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Sample records for plate count apc

  1. Application of microbiological method direct epifluorescence filter techique/aerobic plate count agar in the identification of irradiated herbs and spices

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Concetta Campagna; Maria Teresa Di Schiavi; Marina Foti; Maria Cristina Mosconi; Giuseppina Mattiolo; Roberta Cavallina

    2014-01-01

    Irradiation is a preservation technology used to improve the safety and hygienic quality of food. Aim of this study was to assess the applicability and validity of the microbiological screening method direct epifluorescence filter technique (DEFT)/aerobic plate count (APC) (EN 13783:2001) for the identification of irradiated herbs and spices. Tests on non-irradiated and irradiated samples of dried herbs and spices were performed. The method was based on the comparison of APC and count obtaine...

  2. High counting rate resistive-plate chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peskov, V.; Anderson, D. F.; Kwan, S.

    1993-05-01

    Parallel-plate avalanche chambers (PPAC) are widely used in physics experiments because they are fast (less than 1 ns) and have very simple construction: just two parallel metallic plates or mesh electrodes. Depending on the applied voltage they may work either in spark mode or avalanche mode. The advantage of the spark mode of operation is a large signal amplitude from the chamber, the disadvantage is that there is a large dead time (msec) for the entire chamber after an event. The main advantage of the avalanche mode is high rate capability 10(exp 5) counts/mm(sup 2). A resistive-plate chamber (RPC) is similar to the PPAC in construction except that one or both of the electrodes are made from high resistivity (greater than 10(exp 10) Omega(cm) materials. In practice RPC's are usually used in the spark mode. Resistive electrodes are charged by sparks, locally reducing the actual electric field in the gap. The size of the charged surface is about 10 mm(sup 2), leaving the rest of the detector unaffected. Therefore, the rate capability of such detectors in the spark mode is considerably higher than conventional spark counters. Among the different glasses tested the best results were obtained with electron type conductive glasses, which obey Ohm's law. Most of the work with such glasses was done with high pressure parallel-plate chambers (10 atm) for time-of-flight measurements. Resistive glasses have been expensive and produced only in small quantities. Now resistive glasses are commercially available, although they are still expensive in small scale production. From the positive experience of different groups working with the resistive glasses, it was decided to review the old idea to use this glass for the RPC. This work has investigated the possibility of using the RPC at 1 atm and in the avalanche mode. This has several advantages: simplicity of construction, high rate capability, low voltage operation, and the ability to work with non-flammable gases.

  3. Multiregional evaluation of the SimPlate heterotrophic plate count method compared to the standard plate count agar pour plate method in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, R W; Osborne, K; Barnes, G; Jolliff, C; Zamani, D; Roll, B; Stillings, A; Herzog, D; Cannon, S; Loveland, S

    2000-01-01

    A new SimPlate heterotrophic plate count (HPC) method (IDEXX Laboratories, Westbrook, Maine) was compared with the pour plate method at 35 degrees C for 48 h. Six laboratories tested a total of 632 water samples. The SimPlate HPC method was found to be equivalent to the pour plate method by regression analysis (r = 0. 95; y = 0.99X + 0.06).

  4. Multiregional Evaluation of the SimPlate Heterotrophic Plate Count Method Compared to the Standard Plate Count Agar Pour Plate Method in Water

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, R. Wayne; Osborne, Karen; Barnes, Gary; Jolliff, Carol; Zamani, Dianna; Roll, Bruce; Stillings, Amy; Herzog, David; Cannon, Shelly; Loveland, Scott

    2000-01-01

    A new SimPlate heterotrophic plate count (HPC) method (IDEXX Laboratories, Westbrook, Maine) was compared with the pour plate method at 35°C for 48 h. Six laboratories tested a total of 632 water samples. The SimPlate HPC method was found to be equivalent to the pour plate method by regression analysis (r = 0.95; y = 0.99X + 0.06).

  5. Comparison of a rapid ATP bioluminescence assay and standard plate count methods for assessing microbial contamination of consumers' refrigerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fur-Chi; Godwin, Sandria L

    2006-10-01

    The feasibility of using an ATP bioluminescence assay for assessing microbial contamination of home refrigerators was evaluated and compared with the standard culture methods. Samples of refrigerator surfaces were collected from 123 households by swabbing an area of 100 cm2 on three locations in the refrigerator with premoisturized sterile swabs. Microbial contaminations were determined by aerobic plate count (APC; incubated at 35 degrees C for 48 h) and psychrotrophic plate count (PPC; incubated at 7 degrees C for 10 days) on plate count agar. The results were compared to the readings from the microbial ATP (mATP) bioluminescence assay. The correlation coefficient (r) between mATP and PPC (r = 0.851) was slightly higher than that between mATP and APC (r = 0.823). Our results indicated a potential discrepancy in the population of mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria in the refrigerator samples. Nevertheless, mATP appeared to be a reliable indication of the average of APC and PPC (r = 0.895). The mATP bioluminescence assay would provide a rapid and convenient test for researchers in field studies to assess microbial contamination in refrigerators.

  6. Heterotrophic plate count methodology in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reasoner, Donald J

    2004-05-01

    In the United States (US), the history of bacterial plate counting (BPC) methods used for water can be traced largely through Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (Standard Methods). The bacterial count method has evolved from the original Standard Methods (1st edition, 1905) plate count which used nutrient gelatin and incubation at 20 degrees C for 48 h, to the HPC method options in the latest edition of Standard Methods that provide greater flexibility of application, depending on the data needs of the water analyst. The use of agar-agar as a gelling agent, replacing gelatin, allowed the use of higher incubation temperatures and resulted in the "body temperature count" (37 degrees C) found in the 3rd through the 8th edition of Standard Methods. The change from 37 degrees C incubation to 35+/-0.5 degrees C accommodated laboratories that did both milk and water analyses. By using a single temperature, fewer incubators were needed. The term "standard plate count" (SPC) first appeared in 1960 (11th edition) along with plate count agar. Incubation at 20 degrees C for the plate count was dropped from the 13th to 15th editions and few changes were made in the SPC method from the 11th edition through the 13th editions. Plate count analysis of bottled waters was included in the 14th edition (1975), calling for incubation at 35+/-0.5 degrees C for 72+/-4 h. Perhaps the most significant changes in plate count methods occurred with the 16th edition (1985). The term heterotrophic plate count replaced the standard plate count, and the spread plate (SP) and membrane filter (MF) methods were added along with new media for pour and spread plates (R2A agar and NWRI agar, both low nutrient) and for the membrane filter method (mHPC medium). The use of low nutrient media, lower incubation temperature, and longer incubation times, results in higher plate count results for most water samples. The options currently available, including low and high nutrient media

  7. Repeatability of differential goat bulk milk culture and associations with somatic cell count, total bacterial count, and standard plate count

    OpenAIRE

    Koop, G.; Dik, N; Nielen, M; Lipman, L. J. A.

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess how different bacterial groups in bulk milk are related to bulk milk somatic cell count (SCC), bulk milk total bacterial count (TBC), and bulk milk standard plate count (SPC) and to measure the repeatability of bulk milk culturing. On 53 Dutch dairy goat farms, 3 bulk milk samples were collected at intervals of 2 wk. The samples were cultured for SPC, coliform count, and staphylococcal count and for the presence of Staphylococcus aureus. Furthermore, SCC ...

  8. Repeatability of differential goat bulk milk culture and associations with somatic cell count, total bacterial count, and standard plate count

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koop, G.; Dik, N.; Nielen, M.; Lipman, L.J.A.

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess how different bacterial groups in bulk milk are related to bulk milk somatic cell count (SCC), bulk milk total bacterial count (TBC), and bulk milk standard plate count (SPC) and to measure the repeatability of bulk milk culturing. On 53 Dutch dairy goat farms,

  9. Aerobic plate counts and ATP levels correlate with Listeria monocytogenes detection in retail delis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammons, Susan R; Stasiewicz, Matthew J; Roof, Sherry; Oliver, Haley F

    2015-04-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that causes an estimated 1,591 cases of illness and 255 deaths annually in the United States, the majority of which are attributed to ready-to-eat deli meats processed in retail delis. Because retail delis distribute product directly to consumers, rapid methods to validate cleaning and sanitation are needed to improve retail food safety. This study investigated the relationships among ATP levels, standard aerobic plate count (APC), and L. monocytogenes presence in fully operational delis. Fifteen full-service delis were concurrently sampled for ATP, APC, and L. monocytogenes during preoperational hours once monthly for 3 months. Fifteen additional delis were recruited for 6 months of operational sampling (n = 30). A 1-log increase in APC was equivalent to a 3.3-fold increase in the odds of detecting L. monocytogenes (P < 0.001) and a 1.9-log increase in L monocytogenes population (P = 0.03). An ATP level increase of 1 log relative light unit correlated to a 0.22-log increase in APC (P < 0.001). A preoperational ATP level mean increase by 1 log relative light unit increased the odds of detecting L. monocytogenes concurrently fourfold. A 0.5-log increase in mean ATP level during preoperational sampling corresponded to a 2% increase in the predicted L. monocytogenes prevalence during operation (P < 0.01). Additionally, 10 statistically representative sites were identified and recommended for use in sanitation monitoring programs. Our data support the use of ATP as a rapid method to validate effective cleaning and sanitation to reduce L. monocytogenes in retail delis.

  10. HETEROTROPHIC PLATE COUNT (HPC) METHODOLOGY IN THE UNITED STATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACT In the United States (U.S.), the history of bacterial plate counting methods used for water can be traced largely through Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (Standard Methods). The bacterial count method has evolved from the original St...

  11. A THUMBNAIL HISTORY OF HETEROTROPHIC PLATE COUNT (HPC) METHODOLOGY IN THE UNITED STATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the past 100 years, the method of determining the number of bacteria in water, foods or other materials has been termed variously as: bacterial plate count, total plate count, total viable plate count, aerobic plate count, standard plate cound and more recently, heterotrophi...

  12. Application of microbiological method direct epifluorescence filter techique/aerobic plate count agar in the identification of irradiated herbs and spices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Concetta Campagna

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Irradiation is a preservation technology used to improve the safety and hygienic quality of food. Aim of this study was to assess the applicability and validity of the microbiological screening method direct epifluorescence filter technique (DEFT/aerobic plate count (APC (EN 13783:2001 for the identification of irradiated herbs and spices. Tests on non-irradiated and irradiated samples of dried herbs and spices were performed. The method was based on the comparison of APC and count obtained using DEFT. In accordance with the standard reference, this method is not applicable to samples with APC<103 colony forming units (CFU/g and this is its main limit. The results obtained in our laboratories showed that in 50% of cases of non-irradiated samples and in 96% of the samples treated with ionising radiation, the method was not applicable due to a value of CFU/g<103.

  13. Application of Microbiological Method Direct Epifluorescence Filter Techique/Aerobic Plate Count Agar in the Identification of Irradiated Herbs and Spices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Schiavi, Maria Teresa; Foti, Marina; Mosconi, Maria Cristina; Mattiolo, Giuseppina; Cavallina, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    Irradiation is a preservation technology used to improve the safety and hygienic quality of food. Aim of this study was to assess the applicability and validity of the microbiological screening method direct epifluorescence filter technique (DEFT)/aerobic plate count (APC) (EN 13783:2001) for the identification of irradiated herbs and spices. Tests on non-irradiated and irradiated samples of dried herbs and spices were performed. The method was based on the comparison of APC and count obtained using DEFT. In accordance with the standard reference, this method is not applicable to samples with APC<103 colony forming units (CFU)/g and this is its main limit. The results obtained in our laboratories showed that in 50% of cases of non-irradiated samples and in 96% of the samples treated with ionising radiation, the method was not applicable due to a value of CFU/g <103. PMID:27800348

  14. Evaluation of DAPI direct count, computer assisted and plate count methods

    OpenAIRE

    Chivu, Bogdan

    2010-01-01

    The feasibility of using automatic counting of bacteria stained with highly specific and sensitive fluorescing DNA stain DAPI, 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, and direct manual counting to enumerate both pure culture of Pseudomonas putida overnight culture and sea water enhanced culture, was tested in correlation with plate direct counting, turbidity and absorbance at 600nm, to obtain cross validation. Six diluted samples from overnight pure culture of Pseudomonas putida and sea water culture ...

  15. Collaborative study comparing the spiral plate and aerobic plate count methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilchrist, J E; Donnelly, C B; Peeler, J T; Campbell, J E

    1977-07-01

    The spiral plate count method is a semiautomated plating technique that greatly reduces manpower and material costs normally associated with the pour plating technique. In this collaborative study, 8 laboratories compared the spiral and pour plating techniques, using 4 samples each of 3 products: frozen pumpkin pie, frozen chicken pot pie, and shampoo. The results show that 10 of the 12 comparisons of means of the pour and spiral methods were not significantly different; 2 values were significant at alpha = 0.01. Overall, the components of variance were less than that of the current milk standard, and the replicate per cent coefficient of variation was satisfactory. This study indicates that the spiral plate method is an acceptable alternative to the pour plate method; the spiral plate method has been adopted as official first action.

  16. Optimization of high count rate event counting detector with Microchannel Plates and quad Timepix readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tremsin, A.S., E-mail: ast@ssl.berkeley.edu; Vallerga, J.V.; McPhate, J.B.; Siegmund, O.H.W.

    2015-07-01

    Many high resolution event counting devices process one event at a time and cannot register simultaneous events. In this article a frame-based readout event counting detector consisting of a pair of Microchannel Plates and a quad Timepix readout is described. More than 10{sup 4} simultaneous events can be detected with a spatial resolution of ~55 µm, while >10{sup 3} simultaneous events can be detected with <10 µm spatial resolution when event centroiding is implemented. The fast readout electronics is capable of processing >1200 frames/sec, while the global count rate of the detector can exceed 5×10{sup 8} particles/s when no timing information on every particle is required. For the first generation Timepix readout, the timing resolution is limited by the Timepix clock to 10–20 ns. Optimization of the MCP gain, rear field voltage and Timepix threshold levels are crucial for the device performance and that is the main subject of this article. These devices can be very attractive for applications where the photon/electron/ion/neutron counting with high spatial and temporal resolution is required, such as energy resolved neutron imaging, Time of Flight experiments in lidar applications, experiments on photoelectron spectroscopy and many others.

  17. Hydrophobic grid membrane filter method for aerobic plate count in foods: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entis, P

    1986-01-01

    Twenty-one laboratories participated in a collaborative study to validate a hydrophobic grid membrane filter (HGMF) method for aerobic plate count by comparing its performance against the AOAC/APHA pour plate method. Raw milk, raw poultry, whole egg powder, flours, and spices were included in the study. Counts obtained by the HGMF and pour plate methods did not differ significantly, except in the case of whole egg powder, for which the HGMF method produced significantly higher counts. The hydrophobic grid membrane filter method for aerobic plate count in foods has been adopted official first action.

  18. Flow cytometric bacterial cell counts challenge conventional heterotrophic plate counts for routine microbiological drinking water monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nevel, S; Koetzsch, S; Proctor, C R; Besmer, M D; Prest, E I; Vrouwenvelder, J S; Knezev, A; Boon, N; Hammes, F

    2017-04-15

    Drinking water utilities and researchers continue to rely on the century-old heterotrophic plate counts (HPC) method for routine assessment of general microbiological water quality. Bacterial cell counting with flow cytometry (FCM) is one of a number of alternative methods that challenge this status quo and provide an opportunity for improved water quality monitoring. After more than a decade of application in drinking water research, FCM methodology is optimised and established for routine application, supported by a considerable amount of data from multiple full-scale studies. Bacterial cell concentrations obtained by FCM enable quantification of the entire bacterial community instead of the minute fraction of cultivable bacteria detected with HPC (typically water samples per day, depending on the laboratory and selected staining procedure(s). Moreover, many studies have shown FCM total (TCC) and intact (ICC) cell concentrations to be reliable and robust process variables, responsive to changes in the bacterial abundance and relevant for characterising and monitoring drinking water treatment and distribution systems. The purpose of this critical review is to initiate a constructive discussion on whether FCM could replace HPC in routine water quality monitoring. We argue that FCM provides a faster, more descriptive and more representative quantification of bacterial abundance in drinking water.

  19. Correlation between standard plate count and somatic cell count milk quality results for Wisconsin dairy producers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borneman, Darand L; Ingham, Steve

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if a correlation exists between standard plate count (SPC) and somatic cell count (SCC) monthly reported results for Wisconsin dairy producers. Such a correlation may indicate that Wisconsin producers effectively controlling sanitation and milk temperature (reflected in low SPC) also have implemented good herd health management practices (reflected in low SCC). The SPC and SCC results for all grade A and B dairy producers who submitted results to the Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade, and Consumer Protection, in each month of 2012 were analyzed. Grade A producer SPC results were less dispersed than grade B producer SPC results. Regression analysis showed a highly significant correlation between SPC and SCC, but the R(2) value was very small (0.02-0.03), suggesting that many other factors, besides SCC, influence SPC. Average SCC (across 12 mo) for grade A and B producers decreased with an increase in the number of monthly SPC results (out of 12) that were ≤ 25,000 cfu/mL. A chi-squared test of independence showed that the proportion of monthly SCC results >250,000 cells/mL varied significantly depending on whether the corresponding SPC result was ≤ 25,000 or >25,000 cfu/mL. This significant difference occurred in all months of 2012 for grade A and B producers. The results suggest that a generally consistent level of skill exists across dairy production practices affecting SPC and SCC.

  20. HETEROTROPHIC PLATE COUNT BACTERIA - WHAT IS THEIR SIGNIFICANCE IN DRINKING WATER?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The possible health significance of heterotrophic plate count (HPC) bacteria, also know in earlier terminology as standard plate count (SPC) bacteria, in drinking water has been debated for decades. While the literature documents the universal occurrence of HPC bacteria in soil, ...

  1. Flow cytometric bacterial cell counts challenge conventional heterotrophic plate counts for routine microbiological drinking water monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Van Nevel, S.

    2017-02-08

    Drinking water utilities and researchers continue to rely on the century-old heterotrophic plate counts (HPC) method for routine assessment of general microbiological water quality. Bacterial cell counting with flow cytometry (FCM) is one of a number of alternative methods that challenge this status quo and provide an opportunity for improved water quality monitoring. After more than a decade of application in drinking water research, FCM methodology is optimised and established for routine application, supported by a considerable amount of data from multiple full-scale studies. Bacterial cell concentrations obtained by FCM enable quantification of the entire bacterial community instead of the minute fraction of cultivable bacteria detected with HPC (typically < 1% of all bacteria). FCM measurements are reproducible with relative standard deviations below 3% and can be available within 15 min of samples arriving in the laboratory. High throughput sample processing and complete automation are feasible and FCM analysis is arguably less expensive than HPC when measuring more than 15 water samples per day, depending on the laboratory and selected staining procedure(s). Moreover, many studies have shown FCM total (TCC) and intact (ICC) cell concentrations to be reliable and robust process variables, responsive to changes in the bacterial abundance and relevant for characterising and monitoring drinking water treatment and distribution systems. The purpose of this critical review is to initiate a constructive discussion on whether FCM could replace HPC in routine water quality monitoring. We argue that FCM provides a faster, more descriptive and more representative quantification of bacterial abundance in drinking water.

  2. A new medium for determining the total plate count in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C F; Townsend, D E

    1999-12-01

    SimPlate for Total Plate Count-Color Indicator (TPC-CI, IDEXX Laboratories, Inc., Westbrook, Me.) is a new medium that incorporates the redox dye resazurin to detect and quantify bacteria in food. Enumeration is achieved by the most probable number method using a SimPlate device. Viable bacteria are detected in each well of the SimPlate device by the biochemical reduction of resazurin, which is blue, to the pink resorufin or the clear dihydroresorufin indicators. Results after 24 h of incubation for TPC-CI are highly correlated with standard plate count agar after 48 h of incubation. Correlation coefficients from studies conducted at five laboratories ranged from 0.94 to 0.98 in side-by-side comparisons against standard plate count agar. Four additional test sites, using alternative methods for determining the aerobic plate count in food, reported similar results in comparison studies (r = 0.91 to 0.97). The slopes from linear regression analysis at all sites ranged from 0.91 to 0.98, with y intercepts ranging from 0.11 to 0.84. Samples used for the validation of TPC-CI included raw food products (i.e., liver and grains), which may contain natural enzymes that interfere with enzyme-based detection methods. No interference was seen from the foods tested. These results suggest that TPC-CI is a suitable alternative to existing plate count methods and has reduced incubation time.

  3. Changes in Aerobic Plate and Escherichia coli-Coliform Counts and in Populations of Inoculated Foodborne Pathogens on Inshell Walnuts during Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frelka, John C; Davidson, Gordon R; Harris, Linda J

    2016-07-01

    After harvest, inshell walnuts are dried using low-temperature forced air and are then stored in bins or silos for up to 1 year. To better understand the survival of bacteria on inshell walnuts, aerobic plate counts (APCs) and Escherichia coli?coliform counts (ECCs) were evaluated during commercial storage (10 to 12°C and 63 to 65% relative humidity) over 9 months. APCs decreased by 1.4 to 2.0 log CFU per nut during the first 5 months of storage, and ECCs decreased by 1.3 to 2.2 log CFU per nut in the first month of storage. Through the remaining 4 to 8 months of storage, APCs and ECCs remained unchanged (P > 0.05) or decreased by CFU per nut per month. Similar trends were observed on kernels extracted from the inshell walnuts. APCs and ECCs were consistently and often significantly higher on kernels extracted from visibly broken inshell walnuts than on kernels extracted from visibly intact inshell walnuts. Parameters measured in this study were used to determine the survival of five-strain cocktails of E. coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella inoculated onto freshly hulled inshell walnuts (∼8 log CFU/g) after simulated commercial drying (10 to 12 h; 40°C) and simulated commercial storage (12 months at 10°C and 65% relative humidity). Populations declined by 2.86, 5.01, and 4.40 log CFU per nut for E. coli O157:H7, L. monocytogenes, and Salmonella, respectively, after drying and during the first 8 days of storage. Salmonella populations changed at a rate of -0.33 log CFU per nut per month between days 8 and 360, to final levels of 2.83 ± 0.79 log CFU per nut. E. coli and L. monocytogenes populations changed by -0.17 log CFU per nut per month and -0.26 log CFU per nut per month between days 8 and 360, respectively. For some samples, E. coli or L. monocytogenes populations were below the limit of detection by plating (0.60 log CFU per nut) by day 183 or 148, respectively; at least one of the six samples was positive at each subsequent sampling

  4. Nuclear APC

    OpenAIRE

    Neufeld, Kristi L.

    2009-01-01

    Mutational inactivation of the tumor suppressor gene APC (Adenomatous polyposis coli) is thought to be an initiating step in the progression of the vast majority of colorectal cancers. Attempts to understand APC function have revealed more than a dozen binding partners as well as several subcellular localizations including at cell-cell junctions, associated with microtubules at the leading edge of migrating cells, at the apical membrane, in the cytoplasm and in the nucleus. The present chapte...

  5. Short communication: Repeatability of differential goat bulk milk culture and associations with somatic cell count, total bacterial count, and standard plate count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koop, G; Dik, N; Nielen, M; Lipman, L J A

    2010-06-01

    The aims of this study were to assess how different bacterial groups in bulk milk are related to bulk milk somatic cell count (SCC), bulk milk total bacterial count (TBC), and bulk milk standard plate count (SPC) and to measure the repeatability of bulk milk culturing. On 53 Dutch dairy goat farms, 3 bulk milk samples were collected at intervals of 2 wk. The samples were cultured for SPC, coliform count, and staphylococcal count and for the presence of Staphylococcus aureus. Furthermore, SCC (Fossomatic 5000, Foss, Hillerød, Denmark) and TBC (BactoScan FC 150, Foss) were measured. Staphylococcal count was correlated to SCC (r=0.40), TBC (r=0.51), and SPC (r=0.53). Coliform count was correlated to TBC (r=0.33), but not to any of the other variables. Staphylococcus aureus did not correlate to SCC. The contribution of the staphylococcal count to the SPC was 31%, whereas the coliform count comprised only 1% of the SPC. The agreement of the repeated measurements was low. This study indicates that staphylococci in goat bulk milk are related to SCC and make a significant contribution to SPC. Because of the high variation in bacterial counts, repeated sampling is necessary to draw valid conclusions from bulk milk culturing.

  6. Single ion counting with a MCP (microchannel plate) detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tawara, Hiroko; Sasaki, Shinichi; Miyajima, Mitsuhiro [National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Shibamura, Eido

    1996-07-01

    In this study, a single-ion-counting method using alpha-particle-impact ionization of Ar atoms is demonstrated and the preliminary {epsilon}{sub mcp} for Ar ions with incident energies of 3 to 4.7 keV is determined. The single-ion counting by the MCP is aimed to be performed under experimental conditions as follows: (1) A signal from the MCP is reasonably identified as incidence of single Ar-ion. (2) The counting rate of Ar ions is less than 1 s{sup -1}. (3) The incident Ar ions are not focused on a small part of an active area of the MCP, namely, {epsilon}{sub mcp} is determined with respect to the whole active area of the MCP. So far, any absolute detection efficiency has not been reported under these conditions. (J.P.N.)

  7. Spiral plate count method for the examination of raw and pasteurized milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, C B; Gilchrist, J E; Peeler, J T; Campbell, J E

    1976-07-01

    The spiral plate count method (SPLPC) was compared with the standard plate count (SPC) method by examining 201 samples of raw and pasteurized milk. Although the means of the two methods differed significantly at alpha = 0.01,the difference was less than 10% and was not considered to be of any practical importance. The pooled replicate variances of both methods were less than 0.003, indicating good agreement between duplicate plates, with the variance of the SPLPC slightly less than that of the SPC. We believe this study indicates that the SPLPC could be substituted for the SPC in the bacteriological examination of milk.

  8. Comparison of Limulus assay, standard plate count, and total coliform count for microbiological assessment of renovated wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, J H; Lee, J C; Alexander, G A; Wolf, H W

    1979-05-01

    The Limulus endotoxin assay was compared to the standard plate count and total coliform count for assessment of the bacteriological quality of reclaimed wastewater. A total of 48 water samples from an advanced waste treatment plant in Dallas, Tex. were examined by the three techniques. Limulus assays were technically simpler to perform and provided results much sooner than conventional culture methods. However, the endotoxin values did not correlate extremely well with determinations of viable bacterial numbers. This lack of correlation may have been due to alterations in the normal ratio of viable gram-negative cells to endotoxin caused by water reclamation procedures.

  9. Mini-FLOTAC for counting Toxoplasma gondii oocysts from cat feces--comparison with cell counting plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djokic, Vitomir; Blaga, Radu; Rinaldi, Laura; Le Roux, Delphine; Ducry, Tamara; Maurelli, Maria Paola; Perret, Catherine; Djurkovic Djakovic, Olgica; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Boireau, Pascal

    2014-12-01

    Oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii represent one of the most common environmental contaminants causing the zoonotic infection toxoplasmosis. The aim of the present study was to compare the Mini-FLOTAC device with traditional cell counting plates (Kova Slide) for the detection of T. gondii oocysts from feline feces. Two types of experiments were performed: (i) purified oocysts were counted in different dilutions and (ii) specific pathogen free T. gondii-negative cat feces was inoculated with numbers of purified oocysts and counting was performed directly from feces. Our analysis showed a thousand times higher sensitivity of Mini-FLOTAC (5 × 10(2) oocysts) compared to Kova Slide (5 × 10(5) oocysts). Also, when compared by McNemar's test, counting of the purified oocysts showed a higher sensitivity of Mini-FLOTAC compared to Kova Slide, for a dilution of 10(3) oocysts/ml (chi(2) = 6.1; P microscopes in any laboratory or field conditions. We therefore recommend its use for regular screening. Further studies are needed to validate Mini-FLOTAC for the detection of oocysts in soil and water samples in field conditions.

  10. Calibration of photon counting imaging microchannel plate detectors for EUV astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegmund, O. H. W.; Vallerga, J.; Jelinsky, P.

    1986-01-01

    The calibration of photon counting imaging detectors for satellite based EUV astronomy is a complex process designed to ensure the validity of the data received 'in orbit'. The methods developed to accomplish calibration of microchannel plate detectors for the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer are described and illustrated. The characterization of these detectors can be subdivided into three categories: stabilization, performance tests, and environmental tests.

  11. Atomic layer deposited borosilicate glass microchannel plates for large area event counting detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegmund, O. H. W.; McPhate, J. B.; Tremsin, A. S.; Jelinsky, S. R.; Hemphill, R.; Frisch, H. J.; Elam, J.; Mane, A.; Lappd Collaboration

    2012-12-01

    Borosilicate glass micro-capillary array substrates with 20 μm and 40 μm pores have been deposited with resistive, and secondary electron emissive, layers by atomic layer deposition to produce functional microchannel plates. Device formats of 32.7 mm and 20 cm square have been fabricated and tested in analog and photon counting modes. The tests show amplification, imaging, background rate, pulse shape and lifetime characteristics that are comparable to standard glass microchannel plates. Large area microchannel plates of this type facilitate the construction of 20 cm format sealed tube sensors with strip-line readouts that are being developed for Cherenkov light detection. Complementary work has resulted in Na2KSb bialkali photocathodes with peak quantum efficiency of 25% being made on borosilicate glass. Additionally GaN (Mg) opaque photocathodes have been successfully made on borosilicate microchannel plates.

  12. Atomic layer deposited borosilicate glass microchannel plates for large area event counting detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegmund, O.H.W., E-mail: ossy@ssl.berkeley.edu [Experimental Astrophysics Group, Space Sciences Laboratory, 7 Gauss Way, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); McPhate, J.B.; Tremsin, A.S.; Jelinsky, S.R.; Hemphill, R. [Experimental Astrophysics Group, Space Sciences Laboratory, 7 Gauss Way, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Frisch, H.J. [Enrico Fermi Institute, 5640 S. Ellis Avenue University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Elam, J.; Mane, A. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Collaboration: LAPPD Collaboration

    2012-12-11

    Borosilicate glass micro-capillary array substrates with 20 {mu}m and 40 {mu}m pores have been deposited with resistive, and secondary electron emissive, layers by atomic layer deposition to produce functional microchannel plates. Device formats of 32.7 mm and 20 cm square have been fabricated and tested in analog and photon counting modes. The tests show amplification, imaging, background rate, pulse shape and lifetime characteristics that are comparable to standard glass microchannel plates. Large area microchannel plates of this type facilitate the construction of 20 cm format sealed tube sensors with strip-line readouts that are being developed for Cherenkov light detection. Complementary work has resulted in Na{sub 2}KSb bialkali photocathodes with peak quantum efficiency of 25% being made on borosilicate glass. Additionally GaN (Mg) opaque photocathodes have been successfully made on borosilicate microchannel plates.

  13. Evaluation of Petrifilm™ Select E. coli Count Plate medium to discriminate antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen Lars

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Screening and enumeration of antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli directly from samples is needed to identify emerging resistant clones and obtain quantitative data for risk assessment. Aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of 3M™ Petrifilm™ Select E. coli Count Plate (SEC plate supplemented with antimicrobials to discriminate antimicrobial-resistant and non-resistant E. coli. Method A range of E. coli isolates were tested by agar dilution method comparing the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC for eight antimicrobials obtained by Mueller-Hinton II agar, MacConkey agar and SEC plates. Kappa statistics was used to assess the levels of agreement when classifying strains as resistant, intermediate or susceptible. Results SEC plate showed that 74% of all strains agreed within ± 1 log2 dilution when comparing MICs with Mueller-Hinton II media. High agreement levels were found for gentamicin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol and cefotaxime, resulting in a kappa value of 0.9 and 100% agreement within ± 1 log2 dilution. Significant variances were observed for oxytetracycline and sulphamethoxazole. Further tests showed that the observed discrepancy in classification of susceptibility to oxytetracycline by the two media could be overcome when a plate-dependent breakpoint of 64 mg/L was used for SEC plates. For sulphamethoxazole, SEC plates provided unacceptably high MICs. Conclusion SEC plates showed good agreement with Mueller-Hinton II agar in MIC studies and can be used to screen and discriminate resistant E. coli for ampicillin, cephalothin, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, cefotaxime and gentamicin using CLSI standardized breakpoints, but not for sulphamethoxazole. SEC plates can also be used to discriminate oxytetracycline-resistant E. coli if a plate-dependent breakpoint value of 64 mg/L is used.

  14. Comparison of plate counts, Petrifilm, dipslides, and adenosine triphosphate bioluminescence for monitoring bacteria in cooling-tower waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Sherry A; Anderson, James E; Kim, Byung R; Ball, James C

    2009-04-01

    Effective bacterial control in cooling-tower systems requires accurate and timely methods to count bacteria. Plate-count methods are difficult to implement on-site, because they are time- and labor-intensive and require sterile techniques. Several field-applicable methods (dipslides, Petrifilm, and adenosine triphosphate [ATP] bioluminescence) were compared with the plate count for two sample matrices--phosphate-buffered saline solution containing a pure culture of Pseudomonas fluorescens and cooling-tower water containing an undefined mixed bacterial culture. For the pure culture, (1) counts determined on nutrient agar and plate-count agar (PCA) media and expressed as colony-forming units (CFU) per milliliter were equivalent to those on R2A medium (p = 1.0 and p = 1.0, respectively); (2) Petrifilm counts were not significantly different from R2A plate counts (p = 0.99); (3) the dipslide counts were up to 2 log units higher than R2A plate counts, but this discrepancy was not statistically significant (p = 0.06); and (4) a discernable correlation (r2 = 0.67) existed between ATP readings and plate counts. For cooling-tower water samples (n = 62), (1) bacterial counts using R2A medium were higher (but not significant; p = 0.63) than nutrient agar and significantly higher than tryptone-glucose yeast extract (TGE; p = 0.03) and PCA (p ATP readings and plate counts varied from system to system, was poor (r2 values ranged from ATP method was not sufficiently sensitive to measure counts below approximately 10(4) CFU/mL.

  15. Comparison of bulk-tank standard plate count and somatic cell count for Wisconsin dairy farms in three size categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingham, S C; Hu, Y; Ané, C

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate possible claims by advocates of small-scale dairy farming that milk from smaller Wisconsin farms is of higher quality than milk from larger Wisconsin farms. Reported bulk tank standard plate count (SPC) and somatic cell count (SCC) test results for Wisconsin dairy farms were obtained for February to December, 2008. Farms were sorted into 3 size categories using available size-tracking criteria: small (≤118 cows; 12,866 farms), large (119-713 cattle; 1,565 farms), and confined animal feeding operations (≥714 cattle; 160 farms). Group means were calculated (group=farm size category) for the farms' minimum, median, mean, 90th percentile, and maximum SPC and SCC. Statistical analysis showed that group means for median, mean, 90th percentile, and maximum SPC and SCC were almost always significantly higher for the small farm category than for the large farm and confined animal feeding operations farm categories. With SPC and SCC as quality criteria and the 3 farm size categories of ≤118, 119 to 713, and ≥714 cattle, the claim of Wisconsin smaller farms producing higher quality milk than Wisconsin larger farms cannot be supported.

  16. Evaluation of heterotrophic plate and chromogenic agar colony counting in water quality laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallas, Gary; Monis, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The enumeration of bacteria using plate-based counts is a core technique used by food and water microbiology testing laboratories. However, manual counting of bacterial colonies is both time and labour intensive, can vary between operators and also requires manual entry of results into laboratory information management systems, which can be a source of data entry error. An alternative is to use automated digital colony counters, but there is a lack of peer-reviewed validation data to allow incorporation into standards. We compared the performance of digital counting technology (ProtoCOL3) against manual counting using criteria defined in internationally recognized standard methods. Digital colony counting provided a robust, standardized system suitable for adoption in a commercial testing environment. The digital technology has several advantages:•Improved measurement of uncertainty by using a standard and consistent counting methodology with less operator error.•Efficiency for labour and time (reduced cost).•Elimination of manual entry of data onto LIMS.•Faster result reporting to customers.

  17. Campylobacter inoculation and quantification from broiler cecal samples to compare two plate counting methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderlise Borsoi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacteriosis is a zoonosis, a disease transmitted to humans from animals or animal products. The primarily source of Campylobacter infection in human is believed to be the handling and/or consumption of contaminated meat, especially poultry meat. Although in humans such infections are generally self-limiting, complications can arise and may include bacteraemia, Guillain-Barré syndrome, reactive arthritis and abortion. In this study, 32 birds were divided in 2 groups: a control (C group and an inoculated (I group, with 16 birds each. The I group was inoculated orally with 108 CFU/mL of Campylobacter jejuni ATCC 33291, whereas the C group was inoculated with a saline solution. Four chicks per group were euthanized by cervical dislocation at 0, 7, 14 and 21 days post-inoculation (pi. Cecum samples were collected for microbiological analyses. The samples were processed by two plate count methodologies, one developed by the USDA (United States Department of Agriculture in 2011 (B method and the other a serial dilution direct count method (A method. All birds from the C group remained negative until day 21. For the I group, the B method was found to be statistically superior to the A method for counting the recovered cells from the cecal contents at 7, 14 and 21 days pi. The microbiological direct plating counting method is a cost effective and rapid method to determine the level of contamination in broilers to help risk assessment programs at the industry level.

  18. Temperature-independent pectin gel method for aerobic plate count in dairy and nondairy food products: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, J N

    1988-01-01

    Ten laboratories participated in a collaborative study to compare the pectin-based plate count (PC) Redigel method with the aerobic plate count and standard plate count agar-based standard methods for the estimation of total bacterial counts in 9 different nondairy food and dairy food products. The foods were cream, homogenized milk, raw milk, cheese, raw chicken, raw oysters, frozen broccoli, flour, and spices. Each laboratory analyzed 6 samples (3 sample pairs) of each food group. Counts obtained by the pectin-based plate count and agar-based plate count methods differed significantly (P less than 0.05) only for homogenized milk, where the pectin gel method resulted in higher counts. The actual counts were higher in the pectin gel method in 8 of the 9 food groups. The log means for pectin gel and agar-based media, respectively, for the 9 food groups were: cream 8.106 and 7.844; homogenized milk 8.642 and 8.231; raw milk 8.711 and 8.423; chicken 7.654 and 7.645; oysters 7.201 and 7.180; broccoli 7.102 and 6.798; cheese 8.045 and 8.055; flour 4.112 and 3.988; spice 5.379 and 5.314. The repeatability standard deviations favored the pectin gel method in 6 of the 9 foods tested. The reproducibility standard deviations favored the pectin gel method in 7 of the 9 foods tested. These results strongly support the suitability of the pectin gel method as an alternative to agar-based plate count and other methods for total bacterial counts in nondairy and dairy food products. The pectin gel method has been adopted official first action.

  19. Authentic Active Learning Activities Demonstrating the Use of Serial Dilutions and Plate Counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordon K. March

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Serial dilution and plate counting is often taught in courses for both microbiology and allied health students. Lecture examples and examination questions addressing how the method is used can sometimes be contrived: artificial data sets may have little or no meaning other than to have students perform a calculation. Here we provide a set of activities employing data sets acquired from the primary literature. Our objective was to have the students think critically about a real scenario in which serial dilution and plate count was used. Each activity requires students to read a paragraph describing the study, predict the results, perform the appropriate calculations, and then evaluate the results in light of their predictions. To test the efficacy of these activities, a pretest quiz was given to approximately 100 students in an allied health/general microbiology course. After a lecture on how microbes are enumerated, students were given a different quiz. The class was then divided randomly into groups of three or four students and assigned one of the activities. A postactivity quiz was also administered. Approximately two weeks later, a serial dilution/plate count question was used on an examination and served as a final posttest. Standardized learning gains were calculated for the quiz administered after each learning activity. Even though learning gains were significantly higher after the lecture, there was also a significant improvement between the lecture and the activity. Using an exercise based on an authentic set of data significantly improved student learning gains, and is a useful practice for teaching microbiology.

  20. Enumeration and characterization of standard plate count bacteria in chlorinated and raw water supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeChevallier, M W; Seidler, R J; Evans, T M

    1980-11-01

    Nearly 700 standard plate count (SPC) bacteria were isolated from drinking water and untreated surface water and identified according to a scheme developed to permit the rapid, simple classification of microorganisms to genus, species, or group. Actinomycetes and Aeromonas species were the two most common groups of SPC bacteria in chlorinated distribution water. Aeromonas spp. and Enterobacter agglomerans were the two most common groups of SPC bacteria in raw water. Identification of bacterial populations before and after contact with chlorine (1 to 2 mg/liter) for 1 h revealed that chlorination selected for gram-positive bacteria. Water that contained high densities of bacteria known to be antagonistic to coliforms had low coliform isolation rates. The membrane filtration technique for enumerating SPC bacteria recovered significantly higher numbers (P standard pour plate technique.

  1. Counting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许有国

    2005-01-01

    Most people began to count in tens because they had ten fingers on their hands. But in some countries, people counted on one hand and used the three parts of their four fingers. So they counted in twelves, not in tens.

  2. Enumeration of total aerobic microorganisms in foods by SimPlate Total Plate Count-Color Indicator methods and conventional culture methods: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldsine, Philip T; Leung, Stephanie C; Lienau, Andrew H; Mui, Linda A; Townsend, David E

    2003-01-01

    The relative efficacy of the SimPlate Total Plate Count-Color Indicator (TPC-CI) method (SimPlate 35 degrees C) was compared with the AOAC Official Method 966.23 (AOAC 35 degrees C) for enumeration of total aerobic microorganisms in foods. The SimPlate TPC-CI method, incubated at 30 degrees C (SimPlate 30 degrees C), was also compared with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 4833 method (ISO 30 degrees C). Six food types were analyzed: ground black pepper, flour, nut meats, frozen hamburger patties, frozen fruits, and fresh vegetables. All foods tested were naturally contaminated. Nineteen laboratories throughout North America and Europe participated in the study. Three method comparisons were conducted. In general, there was count difference in recovery among the SimPlate methods and their corresponding reference methods. Mean log counts between the 2 reference methods were also very similar. Repeatability (Sr) and reproducibility (SR) standard deviations were similar among the 3 method comparisons. The SimPlate method (35 degrees C) and the AOAC method were comparable for enumerating total aerobic microorganisms in foods. Similarly, the SimPlate method (30 degrees C) was comparable to the ISO method when samples were prepared and incubated according to the ISO method.

  3. 3M Petrifilm enterobacteriaceae count plate method for enumeration of enterobacteriaceae in selected foods: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbernagel, Karen M; Lindberg, Kathryn G

    2003-01-01

    The practice of detecting and enumerating all oxidase-negative, glucose-fermenting-Gram-negative rods (i.e., the family Enterobacteriaceae) is used to indicate unsanitary or inadequate food processing conditions. The objective of this interlaboratory collaborative study was to evaluate and compare the methods described in Standard Methods for the Examination of Dairy Products (SMEDP) and the Compendium of Methods for the Microbiological Examination of Foods (Compendium) with a commercial product, the 3M Petrifilm Enterobacteriaceae Count Plate, for the recovery of Enterobacteriaceae in foods. Six foods--cheddar cheese, milk, flour, frozen prepared meals, frozen broccoli, and nut pieces--were analyzed for Enterobacteriaceae by 12 collaborating laboratories. For each food tested, the collaborators received 8 blind test portions consisting of a control test portion and 3 levels of inoculated test portion, each in duplicate. Each test portion was tested by the Petrifilm Enterobacteriaceae Count Plate method as well as the SMEDP or Compendium methods. The precision estimates (repeatability or within-laboratory variation, and reproducibility or between-laboratory variation) were calculated with standard statistical techniques.

  4. Comparison of Primary Models to Predict Microbial Growth by the Plate Count and Absorbance Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pla, María-Leonor; Oltra, Sandra; Esteban, María-Dolores; Andreu, Santiago; Palop, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    The selection of a primary model to describe microbial growth in predictive food microbiology often appears to be subjective. The objective of this research was to check the performance of different mathematical models in predicting growth parameters, both by absorbance and plate count methods. For this purpose, growth curves of three different microorganisms (Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Escherichia coli) grown under the same conditions, but with different initial concentrations each, were analysed. When measuring the microbial growth of each microorganism by optical density, almost all models provided quite high goodness of fit (r(2) > 0.93) for all growth curves. The growth rate remained approximately constant for all growth curves of each microorganism, when considering one growth model, but differences were found among models. Three-phase linear model provided the lowest variation for growth rate values for all three microorganisms. Baranyi model gave a variation marginally higher, despite a much better overall fitting. When measuring the microbial growth by plate count, similar results were obtained. These results provide insight into predictive microbiology and will help food microbiologists and researchers to choose the proper primary growth predictive model.

  5. Comparative detection of bacterial adhesion to Caco-2 cells with ELISA, radioactivity and plate count methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Blay, Gwenaëlle; Fliss, Ismaïl; Lacroix, Christophe

    2004-11-01

    Different methods are used to study bacterial adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells, which is an important step in pathogenic infection as well as in probiotic colonization of the intestinal tract. The aim of this study was to compare the ELISA-based method with more conventional plate count and radiolabeling methods for bacterial adhesion detection. An ELISA-based assay was optimized for the detection of Bifidobacterium longum and Escherichia coli O157:H7, which are low and highly adherent bacteria, respectively. In agreement with previous investigations, a percentage of adhesion below 1% was obtained for B. longum with ELISA. However, high nonspecific background and low positive signals were measured due to the use of polyclonal antibodies and the low adhesion capacity with this strain. In contrast, the ELISA-based method developed for E. coli adhesion detected a high adhesion percentage (15%). For this bacterium the three methods tested gave similar results for the highest bacterial concentrations (6.8 Log CFU added bacteria/well). However, differences among methods increased with the addition of decreased bacterial concentration due to different detection thresholds (5.9, 5.6 and 2.9 Log CFU adherent bacteria/well for radioactivity, ELISA and plate count methods, respectively). The ELISA-based method was shown to be a good predictor for bacterial adhesion compared to the radiolabeling method when good quality specific antibodies were used. This technique is convenient and allows handling of numerous samples.

  6. Evaluation of the 3M Petrifilm Enterobacteriaceae Count plate method for the enumeration of Enterobacteriaceae in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbernagel, Karen M; Lindberg, Kathryn G

    2002-09-01

    Results of the 3M Petrifilm Enterobacteriaceae Count (EB) plate method were compared with those of the standard violet red bile glucose agar (VRBG) method for the detection and enumeration of Enterobacteriaceae. Studies involving 107 bacterial strains demonstrated that the Petrifilm EB plate method is as sensitive as and more selective than the VRBG method. Sixty of the 62 pure Enterobacteriaceae cultures were recovered by both methods. In addition, 38 of the 45 non-Enterobacteriaceae organisms did not grow on the Petrifilm EB plate, while 28 of the 45 non-Enterobacteriaceae organisms did not grow on the VRBG plate. Colony counts from 174 naturally contaminated and 120 artificially inoculated dairy and nondairy food samples showed that the Petrifilm EB plate method performed as well as or better than the standard VRBG method for the enumeration of Enterobacteriaceae.

  7. Technical note: enumeration of mesophilic aerobes in milk: evaluation of standard official protocols and Petrifilm aerobic count plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, R; Nero, L A; Carvalho, A F

    2009-07-01

    Enumeration of mesophilic aerobes (MA) is the main quality and hygiene parameter for raw and pasteurized milk. High levels of these microorganisms indicate poor conditions in production, storage, and processing of milk, and also the presence of pathogens. Fifteen raw and 15 pasteurized milk samples were submitted for MA enumeration by a conventional plating method (using plate count agar) and Petrifilm Aerobic Count plates (3M, St. Paul, MN), followed by incubation according to 3 official protocols: IDF/ISO (incubation at 30 degrees C for 72 h), American Public Health Association (32 degrees C for 48 h), and Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture (36 degrees C for 48 h). The results were compared by linear regression and ANOVA. Considering the results from conventional methodology, good correlation indices and absence of significant differences between mean counts were observed, independent of type of milk sample (raw or pasteurized) and incubation conditions (IDF/ISO, American Public Health Association, or Ministry of Agriculture). Considering the results from Petrifilm Aerobic Count plates, good correlation indices and absence of significant differences were only observed for raw milk samples. The microbiota of pasteurized milk interfered negatively with the performance of Petrifilm Aerobic Count plates, probably because of the presence of microorganisms that poorly reduce the dye indicator of this system.

  8. Health concerns of heterotrophic plate count (HPC) bacteria in dental equipment water lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Martin J; Edberg, Stephen C

    2016-06-01

    There is an unsubstantiated concern as to the health relevance of HPC (heterotrophic plate count) bacteria in dental equipment waterlines. The American Dental Association (ADA) web site includes guidelines for controlling HPC populations and implies that HPC populations >500 CFU/mL as a "health" benchmark. The world-wide published literature including the United Nations fully examined this situation and concluded that HPC bacteria are not a health risk, but merely a general water quality parameter for all waters including dental water lines. This review provides documentation that the standard measurement of HPC bacteria in waters alone do not pose a health risk and the ADA already provides appropriate practices to minimize HPC bacteria in dental equipment water.

  9. Application of the microbiological method DEFT/APC to detect minimally processed vegetables treated with gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, M.M.; Duarte, R.C.; Silva, P.V. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes, Laboratorio de Deteccao de Alimentos Irradiados, Cidade Universitaria, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, Butanta Zip Code 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Marchioni, E. [Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique et Sciences de l' Aliment (UMR 7512), Faculte de Pharmacie, Universite Louis Pasteur, 74, route du Rhin, F-67400 Illkirch (France); Villavicencio, A.L.C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes, Laboratorio de Deteccao de Alimentos Irradiados, Cidade Universitaria, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, Butanta Zip Code 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil)], E-mail: villavic@ipen.br

    2009-07-15

    Marketing of minimally processed vegetables (MPV) are gaining impetus due to its convenience, freshness and apparent health effect. However, minimal processing does not reduce pathogenic microorganisms to safe levels. Food irradiation is used to extend the shelf life and to inactivate food-borne pathogens. In combination with minimal processing it could improve safety and quality of MPV. A microbiological screening method based on the use of direct epifluorescent filter technique (DEFT) and aerobic plate count (APC) has been established for the detection of irradiated foodstuffs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of this technique in detecting MPV irradiation. Samples from retail markets were irradiated with 0.5 and 1.0 kGy using a {sup 60}Co facility. In general, with a dose increment, DEFT counts remained similar independent of the irradiation while APC counts decreased gradually. The difference of the two counts gradually increased with dose increment in all samples. It could be suggested that a DEFT/APC difference over 2.0 log would be a criteria to judge if a MPV was treated by irradiation. The DEFT/APC method could be used satisfactorily as a screening method for indicating irradiation processing.

  10. Petrifilm rapid S. aureus Count Plate method for rapid enumeration of Staphylococcus aureus in selected foods: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbernagel, K M; Lindberg, K G

    2001-01-01

    A rehydratable dry-film plating method for Staphylococcus aureus in foods, the 3M Petrifilm Rapid S. aureus Count Plate method, was compared with AOAC Official Method 975.55 (Staphylococcus aureus in Foods). Nine foods-instant nonfat dried milk, dry seasoned vegetable coating, frozen hash browns, frozen cooked chicken patty, frozen ground raw pork, shredded cheddar cheese, fresh green beans, pasta filled with beef and cheese, and egg custard-were analyzed for S. aureus by 13 collaborating laboratories. For each food tested, the collaborators received 8 blind test samples consisting of a control sample and 3 levels of inoculated test sample, each in duplicate. The mean log counts for the methods were comparable for pasta filled with beef and cheese; frozen hash browns; cooked chicken patty; egg custard; frozen ground raw pork; and instant nonfat dried milk. The repeatability and reproducibility variances of the Petrifilm Rapid S. aureus Count Plate method were similar to those of the standard method.

  11. Rapid Detection of Viable Microorganisms Based on a Plate Count Technique Using Arrayed Microelectrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behraad Bahreyni

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Development of a miniaturized biosensor system that can be used for rapid detection and counting of microorganisms in food or water samples is described. The developed microsystem employs a highly sensitive impedimetric array of biosensors to monitor the growth of bacterial colonies that are dispersed across an agar growth medium. To use the system, a sample containing the bacteria is cultured above the agar layer. Using a multiplexing network, the electrical properties of the medium at different locations are continuously measured, recorded, and compared against a baseline signal. Variations of signals from different biosensors are used to reveal the presence of bacteria in the sample, as well as the locations of bacterial colonies across the biochip. This technique forms the basis for a label-free bacterial detection for rapid analysis of food samples, reducing the detection time by at least a factor of four compared to the current required incubation times of 24 to 72 hours for plate count techniques. The developed microsystem has the potential for miniaturization to a stage where it could be deployed for rapid analysis of food samples at commercial scale at laboratories, food processing facilities, and retailers.

  12. Dry rehydratable film method for rapid enumeration of coliforms in foods (3M Petrifilm Rapid Coliform Count plate): collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinneberg, Karen M; Lindberg, Kathryn G

    2002-01-01

    A rehydratable dry-film plating method for coliforms in foods, the 3M Petrifilm Rapid Coliform Count plate method, was compared with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual method for nondairy foods and the American Public Health Association's Standard Methods for the Examination of Dairy Products (SMEDP) method for dairy foods. Six food types, vanilla ice cream, cheddar cheese, fresh refrigerated uncooked pasta, wheat flour, prepared frozen macaroni and cheese, and frozen hash browns, were analyzed for coliforms by 11 collaborating laboratories. For each food product tested, the collaborators received 8 blind samples consisting of a control sample and 3 levels of inoculated sample, each in duplicate. The mean log counts for the methods were comparable. The repeatability and reproducibility variances of the Petrifilm Rapid Coliform Count method at 14 and 24 h were not significantly different from those of the standard methods.

  13. 3M Petrifilm Staph Express Count plate method for the enumeration of Staphylococcus aureus in selected dairy foods: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbernagel, Karen M; Jechorek, Robert P; Carver, Charles N; Horter, Barbara L; Lindberg, Kathryn G

    2003-01-01

    The 3M Petrifilm Staph Express Count plate method was compared with AOAC Official Method 975.55 for the enumeration of Staphylococcus aureus in selected foods. Five foods--ice cream, raw milk, yogurt, whey powder, and cheese--were analyzed for S. aureus by 12 collaborating laboratories. For each food tested, the collaborators received 8 blind test samples consisting of a control sample, a low inoculation level, a medium inoculation level, and a medium inoculation level with background flora, each in duplicate. The mean log10 counts for the methods were comparable for all 5 foods. The repeatability and reproducibility variances of the 24 h Petrifilm Staph Express Count plate method were similar to those of the 72 h standard method.

  14. Selection of antibiotic-resistant standard plate count bacteria during water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, J L; Calomiris, J J; Seidler, R J

    1982-08-01

    Standard plate count (SPC) bacteria were isolated from a drinking-water treatment facility and from the river supplying the facility. All isolates were identified and tested for their resistance to six antibiotics to determine if drug-resistant bacteria were selected for as a consequence of water treatment. Among the isolates surviving our test procedures, there was a significant selection (P less than 0.05) of gram-negative SPC organisms resistant to two or more of the test antibiotics. These bacteria were isolated from the flash mix tank, where chlorine, alum, and lime are added to the water. Streptomycin resistance in particular was more frequent in this population as compared with bacteria in the untreated river water (P less than 0.01). SPC bacteria from the clear well, which is a tank holding the finished drinking water at the treatment facility, were also more frequently antibiotic resistant than were the respective river water populations. When 15.8 and 18.2% of the river water bacteria were multiply antibiotic resistant, 57.1 and 43.5%, respectively, of the SPC bacteria in the clear well were multiply antibiotic resistant. Selection for bacteria exhibiting resistance to streptomycin was achieved by chlorinating river water in the laboratory. We concluded that the selective factors operating in the aquatic environment of a water treatment facility can act to increase the proportion of antibiotic-resistant members of the SPC bacterial population in treated drinking water.

  15. Heterotrophic plate count and consumer's health under special consideration of water softeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambsch, Beate; Sacré, Clara; Wagner, Ivo

    2004-05-01

    The phenomenon of bacterial growth in water softeners is well known since years. To upgrade the hygienic safety of water softeners, the German DIN Standard 19636 was developed, to assure that the distribution system could not be contaminated by these devices and that the drinking water to be used in the household still meets the microbiological standards according to the German drinking water guidelines, i.e. among others heterotrophic plate count (HPC) below 100 CFU/ml. Moreover, the standard for the water softeners includes a test for contamination with Pseudomonas aeruginosa which has to be disinfected during the regeneration phase. This is possible by sanitizing the resin bed during regeneration by producing chlorine. The results of the last 10 years of tests of water softeners according to DIN 19636 showed that it is possible to produce water softeners that comply with that standard. Approximately 60% of the tested models were accepted. P. aeruginosa is used as an indicator for potentially pathogenic bacteria being able to grow also in low nutrient conditions which normally prevail in drinking water. Like other heterotrophs, the numbers of P. aeruginosa increase rapidly as stagnation occurs. Normally P. aeruginosa is not present in the distributed drinking water. However, under certain conditions, P. aeruginosa can be introduced into the drinking water distribution system, for instance, during construction work. The occurrence of P. aeruginosa is shown in different cases in treatment plants, public drinking water systems and in-house installations. The compliance with DIN 19636 provides assurance that a water softener will not be a constant source of contamination, even if it is once inoculated with a potentially pathogenic bacterium like P. aeruginosa.

  16. Microbiological assessment of house and imported bottled water by comparison of bacterial endotoxin concentration, heterotrophic plate count, and fecal coliform count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Mayra I; Pérez, Cynthia M; Negrón, Edna L

    2008-03-01

    Consumers increasingly use bottled water and home water treatment systems to avoid direct tap water. According to the International Bottled Water Association (IBWA), an industry trade group, 5 billion gallons of bottled water were consumed by North Americans in 2001. The principal aim of this study was to assess the microbial quality of in-house and imported bottled water for human consumption, by measurement and comparison of the concentration of bacterial endotoxin and standard cultivable methods of indicator microorganisms, specifically, heterotrophic and fecal coliform plate counts. A total of 21 brands of commercial bottled water, consisting of 10 imported and 11 in-house brands, selected at random from 96 brands that are consumed in Puerto Rico, were tested at three different time intervals. The Standard Limulus Amebocyte Lysate test, gel clot method, was used to measure the endotoxin concentrations. The minimum endotoxin concentration in 63 water samples was less than 0.0625 EU/mL, while the maximum was 32 EU/mL. The minimum bacterial count showed no growth, while the maximum was 7,500 CFU/mL. Bacterial isolates like P. fluorescens, Corynebacterium sp. J-K, S. paucimobilis, P. versicularis, A. baumannii, P. chlororaphis, F. indologenes, A. faecalis and P. cepacia were identified. Repeated measures analysis of variance demonstrated that endotoxin concentration did not change over time, while there was a statistically significant (p count over time. In addition, multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that a unit change in the concentration of endotoxin across time was associated with a significant (p count. This analysis evidenced a significant time effect in the average log bacteriological cell count. Although bacterial growth was not detected in some water samples, endotoxin was present. Measurement of Gram-negative bacterial endotoxins is one of the methods that have been suggested as a rapid way of determining bacteriological water quality.

  17. High gain micro-channel plate multipliers for particle tracking or single photo-electron counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oba, K.; Rehak, P.; Smith, S.D.

    1980-01-01

    Micro-channel plate multipliers have been used to detect the passage of relativistic charged particles. Measurements of the detection efficiency and pulse height response versus micro-channel plate gain are presented for one, two and three micro-channel plate arrays. Values describing temporal response and transit time jitter are also given. In a separate measurement, the response of a single micro-channel plate to individual slow electrons (less than or equal to 1 keV) was studied. By using a special technique output bunches as small as three electrons may be seen for low average micro-channel plate gain. The results of attempts to improve the micro-channel plate response are also presented.

  18. Evaluation of the 3M™ Petrifilm™ Rapid Yeast and Mold Count Plate for the Enumeration of Yeast and Mold in Food: Collaborative Study, First Action 2014.05.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Patrick; Flannery, Jonathan; Crowley, Erin; Agin, James; Goins, David; Jechorek, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The 3M™ Petrifilm™ Rapid Yeast and Mold (RYM) Count Plate is a simple, ready-to-use chromogenic culture method for the rapid detection and enumeration of yeast and mold in food products. The 3M Petrifilm RYM Count Plate method was compared to the U. S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual (FDA BAM) Chapter 18, Yeasts, Molds and Mycotoxins and the ISO 21527:2008 Microbiology of Food and Animal Feeding Stuffs-Horizontal Method for the Enumeration for Yeast and Molds - Part 1: Colony Count Technique in Products with Water Activity Greater Than 0.95 and Part 2: Colony Count Technique in Products with Water Activity Less Than or Equal to 0.95 reference methods for raw almonds and raw frozen ground beef patties (77% lean). The 3M Petrifilm RYM Count Plate method was evaluated using a paired study design in a multi-laboratory collaborative study following the current AOAC Validation Guidelines. Three target contamination levels (low, 10-100 CFU/g; medium, 100-1000 CFU/g; high 1000-10 000 CFU/g) as well as an uninoculated control level (0 CFU/g) were evaluated for each matrix. Samples evaluated by the 3M Petrifilm RYM Count Plate method were prepared in duplicate and incubated at both 25°C and 28°C. Plates at both temperatures were enumerated after 48 and 60 h of incubation. No significant difference was observed between the 3M Petrifilm RYM Count Plate method and the FDA BAM or ISO 21527 reference methods for each contamination level. No statistical differences were observed between samples analyzed by the 3M Petrifilm RYM Count Plate method (at either 25°C or 28°C) and the reference methods. No statistical significant differences were observed between enumeration of colonies at 48 and 60 h on the 3M Petrifilm RYM Count Plate method and the reference methods.

  19. Standard plate counts of drinking water: a comparison between incubation temperatures of 20 and 30 degrees C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinedi, C; Gisin, M

    1990-08-01

    Standard plate counts of 5085 drinking water samples gathered in the Region of Basle were carried out over a period of 9 years (1977 to 1985). Two conditions of incubation were evaluated: 20 degrees C and 30 degrees C for 72 h. In ground water samples (3048 samples) colony forming units (cfu) at 30 degrees C were found to be higher than counts at 20 degrees C incubation, 45% of the samples contained greater than or equal to 2 cfu/ml at 30 degrees versus 35% at 20 degrees C. The median was 1 cfu/ml at both temperatures. In spring water samples (2036 samples) bacterial counts at 20 degrees C were found to be higher than counts at 30 degrees C incubation, 61% of the samples contained greater than 10 cfu/ml at 20 degrees C versus 51% at 30 degrees C. The median was 19 cfu/ml at 20 degrees C incubation versus 11 cfu/ml at 30 degrees C. These differences were statistically significant with p less than 0.001 (Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test). No correlation was found between bacterial counts at 20 degrees C and bacterial counts at 30 degrees C, nor between bacterial counts and original water temperatures. It appears that incubation temperatures of 20 degrees C and 30 degrees C favor the growth of different populations of bacteria and temperature is not the only factor. However, from a practical point of view the use of only one incubation temperature seems to be justified for the purpose of judging the sanitary quality of drinking water.

  20. Application of the microbiological method DEFT/APC and DNA comet assay to detect ionizing radiation processing of minimally processed vegetables; Aplicacao do metodo microbiologico DEFT/APC e do teste do cometa na deteccao do tratamento com radiacao ionizante de hortalicas minimamente processadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Michel Mozeika

    2008-07-01

    Marketing of minimally processed vegetables (MPV) are gaining impetus due to its convenience, freshness and apparent healthy. However, minimal processing does not reduce pathogenic microorganisms to safe levels. Food irradiation is used to extend the shelf life and inactivation of food-borne pathogens, Its combination with minimal processing could improve the safety and quality of MPV. Two different food irradiation detection methods, a biological, the DEFT/APC, and another biochemical, the DNA Comet Assay were applied to MPV in order to test its applicability to detect irradiation treatment. DEFT/APC is a microbiological screening method based on the use of the direct epi fluorescent filter technique (DEFT) and the aerobic plate count (APC). DNA Comet Assay detects DNA damage due to ionizing radiation. Samples of lettuce, chard, watercress, dandelion, kale, chicory, spinach, cabbage from retail market were irradiated O.5 kGy and 1.0 kGy using a {sup 60} Co facility. Irradiation treatment guaranteed at least 2 log cycle reduction for aerobic and psychotropic microorganisms. In general, with increasing radiation doses, DEFT counts remained similar independent of irradiation processing while APC counts decreased gradually. The difference of the two counts gradually increased with dose increment in all samples. It could be suggested that a DEFT/APC difference over 2.0 log would be a criteria to judge if a MPV was treated by irradiation. DNA Comet Assay allowed distinguishing non-irradiated samples from irradiated ones, which showed different types of comets owing to DNA fragmentation. Both DEFT/APC method and DNA Comet Assay would be satisfactorily used as a screening method for indicating irradiation processing. (author)

  1. Effect of irradiation and storage post-irradiation of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) on counts of microorganisms hygienic indicator using methods of conventional analysis and PETRIFILM{sup TM} plates; Efeito da irradiacao e do armazenamento pos-irradiacao da pimenta preta (Piper nigrum L.) na contagem de microorganismos indicadores de higiene usando metodos de analise convencionais e placas PETRIFILM{sup TM}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaimes, Marcial Ibo Silva

    1988-07-01

    Fifteen samples of ground black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) purchased in Sao Paulo local stores, were submitted to irradiation in doses of 3, 6 and 10 kGy. All irradiated samples, including non-irradiated controls, were submitted to counts of yeasts and molds, aerobes (APC), coliforms and mesophilic aerobic spore formers (MASC), using conventional plate count methods and PETRIFILM {sup TM} plates. For yeasts and molds count, acidified potato dextrose agar (PDA) an PETRIFILM {sup TM} PFYM plates were used. For aerobes, plate count agar (PCA) and PETRIFILM {sup TM} PFAC plates were used. Violet red bile agar (VRBA) and PETRIFILM {sup TM} PFEC plates were employed for enumeration of coliforms. Counts of these groups of microorganisms obtained through the traditional plating procedures did not differ significantly from those using the corresponding PETRIFILM {sup TM} plates. In samples submitted to irradiation, a dose of 10 kGy caused a decrease of the yeasts and molds count from 10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} to less than 10 cfu/g. The same dose caused a decrease of the aerobic counts from 10{sup 7}-10{sup 8} to 10{sup 2}-10{sup 3} cfu/g, of coliforms from 10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} to less than 10 cfu/g and MASC from 10{sup 6}-10{sup 7} cfu/g to 10-10{sup 2} cfu/g. The introduction of a injury repair step in the counting procedure resulted in a 32 to 89% increase in the number of coliforms. However, this additional step did not improve significantly the counts of MASC. After 270 days of storage of samples irradiated with 3 kGy, a decrease in the yeasts and molds population from 10{sup 3} to 20 cfu/g was observed. The APC population in these samples was reduced from 5,0x10{sup 6} to 2,4x10{sup 4} cfu/g; in those irradiated with 6 kGy the reduction was from 4,0x10{sup 4} to 5,0x10{sup 3} cfu/g and in those irradiated with 10 kGy the counts were reduced from 30 to less than 10 cfu/g. After the same time of storage, the coliform population in non irradiated samples decreased from 2,8x10{sup

  2. Improvements in Boron Plate Coating Technology for Higher Efficiency Neutron Detection and Coincidence Counting Error Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menlove, Howard Olsen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Henzlova, Daniela [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-25

    This informal report presents the measurement data and information to document the performance of the advanced Precision Data Technology, Inc. (PDT) sealed cell boron-10 plate neutron detector that makes use of the advanced coating materials and procedures. In 2015, PDT changed the boron coating materials and application procedures to significantly increase the efficiency of their basic corrugated plate detector performance. A prototype sealed cell unit was supplied to LANL for testing and comparison with prior detector cells. Also, LANL had reference detector slabs from the original neutron collar (UNCL) and the new Antech UNCL with the removable 3He tubes. The comparison data is presented in this report.

  3. Effect of methamidophos on soil fungi community in microcosms by plate count, DGGE and clone library analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xinyu; ZHANG Huiwen; WU Minna; ZHANG Yan; ZHANG Chenggang

    2008-01-01

    Methamidophos was widely used a pesticide in northern China. The potential influences of methamidophos on soil fungal community in black soil were assessed by plate count, 28S rDNA-PCR-DGGE, and clone library analysis. Three methamidophos levels (50, 150, and 250 mg/kg) were tested in soil microcosms. Results from plate count during a 60-d microcosm experiment showed that high concentrations of methamidophos (250 mg/kg) could significantly stimulate fungal populations. DCGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) fingerprinting patterns showed a significant difference between the responses of culturable and total fungi communities under the stress of methamidophos. Shannon diversity indices calculated from DGGE profiles indicated that culturable fungi in all microcosms with methamidophos treatment increased after 1 week of incubation. However, the diversity indices of total fungi decreased in the first week, as compared to the stimulation of culturable fungi. At the 8th week, however, all the microcosms treated by methamidophos were similar to the control microcosms in community structure as suggested by the Shannon diversity indices for both culturable and total fungi. In contrast, after 1 week the fungal structure of culturable and unculturable both were disturbed to different extent under the stresses of methamidophos by clustering analysis. Clone sequencing analysis indicated the stimulation of pathogenic and unculturable fungal populations by methamidophos treatment, suggetsing potential risks of plant disease outbreak.

  4. PENGARUH PERENDAMAN EKSTRAK BAWANG PUTIH (Allium sativum TERHADAP TOTAL PLATE COUNT DAN SIFAT ORGANOLEPTIK BAKSO DAGING SAPI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunita Pustikayanti

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian untuk mengetahui alternatif pengganti boraks pada bahan pangan yang dapat diaplikasikan produsen bakso. Penelitian eksperimen dengan populasi 4 bakso berbagai perlakuan dan 10 panelis menggunakan instrumen alat uji mikrobiologi dan formulir penilaian sifat organoleptik. Analisis data dilakukan secara univariat dan bivariat (Repeated Anova. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bakso paling disukai adalah bakso tambahan karagenan yang direndam ekstrak bawang putih 30%. Nilai Total Plate Count bakso jam ke-24 yang dibawah 1×105 adalah bakso menggunakan tambahan karagenan dan bakso menggunakan boraks. Ada pengaruh perendaman ekstrak bawang putih terhadap tekstur (0,013, warna (0,022, aroma (0,001. Saran bagi pemerintah hendaknya mensosialisasikan penggunaan bahan tambahan pangan yang lebih aman. BPOM bekerjasama dengan instansi lainnya menyelenggarakan program produk pangan bebas boraks di Indonesia dan mengharuskan produsen bakso mengirimkan sampel bakso ke Laboratorium pengujian makanan untuk diuji keamanan pangannya. Bagi peneliti selanjutnya disarankan meneliti perbedaan nilai Total Plate Count dan sifat organoleptik bakso pada suhu ruang, suhu dingin, dan suhu beku. Serta menambahkan perlakuan bakso dengan penambahan Sodium Tri Poly Phospat (STPP

  5. Development of Microelectrode Arrays Using Electroless Plating for CMOS-Based Direct Counting of Bacterial and HeLa Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niitsu, Kiichi; Ota, Shoko; Gamo, Kohei; Kondo, Hiroki; Hori, Masaru; Nakazato, Kazuo

    2015-10-01

    The development of two new types of high-density, electroless plated microelectrode arrays for CMOS-based high-sensitivity direct bacteria and HeLa cell counting are presented. For emerging high-sensitivity direct pathogen counting, two technical challenges must be addressed. One is the formation of a bacteria-sized microelectrode, and the other is the development of a high-sensitivity and high-speed amperometry circuit. The requirement for microelectrode formation is that the gold microelectrodes are required to be as small as the target cell. By improving a self-aligned electroless plating technique, the dimensions of the microelectrodes on a CMOS sensor chip in this work were successfully reduced to 1.2 μm × 2.05 μm. This is 1/20th of the smallest size reported in the literature. Since a bacteria-sized microelectrode has a severe limitation on the current flow, the amperometry circuit has to have a high sensitivity and high speed with low noise. In this work, a current buffer was inserted to mitigate the potential fluctuation. Three test chips were fabricated using a 0.6- μm CMOS process: two with 1.2 μm × 2.05 μm (1024 × 1024 and 4 × 4) sensor arrays and one with 6- μm square (16 × 16) sensor arrays; and the microelectrodes were formed on them using electroless plating. The uniformity among the 1024 × 1024 electrodes arranged with a pitch of 3.6 μm × 4.45 μm was optically verified. For improving sensitivity, the trenches on each microelectrode were developed and verified optically and electrochemically for the first time. Higher sensitivity can be achieved by introducing a trench structure than by using a conventional microelectrode formed by contact photolithography. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements obtained using the 1.2 μm × 2.05 μm 4 × 4 and 6- μm square 16 × 16 sensor array with electroless-plated microelectrodes successfully demonstrated direct counting of the bacteria-sized microbeads and HeLa cells.

  6. Do different standard plate counting (IDF/ISSO or AOAC) methods interfere in the conversion of individual bacteria counts to colony forming units in raw milk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassoli, L D; Lima, W J F; Esguerra, J C; Da Silva, J; Machado, P F; Mourão, G B

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to establish the correlation between individual bacterial count (IBC) obtained by flow cytometry and the number of colony forming units (CFU) determined by standard plate count (SPC) in raw milk using two different reference methodologies: the methodology of the International Dairy Federation (IDF) - International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 4833, incubation for 72 h at 30°C and the methodology of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC), incubation for 48 h at 35°C. For this, 100 bovine milk samples (80 ml) from different farms were collected in a sterile bottle and maintained refrigerated at 4°C and were delivered to the laboratory. In the laboratory, the samples were divided into two vials of 40 ml each. Then, half of the vials were forwarded for the SPC analysis, and the other half were analysed using the equipment BactoScan FC. The analyses by flow cytometry and SPC were performed at the same time (maximum deviation of +/- 1 h). To transform the data from IBC ml(-1) to CFU ml(-1) (IDF or AOAC methodology), a standard linear regression equation was used, as recommended by IDF/ISO-196. The difference between the reference methodologies affects the equation that transforms IBC into CFU and therefore the accuracy of the results. The results estimated by the equation using the ISO 4833 methodology were on average 0·18 log units higher than the results estimated using the equation using the AOAC methodology. After the comparison of the methodologies, it was concluded that there is an impact of the reference methodologies on the conversion of the results from IBC to CFU. Depending on the methodology adopted by each laboratory or country, there may not be equivalence in the results. Hence, the laboratories specialized in milk quality analysis that have changed their methodology for analysis, passing from the MAPA (AOAC) methodology to the IDF standard, need to develop new conversion equations to make their

  7. Evaluation of the petrifilm aerobic count plate for enumeration of aerobic marine bacteria from seawater and Caulerpa lentillifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudaka, Jun; Horii, Toru; Tamanaha, Koji; Itokazu, Kiyomasa; Nakamura, Masaji; Taira, Katsuya; Nidaira, Minoru; Okano, Sho; Kitahara, Akio

    2010-08-01

    The enumeration and evaluation of the activity of marine bacteria are important in the food industry. However, detection of marine bacteria in seawater or seafood has not been easy. The Petrifilm aerobic count plate (ACP) is a ready-to-use alternative to the traditional enumeration media used for bacteria associated with food. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of a simple detection and enumeration method utilizing the Petrifilm ACP for enumeration of aerobic marine bacteria from seawater and an edible seaweed, Caulerpa lentillifera. The efficiency of enumeration of total aerobic marine bacteria on Petrifilm ACP was compared with that using the spread plate method on marine agar with 80 seawater and 64 C. lentillifera samples. With sterile seawater as the diluent, a close correlation was observed between the method utilizing Petrifilm ACP and that utilizing the conventional marine agar (r=0.98 for seawater and 0.91 for C. lentillifera). The Petrifilm ACP method was simpler and less time-consuming than the conventional method. These results indicate that Petrifilm ACP is a suitable alternative to conventional marine agar for enumeration of marine microorganisms in seawater and C. lentillifera samples.

  8. Development of a single-photon-counting camera with use of a triple-stacked micro-channel plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Naruomi; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Katafuchi, Tetsuro

    2016-01-01

    At the quantum-mechanical level, all substances (not merely electromagnetic waves such as light and X-rays) exhibit wave–particle duality. Whereas students of radiation science can easily understand the wave nature of electromagnetic waves, the particle (photon) nature may elude them. Therefore, to assist students in understanding the wave–particle duality of electromagnetic waves, we have developed a photon-counting camera that captures single photons in two-dimensional images. As an image intensifier, this camera has a triple-stacked micro-channel plate (MCP) with an amplification factor of 10(6). The ultra-low light of a single photon entering the camera is first converted to an electron through the photoelectric effect on the photocathode. The electron is intensified by the triple-stacked MCP and then converted to a visible light distribution, which is measured by a high-sensitivity complementary metal oxide semiconductor image sensor. Because it detects individual photons, the photon-counting camera is expected to provide students with a complete understanding of the particle nature of electromagnetic waves. Moreover, it measures ultra-weak light that cannot be detected by ordinary low-sensitivity cameras. Therefore, it is suitable for experimental research on scintillator luminescence, biophoton detection, and similar topics.

  9. Assessment of the efficiency of SimPlate™ total plate count color indicator (TPC CI to quantify mesophilic aerobic microorganisms in pasteurized milk Avaliação da eficiência do SimPlate™ Total Plate Count Color Indicator (TPC CI para enumeração de microrganismos aeróbios mesófilos em leite pasteurizado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Augusto Nero

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The SimPlate™ TPC CI system is a rapid method to count mesophilic aerobic microorganisms (MAM in foods, based on the use of resazurine to indicate bacterial growth. Its efficiency in pasteurized milk was evaluated using 142 pasteurized milk samples (38 type A, 43 type B and 61 type C collected in Londrina, PR. The standard plating method, using Plate Count Agar (PCA was used for comparison. The plates of both systems were incubated at 35ºC and read after 24h and 48h. The occurrence of false-positive and false-negative wells and the predominant microorganisms in them were also evaluated. The results were compared by simple correlation and mean variance analyses. The correlation (r and mean variance values were 0.6811 and 0.7583 for the results obtained after 24h, respectively, and 0.9126 and 0.0842 for the results obtained after 48h, respectively. These results indicate that the performance of the system increases when the plates are incubated for 48h. When the three types of milk were evaluated separately, these values were 0.9285 and 0.0817 for type A milk, 0.9231 and 0.0466 for type B milk and 0.7209 and 0.1082 for type C milk. These results indicate that the better the quality of the milk the better the performance of SimPlate™ TPC CI. False-negative wells, found more frequently in samples with high MAM counts, were caused by Gram positive microorganisms, poorly detected by the SimPlate™ TPC CI system because they grew slowly and had low reduction capacity. The results indicated a higher efficiency of the SimPlate™ TPC CI system in the reading at 48h.O sistema SimPlate™ TPC CI é um método rápido para enumeração de microrganismos aeróbios mesófilos (MAM em alimentos que utiliza a resazurina como substância indicadora de crescimento bacteriano. Para avaliar sua eficiência em leite pasteurizado, 142 amostras (38 de leite tipo A, 43 de leite tipo B e 61 de leite tipo C foram colhidas em Londrina, PR, e analisadas pelo SimPlate

  10. Evaluation of the 3M™ Petrifilm™ Rapid Aerobic Count Plate for the Enumeration of Aerobic Bacteria: Collaborative Study, First Action 2015.13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Patrick; Flannery, Jonathan; Crowley, Erin; Agin, James; Goins, David; Jechorek, Robert

    2016-05-01

    The 3M™ Petrifilm™ Rapid Aerobic Count (RAC) Plate is a sample-ready culture medium system containing dual-sensor indicator technology for the rapid quantification of aerobic bacteria in food products. The 3M Petrifilm RAC Plate was compared to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual (FDA BAM) Chapter 3 (Aerobic Plate Count) for the enumeration of aerobic bacteria in raw easy-peel shrimp and the Standard Methods for the Examination of Dairy Products (SMEDP) Chapter 6 (Standard Plate Count Method) for the enumeration of aerobic bacteria in pasteurized skim milk and instant nonfat dry milk (instant NFDM). The 3M Petrifilm RAC Plate was evaluated using a paired study design in a multilaboratory collaborative study following current AOAC validation guidelines. Three target contamination levels (low, 10-100 CFU/g; medium, 100-1000 CFU/g; and high 1000-10 000 CFU/g) were evaluated for naturally occurring aerobic microflora for each matrix. For raw easy-peel shrimp, duplicate 3M Petrifilm RAC Plates were enumerated after 24 ± 2 h incubation at both 32 and 35°C. Pasteurized skim milk 3M Petrifilm RAC Plates were enumerated after 24 ± 2 h incubation at 32°C, and instant NFDM 3M Petrifilm RAC Plates were enumerated after 48 ± 3 h incubation at 32°C. No statistical difference was observed between 3M Petrifilm RAC Plate and FDA BAM or SMEDP reference methods for each contamination level.

  11. Comparison of 3M Petrifilm Aerobic Count Plates to standard plating methodology for use with AOAC antimicrobial efficacy methods 955.14, 955.15, 964.02, and 966.04 as an alternative enumeration procedure: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Maria T; LaBudde, Robert A; Tomasino, Stephen F; Pines, Rebecca M

    2013-01-01

    A multilaboratory study was conducted to determine the equivalence of the 3M Petrifilm Aerobic Count Plate and standard plating methodology for measuring viable bacteria and spores recovered from hard-surface carriers (stainless steel and porcelain), also known as "control carrier counts," used in AOAC antimicrobial efficacy test methods. Six laboratories participated in the study in which carriers inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enterica, and spores of Bacillus subtilis were evaluated using 3M Petrifilm Aerobic Count (AC) plates and standard plating side-by-side. The data were analyzed using a matched-pair t-test to determine the between-method effect with confidence intervals. For all test organisms pooled across all laboratories, the mean difference in log10 concentration between the standard plate count method and 3M Petrifilm AC Plates was -0.012, with a 95% confidence interval of (-0.090, +0.066), which was well within the -0.5, +0.5 interval established as the acceptance criterion. The between-carrier SD averaged 0.139; the between-replicate SD was 0.050. The carrier reproducibility, given that a single replicate per carrier is done, was estimated to be 0.148. Although differences were seen in the final concentrations of the test organisms among laboratories, there were no statistical differences between the enumeration methods. Based on the results from this study, 3M Petrifilm AC Plates are equivalent to standard plating methodology and can be used as an alternative procedure for the enumeration of test organisms used in AOAC Methods 955.14, 955.15, 964.02, and 966.04.

  12. Lack of correlation between Legionella colonization and microbial population quantification using heterotrophic plate count and adenosine triphosphate bioluminescence measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Scott; Baron, Julianne L; Wagener, Marilyn M; Vidic, Radisav D; Stout, Janet E

    2015-07-01

    This investigation compared biological quantification of potable and non-potable (cooling) water samples using pour plate heterotrophic plate count (HPC) methods and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration measurement using bioluminescence. The relationship between these measurements and the presence of Legionella spp. was also examined. HPC for potable and non-potable water were cultured on R2A and PCA, respectively. Results indicated a strong correlation between HPC and ATP measurements in potable water (R = 0.90, p ATP and HPC were much weaker but statistically significant (make-up water: R = 0.37, p = 0.005; cooling tower 1: R = 0.52, p ATP. However, ATP measurements showed higher microbial concentrations than HPC measurements. Following chlorination of the cooling towers, ATP measurements indicated very low bacterial concentrations (1000 CFU/mL) which consisted primarily of non-tuberculous mycobacteria. HPC concentrations have been suggested to be predictive of Legionella presence, although this has not been proven. Our evaluation showed that HPC or ATP demonstrated a fair predictive capacity for Legionella positivity in potable water (HPC: receiver operating characteristic (ROC) = 0.70; ATP: ROC = 0.78; p = 0.003). However, HPC or ATP correctly classified sites as positive only 64 and 62% of the time, respectively. No correlation between HPC or ATP and Legionella colonization in non-potable water samples was found (HPC: ROC = 0.28; ATP: ROC = 0.44; p = 0.193).

  13. 3M Petrifilm Staph Express Count plate method for the enumeration of Staphylococcus aureus in selected types of meat, seafood, and poultry: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Wendy A; Aleo, Victoria A; Schultz, Ann M; Horter, Barbara L; Lindberg, Kathryn G

    2003-01-01

    The 3M Petrifilm Staph Express Count plate method was compared with AOAC Official Method 975.55 for the enumeration of Staphylococcus aureus in selected foods. Four foods--cooked, diced chicken; cured ham; smoked salmon; and pepperoni--were analyzed for S. aureus by 12 collaborating laboratories. For each food tested, the collaborators received 8 blind test samples consisting of a control sample, a low inoculation level, a medium inoculation level, and a medium inoculation level with background flora, each in duplicate. The mean log10 counts for the methods were comparable for all 4 foods. The repeatability and reproducibility variances of the 24 h Petrifilm Staph Express Count plate method were similar to those of the 72 h standard method.

  14. 3M Petrifilm Staph Express Count plate method for the enumeration of Staphylococcus aureus in selected types of processed and prepared foods: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbernagel, Karen M; Jechorek, Robert P; Carver, Charles N; Horter, Barbara L; Lindberg, Kathryn G

    2003-01-01

    The 3M Petrifilm Staph Express Count plate method was compared with AOAC Official Method 975.55 for the enumeration of Staphylococcus aureus in selected foods. Five foods--frozen lasagna, custard, frozen mixed vegetables, frozen hashbrowns, and frozen batter-coated mushrooms--were analyzed for S. aureus by 13 collaborating laboratories. For each food tested, the collaborators received 8 blind test samples consisting of a control sample, a low inoculation level, a medium inoculation level, and a medium inoculation level with background flora, each in duplicate. The mean log10 counts for the methods were comparable for all 5 foods. The repeatability and reproducibility variances of the 24 h Petrifilm Staph Express Count plate method were similar to those of the 72 h standard method.

  15. Real-time ArcGIS and heterotrophic plate count based chloramine disinfectant control in water distribution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xiaohui; Zhi, Xinghua; Zhu, Huifeng; Meng, Mingqun; Zhang, Mingde

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of chloramine residual on bacteria growth and regrowth and the relationship between heterotrophic plate counts (HPCs) and the concentration of chloramine residual in the Shanghai drinking water distribution system (DWDS). In this study, models to control HPCs in the water distribution system and consumer taps are also developed. Real-time ArcGIS was applied to show the distribution and changed results of the chloramine residual concentration in the pipe system by using these models. Residual regression analysis was used to get a reasonable range of the threshold values that allows the chloramine residual to efficiently inhibit bacteria growth in the Shanghai DWDS; the threshold values should be between 0.45 and 0.5 mg/L in pipe water and 0.2 and 0.25 mg/L in tap water. The low residual chloramine value (0.05 mg/L) of the Chinese drinking water quality standard may pose a potential health risk for microorganisms that should be improved. Disinfection by-products (DBPs) were detected, but no health risk was identified.

  16. Comparison of a quantitative microtiter method, a quantitative automated method, and the plate-count method for determining microbial complement resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M D; Wooley, R E; Brown, J; Spears, K R; Nolan, L K; Shotts, E B

    1991-01-01

    A quantitative microtiter method for determining the degree of complement resistance or sensitivity of microorganisms is described. The microtiter method is compared with a quantitative automated system and the standard plate-count technique. Data were accumulated from 30 avian Escherichia coli isolates incubated at 35 C with either chicken plasma or heat-inactivated chicken plasma. Analysis of data generated by the automated system and plate-count techniques resulted in a classification of the microorganisms into three groups: those sensitive to the action of complement; those of intermediate sensitivity to the action of complement; and those resistant to the action of complement. Although the three methods studied did not agree absolutely, there were statistically significant correlations among them.

  17. Influence of Heat Shock Temperatures and Fast Freezing on Viability of Probiotic Sporeformers and the Issue of Spore Plate Count Versus True Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Jafari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to investigate effects of various heat shock conditions and fast freezing and subsequent thawing on the viability and recovery of Bacillus coagulans and Bacillus subtilis as probiotic sporeformers, and also to compare spore plate and microscopic counts. Materials and Methods: After preparing the final suspensions of B. coagulans and Bacillus subtilis subsp. Natto spores, they were spread-plated before and after fast freezing treatment (-70°C for about 1 min. Heat shock treatments of the spores were carried out at 68oC for 15, 20, and 30 min as well as at 80oC for 10 and 15 min. Concentrations of the examined probiotic sporeformers were determined simultaneously by plate enumerations and microscopically determined counts. Student’s t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA of SPSS were used for statistical analysis of the data. Analysis of DoE results was carried out using Minitab. Results: The results presented here show that the highest recovery rates for B. coagulans (14.75 log CFU/mL and B. subtilis spores (14.80 log CFU/mL were under a heat shock condition of 68°C for 20 min in nutrient agar (p<0.05. In addition, the survival rates of B. coagulans and B. subtilis spores under the fast freezing and subsequent thawing condition were about 90% and 88%, respectively. Plate counts differed significantly from counts determined microscopically, with differences of almost 0.5 and 0.8 log for B. coagulans and B. subtilis spores, respectively (p<0.05. In addition, DoE results of the study revealed that both factors of spore count method and only freezing factor in fast freezing treatment have a significant effect on concentrations of the spores examined (p<0.05. Conclusions: Heat shock conditions, freezing and subsequent thawing circumstances, and plate counts or enumerations determined microscopically have significant influences on the viability of probiotic sporeformers and

  18. Cautions on the Use of National Standard Method for Aerobic Plate Count in Food and Rapid Detection Techniques for Aerobic Plate Count%食品中茵落总数的国标法测定注意事项及快速检测技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄维雅

    2012-01-01

    菌落总数是食品微生物检测的一个重要项目,也是评价食品卫生安全性最常用的指标之一,其结果的准确度和可信度直接影响评价的可靠性。该文总结了食品中菌落总数的国标法检测注意事项,并介绍了近年来常用的几种食品菌落总数的快速检测技术。%The aerobic plate count is important in the food microbiological examination and widely used in evaluation of food hygiene and safety. The reliability of evaluations is depended on the accuracy and the credibility of the aerobic plate count. This paper summarized some cautions on the use of national standard method for aerobic plate count in food microbiological examination, and reviewed some common rapid detection techniques for aerobic plate count in food microbiological study in recent years.

  19. 培养条件对海水中菌落总数测定的影响%Effects of culture condition on aerobic plate count of seawater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢昭聪; 郑文丽; 徐立俊; 李小燕; 黄明燕; 袁新竹; 杜林

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解平板计数法测定海水中菌落总数时适宜的培养条件:培养基、培养温度和培养时间.方法 深圳水域的海水样品在不同培养基、培养温度条件下,经过不同培养时间培养后进行菌落总数计数.结果 在培养温度为25t,3090,36℃条件下,在相同培养时间内,2216E琼脂的菌落总数明显高于营养琼脂的菌落总数及平板计数琼脂的菌落总数(P < 0.05);采用2216E琼脂进行菌落总数测定,在培养温度30℃培养96h后,菌落总数达到最高,且菌落总数高于25℃和36℃培养时的菌落总数(P < 0.05).结论 海水中菌落总数测定时应注意培养时间的控制.2216E琼脂适合用于海水菌落总数测定.深圳区域海水中菌落总数测定适宜采用2216E琼脂于30℃培养96h.有关国家标准中海水中菌落总数测定方法所规定的培养温度、培养时间应考虑进行修订完善以准确检测水温较高的南方区域海水.%Objective To study studied the suitable medium, culture temperature and culture time, and to determine the aerobic plate count of seawater. Methods Samples of seawater from Shenzhen area were cultured in different media, temperature, after different time colony-forming unit were counted. Results In culture temperature of 25℃, 30℃, 36℃, with the same culture time, colonies numbers on 2216E agar were obviously more than on the nutrient agar and the plate count agar (P < 0.05); using 2216E agar for aerobic plate count in temperature 30℃ reached the highest number of colonies after 96 h, and the numbers of colony are higher than in 25℃ and 36℃ (P < 0.05). Conclusion Culture time should be well controlled when the aerobic plate count of seawater was detected. 2216E agar is a suitable medium for aerobic plate count of seawater in Shenzhen area. In order to accurately detect the aerobic plate count of seawater of the South region where water temperature is relatively high, the necessary amendments to

  20. PLATE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kling, Joyce; Hjulmand, Lise-Lotte

    2008-01-01

    ’s level of English is sufficient for the increasing number of courses offered in English each semester. This paper addresses these concerns and describes a pilot project initiated in 2003 at CBS to gauge the overall English language proficiency of those teaching content courses in English. Through......Copenhagen Business School (CBS) finds itself needing to address the issue of English-medium instruction for its increasing number of foreign exchange and full degree students. With internationalisation as a main pillar of the institution’s agenda, there are concerns whether the teaching faculty...... the Project in Language Assessment for Teaching in English (PLATE) language professionals from CBS’s Language Center observe teachers and provide feedback using evaluation criteria from the Common European Framework for Reference (CEFR) supplemented by some additional criteria which take the LSP nature...

  1. PLATE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kling, Joyce; Hjulmand, Lise-Lotte

    2008-01-01

    Copenhagen Business School (CBS) finds itself needing to address the issue of English-medium instruction for its increasing number of foreign exchange and full degree students. With internationalisation as a main pillar of the institution’s agenda, there are concerns whether the teaching faculty......’s level of English is sufficient for the increasing number of courses offered in English each semester. This paper addresses these concerns and describes a pilot project initiated in 2003 at CBS to gauge the overall English language proficiency of those teaching content courses in English. Through...... the Project in Language Assessment for Teaching in English (PLATE) language professionals from CBS’s Language Center observe teachers and provide feedback using evaluation criteria from the Common European Framework for Reference (CEFR) supplemented by some additional criteria which take the LSP nature...

  2. Evaluation of the petrifilm aerobic count plate for enumeration of aerobic marine bacteria from seawater and Caulerpa lentillifera

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kudaka, Jun; Horii, Toru; Tamanaha, Koji; Itokazu, Kiyomasa; Nakamura, Masaji; Taira, Katsuya; Nidaira, Minoru; Okano, Sho; Kitahara, Akio

    2010-01-01

    ... and an edible seaweed, Caulerpa lentillifera. The efficiency of enumeration of total aerobic marine bacteria on Petrifilm ACP was compared with that using the spread plate method on marine agar with 80...

  3. Immunopurification of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, Kerryn L.; Catimel, Bruno; Church, Nicole L; Janine L Coates; Antony W Burgess; Layton, Meredith J.; Faux, Maree C.

    2013-01-01

    Background The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumour suppressor gene encodes a 2843 residue (310 kDa) protein. APC is a multifunctional protein involved in the regulation of β-catenin/Wnt signalling, cytoskeletal dynamics and cell adhesion. APC mutations occur in most colorectal cancers and typically result in truncation of the C-terminal half of the protein. Results In order to investigate the biophysical properties of APC, we have generated a set of monoclonal antibodies which enable puri...

  4. Comparison of Petrifilm Staph Express Count System with the bacteriological analytical manual direct-plating method for enumeration of Staphylococcus aureus in artificially contaminated hard cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedio, Willis M; Wendakoon, Chitra N; Zapata, Ruben; Carrillo, Christina; Browning, Paul

    2008-01-01

    The 3M Petrifilm Staph Express Count System was compared with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM) direct-plate count method for the enumeration of Staphylococcus aureus in 6 types of artificially contaminated hard cheese (Asiago, Cheddar, Gruyère, Parmesan, Romano, and Swiss). Five different samples of each cheese type were inoculated with S. aureus (ATCC 25923) to achieve low, medium, and high inoculum levels. S. aureus was enumerated by the Petrifilm and BAM methods, and the results were compared. Multivariate analysis of variance revealed no significant differences (P<0.05) between the 2 methods. The Petrifilm method compared favorably with the BAM procedure. The rapid method was more convenient to use, considerably faster, and less expensive to perform than the BAM method.

  5. New Approaches on Quantification of Campylobacter jejuni in Poultry Samples: The Use of Digital PCR and Real-time PCR against the ISO Standard Plate Count Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papić, Bojan; Pate, Mateja; Henigman, Urška; Zajc, Urška; Gruntar, Igor; Biasizzo, Majda; Ocepek, Matjaž; Kušar, Darja

    2017-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis is the most frequently reported bacterial food-borne illness in the European Union and contaminated broiler meat is considered the most important source of infection in humans. The aim of the present study was to evaluate real-time PCR (qPCR) and digital PCR (dPCR) for quantification of Campylobacter jejuni in 75 broiler neck-skin samples collected from a poultry slaughterhouse, and to compare them with the ISO 10272-2 standard plate count method. For qPCR standard curve, C. jejuni-negative neck-skin samples were spiked with C. jejuni suspension with a known number of bacterial cells. The observed CFU/g values by qPCR correlated greatly with the expected values and qPCR showed good performance with the reliable limit of detection (rLOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of three and 31 target copies per reaction, respectively. However, both rLOD (1219 CFU/g) and LOQ (12,523 CFU/g) were beyond the EFSA-proposed critical limit of 500–1,000 CFU/g of neck skin. Although C. jejuni cell counts were ≤1,000 CFU/g in only 7/75 samples by plate counting, they were ≤LOQ in 60/75 and ≤rLOD in 26/75 (≤1,000 CFU/g in 24/75) samples by qPCR. A strong and statistically significant correlation was observed between qPCR and dPCR. Both PCR-based methods correlated significantly with the plate count method; however, the correlation was moderate. Using the Bland–Altman analysis, an average agreement was noted between all three methods, although with a large standard deviation. A significant bias toward overestimation in dPCR was observed, probably due to the relatively high number of false positive calls. The linear dynamic range was comparable in both PCR-based methods; however, qPCR proved to be more suitable for routine use. In the future, the establishment of a reliable molecular quantification of C. jejuni in poultry samples showing a wide range of contamination levels down to the proposed critical limit is needed to enable time- and cost

  6. Risk factors associated with bulk tank standard plate count, bulk tank coliform count, and the presence of Staphylococcus aureus on organic and conventional dairy farms in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicconi-Hogan, K M; Gamroth, M; Richert, R; Ruegg, P L; Stiglbauer, K E; Schukken, Y H

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the association of bulk tank milk standard plate counts, bulk tank coliform counts (CC), and the presence of Staphylococcus aureus in bulk tank milk with various management and farm characteristics on organic and conventional dairy farms throughout New York, Wisconsin, and Oregon. Data from size-matched organic farms (n=192), conventional nongrazing farms (n=64), and conventional grazing farms (n=36) were collected at a single visit for each farm. Of the 292 farms visited, 290 bulk tank milk samples were collected. Statistical models were created using data from all herds in the study, as well as exclusively for the organic subset of herds. Because of incomplete data, 267 of 290 herds were analyzed for total herd modeling, and 173 of 190 organic herds were analyzed for the organic herd modeling. Overall, more bulk tanks from organic farms had Staph. aureus cultured from them (62% of organic herds, 42% conventional nongrazing herds, and 43% of conventional grazing herds), whereas fewer organic herds had a high CC, defined as ≥50 cfu/mL, than conventional farms in the study. A high standard plate count (×1,000 cfu/mL) was associated with decreased body condition score of adult cows and decreased milk production in both models. Several variables were significant only in the model created using all herds or only in organic herds. The presence of Staph. aureus in the bulk tank milk was associated with fewer people treating mastitis, increased age of housing, and a higher percentage of cows with 3 or fewer teats in both the organic and total herd models. The Staph. aureus total herd model also showed a relationship with fewer first-lactation animals, higher hock scores, and less use of automatic takeoffs at milking. High bulk tank CC was related to feeding a total mixed ration and using natural service in nonlactating heifers in both models. Overall, attentive management and use of outside resources were useful with regard to CC

  7. APC and chromosome instability in colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Cabrera

    Full Text Available Colon cancer is a common disease that can be sporadic or familial. An inactivated adenomatous polyposis coli (APC suppressor gene is found in over 80% of colorectal tumors, this being an early alteration in the development of adenomatous polyps. APC function is not only critical for tumor initiation and progression, and chromosome instability (CIN is another characteristic dependent at least partly on APC mutations.

  8. A high resolution, high frame rate detector based on a microchannel plate read out with the Medipix2 counting CMOS pixel chip.

    CERN Document Server

    Mikulec, Bettina; McPhate, J B; Tremsin, A S; Siegmund, O H W; Clark, Allan G; CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    The future of ground-based optical astronomy lies with advancements in adaptive optics (AO) to overcome the limitations that the atmosphere places on high resolution imaging. A key technology for AO systems on future very large telescopes are the wavefront sensors (WFS) which detect the optical phase error and send corrections to deformable mirrors. Telescopes with >30 m diameters will require WFS detectors that have large pixel formats (512x512), low noise (<3 e-/pixel) and very high frame rates (~1 kHz). These requirements have led to the idea of a bare CMOS active pixel device (the Medipix2 chip) functioning in counting mode as an anode with noiseless readout for a microchannel plate (MCP) detector and at 1 kHz continuous frame rate. First measurement results obtained with this novel detector are presented both for UV photons and beta particles.

  9. 进口葡萄酒菌落总数检验结果分析%Analysis on the results of aerobic plate count in imported wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周毅; 李金华; 徐晔; 段宏安; 曹洁

    2013-01-01

    目的:了解进口葡萄酒微生物污染状况及主要污染微生物.方法:对394份进口葡萄酒样品菌落总数进行测定,并对主要污染微生物进行鉴定.结果:5份葡萄酒样品菌落总数超标,生化鉴定表明,主要污染微生物为酿酒酵母.结论:进口葡萄酒整体卫生状况较好,但进出口管理部门应加强对进口葡萄酒产品微生物指标的检测,确保产品质量符合相关标准要求.%Objective:A survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of microbiological contamination in im-ported wine,and find the main microbe leading to pollution.Methods:A total of 394 imported wine samples were analyzed for aerobic plate count determination,then microbial identification was applied to these contaminated microbes.Results:Aerobic plate count of 5 wine samples was found over-limit.The results of biochemical identification showed that the main microorganism causing pollution is Saccharomyces cerevisiae.Conclusion:The overall prevalence of microbiological contamination in wine is relatively low,but the import and export administrative department still should strengthen the microbiological test on imported wine,to make sure that the product quality can meet revelant standards requirement.

  10. Cross strip anode readouts for large format, photon counting microchannel plate detectors: developing flight qualified prototypes of the detector and electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallerga, John; Raffanti, Rick; Cooney, Michael; Cumming, Harley; Varner, Gary; Seljak, Andrej

    2014-07-01

    Photon counting microchannel plate (MCP) imagers have been the detector of choice for most UV astronomical missions over the last two decades (e.g. EUVE, FUSE, COS on Hubble etc.). Over this duration, improvements in the MCP laboratory readout technology have resulted in better spatial resolution (x10), temporal resolution (x1000) and output event rate (x100), all the while operating at lower gain (x 10) resulting in lower high voltage requirements and longer MCP lifetimes. One such technology is the parallel cross strip (PXS) readout. Laboratory versions of PXS electronics have demonstrated count rates on the order of 2 MHz, and temporal resolution of ~ 1ns. In 2012 our group at U.C. Berkeley, along with our partners at the U. Hawaii, received a Strategic Astrophysics Technology grant to raise the TRL of the PXS detector and electronics from 4 to 6 by replacing most of the high powered electronics with application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) which will lower the power, mass and volume requirements of the PXS detector. We were also tasked to design and fabricate a "standard" 50mm square active area MCP detector incorporating these electronics that can be environmentally qualified for flight (temperature, vacuum, vibration). The first ASICs designed for this program have been fabricated and are undergoing testing. We present the latest progress on these ASIC designs and performance and show imaging results from the new 50 x 50 mm XS detector.

  11. Studies on the ecology of aquatic bacteria of the lower Niger Delta: multiple antibiotic resistance among the standard plate count organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogan, M T; Nwiika, D E

    1993-05-01

    The ecology of multiple antibiotic resistant (MAR) bacteria in the fresh-waters of the lower Niger Delta was studied in the Port Harcourt area, Rivers State. On the basis of decreasing pollution levels three zones, A, B, C, were recognized. Cell recovery by two viable count media, casein-peptone-starch (CPS) and plate count (PC) agar containing chloramphenicol, tetracycline, penicillin, streptomycin or ampicillin were compared in an initial study. Higher numbers of antibiotic resistant (AR) bacteria were recovered on CPS containing tetracycline, penicillin, streptomycin and ampicillin from the faecally-polluted New Calabar River (zone A) than on SPC agar containing similar antibiotics but the reverse was observed for forest stream (zone B) samples. Differences between the two media were also observed at individual sample sites. The proportions of strains of AR bacteria resistant to their primary isolation antibiotic varied from 55% (zone B) to 72% in the least polluted Isiokpo and Elele-Alimini streams (zone C), for ampicillin, and mostly count media without antibiotics included mainly species of Bacillus (12) and enterobacteria (18). Between five and 10 strains were resistant to > or = three antibiotics; seven were resistant to all five. The antibiograms of most strains were variable and depended on the method of drug application (discs or incorporation into agar), media and temperature of incubation (25 degrees, 37 degrees or 44.5 degrees C). Twenty-one strains were consistently resistant to ampicillin by the two methods; 10 to 19 were consistent for chloramphenicol, tetracycline and penicillin.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. X-ray photon-counting detector based on a micro-channel plate for pulsar navigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baomei Chen; Baosheng Zhao; Huijun Hu; Qiurong Yan; Lizhi Sheng

    2011-01-01

    The pulse time of arrival (TOA) is a determining parameter for accurate timing and positioning in X-ray pulsar navigation. The pulse TOA can be calculated by comparing the measured arrival time with the predicted arrival time of the X-ray pulse for pulsar. In this study, in order to research the measurement of pulse arrival time, an experimental system is set up. The experimental system comprises a simulator of the X-ray pulsar, an X-ray detector, a time-measurement system, and a data-processing system. An X-ray detector base is proposed on the basis of the micro-channel plate (MCP), which is sensitive to soft X-ray in the 1-10 keV band. The MCP-based detector, the structure and principle of the experimental system, and results of the pulse profile are described in detail. In addition, a discussion of the effects of different X-ray pulse periods and the quantum efficiency of the detector on pulse-profile signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is presented. Experimental results reveal that the SNR of the measured pulse profile becomes enhanced as the quantum efficiency of the detector increases. The SNR of the pulse profile is higher when the period of the pulse is smaller at the same integral.%@@ The pulse time of arrival (TOA) is a determining parameter for accurate timing and positioning in X-ray pulsar navigation.The pulse TOA can be calculated by comparing the measured arrival time with the predicted arrival time of the X-ray pulse for pulsar.In this study, in order to research the measurement of pulse arrival time, an experimental system is set up.The experimental system comprises a simulator of the X-ray pulsar, an X-ray detector, a time-measurement system, and a data-processing system.An X-ray detector base is proposed on the basis of the micro-channel plate (MCP), which is sensitive to soft X-ray in the 1-10 keV band.The MCP-based detector, the structure and principle of the experimental system,and results of the pulse profile are described in detail.In addition, a

  13. ATP bioluminescence rapid detection of total viable count in soy sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shou-Lei; Miao, Su-Na; Deng, Shao-Ya; Zou, Min-Juan; Zhong, Fo-Sheng; Huang, Wen-Biao; Pan, Si-Yi; Wang, Qing-Zhang

    2012-01-01

    The adenosine triphosphate (ATP) bioluminescence rapid determination method may be useful for enumerating the total viable count (TVC) in soy sauce, as it has been previously used in food and beverages for sanitation with good precision. However, many factors interfere with the correlation between total aerobic plate counts and ATP bioluminescence. This study investigated these interfering factors, including ingredients of soy sauce and bacteria at different physiological stages. Using the ATP bioluminescence method, TVC was obtained within 4 h, compared to 48 h required for the conventional aerobic plate count (APC) method. Our results also indicated a high correlation coefficient (r = 0.90) between total aerobic plate counts and ATP bioluminescence after filtration and resuscitation with special medium. The limit of quantification of the novel detection method is 100 CFU/mL; there is a good linear correlation between the bioluminescence intensity and TVC in soy sauce in the range 1 × 10(2) -3 × 10(4) CFU/mL and even wider. The method employed a luminescence recorder (Tristar LB-941) and 96-well plates and could analyse 50-100 samples simultaneously at low cost. In this study, we evaluated and eliminated the interfering factors and made the ATP bioluminescence rapid method available for enumerating TVC in soy sauce.

  14. Different Phenotypic Consequences of Simultaneous Versus Stepwise Apc Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Jared M.; Miller, Ashleigh J; Shibata, Darryl; Liskay, R. Michael

    2011-01-01

    APC is considered a gatekeeper for colorectal cancer (CRC). Cells with heterozygous APC mutations have altered expression profiles suggesting that the first APC hit may help set the stage for subsequent transformation. Therefore, we measured transformation efficiency following what we have designated as “simultaneous” versus “stepwise” Apc loss. We combined a conditional Apc allele (ApcCKO ) with a Cre reporter gene and an out-of-frame Cre allele (Pms2cre ) that stochastically becomes functio...

  15. Stable MCC binding to the APC/C is required for a functional spindle assembly checkpoint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hein, Jamin B; Nilsson, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) delays progression into anaphase until all chromosomes have aligned on the metaphase plate by inhibiting Cdc20, the mitotic co-activator of the APC/C. Mad2 and BubR1 bind and inhibit Cdc20, thereby forming the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC), which can bind...

  16. Comparison of the compact dry TC method with the standard pour plate method (AOAC official method 966.23) for determining aerobic colony counts in food samples: Performance-tested method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodaka, Hidemasa; Mizuochi, Shingo; Teramura, Hajime; Nirazuka, Tadanobu

    2005-01-01

    Compact Dry TC qualifies as a rapid method kit for determining aerobic colony counts in foods. The plates are presterilized and contain culture medium and a cold-soluble gelling agent. The medium is rehydrated by inoculating 1 mL diluted sample into the center of the self-diffusible medium and allowing the solution to diffuse by capillary action. The plates can then be incubated and the colonies counted without any additional steps. The Compact Dry TC method was validated with 5 different raw meats. The performance tests were conducted at 35 degrees and 30 degrees C. In all required performance studies, no apparent differences were observed between the Compact Dry TC method and the Standard Pour Plate method (AOAC Official Method 966.23) for the detection level of aerobic microorganisms. For the accuracy claim (n = 60), a correlation factor of r2(35) = 0.9977 (35 degrees C) and r2(30) = 0.9932 (30 degrees C) could be assigned, as stated in the application for "Performance Tested Method." Quality consistency and storage robustness studies, showed no significant variations in plate count results with different production lots or plates of diverse storage age.

  17. APC implementation in Chandra Asri - ethylene plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidiq, Mochamad; Mustofa, Ali

    2017-05-01

    Nowadays, the modern process plants are continuously improved for maximizing production, Optimization of the energy and raw material and reducing the risk. Due to many disturbances appearance between the process units, hence, the failure of one unit might have a bad effect on the overall productivity. Ethylene Plant have significant opportunities for using Advanced Process Control (APC) technologies to improve operation stability, push closer to quality or equipment limit, and improve the capability of process units to handle disturbances. APC implementation had considered a best answer for solving multivariable control problem. PT. Chandra Asri Petrochemical, Tbk (CAP) operates a large naphtha cracker complex at Cilegon, Indonesia. To optimize the plant operation and to enhance the benefit, Chandra Asri has been decided to implement Advance Process Control (APC) for ethylene plant. The APC implementation technology scopes at CAP are as follows: 1. Hot Section : Furnaces, Quench Tower 2. Cold Section : Demethanizer, Deethanizer, Acetylene Converter, Ethylene Fractionator, Depropanizer, Propylene Fractionator, Debutanizer

  18. Data sharing system for lithography APC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Eiichi; Teranishi, Yoshiharu; Shimabara, Masanori

    2007-03-01

    We have developed a simple and cost-effective data sharing system between fabs for lithography advanced process control (APC). Lithography APC requires process flow, inter-layer information, history information, mask information and so on. So, inter-APC data sharing system has become necessary when lots are to be processed in multiple fabs (usually two fabs). The development cost and maintenance cost also have to be taken into account. The system handles minimum information necessary to make trend prediction for the lots. Three types of data have to be shared for precise trend prediction. First one is device information of the lots, e.g., process flow of the device and inter-layer information. Second one is mask information from mask suppliers, e.g., pattern characteristics and pattern widths. Last one is history data of the lots. Device information is electronic file and easy to handle. The electronic file is common between APCs and uploaded into the database. As for mask information sharing, mask information described in common format is obtained via Wide Area Network (WAN) from mask-vender will be stored in the mask-information data server. This information is periodically transferred to one specific lithography-APC server and compiled into the database. This lithography-APC server periodically delivers the mask-information to every other lithography-APC server. Process-history data sharing system mainly consists of function of delivering process-history data. In shipping production lots to another fab, the product-related process-history data is delivered by the lithography-APC server from the shipping site. We have confirmed the function and effectiveness of data sharing systems.

  19. Comparison of the compact dry TC and 3M petrifilm ACP dry sheet media methods with the spiral plate method for the examination of randomly selected foods for obtaining aerobic colony counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, P; Meldrum, R

    2002-02-01

    Two hundred thirty-six randomly selected food and milk samples were examined to obtain aerobic colony counts by two dry sheet media methods and a standard Public Health Laboratory Service spiral plate method. Results for 40 samples were outside the limits of detection for one or more of the tested methods and were not considered. (The limits of detection for the spiral plate method were 200 to 1 x 10(8) CFU/ml for the spiral plate method and 100 to 3 x 10(6) CFU/ml for the dry sheet media methods.) The remaining 196 sets of results were analyzed further. When the results from the three methods were compared, correlation coefficients were all >0.80 and slopes and intercepts were close to 1.0 and 0.0, respectively. Mean log values and standard deviations were very similar for all three methods. The results were evaluated according to published UK guidelines for ready-to-eat foods sampled at the point of sale, which include a quality acceptability assessment that is based on aerobic colony counts. Eighty-six percent of the comparable results gave the same verdict with regard to acceptability according to the aerobic colony count guidelines. Both dry sheet media methods were comparable to the spiral plate method and can be recommended for the examination of food.

  20. Uncertainty evaluation of aerobic plate count by proficiency testing%能力验证菌落总数测定结果不确定度的评定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海华; 兰茜

    2015-01-01

    目的:对实验室能力验证样品菌落总数进行不确定度评定。方法能力验证菌落总数依据 GB 4789.2-2010《食品安全国家标准食品微生物学检验菌落总数测定》以及能力验证计划参试指导书来进行测定和结果判断,再根据JJF 1059.1-2012《测量不确定度评定与表示》的规定,对测定过程中引入的不确定度分量进行评定,然后采用合成的方法来计算和评定菌落总数的不确定度。结果菌落总数测定结果合成不确定度为0.05042,扩展不确定度为0.1008(以对数计)。结论本研究建立的方法可以对能力验证样品的菌落总数进行不确定度评定,此方法适合于类似检测条件下菌落总数不确定度的评定。%ABSTRACT:Objective To evaluate the uncertainty of aerobic plate count by proficiency testing. Methods Proficiency testing of aerobic plate count was conducted under the direction of GB 4789.2-2010 National food safety standard microbiological examination in food:Aerobic plate count and CFAPA-024 Reference book for microbiological ability verification plan in food. Then, the uncertainty components introduced in the experiment were determined according to JJF1059.1-2012 Evaluation and expression of uncertainty in measurements. Finally, synthetic method was used to calculate and assess the uncertainty of aerobic plate count. Results The combined uncertainty of aerobic plate count was 0.05042, the expanded uncertainty was U(1og)=0.1008. Conclusion The method established in this study can be used in the uncertainty evaluation of aerobic plate count under similar circumstances.

  1. Correlations between total cell concentration, total adenosine tri-phosphate concentration and heterotrophic plate counts during microbial monitoring of drinking water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Hammes

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The general microbial quality of drinking water is normally monitored by heterotrophic plate counts (HPC. This method has been used for more than 100 years and is recommended in drinking water guidelines. However, the HPC method is handicapped because it is time-consuming and restricted to culturable bacteria. Recently, rapid and accurate detection methods have emerged, such as adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP measurements to assess microbial activity in drinking water, and flow cytometry (FCM to determine the total cell concentration (TCC. It is necessary and important for drinking water quality control to understand the relationships among the conventional and new methods. In the current study, all three methods were applied to 200 drinking water samples obtained from two local buildings connected to the same distribution system. Samples were taken both on normal working days and weekends, and the correlations between the different microbiological parameters were determined. TCC in the samples ranged from 0.37–5.61×105 cells/ml, and two clusters, the so-called high (HNA and low (LNA nucleic acid bacterial groups, were clearly distinguished. The results showed that the rapid determination methods (i.e., FCM and ATP correlated well (R2=0.69, but only a weak correlation (R2=0.31 was observed between the rapid methods and conventional HPC data. With respect to drinking water monitoring, both FCM and ATP measurements were confirmed to be useful and complimentary parameters for rapid assessing of drinking water microbial quality.

  2. Evaluation of the limulus amoebocyte lysate test in conjunction with a gram negative bacterial plate count for detecting irradiation of chicken

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotter, Susan L.; Wood, Roger; McWeeny, David J.

    A study to evaluate the potential of the Limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) test in conjuction with a Gram negative bacteria (GNB) plate count for detecting the irradiation of chicken is described. Preliminary studies demonstrated that chickens irradiated at an absorbed dose of 2.5 kGy could be differentiated from unirradiated birds by measuring levels of endotoxin and of numbers of GNB on chicken skin. Irradiated birds were found to have endotoxin levels similar to those found in unirradiated birds but significantly lower numbers of GNB. In a limited study the test was found to be applicable to birds from different processors. The effect of temperature abuse on the microbiological profile, and thus the efficacy of the test, was also investigated. After temperature abuse, the irradiated birds were identifiable at worst up to 3 days after irradiation treatment at the 2.5 kGy level and at best some 13 days after irradiation. Temperature abuse at 15°C resulted in rapid recovery of surviving micro-organisms which made differentiation of irradiated and unirradiated birds using this test unreliable. The microbiological quality of the bird prior to irradiation treatment also affected the test as large numbers of GNB present on the bird prior to irradiation treatment resulted in larger numbers of survivors. In addition, monitoring the developing flora after irradiation treatment and during subsequent chilled storage also aided differentiation of irradiated and unirradiated birds. Large numbers of yeasts and Gram positive cocci were isolated from irradiated carcasses whereas Gram negative oxidative rods were the predominant spoilage flora on unirradiated birds.

  3. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Carbohydrates Carbohydrate Counting Make Your Carbs Count Glycemic ... to manage portion control wherever you are. Now, our best-selling, sectioned to-go plate with easy-sealing ...

  4. Structure of an APC3–APC16 Complex: Insights into Assembly of the Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Masaya; Yu, Shanshan; Qiao, Renping; Weissmann, Florian; Miller, Darcie J.; VanderLinden, Ryan; Brown, Nicholas G.; Frye, Jeremiah J.; Peters, Jan-Michael; Schulman, Brenda A. (SJCH); (IMP)

    2015-08-21

    The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is a massive E3 ligase that controls mitosis by catalyzing ubiquitination of key cell cycle regulatory proteins. The APC/C assembly contains two subcomplexes: the “Platform” centers around a cullin-RING-like E3 ligase catalytic core; the “Arc Lamp” is a hub that mediates transient association with regulators and ubiquitination substrates. The Arc Lamp contains the small subunits APC16, CDC26, and APC13, and tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) proteins (APC7, APC3, APC6, and APC8) that homodimerize and stack with quasi-2-fold symmetry. Within the APC/C complex, APC3 serves as center for regulation. APC3's TPR motifs recruit substrate-binding coactivators, CDC20 and CDH1, via their C-terminal conserved Ile-Arg (IR) tail sequences. Human APC3 also binds APC16 and APC7 and contains a > 200-residue loop that is heavily phosphorylated during mitosis, although the basis for APC3 interactions and whether loop phosphorylation is required for ubiquitination are unclear. Here, we map the basis for human APC3 assembly with APC16 and APC7, report crystal structures of APC3Δloop alone and in complex with the C-terminal domain of APC16, and test roles of APC3's loop and IR tail binding surfaces in APC/C-catalyzed ubiquitination. The structures show how one APC16 binds asymmetrically to the symmetric APC3 dimer and, together with biochemistry and prior data, explain how APC16 recruits APC7 to APC3, show how APC3's C-terminal domain is rearranged in the full APC/C assembly, and visualize residues in the IR tail binding cleft important for coactivator-dependent ubiquitination. Overall, the results provide insights into assembly, regulation, and interactions of TPR proteins and the APC/C.

  5. Complete deletion of Apc results in severe polyposis in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Ann F.; Carter, Alia M.; Kostova, Kamena K.; Woodruff, Joseph F.; Crowley, Denise; Bronson, Roderick T; Haigis, Kevin M.; Jacks, Tyler

    2009-01-01

    The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene product is mutated in the vast majority of human colorectal cancers. APC negatively regulates the WNT pathway by aiding in the degradation of β-catenin, which is the transcription factor activated downstream of WNT signaling. APC mutations result in β-catenin stabilization and constitutive WNT pathway activation, leading to aberrant cellular proliferation. APC mutations associated with colorectal cancer commonly fall in a region of the gene termed the...

  6. Detection methods of aerobic plate count on food microbiological proficiency testing%食品微生物能力验证样品菌落总数检验方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖剑; 李慧琴; 陈楷; 梁美丹; 林秀敏

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨菌落总数能力验证的检验方法及注意事项。方法采用PCA直接倾注法、增加覆盖一层琼脂培养基的方法、添加 TTC 方法、陶瓦盖代替平皿盖的方法同时进行试验,并采用提前观察、增加观察的频率和培养时间,加强计数准确性。结果在前期培养过程中加强观察能够有助于计数,而延迟培养时间则可避免迟缓生长的细菌漏检;采用含有0.5%TTC 培养基进行培养或陶瓦盖平板法能有效抑制蔓延菌生长,且不影响总体计数结果。结论采用多种检验方法有助于菌落总数能力验证试验结果的准确报告。%ObjectiveTodiscuss the methods and precaution of aerobic plate count proficiency testing. MethodsFour methods were tested including pouring plate count agar directly, covering a layer of agar me-dium, adding TTC and using terracotta cover instead of petri dish. Meanwhile, using the early observation, in-creasing the frequency of observation and the time of cultivation to strengthen count accuracy.Results The results showed that the accuracy of results during the pre-cultivation counting was improved, and the missing of slow growing bacteria extending the time of cultivation was also avoided. In addition, it was effective to inhibit the spread of bacteria by culturing with the medium containing 0.5%TTC or using terracotta cover, and these methods did not affect the overall count results.Conclusion It is conductive to get accurate results by variety of methods for aerobic plate count proficiency testing.

  7. Increased biomass production and glycogen accumulation in apcE gene deleted Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Ancy; Aikawa, Shimpei; Sasaki, Kengo; Matsuda, Fumio; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Kondo, Akihiko

    2014-01-01

    The effect of phycobilisome antenna-truncation in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 on biomass production and glycogen accumulation have not yet been fully clarified. To investigate these effects here, the apcE gene, which encodes the anchor protein linking the phycobilisome to the thylakoid membrane, was deleted in a glucose tolerant strain of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Biomass production of the apcE-deleted strain under photoautotrophic and atmospheric air conditions was 1.6 times higher than that of strain PCC 6803 (1.32 ± 0.01 versus 0.84 ± 0.07 g cell-dry weight L(-1), respectively) after 15 days of cultivation. In addition, the glycogen content of the apcE-deleted strain (24.2 ± 0.7%) was also higher than that of strain PCC 6803 (11.1 ± 0.3%). Together, these results demonstrate that antenna truncation by deleting the apcE gene was effective for increasing biomass production and glycogen accumulation under photoautotrophic and atmospheric air conditions in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

  8. Analysis of APC allelic imbalance/loss of heterozygosity and APC protein expression in cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gray, Sarah E

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene is a tumor suppressor gene which is mutated in the hereditary disease, familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Somatic mutations of the APC gene have also been identified in the majority of sporadic colorectal carcinomas, and mutation of the APC gene appears to be an early step in the initiation of colon cancer. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of APC has been described in a variety of other cancer types, including renal cell carcinoma, gastric cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, endometrial cancer and oral squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). AIM: To determine the role played by APC gene in the genesis of cutaneous SCC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Allelic imbalance\\/loss of heterozygosity (AI\\/LOH) was examined in twenty-two histologically confirmed cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) using microsatellite markers, proximal to the APC gene. Immunohistochemical analysis of APC protein expression was also examined in the cutaneous SCC. RESULTS: AI\\/LOH was detected in 60% of the SCC samples using D5S346 marker (proximal to the APC gene). Ninty-five percent of the SCC samples showed positive reduced APC expression, however the localization of the APC protein was abnormal. CONCLUSION: The abnormal expression of APC suggests that APC gene may play a role in cutaneous SCC development.

  9. Application of Petrifilm Colony Count Plate in Microbial Detection for Cosmetics%大肠菌群测试片在化妆品微生物检测中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱世真; 王立芳; 王尊文

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究评价大肠菌群测试片( Petrifilm)在化妆品微生物检测中的应用。方法:通过对14批化妆品人工添加3种常见试验菌,采用《化妆品卫生规范》和Petrifilm菌落总数测试方法进行比对。结果:用两种方法检测结果差异不明显,经t检验,P>0.05,统计学数据表明两种方法相比差异无统计学意义。结论: Petrifilm菌落总数测试片法因其轻便、快速、简易的优势在化妆品的微生物检测中具有重要意义。%Objective:To study the application of petrifilm colony count plate in the microbial detection for cosmetics. Methods:Three common microbials in 14 batches of cosmetics were respectively detected by the method described in hygienic standard for cos-metics and petrifilm colony count plate, and the results were compared. Results:The results shown by the two methods had no statisti-cally significant difference (P>0. 05). Conclusion: Petrifilm colony count plate with light weight, fast and easy operation exhibits significance in the microbial detection for cosmetics.

  10. Regulation of APC/C activators in mitosis and meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesin, Jillian A; Orr-Weaver, Terry L

    2008-01-01

    The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is a multisubunit E3 ubiquitin ligase that triggers the degradation of multiple substrates during mitosis. Cdc20/Fizzy and Cdh1/Fizzy-related activate the APC/C and confer substrate specificity through complex interactions with both the core APC/C and substrate proteins. The regulation of Cdc20 and Cdh1 is critical for proper APC/C activity and occurs in multiple ways: targeted protein degradation, phosphorylation, and direct binding of inhibitory proteins. During the specialized divisions of meiosis, the activity of the APC/C must be modified to achieve proper chromosome segregation. Recent studies show that one way in which APC/C activity is modified is through the use of meiosis-specific APC/C activators. Furthermore, regulation of the APC/C during meiosis is carried out by both mitotic regulators of the APC/C as well as meiosis-specific regulators. Here, we review the regulation of APC/C activators during mitosis and the role and regulation of the APC/C during female meiosis.

  11. Integrated metrology: an enabler for advanced process control (APC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Claus; Pfitzner, Lothar; Ryssel, Heiner

    2001-04-01

    Advanced process control (APC) techniques become more and more important as short innovation cycles in microelectronics and a highly competitive market requires cost-effective solutions in semiconductor manufacturing. APC marks a paradigm shift from statistically based techniques (SPC) using monitor wafers for sampling measurement data towards product wafer control. The APC functionalities including run-to-run control, fault detection, and fault analysis allow to detect process drifts and excursions at an early stage and to minimize the number of misprocessed wafers. APC is being established as part of factory control systems through the definition of an APC framework. A precondition for APC is the availability of sensors and measurement methods providing the necessary wafer data. This paper discusses integrated metrology as an enabler for APC and demonstrates practical implementations in semiconductor manufacturing.

  12. Interview : Sandra Bessudo Lion (APC-Colombia)

    OpenAIRE

    Bessudo Lion, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    She is a Marine Biologist, graduated from the Ecole Pratique de Hautes Etudes (EPHE), and holds a Master’s in Life and Earth Sciences from Perpignan, France. She is a professional scuba diver with over 5,000 dives in open waters. Ms. Bessudo is a professional strongly committed to the conservation of marine biodiversity and the protection of the environment. In January 2012, she took office as head of the General Directorate, Presidential Agency of International Cooperation, Colombia (APC-Col...

  13. Cancer stemness in Apc- vs. Apc/KRAS-driven intestinal tumorigenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnaz Ghazvini

    Full Text Available Constitutive activation of the Wnt pathway leads to adenoma formation, an obligatory step towards intestinal cancer. In view of the established role of Wnt in regulating stemness, we attempted the isolation of cancer stem cells (CSCs from Apc- and Apc/KRAS-mutant intestinal tumours. Whereas CSCs are present in Apc/KRAS tumours, they appear to be very rare (<10(-6 in the Apc-mutant adenomas. In contrast, the Lin(-CD24(hiCD29(+ subpopulation of adenocarcinoma cells appear to be enriched in CSCs with increased levels of active β-catenin. Expression profiling analysis of the CSC-enriched subpopulation confirmed their enhanced Wnt activity and revealed additional differential expression of other signalling pathways, growth factor binding proteins, and extracellular matrix components. As expected, genes characteristic of the Paneth cell lineage (e.g. defensins are co-expressed together with stem cell genes (e.g. Lgr5 within the CSC-enriched subpopulation. This is of interest as it may indicate a cancer stem cell niche role for tumor-derived Paneth-like cells, similar to their role in supporting Lgr5(+ stem cells in the normal intestinal crypt. Overall, our results indicate that oncogenic KRAS activation in Apc-driven tumours results in the expansion of the CSCs compartment by increasing ®-catenin intracellular stabilization.

  14. Article Processing Charges and OpenAPC

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    The publication landscape is about to change. While being largely operated by subscription based journals in the past, recent political decisions force the publishing industry towards OpenAccess. Especially, the publication of the Finch report in 2012 put APC based Gold OpenAccess models almost everywhere on the agenda. These models also require quite some adoptions for library work flows to handle payments, bills and centralized funds for publication fees. Sometimes handled in specialized systems (e.g. first setups in Jülich) pretty early on discussions started to handle APCs in local repositories which would also hold the OpenAccess content resulting from these fees, e.g. the University of Regenburg uses ePrints for this purpose. Backed up by the OpenData movmement, libraries also saw opportunity to exchange data about fees payed. Thus, OpenAPC.de was born in 2014 on github to facilitate this exchange and aggregate large amounts of data for evaluation and comparison. Using the repository to hold payment d...

  15. Molecular mechanism of APC/C activation by mitotic phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Suyang; Chang, Leifu; Alfieri, Claudio; Zhang, Ziguo; Yang, Jing; Maslen, Sarah; Skehel, Mark; Barford, David

    2016-05-12

    In eukaryotes, the anaphase-promoting complex (APC/C, also known as the cyclosome) regulates the ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis of specific cell-cycle proteins to coordinate chromosome segregation in mitosis and entry into the G1 phase. The catalytic activity of the APC/C and its ability to specify the destruction of particular proteins at different phases of the cell cycle are controlled by its interaction with two structurally related coactivator subunits, Cdc20 and Cdh1. Coactivators recognize substrate degrons, and enhance the affinity of the APC/C for its cognate E2 (refs 4-6). During mitosis, cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) and polo-like kinase (Plk) control Cdc20- and Cdh1-mediated activation of the APC/C. Hyperphosphorylation of APC/C subunits, notably Apc1 and Apc3, is required for Cdc20 to activate the APC/C, whereas phosphorylation of Cdh1 prevents its association with the APC/C. Since both coactivators associate with the APC/C through their common C-box and Ile-Arg tail motifs, the mechanism underlying this differential regulation is unclear, as is the role of specific APC/C phosphorylation sites. Here, using cryo-electron microscopy and biochemical analysis, we define the molecular basis of how phosphorylation of human APC/C allows for its control by Cdc20. An auto-inhibitory segment of Apc1 acts as a molecular switch that in apo unphosphorylated APC/C interacts with the C-box binding site and obstructs engagement of Cdc20. Phosphorylation of the auto-inhibitory segment displaces it from the C-box-binding site. Efficient phosphorylation of the auto-inhibitory segment, and thus relief of auto-inhibition, requires the recruitment of Cdk-cyclin in complex with a Cdk regulatory subunit (Cks) to a hyperphosphorylated loop of Apc3. We also find that the small-molecule inhibitor, tosyl-l-arginine methyl ester, preferentially suppresses APC/C(Cdc20) rather than APC/C(Cdh1), and interacts with the binding sites of both the C-box and Ile-Arg tail motifs. Our

  16. Entrevista : Sandra Bessudo Lion (APC-Colombia)

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Bióloga Marina del Ecole Pratique de Hautes Etudes Ephe, con Máster en Estudios de Ciencias de la Vida y de la Tierra en Perpignan, Francia. Es buzo profesional con más de 5.000 inmersiones en aguas abiertas, siendo una profesional muy comprometida con la conservación de la biodiversidad marina y con el cuidado del medio ambiente. A partir de enero de 2012 asumió la Dirección General de la Agencia Presidencial de Cooperación Internacional de Colombia (APC-Colombia), entidad gubernamental enca...

  17. 大肠菌群测试片中冷水可凝凝固剂初步研究%PRELIMINARY STUDY ON COLD-WATER-COAGULABLE COAGULATOR FOR COLIFORM COUNT PLATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓珑; 董煜; 陈灿映; 张晓峰; 李文杰

    2013-01-01

    In comparison with the tilt-pour method of the national standard, we studied the colloidal property of a self-made cold-water-coagulable coagulator (XGP) to evaluate the feasibility to serve as the coagulator of a coliform count plate, and also studied the water retention property, pH value, microorganism decomposition and utilization degree and antibacterial effect of XGP as well as the specificity, sensitivity and food sample detection rate after assembling to a count plate. The results showed that XGP was neutral, had no inhibition effect on 10 kinds of test strains, did not support microorganism growth in short time (5 days), and was difficult to be decomposed. In comparison with the tilt-pour method, the XGP had good water retention property (P0.05). Accordingly, the XGP had high specificity, high sensitivity, high economic property, and could be used in the coliform count plate as the medium carrier.%与国标倾注培养法比对,研究自制冷水可凝凝固剂(XGP)的胶体性能,评价其作为大肠菌群测试片凝固剂的可行性.对XGP的保水性能、pH值、微生物分解利用程度和抑菌效果进行研究,组装成测试片后进行特异性、灵敏度和食品样品检验.研究结果显示,XGP对10种试验菌株均无抑制作用,pH为中性,在短时间(5 d)内不支持微生物生长,不易被分解利用.与国标倾注培养法相比,其具有良好的保水性能(P<0.05),所检出的大肠菌群菌落数、灵敏度及食品样品阳性检出率差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).XGP具有特异性强、灵敏度高及经济性好等优良特性,可作为培养基载体应用于大肠菌群测试片中.

  18. ATP生物发光法快速测定物体表面的菌落总数%Rapid determination of aerobic plate count on solid surfaces by ATP bioluminescent method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯玉柱; 田雨; 柯润辉; 尹建军; 宋全厚

    2015-01-01

    In this paper Escherichia coli was used as an indicator to evaluate the surface hygiene by ATP bioluminescent method.We also simulated hygienic control from food factory to laboratory and determined the aerobic plate count of representative surface in laboratory by this method.Meanwhile,it was analyzed and compared with national standard microbiological examination.The results showed a good linear relationship between ATP fluorescence values and aerobic plate counts of E.coli,and their correlation coefficient R2 was 0.982 6.The designated laboratory surfaces were taken as blind samples.There was a good linear relationship between their ATP fluorescence values and aerobic plate counts,and their correlation coefficient R2 was 0.915 9.It illustrated that ATP bioluminescent method could assessed and determined accurately solid surface hygiene.%以大肠埃希氏菌作为指示菌考量了ATP生物发光法测定物体表面卫生状况的准确性,并在实验室内模拟食品企业卫生管控,采用ATP生物发光法对具有代表性的台面进行细菌总数测定,与国家标准微生物检测方法进行了比对分析.结果显示:大肠埃希氏菌的ATP荧光值与菌落总数的线性相关性良好,相关系数R2为0.982 6;以实验室内指定台面作为盲样进行对比测定,其ATP荧光值与菌落总数的线性相关性良好,相关系数R2达到0.915 9,说明ATP生物发光法能够准确评估和测定物体表面的卫生状况.

  19. Analysis of APC allelic imbalance/loss of heterozygosity and APC protein expression in cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gray, Sarah E

    2011-05-01

    The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene is a tumor suppressor gene which is mutated in the hereditary disease, familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Somatic mutations of the APC gene have also been identified in the majority of sporadic colorectal carcinomas, and mutation of the APC gene appears to be an early step in the initiation of colon cancer. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of APC has been described in a variety of other cancer types, including renal cell carcinoma, gastric cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, endometrial cancer and oral squamous cell carcinomas (SCC).

  20. Counting carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carb counting; Carbohydrate-controlled diet; Diabetic diet; Diabetes-counting carbohydrates ... Many foods contain carbohydrates (carbs), including: Fruit and fruit juice Cereal, bread, pasta, and rice Milk and milk products, soy milk Beans, legumes, ...

  1. Seal Counts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Database of seal counts from aerial photography. Counts by image, site, species, and date are stored in the database along with information on entanglements and...

  2. Platelet Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their spleen removed surgically Use of birth control pills (oral contraceptives) Some conditions may cause a temporary (transitory) increased ... increased platelet counts include estrogen and birth control pills (oral contraceptives). Mildly decreased platelet counts may be seen in ...

  3. Wnt signaling and colon carcinogenesis: Beyond APC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani Najdi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Activation of the Wnt signaling pathway via mutation of the adenomatous polyposis coli gene (APC is a critical event in the development of colon cancer. For colon carcinogenesis, however, constitutive signaling through the canonical Wnt pathway is not a singular event. Here we review how canonical Wnt signaling is modulated by intracellular LEF/TCF composition and location, the action of different Wnt ligands, and the secretion of Wnt inhibitory molecules. We also review the contributions of non-canonical Wnt signaling and other distinct pathways in the tumor micro environment that cross-talk to the canonical Wnt pathway and thereby influence colon cancer progression. These ′non-APC′ aspects of Wnt signaling are considered in relation to the development of potential agents for the treatment of patients with colon cancer. Regulatory pathways that influence Wnt signaling highlight how it might be possible to design therapies that target a network of signals beyond that of APC and β-catenin.

  4. MyPlate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our stage of life, situations, preferences, access to food, culture, traditions, and the personal decisions we make over time. All your food and beverage choices count. MyPlate offers ideas and ...

  5. WD40 domain of Apc1 is critical for the coactivator-induced allosteric transition that stimulates APC/C catalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiuhong; Chang, Leifu; Aibara, Shintaro; Yang, Jing; Zhang, Ziguo; Barford, David

    2016-09-20

    The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is a large multimeric cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase that orchestrates cell-cycle progression by targeting cell-cycle regulatory proteins for destruction via the ubiquitin proteasome system. The APC/C assembly comprises two scaffolding subcomplexes: the platform and the TPR lobe that together coordinate the juxtaposition of the catalytic and substrate-recognition modules. The platform comprises APC/C subunits Apc1, Apc4, Apc5, and Apc15. Although the role of Apc1 as an APC/C scaffolding subunit has been characterized, its specific functions in contributing toward APC/C catalytic activity are not fully understood. Here, we report the crystal structure of the N-terminal domain of human Apc1 (Apc1N) determined at 2.2-Å resolution and provide an atomic-resolution description of the architecture of its WD40 (WD40 repeat) domain (Apc1(WD40)). To understand how Apc1(WD40) contributes to APC/C activity, a mutant form of the APC/C with Apc1(WD40) deleted was generated and evaluated biochemically and structurally. We found that the deletion of Apc1(WD40) abolished the UbcH10-dependent ubiquitination of APC/C substrates without impairing the Ube2S-dependent ubiquitin chain elongation activity. A cryo-EM structure of an APC/C-Cdh1 complex with Apc1(WD40) deleted showed that the mutant APC/C is locked into an inactive conformation in which the UbcH10-binding site of the catalytic module is inaccessible. Additionally, an EM density for Apc15 is not visible. Our data show that Apc1(WD40) is required to mediate the coactivator-induced conformational change of the APC/C that is responsible for stimulating APC/C catalytic activity by promoting UbcH10 binding. In contrast, Ube2S activity toward APC/C substrates is not dependent on the initiation-competent conformation of the APC/C.

  6. Myc deletion rescues Apc deficiency in the small intestine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sansom, O.J.; Meniel, V.S.; Muncan, V.; Phesse, T.J.; Wilkins, J.A.; Reed, K.R.; Vass, J.K.; Athineos, D.; Clevers, J.C.; Clarke, A.R.

    2007-01-01

    The APC gene encodes the adenomatous polyposis coli tumour suppressor protein, germline mutation of which characterizes familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), an autosomal intestinal cancer syndrome. Inactivation of APC is also recognized as the key early event in the development of sporadic colorect

  7. Dietary factors and Truncating APC Mutations in Sporadic Colorectal Adenomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diergaarde, B.; Tiemersma, E.W.; Braam, H.; Muijen, van G.N.P.; Nagengast, F.M.; Kok, F.J.; Kampman, E.

    2005-01-01

    Inactivating mutations in APC are thought to be early, initiating events in colorectal carcinogenesis. To gain insight into the relationship between diet and inactivating APC mutations, we evaluated associations between dietary factors and the occurrence of these mutations in a Dutch case-control st

  8. Dietary factors and truncating APC mutations in sporadic colorectal adenomas.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diergaarde, B.; Tiemersma, E.W.; Braam, H.; Muijen, G.N.P. van; Nagengast, F.M.; Kok, F.J.; Kampman, E.

    2005-01-01

    Inactivating mutations in APC are thought to be early, initiating events in colorectal carcinogenesis. To gain insight into the relationship between diet and inactivating APC mutations, we evaluated associations between dietary factors and the occurrence of these mutations in a Dutch case-control st

  9. To cell cycle, swing the APC/C

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leuken, Renske; Clijsters, Linda; Wolthuis, Rob

    2008-01-01

    For successful mitosis, Cyclin 131 and Securin must be degraded efficiently before anaphase. Destruction of these mitotic regulators by the 26S proteasome is the result of their poly-ubiquitination by a multi-subunit E3 ligase: the Anaphase-Promoting Complex or Cyclosome (APC/C). Clearly, the APC/C

  10. Novel strategies for comprehensive mutation screening of the APC gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachsmannova, L; Mego, M; Stevurkova, V; Zajac, V; Ciernikova, S

    2017-03-03

    Colorectal cancer is the 4th most common cause of cancer related deaths worldwide and new possibilities in accurate diagnosis and targeted treatment are highly required. Mutations in adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene play a pivotal role in adenoma-carcinoma pathway of colorectal tumorigenesis. The quarter century from its´ first cloning, APC became one of the most frequently mutated, known driver genes in colorectal cancer. Intensive routine molecular testing of APC has brought the benefits for patients with family history of polyposis or colorectal cancer. Nevertheless, multiple mutational disease-causing mechanisms make the genetic testing still challenging. This minireview is focused on implementation of novel APC mutation screening diagnostic strategies for polyposis families according to the current findings. A further understanding and improved algorithms may help to increase the mutation detection rate. APC germline mutations achieve close to 100% penetrance, so more comprehensive approach followed by preventive and therapeutic strategies might reflect in decrease in burden of colorectal cancer.

  11. Analysis of bacterial diversity during the fermentation of inyu, a high-temperature fermented soy sauce, using nested PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and the plate count method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chia-Li; Chao, Shiou-Huei; Tsai, Wen-Bin; Lee, Pei-Shan; Tsau, Nai-Hung; Chen, Jhih-Shan; Lai, Wen-Lin; Tu, James Ching-Yueh; Tsai, Ying-Chieh

    2013-04-01

    The diversity of bacteria associated with the fermentation of inyu, also known as black soy sauce, was studied through the nested PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of samples collected from the fermentation stages of the inyu production process. The DGGE profiles targeted the bacterial 16S rDNA and revealed the presence of Citrobacter farmeri, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter hormaechei, Enterococcus faecium, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pantoea agglomerans, Salmonella enterica, Serratia marcescens, Staphylococcus sciuri and Weissella confusa. The bacterial compositions of 4 fermented samples were further elucidated using the plate count method. The bacteria isolated from the koji-making stage exhibited the highest diversity; Brachybacterium rhamnosum, E. hormaechei, K. pneumoniae, Kurthia gibsonii, Pantoea dispersa, Staphylococcus gallinarum, Staphylococcus kloosii and S. sciuri were identified. Koji collected during the preincubation stage presented the largest cell counts, and E. hormaechei, K. pneumoniae, E. cloacae and Enterobacter pulveris were identified. In brine samples aged for 7 and 31 days, the majority of the bacteria isolated belonged to 4 Bacillus species, but 4 Staphylococcus species and Delftia tsuruhatensis were also detected. This study demonstrates the benefits of using a combined approach to obtain a more complete picture of microbial populations and provides useful information for the control or development of bacterial flora during inyu fermentation.

  12. A CA-repeat polymorphism close to the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene offers improved diagnostic testing for familial APC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spirio, L.; Nelson, L.; Ward, K.; Burt, R.; White, R.; Leppert, M. (Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City (United States))

    1993-02-01

    Presymptomatic genetic testing for the presence of a mutant allele causing familial adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) has been difficult to perform effectively in the past because DNA markers surrounding the APC gene on chromosome 5q have not been very informative. The authors report results of genetic linkage studies on both research families and clinical families by using D5S346, a highly polymorphic dinucleotide (CA)-repeat locus 30-70 kb from the APC gene. Linkage analysis with this marker in a large APC pedigree showed an increase of at least 9.0 LOD units, in likelihood of linkage of the disease-causing allele to the APC locus, when compared with the highest LOD score attained with any other closely linked marker. When the first 14 APC families that requested genotypic analysis by the DNA Diagnostic Laboratory at the University of Utah were tested with D5S346, 20 of the 31 at-risk individuals were identified as either carriers or noncarriers of an APC-predisposing allele. The authors see this marker as an important tool for research studies and for the presymptomatic diagnosis of APC. 28 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Dietary folate and APC mutations in sporadic colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vogel, Stefan; van Engeland, Manon; Lüchtenborg, Margreet; de Bruïne, Adriaan P; Roemen, Guido M J M; Lentjes, Marjolein H F M; Goldbohm, R Alexandra; van den Brandt, Piet A; de Goeij, Anton F P M; Weijenberg, Matty P

    2006-12-01

    Folate deficiency has been associated with colorectal cancer risk and may be involved in colorectal carcinogenesis through increased chromosome instability, gene mutations, and aberrant DNA methylation. Within the Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer, we investigated the associations between dietary folate intake and colorectal cancer risk with (APC(+)) and without (APC(-)) truncating APC mutations, accounting for hMLH1 expression and K-ras mutations. In total, 528 cases and 4200 subcohort members were available for data analyses of the study cohort (n = 120,852) from a follow-up period between 2.3 and 7.3 y after baseline. Adjusted gender-specific incidence rate ratios (RR) over tertiles of folate intake were calculated in case-cohort analyses for colon and rectal cancer. Although relatively high folate intake was not associated with overall colorectal cancer risk, it reduced the risk of APC(-)colon tumors in men (RR 0.58, 95% CI 0.32-1.05, P(trend) = 0.06 for the highest vs. lowest tertile of folate intake). In contrast, it was positively associated with APC(+) colon tumors in men (highest vs. lowest tertile: RR 2.77, 95% CI 1.29-5.95, P(trend) = 0.008) and was even stronger when the lack of hMLH1 expression and K-ras mutations were excluded (RR 3.99, 95% CI 1.43-11.14, P(trend) = 0.007). Such positive associations were not observed among women; nor was folate intake associated with rectal cancer when APC mutation status was taken into account. Relatively high folate consumption reduced the risk of APC(-) colon tumors, but folate intake was positively associated with APC(+) colon tumors among men. These opposite results may indicate that folate enhances colorectal carcinogenesis through a distinct APC mutated pathway.

  14. Functional comparison of human adenomatous polyposis coli (APC and APC-like in targeting beta-catenin for degradation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Schneikert

    Full Text Available Truncating mutations affect the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC gene in most cases of colon cancer, resulting in the stabilization of β-catenin and uncontrolled cell proliferation. We show here that colon cancer cell lines express also the paralog APC-like (APCL or APC2. RNA interference revealed that it controls the level and/or the activity of β-catenin, but it is less efficient and binds less well to β-catenin than APC, thereby providing one explanation as to why the gene is not mutated in colon cancer. A further comparison indicates that APCL down-regulates the β-catenin level despite the lack of the 15R region known to be important in APC. To understand this discrepancy, we performed immunoprecipitation experiments that revealed that phosphorylated β-catenin displays a preference for binding to the 15 amino acid repeats (15R rather than the first 20 amino acid repeat of APC. This suggests that the 15R region constitutes a gate connecting the steps of β-catenin phosphorylation and subsequent ubiquitination/degradation. Using RNA interference and domain swapping experiments, we show that APCL benefits from the 15R of truncated APC to target β-catenin for degradation, in a process likely involving heterodimerization of the two partners. Our data suggest that the functional complementation of APCL by APC constitutes a substantial facet of tumour development, because the truncating mutations of APC in colorectal tumours from familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP patients are almost always selected for the retention of at least one 15R.

  15. 42 CFR 419.31 - Ambulatory payment classification (APC) system and payment weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ambulatory payment classification (APC) system and... Outpatient Services § 419.31 Ambulatory payment classification (APC) system and payment weights. (a) APC... the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act. (3) The payment rate determined for an APC group...

  16. Application of Shape Lock-on Method in Plate Rolling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Xian-lei; WANG Jun; WANG Zhao-dong; LIU Xiang-hua; WANG Guo-dong

    2004-01-01

    AGC system can improve the plate gauge precision, and damage the plate shape if the shape control loop is left quite open. This damage will cause wave during rolling wide-thin plate. A control strategy named shape lock-on method is afforded for plate shape control. This method requires APC instead of AGC at last one or two passes during rolling wide-thin plate. Approved by theory and on-line application, this method is good for the plate shape and crown control with small effect on gauge control.

  17. Multiplicity Counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geist, William H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This set of slides begins by giving background and a review of neutron counting; three attributes of a verification item are discussed: 240Pueff mass; α, the ratio of (α,n) neutrons to spontaneous fission neutrons; and leakage multiplication. It then takes up neutron detector systems – theory & concepts (coincidence counting, moderation, die-away time); detector systems – some important details (deadtime, corrections); introduction to multiplicity counting; multiplicity electronics and example distributions; singles, doubles, and triples from measured multiplicity distributions; and the point model: multiplicity mathematics.

  18. Tumour Suppressor Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) localisation is regulated by both Kinesin-1 and Kinesin-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruane, Peter T.; Gumy, Laura F.; Bola, Becky; Anderson, Beverley; Wozniak, Marcin J.; Hoogenraad, Casper C.; Allan, Victoria J.

    2016-01-01

    Microtubules and their associated proteins (MAPs) underpin the polarity of specialised cells. Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) is one such MAP with a multifunctional agenda that requires precise intracellular localisations. Although APC has been found to associate with kinesin-2 subfamily members, the exact mechanism for the peripheral localization of APC remains unclear. Here we show that the heavy chain of kinesin-1 directly interacts with the APC C-terminus, contributing to the peripheral localisation of APC in fibroblasts. In rat hippocampal neurons the kinesin-1 binding domain of APC is required for its axon tip enrichment. Moreover, we demonstrate that APC requires interactions with both kinesin-2 and kinesin-1 for this localisation. Underlining the importance of the kinesin-1 association, neurons expressing APC lacking kinesin-1-binding domain have shorter axons. The identification of this novel kinesin-1-APC interaction highlights the complexity and significance of APC localisation in neurons. PMID:27272132

  19. OpenAPC. Open-Access-Publikationskosten als Open Data

    OpenAIRE

    Tullney, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Präsentationsfolien zum Vortrag „OpenAPC. Open-Access-Publikationskosten als Open Data“ in der Session „Ausgestaltung eines wissenschaftsadäquaten APC-Marktes: Grundsätze, Finanzierungsansätze und Management“ der Open-Access-Tage 2015 in Zürich (https://www.open-access.net/community/open-access-tage/open-access-tage-2015-zuerich/programm/#c1974)

  20. Reticulocyte count

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... radiation therapy, or infection) Cirrhosis of the liver Anemia caused by low iron levels, or low levels of vitamin B12 or folate Chronic kidney disease Reticulocyte count may be higher during pregnancy.

  1. Id2 deletion attenuates Apc-deficient ileal tumor formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoko Biyajima

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The expression level of inhibitor of DNA binding 2 (Id2 is increased in colorectal carcinomas and is positively correlated with poor prognosis. However, the functional significance of Id2 in intestinal tumorigenesis has not been fully defined using genetic approaches. Here, we show that Id2 promotes ileal tumor initiation in Apc-deficient mice. Expression of Id2 was stimulated by Wnt signaling through the enhancer region of the Id2 promoter at the early stage of tumorigenesis in Apc+/Δ716 (ApcΔ716 mice. Genetic depletion of Id2 in ApcΔ716 mice caused ∼80% reduction in the number of ileal polyps, but had little effect on tumor size. Notably, the lack of Id2 increased the number of apoptotic cells in the normal crypt epithelium of the mice. Furthermore, DNA microarray analysis revealed that the expression level of Max dimerization protein 1 (Mxd1, known as a c-Myc antagonist, was specifically increased by Id2 deletion in the ileal intestinal epithelium of ApcΔ716 mice. In contrast, the protein level of c-Myc, but not the mRNA level, was decreased by loss of Id2 in these mice. These results indicate that loss of Id2 inhibits tumor initiation by up-regulation of Mxd1 and down-regulation of c-Myc in ApcΔ716 mice.

  2. The APC/C in female mammalian meiosis I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homer, Hayden

    2013-08-01

    The anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C) orchestrates a meticulously controlled sequence of proteolytic events critical for proper cell cycle progression, the details of which have been most extensively elucidated during mitosis. It has become apparent, however, that the APC/C, particularly when acting in concert with its Cdh1 co-activator (APC/C(Cdh1)), executes a staggeringly diverse repertoire of functions that extend its remit well outside the bounds of mitosis. Findings over the past decade have not only earmarked mammalian oocyte maturation as one such case in point but have also begun to reveal a complex pattern of APC/C regulation that underpins many of the oocyte's unique developmental attributes. This review will encompass the latest findings pertinent to the APC/C, especially APC/C(Cdh1), in mammalian oocytes and how its activity and substrates shape the stop-start tempo of female mammalian first meiotic division and the challenging requirement for assembling spindles in the absence of centrosomes.

  3. A new conditional Apc-mutant mouse model for colorectal cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Robanus-Maandag, E C; Koelink, P J; Breukel, C; Salvatori, D. C. F.; Jagmohan-Changur, S. C.; Bosch, C. A. J.; Verspaget, H. W.; Devilee, P; Fodde, R.; Smits, R

    2010-01-01

    textabstractMutations of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene predispose individuals to familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), characterized by multiple tumours in the large intestine. Most mouse models heterozygous for truncating mutant Apc alleles mimic FAP, however, the intestinal tumours occur mainly in the small intestine. To model large intestinal tumours, we generated a new conditional Apc-mutant allele, Apc15lox, with exon 15 flanked by loxP sites. Similar survival of Apc1638N/15l...

  4. Uncertainty Evaluation for Enumeration of Coliforms with Plate Counting Method in Food%食品中大肠菌群平板计数法不确定度的评定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何晓玲

    2014-01-01

    采用GB 4789.3-2010《食品安全国家标准食品微生物学检验大肠菌群计数》第二法大肠菌群平板计数法进行检验,建立数学模型,对测量不确定度的来源进行分析,建立了简明的食品中大肠菌群平板计数法检测结果的不确定度评定方法,实验室的扩展不确定度为0.050,适用于食品中大肠菌群平板计数法检验的不确定度评定。%According to GB 4789.3-2010 National food safety standard Food microbiological examination Enumeration of coliforms to inspection, established mathematical model, analyzed the sources of the uncertainty of measurement, established a concise method for uncertainty evaluation for plate counting method in food. the expanded uncertainty of laboratory was 0.050. The method is suitable for the uncertainty assessment of the coliform group in food inspection .

  5. High Reproducibility of ELISPOT Counts from Nine Different Laboratories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundararaman, Srividya; Karulin, Alexey Y; Ansari, Tameem

    2015-01-01

    laboratories. We plated PBMC at four different concentrations, 24 replicates each, in an IFN-γ ELISPOT assay with HCMV pp65 antigen. The ELISPOT plate, and an image file of the plate was counted in nine different laboratories using ImmunoSpot® Analyzers by (A) Basic Count™ relying on subjective counting...

  6. Differential RNA-seq analysis comparing APC-defective and APC-restored SW480 colorectal cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Lauren E; Love, Christopher G; Sieber, Oliver M; Faux, Maree C; Burgess, Antony W

    2016-03-01

    The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumour suppressor gene is mutated in about 80% of colorectal cancers (CRC) Brannon et al. (2014) [1]. APC is a large multifunctional protein that regulates many biological functions including Wnt signalling (through the regulation of beta-catenin stability) Reya and Clevers (2005) [2], cell migration Kroboth et al. (2007), Sansom et al. (2004) [3], [4], mitosis Kaplan et al. (2001) [5], cell adhesion Faux et al. (2004), Carothers et al. (2001) [6], [7] and differentiation Sansom et al. (2004) [4]. Although the role of APC in CRC is often described as the deregulation of Wnt signalling, its other biological functions suggest that there are other factors at play that contribute to the onset of adenomas and the progression of CRC upon the truncation of APC. To identify genes and pathways that are dysregulated as a consequence of loss of function of APC, we compared the gene expression profiles of the APC mutated human CRC cell line SW480 following reintroduction of wild-type APC (SW480 + APC) or empty control vector (SW480 + vector control) Faux et al. (2004) . Here we describe the RNA-seq data derived for three biological replicates of parental SW480, SW480 + vector control and SW480 + APC cells, and present the bioinformatics pipeline used to test for differential gene expression and pathway enrichment analysis. A total of 1735 genes showed significant differential expression when APC was restored and were enriched for genes associated with cell polarity, Wnt signalling and the epithelial to mesenchymal transition. There was additional enrichment for genes involved in cell-cell adhesion, cell-matrix junctions, angiogenesis, axon morphogenesis and cell movement. The raw and analysed RNA-seq data have been deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database under accession number GSE76307. This dataset is useful for further investigations of the impact of APC mutation on the properties of colorectal cancer cells.

  7. Differential RNA-seq analysis comparing APC-defective and APC-restored SW480 colorectal cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren E. King

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC tumour suppressor gene is mutated in about 80% of colorectal cancers (CRC Brannon et al. (2014 [1]. APC is a large multifunctional protein that regulates many biological functions including Wnt signalling (through the regulation of beta-catenin stability Reya and Clevers (2005 [2], cell migration Kroboth et al. (2007, Sansom et al. (2004 [3,4], mitosis Kaplan et al. (2001 [5], cell adhesion Faux et al. (2004, Carothers et al. (2001 [6,7] and differentiation Sansom et al. (2004 [4]. Although the role of APC in CRC is often described as the deregulation of Wnt signalling, its other biological functions suggest that there are other factors at play that contribute to the onset of adenomas and the progression of CRC upon the truncation of APC. To identify genes and pathways that are dysregulated as a consequence of loss of function of APC, we compared the gene expression profiles of the APC mutated human CRC cell line SW480 following reintroduction of wild-type APC (SW480 + APC or empty control vector (SW480 + vector control Faux et al. (2004 . Here we describe the RNA-seq data derived for three biological replicates of parental SW480, SW480 + vector control and SW480 + APC cells, and present the bioinformatics pipeline used to test for differential gene expression and pathway enrichment analysis. A total of 1735 genes showed significant differential expression when APC was restored and were enriched for genes associated with cell polarity, Wnt signalling and the epithelial to mesenchymal transition. There was additional enrichment for genes involved in cell–cell adhesion, cell–matrix junctions, angiogenesis, axon morphogenesis and cell movement. The raw and analysed RNA-seq data have been deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO database under accession number GSE76307. This dataset is useful for further investigations of the impact of APC mutation on the properties of colorectal cancer cells.

  8. Differential RNA-seq analysis comparing APC-defective and APC-restored SW480 colorectal cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    King, Lauren E.; Love, Christopher G.; Sieber, Oliver M.; Faux, Maree C.; Antony W Burgess

    2016-01-01

    The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumour suppressor gene is mutated in about 80% of colorectal cancers (CRC) Brannon et al. (2014) [1]. APC is a large multifunctional protein that regulates many biological functions including Wnt signalling (through the regulation of beta-catenin stability) Reya and Clevers (2005) [2], cell migration Kroboth et al. (2007), Sansom et al. (2004) [3], [4], mitosis Kaplan et al. (2001) [5], cell adhesion Faux et al. (2004), Carothers et al. (2001) [6], [7] and...

  9. Paper Plate Fractions: The Counting Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Ann; Barnett, Joann; Stine, Tammy

    2016-01-01

    Without a doubt, fractions prove to be a stumbling block for many children. Researchers have suggested a variety of explanations for why this is the case. The introduction of symbolization and operations before the development of conceptual understanding of fractions, a lack of understanding of the role of the numerator and denominator, and an…

  10. Understanding Blood Counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lab and Imaging Tests Understanding Blood Counts Understanding Blood Counts Understanding Blood Counts SHARE: Print Glossary Blood cell counts give ... your blood that's occupied by red cells. Normal Blood Counts Normal blood counts fall within a range ...

  11. White Blood Cell Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? White Blood Cell Count Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... Count; Leukocyte Count; White Count Formal name: White Blood Cell Count Related tests: Complete Blood Count , Blood Smear , ...

  12. Counting Penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Mike; Kader, Gary

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity on the simplification of penguin counting by employing the basic ideas and principles of sampling to teach students to understand and recognize its role in statistical claims. Emphasizes estimation, data analysis and interpretation, and central limit theorem. Includes a list of items for classroom discussion. (ASK)

  13. Counting Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    Scientists use sampling to get an estimate of things they cannot easily count. A population is made up of all the organisms of one species living together in one place at the same time. All of the people living together in one town are considered a population. All of the grasshoppers living in a field are a population. Scientists keep track of the…

  14. Effect of boiling water carcass immersion on aerobic bacteria counts of poultry skin and processed ground poultry meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, N M; Avens, J S; Kendall, P A; Salman, M D

    2008-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine the relationship between bacteria destruction on poultry carcass skin and bacteria in raw ground poultry meat from the same carcasses. Immersion time in boiling water of broiler chicken whole carcasses required for maximum reduction of naturally occurring aerobic bacterial count on skin was measured. Treatments for chicken carcasses consisted of immersion in boiling water (approximately 95 degrees C) for 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5, and 4 min. Four skin samples taken following treatment and three taken from subsequently ground carcass meat were analyzed for total aerobic plate counts (APC). Analysis of the data indicated a linear increase in bacterial destruction on skin with increased boiling water immersion time from 0 to 4 min. Reduction of skin bacteria to less than 1 log10 occurred at 3 min carcass immersion or longer. The analysis also indicated that treatment with boiling water and removal of skin was effective in reducing bacterial counts in ground meat to similar levels at all treatment times from 0.5 to 4.0 min. Findings from this study indicated that a boiling water immersion intervention and removal of skin could reduce subsequent bacteria contamination of ground meat. This intervention could minimize the risk of pathogen-contaminated primary processed poultry carcasses used in further processing.

  15. High performance APCS conceptual design and evaluation scoping study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soelberg, N.; Liekhus, K.; Chambers, A.; Anderson, G.

    1998-02-01

    This Air Pollution Control System (APCS) Conceptual Design and Evaluation study was conducted to evaluate a high-performance (APC) system for minimizing air emissions from mixed waste thermal treatment systems. Seven variations of high-performance APCS designs were conceptualized using several design objectives. One of the system designs was selected for detailed process simulation using ASPEN PLUS to determine material and energy balances and evaluate performance. Installed system capital costs were also estimated. Sensitivity studies were conducted to evaluate the incremental cost and benefit of added carbon adsorber beds for mercury control, specific catalytic reduction for NO{sub x} control, and offgas retention tanks for holding the offgas until sample analysis is conducted to verify that the offgas meets emission limits. Results show that the high-performance dry-wet APCS can easily meet all expected emission limits except for possibly mercury. The capability to achieve high levels of mercury control (potentially necessary for thermally treating some DOE mixed streams) could not be validated using current performance data for mercury control technologies. The engineering approach and ASPEN PLUS modeling tool developed and used in this study identified APC equipment and system performance, size, cost, and other issues that are not yet resolved. These issues need to be addressed in feasibility studies and conceptual designs for new facilities or for determining how to modify existing facilities to meet expected emission limits. The ASPEN PLUS process simulation with current and refined input assumptions and calculations can be used to provide system performance information for decision-making, identifying best options, estimating costs, reducing the potential for emission violations, providing information needed for waste flow analysis, incorporating new APCS technologies in existing designs, or performing facility design and permitting activities.

  16. A new conditional Apc-mutant mouse model for colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robanus-Maandag, Els C; Koelink, Pim J; Breukel, Cor; Salvatori, Daniela C F; Jagmohan-Changur, Shantie C; Bosch, Cathy A J; Verspaget, Hein W; Devilee, Peter; Fodde, Riccardo; Smits, Ron

    2010-05-01

    Mutations of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene predispose individuals to familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), characterized by multiple tumours in the large intestine. Most mouse models heterozygous for truncating mutant Apc alleles mimic FAP, however, the intestinal tumours occur mainly in the small intestine. To model large intestinal tumours, we generated a new conditional Apc-mutant allele, Apc(15lox), with exon 15 flanked by loxP sites. Similar survival of Apc(1638N/15lox) and Apc(1638N/+) mice indicated that the normal function of Apc was not impaired by the loxP sites. Deletion of exon 15, encoding nearly all functional Apc domains and containing the polyadenylation signal, resulted in a mutant allele expressing low levels of a 74 kDa truncated Apc protein. Germ line Cre-mediated deletion of exon 15 resulted in Apc(Delta15/+) mice, showing a severe Apc(Min/+)-like phenotype characterized by multiple tumours in the small intestine and early lethality. In contrast, conditional Cre-mediated deletion of exon 15 specifically directed to the epithelia of distal small and large intestine of FabplCre;Apc(15lox/+) mice led to longer survival and to tumours that developed predominantly in the large intestine, mimicking human FAP-associated colorectal cancer and sporadic colorectal cancer. We conclude that the FabplCre;Apc(15lox/+) mouse should be an attractive model for studies on prevention and treatment of colorectal cancer.

  17. Regulated degradation of the APC coactivator Cdc20

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins Jonathan A

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cdc20 is a highly conserved activator of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC, promoting cell-cycle-regulated ubiquitination and proteolysis of a number of critical cell-cycle-regulatory targets including securin and mitotic cyclins. APC-Cdc20 activity is tightly regulated, and this regulation is likely important for accurate cell cycle control. One significant component of Cdc20 regulation is thought to be Cdc20 proteolysis. However, published literature suggests different mechanisms and requirements for Cdc20 proteolysis. The degree to which Cdc20 proteolysis is cell-cycle regulated, the dependence of Cdc20 proteolysis on Cdc20 destruction boxes (recognition sequences for APC-mediated ubiqutination, either by Cdc20 or by the related Cdh1 APC activator, and the need for APC itself for Cdc20 proteolysis all have been disputed to varying extents. In animals, Cdc20 proteolysis is thought to be mediated by Cdh1, contributing an intrinsic order of APC activation by Cdc20 and then by Cdh1. One report suggests a Cdh1 requirement for Cdc20 proteolysis in budding yeast; this idea has not been tested further. Results We characterized Cdc20 proteolysis using Cdc20 expressed from its endogenous locus; previous studies generally employed strongly overexpressed Cdc20, which can cause significant artifacts. We analyzed Cdc20 proteolysis with or without mutations in previously identified destruction box sequences, using varying methods of cell cycle synchronization, and in the presence or absence of Cdh1. Cdc20 instability is only partially dependent on destruction boxes. A much stronger dependence on Cdh1 for Cdc20 proteolysis was observed, but Cdh1-independent proteolysis was also clearly observed. Cdc20 proteolysis independent of both destruction boxes and Cdh1 was especially detectable around the G1/S transition; Cdh1-dependent proteolysis was most notable in late mitosis and G1. Conclusions Cdc20 proteolysis is under complex control

  18. Selective targeting of mutant adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Theodoropoulos, Panayotis C; Eskiocak, Ugur; Wang, Wentian; Moon, Young-Ah; Posner, Bruce; Williams, Noelle S; Wright, Woodring E; Kim, Sang Bum; Nijhawan, Deepak; De Brabander, Jef K; Shay, Jerry W

    2016-10-19

    Mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene are common in colorectal cancer (CRC), and more than 90% of those mutations generate stable truncated gene products. We describe a chemical screen using normal human colonic epithelial cells (HCECs) and a series of oncogenically progressed HCECs containing a truncated APC protein. With this screen, we identified a small molecule, TASIN-1 (truncated APC selective inhibitor-1), that specifically kills cells with APC truncations but spares normal and cancer cells with wild-type APC. TASIN-1 exerts its cytotoxic effects through inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis. In vivo administration of TASIN-1 inhibits tumor growth of CRC cells with truncated APC but not APC wild-type CRC cells in xenograft models and in a genetically engineered CRC mouse model with minimal toxicity. TASIN-1 represents a potential therapeutic strategy for prevention and intervention in CRC with mutant APC.

  19. Epigenetic regulation of APC in the molecular pathogenesis of gallbladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Singh Tekcham

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: The present findings indicate epigenetic silencing of APC in advanced GBC. The methylation pattern, followed by expression analysis of APC may be suggested for diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic purposes in GBC in future.

  20. Apc Restoration Promotes Cellular Differentiation and Reestablishes Crypt Homeostasis in Colorectal Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dow, Lukas E; O'Rourke, Kevin P; Simon, Janelle; Tschaharganeh, Darjus F; van Es, Johan H; Clevers, Hans; Lowe, Scott W

    2015-01-01

    The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumor suppressor is mutated in the vast majority of human colorectal cancers (CRC) and leads to deregulated Wnt signaling. To determine whether Apc disruption is required for tumor maintenance, we developed a mouse model of CRC whereby Apc can be conditionally su

  1. Occult progression by Apc-deficient intestinal crypts as a target for chemoprevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Jared M; Schepers, Arnout G; Clevers, Hans; Shibata, Darryl; Liskay, R Michael

    2014-01-01

    Although Apc mutation is widely considered an initiating event in colorectal cancer, little is known about the earliest stages of tumorigenesis following sporadic Apc loss. Therefore, we have utilized a novel mouse model that facilitates the sporadic inactivation of Apc via frameshift reversion of C

  2. Stabilization of APC residues from waste incineration with ferrous sulfate on a semi-industrial scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtorp, Kasper; Jensen, Dorthe Lærke; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2002-01-01

    A stabilization method for air pollution control (APC) residues from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) involving mixing of the residue with water and FeSO4 has been demonstrated on a semi-industrial scale on three types of APC residues: a semidy (SD) APC residue, a fly ash (FA), and an FA...

  3. Counting Possibilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Tomasetta

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Timothy Williamson supports the thesis that every possible entity necessarily exists and so he needs to explain how a possible son of Wittgenstein’s, for example, exists in our world:he exists as a merely possible object (MPO, a pure locus of potential. Williamson presents a short argument for the existence of MPOs: how many knives can be made by fitting together two blades and two handles? Four: at the most two are concrete objects, the others being merely possible knives and merely possible objects. This paper defends the idea that one can avoid reference and ontological commitment to MPOs. My proposal is that MPOs can be dispensed with by using the notion of rules of knife-making. I first present a solution according to which we count lists of instructions - selected by the rules - describing physical combinations between components. This account, however, has its own difficulties and I eventually suggest that one can find a way out by admitting possible worlds, entities which are more commonly accepted - at least by philosophers - than MPOs. I maintain that, in answering Williamson’s questions, we count classes of physically possible worlds in which the same instance of a general rule is applied.

  4. Metabolomics of Apc Min/+ mice genetically susceptible to intestinal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background To determine how diets high in saturated fat could increase polyp formation in the mouse model of intestinal neoplasia, Apc Min/+ , we conducted large-scale metabolome analysis and association study of colon and small intestine polyp formation from plasma and liver samples of Apc Min/+ vs. wild-type littermates, kept on low vs. high-fat diet. Label-free mass spectrometry was used to quantify untargeted plasma and acyl-CoA liver compounds, respectively. Differences in contrasts of interest were analyzed statistically by unsupervised and supervised modeling approaches, namely Principal Component Analysis and Linear Model of analysis of variance. Correlation between plasma metabolite concentrations and polyp numbers was analyzed with a zero-inflated Generalized Linear Model. Results Plasma metabolome in parallel to promotion of tumor development comprises a clearly distinct profile in Apc Min/+ mice vs. wild type littermates, which is further altered by high-fat diet. Further, functional metabolomics pathway and network analyses in Apc Min/+ mice on high-fat diet revealed associations between polyp formation and plasma metabolic compounds including those involved in amino-acids metabolism as well as nicotinamide and hippuric acid metabolic pathways. Finally, we also show changes in liver acyl-CoA profiles, which may result from a combination of Apc Min/+ -mediated tumor progression and high fat diet. The biological significance of these findings is discussed in the context of intestinal cancer progression. Conclusions These studies show that high-throughput metabolomics combined with appropriate statistical modeling and large scale functional approaches can be used to monitor and infer changes and interactions in the metabolome and genome of the host under controlled experimental conditions. Further these studies demonstrate the impact of diet on metabolic pathways and its relation to intestinal cancer progression. Based on our results, metabolic signatures

  5. The Anaphase-Promoting Complex (APC ubiquitin ligase affects chemosensory behavior in C. elegans

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    Julia Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The regulation of fundamental aspects of neurobiological function has been linked to the ubiquitin signaling system (USS, which regulates the degradation and activity of proteins and is catalyzed by E1, E2, and E3 enzymes. The Anaphase-Promoting Complex (APC is a multi-subunit E3 ubiquitin ligase that controls diverse developmental and signaling processes in post-mitotic neurons; however, potential roles for the APC in sensory function have yet to be explored. In this study, we examined the effect of the APC ubiquitin ligase on chemosensation in Caenorhabditis elegans by testing chemotaxis to the volatile odorants, diacetyl, pyrazine, and isoamyl alcohol, to which wild-type worms are attracted. Animals with loss of function mutations in either of two alleles (g48 and ye143 of the gene encoding the APC subunit EMB-27 APC6 showed increased chemotaxis towards diacetyl and pyrazine, odorants sensed by AWA neurons, but exhibited normal chemotaxis to isoamyl alcohol, which is sensed by AWC neurons. The statistically significant increase in chemotaxis in the emb-27 APC6 mutants suggests that the APC inhibits AWA-mediated chemosensation in C. elegans. Increased chemotaxis to pyrazine was also seen with mutants lacking another essential APC subunit, MAT-2 APC1; however, mat-2 APC1 mutants exhibited wild type responses to diacetyl. The difference in responsiveness of these two APC subunit mutants may be due to differential strength of these hypomorphic alleles or may indicate the presence of functional sub-complexes of the APC at work in this process. These findings are the first evidence for APC-mediated regulation of chemosensation and lay the groundwork for further studies aimed at identifying the expression levels, function, and targets of the APC in specific sensory neurons. Because of the similarity between human and C. elegans nervous systems, the role of the APC in sensory neurons may also advance our understanding of human sensory function and

  6. Fission Yeast Apc15 Stabilizes MCC-Cdc20-APC/C Complexes, Ensuring Efficient Cdc20 Ubiquitination and Checkpoint Arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Karen M; Paldi, Flora; Hardwick, Kevin G

    2017-03-28

    During mitosis, cells must segregate the replicated copies of their genome to their daughter cells with extremely high fidelity. Segregation errors lead to an abnormal chromosome number (aneuploidy), which typically results in disease or cell death [1]. Chromosome segregation and anaphase onset are initiated through the action of the multi-subunit E3 ubiquitin ligase known as the anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C [2]). The APC/C is inhibited by the spindle checkpoint in the presence of kinetochore attachment defects [3, 4]. Here we demonstrate that two non-essential APC/C subunits (Apc14 and Apc15) regulate association of spindle checkpoint proteins, in the form of the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC), with the APC/C. apc14Δ mutants display increased MCC association with the APC/C and are unable to silence the checkpoint efficiently. Conversely, apc15Δ mutants display reduced association between the MCC and APC/C, are defective in poly-ubiquitination of Cdc20, and are checkpoint defective. In vitro reconstitution studies have shown that human MCC-APC/C can contain two molecules of Cdc20 [5-7]. Using a yeast strain expressing two Cdc20 genes with different epitope tags, we show by co-immunoprecipitation that this is true in vivo. MCC binding to the second molecule of Cdc20 is mediated via the C-terminal KEN box in Mad3. Somewhat surprisingly, complexes containing both molecules of Cdc20 accumulate in apc15Δ cells, and the implications of this observation are discussed.

  7. Colorectal tumors from APC*I1307K carriers principally harbor somatic APC mutations outside the A8 tract.

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    Peter Zauber

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: APC*I1307K (c.3920T>A is an inherited variant associated with colorectal tumour risk found almost exclusively in those of Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry. A single nucleotide substitution creates an oligo-adenine tract (A8 that appears to be inherently prone to further mis-pairing and slippage. The reported multiple tumor phenotype of carriers is not easily reconciled with molecular and population genetics data. We postulated that some c.3920T>A carriers with multiple adenomas have other unidentified APC germ line or somatic mutations. METHODS: DNA from 82 colonic tumours and accompanying normal tissue collected from 29 carriers with multiple colorectal tumors was directly sequenced between codons 716 and 1604. We also assessed APC gene loss of heterozygosity. RESULTS: One patient (3.4% was found to have an additional APC germ line mutation. Twenty-five of the tumours showed no significant somatic molecular change, 36 showed one change, 20 showed two, and one tumour showed more than 2 changes. Our data suggest a correlation between advancing histology and fewer beta-catenin binding sites remaining in the mutant proteins. CONCLUSIONS: There were no other common germ line variants identified within the region of the APC gene examined, suggesting that any effect from this region on tumour production is attributable to the c.3920T>A allele. Our findings further suggest the only somatic genetic change clearly attributable to the c.3920T>A mutation is the c.3924_3925insA.

  8. Colorectal Tumors from APC*I1307K Carriers Principally Harbor Somatic APC Mutations outside the A8 Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zauber, Peter; Bishop, Timothy; Taylor, Claire; Sabbath-Solitare, Marlene; Marotta, Stephen; Tomlinson, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Purpose APC*I1307K (c.3920T>A) is an inherited variant associated with colorectal tumour risk found almost exclusively in those of Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry. A single nucleotide substitution creates an oligo-adenine tract (A8) that appears to be inherently prone to further mis-pairing and slippage. The reported multiple tumor phenotype of carriers is not easily reconciled with molecular and population genetics data. We postulated that some c.3920T>A carriers with multiple adenomas have other unidentified APC germ line or somatic mutations. Methods DNA from 82 colonic tumours and accompanying normal tissue collected from 29 carriers with multiple colorectal tumors was directly sequenced between codons 716 and 1604. We also assessed APC gene loss of heterozygosity. Results One patient (3.4%) was found to have an additional APC germ line mutation. Twenty-five of the tumours showed no significant somatic molecular change, 36 showed one change, 20 showed two, and one tumour showed more than 2 changes. Our data suggest a correlation between advancing histology and fewer beta-catenin binding sites remaining in the mutant proteins. Conclusions There were no other common germ line variants identified within the region of the APC gene examined, suggesting that any effect from this region on tumour production is attributable to the c.3920T>A allele. Our findings further suggest the only somatic genetic change clearly attributable to the c.3920T>A mutation is the c.3924_3925insA. PMID:24416237

  9. Clinicopathologic characteristics of anterior prostate cancer (APC), including correlation with previous biopsy pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magers, Martin J; Zhan, Tianyu; Udager, Aaron M; Wei, John T; Tomlins, Scott A; Wu, Angela J; Kunju, Lakshmi P; Lew, Madelyn; Feng, Felix Y; Hamstra, Daniel A; Siddiqui, Javed; Chinnaiyan, Arul M; Montgomery, Jeffrey S; Weizer, Alon Z; Morgan, Todd M; Hollenbeck, Brent K; Miller, David C; Palapattu, Ganesh S; Jiang, Hui; Mehra, Rohit

    2015-11-01

    Anterior-predominant prostate cancer (APC) is an incompletely understood entity which can be difficult to sample via transrectal biopsy. Seemingly favorable biopsy results may belie the potential aggressiveness of these tumors. Here, we attempt to characterize APC by retrospectively examining the clinicopathologic features of APC at radical prostatectomy and comparing our findings with prior biopsy information. We found that 17.4 % of patients in our study had APC. APC demonstrated a significantly lower (P value biopsy than non-transperineal saturation (i.e., transrectal ultrasound guided) biopsy strategies. Four patients (7 %) without transperineal saturation biopsy exhibited a significantly worse GS at RP than biopsy, compared to five patients (36 %) with transperineal saturation biopsy. Our findings corroborate the difficulty in detecting APC and suggest that APC is not a uniform disease with a wholly indolent phenotype. Dedicated long-term outcome data are needed in these patients. Additionally, alternative pathologic staging parameters may be necessary.

  10. Adaptive SPC monitoring scheme for DOE-based APC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye Liang; Pan Ershun; Xi Lifeng

    2008-01-01

    Automatic process control (APC) based on design of experiment (DOE) is a cost-efficient approach for variation reduction. The process changes both in mean and variance owing to online parameter adjustment make it hard to apply traditional SPC charts in such DOE-based APC applied process. An adaptive SPC scheme is developed, which can better track the process transitions and achieve the possible SPC run cost reduction when the process is stable. The control law of SPC parameters is designed by fully utilizing the estimation properties of the process model instead of traditionally using the data collected from the production line. An example is provided to illustrate the proposed adaptive SPC design approach.

  11. Cellular factors targeting APCs to modulate adaptive T cell immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visperas, Anabelle; Do, Jeongsu; Min, Booki

    2014-01-01

    The fate of adaptive T cell immunity is determined by multiple cellular and molecular factors, among which the cytokine milieu plays the most important role in this process. Depending on the cytokines present during the initial T cell activation, T cells become effector cells that produce different effector molecules and execute adaptive immune functions. Studies thus far have primarily focused on defining how these factors control T cell differentiation by targeting T cells themselves. However, other non-T cells, particularly APCs, also express receptors for the factors and are capable of responding to them. In this review, we will discuss how APCs, by responding to those cytokines, influence T cell differentiation and adaptive immunity.

  12. Cellular Factors Targeting APCs to Modulate Adaptive T Cell Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabelle Visperas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The fate of adaptive T cell immunity is determined by multiple cellular and molecular factors, among which the cytokine milieu plays the most important role in this process. Depending on the cytokines present during the initial T cell activation, T cells become effector cells that produce different effector molecules and execute adaptive immune functions. Studies thus far have primarily focused on defining how these factors control T cell differentiation by targeting T cells themselves. However, other non-T cells, particularly APCs, also express receptors for the factors and are capable of responding to them. In this review, we will discuss how APCs, by responding to those cytokines, influence T cell differentiation and adaptive immunity.

  13. Co-operating for gold open access without APCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Paul Eve

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available While article processing charges (APCs are emerging as a key way in which existing publishers can adapt to gold open access (OA, this mode is problematic in many ways. Considering the existing subscription publication ecosystem as a risk/cost-pooling mechanism leads to the conclusion that APCs are a concentration of risk that may come with damaging institutional consequences, particularly in the humanities disciplines. Consortial and co-operative modes of funding gold OA, however, do not come with these drawbacks but are susceptible to ‘free riders’. In this article, the theoretical backdrop to these models is addressed and the range of current offerings evaluated. Noting that classical economic incentives do not seem to operate in a world of inter-library loans, the article ends with a description of the model that is being implemented for the 'Open Library of Humanities' initiative, funded by the Andrew W Mellon Foundation.

  14. Clinical application of Assessment of Parenting Competencies (APC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Stine Lindahl

    This paper is part of a symposium on music therapy with families with Kirsi Tuomi as Chair. It revolves around the clinical application of a new music therapy assessment model on parent-child interaction and parenting competencies. APC was developed for emotional neglected children and their pare......This paper is part of a symposium on music therapy with families with Kirsi Tuomi as Chair. It revolves around the clinical application of a new music therapy assessment model on parent-child interaction and parenting competencies. APC was developed for emotional neglected children......, child somatic hospitals, centers for refuges and other populations where it would be clinical relevant to assess the parent-child interaction. APC is an observational and improvisational based assessment model evaluating dyads of parent and child (child age range is 5-12). It produces information...... (numbers, graphs, and descriptions) of parent-child interaction and parenting competencies including nonverbal communication, level of attunement in the dyad, and level of emotional support from the parent. It is based on video analysis and a fixed assessment protocol. It was developed through a completed...

  15. Human immunodeficiencies related to APC/T cell interaction

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    Marinos eKallikourdis

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The primary event for initiating adaptive immune responses is the encounter between T lymphocytes and antigen presenting cells (APC in the T cell area of secondary lymphoid organs and the formation of highly organized inter-cellular junctions referred to as the immune synapses. In vivo live-cell imaging of APC-T cell interactions combined to functional studies unveiled that T cell fate is dictated, in large part, by the stability of the initial contact. Immune cell interaction is equally important during delivery of T cell help to B cells and for the killing of target cells by cytotoxic T cells and NK cells. The critical role of contact dynamics and synapse stability on the immune response is well illustrated by human immune deficiencies in which disease pathogenesis is linked to altered adhesion or defective cross-talk between the synaptic partners. Here we will discuss in details the mechanisms of defective APC-T cell communications in Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS and in warts, hypogammaglobulinemia, infections, myelokathexis syndrome (WHIM. In addition, we will summarize the evidences pointing to a compromised conjugate formation in WIP deficiency, DOCK8 deficiency and X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome.

  16. lemmingA encodes the Apc11 subunit of the APC/C in Drosophila melanogaster that forms a ternary complex with the E2-C type ubiquitin conjugating enzyme, Vihar and Morula/Apc2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagy Olga

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation is a critical step in key cell cycle events, such as metaphase-anaphase transition and mitotic exit. The anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C plays a pivotal role in these transitions by recognizing and marking regulatory proteins for proteasomal degradation. Its overall structure and function has been elucidated mostly in yeasts and mammalian cell lines. The APC/C is, however, a multisubunit assembly with at least 13 subunits and their function and interaction within the complex is still relatively uncharacterized, particularly in metazoan systems. Here, lemming (lmg mutants were used to study the APC/C subunit, Apc11, and its interaction partners in Drosophila melanogaster. Results The lmg gene was initially identified through a pharate adult lethal P element insertion mutation expressing developmental abnormalities and widespread apoptosis in larval imaginal discs and pupal abdominal histoblasts. Larval neuroblasts were observed to arrest mitosis in a metaphase-like state with highly condensed, scattered chromosomes and frequent polyploidy. These neuroblasts contain high levels of both cyclin A and cyclin B. The lmg gene was cloned by virtue of the lmg03424 P element insertion which is located in the 5' untranslated region. The lemming locus is transcribed to give a 2.0 kb mRNA that contains two ORFs, lmgA and lmgB. The lmgA ORF codes for a putative protein with more than 80% sequence homology to the APC11 subunit of the human APC/C. The 85 amino acid protein also contains a RING-finger motif characteristic of known APC11 subunits. The lmgA ORF alone was sufficient to rescue the lethal and mitotic phenotypes of the lmg138 null allele and to complement the temperature sensitive lethal phenotype of the APC11-myc9 budding yeast mutant. The LmgA protein interacts with Mr/Apc2, and they together form a binding site for Vihar, the E2-C type ubiquitin conjugating enzyme. Despite

  17. 21 CFR 1210.16 - Method of bacterial count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Inspection and Testing § 1210.16 Method of bacterial count. The bacterial count of milk and cream refers to the number of viable bacteria as determined by the standard plate method of... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Method of bacterial count. 1210.16 Section...

  18. Comparação entre os métodos rápidos SimplateR TPC- CI e PetrifilmR AC e os métodos convencionais de contagem em placas para a enumeração de aeróbios mesófilos em sorvetes Comparasion of SimplateR test and Petrifilm with plate count agar method for detection and enumeration of bacteria in ice cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson de Souza Sant'ana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A contagem de aeróbios mesófilos ou contagem padrão em placas em um produto alimentício reflete a qualidade da matéria-prima, bem como as condições de processamento, manuseio e estocagem. O método de contagem em placas tradicionais requer 48h de incubação para a posterior leitura dos resultados. Comparou-se dois métodos que parecem ser uma boa alternativa para a contagem padrão em placas: SimplateR TPC-CI e PetrifilmR AC. Também avaliou-se a capacidade inibitória do 2, 3, 5 cloreto de trifeniltetrazólio quando adicionado ao Agar Plate Count. Este corante é incolor na forma oxidada e vermelho quando reduzido pelos microrganismos, devido à formação de formazano. O coe-ficiente de correlação obtido, através de estudos conduzidos com 60 amostras de sorvetes, entre 0,866-0,979 indicou uma equivalente sensibilidade dos métodos testados. Somente a contagem padrão em placas com TTC diferiu signicativamente da contagem padrão em placas.The mesophilic aerobic plate count or standard plate count (SPC of fresh food product reflects conditions of raw product quality, processing, handling and storage. Current standard methods require a 48h incubation period to obtain the results. Two rapid alterantive methods: SimplateTM TPC-CI and PetrifilmTM Aerobic Count (AC Plate were compared to standard methods. Also, we evaluated the inhibitory effect of 2, 3, 5 triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC when added to Plate Count Agar. This dye is colorless in the oxidized form and red when reduced by microorganisms, due to the formation of formazan. Sixty ice cream samples were used in this study to obtain correlation coefficients, which ranged from 0.866-0.979, indicating equivalent sensitivities to existing methods. Only plate count with TTC differed significantly from the standard plate count.

  19. High resolution genetic map of the adenomatous polyposis coli gene (APC) region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olschwang, S.; Laurent-Puig, P.; Melot, T. [Institut Curie, Paris (France)

    1995-05-08

    Familial adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) is a dominantly inherited colorectal cancer susceptibility disease caused by mutation in a gene called APC located on chromosome 5q21. Presymptomatic diagnosis of this condition is recommended because it enables restriction of the efficient but demanding prevention program to those relatives that are genetically affected. The large size of the APC gene makes the direct search for the casual alteration difficult to implement in routine diagnostic laboratories. Because APC appears to be genetically homogeneous with alteration in a single locus causing the disease, cosegregation analysis may represent an alternative efficient method for presymptomatic diagnosis. However, the reliability of the risk estimation by linkage analysis in APC families is hampered by the lack of a short range genetic map of the APC locus. A combined approach including genotyping of 65 APC families, analysis of the CEPH database, and complementary typing of both APC and CEPH families has made it possible to derive the following genetic map: Centromere-[D5S82-D5S49]-0.02-D5S122-0.01-D5S136-0.01-D5S135-0.02-[APC-D5S346-MCC]-0.04-[D5S81-D5S64]-Telomere. This order, which differs from previously proposed genetic maps, is fully compatible with recent physical mapping data. These data should contribute to increase the reliability of the presymptomatic test for APC. 42 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  20. Fas/CD95 deficiency in ApcMin/+ mice increases intestinal tumor burden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Guillen-Ahlers

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fas, a member of the tumor necrosis family, is responsible for initiating the apoptotic pathway when bound to its ligand, Fas-L. Defects in the Fas-mediated apoptotic pathway have been reported in colorectal cancer. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, a variant of the Apc(Min/+ mouse, a model for the human condition, Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP, was generated with an additional deficiency of Fas (Apc(Min/+/Fas(lpr by cross-breeding Apc(Min/+ mice with Fas deficient (Fas(lpr mice. One of the main limitations of the Apc(Min/+ mouse model is that it only develops benign polyps. However, Apc(Min/+/Fas(lpr mice presented with a dramatic increase in tumor burden relative to Apc(Min/+ mice and invasive lesions at advanced ages. Proliferation and apoptosis markers revealed an increase in cellular proliferation, but negligible changes in apoptosis, while p53 increased at early ages. Fas-L was lower in Apc(Min/+/Fas(lpr mice relative to Apc(Min/+ cohorts, which resulted in enhanced inflammation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study demonstrated that imposition of a Fas deletion in an Apc(Min/+ background results in a more aggressive phenotype of the Apc(Min/+ mouse model, with more rapid development of invasive intestinal tumors and a decrease in Fas-L levels.

  1. Regulation of the metabolite profile by an APC gene mutation in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshie, Tomoo; Nishiumi, Shin; Izumi, Yoshihiro; Sakai, Aya; Inoue, Jun; Azuma, Takeshi; Yoshida, Masaru

    2012-06-01

    Mutation of the APC gene occurs during the early stages of colorectal cancer development. To obtain new insights into the mechanisms underlying the aberrant activation of the Wnt pathway that accompanies APC mutation, we carried out a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based semiquantitative metabolome analysis. In vitro experiments comparing SW480 cells expressing normal APC and truncated APC indicated that the levels of metabolites involved in the latter stages of the intracellular tricarboxylic acid cycle, including succinic acid, fumaric acid, and malic acid, were significantly higher in the SW480 cells expressing the truncated APC. In an in vivo study, we found that the levels of most amino acids were higher in the non-polyp tissues of APC(min/+) mice than in the normal tissues of the control mice and the polyp tissues of APC(min/+) mice. Ribitol, the levels of which were decreased in the polyp lesions of the APC(min/+) mice and the SW480 cells expressing the truncated APC, reduced the growth of SW480 cells with the APC mutation, but did not affect the growth of SW480 transfectants expressing full-length APC. The level of sarcosine was found to be significantly higher in the polyp tissues of APC(min/+) mice than in their non-polyp tissues and the normal tissues of the control mice, and the treatment of SW480 cells with 50 μM sarcosine resulted in a significant increase in their growth rate. These findings suggest that APC mutation causes changes in energetic metabolite pathways and that these alterations might be involved in the development of colorectal cancer.

  2. APC/CCDC20 and APC/C play pivotal roles in the process of embryonic development in Artemia sinica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mengchen; Yao, Feng; Luan, Hong; Zhao, Wei; Jing, Ting; Zhang, Shuang; Hou, Lin; Zou, Xiangyang

    2016-01-01

    Anaphase Promoting Complex or Cyclosome (APC/C) is a representative E3 ubiquitin ligase, triggering the transition of metaphase to anaphase by regulating degradation and ensures the exit from mitosis. Cell division cycle 20 (CDC20) and Cell division cycle 20 related protein 1 (CDH1), as co-activators of APC/C, play significant roles in the spindle assembly checkpoint, guiding ubiquitin-mediated degradation, together with CDC23. During the embryonic development of the brine shrimp, Artemia sinica, CDC20, CDH1 and CDC23 participate in cell cycle regulation, but the specific mechanisms of their activities remain unknown. Herein, the full-length cDNAs of cdc20 and cdc23 from A. sinica were cloned. Real-time PCR analyzed the expression levels of As-cdc20 and As-cdc23. The locations of CDH1, CDC20 and CDC23 showed no tissue or organ specificity. Furthermore, western blotting showed that the levels of As-CDC20, securin, cyclin B, CDK1, CDH1, CDC14B, CDC23 and geminin proteins conformed to their complicated degradation relationships during different embryo stages. Our research revealed that As-CDC20, As-CDH1 and APC mediate the mitotic progression, downstream proteins degradation and cellular differentiation in the process of embryonic development in A. sinica. PMID:27991546

  3. Effects of exogenous recombinant APC in mouse models of ischemia reperfusion injury and of atherosclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin C A A Wildhagen

    Full Text Available Activated protein C (APC is a serine protease that has both anticoagulant and cytoprotective properties. The cytoprotective effects are protease activated receptor 1 (PAR-1 and endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR dependent and likely underlie protective effects of APC in animal models of sepsis, myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke. S360A-(APC, a variant (APC that has no catalytic activity, binds EPCR and shifts pro-inflammatory signaling of the thrombin-PAR-1 complex to anti-inflammatory signaling. In this study we investigated effects of human (hwt-PC, hS360A-PC, hwt-APC and hS360A-APC in acute (mouse model of acute myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury and chronic inflammation (apoE-/- mouse model of atherosclerosis. All h(APC variants significantly reduced myocardial infarct area (p<0.05 following I/R injury. IL-6 levels in heart homogenates did not differ significantly between sham, placebo and treatment groups in I/R injury. None of the h(APC variants decreased number and size of atherosclerotic plaques in apoE-/- mice. Only hS360A-APC slightly affected phenotype of plaques. IL-6 levels in plasma were significantly (p<0.001 decreased in hwt-APC and hS360A-PC treated mice. In the last group levels of monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1 were significantly increased (p<0.05. In this study we show that both hwt and hS360A-(APC protect against acute myocardial I/R injury, which implies that protection from I/R injury is independent of the proteolytic activity of APC. However, in the chronic atherosclerosis model hwt and hS360-(APC had only minor effects. When the dose, species and mode of (APC administration will be adjusted, we believe that (APC will have potential to influence development of chronic inflammation as occurring during atherosclerosis as well.

  4. Five quantitative trait loci control radiation-induced adenoma multiplicity in Mom1R Apc Min/+ mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiram Elahi

    Full Text Available Ionising radiation is a carcinogen capable of inducing tumours, including colorectal cancer, in both humans and animals. By backcrossing a recombinant line of Apc(Min/+ mice to the inbred BALB/c mouse strain, which is unusually sensitive to radiation-induced tumour development, we obtained panels of 2Gy-irradiated and sham-irradiated N2 Apc(Min/+ mice for genotyping with a genome-wide panel of microsatellites at approximately 15 cM density and phenotyping by counting adenomas in the small intestine. Interval and composite interval mapping along with permutation testing identified five significant susceptibility quantitative trait loci (QTLs responsible for radiation induced tumour multiplicity in the small intestine. These were defined as Mom (Modifier of Min radiation-induced polyposis (Mrip1-5 on chromosome 2 (log of odds, LOD 2.8, p = 0.0003, two regions within chromosome 5 (LOD 5.2, p<0.00001, 6.2, p<0.00001 and two regions within chromosome 16 respectively (LOD 4.1, p = 4x10(-5, 4.8, p<0.00001. Suggestive QTLs were found for sham-irradiated mice on chromosomes 3, 6 and 13 (LOD 1.7, 1.5 and 2.0 respectively; p<0.005. Genes containing BALB/c specific non-synonymous polymorphisms were identified within Mrip regions and prediction programming used to locate potentially functional polymorphisms. Our study locates the QTL regions responsible for increased radiation-induced intestinal tumorigenesis in Apc(Min/+ mice and identifies candidate genes with predicted functional polymorphisms that are involved in spindle checkpoint and chromosomal stability (Bub1b, Casc5, and Bub1, DNA repair (Recc1 and Prkdc or inflammation (Duox2, Itgb2l and Cxcl5. Our study demonstrates use of in silico analysis in candidate gene identification as a way of reducing large-scale backcross breeding programmes.

  5. Inherited colorectal polyposis and cancer risk of the APC I1307K polymorphism.

    OpenAIRE

    Gryfe, R; Di Nicola, N; G. Lal; Gallinger, S.; Redston, M

    1999-01-01

    Germ-line and somatic truncating mutations of the APC gene are thought to initiate colorectal tumor formation in familial adenomatous polyposis syndrome and sporadic colorectal carcinogenesis, respectively. Recently, an isoleucine-->lysine polymorphism at codon 1307 (I1307K) of the APC gene has been identified in 6%-7% of the Ashkenazi Jewish population. To assess the risk of this common APC allelic variant in colorectal carcinogenesis, we have analyzed a large cohort of unselected Ashkenazi ...

  6. Electrodialytically treated MSWI APC residue as substitute for cement in mortar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Geiker, Mette Rica; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2014-01-01

    Air pollution control (APC) residues from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) are considered hazardous waste and need pretreatment prior to possible reuse. Here, two MSWI APC residues, from which the most mobile fraction of heavy metals and salts has been removed by carbonation and...... and comparable to both the reference mortar and mortar with coal fly ash. These results indicate that electrodialytic remediation could be used a pre-treatment method for MSWI APC residues prior to reuse in mortar....

  7. Synergistic inhibition of the APC/C by the removal of APC15 in HCT116 cells lacking UBE2C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvanska, Dimitriya H.; Larsen, Marie Sofie Yoo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) inhibits the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) in response to unattached kinetochores by generating a diffusible inhibitor termed the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC). At metaphase, rapid activation of the APC/C requires removal of the MCC, a process that has been shown to depend on the APC/C E2 enzymes, UBE2C and UBE2S. Here we investigate the in vivo role of the APC/C E2 enzymes in SAC silencing using CRISPR/Cas9 genetically engineered HCT116 UBE2C or UBE2S null cell lines. Using live cell assays, we show that UBE2C and UBE2S make a minor contribution to SAC silencing in HCT116 cells. Strikingly, in cells specifically lacking UBE2C, we observe a strong synergistic inhibition of mitotic progression when we stabilize the MCC on the APC/C by depleting APC15, potentially reflecting increased competition between the MCC and the remaining initiating E2 enzyme UBE2D. In conclusion, we provide in vivo insight into the APC/C E2 module and its interplay with SAC silencing components. PMID:27591192

  8. Controlling the response to DNA damage by the APC/C-Cdh1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, H Rudolf; Guerrero Llobet, S; van Vugt, Marcel A T M

    2016-03-01

    Proper cell cycle progression is safeguarded by the oscillating activities of cyclin/cyclin-dependent kinase complexes. An important player in the regulation of mitotic cyclins is the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), a multi-subunit E3 ubiquitin ligase. Prior to entry into mitosis, the APC/C remains inactive, which allows the accumulation of mitotic regulators. APC/C activation requires binding to either the Cdc20 or Cdh1 adaptor protein, which sequentially bind the APC/C and facilitate targeting of multiple mitotic regulators for proteasomal destruction, including Securin and Cyclin B, to ensure proper chromosome segregation and mitotic exit. Emerging data have indicated that the APC/C, particularly in association with Cdh1, also functions prior to mitotic entry. Specifically, the APC/C-Cdh1 is activated in response to DNA damage in G2 phase cells. These observations are in line with in vitro and in vivo genetic studies, in which cells lacking Cdh1 expression display various defects, including impaired DNA repair and aberrant cell cycle checkpoints. In this review, we summarize the current literature on APC/C regulation in response to DNA damage, the functions of APC/C-Cdh1 activation upon DNA damage, and speculate how APC/C-Cdh1 can control cell fate in the context of persistent DNA damage.

  9. APC/C-Cdh1-dependent anaphase and telophase progression during mitotic slippage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toda Kazuhiro

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC inhibits anaphase progression in the presence of insufficient kinetochore-microtubule attachments, but cells can eventually override mitotic arrest by a process known as mitotic slippage or adaptation. This is a problem for cancer chemotherapy using microtubule poisons. Results Here we describe mitotic slippage in yeast bub2Δ mutant cells that are defective in the repression of precocious telophase onset (mitotic exit. Precocious activation of anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C-Cdh1 caused mitotic slippage in the presence of nocodazole, while the SAC was still active. APC/C-Cdh1, but not APC/C-Cdc20, triggered anaphase progression (securin degradation, separase-mediated cohesin cleavage, sister-chromatid separation and chromosome missegregation, in addition to telophase onset (mitotic exit, during mitotic slippage. This demonstrates that an inhibitory system not only of APC/C-Cdc20 but also of APC/C-Cdh1 is critical for accurate chromosome segregation in the presence of insufficient kinetochore-microtubule attachments. Conclusions The sequential activation of APC/C-Cdc20 to APC/C-Cdh1 during mitosis is central to accurate mitosis. Precocious activation of APC/C-Cdh1 in metaphase (pre-anaphase causes mitotic slippage in SAC-activated cells. For the prevention of mitotic slippage, concomitant inhibition of APC/C-Cdh1 may be effective for tumor therapy with mitotic spindle poisons in humans.

  10. Recurrent APC gene mutations in Polish FAP families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pławski Andrzej

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The molecular diagnostics of genetically conditioned disorders is based on the identification of the mutations in the predisposing genes. Hereditary cancer disorders of the gastrointestinal tracts are caused by mutations of the tumour suppressor genes or the DNA repair genes. Occurrence of recurrent mutation allows improvement of molecular diagnostics. The mutation spectrum in the genes causing hereditary forms of colorectal cancers in the Polish population was previously described. In the present work an estimation of the frequency of the recurrent mutations of the APC gene was performed. Eight types of mutations occurred in 19.4% of our FAP families and these constitute 43% of all Polish diagnosed families.

  11. APC: A New Code for Atmospheric Polarization Computations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkin, Sergey V.; Lyapustin, Alexei I.; Rozanov, Vladimir V.

    2014-01-01

    A new polarized radiative transfer code Atmospheric Polarization Computations (APC) is described. The code is based on separation of the diffuse light field into anisotropic and smooth (regular) parts. The anisotropic part is computed analytically. The smooth regular part is computed numerically using the discrete ordinates method. Vertical stratification of the atmosphere, common types of bidirectional surface reflection and scattering by spherical particles or spheroids are included. A particular consideration is given to computation of the bidirectional polarization distribution function (BPDF) of the waved ocean surface.

  12. Homing of antigen-presenting cells (APCs in head kidney and spleen – salmon head kidney hosts diverse APC types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitar Borisov Iliev

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Lymph nodes and spleen are major organs where mammalian APCs initiate and orchestrate Ag-specific immune responses. Unlike mammals, teleosts lack lymph nodes and an interesting question is whether alternative organs may serve as sites for antigen presentation in teleosts. In the current study, fluorescent ovalbumin (Ova and CpG oligonucleotides (ODNs injected intra-abdominally were detected in significant numbers of salmon head kidney (HK MHCII+ cells over a period of 2 weeks while in spleen the percentage of these was transient and declined from day 1 post injection. In vitro studies further shed light on the properties of the diverse MHCII+ cell types found in HK. The ultrastructure of a subpopulation of MHCII+ cells with a high capacity to endocytose and process Ova indicated that these were able to perform constitutive macropinocytosis. Upon stimulation with CpG ODNs these cells upregulated CD86 and gave very high levels of TNF mRNA indicating that these are professional APCs, related to macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs. A subpopulation of HK granulocytes expressed high levels of surface MHCII and upon CpG stimulation upregulated most of the tested APC marker genes. Although these granulocytes expressed TNF weakly, they had relatively high basal levels of IL-1β mRNA and the CpG stimulation upregulated IL-1β, along with its signaling and decoy receptors, to the highest levels as compared to other HK cell types. Interestingly, the high expression of IL-1β mRNA in the granulocytes correlated with a high autophagy flux as demonstrated by LC3-II conversion. Autophagy has recently been found to be implicated in IL-1β processing and secretion and the presented data suggests that granulocytes of salmon, and perhaps other teleost species, may serve as a valuable model to study the involvement of autophagy in regulation of the vertebrate immune response.

  13. PTT analysis of polyps from FAP patients reveals a great majority of APC truncating mutations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luijt, R.B. van der; Khan, P.M.; Tops, C.M.J. [Leiden Univ., (Netherlands)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene plays an important role in colorectal carcinogenesis. Germline APC mutations are associated with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), an autosomal dominantly inherited predisposition to colorectal cancer, characterized by the development of numerous adenomatous polyps in the large intestine. In order to investigate whether somatic inactivation of the remaining APC allele is necessary for adenoma formation, we collected multiple adenomatous polyps from individual FAP patients and investigated the presence of somatic mutations in the APC gene. The analysis of somatic APC mutations in these tumor samples was performed using a rapid and sensitive assay, called the protein truncation test (PTT). Chain-terminating somatic APC mutations were detected in the great majority of the tumor samples investigated. As expected, these mutations were mainly located in the mutation cluster region (MCR) in exon 15. Our results confirm that somatic mutation of the second APC allele is required for adenoma formation in FAP. Interestingly, in the polyps investigated in our study, the second APC allele is somatically inactivated through point mutation leading to a stop codon rather than by loss of heterozygosity. The observation that somatic second hits in APC are required for tumor development in FAP is in apparent accordance with the Knudson hypothesis for classical tumor suppressor genes. However, it is yet unknown whether chain-terminating APC mutations lead to a truncated protein exerting a dominant-negative effect or whether these mutations result in a null allele. Further investigation of this important issue will hopefully provide a better understanding of the mechanism of action of the mutated APC alleles in colorectal carcinogenesis.

  14. Sipuleucel-T: APC 8015, APC-8015, prostate cancer vaccine--Dendreon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Sipuleucel-T [APC 8015, Provenge] is an autologous, dendritic cell-based vaccine under development with Dendreon Corporation for the treatment of androgen-independent and androgen-dependent prostate cancer. It was generated using the company's active immunotherapy platform to stimulate a patient's own immune system to specifically target and destroy cancer cells, while leaving healthy cells unharmed. This approach could provide patients with a meaningful survival benefit and an improved tolerability profile over existing anticancer therapies. Sipuleucel-T selectively targets the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) known as prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) that is expressed in approximately 95% of prostate cancers. It is produced by ex vivo exposure of dendritic cell precursors to PA 2024, a recombinant fusion protein composed of the PAP target fused to granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and incorporated into Dendreon's proprietary Antigen Delivery Cassette. Patients are typically administered three intravenous (IV)-infusions of the vaccine over a 1-month period as a complete course of therapy. It is undergoing late-stage clinical evaluation among patients with early and advanced prostate cancer. In November 2003, Kirin Brewery returned to Dendreon the full rights to Sipuleucel-T for Asia. In exchange, Dendreon licensed patent rights relating to the use of certain HLA-DR antibodies to Kirin for $US20 million. This amended agreement enables Dendreon to complete ongoing discussions for a worldwide marketing and sales partnership for Sipuleucel-T. Similarly, Kirin is able to develop its HLA-DR monoclonal antibodies free of potential infringement claims arising from Dendreon's patent rights to HLA-DR. The licensing agreement relates to patent rights owned by Dendreon relating to monoclonal antibodies against the HLA-DR antigen. In addition, Dendreon retains rights to develop and commercialise its two existing HLA-DR monoclonal antibodies, DN 1921 and

  15. Synergistic inhibition of the APC/C by the removal of APC15 in HCT116 cells lacking UBE2C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garvanska, Dimitriya H; Larsen, Marie Sofie Yoo; Nilsson, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    that has been shown to depend on the APC/C E2 enzymes, UBE2C and UBE2S. Here we investigate the in vivo role of the APC/C E2 enzymes in SAC silencing using CRISPR/Cas9 genetically engineered HCT116 UBE2C or UBE2S null cell lines. Using live cell assays, we show that UBE2C and UBE2S make a minor...

  16. Tumour Suppressor Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) localisation is regulated by both Kinesin-1 and Kinesin-2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruane, Peter T; Gumy, Laura F|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/337608334; Bola, Becky; Anderson, Beverley; Wozniak, Marcin J; Hoogenraad, Casper C|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/227263502; Allan, Victoria J

    2016-01-01

    Microtubules and their associated proteins (MAPs) underpin the polarity of specialised cells. Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) is one such MAP with a multifunctional agenda that requires precise intracellular localisations. Although APC has been found to associate with kinesin-2 subfamily members,

  17. Detection of APC gene deletions in colorectal malignancies using quantitative PCR in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zhengyu; Xiong, Yi; Li, Jiana; Liu, Li; Li, Manhui; Zhang, Wei; Shi, Lei; Wan, Jun

    2011-09-01

    The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene has been shown to be involved in genetic instability and to be downregluated in several human carcinomas. The chromosome locus of APC, 5q21-22, is frequently deleted in colorectal cancers (CRCs). The functional impact of such regions needs to be extensively investigated in large amount of clinical samples. Case-matched tissues of CRC and adjacent normal epithelium (n = 134) were included in this study. Quantitative PCR was carried out to examine the copy number as well as mRNA expression of APC gene in colorectal malignancies. Our results showed that copy number deletions of APC were present in a relatively high percentage of colorectal cancer samples (26.1%, 35 out of 134). There was a positive correlation between copy number decrease of APC and tumor progression in CRCs. Furthermore, copy number loss of APC was correlated with decreased mRNA expression. However, mRNA levels of APC were also impaired in CRC samples with unaltered copy numbers, indicating that sporadic CRCs exhibit different mechanisms of APC regulation.

  18. Identification of APC gene mutations in Italian adenomatous polyposis coli patients by PCR-SSCP analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varesco, L.; Gismondi, V.; James, R.; Casarino, L.; De Benedetti, L.; Bafico, A.; Allegretti, A.; Aste, H. (Istituto Nazionale per la Ricerca sul Cancro, Genoa (Italy)); Robertson, M.; Groden, J.; White, R. (Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City (United States)); Grammatico, P.; De Sanctis, S.; Sciarra, A.; Del Porto, G. (Universita di Roma, Rome (Italy)); Bertario, L.; Sala, P.; Rossetti, C.; Illeni, M.T. (Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milan (Italy)); Sassatelli, R.; Ponz de Leon, M. (Universita di Modena (Italy)); Biasco, G. (Universita di Bologna (Italy)); Ferrara, G.B. (Istituto Nazionale per la Ricerca sul Cancro, Genoa (Italy) Universita di Napoli, Naples (Italy))

    1993-02-01

    The APC gene is a putative human tumor-suppressor gene responsible for adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), an inherited, autosomal dominant predisposition to colon cancer. It is also implicated in the development of sporadic colorectal tumors. The characterization of APC gene mutations in APC patients is clinically important because DNA-based tests can be applied for presymptomatic diagnosis once a specific mutation has been identified in a family. Moreover, the identification of the spectrum of APC gene mutations in patients is of great interest in the study of the biological properties of the APC gene product. The authors analyzed the entire coding region of the APC gene by the PCR-single-strand conformation polymorphism method in 42 unrelated Italian APC patients. Mutations were found in 12 cases. These consist of small (5-14 bp) base-pair deletions leading to frameshifts; all are localized within exon 15. Two of these deletions, a 5-bp deletion at position 3183-3187 and a 5-bp deletion at position 3926-3930, are present in 3/42 and 7/42 cases of the series, respectively, indicating the presence of mutational hot spots at these two sites. 17 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Mutational spectrum of APC and genotype-phenotype correlations in Greek FAP patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fountzilas George

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Familial adenomatous polyposis, an autosomal dominant inherited disease caused by germline mutations within the APC gene, is characterized by early onset colorectal cancer as a consequence of the intrinsic phenotypic feature of multiple colorectal adenomatic polyps. The genetic investigation of Greek adenomatous polyposis families was performed in respects to APC and MUTYH germline mutations. Additionally, all available published mutations were considered in order to define the APC mutation spectrum in Greece. Methods A cohort of 25 unrelated adenomatous polyposis families of Greek origin has been selected. Genetic testing included direct sequencing of APC and MUTYH genes. APC gene was also checked for large genomic rearrangements by MLPA. Results Analysis of the APC gene performed in a Greek cohort of twenty five FAP families revealed eighteen different germline mutations in twenty families (80%, four of which novel. Mutations were scattered between exon 3 and codon 1503 of exon 15, while no large genomic rearrangements were identified. Conclusion This concise report describes the spectrum of all APC mutations identified in Greek FAP families, including four novel mutations. It is concluded that the Greek population is characterized by genetic heterogeneity, low incidence of genomic rearrangements in APC gene and lack of founder mutation in FAP syndrome.

  20. A new conditional Apc-mutant mouse model for colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.C. Robanus-Maandag (Els); P.J. Koelink (Pim); C. Breukel (Cor); D.C.F. Salvatori (Daniela); S.C. Jagmohan-Changur (Shantie); C.A.J. Bosch (Cathy); H.W. Verspaget; P. Devilee (Peter); R. Fodde (Riccardo); M.J.M. Smits (Ron)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractMutations of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene predispose individuals to familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), characterized by multiple tumours in the large intestine. Most mouse models heterozygous for truncating mutant Apc alleles mimic FAP, however, the intestinal tumours occ

  1. APC mutations in sporadic coloretal carcinomas from The Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lüchtenborg, M.; Weijenberg, M.P.; Roemen, G.M.J.M.; Bruïne, A.P. de; Brandt, P.A. van den; Lentjes, M.H.F.M.; Brink, M.; Engeland, M. van; Goldbohm, R.A.; Goeij, A.F.P.M. de

    2004-01-01

    The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene is considered to be a gatekeeper in colorectal tumourigenesis. Inactivating mutations in APC have been reported in 34-70% of sporadic colorectal cancer patients, the majority of which occur in the mutation cluster region (MCR). In this study, tumour tissue f

  2. Prevalence and phenotypes of APC and MUTYH mutations in patients with multiple colorectal adenomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Grover (Shilpa); F. Kastrinos (Fay); E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout); E.F. Cook (E. Francis); A. Dewanwala (Akriti); L.A. Burbidge; R.J. Wenstrup (Richard); S. Syngal (Sapna)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractContext: Patients with multiple colorectal adenomas may carry germline mutations in the APC or MUTYH genes. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of pathogenic APC and MUTYH mutations in patients with multiple colorectal adenomas who had undergone genetic testing and to compare the pre

  3. REMOVAL OF ARSENIC IN DRINKING WATER: ARS CFU-50 APC ELECTROFLOCCULATION AND FILTRATION WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    ETV testing of the ARS CFU-50 APC Electroflocculation and Filtration Water Treatment System (ARS CFU-50 APC) for arsenic removal was conducted at the Town of Bernalillo Well #3 site from April 18 through May 2, 2006. The source water was chlorinated groundwater from two supply w...

  4. Molecular analysis of the APC gene in 205 families: extended genotype-phenotype correlations in FAP and evidence for the role of APC amino acid changes in colorectal cancer predisposition

    OpenAIRE

    Wallis, Y.; Morton, D; McKeown, C; Macdonald, F

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS—The development of colorectal cancer and a variable range of extracolonic manifestations in familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is the result of the dominant inheritance of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene mutations. In this study, direct mutation analysis of the APC gene was performed to determine genotype-phenotype correlations for nine extracolonic manifestations and to investigate the incidence of APC mutations in non-FAP colorectal cancer.
METHODS—The APC gene was a...

  5. Modeling the effect of APC truncation on destruction complex function in colorectal cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipak Barua

    Full Text Available In colorectal cancer cells, APC, a tumor suppressor protein, is commonly expressed in truncated form. Truncation of APC is believed to disrupt degradation of β-catenin, which is regulated by a multiprotein complex called the destruction complex. The destruction complex comprises APC, Axin, β-catenin, serine/threonine kinases, and other proteins. The kinases CK1α and GSK -3β, which are recruited by Axin, mediate phosphorylation of β-catenin, which initiates its ubiquitination and proteosomal degradation. The mechanism of regulation of β-catenin degradation by the destruction complex and the role of truncation of APC in colorectal cancer are not entirely understood. Through formulation and analysis of a rule-based computational model, we investigated the regulation of β-catenin phosphorylation and degradation by APC and the effect of APC truncation on function of the destruction complex. The model integrates available mechanistic knowledge about site-specific interactions and phosphorylation of destruction complex components and is consistent with an array of published data. We find that the phosphorylated truncated form of APC can outcompete Axin for binding to β-catenin, provided that Axin is limiting, and thereby sequester β-catenin away from Axin and the Axin-recruited kinases CK1α and GSK -3β. Full-length APC also competes with Axin for binding to β-catenin; however, full-length APC is able, through its SAMP repeats, which bind Axin and which are missing in truncated oncogenic forms of APC, to bring β-catenin into indirect association with Axin and Axin-recruited kinases. Because our model indicates that the positive effects of truncated APC on β-catenin levels depend on phosphorylation of APC, at the first 20-amino acid repeat, and because phosphorylation of this site is mediated by CK1ε, we suggest that CK1ε is a potential target for therapeutic intervention in colorectal cancer. Specific inhibition of CK1ε is predicted to

  6. APC and chromosome instability in colorectal cancer APC e inestabilidad cromosómica en el cáncer de colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Cabrera

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Colon cancer is a common disease that can be sporadic or familial. An inactivated adenomatous polyposis coli (APC suppressor gene is found in over 80% of colorectal tumors, this being an early alteration in the development of adenomatous polyps. APC function is not only critical for tumor initiation and progression, and chromosome instability (CIN is another characteristic dependent at least partly on APC mutations.El cáncer de colon es una enfermedad frecuente que puede ser esporádica o familiar. La inactivación del gen supresor de tumores APC (adenomatous polyposis coli se ha encontrado en más del 80% de los casos descritos de tumores colorrectales, apareciendo como una alteración temprana durante el desarrollo del pólipo adenomatoso. La inactivación del gen APC no es únicamente crítica en el proceso de iniciación y desarrollo del tumor, sino que igualmente la inestabilidad cromosómica (CIN es otra característica dependiente al menos en parte de la presencia de mutaciones en APC.

  7. Three novel mutations of APC gene in Chinese patients with familial adenomatous polyposis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qi; Li, Xiaoxia; Li, Sen; Qu, Shengqiang; Wang, Yu; Tang, Qingzhu; Ma, Hongwei; Luo, Yang

    2016-08-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the development of hundreds to thousands of colonic adenomas and an increased risk of colorectal cancer. Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), encoding a large multidomain protein involved in antagonizing the Wnt signaling pathway, has been identified as the main causative gene responsible for FAP. In this study, we identified three novel mutations as well as two recurrent mutations in the APC in five Chinese FAP families by sequencing. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that among these mutations, a nonsense mutation (c.2510C>G) and two small deletions (c.2016_2047del, c.3180_3184del) led to the truncation of the APC protein and the cytoplasmic and nuclear accumulation of β-catenin in the colorectal samples from affected individuals, respectively. Our study expands the database on mutations of APC and provides evidence to understand the function of APC in FAP.

  8. Expression of Beta-Catenin and APC Protein in Ovarian Epithelial Tumor and Its Implication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Xiao; LI Yu; MI Can

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the expression of beta-catenin, APC protein and its implication in ovarian epithelial tumor. Methods: Immunohistochemical staining with SP method was conducted to determine the expression of beta-catenin and APC protein in 48 cases of ovarian epithelial tumor. Results: The abnormal expression rates of beta-catenin in ovarian malignant and borderline epithelial tumors were higher than that in benign epithelial tumors. The expression of APC protein in benign epithelial tumors was significantly greater than that in malignant epithelial tumors. A significant negative correlation was found between beta-catenin and APC protein in ovarian epithelial tumors. Conclusion: Beta-catenin and APC protein have important effect on pathogenesis and development of ovarian epithelial tumors.

  9. Familial adenomatous polyposis patients without an identified APC germline mutation have a severe phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, M L; Ripa, R; Knudsen, Anne Louise;

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Development of more than 100 colorectal adenomas is diagnostic of the dominantly inherited autosomal disease familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Germline mutations can be identified in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene in approximately 80% of patients. The APC protein...... comprises several regions and domains for interaction with other proteins, and specific clinical manifestations are associated with the mutation assignment to one of these regions or domains. AIMS: The phenotype in patients without an identified causative APC mutation was compared with the phenotype...... in patients with a known APC mutation and with the phenotypes characteristic of patients with mutations in specific APC regions and domains. PATIENTS: Data on 121 FAP probands and 149 call up patients from 70 different families were extracted from the Danish Polyposis register. METHODS: Differences in 16...

  10. Familial adenomatous polyposis patients without an identified APC germline mutation have a severe phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, M L; Ripa, R; Knudsen, Anne Louise

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Development of more than 100 colorectal adenomas is diagnostic of the dominantly inherited autosomal disease familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Germline mutations can be identified in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene in approximately 80% of patients. The APC protein...... in patients with a known APC mutation and with the phenotypes characteristic of patients with mutations in specific APC regions and domains. PATIENTS: Data on 121 FAP probands and 149 call up patients from 70 different families were extracted from the Danish Polyposis register. METHODS: Differences in 16...... clinical manifestations were analysed according to the patient's mutational status. Two sided independent t sample test, two sided chi(2) test, and odds ratios were calculated. RESULTS: Patients without identified APC mutations had a unique and severe phenotype, which was roughly described as: young age...

  11. Germline Missense Changes in the APC Gene and Their Relationship to Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Rodney J

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP is characterized by the presence of hundreds to thousands of adenomas that carpet the entire colon and rectum. Nonsense and frameshift mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC gene account for the majority of mutations identified to date and predispose primarily to the typical disease phenotype. Some APC mutations are associated with a milder form of the disease known as attenuated FAP. Virtually all mutations that have been described in the APC gene result in the formation of a premature stop codon and very little is known about missense mutations apart from a common Ashkenazi Jewish mutation (1307 K and a British E1317Q missense change. The incidence of missense mutations in the APC gene has been underreported since the APC gene lends itself to analysis using an artificial transcription and translation assay known as the Protein Truncation Test (PTT or the In Vitro Synthetic Protein assay (IVSP. In this report we have used denaturing high performance liquid chromatography to analyse the entire coding sequence of the APC gene to determine if a cohort of patients adhering to the diagnostic criteria of FAP to assess the frequency of missense mutations in the APC gene. Altogether 112 patients were studied and 22 missense mutations were identified. From the total of 22 missense changes, 13 were silent changes and the remaining 9 resulted in amino acid substitutions. One or more of these changes were identified multiple times in 62.5% of the population under study. The results reveal that missense mutations in the APC gene appear not to radically alter protein function but may be associated with more subtle processing of RNA transcripts which in turn could result in the expression of differentially spliced forms of the APC gene which may interfere with the functional activity of the APC protein.

  12. A targeted constitutive mutation in the APC tumor suppressor gene underlies mammary but not intestinal tumorigenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Gaspar

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Germline mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC gene are responsible for familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP, an autosomal dominant hereditary predisposition to the development of multiple colorectal adenomas and of a broad spectrum of extra-intestinal tumors. Moreover, somatic APC mutations play a rate-limiting and initiating role in the majority of sporadic colorectal cancers. Notwithstanding its multifunctional nature, the main tumor suppressing activity of the APC gene resides in its ability to regulate Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. Notably, genotype-phenotype correlations have been established at the APC gene between the length and stability of the truncated proteins encoded by different mutant alleles, the corresponding levels of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling activity they encode for, and the incidence and distribution of intestinal and extra-intestinal tumors. Here, we report a novel mouse model, Apc1572T, obtained by targeting a truncated mutation at codon 1572 in the endogenous Apc gene. This hypomorphic mutant allele results in intermediate levels of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling activation when compared with other Apc mutations associated with multifocal intestinal tumors. Notwithstanding the constitutive nature of the mutation, Apc(+/1572T mice have no predisposition to intestinal cancer but develop multifocal mammary adenocarcinomas and subsequent pulmonary metastases in both genders. The histology of the Apc1572T primary mammary tumours is highly heterogeneous with luminal, myoepithelial, and squamous lineages and is reminiscent of metaplastic carcinoma of the breast in humans. The striking phenotype of Apc(+/1572T mice suggests that specific dosages of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling activity differentially affect tissue homeostasis and initiate tumorigenesis in an organ-specific fashion.

  13. Genomic evolution and complexity of the Anaphase-promoting Complex (APC in land plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemerly Adriana S

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The orderly progression through mitosis is regulated by the Anaphase-Promoting Complex (APC, a large multiprotein E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets key cell-cycle regulators for destruction by the 26 S proteasome. The APC is composed of at least 11 subunits and associates with additional regulatory activators during mitosis and interphase cycles. Despite extensive research on APC and activator functions in the cell cycle, only a few components have been functionally characterized in plants. Results Here, we describe an in-depth search for APC subunits and activator genes in the Arabidopsis, rice and poplar genomes. Also, searches in other genomes that are not completely sequenced were performed. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that some APC subunits and activator genes have experienced gene duplication events in plants, in contrast to animals. Expression patterns of paralog subunits and activators in rice could indicate that this duplication, rather than complete redundancy, could reflect initial specialization steps. The absence of subunit APC7 from the genome of some green algae species and as well as from early metazoan lineages, could mean that APC7 is not required for APC function in unicellular organisms and it may be a result of duplication of another tetratricopeptide (TPR subunit. Analyses of TPR evolution suggest that duplications of subunits started from the central domains. Conclusions The increased complexity of the APC gene structure, tied to the diversification of expression paths, suggests that land plants developed sophisticated mechanisms of APC regulation to cope with the sedentary life style and its associated environmental exposures.

  14. Identification and characterization of elevated microbial counts in bulk tank raw milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, M C; Ralyea, R D; Murphy, S C; Carey, N R; Scarlett, J M; Boor, K J

    2001-01-01

    The bacterial composition of bulk tank milk from 13 farms was examined over a 2-wk period to characterize sudden elevations in the total bacterial count referred to as "spikes." Bulk tank milk samples collected at each pick-up were analyzed for standard plate count, Petrifilm aerobic count, somatic cell count, gram-negative organisms, and streptococci. Twenty standard plate count spikes were observed: 12 associated with streptococci, 4 associated with gram-negative organisms, 2 associated with streptococci and gram-negative organisms, and 2 that were not definitively characterized. Spikes ranged from 14,000 to 600,000 cfu/ml. Streptococcus uberis was isolated as the predominant organism from 11 spikes, and Escherichia coli was isolated from 4 spikes. Statistical analysis of total bacterial counts indicated a high correlation (r = 0.94) between standard plate counts and Petrifilm aerobic count. Regression analysis of standard plate counts and Petrifilm aerobic counts yielded the equation log10 (standard plate count) = 0.73 + 0.85log10 (Petrifilm aerobic count), indicating that the correlation, although strong, is not one to one. In a related pilot study, triplicate bulk tank milk samples were collected and analyzed for total bacterial count and presumptive streptococcus, gram-negative, and staphylococcus counts. Two-way ANOVA of these triplicate data indicated a lack of significant variation among the triplicate samples, suggesting that one sample can reliably gauge the microbial status of the entire bulk tank.

  15. Apc1-mediated antagonism of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling is required for retino-tectal pathfinding in the zebrafish.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paridaen, J.T.M.; Danesin, C.; Elas, A.T.; van de Water, S.G.P.; Houart, C.; Zivkovic, D.

    2009-01-01

    The tumor suppressor Apc1 is an intracellular antagonist of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway. We examined the effects of an Apc1 loss-of-function mutation on retino-tectal axon pathfinding in zebrafish. In apc mutants, the retina is disorganized and optic nerves portray pathfinding defects at the optic

  16. Interphase APC/C-Cdc20 inhibition by cyclin A2-Cdk2 ensures efficient mitotic entry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hein, Jamin B; Nilsson, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Proper cell-cycle progression requires tight temporal control of the Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C), a large ubiquitin ligase that is activated by one of two co-activators, Cdh1 or Cdc20. APC/C and Cdc20 are already present during interphase but APC/C-Cdc20 regulation during...

  17. Apc1-mediated antagonism of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling is required for retino-tectal pathfinding in the zebrafish.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paridaen, J.T.M.; Danesin, C.; Elas, A.T.; van de Water, S.G.P.; Houart, C.; Zivkovic, D.

    2009-01-01

    The tumor suppressor Apc1 is an intracellular antagonist of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway. We examined the effects of an Apc1 loss-of-function mutation on retino-tectal axon pathfinding in zebrafish. In apc mutants, the retina is disorganized and optic nerves portray pathfinding defects at the optic

  18. 原料乳中菌落总数检测方法的比较研究%Study on the detection methods of the total plate count in raw milk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张名爱; 李洁慧; 于翠芳; 杜中彩

    2013-01-01

    Three detection methods of the total count of bacteria was compared in raw milk. GB/T4789.2—2010, IDF100A:1987 and FDA BAM—2001 were used respectively to test the total count of bacteria in raw milk. The result showed that there were significant differences among the three methods. The detection rate of IDF100A:1987 was the highest, and the bacteria colo⁃nies on the medium were easily distinguished, but the test period of IDF100A:1987 was longer than other two methods, so it wasn't applied to rapid detection. The FDA BAM—2001 was bet⁃ter than GB/T 4789.2—2010 in raw milk, and the common advantages of them were simplicity of operation and the shorter inspection periods.%  试验比较原料乳中三种菌落总数的测定方法.分别采用国家标准GB/T4789.2—2010、世界乳品联合会国际标准IDF100A:1987和美国食品与药品监督局FDA BAM—2001标准中三种菌落总数的检测方法对原料乳中菌落总数进行测定比较分析.结果表明,3种检测方法之间存在显著性差异,IDF100A:1987的检出率最高,菌落易于分辨,但检验周期较长,不利于快速检测;在检测原料乳上,FDA BAM—2001优于GB/T 4789.2—2010,其共同优点为方法简单,检验周期短.

  19. Evaluating the organizational effectiveness of APC implementation efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rajan

    2002-06-01

    To optimize revenue under the Medicare outpatient prospective payment system's new coding-based ambulatory payment classifications (APCs), healthcare providers need to ensure several key steps are taken at the organizational level. Individuals who manage coding need to identify areas of overlap and adjust billing systems to reflect changes under the system. Billing managers should develop practices and protocols that provide detailed reviews of claims, implement a formal denial management program, track reasons for denials, and communicate denial information with their staffs. Proper evaluation of financial practices also is important. Financial managers need to develop formal ways to monitor financial performance consistently and on an ongoing basis and ensure the hospital is generating sufficient volume and keeping service costs in line with payments.

  20. Sipuleucel-T (APC8015) for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So-Rosillo, Rosendo; Small, Eric J

    2006-09-01

    Sipuleucel-T (Provenge; APC8015; Dendreon Corp, WA, USA) is a novel immunotherapeutic cellular product, which includes autologous dendritic cells pulsed ex vivo with a recombinant fusion protein (PA2024) consisting of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor and prostatic acid phosphatase. Two Phase II trials in men with androgen-dependent biochemically relapsed prostate cancer have demonstrated a decrease in prostate-specific antigen and prolongation in prostate-specific antigen doubling time. In men with hormone-refractory prostate cancer, clinical trials have demonstrated both biological activity and clinical response to sipuleucel-T. Data from two Phase III trials in men with asymptomatic, metastatic hormone-refractory prostate cancer demonstrated an improved median overall survival in men who received sipuleucel-T compared with placebo. Clinical trials are ongoing or are being developed to evaluate sipuleucel-T in various prostate cancer disease states and in combination with other treatment modalities.

  1. Graphite nodule count and size distribution in thin-walled ductile cast iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl Martin; Tiedje, Niels Skat

    2008-01-01

    Graphite nodule count and size distribution have been analysed in thin walled ductile cast iron. The 2D nodule counts have been converted into 3D nodule count by using Finite Difference Method (FDM). Particles having a diameter smaller than 5 µm should be neglected in the nodule count...... as these are inclusions and micro porosities that do not influence the solidification morphology. If there are many small graphite nodules as in thin walled castings only 3D nodule count calculated by FDM will give reliable results. 2D nodule count and 3D nodule count calculated by simple equations will give too low...... results. The 3D size distribution showed presence of primary graphite nodules in hypereutectic castings. In thin plates the nodule count is similar in eutectic and hypereutectic plates. In thicker plates the hypereutectic casting has the highest nodule count....

  2. Familial adenomatous polyposis patients without an identified APC germline mutation have a severe phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, M L; Ripa, R; Knudsen, Anne Louise;

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Development of more than 100 colorectal adenomas is diagnostic of the dominantly inherited autosomal disease familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Germline mutations can be identified in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene in approximately 80% of patients. The APC protein compri...... they do not themselves more often represent an isolated case. CONCLUSIONS: The severe phenotype should be considered when counselling FAP families in which attenuated FAP is excluded and in which a causative APC mutation has not been identified.......BACKGROUND: Development of more than 100 colorectal adenomas is diagnostic of the dominantly inherited autosomal disease familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Germline mutations can be identified in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene in approximately 80% of patients. The APC protein...... in patients with a known APC mutation and with the phenotypes characteristic of patients with mutations in specific APC regions and domains. PATIENTS: Data on 121 FAP probands and 149 call up patients from 70 different families were extracted from the Danish Polyposis register. METHODS: Differences in 16...

  3. Somatic mutations of APC gene in carcinomas from hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Huang; Shu Zheng; Shen-Hang Jin; Su-Zhan Zhang

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the mutational features of adenomatous polyposis coii (APC) gene and its possible arising mechanism in hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancers (HNPCC).METHODS: PCR-based In Vitro Synthesized Protein Test (IVSP) assay and sequencing analysis were used to confirm somatic mutations of whole APC gene in 19 HNPCC cases. RESULTS: Eleven cases with 13 mutations were determined to harbor APC mutations. The prevalence of APC mutation was 58%(11/19). The mutations consisted of 9 frameshift and 4 nonsense ones, indicating that there were more frameshift mutations (69%). The frameshift mutations allexhibited deletion or insertion of 1-2 bp and most of them (7/9) happened at simple nucleotide repeat sequences, particularly within (A)n tracts (5/9). All point mutations presented C-to-T transitions at CpG sites. CONCLUSION: Mutations of APC gene were detected in more than half of HNPCC, indicating that its mutation was a common molecular event and might play an important role in the tumorigenesis of HNPCC. Locations of frameshift mutations at simple nucleotide repeat sequences and point mutations at CpG sites suggested that many mutations probably derived from endogenous processes including mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency. Defective MMR might affect the nature of APC mutations in HNPCC and likely occur earlier than APC mutational inactivation in some patients.

  4. 菌落总数检测纸片法与国标方法的比较研究%A Comparative Study of Petrifilm and GB Traditional Agar Plate in Bacteria Counting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宇; 姚卢悦

    2012-01-01

    在利用微生物快速测试纸片和国标法所规定的倾注平板计数法在食品、空气和环节表面环境卫生等几个食品生产企业普遍关注的卫生控制环节进行比较研究和统计分析,力求找出两种测试方法之间的相关性,为全面提升食品企业生产效率,缩短检测流程,以及更好地适应现代化食品品质管理原则提供了新的思路和方法。参照国标GB4789.2—2010和GB15982—1995测试方法,对市场上随机抽取的150份焙烤食品和75个空气及环节表面细菌的采样点,分别用纸片法和国标法进行比对试验。经统计分析,纸片法在食品和空气自然沉降菌检测中与传统的国标方法没有显著差异(p〉0.05),但在环节表面细菌菌落计数检测中与传统的国标方法差异显著(p〈0.05),所得计数结果明显高于传统国标法。%Try to find out the relativity between the new Petrifilm test and the traditional test through total bacteria count tested in food. The air and the surface areas which were very important quality control points in food manufacture. According to the test guideline from the standards GB 4789.2 and GB 15982, compare the total bacteria count difference in food, the air and the surface between the Petrifilm and the traditional methods. Based on the statistic analysis, in food hygiene test and air bacterial sampling test, the result from Petrifilm test was the same with the traditional test shows; in the surface bacterial sampling test, the results showed that the Petrifilm test was much better than the traditional ones.

  5. Automatic counting and classification of bacterial colonies using hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detection and counting of bacterial colonies on agar plates is a routine microbiology practice to get a rough estimate of the number of viable cells in a sample. There have been a variety of different automatic colony counting systems and software algorithms mainly based on color or gray-scale pictu...

  6. Apc-Mutant Kyoto Apc Delta (KAD) Rats Are Susceptible to 4-NQO-Induced Tongue Carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Takuji, E-mail: tmntt08@gmail.com [Department of Diagnostic Pathology (DDP) & Research Center of Diagnostic Pathology (RC-DiP), Gifu Municipal Hospital, 7-1 Kashima-Cho, Gifu 500-8513 (Japan); Department of Tumor Pathology, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1194 (Japan); Shimizu, Masahito; Kochi, Takahiro; Shirakami, Yohei [Department of Internal Medicine/Gastroenterology, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1194 (Japan); Mori, Takayuki [Department of Pharmacy, Ogaki Municipal Hospital, 4-86 Minaminokawa-cho, Ogaki 503-8502 (Japan); Watanabe, Naoki [Department of Diagnostic Pathology (DDP) & Research Center of Diagnostic Pathology (RC-DiP), Gifu Municipal Hospital, 7-1 Kashima-Cho, Gifu 500-8513 (Japan); Naiki, Takafumi [Department of Clinical Laboratory, Gifu Municipal Hospital, 7-1 Kashima-cho, Gifu 500-8513 (Japan); Moriwaki, Hisataka [Department of Internal Medicine/Gastroenterology, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1194 (Japan); Yoshimi, Kazuto; Serikawa, Tadao; Kuramoto, Takashi [The Institute of Laboratory Animals, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Yoshidakonoe-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2014-07-21

    Despite widening interest in the possible association between infection/inflammation and cancer development, knowledge of this issue in relation to oral cancer remains inadequate. This study aimed to determine the susceptibility of Apc-mutant Kyoto Apc Delta (KAD) rats, which are vulnerable to developing inflammation-associated colorectal carcinogenesis, to 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4-NQO)-induced tongue carcinogenesis in order to clarify the role of inflammation in oral cancer. KAD (20 males and 22 females) and F344/NS1c (22 males and 23 females) rats received drinking water with or without 4-NQO (20 ppm) for eight weeks. Histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses of the tongue were performed at week 20. Additionally, the mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines in the tongue mucosa was determined at week 8. Tongue squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) developed in the KAD and F344/NS1c rats that received 4-NQO. Regardless of gender, the incidence and multiplicity of tongue SCC were greater in the KAD rats than in the F344/NS1c rats. In addition, the multiplicity of tongue SCC in the female KAD rats was significantly greater than that observed in the male KAD (p < 0.01) and female F344/NS1c rats (p < 0.05). The levels of inflammation and the mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines in the tongue in the 4-NQO-treated female KAD rats were the highest among the rats given 4-NQO. These results show that KAD rats, particularly females, are susceptible to 4-NQO-induced tongue carcinogenesis, suggesting the utility of models employing KAD rats for investigating the pathobiology of oral (tongue) carcinogenesis associated with inflammation.

  7. Apc-Mutant Kyoto Apc Delta (KAD Rats Are Susceptible to 4-NQO-Induced Tongue Carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuji Tanaka

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite widening interest in the possible association between infection/ inflammation and cancer development, knowledge of this issue in relation to oral cancer remains inadequate. This study aimed to determine the susceptibility of Apc-mutant Kyoto Apc Delta (KAD rats, which are vulnerable to developing inflammation-associated colorectal carcinogenesis, to 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4-NQO-induced tongue carcinogenesis in order to clarify the role of inflammation in oral cancer. KAD (20 males and 22 females and F344/NS1c (22 males and 23 females rats received drinking water with or without 4-NQO (20 ppm for eight weeks. Histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses of the tongue were performed at week 20. Additionally, the mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines in the tongue mucosa was determined at week 8. Tongue squamous cell carcinoma (SCC developed in the KAD and F344/NS1c rats that received 4-NQO. Regardless of gender, the incidence and multiplicity of tongue SCC were greater in the KAD rats than in the F344/NS1c rats. In addition, the multiplicity of tongue SCC in the female KAD rats was significantly greater than that observed in the male KAD (p < 0.01 and female F344/NS1c rats (p < 0.05. The levels of inflammation and the mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines in the tongue in the 4-NQO-treated female KAD rats were the highest among the rats given 4-NQO. These results show that KAD rats, particularly females, are susceptible to 4-NQO-induced tongue carcinogenesis, suggesting the utility of models employing KAD rats for investigating the pathobiology of oral (tongue carcinogenesis associated with inflammation.

  8. Tumorigenic fragments of APC cause dominant defects in directional cell migration in multiple model systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A. Nelson

    2012-11-01

    Nonsense mutations that result in the expression of truncated, N-terminal, fragments of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC tumour suppressor protein are found in most sporadic and some hereditary colorectal cancers. These mutations can cause tumorigenesis by eliminating β-catenin-binding sites from APC, which leads to upregulation of β-catenin and thereby results in the induction of oncogenes such as MYC. Here we show that, in three distinct experimental model systems, expression of an N-terminal fragment of APC (N-APC results in loss of directionality, but not speed, of cell motility independently of changes in β-catenin regulation. We developed a system to culture and fluorescently label live pieces of gut tissue to record high-resolution three-dimensional time-lapse movies of cells in situ. This revealed an unexpected complexity of normal gut cell migration, a key process in gut epithelial maintenance, with cells moving with spatial and temporal discontinuity. Quantitative comparison of gut tissue from wild-type mice and APC heterozygotes (APCMin/+; multiple intestinal neoplasia model demonstrated that cells in precancerous epithelia lack directional preference when moving along the crypt-villus axis. This effect was reproduced in diverse experimental systems: in developing chicken embryos, mesoderm cells expressing N-APC failed to migrate normally; in amoeboid Dictyostelium, which lack endogenous APC, expressing an N-APC fragment maintained cell motility, but the cells failed to perform directional chemotaxis; and multicellular Dictyostelium slug aggregates similarly failed to perform phototaxis. We propose that N-terminal fragments of APC represent a gain-of-function mutation that causes cells within tissue to fail to migrate directionally in response to relevant guidance cues. Consistent with this idea, crypts in histologically normal tissues of APCMin/+ intestines are overpopulated with cells, suggesting that a lack of migration might cause cell

  9. The Big Pumpkin Count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coplestone-Loomis, Lenny

    1981-01-01

    Pumpkin seeds are counted after students convert pumpkins to jack-o-lanterns. Among the activities involved, pupils learn to count by 10s, make estimates, and to construct a visual representation of 1,000. (MP)

  10. Role of P-selectin in intestinal tumorigenesis in ApcMin/+ mice%P-选择素对ApcMin/+小鼠肠道肿瘤的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭四美; 亓翠玲; 叶杰; 周秦; 王丽京

    2012-01-01

    ADM: To investigate the role of P ?selectin in intestinal tumorigenesis in Ape Min/+ mice ( C57BL/ 6J -ApcMin/J ). METHODS: Female P - selectin knockout mice ( B6. 129S7 - Selptml Bay/J, that was P - selectin-/- ) were mated with male ApcMin/+ mice. The offspring was genotyped for Min+/- and P -selectin null mutantions, which were ApcMin/+ P - selectin-/- ~ mice. The tumor number and gross tumor volume in the small and large intestines of the ApcMin/ + P - selectin -/- mice and ApcMin/ + mice were determined. RESULTS: P - selectin deficiency in ApcMin/ + mice resulted in significant decreases in the tumor number and gross tumor volume in the small intestine and total intestine. CONCLUSION : Deletion of P - selectin significantly inhibits the tumorigenesis in mouse intestines. In addition, the results also suggest that P - selectin may be a marker for colon cancer.%目的:研究P-选择素(P-selectin)在ApcMin/+小鼠肠道肿瘤中的作用.方法:采用P-selectin基因缺失的基因工程小鼠和肠道肿瘤模型ApcMin/+小鼠杂交,计数ApcMin/+小鼠与ApcMin/+ P-selectin-/-杂交小鼠小肠及大肠肿瘤的数目,并测量其肿瘤体积,研究P-selectin对ApcMin/+小鼠肠道肿瘤的作用.结果:与ApcMin/+小鼠相比,ApcMin/+ P-selectin-/-杂交小鼠在9周龄时肠道肿瘤数目与总负荷明显减少.结论:P-selectin缺失能够显著抑制ApcMin/+小鼠肠道肿瘤的生长.

  11. Guidelines for monitoring bulk tank milk somatic cell and bacterial counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayarao, B M; Pillai, S R; Sawant, A A; Wolfgang, D R; Hegde, N V

    2004-10-01

    This study was conducted to establish guidelines for monitoring bulk tank milk somatic cell count and bacterial counts, and to understand the relationship between different bacterial groups that occur in bulk tank milk. One hundred twenty-six dairy farms in 14 counties of Pennsylvania participated, each providing one bulk tank milk sample every 15 d for 2 mo. The 4 bulk tank milk samples from each farm were examined for bulk tank somatic cell count and bacterial counts including standard plate count, preliminary incubation count, laboratory pasteurization count, coagulase-negative staphylococcal count, environmental streptococcal count, coliform count, and gram-negative noncoliform count. The milk samples were also examined for presence of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Mycoplasma. The bacterial counts of 4 bulk tank milk samples examined over an 8-wk period were averaged and expressed as mean bacterial count per milliliter. The study revealed that an increase in the frequency of isolation of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae was significantly associated with an increased bulk tank somatic cell count. Paired correlation analysis showed that there was low correlation between different bacterial counts. Bulk tank milk with low (standard plate count also had a significantly low level of mean bulk tank somatic cell count (count (count (counts (count (count was less likely to be associated with somatic cell or other bacterial counts. Herd size and farm management practices had considerable influence on somatic cell and bacterial counts in bulk tank milk. Dairy herds that used automatic milking detachers, sand as bedding material, dip cups for teat dipping instead of spraying, and practiced pre-and postdipping had significantly lower bulk tank somatic cell and/or bacterial counts. In conclusion, categorized bulk tank somatic cell and bacterial counts could serve as indicators and facilitate monitoring of herd udder health and milk

  12. Evidence for a novel exon in the coding region of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Ling; St. Denis, K.A.; Bapat, B. [Univ. of Toronto (Canada)

    1995-08-10

    Germline mutations of the tumor suppressor gene APC cause familial adenomatous polyposis. Somatic APC alterations are involved in several sporadic neoplasma, including colorectal, duodenal, gastric, and esophageal carcinoma. The APC mRNA is encoded by 15 exons. Additional transcripts have been reported, due to alternative splicing of coding as well as noncoding regions. Two mRNA isoforms occur due to a deletion of exon 7 or a partial deletion of exon 9. We have identified a novel exon, flanked by APC exons 10 and 11, which is expressed as an alternatively transcribed product of the gene. Further, we have shown that the novel exon consists of a heptad repeat motif and is conserved across species. 18 refs., 2 figs.

  13. Meiotic control of the APC/C: similarities & differences from mitosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strich Randy

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The anaphase promoting complex is a highly conserved E3 ligase complex that mediates the destruction of key regulatory proteins during both mitotic and meiotic divisions. In order to maintain ploidy, this destruction must occur after the regulatory proteins have executed their function. Thus, the regulation of APC/C activity itself is critical for maintaining ploidy during all types of cell divisions. During mitotic cell division, two conserved activator proteins called Cdc20 and Cdh1 are required for both APC/C activation and substrate selection. However, significantly less is known about how these proteins regulate APC/C activity during the specialized meiotic nuclear divisions. In addition, both budding yeast and flies utilize a third meiosis-specific activator. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, this meiosis-specific activator is called Ama1. This review summarizes our knowledge of how Cdc20 and Ama1 coordinate APC/C activity to regulate the meiotic nuclear divisions in yeast.

  14. Oral perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) lessens tumor development in the APC(min) mouse model of spontaneous familial adenomatous polyposis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimsatt, Jeffrey; Villers, Meghan; Thomas, Laurel; Kamarec, Stacey; Montgomery, Caitlin; Yeung, Leo W Y; Hu, Yanqing; Innes, Kim

    2016-12-08

    Colorectal cancer is the second most common cause of cancer deaths for both men and women, and the third most common cause of cancer in the U.S. Toxicity of current chemotherapeutic agents for colorectal cancer, and emergence of drug resistance underscore the need to develop new, potentially less toxic alternatives. Our recent cross-sectional study in a large Appalachian population, showed a strong, inverse, dose-response association of serum perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) levels to prevalent colorectal cancer, suggesting PFOS may have therapeutic potential in the prevention and/or treatment of colorectal cancer. In these preliminary studies using a mouse model of familial colorectal cancer, the APC(min) mouse, and exposures comparable to those reported in human populations, we assess the efficacy of PFOS for reducing tumor burden, and evaluate potential dose-response effects. At 5-6 weeks of age, APC(min) mice were randomized to receive 0, 20, 250 mg PFOS/kg (females) or 0, 10, 50 and 200 mg PFOS/kg (males) via their drinking water. At 15 weeks of age, gastrointestinal tumors were counted and scored and blood PFOS levels measured. PFOS exposure was associated with a significant, dose-response reduction in total tumor number in both male and female mice. This inverse dose-response effect of PFOS exposure was particularly pronounced for larger tumors (r(2) for linear trend = 0.44 for males, p's drinking water can reduce formation of gastrointestinal tumors, and that these reductions are both significant and dose-dependent. If confirmed in further studies, these promising findings could lead to new therapeutic strategies for familial colorectal cancer, and suggest that PFOS testing in both preventive and therapeutic models for human colorectal cancer is warranted.

  15. The interrelationship between APC/C and Plk1 activities in centriole disengagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Hatano

    2012-09-01

    Mother–daughter centriole disengagement, the necessary first step in centriole duplication, involves Plk1 activity in early mitosis and separase activity after APC/C activity mediates securin degradation. Plk1 activity is thought to be essential and sufficient for centriole disengagement with separase activity playing a supporting but non-essential role. In separase null cells, however, centriole disengagement is substantially delayed. The ability of APC/C activity alone to mediate centriole disengagement has not been directly tested. We investigate the interrelationship between Plk1 and APC/C activities in disengaging centrioles in S or G2 HeLa and RPE1 cells, cell types that do not reduplicate centrioles when arrested in S phase. Knockdown of the interphase APC/C inhibitor Emi1 leads to centriole disengagement and reduplication of the mother centrioles, though this is slow. Strong inhibition of Plk1 activity, if any, during S does not block centriole disengagement and mother centriole reduplication in Emi1 depleted cells. Centriole disengagement depends on APC/C–Cdh1 activity, not APC/C–Cdc20 activity. Also, Plk1 and APC/C–Cdh1 activities can independently promote centriole disengagement in G2 arrested cells. Thus, Plk1 and APC/C–Cdh1 activities are independent but slow pathways for centriole disengagement. By having two slow mechanisms for disengagement working together, the cell ensures that centrioles will not prematurely separate in late G2 or early mitosis, thereby risking multipolar spindle assembly, but rather disengage in a timely fashion only late in mitosis.

  16. The interrelationship between APC/C and Plk1 activities in centriole disengagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatano, Toshiyuki; Sluder, Greenfield

    2012-11-15

    Mother-daughter centriole disengagement, the necessary first step in centriole duplication, involves Plk1 activity in early mitosis and separase activity after APC/C activity mediates securin degradation. Plk1 activity is thought to be essential and sufficient for centriole disengagement with separase activity playing a supporting but non-essential role. In separase null cells, however, centriole disengagement is substantially delayed. The ability of APC/C activity alone to mediate centriole disengagement has not been directly tested. We investigate the interrelationship between Plk1 and APC/C activities in disengaging centrioles in S or G2 HeLa and RPE1 cells, cell types that do not reduplicate centrioles when arrested in S phase. Knockdown of the interphase APC/C inhibitor Emi1 leads to centriole disengagement and reduplication of the mother centrioles, though this is slow. Strong inhibition of Plk1 activity, if any, during S does not block centriole disengagement and mother centriole reduplication in Emi1 depleted cells. Centriole disengagement depends on APC/C-Cdh1 activity, not APC/C-Cdc20 activity. Also, Plk1 and APC/C-Cdh1 activities can independently promote centriole disengagement in G2 arrested cells. Thus, Plk1 and APC/C-Cdh1 activities are independent but slow pathways for centriole disengagement. By having two slow mechanisms for disengagement working together, the cell ensures that centrioles will not prematurely separate in late G2 or early mitosis, thereby risking multipolar spindle assembly, but rather disengage in a timely fashion only late in mitosis.

  17. APC mutations as a potential biomarker for sensitivity to tankyrase inhibitors in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Noritaka; Mashima, Tetsuo; Mizutani, Anna; Sato, Ayana; Aoyama, Aki; Gong, Bo; Yoshida, Haruka; Muramatsu, Yukiko; Nakata, Kento; Matsuura, Masaaki; Katayama, Ryohei; Nagayama, Satoshi; Fujita, Naoya; Sugimoto, Yoshikazu; Seimiya, Hiroyuki

    2017-02-08

    In most colorectal cancers (CRCs), Wnt/β-catenin signaling is activated by loss-of-function mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene and plays a critical role in tumorigenesis. Tankyrases poly(ADP-ribosyl)ate and destabilize Axins, a negative regulator of β-catenin, and upregulate β-catenin signaling. Tankyrase inhibitors downregulate β-catenin and are expected to be promising therapeutics for CRC. However, CRC cells are not always sensitive to tankyrase inhibitors, and predictive biomarkers for the drug sensitivity remain elusive. Here we demonstrate that the short-form APC mutations predict the sensitivity of CRC cells to tankyrase inhibitors. By using well-established CRC cell lines, we found that tankyrase inhibitors downregulated β-catenin in the drug-sensitive but not resistant CRC cells. The drug-sensitive cells showed higher Tcf/LEF transcriptional activity than the resistant cells and possessed 'short' truncated APCs lacking all seven β-catenin-binding 20-amino-acid repeats (20-AARs). By contrast, the drug-resistant cells possessed 'long' APC retaining two or more 20-AARs. Knockdown of the long APCs with two 20-AARs increased β-catenin, Tcf/LEF transcriptional activity and its target gene AXIN2 expression. Under these conditions, tankyrase inhibitors were able to downregulate β-catenin in the resistant cells. These results indicate that the long APCs are hypomorphic mutants whereas they exert a dominant-negative effect on Axin-dependent β-catenin degradation caused by tankyrase inhibitors. Finally, we established 16 patient-derived CRC cells and confirmed that the tankyrase inhibitor-responsive cells harbor the short-form APC mutations. These observations exemplify the predictive importance of APC mutations, the most common genetic alteration in CRCs, for molecular targeted therapeutics.

  18. Genetic mapping of Mom5, a novel modifier of Apc(Min)-induced intestinal tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikarinen, Seija I; Cleveland, Alicia G; Cork, Karlene M; Bynoté, Kimberly K; Rafter, Joseph J; Gustafsson, Jan-Ake; Mutanen, Marja; Gould, Karen A

    2009-09-01

    The initial purpose of this study was to assess the role of estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta) in intestinal tumorigenesis by examining the effects of an ERbeta knockout (ERbeta(-/-)) on Apc(Min) mice. In order to accomplish this goal on a uniform genetic background, we were required to backcross the ERbeta knockout from the 129P2 genetic background to the B6 genetic background for 10 generations. Midway through this process, we performed a test cross in which mice from the N(5) backcross generation of the ERbeta knockout strain were intercrossed with Apc(Min/+) mice to obtain Apc(Min/+) ERbeta(+/+), Apc(Min/+) ERbeta(+/-) and Apc(Min/+) ERbeta(-/-) mice. Intestinal tumorigenesis in the N(5)F(2) mice was evaluated at 14 weeks of age. The analysis of the impact of ERbeta in the N(5) cross was complicated by segregating 129P2-derived alleles that affected tumor number and were unlinked to ERbeta. Genetic linkage analysis of this cross permitted the localization of a single genetic modifier of tumor number in Apc(Min/+) mice. This locus, Modifier of Min 5 (Mom5), maps to proximal mouse chromosome 5; the 129P2 allele of this locus is associated with a 50% reduction in mean intestinal tumor number. Through in silico analysis and confirmatory sequencing, we have identified the Rad50-interacting protein-1 gene as a strong candidate for Mom5.

  19. Prevalence of mutations in APC, CTNNB1, and BRAF in Tunisian patients with sporadic colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougatef, Karim; Ouerhani, Slah; Moussa, Amel; Kourda, Nadia; Coulet, Florence; Colas, Chrystelle; Lahely, Yannick Blondeau; Najjar, Tawfik; Ben Jilani, Sarra; Benammar-Elgaaied, Amel; Soubrier, Florent; Marrakchi, Raja

    2008-11-01

    Sporadic colorectal tumorigenesis is caused by alterations in the Wnt (APC, CTNNB1) and Ras pathways. Our objective was to analyze the occurrence of these genetic alterations in relation to tumor and patient characteristics. The prevalence of somatic alteration in the hot-spot regions of the APC, BRAF, and CTNNB1 genes was investigated in 48 unselected and unrelated Tunisian patients with sporadic colorectal cancer, and the association between the molecular features at these genes in relation to tumor and patient characteristics (age at diagnosis, sex, tumor localization, stage, and differentiation) was analyzed. Loss of heterozygosity was observed at the APC locus in 52% of the analyzed tumors. 6 novel mutations were detected by polymerase chain reaction sequencing in the mutation cluster region of the APC gene. No mutations were observed in the CTNNB1 gene in any tumor, but 8% of tumors harbored mutation in the BRAF gene. Clinicopathological analyses showed an association between APC point mutations and the earliest occurrence of sporadic colorectal cancer. The findings confirm the heterogeneity of APC gene alteration and also reveal a particular profile of this pathology among Tunisian patients that confirms the epidemiological data for this country.

  20. The anti-coagulants asis or apc do not protect against renal ischemia/ reperfusion injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah T.B.G. Loubele

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury is the main cause of acute renal failure. The severity of injury is determined by endothelial damage as well as inflammatory and apoptotic processes. The anticoagulants active site inhibited factor VIIa (ASIS and activated protein C (APC are besides their anticoagulant function also known for their cytoprotective properties. In this study the effect of ASIS and APC was assessed on renal I/R injury and this in relation to inflammation and apoptosis. Our results showed no effect of ASIS or APC on renal injury as determined by histopathological scoring as well as by blood urea nitrogen (BUN and creatinine levels. Furthermore, no effect on fibrin staining was detected but ASIS did reduce tissue factor activity levels after a 2-hr reperfusion period. Neither ASIS nor APC administration influenced overall inflammation markers, although some inflammatory effects of ASIS on interleukin (IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α were detectable after 2 hr of reperfusion. Finally, neither APC nor ASIS had an influence on cell signaling pathways or on the number of apoptotic cells within the kidneys. From this study we can conclude that the anticoagulants ASIS and APC do not have protective effects in renal I/R injury in the experimental setup as used in this study which is in contrast to the protective effects of these anticoagulants in other models of I/R.

  1. The APC/C Ubiquitin Ligase: from Cell Biology to Tumorigenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara ePenas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS is required for normal cell proliferation, vertebrate development, and cancer cell transformation. The UPS consists of multiple proteins that work in concert to target a protein for degradation via the 26S proteasome. Chains of an 8.5 kDa protein called ubiquitin are attached to substrates, thus allowing recognition by the 26S proteasome. Enzymes called ubiquitin ligases or E3s mediate specific attachment to substrates. Although there are over 600 different ubiquitin ligases, the Skp1-Cullin-F-box proteins (SCF ubiquitin ligases and the Anaphase Promoting Complex/cyclosome (APC/C are the most studied. SCF involvement in cancer has been known for some time while APC/C’s cancer role has recently emerged. In this review we will discuss the importance of APC/C to normal cell proliferation and development, thus underscoring its possible contribution to transformation. We will also put forth the hypothesis that modulating a specific interaction of the APC/C may be therapeutically attractive in specific cancer subtypes. Finally, given that the APC/C pathway is relatively new as a cancer target, therapeutic interventions affecting APC/C activity may be beneficial in cancers that are resistant to classical chemotherapy.

  2. 对GB 19301-2010《生乳》中蛋白质和菌落总数的指标验证和建议%Indexes verification of protein and aerobic plate count in GB 19301-2010 and its recommendations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡忠华; 李宏梁; 孙雯; 魏莉娟

    2014-01-01

    Objective To complete the project of GB 19301-2010, National Food Safety StandardRaw milk, tracking assessment.MethodTotally 111 raw milk and raw goat milk samples were collected from 7 Shaanxi dairy companies, including 51 samples in summer and 60 samples in winter, and GB 5009.5 and GB 4789.2 were used to measure the protein and aerobic plate count.ResultsThe protein content of all samples is qualified, and the measured values were not less than 3.6 g/100 g and 2.8 g/100 g in winter and summer, the protein content of 16 percent of raw goat milk in summer was 2.8 g/100 g which was just the protein limited value. Aerobic plate count in only 4 samples was more than 2.0×106 CFU/mL which was its limited value, and the measured values were less than 1.0×105 CFU/mL and 1.0×106 CFU/mL in winter and summer.Conclu-sion:The protein and aerobic plate count in raw milk were scientific and reasonable, and the protein limited value of raw goat milk in summer was recommended to be revised to 2.6 g/100 g.%目的:完成“GB 19301-2010《生乳》跟踪评价项目”。方法对陕西省7家乳企使用的原料生乳进行了7次采样,样本量为111份,其中夏季51份,冬季60份,采用GB 5009.5和GB 4789.2分别对样本中的蛋白质和菌落总数进行了测定。结果所有样本的蛋白质含量都是合格的,冬季、夏季生乳蛋白质含量分别均不低于3.6 g/100 g、2.8 g/100 g,其中16%的夏季生羊乳蛋白质检测值为2.8 g/100 g,是“生乳蛋白质指标”的界限值。所有样本中,只有夏季4份样本的菌落总数超过了2.0×106 CFU/mL 的指标界限值,冬季、夏季生乳菌落总数平均值分别低于1.0×105CFU/mL、1.0×106CFU/mL。结论GB 19301规定的生乳蛋白质、菌落总数指标值是科学合理的,建议将夏季生羊乳的蛋白质指标修订为≥2.6 g/100 g。

  3. Undercooling and nodule count in thin walled ductile iron castings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl Martin; Tiedje, Niels Skat

    2007-01-01

    Casting experiments have been performed with eutectic and hypereutectic castings with plate thick¬nesses from 2 to 8 mm involving both temperature measurements during solidification and micro¬structural examination afterwards. The nodule count was the same for the eutectic and hypereutectic...... castings in the thin plates ( 4.3 mm) while in the 8 mm plate the nodule count was higher in the hypereutectic than in the eutectic castings. The minimum temperature prior to the eutectic recalescence (Tmin) was 15 to 20C lower for the eutectic than the hypereutectic castings. This is due to nucleation...... of graphite nodules which begins at a lover temperature in the eutectic than in the hypereutectic castings The recalescence (Trec) was however also larger for the eutectic casting and in the thin plates the maximum temperature after recalescence (Tmax) was the same in the eutectic and hypereutectic plates...

  4. Undercooling and nodule count in thin walled ductile iron castings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl Martin; Tiedje, Niels Skat

    2007-01-01

    Casting experiments have been performed with eutectic and hypereutectic castings with plate thicknesses from 2 to 8 mm involving both temperature measurements during solidification and microstructural examination afterwards. The nodule count was the same for the eutectic and hypereutectic castings...... in the thin plates (≤4.3 mm) while in the 8 mm plate the nodule count was higher in the hypereutectic than in the eutectic castings. The minimum temperature before the eutectic recalescence (Tmin) was 15 to 20ºC lower for the eutectic than for the hypereutectic castings. This is due to nucleation of graphite...... nodules which begins at a lower temperature in the eutectic than in the hypereutectic castings. The recalescence ∆Trec was however also larger for the eutectic casting and in the thin plates the maximum temperature after recalescence (Tmax) was the same in the eutectic and hypereutectic plates...

  5. Measurement uncertainty evaluation of 3M PetrifilmTM aerobic count plate method for drinking water%生活饮用水3M PetrifilmTM菌落总数测试片法的不确定度评定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭和平; 叶德萍; 沈兴中; 唐祥凯; 王智

    2012-01-01

    对3M PetrifilmTM菌落总数测试片法检测生活饮用水中菌落总数的测量结果进行了不确定度评定,评述了引起测量结果不确定度的主要因素,对样品稀释及方法精密度因素进行了详细评价,并对单一样品重复测量10次及30个样品每个样品平行测量2次的两种情况,分别进行了重复性标准偏差评价.结果显示:单一样品重复测量时,测量结果的不确定度主要由样品稀释和重复性标准偏差引起,扩展不确定度U95为20 CFU/mL,k=2;多个样品每个样品平行测量2次时,测量结果的不确定度主要由重复性标准偏差引起,在95%的置信度时,扩展不确定度U(/lgxj)为0.093,k=2.75.%The aerobic plate count in drinking water was determined with 3M Petrifilm? Aerobic count plate, and their measurement uncertainties were evaluated in this study. Firstly, the main components of measurement uncertainty were discussed and analyzed. Then, two most important components, sample dilution and measurement precision were evaluated in detail. And for the precision, the authors evaluated two kinds of precision commonly used in routine work, the repeatability of 10 repeated measurements of single sample and those of double repeated measurements of thirty samples. Experimental results show the sample dilution affects the measurement uncertainty obviously for the case of single-sample test, and the standard deviation of repeated measurement is the most important source of uncertainty for that case and the case of multi -sample test. The expandeduncertainty f/95 was 20CFU/mL(A;=2) for the former case and the expanded uncertainty UilgXj ) was0.093 (k=2.75) for the latter when the degree of confidence is 95%.

  6. Health Physics counting room

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    The Health Physics counting room, where the quantity of induced radioactivity in materials is determined. This information is used to evaluate possible radiation hazards from the material investigated.

  7. Association between cigarette smoking, APC mutations and the risk of developing sporadic colorectal adenomas and carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagen Per

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between colorectal cancer (CRC and smoking has not been consistent. Incomplete smoking history and association to a specific subset of CRC tumors have been proposed as explanations. The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC gene has been reported to have a "gatekeeper" function in the colonic mucosa. Methods To evaluate the hypothesis that cigarette smoking is associated with adenoma and carcinoma development and further to investigate whether this association is due to mutations in the APC gene, we used a study population consisting of 133 cases (45 adenomas and 88 carcinomas and 334 controls. All tumors were sequenced in the mutation cluster region (MCR of the APC gene. Cases and controls were drawn from a homogeneous cohort of Norwegian origin. Results The mutational spectra of the APC gene revealed no difference in frequencies of mutations in cases based on ever and never smoking status. An overall case-control association was detected for adenomas and "ever smoking" OR = 1.73 (95% CI 0.83–3.58. For CRC cases several smoking parameters for dose and duration were used. We detected an association for all smoking parameters and "duration of smoking > 30 years", yielded a statistically significant OR = 2.86 (1.06–7.7. When cases were divided based on APC truncation mutation status, an association was detected in adenomas without APC mutation in relation to "ever smoking", with an OR = 3.97 (1.26–12.51. For CRC cases without APC mutation "duration of smoking > 30 years", yielded a statistically significant OR = 4.06 (1.20–13.7. The smoking parameter "starting smoking ≥ 40 years ago" was only associated with CRC cases with APC mutations, OR = 2.0 (0.34–11.95. A case-case comparison revealed similar findings for this parameter, OR = 2.24 (0.73–6.86. Conclusion Our data suggest an association between smoking and adenoma and CRC development. This association was strongest for cases without APC truncation

  8. Anarthria impairs subvocal counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubelli, R; Nichelli, P; Pentore, R

    1993-12-01

    We studied subvocal counting in two pure anarthric patients. Analysis showed that they performed definitively worse than normal subjects free to articulate subvocally and their scores were in the lower bounds of the performances of subjects suppressing articulation. These results suggest that subvocal counting is impaired after anarthria.

  9. EcoCount

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip P. Allen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Techniques that analyze biological remains from sediment sequences for environmental reconstructions are well established and widely used. Yet, identifying, counting, and recording biological evidence such as pollen grains remain a highly skilled, demanding, and time-consuming task. Standard procedure requires the classification and recording of between 300 and 500 pollen grains from each representative sample. Recording the data from a pollen count requires significant effort and focused resources from the palynologist. However, when an adaptation to the recording procedure is utilized, efficiency and time economy improve. We describe EcoCount, which represents a development in environmental data recording procedure. EcoCount is a voice activated fully customizable digital count sheet that allows the investigator to continuously interact with a field of view during the data recording. Continuous viewing allows the palynologist the opportunity to remain engaged with the essential task, identification, for longer, making pollen counting more efficient and economical. EcoCount is a versatile software package that can be used to record a variety of environmental evidence and can be installed onto different computer platforms, making the adoption by users and laboratories simple and inexpensive. The user-friendly format of EcoCount allows any novice to be competent and functional in a very short time.

  10. Meta-analysis of the association between APC promoter methylation and colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhenyu; Jiang, Tong; Piao, Ying; Han, Tao; Han, Yaling; Xie, Xiaodong

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies investigating the association between adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene promoter methylation and colorectal cancer (CRC) have yielded conflicting results. The aim of this study was to comprehensively evaluate the potential application of the detection of APC promoter methylation to the prevention and treatment of CRC. PubMed, Embase, and MEDLINE (results updated to October 2014) were searched for relevant studies. The effect size was defined as the weighted odds ratio (OR), which was calculated using either the fixed-effects or random-effects model. Prespecified subgroup and sensitivity analyses were conducted to evaluate potential heterogeneity among the included studies. Nineteen studies comprising 2,426 participants were selected for our meta-analysis. The pooled results of nine studies comprising a total of 740 subjects indicated that APC promoter methylation was significantly associated with CRC risk (pooled OR 5.53; 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.50-8.76; PAPC promoter methylation and the presence of CRC metastasis, and the pooled OR was 0.80 (95% CI 0.44-1.46; P=0.47). A meta-analysis conducted with four studies with a total of 467 patients found no significant correlation between APC promoter methylation and the presence of colorectal adenoma (pooled OR 1.85; 95% CI 0.67-5.10; P=0.23). No significant correlation between APC promoter methylation and patients' Dukes' stage, TNM stage, differentiation grade, age, or sex was identified. In conclusion, APC promoter methylation was found to be significantly associated with a higher risk of developing CRC. The findings indicate that APC promoter methylation may be a potential biomarker for the carcinogenesis of CRC.

  11. Comparison and analysis of the aerobic plate count, coliforms, Escherichia coli ,enterobacteriaceae in national and international food safety standards%食品安全微生物学指示菌国内外标准应用的比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐进; 庞璐

    2011-01-01

    菌落总数、大肠菌群、大肠埃希菌、肠杆菌科作为食品安全微生物限量的指示菌在国内外标准中的应用不尽相同.本文通过比较我国与欧盟、澳大利亚、新西兰、加拿大和香港地区的相关食品指示菌标准,为制定我国的食品安全微生物标准提供技术依据.%As indicator organisms, standards for aerobic plate count, coliforms, Escherichia coli , enterobacteriaceae applied in each country were different. Based on the comparison and analysis of microbiological criteria of foods in Australia, New Zealand, European Communities, Canada and Hong Kong, recommendations and technical basis for the elaboration of general microbiological criteria of China' s national food safety standards were provided.

  12. Geopolymers prepared from DC plasma treated air pollution control (APC) residues glass: properties and characterisation of the binder phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourti, Ioanna; Devaraj, Amutha Rani; Bustos, Ana Guerrero; Deegan, David; Boccaccini, Aldo R; Cheeseman, Christopher R

    2011-11-30

    Air pollution control (APC) residues have been blended with glass-forming additives and treated using DC plasma technology to produce a high calcium aluminosilicate glass (APC glass). This has been used to form geopolymer-glass composites that exhibit high strength and density, low porosity, low water absorption, low leaching and high acid resistance. The composites have a microstructure consisting of un-reacted residual APC glass particles imbedded in a complex geopolymer and C-S-H gel binder phase, and behave as particle reinforced composites. The work demonstrates that materials prepared from DC plasma treated APC residues have potential to be used to form high quality pre-cast products.

  13. High Reproducibility of ELISPOT Counts from Nine Different Laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srividya Sundararaman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary goal of immune monitoring with ELISPOT is to measure the number of T cells, specific for any antigen, accurately and reproducibly between different laboratories. In ELISPOT assays, antigen-specific T cells secrete cytokines, forming spots of different sizes on a membrane with variable background intensities. Due to the subjective nature of judging maximal and minimal spot sizes, different investigators come up with different numbers. This study aims to determine whether statistics-based, automated size-gating can harmonize the number of spot counts calculated between different laboratories. We plated PBMC at four different concentrations, 24 replicates each, in an IFN-γ ELISPOT assay with HCMV pp65 antigen. The ELISPOT plate, and an image file of the plate was counted in nine different laboratories using ImmunoSpot® Analyzers by (A Basic Count™ relying on subjective counting parameters set by the respective investigators and (B SmartCount™, an automated counting protocol by the ImmunoSpot® Software that uses statistics-based spot size auto-gating with spot intensity auto-thresholding. The average coefficient of variation (CV for the mean values between independent laboratories was 26.7% when counting with Basic Count™, and 6.7% when counting with SmartCount™. Our data indicates that SmartCount™ allows harmonization of counting ELISPOT results between different laboratories and investigators.

  14. Meta-analysis of the association between APC promoter methylation and colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding ZY

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Zhenyu Ding,1,* Tong Jiang,2,* Ying Piao,1 Tao Han,1 Yaling Han,3 Xiaodong Xie1 1Department of Oncology, General Hospital of Shenyang Military Region, Shenyang City, Liaoning Province, 2Laboratory of Military Health in Cold Region, Center for Disease Control and Prevention of Shenyang Military Region, Shenyang City, Liaoning Province, 3Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, General Hospital of Shenyang Military Region, Shenyang City, Liaoning Province, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Previous studies investigating the association between adenomatous polyposis coli (APC gene promoter methylation and colorectal cancer (CRC have yielded conflicting results. The aim of this study was to comprehensively evaluate the potential application of the detection of APC promoter methylation to the prevention and treatment of CRC. PubMed, Embase, and MEDLINE (results updated to October 2014 were searched for relevant studies. The effect size was defined as the weighted odds ratio (OR, which was calculated using either the fixed-effects or random-effects model. Prespecified subgroup and sensitivity analyses were conducted to evaluate potential heterogeneity among the included studies. Nineteen studies comprising 2,426 participants were selected for our meta-analysis. The pooled results of nine studies comprising a total of 740 subjects indicated that APC promoter methylation was significantly associated with CRC risk (pooled OR 5.53; 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.50–8.76; P<0.01. Eleven studies with a total of 1,219 patients evaluated the association between APC promoter methylation and the presence of CRC metastasis, and the pooled OR was 0.80 (95% CI 0.44–1.46; P=0.47. A meta-analysis conducted with four studies with a total of 467 patients found no significant correlation between APC promoter methylation and the presence of colorectal adenoma (pooled OR 1.85; 95% CI 0.67–5.10; P=0.23. No significant

  15. Chemoprevention of colorectal cancer by targeting APC-deficient cells for apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Ren, Xiaoyang; Alt, Eckhard; Bai, Xiaowen; Huang, Shaoyi; Xu, Zhengming; Lynch, Patrick M; Moyer, Mary P; Wen, Xian-Feng; Wu, Xiangwei

    2010-04-15

    Cancer chemoprevention uses natural, synthetic, or biological substances to reverse, suppress, or prevent either the initial phase of carcinogenesis or the progression of neoplastic cells to cancer. It holds promise for overcoming problems associated with the treatment of late-stage cancers. However, the broad application of chemoprevention is compromised at present by limited effectiveness and potential toxicity. To overcome these challenges, here we developed a new chemoprevention approach that specifically targets premalignant tumour cells for apoptosis. We show that a deficiency in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene and subsequent activation of beta-catenin lead to the repression of cellular caspase-8 inhibitor c-FLIP (also known as CFLAR) expression through activation of c-Myc, and that all-trans-retinyl acetate (RAc) independently upregulates tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) death receptors and suppresses decoy receptors. Thus, the combination of TRAIL and RAc induces apoptosis in APC-deficient premalignant cells without affecting normal cells in vitro. In addition, we show that short-term and non-continuous TRAIL and RAc treatment induce apoptosis specifically in intestinal polyps, strongly inhibit tumour growth, and prolong survival in multiple intestinal neoplasms C57BL/6J-Apc(Min)/J (Apc(Min)) mice. With our approach, we further demonstrate that TRAIL and RAc induce significant cell death in human colon polyps, providing a potentially selective approach for colorectal cancer chemoprevention by targeting APC-deficient cells for apoptosis.

  16. Somatic APC inactivation mechanisms in sporadic colorectal cancer cases in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kámory, Eniko; Olasz, Judit; Csuka, Orsolya

    2008-03-01

    The role of germline inactivation of the adenomatosis polyposis coli (APC) gene in hereditary colorectal cancer is well known, being the most important cause of familial adenomatosus polyposis (FAP) syndrome. Hereditary cases with germline mutations, however, account only for 5-10% of colorectal cancers. The somatic inactivation of this gene has also been observed in sporadic cases. In order to examine the inactivation mechanisms of the APC gene we screened 70 sporadic colorectal cancer cases (27 rectal, 43 intestinal) of different stages for promoter hypermethylation, allelic imbalance (AI) and somatic mutations. The presence of promoter hypermethylation was observed in 21 cases (30%). Fifteen of the examined tumors (21%) showed AI, and also 15 tumors (21%) carried at least one somatic mutation. Thirteen of the detected alterations were novel variations: seven frameshifts, four missense mutations and two polymorphisms. Biallelic inactivation was found in 15 patients (21%). These results suggest that the inactivation of the APC gene is very common in sporadic colorectal cancer, and the main inactivation mechanism of the APC gene is promoter hypermethylation. Allelic imbalance has the same frequency as mutations, and mutations in the APC gene are more common in the early stages and in tumors located in the rectum.

  17. APC/C and SCFcyclin F Constitute a Reciprocal Feedback Circuit Controlling S-Phase Entry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajarshi Choudhury

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C is an ubiquitin ligase and core component of the cell-cycle oscillator. During G1 phase, APC/C binds to its substrate receptor Cdh1 and APC/CCdh1 plays an important role in restricting S-phase entry and maintaining genome integrity. We describe a reciprocal feedback circuit between APC/C and a second ubiquitin ligase, the SCF (Skp1-Cul1-F box. We show that cyclin F, a cell-cycle-regulated substrate receptor (F-box protein for the SCF, is targeted for degradation by APC/C. Furthermore, we establish that Cdh1 is itself a substrate of SCFcyclin F. Cyclin F loss impairs Cdh1 degradation and delays S-phase entry, and this delay is reversed by simultaneous removal of Cdh1. These data indicate that the coordinated, temporal ordering of cyclin F and Cdh1 degradation, organized in a double-negative feedback loop, represents a fundamental aspect of cell-cycle control. This mutual antagonism could be a feature of other oscillating systems.

  18. Detection of microsatellite instability but not truncating APC mutations in gastric adenocarcinomas in Brazilian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bevilacqua Roberta A.U.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A crucial role for the adenomatous polyposis colonic (APC gene in colorectal carcinogenesis has been conclusively established, but, the role of APC in gastric tumors remains controversial. APC mutations have been detected at a relatively high frequency in gastric tumors of Japanese patients, yet such mutations have been reported to be extremely rare in British patients and patients from north-central-Italy. We here report the analysis of 40 primary sporadic gastric adenocarcinomas and 35 primary sporadic colon adenocarcinomas (from patients resident in São Paulo, Brazil, for mutations in the APC gene between codons 686 and 1693 using the protein truncation test. Although 19 truncating mutations were detected in 35 colon adenocarcinomas (54.2% none were found in any of the gastric adenocarcinomas. As an internal control the tumor samples were also evaluated for microsatellite alterations, which are also common features of both tumor types. Microsatellite instability was present in 1 colon and 7 gastric tumor samples. This suggests that in relation to APC mutations gastric adenocarcinomas from Brazilian patients are similar to those that occur in Europe, and support a fundamental difference both between gastric carcinomas that occur in different geographical regions and between the molecular etiology of gastric and colorectal adenocarcinomas occurring in São Paulo, Brazil.

  19. Polarizing T and B cell responses by APC-targeted subunit vaccines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnveig eGrødeland

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Current influenza vaccines mostly aim at the induction of specific neutralizing antibodies. While antibodies are important for protection against a particular virus strain, T cells can recognize epitopes that will offer broader protection against influenza. We have previously developed a DNA vaccine format by which protein antigens can be targeted specifically to receptors on antigen presenting cells (APCs. The DNA-encoded vaccine proteins are homodimers, each chain consisting of a targeting unit, a dimerization unit, and an antigen. The strategy of targeting antigen to APCs greatly enhances immune responses as compared to non-targeted controls. Furthermore, targeting of antigen to different receptors on APCs can polarize the immune response to different arms of immunity. Here, we discuss how targeting of hemagglutinin (HA to MHC class II molecules increases Th2 and IgG1 antibody responses, whereas targeting to chemokine receptors XCR1 or CCR1/3/5 increases Th1 and IgG2a responses, in addition to CD8+ T cell responses. We also discuss these results in relation to work published by others on APC-targeting. Differential targeting of APC surface molecules may allow the induction of tailor-made phenotypes of adaptive immune responses that are optimal for protection against various infectious agents, including influenza virus.

  20. Defective sister chromatid cohesion is synthetically lethal with impaired APC/C function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, Job; Faramarz, Atiq; Oostra, Anneke B; de Menezes, Renee X; van der Meulen, Ida H; Rooimans, Martin A; Rockx, Davy A; Brakenhoff, Ruud H; van Beusechem, Victor W; King, Randall W; de Winter, Johan P; Wolthuis, Rob M F

    2015-10-01

    Warsaw breakage syndrome (WABS) is caused by defective DDX11, a DNA helicase that is essential for chromatid cohesion. Here, a paired genome-wide siRNA screen in patient-derived cell lines reveals that WABS cells do not tolerate partial depletion of individual APC/C subunits or the spindle checkpoint inhibitor p31(comet). A combination of reduced cohesion and impaired APC/C function also leads to fatal mitotic arrest in diploid RPE1 cells. Moreover, WABS cell lines, and several cancer cell lines with cohesion defects, display a highly increased response to a new cell-permeable APC/C inhibitor, apcin, but not to the spindle poison paclitaxel. Synthetic lethality of APC/C inhibition and cohesion defects strictly depends on a functional mitotic spindle checkpoint as well as on intact microtubule pulling forces. This indicates that the underlying mechanism involves cohesion fatigue in response to mitotic delay, leading to spindle checkpoint re-activation and lethal mitotic arrest. Our results point to APC/C inhibitors as promising therapeutic agents targeting cohesion-defective cancers.

  1. Production of geopolymers using glass produced from DC plasma treatment of air pollution control (APC) residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourti, Ioanna; Rani, D Amutha; Deegan, D; Boccaccini, A R; Cheeseman, C R

    2010-04-15

    Air pollution control (APC) residues are the hazardous waste produced from cleaning gaseous emissions at energy-from-waste (EfW) facilities processing municipal solid waste (MSW). APC residues have been blended with glass-forming additives and treated using DC plasma technology to produce a high calcium alumino-silicate glass. This research has investigated the optimisation and properties of geopolymers prepared from this glass. Work has shown that high strength geopolymers can be formed and that the NaOH concentration of the activating solution significantly affects the properties. The broad particle size distribution of the APC residue glass used in these experiments results in a microstructure that contains unreacted glass particles included within a geopolymer binder phase. The high calcium content of APC residues may cause the formation of some amorphous calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) gel. A mix prepared with S/L=3.4, Si/Al=2.6 and [NaOH]=6M in the activating solution, produced high strength geopolymers with compressive strengths of approximately 130 MPa. This material had high density (2070 kg/m(3)) and low porosity. The research demonstrates for the first time that glass derived from DC plasma treatment of APC residues can be used to form high strength geopolymer-glass composites that have potential for use in a range of applications.

  2. Sublattice Counting and Orbifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Hanany, Amihay; Reffert, Susanne

    2010-01-01

    Abelian orbifolds of C^3 are known to be encoded by hexagonal brane tilings. To date it is not known how to count all such orbifolds. We fill this gap by employing number theoretic techniques from crystallography, and by making use of Polya's Enumeration Theorem. The results turn out to be beautifully encoded in terms of partition functions and Dirichlet Series. The same methods apply to counting orbifolds of any toric non-compact Calabi-Yau singularity. As additional examples, we count the orbifolds of the conifold, of the L^{aba} theories, and of C^4.

  3. AGILE integration into APC for high mix logic fab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatefait, M.; Lam, A.; Le Gratiet, B.; Mikolajczak, M.; Morin, V.; Chojnowski, N.; Kocsis, Z.; Smith, I.; Decaunes, J.; Ostrovsky, A.; Monget, C.

    2015-09-01

    mix logic Fab) in term of product and technology portfolio AGILE corrects for up to 120nm of product topography error on process layer with less than 50nm depth of focus Based on tool functionalities delivered by ASML and on high volume manufacturing requirement, AGILE integration is a real challenge. Regarding ST requirements "Automatic AGILE" functionality developed by ASML was not a turnkey solution and a dedicated functionality was needed. A "ST homemade AGILE integration" has been fully developed and implemented within ASML and ST constraints. This paper describes this integration in our Advanced Process Control platform (APC).

  4. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A A A Listen En Español Create Your Plate Create Your Plate is a simple and effective ... and that your options are endless. Create Your Plate! Click on the plate sections below to add ...

  5. 1996 : Track Count Protocol

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The goal of St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge's Track Count Protocol is to provide an index to the population size of game animals inhabiting St. Vincent Island.

  6. Blood Count Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your blood contains red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), and platelets. Blood count tests measure the number and types of cells in your blood. This helps doctors check on your overall health. ...

  7. Counting Belief Propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Kersting, Kristian; Natarajan, Sriraam

    2012-01-01

    A major benefit of graphical models is that most knowledge is captured in the model structure. Many models, however, produce inference problems with a lot of symmetries not reflected in the graphical structure and hence not exploitable by efficient inference techniques such as belief propagation (BP). In this paper, we present a new and simple BP algorithm, called counting BP, that exploits such additional symmetries. Starting from a given factor graph, counting BP first constructs a compressed factor graph of clusternodes and clusterfactors, corresponding to sets of nodes and factors that are indistinguishable given the evidence. Then it runs a modified BP algorithm on the compressed graph that is equivalent to running BP on the original factor graph. Our experiments show that counting BP is applicable to a variety of important AI tasks such as (dynamic) relational models and boolean model counting, and that significant efficiency gains are obtainable, often by orders of magnitude.

  8. Analog multivariate counting analyzers

    CERN Document Server

    Nikitin, A V; Armstrong, T P

    2003-01-01

    Characterizing rates of occurrence of various features of a signal is of great importance in numerous types of physical measurements. Such signal features can be defined as certain discrete coincidence events, e.g. crossings of a signal with a given threshold, or occurrence of extrema of a certain amplitude. We describe measuring rates of such events by means of analog multivariate counting analyzers. Given a continuous scalar or multicomponent (vector) input signal, an analog counting analyzer outputs a continuous signal with the instantaneous magnitude equal to the rate of occurrence of certain coincidence events. The analog nature of the proposed analyzers allows us to reformulate many problems of the traditional counting measurements, and cast them in a form which is readily addressed by methods of differential calculus rather than by algebraic or logical means of digital signal processing. Analog counting analyzers can be easily implemented in discrete or integrated electronic circuits, do not suffer fro...

  9. Housing Inventory Count

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This report displays the data communities reported to HUD about the nature of their dedicated homeless inventory, referred to as their Housing Inventory Count (HIC)....

  10. Allegheny County Traffic Counts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Traffic sensors at over 1,200 locations in Allegheny County collect vehicle counts for the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation. Data included in the Health...

  11. Liquid Scintillation Counting

    OpenAIRE

    Carlsson, Sten

    1993-01-01

    In liquid scintillation counting (LSC) we use the process of luminescense to detect ionising radiation emit$ed from a radionuclide. Luminescense is emission of visible light of nonthermal origin. 1t was early found that certain organic molecules have luminescent properties and such molecules are used in LSC. Today LSC is the mostwidespread method to detect pure beta-ernitters like tritium and carbon-14. 1t has unique properties in its efficient counting geometry, deteetability and the lack of...

  12. Counting curves on surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we consider an elementary, and largely unexplored, combinatorial problem in low-dimensional topology. Consider a real 2-dimensional compact surface $S$, and fix a number of points $F$ on its boundary. We ask: how many configurations of disjoint arcs are there on $S$ whose boundary is $F$? We find that this enumerative problem, counting curves on surfaces, has a rich structure. For instance, we show that the curve counts obey an effective recursion, in the general framework of to...

  13. Counting RG flows

    OpenAIRE

    Gukov, Sergei

    2016-01-01

    Interpreting renormalization group flows as solitons interpolating between different fixed points, we ask various questions that are normally asked in soliton physics but not in renormalization theory. Can one count RG flows? Are there different "topological sectors" for RG flows? What is the moduli space of an RG flow, and how does it compare to familiar moduli spaces of (supersymmetric) dowain walls? Analyzing these questions in a wide variety of contexts --- from counting RG walls to AdS/C...

  14. Stabilization of APC residues from waste incineration with ferrous sulfate on a semi-industrial scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtorp, Kasper; Jensen, Dorthe Lærke; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2002-01-01

    A stabilization method for air pollution control (APC) residues from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) involving mixing of the residue with water and FeSO4 has been demonstrated on a semi-industrial scale on three types of APC residues: a semidy (SD) APC residue, a fly ash (FA), and an FA...... mixed with sludge (FAS) from a wet flue gas cleaning system. The process was performed in batches of 165-175 kg residue. It generates a wastewater that is highly saline but has a low content of heavy metals such as Cd, Cr, and Pb. The stabilized and raw residues have been subject to a range of leaching...... tests: the batch leacing test, the pH-static leaching test, the availability test, and the column test. These tests showed that the stabilized residues have remarkably improved leaching properties, especially with respect to Pb but also with respect to Cd, Cu, and Zn. The release of Pb was reduced...

  15. Treatment of prostate cancer: therapeutic potential of targeted immunotherapy with APC8015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A Bok

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Robert A BokDepartment of Radiology, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USAAbstract: The body’s immune system has some capacity to recognize and attack cancerous growths, including prostate cancer. However, various intrinsic characteristics of tumor cells usually limit that capacity. Therapeutically administered immunologic stimuli, such as APC8015, an individualized, ex vivo stimulation of a patient’s own antigen presenting cells (APC, are capable of boosting the anti-tumor response. Late phase clinical trials of APC8015 (now also called Sipuleucel-T show evidence of slowing disease progression and increasing survival in advanced prostate cancer. Such immunotherapeutic approaches hold real promise to provide additional useful and welcome weapons against this common malignancy.Keywords: prostate cancer, antigen presenting cells, immunologics

  16. Neutron counting with cameras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Esch, Patrick; Crisanti, Marta; Mutti, Paolo [Institut Laue Langevin, Grenoble (France)

    2015-07-01

    A research project is presented in which we aim at counting individual neutrons with CCD-like cameras. We explore theoretically a technique that allows us to use imaging detectors as counting detectors at lower counting rates, and transits smoothly to continuous imaging at higher counting rates. As such, the hope is to combine the good background rejection properties of standard neutron counting detectors with the absence of dead time of integrating neutron imaging cameras as well as their very good spatial resolution. Compared to Xray detection, the essence of thermal neutron detection is the nuclear conversion reaction. The released energies involved are of the order of a few MeV, while X-ray detection releases energies of the order of the photon energy, which is in the 10 KeV range. Thanks to advances in camera technology which have resulted in increased quantum efficiency, lower noise, as well as increased frame rate up to 100 fps for CMOS-type cameras, this more than 100-fold higher available detection energy implies that the individual neutron detection light signal can be significantly above the noise level, as such allowing for discrimination and individual counting, which is hard to achieve with X-rays. The time scale of CMOS-type cameras doesn't allow one to consider time-of-flight measurements, but kinetic experiments in the 10 ms range are possible. The theory is next confronted to the first experimental results. (authors)

  17. Polymorphisms in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene and advanced colorectal adenoma risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Hui-Lee; Peters, Ulrike; Hayes, Richard B; Huang, Wen-Yi; Schatzkin, Arthur; Bresalier, Robert S; Velie, Ellen M; Brody, Lawrence C

    2010-09-01

    While germline mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene cause the hereditary colon cancer syndrome (familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP)), the role of common germline APC variants in sporadic adenomatous polyposis remains unclear. We studied the association of eight APC single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), possibly associated with functional consequences, and previously identified gene-environment (dietary fat intake and hormone replacement therapy (HRT) use) interactions, in relation to advanced colorectal adenoma in 758 cases and 767 sex- and race-matched controls, randomly selected from the screening arm of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. Cases had at least one verified advanced adenoma of the distal colon; controls, a negative sigmoidoscopy. We did not observe an association between genotypes for any of the eight APC SNPs and advanced distal adenoma risk (P(global gene-based)=0.92). Frequencies of identified common haplotypes did not differ between cases and controls (P(global haplotype test)=0.97). However, the risk for advanced distal adenoma was threefold higher for one rare haplotype (cases: 2.7%; controls: 1.6%) (odds ratio (OR)=3.27; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.08-9.88). The genetic association between D1822V and advanced distal adenoma was confined to persons consuming a high-fat diet (P(interaction)=0.03). Similar interactions were not observed with HRT use. In our large, nested case-control study of advanced distal adenoma and clinically verified adenoma-free controls, we observed no association between specific APC SNPs and advanced adenoma. Fat intake modified the APC D1822V-adenoma association, but further studies are warranted.

  18. Krüppel-like factor 5 is a crucial mediator of intestinal tumorigenesis in mice harboring combined ApcMin and KRASV12 mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robine Sylvie

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both mutational inactivation of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC tumor suppressor gene and activation of the KRAS oncogene are implicated in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer. Mice harboring a germline ApcMin mutation or intestine-specific expression of the KRASV12 gene have been developed. Both mouse strains develop spontaneous intestinal tumors, including adenoma and carcinoma, though at a different age. The zinc finger transcription factor Krüppel-like factor 5 (KLF5 has previously been shown to promote proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells and modulate intestinal tumorigenesis. Here we investigated the in vivo effect of Klf5 heterozygosity on the propensity of ApcMin/KRASV12 double transgenic mice to develop intestinal tumors. Results At 12 weeks of age, ApcMin/KRASV12 mice had three times as many intestinal tumors as ApcMin mice. This increase in tumor number was reduced by 92% in triple transgenic ApcMin/KRASV12/Klf5+/- mice. The reduction in tumor number in ApcMin/KRASV12/Klf5+/- mice was also statistically significant compared to ApcMin mice alone, with a 75% decrease. Compared with ApcMin/KRASV12, tumors from both ApcMin/KRASV12/Klf5+/- and ApcMin mice were smaller. In addition, tumors from ApcMin mice were more distally distributed in the intestine as contrasted by the more proximal distribution in ApcMin/KRASV12 and ApcMin/KRASV12/Klf5+/- mice. Klf5 levels in the normal-appearing intestinal mucosa were higher in both ApcMin and ApcMin/KRASV12 mice but were attenuated in ApcMin/KRASV12/Klf5+/- mice. The levels of β-catenin, cyclin D1 and Ki-67 were also reduced in the normal-appearing intestinal mucosa of ApcMin/KRASV12/Klf5+/- mice when compared to ApcMin/KRASV12 mice. Levels of pMek and pErk1/2 were elevated in the normal-appearing mucosa of ApcMin/KRASV12 mice and modestly reduced in ApcMin/KRASV12/Klf5+/- mice. Tumor tissues displayed higher levels of both Klf5 and β-catenin, irrespective of the

  19. Multiple jejunal cancers resulting from combination of germline APC and MLH1 mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindor, Noralane M; Smyrk, Tom C; Buehler, Sheila; Gunawardena, Shanaka R; Thomas, Brittany C; Limburg, Paul; Kirmani, Salman; Thibodeau, Stephen N

    2012-12-01

    Double heterozygotes for mutations in APC and a DNA mismatch repair gene are extremely rare. We report on an individual who had truncating mutations in APC and MLH1 whose clinical presentation initially resembled Familial Adenomatous Polyposis but then emerged as a novel phenotype with multiple jejunal carcinomas. We have reviewed the relevant literature on double heterozygotes and based on what has been reported to date, this phenotype was not anticipated. It may be useful for clinicians to be aware of this observation as clinical screening guidelines are proposed for such individuals.

  20. How holistic process control translates into high mix logic fab APC?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le-Gratiet, B.; Gatefait, M.; Ducotè, J.; Decaunes, J.; Lam, A.; Beraud, B.; Mikolajczak, M.; Pelletier, A.; Orlando, B.; Sundermann, F.; Ostrovsky, A.; Lapeyre, C.

    2014-10-01

    Advanced CMOS nodes require more and more information to get the wafer process well setup. Process tool intrinsic capabilities are not sufficient to secure specifications. APC systems (Advanced Process Control) are being developed in waferfab to manage process context information to automatically adjust and tune wafer processing. The APC manages today Run to Run component from and between various process steps plus a sub-recipes/profiles corrections management. This paper will outline the architecture of an integrated/holistic process control system for a high mix advanced logic waferfoundry.

  1. 4-Hydroxy-2(E)-nonenal metabolism differs in Apc(+/+) cells and in Apc(Min/+) cells: it may explain colon cancer promotion by heme iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baradat, Maryse; Jouanin, Isabelle; Dalleau, Sabine; Taché, Sylviane; Gieules, Mathilde; Debrauwer, Laurent; Canlet, Cécile; Huc, Laurence; Dupuy, Jacques; Pierre, Fabrice H F; Guéraud, Françoise

    2011-11-21

    Animal and epidemiological studies suggest that dietary heme iron would promote colorectal cancer. Oxidative properties of heme could lead to the formation of cytotoxic and genotoxic secondary lipid oxidation products, such as 4-hydroxy-2(E)-nonenal (HNE). This compound is more cytotoxic to mouse wild-type colon cells than to isogenic cells with a mutation on the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene. The latter thus have a selective advantage, possibly leading to cancer promotion. This mutation is an early and frequent event in human colorectal cancer. To explain this difference, the HNE biotransformation capacities of the two cell types have been studied using radiolabeled and stable isotope-labeled HNE. Apc-mutated cells showed better biotransformation capacities than nonmutated cells did. Thiol compound conjugation capacities were higher for mutated cells, with an important advantage for the extracellular conjugation to cysteine. Both cells types were able to reduce HNE to 4-hydroxynonanal, a biotransformation pathway that has not been reported for other intestinal cells. Mutated cells showed higher capacities to oxidize 4-hydroxynonanal into 4-hydroxynonanoic acid. The mRNA expression of different enzymes involved in HNE metabolism such as aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1, 2 and 3A1, glutathione transferase A4-4, or cystine transporter xCT was upregulated in mutated cells compared with wild-type cells. In conclusion, this study suggests that Apc-mutated cells are more efficient than wild-type cells in metabolizing HNE into thiol conjugates and 4-hydroxynonanoic acid due to the higher expression of key biotransformation enzymes. These differential biotransformation capacities would explain the differences of susceptibility between normal and Apc-mutated cells regarding secondary lipid oxidation products.

  2. Implementación de dos métodos de recuento en placa para la detección de colifagos somáticos, aportes a las metodologías estándar Implementation of two plate count methods for detection of somatic coliphages and contributions to the standard methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Solano Barquero

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Los métodos de recuento en placa capa doble y capa simple de agar, para la cuantificación de colifagos so-máticos en aguas, fueron implementados utilizando como base metodologías estándar. Diferentes variables fueron ensayadas, lo cual permitió la precisión en algunos pasos no incluidos en metodologías estándares. De los hallazgos de mayor importancia, se exponen las consecuencias de utilizar un cultivo de Escherichia coliexcesivamente concentrado y se describe la obtención de un cultivo en fase logarítmica en solo 4 horas de incubación, ajustando la concentración a una densidad óptica de 0,3 a 600nm (3,1 x 10 8 UFC/ mL, o a un McFarland 1 (3,0 x108 UFC/ mL. Se determinó que los controles de colifagos deben ser almacenados a -70 °C para reducir su degradación y que se deben evitar cantidades superiores a 20 mL de mezcla de reacción por plato de Petri, para reducir las burbujas que pueden interferir con la lectura de unidades formadoras de placas (UFP. Se demostró que los colifagos de las muestras de agua pueden almacenarse 48 horas a 4 °C sin que sufran degradación y que en las muestras con altas concentraciones de colifagos no se observa UFP porque se da una lisis confluente de la capa bacteriana. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en la recuperación de colifagos al utilizar un método u otro, pero dichos métodos deben ser evaluados por medio de controles, antes de aplicarlos directamente en el análisis de muestras de agua.Two plate count methods, double layer and single layer of agar for quantification of somatic coliphages in water, were implemented using standard methodologies. Several variables were tested and provided valuable information that was not included in standard methodologies. The most important findings are described, such as the effect of using an excessively concentrated culture of E. coliand production of a log phase culture in only 4 hours of incubation, adjusting the concentration to an

  3. An APC/C-Cdh1 Biosensor Reveals the Dynamics of Cdh1 Inactivation at the G1/S Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondracka, Andrej; Robbins, Jonathan A; Cross, Frederick R

    2016-01-01

    B-type cyclin-dependent kinase activity must be turned off for mitotic exit and G1 stabilization. B-type cyclin degradation is mediated by the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C); during and after mitotic exit, APC/C is dependent on Cdh1. Cdh1 is in turn phosphorylated and inactivated by cyclin-CDK at the Start transition of the new cell cycle. We developed a biosensor to assess the cell cycle dynamics of APC/C-Cdh1. Nuclear exit of the G1 transcriptional repressor Whi5 is a known marker of Start; APC/C-Cdh1 is inactivated 12 min after Whi5 nuclear exit with little measurable cell-to-cell timing variability. Multiple phosphorylation sites on Cdh1 act in a redundant manner to repress its activity. Reducing the number of phosphorylation sites on Cdh1 can to some extent be tolerated for cell viability, but it increases variability in timing of APC/C-Cdh1 inactivation. Mutants with minimal subsets of phosphorylation sites required for viability exhibit striking stochasticity in multiple responses including budding, nuclear division, and APC/C-Cdh1 activity itself. Multiple cyclin-CDK complexes, as well as the stoichiometric inhibitor Acm1, contribute to APC/C-Cdh1 inactivation; this redundant control is likely to promote rapid and reliable APC/C-Cdh1 inactivation immediately following the Start transition.

  4. Dual control by Cdk1 phosphorylation of the budding yeast APC/C ubiquitin ligase activator Cdh1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höckner, Sebastian; Neumann-Arnold, Lea; Seufert, Wolfgang

    2016-07-15

    The antagonism between cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) and the ubiquitin ligase APC/C-Cdh1 is central to eukaryotic cell cycle control. APC/C-Cdh1 targets cyclin B and other regulatory proteins for degradation, whereas Cdks disable APC/C-Cdh1 through phosphorylation of the Cdh1 activator protein at multiple sites. Budding yeast Cdh1 carries nine Cdk phosphorylation sites in its N-terminal regulatory domain, most or all of which contribute to inhibition. However, the precise role of individual sites has remained unclear. Here, we report that the Cdk phosphorylation sites of yeast Cdh1 are organized into autonomous subgroups and act through separate mechanisms. Cdk sites 1-3 had no direct effect on the APC/C binding of Cdh1 but inactivated a bipartite nuclear localization sequence (NLS) and thereby controlled the partitioning of Cdh1 between cytoplasm and nucleus. In contrast, Cdk sites 4-9 did not influence the cell cycle-regulated localization of Cdh1 but prevented its binding to the APC/C. Cdk sites 4-9 reside near two recently identified APC/C interaction motifs in a pattern conserved with the human Cdh1 orthologue. Thus a Cdk-inhibited NLS goes along with Cdk-inhibited APC/C binding sites in yeast Cdh1 to relay the negative control by Cdk1 phosphorylation of the ubiquitin ligase APC/C-Cdh1.

  5. Inactivation of Apc perturbs mammary development, but only directly results in acanthoma in the context of Tcf-1 deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallagher, RCJ; Hay, T; Meniel, [No Value; Naughton, C; Anderson, TJ; Shibata, H; Ito, M; Clevers, H; Noda, T; Sansom, OJ; Mason, JO; Clarke, AR

    2002-01-01

    Apc (adenomatous polyposis colt) encodes a tumour suppressor gene that is mutated in the majority of colorectal cancers. Recent evidence has also implicated Apc mutations in the aetiology of breast tumours. Ape is a component of the canonical Wnt signal transduction pathway, of which one target is T

  6. New Functions of APC/C Ubiquitin Ligase in the Nervous System and Its Role in Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Fuchsberger

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The E3 ubiquitin ligase Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C regulates important processes in cells, such as the cell cycle, by targeting a set of substrates for degradation. In the last decade, APC/C has been related to several major functions in the nervous system, including axon guidance, synaptic plasticity, neurogenesis, and neuronal survival. Interestingly, some of the identified APC/C substrates have been related to neurodegenerative diseases. There is an accumulation of some degradation targets of APC/C in Alzheimer’s disease (AD brains, which suggests a dysregulation of the protein complex in the disorder. Moreover, recently evidence has been provided for an inactivation of APC/C in AD. It has been shown that oligomers of the AD-related peptide, Aβ, induce degradation of the APC/C activator subunit cdh1, in vitro in neurons in culture and in vivo in the mouse hippocampus. Furthermore, in the AD mouse model APP/PS1, lower cdh1 levels were observed in pyramidal neurons in CA1 when compared to age-matched wildtype mice. In this review, we provide a complete list of APC/C substrates that are involved in the nervous system and we discuss their functions. We also summarize recent studies that show neurobiological effects in cdh1 knockout mouse models. Finally, we discuss the role of APC/C in the pathophysiology of AD.

  7. An APC/C-Cdh1 Biosensor Reveals the Dynamics of Cdh1 Inactivation at the G1/S Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondracka, Andrej; Robbins, Jonathan A.; Cross, Frederick R.

    2016-01-01

    B-type cyclin-dependent kinase activity must be turned off for mitotic exit and G1 stabilization. B-type cyclin degradation is mediated by the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C); during and after mitotic exit, APC/C is dependent on Cdh1. Cdh1 is in turn phosphorylated and inactivated by cyclin-CDK at the Start transition of the new cell cycle. We developed a biosensor to assess the cell cycle dynamics of APC/C-Cdh1. Nuclear exit of the G1 transcriptional repressor Whi5 is a known marker of Start; APC/C-Cdh1 is inactivated 12 min after Whi5 nuclear exit with little measurable cell-to-cell timing variability. Multiple phosphorylation sites on Cdh1 act in a redundant manner to repress its activity. Reducing the number of phosphorylation sites on Cdh1 can to some extent be tolerated for cell viability, but it increases variability in timing of APC/C-Cdh1 inactivation. Mutants with minimal subsets of phosphorylation sites required for viability exhibit striking stochasticity in multiple responses including budding, nuclear division, and APC/C-Cdh1 activity itself. Multiple cyclin-CDK complexes, as well as the stoichiometric inhibitor Acm1, contribute to APC/C-Cdh1 inactivation; this redundant control is likely to promote rapid and reliable APC/C-Cdh1 inactivation immediately following the Start transition. PMID:27410035

  8. Long-term outcomes of endoscopic argon plasma coagulation (APC) therapy for early esophageal cancer and precancerous lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国清

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the long-term outcomes of endoscopic argon plasma coagulation (APC) therapy for early esophageal cancer and precancerous lesions.Methods One-hundred and seventy one cases with early esophageal cancer (intramucosal carcinoma) and precancerous lesions were treated by APC from 1994 to 2005,

  9. The Spindle Assembly Checkpoint Is Not Essential for Viability of Human Cells with Genetically Lowered APC/C Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wild, Thomas; Larsen, Marie Sofie Yoo; Narita, Takeo;

    2016-01-01

    -conjugating enzymes-UBE2C and UBE2S. We show that APC/C activity in human cells is tuned by the combinatorial use of three E2s, namely UBE2C, UBE2S, and UBE2D. Genetic deletion of UBE2C and UBE2S, individually or in combination, leads to discriminative reduction in APC/C function and sensitizes cells to UBE2D......The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) and the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), which inhibits the APC/C, are essential determinants of mitotic timing and faithful division of genetic material. Activation of the APC/C is known to depend on two APC/C-interacting E2 ubiquitin...... depletion. Reduction of APC/C activity results in loss of switch-like metaphase-to-anaphase transition and, strikingly, renders cells insensitive to chemical inhibition of MPS1 and genetic ablation of MAD2, both of which are essential for the SAC. These results provide insights into the regulation of APC...

  10. The comparing study of TEMPO/TVC method for determination of aerobic plate count with national food safety standard method in foods%TEMPO/TVC法与国标方法测定食品中菌落总数的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨红; 凌秀梅; 李俊霞; 周浩; 邓堃; 叶梅; 万渝平

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To confirm the detecting property of TEMPO/TVC method in foods. [Methods] TEMPO/TVC method compared with national food safety standard GB4789.2 aerobic plate count method in foods, including cooked meat products, convenience food, quick-frozen food, puffed food, candy, pastry, condiment. [Results] The results of TEMPO/TVC method and national food safety standard method showed good agreement; and the P value was greater than 0.05, no significance difference between the two methods. [Conclusion] TEMPO/TVC method is a rapid and accurate method, worthy of promoting in routine examination.%[目的]确证TEMPO/TVC计数食品中菌落总数的检测性能.[方法]使用TEMPO/TVC法和国标方法GB4789.2对熟肉制品、方便食品、速冻食品、膨化食品、糖果、糕点、调味品7类食品进行菌落总数测定.[结果]TEMPO/TVC法和国标方法检测食品中菌落总数的检测结果一致性较好(符合率95.4%);且两种方法检测7类食品样品的检测结果P值均大于0.05,无显著性差异.[结论]TEMPO/TVC法具有操作简便、快速、高效和人为误差小的特点,在日常检测中值得推广应用.

  11. [Blood Count Specimen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Takako

    2015-12-01

    The circulating blood volume accounts for 8% of the body weight, of which 45% comprises cellular components (blood cells) and 55% liquid components. We can measure the number and morphological features of blood cells (leukocytes, red blood cells, platelets), or count the amount of hemoglobin in a complete blood count: (CBC). Blood counts are often used to detect inflammatory diseases such as infection, anemia, a bleeding tendency, and abnormal cell screening of blood disease. This count is widely used as a basic data item of health examination. In recent years, clinical tests before consultation have become common among outpatient clinics, and the influence of laboratory values on consultation has grown. CBC, which is intended to count the number of raw cells and to check morphological features, is easily influenced by the environment, techniques, etc., during specimen collection procedures and transportation. Therefore, special attention is necessary to read laboratory data. Providing correct test values that accurately reflect a patient's condition from the laboratory to clinical side is crucial. Inappropriate medical treatment caused by erroneous values resulting from altered specimens should be avoided. In order to provide correct test values, the daily management of devices is a matter of course, and comprehending data variables and positively providing information to the clinical side are important. In this chapter, concerning sampling collection, blood collection tubes, dealing with specimens, transportation, and storage, I will discuss their effects on CBC, along with management or handling methods.

  12. Co-activator independent differences in how the metaphase and anaphase APC/C recognise the same substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Matsusaka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Anaphase Promoting Complex or Cyclosome (APC/C is critical to the control of mitosis. The APC/C is an ubiquitin ligase that targets specific mitotic regulators for proteolysis at distinct times in mitosis, but how this is achieved is not well understood. We have addressed this question by determining whether the same substrate, cyclin B1, is recognised in the same way by the APC/C at different times in mitosis. Unexpectedly, we find that distinct but overlapping motifs in cyclin B1 are recognised by the APC/C in metaphase compared with anaphase, and this does not depend on the exchange of Cdc20 for Cdh1. Thus, changes in APC/C substrate specificity in mitosis can potentially be conferred by altering interaction sites in addition to exchanging Cdc20 for Cdh1.

  13. Photon counting digital holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoli, Nazif; Skenderović, Hrvoje; Stipčević, Mario; Pavičić, Mladen

    2016-05-01

    Digital holography uses electronic sensors for hologram recording and numerical method for hologram reconstruction enabling thus the development of advanced holography applications. However, in some cases, the useful information is concealed in a very wide dynamic range of illumination intensities and successful recording requires an appropriate dynamic range of the sensor. An effective solution to this problem is the use of a photon-counting detector. Such detectors possess counting rates of the order of tens to hundreds of millions counts per second, but conditions of recording holograms have to be investigated in greater detail. Here, we summarize our main findings on this problem. First, conditions for optimum recording of digital holograms for detecting a signal significantly below detector's noise are analyzed in terms of the most important holographic measures. Second, for time-averaged digital holograms, optimum recordings were investigated for exposures shorter than the vibration cycle. In both cases, these conditions are studied by simulations and experiments.

  14. Low and high dose rate heavy ion radiation-induced intestinal and colonic tumorigenesis in APC1638N/+ mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suman, Shubhankar; Kumar, Santosh; Moon, Bo-Hyun; Fornace, Albert J.; Datta, Kamal

    2017-05-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) is a recognized risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC) and astronauts undertaking long duration space missions are expected to receive IR doses in excess of permissible limits with implications for colorectal carcinogenesis. Exposure to IR in outer space occurs at low doses and dose rates, and energetic heavy ions due to their high linear energy transfer (high-LET) characteristics remain a major concern for CRC risk in astronauts. Previously, we have demonstrated that intestinal tumorigenesis in a mouse model (APC1638N/+) of human colorectal cancer was significantly higher after exposure to high dose rate energetic heavy ions relative to low-LET γ radiation. The purpose of the current study was to compare intestinal tumorigenesis in APC1638N/+ mice after exposure to energetic heavy ions at high (50 cGy/min) and relatively low (0.33 cGy/min) dose rate. Male and female mice (6-8 weeks old) were exposed to either 10 or 50 cGy of 28Si (energy: 300 MeV/n; LET: 70 keV/μm) or 56Fe (energy: 1000 MeV/n; LET: 148 keV/μm) ions at NASA Space Radiation Laboratory in Brookhaven National Laboratory. Mice (n = 20 mice/group) were euthanized and intestinal and colon tumor frequency and size were counted 150 days after radiation exposure. Intestinal tumorigenesis in male mice exposed to 56Fe was similar for high and low dose rate exposures. Although male mice showed a decreasing trend at low dose rate relative to high dose rate exposures, the differences in tumor frequency between the two types of exposures were not statistically significant after 28Si radiation. In female mice, intestinal tumor frequency was similar for both radiation type and dose rates tested. In both male and female mice intestinal tumor size was not different after high and low dose rate radiation exposures. Colon tumor frequency in male and female mice after high and low dose rate energetic heavy ions was also not significantly different. In conclusion, intestinal and colonic tumor

  15. Low and high dose rate heavy ion radiation-induced intestinal and colonic tumorigenesis in APC(1638N/+) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suman, Shubhankar; Kumar, Santosh; Moon, Bo-Hyun; Fornace, Albert J; Datta, Kamal

    2017-05-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) is a recognized risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC) and astronauts undertaking long duration space missions are expected to receive IR doses in excess of permissible limits with implications for colorectal carcinogenesis. Exposure to IR in outer space occurs at low doses and dose rates, and energetic heavy ions due to their high linear energy transfer (high-LET) characteristics remain a major concern for CRC risk in astronauts. Previously, we have demonstrated that intestinal tumorigenesis in a mouse model (APC(1638N/+)) of human colorectal cancer was significantly higher after exposure to high dose rate energetic heavy ions relative to low-LET γ radiation. The purpose of the current study was to compare intestinal tumorigenesis in APC(1638N/+) mice after exposure to energetic heavy ions at high (50cGy/min) and relatively low (0.33cGy/min) dose rate. Male and female mice (6-8 weeks old) were exposed to either 10 or 50cGy of (28)Si (energy: 300MeV/n; LET: 70keV/μm) or (56)Fe (energy: 1000MeV/n; LET: 148keV/μm) ions at NASA Space Radiation Laboratory in Brookhaven National Laboratory. Mice (n=20 mice/group) were euthanized and intestinal and colon tumor frequency and size were counted 150days after radiation exposure. Intestinal tumorigenesis in male mice exposed to (56)Fe was similar for high and low dose rate exposures. Although male mice showed a decreasing trend at low dose rate relative to high dose rate exposures, the differences in tumor frequency between the two types of exposures were not statistically significant after (28)Si radiation. In female mice, intestinal tumor frequency was similar for both radiation type and dose rates tested. In both male and female mice intestinal tumor size was not different after high and low dose rate radiation exposures. Colon tumor frequency in male and female mice after high and low dose rate energetic heavy ions was also not significantly different. In conclusion, intestinal and colonic

  16. Rainflow counting revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soeker, H. [Deutsches Windenergie-Institut (Germany)

    1996-09-01

    As state of the art method the rainflow counting technique is presently applied everywhere in fatigue analysis. However, the author feels that the potential of the technique is not fully recognized in wind energy industries as it is used, most of the times, as a mere data reduction technique disregarding some of the inherent information of the rainflow counting results. The ideas described in the following aim at exploitation of this information and making it available for use in the design and verification process. (au)

  17. Filtration Algorithms of Untrustworthy Analogous Information in APCS at TPP and NPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Nazarov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers filtration algorithms of untrustworthy analogous information in APCS at TTP and NPP that make it possible to identify credibility of information transmitted through communication channels in the form of signals and which are continuously changeable in the regime of real time.

  18. Persistent lung inflammation and fibrosis in serum amyloid P component (APCs-/- knockout mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darrell Pilling

    Full Text Available Fibrosing diseases, such as pulmonary fibrosis, cardiac fibrosis, myelofibrosis, liver fibrosis, and renal fibrosis are chronic and debilitating conditions and are an increasing burden for the healthcare system. Fibrosis involves the accumulation and differentiation of many immune cells, including macrophages and fibroblast-like cells called fibrocytes. The plasma protein serum amyloid P component (SAP; also known as pentraxin-2, PTX2 inhibits fibrocyte differentiation in vitro, and injections of SAP inhibit fibrosis in vivo. SAP also promotes the formation of immuno-regulatory Mreg macrophages. To elucidate the endogenous function of SAP, we used bleomycin aspiration to induce pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis in mice lacking SAP. Compared to wildtype C57BL/6 mice, we find that in Apcs-/- "SAP knock-out" mice, bleomycin induces a more persistent inflammatory response and increased fibrosis. In both C57BL/6 and Apcs-/- mice, injections of exogenous SAP reduce the accumulation of inflammatory macrophages and prevent fibrosis. The types of inflammatory cells present in the lungs following bleomycin-aspiration appear similar between C57BL/6 and Apcs-/- mice, suggesting that the initial immune response is normal in the Apcs-/- mice, and that a key endogenous function of SAP is to promote the resolution of inflammation and fibrosis.

  19. APC Smart UPS:2009年度最畅销UPS产品

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    全球领先的关键电源与制冷服务商,施耐德旗下的APC日前宣布,在由IT渠道合作伙伴界颇负盛名的刊物之一Channel Reseller News(《经销商新闻》)2009全年年度适销全球的19种畅销SKUs产品评选中,APC Smart-UPS 1500VA脱颖而出,并最终荣获“2009年度最畅销UPS产品”称号,为APC Smart-UPS家族产品再添殊荣。不仅再次证明了APC公司打造经典产品的能力,也体现了APC Smart-UPS系列产品在全球用户中享有一定的知名度与美誉度。APC Smart-UPS已经成为APC品牌资产的重要组成部分。

  20. APC/C-Cdh1 coordinates neurogenesis and cortical size during development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Esteban, Maria; García-Higuera, Irene; Maestre, Carolina; Moreno, Sergio; Almeida, Angeles

    2013-12-01

    The morphology of the adult brain is the result of a delicate balance between neural progenitor proliferation and the initiation of neurogenesis in the embryonic period. Here we assessed whether the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) cofactor, Cdh1—which regulates mitosis exit and G1-phase length in dividing cells—regulates neurogenesis in vivo. We use an embryo-restricted Cdh1 knockout mouse model and show that functional APC/C-Cdh1 ubiquitin ligase activity is required for both terminal differentiation of cortical neurons in vitro and neurogenesis in vivo. Further, genetic ablation of Cdh1 impairs the ability of APC/C to promote neurogenesis by delaying the exit of the progenitor cells from the cell cycle. This causes replicative stress and p53-mediated apoptotic death resulting in decreased number of cortical neurons and cortex size. These results demonstrate that APC/C-Cdh1 coordinates cortical neurogenesis and size, thus posing Cdh1 in the molecular pathogenesis of congenital neurodevelopmental disorders, such as microcephaly.

  1. Frequent alteration of the tumor suppressor gene APC in sporadic canine colorectal tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youmans, Lydia; Taylor, Cynthia; Shin, Edwin; Harrell, Adrienne; Ellis, Angela E; Séguin, Bernard; Ji, Xinglai; Zhao, Shaying

    2012-01-01

    Sporadic canine colorectal cancers (CRCs) should make excellent models for studying the corresponding human cancers. To molecularly characterize canine CRC, we investigated exonic sequence mutations of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), the best known tumor suppressor gene of human CRC, in 23 sporadic canine colorectal tumors, including 8 adenomas and 15 adenocarcinomas, via exon-resequencing analysis. As a comparison, we also performed the same sequencing analysis on 10 other genes, either located at human 5q22 (the same locus as APC) or 18q21 (also frequently altered in human CRC), or known to play a role in human carcinogenesis. We noted that APC was the most significantly mutated gene in both canine adenomas and adenocarcinomas among the 11 genes examined. Significantly, we detected large deletions of ≥ 10 bases, many clustered near the mutation cluster region, as well as single or two base deletions in ~70% canine tumors of both subtypes. These observations indicate that like in the human, APC is also frequently altered in sporadic colorectal tumors in the dog and its alteration is an early event in canine colorectal tumorigenesis. Our study provides further evidence demonstrating the molecular similarity in pathogenesis between sporadic human and canine CRCs. This work, along with our previous copy number abnormality study, supports that sporadic canine CRCs are valid models of human CRCs at the molecular level.

  2. Controlling the response to DNA damage by the APC/C-Cdh1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, H Rudolf; Guerrero Llobet, S; van Vugt, Marcel A T M

    2016-01-01

    Proper cell cycle progression is safeguarded by the oscillating activities of cyclin/cyclin-dependent kinase complexes. An important player in the regulation of mitotic cyclins is the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), a multi-subunit E3 ubiquitin ligase. Prior to entry into mitosis, the

  3. The effect of soy isoflavones on the development of intestinal neoplasia in Apc(Min) mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ilona Kryspin; Kristiansen, Eva; Mortensen, Alicja

    1998-01-01

    Data from epidemiological studies suggest that isoflavones in soy may have a protective effect on the development of colon cancer in humans. Therefore, we have investigated whether soy isoflavones will inhibit intestinal tumour development in Apc(Min) mice. The mice were fed a Western-type high r...

  4. Cdh1/Hct1-APC is essential for the survival of postmitotic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Angeles; Bolaños, Juan P; Moreno, Sergio

    2005-09-01

    Cell division at the end of mitosis and G1 is controlled by Cdh1/Hct1, an activator of the E3-ubiquitin ligase anaphase-promoting complex (APC) that promotes the ubiquitylation and degradation of mitotic cyclins and other substrates. Cdh1-APC is active in postmitotic neurons, where it regulates axonal growth and patterning in the developing brain. However, it remains unknown whether Cdh1-APC is involved in preventing cell-cycle progression in terminally differentiated neurons. To address this issue, we used the small hairpin RNA strategy to deplete Cdh1 in postmitotic neurons. We observed that Cdh1 silencing rapidly triggered apoptotic neuronal death. To investigate the underlying mechanism, we focused on cyclin B1, a major Cdh1-APC substrate. Our results demonstrate that Cdh1 is required to prevent the accumulation of cyclin B1 in terminally differentiated neurons. Moreover, by keeping cyclin B1 low, Cdh1 prevented these neurons from entering an aberrant S phase that led to apoptotic cell death. These results provide an explanation for the mechanism of cyclin B1 reactivation that occurs in the brain of patients suffering from neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease.

  5. Genetic deletion of mPGES-1 accelerates intestinal tumorigenesis in APC(Min/+) mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elander, N.; Ungerback, J.; Olsson, H.; Uematsu, S.; Akira, S.; Soderkvist, P.

    2008-01-01

    The induced synthesis of bioactive prostanoids downstream of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and prostaglandin H(2) (PGH(2)) exerts a critical event in colorectal carcinogenesis. Here we demonstrate that APC(Min/+) mice with genetic deletion of microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1), which catalys

  6. Expression of Indian hedgehog is negatively correlated with APC gene mutation in colorectal tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiangsheng; Shi, Lei; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Peng, Yan; Chen, Xia; Tang, Chuankang; Li, Xiaoyun; Zhou, Xian

    2014-01-01

    The regulatory mechanism of Indian hedgehog (IHH) in colorectal carcinogenesis has not been elucidated. In the current study, the expression of IHH were investigated in 7 digestive tract cancer cell lines, and in 10 normal colorectal mucosas (NCs), 30 hyperplastic polyps (HPs), 35 colorectal adenomas (ADs), and 40 colorectal adenocarcinomas (CAs) by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemical staining. Moreover, the mutational status of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) and β-catenin in these tumors were analyzed by direct sequencing. IHH mRNA was lost in the 4 colon cancer cell lines harboring APC mutation. IHH mRNA was significantly decreased in CAs (0.17 ± 0.22), compared with that in ADs (0.38 ± 0.35) and HPs (0.56 ± 0.38, P 19.47 ± 17.91) and NCs (42.40 ± 13.67, P < 0.05). Moreover, APC mutations were negatively correlated with IHH mRNA expression (Spearman's R = -0.636, P < 0.01) and IHH protein expression (Spearman's R = -0.426, P < 0.01). In conclusion, down-regulation of IHH expression might be an early event during the carcinogenesis of colorectal cancer. The activation of Wnt signaling by APC mutation might contribute to the down-regulation or loss of IHH expression in colorectal tumors.

  7. Molecular analysis of the APC and MUTYH genes in Galician and Catalonian FAP families: a different spectrum of mutations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez-Fernández Nuria

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP is an autosomal dominant-inherited colorectal cancer syndrome, caused by germline mutations in the APC gene. Recently, biallelic mutations in MUTYH have also been identified in patients with multiple colorectal adenomas and in APC-negative patients with FAP. The aim of this work is therefore to determine the frequency of APC and MUTYH mutations among FAP families from two Spanish populations. Methods Eighty-two unrelated patients with classical or attenuated FAP were screened for APC germline mutations. MUTYH analysis was then conducted in those APC-negative families and in 9 additional patients from a previous study. Direct sequencing, SSCP analysis and TaqMan genotyping were used to identify point and frameshift mutations, meanwhile large rearrangements in the APC gene were screened by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA. Results APC germline mutations were found in 39% of the patients and, despite the great number of genetic variants described so far in this gene, seven new mutations were identified. The two hotspots at codons 1061 and 1309 of the APC gene accounted for 9,4% of the APC-positive families, although they were underrepresented in Galician samples. The deletion at codon 1061 was not found in 19 APC-positive Galician patients but represented 23% of the Catalonian positive families (p = 0,058. The same trend was observed at codon 1309, even though statistical analysis showed no significance between populations. Twenty-four percent of the APC-negative patients carried biallelic MUTYH germline mutations, and showed an attenuated polyposis phenotype generally without extracolonic manifestations. New genetic variants were found, as well as the two hotspots already reported (p.Tyr165Cys and p.Gly382Asp. Conclusion The results we present indicate that in Galician patients the frequency of the hotspot at codon 1061 in APC differs significantly from the Catalonian

  8. What Counts as Evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty Stahl, Katherine A.

    2014-01-01

    Each disciplinary community has its own criteria for determining what counts as evidence of knowledge in their academic field. The criteria influence the ways that a community's knowledge is created, communicated, and evaluated. Situating reading, writing, and language instruction within the content areas enables teachers to explicitly…

  9. Reticulocyte Count Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may be ordered when: CBC results show a decreased RBC count and/or a decreased hemoglobin and hematocrit A healthcare practitioner wants to ... and hematocrit, to help determine the degree and rate of overproduction of RBCs ... during pregnancy . Newborns have a higher percentage of reticulocytes, but ...

  10. What Counts as Prostitution?

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    Stuart P. Green

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available What counts, or should count, as prostitution? In the criminal law today, prostitution is understood to involve the provision of sexual services in exchange for money or other benefits. But what exactly is a ‘sexual service’? And what exactly is the nature of the required ‘exchange’? The key to answering these questions is to recognize that how we choose to define prostitution will inevitably depend on why we believe one or more aspects of prostitution are wrong or harmful, or should be criminalized or otherwise deterred, in the first place. These judgements, in turn, will often depend on an assessment of the contested empirical evidence on which they rest. This article describes a variety of real-world contexts in which the ‘what counts as prostitution’ question has arisen, surveys a range of leading rationales for deterring prostitution, and demonstrates how the answer to the definition question depends on the answer to the normative question. The article concludes with some preliminary thoughts on how analogous questions about what should count as sexual conduct arise in the context of consensual offences such as adultery and incest, as well as non-consensual offences such as sexual assault.

  11. Promoter hypermethylation of p16 and APC in gastrointestinal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem, Beril; Küçükyıldırım, Sibel; Sağlar, Emel; Polat, Zülfikar; Mergen, Hatice

    2014-10-01

    Cancer is a consequence of the disruption of cellular regulation. Epigenetic is one of the reasons of this disruption. Epigenetic factors play a role in the carcinogenesis by affecting proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes and it is one of the most popular research areas in recent years. DNA methylation, which is an epigenetic mechanism, occurs in the early stages of tumorigenesis. Promoter methylation which causes the silence of tumor suppressor genes have been studied extensively in various tumor types. The aim of this study was to investigate promoter methylation of certain tumor suppressor genes, Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (p16) and Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), which take part in gastrointestinal tumorigenesis. To detect the promoter methylation of p16 and APC genes, tissue samples from 20 gastrointestinal cancer patients and peripheral blood samples from 15 healthy individuals were collected for Methylation-Specific Polymerase Chain Reaction (MSP) analysis. According to the statistical analysis, in tumor tissue, positive methylation ratio of p16 and APC genes was found respectively 30% (6/20) and 50% (10/20). The difference of promoter methylation of these genes between tumor tissues and control group was significantly observed (p=0.02 and 0.001, respectively). An alteration of promoter methylation of APC gene according to tumor localization was found (p=0.007), but there was no significant difference observed in p16. In our study, promoter methylation which was considered to be occurred as an early event in gastrointestinal carcinogenesis was observed in p16 and APC genes.

  12. Curcumin suppresses intestinal polyps in APC Min mice fed a high fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Pettan-Brewer

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is a leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States. Various risk factors have been associated with CRC including increasing age and diet. Epidemiological and experimental studies have implicated a diet high in fat as an important risk factor for colon cancer. High fat diets can promote obesity resulting in insulin resistance and inflammation and the development of oxidative stress, increased cell proliferation, and suppression of apoptosis. Because of the high consumption of dietary fats, especially saturated fats, by Western countries, it is of interest to see if non-nutrient food factors might be effective in preventing or delaying CRC in the presence of high saturated fat intake. Curcumin (Curcuma longa, the main yellow pigment in turmeric, was selected to test because of its reported anti-tumor activity. APC Min mice, which develop intestinal polyps and have many molecular features of CRC, were fed a diet containing 35% pork fat, 33% sucrose, and a protein and vitamin mineral mixture (HFD with or without 0.5% curcumin. These cohorts were compared to APC Min mice receiving standard rodent chow (RC with 8% fat. APC Min mice fed the HFD for 3 months had a 23% increase in total number of polyps compared to APC Min mice on RC. Curcumin was able to significantly reverse the accelerated polyp development associated with the HFD suggesting it may be effective clinically in helping prevent colon cancer even when ingesting high amounts of fatty foods. The anti-tumor effect of curcumin was shown to be associated with enhanced apoptosis and increased efficiency of DNA repair. Since curcumin prevented the gain in body weight seen in APC Min mice ingesting the HFD, modulation of energy metabolism may also be a factor.

  13. An APC:WNT counter-current-like mechanism regulates cell division along the colonic crypt axis: a mechanism that explains how APC mutations induce proliferative abnormalities that drive colon cancer development.

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    Bruce M Boman

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available APC normally down-regulates WNT signaling in human colon, and APC mutations cause proliferative abnormalities in premalignant crypts leading to colon cancer, but the mechanisms are unclear at the level of spatial and functional organization of the crypt. Accordingly, we postulated a counter-current-like mechanism based on gradients of factors (APC;WNT that regulate colonocyte proliferation along the crypt axis. During crypt renewal, stem cells (SCs at the crypt bottom generate non-SC daughter cells that proliferate and differentiate while migrating upwards. The APC concentration is low at the crypt bottom and high at the top (where differentiated cells reside. WNT signaling, in contrast, is high at the bottom (where SCs reside and low at the top. Given that WNT and APC gradients are counter to one another, we hypothesized that a counter-current-like mechanism exists. Since both APC and WNT signaling components (e.g. survivin are required for mitosis, this mechanism establishes a zone in the lower crypt where conditions are optimal for maximal cell division and mitosis orientation (symmetric versus asymmetric. APC haploinsufficiency diminishes the APC gradient, shifts the proliferative zone upwards, and increases symmetric division, which causes SC overpopulation. In homozygote mutant crypts, these changes are exacerbated. Thus, APC-mutation-induced changes in the counter-current-like mechanism cause expansion of proliferative populations (SCs, rapidly-proliferating cells during tumorigenesis. We propose this mechanism also drives crypt fission, functions in the crypt cycle, and underlies adenoma development. Novel chemoprevention approaches designed to normalize the two gradients and readjust the proliferative zone downwards, might thwart progression of these premalignant changes.

  14. Role of heterozygous APC mutation in niche succession and initiation of colorectal cancer--a computational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roschen Sasikumar

    Full Text Available Mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC gene are found in most colorectal cancers. They cause constitutive activation of proliferative pathways when both alleles of the gene are mutated. However studies on individuals with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP have shown that a single mutated APC allele can also create changes in the precancerous colon crypt, like increased number of stem cells, increased crypt fission, greater variability of DNA methylation patterns, and higher somatic mutation rates. In this paper, using a computational model of colon crypt dynamics, we evolve and investigate a hypothesis on the effect of heterozygous APC mutation that explains these different observations. Based on previous reports and the results from the computational model we propose the hypothesis that heterozygous APC mutation has the effect of increasing the chances for a stem cell to divide symmetrically, producing two stem cell daughters. We incorporate this hypothesis into the model and perform simulation experiments to investigate the consequences of the hypothesis. Simulations show that this hypothesis links together the changes in FAP crypts observed in previous studies. The simulations also show that an APC(+/- stem cell gets selective advantages for dominating the crypt and progressing to cancer. This explains why most colon cancers are initiated by APC mutation. The results could have implications for preventing or retarding the onset of colon cancer in people with inherited or acquired mutation of one APC allele. Experimental validation of the hypothesis as well as investigation into the molecular mechanisms of this effect may therefore be worth undertaking.

  15. Targeting of Fzr/Cdh1 for timely activation of the APC/C at the centrosome during mitotic exit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meghini, Francesco; Martins, Torcato; Tait, Xavier; Fujimitsu, Kazuyuki; Yamano, Hiroyuki; Glover, David M; Kimata, Yuu

    2016-08-25

    A multi-subunit ubiquitin ligase, the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), regulates critical cellular processes including the cell cycle. To accomplish its diverse functions, APC/C activity must be precisely regulated in time and space. The interphase APC/C activator Fizzy-related (Fzr or Cdh1) is localized at centrosomes in animal cells. However, neither the mechanism of its localization nor its importance is clear. Here we identify the centrosome component Spd2 as a major partner of Fzr in Drosophila. The localization of Fzr to the centriole during interphase depends on direct interaction with Spd2. By generating Spd2 mutants unable to bind Fzr, we show that centrosomal localization of Fzr is essential for optimal APC/C activation towards its centrosomal substrate Aurora A. Finally, we show that Spd2 is also a novel APC/C(Fzr) substrate. Our study is the first to demonstrate the critical importance of distinct subcellular pools of APC/C activators in the spatiotemporal control of APC/C activity.

  16. How to optimize the drop plate method for enumerating bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herigstad, B; Hamilton, M; Heersink, J

    2001-03-01

    The drop plate (DP) method can be used to determine the number of viable suspended bacteria in a known beaker volume. The drop plate method has some advantages over the spread plate (SP) method. Less time and effort are required to dispense the drops onto an agar plate than to spread an equivalent total sample volume into the agar. By distributing the sample in drops, colony counting can be done faster and perhaps more accurately. Even though it has been present in the laboratory for many years, the drop plate method has not been standardized. Some technicians use 10-fold dilutions, others use twofold. Some technicians plate a total volume of 0.1 ml, others plate 0.2 ml. The optimal combination of such factors would be useful to know when performing the drop plate method. This investigation was conducted to determine (i) the standard deviation of the bacterial density estimate, (ii) the cost of performing the drop plate procedure, (iii) the optimal drop plate design, and (iv) the advantages of the drop plate method in comparison to the standard spread plate method. The optimal design is the combination of factor settings that achieves the smallest standard deviation for a fixed cost. Computer simulation techniques and regression analysis were used to express the standard deviation as a function of the beaker volume, dilution factor, and volume plated. The standard deviation expression is also applicable to the spread plate method.

  17. Microbial contamination in intraoral phosphor storage plates: the dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Tricia Murielly Pereira Andrade; de Castro, Ricardo Dias; de Vasconcelos, Laís César; Pontual, Andréa Dos Anjos; de Moraes Ramos Perez, Flávia Maria; Pontual, Maria Luiza Dos Anjos

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate microbial contamination in phosphor storage plates in dental radiology services and discuss the possible origin of this contamination. The sample comprised 50 phosphor plates: 14 plates from service A, 30 from service B, and 6 in the control group, consisting of plates never used. Damp sterile swabs were rubbed on the phosphor plates, and then transferred to tests tubes containing sterile saline solution. Serial dilutions were made, and then inoculated in triplicate on Mueller Hinton agar plates and incubated at 37 °C/48 h, before counting the colony-forming units (CFU). The samples were also seeded in brain-heart infusion medium to confirm contamination by turbidity of the culture medium. All solutions, turbid and clean, were seeded in selective and non-selective media. At service A and B, 50 and 73.3 % of the phosphor plates were contaminated, respectively. This contamination was mainly due to bacteria of the genus Staphylococcus. CFU counts ranged from 26.4 to 80.0 CFU/plate. Most of the phosphor plates evaluated shown to be contaminated, mainly by Staphylococcus ssp. Quantitatively, this contamination occurred at low levels, possibly arising from handling of the plates. The use of a second plastic barrier may have diminished contamination by microorganisms from the oral cavity. There is a risk of cross-contamination by phosphor storage plates used in dental radiology services.

  18. Rapid detection of translation-terminating mutations at the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene by direct protein truncation test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Der Luut, R.; Khan, P.M.; Van Leeuwen, C.; Tops, C.; Roest, P.; Den Dunnen, J. (Leiden Univ. (Netherlands))

    1994-03-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is usually associated with protein truncating mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene. The APC mutations are known to play a major role in colorectal carcinogensis. For the identification of protein truncating mutations of the APC gene, the authors developed a rapid, sensitive, and direct screening procedure. The technique is based on the in vitro transcription and translation of the genomic PCR products and is called the protein truncation test. Samples of DNA from individual FAP patients, members of a FAP family, colorectal tumors, and colorectal tumor-derived cell lines were used to show the effectiveness of this method. 9 refs., 2 figs.

  19. Targeting the DNA replication checkpoint by pharmacologic inhibition of Chk1 kinase: a strategy to sensitize APC mutant colon cancer cells to 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino-Echarri, Estefania; Henderson, Beric R; Brocardo, Mariana G

    2014-10-30

    5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is the first line component used in colorectal cancer (CRC) therapy however even in combination with other chemotherapeutic drugs recurrence is common. Mutations of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene are considered as the initiating step of transformation in familial and sporadic CRCs. We have previously shown that APC regulates the cellular response to DNA replication stress and recently hypothesized that APC mutations might therefore influence 5-FU resistance. To test this, we compared CRC cell lines and show that those expressing truncated APC exhibit a limited response to 5-FU and arrest in G1/S-phase without undergoing lethal damage, unlike cells expressing wild-type APC. In SW480 APC-mutant CRC cells, 5-FU-dependent apoptosis was restored after transient expression of full length APC, indicating a direct link between APC and drug response. Furthermore, we could increase sensitivity of APC truncated cells to 5-FU by inactivating the Chk1 kinase using drug treatment or siRNA-mediated knockdown. Our findings identify mutant APC as a potential tumor biomarker of resistance to 5-FU, and importantly we show that APC-mutant CRC cells can be made more sensitive to 5-FU by use of Chk1 inhibitors.

  20. Low noise and conductively cooled microchannel plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, W. B.

    1990-01-01

    Microchannel plate (MCP) dynamic range has recently been enhanced for both very low and very high input flux conditions. Improvements in MCP manufacturing technology reported earlier have led to MCPs with substantially reduced radioisotope levels, giving dramatically lower internal background-counting rates. An update is given on the Galileo low noise MCP. Also, new results in increasing the MCP linear counting range for high input flux densities are presented. By bonding the active face of a very low resistance MCP (less than 1 megaohm) to a substrate providing a conductive path for heat transport, the bias current limit (hence, MCP output count rate limit) can be increased up to two orders of magnitude. Normal pulse-counting MCP operation was observed at bias currents of several mA when a curved-channel MCP (80:1) was bonded to a ceramic multianode substrate; the MCP temperature rise above ambient was less than 40 C.

  1. The right to count does not always count

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodemann, Morten

    2013-01-01

    The best prescription against illness is learning to read and to count. People who are unable to count have a harder time learning to read. People who have difficulty counting make poorer decisions, are less able to combine information and are less likely to have a strategy for life...

  2. Luminal Iron Levels Govern Intestinal Tumorigenesis after Apc Loss In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorina Radulescu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available It is clear from epidemiological studies that excess iron is associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer; however, questions regarding the mechanism of how iron increases cancer risk, the source of the excess iron (circulating or luminal, and whether iron reduction represents a potential therapeutic option remain unanswered. In this study, we show that after Apc deletion, the cellular iron acquisition proteins TfR1 and DMT1 are rapidly induced. Conversely, restoration of APC reduces cellular iron due to repression of these proteins. To test the functional importance of these findings, we performed in vivo investigations of the impact of iron levels on intestinal tumorigenesis. Strikingly, depletion of luminal (but not systemic iron strongly suppressed murine intestinal tumorigenesis, whereas increased luminal iron strongly promoted tumorigenesis. Taken together, our data definitively delineate iron as a potent modifier of intestinal tumorigenesis and have important implications for dietary iron supplementation in patients at high risk of colorectal cancer.

  3. Role of APC and DNA mismatch repair genes in the development of colorectal cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Deodutta

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Colorectal cancer is the third most common cause of cancer-related death in both men and women in the western hemisphere. According to the American Cancer Society, an estimated 105,500 new cases of colon cancer with 57,100 deaths will occur in the U.S. in 2003, accounting for about 10% of cancer deaths. Among the colon cancer patients, hereditary risk contributes approximately 20%. The main inherited colorectal cancers are the familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP and the hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancers (HNPCC. The FAP and HNPCC are caused due to mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC and DNA mismatch repair (MMR genes. The focus of this review is to summarize the functions of APC and MMR gene products in the development of colorectal cancers.

  4. Electrodialytic upgrading of MSWI APC residue from hazardous waste to secondary resource

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Parés Viader, Raimon

    The aim of this project was to contribute to the development of electrodialytic treatment technology of air pollution control residues (APC) from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) to obtain maximal leaching reduction by optimization of treatment time and current density for different types...... of MSWI APC residues. The concept idea was in a pilot scale unit to reduce the mobility of toxic elements and salts by electrodialytic treatment enough for the residual product to constitute an environmentally safe resource for substitution of virgin resources in construction material e.......g. for substitution of cement or fillers in concrete. In general leaching could not be reduced by optimizing current density and treatment time in the pilot scale stack treatment unit, as hypothesized, even though there was evidence of dependency on current density for e.g. zinc, this was not true for most elements...

  5. Human KIAA1018/FAN1 nuclease is a new mitotic substrate of APC/CCdh1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fenju Lai; Kaishun Hu; Yuanzhong Wu; Jianjun Tang; Yi Sang; Jingying Cao; Tiebang Kang

    2012-01-01

    A recently identified protein,FAN1 (FANCD2-associated nuclease 1,previously known as KIAA1018),is a novel nuclease associated with monoubiquitinated FANCD2 that is required for cellular resistance against DNA interstrand crosslinking (ICL) agents.The mechanisms of FAN1 regulation have not yet been explored.Here,we provide evidence that FAN1 is degraded during mitotic exit,suggesting that FAN1 may be a mitotic substrate of the anaphase-promoting cyclosome complex (APC/C).Indeed,.Cdh1,but not Cdc20,was capable of regulating the protein level of FAN1 through the KEN box and the D-box.Moreover,the up- and down-regulation of FAN1 affected the progression to mitotic exit.Collectively,these data suggest that FAN1 may be a new mitotic substrate of APC/CCdh1 that plays a key role during mitotic e xit.

  6. Effect of drying on leaching testing of treated municipal solid waste incineration APC-residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Y.; Hyks, Jiri; Astrup, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    tests with dried APC-residue than in tests with wet residues. The effect of drying appeared to be a combination of decreasing the reduction capacity of the sample (Cr), decreasing pH (Cd, Cu) and in column tests also a wash-out of salts (probably affecting Cd and Pb). If the leaching tests are intended...... to mimic landfill conditions, the results of this paper suggest that the tests should be done on wet, non-dried residue samples, although this may be less practical than testing dried samples....... for the batch and column leaching test; however, these standards do not specify whether or not the residue samples should be dried prior to the leaching testing. Laboratory tests were performed in parallel (dried/nondried) on treated APC-residue samples and evaluated with respect to Cr, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn...

  7. Undercooling, nodule count and carbides in thin walled ductile cast iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl Martin; Tiedje, Niels Skat

    2008-01-01

    Ductile cast iron has been cast in plate thicknesses between 2 to 8 mm. The temperature has been measured during the solidification and the graphite nodule count and size distribution together with the type and amount of carbides have been analysed afterwards. Low nodule count gives higher...

  8. p250GAP is a novel player in the Cdh1-APC/Smurf1 pathway of axon growth regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhuvanthi Kannan

    Full Text Available Axon growth is an essential process during brain development. The E3 ubiquitin ligase Cdh1-APC has emerged as a critical regulator of intrinsic axon growth control. Here, we identified the RhoGAP p250GAP as a novel interactor of the E3 ubiquitin ligase Cdh1-APC and found that p250GAP promotes axon growth downstream of Cdh1-APC. We also report that p250GAP undergoes non-proteolytic ubiquitination and associates with the Cdh1 substrate Smurf1 to synergistically regulate axon growth. Finally, we found that in vivo knockdown of p250GAP in the developing cerebellar cortex results in impaired migration and axonal growth. Taken together, our data indicate that Cdh1-APC together with the RhoA regulators p250GAP and Smurf1 controls axon growth in the mammalian brain.

  9. Cell cycle- and cell growth-regulated proteolysis of mammalian CDC6 is dependent on APC-CDH1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, B O; Wagener, C; Marinoni, F;

    2000-01-01

    CDC6 is conserved during evolution and is essential and limiting for the initiation of eukaryotic DNA replication. Human CDC6 activity is regulated by periodic transcription and CDK-regulated subcellular localization. Here, we show that, in addition to being absent from nonproliferating cells, CDC6...... is targeted for ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis by the anaphase promoting complex (APC)/cyclosome in G(1). A combination of point mutations in the destruction box and KEN-box motifs in CDC6 stabilizes the protein in G(1) and in quiescent cells. Furthermore, APC, in association with CDH1, ubiquitinates CDC6...... in vitro, and both APC and CDH1 are required and limiting for CDC6 proteolysis in vivo. Although a stable mutant of CDC6 is biologically active, overexpression of this mutant or wild-type CDC6 is not sufficient to induce multiple rounds of DNA replication in the same cell cycle. The APC-CDH1-dependent...

  10. Regulation of APC and AXIN2 expression by intestinal tumor suppressor CDX2 in colon cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anders Krüger; Coskun, Mehmet; Bzorek, Michael;

    2013-01-01

    -related genes are regulated by CDX2. The aim was to investigate the role of decreased CDX2 level on the expression of APC, AXIN2 and GSK3β in migrating colon cancer cells at the invasive front. CDX2-bound promoter and enhancer regions from APC, AXIN2 and GSK3β were analyzed for gene regulatory activity...... was associated with endogenous downregulation of APC and AXIN2 expression in Caco-2 cells but did not affect GSK3β expression. Furthermore, elevated levels of nuclear β-catenin and reduced levels of cytoplasmic APC were correlated to a low CDX2 expression in migrating colon cancer cells in vivo. These results...... suggest that a low CDX2 level has influence on the Wnt signaling in invasive colon cancer cells possibly promoting cellular migration....

  11. Chlorinated Water Modulates the Development of Colorectal Tumors with Chromosomal Instability and Gut Microbiota in Apc-Deficient Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasada, Tatsunari; Hinoi, Takao; Saito, Yasufumi; Adachi, Tomohiro; Takakura, Yuji; Kawaguchi, Yasuo; Sotomaru, Yusuke; Sentani, Kazuhiro; Oue, Naohide; Yasui, Wataru; Ohdan, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is continuously exposed to a variety of chemicals and commensal bacteria. Recent studies have shown that changes in gut microbial populations caused by chlorine or other chemicals in the drinking water influence the development of human colorectal cancer, although the mechanism of tumorigenesis in the gut epithelium is obfuscated by the diversity of microflora and complexity of the tumor microenvironment. In this regard, mouse models that recapitulate human colorectal cancer are an invaluable tool. In this study, we used two conditional adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc) knockout mouse models to investigate the effect of chlorinated water on tumorigenesis in the digestive tract. Mice with colon-specific carcinoma--caused by either chromosomal (CDX2P 9.5-NLS Cre;Apc(+/flox), abbreviated to CPC;Apc) or microsatellite (CDX2P9.5-G19Cre;Apc(flox/flox) and CDX2P9.5-G22Cre;Apc(flox/flox)) instability, respectively--were administered chlorinated (10.0 mg/L chlorine) or tap (0.7 mg/L chlorine) water and evaluated for colon polyp formation. In CPC;Apc mice given chlorinated drinking water, tumors tended to develop in the colon, whereas in those that drank tap water, tumors were mostly observed in the small intestine. There was no difference in the rate of tumor formation of CDX2P9.5-G19Cre;Apc(flox/flox) and CDX2P9.5-G22Cre;Apc(flox/flox) mice consuming chlorinated as compared to tap water, suggesting that microsatellite instability in the Apc gene does not significantly affect tumorigenesis. Chlorinated water altered the enteric environment by reducing the fecal populations of the obligatory anaerobes Clostridium perfringens and C. difficile, as well as species belonging to the Atopobium cluster, including Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcus sp., which was associated with colon tumorigenesis in CPC;Apc mice. These results suggest that differences in tumorigenesis among CPC;Apc mice consuming chlorinated versus tap water may be due to differences

  12. Chlorinated Water Modulates the Development of Colorectal Tumors with Chromosomal Instability and Gut Microbiota in Apc-Deficient Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsunari Sasada

    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal tract is continuously exposed to a variety of chemicals and commensal bacteria. Recent studies have shown that changes in gut microbial populations caused by chlorine or other chemicals in the drinking water influence the development of human colorectal cancer, although the mechanism of tumorigenesis in the gut epithelium is obfuscated by the diversity of microflora and complexity of the tumor microenvironment. In this regard, mouse models that recapitulate human colorectal cancer are an invaluable tool. In this study, we used two conditional adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc knockout mouse models to investigate the effect of chlorinated water on tumorigenesis in the digestive tract. Mice with colon-specific carcinoma--caused by either chromosomal (CDX2P 9.5-NLS Cre;Apc(+/flox, abbreviated to CPC;Apc or microsatellite (CDX2P9.5-G19Cre;Apc(flox/flox and CDX2P9.5-G22Cre;Apc(flox/flox instability, respectively--were administered chlorinated (10.0 mg/L chlorine or tap (0.7 mg/L chlorine water and evaluated for colon polyp formation. In CPC;Apc mice given chlorinated drinking water, tumors tended to develop in the colon, whereas in those that drank tap water, tumors were mostly observed in the small intestine. There was no difference in the rate of tumor formation of CDX2P9.5-G19Cre;Apc(flox/flox and CDX2P9.5-G22Cre;Apc(flox/flox mice consuming chlorinated as compared to tap water, suggesting that microsatellite instability in the Apc gene does not significantly affect tumorigenesis. Chlorinated water altered the enteric environment by reducing the fecal populations of the obligatory anaerobes Clostridium perfringens and C. difficile, as well as species belonging to the Atopobium cluster, including Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcus sp., which was associated with colon tumorigenesis in CPC;Apc mice. These results suggest that differences in tumorigenesis among CPC;Apc mice consuming chlorinated versus tap water may be due to

  13. APC/C-mediated degradation of dsRNA-binding protein 4 (DRB4 involved in RNA silencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Marrocco

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Selective protein degradation via the ubiquitin-26S proteasome is a major mechanism underlying DNA replication and cell division in all Eukaryotes. In particular, the APC/C (Anaphase Promoting Complex or Cyclosome is a master ubiquitin protein ligase (E3 that targets regulatory proteins for degradation allowing sister chromatid separation and exit from mitosis. Interestingly, recent work also indicates that the APC/C remains active in differentiated animal and plant cells. However, its role in post-mitotic cells remains elusive and only a few substrates have been characterized. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In order to identify novel APC/C substrates, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen using as the bait Arabidopsis APC10/DOC1, one core subunit of the APC/C, which is required for substrate recruitment. This screen identified DRB4, a double-stranded RNA binding protein involved in the biogenesis of different classes of small RNA (sRNA. This protein interaction was further confirmed in vitro and in plant cells. Moreover, APC10 interacts with DRB4 through the second dsRNA binding motif (dsRBD2 of DRB4, which is also required for its homodimerization and binding to its Dicer partner DCL4. We further showed that DRB4 protein accumulates when the proteasome is inactivated and, most importantly, we found that DRB4 stability depends on APC/C activity. Hence, depletion of Arabidopsis APC/C activity by RNAi leads to a strong accumulation of endogenous DRB4, far beyond its normal level of accumulation. However, we could not detect any defects in sRNA production in lines where DRB4 was overexpressed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our work identified a first plant substrate of the APC/C, which is not a regulator of the cell cycle. Though we cannot exclude that APC/C-dependent degradation of DRB4 has some regulatory roles under specific growth conditions, our work rather points to a housekeeping function of APC/C in maintaining precise cellular

  14. CalCOFI Egg Counts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish egg counts and standardized counts for eggs captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets], and...

  15. High Red Blood Cell Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms High red blood cell count By Mayo Clinic Staff A high red blood cell count is an increase in oxygen-carrying cells in your bloodstream. Red blood cells transport oxygen from your lungs to tissues throughout ...

  16. The roles of APC and Axin derived from experimental and theoretical analysis of the Wnt pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethan Lee

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Wnt signaling plays an important role in both oncogenesis and development. Activation of the Wnt pathway results in stabilization of the transcriptional coactivator beta-catenin. Recent studies have demonstrated that axin, which coordinates beta-catenin degradation, is itself degraded. Although the key molecules required for transducing a Wnt signal have been identified, a quantitative understanding of this pathway has been lacking. We have developed a mathematical model for the canonical Wnt pathway that describes the interactions among the core components: Wnt, Frizzled, Dishevelled, GSK3beta, APC, axin, beta-catenin, and TCF. Using a system of differential equations, the model incorporates the kinetics of protein-protein interactions, protein synthesis/degradation, and phosphorylation/dephosphorylation. We initially defined a reference state of kinetic, thermodynamic, and flux data from experiments using Xenopus extracts. Predictions based on the analysis of the reference state were used iteratively to develop a more refined model from which we analyzed the effects of prolonged and transient Wnt stimulation on beta-catenin and axin turnover. We predict several unusual features of the Wnt pathway, some of which we tested experimentally. An insight from our model, which we confirmed experimentally, is that the two scaffold proteins axin and APC promote the formation of degradation complexes in very different ways. We can also explain the importance of axin degradation in amplifying and sharpening the Wnt signal, and we show that the dependence of axin degradation on APC is an essential part of an unappreciated regulatory loop that prevents the accumulation of beta-catenin at decreased APC concentrations. By applying control analysis to our mathematical model, we demonstrate the modular design, sensitivity, and robustness of the Wnt pathway and derive an explicit expression for tumor suppression and oncogenicity.

  17. Analysis of APC and IGFBP7 promoter gene methylation in Swedish and Vietnamese colorectal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimberg, Jan; Hong, Thai Trinh; Skarstedt, Marita; Löfgren, Sture; Zar, Niklas; Matussek, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    The tumour suppressor gene adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) is a key component that drives colorectal carcinogenesis. The reported DNA methylation in the promoter of APC varies greatly among studies of colorectal cancer (CRC) in different populations. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 7 (IGFBP7), also known as IGFBP-related protein 1 (IGFBP-rP1), is expressed in various tissue types, including the lung, brain, prostate and gastrointestinal tract, and has been suggested to play a tumour suppressor role against colorectal carcinogenesis. Studies have indicated that IGFBP7 is inactivated by DNA methylation in human colon, lung and breast cancer. In the present study, we used the methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction to study the methylation status of the APC and IGFBP7 gene promoters in cancerous and paired normal tissue to evaluate its impact on clinical factors and association with ethnicity, represented by Swedish and Vietnamese CRC patients. We also investigated the distribution of CpG islands and the CpG dinucleotide density of each CpG island in the regions which were the subject of our investigation. Overall, normal tissue from Swedish patients exhibited a significantly higher frequency of IGFBP7 gene methylation in comparison with that of Vietnamese patients. Moreover, a significantly higher number of cancer tissues from Vietnamese individuals showed higher levels of methylation versus the paired normal tissue compared with that of Swedish patients. When we studied the methylation in cancer compared with the matched normal tissue in individuals, we found that a significantly higher number of Vietnamese patients had a higher degree of IGFBP7 gene methylation in cancer versus matched normal tissue in comparison with Swedish patients. Taken together, our results suggest that the methylation of the APC and IGFBP7 gene promoter region in cancerous tissue, in combination with the predominance of methylation in normal tissue, may serve as a

  18. Feedback regulation between atypical E2Fs and APC/CCdh1 coordinates cell cycle progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boekhout, Michiel; Yuan, Ruixue; Wondergem, Annelotte P; Segeren, Hendrika A; van Liere, Elsbeth A; Awol, Nesibu; Jansen, Imke; Wolthuis, Rob M F; de Bruin, Alain; Westendorp, Bart

    2016-03-01

    E2F transcription factors control the oscillating expression pattern of multiple target genes during the cell cycle. Activator E2Fs, E2F1-3, induce an upswing of E2F targets, which is essential for the G1-to-S phase transition, whereas atypical E2Fs, E2F7 and E2F8, mediate a downswing of the same targets during late S, G2, and M phases. Expression of atypical E2Fs is induced by E2F1-3, but it is unknown how atypical E2Fs are inactivated in a timely manner. Here, we demonstrate that E2F7 and E2F8 are substrates of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C). Removal of CDH1, or mutating the CDH1-interacting KEN boxes, stabilized E2F7/8 from anaphase onwards and during G1. Expressing KEN mutant E2F7 during G1 impairs S phase entry and eventually results in cell death. Furthermore, we show that E2F8, but not E2F7, interacts also with APC/C(C) (dc20). Importantly, atypical E2Fs can activate APC/C(C) (dh1) by repressing its inhibitors cyclin A, cyclin E, and Emi1. In conclusion, we discovered a feedback loop between atypical E2Fs and APC/C(C) (dh1), which ensures balanced expression of cell cycle genes and normal cell cycle progression.

  19. INTERVIEW: Quick, Social and Collaborative - wiki-based user documentation at APC by Schneider Electric

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Margrethe H.; Pernille Bagger Nielsen, Pernille; Kalianov, Stanislav

    2013-01-01

    In the software documentation department at APC by Schneider Electric in Kolding, Denmark, Technical Writer Pernille Bagger Nielsen writes user documentation for the software developed by the company. In cooperation with Localization Manager Stanislav Kalianov she reorganised the user documentation...... for publication as wiki-based documentation on the internet. The new platform supports their strategy of using agile and iterative, topic-based, collaborative writing when developing user documentation. Their experience will interest readers who consider introducing a similar new strategy....

  20. Correlation study between contamination and signal degradation in single-mode APC connectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytle, Steve; Brown, Matt; Berdinskikh, Tatiana; Wilson, Douglas H.; Fisher, David; Huang, Sun-Yuan; Hughes, Mike; Mitcheltree, Tom; Roche, Brian J.

    2009-06-01

    This paper summarizes the correlation study between contamination and scratches on singlemode APC connectors and signal degradation; leading to an Acceptance Criteria Matrix. The study is a continuation of International Electronics Manufacturing Initiative (iNEMI) research on development of cleanliness specification for singlemode angled physical contact (SM-APC) connectors. Twenty-five APC SC connectors on one-meter patch cords were used for this study. The Design of the Experiment (DoE) was a multi-step process that involved: (1) inspecting, cleaning and inspecting connectors being tested (devices under test, or DUTs) and launch connectors; (2) making multiple matings and dematings of each DUT, in a pristine state, with a reference connector, and recording Return Loss (RL) data after each cycle; (3) manually applying dust to the cleaned end-faces of the DUTs; then (4) mating contaminated DUTs with clean reference connectors at least five times, taking RL measurements after each mating and saving fiber end-face images for both connectors. It was shown that connectors with the contamination at the core (9um diameter) demonstrated a dramatic decrease in average RL of 14.2 dB. In comparison, the samples with contamination on the cladding and clear core demonstrated a negligible change in RL of 0.15 dB. For highly contaminated samples in the cladding layer, we found the changes of RL to be about 5-6 dB. Further investigation established that particle migration during successive matings also occurs on the ferrule within the contact zone (approximately paper, an inspection criteria matrix is proposed for SM-APC connectors including the zone definitions and number of allowable defects (contamination and scratches) for each zone. The recommendations on pass/fail criteria have been provided to the IEC (International Electrotechnical Committee). It is expected IEC-61300-3-25, which contains these criteria, will publish in 2009.

  1. Counting and Topological Order

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈阳军

    1997-01-01

    The counting method is a simple and efficient method for processing linear recursive datalog queries.Its time complexity is bounded by O(n,e)where n and e denote the numbers the numbers of nodes and edges,respectively,in the graph representing the input.relations.In this paper,the concepts of heritage appearance function and heritage selection function are introduced,and an evaluation algorithm based on the computation of such functions in topological order is developed .This new algorithm requires only linear time in the case of non-cyclic data.

  2. Processless offset printing plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Mahović Poljaček

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With the implementation of platesetters in the offset printing plate making process, imaging of the printing plate became more stable and ensured increase of the printing plate quality. But as the chemical processing of the printing plates still highly influences the plate making process and the graphic reproduction workflow, development of printing plates that do not require chemical processing for offset printing technique has been one of the top interests in graphic technology in the last few years. The main reason for that came from the user experience, where majority of the problems with plate making process could be connected with the chemical processing of the printing plate. Furthermore, increased environmental standards lead to reducing of the chemicals used in the industrial processes. Considering these facts, different types of offset printing plates have been introduced to the market today. This paper presents some of the processless printing plates.

  3. Identification of five novel modifier loci of ApcMin harbored in the BXH14 recombinant inbred strain

    OpenAIRE

    Nnadi, Stephanie C.; Watson, Rayneisha; Innocent, Julie; Gonye, Gregory E; Buchberg, Arthur M.; Linda D. Siracusa

    2012-01-01

    Every year thousands of people in the USA are diagnosed with small intestine and colorectal cancers (CRC). Although environmental factors affect disease etiology, uncovering underlying genetic factors is imperative for risk assessment and developing preventative therapies. Familial adenomatous polyposis is a heritable genetic disorder in which individuals carry germ-line mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene that predisposes them to CRC. The Apc Min mouse model carries a p...

  4. Association of APC I1307K and E1317Q polymorphisms with colorectal cancer among Egyptian subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Malak, Camelia; Darwish, Hossam; Elsaid, Afaf; El-Tarapely, Fatma; Elshazli, Rami

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a multifactorial disease that involves both environmental and genetic factors. The gene encoding adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) has been reported to be associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk in several ethnic populations. The aim of this work is to assess the association of the APC I1307K and E1317Q polymorphisms with CRC risk among Egyptian subjects. This study included 120 unrelated CRC Egyptian patients who were compared to 100 healthy controls from the same locality. For all subjects, DNA was genotyped for APC I1307K and E1317Q polymorphisms using the PCR-ARMS technique. The frequency of APC I1307K carrier (TA+AA genotypes) was noted to be significantly higher among cases with CRC compared to controls (18.3 vs. 9.0 %, OR 2.58, 95 % CI 1.09-6.09, p = 0.03). Also the frequency of the APC I1307K A allele was significantly higher among cases compared to controls (10.4 vs. 4.5 %, OR 2.47; 95 % CI 1.12-5.42, p = 0.03). On the contrast, the frequencies of APC E1317Q GC genotype and C allele showed no significant difference among CRC patients compared to controls (3.3 vs. 2.0 %, OR 1.69; 95 % CI 0.30-9.42, p = 0.69 and 2.1 vs. 1.0 %, OR 2.11; 95 % CI 0.40-10.97, p = 0.46, respectively). Cases of the APC I1307K and E1317Q carriers (TA+AA and GC) showed no significant difference compared to those with I1307K and E1317Q non-carriers (TT and GG) regarding their clinical and laboratory markers. APC I1307K variant was associated with an increased risk of CRC among Egyptian subjects.

  5. EphB6 overexpression and Apc mutation together promote colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dan; Yuan, Liang; Liu, Xin; Li, Mingqi; Zhang, Fubin; Gu, Xin Yue; Zhang, Dongwei; Yang, Youlin; Cui, Binbin; Tong, Jinxue; Zhou, Jin; Yu, Zhiwei

    2016-05-24

    The erythropoietin-producing hepatocyte (Eph) family tyrosine kinases play important roles in tumorigenesis and cancer aggression. In this study, we investigated the role of EphB6 in oncogenic transformation of colorectal epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo. EphB6 is upregulated in human colorectal cancer (CRC) tissues as compared to normal tissues, and its overexpression promotes proliferation, migration and invasion by IMCE colorectal adenoma cells, in which one Apc allele is mutated. EphB6 overexpression together with Apc mutation leads to the development of colorectal tumors in vivo. Expression microarrays using mRNAs and lncRNAs isolated from EphB6-overexpresssing IMCE and control cells revealed a large number of dysregulated genes involved in cancer-related functions and pathways. The present study is the first to demonstrate that EphB6 overexpression together with Apc gene mutations may enhance proliferation, invasion and metastasis by colorectal epithelial cells. Microarray data and pathway analysis of differentially expressed genes provided insight into possible EphB6-regulated mechanisms promoting tumorigenesis and cancer progression. EphB6 overexpression may represent a novel, effective biomarker predictive of cell proliferation, invasion and metastasis patterns in CRC tumors.

  6. Association between the APC gene D1822V variant and the genetic susceptibility of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Maohui; Fang, Xiping; Yang, Qian; Ouyang, Gang; Chen, Daping; Ma, Xiang; Li, Huachi; Xie, Wei

    2014-07-01

    Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene polymorphisms are believed to contribute to tumor susceptibility. However, the association between genetic variants (A/T) in the APC gene D1822V polymorphism and colorectal cancer (CRC) susceptibility remains unknown. To determine this association, a case-control study was performed. The genotype of the APC gene D1822V variants was analyzed by DNA sequencing in blood samples collected from 196 patients with CRC and 279 healthy subjects. There were no significant associations between the case and control groups in the distribution of AT [odds ratio (OR), 0.604; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.355-1.029) and TT genotypes (OR, 0.438; 95% CI, 0.045-4.247) relative to the AA genotype. The ratio of the T allele was significantly lower (P=0.047) in the case group compared with the control group (OR, 0.611; 95% CI, 0.374-0.997), indicating that the T allele conferred a protective effect in CRC. The frequency of the AT genotype among the subjects diagnosed at >45 years of age was lower than those diagnosed at a younger age (P<0.05). The present study demonstrates that the T allele of the D1822V polymorphism may exert a protective effect against CRC, however, these findings require further validation in a larger sample size.

  7. The utility of Apc-mutant rats in modeling human colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy A. Irving

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Prior to the advent of genetic engineering in the mouse, the rat was the model of choice for investigating the etiology of cancer. Now, recent advances in the manipulation of the rat genome, combined with a growing recognition of the physiological differences between mice and rats, have reignited interest in the rat as a model of human cancer. Two recently developed rat models, the polyposis in the rat colon (Pirc and Kyoto Apc Delta (KAD strains, each carry mutations in the intestinal-cancer-associated adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc gene. In contrast to mouse models carrying Apc mutations, in which cancers develop mainly in the small intestine rather than in the colon and there is no gender bias, these rat models exhibit colonic predisposition and gender-specific susceptibility, as seen in human colon cancer. The rat also provides other experimental resources as a model organism that are not provided by the mouse: the structure of its chromosomes facilitates the analysis of genomic events, the size of its colon permits longitudinal analysis of tumor growth, and the size of biological samples from the animal facilitates multiplexed molecular analyses of the tumor and its host. Thus, the underlying biology and experimental resources of these rat models provide important avenues for investigation. We anticipate that advances in disease modeling in the rat will synergize with resources that are being developed in the mouse to provide a deeper understanding of human colon cancer.

  8. The utility of Apc-mutant rats in modeling human colon cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, Amy A.; Yoshimi, Kazuto; Hart, Marcia L.; Parker, Taybor; Clipson, Linda; Ford, Madeline R.; Kuramoto, Takashi; Dove, William F.; Amos-Landgraf, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Prior to the advent of genetic engineering in the mouse, the rat was the model of choice for investigating the etiology of cancer. Now, recent advances in the manipulation of the rat genome, combined with a growing recognition of the physiological differences between mice and rats, have reignited interest in the rat as a model of human cancer. Two recently developed rat models, the polyposis in the rat colon (Pirc) and Kyoto Apc Delta (KAD) strains, each carry mutations in the intestinal-cancer-associated adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc) gene. In contrast to mouse models carrying Apc mutations, in which cancers develop mainly in the small intestine rather than in the colon and there is no gender bias, these rat models exhibit colonic predisposition and gender-specific susceptibility, as seen in human colon cancer. The rat also provides other experimental resources as a model organism that are not provided by the mouse: the structure of its chromosomes facilitates the analysis of genomic events, the size of its colon permits longitudinal analysis of tumor growth, and the size of biological samples from the animal facilitates multiplexed molecular analyses of the tumor and its host. Thus, the underlying biology and experimental resources of these rat models provide important avenues for investigation. We anticipate that advances in disease modeling in the rat will synergize with resources that are being developed in the mouse to provide a deeper understanding of human colon cancer. PMID:25288683

  9. The specificity of targeted vaccines for APC surface molecules influences the immune response phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnveig Grødeland

    Full Text Available Different diseases require different immune responses for efficient protection. Thus, prophylactic vaccines should prime the immune system for the particular type of response needed for protection against a given infectious agent. We have here tested fusion DNA vaccines which encode proteins that bivalently target influenza hemagglutinins (HA to different surface molecules on antigen presenting cells (APC. We demonstrate that targeting to MHC class II molecules predominantly induced an antibody/Th2 response, whereas targeting to CCR1/3/5 predominantly induced a CD8(+/Th1 T cell response. With respect to antibodies, the polarizing effect was even more pronounced upon intramuscular (i.m delivery as compared to intradermal (i.d. vaccination. Despite these differences in induced immune responses, both vaccines protected against a viral challenge with influenza H1N1. Substitution of HA with ovalbumin (OVA demonstrated that polarization of immune responses, as a consequence of APC targeting specificity, could be extended to other antigens. Taken together, the results demonstrate that vaccination can be tailor-made to induce a particular phenotype of adaptive immune responses by specifically targeting different surface molecules on APCs.

  10. A protocol for genetic evaluation of patients with multiple colorectal adenomas and without evidence of APC gene mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, Guy; Rozen, Paul; Bercovich, Dani; Shochat, Chen; Solar, Irit; Strul, Hana; Kariv, Revital; Halpern, Zamir

    2010-09-01

    Patients with multiple (Jewish individuals with 5 to > or = 40 colonic adenomas who did not fulfill Amsterdam (clinical) criteria for Lynch syndrome. Analyses included completion of APC gene exon 16 sequencing, analysis for APC gene copy number variations (deletions or duplications), MUTYH gene sequencing, and microsatellite instability in CRC patients fulfilling "Bethesda" (laboratory investigation) criteria for Lynch syndrome. Completion of APC gene exon 16 sequencing revealed one patient with the E1317Q polymorphism. All were normal by APC multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analysis. Pathogenic MUTYH mutations were found in three patients, all of North African origin; two additional patients had variants of unknown significance. One of six patients with Bethesda-positive criteria was MSI-High with immunohistology consistent with MLH1 mutation. Based on this small but well-characterized cohort with multiple colorectal adenomas, Lynch syndrome needs to be excluded if there are compatible criteria; otherwise MUTYH sequencing is probably the first step in evaluating APC-negative patients, especially for Jews of North African descent. Completing APC exon 16 sequencing and copy number variations analysis should probably be the last evaluations.

  11. A relay mechanism between EB1 and APC facilitate STIM1 puncta assembly at endoplasmic reticulum-plasma membrane junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asanov, Alexander; Sherry, Ryan; Sampieri, Alicia; Vaca, Luis

    2013-09-01

    The assembly of STIM1 protein puncta near endoplasmic reticulum-plasma membrane (ER-PM) junctions is required for optimal activation of store-operated channels (SOC). The mechanisms controlling the translocation of STIM1 puncta to ER-PM junctions remain largely unknown. In the present study, we have explored the role of the microtubule binding protein adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), on STIM1 puncta and store-operated calcium entry (SOCE). APC-depleted cells showed reduced STIM1 puncta near ER-PM junctions, instead puncta is found at the ER surrounding the cell nucleus. Reduced STIM1 puncta near ER-PM junctions in APC-depleted cells correlates with a strong inhibition of SOCE and diminished Orai whole-cell currents. Immunoprecipitation and confocal microscopy co-localization studies indicate that, upon depletion of the ER, STIM1 dissociates from EB1 and associates to APC. Deletion analysis identified an APC-binding domain in the carboxyl terminus of STIM1 (STIM1 650-685). These results together position APC as an important element in facilitating the translocation of STIM1 puncta near ER-PM junctions, which in turn is required for efficient SOCE and Orai activation upon depletion of the ER. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A novel approach to assess the spontaneous gastrointestinal bleeding risk of antithrombotic agents using Apc(min/+) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Huijun; Shang, Jin; Keohane, CarolAnn; Wang, Min; Li, Qiu; Ni, Weihua; O'Neill, Kim; Chintala, Madhu

    2014-06-01

    Assessment of the bleeding risk of antithrombotic agents is usually performed in healthy animals with some form of vascular injury to peripheral organs to induce bleeding. However, bleeding observed in patients with currently marketed antithrombotic drugs is typically spontaneous in nature such as intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) and gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, which happens most frequently on top of preexisting pathologies such as GI ulcerations and polyps. Apc(min/+) mice are reported to develop multiple adenomas through the entire intestinal tract and display progressive anaemia.In this study, we evaluated the potential utility of Apc(min/+) mice as a model for assessing spontaneous GI bleeding with antithrombotic agents. Apc(min/+) mice exhibited progressive blood loss starting at the age of nine weeks. Despite the increase in bleeding, Apc(min/+) mice were in a hypercoagulable state and displayed an age-dependent increase in thrombin generation and circulating fibrinogen as well as a significant decrease in clotting times. We evaluated the effect of warfarin, dabigatran etexilate, apixaban and clopidogrel in this model by administering them in diet or in the drinking water to mice for 1-4 weeks. All of these marketed drugs significantly increased GI bleeding in Apc(min/+) mice, but not in wild-type mice. Although different exposure profiles of these antithrombotic agents make it challenging to compare the bleeding risk of compounds, our results indicate that the Apc(min/+) mouse may be a sensitive preclinical model for assessing the spontaneous GI bleeding risk of novel antithrombotic agents.

  13. Oncogenic mutations in adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc activate mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1 in mice and zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J. Valvezan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Truncating mutations in adenomatous polyposis coli (APC are strongly linked to colorectal cancers. APC is a negative regulator of the Wnt pathway and constitutive Wnt activation mediated by enhanced Wnt–β-catenin target gene activation is believed to be the predominant mechanism responsible for APC mutant phenotypes. However, recent evidence suggests that additional downstream effectors contribute to APC mutant phenotypes. We previously identified a mechanism in cultured human cells by which APC, acting through glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3, suppresses mTORC1, a nutrient sensor that regulates cell growth and proliferation. We hypothesized that truncating Apc mutations should activate mTORC1 in vivo and that mTORC1 plays an important role in Apc mutant phenotypes. We find that mTORC1 is strongly activated in apc mutant zebrafish and in intestinal polyps in Apc mutant mice. Furthermore, mTORC1 activation is essential downstream of APC as mTORC1 inhibition partially rescues Apc mutant phenotypes including early lethality, reduced circulation and liver hyperplasia. Importantly, combining mTORC1 and Wnt inhibition rescues defects in morphogenesis of the anterior-posterior axis that are not rescued by inhibition of either pathway alone. These data establish mTORC1 as a crucial, β-catenin independent effector of oncogenic Apc mutations and highlight the importance of mTORC1 regulation by APC during embryonic development. Our findings also suggest a new model of colorectal cancer pathogenesis in which mTORC1 is activated in parallel with Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

  14. Dietary heme iron and the risk of colorectal cancer with specific mutations in KRAS and APC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilsing, Anne M J; Fransen, Fiona; de Kok, Theo M; Goldbohm, Alexandra R; Schouten, Leo J; de Bruïne, Adriaan P; van Engeland, Manon; van den Brandt, Piet A; de Goeij, Anton F P M; Weijenberg, Matty P

    2013-12-01

    Red meat intake has been linked to increased colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. Although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear, experimental studies suggest a role for dietary heme iron. Because heme iron was shown to promote specific mutations, it would be insightful to link heme iron data to CRC with mutations in key genes in an observational, population-based study. We investigated the association between dietary heme iron intake and risk of CRC with mutations in APC (adenomatous polyposis coli) and KRAS (Kirsten ras) and P53 overexpression in the Netherlands Cohort Study. After 7.3 years of follow-up, excluding the first 2.3 years due to incomplete coverage of the pathology registry and to avoid preclinical disease, adjusted hazard ratios (including adjustment for total meat) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated, using 4026 subcohort members (aged 55-69 years at baseline), 435 colon and 140 rectal cancer patients. When comparing the highest with the lowest tertile of intake, heme iron intake was associated with an increased risk of CRC harboring activating mutations in KRAS (hazard ratio = 1.71, 95% confidence interval: 1.15-2.57; P for trend = 0.03) and CRC without truncating mutations in APC (hazard ratio = 1.79, 95% confidence interval: 1.23-2.60; P for trend = 0.003). We observed a positive association between heme iron intake and the risk of CRC with activating G>A mutations in KRAS (P for trend = 0.01) and overall G>A mutations in APC (P for trend = 0.005). No associations were found with CRC harboring G>T mutations in KRAS/APC. Heme iron intake was positively associated with the risk of P53 overexpressed tumors but not with tumors without P53 overexpression (Pheterogeneity = 0.12). Heme iron intake was associated with an increased risk of colorectal tumors harboring G>A transitions in KRAS and APC and overexpression of P53. These novel findings suggest that alkylating rather than oxidative DNA-damaging mechanisms are involved in heme

  15. Novel APC mutations in Czech and Slovak FAP families: clinical and genetic aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesela Kamila

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Germline mutations in the adenomatous polyposis gene (APC result in familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP. FAP is an autosomal dominantly inherited disorder predisposing to colorectal cancer. Typical FAP is characterized by hundreds to thousands of colorectal adenomatous polyps and by several extracolonic manifestations. An attenuated form of polyposis (AFAP is characterized by less than 100 adenomas and later onset of the disease. Methods Here, we analyzed the APC gene for germline mutations in 59 Czech and 15 Slovak FAP patients. In addition, 50 apparently APC mutation negative Czech probands and 3 probands of Slovak origin were screened for large deletions encompassing the APC gene. Mutation screening was performed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and/or protein truncation test. DNA fragments showing an aberrant electrophoretic banding pattern were sequenced. Screening for large deletions was performed by multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification. The extent of deletions was analyzed using following microsatellite markers: D5S299, D5S82, D5S134 and D5S346. Results In the set of Czech and Slovak patients, we identified 46 germline mutations among 74 unrelated probands. Total mutation capture is 62,2% including large deletions. Thirty seven mutations were detected in 49 patients presenting a classical FAP phenotype (75,5% and 9 mutations in 25 patients with attenuated FAP (36%. We report 20 novel germline APC mutations and 3 large deletions (6% encompassing the whole-gene deletions and/or exon 14 deletion. In the patients with novel mutations, correlations of the mutation localization are discussed in context of the classical and/or attenuated phenotype of the disease. Conclusion The results of the molecular genetic testing are used both in the establishment of the predictive diagnosis and in the clinical management of patients. In some cases this study has also shown the difficulty to classify clinically

  16. Counting coalescent histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Noah A

    2007-04-01

    Given a species tree and a gene tree, a valid coalescent history is a list of the branches of the species tree on which coalescences in the gene tree take place. I develop a recursion for the number of valid coalescent histories that exist for an arbitrary gene tree/species tree pair, when one gene lineage is studied per species. The result is obtained by defining a concept of m-extended coalescent histories, enumerating and counting these histories, and taking the special case of m = 1. As a sum over valid coalescent histories appears in a formula for the probability that a random gene tree evolving along the branches of a fixed species tree has a specified labeled topology, the enumeration of valid coalescent histories can considerably reduce the effort required for evaluating this formula.

  17. Oscillations in counting statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Wilk, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    The very large transverse momenta and large multiplicities available in present LHC experiments on pp collisions allow a much closer look at the corresponding distributions. Some time ago we discussed a possible physical meaning of apparent log-periodic oscillations showing up in p_T distributions (suggesting that the exponent of the observed power-like behavior is complex). In this talk we concentrate on another example of oscillations, this time connected with multiplicity distributions P(N). We argue that some combinations of the experimentally measured values of P(N) (satisfying the recurrence relations used in the description of cascade-stochastic processes in quantum optics) exhibit distinct oscillatory behavior, not observed in the usual Negative Binomial Distributions used to fit data. These oscillations provide yet another example of oscillations seen in counting statistics in many different, apparently very disparate branches of physics further demonstrating the universality of this phenomenon.

  18. Restoration of APC gene function in colorectal cancer cells by aminoglycoside- and macrolide-induced read-through of premature termination codons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilberberg, Alona; Lahav, Lital; Rosin-Arbesfeld, Rina

    2010-04-01

    Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) is a multifunctional tumour suppressor protein that negatively regulates the Wnt signalling pathway. The APC gene is ubiquitously expressed in tissues and organs, including the large intestine and central nervous system. The majority of patients with sporadic and hereditary colorectal cancer have mutations in the gene encoding APC. Approximately 30% of these mutations are single nucleotide changes that result in premature stop codons (nonsense mutations). A potential therapeutic approach for treatment of this subset of patients is the use of aminoglycosides and macrolides that induce nonsense mutation read-through and restore levels of full-length protein. We have used reporter plasmids and colorectal cancer cell lines to demonstrate that several aminoglycosides and tylosin, a member of the macrolide family, induced read-through of nonsense mutations in the APC gene. In xenograft experiments and in the Apc(Min/+) mouse model, these compounds ameliorated the tumorigenic clinical symptoms caused by nonsense mutations in the APC gene.

  19. Robotic milking and milk quality: effects on bacterial counts, somatic cell counts, freezing point and free fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne van der Vorst

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in milk quality after the introduction of automatic milking systems (AM-systems on dairy farms in TheNetherlands, Germany and Denmark were examined and the data were compared with milk quality results of farms withconventional milking technology. After introduction, a small, but significant increase in total bacterial count, somatic cellcount, freezing point and free fatty acids was observed. The highest levels for total plate count and cell count are foundin the first six months after introduction. After this period the milk quality slightly improves to a more stable level.Risk factors related with milk quality concern general farm characteristics, animal health, AM-system, cleaning and cooling,housing, management skills of the farmer and the hygiene on the farm. Total plate count was significantly relatedto milk yield of the herd, cleaning of the area around the AM-system and the overall hygiene on the farm. Bulk milksomatic cell count appeared to be significantly related to milk yield of the herd and the number of milkings before replacementof the liners. An increased milking frequency is not the only explanation of increased free fatty acid levels. Technicalfactors related to free fatty acids mainly concerned the air inlet in the teat cups, bubbling (excessive air inlet and a toolong post run time of the milk pump. However, several questions regarding the causes of increased free fatty acid levelsremained unclear.

  20. Aberrant methylation of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene promoter 1A in breast and lung carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virmani, A K; Rathi, A; Sathyanarayana, U G; Padar, A; Huang, C X; Cunnigham, H T; Farinas, A J; Milchgrub, S; Euhus, D M; Gilcrease, M; Herman, J; Minna, J D; Gazdar, A F

    2001-07-01

    The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene is a tumor suppressor gene associated with both familial and sporadic cancer. Despite high rates of allelic loss in lung and breast cancers, point mutations of the APC gene are infrequent in these cancer types. Aberrant methylation of the APC promoter 1A occurs in some colorectal and gastric malignancies, and we investigated whether the same mechanism occurs in lung and breast cancers. The methylation status of the APC gene promoter 1A was analyzed in 77 breast, 50 small cell (SCLC), and 106 non-small cell (NSCLC) lung cancer tumors and cell lines and in 68 nonmalignant tissues by methylation-specific PCR. Expression of the APC promoter 1A transcript was examined in a subset of cell lines by reverse transcription-PCR, and loss of heterozygosity at the gene locus was analyzed by the use of 12 microsatellite and polymorphic markers. Statistical tests were two-sided. Promoter 1A was methylated in 34 of 77 breast cancer tumors and cell lines (44%), in 56 of 106 NSCLC tumors and cell lines (53%), in 13 of 50 SCLC cell lines (26%), and in 3 of 68 nonmalignant samples (4%). Most cell lines tested contained the unmethylated or methylated form exclusively. In 27 cell lines tested, there was complete concordance between promoter methylation and silencing of its transcript. Demethylation with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine treatment restored transcript 1A expression in all eight methylated cell lines tested. Loss of heterozygosity at the APC locus was observed in 85% of SCLCs, 83% of NSCLCs, and 63% of breast cancer cell lines. The frequency of methylation in breast cancers increased with tumor stage and size. In summary, aberrant methylation of the 1A promoter of the APC gene and loss of its specific transcript is frequently present in breast and NSCLC cancers and cell lines and, to a lesser extent, in SCLC cell lines. Our findings may be of biological and clinical importance.

  1. Alterations in K-ras, APC and p53-multiple genetic pathway in colorectal cancer among Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Pooja; Anwar, Mumtaz; Nanda, Neha; Kochhar, Rakesh; Wig, Jai Dev; Vaiphei, Kim; Mahmood, Safrun

    2013-06-01

    The incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) is increasing rapidly in Asian countries during the past few decades, but no comprehensive analysis has been done to find out the exact cause of this disease. In this study, we investigated the frequencies of mutations and expression pattern of K-ras, APC (adenomatosis polyposis coli) and p53 in tumor, adjoining and distant normal mucosa and to correlate these alterations with patients clinicopathological parameters as well as with the survival. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction digestion was used to detect mutations in K-ras and PCR-SSCP (Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism) followed by DNA sequencing was used to detect mutations in APC and p53 genes. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression pattern of K-ras, APC and p53 proteins. The frequencies of mutations of K-ras, APC and p53 in 30 tumor tissues samples were 26.7 %, 46.7 % and 20 %, respectively. Only 3.3 % of tumors contained mutations in all the three genes. The most common combination of mutation was APC and p53 whereas mutation in both p53 and K-ras were extremely rare. There was no association between the mutations and expression pattern of K-ras, APC and p53 (p>0.05). In Indians, the frequency of alterations of K-ras and APC is similar as in Westerns, whereas the frequency of p53 mutation is slightly lower. The lack of multiple mutations in tumor specimens suggests that these genetic alterations might have independent influences on CRC development and there could be multiple alternative genetic pathways to CRC in our present study cohort.

  2. A limited role for p53 in modulating the immediate phenotype of Apc loss in the intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cole Alicia

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background p53 is an important tumour suppressor with a known role in the later stages of colorectal cancer, but its relevance to the early stages of neoplastic initiation remains somewhat unclear. Although p53-dependent regulation of Wnt signalling activity is known to occur, the importance of these regulatory mechanisms during the early stages of intestinal neoplasia has not been demonstrated. Methods We have conditionally deleted the Adenomatous Polyposis coli gene (Apc from the adult murine intestine in wild type and p53 deficient environments and subsequently compared the phenotype and transcriptome profiles in both genotypes. Results Expression of p53 was shown to be elevated following the conditional deletion of Apc in the adult small intestine. Furthermore, p53 status was shown to impact on the transcription profile observed following Apc loss. A number of key Wnt pathway components and targets were altered in the p53 deficient environment. However, the aberrant phenotype observed following loss of Apc (rapid nuclear localisation of β-catenin, increased levels of DNA damage, nuclear atypia, perturbed cell death, proliferation, differentiation and migration was not significantly altered by the absence of p53. Conclusion p53 related feedback mechanisms regulating Wnt signalling activity are present in the intestine, and become activated following loss of Apc. However, the physiological Wnt pathway regulation by p53 appears to be overwhelmed by Apc loss and consequently the activity of these regulatory mechanisms is not sufficient to modulate the immediate phenotypes seen following Apc loss. Thus we are able to provide an explanation to the apparent contradiction that, despite having a Wnt regulatory capacity, p53 loss is not associated with early lesion development.

  3. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... steps to get started: Using your dinner plate, put a line down the middle of the plate. ... vegetables . Now in one of the small sections, put grains and starchy foods. See this list of ...

  4. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate It's simple and effective for both managing diabetes and losing weight. Creating your plate lets ... 2016 Articles from Diabetes Forecast® magazine: wcie-meal-planning, In this section Food Planning Meals Diabetes Meal ...

  5. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal ... Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook ...

  6. Food guide plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chips or cookies. VEGETABLES: MAKE HALF OF YOUR PLATE FRUITS AND VEGETABLES Vegetables can be raw, fresh, ... as a snack. FRUITS: MAKE HALF OF YOUR PLATE FRUITS AND VEGETABLES Fruits can be fresh, canned, ...

  7. Growth Plate Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the most widely used by doctors is the Salter-Harris system, described below. Type I Fractures These ... incidence of growth plate fractures peaks in adolescence. Salter-Harris classification of growth plate fractures. AAOS does ...

  8. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook ... Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart- ...

  9. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook ... Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart- ...

  10. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate It's simple and effective for both managing diabetes and losing weight. Creating your plate lets you still choose the foods you want, but changes the portion sizes so you are getting larger ...

  11. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate It's simple and effective for both managing diabetes and losing weight. Creating your plate lets ... Sleeve Custom jerseys for your Tour de Cure team benefits the cause. Ask the Experts: Learn to ...

  12. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Nutrient Content Claims Understanding Carbohydrates Types of Carbohydrates Carbohydrate Counting Make Your Carbs Count Glycemic Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely Get And Stay Fit Types ...

  13. The four canonical tpr subunits of human APC/C form related homo-dimeric structures and stack in parallel to form a TPR suprahelix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ziguo; Chang, Leifu; Yang, Jing; Conin, Nora; Kulkarni, Kiran; Barford, David

    2013-11-15

    The anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C) is a large E3 RING-cullin ubiquitin ligase composed of between 14 and 15 individual proteins. A striking feature of the APC/C is that only four proteins are involved in directly recognizing target proteins and catalyzing the assembly of a polyubiquitin chain. All other subunits, which account for >80% of the mass of the APC/C, provide scaffolding functions. A major proportion of these scaffolding subunits are structurally related. In metazoans, there are four canonical tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) proteins that form homo-dimers (Apc3/Cdc27, Apc6/Cdc16, Apc7 and Apc8/Cdc23). Here, we describe the crystal structure of the N-terminal homo-dimerization domain of Schizosaccharomyces pombe Cdc23 (Cdc23(Nterm)). Cdc23(Nterm) is composed of seven contiguous TPR motifs that self-associate through a related mechanism to those of Cdc16 and Cdc27. Using the Cdc23(Nterm) structure, we generated a model of full-length Cdc23. The resultant "V"-shaped molecule docks into the Cdc23-assigned density of the human APC/C structure determined using negative stain electron microscopy (EM). Based on sequence conservation, we propose that Apc7 forms a homo-dimeric structure equivalent to those of Cdc16, Cdc23 and Cdc27. The model is consistent with the Apc7-assigned density of the human APC/C EM structure. The four canonical homo-dimeric TPR proteins of human APC/C stack in parallel on one side of the complex. Remarkably, the uniform relative packing of neighboring TPR proteins generates a novel left-handed suprahelical TPR assembly. This finding has implications for understanding the assembly of other TPR-containing multimeric complexes.

  14. 大鼠全脑缺血-再灌注损伤后APC-Cdh1蛋白的表达%Expression of APC-Cdh1 Protein after Cerebral Ischemia-reperfusion Damage in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志则; 万里; 祁月红; 姚文龙; 邱瑾; 张传汉

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨大鼠全脑缺血-再灌注损伤后APC-Cdh1蛋白的表达变化.方法 雄性SD大鼠60只,体重280~350 g,随机分成假手术组和缺血-再灌注组.采用改良Pulsinelli 4-VO法建立SD大鼠全脑缺血模型,在损伤后不同时间点,免疫组化染色检测Cdh1的表达部位并且采用Western blotting检测大鼠海马组织APC-Cdh1蛋白的表达.结果 免疫组化检测显示APC-Cdh1在海马区及皮层区中均有大量表达.与假手术组相比,缺血-再灌注组术后第1天APC-Cdh1蛋白表达减少,术后第3天升高(P<0.05),术后第7天又降低.结论 APC-Cdh1可能与中枢神经系统损伤有着密切的关系.

  15. Accelerated plate tectonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D L

    1975-03-21

    The concept of a stressed elastic lithospheric plate riding on a viscous asthenosphere is used to calculate the recurrence interval of great earthquakes at convergent plate boundaries, the separation of decoupling and lithospheric earthquakes, and the migration pattern of large earthquakes along an arc. It is proposed that plate motions accelerate after great decoupling earthquakes and that most of the observed plate motions occur during short periods of time, separated by periods of relative quiescence.

  16. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Reset Plate Share Create Your Plate ! Share: Seven Simple Steps to Create Your Plate It's simple and effective for both managing diabetes and losing ... en.html Have Type 2 Diabetes? Our free program will help you live well. More from diabetes. ...

  17. Obliquity along plate boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippon, Mélody; Corti, Giacomo

    2016-12-01

    Most of the plate boundaries are activated obliquely with respect to the direction of far field stresses, as roughly only 8% of the plate boundaries total length shows a very low obliquity (ranging from 0 to 10°, sub-orthogonal to the plate displacement). The obliquity along plate boundaries is controlled by (i) lateral rheological variations within the lithosphere and (ii) consistency with the global plate circuit. Indeed, plate tectonics and magmatism drive rheological changes within the lithosphere and consequently influence strain localization. Geodynamical evolution controls large-scale mantle convection and plate formation, consumption, and re-organization, thus triggering plate kinematics variations, and the adjustment and re-orientation of far field stresses. These geological processes may thus result in plate boundaries that are not perpendicular but oblique to the direction of far field stresses. This paper reviews the global patterns of obliquity along plate boundaries. Using GPlate, we provide a statistical analysis of present-day obliquity along plate boundaries. Within this framework, by comparing natural examples and geological models, we discuss deformation patterns and kinematics recorded along oblique plate boundaries.

  18. Resolved SZE Cluster Count

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-Yu Tang; Zu-Hui Fan

    2003-01-01

    We study the counts of resolved SZE (Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect) clus-ters expected from an interferometric survey in different cosmological models underdifferent conditions. The self-similar universal gas model and Press-Schechter massfunction are used. We take the observing frequency to be 90 GHz, and consider twodish diameters, 1.2 m and 2.5 m. We calculate the number density of the galaxyclusters dN/(dΩdz) at a high flux limit Slimv = 100mJy and at a relative lowSlimv = 10 mJy. The total numbers of SZE clusters N in two low-Ω0 models arecompared. The results show that the influence of the resolved effect depends notonly on D, but also on Slimv: at a given D, the effect is more significant for a highthan for a low Slim Also, the resolved effect for a flat universe is more impressivethan that for an open universe. For D = 1.2m and Slimv= 10mJy, the resolvedeffect is very weak. Considering the designed interferometers which will be used tosurvey SZE clusters, we find that the resolved effect is insignificant when estimatingthe expected yield of the SZE cluster surveys.

  19. Multivariate ultrametric root counting

    CERN Document Server

    Avendano, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Let $K$ be a field, complete with respect to a discrete non-archimedian valuation and let $k$ be the residue field. Consider a system $F$ of $n$ polynomial equations in $K\\vars$. Our first result is a reformulation of the classical Hensel's Lemma in the language of tropical geometry: we show sufficient conditions (semiregularity at $w$) that guarantee that the first digit map $\\delta:(K^\\ast)^n\\to(k^\\ast)^n$ is a one to one correspondence between the solutions of $F$ in $(K^\\ast)^n$ with valuation $w$ and the solutions in $(k^\\ast)^n$ of the initial form system ${\\rm in}_w(F)$. Using this result, we provide an explicit formula for the number of solutions in $(K^\\ast)^n$ of a certain class of systems of polynomial equations (called regular), characterized by having finite tropical prevariety, by having initial forms consisting only of binomials, and by being semiregular at any point in the tropical prevariety. Finally, as a consequence of the root counting formula, we obtain the expected number of roots in $(K...

  20. Making environmental DNA count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Ryan P

    2016-01-01

    The arc of reception for a new technology or method--like the reception of new information itself--can pass through predictable stages, with audiences' responses evolving from 'I don't believe it', through 'well, maybe' to 'yes, everyone knows that' to, finally, 'old news'. The idea that one can sample a volume of water, sequence DNA out of it, and report what species are living nearby has experienced roughly this series of responses among biologists, beginning with the microbial biologists who developed genetic techniques to reveal the unseen microbiome. 'Macrobial' biologists and ecologists--those accustomed to dealing with species they can see and count--have been slower to adopt such molecular survey techniques, in part because of the uncertain relationship between the number of recovered DNA sequences and the abundance of whole organisms in the sampled environment. In this issue of Molecular Ecology Resources, Evans et al. (2015) quantify this relationship for a suite of nine vertebrate species consisting of eight fish and one amphibian. Having detected all of the species present with a molecular toolbox of six primer sets, they consistently find DNA abundances are associated with species' biomasses. The strength and slope of this association vary for each species and each primer set--further evidence that there is no universal parameter linking recovered DNA to species abundance--but Evans and colleagues take a significant step towards being able to answer the next question audiences tend to ask: 'Yes, but how many are there?'

  1. LAWRENCE RADIATION LABORATORY COUNTING HANDBOOK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Group, Nuclear Instrumentation

    1966-10-01

    The Counting Handbook is a compilation of operational techniques and performance specifications on counting equipment in use at the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, Berkeley. Counting notes have been written from the viewpoint of the user rather than that of the designer or maintenance man. The only maintenance instructions that have been included are those that can easily be performed by the experimenter to assure that the equipment is operating properly.

  2. Counting Frequencies from Zotero Items

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer Roberts

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In Counting Frequencies you learned how to count the frequency of specific words in a list using python. In this lesson, we will expand on that topic by showing you how to get information from Zotero HTML items, save the content from those items, and count the frequencies of words. It may be beneficial to look over the previous lesson before we begin.

  3. SUMS Counts-Related Projects

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Staging Instance for all SUMs Counts related projects including: Redeterminations/Limited Issue, Continuing Disability Resolution, CDR Performance Measures, Initial...

  4. Dietary acrylamide intake and the risk of colorectal cancer with specific mutations in KRAS and APC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogervorst, Janneke G F; de Bruijn-Geraets, Daisy; Schouten, Leo J; van Engeland, Manon; de Kok, Theo M C M; Goldbohm, R Alexandra; van den Brandt, Piet A; Weijenberg, Matty P

    2014-05-01

    Acrylamide, a probable human carcinogen, is present in heat-treated carbohydrate-rich foods. Epidemiological studies have not shown a clear association between acrylamide intake and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. This may be due to the molecular heterogeneity in colorectal tumors, which was not taken into consideration before. Since the acrylamide metabolite glycidamide induces specific DNA mutations in rodents, we investigated whether acrylamide is associated with CRC risk characterized by mutations in Kirsten-ras (KRAS) and adenomatous polyposis coli (APC); key genes in colorectal carcinogenesis. This case-cohort analysis, within the Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer, was based on 7.3 years of follow-up. Acrylamide intake was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. Mutation analysis of codons 1286-1520 in exon 15 in APC and codons 12 and 13 in exon 1 in KRAS was performed on tumor tissue of 733 cases. Hazard ratios (HR) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards analysis. Among men, acrylamide intake was statistically significantly associated with an increased risk of particularly tumors with an activating KRAS mutation {HR fourth versus first quartile: 2.12 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.16-3.87], P trend: 0.01}. Among women, acrylamide intake was statistically significantly associated with a decreased risk of particularly tumors with a truncating APC mutation (fourth versus first quartile: 0.47 (95% CI: 0.23-0.94), P trend: 0.02), but only in the highest quartile of intake. This is the first study to show that acrylamide might be associated with CRC with specific somatic mutations, differentially in men and women. More research is needed to corroborate or refute these findings.

  5. Molecular analysis of mutations for the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene in Romanian patients with colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toma, M; Cimponeriu, D; Pompilia, A; Stavarachi, M; Beluşică, L; Radu, I; Gavrilă, L

    2008-01-01

    Mutations in adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene have not been previously characterized among Romanian patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). We initiate this study to detect the mutations in APC gene in blood and tumor samples collected from 16 patients (10 men and 6 women) and blood samples from 21 first and second degree relatives of the patients. For this the presence of mutations in exons 6, 7, 12, 13, 14 as well as in regions B, L and W of exon 15 was investigated using PCR multiplex. In the same time, we have searched for 5 bp deletions at codon 1061 of APC gene by PAGE and SSCP methods. These methods allowed us to evidence identification of the presence of mutations in samples from 7 individuals. In one patient, was detected a deletion of exon 13th of APC gene both in DNA extracted from blood and tumor samples. Multiple deletions (e.g. in exon 6, 12, and in 15L and 15W regions) in DNA extracted from the tumor sample were detected, but not in DNA probe obtained from blood cells. We can speculate that these mutations are an example of genomic instability accompanying the malignancy. Till now, no mutation affecting 1061 codon of APC gene was identified in the patients investigated in our study.

  6. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of the APC gene and colorectal cancer risk: a case-control study in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yi-Lin

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer (CRC, which has become especially prevalent in developed countries, is currently the third highest cause of cancer mortality in Taiwan. Mutation of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC gene, a tumour suppressor, is thought to be an early event in colorectal tumourigenesis. To date, however, no large-scale screening for APC gene variants in Chinese subjects has been performed. The present study was undertaken to identify APC gene variants that are significantly associated with the occurrence of CRC in Taiwanese subjects. Methods In order to compare the genotype distribution of variant sites, the full-length APC genes of 74 healthy individuals and 80 CRC patients were sequenced. Results Among the 154 Taiwanese subjects examined in this study, three new mutations, but no previously reported mutations, were found. One deletion at codon 460 leading to a frameshift and two missense mutations resulting in p.V1125A and p.S1126R substitutions were identified. Additionally, three high risk genotypes associated with three single nucleotide polymorphisms and one low risk genotype at codon 1822 were identified. Conclusion The findings of this case-control study are consistent with the proposal that Taiwanese subjects differ from other subjects with respect to phenotypic presentation of APC and CRC risk.

  7. Irreversible APC(Cdh1) Inactivation Underlies the Point of No Return for Cell-Cycle Entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappell, Steven D; Chung, Mingyu; Jaimovich, Ariel; Spencer, Sabrina L; Meyer, Tobias

    2016-06-30

    Proliferating cells must cross a point of no return before they replicate their DNA and divide. This commitment decision plays a fundamental role in cancer and degenerative diseases and has been proposed to be mediated by phosphorylation of retinoblastoma (Rb) protein. Here, we show that inactivation of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC(Cdh1)) has the necessary characteristics to be the point of no return for cell-cycle entry. Our study shows that APC(Cdh1) inactivation is a rapid, bistable switch initiated shortly before the start of DNA replication by cyclin E/Cdk2 and made irreversible by Emi1. Exposure to stress between Rb phosphorylation and APC(Cdh1) inactivation, but not after APC(Cdh1) inactivation, reverted cells to a mitogen-sensitive quiescent state, from which they can later re-enter the cell cycle. Thus, APC(Cdh1) inactivation is the commitment point when cells lose the ability to return to quiescence and decide to progress through the cell cycle.

  8. APC/C and SCF(cyclin F) Constitute a Reciprocal Feedback Circuit Controlling S-Phase Entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Rajarshi; Bonacci, Thomas; Arceci, Anthony; Lahiri, Debojyoti; Mills, Christine A; Kernan, Jennifer L; Branigan, Timothy B; DeCaprio, James A; Burke, Daniel J; Emanuele, Michael J

    2016-09-20

    The anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is an ubiquitin ligase and core component of the cell-cycle oscillator. During G1 phase, APC/C binds to its substrate receptor Cdh1 and APC/C(Cdh1) plays an important role in restricting S-phase entry and maintaining genome integrity. We describe a reciprocal feedback circuit between APC/C and a second ubiquitin ligase, the SCF (Skp1-Cul1-F box). We show that cyclin F, a cell-cycle-regulated substrate receptor (F-box protein) for the SCF, is targeted for degradation by APC/C. Furthermore, we establish that Cdh1 is itself a substrate of SCF(cyclin F). Cyclin F loss impairs Cdh1 degradation and delays S-phase entry, and this delay is reversed by simultaneous removal of Cdh1. These data indicate that the coordinated, temporal ordering of cyclin F and Cdh1 degradation, organized in a double-negative feedback loop, represents a fundamental aspect of cell-cycle control. This mutual antagonism could be a feature of other oscillating systems.

  9. Substrate Recognition by the Cdh1 Destruction Box Receptor Is a General Requirement for APC/CCdh1-mediated Proteolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Liang; Guimarães, Dimitrius Santiago P S F; Melesse, Michael; Hall, Mark C

    2016-07-22

    The anaphase-promoting complex, or cyclosome (APC/C), is a ubiquitin ligase that selectively targets proteins for degradation in mitosis and the G1 phase and is an important component of the eukaryotic cell cycle control system. How the APC/C specifically recognizes its substrates is not fully understood. Although well characterized degron motifs such as the destruction box (D-box) and KEN-box are commonly found in APC/C substrates, many substrates apparently lack these motifs. A variety of alternative APC/C degrons have been reported, suggesting either that multiple modes of substrate recognition are possible or that our definitions of degron structure are incomplete. We used an in vivo yeast assay to compare the G1 degradation rate of 15 known substrates of the APC/C co-activator Cdh1 under normal conditions and conditions that impair binding of D-box, KEN-box, and the recently identified ABBA motif degrons to Cdh1. The D-box receptor was required for efficient proteolysis of all Cdh1 substrates, despite the absence of canonical D-boxes in many. In contrast, the KEN-box receptor was only required for normal proteolysis of a subset of substrates and the ABBA motif receptor for a single substrate in our system. Our results suggest that binding to the D-box receptor may be a shared requirement for recognition and processing of all Cdh1 substrates.

  10. New origin firing is inhibited by APC/CCdh1 activation in S-phase after severe replication stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercilla, Amaia; Llopis, Alba; Feu, Sonia; Aranda, Sergi; Ernfors, Patrik; Freire, Raimundo; Agell, Neus

    2016-06-01

    Defects in DNA replication and repair are known to promote genomic instability, a hallmark of cancer cells. Thus, eukaryotic cells have developed complex mechanisms to ensure accurate duplication of their genomes. While DNA damage response has been extensively studied in tumour cells, the pathways implicated in the response to replication stress are less well understood especially in non-transformed cells. Here we show that in non-transformed cells, APC/C(Cdh1) is activated upon severe replication stress. Activation of APC/C(Cdh1) prevents new origin firing and induces permanent arrest in S-phase. Moreover, Rad51-mediated homologous recombination is also impaired under these conditions. APC/C(Cdh1) activation in S-phase occurs after replication forks have been processed into double strand breaks. Remarkably, this activation, which correlates with decreased Emi1 levels, is not prevented by ATR/ATM inhibition, but it is abrogated in cells depleted of p53 or p21. Importantly, we found that the lack of APC/C(Cdh1) activity correlated with an increase in genomic instability. Taken together, our results define a new APC/C(Cdh1) function that prevents cell cycle resumption after prolonged replication stress by inhibiting origin firing, which may act as an additional mechanism in safeguarding genome integrity.

  11. APC/C and retinoblastoma interaction: cross-talk of retinoblastoma protein with the ubiquitin proteasome pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanujan, Ajeena; Tiwari, Swati

    2016-01-01

    The ubiquitin (Ub) ligase anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) and the tumour suppressor retinoblastoma protein (pRB) play key roles in cell cycle regulation. APC/C is a critical regulator of mitosis and G1-phase of the cell cycle whereas pRB keeps a check on proliferation by inhibiting transition to the S-phase. APC/C and pRB interact with each other via the co-activator of APC/C, FZR1, providing an alternative pathway of regulation of G1 to S transition by pRB using a post-translational mechanism. Both pRB and FZR1 have complex roles and are implicated not only in regulation of cell proliferation but also in differentiation, quiescence, apoptosis, maintenance of chromosomal integrity and metabolism. Both are also targeted by transforming viruses. We discuss recent advances in our understanding of the involvement of APC/C and pRB in cell cycle based decisions and how these insights will be useful for development of anti-cancer and anti-viral drugs. PMID:27402801

  12. Evidence that the spindle assembly checkpoint does not regulate APC(Fzy) activity in Drosophila female meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batiha, Osamah; Swan, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) plays an important role in mitotic cells to sense improper chromosome attachment to spindle microtubules and to inhibit APC(Fzy)-dependent destruction of cyclin B and Securin; consequent initiation of anaphase until correct attachments are made. In Drosophila , SAC genes have been found to play a role in ensuring proper chromosome segregation in meiosis, possibly reflecting a similar role for the SAC in APC(Fzy) inhibition during meiosis. We found that loss of function mutations in SAC genes, Mad2, zwilch, and mps1, do not lead to the predicted rise in APC(Fzy)-dependent degradation of cyclin B either globally throughout the egg or locally on the meiotic spindle. Further, the SAC is not responsible for the inability of APC(Fzy) to target cyclin B and promote anaphase in metaphase II arrested eggs from cort mutant females. Our findings support the argument that SAC proteins play checkpoint independent roles in Drosophila female meiosis and that other mechanisms must function to control APC activity.

  13. Intestinal APCs of the endogenous nanomineral pathway fail to express PD-L1 in Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Jack; Haas, Carolin T; Pele, Laetitia C; Monie, Tom P; Charalambos, Charles; Parkes, Miles; Hewitt, Rachel E; Powell, Jonathan J

    2016-05-26

    Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammatory condition most commonly affecting the ileum and colon. The aetiology of Crohn's disease is complex and may include defects in peptidoglycan recognition, and/or failures in the establishment of intestinal tolerance. We have recently described a novel constitutive endogenous delivery system for the translocation of nanomineral-antigen-peptidoglycan (NAP) conjugates to antigen presenting cells (APCs) in intestinal lymphoid patches. In mice NAP conjugate delivery to APCs results in high surface expression of the immuno-modulatory molecule programmed death receptor ligand 1 (PD-L1). Here we report that NAP conjugate positive APCs in human ileal tissues from individuals with ulcerative colitis and intestinal carcinomas, also have high expression of PD-L1. However, NAP-conjugate positive APCs in intestinal tissue from patients with Crohn's disease show selective failure in PD-L1 expression. Therefore, in Crohn's disease intestinal antigen taken up by lymphoid patch APCs will be presented without PD-L1 induced tolerogenic signalling, perhaps initiating disease.

  14. Liver inflammation and metabolic signaling in ApcMin/+ mice: the role of cachexia progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi A Narsale

    Full Text Available The ApcMin/+ mouse exhibits an intestinal tumor associated loss of muscle and fat that is accompanied by chronic inflammation, insulin resistance and hyperlipidemia. Since the liver governs systemic energy demands through regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism, it is likely that the liver is a pathological target of cachexia progression in the ApcMin/+ mouse. The purpose of this study was to determine if cancer and the progression of cachexia affected liver endoplasmic reticulum (ER-stress, inflammation, metabolism, and protein synthesis signaling. The effect of cancer (without cachexia was examined in wild-type and weight-stable ApcMin/+ mice. Cachexia progression was examined in weight-stable, pre-cachectic, and severely-cachectic ApcMin/+ mice. Livers were analyzed for morphology, glycogen content, ER-stress, inflammation, and metabolic changes. Cancer induced hepatic expression of ER-stress markers BiP (binding immunoglobulin protein, IRE-1α (endoplasmic reticulum to nucleus signaling 1, and inflammatory intermediate STAT-3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3. While gluconeogenic enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK mRNA expression was suppressed by cancer, glycogen content or protein synthesis signaling remained unaffected. Cachexia progression depleted liver glycogen content and increased mRNA expression of glycolytic enzyme PFK (phosphofrucktokinase and gluconeogenic enzyme PEPCK. Cachexia progression further increased pSTAT-3 but suppressed p-65 and JNK (c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase activation. Interestingly, progression of cachexia suppressed upstream ER-stress markers BiP and IRE-1α, while inducing its downstream target CHOP (DNA-damage inducible transcript 3. Cachectic mice exhibited a dysregulation of protein synthesis signaling, with an induction of p-mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin, despite a suppression of Akt (thymoma viral proto-oncogene 1 and S6 (ribosomal protein S6 phosphorylation. Thus

  15. APC Smart-UPS产品:2009年度最畅销UPS产品

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    全球领先的关键电源与制冷服务商,施耐德旗下的APC2010年4月宣布,在由IT渠道合作伙伴界颇负盛名的刊物之一Channel Reseller News(《经销商新闻》)2009全年年度适销全球的19种畅销SKUs产品评选中,

  16. APC gene mutations in individuals with possible attenuated familial adenomatous polyposis coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frayling, J.M.; Talbot, J.; Harocopos, C.A. [Imperial Cancer Research Fund Colorectal Cancer Unit, London (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Spirio et al. have described an attenuated form of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) termed AAPC, where affected individuals have been found to have mutations in exons 3 & 4 of the APC gene. AAPC expression within a family appears to be extremely variable and can overlap clinically with FAP, giving rise to between zero and a few hundred adenomas. The phenotypic range associated with AAPC mutations is undefined and the frequency in the population of such alleles of the APC gene is unknown. In addition, it is as yet unclear how many cases of sporadic colorectal adenomas might have AAPC. In order to address this we have identified 110 individuals having a phenotype compatible with a diagnosis of AAPC, in three groups: (1) 30 individuals (15m, 15f; median age = 55y, range 8-71y) with some or all of the following: colonic adenomas (28 cases); colorectal cancer (12 cases); extra-colonic features of FAP, either desmoid tumours (4 cases, including 2 without colonic adenomas) or sebaceous cysts (2 cases). Sixteen cases had a family history of adenomas/colorectal cancer/extra-colonic features of FAP. (2) 16 individuals (10m, 6f) from the St. Mark`s Polyposis Registry, diagnosed with FAP (including a family history), who had unusually few adenomas (median = 200) at colectomy (median age = 43y, range 17-62y). (3) 64 individuals (43m, 21f) from the St. Mark`s Hospital Adenoma Follow-up Study who either had >4 adenomas at presentation (median total adenomas = 9), or >4 adenomas detected during follow-up (median total adenomas = 9). Genomic DNA was obtained from these individuals and exons 1-4 of the APC gene were amplified by PCR. Chemical cleavage of mismatch was used to screen for mutations, followed by sequencing if variant bands were found. Germ-line mutations have been identified in exons 3 and 4 in a proportion of these individuals, thus extending the clinical spectrum of phenotypes associated with mutations in this region of the APC gene.

  17. Liver inflammation and metabolic signaling in ApcMin/+ mice: the role of cachexia progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narsale, Aditi A; Enos, Reilly T; Puppa, Melissa J; Chatterjee, Saurabh; Murphy, E Angela; Fayad, Raja; Pena, Majorette O'; Durstine, J Larry; Carson, James A

    2015-01-01

    The ApcMin/+ mouse exhibits an intestinal tumor associated loss of muscle and fat that is accompanied by chronic inflammation, insulin resistance and hyperlipidemia. Since the liver governs systemic energy demands through regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism, it is likely that the liver is a pathological target of cachexia progression in the ApcMin/+ mouse. The purpose of this study was to determine if cancer and the progression of cachexia affected liver endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress, inflammation, metabolism, and protein synthesis signaling. The effect of cancer (without cachexia) was examined in wild-type and weight-stable ApcMin/+ mice. Cachexia progression was examined in weight-stable, pre-cachectic, and severely-cachectic ApcMin/+ mice. Livers were analyzed for morphology, glycogen content, ER-stress, inflammation, and metabolic changes. Cancer induced hepatic expression of ER-stress markers BiP (binding immunoglobulin protein), IRE-1α (endoplasmic reticulum to nucleus signaling 1), and inflammatory intermediate STAT-3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3). While gluconeogenic enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) mRNA expression was suppressed by cancer, glycogen content or protein synthesis signaling remained unaffected. Cachexia progression depleted liver glycogen content and increased mRNA expression of glycolytic enzyme PFK (phosphofrucktokinase) and gluconeogenic enzyme PEPCK. Cachexia progression further increased pSTAT-3 but suppressed p-65 and JNK (c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase) activation. Interestingly, progression of cachexia suppressed upstream ER-stress markers BiP and IRE-1α, while inducing its downstream target CHOP (DNA-damage inducible transcript 3). Cachectic mice exhibited a dysregulation of protein synthesis signaling, with an induction of p-mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin), despite a suppression of Akt (thymoma viral proto-oncogene 1) and S6 (ribosomal protein S6) phosphorylation. Thus, cancer

  18. IFN-beta inhibits T cell activation capacity of central nervous system APCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teige, Ingrid; Liu, Yawei; Issazadeh-Navikas, Shohreh

    2006-01-01

    coculture with T cells, the effector functions of T cells are impaired as IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, and NO productions are decreased. Induction of the T cell activation marker, CD25 is also reduced. This suppression of T cell response is cell-cell dependent, but it is not dependent on a decrease in glial...... expression of MHC class II or costimulatory molecules. We propose that IFN-beta might exert its beneficial effects mainly by reducing the Ag-presenting capacity of CNS-specific APCs, which in turn inhibits the effector functions of encephalitogenic T cells. This affect is of importance because activation...

  19. Ink-jetting AJL8/APC for D-fiber electric field sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvavle, Joshua; Schultz, Stephen; Selfridge, Richard

    2009-10-01

    Spin casting electro-optic polymers for in-fiber device fabrication is problematic due to the flexibility and high-contrast topography of optical fibers. An ink-jetting method is developed for the deposition of AJL8/APC using a commercially available printer. The method results in more consistent control of film thickness and uses 1000 times less material than the spin-coating method. A D-fiber electric field sensor is fabricated using this deposition method and exhibits a sensitivity of 157 V/(m square root(Hz)) at a modulation frequency of 6 GHz.

  20. STS-34 crewmembers sit in M1-13 APC during emergency egress training at KSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    STS-34 crewmembers sit in M1-13 Armored Personnel Carrier (APC) during emergency egress training at KSC's shuttle landing facility (SLF) prior to terminal countdown demonstration test (TCDT) activities. Wearing launch and entry suits (LESs), are (from left) Mission Specialist (MS) Ellen S. Baker, MS Shannon W. Lucid, Commander Donald E. Williams (right side, in back), MS Franklin R. Chang-Diaz, and Pilot Michael J. McCulley (holding headset). View provided by KSC with alternate number KSC-89PC-871.

  1. Angular shear plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruda, Mitchell C [Tucson, AZ; Greynolds, Alan W [Tucson, AZ; Stuhlinger, Tilman W [Tucson, AZ

    2009-07-14

    One or more disc-shaped angular shear plates each include a region thereon having a thickness that varies with a nonlinear function. For the case of two such shear plates, they are positioned in a facing relationship and rotated relative to each other. Light passing through the variable thickness regions in the angular plates is refracted. By properly timing the relative rotation of the plates and by the use of an appropriate polynomial function for the thickness of the shear plate, light passing therethrough can be focused at variable positions.

  2. Reference counting for reversible languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Torben Ægidius

    2014-01-01

    deallocation. This requires the language to be linear: A pointer can not be copied and it can only be eliminated by deallocating the node to which it points. We overcome this limitation by adding reference counts to nodes: Copying a pointer to a node increases the reference count of the node and eliminating...

  3. Coinductive counting with weighted automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, J.J.M.M.

    2002-01-01

    A general methodology is developed to compute the solution of a wide variety of basic counting problems in a uniform way: (1) the objects to be counted are enumerated by means of an infinite weighted automaton; (2) the automaton is reduced by means of the quantitative notion of stream bisimulation;

  4. Low White Blood Cell Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms Low white blood cell count By Mayo Clinic Staff A low white blood cell count (leukopenia) is a decrease in disease-fighting cells ( ... a decrease in a certain type of white blood cell (neutrophil). The definition of low white blood cell ...

  5. A functional network of the tumor suppressors APC, hDlg, and PTEN, that relies on recognition of specific PDZ-domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo, Natalia S; Valiente, Miguel; Gil, Anabel; Pulido, Rafael

    2012-08-01

    APC and PTEN are tumor suppressor proteins that bind through their C-termini to the PDZ domain containing-hDlg scaffolding protein. We have found that co-expression of PTEN and hDlg enhanced the negative regulation of the PI3K/Akt pathway by PTEN, indicating the physiologic importance of these interactions. APC and PTEN share other PDZ domain containing-interacting partners, including the MAGI scaffolding proteins and the MAST family of protein kinases. Mutational analysis revealed that the C-terminal PDZ-binding motifs from APC and PTEN were differentially recognized by distinct PDZ domains. APC bound to the three PDZ domains from hDlg, whereas PTEN mainly bound to PDZ-2/hDlg. This indicates the existence of overlapping, but distinct PDZ-domain recognition patterns by APC and PTEN. Furthermore, a ternary complex formed by APC, PTEN, and hDlg was detected, suggesting that hDlg may serve as a platform to bring in proximity APC and PTEN tumor suppressor activities. In line with this, tumor-related mutations targeting the PDZ-2/hDlg domain diminished its interaction with APC and PTEN. Our results expand the PDZ-domain counterparts for the tumor suppressor APC, show that APC and PTEN share PDZ-domain partners but have individual molecular determinants for specific recognition of PDZ domains, and suggest the participation of the tumor suppressors APC, PTEN, and hDlg in PDZ-domain interaction networks which may be relevant in oncogenesis.

  6. Hanford whole body counting manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, H.E.; Brim, C.P.; Rieksts, G.A.; Rhoads, M.C.

    1987-05-01

    This document, a reprint of the Whole Body Counting Manual, was compiled to train personnel, document operation procedures, and outline quality assurance procedures. The current manual contains information on: the location, availability, and scope of services of Hanford's whole body counting facilities; the administrative aspect of the whole body counting operation; Hanford's whole body counting facilities; the step-by-step procedure involved in the different types of in vivo measurements; the detectors, preamplifiers and amplifiers, and spectroscopy equipment; the quality assurance aspect of equipment calibration and recordkeeping; data processing, record storage, results verification, report preparation, count summaries, and unit cost accounting; and the topics of minimum detectable amount and measurement accuracy and precision. 12 refs., 13 tabs.

  7. Test of electrodialytic upgrading of MSWI APC residue in pilot scale: focus on reduced metal and salt leaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Villumsen, Arne

    2010-01-01

    In this study a pilot plant for electrodialytic treatment of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) air pollution control (APC) residue was tested and proposed as a treatment method which can lead to reuse of this otherwise hazardous waste. The pilot plant was developed based on a design...... was carbonated by reaction with CO2 under moist conditions prior to electrodialytic treatment. The carbonation alone reduced the leaching of some heavy metals. However, it was not sufficient to reduce the heavy metal or salt leaching to meet the Danish Category 3 guideline levels for waste material reuse...... and could not stand as a treatment method alone. Leaching of both heavy metals and salts were significantly reduced by the electrodialytic treatment for both the raw and carbonated APC residue. In the electrodialytically treated carbonated APC residue only Cr exceeded the Category 3 levels while...

  8. Replacement of 5% of OPC by fly ash and APC residues from MSWI with electrodialytic pre-treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magro, Cátia; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Guedes, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Fly ash (FA) and air pollution control (APC) residues are waste products from Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI). They are classified as hazardous waste due to the content of leachable heavy metals (HM), salts and/or dioxins. An electrodialytic (ED) process was applied to FA and APC residues...... leaching of HM and the Cl content. The compressive tests presented comparable values to the reference mortars. This study suggests that the characteristics of FA and APC residues from MSWI after pre-treatment allows them to be reused in building materials, giving a new edge to waste management....... as pre-treatment prior to incorporation in mortar, aiming to stabilize and remove HM and chlorides. Eight ED experiments were performed for 7 days with a L/S ratio of 3.5. The number of compartments (2 or 3) and current density (0.1 or 1.0 mA cm-2) varied. After ED treatment the heavy metals left...

  9. Acceleration of intestinal polyposis through prostaglandin receptor EP2 in Apc(Delta 716) knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoshita, M; Takaku, K; Sasaki, N; Sugimoto, Y; Ushikubi, F; Narumiya, S; Oshima, M; Taketo, M M

    2001-09-01

    Arachidonic acid is metabolized to prostaglandin H(2) (PGH(2)) by cyclooxygenase (COX). COX-2, the inducible COX isozyme, has a key role in intestinal polyposis. Among the metabolites of PGH(2), PGE(2) is implicated in tumorigenesis because its level is markedly elevated in tissues of intestinal adenoma and colon cancer. Here we show that homozygous deletion of the gene encoding a cell-surface receptor of PGE(2), EP2, causes decreases in number and size of intestinal polyps in Apc(Delta 716) mice (a mouse model for human familial adenomatous polyposis). This effect is similar to that of COX-2 gene disruption. We also show that COX-2 expression is boosted by PGE(2) through the EP2 receptor via a positive feedback loop. Homozygous gene knockout for other PGE(2) receptors, EP1 or EP3, did not affect intestinal polyp formation in Apc(Delta 716) mice. We conclude that EP2 is the major receptor mediating the PGE2 signal generated by COX-2 upregulation in intestinal polyposis, and that increased cellular cAMP stimulates expression of more COX-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor in the polyp stroma.

  10. Identification of an APC Variant in a Patient with Clinical Attenuated Familial Adenomatous Polyposis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew T. Schlussel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The objective of this case report is to discuss an unclassified germline variant of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC gene identified in an older patient with attenuated familial adenomatous polyposis syndrome (AFAP. Methods. We present a case report of a 66-year-old man diagnosed with AFAP. Colonoscopy found multiple polyps and invasive adenocarcinoma arising in the transverse colon. Samples were tested for mutations in the APC gene. Results. DNA sequencing of germline DNA identified a cytosine (C to thymine (T transition at nucleotide 1240, heterozygous. The C to T transition at codon 414 is predicted to convert an arginine residue to a cysteine that is possibly pathogenic. Analysis of the patient’s colon tumor DNA indicated that the tumor had lost the mutant variant allele and retained only the normal allele, suggesting that the variant may not be significant. Conclusions. The p.R414C variant has been described previously as a germline mutation of probable pathogenicity. This substitution should be considered an unclassified variant and possibly not pathogenic. These findings support the need for further genetic testing of tissue, as well as for developing a mechanism for testing all variants, as this could significantly impact the lives of patients and their family members.

  11. Polo-like kinase-1 controls Aurora A destruction by activating APC/C-Cdh1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renske van Leuken

    Full Text Available Polo-like kinase-1 (Plk1 is activated before mitosis by Aurora A and its cofactor Bora. In mitosis, Bora is degraded in a manner dependent on Plk1 kinase activity and the E3 ubiquitin ligase SCF-betaTrCP. Here, we show that Plk1 is also required for the timely destruction of its activator Aurora A in late anaphase. It has been shown that Aurora A destruction is controlled by the auxiliary subunit Cdh1 of the Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C. Remarkably, we found that Plk1-depletion prevented the efficient dephosphorylation of Cdh1 during mitotic exit. Plk1 mediated its effect on Cdh1, at least in part, through direct phosphorylation of the human phosphatase Cdc14A, controlling the phosphorylation state of Cdh1. We conclude that Plk1 facilitates efficient Aurora A degradation through APC/C-Cdh1 activation after mitosis, with a potential role for hCdc14A.

  12. Cdh1 regulates craniofacial development via APC-dependent ubiquitination and activation of Goosecoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Rui; Liu, Jia; Yan, Guang; Zhang, Jinfang; Han, Yujiao; Guo, Jianfeng; Xu, Zhan; Yuan, Zhu; Liu, Jiankang; Malumbres, Marcos; Wan, Lixin; Wei, Wenyi; Zou, Weiguo

    2016-06-01

    Craniofacial anomalies (CFAs) characterized by birth defects of skull and facial bones are the most frequent congenital disease. Genomic analysis has identified multiple genes responsible for CFAs; however, the underlying genetic mechanisms for the majority of CFAs remain largely unclear. Our previous study revealed that the Wwp2 E3 ubiquitin ligase facilitates craniofacial development in part through inducing monoubiquitination and activation of the paired-like homeobox transcription factor, Goosecoid (Gsc). Here we report that Gsc is also ubiquitinated and activated by the APC(Cdh1) E3 ubiquitin ligase, leading to transcriptional activation of various Gsc target genes crucial for craniofacial development. Consistenly, neural crest-specific Cdh1-knockout mice display similar bone malformation as Wwp2-deficient mice in the craniofacial region, characterized by a domed skull, a short snout and a twisted nasal bone. Mechanistically, like Wwp2-deficient mice, mice with Cdh1 deficiency in neural crest cells exhibit reduced Gsc/Sox6 transcriptional activities. Simultaneous deletion of Cdh1 and Wwp2 results in a more severe craniofacial defect compared with single gene deletion, suggesting a synergistic augmentation of Gsc activity by these two E3 ubiquitin ligases. Hence, our study reveals a novel role for Cdh1 in craniofacial development through promoting APC-dependent non-proteolytic ubiquitination and activation of Gsc.

  13. Lovastatin, but not orlistat, reduces intestinal polyp volume in an ApcMin/+ mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notarnicola, Maria; Barone, Michele; Francavilla, Antonio; Tutino, Valeria; Bianco, Giusy; Tafaro, Angela; Minoia, Mario; Polimeno, Lorenzo; Napoli, Anna; Scavo, Maria Principia; Caruso, Maria Gabriella

    2016-08-01

    The statins, inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCoAR) and orlistat, an inhibitor of fatty acid synthase (FAS), inhibit tumor cell growth by restricting cholesterol and fatty acid synthesis, respectively. We previously demonstrated that an omega (ω)-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)- or olive oil-enriched diet reduced the polyp number and volume in ApcMin/+ mice. This phenomenon was associated with a significant inhibition of FAS and HMGCoAR, as well as an increase in the estrogen receptor (ER)β/α ratio. Herein, we evaluated the effect of lovastatin and orlistat on polyp development and ER expression in ApcMin/+ mice, in order to confirm previous data obtained with ω‑3-PUFAs and olive oil. As expected, the use of lovastatin and orlistat significantly reduced HMGCoAR and FAS enzymatic activities and gene expression in colonic tissues, but did not affect the number of intestinal polyps, while there was a statistically significant reduction in polyp volume only in the mouse group treated with lovastatin. In the mice receiving orlistat, we observed a significant increase in cell proliferation in the polyp tissue, as well as enhanced expression of ERα. Moreover, the overexpression of ERα was associated with a statistically significant increase in PES1, Shh and Gli1 protein levels, considered ERα-related molecular targets.

  14. APC/C-CCS52A complexes control meristem maintenance in the Arabidopsis root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanstraelen, Marleen; Baloban, Mikhail; Da Ines, Olivier; Cultrone, Antonietta; Lammens, Tim; Boudolf, Véronique; Brown, Spencer C; De Veylder, Lieven; Mergaert, Peter; Kondorosi, Eva

    2009-07-14

    Plant organs originate from meristems where stem cells are maintained to produce continuously daughter cells that are the source of different cell types. The cell cycle switch gene CCS52A, a substrate specific activator of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), controls the mitotic arrest and the transition of mitotic cycles to endoreduplication (ER) cycles as part of cell differentiation. Arabidopsis, unlike other organisms, contains 2 CCS52A isoforms. Here, we show that both of them are active and regulate meristem maintenance in the root tip, although through different mechanisms. The CCS52A1 activity in the elongation zone of the root stimulates ER and mitotic exit, and contributes to the border delineation between dividing and expanding cells. In contrast, CCS52A2 acts directly in the distal region of the root meristem to control identity of the quiescent center (QC) cells and stem cell maintenance. Cell proliferation assays in roots suggest that this control involves CCS52A2 mediated repression of mitotic activity in the QC cells. The data indicate that the CCS52A genes favor a low mitotic state in different cell types of the root tip that is required for meristem maintenance, and reveal a previously undescribed mechanism for APC/C mediated control in plant development.

  15. Increased variability in ApcMin/+ intestinal tissue can be measured with microultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatehullah, A.; Sharma, S.; Newton, I. P.; Langlands, A. J.; Lay, H.; Nelson, S. A.; McMahon, R. K.; McIlvenny, N.; Appleton, P. L.; Cochran, S.; Näthke, I. S.

    2016-07-01

    Altered tissue structure is a feature of many disease states and is usually measured by microscopic methods, limiting analysis to small areas. Means to rapidly and quantitatively measure the structure and organisation of large tissue areas would represent a major advance not just for research but also in the clinic. Here, changes in tissue organisation that result from heterozygosity in Apc, a precancerous situation, are comprehensively measured using microultrasound and three-dimensional high-resolution microscopy. Despite its normal appearance in conventionally examined cross-sections, both approaches revealed a significant increase in the variability of tissue organisation in Apc heterozygous tissue. These changes preceded the formation of aberrant crypt foci or adenoma. Measuring these premalignant changes using microultrasound provides a potential means to detect microscopically abnormal regions in large tissue samples, independent of visual examination or biopsies. Not only does this provide a powerful tool for studying tissue structure in experimental settings, the ability to detect and monitor tissue changes by microultrasound could be developed into a powerful adjunct to screening endoscopy in the clinic.

  16. Identification of five novel modifier loci of Apc(Min) harbored in the BXH14 recombinant inbred strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnadi, Stephanie C; Watson, Rayneisha; Innocent, Julie; Gonye, Gregory E; Buchberg, Arthur M; Siracusa, Linda D

    2012-08-01

    Every year thousands of people in the USA are diagnosed with small intestine and colorectal cancers (CRC). Although environmental factors affect disease etiology, uncovering underlying genetic factors is imperative for risk assessment and developing preventative therapies. Familial adenomatous polyposis is a heritable genetic disorder in which individuals carry germ-line mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene that predisposes them to CRC. The Apc ( Min ) mouse model carries a point mutation in the Apc gene and develops polyps along the intestinal tract. Inbred strain background influences polyp phenotypes in Apc ( Min ) mice. Several Modifier of Min (Mom) loci that alter tumor phenotypes associated with the Apc ( Min ) mutation have been identified to date. We screened BXH recombinant inbred (RI) strains by crossing BXH RI females with C57BL/6J (B6) Apc ( Min ) males and quantitating tumor phenotypes in backcross progeny. We found that the BXH14 RI strain harbors five modifier loci that decrease polyp multiplicity. Furthermore, we show that resistance is determined by varying combinations of these modifier loci. Gene interaction network analysis shows that there are multiple networks with proven gene-gene interactions, which contain genes from all five modifier loci. We discuss the implications of this result for studies that define susceptibility loci, namely that multiple networks may be acting concurrently to alter tumor phenotypes. Thus, the significance of this work resides not only with the modifier loci we identified but also with the combinations of loci needed to get maximal protection against polyposis and the impact of this finding on human disease studies.

  17. Different APC genotypes in proximal and distal sporadic colorectal cancers suggest distinct WNT/β-catenin signalling thresholds for tumourigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, M; Jorissen, R N; Mouradov, D; Sakthianandeswaren, A; Li, S; Day, F; Tsui, C; Lipton, L; Desai, J; Jones, I T; McLaughlin, S; Ward, R L; Hawkins, N J; Ruszkiewicz, A R; Moore, J; Burgess, A W; Busam, D; Zhao, Q; Strausberg, R L; Simpson, A J; Tomlinson, I P M; Gibbs, P; Sieber, O M

    2013-09-26

    Biallelic protein-truncating mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene are prevalent in sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC). Mutations may not be fully inactivating, instead producing WNT/β-catenin signalling levels 'just-right' for tumourigenesis. However, the spectrum of optimal APC genotypes accounting for both hits, and the influence of clinicopathological features on genotype selection remain undefined. We analysed 630 sporadic CRCs for APC mutations and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) using sequencing and single-nucleotide polymorphism microarrays, respectively. Truncating APC mutations and/or LOH were detected in 75% of CRCs. Most truncating mutations occurred within a mutation cluster region (MCR; codons 1282-1581) leaving 1-3 intact 20 amino-acid repeats (20AARs) and abolishing all Ser-Ala-Met-Pro (SAMP) repeats. Cancers commonly had one MCR mutation plus either LOH or another mutation 5' to the MCR. LOH was associated with mutations leaving 1 intact 20AAR. MCR mutations leaving 1 vs 2-3 intact 20AARs were associated with 5' mutations disrupting or leaving intact the armadillo-repeat domain, respectively. Cancers with three hits had an over-representation of mutations upstream of codon 184, in the alternatively spliced region of exon 9, and 3' to the MCR. Microsatellite unstable cancers showed hyper-mutation at MCR mono- and di-nucleotide repeats, leaving 2-3 intact 20AARs. Proximal and distal cancers exhibited different preferred APC genotypes, leaving a total of 2 or 3 and 0 to 2 intact 20AARs, respectively. In conclusion, APC genotypes in sporadic CRCs demonstrate 'fine-tuned' interdependence of hits by type and location, consistent with selection for particular residual levels of WNT/β-catenin signalling, with different 'optimal' thresholds for proximal and distal cancers.

  18. APC, K-ras, and p53 gene mutations in colorectal cancer patients: correlation to clinicopathologic features and postoperative surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Jan-Sing; Lin, Shiu-Ru; Chang, Mei-Yin; Chen, Fang-Ming; Lu, Chien-Yu; Huang, Tsung-Jen; Huang, Yu-Sheng; Huang, Che-Jen; Wang, Jaw-Yuan

    2005-04-01

    Current researches have proposed a genetic model for colorectal cancer (CRC), in which the sequential accumulation of mutations in specific cancer-related genes, including adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), K-ras, and p53, drives the transition from normal epithelium through increasing adenomatous dysplasia to colorectal cancer. To identify patients with an increased risk of tumor recurrence or metastasis and evaluate the prognostic values of APC, K-ras, and p53 gene mutations, we investigated the frequency of these three mutated genes in tumors and sera of CRC patients. APC, K-ras, and p53 gene mutations in primary tumor tissues and their paired preoperative serum samples of 118 CRC patients were detected by using polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) analysis, followed by direct DNA sequencing of the PCR-amplified genomic DNA. Subsequently, serum molecular markers were analyzed for their correlation with patients' clinicopathologic features and presence of postoperative recurrence/metastasis. We did not observe any significant difference in the association of APC or K-ras or p53 gene mutations in primary tumors with patients' demographic data (all were P > 0.05). In contrast, both serum APC and p53 molecular markers were closely correlated with lymph node metastasis and TNM stage (both P APC and K-ras molecular markers were more frequently observed in patients with locoregional metastasis (both P colorectal cancer patients harboring gene mutations at high risk of metastasis. Serial analysis is warranted in order to assess their long-term prognostic significance and the therapeutic implications.

  19. High precision refractometry based on Fresnel diffraction from phase plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavassoly, M Taghi; Naraghi, Roxana Rezvani; Nahal, Arashmid; Hassani, Khosrow

    2012-05-01

    When a transparent plane-parallel plate is illuminated at a boundary region by a monochromatic parallel beam of light, Fresnel diffraction occurs because of the abrupt change in phase imposed by the finite change in refractive index at the plate boundary. The visibility of the diffraction fringes varies periodically with changes in incident angle. The visibility period depends on the plate thickness and the refractive indices of the plate and the surrounding medium. Plotting the phase change versus incident angle or counting the visibility repetition in an incident-angle interval provides, for a given plate thickness, the refractive index of the plate very accurately. It is shown here that the refractive index of a plate can be determined without knowing the plate thickness. Therefore, the technique can be utilized for measuring plate thickness with high precision. In addition, by installing a plate with known refractive index in a rectangular cell filled with a liquid and following the described procedures, the refractive index of the liquid is obtained. The technique is applied to measure the refractive indices of a glass slide, distilled water, and ethanol. The potential and merits of the technique are also discussed.

  20. The origins of counting algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantlon, Jessica F; Piantadosi, Steven T; Ferrigno, Stephen; Hughes, Kelly D; Barnard, Allison M

    2015-06-01

    Humans' ability to count by verbally labeling discrete quantities is unique in animal cognition. The evolutionary origins of counting algorithms are not understood. We report that nonhuman primates exhibit a cognitive ability that is algorithmically and logically similar to human counting. Monkeys were given the task of choosing between two food caches. First, they saw one cache baited with some number of food items, one item at a time. Then, a second cache was baited with food items, one at a time. At the point when the second set was approximately equal to the first set, the monkeys spontaneously moved to choose the second set even before that cache was completely baited. Using a novel Bayesian analysis, we show that the monkeys used an approximate counting algorithm for comparing quantities in sequence that is incremental, iterative, and condition controlled. This proto-counting algorithm is structurally similar to formal counting in humans and thus may have been an important evolutionary precursor to human counting. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. High Count Rate Single Photon Counting Detector Array Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An optical communications receiver requires efficient and high-rate photon-counting capability so that the information from every photon, received at the aperture,...

  2. Inactivation of promoter 1B of APC causes partial gene silencing: evidence for a significant role of the promoter in regulation and causative of familial adenomatous polyposis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohlin, A; Engwall, Y; Fritzell, K

    2011-01-01

    in a panel of 20 various normal tissues examined. In FAP-related tumors, the APC germline mutation is proposed to dictate the second hit. Mutations leaving two or three out of seven 20-amino-acid repeats in the central domain of APC intact seem to be required for tumorigenesis. We examined adenomas from...

  3. Mechanisms controlling the temporal degradation of Nek2A and Kif18A by the APC/C-Cdc20 complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sedgwick, G.G.; Hayward, D.G.; Nilsson, J.;

    2013-01-01

    The Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C) in complex with its co-activator Cdc20 is responsible for targeting proteins for ubiquitin-mediated degradation during mitosis. The activity of APC/C-Cdc20 is inhibited during prometaphase by the Spindle Assembly Checkpoint (SAC) yet certain...

  4. Colocalization of APC and PSD-95 in the nerve fiber as well as in the post-synapse of matured neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onouchi, Takanori; Takamori, Nobutaka; Senda, Takao

    2012-06-01

    Adenomatous polyposis coli protein (APC) is highly expressed in the nervous tissue, but its function there is not yet known. We previously found that the microtubule-bundling activity of APC is stimulated by its interaction with PSD-95, a neuronal scaffolding protein, in cultured COS-7 cells. In the present study, we investigated the distribution and localization of the intrinsic APC and PSD-95 in both cultured rat hippocampal neurons and in the rat cerebellum by immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy. In cultured neurons, most of the PSD-95 immunofluorescence puncta were colocalized with APC, and the APC and PSD-95 immunogolds were colocalized in the nerve fibers as well as in the postsynaptic site, but not in the presynaptic site. In the molecular layer of the rat cerebellum, colocalization of APC and PSD-95 was also detected in the nerve fibers and the postsynaptic site, but not in the presynaptic site. Based on these results, we conclude that APC and PSD-95 colocalize and bind to form a protein complex in nerve fibers as well as in postsynaptic sites in matured neurons, suggesting the involvement of the APC/PSD-95 complex in the microtubule functions within the nerve fibers and the synapse functions at the postsynaptic site.

  5. A role for cyclin-dependent kinase(s) in the modulation of fast anterograde axonal transport: effects defined by olomoucine and the APC tumor suppressor protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratner, N.; Bloom, G. S.; Brady, S. T.

    1998-01-01

    Proteins that interact with both cytoskeletal and membrane components are candidates to modulate membrane trafficking. The tumor suppressor proteins neurofibromin (NF1) and adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) both bind to microtubules and interact with membrane-associated proteins. The effects of recombinant NF1 and APC fragments on vesicle motility were evaluated by measuring fast axonal transport along microtubules in axoplasm from squid giant axons. APC4 (amino acids 1034-2844) reduced only anterograde movements, whereas APC2 (aa 1034-2130) or APC3 (aa 2130-2844) reduced both anterograde and retrograde transport. NF1 had no effect on organelle movement in either direction. Because APC contains multiple cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) consensus phosphorylation motifs, the kinase inhibitor olomoucine was examined. At concentrations in which olomoucine is specific for cyclin-dependent kinases (5 microM), it reduced only anterograde transport, whereas anterograde and retrograde movement were both affected at concentrations at which other kinases are inhibited as well (50 microM). Both anterograde and retrograde transport also were inhibited by histone H1 and KSPXK peptides, substrates for proline-directed kinases, including CDKs. Our data suggest that CDK-like axonal kinases modulate fast anterograde transport and that other axonal kinases may be involved in modulating retrograde transport. The specific effect of APC4 on anterograde transport suggests a model in which the binding of APC to microtubules may limit the activity of axonal CDK kinase or kinases in restricted domains, thereby affecting organelle transport.

  6. Dead-time effects in microchannel-plate imaging detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zombeck, Martin V.; Fraser, George W.

    1991-01-01

    The observed counting rates of microchannel plate (MCP) based detectors for high resolution observations of celestial EUV and X-ray sources vary over many orders of magnitude; the counting capability of an individual channel, however, is not high, and is associated with dead-times ranging from 0.1 msec to 1 sec. The dead-time increases with the area illuminated; attention is presently given to laboratory determinations of the count rate characteristics of a MCP detector as a function of illuminated area, and a model is developed for these results' use in the interpretation of space observations.

  7. Vote Counting as Mathematical Proof

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schürmann, Carsten; Pattinson, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Trust in the correctness of an election outcome requires proof of the correctness of vote counting. By formalising particular voting protocols as rules, correctness of vote counting amounts to verifying that all rules have been applied correctly. A proof of the outcome of any particular election......-based formalisation of voting protocols inside a theorem prover, we synthesise vote counting programs that are not only provably correct, but also produce independently verifiable certificates. These programs are generated from a (formal) proof that every initial set of ballots allows to decide the election winner...

  8. White blood cell counting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and tests of a prototype white blood cell counting system for use in the Skylab IMSS are presented. The counting system consists of a sample collection subsystem, sample dilution and fluid containment subsystem, and a cell counter. Preliminary test results show the sample collection and the dilution subsystems are functional and fulfill design goals. Results for the fluid containment subsystem show the handling bags cause counting errors due to: (1) adsorption of cells to the walls of the container, and (2) inadequate cleaning of the plastic bag material before fabrication. It was recommended that another bag material be selected.

  9. Generalized Fibonacci zone plates

    CERN Document Server

    Ke, Jie; Zhu, Jianqiang

    2015-01-01

    We propose a family of zone plates which are produced by the generalized Fibonacci sequences and their axial focusing properties are analyzed in detail. Compared with traditional Fresnel zone plates, the generalized Fibonacci zone plates present two axial foci with equal intensity. Besides, we propose an approach to adjust the axial locations of the two foci by means of different optical path difference, and further give the deterministic ratio of the two focal distances which attributes to their own generalized Fibonacci sequences. The generalized Fibonacci zone plates may allow for new applications in micro and nanophotonics.

  10. ApcD is required for state transition but not involved in blue-light induced quenching in the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC7120

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG ChunXia; ZHAO JinDong

    2008-01-01

    Pbycobilisomes (PBS) are able to transfer absorbed energy to photosystem Ⅰ and Ⅱ, and the distribution of light energy between two photosystems is regulated by state transitions. In this study we show that energy transfer from PBS to photosystem Ⅰ (PSI) requires ApcD. Cells were unable to perform state transitions in the absence of ApcD. The apcD mutant grows more slowly in light mainly absorbed by PBS, indicating that ApcD-dependent energy transfer to PSI is required for optimal growth under this condition. The apoD mutant showed normal blue-light induced quenching, suggesting that ApcD is not required for this process and state transitions are independent of blue-light induced quenching. Under nitrogen fixing condition, the growth rates of the wild type and the mutant were the same, indicating that energy transfer from PBS to PSI in heterocysta was not required for nitrogen fixation.

  11. Expression of APC-Cdh1mRNA after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion damage in rats%大鼠全脑缺血再灌注损伤后APC-Cdh1mRNA的表达变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志则; 万里; 张传汉; 祁月红; 张雪; 姚文龙; 邱谨

    2010-01-01

    目的 研究大鼠全脑缺血再灌注损伤后APC-Cdh1的表达变化.方法 雄性SD大鼠60只,体重280-350 g,随机分成假手术组(SH组)、模型组(IR组).采用改良4-VO法建立SD大鼠全脑缺血模型,在损伤后不同时间点,免疫组化染色检测Cdh1的表达部位并且采用实时荧光定量PCR检测大鼠海马组织APC-Cdh1的表达.结果 与对照组相比,术后1d Cdh1 mRNA表达减少,术后3d显著升高,术后7d又降低.免疫组化检测显示APC-Cdh1在海马区及皮质区中均有大量表达.结论 APC-Cdh1可能与中枢神经系统的发育及损伤有着密切的关系.

  12. Make My Trip Count 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Make My Trip Count (MMTC) commuter survey, conducted in September and October 2015 by GBA, the Pittsburgh 2030 District, and 10 other regional transportation...

  13. The Mayan Long Count Calendar

    OpenAIRE

    Chanier, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The Maya were known for their astronomical proficiency. This is demonstrated in the Mayan codices where ritual practices were related to astronomical events/predictions. Whereas Mayan mathematics were based on a vigesimal system, they used a different base when dealing with long periods of time, the Long Count Calendar (LCC), composed of different Long Count Periods: the Tun of 360 days, the Katun of 7200 days and the Baktun of 144000 days. There were two other calendars used in addition to t...

  14. Counting Word Frequencies with Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Turkel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Your list is now clean enough that you can begin analyzing its contents in meaningful ways. Counting the frequency of specific words in the list can provide illustrative data. Python has an easy way to count frequencies, but it requires the use of a new type of variable: the dictionary. Before you begin working with a dictionary, consider the processes used to calculate frequencies in a list.

  15. Single electron counting using a dual MCP assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yuzhen [School of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, Beijing 100049 (China); Liu, Shulin, E-mail: liusl@ihep.ac.cn [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhao, Tianchi, E-mail: tianchi@u.washington.edu [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, Beijing 100049 (China); Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Yan, Baojun; Wang, Peiliang [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, Beijing 100049 (China); Yu, Yang [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, Beijing 100049 (China); School of Science, Xi’an University of Technology, Xi’an 710048 (China); Lei, Xiangcui [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, Beijing 100049 (China); Yang, Luping [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, Beijing 100049 (China); School of Physics and Electronics, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Wen, Kaile [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, Beijing 100049 (China); Qi, Ming [School of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); and others

    2016-09-11

    The gain, pulse height resolution and peak-to-valley ratio of single electrons detected by using a Chevron configured Microchannel Plate (MCP) assembly are studied. The two MCPs are separated by a 280 µm gap and are biased by four electrodes. The purpose of the study is to determine the optimum bias voltage arrangements for single electron counting. By comparing the results of various bias voltage combinations, we conclude that good performance for the electron counting can be achieved by operating the MCP assembly in saturation mode. In addition, by applying a small reverse bias voltage across the gap while adjusting the bias voltages of the MCPs, optimum performance of electron counting can be obtained. - Highlights: • Dual MCPs assembly with four electrodes using different voltage combinations has been investigated for single electron counting. • Both the MCP voltages and the gap voltage can affect the gain, pulse height resolution and P/V ratio. • A high gain of the first stage MCP, a saturation mode of the second stage MCP and an appropriately reverse gap voltage can improve the resolution greatly. • The optimum voltage arrangements is significant for the design of MCP detectors in single electron counting applications.

  16. Inhibition of Anaphase-Promoting Complex by Silence APC/C(Cdh1) to Enhance Radiosensitivity of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunmiao; Su, Zhengying; Hou, Huaxin; Li, Danrong; Pan, Zhiyu; Tian, Wei; Mo, Chunyan

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of APC/C(Cdh1) as a potential therapeutic target in the radiosensitivity of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cell CNE-1, and explain the role of APC subunits after silence of Cdh1 combined with radiotherapy. Transfection with Cdh1 shRNA significantly increased the radiosensitivity of CNE-1 cells and the radiation enhancement ratio (RER) of sh-Cdh1 cells was 1.76. Knockdown of Cdh1 in CNE-1 cells increased irradiation induced apoptosis and G2/M phase cell cycle arrest. The levels of CDC20 and CylinB1 increased and the levels of Ku70 and APC3 decreased after irradiation. APC/C(Cdh1) is involved in regulation of radiosensitivity in human NPC CNE-1 cells. Our study may provide a promising therapeutic strategy for NPC by targeting Cdh1. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 3150-3157, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Exclusion of the APC gene as the cause of a variant form of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stella, A.; Resta, N.; Susca, F.; Guanti, G.; Gentile, M. (Universita di Bari (Italy)); Mareni, C.; Montera, P. (Universita di Genova (Italy))

    1993-11-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is a premalignant disease inherited as an autosomal dominant trait, characterized by hundreds to thousands of polyps in the colorectal tract. Recently, the syndrome has been shown to be caused by mutations in the APC (adenomatous polyposis coli) gene located on chromosome 5q21. The authors studied two families that both presented a phenotype different from that of the classical form of FAP. The most important findings observed in these two kindreds are (a) low and variable number of colonic polyps (from 5 to 100) and (b) a slower evolution of the disease, with colon cancer occurring at a more advanced age than in FAP in spite of the early onset of intestinal manifestations. To determine whether mutations of the APC gene are also responsible for this variant syndrome, linkage studies were performed by using a series of markers both intragenic and tightly linked to the APC gene. The results provide evidence for exclusion of the APC gene as the cause of the variant form of polyposis present in the two families described. 30 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  18. APC gene methylation is inversely correlated with features of the CpG island methylator phenotype in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacopetta, Barry; Grieu, Fabienne; Li, Wei; Ruszkiewicz, Andrew; Caruso, Maria; Moore, James; Watanabe, Goh; Kawakami, Kazuyuki

    2006-11-15

    The notion of a CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) was proposed to describe a subset of colorectal cancers (CRC) displaying frequent and concordant methylation of CpG islands located within gene promoter regions. Some workers have failed to observe associations between CIMP and specific clinicopathological features of CRC, possibly because of the choice of genes used to define this phenotype. The aim of the current study was to determine whether the aberrant methylation of 6 genes implicated in CRC development was associated with the same phenotypic features of this tumour type. The MethyLight assay was used to provide quantitative estimates of MLH1, P16, TIMP3, P14, DAPK and APC methylation levels in 199 unselected colorectal tumours. The methylation of MLH1, P16, TIMP3 and P14 was highly concordant (p APC was not. An inverse association was observed between the methylation of APC and TIMP3 (p = 0.004). Methylation of the MLH1, P16, TIMP3 and P14 genes was associated with tumour infiltrating lymphocytes (p APC methylation was associated with wildtype BRAF (p = 0.003) and with lower concentrations of methyl group carriers (p gene selection in studies that aim to characterize the biological features and clinical behaviour of CIMP+ tumours.

  19. Cyclin D2-cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 is required for efficient proliferation and tumorigenesis following Apc loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cole, A.M.; Myant, K.; Reed, K.R.; Ridgway, R.A.; Athineos, D.; van den Brink, G.R.; Muncan, V.; Clevers, H.; Clarke, A.R.; Sicinski, P.; Sansom, O.J.

    2010-01-01

    Inactivation of the Apc gene is recognized as the key early event in the development of sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC), where its loss leads to constitutive activation of beta-catenin/T-cell factor 4 signaling and hence transcription of Wnt target genes such as c-Myc. Our and other previous

  20. Positive feedback promotes mitotic exit via the APC/C-Cdh1-separase-Cdc14 axis in budding yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatano, Yuhki; Naoki, Koike; Suzuki, Asuka; Ushimaru, Takashi

    2016-10-01

    The mitotic inhibitor securin is degraded via the ubiquitin ligase anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C)-Cdc20 after anaphase onset. This triggers activation of the mitotic protease separase and thereby sister chromatid separation. However, only a proportion of securin molecules are degraded at metaphase-anaphase transition and the remaining molecules are still present in anaphase. The roles of securin and separase in late mitosis remain elusive. Here, we show that securin still inhibits separase to repress mitotic exit in anaphase in budding yeast. APC/C-Cdh1-mediated securin degradation at telophase further liberated separase, which promotes Cdc14 release and mitotic exit. Separase executed these events via its proteolytic action and that in the Cdc14 early release (FEAR) network. Cdc14 release further activated APC/C-Cdh1 in the manner of a positive feedback loop. Thus, the positive feedback promotes mitotic exit via the APC/C-Cdh1-separase-Cdc14 axis. This study shows the importance of the two-step degradation mode of securin and the role of separase in mitotic exit.

  1. Casein Kinase 1δ Is an APC/CCdh1 Substrate that Regulates Cerebellar Granule Cell Neurogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Penas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Although casein kinase 1δ (CK1δ is at the center of multiple signaling pathways, its role in the expansion of CNS progenitor cells is unknown. Using mouse cerebellar granule cell progenitors (GCPs as a model for brain neurogenesis, we demonstrate that the loss of CK1δ or treatment of GCPs with a highly selective small molecule inhibits GCP expansion. In contrast, CK1δ overexpression increases GCP proliferation. Thus, CK1δ appears to regulate GCP neurogenesis. CK1δ is targeted for proteolysis via the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/CCdh1 ubiquitin ligase, and conditional deletion of the APC/CCdh1 activator Cdh1 in cerebellar GCPs results in higher levels of CK1δ. APC/CCdh1 also downregulates CK1δ during cell-cycle exit. Therefore, we conclude that APC/CCdh1 controls CK1δ levels to balance proliferation and cell-cycle exit in the developing CNS. Similar studies in medulloblastoma cells showed that CK1δ holds promise as a therapeutic target.

  2. SNW1 enables sister chromatid cohesion by mediating the splicing of sororin and APC2 pre-mRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Lelij, Petra; Stocsits, Roman R; Ladurner, Rene; Petzold, Georg; Kreidl, Emanuel; Koch, Birgit; Schmitz, Julia; Neumann, Beate; Ellenberg, Jan; Peters, Jan-Michael

    2014-11-18

    Although splicing is essential for the expression of most eukaryotic genes, inactivation of splicing factors causes specific defects in mitosis. The molecular cause of this defect is unknown. Here, we show that the spliceosome subunits SNW1 and PRPF8 are essential for sister chromatid cohesion in human cells. A transcriptome-wide analysis revealed that SNW1 or PRPF8 depletion affects the splicing of specific introns in a subset of pre-mRNAs, including pre-mRNAs encoding the cohesion protein sororin and the APC/C subunit APC2. SNW1 depletion causes cohesion defects predominantly by reducing sororin levels, which causes destabilisation of cohesin on DNA. SNW1 depletion also reduces APC/C activity and contributes to cohesion defects indirectly by delaying mitosis and causing "cohesion fatigue". Simultaneous expression of sororin and APC2 from intron-less cDNAs restores cohesion in SNW1-depleted cells. These results indicate that the spliceosome is required for mitosis because it enables expression of genes essential for cohesion. Our transcriptome-wide identification of retained introns in SNW1- and PRPF8-depleted cells may help to understand the aetiology of diseases associated with splicing defects, such as retinosa pigmentosum and cancer.

  3. Thermal Treatment of Iron Oxide Stabilized APC Residues from Waste Incineration and the Effect on Heavy Metal Binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette Abildgaard; Stackpoole, M.; Bender-Koch, C.

    2000-01-01

    Iron oxide stabilized APC residues from MSWI were heat treated at 600°C and 900°C. The thermal treatments resulted in a change in product stability by forcing a transformation in the mineralogical structures of the products. The treatments, moreover, simulated somewhat the natural aging processes...

  4. Acquired APC resistance in neurosurgical patients may not be a risk factor for postoperative deep vein thrombosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meinardi, [No Value; Henkens, CMA; de Kam, PJ; van der Meer, J

    Acquired resistance to activated protein C has been reported during oral contraception and pregnancy. Its thrombogenic potential was studied in 41 neurosurgical patients who were enrolled in the placebo group of a thromboprophylaxis trial, Normalized activated protein C sensitivity ratio (nAPC-SR),

  5. Blue Willow Story Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Kris

    2009-01-01

    In the December 1997 issue of "SchoolArts" is a lesson titled "Blue Willow Story Plates" by Susan Striker. In this article, the author shares how she used this lesson with her middle-school students many times over the years. Here, she describes a Blue Willow plate painting project that her students made.

  6. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... In Memory In Honor Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community ... Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Create Your Plate Create Your Plate is a ...

  7. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal Planning ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans and a Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets ...

  8. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Carbohydrate Counting Make Your Carbs Count Glycemic Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 ... and vinaigrettes. To complete your meal, add a low-calorie drink like water, unsweetened tea or coffee. Featured ...

  9. Analysis of the mutations of the APC gene in 7 9 Chinese patients with colorectal cancer%79例中国人结直肠癌 APC 基因突变分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马文韬; 张钰; 陈曦; 刘婷婷; 石峰; 郝佳洁; 蔡岩; 周志祥; 王明荣; 梁建伟

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the mutations of adenomatous polyposis coli ( APC ) gene in Chinese patients with colorectal cancer ( CRC ) .Methods APC gene mutations in the mutation cluster region ( MCR ) were examined in 7 9 colorectal tumors by PCR and DNA sequencing .Results Twenty-five ( 3 1.6%) somatic mutations were detected in the APC gene as a whole . Among them sixteen ( 2 0.3%) were point mutations , which includes , 1 2 nonsense mutations and 4 missense mutations .The other 9 ( 1 1%) tumors had frameshift mutations due to a deletion or an insertion .Overall , twenty-one ( 2 7%) mutations resulted in the truncation of the APC protein , which accounted for 8 4% of the total mutations .The mutations in the APC gene were clustered within two small regions of the MCR , that is , codon 1 2 8 1-1 3 5 2 and 1 4 1 1-1 4 6 5 .The frequencies of these two regions were 1 6.5%( 1 3/7 9 ) and 1 5.2%( 1 2/7 9 ) , respectively .The mutation rate of codon 1 2 8 6、1 3 0 6、1 4 2 1 and 1 4 5 0 was relative higher in our cohort .Furthermore , statistical analysis revealed that mutations of the APC gene were not correlated with the age , sex , tumor location , tumor type , histology differentiated degree , depth of inva-sion , lymph node metastasis , or clinical stage .Conc lusion APC gene mutations are frequent in Chinese patients with CRC , and truncating mutation is the predominant type .In addition , there are two small re-gions with higher mutation rate and four potential mutation hot spots of the APC gene in this cohort .%目的:研究中国人结直肠癌中 APC 基因的突变频率及分布特点。方法应用聚合酶链反应( PCR )产物直接测序法,对79例中国结直肠癌患者肿瘤标本中 APC 基因突变密集区( MCR )中的突变进行检测,并对该基因突变与相关临床病理参数之间的关系进行分析。结果在79例肿瘤标本中检出 APC 基因的总突变率为31.6%(25/79)。点突变频率为20.3%(16

  10. APC InfrastruXure让诊疗过程更加安全放心

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李轻侯

    2010-01-01

    全球领先的关键电源与制冷服务商施耐德电气IT事业部(APC)日前宣布,美国亚利桑那州凤凰城的“试金石”行为健康医疗机构(Touchstone Behavioral Health)成功为其数据中心部署了APC InfraStruXure英飞集成系统,充分满足了IT整合后对于数据中心基础设施对机架空间、电源和制冷需求的更高要求与挑战,在提升数据中心可用容量的同时,也为进一步用虚拟化技术奠定了坚实的基础。

  11. The role of APC/C(Cdh1) in replication stress and origin of genomic instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greil, C; Krohs, J; Schnerch, D; Follo, M; Felthaus, J; Engelhardt, M; Wäsch, R

    2016-06-01

    It has been proposed that the APC/C(Cdh1) functions as a tumor suppressor by maintaining genomic stability. However, the exact nature of genomic instability following loss of Cdh1 is unclear. Using biochemistry and live cell imaging of single cells we found that Cdh1 knockdown (kd) leads to strong nuclear stabilization of the substrates cyclin A and B and deregulated kinetics of DNA replication. Restoration of the Cdh1-dependent G2 DNA damage checkpoint did not result in G2 arrest but blocked cells in prometaphase, suggesting that these cells enter mitosis despite incomplete replication. This results in DNA double-strand breaks, anaphase bridges, cytokinesis defects and tetraploidization. Tetraploid cells are the source of supernumerary centrosomes following Cdh1-kd, leading to multipolar mitosis or centrosome clustering, in turn resulting in merotelic attachment and lagging chromosomes. Whereas some of these events cause apoptosis during mitosis, surviving cells may accumulate chromosomal aberrations.

  12. Selenium and sulindac are synergistic to inhibit intestinal tumorigenesis in Apc/p21 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bi Xiuli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both selenium and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID sulindac are effective in cancer prevention, but their effects are affected by several factors including epigenetic alterations and gene expression. The current study was designed to determine the effects of the combination of selenium and sulindac on tumor inhibition and the underlying mechanisms. Results We fed the intestinal tumor model Apc/p21 mice with selenium- and sulindac-supplemented diet for 24 weeks, and found that the combination of selenium and sulindac significantly inhibited intestinal tumorigenesis, in terms of reducing tumor incidence by 52% and tumor multiplicities by 80% (p Conclusions The selenium is synergistic with sulindac to exert maximal effects on tumor inhibition. This finding provides an important chemopreventive strategy using combination of anti-cancer agents, which has a great impact on cancer prevention and has a promising translational potential.

  13. Determination of total bacterial count in raw milk by flow cytometry

    OpenAIRE

    Dubravka Samaržija; Neven Antunac; Tomislav Pogačić; Sanja Sikora

    2004-01-01

    The automatic flow cytometry as routine method for total bacterial count determination of raw ex-farm milk has recently been accepted in Croatia. This method significantly differs from the reference method (Standard Plate Count) mostly in the presentation of the results obtained. Therefore, this paper summarized experiences in the application of flow cytometry in the dairy laboratories practice. The principle and the practice of the method, methodological details and factors influencing the r...

  14. Chemopreventive Effects of RXR-Selective Rexinoid Bexarotene on Intestinal Neoplasia of ApcMin/+ Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveena B. Janakiram

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Retinoid X receptor (RXR has been implicated in several neoplastic diseases. Previously, we have shown that RXR-α is downregulated in human and rodent colonic tumors, suggesting a potential target for colon cancer prevention (http://www.cancer.org/Cancer/ColonandRectumCancer/DetailedGuide/colorectal-cancer-key-statistics. Experiments were designed to assess the chemopreventive efficacy of the selective RXR agonist bexarotene for the suppression of intestinal tumorigenesis in ApcMin/+ mice. Before the efficacy studies, we determined that the maximal tolerated dose in C57BL/6J mice was less than 400 ppm. For the efficacy study, 6-week-old male and female C57BL/6J-ApcMin/+ mice (nine mice per group were fed diets containing 0, 30, and 60 ppm of bexarotene or 200 ppm of bexarotene for 80 days before intestinal tumors were evaluated. Dietary administration of 30 and 60 ppm of bexarotene suppressed the intestinal polyp formation by 38% (P < .015 and 60% (P < .0001 in males, respectively, and by 8.5% and 37% (P < .007 in females, respectively. Also, significant inhibition (50%–100% of colonic tumor formation was observed in both male and female mice with bexarotene treatment. Administration of 200 ppm of bexarotene showed significant suppression of tumor formation (66%, P < .0001; however, it had significant toxicity. Intestinal tumors of bexarotene-fed mice showed significantly reduced expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (60%, P < .0001, cyclin D1, and cyclooxygenase 2 and increased RXR-α messenger RNA and uptake of oleate (34%, P < .01. Also, bexarotene-fed mice showed dose-dependent suppression of serum triglycerides (25%–72%, P < .0001 and inflammatory cytokines.

  15. APC and K-ras gene mutation in aberrant crypt foci of human colon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Yuan; Meng Hong Sun; Jin Sheng Zhang; Xiong Zeng Zhu; Da Ren Shi

    2001-01-01

    AIM To study the genetic alteration in ACF andto define the possibility that ACF may be a veryearly morphological lesion with molecularchanges, and to explore the relationshipbetween ACF and colorectal adenoma evencarcinoma.METHODS DNA from 35 CRC, 15 adenomas, 34ACF and 10 normal mucus was isolated by meansof microdissection. Direct gene sequencing of K-ras gene including codon 12, 13 and 61 as well asthe mutation cluster region (MCR) of APC genewas performed.RESULTS K-ras gene mutation frequency inACF, adenoma and carcinoma was 17.6% (6/34), 13.3% (2/ 15), and 14.3% (5/ 35)respectively, showing no difference ( P > 0.05)in K-fas gene mutation among three pathologicprocedures. The K-ras gene mutation inadenoma, carcinoma and 4 ACF restricted incodon 12 (GGT→GAT), but the other 2 mutationsfrom ACF located in codon 13 (GGC→GAC). K-res gene mutation was found more frequently inolder patients and patients with polypoidcancer. No mutation in codon 61 was found in thethree tissue types. Mutation rate of APO gene inadenoma and carcinoma was 22.9% (8/35) and26.7% (4/ 15), which was higher than ACF(2.9%) (P < 0.05). APC gene mutation incarcinoma was not correlated with age ofpatients, location, size and differentiation oftumor.CONCLUSION ACF might be a very earlymorphological lesion in the tumorogenesis ofcolorectal tumor. The morphological feature andgene mutation status was different in ACF andadenoma. ACF is possibly putative"microadenoma" that might be the precursor ofadenoma. In addition, the development of asubgroup of colorectal carcinomas mightundergo a way of "normal epithelium→ ACF→carcinomas".

  16. Molecular alterations associated with sulindac-resistant colon tumors in ApcMin/+ mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenspan, Emily J; Nichols, Frank C; Rosenberg, Daniel W

    2010-09-01

    Although nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), including sulindac, have been used extensively as chemopreventive agents for colorectal cancer, results are not consistent. NSAIDs, most reportedly sulindac, often do not cause a complete regression of adenomas and some patients develop resistance to NSAID treatment. In this study, we evaluated the effect of sulindac on colon tumorigenesis in the Apc(Min/+) mouse model. Sulindac (180 ppm) given in drinking water for 9 weeks to Apc(Min/+) mice significantly reduced the size of colon tumors, but actually caused an increase in colon tumor multiplicity relative to untreated controls (average of 5.5 versus 1.6 tumors per mouse, respectively; P sulindac significantly reduced tumor size and multiplicity relative to untreated controls (average of 2.3 versus 42.0 tumors per mouse, respectively; P sulindac treatment. Sulindac is also known to exert its growth inhibitory effects through regulation of many noncyclooxygenase targets, including p21, beta-catenin, E-cadherin, mitochondrial apoptotic proteins, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma. We found that sulindac treatment protected against E-cadherin loss in colon tumors, with associated inhibition of nuclear beta-catenin accumulation. Importantly, p21(WAF1/cip1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma expression were absent in colon tumors from sulindac-treated mice, suggesting that loss of these proteins is necessary for drug resistance. Together, these observations may be translatable to designing novel clinical therapies using combinations of agents that target multiple molecular pathways to overcome sulindac resistance.

  17. Dietary, lifestyle and clinicopathological factors associated with APC mutations and promoter methylation in colorectal cancers from the EPIC-Norfolk study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Laura J; Mitrou, Panagiota N; Keen, Jennifer; Bowman, Richard; Naguib, Adam; Cooke, James; Kuhnle, Gunter G; Burns, Philip A; Luben, Robert; Lentjes, Marleen; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Ball, Richard Y; Ibrahim, Ashraf Ek; Arends, Mark J

    2012-11-01

    The tumour suppressor APC is the most commonly altered gene in colorectal cancer (CRC). Genetic and epigenetic alterations of APC may therefore be associated with dietary and lifestyle risk factors for CRC. Analysis of APC mutations in the extended mutation cluster region (codons 1276-1556) and APC promoter 1A methylation was performed on 185 archival CRC samples collected from participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk study, with the aim of relating these to high-quality seven-day dietary and lifestyle data collected prospectively. Truncating APC mutations (APC(+) ) and promoter 1A methylation (PM(+) ) were identified in 43% and 23% of CRCs analysed, respectively. Distal CRCs were more likely than proximal CRCs to be APC(+) or PM(+) (p = 0.04). APC(+) CRCs were more likely to be moderately/well differentiated and microsatellite stable than APC(-) CRCs (p = 0.05 and 0.03). APC(+) CRC cases consumed more alcohol than their counterparts (p = 0.01) and PM(+) CRC cases consumed lower levels of folate and fibre (p = 0.01 and 0.004). APC(+) or PM(+) CRC cases consumed higher levels of processed meat and iron from red meat and red meat products (p = 0.007 and 0.006). Specifically, CRC cases harbouring GC-to-AT transition mutations consumed higher levels of processed meat (35 versus 24 g/day, p = 0.04) and iron from red meat and red meat products (0.8 versus 0.6 mg/day, p = 0.05). In a logistic regression model adjusted for age, sex and cigarette-smoking status, each 19 g/day (1SD) increment increase in processed meat consumption was associated with cases with GC-to-AT mutations (OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.03-2.75). In conclusion, APC(+) and PM(+) CRCs may be influenced by diet and GC-to-AT mutations in APC are associated with processed meat consumption, suggesting a mechanistic link with dietary alkylating agents, such as N-nitroso compounds.

  18. Dual PI3K/mTOR Inhibition in Colorectal Cancers with APC and PIK3CA Mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Tyler M; Payne, Susan N; Pasch, Cheri A; Yueh, Alex E; Van De Hey, Dana R; Korkos, Demetra P; Clipson, Linda; Maher, Molly E; Matkowskyj, Kristina A; Newton, Michael A; Deming, Dustin A

    2017-02-09

    Therapeutic targeting of the PI3K pathway is an active area of research in multiple cancer types, including breast and endometrial cancers. This pathway is commonly altered in cancer and plays an integral role in numerous vital cellular functions. Mutations in the PIK3CA gene, resulting in a constitutively active form of PI3K, often occur in colorectal cancer, though the population of patients who would benefit from targeting this pathway has yet to be identified. In human colorectal cancers, PIK3CA mutations most commonly occur concomitantly with loss of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC). Here, treatment strategies are investigated that target the PI3K pathway in colon cancers with mutations in APC and PIK3CA Colorectal cancer spheroids with Apc and Pik3ca mutations were generated and characterized confirming that these cultures represent the tumors from which they were derived. Pan and alpha isomer-specific PI3K inhibitors did not induce a significant treatment response, whereas the dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitors BEZ235 and LY3023414 induced a dramatic treatment response through decreased cellular proliferation and increased differentiation. The significant treatment responses were confirmed in mice with Apc and Pik3ca-mutant colon cancers as measured using endoscopy with a reduction in median lumen occlusion of 53% with BEZ235 and a 24% reduction with LY3023414 compared with an increase of 53% in controls (P APC and PIK3CA-mutant colorectal cancers. Thus, further clinical studies of dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitors are warranted in colorectal cancers with these mutations. Mol Cancer Res; 15(3); 1-11. ©2016 AACR.

  19. Following EAU recovery there is an associated MC5r-dependent APC induction of regulatory immunity in the spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Darren J; Taylor, Andrew W

    2011-11-17

    IRBPp-specific regulatory immunity is found in the spleens of mice recovered from experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU). Induction of this regulatory immunity is dependent on the expression of the melanocortin 5 receptor (MC5r). Therefore, the authors investigated whether dependence on the expression of MC5r was with the T cells or with the APCs mediating protective regulatory immunity in the EAU-recovered mouse spleen. Wild-type and MC5r-/- mice were immunized to induce EAU. The IRBPp-stimulated T-cell response in spleens of wild-type and MC5r-/- mice were compared for surface markers and cytokine production. Spleen APC were isolated and used to stimulate cytokine production and regulatory activity in IRBP-specific T cells from wild-type or MC5r-/- mice assayed in culture by ELISA, by flow cytometry, and in vivo by adoptive transfer into EAU mice. IRBPp-specific CD25+CD4+ T cells from spleens of EAU-recovered wild-type mice express a Treg cell phenotype of FoxP3 and TGF-β compared with the effector T-cell phenotype of IFN-γ and IL-17 production in EAU-recovered MC5r-/- mice. APCs from the spleens of wild-type mice recovering from EAU promoted regulatory T-cell activation in IRBP-specific effector T cells from the spleens of EAU-recovering MC5r-/- mice. Spleen APCs from EAU-recovering wild-type, but not MC5r-/-, mice induced TGF-β expression by primed IRBP-specific effector T cells. Dependence on MC5r expression is with an APC that promotes or selectively activates IRBP-specific FoxP3+ TGF-β+ CD25+CD4+ Treg cells in the spleens of EAU-recovered mice.

  20. Hanford whole body counting manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, H.E.; Rieksts, G.A.; Lynch, T.P.

    1990-06-01

    This document describes the Hanford Whole Body Counting Program as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy--Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and its Hanford contractors. Program services include providing in vivo measurements of internally deposited radioactivity in Hanford employees (or visitors). Specific chapters of this manual deal with the following subjects: program operational charter, authority, administration, and practices, including interpreting applicable DOE Orders, regulations, and guidance into criteria for in vivo measurement frequency, etc., for the plant-wide whole body counting services; state-of-the-art facilities and equipment used to provide the best in vivo measurement results possible for the approximately 11,000 measurements made annually; procedures for performing the various in vivo measurements at the Whole Body Counter (WBC) and related facilities including whole body counts; operation and maintenance of counting equipment, quality assurance provisions of the program, WBC data processing functions, statistical aspects of in vivo measurements, and whole body counting records and associated guidance documents. 16 refs., 48 figs., 22 tabs.

  1. Regulation of nuclear envelope dynamics via APC/C is necessary for the progression of semi-open mitosis in Schizosaccharomyces japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Keita; Shiwa, Yuh; Takada, Hiraku; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi; Niki, Hironori

    2013-09-01

    Three types of mitosis, which are open, closed or semi-open mitosis, function in eukaryotic cells, respectively. The open mitosis involves breakage of the nuclear envelope before nuclear division, whereas the closed mitosis proceeds with an intact nuclear envelope. To understand the mechanism and significance of three types of mitotic division in eukaryotes, we investigated the process of semi-open mitosis, in which the nuclear envelope is only partially broken, in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces japonicus. In anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) mutants of Sz. japonicus, the nuclear envelope remained relatively intact during anaphase, resulting in impaired semi-open mitosis. As a suppressor of apc2 mutant, a mutation of Oar2, which was a 3-oxoacyl-[acyl carrier protein] reductase, was obtained. The level of the Oar2, which had two destruction-box motifs recognized by APC/C, was increased in APC/C mutants. Furthermore, the defective semi-open mitosis observed in an apc2 mutant was restored by mutated oar2+. Based on these findings, we propose that APC/C regulates the dynamics of the nuclear envelope through degradation of Oar2 dependent on APC/C during the metaphase-to-anaphase transition of semi-open mitosis in Sz. japonicus.

  2. Pixelated neutron image plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlapp, M.; Conrad, H.; von Seggern, H.

    2004-09-01

    Neutron image plates (NIPs) have found widespread application as neutron detectors for single-crystal and powder diffraction, small-angle scattering and tomography. After neutron exposure, the image plate can be read out by scanning with a laser. Commercially available NIPs consist of a powder mixture of BaFBr : Eu2+ and Gd2O3 dispersed in a polymer matrix and supported by a flexible polymer sheet. Since BaFBr : Eu2+ is an excellent x-ray storage phosphor, these NIPs are particularly sensitive to ggr-radiation, which is always present as a background radiation in neutron experiments. In this work we present results on NIPs consisting of KCl : Eu2+ and LiF that were fabricated into ceramic image plates in which the alkali halides act as a self-supporting matrix without the necessity for using a polymeric binder. An advantage of this type of NIP is the significantly reduced ggr-sensitivity. However, the much lower neutron absorption cross section of LiF compared with Gd2O3 demands a thicker image plate for obtaining comparable neutron absorption. The greater thickness of the NIP inevitably leads to a loss in spatial resolution of the image plate. However, this reduction in resolution can be restricted by a novel image plate concept in which a ceramic structure with square cells (referred to as a 'honeycomb') is embedded in the NIP, resulting in a pixelated image plate. In such a NIP the read-out light is confined to the particular illuminated pixel, decoupling the spatial resolution from the optical properties of the image plate material and morphology. In this work, a comparison of experimentally determined and simulated spatial resolutions of pixelated and unstructured image plates for a fixed read-out laser intensity is presented, as well as simulations of the properties of these NIPs at higher laser powers.

  3. Plate removal following orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Mhairi; Langford, Richard Julian; Bhanji, Adam; Farr, David

    2015-11-01

    The objectives of this study are to determine the removal rates of orthognathic plates used during orthognathic surgery at James Cook University Hospital and describe the reasons for plate removal. 202 consecutive orthognathic cases were identified between July 2004 and July 2012. Demographics and procedure details were collected for these patients. Patients from this group who returned to theatre for plate removal between July 2004 and November 2012 were identified and their notes were analysed for data including reason for plate removal, age, smoking status, sex and time to plate removal. 3.2% of plates were removed with proportionally more plates removed from the mandible than the maxilla. 10.4% of patients required removal of one or more plate. Most plates were removed within the first post-operative year. The commonest reasons for plate removal were plate exposure and infection. The plate removal rates in our study are comparable to those seen in the literature.

  4. Anisotropic elastic plates

    CERN Document Server

    Hwu, Chyanbin

    2010-01-01

    As structural elements, anisotropic elastic plates find wide applications in modern technology. The plates here are considered to be subjected to not only in plane load but also transverse load. In other words, both plane and plate bending problems as well as the stretching-bending coupling problems are all explained in this book. In addition to the introduction of the theory of anisotropic elasticity, several important subjects have are discussed in this book such as interfaces, cracks, holes, inclusions, contact problems, piezoelectric materials, thermoelastic problems and boundary element a

  5. Plating in Top Agar

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    1. Warm plates to room temperature before use. Cold plates causes the top agar to solidify irregularly. DO not warm plates to 37° as the top agar will take forever to solidify. - Prepare top agar as the appropriate liquid medium with 0.7% agar. Keeping 100 mL bottles is convenient. For phages, use λ top agar, which is less rich and yields bigger plaques. - Melt top agar in the microwave completely. Allow the agar to boil after liquification; incompletely melted agar looks liquid, but is...

  6. Thermal neutron imaging using microchannel plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, George W.; Pearson, James F.; Al-Horayess, O. S.; Feller, W. Bruce; Cook, Lee M.

    1993-02-01

    Microchannel plates (MCPs) are compact electron multipliers of high gain, widely used for the high resolution imaging of charged particles and photons. In this paper, we consider the use of lead glass MCPs for the imaging of thermal neutrons. Two contrasting techniques are described. The first method involves direct neutron detection within a special channel plate structure containing lithium and/or boron. We review the constraints of glass chemistry on the attainable lithium oxide and boron oxide fractions and, hence, on the maximum neutron detection efficiency. The second method involves the detection, using MCPs of standard glass composition, of the internal conversion electrons from a thin gadolinium foil. We present the first measurements of the detection efficiency, pulse height resolution and imaging properties of a pulse-counting MCP/Gd detector system.

  7. VersaCount: customizable manual tally software for cell counting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeRisi Joseph L

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The manual counting of cells by microscopy is a commonly used technique across biological disciplines. Traditionally, hand tally counters have been used to track event counts. Although this method is adequate, there are a number of inefficiencies which arise when managing large numbers of samples or large sample sizes. Results We describe software that mimics a traditional multi-register tally counter. Full customizability allows operation on any computer with minimal hardware requirements. The efficiency of counting large numbers of samples and/or large sample sizes is improved through the use of a "multi-count" register that allows single keystrokes to correspond to multiple events. Automatically updated multi-parameter values are implemented as user-specified equations, reducing errors and time required for manual calculations. The user interface was optimized for use with a touch screen and numeric keypad, eliminating the need for a full keyboard and mouse. Conclusions Our software provides an inexpensive, flexible, and productivity-enhancing alternative to manual hand tally counters.

  8. The Origins of Counting Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Cantlon, Jessica F.; Piantadosi, Steven T.; Ferrigno, Stephen; Hughes, Kelly D.; Allison M Barnard

    2015-01-01

    Humans’ ability to ‘count’ by verbally labeling discrete quantities is unique in animal cognition. The evolutionary origins of counting algorithms are not understood. We report that non-human primates exhibit a cognitive ability that is algorithmically and logically similar to human counting. Monkeys were given the task of choosing between two food caches. Monkeys saw one cache baited with some number of food items, one item at a time. Then, a second cache was baited with food items, one at a...

  9. Tree modules and counting polynomials

    CERN Document Server

    Kinser, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    We give a formula for counting tree modules for the quiver S_g with g loops and one vertex in terms of tree modules on its universal cover. This formula, along with work of Helleloid and Rodriguez-Villegas, is used to show that the number of d-dimensional tree modules for S_g is polynomial in g with the same degree and leading coefficient as the counting polynomial A_{S_g}(d, q) for absolutely indecomposables over F_q, evaluated at q=1.

  10. Inactivation of promoter 1B of APC causes partial gene silencing: evidence for a significant role of the promoter in regulation and causative of familial adenomatous polyposis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohlin, A; Engwall, Y; Fritzell, K

    2011-01-01

    of this promoter in the largest family (Family 1) of the Swedish Polyposis Registry. The mutation leads to an imbalance in allele-specific expression of APC, and transcription from promoter 1B was highly impaired in both normal colorectal mucosa and blood from mutation carriers. To establish the significance...... in a panel of 20 various normal tissues examined. In FAP-related tumors, the APC germline mutation is proposed to dictate the second hit. Mutations leaving two or three out of seven 20-amino-acid repeats in the central domain of APC intact seem to be required for tumorigenesis. We examined adenomas from...

  11. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ... but changes the portion sizes so you are getting larger portions of non-starchy vegetables and a ...

  12. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ... 4/Box) Taking the guesswork out of portion control has never been easier. It can be a ...

  13. Tectonic Plate Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landalf, Helen

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity that employs movement to enable students to understand concepts related to plate tectonics. Argues that movement brings topics to life in a concrete way and helps children retain knowledge. (DDR)

  14. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ... you have an easy portion control solution that works. Last Reviewed: October 8, 2015 Last Edited: September ...

  15. Designing Assemblies Of Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, F. W.; Kennedy, D.; Butler, R.; Aston, G.; Anderson, M. S.

    1992-01-01

    VICONOPT calculates vibrations and instabilities of assemblies of prismatic plates. Designed for efficient, accurate analysis of buckling and vibration, and for optimum design of panels of composite materials. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  16. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal Planning What Can I Eat? Making Healthy Food Choices Diabetes Superfoods Non-starchy Vegetables Grains and Starchy Vegetables ...

  17. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Recipes Association Cookbook Recipes Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning ... serving of dairy or both as your meal plan allows. Choose healthy fats in small amounts. For ...

  18. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely Get And Stay Fit Types of Activity Weight Loss Assess Your Lifestyle ... manage portion control wherever you are. Now, our best-selling, sectioned to-go plate with easy-sealing ...

  19. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Plate is a simple and effective way to manage your blood glucose levels and lose weight. With ... been easier. It can be a challenge to manage portion control wherever you are. Now, our best- ...

  20. Tectonic Plate Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landalf, Helen

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity that employs movement to enable students to understand concepts related to plate tectonics. Argues that movement brings topics to life in a concrete way and helps children retain knowledge. (DDR)

  1. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... veggies and smaller portions of starchy foods and protein—no special tools or counting required! You can ... then in the other small section, put your protein. See this list of protein foods . Add a ...

  2. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... veggies and smaller portions of starchy foods and protein—no special tools or counting required! You can practice with this interactive tool. The healthy meal combinations are endless! Ready to try it at home? Just ...

  3. Origami - Folded Plate Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Buri, Hans Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    This research investigates new methods of designing folded plate structures that can be built with cross-laminated timber panels. Folded plate structures are attractive to both architects and engineers for their structural, spatial, and plastic qualities. Thin surfaces can be stiffened by a series of folds, and thus not only cover space, but also act as load bearing elements. The variation of light and shadow along the folded faces emphasizes the plas...

  4. Fractal multifiber microchannel plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Lee M.; Feller, W. B.; Kenter, Almus T.; Chappell, Jon H.

    1992-01-01

    The construction and performance of microchannel plates (MCPs) made using fractal tiling mehtods are reviewed. MCPs with 40 mm active areas having near-perfect channel ordering were produced. These plates demonstrated electrical performance characteristics equivalent to conventionally constructed MCPs. These apparently are the first MCPs which have a sufficiently high degree of order to permit single channel addressability. Potential applications for these devices and the prospects for further development are discussed.

  5. Development and characterisation of a visible light photon counting imaging detector system

    CERN Document Server

    Barnstedt, J

    2002-01-01

    We report on the development of a visible light photon counting imaging detector system. The detector concept is based on standard 25 mm diameter microchannel plate image intensifiers made by Proxitronic in Bensheim (Germany). Modifications applied to these image intensifiers are the use of three microchannel plates instead of two and a high resistance ceramics plate used instead of the standard phosphor output screen. A wedge and strip anode mounted directly behind the high resistance ceramics plate was used as a read out device. This wedge and strip anode picks up the image charge of electron clouds emerging from the microchannel plates. The charge pulses are fed into four charge amplifiers and subsequently into a digital position decoding electronics, achieving a position resolution of up to 1024x1024 pixels. Mounting the anode outside the detector tube is a new approach and has the great advantage of avoiding electrical feedthroughs from the anode so that the standard image intensifier fabrication process...

  6. KIDS COUNT New Hampshire, 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemitz, Elllen, Ed.

    This Kids Count report presents statewide trends in the well-being of New Hampshire's children. The statistical report is based on 22 indicators of child well-being in 5 interrelated areas: (1) children and families (including child population, births, children living with single parent, and children experiencing parental divorce); (2) economic…

  7. Counting a Culture of Mealworms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2007-01-01

    Math is not the only topic that will be discussed when young children are asked to care for and count "mealworms," a type of insect larvae (just as caterpillars are the babies of butterflies, these larvae are babies of beetles). The following activity can take place over two months as the beetles undergo metamorphosis from larvae to adults. As the…

  8. Verbal Counting in Bilingual Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donevska-Todorova, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Informal experiences in mathematics often include playful competitions among young children in counting numbers in as many as possible different languages. Can these enjoyable experiences result with excellence in the formal processes of education? This article discusses connections between mathematical achievements and natural languages within…

  9. Shakespeare Live! and Character Counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookshire, Cathy A.

    This paper discusses a live production of Shakespeare's "Macbeth" (in full costume but with no sets) for all public middle school and high school students in Harrisonburg and Rockingham, Virginia. The paper states that the "Character Counts" issues that are covered in the play are: decision making, responsibility and…

  10. On Counting the Rational Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almada, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we show how to construct a function from the set N of natural numbers that explicitly counts the set Q[superscript +] of all positive rational numbers using a very intuitive approach. The function has the appeal of Cantor's function and it has the advantage that any high school student can understand the main idea at a glance…

  11. Counting problems for number rings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brakenhoff, Johannes Franciscus

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis we look at three counting problems connected to orders in number fields. First we study the probability that for a random polynomial f in Z[X] the ring Z[X]/f is the maximal order in Q[X]/f. Connected to this is the probability that a random polynomial has a squarefree discriminant. T

  12. Counting a Culture of Mealworms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2007-01-01

    Math is not the only topic that will be discussed when young children are asked to care for and count "mealworms," a type of insect larvae (just as caterpillars are the babies of butterflies, these larvae are babies of beetles). The following activity can take place over two months as the beetles undergo metamorphosis from larvae to adults. As the…

  13. Galaxy evolution at low redshift?; 1, optical counts

    CERN Document Server

    Dennefeld, M

    1996-01-01

    We present bright galaxy number counts in the blue (16plates digitized with the MAMA machine, and individually calibrated using an adequate number of CCD sequences. We find a relatively large density of bright galaxies implying a ``high'' normalization of the local luminosity function. Our counts and colour distributions exhibit no large departure from what standard no-evolution models predict, removing the need for evolution of the galaxy population in the optical, out to Bj=21. This result disagrees with that of Maddox et al. (1990) on the APM catalog. We show that the APM and similar catalogs may be affected by a systematic magnitude scale error which would explain this discrepancy.

  14. Vibration and Buckling of Web Plate of the Plate Girder

    OpenAIRE

    高橋, 和雄; 呉, 明強; 中澤, 聡志; 筑紫, 宏之

    1998-01-01

    The vibration and buckling of the web of the plate girder are studied in this paper. The small deflection theory of the thin plate is used. The finite strip method is employed to solve vibration and buckling of the plate girder. Natural frequenies of buckling properties are shown for various plate girder bridges.

  15. Teaching Emotionally Disturbed Students to Count Feelings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Cynthia S.; Calkin, Abigail B.

    The paper describes a program to teach high school students with emotional and behavior problems to count their feelings, thereby improving their self concept. To aid in instruction, a hierarchy was developed which involved four phases: counting tasks completed and tasks not completed, counting independent actions in class, counting perceptions of…

  16. High resolution cross strip anodes for photon counting detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegmund, O. H. W.; Tremsin, A. S.; Vallerga, J. V.; Abiad, R.; Hull, J.

    2003-05-01

    A new photon counting, imaging readout for microchannel plate sensors, the cross strip (XS) anode, has been investigated. Charge centroiding of signals detected on two orthogonal layers of sense strip sets are used to derive photon locations. The XS anode spatial resolution (<3 μm FWHM) exceeds the spatial resolution of most direct charge sensing anodes, and does so at low gain (<2×10 6). The image linearity and fidelity are high enough to resolve and map 7 μm MCP pores, offering new possibilities for astronomical and other applications.

  17. Predictive Model Assessment for Count Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-05

    critique count regression models for patent data, and assess the predictive performance of Bayesian age-period-cohort models for larynx cancer counts...the predictive performance of Bayesian age-period-cohort models for larynx cancer counts in Germany. We consider a recent suggestion by Baker and...Figure 5. Boxplots for various scores for patent data count regressions. 11 Table 1 Four predictive models for larynx cancer counts in Germany, 1998–2002

  18. Fission yeast APC/C activators Slp1 and Fzr1 sequentially trigger two consecutive nuclear divisions during meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikashige, Yuji; Yamane, Miho; Okamasa, Kasumi; Osakada, Hiroko; Tsutsumi, Chihiro; Nagahama, Yuki; Fukuta, Noriko; Haraguchi, Tokuko; Hiraoka, Yasushi

    2017-04-01

    In meiosis, two rounds of nuclear division occur consecutively without DNA replication between the divisions. We isolated a fission yeast mutant in which the nucleus divides only once to generate two spores, as opposed to four, in meiosis. In this mutant, we found that the initiation codon of the slp1(+) gene is converted to ATA, producing a reduced amount of Slp1. As a member of the Fizzy family of anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) activators, Slp1 is essential for vegetative growth; however, the mutant allele shows a phenotype only in meiosis. Slp1 insufficiency delays degradation of maturation-promoting factor at the first meiotic division, and another APC/C activator, Fzr1, which acts late in meiosis, terminates meiosis immediately after the delayed first division to produce two viable spores. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  19. An automated Pearson's correlation change classification (APC3) approach for GC/MS metabonomic data using total ion chromatograms (TICs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Bhaskaran David; Esuvaranathan, Kesavan; Ho, Paul C; Pasikanti, Kishore Kumar; Chan, Eric Chun Yong; Yap, Chun Wei

    2013-05-21

    A fully automated and computationally efficient Pearson's correlation change classification (APC3) approach is proposed and shown to have overall comparable performance with both an average accuracy and an average AUC of 0.89 ± 0.08 but is 3.9 to 7 times faster, easier to use and have low outlier susceptibility in contrast to other dimensional reduction and classification combinations using only the total ion chromatogram (TIC) intensities of GC/MS data. The use of only the TIC permits the possible application of APC3 to other metabonomic data such as LC/MS TICs or NMR spectra. A RapidMiner implementation is available for download at http://padel.nus.edu.sg/software/padelapc3.

  20. Presence of a TA haplotype in the APC gene containing the common 1822 polymorphism and colorectal adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Jan B; Jacobs, Elizabeth T; Martínez, María Elena; Gerner, Eugene W; Jurutka, Peter W; Thompson, Patricia A

    2008-07-15

    Acquired or inherited mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumor suppressor gene are causally linked to colorectal cancer. Given the significance of APC in colorectal cancer, we investigated the association between common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the APC gene and the odds of developing metachronous colorectal adenomas as a surrogate measure of colorectal cancer risk. Coding SNPs at codons 486, 1678, 1822, 1960, and 2502 were analyzed in a total of 1,399 subjects who participated in two randomized clinical trials for the prevention of colorectal adenomas. No association was found for any single SNP and the odds of metachronous adenoma. In contrast, a TA haplotype (codons 486 and 1822) was associated with a statistically significant 27% and 26% reduction in the odds of any and nonadvanced metachronous adenoma after adjustment for baseline adenoma characteristics [odds ratio (OR), 0.73; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.59-0.91 and OR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.57-0.94], respectively. No significant reduction in odds was observed for advanced metachronous lesions. Diplotype analysis revealed a strong gene dose effect with carriers of two alleles containing TT-AA (codons 486 and 1822, respectively) having an 89% lower odds for advanced metachronous adenomas (OR, 0.11; 95% CI, 0.01-0.80) when compared with the common CC-AA diplotype (codons 486 and 1822, respectively). Our findings support an important role for germ-line allele sequence in the APC gene and individual risk of metachronous adenomatous polyps.