determined, showing that carbon monoxide molecules adsorb in both top and bridge sites, 1.85 +- 0.10 A and 1.55 +- 0.10 A above the metal surface, respectively. The structure of an incommensurate graphite overlayer on Pt(111) is analyzed. The graphite layer is 3.70 +- 0.05 A above the metal surface, with intercalated carbon atoms located 1.25 +- 0.10 A above hollow sites supporting it. The (2..sqrt..3 x 4)-rectangular phase of benzene and carbon monoxide coadsorbed on Pt(111) is analyzed. Benzene molecules adsorb in bridge sites parallel to and 2.10 +- 0.10 A above the surface. The carbon ring is expanded, with an average C-C bond length of 1.72 +- 0.15 A. The carbon monoxide molecules also adsorb in bridge sites. The structure of the (..sqrt..3 x ..sqrt..3) reconstruction on the (111) face of the ..cap alpha..-CuAl alloy has been determined.

  19. Anarthria impairs subvocal counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubelli, R; Nichelli, P; Pentore, R

    1993-12-01

    We studied subvocal counting in two pure anarthric patients. Analysis showed that they performed definitively worse than normal subjects free to articulate subvocally and their scores were in the lower bounds of the performances of subjects suppressing articulation. These results suggest that subvocal counting is impaired after anarthria.

  20. Comparison and analysis of the aerobic plate count, coliforms, Escherichia coli ,enterobacteriaceae in national and international food safety standards%食品安全微生物学指示菌国内外标准应用的比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐进; 庞璐

    2011-01-01

    菌落总数、大肠菌群、大肠埃希菌、肠杆菌科作为食品安全微生物限量的指示菌在国内外标准中的应用不尽相同.本文通过比较我国与欧盟、澳大利亚、新西兰、加拿大和香港地区的相关食品指示菌标准,为制定我国的食品安全微生物标准提供技术依据.%As indicator organisms, standards for aerobic plate count, coliforms, Escherichia coli , enterobacteriaceae applied in each country were different. Based on the comparison and analysis of microbiological criteria of foods in Australia, New Zealand, European Communities, Canada and Hong Kong, recommendations and technical basis for the elaboration of general microbiological criteria of China' s national food safety standards were provided.

  1. Aerobic bacterial, coliform, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus counts of raw and processed milk from selected smallholder dairy farms of Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhone, Tryness A; Matope, Gift; Saidi, Petronella T

    2011-12-01

    A cross sectional study was conducted to enumerate total viable bacteria (TBC), coliforms, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus in raw (n=120) and processed (n=20) milk from individual farms from three smallholder dairy schemes of Zimbabwe between October, 2009 and February, 2010. Data on management factors were collected using a structured questionnaire. A standard pour plate technique was used to enumerate total viable bacteria, while for coliforms, E. coli and S. aureus, counts were assessed by the spread plate technique. The association of total viable bacterial counts and management factors was assessed using univariable and a linear regression model. The log₁₀ TBC for raw milk differed significantly (P0.05). The coliform, E. coli and S. aureus counts for raw milk significantly differed (Pcounts amongst the schemes could be attributed to differences in milking hygiene where farms with more access to training and monitoring of microbiological quality of milk had lower counts. Linear regression analysis revealed dairy scheme, delivery time and season of milking as independently associated with increased TBC of raw milk. The high TBC of raw and processed milk generally indicated low levels of milking hygienic practices, and high level of post-processing contamination, respectively. The high TBC, coliform, E. coli and S. aureus counts of both raw and processed milk may present a public health hazard. Thus, educating the farmers on general hygienic practices, quickening the delivery of milk to collection centres, or availing cooling facilities on-farm will improve the microbiological quality and safety of milk.

  2. Comparison of sensitivity and faecal egg counts of Mini-FLOTAC using fixed stool samples and Kato-Katz technique for the diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni and soil-transmitted helminths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulibaly, Jean T; Ouattara, Mamadou; Becker, Sören L; Lo, Nathan C; Keiser, Jennifer; N'Goran, Eliézer K; Ianniello, Davide; Rinaldi, Laura; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Utzinger, Jürg

    2016-12-01

    faecal egg counts (FECs) than the Kato-Katz technique. We found a significant correlation in FECs between Kato-Katz and Mini-FLOTAC for S. mansoni and T. trichiura. We conclude that Mini-FLOTAC shows reasonable diagnostic accuracy when using stool samples fixed in SAF for 3 months, and may be an alternative to multiple Kato-Katz thick smears. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Electrochemical Assay of Gold-Plating Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiodo, R.

    1982-01-01

    Gold content of plating solution is assayed by simple method that required only ordinary electrochemical laboratory equipment and materials. Technique involves electrodeposition of gold from solution onto electrode, the weight gain of which is measured. Suitable fast assay methods are economically and practically necessary in electronics and decorative-plating industries. If gold content in plating bath is too low, poor plating may result, with consequent economic loss to user.

  4. High Reproducibility of ELISPOT Counts from Nine Different Laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srividya Sundararaman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary goal of immune monitoring with ELISPOT is to measure the number of T cells, specific for any antigen, accurately and reproducibly between different laboratories. In ELISPOT assays, antigen-specific T cells secrete cytokines, forming spots of different sizes on a membrane with variable background intensities. Due to the subjective nature of judging maximal and minimal spot sizes, different investigators come up with different numbers. This study aims to determine whether statistics-based, automated size-gating can harmonize the number of spot counts calculated between different laboratories. We plated PBMC at four different concentrations, 24 replicates each, in an IFN-γ ELISPOT assay with HCMV pp65 antigen. The ELISPOT plate, and an image file of the plate was counted in nine different laboratories using ImmunoSpot® Analyzers by (A Basic Count™ relying on subjective counting parameters set by the respective investigators and (B SmartCount™, an automated counting protocol by the ImmunoSpot® Software that uses statistics-based spot size auto-gating with spot intensity auto-thresholding. The average coefficient of variation (CV for the mean values between independent laboratories was 26.7% when counting with Basic Count™, and 6.7% when counting with SmartCount™. Our data indicates that SmartCount™ allows harmonization of counting ELISPOT results between different laboratories and investigators.

  5. Development of New Drummed Nuclear Waste Neutron Counting System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU; Li-qun; XU; Xiao-ming; BAI; Lei; LI; Xin-jun; GU; Shao-gang; HE; Li-xia; WANG; Mian

    2012-01-01

    <正>The development of a new neutron counting system (Fig. 1) for 200 L drummed radioactive waste measurement has been accomplished in this year. This waste neutron counting system is mainly used for solid radioactive waste classification. It is based on the passive neutron counting technique. The amount of radionuclide contained in the waste is

  6. 插入钢板技术在治疗胫骨下段开放性骨折中的运用疗效%Curative Effect of Plate Insertion Technique in Treatment of Open Fracture of Distal Tibia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周刚

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the feasibility of plate insertion technique in the treatment of open fracture of distal tibia. Methods 53 patients with open fracture of distal tibia were treated with plate insertion technique. Curative effects were evaluated according to operation time, blood loss, healing of incision, and fracture healing. Results Of all the 53 patients, average operation time and median intraoperative blood loss was 40 min and 150 ml. 50 cases of incision healing for class a grade, 3 case incision around lo-cal scabby, not for special treatment, take out stitches on time, incision healed smoothly. Conclusion The curative effect of plate insertion technique in the treatment of open fracture of distal tibia is obvious.%目的:探讨在胫骨下段开放性骨折患者中应用插入钢板技术的可行性。方法53例胫骨下段开放性骨折患者采用插入钢板技术,通过统计手术时间、出血量;观察切口愈合、骨折愈合四个方面来进行疗效评估。结果53例患者手术时间平均40 min,术中失血量平均150 mL;50例切口愈合等级为甲级,3例切口周围局部结痂,未进行特殊治疗,按时拆线,切口顺利愈合。结论插入钢板技术在胫骨下段开放性骨折的治疗中具备相当的疗效。

  7. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A A A Listen En Español Create Your Plate Create Your Plate is a simple and effective ... and that your options are endless. Create Your Plate! Click on the plate sections below to add ...

  8. High-resolution neutron microtomography with noiseless neutron counting detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tremsin, A.S., E-mail: ast@ssl.berkeley.edu [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); McPhate, J.B.; Vallerga, J.V.; Siegmund, O.H.W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Feller, W.B. [Nova Scientific Inc., 10 Picker Road, Sturbridge, MA 01566 (United States); Lehmann, E. [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Butler, L.G. [Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Dawson, M. [Helmholtz Centre Berlin for Materials and Energy (Germany)

    2011-10-01

    The improved collimation and intensity of thermal and cold neutron beamlines combined with recent advances in neutron imaging devices enable high-resolution neutron radiography and microtomography, which can provide information on the internal structure of objects not achievable with conventional X-ray imaging techniques. Neutron detection efficiency, spatial and temporal resolution (important for the studies of dynamic processes) and low background count rate are among the crucial parameters defining the quality of radiographic images and tomographic reconstructions. The unique capabilities of neutron counting detectors with neutron-sensitive microchannel plates (MCPs) and with Timepix CMOS readouts providing high neutron detection efficiency ({approx}70% for cold neutrons), spatial resolutions ranging from 15 to 55 {mu}m and a temporal resolution of {approx}1 {mu}s-combined with the virtual absence of readout noise-make these devices very attractive for high-resolution microtomography. In this paper we demonstrate the capabilities of an MCP-Timepix detection system applied to microtomographic imaging, performed at the ICON cold neutron facility of the Paul Scherrer Institute. The high resolution and the absence of readout noise enable accurate reconstruction of texture in a relatively opaque wood sample, differentiation of internal tissues of a fly and imaging of individual {approx}400 {mu}m grains in an organic powder encapsulated in a {approx}700 {mu}m thick metal casing.

  9. 1996 : Track Count Protocol

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The goal of St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge's Track Count Protocol is to provide an index to the population size of game animals inhabiting St. Vincent Island.

  10. Blood Count Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your blood contains red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), and platelets. Blood count tests measure the number and types of cells in your blood. This helps doctors check on your overall health. ...

  11. Analog multivariate counting analyzers

    CERN Document Server

    Nikitin, A V; Armstrong, T P

    2003-01-01

    Characterizing rates of occurrence of various features of a signal is of great importance in numerous types of physical measurements. Such signal features can be defined as certain discrete coincidence events, e.g. crossings of a signal with a given threshold, or occurrence of extrema of a certain amplitude. We describe measuring rates of such events by means of analog multivariate counting analyzers. Given a continuous scalar or multicomponent (vector) input signal, an analog counting analyzer outputs a continuous signal with the instantaneous magnitude equal to the rate of occurrence of certain coincidence events. The analog nature of the proposed analyzers allows us to reformulate many problems of the traditional counting measurements, and cast them in a form which is readily addressed by methods of differential calculus rather than by algebraic or logical means of digital signal processing. Analog counting analyzers can be easily implemented in discrete or integrated electronic circuits, do not suffer fro...

  12. Housing Inventory Count

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This report displays the data communities reported to HUD about the nature of their dedicated homeless inventory, referred to as their Housing Inventory Count (HIC)....

  13. Allegheny County Traffic Counts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Traffic sensors at over 1,200 locations in Allegheny County collect vehicle counts for the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation. Data included in the Health...

  14. Liquid Scintillation Counting

    OpenAIRE

    Carlsson, Sten

    1993-01-01

    In liquid scintillation counting (LSC) we use the process of luminescense to detect ionising radiation emit$ed from a radionuclide. Luminescense is emission of visible light of nonthermal origin. 1t was early found that certain organic molecules have luminescent properties and such molecules are used in LSC. Today LSC is the mostwidespread method to detect pure beta-ernitters like tritium and carbon-14. 1t has unique properties in its efficient counting geometry, deteetability and the lack of...

  15. Counting curves on surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we consider an elementary, and largely unexplored, combinatorial problem in low-dimensional topology. Consider a real 2-dimensional compact surface $S$, and fix a number of points $F$ on its boundary. We ask: how many configurations of disjoint arcs are there on $S$ whose boundary is $F$? We find that this enumerative problem, counting curves on surfaces, has a rich structure. For instance, we show that the curve counts obey an effective recursion, in the general framework of to...

  16. Counting RG flows

    OpenAIRE

    Gukov, Sergei

    2016-01-01

    Interpreting renormalization group flows as solitons interpolating between different fixed points, we ask various questions that are normally asked in soliton physics but not in renormalization theory. Can one count RG flows? Are there different "topological sectors" for RG flows? What is the moduli space of an RG flow, and how does it compare to familiar moduli spaces of (supersymmetric) dowain walls? Analyzing these questions in a wide variety of contexts --- from counting RG walls to AdS/C...

  17. High-frequency techniques for RCS prediction of plate geometries and a physical optics/equivalent currents model for the RCS of trihedral corner reflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balanis, Constantine A.; Polka, Lesley A.; Polycarpou, Anastasis C.

    1993-01-01

    Part 1 of this report continues the investigation, initiated in previous reports, of scattering from rectangular plates coated with lossy dielectrics. The hard polarization coefficients given in the last report are incorporated into a model, which includes second- and third-order diffractions, for the coated plate. Computed results from this model are examined and compared to measured data. A breakdown of the contribution of each of the higher-order terms to the total radar cross section (RCS) is given. The effectiveness of the uniform theory of diffraction (UTD) model in accounting for the coating effect is investigated by examining a Physical Optics (PO) model which incorporates the equivalent surface impedance approximation used in the UTD model. The PO, UTD, and experimental results are compared. Part 2 of this report presents a RCS model, based on PO and the Method of Equivalent Currents (MEC), for a trihedral corner reflector. PO is used to account for the reflected fields, while MEC is used for the diffracted fields. Single, double, and triple reflections and first-order diffractions are included in the model. A detailed derivation of the E(sub theta)-polarization, monostatic RCS is included. Computed results are compared with finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) results for validation. The PO/MEC model of this report compares very well with the FDTD model, and it is a much faster model in terms of computational speed.

  18. 42号CNTT板式道岔铺设施工技术%Construction Techniques for Laying No.42 CNNT Plate-Type Switches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    帅建兵

    2012-01-01

    42号CNTT板式道岔由转辙器、连接段和辙叉三部分组成,线形为复合曲线,具有容许通过速度高、高安全性等特点。以京沪高速铁路徐州东站42号CNTT板式道岔铺设施工为依托,介绍了道岔铺设的工艺流程、钢轨焊接及精调方法,为今后同类工程施工提供了良好的借鉴。%The No.42 CNTT Plate-type Switch is made up of a switch,a connective section and some frogs.With the characteristics of allowing high-speed passage,being high in safety,etc.,the linearity of the switch is of the multi-curve linearity.With the laying construction of the No.42 CNTT Plate-type Switch at the Xuzhou East Station of the Beijing-Shanghai High-speed Railway as a practical example,the construction processes for laying the switch,the rail-welding and fine-rail-adjustment methods are introduced in the paper,which may serve as a good reference for the construction of other similar projects in the future.

  19. Preparation of actinide targets by molecular plating for coulomb excitation studies at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Greene, J P; Ahmad, I

    1999-01-01

    Molecular plating is now routinely used to prepare sources and targets of actinide elements. Although the technique is simple and fairly reproducible, because of the radioactive nature of the targets, it is very useful to record various parameters in the preparation process. At Argonne, approx 200 mu g/cm sup 2 thick targets of Pu and Cm were required for Coulomb Excitation (COULEX) studies with the Argonne-Notre Dame boron germanate (BGO) gamma-ray facility and later with the GAMMASPHERE. These targets were plated on 50 mg/cm sup 2 Au backings and were covered with 150 mu g/cm sup 2 Au foil. Targets of sup 2 sup 3 sup 9 Pu, sup 2 sup 4 sup 0 Pu, sup 2 sup 4 sup 2 Pu, sup 2 sup 4 sup 4 Pu and sup 2 sup 4 sup 8 Cm were prepared by dissolving the material in isopropyl alcohol and electroplating the actinide ions by applying 600 V. The amount of these materials on the target was determined by alpha particle counting and gamma-ray counting. Details of the molecular plating and counting will be discussed.

  20. Roll-forming tubes to header plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, K.

    1976-01-01

    Technique has been developed for attaching and sealing tubes to header plates using a unique roll-forming tool. Technique is useful for attaching small tubes which are difficult to roll into conventional grooves in header plate tube holes, and for attaching when welding, brazing, or soldering is not desirable.

  1. Implementación de dos métodos de recuento en placa para la detección de colifagos somáticos, aportes a las metodologías estándar Implementation of two plate count methods for detection of somatic coliphages and contributions to the standard methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Solano Barquero

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Los métodos de recuento en placa capa doble y capa simple de agar, para la cuantificación de colifagos so-máticos en aguas, fueron implementados utilizando como base metodologías estándar. Diferentes variables fueron ensayadas, lo cual permitió la precisión en algunos pasos no incluidos en metodologías estándares. De los hallazgos de mayor importancia, se exponen las consecuencias de utilizar un cultivo de Escherichia coliexcesivamente concentrado y se describe la obtención de un cultivo en fase logarítmica en solo 4 horas de incubación, ajustando la concentración a una densidad óptica de 0,3 a 600nm (3,1 x 10 8 UFC/ mL, o a un McFarland 1 (3,0 x108 UFC/ mL. Se determinó que los controles de colifagos deben ser almacenados a -70 °C para reducir su degradación y que se deben evitar cantidades superiores a 20 mL de mezcla de reacción por plato de Petri, para reducir las burbujas que pueden interferir con la lectura de unidades formadoras de placas (UFP. Se demostró que los colifagos de las muestras de agua pueden almacenarse 48 horas a 4 °C sin que sufran degradación y que en las muestras con altas concentraciones de colifagos no se observa UFP porque se da una lisis confluente de la capa bacteriana. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en la recuperación de colifagos al utilizar un método u otro, pero dichos métodos deben ser evaluados por medio de controles, antes de aplicarlos directamente en el análisis de muestras de agua.Two plate count methods, double layer and single layer of agar for quantification of somatic coliphages in water, were implemented using standard methodologies. Several variables were tested and provided valuable information that was not included in standard methodologies. The most important findings are described, such as the effect of using an excessively concentrated culture of E. coliand production of a log phase culture in only 4 hours of incubation, adjusting the concentration to an

  2. The comparing study of TEMPO/TVC method for determination of aerobic plate count with national food safety standard method in foods%TEMPO/TVC法与国标方法测定食品中菌落总数的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨红; 凌秀梅; 李俊霞; 周浩; 邓堃; 叶梅; 万渝平

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To confirm the detecting property of TEMPO/TVC method in foods. [Methods] TEMPO/TVC method compared with national food safety standard GB4789.2 aerobic plate count method in foods, including cooked meat products, convenience food, quick-frozen food, puffed food, candy, pastry, condiment. [Results] The results of TEMPO/TVC method and national food safety standard method showed good agreement; and the P value was greater than 0.05, no significance difference between the two methods. [Conclusion] TEMPO/TVC method is a rapid and accurate method, worthy of promoting in routine examination.%[目的]确证TEMPO/TVC计数食品中菌落总数的检测性能.[方法]使用TEMPO/TVC法和国标方法GB4789.2对熟肉制品、方便食品、速冻食品、膨化食品、糖果、糕点、调味品7类食品进行菌落总数测定.[结果]TEMPO/TVC法和国标方法检测食品中菌落总数的检测结果一致性较好(符合率95.4%);且两种方法检测7类食品样品的检测结果P值均大于0.05,无显著性差异.[结论]TEMPO/TVC法具有操作简便、快速、高效和人为误差小的特点,在日常检测中值得推广应用.

  3. Photon counting digital holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoli, Nazif; Skenderović, Hrvoje; Stipčević, Mario; Pavičić, Mladen

    2016-05-01

    Digital holography uses electronic sensors for hologram recording and numerical method for hologram reconstruction enabling thus the development of advanced holography applications. However, in some cases, the useful information is concealed in a very wide dynamic range of illumination intensities and successful recording requires an appropriate dynamic range of the sensor. An effective solution to this problem is the use of a photon-counting detector. Such detectors possess counting rates of the order of tens to hundreds of millions counts per second, but conditions of recording holograms have to be investigated in greater detail. Here, we summarize our main findings on this problem. First, conditions for optimum recording of digital holograms for detecting a signal significantly below detector's noise are analyzed in terms of the most important holographic measures. Second, for time-averaged digital holograms, optimum recordings were investigated for exposures shorter than the vibration cycle. In both cases, these conditions are studied by simulations and experiments.

  4. Digital coincidence counting - initial results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, K. S. A.; Watt, G. C.; Alexiev, D.; van der Gaast, H.; Davies, J.; Mo, Li; Wyllie, H. A.; Keightley, J. D.; Smith, D.; Woods, M. J.

    2000-08-01

    Digital Coincidence Counting (DCC) is a new technique in radiation metrology, based on the older method of analogue coincidence counting. It has been developed by the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), in collaboration with the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) of the United Kingdom, as a faster more reliable means of determining the activity of ionising radiation samples. The technique employs a dual channel analogue-to-digital converter acquisition system for collecting pulse information from a 4π beta detector and an NaI(Tl) gamma detector. The digitised pulse information is stored on a high-speed hard disk and timing information for both channels is also stored. The data may subsequently be recalled and analysed using software-based algorithms. In this letter we describe some recent results obtained with the new acquistion hardware being tested at ANSTO. The system is fully operational and is now in routine use. Results for 60Co and 22Na radiation activity calibrations are presented, initial results with 153Sm are also briefly mentioned.

  5. 盐度对稀释平板法研究红树林区土壤微生物数量的影响%Effect of salinity on microbial densities of soil in the dilution plate technique applied in mangrove areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑜斌; 林鹏; 魏小勇; 庄铁诚

    2008-01-01

    When the soil microbial densities are determined in mangroves and corresponding mudflat at the same tidal level by the dilution plate method, the agar media and dilution water are generally made up of aged seawater in most cases, and effects of salinity in agar media and dilution water on the enumeration of microbes is seldom taken into consideration. The effects of salinity on soil microbial counting from the samples in mangrove areas in Jiulongjiang Estuary of Fujian, and Futian Mangrove Nature Reserve of Shenzhen, China, were tested by dilution plate technique. The results showed that the soil microbial densities in mangroves and mudflat were significantly influenced by the salinity of dilution water and agar media. For the bacteria, the seawater served as sterilized dilution water was significantly (P<0.05) more benefic to the enumeration on the plates than the freshwater, but in reverse for the actinomycetes and fungi. The increasing salinity of media within 35 significantly decreased microbial colonies on the plates, especially for the actinomycetes, in spite of the fact that the effect of salinity of media on fungal numbers was not indefinite. The bacterial colonies were more abundant on the agar plates with low salinity than with high salinity or without any NaCl. It was proposed that some methodological improvements were needed when the dilution plate technique was applied to microbial counting in the samples of mangrove forest and mudflat at the same tidal level in inter-tidal zone. The sterilized dilution water should be prepared with seawater for the bacteria, but with freshwater or low saline water for the actinomycetes and fungi. The salinity of agar media should be low for the microbial isolation and enumeration of soil samples from the mangrove areas including mudflats.%在使用稀释平板法分离潮间带红树林及其对照光滩土壤微生物以及计数时,多数情况下使用陈海水制作培养基和稀释水,很少考虑培养基和

  6. Study on advancement of in vivo counting using mathematical simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Kinase, S

    2003-01-01

    To obtain an assessment of the committed effective dose, individual monitoring for the estimation of intakes of radionuclides is required. For individual monitoring of exposure to intakes of radionuclides, direct measurement of radionuclides in the body - in vivo counting- is very useful. To advance in a precision in vivo counting which fulfills the requirements of ICRP 1990 recommendations, some problems, such as the investigation of uncertainties in estimates of body burdens by in vivo counting, and the selection of the way to improve the precision, have been studied. In the present study, a calibration technique for in vivo counting application using Monte Carlo simulation was developed. The advantage of the technique is that counting efficiency can be obtained for various shapes and sizes that are very difficult to change for phantoms. To validate the calibration technique, the response functions and counting efficiencies of a whole-body counter installed in JAERI were evaluated using the simulation and m...

  7. What Counts as Evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty Stahl, Katherine A.

    2014-01-01

    Each disciplinary community has its own criteria for determining what counts as evidence of knowledge in their academic field. The criteria influence the ways that a community's knowledge is created, communicated, and evaluated. Situating reading, writing, and language instruction within the content areas enables teachers to explicitly…

  8. Reticulocyte Count Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may be ordered when: CBC results show a decreased RBC count and/or a decreased hemoglobin and hematocrit A healthcare practitioner wants to ... and hematocrit, to help determine the degree and rate of overproduction of RBCs ... during pregnancy . Newborns have a higher percentage of reticulocytes, but ...

  9. What Counts as Prostitution?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart P. Green

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available What counts, or should count, as prostitution? In the criminal law today, prostitution is understood to involve the provision of sexual services in exchange for money or other benefits. But what exactly is a ‘sexual service’? And what exactly is the nature of the required ‘exchange’? The key to answering these questions is to recognize that how we choose to define prostitution will inevitably depend on why we believe one or more aspects of prostitution are wrong or harmful, or should be criminalized or otherwise deterred, in the first place. These judgements, in turn, will often depend on an assessment of the contested empirical evidence on which they rest. This article describes a variety of real-world contexts in which the ‘what counts as prostitution’ question has arisen, surveys a range of leading rationales for deterring prostitution, and demonstrates how the answer to the definition question depends on the answer to the normative question. The article concludes with some preliminary thoughts on how analogous questions about what should count as sexual conduct arise in the context of consensual offences such as adultery and incest, as well as non-consensual offences such as sexual assault.

  10. The concept of locking plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronier, P; Pietu, G; Dujardin, C; Bigorre, N; Ducellier, F; Gerard, R

    2010-05-01

    After a short historical review of locking bone plates since their inception more than a century ago to the success of the concept less than 15 years ago with today's plates, the authors present the main locking mechanisms in use. In the two broad categories - plates with fixed angulation and those with variable angulation - the screw head is locked in the plate with a locknut by screwing in a threaded chamber on the plate or by screwing through an adapted ring. The authors then provide a concrete explanation, based on simple mechanical models, of the fundamental differences between conventional bone plates and locking plates and why a locking screw system presents greater resistance at disassembly, detailing the role played by the position and number of screws. The advantages of epiphyseal fixation are then discussed, including in cases of mediocre-quality bone. For teaching purposes, the authors also present assembly with an apple fixed with five locking screws withstanding a 47-kg axial load with no resulting disassembly. The principles of plate placement are detailed for both the epiphysis and diaphysis, including the number and position of screws and respect of the soft tissues, with the greatest success assured by the minimally invasive and even percutaneous techniques. The authors then present the advantages of locking plates in fixation of periprosthetic fractures where conventional osteosynthesis often encounters limited success. Based on simplified theoretical cases, the economic impact in France of this type of implant is discussed, showing that on average it accounts for less than 10% of the overall cost of this pathology to society. Finally, the possible problems of material ablation are discussed as well as the means to remediate these problems.

  11. Microbial contamination in intraoral phosphor storage plates: the dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Tricia Murielly Pereira Andrade; de Castro, Ricardo Dias; de Vasconcelos, Laís César; Pontual, Andréa Dos Anjos; de Moraes Ramos Perez, Flávia Maria; Pontual, Maria Luiza Dos Anjos

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate microbial contamination in phosphor storage plates in dental radiology services and discuss the possible origin of this contamination. The sample comprised 50 phosphor plates: 14 plates from service A, 30 from service B, and 6 in the control group, consisting of plates never used. Damp sterile swabs were rubbed on the phosphor plates, and then transferred to tests tubes containing sterile saline solution. Serial dilutions were made, and then inoculated in triplicate on Mueller Hinton agar plates and incubated at 37 °C/48 h, before counting the colony-forming units (CFU). The samples were also seeded in brain-heart infusion medium to confirm contamination by turbidity of the culture medium. All solutions, turbid and clean, were seeded in selective and non-selective media. At service A and B, 50 and 73.3 % of the phosphor plates were contaminated, respectively. This contamination was mainly due to bacteria of the genus Staphylococcus. CFU counts ranged from 26.4 to 80.0 CFU/plate. Most of the phosphor plates evaluated shown to be contaminated, mainly by Staphylococcus ssp. Quantitatively, this contamination occurred at low levels, possibly arising from handling of the plates. The use of a second plastic barrier may have diminished contamination by microorganisms from the oral cavity. There is a risk of cross-contamination by phosphor storage plates used in dental radiology services.

  12. Trans-syndesmotic fibular plating for fractures of the distal tibia and fibula with medial soft tissue injury: report of 6 cases and description of surgical technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciadini, Marcus F; Manson, Theodore T; Shah, Swapnil B

    2013-03-01

    This report presents a retrospective review of several cases of distal fractures of the tibia and fibula with significant injury to the medial soft tissues treated either primarily or in staged fashion with fixed-angle trans-syndesmotic fixation. This fixation strategy was used in an effort to minimize further surgical trauma and implant load in the zone of soft tissue injury. Ten patients were identified between September 2002 and November 2010 who presented to a level I trauma center with fractures of the distal tibia and fibula associated with open medial wounds (9 patients) or extensive closed medial degloving injury (1 patient). They were all treated with trans-syndesmotic plating of the distal fibula. Two patients were lost to follow-up after initial treatment, and an additional 2 patients had follow-up durations of only 6.5 and 3 months, respectively. This left 6 patients with an average of 23.3 months of follow-up (range: 14-36 months). Radiographs and medical records were reviewed, and clinical and radiographic results were evaluated. All 6 patients had radiographic evidence of bony healing and had resumed weight bearing. Two patients required additional bone graft surgery to encourage healing, 1 of whom also required free-flap coverage as a component of the nonunion repair. One patient resumed weight bearing earlier than instructed and experienced mild but acceptable loss of reduction. No patients developed wound infections of either the medial traumatic or lateral surgical wounds, although, as noted above, 1 of the patients with a nonunion required medial free-flap coverage as a component of the nonunion repair because of incompetent medial soft tissues. Trans-syndesmotic fixation has previously been described as providing enhanced fixation of diabetic and osteoporotic ankle fractures but has not, to our knowledge, been described for the treatment of higher energy traumatic injuries. Specifically, the valgus distal tibial fracture, frequently associated

  13. Development Trends of Continuous Selective Gold Plating Techniques for Connectors%接插件端子连续选择性镀金工艺的发展趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张荣光; 黄皓

    2011-01-01

    The development of continuous selective gold plating technology for connectors is focused on the improvement of gold layer quality and reducing of production cost. In the pretrearment process, the application of chemical or electrochemical polishing and pre-plating techniques could enhance the brightness and the appearance of connector surface. Meanwhile, new-style barrier layer and combined different barrier layers could reduce the pore density, and then increase the density of barrier layer so as to prevent the diffusion between substrate and gold layer. Finally the addition of new additives, discoloration protective agents and environment-friendly material-gold potassium citrate instead of toxic gold potassium cyanide in gold-plating techniques were introduced.%接插件端子连续选择性镀金工艺技术的发展趋势,主要是围绕提高镀金层技术质量,降低镀金成本.介绍了在端子镀金前处理工序中,增加化学抛光或电化学抛光以及预镀工艺等,提高端子基材表面光亮度,来改善镀金层的外观质量.开发新的镀金中间阻挡层和应用中间阻挡层组合工艺技术,减少镀金中间阻挡层孔隙,提高阻挡层致密性.防止铜合金基材金属扩散迁移到镀金层表面.介绍了镀金新添加剂应用,如防沉积(置换)的微酸性镀金、自封孔的微酸性镀金、钴合金镀金工艺等.应用防变色保护剂降低镀金层厚度.介绍了应用环保新材料丙尔金替代有毒氰化亚金钾镀金工艺.

  14. The technique of detecting the laser-ultrasonic vector displacement with a confocal Fabry-Perot interferometer waves in a plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Yongdong; QIAN Menglu

    2003-01-01

    Generally, a confocal Fabry-Perot interferometer is only able to detect the out-of-plane component of a displacement field; while the in-plane component often has the information about the material which cannot be found in this out-of-plane component. In this paper, based on a confocal Fabry-Perot interferometer set-up for detecting the out-of-plane component of a laser generated acoustic field, a technique is developed to detect both the out-of-plane and inplane displacement components simultaneously with a novel two-channel confocal Fabry-Perot interferometer.

  15. Effusion plate using additive manufacturing methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Thomas Edward; Keener, Christopher Paul; Ostebee, Heath Michael; Wegerif, Daniel Gerritt

    2016-04-12

    Additive manufacturing techniques may be utilized to construct effusion plates. Such additive manufacturing techniques may include defining a configuration for an effusion plate having one or more internal cooling channels. The manufacturing techniques may further include depositing a powder into a chamber, applying an energy source to the deposited powder, and consolidating the powder into a cross-sectional shape corresponding to the defined configuration. Such methods may be implemented to construct an effusion plate having one or more channels with a curved cross-sectional geometry.

  16. Effusion plate using additive manufacturing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Thomas Edward; Keener, Christopher Paul; Ostebee, Heath Michael; Wegerif, Daniel Gerritt

    2016-04-12

    Additive manufacturing techniques may be utilized to construct effusion plates. Such additive manufacturing techniques may include defining a configuration for an effusion plate having one or more internal cooling channels. The manufacturing techniques may further include depositing a powder into a chamber, applying an energy source to the deposited powder, and consolidating the powder into a cross-sectional shape corresponding to the defined configuration. Such methods may be implemented to construct an effusion plate having one or more channels with a curved cross-sectional geometry.

  17. Photon counting compressive depth mapping

    CERN Document Server

    Howland, Gregory A; Ware, Matthew R; Howell, John C

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate a compressed sensing, photon counting lidar system based on the single-pixel camera. Our technique recovers both depth and intensity maps from a single under-sampled set of incoherent, linear projections of a scene of interest at ultra-low light levels around 0.5 picowatts. Only two-dimensional reconstructions are required to image a three-dimensional scene. We demonstrate intensity imaging and depth mapping at 256 x 256 pixel transverse resolution with acquisition times as short as 3 seconds. We also show novelty filtering, reconstructing only the difference between two instances of a scene. Finally, we acquire 32 x 32 pixel real-time video for three-dimensional object tracking at 14 frames-per-second.

  18. Low noise and conductively cooled microchannel plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, W. B.

    1990-01-01

    Microchannel plate (MCP) dynamic range has recently been enhanced for both very low and very high input flux conditions. Improvements in MCP manufacturing technology reported earlier have led to MCPs with substantially reduced radioisotope levels, giving dramatically lower internal background-counting rates. An update is given on the Galileo low noise MCP. Also, new results in increasing the MCP linear counting range for high input flux densities are presented. By bonding the active face of a very low resistance MCP (less than 1 megaohm) to a substrate providing a conductive path for heat transport, the bias current limit (hence, MCP output count rate limit) can be increased up to two orders of magnitude. Normal pulse-counting MCP operation was observed at bias currents of several mA when a curved-channel MCP (80:1) was bonded to a ceramic multianode substrate; the MCP temperature rise above ambient was less than 40 C.

  19. The right to count does not always count

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodemann, Morten

    2013-01-01

    The best prescription against illness is learning to read and to count. People who are unable to count have a harder time learning to read. People who have difficulty counting make poorer decisions, are less able to combine information and are less likely to have a strategy for life...

  20. The present-day number of tectonic plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Christopher G. A.

    2016-03-01

    The number of tectonic plates on Earth described in the literature has expanded greatly since the start of the plate tectonic era, when only about a dozen plates were considered in global models of present-day plate motions. With new techniques of more accurate earthquake epicenter locations, modern ways of measuring ocean bathymetry using swath mapping, and the use of space based geodetic techniques, there has been a huge growth in the number of plates thought to exist. The study by Bird (2003) proposed 52 plates, many of which were delineated on the basis of earthquake locations. Because of the pattern of areas of these plates, he suggested that there should be more small plates than he could identify. In this paper, I gather together publications that have proposed a total of 107 new plates, giving 159 plates in all. The largest plate (Pacific) is about 20 % of the Earth's area or 104 Mm2, and the smallest of which (Plate number 5 from Hammond et al. 2011) is only 273 km2 in area. Sorting the plates by size allows us to investigate how size varies as a function of order. There are several changes of slope in the plots of plate number organized by size against plate size order which are discussed. The sizes of the largest seven plates is constrained by the area of the Earth. A middle set of 73 plates down to an area of 97,563 km2 (the Danakil plate at number 80, is the plate of median size) follows a fairly regular pattern of plate size as a function of plate number. For smaller plates, there is a break in the slope of the plate size/plate number plot and the next 32 plates follow a pattern of plate size proposed by the models of Koehn et al. (2008) down to an area of 11,638 km2 (West Mojave plate # 112). Smaller plates do not follow any regular pattern of area as a function of plate number, probably because we have not sampled enough of these very small plates to reveal any clear pattern.

  1. Undercooling, nodule count and carbides in thin walled ductile cast iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl Martin; Tiedje, Niels Skat

    2008-01-01

    Ductile cast iron has been cast in plate thicknesses between 2 to 8 mm. The temperature has been measured during the solidification and the graphite nodule count and size distribution together with the type and amount of carbides have been analysed afterwards. Low nodule count gives higher...

  2. CalCOFI Egg Counts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish egg counts and standardized counts for eggs captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets], and...

  3. High Red Blood Cell Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms High red blood cell count By Mayo Clinic Staff A high red blood cell count is an increase in oxygen-carrying cells in your bloodstream. Red blood cells transport oxygen from your lungs to tissues throughout ...

  4. Counting and Topological Order

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈阳军

    1997-01-01

    The counting method is a simple and efficient method for processing linear recursive datalog queries.Its time complexity is bounded by O(n,e)where n and e denote the numbers the numbers of nodes and edges,respectively,in the graph representing the input.relations.In this paper,the concepts of heritage appearance function and heritage selection function are introduced,and an evaluation algorithm based on the computation of such functions in topological order is developed .This new algorithm requires only linear time in the case of non-cyclic data.

  5. Optimal allocation of point-count sampling effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, R.J.; Sauer, J.R.; Link, W.A.

    1993-01-01

    Both unlimited and fixedradius point counts only provide indices to population size. Because longer count durations lead to counting a higher proportion of individuals at the point, proper design of these surveys must incorporate both count duration and sampling characteristics of population size. Using information about the relationship between proportion of individuals detected at a point and count duration, we present a method of optimizing a pointcount survey given a fixed total time for surveying and travelling between count points. The optimization can be based on several quantities that measure precision, accuracy, or power of tests based on counts, including (1) meansquare error of estimated population change; (2) mean-square error of average count; (3) maximum expected total count; or (4) power of a test for differences in average counts. Optimal solutions depend on a function that relates count duration at a point to the proportion of animals detected. We model this function using exponential and Weibull distributions, and use numerical techniques to conduct the optimization. We provide an example of the procedure in which the function is estimated from data of cumulative number of individual birds seen for different count durations for three species of Hawaiian forest birds. In the example, optimal count duration at a point can differ greatly depending on the quantities that are optimized. Optimization of the mean-square error or of tests based on average counts generally requires longer count durations than does estimation of population change. A clear formulation of the goals of the study is a critical step in the optimization process.

  6. Electromagnetic ultrasonic detection method for steel plate based on phase control technique%基于相控技术的钢板电磁超声检测方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨理践; 刘珂丞; 高松巍; 邢燕好

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve the electromagnetic ultrasonic echo signal in the steel plate,an electromagnetic ultrasonic detection method for steel plate based on phase control technique was proposed.The phase control focusing technique and the transduction mechanism of electromagnetic ultrasonic transducer in steel plate were studied,and the excitation transducer array was composed of multi array elements.With the time delay rule,the equiphase superposition of ultrasonic was achieved in the target area,and the ultrasonic focusing was realized.In addition,the experimental verification was carried out on Q235 steel plate with the discrete structure.The results show that the proposed method can effectively compensate the phase deviation caused by the sound path difference between exciting and receiving transducers.When the excitation voltage is consistent,the amplitude of the echo signal received at 658 mm from the transducer array increases as 2 times as that of echo signal with the single excitation of central transducer.With the three-element excitation transducer array detection method,the ultrasonic focusing of defects can be realized.Furthermore,the amplitude of defect echo signal at 520 mm increases as 1.83 times as that of echo signal with the single excitation of central transducer.%为了提高钢板中电磁超声回波信号,提出了一种基于相控技术的钢板电磁超声检测方法.研究了相控聚焦技术和钢板中电磁超声换能器的换能机理,通过多阵元组成激发换能器阵列,运用延时法使超声波在目标区等相位叠加,实现超声波聚焦,并在 Q235钢板上采用分立式结构进行实验验证.结果表明:该方法有效弥补了收发换能器间声程差引起的相位偏移,激励电压一致时,658 mm处接收的回波信号幅值提高为中心换能器单独激发时的2倍;采用三阵元激励换能器阵列检测方法可实现缺陷处的超声波聚焦,520 mm 处缺陷回波幅

  7. Ancient mercury-based plating methods: combined use of surface analytical techniques for the study of manufacturing process and degradation phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingo, Gabriel Maria; Guida, Giuseppe; Angelini, Emma; Di Carlo, Gabriella; Mezzi, Alessio; Padeletti, Giuseppina

    2013-11-19

    may contribute to cultural heritage preservation, thus extending the applicability of the surface analytical techniques.

  8. Mass divergence power counting for QCD in the Feynman gauge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tucci, R.

    1986-03-01

    We present a mass divergence power counting technique for QCD in the Feyman gauge. For the process ..gamma..sup(*)->qanti q, we find the leading regions of integration and show that single diagrams are at worst logarithmically divergent. Using the Weyl representation facilitates the ..gamma.. matrix manipulations necessary for power counting and adds much physical insight. (orig.).

  9. Continuum Mechanics of Beam and Plate Flexure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jeppe

    This text has been written and used during the spring of 1995 for a course on flexural mechanics of beams and plates at Aalborg University. The idea has been to concentrate on basic principles of the theories, which are of importance to the modern structural engineer. Today's structural engineer...... must be acquainted with the classic beam and plate theories, when reading manuals and using modern software tools such as the finite element method. Each chapter includes supplementary theory and derivations enabling consultation of the notes also at a later stage of study. A preliminary chapter...... analysis of beam structures is presented and includes both upper and lower-bound solution techniques. The remaining chapters are devoted to plates. The classic elastic plate theories are presented. The plastic yield line theory for plates is presented including both upper and lower-bound techniques...

  10. Modeling of heterotrophic bacteria counts in a water distribution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisque, Alex; Rodriguez, Manuel J; Miranda-Moreno, Luis F; Sadiq, Rehan; Proulx, François

    2009-03-01

    Heterotrophic plate count (HPC) constitutes a common indicator for monitoring of microbiological water quality in distribution systems (DS). This paper aims to identify factors explaining the spatiotemporal distribution of heterotrophic bacteria and model their occurrence in the distribution system. The case under study is the DS of Quebec City, Canada. The study is based on a robust database resulting from a sampling campaign carried out in about 50 DS locations, monitored bi-weekly over a three-year period. Models for explaining and predicting HPC levels were based on both one-level and multi-level Poisson regression techniques. The latter take into account the nested structure of data, the possible spatiotemporal correlation among HPC observations and the fact that sampling points, months and/or distribution sub-systems may represent clusters. Models show that the best predictors for spatiotemporal occurrence of HPC in the DS are: free residual chlorine that has an inverse relation with the HPC levels, water temperature and water ultraviolet absorbance, both having a positive impact on HPC levels. A sensitivity analysis based on the best performing model (two-level model) allowed for the identification of seasonal-based strategies to reduce HPC levels.

  11. Residual stresses of thin, short rectangular plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andonian, A. T.; Danyluk, S.

    1985-01-01

    The analysis of the residual stresses in thin, short rectangular plates is presented. The analysis is used in conjunction with a shadow moire interferometry technique by which residual stresses are obtained over a large spatial area from a strain measurement. The technique and analysis are applied to a residual stress measurement of polycrystalline silicon sheet grown by the edge-defined film growth technique.

  12. Counting coalescent histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Noah A

    2007-04-01

    Given a species tree and a gene tree, a valid coalescent history is a list of the branches of the species tree on which coalescences in the gene tree take place. I develop a recursion for the number of valid coalescent histories that exist for an arbitrary gene tree/species tree pair, when one gene lineage is studied per species. The result is obtained by defining a concept of m-extended coalescent histories, enumerating and counting these histories, and taking the special case of m = 1. As a sum over valid coalescent histories appears in a formula for the probability that a random gene tree evolving along the branches of a fixed species tree has a specified labeled topology, the enumeration of valid coalescent histories can considerably reduce the effort required for evaluating this formula.

  13. Oscillations in counting statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Wilk, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    The very large transverse momenta and large multiplicities available in present LHC experiments on pp collisions allow a much closer look at the corresponding distributions. Some time ago we discussed a possible physical meaning of apparent log-periodic oscillations showing up in p_T distributions (suggesting that the exponent of the observed power-like behavior is complex). In this talk we concentrate on another example of oscillations, this time connected with multiplicity distributions P(N). We argue that some combinations of the experimentally measured values of P(N) (satisfying the recurrence relations used in the description of cascade-stochastic processes in quantum optics) exhibit distinct oscillatory behavior, not observed in the usual Negative Binomial Distributions used to fit data. These oscillations provide yet another example of oscillations seen in counting statistics in many different, apparently very disparate branches of physics further demonstrating the universality of this phenomenon.

  14. Differential white cell count by centrifugal microfluidics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer, Gregory Jon; Tentori, Augusto M.; Schaff, Ulrich Y.

    2010-07-01

    We present a method for counting white blood cells that is uniquely compatible with centrifugation based microfluidics. Blood is deposited on top of one or more layers of density media within a microfluidic disk. Spinning the disk causes the cell populations within whole blood to settle through the media, reaching an equilibrium based on the density of each cell type. Separation and fluorescence measurement of cell types stained with a DNA dye is demonstrated using this technique. The integrated signal from bands of fluorescent microspheres is shown to be proportional to their initial concentration in suspension. Among the current generation of medical diagnostics are devices based on the principle of centrifuging a CD sized disk functionalized with microfluidics. These portable 'lab on a disk' devices are capable of conducting multiple assays directly from a blood sample, embodied by platforms developed by Gyros, Samsung, and Abaxis. [1,2] However, no centrifugal platform to date includes a differential white blood cell count, which is an important metric complimentary to diagnostic assays. Measuring the differential white blood cell count (the relative fraction of granulocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes) is a standard medical diagnostic technique useful for identifying sepsis, leukemia, AIDS, radiation exposure, and a host of other conditions that affect the immune system. Several methods exist for measuring the relative white blood cell count including flow cytometry, electrical impedance, and visual identification from a stained drop of blood under a microscope. However, none of these methods is easily incorporated into a centrifugal microfluidic diagnostic platform.

  15. Soft X-ray and extreme ultraviolet photon-counting imaging detector with curved surface micro-channel plate and induced charge position-sensitive anode%使用曲面微通道板和感应电荷位置灵敏阳极的软 X 射线-极紫外光子计数成像探测器研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尼启良

    2015-01-01

    本项目对我国空间探测的极紫外( EUV)波段大视场相机所需求的球面光子计数成像探测器的关键技术进行了研究。首先,建立了光阴极材料次级电子产出模型,利用该模型计算了软X射线-EUV波段常用的光电阴极材料—碱卤化物的次级电子产出,分析了微通道板( MCP)的次级电子产出。建立了测量MCP量子探测效率的装置,并推导出MCP量子探测效率的计算公式,测量了MCP在软X射线-EUV波段的量子效率以及MCP量子效率随掠入射角的变化。其次,建立了球面实芯微通道板的制备装置,利用高温热成型方法制备出曲率半径为150 mm球面MCP,利用光刻技术制备出有效直径为48 mm的楔条形感应电荷位置灵敏阳极,在此基础上集成了一套使用球面MCP和感应电荷位置灵敏阳极的两维光子计数成像探测器。再次,研制出包括快速前端模拟电路与后续数字电路的成像读出电路,编制了能矫正图像畸变的图像实时采集和处理软件。最后,建立了MCP探测器空间分辨率、图像线性的检测装置,对研制出的探测器性能进行了检测,检测结果表明:探测器的各项技术指标完全满足要求。%The research on key techniques of wide field extreme ultraviolet ( EUV ) spherical micro-channel plate( MCP) photon-counting imaging detector which will be used in space probe in China have been done. Firstly, the secondary electron yield model of photocathode material was built, and the secondary yield of alka-li halide and MCP in soft X-ray and EUV band were calculated using the model.The measurement equipment of MCP′s quantum detection efficiency also was set up.The calculated fomula of MCP′s quantum efficiency was introduced, and MCP′s quantum efficiency vs.wavelength and incidence angle in soft X-ray and EUV re-gion were measured.secondly, the instrument of solid core spherical MCP fabrication was

  16. A REVIEW PAPER ON RECOGNIZE AUTOMATIC NUMBER PLATE AND BLURRED NUMBER PLATES

    OpenAIRE

    Aarti Soni*, Dr.Raman Chadha, Sukhmeet Kaur

    2016-01-01

    This review paper provides a brief survey on various recognition techniques for automatic number plate recognition (ANPR) in image processing. ANPR is real –time embedded system which uses number plate to identify the vehicle. This expertise is in advance popularity in security and traffic installations. License plate recognition system is an application of computer vision. Computer vision is a method of using a computer to take out high level information from a digital image. The usele...

  17. Robotic milking and milk quality: effects on bacterial counts, somatic cell counts, freezing point and free fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne van der Vorst

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in milk quality after the introduction of automatic milking systems (AM-systems on dairy farms in TheNetherlands, Germany and Denmark were examined and the data were compared with milk quality results of farms withconventional milking technology. After introduction, a small, but significant increase in total bacterial count, somatic cellcount, freezing point and free fatty acids was observed. The highest levels for total plate count and cell count are foundin the first six months after introduction. After this period the milk quality slightly improves to a more stable level.Risk factors related with milk quality concern general farm characteristics, animal health, AM-system, cleaning and cooling,housing, management skills of the farmer and the hygiene on the farm. Total plate count was significantly relatedto milk yield of the herd, cleaning of the area around the AM-system and the overall hygiene on the farm. Bulk milksomatic cell count appeared to be significantly related to milk yield of the herd and the number of milkings before replacementof the liners. An increased milking frequency is not the only explanation of increased free fatty acid levels. Technicalfactors related to free fatty acids mainly concerned the air inlet in the teat cups, bubbling (excessive air inlet and a toolong post run time of the milk pump. However, several questions regarding the causes of increased free fatty acid levelsremained unclear.

  18. Improvement of the bonding strength of Al/Cu transition joint made by single-shot explosive welding technique using Cu intermediate plate. Cu chukanzai wo mochiita doji bakusetsuho ni yoru Al/Cu izai tsugite no setsugo kyodo no kaizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izuma, T.; Niwatsukino, T. (Asahi Chemical Industry Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)); Hokamoto, K.; Fujita, M. (Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan))

    1994-02-01

    Improvement of the bonding strength of Al/Cu transition joints was tried by single-shot explosive welding technique using a Cu intermediate plate (Cu-IP). As the preliminary experiment, a relatively thin Al alloy plate (4 mm in thickness) and Cu plate (2.5 mm) were bonded by explosive welding to study the effect of bonding conditions on interfacial zone (IZ) structure and bonding strength. As a result, the thickness of IZs increased with an explosive mass involving reduction of bonding strengths, and the use of Cu-IP was effective in reducing the energy applied to IZ because the energy contributed to formation of IZ. As the fabrication experiment of practical Al/Cu transition joints, a pure Al plate and pure Cu plate of 20 mm in thickness and Cu-IPs of 1.0 and 1.5 mm were bonded by explosive welding. As a result, the IZ thickness was 20-70 [mu]m and 5 [mu]m without/with Cu-IP, respectively, and the joint showed the same tensile strength as the base Al plate, suggesting possible production of practical Al/Cu electrical transition joints. 8 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... steps to get started: Using your dinner plate, put a line down the middle of the plate. ... vegetables . Now in one of the small sections, put grains and starchy foods. See this list of ...

  20. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate It's simple and effective for both managing diabetes and losing weight. Creating your plate lets ... 2016 Articles from Diabetes Forecast® magazine: wcie-meal-planning, In this section Food Planning Meals Diabetes Meal ...

  1. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal ... Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook ...

  2. Food guide plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chips or cookies. VEGETABLES: MAKE HALF OF YOUR PLATE FRUITS AND VEGETABLES Vegetables can be raw, fresh, ... as a snack. FRUITS: MAKE HALF OF YOUR PLATE FRUITS AND VEGETABLES Fruits can be fresh, canned, ...

  3. Growth Plate Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the most widely used by doctors is the Salter-Harris system, described below. Type I Fractures These ... incidence of growth plate fractures peaks in adolescence. Salter-Harris classification of growth plate fractures. AAOS does ...

  4. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook ... Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart- ...

  5. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook ... Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart- ...

  6. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate It's simple and effective for both managing diabetes and losing weight. Creating your plate lets you still choose the foods you want, but changes the portion sizes so you are getting larger ...

  7. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate It's simple and effective for both managing diabetes and losing weight. Creating your plate lets ... Sleeve Custom jerseys for your Tour de Cure team benefits the cause. Ask the Experts: Learn to ...

  8. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Nutrient Content Claims Understanding Carbohydrates Types of Carbohydrates Carbohydrate Counting Make Your Carbs Count Glycemic Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely Get And Stay Fit Types ...

  9. Rapid preparation of polonium counting sources for alpha spectrometry using copper sulfide microprecipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guérin, Nicolas; Dai, Xiongxin

    2013-07-02

    Thin-layer polonium (Po) sources for alpha spectrometry counting can be rapidly prepared using copper sulfide (CuS) microprecipitation. Polonium was coprecipitated with CuS, filtered onto Eichrom Resolve filters, and counted. This simple procedure is faster, cheaper, and more convenient than traditional spontaneous plating on metallic discs, and similar yields were obtained (80-90%). The experimental conditions for the microprecipitation technique were optimized (0.05 mg of Cu(2+) in 10 mL of 1 M HCl); these compare advantageously with conventional preparation and purification procedures for polonium samples (0.1 to 1 M HCl). The results showed that the most likely potential radionuclide interferences (Ra, Th, U, Np, Pu, and Am) for long-lived polonium isotopes ((208)Po, (209)Po, (210)Po) are effectively removed during processing. The effects of several transition metals (Cu(2+), Ag(+), Fe(3+), Fe(2+), Pb(2+), and Ni(2+)) on the yield and the resolution of the alpha peaks obtained were also assessed. Little interference was found, demonstrating the versatility of the present microprecipitation technique for environmental and biological matrices. The procedure has been successfully applied to different amounts of (210)Po using (209)Po as a yield tracer.

  10. Fast sequential Monte Carlo methods for counting and optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Rubinstein, Reuven Y; Vaisman, Radislav

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive account of the theory and application of Monte Carlo methods Based on years of research in efficient Monte Carlo methods for estimation of rare-event probabilities, counting problems, and combinatorial optimization, Fast Sequential Monte Carlo Methods for Counting and Optimization is a complete illustration of fast sequential Monte Carlo techniques. The book provides an accessible overview of current work in the field of Monte Carlo methods, specifically sequential Monte Carlo techniques, for solving abstract counting and optimization problems. Written by authorities in the

  11. Accelerated plate tectonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D L

    1975-03-21

    The concept of a stressed elastic lithospheric plate riding on a viscous asthenosphere is used to calculate the recurrence interval of great earthquakes at convergent plate boundaries, the separation of decoupling and lithospheric earthquakes, and the migration pattern of large earthquakes along an arc. It is proposed that plate motions accelerate after great decoupling earthquakes and that most of the observed plate motions occur during short periods of time, separated by periods of relative quiescence.

  12. Method of detecting and counting bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picciolo, G. L.; Chappelle, E. W. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    An improved method is provided for determining bacterial levels, especially in samples of aqueous physiological fluids. The method depends on the quantitative determination of bacterial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in the presence of nonbacterial ATP. The bacterial ATP is released by cell rupture and is measured by an enzymatic bioluminescent assay. A concentration technique is included to make the method more sensitive. It is particularly useful where the fluid to be measured contains an unknown or low bacteria count.

  13. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Reset Plate Share Create Your Plate ! Share: Seven Simple Steps to Create Your Plate It's simple and effective for both managing diabetes and losing ... en.html Have Type 2 Diabetes? Our free program will help you live well. More from diabetes. ...

  14. Obliquity along plate boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippon, Mélody; Corti, Giacomo

    2016-12-01

    Most of the plate boundaries are activated obliquely with respect to the direction of far field stresses, as roughly only 8% of the plate boundaries total length shows a very low obliquity (ranging from 0 to 10°, sub-orthogonal to the plate displacement). The obliquity along plate boundaries is controlled by (i) lateral rheological variations within the lithosphere and (ii) consistency with the global plate circuit. Indeed, plate tectonics and magmatism drive rheological changes within the lithosphere and consequently influence strain localization. Geodynamical evolution controls large-scale mantle convection and plate formation, consumption, and re-organization, thus triggering plate kinematics variations, and the adjustment and re-orientation of far field stresses. These geological processes may thus result in plate boundaries that are not perpendicular but oblique to the direction of far field stresses. This paper reviews the global patterns of obliquity along plate boundaries. Using GPlate, we provide a statistical analysis of present-day obliquity along plate boundaries. Within this framework, by comparing natural examples and geological models, we discuss deformation patterns and kinematics recorded along oblique plate boundaries.

  15. Resolved SZE Cluster Count

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-Yu Tang; Zu-Hui Fan

    2003-01-01

    We study the counts of resolved SZE (Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect) clus-ters expected from an interferometric survey in different cosmological models underdifferent conditions. The self-similar universal gas model and Press-Schechter massfunction are used. We take the observing frequency to be 90 GHz, and consider twodish diameters, 1.2 m and 2.5 m. We calculate the number density of the galaxyclusters dN/(dΩdz) at a high flux limit Slimv = 100mJy and at a relative lowSlimv = 10 mJy. The total numbers of SZE clusters N in two low-Ω0 models arecompared. The results show that the influence of the resolved effect depends notonly on D, but also on Slimv: at a given D, the effect is more significant for a highthan for a low Slim Also, the resolved effect for a flat universe is more impressivethan that for an open universe. For D = 1.2m and Slimv= 10mJy, the resolvedeffect is very weak. Considering the designed interferometers which will be used tosurvey SZE clusters, we find that the resolved effect is insignificant when estimatingthe expected yield of the SZE cluster surveys.

  16. Multivariate ultrametric root counting

    CERN Document Server

    Avendano, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Let $K$ be a field, complete with respect to a discrete non-archimedian valuation and let $k$ be the residue field. Consider a system $F$ of $n$ polynomial equations in $K\\vars$. Our first result is a reformulation of the classical Hensel's Lemma in the language of tropical geometry: we show sufficient conditions (semiregularity at $w$) that guarantee that the first digit map $\\delta:(K^\\ast)^n\\to(k^\\ast)^n$ is a one to one correspondence between the solutions of $F$ in $(K^\\ast)^n$ with valuation $w$ and the solutions in $(k^\\ast)^n$ of the initial form system ${\\rm in}_w(F)$. Using this result, we provide an explicit formula for the number of solutions in $(K^\\ast)^n$ of a certain class of systems of polynomial equations (called regular), characterized by having finite tropical prevariety, by having initial forms consisting only of binomials, and by being semiregular at any point in the tropical prevariety. Finally, as a consequence of the root counting formula, we obtain the expected number of roots in $(K...

  17. Counting Frequencies from Zotero Items

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer Roberts

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In Counting Frequencies you learned how to count the frequency of specific words in a list using python. In this lesson, we will expand on that topic by showing you how to get information from Zotero HTML items, save the content from those items, and count the frequencies of words. It may be beneficial to look over the previous lesson before we begin.

  18. Mathematical methods for elastic plates

    CERN Document Server

    Constanda, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical models of deformation of elastic plates are used by applied mathematicians and engineers in connection with a wide range of practical applications, from microchip production to the construction of skyscrapers and aircraft. This book employs two important analytic techniques to solve the fundamental boundary value problems for the theory of plates with transverse shear deformation, which offers a more complete picture of the physical process of bending than Kirchhoff’s classical one.   The first method transfers the ellipticity of the governing system to the boundary, leading to singular integral equations on the contour of the domain. These equations, established on the basis of the properties of suitable layer potentials, are then solved in spaces of smooth (Hölder continuous and Hölder continuously differentiable) functions.   The second technique rewrites the differential system in terms of complex variables and fully integrates it, expressing the solution as a combination of complex ana...

  19. SUMS Counts-Related Projects

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Staging Instance for all SUMs Counts related projects including: Redeterminations/Limited Issue, Continuing Disability Resolution, CDR Performance Measures, Initial...

  20. Angular shear plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruda, Mitchell C [Tucson, AZ; Greynolds, Alan W [Tucson, AZ; Stuhlinger, Tilman W [Tucson, AZ

    2009-07-14

    One or more disc-shaped angular shear plates each include a region thereon having a thickness that varies with a nonlinear function. For the case of two such shear plates, they are positioned in a facing relationship and rotated relative to each other. Light passing through the variable thickness regions in the angular plates is refracted. By properly timing the relative rotation of the plates and by the use of an appropriate polynomial function for the thickness of the shear plate, light passing therethrough can be focused at variable positions.

  1. Approximately Counting Embeddings into Random Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Furer, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Let H be a graph, and let C(H,G) be the number of (subgraph isomorphic) copies of H contained in a graph G. We investigate the fundamental problem of estimating C(H,G). Previous results cover only a few specific instances of this general problem, for example, the case when H has degree at most one (monomer-dimer problem). In this paper, we present the first general subcase of the subgraph isomorphism counting problem which is almost always efficiently approximable. The results rely on a new graph decomposition technique. Informally, the decomposition is a labeling of the vertices generating a sequence of bipartite graphs. The decomposition permits us to break the problem of counting embeddings of large subgraphs into that of counting embeddings of small subgraphs. Using this method, we present a simple randomized algorithm for the counting problem. For all decomposable graphs H and all graphs G, the algorithm is an unbiased estimator. Furthermore, for all graphs H having a decomposition where each of the bipa...

  2. Mixed boundary conditions for piezoelectric plates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    For plate bending and stretching problems in piezoelectric materials,the reciprocal theorem and the general solution of piezoelasticity are applied in a novel way to obtain the appropriate mixed boundary conditions accurate to all order.A decay analysis technique is used to establish necessary conditions that the prescribed data on the edge of the plate must satisfy in order that it should generate a decaying state within the plate.For the case of axisymmetric bending and stretching of a circular plate,these decaying state conditions are obtained explicitly for the first time when the mixed conditions are imposed on the plate edge.They are then used for the correct formulation of boundary conditions for the interior solution.

  3. Chaotic Motion of Corrugated Circular Plates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Large deflection theory of thin anisotropic circular plates was used to analyze the bifurcation behavior and chaotic phenomena of a corrugated thin circular plate with combined transverse periodic excitation and an in-plane static boundary load. The nonlinear dynamic equation for the corrugated plate was derived by employing Galerkin's technique. The critical conditions for occurrence of the homoclinic and subharmonic bifurcations as well as chaos were studied theoretically using the Melnikov function method. The chaotic motion was also simulated numerically using Maple, with the Poincaré map and phase curve used to evaluate when chaotic motion appears. The results indicate some chaotic motion in the corrugated plate. The method is directly applicable to chaotic analysis of an isotropic circular plate.

  4. Generalized quantum counting algorithm for non-uniform amplitude distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jianing; Ruan, Yue; Li, Xi; Chen, Hanwu

    2017-03-01

    We give generalized quantum counting algorithm to increase universality of quantum counting algorithm. Non-uniform initial amplitude distribution is possible due to the diversity of situations on counting problems or external noise in the amplitude initialization procedure. We give the reason why quantum counting algorithm is invalid on this situation. By modeling in three-dimensional space spanned by unmarked state, marked state and free state to the entire Hilbert space of n qubits, we find Grover iteration can be regarded as improper rotation in the space. This allows us to give formula to solve counting problem. Furthermore, we express initial amplitude distribution in the eigenvector basis of improper rotation matrix. This is necessary to obtain mathematical analysis of counting problem on various situations. Finally, we design four simulation experiments, the results of which show that compared with original quantum counting algorithm, generalized quantum counting algorithm wins great satisfaction from three aspects: (1) Whether initial amplitude distribution is uniform; (2) the diversity of situations on counting problems; and (3) whether phase estimation technique can get phase exactly.

  5. Two sampling techniques for game meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Merwe, Maretha; Jooste, Piet J; Hoffman, Louw C; Calitz, Frikkie J

    2013-03-20

    A study was conducted to compare the excision sampling technique used by the export market and the sampling technique preferred by European countries, namely the biotrace cattle and swine test. The measuring unit for the excision sampling was grams (g) and square centimetres (cm2) for the swabbing technique. The two techniques were compared after a pilot test was conducted on spiked approved beef carcasses (n = 12) that statistically proved the two measuring units correlated. The two sampling techniques were conducted on the same game carcasses (n = 13) and analyses performed for aerobic plate count (APC), Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, for both techniques. A more representative result was obtained by swabbing and no damage was caused to the carcass. Conversely, the excision technique yielded fewer organisms and caused minor damage to the carcass. The recovery ratio from the sampling technique improved 5.4 times for APC, 108.0 times for E. coli and 3.4 times for S. aureus over the results obtained from the excision technique. It was concluded that the sampling methods of excision and swabbing can be used to obtain bacterial profiles from both export and local carcasses and could be used to indicate whether game carcasses intended for the local market are possibly on par with game carcasses intended for the export market and therefore safe for human consumption.

  6. Reference counting for reversible languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Torben Ægidius

    2014-01-01

    deallocation. This requires the language to be linear: A pointer can not be copied and it can only be eliminated by deallocating the node to which it points. We overcome this limitation by adding reference counts to nodes: Copying a pointer to a node increases the reference count of the node and eliminating...

  7. Coinductive counting with weighted automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, J.J.M.M.

    2002-01-01

    A general methodology is developed to compute the solution of a wide variety of basic counting problems in a uniform way: (1) the objects to be counted are enumerated by means of an infinite weighted automaton; (2) the automaton is reduced by means of the quantitative notion of stream bisimulation;

  8. Low White Blood Cell Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms Low white blood cell count By Mayo Clinic Staff A low white blood cell count (leukopenia) is a decrease in disease-fighting cells ( ... a decrease in a certain type of white blood cell (neutrophil). The definition of low white blood cell ...

  9. Hanford whole body counting manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, H.E.; Brim, C.P.; Rieksts, G.A.; Rhoads, M.C.

    1987-05-01

    This document, a reprint of the Whole Body Counting Manual, was compiled to train personnel, document operation procedures, and outline quality assurance procedures. The current manual contains information on: the location, availability, and scope of services of Hanford's whole body counting facilities; the administrative aspect of the whole body counting operation; Hanford's whole body counting facilities; the step-by-step procedure involved in the different types of in vivo measurements; the detectors, preamplifiers and amplifiers, and spectroscopy equipment; the quality assurance aspect of equipment calibration and recordkeeping; data processing, record storage, results verification, report preparation, count summaries, and unit cost accounting; and the topics of minimum detectable amount and measurement accuracy and precision. 12 refs., 13 tabs.

  10. Study on advancement of in vivo counting using mathematical simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinase, Sakae [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2003-05-01

    To obtain an assessment of the committed effective dose, individual monitoring for the estimation of intakes of radionuclides is required. For individual monitoring of exposure to intakes of radionuclides, direct measurement of radionuclides in the body - in vivo counting- is very useful. To advance in a precision in vivo counting which fulfills the requirements of ICRP 1990 recommendations, some problems, such as the investigation of uncertainties in estimates of body burdens by in vivo counting, and the selection of the way to improve the precision, have been studied. In the present study, a calibration technique for in vivo counting application using Monte Carlo simulation was developed. The advantage of the technique is that counting efficiency can be obtained for various shapes and sizes that are very difficult to change for phantoms. To validate the calibration technique, the response functions and counting efficiencies of a whole-body counter installed in JAERI were evaluated using the simulation and measurements. Consequently, the calculations are in good agreement with the measurements. The method for the determination of counting efficiency curves as a function of energy was developed using the present technique and a physiques correction equation was derived from the relationship between parameters of correction factor and counting efficiencies of the JAERI whole-body counter. The uncertainties in body burdens of {sup 137}Cs estimated with the JAERI whole-body counter were also investigated using the Monte Carlo simulation and measurements. It was found that the uncertainties of body burdens estimated with the whole-body counter are strongly dependent on various sources of uncertainty such as radioactivity distribution within the body and counting statistics. Furthermore, the evaluation method of the peak efficiencies of a Ge semi-conductor detector was developed by Monte Carlo simulation for optimum arrangement of Ge semi-conductor detectors for

  11. Detection of microbial concentration in ice-cream using the impedance technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, M; Lanzoni, M; Pompei, A; Lazzarini, R; Matteuzzi, D; Riccò, B

    2008-06-15

    The detection of microbial concentration, essential for safe and high quality food products, is traditionally made with the plate count technique, that is reliable, but also slow and not easily realized in the automatic form, as required for direct use in industrial machines. To this purpose, the method based on impedance measurements represents an attractive alternative since it can produce results in about 10h, instead of the 24-48h needed by standard plate counts and can be easily realized in automatic form. In this paper such a method has been experimentally studied in the case of ice-cream products. In particular, all main ice-cream compositions of real interest have been considered and no nutrient media has been used to dilute the samples. A measurement set-up has been realized using benchtop instruments for impedance measurements on samples whose bacteria concentration was independently measured by means of standard plate counts. The obtained results clearly indicate that impedance measurement represents a feasible and reliable technique to detect total microbial concentration in ice-cream, suitable to be implemented as an embedded system for industrial machines.

  12. Electrical counting redux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arsenault, J.E.

    2013-12-15

    Measuring the energy of particle emission from radioactive substances accurately has been a crucial endeavour in nuclear science. Quantitative measurement began with the electroscope, galvanometer and zinc sulphide screen. Because the detector signals were very small, progress in measurement accelerated with their amplification by means of the vacuum tube. In turn this enabled the use of digital techniques and then computers. Today the measurement process is completely automated with digital signal processing and software run on personal computers. Although the measurement processes now appear to be straightforward, they have had a long and interesting history of development which can be divided into three eras for discussion: early, middle and modern. (author)

  13. Microchannel Plate Imaging Detectors for the Ultraviolet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegmund, O. H. W.; Gummin, M. A.; Stock, J.; Marsh, D.

    1992-01-01

    There has been significant progress over the last few years in the development of technologies for microchannel plate imaging detectors in the Ultraviolet (UV). Areas where significant developments have occurred include enhancements of quantum detection efficiency through improved photocathodes, advances in microchannel plate performance characteristics, and development of high performance image readout techniques. The current developments in these areas are summarized, with their applications in astrophysical instrumentation.

  14. Treatment of middle-third clavicle fractures using anterior plating with a dynamic compression plate (DCP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Padmanabhan; Joshi, Meera; Shilston, Sophie; Wallace, Donald; Pearce, Oliver J

    2013-03-01

    Significantly displaced midshaft clavicle fractures can be managed operatively to restore anatomy and allow early mobilization. Several techniques have described using precontoured anatomically designed plates placed on the superior surface of the bone or reconstruction plates contoured by the surgeon placed either superiorly or anteriorly. We describe the use of the dynamic compression plate placed anteriorly on the clavicle in treating these fractures and discuss the relative advantages of this technique. We have a case series of 8 patients over a 2-year period, who were followed up and all went on to successful fracture union.

  15. The origins of counting algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantlon, Jessica F; Piantadosi, Steven T; Ferrigno, Stephen; Hughes, Kelly D; Barnard, Allison M

    2015-06-01

    Humans' ability to count by verbally labeling discrete quantities is unique in animal cognition. The evolutionary origins of counting algorithms are not understood. We report that nonhuman primates exhibit a cognitive ability that is algorithmically and logically similar to human counting. Monkeys were given the task of choosing between two food caches. First, they saw one cache baited with some number of food items, one item at a time. Then, a second cache was baited with food items, one at a time. At the point when the second set was approximately equal to the first set, the monkeys spontaneously moved to choose the second set even before that cache was completely baited. Using a novel Bayesian analysis, we show that the monkeys used an approximate counting algorithm for comparing quantities in sequence that is incremental, iterative, and condition controlled. This proto-counting algorithm is structurally similar to formal counting in humans and thus may have been an important evolutionary precursor to human counting. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. High Count Rate Single Photon Counting Detector Array Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An optical communications receiver requires efficient and high-rate photon-counting capability so that the information from every photon, received at the aperture,...

  17. Counting with symmetric functions

    CERN Document Server

    Mendes, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    This monograph provides a self-contained introduction to symmetric functions and their use in enumerative combinatorics.  It is the first book to explore many of the methods and results that the authors present. Numerous exercises are included throughout, along with full solutions, to illustrate concepts and also highlight many interesting mathematical ideas. The text begins by introducing fundamental combinatorial objects such as permutations and integer partitions, as well as generating functions.  Symmetric functions are considered in the next chapter, with a unique emphasis on the combinatorics of the transition matrices between bases of symmetric functions.  Chapter 3 uses this introductory material to describe how to find an assortment of generating functions for permutation statistics, and then these techniques are extended to find generating functions for a variety of objects in Chapter 4.  The next two chapters present the Robinson-Schensted-Knuth algorithm and a method for proving Pólya’s enu...

  18. Dead-time effects in microchannel-plate imaging detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zombeck, Martin V.; Fraser, George W.

    1991-01-01

    The observed counting rates of microchannel plate (MCP) based detectors for high resolution observations of celestial EUV and X-ray sources vary over many orders of magnitude; the counting capability of an individual channel, however, is not high, and is associated with dead-times ranging from 0.1 msec to 1 sec. The dead-time increases with the area illuminated; attention is presently given to laboratory determinations of the count rate characteristics of a MCP detector as a function of illuminated area, and a model is developed for these results' use in the interpretation of space observations.

  19. Development of Prediction Equation for Estimation of Energy Expenditure in Track Cycling Using the Technique of Accelerometry Counts%应用加速度计数建立场地自行车能耗预测方程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马国强; 邱俊; 陆姣姣; 王金昊; 杨明祥; 李之俊

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析场地自行车能量消耗与骑行频率、下肢三关节加速度计数间相关性,并以踝关节加速度综合计数为自变量建立能耗预测方程并验证信度.方法:11名男性自行车运动员依次完成场地自行车6级递增运动负荷骑行测试(GXT),22 km/h开始,每2 min增加4 km/h,传动系数3.27.运动员的右侧股骨头、腓骨头下缘和外踝上缘分别固定一只Actigraph GT3X-Plus三轴加速度计测量下肢三关节骑行中的加速度计数,场地自行车上安装SRM功率测试仪采集运动学参数,COSMED K4b2气体代谢仪测试能耗作为标准.采用Pearson相关分析骑行频率、加速度计数与能耗间的相关性,ROC曲线法和多元逐步回归建立加速度计数临界点和能耗预测方程,以Bland-Ahman分析公式的信度.结果:场地自行车GXT中,骑行频率与膝、踝关节加速度综合计数高度相关(r>0.9,P<0.01),相对能耗METs与骑行频率、膝和踝关节VM具有中度相关性(0.7<r<0.8,P<0.01).Vmankle对场地自行车中、高强度骑行有较高的判别价值(AUC=0.914),6METs强度对应的Vmankle为临界点;建立Vmankle<3116 countgmin区段内的能耗预测方程1为:METs=5.86304+0.00043 Vmankle-0.03073 BW(校正R2--0.837),Vmankle≥3116 counts/min范围内的能耗预测方程2为:METs=5.16527+0.00029 Vmankle+0.01143 BW(校正R2=-0.767),能耗实测值与预测值之间的误差在95%置信区间内.结论:在使用3.27传动系数前提下,以踝关节三轴加速度综合计数3116 counts/min为临界点,可分别采用公式“METs=5.86304+0.00043 Vmankle-0.03073 BW”和“METs=5.16527+0.00029 Vmankle+0.01143BW”推算场地自行车中等强度和高强度能耗水平.

  20. Vote Counting as Mathematical Proof

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schürmann, Carsten; Pattinson, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Trust in the correctness of an election outcome requires proof of the correctness of vote counting. By formalising particular voting protocols as rules, correctness of vote counting amounts to verifying that all rules have been applied correctly. A proof of the outcome of any particular election......-based formalisation of voting protocols inside a theorem prover, we synthesise vote counting programs that are not only provably correct, but also produce independently verifiable certificates. These programs are generated from a (formal) proof that every initial set of ballots allows to decide the election winner...

  1. White blood cell counting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and tests of a prototype white blood cell counting system for use in the Skylab IMSS are presented. The counting system consists of a sample collection subsystem, sample dilution and fluid containment subsystem, and a cell counter. Preliminary test results show the sample collection and the dilution subsystems are functional and fulfill design goals. Results for the fluid containment subsystem show the handling bags cause counting errors due to: (1) adsorption of cells to the walls of the container, and (2) inadequate cleaning of the plastic bag material before fabrication. It was recommended that another bag material be selected.

  2. Generalized Fibonacci zone plates

    CERN Document Server

    Ke, Jie; Zhu, Jianqiang

    2015-01-01

    We propose a family of zone plates which are produced by the generalized Fibonacci sequences and their axial focusing properties are analyzed in detail. Compared with traditional Fresnel zone plates, the generalized Fibonacci zone plates present two axial foci with equal intensity. Besides, we propose an approach to adjust the axial locations of the two foci by means of different optical path difference, and further give the deterministic ratio of the two focal distances which attributes to their own generalized Fibonacci sequences. The generalized Fibonacci zone plates may allow for new applications in micro and nanophotonics.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of LiNi{sub 0.49}Mn{sub 1.49}Y{sub 0.02}O{sub 4}@Ag by electroless plating technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Lizhi; Liu, Wenping; Wu, Yuxian; He, Zeqiang, E-mail: csuhzq@163.com

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • LiNi{sub 0.49}Mn{sub 1.49}Y{sub 0.02}O{sub 4} cathode materials have been synthesized by citric acid-assisted combustion method. • LiNi{sub 0.49}Mn{sub 1.49}Y{sub 0.02}O{sub 4}@Ag cathode materials with 4 wt% silver in Ag{sup 0} state coating layer on the surface of LiNi{sub 0.49}Mn{sub 1.49}Y{sub 0.02}O{sub 4} have been prepared by electroless plating technique. • The Ag-coating improves the electronic conductivity and the surface stability of LiNi{sub 0.49}Mn{sub 1.49}Y{sub 0.02}O{sub 4}. • LiNi{sub 0.49}Mn{sub 1.49}Y{sub 0.02}O{sub 4}@Ag exhibit enhanced cycling stability and rate capability. - Abstract: Silver (Ag) coated LiNi{sub 0.49}Mn{sub 1.49}Y{sub 0.02}O{sub 4} (LiNi{sub 0.49}Mn{sub 1.49}Y{sub 0.02}O{sub 4}@Ag) was prepared by electroless plating method. The microstructure, surface morphology and electronic conductivity of LiNi{sub 0.49}Mn{sub 1.49}Y{sub 0.02}O{sub 4}@Ag were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electronic conductivity tests. The results showed that 4 wt% silver was tightly coated in Ag{sup 0} state on the surface of LiNi{sub 0.49}Mn{sub 1.49}Y{sub 0.02}O{sub 4} to form a uniform Ag-coating layer of about 30 nm. Electrochemical tests stated clearly that the cycling performance of LiNi{sub 0.49}Mn{sub 1.49}Y{sub 0.02}O{sub 4}@Ag was more stable and the rate capability was more outstanding than that of LiNi{sub 0.49}Mn{sub 1.49}Y{sub 0.02}O{sub 4} due to the coating of Ag on the surface of LiNi{sub 0.49}Mn{sub 1.49}Y{sub 0.02}O{sub 4} by improving the electronic conductivity, preventing LiNi{sub 0.49}Mn{sub 1.49}Y{sub 0.02}O{sub 4} from being attacked by electrolyte, decreasing the electrochemical polarization during cycling and increasing the lithium ion diffusion coefficient on cathode materials.

  4. Osteotomia valgizante de tíbia com placa "calço" de Puddu: apresentação de técnica Valgus tibial osteotomy with "wedge" plate of Puddu: technique presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Luiz Ellera Gomes

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho é apresentar os resultados iniciais, obtidos com a osteotomia valgizante de adição de tíbia, fixada com placa calço descrita por Puddu. Foram operados 29 joelhos em 27 pacientes para correção de geno-varo, sendo que, em apenas um paciente o procedimento bilateral teve objetivo profilático. O seguimento foi de 3 a 28 meses com média de 14 meses. A osteotomia proximal de tíbia foi feita de forma oblíqua iniciando na inserção distal do ligamento colateral medial em direção ao tubérculo de Gerdy. A osteotomia foi aberta e fixada com uma placa calço de Puddu. O espaço aberto da osteotomia foi preenchido por enxerto autólogo de ilíaco. A carga total era dada com 45 dias de pós-operatório. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que entre 4 a 6 meses os pacientes tiveram uma significativa melhora na sintomatologia indutora do procedimento cirúrgico. A avaliação final mostrou 27 resultados satisfatórios e apenas 2 regulares. Como conclusão essa técnica tornou a osteotomia de tíbia um procedimento reprodutível com resultados previsíveis com excelente manutenção no pós-operatorio da correção obtida no trans-operatório.The objective of this paper is to present the initial results obtained with the valgus tibial osteotomy, fixed with the wedge plate described by Puddu. This surgery was performed in 29 knees, in 27 patients, for correction of genu-varum, and as a profilatic measure in only one patient. The follow up time was from 3 to 28 months with average of 14 months. The proximal tibial osteotomy was done in an oblique way with start in the distal insertion of the colateral medial ligament and directed to the Gerby tubercle. The osteotomy was opened and fixed with a wedge plate of Puddu. The space opened by the osteotomy was filled with autologous iliac graft. Total weightbearing was allowed 45 days after surgery. The results show that in 4 to 6 months patients had a significant improvement of

  5. Make My Trip Count 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Make My Trip Count (MMTC) commuter survey, conducted in September and October 2015 by GBA, the Pittsburgh 2030 District, and 10 other regional transportation...

  6. The Mayan Long Count Calendar

    OpenAIRE

    Chanier, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The Maya were known for their astronomical proficiency. This is demonstrated in the Mayan codices where ritual practices were related to astronomical events/predictions. Whereas Mayan mathematics were based on a vigesimal system, they used a different base when dealing with long periods of time, the Long Count Calendar (LCC), composed of different Long Count Periods: the Tun of 360 days, the Katun of 7200 days and the Baktun of 144000 days. There were two other calendars used in addition to t...

  7. Counting Word Frequencies with Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Turkel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Your list is now clean enough that you can begin analyzing its contents in meaningful ways. Counting the frequency of specific words in the list can provide illustrative data. Python has an easy way to count frequencies, but it requires the use of a new type of variable: the dictionary. Before you begin working with a dictionary, consider the processes used to calculate frequencies in a list.

  8. Single electron counting using a dual MCP assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yuzhen [School of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, Beijing 100049 (China); Liu, Shulin, E-mail: liusl@ihep.ac.cn [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhao, Tianchi, E-mail: tianchi@u.washington.edu [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, Beijing 100049 (China); Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Yan, Baojun; Wang, Peiliang [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, Beijing 100049 (China); Yu, Yang [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, Beijing 100049 (China); School of Science, Xi’an University of Technology, Xi’an 710048 (China); Lei, Xiangcui [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, Beijing 100049 (China); Yang, Luping [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, Beijing 100049 (China); School of Physics and Electronics, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Wen, Kaile [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, Beijing 100049 (China); Qi, Ming [School of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); and others

    2016-09-11

    The gain, pulse height resolution and peak-to-valley ratio of single electrons detected by using a Chevron configured Microchannel Plate (MCP) assembly are studied. The two MCPs are separated by a 280 µm gap and are biased by four electrodes. The purpose of the study is to determine the optimum bias voltage arrangements for single electron counting. By comparing the results of various bias voltage combinations, we conclude that good performance for the electron counting can be achieved by operating the MCP assembly in saturation mode. In addition, by applying a small reverse bias voltage across the gap while adjusting the bias voltages of the MCPs, optimum performance of electron counting can be obtained. - Highlights: • Dual MCPs assembly with four electrodes using different voltage combinations has been investigated for single electron counting. • Both the MCP voltages and the gap voltage can affect the gain, pulse height resolution and P/V ratio. • A high gain of the first stage MCP, a saturation mode of the second stage MCP and an appropriately reverse gap voltage can improve the resolution greatly. • The optimum voltage arrangements is significant for the design of MCP detectors in single electron counting applications.

  9. Blue Willow Story Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Kris

    2009-01-01

    In the December 1997 issue of "SchoolArts" is a lesson titled "Blue Willow Story Plates" by Susan Striker. In this article, the author shares how she used this lesson with her middle-school students many times over the years. Here, she describes a Blue Willow plate painting project that her students made.

  10. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... In Memory In Honor Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community ... Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Create Your Plate Create Your Plate is a ...

  11. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal Planning ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans and a Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets ...

  12. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Carbohydrate Counting Make Your Carbs Count Glycemic Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 ... and vinaigrettes. To complete your meal, add a low-calorie drink like water, unsweetened tea or coffee. Featured ...

  13. 化学复合沉积镍磷-碳纤维的性能研究%Research on Compound Chemical Plating Technique of Nickel-Phosphorus Alloy and Carbon Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘秉余; 穆柏椿; 由向群

    2001-01-01

    研究了镀液纤维浓度对镀层纤维含量的影响规律,探讨了碳纤维提高Ni-P合金复合镀层的硬度和耐磨性的机理。结果表明,镀层碳纤维含量随镀液碳纤维浓度的增加先提高后降低,当镀液中碳纤维含量为6g/L时,镀层中碳纤维含量达到最高值(24.1%,体积分数)。碳纤维的加入使镀层硬度和耐磨性显著提高,镀态下和经400℃×1h时效处理后的镀层硬度分别为634HV和1319HV,比同一状态下Ni-P镀层的硬度分别高35%和61%;500℃×1h时效后的耐磨性是Ni-P镀层的6倍,是38CrMoAl钢氮碳共渗层的7倍。%The effects of compound chemical plating technique of nickel-phosphorus alloy and carbon fiber content in the solution on the hardness and wear resistance of coating are researched.The results show that the carbon fiber content in coating increases first,then decreases with the carbon fiber density in solution.When the carbon fiber density is 6g/L,the carbon fiber content in coating reach to a maximun (24.1%,vol.).The hardness of the coatings with carbon fiber in as-coated and aged in 400 ℃×1h is 434HV and 1319HV respectively,35% and 61% higher than that of Ni-P coating in the same state.After 500℃×1h aging,the wear resistance of coating with carbon fiber is over 6 times as that of normal nickel-phosphorus alloy coating and 7 times as that of nitrocarburized case of steel 38CrMoAl.The mechanism of carbon fiber and the wear resistance are also explored.

  14. Determination of total bacterial count in raw milk by flow cytometry

    OpenAIRE

    Dubravka Samaržija; Neven Antunac; Tomislav Pogačić; Sanja Sikora

    2004-01-01

    The automatic flow cytometry as routine method for total bacterial count determination of raw ex-farm milk has recently been accepted in Croatia. This method significantly differs from the reference method (Standard Plate Count) mostly in the presentation of the results obtained. Therefore, this paper summarized experiences in the application of flow cytometry in the dairy laboratories practice. The principle and the practice of the method, methodological details and factors influencing the r...

  15. Evaluation of leukocyte count in dogs with lymphoma submitted to the Madison-Wisconsin protocol by conventional technique and flow cytometryAvaliação leucocitária de cães com linfoma submetidos ao protocolo de Madison-Wisconsin pela técnica convencional e citometria de fluxo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Abrahão Anai

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Lymphoma is the most common hematopoietic tumor in dogs and one of the malignant tumors with higher occurrence in this species. It is a great experimental model due to its resemblance with the non- Hodgkin lymphoma in humans. Considering the importance of the overall changes that result from to this kind of neoplastic tumor and those due to polichemotherapy this study aimed to evaluate the absolute leukon count and the total count of CD45+ cells in the blood of 25 dogs with lymphoma. Findings were crosschecked since diagnose and then once weekly during the first eight sessions of the Madison-Wisconsin chemotherapic protocol. Total granulocyte, lymphocyte and monocyte counts obtained from a conventional automatic counter and by flow cytometry were compared. Results did not reveal statistically significant changes between the two techniques. O linfoma é o tumor de tecido hematopoético mais comum nos cães e um dos tumores malignos de maior ocorrência nesta espécie. É um ótimo modelo experimental para estudo devido a sua semelhança com o linfoma não-Hodgkin em humanos. Considerando a importância das alterações decorrentes da evolução desta neoplasia e aquelas ocorridas com o emprego da poliquimioterapia, avaliou-se o leucograma absoluto e a contagem de células CD45+ pela citometria de fluxo, no sangue de 25 cães com linfoma. Foram avaliados no momento do diagnóstico, uma vez por semana, durante as primeiras oito sessões quimioterápicas do protocolo de Madison-Wisconsin, e cujas contagens obtidas em contador automático convencional e por intermédio da citometria de fluxo, foram comparadas. Os resultados obtidos não revelaram diferenças estatisticamente significativas entre as duas técnicas utilizadas.

  16. Minimally Invasive Plate Osteosynthesis with Conventional Compression Plate for Diaphyseal Tibia Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IM Anuar-Ramdhan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The diaphyseal tibia fracture is best treated with intramedullary nail but in some cases where the nail is not applicable, plate fixation will be the next option of fixation. The extensile anterior approach is normally used for conventional compression plate fixation in tibia shaft fractures. The extensive surgical dissection may devitalizes the bony fragments and interfere with the fracture union as well as soft tissue healing. Minimally Invasive Plate Osteosynthesis (MIPO provides good preservation of blood supply and fracture hematoma at the fracture site thus promotes biological bone healing. The use of indirect reduction techniques and small skin incisions to introduce the plate is technically demanding and requires fluoroscopy exposures throughout the surgery, being some of its drawbacks. We recommend MIPO for conventional compression plate fixation in tibial shaft fractures in view of the reduced surgical trauma to the surrounding soft tissue and good functional outcome.

  17. The technique of preserving fibrosis plate and shallow suture used in Kasai portoenterostomy%保留肝门部纤维板和肝肠浅缝吻合在 Kasai手术的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董淳强; 董昆; 张诚; 刘如意; 刘强; 陈超; 杨体泉

    2016-01-01

    目的探讨保留肝门部纤维板和应用肝肠浅缝吻合在 Kasai 手术(KPE)中的应用价值。方法回顾性分析2012年3月至2014年12月在本院进行 KPE 的胆道闭锁(BA)病例临床资料,病例纳入标准:Ohi III 型 BA,手术年龄<120 d,无合并其他畸形。手术方式包括扩大肝门部病变切除范围的 KPE 手术(EPE)、应用保留肝门部纤维板和肝肠浅缝吻合的改进 KPE 手术(MKPE)和腹腔镜 MKPE手术(LMKPE),并以此进行病例分组,对 BA 的术前临床资料、术后胆汁排量、术后黄疸清除率、胆管炎发作率和累计自体肝生存率进行比较。结果EPE 31例,MKPE 23例,LMKPE 14例,各组手术年龄、体重、术前肝功能指标、肝外胆管 Ohi 亚型和术中肝纤维化 Weerasooriya 分级比较均无统计学差异(P >0.05)。术后第1周胆汁排量各组比较,差异无统计学意义(P >0.05),第2、6周 MKPE 和 LMKPE 均高于 EPE(P <0.05),而 MKPE 与 LMKPE 比较,差异无统计学意义(P >0.05)。术后黄疸清除率和累计自体肝生存率,MKPE(87%,87%)和 LMKPE(85.7%,85.7%)均高于 EPE(41.9%,41.9%),P 值均<0.05),而 MKPE 与 LMKPE 比较,差异无统计学意义(P >0.05)。术后胆管炎 EPE (22.6%)、MKPE (34.8%)和 LMKPE(14.3%)比较,差异无统计学意义(P >0.05)。结论在 KPE 中保留纤维板和应用肝肠浅缝吻合有利于 BA 获得较好的术后效果。%Objetive To explore the technique of preserving fibrosis plate and shallow suture used in Kasai portoenterostomy (KPE). Methods A retrospective analysis was made on the BA (Inclusive criteria:Ohi type Ⅲ,preoperative age 0.05).In BD,there was no difference in groups during 1 week (P >0.05),but at the time of 2,6 weeks ,MKPE,LMKPE were higher than EPE(P 0.05).There were higher JF ratio and SNL in MKPE (87%,87%)and LMKPE (85.7%,85.7%)than EPE (41

  18. Hanford whole body counting manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, H.E.; Rieksts, G.A.; Lynch, T.P.

    1990-06-01

    This document describes the Hanford Whole Body Counting Program as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy--Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and its Hanford contractors. Program services include providing in vivo measurements of internally deposited radioactivity in Hanford employees (or visitors). Specific chapters of this manual deal with the following subjects: program operational charter, authority, administration, and practices, including interpreting applicable DOE Orders, regulations, and guidance into criteria for in vivo measurement frequency, etc., for the plant-wide whole body counting services; state-of-the-art facilities and equipment used to provide the best in vivo measurement results possible for the approximately 11,000 measurements made annually; procedures for performing the various in vivo measurements at the Whole Body Counter (WBC) and related facilities including whole body counts; operation and maintenance of counting equipment, quality assurance provisions of the program, WBC data processing functions, statistical aspects of in vivo measurements, and whole body counting records and associated guidance documents. 16 refs., 48 figs., 22 tabs.

  19. Pixelated neutron image plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlapp, M.; Conrad, H.; von Seggern, H.

    2004-09-01

    Neutron image plates (NIPs) have found widespread application as neutron detectors for single-crystal and powder diffraction, small-angle scattering and tomography. After neutron exposure, the image plate can be read out by scanning with a laser. Commercially available NIPs consist of a powder mixture of BaFBr : Eu2+ and Gd2O3 dispersed in a polymer matrix and supported by a flexible polymer sheet. Since BaFBr : Eu2+ is an excellent x-ray storage phosphor, these NIPs are particularly sensitive to ggr-radiation, which is always present as a background radiation in neutron experiments. In this work we present results on NIPs consisting of KCl : Eu2+ and LiF that were fabricated into ceramic image plates in which the alkali halides act as a self-supporting matrix without the necessity for using a polymeric binder. An advantage of this type of NIP is the significantly reduced ggr-sensitivity. However, the much lower neutron absorption cross section of LiF compared with Gd2O3 demands a thicker image plate for obtaining comparable neutron absorption. The greater thickness of the NIP inevitably leads to a loss in spatial resolution of the image plate. However, this reduction in resolution can be restricted by a novel image plate concept in which a ceramic structure with square cells (referred to as a 'honeycomb') is embedded in the NIP, resulting in a pixelated image plate. In such a NIP the read-out light is confined to the particular illuminated pixel, decoupling the spatial resolution from the optical properties of the image plate material and morphology. In this work, a comparison of experimentally determined and simulated spatial resolutions of pixelated and unstructured image plates for a fixed read-out laser intensity is presented, as well as simulations of the properties of these NIPs at higher laser powers.

  20. Plate removal following orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Mhairi; Langford, Richard Julian; Bhanji, Adam; Farr, David

    2015-11-01

    The objectives of this study are to determine the removal rates of orthognathic plates used during orthognathic surgery at James Cook University Hospital and describe the reasons for plate removal. 202 consecutive orthognathic cases were identified between July 2004 and July 2012. Demographics and procedure details were collected for these patients. Patients from this group who returned to theatre for plate removal between July 2004 and November 2012 were identified and their notes were analysed for data including reason for plate removal, age, smoking status, sex and time to plate removal. 3.2% of plates were removed with proportionally more plates removed from the mandible than the maxilla. 10.4% of patients required removal of one or more plate. Most plates were removed within the first post-operative year. The commonest reasons for plate removal were plate exposure and infection. The plate removal rates in our study are comparable to those seen in the literature.

  1. Comparative quantification of Campylobacter jejuni from environmental samples using traditional and molecular biological techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothrock, Michael J; Cook, Kimberly L; Bolster, Carl H

    2009-06-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is one of the most common causes of gastroenteritis in the world. Given the potential risks to human, animal, and environmental health, the development and optimization of methods to quantify this important pathogen in environmental samples is essential. Two of the most commonly used methods for quantifying C. jejuni are selective plate counting and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Unfortunately, little comparative research has been performed to evaluate the accuracy of these methods for quantification of C. jejuni in aqueous and solid matricies. In this study, the limit of detection and the level of resolution obtained using these 2 methods was evaluated for C. jejuni and compared with that of the common indicator organism Escherichia coli. The use of selective plate count media for quantification of C. jejuni resulted in a 0.7-1.2 log underestimation of cell concentrations, compared with qPCR in both water and column leachate samples, whereas E. coli concentrations were found to be similar with either technique. For C. jejuni, only the qPCR assay accurately measured 2-fold changes in cell concentrations in water samples, whereas concentrations of E. coli were accurately measured regardless of method. Based on these data, qPCR assays were found to be more accurate than selective plate counts for quantification of C. jejuni from environmental samples.

  2. Anisotropic elastic plates

    CERN Document Server

    Hwu, Chyanbin

    2010-01-01

    As structural elements, anisotropic elastic plates find wide applications in modern technology. The plates here are considered to be subjected to not only in plane load but also transverse load. In other words, both plane and plate bending problems as well as the stretching-bending coupling problems are all explained in this book. In addition to the introduction of the theory of anisotropic elasticity, several important subjects have are discussed in this book such as interfaces, cracks, holes, inclusions, contact problems, piezoelectric materials, thermoelastic problems and boundary element a

  3. Plating in Top Agar

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    1. Warm plates to room temperature before use. Cold plates causes the top agar to solidify irregularly. DO not warm plates to 37° as the top agar will take forever to solidify. - Prepare top agar as the appropriate liquid medium with 0.7% agar. Keeping 100 mL bottles is convenient. For phages, use λ top agar, which is less rich and yields bigger plaques. - Melt top agar in the microwave completely. Allow the agar to boil after liquification; incompletely melted agar looks liquid, but is...

  4. The Origins of Counting Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Cantlon, Jessica F.; Piantadosi, Steven T.; Ferrigno, Stephen; Hughes, Kelly D.; Allison M Barnard

    2015-01-01

    Humans’ ability to ‘count’ by verbally labeling discrete quantities is unique in animal cognition. The evolutionary origins of counting algorithms are not understood. We report that non-human primates exhibit a cognitive ability that is algorithmically and logically similar to human counting. Monkeys were given the task of choosing between two food caches. Monkeys saw one cache baited with some number of food items, one item at a time. Then, a second cache was baited with food items, one at a...

  5. Tree modules and counting polynomials

    CERN Document Server

    Kinser, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    We give a formula for counting tree modules for the quiver S_g with g loops and one vertex in terms of tree modules on its universal cover. This formula, along with work of Helleloid and Rodriguez-Villegas, is used to show that the number of d-dimensional tree modules for S_g is polynomial in g with the same degree and leading coefficient as the counting polynomial A_{S_g}(d, q) for absolutely indecomposables over F_q, evaluated at q=1.

  6. Plate on Plate Osteosynthesis for the Treatment of Nonhealed Periplate Fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Georgios Arealis; Nikolaou, Vassilios S.; Andrew Lacon; Neil Ashwood; Mark Hamlet

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this paper is to present our technique for the treatment of periplate fractures. Methods. From 2009 to 2012 we treated three patients. In all cases the existing plate was left and the new one placed over the existing. Locking screws were placed through both plates. The other screws in the new plate were used as best suited the fracture. Results. In all cases less than 6 months had passed between fractures. None of the original fractures had healed. Mean followup was 2 ...

  7. The sound transmission of finite ribbed plates using a variational

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunskog, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    Many lightweight structures consist of plates being stiffened by ribs. The rib stiffeners can significantly change the vibration field and the radiation behavior of the structure. These type of structures has thus often been studied in the past. However, there is a lack of simplified expressions...... for the sound transmission of these structures. Therefore, simplified expressions for the sound transmission of finite single leaf ribbed plates are derived, using a variational technique based on integral equations of the fluid loaded plate....

  8. Calibration and equivalency analysis of image plate scanners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, G. Jackson, E-mail: williams270@llnl.gov; Maddox, Brian R.; Chen, Hui [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Kojima, Sadaoki [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Yamada-oka, 2-6, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Millecchia, Matthew [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    A universal procedure was developed to calibrate image plate scanners using radioisotope sources. Techniques to calibrate scanners and sources, as well as cross-calibrate scanner models, are described to convert image plate dosage into physical units. This allows for the direct comparison of quantitative data between any facility and scanner. An empirical relation was also derived to establish sensitivity response settings for arbitrary gain settings. In practice, these methods may be extended to any image plate scanning system.

  9. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ... but changes the portion sizes so you are getting larger portions of non-starchy vegetables and a ...

  10. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ... 4/Box) Taking the guesswork out of portion control has never been easier. It can be a ...

  11. Tectonic Plate Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landalf, Helen

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity that employs movement to enable students to understand concepts related to plate tectonics. Argues that movement brings topics to life in a concrete way and helps children retain knowledge. (DDR)

  12. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ... you have an easy portion control solution that works. Last Reviewed: October 8, 2015 Last Edited: September ...

  13. Designing Assemblies Of Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, F. W.; Kennedy, D.; Butler, R.; Aston, G.; Anderson, M. S.

    1992-01-01

    VICONOPT calculates vibrations and instabilities of assemblies of prismatic plates. Designed for efficient, accurate analysis of buckling and vibration, and for optimum design of panels of composite materials. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  14. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal Planning What Can I Eat? Making Healthy Food Choices Diabetes Superfoods Non-starchy Vegetables Grains and Starchy Vegetables ...

  15. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Recipes Association Cookbook Recipes Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning ... serving of dairy or both as your meal plan allows. Choose healthy fats in small amounts. For ...

  16. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely Get And Stay Fit Types of Activity Weight Loss Assess Your Lifestyle ... manage portion control wherever you are. Now, our best-selling, sectioned to-go plate with easy-sealing ...

  17. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Plate is a simple and effective way to manage your blood glucose levels and lose weight. With ... been easier. It can be a challenge to manage portion control wherever you are. Now, our best- ...

  18. Tectonic Plate Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landalf, Helen

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity that employs movement to enable students to understand concepts related to plate tectonics. Argues that movement brings topics to life in a concrete way and helps children retain knowledge. (DDR)

  19. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... veggies and smaller portions of starchy foods and protein—no special tools or counting required! You can ... then in the other small section, put your protein. See this list of protein foods . Add a ...

  20. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... veggies and smaller portions of starchy foods and protein—no special tools or counting required! You can practice with this interactive tool. The healthy meal combinations are endless! Ready to try it at home? Just ...

  1. Origami - Folded Plate Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Buri, Hans Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    This research investigates new methods of designing folded plate structures that can be built with cross-laminated timber panels. Folded plate structures are attractive to both architects and engineers for their structural, spatial, and plastic qualities. Thin surfaces can be stiffened by a series of folds, and thus not only cover space, but also act as load bearing elements. The variation of light and shadow along the folded faces emphasizes the plas...

  2. Fractal multifiber microchannel plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Lee M.; Feller, W. B.; Kenter, Almus T.; Chappell, Jon H.

    1992-01-01

    The construction and performance of microchannel plates (MCPs) made using fractal tiling mehtods are reviewed. MCPs with 40 mm active areas having near-perfect channel ordering were produced. These plates demonstrated electrical performance characteristics equivalent to conventionally constructed MCPs. These apparently are the first MCPs which have a sufficiently high degree of order to permit single channel addressability. Potential applications for these devices and the prospects for further development are discussed.

  3. Development and characterisation of a visible light photon counting imaging detector system

    CERN Document Server

    Barnstedt, J

    2002-01-01

    We report on the development of a visible light photon counting imaging detector system. The detector concept is based on standard 25 mm diameter microchannel plate image intensifiers made by Proxitronic in Bensheim (Germany). Modifications applied to these image intensifiers are the use of three microchannel plates instead of two and a high resistance ceramics plate used instead of the standard phosphor output screen. A wedge and strip anode mounted directly behind the high resistance ceramics plate was used as a read out device. This wedge and strip anode picks up the image charge of electron clouds emerging from the microchannel plates. The charge pulses are fed into four charge amplifiers and subsequently into a digital position decoding electronics, achieving a position resolution of up to 1024x1024 pixels. Mounting the anode outside the detector tube is a new approach and has the great advantage of avoiding electrical feedthroughs from the anode so that the standard image intensifier fabrication process...

  4. Stiffener layout design technique of plate structures based on adaptive growth mechanism%基于自适应成长原理的板壳结构加强筋分布设计技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁晓红; 郭春星; 季学荣

    2012-01-01

    将自然界分枝系统形态自适应成长机理应用于板壳结构加强筋分布设计中,深入讨论板壳结构加强筋分布设计技术.应用ANSYS APDL二次开发语言进行编程,使提出的设计原理方便地应用于实际工程设计.整个应用程序包含前处理、优化迭代及后处理三个模块.前处理模块建立设计对象的基结构,基结构由基本板壳结构和初始加强筋组成.基本板壳结构可采用ANSYS中的建模模块创建或直接导入由其他CAE软件建立的几何模型,而初始加强筋由基本板壳结构上的节点连接而成的梁单元构成.优化迭代模块包含“选种”、灵敏度分析、分歧/成长/退化等功能.采用变量扰动法,基于ANSYS有限元分析模块计算活动加强筋的近似灵敏度.根据自然界分枝系统形态形成机理进行加强筋的分歧/成长/退化.最后由后处理模块输出设计结果.以若干典型的设计案例说明所提出方法的有效性,并通过与ANSYS的结构拓扑优化设计模块的设计结果比较说明了所提出方法的可行性.%The adaptive growth method of stiffener layout on plate structures is inspired from the growth mechanism of the branch systems in nature. This paper studied the implemental techniques of the design method on the platform of the commercial FEA software ANSYS. The APDL language was used to program the growth method, and the approach was comprised of three phases, which were pre-process, optimal iteration, and post-process. In the phase of the pre-process, a ground structure was constructed, which included a basic shell structure and initial baby stiffeners. The basic shell structure can be constructed by the modeling module of ANSYS or imported its geometric model constructed by other CAE software. And the initial baby stiffeners were formed by the nodes of shell elements of the basic shell structure. The optimal iteration included seeding, sensitivity analysis and growth

  5. KIDS COUNT New Hampshire, 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemitz, Elllen, Ed.

    This Kids Count report presents statewide trends in the well-being of New Hampshire's children. The statistical report is based on 22 indicators of child well-being in 5 interrelated areas: (1) children and families (including child population, births, children living with single parent, and children experiencing parental divorce); (2) economic…

  6. Counting a Culture of Mealworms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2007-01-01

    Math is not the only topic that will be discussed when young children are asked to care for and count "mealworms," a type of insect larvae (just as caterpillars are the babies of butterflies, these larvae are babies of beetles). The following activity can take place over two months as the beetles undergo metamorphosis from larvae to adults. As the…

  7. Verbal Counting in Bilingual Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donevska-Todorova, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Informal experiences in mathematics often include playful competitions among young children in counting numbers in as many as possible different languages. Can these enjoyable experiences result with excellence in the formal processes of education? This article discusses connections between mathematical achievements and natural languages within…

  8. Shakespeare Live! and Character Counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookshire, Cathy A.

    This paper discusses a live production of Shakespeare's "Macbeth" (in full costume but with no sets) for all public middle school and high school students in Harrisonburg and Rockingham, Virginia. The paper states that the "Character Counts" issues that are covered in the play are: decision making, responsibility and…

  9. On Counting the Rational Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almada, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we show how to construct a function from the set N of natural numbers that explicitly counts the set Q[superscript +] of all positive rational numbers using a very intuitive approach. The function has the appeal of Cantor's function and it has the advantage that any high school student can understand the main idea at a glance…

  10. Counting problems for number rings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brakenhoff, Johannes Franciscus

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis we look at three counting problems connected to orders in number fields. First we study the probability that for a random polynomial f in Z[X] the ring Z[X]/f is the maximal order in Q[X]/f. Connected to this is the probability that a random polynomial has a squarefree discriminant. T

  11. Counting a Culture of Mealworms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2007-01-01

    Math is not the only topic that will be discussed when young children are asked to care for and count "mealworms," a type of insect larvae (just as caterpillars are the babies of butterflies, these larvae are babies of beetles). The following activity can take place over two months as the beetles undergo metamorphosis from larvae to adults. As the…

  12. Galaxy evolution at low redshift?; 1, optical counts

    CERN Document Server

    Dennefeld, M

    1996-01-01

    We present bright galaxy number counts in the blue (16plates digitized with the MAMA machine, and individually calibrated using an adequate number of CCD sequences. We find a relatively large density of bright galaxies implying a ``high'' normalization of the local luminosity function. Our counts and colour distributions exhibit no large departure from what standard no-evolution models predict, removing the need for evolution of the galaxy population in the optical, out to Bj=21. This result disagrees with that of Maddox et al. (1990) on the APM catalog. We show that the APM and similar catalogs may be affected by a systematic magnitude scale error which would explain this discrepancy.

  13. Vibration and Buckling of Web Plate of the Plate Girder

    OpenAIRE

    高橋, 和雄; 呉, 明強; 中澤, 聡志; 筑紫, 宏之

    1998-01-01

    The vibration and buckling of the web of the plate girder are studied in this paper. The small deflection theory of the thin plate is used. The finite strip method is employed to solve vibration and buckling of the plate girder. Natural frequenies of buckling properties are shown for various plate girder bridges.

  14. Quantitative morphometric study of the subaxial cervical vertebrae end plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Hang; Fang, Xiangyi; Huang, Dageng; Yu, Chengcheng; Zhao, Songchuan; Hao, Dingjun

    2017-02-01

    Cervical disc arthroplasty has been gradually adopted as an alternative for the treatment of cervical degenerative disease. However, there is a large discrepancy between footprints of currently available cervical disc prostheses and anatomic dimensions of cervical end plates. This study aimed to accurately and comprehensively quantify the three-dimensional (3D) anatomic morphology of the cervical vertebral end plate and provide a theoretical basis for designing appropriate disc prostheses. Moreover, we introduced a novel geometric and mechanical model for 3D reconstruction techniques of the cervical end plate. A descriptive study of the geometry of the middle and lower cervical vertebral end plates in cadaveric spines was carried out. A total of 138 cervical vertebral end plates were digitized using an optical 3D range scanning system, and then each end plate was reconstructed using the digitized image. For each end plate, the morphologic characteristics of six surface curves and the end plate concavity depth were symmetrically chosen and depicted. The cranial end plates (relative to the disc) were concave and the caudal end plates were relatively flat at all disc levels, with mean concavity depths of 2.04 and 0.69 mm, respectively. For the caudal end plates, the end plate concavity apex was most often (81.42%) located in the posterior portion, whereas in the cranial end plates, the distribution was relatively even. For the sagittal curves, the foremost point and the rearmost point on the middle curve had a more forward position than those in the left curve and the right curve. Regarding the frontal plane curves, the length of the middle curve was longer than that of the anterior curve and posterior curve. For the cranial end plate, the maximal mean depth was the middle curve, whereas for the caudal end plate, the maximum depth was the posterior curve. There is marked morphologic asymmetry, in that the cranial end plate is more concave than the corresponding

  15. Teaching Emotionally Disturbed Students to Count Feelings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Cynthia S.; Calkin, Abigail B.

    The paper describes a program to teach high school students with emotional and behavior problems to count their feelings, thereby improving their self concept. To aid in instruction, a hierarchy was developed which involved four phases: counting tasks completed and tasks not completed, counting independent actions in class, counting perceptions of…

  16. Plate Tearing Under Mixed Mode Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rasmus Grau; Nielsen, Kim Lau; Felter, Christian Lotz

    2016-01-01

    Cohesive-zone finite element modeling is often the technique of choice when dealing with extensive crack growth in large-scale ductile sheet metal structures. Shell elements with in-plane dimensions much larger than the plate thickness are typically employed to discretize the structure, and thus...

  17. Dynamics of a reinforced viscoelastic plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Andrianov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Oscillations and static bending deformation of a viscoelastic reinforced plate are considered. Analytical solutions are derived. An asymptotic technique, based on the homogenization method, is used for this purpose. In addition, a special perturbation approach is employed. An example is given for the purpose of illustration. The approximate analytical expressions are shown to adequately meet the requirements of optimal structural design.

  18. Point of Impact Prediction in Anisotropic Fiber Reinforced Composite Plates from the Acoustic Emission Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, T.; Das, S.; Jata, K. V.

    2008-02-01

    A newly developed optimization based method is followed to locate the point of impact in anisotropic composite plates for which conventional triangulation technique fails. The new technique works for both anisotropic and isotropic plates. Experiments are carried out by dropping a steel ball on a graphite-epoxy composite plate and picking up acoustic signals by passive transducers adhesively bonded to the plate at different locations. Predicted points of impact are compared with the true impact point.

  19. Optimizing Casimir torque between corrugated metallic plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Robson B. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Maia Neto, Paulo A. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: The Casimir effect plays a major role in micro- and nano-electromechanical systems (MEMS and NEMS). Besides the normal Casimir force between metallic or dielectric plates, the observation of the lateral Casimir force between corrugated plates opens novel possibilities of micro-mechanical control. The lateral force results from breaking the translational symmetry along directions parallel to the plates by imprinting periodic corrugations on both metallic plates. As the rotational symmetry is broken by this geometry, a Casimir torque arises when the corrugations are not aligned. We calculate the Casimir torque between two parallel metallic plates with surface profiles in the form of 'fans' with arbitrary relative spatial orientation. As compared to the case of anisotropic dielectric plates, the torque per unit area is increased by up to three orders of magnitude for a given separation distance. The experiment proposed here can be performed with torsion pendulum techniques for separation distances as large as 1 μm. From the point of view of fundamental physics, this torque makes possible a precise experimental investigation of the non-trivial geometry dependence of the Casimir effect. We follow the scattering approach and calculate the Casimir energy up to second order in the corrugation amplitudes, taking into account nonspecular reflections, polarization mixing and the finite conductivity of the metals. We investigate the experimental conditions that optimize the effect. (author)

  20. Abrupt plate accelerations shape rifted continental margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brune, Sascha; Williams, Simon E.; Butterworth, Nathaniel P.; Müller, R. Dietmar

    2016-08-01

    Rifted margins are formed by persistent stretching of continental lithosphere until breakup is achieved. It is well known that strain-rate-dependent processes control rift evolution, yet quantified extension histories of Earth’s major passive margins have become available only recently. Here we investigate rift kinematics globally by applying a new geotectonic analysis technique to revised global plate reconstructions. We find that rifted margins feature an initial, slow rift phase (less than ten millimetres per year, full rate) and that an abrupt increase of plate divergence introduces a fast rift phase. Plate acceleration takes place before continental rupture and considerable margin area is created during each phase. We reproduce the rapid transition from slow to fast extension using analytical and numerical modelling with constant force boundary conditions. The extension models suggest that the two-phase velocity behaviour is caused by a rift-intrinsic strength-velocity feedback, which can be robustly inferred for diverse lithosphere configurations and rheologies. Our results explain differences between proximal and distal margin areas and demonstrate that abrupt plate acceleration during continental rifting is controlled by the nonlinear decay of the resistive rift strength force. This mechanism provides an explanation for several previously unexplained rapid absolute plate motion changes, offering new insights into the balance of plate driving forces through time.