Sample records for plate boundary zones

  1. The Okhotsk Plate and the Eurasia-North America plate boundary zone. (United States)

    Hindle, David; Mackey, Kevin


    The Eurasia-North America plate boundary zone transitions from spreading at rates of ~ 25mm/yr in the North Atlantic, to compression at rates of ~ 5mm/yr in the region of the Okhotsk plate. Because the pole of rotation between Eurasia and North America lies more or less on their mutual boundary, there is a linear change in rate along the boundary, and regions near the euler pole are subject to extremely low deformation rates. The Okhotsk - Eurasia - North America triple junction lies slightly south of the rotation pole, placing the Okhotsk plate entirely in a weakly contractional setting. Regions near the triple junction absorb 1mm/yr contraction. Further south, towards the shoreline of the Okhotsk sea, up to 5 mm/yr contraction may be absorbed within the plate. How shortening is accommodated across the boundary remains an open question. One possibility is wholesale extrusion of the entire Okhotsk plate (or possibly its northwestern corner) along two plate boundary strike slip faults (Eurasia-Okhostk and North America Okhotsk). The problem with this model is that the seismic record does not presently clearly support it, with the largest events distributed both within the plate interior and on its boundaries. This may suggest that instead, the Okhotsk plate, and particularly its north-western end, consists of a series of smaller blocks which shuffle against each other, partially accommodating extrusion, but also permitting some internal deformation and change of shape of the Okhotsk plate itself. We present analyses of the very sparse seismic record from the region, as well as geometric-kinematic, tectonic models of the possible deformation of northwest Okhotsk to try to better understand the different probabilities of how this slowly deforming plate boundary zone is behaving.

  2. Rheological structure of the lithosphere in plate boundary strike-slip fault zones (United States)

    Chatzaras, Vasileios; Tikoff, Basil; Kruckenberg, Seth C.; Newman, Julie; Titus, Sarah J.; Withers, Anthony C.; Drury, Martyn R.


    How well constrained is the rheological structure of the lithosphere in plate boundary strike-slip fault systems? Further, how do lithospheric layers, with rheologically distinct behaviors, interact within the strike-slip fault zones? To address these questions, we present rheological observations from the mantle sections of two lithospheric-scale, strike-slip fault zones. Xenoliths from ˜40 km depth (970-1100 ° C) beneath the San Andreas fault system (SAF) provide critical constraints on the mechanical stratification of the lithosphere in this continental transform fault. Samples from the Bogota Peninsula shear zone (BPSZ, New Caledonia), which is an exhumed oceanic transform fault, provide insights on lateral variations in mantle strength and viscosity across the fault zone at a depth corresponding to deformation temperatures of ˜900 ° C. Olivine recrystallized grain size piezometry suggests that the shear stress in the SAF upper mantle is 5-9 MPa and in the BPSZ is 4-10 MPa. Thus, the mantle strength in both fault zones is comparable to the crustal strength (˜10 MPa) of seismogenic strike-slip faults in the SAF system. Across the BPSZ, shear stress increases from 4 MPa in the surrounding rocks to 10 MPa in the mylonites, which comprise the core of the shear zone. Further, the BPSZ is characterized by at least one order of magnitude difference in the viscosity between the mylonites (1018 Paṡs) and the surrounding rocks (1019 Paṡs). Mantle viscosity in both the BPSZ mylonites and the SAF (7.0ṡ1018-3.1ṡ1020 Paṡs) is relatively low. To explain our observations from these two strike-slip fault zones, we propose the "lithospheric feedback" model in which the upper crust and lithospheric mantle act together as an integrated system. Mantle flow controls displacement and the upper crust controls the stress magnitude in the system. Our stress data combined with data that are now available for the middle and lower crustal sections of other transcurrent fault

  3. Repeating Deep Very Low Frequency Earthquakes: An Evidence of Transition Zone between Brittle and Ductile Zone along Plate Boundary (United States)

    Ishihara, Y.; Yamamoto, Y.; Arai, R.


    Recently slow or low frequency seismic and geodetic events are focused under recognition of important role in tectonic process. The most western region of Ryukyu trench, Yaeyama Islands, is very active area of these type events. It has semiannual-like slow slip (Heki, 2008; Nishimura,2014) and very frequent shallow very low frequency earthquakes near trench zone (Ando,2012; Nakamura,2014). Arai identified clear reverse phase discontinuity along plate boundary by air-gun survey, suggesting existence of low velocity layer including fluid. The subducting fluid layer is considered to control slip characteristics. On the other hand, deep low frequency earthquake and tremor observed at south-western Honshu and Shikoku of Japan are not identified well due to lack of high-quality seismic network. A broadband seismic station(ISG/PS) of Pacific21 network is operating in last 20 years that locates on occurrence potential area of low frequency earthquake. We tried to review continuous broadband record, searching low frequency earthquakes. In pilot survey, we found three very low frequency seismic events which are dominant in less than 0.1Hz component and are not listed in earthquake catalogue. Source locates about 50km depth and at transition area between slow slip event and active area of general earthquake along plate boundary. To detect small and/or hidden very low frequency earthquake, we applied matched filter analysis to continuous three components waveform data using pre-reviewed seismogram as template signal. 12 events with high correlation are picked up in last 10 years. Most events have very similar waveform, which means characteristics of repeating deep very low frequency earthquake. The event history of very low frequency earthquake is not related with one of slow slip event in this region. In Yaeyama region, low frequency earthquake, general earthquake and slow slip event occur dividing in space and have apparent

  4. Upper-Mantel Earthquakes in the Australia-Pacific Plate Boundary Zone and the Roots of the Alpine Fault (United States)

    Boese, C. M.; Warren-Smith, E.; Townend, J.; Stern, T. A.; Lamb, S. H.


    Seismicity in the upper mantle in continental collision zones is relatively rare, but observed around the world. Temporary seismometer deployments have repeatedly detected mantle earthquakes at depths of 40-100 km within the Australia-Pacific plate boundary zone beneath the South Island of New Zealand. Here, the transpressive Alpine Fault constitutes the primary plate boundary structure linking subduction zones of opposite polarity farther north and south. The Southern Alps Microearthquake Borehole Array (SAMBA) has been operating continuously since November 2008 along a 50 km-long section of the central Alpine Fault, where the rate of uplift of the Southern Alps is highest. To date it has detected more than 40 small to moderate-sized mantle events (1≤ML≤3.9). The Central Otago Seismic Array (COSA) has been in operation since late 2012 and detected 15 upper mantle events along the sub-vertical southern Alpine Fault. Various mechanisms have been proposed to explain the occurrence of upper mantle seismicity in the South Island, including intra-continental subduction (Reyners 1987, Geology); high shear-strain gradients due to depressed geotherms and viscous deformation of mantle lithosphere (Kohler and Eberhart-Phillips 2003, BSSA); high strain rates resulting from plate bending (Boese et al. 2013, EPSL), and underthrusting of the Australian plate (Lamb et al. 2015, G3). Focal mechanism analysis reveals a variety of mechanisms for the upper mantle events but predominantly strike-slip and reverse faulting. In this study, we apply spectral analysis to better constrain source parameters for these mantle events. These results are interpreted in conjunction with new information about crustal structure and low-frequency earthquakes near the Moho and in light of existing velocity, attenuation and resistivity models.

  5. Towards stacked zone plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, S; Rehbein, S; Guttman, P; Heim, S; Schneider, G


    Fresnel zone plates are the key optical elements for soft and hard x-ray microscopy. For short exposure times and minimum radiation load of the specimen the diffraction efficiency of the zone plate objectives has to be maximized. As the efficiency strongly depends on the height of the diffracting zone structures the achievable aspect ratio of the nanostructures determines these limits. To reach aspect ratios ≥ 20:1 for high efficient optics we propose to superimpose zone plates on top of each other. With this multiplication approach the final aspect ratio is only limited by the number of stacked zone plate layers. For the stack process several nanostructuring process steps have to be developed and/or improved. Our results show for the first time two layers of zone plates stacked on top of each other.

  6. High-Resolution P'P' Precursor Imaging of Nazca-South America Plate Boundary Zones and Inferences for Transition Zone Temperature and Composition (United States)

    Gu, Y. J.; Schultz, R.


    Knowledge of upper mantle transition zone stratification and composition is highly dependent on our ability to efficiently extract and properly interpret small seismic arrivals. A promising high-frequency seismic phase group particularly suitable for a global analysis is P'P' precursors, which are capable of resolving mantle structures at vertical and lateral resolution of approximately 5 and 200 km, respectively, owing to their shallow incidence angle and small, quasi-symmetric Fresnel zones. This study presents a simultaneous analysis of SS and P'P' precursors based on deconvolution, Radon transform and depth migration. Our multi-resolution survey of the mantle near Nazca-South America subduction zone reveals both olivine and garnet related transitions at depth below 400 km. We attribute a depressed 660 to thermal variations, whereas compositional variations atop the upper-mantle transition zone are needed to explain the diminished or highly complex reflected/scattered signals from the 410 km discontinuity. We also observe prominent P'P' reflections within the transition zone, especially near the plate boundary zone where anomalously high reflection amplitudes result from a sharp (~10 km thick) mineral phase change resonant with the dominant frequency of the P'P' precursors. Near the base of the upper mantle, the migration of SS precursors shows no evidence of split reflections near the 660-km discontinuity, but potential majorite-ilmenite (590-640 km) and ilmenite-perovskite transitions (740-750 km) are identified based on similarly processed high-frequency P'P' precursors. At nominal mantle temperatures these two phase changes may be seismically indistinguishable, but colder mantle conditions from the descending Nazca plate, the presence of water and variable Fe contents may cause sufficient separation for a reliable analysis. In addition, our preliminary results provide compelling evidence for multiple shallow lower-mantle reflections (at ~800 km) along the

  7. Transformation of graphite by tectonic and hydrothermal processes in an active plate boundary fault zone, Alpine Fault, New Zealand (United States)

    Kirilova, Matina; Toy, Virginia; Timms, Nicholas; Halfpenny, Angela; Menzies, Catriona; Craw, Dave; Rooney, Jeremy; Giorgetti, Carolina


    Graphite is a material with one of the lowest frictional strengths, with coefficient of friction of 0.1 and thus in natural fault zones it may act as a natural solid lubricant. Graphitization, or the transformation of organic matter (carbonaceous material, or CM) into crystalline graphite, is induced by compositional and structural changes during diagenesis and metamorphism. The supposed irreversible nature of this process has allowed the degree of graphite crystallinity to be calibrated as an indicator of the peak temperatures reached during progressive metamorphism. We examine processes of graphite emplacement and deformation in the Alpine Fault Zone, New Zealand's active continental tectonic plate boundary. Raman spectrometry indicates that graphite in the distal, amphibolite-facies Alpine Schist, which experienced peak metamorphic temperatures up to 640 ◦C, is highly crystalline and occurs mainly along grain boundaries within quartzo-feldspathic domains. The subsequent mylonitisation in the Alpine Fault Zone resulted in progressive reworking of CM under lower temperature conditions (500◦C-600◦C) in a structurally controlled environment, resulting in spatial clustering in lower-strain protomylonites, and further foliation-alignment in higher-strain mylonites. Subsequent brittle deformation of the mylonitised schists resulted in cataclasites that contain over three-fold increase in the abundance of graphite than mylonites. Furthermore, cataclasites contain graphite with two different habits: highly-crystalline, foliated forms that are inherited mylonitic graphite; and lower-crystallinity, less mature patches of finer-grained graphite. The observed graphite enrichment and the occurrence of poorly-organised graphite in the Alpine Fault cataclasites could result from: i) hydrothermal precipitation from carbon-supersaturated fluids; and/or ii) mechanical degradation by structural disordering of mylonitic graphite combined with strain-induced graphite

  8. Structure and composition of the plate-boundary slip zone for the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake. (United States)

    Chester, Frederick M; Rowe, Christie; Ujiie, Kohtaro; Kirkpatrick, James; Regalla, Christine; Remitti, Francesca; Moore, J Casey; Toy, Virginia; Wolfson-Schwehr, Monica; Bose, Santanu; Kameda, Jun; Mori, James J; Brodsky, Emily E; Eguchi, Nobuhisa; Toczko, Sean


    The mechanics of great subduction earthquakes are influenced by the frictional properties, structure, and composition of the plate-boundary fault. We present observations of the structure and composition of the shallow source fault of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake and tsunami from boreholes drilled by the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 343 and 343T. Logging-while-drilling and core-sample observations show a single major plate-boundary fault accommodated the large slip of the Tohoku-Oki earthquake rupture, as well as nearly all the cumulative interplate motion at the drill site. The localization of deformation onto a limited thickness (less than 5 meters) of pelagic clay is the defining characteristic of the shallow earthquake fault, suggesting that the pelagic clay may be a regionally important control on tsunamigenic earthquakes.

  9. Modeling the Geometry of Plate Boundary and Seismic Structure in the Southern Ryukyu Trench Subduction Zone, Japan, Using Amphibious Seismic Observations (United States)

    Yamamoto, Y.; Takahashi, T.; Ishihara, Y.; Kaiho, Y.; Arai, R.; Obana, K.; Nakanishi, A.; Miura, S.; Kodaira, S.; Kaneda, Y.


    Here we present the new model, the geometry of the subducted Philippine Sea Plate interface beneath the southern Ryukyu Trench subduction zone, estimated from seismic tomography and focal mechanism estimation by using passive and active data from a temporary amphibious seismic network and permanent land stations. Using relocated low-angle thrust-type earthquakes, repeating earthquakes, and structural information, we constrained the geometry of plate boundary from the trench axis to a 60 km depth with uncertainties of less than 5 km. The estimated plate geometry model exhibited large variation, including a pronounced convex structure that may be evidence of a subducted seamount in the eastern portion of study area, whereas the western part appeared smooth. We also found that the active earthquake region near the plate boundary, defined by the distance from our plate geometry model, was clearly separated from the area dominated by short-term slow-slip events (SSEs). The oceanic crust just beneath the SSE-dominant region, the western part of the study area, showed high Vp/Vs ratios (>1.8), whereas the eastern side showed moderate or low Vp/Vs (<1.75). We interpreted this as an indication that high fluid pressures near the surface of the slab are contributing to the SSE activities. Within the toe of the mantle wedge, P and S wave velocities (<7.5 and <4.2 km/s, respectively) lower than those observed through normal mantle peridotite might suggest that some portions of the mantle may be at least 40% serpentinized.

  10. Focused Fluid Flow along Convergent Plate Boundaries - Deriving Flow Rates along Faults from Local Upwarping of the Base of the Gas Hydrate Stability Zone (United States)

    Kunath, P.; Chi, W. C.; Liu, C. S.


    Convergent plate boundaries provide the ideal opportunity to examine the interactions of deformation, fluid flow and gas hydrate stability. However, there are still processes and parameters that remain unclear or scarce. This may be in part due to the fact that in situ determination of fluid flow rate is very difficult. Here, we present a newly developed 2-D hydrothermal model for (1) simulating the steady state, thermal effect of forced heat advection along a thin and shallow dipping fault and (2) quantifying fluid velocities required to deliver a thermal anomalies manifested at the bottom-simulating reflector (BSR) at its intersection with the fault zone. Assuming the horizontal thermal conduction is negligible, we derive our model using only a few crucial parameters: (a) the thermal conductivity structure between seafloor and fault; (b) the temperature at BSR depth and the seafloor; (c) fluid flow rate; (d) geometry of the fault conduit, including depth and thickness. Temperature disturbance is then described as a function of Peclet number and of the dip of the fault. Application of our model to Site 892 at Cascadia accretionary wedge (ODP Leg 146), where borehole data provide excellent thermal constraints on the hydrology, shows consistent results. By comparing the temperatures derived at the BSRs with the temperature field of our model, the results demonstrate that the temperature discrepancy is about 0 - 0.5 oC. We propose that this simple approach can provide, on the basis of a few parameters, rough estimate of the disturbance of the temperature caused by advecting fluid. Localized lateral BSR-based heat flow variations have been observed near thrust faults along many convergent plate boundaries around the world and are associated with strong localized fluid flow. We wish to further testing this approach using other seismic datasets to estimate first order of magnitude fluid migration patterns in other convergent boundaries.

  11. The Ionian and Alfeo-Etna fault zones : New segments of an evolving plate boundary in the central Mediterranean Sea?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polonia, A.; Torelli, L.; Artoni, A.; Carlini, M.; Faccenna, C.; Ferranti, L.; Gasperini, L.; Govers, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/108173836; Klaeschen, D.; Monaco, C.; Neri, G.; Nijholt, N.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413306674; Orecchio, B.; Wortel, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068439202


    The Calabrian Arc is a narrow subduction-rollback system resulting from Africa/Eurasia plate convergence. While crustal shortening is taken up in the accretionary wedge, transtensive deformation accounts for margin segmentation along transverse lithospheric faults. One of these structures is the

  12. Slip-dependent weakening on shallow plate boundary fault in the Japan subduction zone: shallow coseismic slip facilitated by foreshock afterslip (United States)

    Ito, Yoshi; Ikari, Matt; Ujiie, Kohtaro; Kopf, Achim


    Understanding of role of slow earthquakes as they relate to the occurrence of both megathrust earthquakes and tsunami earthquakes is necessary to mitigate these disasters in the near future. Laboratory shearing experiments is one of important approach to evaluate these relationships. Here, we use powdered gouge samples from JFAST (IODP Expedition 343) Hole C0019E, core sample 17R-1, which is the plate boundary fault zone in the Japan Trench subduction zone. In this region, both large coseismic slip during the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake as well as discrete slow slip events (SSE) have occurred. Experiments were conducted in a single-direct shear apparatus under normal stress of 16 MPa, with total shear displacements of up to 16 mm. We evaluate the slip-dependence of friction by extracting the velocity-dependent friction parameters a, b, and Dc , and also measure the rate of change in friction coefficient with shear displacement as the slip-dependence of friction. We report that in friction experiments using the Tohoku fault zone samples, an increase in sliding velocity exceeding that of earthquake afterslip can induce a change from steady-state frictional strength or slip hardening friction to slip-weakening frictional behavior. Our results show that the slip weakening is observed when the slip velocity exceeds 3.7 × 10-6 m/s during our experiments, while steady-state frictional strength or slip hardening is observed below 1 × 10-6 m/s. In the Japan Trench region, two slow events prior to the mainshock were observed in the mainshock area with a coseismic slip exceeding 30 m . One event is an episodic SSE with a slip velocity of 0.1 × 10-6 , and the other is afterslip after the largest Tohoku earthquake foreshock with a slip velocity exceeding 2 × 10-6 m/s. Our experiments show that slip-weakening friction should be expected at the afterslip rate, suggesting that the afterslip may have facilitated the large coseismic slip during the mainshock on the plate boundary

  13. 3D geometry of a plate boundary fault related to the 2016 Off-Mie earthquake in the Nankai subduction zone, Japan (United States)

    Tsuji, Takeshi; Minato, Shohei; Kamei, Rie; Tsuru, Tetsuro; Kimura, Gaku


    We used recent seismic data and advanced techniques to investigate 3D fault geometry over the transition from the partially coupled to the fully coupled plate interface inboard of the Nankai Trough off the Kii Peninsula, Japan. We found that a gently dipping plate boundary décollement with a thick underthrust layer extends beneath the entire Kumano forearc basin. The 1 April 2016 Off-Mie earthquake (Mw6.0) and its aftershocks occurred, where the plate boundary décollement steps down close to the oceanic crust surface. This location also lies beneath the trenchward edge of an older accretionary prism (∼14 Ma) developed along the coast of the Kii peninsula. The strike of the 2016 rupture plane was similar to that of a formerly active splay fault system in the accretionary prism. Thus, the fault planes of the 2016 earthquake and its aftershocks were influenced by the geometry of the plate interface as well as splay faulting. The 2016 earthquake occurred within the rupture area of large interplate earthquakes such as the 1944 Tonankai earthquake (Mw8.1), although the 2016 rupture area was much smaller than that of the 1944 event. Whereas the hypocenter of the 2016 earthquake was around the underplating sequence beneath the younger accretionary prism (∼6 Ma), the 1944 great earthquake hypocenter was close to oceanic crust surface beneath the older accretionary prism. The variation of fault geometry and lithology may influence the degree of coupling along the plate interface, and such coupling variation could hinder slip propagation toward the deeper plate interface in the 2016 event.

  14. Iberian plate kinematics: A jumping plate boundary between Eurasia and Africa (United States)

    Srivastava, S.P.; Schouten, Hans; Roest, W.R.; Klitgord, Kim D.; Kovacs, L.C.; Verhoef, J.; Macnab, R.


    THE rotation of Iberia and its relation to the formation of the Pyrenees has been difficult to decipher because of the lack of detailed sea-floor spreading data, although several models have been proposed1-7. Here we use detailed aeromagnetic measurements from the sea floor offshore of the Grand Banks of Newfoundland to show that Iberia moved as part of the African plate from late Cretaceous to mid-Eocene time, with a plate boundary extending westward from the Bay of Biscay. When motion along this boundary ceased, a boundary linking extension in the King's Trough to compression along the Pyrenees came into existence. Finally, since the late Oligocene, Iberia has been part of the Eurasian plate, with the boundary between Eurasia and Africa situated along the Azores-Gibraltar fracture zone.

  15. 78 FR 15883 - Standard Time Zone Boundaries (United States)


    ...] RIN 2105-AE20 Standard Time Zone Boundaries AGENCY: Office of the Secretary (OST), Department of... time zone boundaries regulations to reflect changes that Congress made to the Uniform Time Act. The... regulations on standard time zone boundaries, 49 CFR Part 71, need to be updated in order to ensure their...

  16. White Light Photorefractive Phase Zone Plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan-Mei, Gao; Si-Min, Liu


    Incoherent white light from an incandescent source is employed to fabricate volume phase zone plates in LiNbO 3 : Fe, for the first time to our knowledge, which can guide and modulate the input white light or laser light. The diffractive efficiency of the white light volume phase zone plates fabricated can reach as high as 12%. In addition, we test the volume phase zone plates by a probe beam and find that the volume phase zone plate is present in the direction perpendicular to the c-axis and absent in the direction parallel to the c-axis. This directly proves the existence of photovoltaic photorefractive anisotropy of white light

  17. Swath sonar mapping of Earth's submarine plate boundaries (United States)

    Carbotte, S. M.; Ferrini, V. L.; Celnick, M.; Nitsche, F. O.; Ryan, W. B. F.


    The recent loss of Malaysia Airlines flight MH370 in an area of the Indian Ocean where less than 5% of the seafloor is mapped with depth sounding data (Smith and Marks, EOS 2014) highlights the striking lack of detailed knowledge of the topography of the seabed for much of the worlds' oceans. Advances in swath sonar mapping technology over the past 30 years have led to dramatic improvements in our capability to map the seabed. However, the oceans are vast and only an estimated 10% of the seafloor has been mapped with these systems. Furthermore, the available coverage is highly heterogeneous and focused within areas of national strategic priority and community scientific interest. The major plate boundaries that encircle the globe, most of which are located in the submarine environment, have been a significant focus of marine geoscience research since the advent of swath sonar mapping. While the location of these plate boundaries are well defined from satellite-derived bathymetry, significant regions remain unmapped at the high-resolutions provided by swath sonars and that are needed to study active volcanic and tectonic plate boundary processes. Within the plate interiors, some fossil plate boundary zones, major hotspot volcanoes, and other volcanic provinces have been the focus of dedicated research programs. Away from these major tectonic structures, swath mapping coverage is limited to sparse ocean transit lines which often reveal previously unknown deep-sea channels and other little studied sedimentary structures not resolvable in existing low-resolution global compilations, highlighting the value of these data even in the tectonically quiet plate interiors. Here, we give an overview of multibeam swath sonar mapping of the major plate boundaries of the globe as extracted from public archives. Significant quantities of swath sonar data acquired from deep-sea regions are in restricted-access international archives. Open access to more of these data sets would

  18. Seismic gaps and plate tectonics: seismic potential for major boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCann, W R; Nishenko, S P; Sykes, L R; Krause, J


    The theory of plate tectonics provides a basic framework for evaluating the potential for future great earthquakes to occur along major plate boundaries. Along most of the transform and convergent plate boundaries considered in this paper, the majority of seismic slip occurs during large earthquakes, i.e., those of magnitude 7 or greater. The concepts that rupture zones, as delineated by aftershocks, tend to abut rather than overlap, and large events occur in regions with histories of both long-and short-term seismic quiescence are used in this paper to delineate major seismic gaps. The term seismic gap is taken to refer to any region along an active plate boundary that has not experienced a large thrust or strike-slip earthquake for more than 30 years. A region of high seismic potential is a seismic gap that, for historic or tectonic reasons, is considered likely to produce a large shock during the next few decades. The seismic gap technique provides estimates of the location, size of future events and origin time to within a few tens of years at best. The accompanying map summarizes six categories of seismic potential for major plate boundaries in and around the margins of the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean, South Sandwich and Sunda (Indonesia) regions for the next few decades. These six categories are meant to be interpreted as forecasts of the location and size of future large shocks and should not be considered to be predictions in which a precise estimate of the time of occurrence is specified. The categories of potential assigned here provide a rationale for assigning priorities for instrumentation, for future studies aimed at predicting large earthquakes and for making estimates of tsunami potential.

  19. Crustal deformation and volcanism at active plate boundaries (United States)

    Geirsson, Halldor

    Most of Earth's volcanoes are located near active tectonic plate boundaries, where the tectonic plates move relative to each other resulting in deformation. Likewise, subsurface magma movement and pressure changes in magmatic systems can cause measurable deformation of the Earth's surface. The study of the shape of Earth and therefore studies of surface deformation is called geodesy. Modern geodetic techniques allow precise measurements (˜1 mm accuracy) of deformation of tectonic and magmatic systems. Because of the spatial correlation between tectonic boundaries and volcanism, the tectonic and volcanic deformation signals can become intertwined. Thus it is often important to study both tectonic and volcanic deformation processes simultaneously, when one is trying to study one of the systems individually. In this thesis, I present research on crustal deformation and magmatic processes at active plate boundaries. The study areas cover divergent and transform plate boundaries in south Iceland and convergent and transform plate boundaries in Central America, specifically Nicaragua and El Salvador. The study is composed of four main chapters: two of the chapters focus on the magma plumbing system of Hekla volcano, Iceland and the plate boundary in south Iceland; one chapter focuses on shallow controls of explosive volcanism at Telica volcano, Nicaragua; and the fourth chapter focuses on co- and post-seismic deformation from a Mw = 7.3 earthquake which occurred offshore El Salvador in 2012. Hekla volcano is located at the intersection of a transform zone and a rift zone in Iceland and thus is affected by a combination of shear and extensional strains, in addition to co-seismic and co-rifting deformation. The inter-eruptive deformation signal from Hekla is subtle, as observed by a decade (2000-2010) of GPS data in south Iceland. A simultaneous inversion of this data for parameters describing the geometry and source characteristics of the magma chamber at Hekla, and

  20. What drives microplate motion and deformation in the northeastern Caribbean plate boundary region?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Benthem, S.A.C.; Govers, R.; Wortel, R.


    The north Caribbean plate boundary zone is a broad deformation zone with several fault systems and tectonic blocks that move with different velocities. The indentation by the Bahamas Platform (the “Bahamas Collision”) is generally invoked as a cause of this fragmentation. We propose that a second

  1. Stress accumulation and release at complex transform plate boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdonck, D.; Furlong, K.P. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (United States))


    Finite element methods are used to model the dynamics of deformation along complex transform plate boundaries, specifically the San Andreas fault system, California. Effects of mantle rheology and fault geometry on the stress buildup and release are investigated. No prior knowledge of the earthquake cycle time or amount of fault slip is assumed that the results suggest that the San Andreas fault slips at low shear stress (about 15 MPa). Although the maximum stress on the fault is 15 MPa, models with an upper mantle shear zone deforming entirely by dislocation creep accumulate stresses that exceed 100 MPa, a stress level high enough to drive localized dynamic recrystallization and a shift in dominant deformation mechanism to diffusion creep. Models in which the mantle shear zone deform locally by diffusion creep reach a dynamic steady state where lithospheric shear stresses never exceed the specified fault stress anywhere in the model and indicate that the strength of the upper mantle is an important parameter in the dynamics of plate boundary deformation. 17 refs.

  2. Geological and Structural evolution of the Eurasia Africa plate boundary in the Gulf of Cadiz Central Eastern Atlantic Sea.


    D’Oriano, Filippo


    Iberia Africa plate boundary, cross, roughly W-E, connecting the eastern Atlantic Ocean from Azores triple junction to the Continental margin of Morocco. Relative movement between the two plate change along the boundary, from transtensive near the Azores archipelago, through trascurrent movement in the middle at the Gloria Fracture Zone, to transpressive in the Gulf of Cadiz area. This study presents the results of geophysical and geological analysis on the plate boundary area offshore Gibral...

  3. Role of Transtension in Rifting at the Pacific-North America Plate Boundary (United States)

    Stock, J. M.


    Transtensional plate motion can be accommodated either in a localized zone of transtensional rifting or over a broader region. Broader zones of deformation can be classified either as diffuse deformation or strain partitioning (one or more major strike-slip shear zones geographically offset from a region of a extensional faulting). The Pacific-North America plate boundary in southwestern North America was transtensional during much of its history and has exhibited the full range of these behaviors at different spatial scales and in different locations, as recorded by fault motions and paleomagnetic rotations. Here we focus on the northern Gulf of California part of the plate boundary (Upper and Lower Delfin basin segments), which has been in a zone of transtensional Pacific-North America plate boundary motion ever since the middle Miocene demise of adjacent Farallon-derived microplates. Prior to the middle Miocene, during the time of microplate activity, this sector of North America experienced basin-and-range normal faults (core complexes) in Sonora. However there is no evidence of continued extensional faulting nor of a Gulf-related topographic depression until after ca 12 Ma when a major ignimbrite (Tuff of San Felipe/ Ignimbrite of Hermosillo) was deposited across the entire region of the future Gulf of California rift in this sector. After 12 Ma, faults disrupted this marker bed in eastern Baja California and western Sonora, and some major NNW-striking right-lateral faults are inferred to have developed near the Sonoran coast causing offset of some of the volcanic facies. However, there are major tectonic rotations of the volcanic rocks in NE Baja California between 12 and 6 Ma, suggesting that the plate boundary motion was still occurring over a broad region. By contrast, after about 6 Ma, diminished rotations in latest Miocene and Pliocene volcanic rocks, as well as fault slip histories, show that plate boundary deformation became localized to a narrower

  4. A Plate Tectonic Model for the Neoproterozoic with Evolving Plate Boundaries (United States)

    Merdith, Andrew; Collins, Alan; Williams, Simon; Pisarevsky, Sergei; Müller, Dietmar


    The Neoproterozoic was dominated by the formation of the supercontinent Rodinia, its break-up and the subsequent amalgamation of Gondwana, during which, the planet experienced large climatic variations and the emergence of complex life. Here we present a topological plate model of the Neoproterozoic based on a synthesis of available geological and palaeomagnetic data. Subduction zones, which are well preserved in the geological record, are used as a proxy for convergent margins; evidence for mid-ocean ridges and transform motion is less clearly preserved, though passive margins are used as a proxy for spreading centres, and evidence for strike-slip motions are used to model transform boundaries. We find that the model presented here only predicts 70% of the total length of subduction active today, though it models similar lengths of both transform and divergent boundaries, suggesting that we have produced a conservative model and are probably underestimating the amount of subduction. Where evidence for convergent, divergent or transform motion is not preserved, we interpret the locations of plate boundaries based on the relative motions of cratonic crust as suggested through either palaeomagnetic data or the geological record. Using GPlates, we tie these boundaries together to generate a plate model that depicts the motion of tectonic plates through the Neoproterozoic. We omit India and South China from Rodinia completely, due to long-lived subduction preserved on margins of India and conflicting palaeomagnetic data for the Cryogenian, but tie them together due to similar Tonian aged accretionary patterns along their respective (present-day) north-western and northern margins, such that these two cratons act as a "lonely wanderer" for much of the Neoproterozoic, and form their own tectonic plate. We also introduce a Tonian-Cryogenian aged rotation of the Congo-São Francisco Craton relative to Rodinia to better fit palaeomagnetic data and account for thick passive

  5. Fabrication techniques of X-ray spiral zone plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Nan; Zhu Xiaoli; Li Hailiang; Xie Changqing


    The techniques to make X-ray spiral zone plates using electron beam and X-ray lithography were studied. A master mask was fabricated on polyimide membrane by E-beam lithography and micro-electroplating. Spiral zone plates were efficiently replicated by X-ray lithography and micro-electroplating. By combining the techniques, spiral zone plates at 1 keV were successfully fabricate. With an outermost zone width of the 200 nm, and the gold absorbers thickness of 700 nm, the high quality zone plates can be used for X-ray phase contrast microscopy.(authors)

  6. Vibration Analysis of Annular Sector Plates under Different Boundary Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongyan Shi


    Full Text Available An analytical framework is developed for the vibration analysis of annular sector plates with general elastic restraints along each edge of plates. Regardless of boundary conditions, the displacement solution is invariably expressed as a new form of trigonometric expansion with accelerated convergence. The expansion coefficients are treated as the generalized coordinates and determined using the Rayleigh-Ritz technique. This work allows a capability of modeling annular sector plates under a variety of boundary conditions and changing the boundary conditions as easily as modifying the material properties or dimensions of the plates. Of equal importance, the proposed approach is universally applicable to annular sector plates of any inclusion angles up to 2π. The reliability and accuracy of the current method are adequately validated through numerical examples.

  7. Introduction to Plate Boundaries and Natural Hazards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte, João C.; Schellart, Wouter P.


    A great variety of natural hazards occur on Earth, including earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis, landslides, floods, fires, tornadoes, hurricanes, and avalanches. The most destructive of these hazards, earthquakes, tsunamis, and volcanic eruptions, are mostly associated with tectonic plate

  8. An Irrotational Flow Field That Approximates Flat Plate Boundary Conditions


    Ruffa, Anthony A.


    An irrotational solution is derived for the steady-state Navier-Stokes equations that approximately satisfies the boundary conditions for flow over a finite flat plate. The nature of the flow differs substantially from boundary layer flow, with severe numerical difficulties in some regions.

  9. Stress rotation across the Cascadia megathrust requires a weak subduction plate boundary at seismogenic depths (United States)

    Li, Duo; McGuire, Jeffrey J.; Liu, Yajing; Hardebeck, Jeanne L.


    The Mendocino Triple Junction region is the most seismically active part of the Cascadia Subduction Zone. The northward moving Pacific plate collides with the subducting Gorda plate causing intense internal deformation within it. Here we show that the stress field rotates rapidly with depth across the thrust interface from a strike-slip regime within the subducting plate, reflecting the Pacific plate collision, to a thrust regime in the overriding plate. We utilize a dense focal mechanism dataset, including observations from the Cascadia Initiative ocean bottom seismograph experiment, to constrain the stress orientations. To quantify the implications of this rotation for the strength of the plate boundary, we designed an inversion that solves for the absolute stress tensors in a three-layer model subject to assumptions about the strength of the subducting mantle. Our results indicate that the shear stress on the plate boundary fault is likely no more than about ∼50 MPa at ∼20 km depth. Regardless of the assumed mantle strength, we infer a relatively weak megathrust fault with an effective friction coefficient of ∼0 to 0.2 at seismogenic depths. Such a low value for the effective friction coefficient requires a combination of high fluid pressures and/or fault-zone minerals with low inherent friction in the region where a great earthquake is expected in Cascadia.

  10. Stress rotation across the Cascadia megathrust requires a weak subduction plate boundary at seismogenic depths (United States)

    Li, Duo; McGuire, Jeffrey J.; Liu, Yajing; Hardebeck, Jeanne L.


    The Mendocino Triple Junction region is the most seismically active part of the Cascadia Subduction Zone. The northward moving Pacific plate collides with the subducting Gorda plate causing intense internal deformation within it. Here we show that the stress field rotates rapidly with depth across the thrust interface from a strike-slip regime within the subducting plate, reflecting the Pacific plate collision, to a thrust regime in the overriding plate. We utilize a dense focal mechanism dataset, including observations from the Cascadia Initiative ocean bottom seismograph experiment, to constrain the stress orientations. To quantify the implications of this rotation for the strength of the plate boundary, we designed an inversion that solves for the absolute stress tensors in a three-layer model subject to assumptions about the strength of the subducting mantle. Our results indicate that the shear stress on the plate boundary fault is likely no more than about ∼50 MPa at ∼20 km depth. Regardless of the assumed mantle strength, we infer a relatively weak megathrust fault with an effective friction coefficient of ∼0 to 0.2 at seismogenic depths. Such a low value for the effective friction coefficient requires a combination of high fluid pressures and/or fault-zone minerals with low inherent friction in the region where a great earthquake is expected in Cascadia.

  11. Mantle constraints on the plate tectonic evolution of the Tonga-Kermadec-Hikurangi subduction zone and the South Fiji Basin region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, W. P.; Spakman, W.

    The Tonga-Kermadec-Hikurangi subduction zone is a major plate boundary in the Southwest Pacific region, where the Pacific plate subducts westward underneath the Australian plate. Considerable controversy exists regarding the Cenozoic evolution of this subduction zone, its connection with the

  12. Mantle constraints on the plate tectonic evolution of the Tonga-Kermadec-Hikurangi subduction zone and the South Fiji Basin region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, W.P.; Spakman, W.


    The Tonga–Kermadec–Hikurangi subduction zone is a major plate boundary in the Southwest Pacific region, where the Pacific plate subducts westward underneath the Australian plate. Considerable controversy exists regarding the Cenozoic evolution of this subduction zone, its connection with

  13. A Possible Differentially Shortened Strike-slip Plate Boundary: the Okhotsk Plate Example. (United States)

    Hindle, D.; Egorov, V.; Mackey, K. G.; Fujita, K.


    The Okhotsk plate has been postulated based on a combination of GPS geodetic inversions (REVEL1), seimsicity, geologic and lineament data. Lying between the North American and Eurasian plates, its northwestern corner would appear to be undergoing compression in a scissors motion between the two bounding plates. Extrusion tectonics along multiple, large strike-slip faults within the Okhotsk plate itself have been suggested to allow the escape of material away from the apex of Eurasia-North America. The plate boundary between Okhotsk and North America has been suggested to be diffuse, based on widely scattered minor seismicity. However, the large, left lateral, Ulakhan fault has also been suggested as a candidate plate boundary. We present field geological and geomorphological evidence of the partitioning of deformation between the Ulakhan fault, and several parallel and oblique, linked faults. The Ulakhan fault strand appears to have a maximum displacement of 24 km based on river valley offsets and closing large pull apart basins. Some of the displacement from the Ulakhan fault appears relayed into the plate margin along oblique trending, thrust/oblique slip faults. Estimated shortening over these faults is equivalent to the amount of shortening relayed into the plate margin from the plate boundary. There may be several thrust/oblique slip faults along the Ulakhan fault, which leads to the interesting situation of a segmented, strike-slip plate boundary being actively shortened in a margin parallel direction. This may be the result of postulated extrusion of the Okhotsk plate due to North America/Eurasia convergence. Such a situation would have important consequences for the interpretation of GPS data in a plate tectonic context.

  14. Vibration modes of a single plate with general boundary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phamová L.


    Full Text Available This paper deals with free flexural vibration modes and natural frequencies of a thin plate with general boundary conditions — a simply supported plate connected to its surroundings with torsional springs. Vibration modes were derived on the basis of the Rajalingham, Bhat and Xistris approach. This approach was originally used for a clamped thin plate, so its adaptation was needed. The plate vibration function was usually expressed as a single partial differential equation. This partial differential equation was transformed into two ordinary differential equations that can be solved in the simpler way. Theoretical background of the computations is briefly described. Vibration modes of the supported plate with torsional springs are presented graphically and numerically for three different values of stiffness of torsional springs.

  15. Buckling transition and boundary layer in non-Euclidean plates. (United States)

    Efrati, Efi; Sharon, Eran; Kupferman, Raz


    Non-Euclidean plates are thin elastic bodies having no stress-free configuration, hence exhibiting residual stresses in the absence of external constraints. These bodies are endowed with a three-dimensional reference metric, which may not necessarily be immersible in physical space. Here, based on a recently developed theory for such bodies, we characterize the transition from flat to buckled equilibrium configurations at a critical value of the plate thickness. Depending on the reference metric, the buckling transition may be either continuous or discontinuous. In the infinitely thin plate limit, under the assumption that a limiting configuration exists, we show that the limit is a configuration that minimizes the bending content, among all configurations with zero stretching content (isometric immersions of the midsurface). For small but finite plate thickness, we show the formation of a boundary layer, whose size scales with the square root of the plate thickness and whose shape is determined by a balance between stretching and bending energies.

  16. Maskless, parallel patterning with zone-plate array lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, D. J. D.; Gil, Dario; Menon, Rajesh; Mondol, Mark K.; Smith, Henry I.; Anderson, Erik H.


    Zone-plate array lithography (ZPAL) is a maskless lithography scheme that uses an array of shuttered zone plates to print arbitrary patterns on a substrate. An experimental ultraviolet ZPAL system has been constructed and used to simultaneously expose nine different patterns with a 3x3 array of zone plates in a quasidot-matrix fashion. We present exposed patterns, describe the system design and construction, and discuss issues essential to a functional ZPAL system. We also discuss another ZPAL system which operates with 4.5 nm x radiation from a point source. We present simulations which show that, with our existing x-ray zone plates and this system, we should be able to achieve 55 nm resolution. (c) 1999 American Vacuum Society

  17. Positron emission zone plate holography for particle tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gundogdu, O. [University of Birmingham, School of Physics and Astronomy, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)]. E-mail:


    Positron Emission Particle Tracking (PEPT) is a powerful non-invasive technique that has been used extensively for tracking a single particle. In this paper, we present a study of zone plate holography method in order to track multiple particles, mainly two particles. The main aim is to use as small number of events as possible in the order to make it possible to track particles in fast moving industrial systems. A zone plate with 100% focal efficiency is simulated and applied to the Positron Emission Tomography (PET) data for multiple particle tracking. A simple trajectory code was employed to explore the effects of the nature of the experimental trajectories. A computer holographic reconstruction code that simulates optical reconstruction was developed. The different aspects of the particle location, particle activity ratios for enabling tagging of particles and zone plate and hologram locations are investigated. The effect of the shot noise is investigated and the limitations of the zone plate holography are reported.

  18. Positron emission zone plate holography for particle tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gundogdu, O.


    Positron Emission Particle Tracking (PEPT) is a powerful non-invasive technique that has been used extensively for tracking a single particle. In this paper, we present a study of zone plate holography method in order to track multiple particles, mainly two particles. The main aim is to use as small number of events as possible in the order to make it possible to track particles in fast moving industrial systems. A zone plate with 100% focal efficiency is simulated and applied to the Positron Emission Tomography (PET) data for multiple particle tracking. A simple trajectory code was employed to explore the effects of the nature of the experimental trajectories. A computer holographic reconstruction code that simulates optical reconstruction was developed. The different aspects of the particle location, particle activity ratios for enabling tagging of particles and zone plate and hologram locations are investigated. The effect of the shot noise is investigated and the limitations of the zone plate holography are reported

  19. Imaging megathrust zone and Yakutat/Pacific plate interface in Alaska subduction zone (United States)

    Kim, Y.; Abers, G. A.; Li, J.; Christensen, D. H.; Calkins, J. A.


    We image the subducted slab underneath a 450 km long transect of the Alaska subduction zone. Dense stations in southern Alaska are set up to investigate (1) the geometry and velocity structure of the downgoing plate and their relation to slab seismicity, and (2) the interplate coupled zone where the great 1964 (magnitude 9.3) had greatest rupture. The joint teleseismic migration of two array datasets (MOOS, Multidisciplinary Observations of Onshore Subduction, and BEAAR, Broadband Experiment Across the Alaska Range) based on teleseismic receiver functions (RFs) using the MOOS data reveal a shallow-dipping prominent low-velocity layer at ~25-30 km depth in southern Alaska. Modeling of these RF amplitudes shows a thin (<6.5 km) low-velocity layer (shear wave velocity of ~3 km/s), which is ~20-30% slower than normal oceanic crustal velocities, between the subducted slab and the overriding North American plate. The observed low-velocity megathrust layer (with P-to-S velocity ratio (Vp/Vs) exceeding 2.0) may be due to a thick sediment input from the trench in combination of elevated pore fluid pressure in the channel. The subducted crust below the low-velocity channel has gabbroic velocities with a thickness of 11-12 km. Both velocities and thickness of the low-velocity channel abruptly increase as the slab bends in central Alaska, which agrees with previously published RF results. Our image also includes an unusually thick low-velocity crust subducting with a ~20 degree dip down to 130 km depth at approximately 200 km inland beneath central Alaska. The unusual nature of this subducted segment has been suggested to be due to the subduction of the Yakutat terrane. We also show a clear image of the Yakutat and Pacific plate subduction beneath the Kenai Peninsula, and the along-strike boundary between them at megathrust depths. Our imaged western edge of the Yakutat terrane, at 25-30 km depth in the central Kenai along the megathrust, aligns with the western end of the

  20. Eikonal Tomography of the Southern California Plate Boundary Region (United States)

    Qiu, H.; Ben-Zion, Y.; Zigone, D.; Lin, F. C.


    We use eikonal tomography to derive directionally-dependent phase velocities of surface waves for the plate boundary region in southern CA sensitive to the approximate depth range 1-20 km. Seismic noise data recorded by 346 stations in the area provide a spatial coverage with 5-25 km typical station spacing and period range of 1-20 s. Noise cross-correlations are calculated for vertical component data recorded in year 2014. Rayleigh wave group and phase travel times between 2 and 13 sec period are derived for each station pair using frequency-time analysis. For each common station, all available phase travel time measurements with sufficient signal to noise ratio and envelope peak amplitude are used to construct a travel time map for a virtual source at the common station location. By solving the eikonal equation, both phase velocity and propagation direction are evaluated at each location for each virtual source. Isotropic phase velocities and 2-psi azimuthal anisotropy and their uncertainties are determined statistically using measurements from different virtual sources. Following the method of Barmin et al. (2001), group velocities are also inverted using all the group travel times that pass quality criteria. The obtained group and phase dispersions of Rayleigh waves are then inverted on a 6 x 6 km2 grid for local 1D piecewise shear wave velocity structures using the procedure of Herrmann (2013). The results agree well with previous observations of Zigone et al. (2015) in the overlapping area. Clear velocity contrasts and low velocity zones are seen for the San Andreas, San Jacinto, Elsinore and Garlock faults. We also find 2-psi azimuthal anisotropy with fast directions parallel to geometrically-simple fault sections. Details and updated results will be presented in the meeting.

  1. Global plate boundary evolution and kinematics since the late Paleozoic (United States)

    Matthews, Kara J.; Maloney, Kayla T.; Zahirovic, Sabin; Williams, Simon E.; Seton, Maria; Müller, R. Dietmar


    Many aspects of deep-time Earth System models, including mantle convection, paleoclimatology, paleobiogeography and the deep Earth carbon cycle, require high-resolution plate motion models that include the evolution of the mosaic of plate boundaries through time. We present the first continuous late Paleozoic to present-day global plate model with evolving plate boundaries, building on and extending two previously published models for the late Paleozoic (410-250 Ma) and Mesozoic-Cenozoic (230-0 Ma). We ensure continuity during the 250-230 Ma transition period between the two models, update the absolute reference frame of the Mesozoic-Cenozoic model and add a new Paleozoic reconstruction for the Baltica-derived Alexander Terrane, now accreted to western North America. This 410-0 Ma open access model provides a framework for deep-time whole Earth modelling and acts as a base for future extensions and refinement. We analyse the model in terms of the number of plates, predicted plate size distribution, plate and continental root mean square (RMS) speeds, plate velocities and trench migration through time. Overall model trends share many similarities to those for recent times, which we use as a first order benchmark against which to compare the model and identify targets for future model refinement. Except for during the period 260-160 Ma, the number of plates (16-46) and ratio of "large" plates (≥ 107.5 km2) to smaller plates ( 2.7-6.6) are fairly similar to present-day values (46 and 6.6, respectively), with lower values occurring during late Paleozoic assembly and growth of Pangea. This temporal pattern may also reflect difficulties in reconstructing small, now subducted oceanic plates further back in time, as well as whether a supercontinent is assembling or breaking up. During the 260-160 Ma timeframe the model reaches a minima in the number of plates, in contrast to what we would expect during initial Pangea breakup and thus highlighting the need for refinement

  2. Defects and boundary layers in non-Euclidean plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gemmer, J A; Venkataramani, S C


    We investigate the behaviour of non-Euclidean plates with constant negative Gaussian curvature using the Föppl–von Kármán reduced theory of elasticity. Motivated by recent experimental results, we focus on annuli with a periodic profile. We prove rigorous upper and lower bounds for the elastic energy that scales like the thickness squared. In particular we show that are only two types of global minimizers—deformations that remain flat and saddle shaped deformations with isolated regions of stretching near the edge of the annulus. We also show that there exist local minimizers with a periodic profile that have additional boundary layers near their lines of inflection. These additional boundary layers are a new phenomenon in thin elastic sheets and are necessary to regularize jump discontinuities in the azimuthal curvature across lines of inflection. We rigorously derive scaling laws for the width of these boundary layers as a function of the thickness of the sheet. (paper)

  3. Tracking the India-Arabia Transform Plate Boundary during Paleogene Times. (United States)

    Rodriguez, M.; Huchon, P.; Chamot-Rooke, N. R. A.; Fournier, M.; Delescluse, M.


    The Zagros and Himalaya mountain belts are the most prominent reliefs built by continental collision. They respectively result from Arabia and India collision with Eurasia. Convergence motions at mountain belts induced most of plate reorganization events in the Indian Ocean during the Cenozoic. Although critical for paleogeographic reconstructions, the way relative motion between Arabia and India was accommodated prior to the formation of the Sheba ridge in the Gulf of Aden remains poorly understood. The India-Arabia plate-boundary belongs to the category of long-lived (~90-Ma) oceanic transform faults, thus providing a good case study to investigate the role of major kinematic events over the structural evolution of a long-lived transform system. A seismic dataset crossing the Owen Fracture Zone, the Owen Basin, and the Oman Margin was acquired to track the past locations of the India-Arabia plate boundary. We highlight the composite age of the Owen Basin basement, made of Paleocene oceanic crust drilled on its eastern part, and composed of pre-Maastrichtian continental crust overlaid by Early Paleocene ophiolites on its western side. A major transform fault system crossing the Owen Basin juxtaposed these two slivers of lithosphere of different ages, and controlled the uplift of marginal ridges along the Oman Margin. This transform system deactivated ~40 Ma ago, coeval with the onset of ultra-slow spreading at the Carlsberg Ridge. The transform boundary then jumped to the edge of the present-day Owen Ridge during the Late Eocene-Oligocene period, before seafloor spreading began at the Sheba Ridge. This migration of the plate boundary involved the transfer of a part of the Indian oceanic lithosphere accreted at the Carlsberg Ridge to the Arabian plate. The episode of plate transfer at the India-Arabia plate boundary during the Late Eocene-Oligocene interval is synchronous with a global plate reorganization event corresponding to geological events at the Zagros and

  4. High resolution Fresnel zone plate laser alignment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bressler, V.E.; Fischer, G.E.; Ruland, R.E.; Wang, T.


    The existing Fresnel zone plate laser alignment system is currently being extended and upgraded for the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB). Previously, the resolution of this system has been several tens of micrometers. After the upgrade, the resolution will be a few micrometers. Details of the upgrade as well as simulation and experimental results will be presented

  5. Turbulent thermal boundary layer on a permeable flat plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigdorovich, I. I.


    Scaling laws are established for the profiles of temperature, turbulent heat flux, rms temperature fluctuation, and wall heat transfer in the turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate with transpiration. In the case of blowing, the temperature distribution represented in scaling variables outside the viscous sublayer has a universal form known from experimental data for flows over impermeable flat plates. In the case of suction, the temperature distribution is described by a one-parameter family of curves. A universal law of heat transfer having the form of a generalized Reynolds analogy provides a basis for representation of the heat flux distributions corresponding to different Reynolds numbers and transpiration velocities in terms of a function of one variable. The results are obtained without invoking any special closure hypotheses

  6. Development of background reduced Fresnel phase zone plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamari, Yohei; Azechi, Hiroshi


    In study of hot and dense plasma, a high spatial resolution (a few microns) x-ray imaging is very important to observe these plasmas. The Fresnel phase zone plate (FPZP) consists of alternately material and transparent circular annuli placed concentrically, which image x rays using diffraction x rays from all annuli. FPZP have imaged 4.7-4.77 keV x rays with 2.2 μm spatial resolution. However FPZP has a problem that background level is comparable to signal level. In subtraction of background, the error of 10% is caused. For the accurate background subtraction, we designed new FPZP, which consist of three β layers of a transparent zone and two material zones. The new design FPZP parameters (thickness of material zones, each zone width) have been optimized, and in that optimum design signal-to-background ratio is 4 times better than conventional two layers FPZP

  7. Plate boundary deformation at the latitude of the Salton Trough - northern Gulf of California (Invited) (United States)

    Stock, J. M.


    Along the Pacific-North America plate boundary zone, the segment including the southern San Andreas fault to Salton Trough and northern Gulf of California basins has been transtensional throughout its evolution, based on Pacific-North America displacement vectors calculated from the global plate circuit (900 × 20 km at N54°W since 20 Ma; 460 × 20 km at N48°W since 11 Ma). Nevertheless, active seismicity and focal mechanisms show a broad zone of plate boundary deformation within which the inferred stress regime varies locally (Yang & Hauksson 2013 GJI), and fault patterns in some regions suggest ongoing tectonic rotation. Similar behavior is inferred to have occurred in this zone over most of its history. Crustal structure in this region is constrained by surface geology, geophysical experiments (e.g., the 2011 Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP), USGS Imperial Valley 1979, PACE), and interdisciplinary marine and onland studies in Mexico (e.g., NARS-Baja, Cortes, and surveys by PEMEX). Magnetic data (e.g., EMAG-2) aids in the recognition of large-scale crustal provinces and fault boundaries in regions lacking detailed geophysical surveys. Consideration of existing constraints on crustal thickness and architecture, and fault and basin evolution suggests that to reconcile geological deformation with plate motion history, the following additional factors need to be taken into account. 1) Plate boundary displacement via interacting systems of rotating blocks, coeval with slip on steep strike slip faults, and possibly related to slip on low angle extensional faults (e.g, Axen & Fletcher 1998 IGR) may be typical prior to the onset of seafloor spreading. This fault style may have accommodated up to 150 km of plate motion in the Mexican Continental Borderland and north of the Vizcaino Peninsula, likely between 12 and 15 Ma, as well as explaining younger rotations adjacent to the Gulf of California and current deformation southwest of the Salton Sea. 2) Geophysical

  8. Two-media boundary layer on a flat plate


    Nikolay Ilyich Klyuev; Asgat Gatyatovich Gimadiev; Yuriy Alekseevich Kryukov


    The present paper provides a solution to the problem of a flow over a flat semi-infinite plate set at an angle to the horizon, and having a thin liquid film on its surface by external airflow. The film is formed by extrusion of liquid from the porous wall. The paper proposes a mathematical model of a two-media boundary layer flow. The main characteristics of the flow to a zero and a first approximation are determined. A drop of frictional stress is obtained.

  9. Boundary layer on a flat plate with suction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favre, A.; Dumas, R.; Verollet, E.


    This research done in wind tunnel concerns the turbulent boundary layer of a porous flat plate with suction. The porous wall is 1 m long and begins 1 m downstream of the leading edge. The Reynolds number based on the boundary layer thickness is of the order of 16.300. The suction rate defined as the ratio of the velocity perpendicular to the wall to the external flow velocity ranges from 0 to 2 per cent. The pressure gradient can be controlled. The mean velocity profiles have been determined for various positions and suction rates by means of total pressure probes together with the intensities of the turbulent velocity fluctuations components, energy spectra and correlations by means of hot wire anemometers, spectral analyser and correlator. The stream lines, the values of the viscous and turbulent shear stresses, of the local wall friction, of the turbulent energy production term, with some information on the dissipation of the energy have been derived from these measurements. For these data the integral of equation of continuity in boundary layer have been drawn. The suction effects on the boundary layer are important. The suction thoroughly alters the mean velocity profiles by increasing the viscous shear stresses near the wall and decreasing them far from the wall, it diminishes the longitudinal and transversal turbulence intensities, the turbulent shear stresses, and the production of energy of turbulence. These effects are much stressed in the inner part of the boundary layer. On the other hand the energy spectra show that the turbulence scale is little modified, the boundary layer thickness being not much diminished by the suction. The suction effects can be appreciated by comparing twice the suction rate to the wall friction coefficient (assumed airtight), quite noticeable as soon as the rate is about unity, they become very important when it reaches ten. (author) [fr

  10. Plate boundary reorganization in the active Banda Arc-continent collision: Insights from new GPS measurements (United States)

    Nugroho, Hendro; Harris, Ron; Lestariya, Amin W.; Maruf, Bilal


    New GPS measurements reveal that large sections of the SE Asian Plate are progressively accreting to the edge of the Australian continent by distribution of strain away from the deformation front to forearc and backarc plate boundary segments. The study was designed to investigate relative motions across suspected plate boundary segments in the transition from subduction to collision. The oblique nature of the collision provides a way to quantify the spatial and temporal distribution of strain from the deformation front to the back arc. The 12 sites we measured from Bali to Timor included some from an earlier study and 7 additional stations, which extended the epoch of observation to ten years at many sites. The resulting GPS velocity field delineates at least three Sunda Arc-forearc regions around 500 km in strike-length that shows different amounts of coupling to the Australian Plate. Movement of these regions relative to SE Asia increases from 21% to 41% to 63% eastward toward the most advanced stages of collision. The regions are bounded by the deformation front to the south, the Flores-Wetar backarc thrust system to the north, and poorly defined structures on the sides. The suture zone between the NW Australian continental margin and the Sunda-Banda Arcs is still evolving with more than 20 mm/yr of movement measured across the Timor Trough deformation front between Timor and Australia.

  11. Gradual unlocking of plate boundary controlled initiation of the 2014 Iquique earthquake. (United States)

    Schurr, Bernd; Asch, Günter; Hainzl, Sebastian; Bedford, Jonathan; Hoechner, Andreas; Palo, Mauro; Wang, Rongjiang; Moreno, Marcos; Bartsch, Mitja; Zhang, Yong; Oncken, Onno; Tilmann, Frederik; Dahm, Torsten; Victor, Pia; Barrientos, Sergio; Vilotte, Jean-Pierre


    On 1 April 2014, Northern Chile was struck by a magnitude 8.1 earthquake following a protracted series of foreshocks. The Integrated Plate Boundary Observatory Chile monitored the entire sequence of events, providing unprecedented resolution of the build-up to the main event and its rupture evolution. Here we show that the Iquique earthquake broke a central fraction of the so-called northern Chile seismic gap, the last major segment of the South American plate boundary that had not ruptured in the past century. Since July 2013 three seismic clusters, each lasting a few weeks, hit this part of the plate boundary with earthquakes of increasing peak magnitudes. Starting with the second cluster, geodetic observations show surface displacements that can be associated with slip on the plate interface. These seismic clusters and their slip transients occupied a part of the plate interface that was transitional between a fully locked and a creeping portion. Leading up to this earthquake, the b value of the foreshocks gradually decreased during the years before the earthquake, reversing its trend a few days before the Iquique earthquake. The mainshock finally nucleated at the northern end of the foreshock area, which skirted a locked patch, and ruptured mainly downdip towards higher locking. Peak slip was attained immediately downdip of the foreshock region and at the margin of the locked patch. We conclude that gradual weakening of the central part of the seismic gap accentuated by the foreshock activity in a zone of intermediate seismic coupling was instrumental in causing final failure, distinguishing the Iquique earthquake from most great earthquakes. Finally, only one-third of the gap was broken and the remaining locked segments now pose a significant, increased seismic hazard with the potential to host an earthquake with a magnitude of >8.5.

  12. Zone plate imaging of 14-MeV neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerche, R.A.; Lane, S.M.; Hawryluk, A.M.; Ceglio, N.M.


    At Livermore we are interested in imaging the thermonuclear burn region of fusion targets irradiated at our Nova laser facility. We expect compressed core diameters to be 10's of microns, and would like images with better than 10-μm resolution. Alpha particle images provided the first direct information about the thermonuclear burn geometry in thin walled exploding pusher targets. In future high density target experiments, only highly penetrating radiations like the 14-MeV neutrons will escape the target core to provide information about the burn region. To make the measurement with a neutron ''pinhole'' camera requires a 10μm pinhole through about 10 cm of material and 10 14 to 10 15 source neutrons. Penumbral imaging offers some improvement over a pinhole. Zone plate coded imaging (ZPCI) techniques are particularly well suited for imaging small objects like the compressed core of a laser fusion target. We have been using ZPCI techniques to image nonpenetrating radiations like x rays and alpha particles for about 10 years. The techniques are well developed. Imaging penetrating radiations like 14-MeV neutrons using ZPCI techniques has several possible advantages. The large solid angle subtended by the Zone plate might substantially reduce the required target neutron yield needed to produce a useful image, and a neutron zone plate system with 10-μm resolution might be easier to fabricate and characterize than a pinhole system. This paper explores the use of ZPCI techniques with penetrating radiation

  13. How diking affects the longer-term structure and evolution of divergent plate boundaries

    KAUST Repository

    Trippanera, Daniele


    Recurrent diking episodes along divergent plate boundaries, as at Dabbahu (2005, Afar) or at Bardarbunga (2014, Iceland) , highlight the possibility to have m-wide opening in a short time (days to weeks). This suggests a prominent role of magma enhancing transient plate separations. However, the role of diking on a longer term (> 102 years) and its influence on the structure and the evolution of a divergent plate boundary is still poorly investigated. Here we use field surveys along the oceanic Icelandic and continental Ethiopian plate boundaries, along five eruptive fissures and four rift segments. Field observations have also been integrated with analogue and numerical models of dike emplacement to better understand the effect of dike emplacement at depth and at the surface. Our results show that the dike-fed eruptive fissures are systematically associated with graben structures formed by inward dipping normal faults having throws up to 10 m and commonly propagating downward. Moreover, rift segments (i.e. mature rift zones), despite any asymmetry and repetition, are characterized by the same features as the eruptive fissures, the only difference lying in the larger size (higher fault throws, up to 40 m, and wider deformation zones). Analogue and numerical models of dike intrusion confirm that all the structural features observed along the rift segments may be dike-induced; these features include downward propagating normal faults bordering graben structures, contraction at the base of the hanging walls of the faults and upward propagating faults. Simple calculations based on the deeper structure of the eroded rift segments in eastern and western Iceland also suggest that all the fault slip in the active rift segments may result from diking. These results suggest that the overall deformation pattern of eruptive fissures and rift segments may be explained only by dike emplacement. In a magmatic rift, the regional tectonic stress may rarely be high enough to be

  14. Major earthquakes occur regularly on an isolated plate boundary fault. (United States)

    Berryman, Kelvin R; Cochran, Ursula A; Clark, Kate J; Biasi, Glenn P; Langridge, Robert M; Villamor, Pilar


    The scarcity of long geological records of major earthquakes, on different types of faults, makes testing hypotheses of regular versus random or clustered earthquake recurrence behavior difficult. We provide a fault-proximal major earthquake record spanning 8000 years on the strike-slip Alpine Fault in New Zealand. Cyclic stratigraphy at Hokuri Creek suggests that the fault ruptured to the surface 24 times, and event ages yield a 0.33 coefficient of variation in recurrence interval. We associate this near-regular earthquake recurrence with a geometrically simple strike-slip fault, with high slip rate, accommodating a high proportion of plate boundary motion that works in isolation from other faults. We propose that it is valid to apply time-dependent earthquake recurrence models for seismic hazard estimation to similar faults worldwide.

  15. Seismic evidence for deep fluid circulation in the overriding plate of subduction zones (United States)

    Tauzin, B.; Reynard, B.; Bodin, T.; Perrillat, J. P.; Debayle, E.


    In subduction zones, non-volcanic tremors are associated with fluid circulations (Obara, 2002). Their sources are often located on the interplate boundary (Rogers and Dragert, 2003; Shelly et al, 2006; La Rocca, 2009), consistent with fluids released by the dehydration of subducted plates (Hacker et al., 2003). Reports of tremors in the overriding continental crust of several subduction zones in the world (Kao et al., 2005; Payero et al., 2008; Ide, 2012) suggest fluid circulation at shallower depths but potential fluid paths are poorly documented. Here we obtained seismic observations from receiver functions that evidence the close association between the shallow tremor zone, electrical conductivity, and tectonic features of the Cascadia overriding plate. A seismic discontinuity near 15 km depth in the crust of the overriding North American plate is attributed to the Conrad discontinuity. This interface is segmented, and its interruption is spatially correlated with conductive regions and shallow swarms of seismicity and non-volcanic tremors. These observations suggest that shallow fluid circulation, tremors and seismicity are controlled by fault zones limiting blocks of accreted terranes in the overriding plate (Brudzinski and Allen, 2007). These zones constitute fluid "escape" routes that may contribute unloading fluid pressure on the megathrust. Obara, K. (2002). Science, 296, 1679-1681. Rogers, G., & Dragert, H. (2003). Science, 300, 1942-1943. Shelly, D. R., et al. (2006). Nature, 442, 188-191. La Rocca, M., et al. (2009). Science, 323, 620-623. Kao, H., et al. (2005). Nature, 436, 841-844. Payero, J. S., et al. (2008). Geophysical Research Letters, 35. Ide, S. (2012). Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 117. Brudzinski, M. R., & Allen, R. M. (2007). Geology, 35, 907-910.

  16. Upgrading multilayer zone plate technology for hard x-ray focusing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirotomo, Toshiki; Konishi, Shigeki [Graduate School of Material Science, University of Hyogo, Kamigori, Hyogo 678-1297 (Japan); SPring-8 Service Co., Ltd (Japan); Takano, Hidekazu, E-mail:; Sumida, Kazuhiro; Tsusaka, Yoshiyuki; Kagoshima, Yasushi [Graduate School of Material Science, University of Hyogo, Kamigori, Hyogo 678-1297 (Japan); Koyama, Takahisa [Graduate School of Material Science, University of Hyogo, Kamigori, Hyogo 678-1297 (Japan); Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI/SPring-8) (Japan); Ichimaru, Satoshi; Ohchi, Tadayuki [NTT Advanced Technology Corporation (Japan); Takenaka, Hisataka [NTT Advanced Technology Corporation (Japan); TOYAMA Corporation (Japan)


    Multilayer zone plate (MZP) technology for hard X-ray focusing was upgraded and its focusing performance was evaluated using 20-keV X-rays at the synchrotron beamline (BL24XU) of SPring-8. The MZP consists of MoSi{sub 2} and Si layers alternately deposited on a glass fiber by magnetron sputtering so that all zone boundaries satisfy the Fresnel zone configuration. The focused beam was evaluated using knife-edge scanning in which the measured intensity distribution is identical to the line spread function (LSF) in the focal plane. The focused beamsize of about 30 nm was estimated by oscillation peaks observed in the measured LSF according to Rayleigh’s criterion.

  17. Finite thickness effect of a zone plate on focusing hard x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, W.B.; Chrzas, J.; Viccaro, P.J.


    Spatial resolution and focusing efficiency are two important properties of a zone plate in x-ray focusing applications. A general expression of the zone plate equation describing its zone registration is derived from the interference of spherical waves emited from two mutually coherent point sources. An analytical expression of the focusing efficiency in terms of the zone plate thickness and x-ray refractive indices of the zones is also derived. Validity condition for using this expression is considered. Thickness required for obtaining adequate focusing efficiency is calculated as a function of x-ray energy for several representative materials. The spatial resolution of a finite thickness zone plate is worse than that of an infinetly thin zone plate. which is approximately equal to the smallest zone width of the zone plate. The effect of the finite thickness on the spatial resolution is considered

  18. Strength and Deformation Rate of Plate Boundaries: The Rheological Effects of Grain Size Reduction, Structure, and Serpentinization. (United States)

    Montesi, L.; Gueydan, F.


    Global strain rate maps reveal 1000-fold contrasts between plate interiors, oceanic or continental diffuse plate boundaries and narrow plate boundaries. Here, we show that rheological models based on the concepts of shear zone localization and the evolution of rock structure upon strain can explain these strain rate contrasts. Ductile shear zones constitute a mechanical paradox in the lithosphere. As every plastic deformation mechanism is strain-rate-hardening, ductile rocks are expected to deform at low strain rate and low stress (broad zone of deformation). Localized ductile shear zones require either a localized forcing (locally high stress) or a thermal or structural anomaly in the shear zone; either can be inherited or develop progressively as rocks deform. We previously identified the most effective process at each depth level of the lithosphere. In the upper crust and middle crust, rocks fabric controls localization. Grain size reduction is the most efficient mechanism in the uppermost mantle. This analysis can be generalized to consider a complete lithospheric section. We assume strain rate does not vary with depth and that the depth-integrated strength of the lithospheric does not change over time, as the total force is controlled by external process such as mantle convection and plate and slab buoyancy. Reducing grain size from a coarse value typical of undeformed peridotite to a value in agreement with the stress level (piezometer) while letting that stress vary from depth to depth (the integrated stress remains the same) increases the lithospheric strain rate by about a factor of 1000. This can explain the development of diffuse plate boundaries. The slightly higher strain rate of continental plate boundary may reflect development of a layered rock fabric in the middle crust. Narrow plate boundaries require additional weakening process. The high heat flux near mid-ocean ridge implies a thin lithosphere, which enhances stress (for constant integrated

  19. Structure phenomena in the bond zone of explosively bonded plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livne, Z.


    In the bond areas of couples of explosively bonded plates, there are often zones, generally designated as ''molten pockets'', which have undergone melting and solidification. The object of the present study was to investigate molten pockets, which have a decisive effect on bond quality. The experimental samples for the study were chosen in consideration of the mutual behaviour of the plates constituting the couples, according to their equilibrium phase diagrams. To facilitate the investigation, large plates were bonded under conditions that enabled to to obtain wavy bond zones that included relatively large molten pockets. To clarify the complex nature of molten pockets and their surroundings, a wide variety of methods were employed. It was found that the shape and composition of molten pockets largely depend upon the mechanism of formation of both the bond wave and the molten pockets. It was also found that the composition of molten pockets is not homogeneous, which is manifest in the modification of the composition of the pockets, the solidification morphology, the phases, which have been identified by X-ray diffraction, and the bond strenght and hardness. Moreover, the different solidification morphologies revealed by metallography were found to depend upon the types of plates bonded, the bonding conditions and the location of pockets in the wavy interface. For molten pockets, cooling rates of 10 4 to 10 5 (degC/sec) have been deduced from interdendritic spacing, and found to be in good agreement with calculations after a mathematical model. It seems that the fast cooling rates and the steep temperature gradients are at the origin of the particular solidification phenomena observed in molten pockets

  20. Zone-plate coded imaging of thermonuclear burn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceglio, N.M.


    The first high-resolution, direct images of the region of thermonuclear burn in laser fusion experiments have been produced using a novel, two-step imaging technique called zone-plate coded imaging. This technique is extremely versatile and well suited for the microscopy of laser fusion targets. It has a tomographic capability, which provides three-dimensional images of the source distribution. It is equally useful for imaging x-ray and particle emissions. Since this technique is much more sensitive than competing imaging techniques, it permits us to investigate low-intensity sources

  1. Imaging and focussing of neutrons by a zone plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kearney, P.D.; Klein, A.G.; Opat, G.I.


    The use of refractive lenses for long wavelength neutrons, though possible, is severely limited by the fact that the refractive index differs only very slightly from unity. However, only a relatively thin layer of material is needed to produce an optical path difference of half a wavelength. This fact led the authors in 1978 to propose focussing by diffraction from a phase grating of variable spacing which is, in fact, a type of zone plate. They have been shown to work satisfactorily over a wide range of the electromagnetic spectrum, from microwaves, through visible light, and more recently soft X-rays. Their use in focussing matter waves has not heretofore been demonstrated

  2. Mechanical design of multiple zone plates precision alignment apparatus for hard X-ray focusing in twenty-nanometer scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, Deming; Liu, Jie; Gleber, Sophie C.; Vila-Comamala, Joan; Lai, Barry; Maser, Jorg M.; Roehrig, Christian; Wojcik, Michael J.; Vogt, Franz Stefan


    An enhanced mechanical design of multiple zone plates precision alignment apparatus for hard x-ray focusing in a twenty-nanometer scale is provided. The precision alignment apparatus includes a zone plate alignment base frame; a plurality of zone plates; and a plurality of zone plate holders, each said zone plate holder for mounting and aligning a respective zone plate for hard x-ray focusing. At least one respective positioning stage drives and positions each respective zone plate holder. Each respective positioning stage is mounted on the zone plate alignment base frame. A respective linkage component connects each respective positioning stage and the respective zone plate holder. The zone plate alignment base frame, each zone plate holder and each linkage component is formed of a selected material for providing thermal expansion stability and positioning stability for the precision alignment apparatus.

  3. Intertidal mangrove boundary zones as nursery grounds for the mud ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the tidal, diurnal and seasonal occurrence of juvenile crabs in three habitats (intertidal-flat boundary zones, inside the mangroves, and in channels) in small creeks (Mida, Kilifi and Mtwapa) and Gazi Bay, on the coast of Kenya. Sampling was done with scoop nets and seining at receding tides and via ...

  4. Thin Fresnel zone plate lenses for focusing underwater sound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvo, David C.; Thangawng, Abel L.; Nicholas, Michael; Layman, Christopher N.


    A Fresnel zone plate (FZP) lens of the Soret type creates a focus by constructive interference of waves diffracted through open annular zones in an opaque screen. For underwater sound below MHz frequencies, a large FZP that blocks sound using high-impedance, dense materials would have practical disadvantages. We experimentally and numerically investigate an alternative approach of creating a FZP with thin (0.4λ) acoustically opaque zones made of soft silicone rubber foam attached to a thin (0.1λ) transparent rubber substrate. An ultra-thin (0.0068λ) FZP that achieves higher gain is also proposed and simulated which uses low-volume fraction, bubble-like resonant air ring cavities to construct opaque zones. Laboratory measurements at 200 kHz indicate that the rubber foam can be accurately modeled as a lossy fluid with an acoustic impedance approximately 1/10 that of water. Measured focal gains up to 20 dB agree with theoretical predictions for normal and oblique incidence. The measured focal radius of 0.68λ (peak-to-null) agrees with the Rayleigh diffraction limit prediction of 0.61 λ/NA (NA = 0.88) for a low-aberration lens

  5. Dike-induced contraction along oceanic and continental divergent plate boundaries

    KAUST Repository

    Trippanera, D.


    The axis of divergent plate boundaries shows extension fractures and normal faults at the surface. Here we present evidence of contraction along the axis of the oceanic ridge of Iceland and the continental Main Ethiopian Rift. Contraction is found at the base of the tilted hanging wall of dilational normal faults, balancing part of their extension. Our experiments suggest that these structures result from dike emplacement. Multiple dike injection induces subsidence above and uplift to the sides of the dikes; the transition in between is accommodated by reverse faults and subsequent peripheral inward dipping normal faults. Our results suggest that contraction is a direct product of magma emplacement along divergent plate boundaries, at various scales, marking a precise evolutionary stage and initiating part of the extensional structures (extension fractures and normal faults). Key Points Contraction along divergent plate boundaries results from dike emplacementContraction generates extensional structures along divergent plate boundariesSurface deformation along divergent plate boundaries may be magma induced

  6. Dike-induced contraction along oceanic and continental divergent plate boundaries

    KAUST Repository

    Trippanera, D.; Acocella, V.; Ruch, Joel


    The axis of divergent plate boundaries shows extension fractures and normal faults at the surface. Here we present evidence of contraction along the axis of the oceanic ridge of Iceland and the continental Main Ethiopian Rift. Contraction is found at the base of the tilted hanging wall of dilational normal faults, balancing part of their extension. Our experiments suggest that these structures result from dike emplacement. Multiple dike injection induces subsidence above and uplift to the sides of the dikes; the transition in between is accommodated by reverse faults and subsequent peripheral inward dipping normal faults. Our results suggest that contraction is a direct product of magma emplacement along divergent plate boundaries, at various scales, marking a precise evolutionary stage and initiating part of the extensional structures (extension fractures and normal faults). Key Points Contraction along divergent plate boundaries results from dike emplacementContraction generates extensional structures along divergent plate boundariesSurface deformation along divergent plate boundaries may be magma induced

  7. Experimental demonstration of producing high resolution zone plates by spatial-frequency multiplication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, W.B.; Howells, M.R.


    In an earlier publication, the possibility of producing high resolution zone plates for x-ray applications by spatial-frequency multiplication was analyzed theoretically. The theory predicted that for a daughter zone plate generated from the interference of mth and nth diffraction orders of a parent zone plate, its primary focal spot size and focal length are one (m + n)th of their counterparts of the parent zone plate, respectively. It was also shown that a zone plate with the outermost zone width of as small as 13.8 nm might be produced by this technique. In this paper, we report an experiment which we carried out with laser light (λ = 4166A) for demonstrating this technique. In addition, an outlook for producing high resolution zone plates for x-ray application is briefly discussed

  8. Links Between Earthquake Characteristics and Subducting Plate Heterogeneity in the 2016 Pedernales Ecuador Earthquake Rupture Zone (United States)

    Bai, L.; Mori, J. J.


    The collision between the Indian and Eurasian plates formed the Himalayas, the largest orogenic belt on the Earth. The entire region accommodates shallow earthquakes, while intermediate-depth earthquakes are concentrated at the eastern and western Himalayan syntaxis. Here we investigate the focal depths, fault plane solutions, and source rupture process for three earthquake sequences, which are located at the western, central and eastern regions of the Himalayan orogenic belt. The Pamir-Hindu Kush region is located at the western Himalayan syntaxis and is characterized by extreme shortening of the upper crust and strong interaction of various layers of the lithosphere. Many shallow earthquakes occur on the Main Pamir Thrust at focal depths shallower than 20 km, while intermediate-deep earthquakes are mostly located below 75 km. Large intermediate-depth earthquakes occur frequently at the western Himalayan syntaxis about every 10 years on average. The 2015 Nepal earthquake is located in the central Himalayas. It is a typical megathrust earthquake that occurred on the shallow portion of the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT). Many of the aftershocks are located above the MHT and illuminate faulting structures in the hanging wall with dip angles that are steeper than the MHT. These observations provide new constraints on the collision and uplift processes for the Himalaya orogenic belt. The Indo-Burma region is located south of the eastern Himalayan syntaxis, where the strike of the plate boundary suddenly changes from nearly east-west at the Himalayas to nearly north-south at the Burma Arc. The Burma arc subduction zone is a typical oblique plate convergence zone. The eastern boundary is the north-south striking dextral Sagaing fault, which hosts many shallow earthquakes with focal depth less than 25 km. In contrast, intermediate-depth earthquakes along the subduction zone reflect east-west trending reverse faulting.

  9. Identifying Fault Connections of the Southern Pacific-North American Plate Boundary Using Triggered Slip and Crustal Velocities (United States)

    Donnellan, A.; Grant Ludwig, L.; Rundle, J. B.; Parker, J. W.; Granat, R.; Heflin, M. B.; Pierce, M. E.; Wang, J.; Gunson, M.; Lyzenga, G. A.


    The 2010 M7.2 El Mayor - Cucapah earthquake caused extensive triggering of slip on faults proximal to the Salton Trough in southern California. Triggered slip and postseismic motions that have continued for over five years following the earthquake highlight connections between the El Mayor - Cucapah rupture and the network of faults that branch out along the southern Pacific - North American Plate Boundary. Coseismic triggering follows a network of conjugate faults from the northern end of the rupture to the Coachella segment of the southernmost San Andreas fault. Larger aftershocks and postseismic motions favor connections to the San Jacinto and Elsinore faults further west. The 2012 Brawley Swarm can be considered part of the branching on the Imperial Valley or east side of the plate boundary. Cluster analysis of long-term GPS velocities using Lloyds Algorithm, identifies bifurcation of the Pacific - North American plate boundary; The San Jacinto fault joins with the southern San Andreas fault, and the Salton Trough and Coachella segment of the San Andreas fault join with the Eastern California Shear Zone. The clustering analysis does not identify throughgoing deformation connecting the Coachella segment of the San Andreas fault with the rest of the San Andreas fault system through the San Gorgonio Pass. This observation is consistent with triggered slip from both the 1992 Landers and 2010 El Mayor - Cucapah earthquakes that follows the plate boundary bifurcation and with paleoseismic evidence of smaller earthquakes in the San Gorgonio Pass.

  10. 49 CFR 71.5 - Boundary line between eastern and central zones. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Boundary line between eastern and central zones... BOUNDARIES § 71.5 Boundary line between eastern and central zones. (a) Minnesota-Michigan-Wisconsin. From the junction of the western boundary of the State of Michigan with the boundary between the United States and...

  11. Louisiana Coastal Zone Boundary, Geographic NAD83, LDNR (1998)[coastal_zone_boundary_LDNR_1998 (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a polygon dataset representing the extent of the LDNR regulatory area defined as the Louisiana Coastal Zone. This area comprises a band across the southern...

  12. An EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory Progress Report (United States)

    Jackson, M.; Anderson, G.; Blume, F.; Walls, C.; Coyle, B.; Feaux, K.; Friesen, B.; Phillips, D.; Hafner, K.; Johnson, W.; Mencin, D.; Pauk, B.; Dittmann, T.


    UNAVCO is building and operating the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), part of the NSF-funded EarthScope project to understand the structure, dynamics, and evolution of the North American continent. When complete in October 2008, the 875 GPS, 103 strain and seismic, and 28 tiltmeters stations will comprise the largest integrated geodetic and seismic network in United States and the second largest in the world. Data from the PBO network will facilitate research into plate boundary deformation with unprecedented scope and detail. As of 1 September 2007, UNAVCO had completed 680 PBO GPS stations and had upgraded 89% of the planned PBO Nucleus stations. Highlights of the past year's work include the expansion of the Alaska subnetwork to 95 continuously-operating stations, including coverage of Akutan and Augustine volcanoes and reconnaissance for future installations on Unimak Island; the installation of nine new stations on Mt. St. Helens; and the arrival of 33 permits for station installations on BLM land in Nevada. The Augustine network provided critical data on magmatic and volcanic processes associated with the 2005-2006 volcanic crisis, and has expanded to a total of 11 stations. Please visit for further information on PBO GPS network construction activities. As of September 2007, 41 PBO borehole stations had been installed and three laser strainmeter stations were operating, with a total of 60 borehole stations and 4 laser strainmeters expected by October 2007. In response to direction from the EarthScope community, UNAVCO installed a dense network of six stations along the San Jacinto Fault near Anza, California; installed three of four planned borehole strainmeter stations on Mt. St. Helens; and has densified coverage of the Parkfield area. Please visit for more information on PBO strainmeter network construction progress. The combined PBO/Nucleus GPS network provides 350 GB of raw standard

  13. MHD Boundary Layer Slip Flow and Heat Transfer over a Flat Plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, Krishnendu; Mukhopadhyay, Swati; Layek, G. C.


    An analysis of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) boundary layer flow and heat transfer over a flat plate with slip condition at the boundary is presented. A complete self-similar set of equations are obtained from the governing equations using similarity transformations and are solved by a shooting method. In the boundary slip condition no local similarity occurs. Velocity and temperature distributions within the boundary layer are presented. Our analysis reveals that the increase of magnetic and slip parameters reduce the boundary layer thickness and also enhance the heat transfer from the plate. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))

  14. Examination of uniform momentum zones in hypersonic turbulent boundary layers (United States)

    Williams, Owen; Helm, Clara; Martin, Pino


    The presence of uniform momentum zones (UMZs) separated by regions of high shear is now well-established in incompressible flows, with the mean number of such zones increasing in a log-linear fashion with Reynolds number. While known to be present in supersonic and hypersonic boundary layers, the properties of these UMZs and the appropriate Reynolds number for comparison with incompressible results have not previously been investigated. A large, previously published DNS database of hypersonic boundary layers is used in this investigation, with Mach numbers up to 12 and wall temperatures from cold to adiabatic, resulting in a wide range of outer layer Reynolds numbers. UMZs are examined using a range of parameters in both conventional inner and semi-local scalings, and Reynolds number trends examined.

  15. Preparing the Plate Boundary Observatory GNSS Network for the Future (United States)

    Austin, K. E.; Walls, C. P.; Dittman, T.; Mann, D.; Boyce, E. S.; Basset, A.; Woolace, A. C.; Turner, R.; Lawrence, S.; Rhoades, S.; Pyatt, C.; Willoughby, H.; Feaux, K.; Mattioli, G. S.


    The EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) GNSS network, funded by the NSF and operated by UNAVCO, is comprised of 1100 permanent GPS and GNSS stations spanning three principal tectonic regimes and is administered by distinct management. The GPS-only network was initially designed for daily data file downloads primarily for tectonic analysis. This low data volume requirement and circa-2004 IP-based cellular/VSat modems provided significant freedom for station placement and enabled science-targeted installation of stations in some of the most remote and geologically interesting areas. Community requests for high-rate data downloads for GNSS seismology, airborne LiDAR surveys, meteorological/GNSS/seismic real-time data flow and other demands, however, require significantly increased bandwidth beyond the 5-20 kB/s transfer rates that were needed as part of the original design. Since the close of construction in September 2008, PBO enhancements have been implemented through additional funding by the NSF (ARRA/Cascadia), NOAA, and NASA and in collaboration with stakeholders such as Caltrans, ODOT, Scripps, and the USGS. Today, only 18 of the original cell modems remain, with 601 upgraded cell modems providing 3G/4G/LTE data communications that support transfer rates ranging from 80-400 kB/s. Radio network expansion and upgrades continue to harden communications using both 2.4 GHz and 5.8 GHz radios. 78 VSAT and 5 manual download sites remain. PBO-wide the network capabilities for 1 Hz & 5 Hz downloads or low latency 1 Hz streaming are 85%, 80% and 65% of PBO stations, respectively, with 708 active 1 Hz streams. Vaisala meteorological instruments are located at 140 sites most of which stream GPS/Met data in real time. GPS-only receivers are being replaced with GNSS receivers and antennas. Today, there are 279 stations in the PBO network with either GLONASS enabled Trimble NetR9 or full GNSS constellation Septentrio PolaRx5 receivers. Just as the scale and

  16. High efficiency x-ray nanofocusing by the blazed stacking of binary zone plates (United States)

    Mohacsi, I.; Karvinen, P.; Vartiainen, I.; Diaz, A.; Somogyi, A.; Kewish, C. M.; Mercere, P.; David, C.


    The focusing efficiency of binary Fresnel zone plate lenses is fundamentally limited and higher efficiency requires a multi step lens profile. To overcome the manufacturing problems of high resolution and high efficiency multistep zone plates, we investigate the concept of stacking two different binary zone plates in each other's optical near-field. We use a coarse zone plate with π phase shift and a double density fine zone plate with π/2 phase shift to produce an effective 4- step profile. Using a compact experimental setup with piezo actuators for alignment, we demonstrated 47.1% focusing efficiency at 6.5 keV using a pair of 500 μm diameter and 200 nm smallest zone width. Furthermore, we present a spatially resolved characterization method using multiple diffraction orders to identify manufacturing errors, alignment errors and pattern distortions and their effect on diffraction efficiency.

  17. How diking affects the longer-term structure and evolution of divergent plate boundaries

    KAUST Repository

    Trippanera, Daniele; Acocella, Valerio; Ruch, Joel; Rivalta, Eleonora


    Recurrent diking episodes along divergent plate boundaries, as at Dabbahu (2005, Afar) or at Bardarbunga (2014, Iceland) , highlight the possibility to have m-wide opening in a short time (days to weeks). This suggests a prominent role of magma

  18. The limitations on applying classical thin plate theory to thin annular plates clamped on the inner boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel W. Zietlow


    Full Text Available The experimentally measured resonance frequencies of a thin annular plate with a small ratio of inner to outer radii and clamped on the inner boundary are compared to the predictions of classical thin-plate (CTP theory and a finite-element (FE model. The results indicate that, contrary to the conclusions presented in a number of publications, CTP theory does not accurately predict the frequencies of a relatively small number of resonant modes at lower frequencies. It is shown that these inaccuracies are attributable to shear deformations, which are thought to be negligible in thin plates and are neglected in CTP theory. Of particular interest is the failure of CTP theory to accurately predict the resonance frequency of the lowest vibrational mode, which was shifted approximately 30% by shear motion at the inner boundary.

  19. Logistical Support for the Installation of the Plate Boundary Observatory GPS and Borehole Strainmeter Networks (United States)

    Kurnik, C.; Austin, K.; Coyle, B.; Dittmann, T.; Feaux, K.; Friesen, B.; Johnson, W.; Mencin, D.; Pauk, B.; Walls, C.


    The Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), part of the NSF-funded EarthScope project, is designed to study the three- dimensional strain field resulting from deformation across the active boundary zone between the Pacific and North American plates in the western United States. To meet these goals, UNAVCO will install 880 continuous GPS stations, 103 borehole strainmeter stations, 28 tiltmeters, and five laser strainmeters by October 2008. Such a broad network presents significant logisitical challenges, including moving supplies, equipment, and personnel around 6 million square kilometers, and this requires accurate tracking and careful planning. The PBO logistics chain includes the PBO headquarters at UNAVCO in Boulder, Colorado and five regional offices in the continental United States and Alaska, served by dozens of suppliers spread across the globe. These offices are responsible for building and maintaining sites in their region. Most equipment and supplies first arrive in Boulder, where they are tagged and entered into a UNAVCO-wide equipment database, assembled and quality checked as necessary, and sent on to the appropriate regional office. Larger items which are costly to store and ship from Boulder, such as batteries or long sections of stainless steel pipe and bar required for monuments, are shipped directly from the supplier to each region as needed. These supplies and equipment are also tracked through the ordering, delivery, installation, and maintenance cycle via Earned Value Management techniques which allow us to meet NSF and other Federal procurement rules. Early prototypes and assembly configurations aid the development of material and supply budgets. A thorough understanding of Federal procurement rules at project start up is critical as the project moves forward.

  20. Comparison of Fresnel zone plates and uniformly redundant arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenimore, E.E.; Cannon, T.M.; Miller, E.L.


    Several imaging systems in laser fusion, e-beam fusion, and astronomy employ a Fresnel zone plate (FZP) as a coded aperture. The recent development of uniformly redundant arrays (URAs) promises several improvements in these systems. The first advantage of the URA is the fact that its modulation transfer function (MTF) is the same as the MTF of a single pinhole, whereas the MTF of an FZP is an erratic function including some small values. This means that if inverse filtering is used, the URA will be less susceptible to noise. If a correlation analysis is used, the FZP will produce artifacts whereas the URA has no artifacts (assuming planar sources). Both the FZP and URA originated from functions which had flat MTFs. However, practical considerations in the implementation of the FZP detracted from its good characteristics whereas the URA was only mildly affected. The second advantage of the URA is that it better utilizes the available detector area. With the FZP, the aperture should be smaller than the detector in order to maintain the full angular resolution corresponding to the thinnest zone. The cyclic nature of the URA allows one to mosaic it in such a way that the entire detector area collects photons from all of the sources within the field of view while maintaining the full angular resolution. If the FZP is as large (or larger) than the detector, all parts of the source will not be resolved with the same resolution. The FZP does have some advantages, in particular its radial symmetry eases the alignment problem; it has a convenient optical decoding method; and higher diffraction order reconstruction might provide better spatial resolution

  1. New inner boundaries of the habitable zones around M dwarfs (United States)

    Bin, Jiayu; Tian, Feng; Liu, Lei


    Two general circulation models CAM4 and CAM5 are used to study the climate of ocean planets around M dwarfs with different effective temperatures. The atmospheres in CAM5 simulations are warmer and contain more water vapor than those in CAM4 under identical model settings, a result likely caused by improved treatments of radiation and possibly clouds in CAM5. The inner boundary of the habitable zones of M dwarfs based on CAM5 simulations, expressed as a second order polynomial function, are farther away from the stars than what are suggested by previous works and the corresponding atmospheres are in the moist greenhouse state.

  2. Does permanent extensional deformation in lower forearc slopes indicate shallow plate-boundary rupture? (United States)

    Geersen, J.; Ranero, C. R.; Kopp, H.; Behrmann, J. H.; Lange, D.; Klaucke, I.; Barrientos, S.; Diaz-Naveas, J.; Barckhausen, U.; Reichert, C.


    Seismic rupture of the shallow plate-boundary can result in large tsunamis with tragic socio-economic consequences, as exemplified by the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake. To better understand the processes involved in shallow earthquake rupture in seismic gaps (where megathrust earthquakes are expected), and investigate the tsunami hazard, it is important to assess whether the region experienced shallow earthquake rupture in the past. However, there are currently no established methods to elucidate whether a margin segment has repeatedly experienced shallow earthquake rupture, with the exception of mechanical studies on subducted fault-rocks. Here we combine new swath bathymetric data, unpublished seismic reflection images, and inter-seismic seismicity to evaluate if the pattern of permanent deformation in the marine forearc of the Northern Chile seismic gap allows inferences on past earthquake behavior. While the tectonic configuration of the middle and upper slope remains similar over hundreds of kilometers along the North Chilean margin, we document permanent extensional deformation of the lower slope localized to the region 20.8°S-22°S. Critical taper analyses, the comparison of permanent deformation to inter-seismic seismicity and plate-coupling models, as well as recent observations from other subduction-zones, including the area that ruptured during the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, suggest that the normal faults at the lower slope may have resulted from shallow, possibly near-trench breaking earthquake ruptures in the past. In the adjacent margin segments, the 1995 Antofagasta, 2007 Tocopilla, and 2014 Iquique earthquakes were limited to the middle and upper-slope and the terrestrial forearc, and so are upper-plate normal faults. Our findings suggest a seismo-tectonic segmentation of the North Chilean margin that seems to be stable over multiple earthquake cycles. If our interpretations are correct, they indicate a high tsunami hazard posed by the yet un

  3. An Electron-Beam Profile Monitor Using Fresnel Zone Plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Norio; Sakai, Hiroshi; Iida, Kensuke; Shinoe, Kenji; Takaki, Hiroyuki; Fujisawa, Masami; Hayano, Hitoshi; Muto, Toshiya; Nomura, Masaharu; Kamiya, Yukihide; Koseki, Tadashi; Amemiya, Yoshiyuki; Aoki, Nobutada; Nakayama, Koichi


    We have developed a beam profile monitor using two Fresnel zone plates (FZPs) at the KEK-ATF (Accelerator Test Facility) damping ring to measure small electron-beam sizes for low-emittance synchrotron radiation sources. The monitor has a structure of an X-ray microscope, where two FZPs constitute an X-ray imaging optics. In the monitor system, the synchrotron radiation from the electron beam at the bending magnet is monochromatized to 3.235-keV X-rays by a crystal monochromator and the transverse electron-beam image is twenty-times magnified by the two FZPs and detected on an X-ray CCD camera. This monitor has the following advantages: (1) high spatial resolution, (2) non-destructive measurement, (3) real-time monitoring, and (4) direct electron-beam imaging. With the beam profile monitor, we have succeeded in obtaining a clear electron-beam image and measuring the extremely small beam size less than 10 μm. The measured magnification of the imaging optics was in good agreement with the design value

  4. Heat conduction in a plate-type fuel element with time-dependent boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faya, A.J.G.; Maiorino, J.R.


    A method for the solution of boundary-value problems with variable boundary conditions is applied to solve a heat conduction problem in a plate-type fuel element with time dependent film coefficient. The numerical results show the feasibility of the method in the solution of this class of problems. (Author) [pt

  5. Simulating faults and plate boundaries with a transversely isotropic plasticity model (United States)

    Sharples, W.; Moresi, L. N.; Velic, M.; Jadamec, M. A.; May, D. A.


    In mantle convection simulations, dynamically evolving plate boundaries have, for the most part, been represented using an visco-plastic flow law. These systems develop fine-scale, localized, weak shear band structures which are reminiscent of faults but it is a significant challenge to resolve the large- and the emergent, small-scale-behavior. We address this issue of resolution by taking into account the observation that a rock element with embedded, planar, failure surfaces responds as a non-linear, transversely isotropic material with a weak orientation defined by the plane of the failure surface. This approach partly accounts for the large-scale behavior of fine-scale systems of shear bands which we are not in a position to resolve explicitly. We evaluate the capacity of this continuum approach to model plate boundaries, specifically in the context of subduction models where the plate boundary interface has often been represented as a planar discontinuity. We show that the inclusion of the transversely isotropic plasticity model for the plate boundary promotes asymmetric subduction from initiation. A realistic evolution of the plate boundary interface and associated stresses is crucial to understanding inter-plate coupling, convergent margin driven topography, and earthquakes.

  6. Seismicity and Seismic Hazard along the Western part of the Eurasia-Nubia plate boundary (United States)

    Bezzeghoud, Mourad; Fontiela, João; Ferrão, Celia; Borges, José Fernando; Caldeira, Bento; Dib, Assia; Ousadou, Farida


    The seismic phenomenon is the most damaging natural hazard known in the Mediterranean area. The western part of the Eurasia-Nubia plate boundary extends from the Azores to the Mediterranean region. The oceanic part of the plate boundary is well delimited from the Azores Islands, along the Azores-Gibraltar fault to approximately 12°W (west of the Strait of Gibraltar). From 12°W to 3.5°E, including the Iberia-Nubia region and extending to the western part of Algeria, the boundary is more diffuse and forms a wider area of deformation. The boundary between the Iberia and Nubia plates is the most complex part of the margin. This region corresponds to the transition from an oceanic boundary to a continental boundary, where Iberia and Nubia collide. Although most earthquakes along this plate boundary are shallow and generally have magnitudes less than 5.5, there have been several high-magnitude events. Many devastating earthquakes, some of them tsunami-triggering, inflicted heavy loss and considerable economic damage to the region. From 1920 to present, three earthquakes with magnitudes of about 8.0 (Mw 8.2, 25 November 1941; Ms 8.0, 25 February 1969; and Mw 7.9, 26 May 1975) occurred in the oceanic region, and four earthquakes with magnitudes of about 7.0 (Mw 7.1, 8 May 1939, Santa Maria Island and Mw 7.1, January 1980, Terceira and Graciosa Islands, both in the Azores; Ms 7.1, 20 May 1931, Azores-Gibraltar fracture zone; and Mw 7.3, 10 October 1980, El Asnam, Algeria) occurred along the western part of the Eurasia-Nubia plate boundary. In general, large earthquakes (M ≥7) occur within the oceanic region, with the exception of the El Asnam (Algeria) earthquakes. Some of these events caused extensive damage. The 1755 Lisbon earthquake (˜Mw 9) on the Portugal Atlantic margin, about 200 km W-SW of Cape St. Vincent, was followed by a tsunami and fires that caused the near-total destruction of Lisbon and adjacent areas. Estimates of the death toll in Lisbon alone (~70

  7. Reorganization of convergent plate boundaries. Geologica Ultraiectina (340)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baes, M.


    It is still unclear where a subduction is initiated and what are the responsible mechanisms involved in subduction initiation process. Understanding of subduction initiation will advance our knowledge of how and when plate tectonics started on Earth. Another issue concerning the subduction process

  8. Prandtl boundary layer expansions of steady Navier-Stokes flows over a moving plate


    Guo, Yan; Nguyen, Toan T.


    This paper concerns the validity of the Prandtl boundary layer theory in the inviscid limit for steady incompressible Navier-Stokes flows. The stationary flows, with small viscosity, are considered on $[0,L]\\times \\mathbb{R}_{+}$, assuming a no-slip boundary condition over a moving plate at $y=0$. We establish the validity of the Prandtl boundary layer expansion and its error estimates.

  9. Analytical Determination of the Boundaries of Transition Natural Zones (Ecotones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rulev Aleksandr Sergeevich


    Full Text Available The morphological units that are part of the catena, are recognized in accordance with the response to the geomorphological and soil processes. The spatial relationship is the main unit between them. In this regard, the landscape patterns acquire a cascade type, and their main link becomes the zonal catena, which has specific stable features, reflecting the dependence of the complex of natural conditions and processes of latitude. However, clear-cut boundaries do not exist – they have spatial and temporal displacement, associated with the cyclical nature of the global climatic processes. The landscapes in these transition zones (ecotones a priori can be considered unstable. The detection of ecotones boundaries provides the opportunity to divide natural zones to potentially stable and potentially unstable parts for planning measures on preventing the degradation of landscapes localized in them. The latitude of the ecotones localization can be determined through the connection of the radiation heat flux on land (R with the normalized geographical latitude of the subboreal belt (x, which is described by the equation of the energy balance, expressed in the logistic function R = А / [1 + 0,72 exp(4,25 – Bx] + C.

  10. Phase zone plates as condensers for the Gottingen scanning x-ray microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilkenbach, R.; Thieme


    With the Gottingen scanning x-ray microscope the synchrotron source is image by x-ray optics into a monochromatic small scan spot, through which a specimen can be moved. Hereby one part of the optics, the condenser zone plate and a pinhole, works as a linear monochromator in the wavelength region of λ = 2.36 nm to λ = 4.5 nm. The efficiency of such a condenser should be as high as possible to minimize the loss of radiation. Phase zone plates have a four times higher efficiency in the first order of diffraction than amplitude zone plates. Two condenser zone plates, KZP4 and KZP5, have been constructed so that they are well suited for the use in the scanning microscope. These zone plates have been made holographically by superposing two wavefronts of laser light in an specific designed optical arrangement and exposing the zone plate structure into a photoresist. Using reactive ion etching (RIE) the structure has been transformed into Germanium. The thickness of the zone plate has been chosen to show at λ = 2.36 nm a phase effect. The efficiency has been measured at the Berliner Elektronenspeircherring Gesellschaft fur Synchrotronstrahlung m.b.H., Berlin

  11. Crustal and upper mantle investigations of the Caribbean-South American plate boundary (United States)

    Bezada, Maximiliano J.

    The evolution of the Caribbean --- South America plate boundary has been a matter of vigorous debate for decades and many questions remain unresolved. In this work, and in the framework of the BOLIVAR project, we shed light on some aspects of the present state and the tectonic history of the margin by using different types of geophysical data sets and techniques. An analysis of controlled-source traveltime data collected along a boundary-normal profile at ˜65°W was used to build a 2D P-wave velocity model. The model shows that the Caribbean Large Igenous Province is present offshore eastern Venezuela and confirms the uniformity of the velocity structure along the Leeward Antilles volcanic belt. In contrast with neighboring profiles, at this longitude we see no change in velocity structure or crustal thickness across the San Sebastian - El Pilar fault system. A 2D gravity modeling methodology that uses seismically derived initial density models was developed as part of this research. The application of this new method to four of the BOLIVAR boundary-normal profiles suggests that the uppermost mantle is denser under the South American continental crust and the island arc terranes than under the Caribbean oceanic crust. Crustal rocks of the island arc and extended island arc terranes of the Leeward Antilles have a relatively low density, given their P-wave velocity. This may be caused by low iron content, relative to average magmatic arc rocks. Finally, an analysis of teleseismic traveltimes with frequency-dependent kernels produced a 3D P-wave velocity perturbation model. The model shows the structure of the mantle lithosphere under the study area and clearly images the subduction of the Atlantic slab and associated partial removal of the lower lithosphere under northern South America. We also image the subduction of a section of the Caribbean plate under South America with an east-southeast direction. Both the Atlantic and Caribbean subducting slabs penetrate the

  12. Special grain boundaries in the nugget zone of friction stir welded AA6061-T6 under various welding parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Wang [Key Lab of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Yong, Zou, E-mail: [Key Lab of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Xuemei, Liu [Key Lab of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Matsuda, Kenji [Department of Materials Science and Technology, Faculty of Engineering, University of Toyama, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan)


    The age hardenable AA6061-T6 plate was butt welded by friction stir welding. The total heat input, generated by friction between the tool and work piece and plastic deformation, results in a consumption of meta-stable phases in the nugget zone. Precipitation phenomena were closely related to the diffusion of the solute atoms. The existence of special grain boundaries like Σ1a and Σ3 will increase the difficulty in diffusion, which will improve the hardness in the nugget zone. Furthermore, the formation of Σ3 grain boundaries can result from an impingement of re-crystallized grains coming from texture components in twin relationship already. An appropriate strain level may benefit the development of the twin components with a similar intensity. The welding parameters have an effect on heat source mode and the strain level. Then, the type of dynamic re-crystallization and distribution of the special grain boundaries was altered by changing the parameters.

  13. Seismofocal zones and mid-ocean ridges - look outside of the plate paradigm (United States)

    Anokhin, Vladimir; Kholmianskii, Mikhail


    Seismofocal zones and mid-ocean ridges - look outside of the plate paradigm Vladimir M. Anokhin, Mikhail A. Kholmianskii Configuration of the seismofocal zones (SFZ), visible in a real position of the focuses of earthquakes, has a significant step component (jagged) expressed by the presence of several sub-horizontal "seismoplanes", which concentrates focuses of earthquakes (depths 10, 35 km and other). Orientation of seismolines inside of SFZ tends to 4 main directions: 0-5 dgr, 120-145 dgr, 40-55 dgr, 85-90 dgr. These facts suggest significantly block, a terraced structure of the body of Benioff zone. The borders of blocks have orientation according directions regmatic net of the Earth. In accordance with this, SFZ can be presented as the most active segments of the border of the crossing: «continent-ocean», having the following properties: - block (terraced) structure; - in some sites - dive under the continental crust (in present time); - prevailing compression (in present time), perhaps, as the period of the oscillatory cycle; Infinite "subduction" in SFZ is unlikely. One of the areas where there is proof of concept of far "spreading" is the southernmost tip of the mid-oceanic Gakkel ridge in the Laptev sea (Arctic ocean). Here active "spreading" ridge normal approaches to the boundary of the continental crust - the shelf of the Laptev sea. On the shelf there are a number of subparallel NW grabens. NE fault zone Charlie, controlling the continental slope is established stepped fault without shift component. This means that the amount of extending of the offshore grabens does not significantly differ from the scale of spreading in the Gakkel ridge. However, the total spreads grabens (50-100 km) 6-10 times less than the width of the oceanic crust (600 km) in the surrounding area. Conclusion: the oceanic crust in the Laptev sea was formed mainly not due to "spreading". It is very likely that here was sinking and the processing of continental crust in the ocean

  14. Flat Plate Boundary Layer Stimulation Using Trip Wires and Hama Strips (United States)

    Peguero, Charles; Henoch, Charles; Hrubes, James; Fredette, Albert; Roberts, Raymond; Huyer, Stephen


    Water tunnel experiments on a flat plate at zero angle of attack were performed to investigate the effect of single roughness elements, i.e., trip wires and Hama strips, on the transition to turbulence. Boundary layer trips are traditionally used in scale model testing to force a boundary layer to transition from laminar to turbulent flow at a single location to aid in scaling of flow characteristics. Several investigations of trip wire effects exist in the literature, but there is a dearth of information regarding the influence of Hama strips on the flat plate boundary layer. The intent of this investigation is to better understand the effects of boundary layer trips, particularly Hama strips, and to investigate the pressure-induced drag of both styles of boundary layer trips. Untripped and tripped boundary layers along a flat plate at a range of flow speeds were characterized with multiple diagnostic measurements in the NUWC/Newport 12-inch water tunnel. A wide range of Hama strip and wire trip thicknesses were used. Measurements included dye flow visualization, direct skin friction and parasitic drag force, boundary layer profiles using LDV, wall shear stress fluctuations using hot film anemometry, and streamwise pressure gradients. Test results will be compared to the CFD and boundary layer model results as well as the existing body of work. Conclusions, resulting in guidance for application of Hama strips in model scale experiments and non-dimensional predictions of pressure drag will be presented.

  15. Sub-25-nm laboratory x-ray microscopy using a compound Fresnel zone plate. (United States)

    von Hofsten, Olov; Bertilson, Michael; Reinspach, Julia; Holmberg, Anders; Hertz, Hans M; Vogt, Ulrich


    Improving the resolution in x-ray microscopes is of high priority to enable future applications in nanoscience. However, high-resolution zone-plate optics often have low efficiency, which makes implementation in laboratory microscopes difficult. We present a laboratory x-ray microscope based on a compound zone plate. The compound zone plate utilizes multiple diffraction orders to achieve high resolution while maintaining reasonable efficiency. We analyze the illumination conditions necessary for this type of optics in order to suppress stray light and demonstrate microscopic imaging resolving 25 nm features.

  16. Three-Dimensional Vibration Analysis of Rectangular Thick Plates on Pasternak Foundation with Arbitrary Boundary Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huimin Liu


    Full Text Available This paper presents the first known vibration characteristic of rectangular thick plates on Pasternak foundation with arbitrary boundary conditions on the basis of the three-dimensional elasticity theory. The arbitrary boundary conditions are obtained by laying out three types of linear springs on all edges. The modified Fourier series are chosen as the basis functions of the admissible function of the thick plates to eliminate all the relevant discontinuities of the displacements and their derivatives at the edges. The exact solution is obtained based on the Rayleigh–Ritz procedure by the energy functions of the thick plate. The excellent accuracy and reliability of current solutions are demonstrated by numerical examples and comparisons with the results available in the literature. In addition, the influence of the foundation coefficients as well as the boundary restraint parameters is also analyzed, which can serve as the benchmark data for the future research technique.

  17. Dynamic Linkages Between the Transition Zone & Surface Plate Motions in 2D Models of Subduction (United States)

    Arredondo, K.; Billen, M. I.


    While slab pull is considered the dominant force controlling plate motion and speed, its magnitude is controlled by slab behavior in the mantle, where tomographic studies show a wide range of possibilities from direct penetration to folding, or stagnation directly above the lower mantle (e.g. Fukao et al., 2009). Geodynamic studies have investigated various parameters, such as plate age and two phase transitions, to recreate observed behavior (e.g. Běhounková and Cízková, 2008). However, past geodynamic models have left out known slab characteristics that may have a large impact on slab behavior and our understanding of subduction processes. Mineral experiments and seismic observations have indicated the existence of additional phase transitions in the mantle transition zone that may produce buoyancy forces large enough to affect the descent of a subducting slab (e.g. Ricard et al., 2005). The current study systematically tests different common assumptions used in geodynamic models: kinematic versus free-slip boundary conditions, the effects of adiabatic heating, viscous dissipation and latent heat, compositional layering and a more complete suite of phase transitions. Final models have a complete energy equation, with eclogite, harzburgite and pyrolite lithosphere compositional layers, and seven composition-dependent phase transitions within the olivine, pyroxene and garnet polymorph minerals. Results show important feedback loops between different assumptions and new behavior from the most complete models. Kinematic models show slab weakening or breaking above the 660 km boundary and between compositional layers. The behavior in dynamic models with a free-moving trench and overriding plate is compared to the more commonly found kinematic models. The new behavior may have important implications for the depth distribution of deep earthquakes within the slab. Though the thermodynamic parameters of certain phase transitions may be uncertain, their presence and

  18. Fresnel zone plate imaging of a 252Cf spontaneous fission source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stalker, K.T.; Hessel, K.R.


    The feasibility of coded aperture imaging for nuclear fuel motion monitoring is shown using Cf 252 spontaneous fission source. The theory of coded aperture imaging for Fresnel zone plate apertures is presented and design considerations for zone plate construction are discussed. Actual images are obtained which demonstrate a transverse resolution of 1.7 mm and a tomographic resolution of 1.5 millimeters. The capability of obtaining images through 12.7 mm of stainless steel is also shown

  19. On the role of infiltration and exfiltration in swash zone boundary layer dynamics (United States)

    Pintado-Patiño, José Carlos; Torres-Freyermuth, Alec; Puleo, Jack A.; Pokrajac, Dubravka


    Boundary layer dynamics are investigated using a 2-D numerical model that solves the Volume-Averaged Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations, with a VOF-tracking scheme and a k - ɛ turbulence closure. The model is validated with highly resolved data of dam break driven swash flows over gravel impermeable and permeable beds. The spatial gradients of the velocity, bed shear stress, and turbulence intensity terms are investigated with reference to bottom boundary layer (BL) dynamics. Numerical results show that the mean vorticity responds to flow divergence/convergence at the surface that result from accelerating/decelerating portions of the flow, bed shear stress, and sinking/injection of turbulence due to infiltration/exfiltration. Hence, the zero up-crossing of the vorticity is employed as a proxy of the BL thickness inside the shallow swash zone flows. During the uprush phase, the BL develops almost instantaneously with bore arrival and fluctuates below the surface due to flow instabilities and related horizontal straining. In contrast, during the backwash phase, the BL grows quasi-linearly with less influence of surface-induced forces. However, the infiltration produces a reduction of the maximum excursion and duration of the swash event. These effects have important implications for the BL development. The numerical results suggest that the BL growth rate deviates rapidly from a quasi-linear trend if the infiltration is dominant during the initial backwash phase and the flat plate boundary layer theory may no longer be applicable under these conditions.

  20. Deformation of the Northwestern Okhotsk Plate: How is it happening?


    Hindle, D.; Fujita, K.; Mackey, K.


    The Eurasia (EU) – North America (NA) plate boundary zone across Northeast Asia still presents many open questions within the plate tectonic paradigm. Constraining the geometry and number of plates or microplates present in the plate boundary zone is especially difficult because of the location of the EU-NA euler pole close to or even upon the EU-NA boundary. One of the major challenges remains the geometry of the Okhotsk plate (OK). whose northwestern portion terminates on ...

  1. a Lattice Boltzmann Study of the 2d Boundary Layer Created by AN Oscillating Plate (United States)

    Cappietti, L.; Chopard, B.

    We study the applicability of the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) to simulate the 2D laminar boundary layer induced by an oscillating flat plate. We also investigate the transition to the disturbed laminar regime that occurs with a rough oscillating plate. The simulations were performed in two cases: first with a fluid otherwise at rest and second in presence of superimposed current. The generation of coherent vortex structures and their evolution are commented. The accuracy of the method was checked by comparisons with the exact analytical solution of the Navier-Stokes equations for the so-called Stokes' Second Problem. The comparisons show that LBM reproduces this time varying flow with first order accuracy. In the case of the wavy-plate, the results show that a mechanism of vortex-jet formations, low speed-streak and shear instability sustain a systems of stationary vortices outside the boundary layer. The vortex-jet takes place at the end of the decelerating phase whereas the boundary layer turns out to be laminar when the plate accelerates. In the presence of the superimposed current, the vortex-jet mechanism is still effective but the vortices outside the boundary layer are only present during part of the oscillating period. During the remaining part, the flow turns out to be laminar although a wave perturbation in the velocity field is present.

  2. Stress Transfer Processes during Great Plate Boundary Thrusting Events: A Study from the Andaman and Nicobar Segments (United States)

    Andrade, V.; Rajendran, K.


    The response of subduction zones to large earthquakes varies along their strike, both during the interseismic and post-seismic periods. The December 26, 2004 earthquake nucleated at 3° N latitude and its rupture propagated northward, along the Andaman-Sumatra subduction zone, terminating at 15°N. Rupture speed was estimated at about 2.0 km per second in the northern part under the Andaman region and 2.5 - 2.7 km per second under southern Nicobar and North Sumatra. We have examined the pre and post-2004 seismicity to understand the stress transfer processes within the subducting plate, in the Andaman (10° - 15° N ) and Nicobar (5° - 10° N) segments. The seismicity pattern in these segments shows distinctive characteristics associated with the outer rise, accretionary prism and the spreading ridge, all of which are relatively better developed in the Andaman segment. The Ninety East ridge and the Sumatra Fault System are significant tectonic features in the Nicobar segment. The pre-2004 seismicity in both these segments conform to the steady-state conditions wherein large earthquakes are fewer and compressive stresses dominate along the plate interface. Among the pre-2004 great earthquakes are the 1881 Nicobar and 1941 Andaman events. The former is considered to be a shallow thrust event that generated a small tsunami. Studies in other subduction zones suggest that large outer-rise tensional events follow great plate boundary breaking earthquakes due to the the up-dip transfer of stresses within the subducting plate. The seismicity of the Andaman segment (1977-2004) concurs with the steady-state stress conditions where earthquakes occur dominantly by thrust faulting. The post-2004 seismicity shows up-dip migration along the plate interface, with dominance of shallow normal faulting, including a few outer rise events and some deeper (> 100 km) strike-slip faulting events within the subducting plate. The September 13, 2002, Mw 6.5 thrust faulting earthquake at

  3. Joining the Great Plains in Space, Place, and Time: Questioning a Time Zone Boundary (United States)

    Kuper, Rob


    Standard time zone boundaries are invisible in the landscape, yet they abruptly delineate a temporal difference of one hour between two large areas located relative to one another on Earth. In most cases, standard time zone boundaries follow political ones and define areas within which daylight saving time (DST)--the seasonal advancement of…

  4. X-ray microscopy with high resolution zone plates -- Recent developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, G.; Wilhein, T.; Niemann, B.; Guttmann, P.


    In order to expand the applications of X-ray microscopy, developments in the fields of zone plate technology, specimen preparation and imaging techniques have been made. A new cross-linked polymer chain electron beam resist allows to record zone plate pattern down to 19 nm outermost zone width. High resolution zone plates in germanium with outermost zone widths down to 19 nm have been developed. In addition, phase zone plates in nickel down to 30 nm zone width have been made by electroplating. In order to enhance the image contrast for weak absorbing objects, the phase contrast method for X-ray microscopy was developed and implemented on the Goettingen X-ray microscope at BESSY. The effects of X-ray absorption on the structure of biological specimen limits the maximum applicable radiation dose and therefore the achievable signal to noise ratio for an artifact-free X-ray image. To improve the stability especially of biological specimen, a cryogenic object chamber has been developed and tested. It turns out that at the operating temperature T ≤ 130 K unfixed biological specimen can be exposed to a radiation dose of 10 9 --10 10 Gy without any observable structural changes. A multiple-angle viewing stage allows to take stereoscopic images with the X-ray microscope, giving a 3D-impression of the object

  5. Weak Tectono-Magmatic Relationships along an Obliquely Convergent Plate Boundary: Sumatra, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Acocella


    Full Text Available The tectono-magmatic relationships along obliquely convergent plate boundaries, where strain partitioning promotes strike-slip structures along the volcanic arc, are poorly known. Here it is unclear if and, in case, how the strike-slip structures control volcanic processes, distribution and size. To better define the possible tectono-magmatic relationships along strike-slip arcs, we merge available information on the case study of Sumatra (Indonesia with field structural data. The Sumatra arc (entire volcanic belt consists of 48 active volcanoes. Of these, 46% lie within 10 km from the dextral Great Sumatra Fault (GSF, which carries most horizontal displacement on the overriding plate, whereas 27% lie at >20 km from the GSF. Among the volcanoes at <10 km from GSF, 48% show a possible structural relation to the GSF, whereas only 28% show a clear structural relation, lying in pull-aparts or releasing bends; these localized areas of transtension (local extensional zone do not develop magmatic segments. There is no relation between the GSF along-strike slip rate variations and the volcanic productivity. The preferred N30°-N40°E volcano alignment and elongation are subparallel to the convergence vector or to the GSF. The structural field data, collected in the central and southern GSF, show, in addition to the dextral motions along NW-SE to N-S striking faults, also normal motions (extending WNW-ESE or NE-SW, suggesting local reactivations of the GSF. Overall, the collected data suggest a limited tectonic control on arc volcanism. The tectonic control is mostly expressed by the mean depth of the slab surface below the volcanoes (130 ± 20 km and, subordinately, local extension along the GSF. The latter, when WNW-ESE oriented (more common, may be associated with the overall tectonic convergence, as suggested by the structural data; conversely, when NE-SW oriented (less common, the extension may result from co- and post-seismic arc normal extension

  6. A preliminary investigation of boundary-layer transition along a flat plate with adverse pressure gradient (United States)

    Von Doenhoff, Albert E


    Boundary-layer surveys were made throughout the transition region along a smooth flat plate placed in an airstream of practically zero turbulence and with an adverse pressure gradient. The boundary-layer Reynolds number at the laminar separation point was varied from 1,800 to 2,600. The test data, when considered in the light of certain theoretical deductions, indicated that transition probably began with separation of the laminar boundary layer. The extent of the transition region, defined as the distance from a calculated laminar separation point to the position of the first fully developed turbulent boundary-layer profile, could be expressed as a constant Reynolds number run of approximately 70,000. Some speculations are presented concerning the application of the foregoing concepts, after certain assumptions have been made, to the problem of the connection between transition on the upper surface of an airfoil at high angles of attack and the maximum lift.

  7. Generalized wall function and its application to compressible turbulent boundary layer over a flat plate (United States)

    Liu, J.; Wu, S. P.


    Wall function boundary conditions including the effects of compressibility and heat transfer are improved for compressible turbulent boundary flows. Generalized wall function formulation at zero-pressure gradient is proposed based on coupled velocity and temperature profiles in the entire near-wall region. The parameters in the generalized wall function are well revised. The proposed boundary conditions are integrated into Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics code that includes the shear stress transport turbulence model. Numerical results are presented for a compressible boundary layer over a flat plate at zero-pressure gradient. Compared with experimental data, the computational results show that the generalized wall function reduces the first grid spacing in the directed normal to the wall and proves the feasibility and effectivity of the generalized wall function method.

  8. Evidence of displacement-driven maturation along the San Cristobal Trough transform plate boundary (United States)

    Neely, James S.; Furlong, Kevin P.


    The San Cristobal Trough (SCT), formed by the tearing of the Australia plate as it subducts under the Pacific plate near the Solomon Islands, provides an opportunity to study the transform boundary development process. Recent seismicity (2013-2016) along the 280 km long SCT, known as a Subduction-Transform Edge Propagator (STEP) fault, highlights the tearing process and ongoing development of the plate boundary. The region's earthquakes reveal two key characteristics. First, earthquakes at the western terminus of the SCT, which we interpret to indicate the Australia plate tearing, display disparate fault geometries. These events demonstrate that plate tearing is accommodated via multiple intersecting planes rather than a single through-going fault. Second, the SCT hosts sequences of Mw ∼7 strike-slip earthquakes that migrate westward through a rapid succession of events. Sequences in 1993 and 2015 both began along the eastern SCT and propagated west, but neither progression ruptured into or nucleated a large earthquake within the region near the tear. Utilizing b-value and Coulomb Failure Stress analyses, we examine these along-strike variations in the SCT's seismicity. b-Values are highest along the youngest, western end of the SCT and decrease with increasing distance from the tear. This trend may reflect increasing strain localization with increasing displacement. Coulomb Failure Stress analyses indicate that the stress conditions were conducive to continued western propagation of the 1993 and 2015 sequences suggesting that the unruptured western SCT may have fault geometries or properties that inhibit continued rupture. Our results indicate a displacement-driven fault maturation process. The multi-plane Australia plate tearing likely creates a western SCT with diffuse strain accommodated along a network of disorganized faults. After ∼90 km of cumulative displacement (∼900,000 yr of plate motion), strain localizes and faults align, allowing the SCT to host

  9. Heat transfer enhancement in a turbulent natural convection boundary layer along a vertical flat plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Toshihiro; Kajitani, Tsuyoshi; Nishino, Tatsuhiko


    An experimental study on heat transfer enhancement for a turbulent natural convection boundary layer in air along a vertical flat plate has been performed by inserting a long flat plate in the spanwise direction (simple heat transfer promoter) and short flat plates aligned in the spanwise direction (split heat transfer promoter) with clearances into the near-wall region of the boundary layer. For a simple heat transfer promoter, the heat transfer coefficients increase by a peak value of approximately 37% in the downstream region of the promoter compared with those in the usual turbulent natural convection boundary layer. It is found from flow visualization and simultaneous measurements of the flow and thermal fields with hot- and cold-wires that such increase of heat transfer coefficients is mainly caused by the deflection of flows toward the outer region of the boundary layer and the invasion of low-temperature fluids from the outer region to the near-wall region with large-scale vortex motions riding out the promoter. However, heat transfer coefficients for a split heat transfer promoter exhibit an increase in peak value of approximately 60% in the downstream region of the promoter. Flow visualization and PIV measurements show that such remarkable heat transfer enhancement is attributed to longitudinal vortices generated by flows passing through the clearances of the promoter in addition to large-scale vortex motions riding out the promoter. Consequently, it is concluded that heat transfer enhancement of the turbulent natural convection boundary layer can be substantially achieved in a wide area of the turbulent natural convection boundary layer by employing multiple column split heat transfer promoters. It may be expected that the heat transfer enhancement in excess of approximately 40% can be accomplished by inserting such promoters

  10. Numerical analysis of viscoelastic boundary layers : the case of plate withdrawal in a Maxwellian fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghy, K.; Sharifi, M.


    The effect of a fluid's elasticity on the characteristics of its boundary layer was investigated in this work. A viscoelastic fluid of Maxwellian type was selected for this purpose and the flow induced in this fluid by a plate withdrawing at a constant velocity was studied. Conventional boundary layer assumptions were invoked to reduce the equations of motion to a simple form incorporating an elastic term in addition to the familiar inertial, viscous and pressure terms. It was shown that for elastic effects to be of an importance in a boundary layer, the fluid's relaxation time should be of an order much larger than its kinematic viscosity. By introducing a stream function, the governing equation was transformed into a nonlinear ODE with x-coordinate still appearing in the equation demonstrating that no similarity solution existed for this flow. The resulting equation was then solved numerically for Deborah numbers as large as 1.0. The results showed a marked formation of boundary layer adjacent to a moving wall for a Maxwellian fluid. The boundary layer thickness and the wall shear stress were found to scale with fluid's elasticity - both decreasing the higher the fluid's elasticity. It is thus anticipated that in free coating processes, the force required to impart a constant velocity to a withdrawing belt or plate would be lower if fluid's elasticity is significant. (author)

  11. Alternate model of Chladni figures for the circular homogenous thin plate case with open boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trejo-Mandujano, H A; Mijares-Bernal, G; Ordoñez-Casanova, E G


    The wave equation is a direct but a complex approach to solve analytically for the Chladni figures, mainly because of the complications that non-smooth and open boundary conditions impose. In this paper, we present an alternate solution model based on the principle of Huygens-Fresnel and on the ideas of Bohr for the hydrogen atom. The proposed model has been implemented numerically and compared, with good agreement, to our own experimental results for the case of a thin homogenous circular plate with open boundaries

  12. Experimental Results from a Flat Plate, Turbulent Boundary Layer Modified for the Purpose of Drag Reduction (United States)

    Elbing, Brian R.


    Recent experiments on a flat plate, turbulent boundary layer at high Reynolds numbers (>10^7) were performed to investigate various methods of reducing skin friction drag. The methods used involved injecting either air or a polymer solution into the boundary layer through a slot injector. Two slot injectors were mounted on the model with one located 1.4 meters downstream of the nose and the second located 3.75 meters downstream. This allowed for some synergetic experiments to be performed by varying the injections from each slot and comparing the skin friction along the plate. Skin friction measurements were made with 6 shear stress sensors flush mounted along the stream-wise direction of the model.

  13. High-velocity basal sediment package atop oceanic crust, offshore Cascadia: Impacts on plate boundary processes and fluid migration (United States)

    Peterson, D. E.; Keranen, K. M.


    Differences in fluid pressure and mechanical properties at megathrust boundaries in subduction zones have been proposed to create varying seismogenic behavior. In Cascadia, where large ruptures are possible but little seismicity occurs presently, new seismic transects across the deformation front (COAST cruise; Holbrook et al., 2012) image an unusually high-wavespeed sedimentary unit directly overlying oceanic crust. Wavespeed increases before sediments reach the deformation front, and the well-laminated unit, consistently of 1 km thickness, can be traced for 50 km beneath the accretionary prism before imaging quality declines. Wavespeed is modeled via iterative prestack time migration (PSTM) imaging and increases from 3.5 km/sec on the seaward end of the profile to >5.0 km/s near the deformation front. Landward of the deformation front, wavespeed is low along seaward-dipping thrust faults in the Quaternary accretionary prism, indicative of rapid dewatering along faults. The observed wavespeed of 5.5 km/sec just above subducting crust is consistent with porosity intersects the plate boundary at an oblique angle and changes the degree of hydration of the oceanic plate as it subducts within our area. Fluid flow out of oceanic crust is likely impeded by the low-porosity basal sediment package except along the focused thrust faults. Decollements are present at the top of oceanic basement, at the top of the high-wavespeed basal unit, and within sedimentary strata at higher levels; the decollement at the top of oceanic crust is active at the toe of the deformation front. The basal sedimentary unit appears to be mechanically strong, similar to observations from offshore Sumatra, where strongly consolidated sediments at the deformation front are interpreted to facilitate megathrust rupture to the trench (Hupers et al., 2017). A uniformly strong plate interface at Cascadia may inhibit microseismicity while building stress that is released in great earthquakes.

  14. Discrete quintic spline for boundary value problem in plate deflation theory (United States)

    Wong, Patricia J. Y.


    We propose a numerical scheme for a fourth-order boundary value problem arising from plate deflation theory. The scheme involves a discrete quintic spline, and it is of order 4 if a parameter takes a specific value, else it is of order 2. We also present a well known numerical example to illustrate the efficiency of our method as well as to compare with other numerical methods proposed in the literature.

  15. Plane wave diffraction by a finite plate with impedance boundary conditions. (United States)

    Nawaz, Rab; Ayub, Muhammad; Javaid, Akmal


    In this study we have examined a plane wave diffraction problem by a finite plate having different impedance boundaries. The Fourier transforms were used to reduce the governing problem into simultaneous Wiener-Hopf equations which are then solved using the standard Wiener-Hopf procedure. Afterwards the separated and interacted fields were developed asymptotically by using inverse Fourier transform and the modified stationary phase method. Detailed graphical analysis was also made for various physical parameters we were interested in.

  16. Plane wave diffraction by a finite plate with impedance boundary conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rab Nawaz

    Full Text Available In this study we have examined a plane wave diffraction problem by a finite plate having different impedance boundaries. The Fourier transforms were used to reduce the governing problem into simultaneous Wiener-Hopf equations which are then solved using the standard Wiener-Hopf procedure. Afterwards the separated and interacted fields were developed asymptotically by using inverse Fourier transform and the modified stationary phase method. Detailed graphical analysis was also made for various physical parameters we were interested in.

  17. Examples of the Re-number effect on the transitional flat plate boundary layers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Antoš, Pavel; Jonáš, Pavel; Procházka, Pavel P.; Uruba, Václav


    Roč. 14, č. 1 (2014), s. 605-606 ISSN 1617-7061. [Annual Meeting of the International Association of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics /85./. Erlangen, 10.03.2014-14.03.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP101/12/1271 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : transition * flat plate * boundary layer Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  18. Four-parametric two-layer algebraic model of transition boundary layer at a planar plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labusov, A.N.; Lapin, Yu.V.


    Consideration is given to four-parametric two-layer algebraic model of transition boundary layer on a plane plate, based on generalization of one-parametric algebraic Prandtl-Loitsjansky-Klauzer-3 model. The algebraic model uses Prandtl formulas for mixing path with Loitsjansky damping multiplier in the internal region and the relation for turbulent viscosity, based on universal scales of external region and named the Klauzer-3 formula. 12 refs., 10 figs

  19. Effect of plate permeability on nonlinear stability of the asymptotic suction boundary layer. (United States)

    Wedin, Håkan; Cherubini, Stefania; Bottaro, Alessandro


    The nonlinear stability of the asymptotic suction boundary layer is studied numerically, searching for finite-amplitude solutions that bifurcate from the laminar flow state. By changing the boundary conditions for disturbances at the plate from the classical no-slip condition to more physically sound ones, the stability characteristics of the flow may change radically, both for the linearized as well as the nonlinear problem. The wall boundary condition takes into account the permeability K̂ of the plate; for very low permeability, it is acceptable to impose the classical boundary condition (K̂=0). This leads to a Reynolds number of approximately Re(c)=54400 for the onset of linearly unstable waves, and close to Re(g)=3200 for the emergence of nonlinear solutions [F. A. Milinazzo and P. G. Saffman, J. Fluid Mech. 160, 281 (1985); J. H. M. Fransson, Ph.D. thesis, Royal Institute of Technology, KTH, Sweden, 2003]. However, for larger values of the plate's permeability, the lower limit for the existence of linear and nonlinear solutions shifts to significantly lower Reynolds numbers. For the largest permeability studied here, the limit values of the Reynolds numbers reduce down to Re(c)=796 and Re(g)=294. For all cases studied, the solutions bifurcate subcritically toward lower Re, and this leads to the conjecture that they may be involved in the very first stages of a transition scenario similar to the classical route of the Blasius boundary layer initiated by Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) waves. The stability of these nonlinear solutions is also investigated, showing a low-frequency main unstable mode whose growth rate decreases with increasing permeability and with the Reynolds number, following a power law Re(-ρ), where the value of ρ depends on the permeability coefficient K̂. The nonlinear dynamics of the flow in the vicinity of the computed finite-amplitude solutions is finally investigated by direct numerical simulations, providing a viable scenario for

  20. Reconstructing Plate Boundaries in the Jurassic Neo-Tethys From the East and West Vardar Ophiolites (Greece and Serbia) (United States)

    Maffione, Marco; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.


    Jurassic subduction initiation in the Neo-Tethys Ocean eventually led to the collision of the Adria-Africa and Eurasia continents and the formation of an 6,000 km long Alpine orogen spanning from Iberia to Iran. Reconstructing the location and geometry of the plate boundaries of the now disappeared Neo-Tethys during the initial moments of its closure is instrumental to perform more realistic plate reconstructions of this region, of ancient ocean basins in general, and on the process of subduction initiation. Neo-Tethyan relics are preserved in an ophiolite belt distributed above the Dinaric-Hellenic fold-thrust belt. Here we provide the first quantitative constraints on the geometry of the spreading ridges and trenches active in the Jurassic Neo-Tethys using a paleomagnetically based net tectonic rotation analysis of sheeted dykes and dykes from the West and East Vardar Ophiolites of Serbia (Maljen and Ibar) and Greece (Othris, Pindos, Vourinos, and Guevgueli). Based on our results and existing geological evidence, we show that initial Middle Jurassic ( 175 Ma) closure of the western Neo-Tethys was accommodated at a N-S trending, west dipping subduction zone initiated near and parallel to the spreading ridge. The West Vardar Ophiolites formed in the forearc parallel to this new trench. Simultaneously, the East Vardar Ophiolites formed above a second N-S to NW-SE trending subduction zone located close to the European passive margin. We tentatively propose that this second subduction zone had been active since at least the Middle Triassic, simultaneously accommodating the closure of the Paleo-Tethys and the back-arc opening of Neo-Tethys.

  1. Transitional and turbulent flat-plate boundary layers with heat transfer (United States)

    Wu, Xiaohua; Moin, Parviz


    We report on our direct numerical simulation of two incompressible, nominally zero-pressure-gradient flat-plate boundary layers from momentum thickness Reynolds number 80 to 1950. Heat transfer between the constant-temperature solid surface and the free-stream is also simulated with molecular Prandtl number=1. Throughout the entire flat-plate, the ratio of Stanton number and skin-friction St/Cfdeviates from the exact Reynolds analogy value of 0.5 by less than 1.5%. Turbulent Prandtl number t peaks at the wall. Preponderance of hairpin vortices is observed in both the transitional and turbulent regions of the boundary layers. In particular, the internal structure of merged turbulent spots is hairpin forest; the internal structure of infant turbulent spots is hairpin packet. Numerous hairpin vortices are readily detected in both the near-wall and outer regions of the boundary layers up to momentum thickness Reynolds number 1950. This suggests that the hairpin vortices in the turbulent region are not simply the aged hairpin forests convected from the upstream transitional region. Temperature iso-surfaces in the companion thermal boundary layers are found to be a useful tracer in identifying hairpin vortex structures.

  2. Velocity- and slip-dependent weakening on the Tohoku plate boundary fault: shallow coseismic slip facilitated by foreshock afterslip (United States)

    Ito, Y.; Ikari, M.; Ujiie, K.; Kopf, A.


    Understanding of role of slow earthquakes as they relate to the occurrence of both megathrust earthquakes and tsunami earthquakes is necessary to mitigate these disasters in the near future. Laboratory shearing experiments is one of important approach to evaluate these relationships. Here, we use powdered gouge samples from JFAST (IODP Expedition 343) Hole C0019E, core sample 17R-1, which is the plate boundary fault zone in the Japan Trench subduction zone. In this region, both large coseismic slip during the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake as well as discrete slow slip events (SSE) have occurred. Experiments were conducted in a single-direct shear apparatus under normal stress of 16 MPa, with total shear displacements of up to 16 mm. We evaluate both the velocity- and slip-dependence of friction by extracting the velocity-dependent friction parameters a, b, and Dc, and measuring the rate of change in friction coefficient with shear displacement as the slip-dependence of friction. We report that in friction experiments using the Tohoku fault zone samples, an increase in sliding velocity exceeding that of earthquake afterslip can induce a change from steady-state frictional strength or slip hardening friction to slip-weakening frictional behavior. Our results show that the slip weakening is observed when the slip velocity exceeds 1 x 10-6 m/s during our experiments, while steady-state frictional strength or slip hardening is observed below 1x10-6 m/s. In the Japan Trench region, two slow events were observed at the downdip edge of the mainshock coseismic slip zone (< 30 m) were observed. These are an episodic SSE with a slip velocity of 0.1 x 10-6, and afterslip after the largest foreshock with a slip velocity of 2 x 10-6 m/s. This suggests that the afterslip may have facilitated the large coseismic slip during the mainshock on the plate boundary fault of the Tohoku-Oki earthquake.

  3. Streamwise counter-rotating vortices generated by triangular leading edge pattern in flat plate boundary layer

    KAUST Repository

    Hasheminejad, S. M.


    A series of flow visualizations were conducted to qualitatively study the development of streamwise counter-rotating vortices over a flat plate induced by triangular patterns at the leading edge of a flat plate. The experiments were carried out for a Reynolds number based on the pattern wavelength (λ) of 3080. The results depict the onset, development and breakdown of the vortical structures within the flat plate boundary layer. Moreover, the effect of one spanwise array of holes with diameter of 0.2λ (=3 mm) was examined. This investigation was done on two different flat plates with holes placed at the location x/λ = 2 downstream of the troughs and peaks. The presence of holes after troughs does not show any significant effect on the vortical structures. However, the plate with holes after peaks noticeably delays the vortex breakdown. In this case, the “mushroom-like” vortices move away from the wall and propagate downstream with stable vortical structures. The vortex growth is halted further downstream but start to tilt aside.

  4. Asymmetric Vibration of Polar Orthotropic Annular Circular Plates of Quadratically Varying Thickness with Same Boundary Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Bhardwaj


    Full Text Available In the present paper, asymmetric vibration of polar orthotropic annular circular plates of quadratically varying thickness resting on Winkler elastic foundation is studied by using boundary characteristic orthonormal polynomials in Rayleigh-Ritz method. Convergence of the results is tested and comparison is made with results already available in the existing literature. Numerical results for the first ten frequencies for various values of parameters describing width of annular plate, thickness profile, material orthotropy and foundation constant for all three possible combinations of clamped, simply supported and free edge conditions are shown and discussed. It is found that (a higher elastic property in circumferential direction leads to higher stiffness against lateral vibration; (b Lateral vibration characteristics of F-Fplates is more sensitive towards parametric changes in material orthotropy and foundation stiffness than C-C and S-Splates; (c Effect of quadratical thickness variation on fundamental frequency is more significant in cases of C-C and S-S plates than that of F-Fplates. Thickness profile which is convex relative to plate center-line tends to result in higher stiffness of annular plates against lateral vibration than the one which is concave and (d Fundamental mode of vibration of C-C and S-Splates is axisymmetrical while that of F-Fplates is asymmetrical.

  5. A boundary integral method for a dynamic, transient mode I crack problem with viscoelastic cohesive zone

    KAUST Repository

    Leise, Tanya L.; Walton, Jay R.; Gorb, Yuliya


    interpenetration, in contrast to the usual mode I boundary conditions that assume all unloaded crack faces are stress-free. The nonlinear viscoelastic cohesive zone behavior is motivated by dynamic fracture in brittle polymers in which crack propagation

  6. Development of multilayer Fresnel lens (zone plate) for formation of focused neutron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Shigeharu


    Multilayer Fresnel zone plates (FZPs) for the neutron beamline have been designed and fabricated. Firstly, materials for the FZP were examined: layer materials, wire substrate, etc. Secondly, FZPs were designed and three kinds of FZPs were fabricated: two Cu/Al-FZPs and a Ni(Cr)/Al-FZP. (author)

  7. Manipulation and analysis of atomic and molecular beams using transmission gratings and Fresnel zone plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grisenti, R.E.


    In this thesis experimental results on the diffraction of rare gas atoms (He, Ne, Ar, Kr) and molecular (D{sub 2}) beams by a 100 nm period transmission grating and on the focusing of a helium atom beam through a Fresnel zone plate have been reported. (orig.)

  8. Using GPS, tide gauge and altimetry data to constrain subduction parameters at the Vanuatu plate boundary. (United States)

    Ballu, V.; Bouin, M.; Baillard, C.; Calmant, S.; Pelletier, B.; Crawford, W. C.; Kanas, T.; Garaebiti, E.


    The Vanuatu subduction zone, Southwest Pacific, combines several features that makes it a particularly useful place to study seismic cycles. The convergence rate is high - approximately 12 cm/yr - and the seismic cycle relatively short. Measurements of interseismic motions are helped by relatively high vertical rates, the close proximity of some islands to the plate interface and the existence of very shallow seamounts on either side of the plate interface. The Vanuatu archipelago is part of the Pacific Ring of Fire: the Australian plate subducts eastward beneath the North Fiji basin, on the western border of the Pacific Plate. High topographic features on the diving plate may contribute to locking of the plates, which can play a major role in the genesis of destructive earthquakes. GPS network points were installed in the early 1990s and the geodesy network has been densified through the years, enabling us to map interseismic horizontal and vertical deformation rates throughout the archipelago. More recently, 8 continuous GPS stations were installed, along with 3 continuous seafloor pressure gauges very near to the plate interface. We show results from GPS data collected from 1996 to 2011, that we re-processed and combined into the ITRF2008 reference frame, and altimetry and seafloor pressure data from 1999 to 2010. The GPS results show that vertical deformation rates vary both across and along the archipelago. We believe that these variations result from variable distance to the plate limit and variable locking parameters. In some areas, subsidence rates are close to one centimeter per year. In the Torres islands (at the northern end of the archipelago) where villagers face recurrent coastal flooding, we showed that this flooding is due more to ground motion than to rise in the absolute sea level, even though the sea-level rise rates are locally high and the islands uplift over the long term. In the Central area of Vanuatu, we augmented the on-land network with

  9. Development of Streamwise Counter-Rotating Vortices in Flat Plate Boundary Layer Pre-set by Leading Edge Patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Hasheminejad, S.M.; Mitsudharmadi, Hatsari; Winoto, S.H.; Low, H.T.; Lua, K.B.


    Development of streamwise counter-rotating vortices induced by leading edge patterns with different pattern shape is investigated using hot-wire anemometry in the boundary layer of a flat plate. A triangular, sinusoidal and notched patterns

  10. Sub-100 nm hard X-ray microbeam generation with Fresnel zone plate optics

    CERN Document Server

    Takano, H; Takeuchi, A


    A hard X-ray focusing test of a Fresnel zone plate has been performed with a synchrotron radiation source at the undulator beamline 20XU of SPring-8. Fresnel zone plate with a radius of 150 mu m, and an outermost zone width of 100 nm was used for the X-ray focusing device. The 248-m-long beamline provides fully coherent illumination for the focusing device. The focused beam evaluated by the knife-edge-scan method and scanning microscope test using test charts. Nearly diffraction- limited focusing with a size of 120 nm was achieved for the first-order diffraction at 10 keV X-ray. Evaluation for the third order diffraction was also performed at 8 keV X-ray, and a focal size of 50 m has been obtained. (author)

  11. Boundary layer on a flat plate with suction; Couche limite sur paroi plane poreuse avec aspiration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favre, A; Dumas, R; Verollet, E [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Institut de Mecanique Statistique de la Turbulence, Faculte des Sciences de Marseille, 13 (France)


    This research done in wind tunnel concerns the turbulent boundary layer of a porous flat plate with suction. The porous wall is 1 m long and begins 1 m downstream of the leading edge. The Reynolds number based on the boundary layer thickness is of the order of 16.300. The suction rate defined as the ratio of the velocity perpendicular to the wall to the external flow velocity ranges from 0 to 2 per cent. The pressure gradient can be controlled. The mean velocity profiles have been determined for various positions and suction rates by means of total pressure probes together with the intensities of the turbulent velocity fluctuations components, energy spectra and correlations by means of hot wire anemometers, spectral analyser and correlator. The stream lines, the values of the viscous and turbulent shear stresses, of the local wall friction, of the turbulent energy production term, with some information on the dissipation of the energy have been derived from these measurements. For these data the integral of equation of continuity in boundary layer have been drawn. The suction effects on the boundary layer are important. The suction thoroughly alters the mean velocity profiles by increasing the viscous shear stresses near the wall and decreasing them far from the wall, it diminishes the longitudinal and transversal turbulence intensities, the turbulent shear stresses, and the production of energy of turbulence. These effects are much stressed in the inner part of the boundary layer. On the other hand the energy spectra show that the turbulence scale is little modified, the boundary layer thickness being not much diminished by the suction. The suction effects can be appreciated by comparing twice the suction rate to the wall friction coefficient (assumed airtight), quite noticeable as soon as the rate is about unity, they become very important when it reaches ten. (author) [French] Ces recherches, effectuees en soufflerie, concernent la couche limite turbulente d

  12. Relaxation of an unsteady turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate in an expansion tube (United States)

    Gurta, R. N.; Trimpi, R. L.


    An analysis is presented for the relaxation of a turbulent boundary layer on a semi-infinite flat plate after passage of a shock wave and a trailing driver gas-driven gas interface. The problem has special application to expansion-tube flows. The flow-governing equations have been transformed into the Crocco variables, and a time-similar solution is presented in terms of the dimensionless distance-time variable alpha and the dimensionless velocity variable beta. An eddy-viscosity model, similar to that of time-steady boundary layers, is applied to the inner and outer regions of the boundary layer. A turbulent Prandtl number equal to the molecular Prandtl number is used to relate the turbulent heat flux to the eddy viscosity. The numerical results, obtained by using the Gauss-Seidel line-relaxation method, indicate that a fully turbulent boundary layer relaxes faster to the final steady-state values of heat transfer and skin friction than a laminar boundary layer. The results also give a fairly good estimate of the local skin friction and heat transfer for near steady-flow conditions.

  13. Transition due to streamwise streaks in a supersonic flat plate boundary layer (United States)

    Paredes, Pedro; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Li, Fei


    Transition induced by stationary streaks undergoing transient growth in a supersonic flat plate boundary layer flow is studied using numerical computations. While the possibility of strong transient growth of small-amplitude stationary perturbations in supersonic boundary layer flows has been demonstrated in previous works, its relation to laminar-turbulent transition cannot be established within the framework of linear disturbances. Therefore, this paper investigates the nonlinear evolution of initially linear optimal disturbances that evolve into finite amplitude streaks in the downstream region, and then studies the modal instability of those streaks as a likely cause for the onset of bypass transition. The nonmodal evolution of linearly optimal stationary perturbations in a supersonic, Mach 3 flat plate boundary layer is computed via the nonlinear plane-marching parabolized stability equations (PSE) for stationary perturbations, or equivalently, the perturbation form of parabolized Navier-Stokes equations. To assess the effect of the nonlinear finite-amplitude streaks on transition, the linear form of plane-marching PSE is used to investigate the instability of the boundary layer flow modified by the spanwise periodic streaks. The onset of transition is estimated using an N -factor criterion based on modal amplification of the secondary instabilities of the streaks. In the absence of transient growth disturbances, first mode instabilities in a Mach 3, zero pressure gradient boundary layer reach N =10 at Rex≈107 . However, secondary instability modes of the stationary streaks undergoing transient growth are able to achieve the same N -factor at Rex<2 ×106 when the initial streak amplitude is sufficiently large. In contrast to the streak instabilities in incompressible flows, subharmonic instability modes with twice the fundamental spanwise wavelength of the streaks are found to have higher amplification ratios than the streak instabilities at fundamental

  14. Plate boundary deformation and man-made subsidence around geothermal fields on the Reykjanes Peninsula, Iceland

    KAUST Repository

    Keiding, Marie


    We present Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data from 1992-1999 and 2003-2008 as well as GPS data from 2000-2009 for the active plate boundary on the Reykjanes Peninsula, southwest Iceland. The geodetic data reveal deformation mainly due to plate spreading, anthropogenic subsidence caused by geothermal fluid extraction and, possibly, increasing pressure in a geothermal system. Subsidence of around 10. cm is observed during the first 2. years of production at the Reykjanes geothermal power plant, which started operating in May 2006. We model the surface subsidence around the new power plant using point and ellipsoidal pressure sources in an elastic halfspace. Short-lived swarms of micro-earthquakes as well as aseismic fault movement are observed near the geothermal field following the start of production, possibly triggered by the stresses induced by geothermal fluid extraction. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  15. Plate boundary deformation and man-made subsidence around geothermal fields on the Reykjanes Peninsula, Iceland

    KAUST Repository

    Keiding, Marie; Á rnadó ttir, Thó ra; Jonsson, Sigurjon; Decriem, Judicaë l; Hooper, Andrew John


    We present Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data from 1992-1999 and 2003-2008 as well as GPS data from 2000-2009 for the active plate boundary on the Reykjanes Peninsula, southwest Iceland. The geodetic data reveal deformation mainly due to plate spreading, anthropogenic subsidence caused by geothermal fluid extraction and, possibly, increasing pressure in a geothermal system. Subsidence of around 10. cm is observed during the first 2. years of production at the Reykjanes geothermal power plant, which started operating in May 2006. We model the surface subsidence around the new power plant using point and ellipsoidal pressure sources in an elastic halfspace. Short-lived swarms of micro-earthquakes as well as aseismic fault movement are observed near the geothermal field following the start of production, possibly triggered by the stresses induced by geothermal fluid extraction. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  16. Seismological evidence for a localized mushy zone at the Earth?s inner core boundary


    Tian, Dongdong; Wen, Lianxing


    Although existence of a mushy zone in the Earth?s inner core has been hypothesized several decades ago, no seismic evidence has ever been reported. Based on waveform modeling of seismic compressional waves that are reflected off the Earth?s inner core boundary, here we present seismic evidence for a localized 4?8?km thick zone across the inner core boundary beneath southwest Okhotsk Sea with seismic properties intermediate between those of the inner and outer core and of a mushy zone. Such a ...

  17. Proposed preliminary definition of the disturbed-zone boundary appropriate for a repository at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langkopf, B.S.


    Some of the calculations that support the licensing of a repository for high-level radioactive waste will use the regulatory concept of a disturbed zone. The Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) project must determine the location of the boundary of the disturbed zone for use in these calculations. This paper summarizes results of computer analyses and laboratory experiments and suggests a preliminary definition for the boundary of the disturbed zone for the unsaturated environment at Yucca Mountain. Although the intent of this paper is to define the boundary of the disturbed zone at the edge of significant changes in intrinsic hydrologic properties, there is no evidence of changes in intrinsic hydrologic properties that could significantly change the groundwater travel time from the repository to the water table. Such a result suggests that the disturbed zone at Yucca Mountain is of minimal extent. Because the analyses and experiments reviewed here indicate that there are a variety of changes near the waste package and because the results are subject to uncertainty, the preliminary suggestion for the extent of the disturbed zone is a value larger than the results themselves would suggest: the boundary is proposed to be a plane 10 m below the lower boundary of the waste packages. 88 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs

  18. Temperature dependence of the dynamics of zone boundary phonons in ZnO:Li (United States)

    Yadav, Harish Kumar; Sreenivas, K.; Gupta, Vinay; Katiyar, R. S.


    Investigations of zone boundary phonons in ZnO:Li system (Li concentration: 10%) and their dynamics with temperature are reported. Additional modes at 127, 157, and 194 cm-1 are observed and assigned to zone boundary phonons at critical point M in the Brillouin zone [J. M. Calleja and M. Cardona, Phys. Rev. B 16, 3753 (1977)] due to breakdown of crystal translational symmetry with Li incorporation in ZnO. Anharmonicity in peak frequency and linewidth of the zone boundary phonons in a temperature range from 100 to 1000 K is also analyzed taking into account the decay of zone boundary phonons into three- and four-phonon modes (cubic and quadratic anharmonicities). The anharmonic behavior of peak frequency is found to be feebly dependent on three-phonon decay process but thermal expansion of lattice together with four-phonon decay process appropriately defines the temperature dependence. Linewidths, however, follow the simple four-phonon decay mechanism. E2(low) mode, on the other hand, shows a linear temperature dependency and therefore follows a three-phonon decay channel. The calculated values of phonon lifetimes at 100 K for the 127, 157, 194 cm-1, and E2(low) modes are 8.23, 6.54, 5.32, and 11.39 ps. Decay of the zone boundary phonon modes compared to E2(low) mode reveals that dopant induced disorder has a strong temperature dependency.

  19. Lithospheric strength in the active boundary between the Pacific Plate and Baja California microplate constrained from lower crustal and upper mantle xenoliths (United States)

    Chatzaras, Vasileios; van der Werf, Thomas; Kriegsman, Leo M.; Kronenberg, Andreas; Tikoff, Basil; Drury, Martyn R.


    The lower crust is the most poorly understood of the lithospheric layers in terms of its rheology, particularly at active plate boundaries. We studied naturally deformed lower crustal xenoliths within an active plate boundary, in order to link their microstructures and rheological parameters to the well-defined active tectonic context. The Baja California shear zone (BCSZ), located at the western boundary of the Baja California microplate, comprises the active boundary accommodating the relative motion between the Pacific plate and Baja California microplate. The basalts of the Holocene San Quintin volcanic field carry lower crustal and upper mantle xenoliths, which sample the Baja California microplate lithosphere in the vicinity of the BCSZ. The lower crustal xenoliths range from undeformed gabbros to granoblastic two-pyroxene granulites. Two-pyroxene geothermometry shows that the granulites equilibrated at temperatures of 690-920 oC. Phase equilibria (P-T pseudosections using Perple_X) indicate that symplectites with intergrown pyroxenes, plagioclase, olivine and spinel formed at 3.6-5.4 kbar, following decompression from pressures exceeding 6 kbar. FTIR spectroscopy shows that the water content of plagioclase varies among the analyzed xenoliths; plagioclase is relatively dry in two xenoliths while one xenolith contains hydrated plagioclase grains. Microstructural observations and analysis of the crystallographic texture provide evidence for deformation of plagioclase by a combination of dislocation creep and grain boundary sliding. To constrain the strength of the lower crust and upper mantle near the BCSZ we estimated the differential stress using plagioclase and olivine grain size paleopiezomtery, respectively. Differential stress estimates for plagioclase range from 10 to 32 MPa and for olivine are 30 MPa. Thus the active microplate boundary records elevated crustal temperatures, heterogeneous levels of hydration, and low strength in both the lower crust and

  20. Architectural Blueprint for Plate Boundary Observatories based on interoperable Data Management Platforms (United States)

    Kerschke, D. I.; Häner, R.; Schurr, B.; Oncken, O.; Wächter, J.


    Interoperable data management platforms play an increasing role in the advancement of knowledge and technology in many scientific disciplines. Through high quality services they support the establishment of efficient and innovative research environments. Well-designed research environments can facilitate the sustainable utilization, exchange, and re-use of scientific data and functionality by using standardized community models. Together with innovative 3D/4D visualization, these concepts provide added value in improving scientific knowledge-gain, even across the boundaries of disciplines. A project benefiting from the added value is the Integrated Plate boundary Observatory in Chile (IPOC). IPOC is a European-South American network to study earthquakes and deformation at the Chilean continental margin and to monitor the plate boundary system for capturing an anticipated great earthquake in a seismic gap. In contrast to conventional observatories that monitor individual signals only, IPOC captures a large range of different processes through various observation methods (e.g., seismographs, GPS, magneto-telluric sensors, creep-meter, accelerometer, InSAR). For IPOC a conceptual design has been devised that comprises an architectural blueprint for a data management platform based on common and standardized data models, protocols, and encodings as well as on an exclusive use of Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) including visualization components. Following the principles of event-driven service-oriented architectures, the design enables novel processes by sharing and re-using functionality and information on the basis of innovative data mining and data fusion technologies. This platform can help to improve the understanding of the physical processes underlying plate deformations as well as the natural hazards induced by them. Through the use of standards, this blueprint can not only be facilitated for other plate observing systems (e.g., the European Plate

  1. Progress in the fabrication of high aspect ratio zone plates by soft x-ray lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Divan, R.; Mancini, D. C.; Moldovan, N. A.; Lai, B.; Assoufid, L.; Leondard, Q.; Cerrina, F.


    Fabrication of Fresnel zone plates for the hard x-ray spectral region combines the challenge of high lateral resolution (∼100 nm) with a large thickness requirement for the phase-shifting material (0.5-3 (micro)m). For achieving a high resolution, the initial mask was fabricated by e-beam lithography and gold electroforming. To prevent the collapse of the structures between the developing and electroforming processes, drying was completely eliminated. Fabrication errors, such as nonuniform gold electroplating and collapse of structures, were systematically analyzed and largely eliminated. We optimized the exposure and developing processes for 950k and 2200k polymethylmethacrylate of different thicknesses and various adhesion promoters. We discuss the effects of these fabrication steps on the zone plate's resolution and aspect ratio. Fresnel zone plates with 110 nm outermost zone width, 150 (micro)m diameter, and 1.3 (micro)m gold thickness were fabricated. Preliminary evaluation of the FZPs was done by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The FZP focusing performance was characterized at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory

  2. Boundary Layer Flow and Heat Transfer of FMWCNT/Water Nanofluids over a Flat Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Safaei


    Full Text Available In the present study, the heat transfer and flow of water/FMWCNT (functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotube nanofluids over a flat plate was investigated using a finite volume method. Simulations were performed for velocity ranging from 0.17 mm/s to 1.7 mm/s under laminar regime and nanotube concentrations up to 0.2%. The 2-D governing equations were solved using an in-house FORTRAN code. For a specific free stream velocity, the presented results showed that increasing the weight percentage of nanotubes increased the Nusselt number. However, an increase in the solid weight percentage had a negligible effect on the wall shear stress. The results also indicated that increasing the free stream velocity for all cases leads to thinner boundary layer thickness, while increasing the FMWCNT concentration causes an increase in the boundary layer thickness.

  3. Microarray Cluster Analysis of Irradiated Growth Plate Zones Following Laser Microdissection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damron, Timothy A.; Zhang Mingliang; Pritchard, Meredith R.; Middleton, Frank A.; Horton, Jason A.; Margulies, Bryan M.; Strauss, Judith A.; Farnum, Cornelia E.; Spadaro, Joseph A.


    Purpose: Genes and pathways involved in early growth plate chondrocyte recovery after fractionated irradiation were sought as potential targets for selective radiorecovery modulation. Materials and Methods: Three groups of six 5-week male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent fractionated irradiation to the right tibiae over 5 days, totaling 17.5 Gy, and then were killed at 7, 11, and 16 days after the first radiotherapy fraction. The growth plates were collected from the proximal tibiae bilaterally and subsequently underwent laser microdissection to separate reserve, perichondral, proliferative, and hypertrophic zones. Differential gene expression was analyzed between irradiated right and nonirradiated left tibia using RAE230 2.0 GeneChip microarray, compared between zones and time points and subjected to functional pathway cluster analysis with real-time polymerase chain reaction to confirm selected results. Results: Each zone had a number of pathways showing enrichment after the pattern of hypothesized importance to growth plate recovery, yet few met the strictest criteria. The proliferative and hypertrophic zones showed both the greatest number of genes with a 10-fold right/left change at 7 days after initiation of irradiation and enrichment of the most functional pathways involved in bone, cartilage, matrix, or skeletal development. Six genes confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction to have early upregulation included insulin-like growth factor 2, procollagen type I alpha 2, matrix metallopeptidase 9, parathyroid hormone receptor 1, fibromodulin, and aggrecan 1. Conclusions: Nine overlapping pathways in the proliferative and hypertrophic zones (skeletal development, ossification, bone remodeling, cartilage development, extracellular matrix structural constituent, proteinaceous extracellular matrix, collagen, extracellular matrix, and extracellular matrix part) may play key roles in early growth plate radiorecovery.

  4. Interaction of Rupture Zones of Adjacent Anchor Plates in an Analogical Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Abbad


    Full Text Available In this paper, an experimental study which required the design and implementation of a model containing plastic granules powder to simulate a natural environment, is presented. The latter is subjected to the removal of "anchor plates." For each test, several digital photographs are taken to materialize different deformed configurations during the pullout process. These photos processed in couples by the 7D software (image correlation giving the evolution of the displacement field and plane strain analogical environment. Particular attention is paid to the discussion of the interference of rupture zones of neighboring anchors by reducing the axis between plates.

  5. High-Power Laser Cutting of Steel Plates: Heat Affected Zone Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imed Miraoui


    Full Text Available The thermal effect of CO2 high-power laser cutting on cut surface of steel plates is investigated. The effect of the input laser cutting parameters on the melted zone depth (MZ, the heat affected zone depth (HAZ, and the microhardness beneath the cut surface is analyzed. A mathematical model is developed to relate the output process parameters to the input laser cutting parameters. Three input process parameters such as laser beam diameter, cutting speed, and laser power are investigated. Mathematical models for the melted zone and the heat affected zone depth are developed by using design of experiment approach (DOE. The results indicate that the input laser cutting parameters have major effect on melted zone, heat affected zone, and microhardness beneath cut surface. The MZ depth, the HAZ depth, and the microhardness beneath cut surface increase as laser power increases, but they decrease with increasing cutting speed. Laser beam diameter has a negligible effect on HAZ depth but it has a remarkable effect on MZ depth and HAZ microhardness. The melted zone depth and the heat affected zone depth can be reduced by increasing laser cutting speed and decreasing laser power and laser beam diameter.

  6. Direct simulation of flat-plate boundary layer with mild free-stream turbulence (United States)

    Wu, Xiaohua; Moin, Parviz


    Spatially evolving direct numerical simulation of the flat-plate boundary layer has been performed. The momentum thickness Reynolds number develops from 80 to 3000 with a free-stream turbulence intensity decaying from 3 percent to 0.8 percent. Predicted skin-friction is in agreement with the Blasius solution prior to breakdown, follows the well-known T3A bypass transition data during transition, and agrees with the Erm and Joubert Melbourne wind-tunnel data after the completion of transition. We introduce the concept of bypass transition in the narrow sense. Streaks, although present, do not appear to be dynamically important during the present bypass transition as they occur downstream of infant turbulent spots. For the turbulent boundary layer, viscous scaling collapses the rate of dissipation profiles in the logarithmic region at different Reynolds numbers. The ratio of Taylor microscale and the Kolmogorov length scale is nearly constant over a large portion of the outer layer. The ratio of large-eddy characteristic length and the boundary layer thickness scales very well with Reynolds number. The turbulent boundary layer is also statistically analyzed using frequency spectra, conditional-sampling, and two-point correlations. Near momentum thickness Reynolds number of 2900, three layers of coherent vortices are observed: the upper and lower layers are distinct hairpin forests of large and small sizes respectively; the middle layer consists of mostly fragmented hairpin elements.

  7. Skin friction drag reduction on a flat plate turbulent boundary layer using synthetic jets (United States)

    Belanger, Randy; Boom, Pieter D.; Hanson, Ronald E.; Lavoie, Philippe; Zingg, David W.


    In these studies, we investigate the effect of mild synthetic jet actuation on a flat plate turbulent boundary layer with the goal of interacting with the large scales in the log region of the boundary layer and manipulating the overall skin friction. Results will be presented from both large eddy simulations (LES) and wind tunnel experiments. In the experiments, a large parameter space of synthetic jet frequency and amplitude was studied with hot film sensors at select locations behind a pair of synthetic jets to identify the parameters that produce the greatest changes in the skin friction. The LES simulations were performed for a selected set of parameters and provide a more complete evaluation of the interaction between the boundary layer and synthetic jets. Five boundary layer thicknesses downstream, the skin friction between the actuators is generally found to increase, while regions of reduced skin friction persist downstream of the actuators. This pattern is reversed for forcing at low frequency. Overall, the spanwise-averaged skin friction is increased by the forcing, except when forcing at high frequency and low amplitude, for which a net skin friction reduction persists downstream. The physical interpretation of these results will be discussed. The financial support of Airbus is gratefully acknowledged.

  8. An analytical study of the free and forced vibration response of a ribbed plate with free boundary conditions (United States)

    Lin, Tian Ran; Zhang, Kai


    An analytical study to predict the vibration response of a ribbed plate with free boundary conditions is presented. The analytical solution was derived using a double cosine integral transform technique and then utilized to study the free and forced vibration of the ribbed plate, as well as the effect of the rib on the modal response of the uniform plate. It is shown that in addition to the three zero-frequency rigid body modes of the plate, the vibration modes of the uniform plate can be classified into four mode groups according to the symmetric properties of the plate with respect to the two orthogonal middle lines parallel to the plate edges. The four mode groups correspond to a double symmetric group, a double anti-symmetric group and two symmetric/anti-symmetric groups. Whilst the inclusion of the rib to the plate is shown to cause distortion to the distribution of vibration modes, most modes can still be traced back to the original modes of the uniform plate. Both the mass and stiffness of the rib are shown to affect the modal vibration of the uniform plate, whereby a dominant effect from the rib mass leads to a decrease in the modal frequency of the plate, whereas a dominant effect from the rib stiffness leads to an increase in plate modal frequency. When the stiffened rib behaves as an effective boundary to the plate vibration, an original plate mode becomes a pair of degenerate modes, whereby one mode has a higher frequency and the other mode has a lower frequency than that of the original mode.

  9. Realization of arbitrarily long focus-depth optical vortices with spiral area-varying zone plates (United States)

    Zheng, Chenglong; Zang, Huaping; Du, Yanli; Tian, Yongzhi; Ji, Ziwen; Zhang, Jing; Fan, Quanping; Wang, Chuanke; Cao, Leifeng; Liang, Erjun


    We provide a methodology to realize an optical vortex with arbitrarily long focus-depth. With a technique of varying each zone area of a phase spiral zone plate one can obtain optics capable of generating ultra-long focus-depth optical vortex from a plane wave. The focal property of such optics was analysed using the Fresnel diffraction theory, and an experimental demonstration was performed to verify its effectiveness. Such optics may bring new opportunity and benefits for optical vortex application such as optical manipulation and lithography.

  10. Fluid flow and heat transfer of carbon nanotubes along a flat plate with Navier slip boundary (United States)

    Khan, W. A.; Khan, Z. H.; Rahi, M.


    Homogeneous flow model is used to study the flow and heat transfer of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) along a flat plate subjected to Navier slip and uniform heat flux boundary conditions. This is the first paper on the flow and heat transfer of CNTs along a flat plate. Two types of CNTs, namely, single- and multi-wall CNTs are used with water, kerosene or engine oil as base fluids. The empirical correlations are used for the thermophysical properties of CNTs in terms of the solid volume fraction of CNTs. For the effective thermal conductivity of CNTs, Xue (Phys B Condens Matter 368:302-307, 2005) model has been used and the results are compared with the existing theoretical models. The governing partial differential equations and boundary conditions are converted into a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations using suitable similarity transformations. These equations are solved numerically using a very efficient finite difference method with shooting scheme. The effects of the governing parameters on the dimensionless velocity, temperature, skin friction, and Nusselt numbers are investigated and presented in graphical and tabular forms. The numerical results of skin friction and Nusselt numbers are compared with the available data for special cases and are found in good agreement.

  11. The ultra low frequency electromagnetic radiation observed in the topside ionosphere above boundaries of tectonic plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Athanasiou


    Full Text Available In this paper we present results of a comparison between ultra low frequency (ULF electromagnetic (EM radiation, recorded by an electric field instrument onboard the satellite detection of electromagnetic emissions transmitted from earthquake regions in the topside ionosphere, and the seismicity of regions with high and low seismic activity. In particular, we evaluated the energy variations of the ULF Ezelectric field component during a period of four years (2006-2009, in order to examine the possible relation of ULF EM radiation with seismogenic regions located in Central America, Indonesia, the Eastern Mediterranean Basin and Greece. As a tool for evaluating the ULF Ez energy variations we used singular spectrum analysis techniques. The results of our analysis clearly show a significant increase of the ULF EM energy emitted from regions of highest seismic activity at the boundaries tectonic plates. Furthermore, we found that higher electromagnetic radiation was detected in a region above the northern- western Greek Arc (R1 than above the adjacent region including Athens and its urban area. We interpret these results of the present study as suggesting that: i the seismogenic regions at the boundary of tectonic plates radiate ULF EM emissions observed by satellites in the topside ionosphere; and ii that this EM radiation is not only related with the occurrence time of great (M≥5 earthquakes, but it is often present in intermediate times and it appears as a quasi-permanent phenomenon.

  12. Binary zone-plate array for a parallel joint transform correlator applied to face recognition. (United States)

    Kodate, K; Hashimoto, A; Thapliya, R


    Taking advantage of small aberrations, high efficiency, and compactness, we developed a new, to our knowledge, design procedure for a binary zone-plate array (BZPA) and applied it to a parallel joint transform correlator for the recognition of the human face. Pairs of reference and unknown images of faces are displayed on a liquid-crystal spatial light modulator (SLM), Fourier transformed by the BZPA, intensity recorded on an optically addressable SLM, and inversely Fourier transformed to obtain correlation signals. Consideration of the bandwidth allows the relations among the channel number, the numerical aperture of the zone plates, and the pattern size to be determined. Experimentally a five-channel parallel correlator was implemented and tested successfully with a 100-person database. The design and the fabrication of a 20-channel BZPA for phonetic character recognition are also included.

  13. Numerical investigation of a spatially developing turbulent natural convection boundary layer along a vertical heated plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakao, Keisuke; Hattori, Yasuo; Suto, Hitoshi


    Highlights: • A large-eddy simulation of a spatially developing natural convection boundary layer is conducted. • First- and second-order moments of the heat and momentum showed a reasonable agreement with past experiments. • Coherent structure of turbulent vortex inherent in this boundary layer is discussed. - Abstract: Large-eddy simulation (LES) on a spatially developing natural convection boundary layer along a vertical heated plate was conducted. The heat transfer rate, friction velocity, mean velocity and temperature, and second-order turbulent properties both in the wall-normal and the stream-wise direction showed reasonable agreement with the findings of past experiments. The spectrum of velocity and temperature fluctuation showed a -2/3-power decay slope and -2-power decay slope respectively. Quadrant analysis revealed the inclination on Q1 and Q3 in the Reynolds stress and turbulent heat flux, changing their contribution along the distance from the plate surface. Following the convention, we defined the threshold region where the stream-wise mean velocity takes local maximum, the inner layer which is closer to the plate than the threshold region, the outer layer which is farther to the plate than the threshold region. The space correlation of stream-wise velocity tilted the head toward the wall in the propagating direction in the outer layer; on the other hand, the correlated motion had little inclination in the threshold region. The time history of the second invariant of gradient tensor Q revealed that the vortex strength oscillates both in the inner and the outer layers in between the laminar and the transition region. In the turbulent region, the vortex was often dominant in the outer layer. Instantaneous three-dimensional visualization of Q revealed the existence of high-speed fluid parcels associated with arch-shape vortices. These results were considered as an intrinsic structure in the outer layer, which is symmetrical to the structure of

  14. Zone-boundary optimization for direct laser writing of continuous-relief diffractive optical elements. (United States)

    Korolkov, Victor P; Nasyrov, Ruslan K; Shimansky, Ruslan V


    Enhancing the diffraction efficiency of continuous-relief diffractive optical elements fabricated by direct laser writing is discussed. A new method of zone-boundary optimization is proposed to correct exposure data only in narrow areas along the boundaries of diffractive zones. The optimization decreases the loss of diffraction efficiency related to convolution of a desired phase profile with a writing-beam intensity distribution. A simplified stepped transition function that describes optimized exposure data near zone boundaries can be made universal for a wide range of zone periods. The approach permits a similar increase in the diffraction efficiency as an individual-pixel optimization but with fewer computation efforts. Computer simulations demonstrated that the zone-boundary optimization for a 6 microm period grating increases the efficiency by 7% and 14.5% for 0.6 microm and 1.65 microm writing-spot diameters, respectively. The diffraction efficiency of as much as 65%-90% for 4-10 microm zone periods was obtained experimentally with this method.

  15. Study of the interaction of the rupture zones of contiguous anchor plates in analogical medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbad H.


    Full Text Available Knowing what occurs above anchor plates is certainly instructive. In this general vision of the interaction soil-anchor plates that our work was directed. An experimental study which required the design and implantation of a model containing plastic granules powder to similate a natural environment, is presented. The latter is subjected to the removal of anchor paltes. For each test, digital photographs are taken to materialize different deformed configurations during the pullout process. These photos processed in couples by the 7D software (image correlation giving the evolution of the displacement field and plane strain analogical environment. Particular attention is paid to the discussion of the interference of rupture zones of contiguous anchors by reducing the distance between plates.

  16. Thyroid scintigraphy using coded apertures derived from a complex Fresnel zone plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinke, J.


    Comparative evaluations of conventional scintiscanning and Fresnel zone plate imaging carried out in the thyroid for the purposes of this study showed that the purported benefits of the latter technique were confirmed by phantoms but did to a lesser extent bear out in patients. Major drawbacks are the lack of additional information of clinical relevance, the greater length of time needed and the difficult interpretation of artefacts. (TRV) [de

  17. Heterogeneity in Subducting Slab Influences Fluid Properties, Plate Coupling and Volcanism: Hikurangi Subduction Zone, New Zealand (United States)

    Eberhart-Phillips, D. M.; Reyners, M.; Bannister, S. C.


    Seismicity distribution and 3-D models of P- and S-attenuation (1/Q) in the Hikurangi subduction zone, in the North Island of New Zealand, show large variation along-arc in the fluid properties of the subducting slab. Volcanism is also non-uniform, with extremely productive rhyolitic volcanism localized to the central Taupo Volcanic zone, and subduction without volcanism in the southern North Island. Plate coupling varies with heterogeneous slip deficit in the northern section, low slip deficit in the central section, and high slip deficit (strong coupling) in the south. Heterogeneous initial hydration and varied dehydration history both are inferred to play roles. The Hikurangi Plateau (large igneous province) has been subducted beneath New Zealand twice - firstly at ca. 105-100 Ma during north-south convergence with Gondwana, and currently during east-west convergence between the Pacific and Australian plates along the Hikurangi subduction zone. It has an uneven downdip edge which has produced spatially and temporally localized stalls in subduction rate. The mantle wedge under the rhyolitic section has a very low Q feature centred at 50-125 km depth, which directly overlies a 150-km long zone of dense seismicity. This seismicity occurs below a sharp transition in the downdip extent of the Hikurangi Plateau, where difficulty subducting the buoyant plateau would have created a zone of increased faulting and hydration that spent a longer time in the outer-rise yielding zone, compared with areas to the north and south. At shallow depths this section has unusually high fracture permeability from the two episodes of bending, but it did not experience dehydration during Gondwana subduction. This central section at plate interface depths less than 50-km has low Q in the slab crust, showing that it is extremely fluid rich, and it exhibits weak plate coupling with both deep and shallow slow-slip events. In contrast in the southern section, where there is a large deficit in

  18. Numerical investigation of hypersonic flat-plate boundary layer transition mechanism induced by different roughness shapes (United States)

    Zhou, Yunlong; Zhao, Yunfei; Xu, Dan; Chai, Zhenxia; Liu, Wei


    The roughness-induced laminar-turbulent boundary layer transition is significant for high-speed aerospace applications. The transition mechanism is closely related to the roughness shape. In this paper, high-order numerical method is used to investigate the effect of roughness shape on the flat-plate laminar-to-turbulent boundary layer transition. Computations are performed in both the supersonic and hypersonic regimes (free-stream Mach number from 3.37 up to 6.63) for the square, cylinder, diamond and hemisphere roughness elements. It is observed that the square and diamond roughness elements are more effective in inducing transition compared with the cylinder and hemisphere ones. The square roughness element has the longest separated region in which strong unsteadiness exists and the absolute instability is formed, thus resulting in the earliest transition. The diamond roughness element has a maximum width of the separated region leading to the widest turbulent wake region far downstream. Furthermore, transition location moves backward as the Mach number increases, which indicates that the compressibility significantly suppresses the roughness-induced boundary layer transition.

  19. Boundary integral equation methods and numerical solutions thin plates on an elastic foundation

    CERN Document Server

    Constanda, Christian; Hamill, William


    This book presents and explains a general, efficient, and elegant method for solving the Dirichlet, Neumann, and Robin boundary value problems for the extensional deformation of a thin plate on an elastic foundation. The solutions of these problems are obtained both analytically—by means of direct and indirect boundary integral equation methods (BIEMs)—and numerically, through the application of a boundary element technique. The text discusses the methodology for constructing a BIEM, deriving all the attending mathematical properties with full rigor. The model investigated in the book can serve as a template for the study of any linear elliptic two-dimensional problem with constant coefficients. The representation of the solution in terms of single-layer and double-layer potentials is pivotal in the development of a BIEM, which, in turn, forms the basis for the second part of the book, where approximate solutions are computed with a high degree of accuracy. The book is intended for graduate students and r...

  20. Frictional power dissipation on plate boundary faults: Implications for coseismic slip propagation at near-surface depths (United States)

    Ikari, M.; Kopf, A.; Saffer, D. M.; Marone, C.; Carpenter, B. M.


    The general lack of earthquake slip at shallow (behavior associated with laboratory observations that disaggregated fault gouges commonly strengthen with increasing sliding velocity (i.e. velocity-strengthening friction), which precludes strain energy release via stress drops. However, the 2011 Tohoku earthquake demonstrated that coseismic rupture and slip can sometimes propagate to the surface in subduction zones. Surface rupture is also known to occur on other plate boundary faults, such as the Alpine Fault in New Zealand. It is uncertain how the extent of coseismic slip propagation from depth is controlled by the frictional properties of the near-surface portion of major faults. In these situations, it is common for slip to localize within gouge having a significant component of clay minerals, which laboratory experiments have shown are generally weak and velocity strengthening. However, low overall fault strength should facilitate coseismic slip, while velocity-strengthening behavior would resist it. In order to investigate how frictional properties may control the extent of coseismic slip propagation at shallow depths, we compare frictional strength and velocity-dependence measurements using samples from three subduction zones known for hosting large magnitude earthquakes. We focus on samples recovered during scientific drilling projects from the Nankai Trough, Japan, the Japan Trench in the region of the Tohoku earthquake, and the Middle America Trench, offshore Costa Rica; however we also include comparisons with other major fault zones sampled by drilling. In order to incorporate the combined effects of overall frictional strength and friction velocity-dependence, we estimate shear strength as a function of slip velocity (at constant effective normal stress), and integrate this function to obtain the areal power density, or frictional power dissipation capability of the fault zone. We also explore the role of absolute shear stress level before arrival of a

  1. Geometry and structure of the pull-apart basins developed along the western South American-Scotia plate boundary (SW Atlantic Ocean) (United States)

    Esteban, F. D.; Tassone, A.; Isola, J. I.; Lodolo, E.; Menichetti, M.


    The South American-Scotia plate boundary is a left-lateral fault system which runs roughly E-W for more than 3000 km across the SW Atlantic Ocean and the Tierra del Fuego Island, reaching to the west the southern Chile Trench. Analyses of a large dataset of single- and multi-channel seismic reflection profiles acquired offshore has allowed to map the trace of the plate boundary from Tierra del Fuego to the Malvinas Trough, a tectonic depression located in the eastern part of the fault system, and to reconstruct the shape and geometry of the basins formed along the principal displacement zone of the fault system. Three main Neogene pull-apart basins that range from 70 to 100 km in length, and from 12 to 22 km in width, have been identified along this segment of the plate boundary. These basins have elongated shapes with their major axes parallel to the ENE-WSW direction of the fault zone. The sedimentary architecture and the infill geometry of the basins suggest that they represent mostly strike-slip dominated transtension basins which propagated from E to W. The basins imaged by seismic data show in some cases geometrical and structural features linked to the possible reactivation of previous wedge-top basins and inherited structures pertaining to the external front of the Magallanes fold-and-thrust compression belt, along which the South American-Scotia fault system has been superimposed. It is suggested that the sequence of the elongated basins occur symmetrically to a thorough going strike-slip fault, in a left-stepping geometrical arrangement, in a manner similar to those basins seen in other transcurrent environments.

  2. Rapid Grain Size Reduction in the Upper Mantle at a Plate Boundary (United States)

    Kidder, S. B.; Scott, J.; Prior, D. J.; Lubicich, E. J.


    process was very rapid (<10,000 yrs). In either case we interpret that semi-brittle deformation was a key process responsible for rapid localization in this initiating plate-scale mantle shear zone.

  3. System zones in capillary zone electrophoresis: Moving boundaries caused by freely migrating hydrogen ions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beckers, J. L.; Boček, Petr


    Roč. 26, č. 2 (2005), s. 446-452 ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/02/0023; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA4031401; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA4031103 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : capillary zone electrophoresis * system zone s Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.850, year: 2005

  4. Free Vibration Study of Anti-Symmetric Angle-Ply Laminated Plates under Clamped Boundary Conditions (United States)

    Viswanathan, K. K.; Karthik, K.; Sanyasiraju, Y. V. S. S.; Aziz, Z. A.


    Two type of numerical approach namely, Radial Basis Function and Spline approximation, used to analyse the free vibration of anti-symmetric angle-ply laminated plates under clamped boundary conditions. The equations of motion are derived using YNS theory under first order shear deformation. By assuming the solution in separable form, coupled differential equations obtained in term of mid-plane displacement and rotational functions. The coupled differential is then approximated using Spline function and radial basis function to obtain the generalize eigenvalue problem and parametric studies are made to investigate the effect of aspect ratio, length-to-thickness ratio, number of layers, fibre orientation and material properties with respect to the frequency parameter. Some results are compared with the existing literature and other new results are given in tables and graphs.

  5. Plate boundary deformation in North Iceland during 1992–2009 revealed by InSAR time-series analysis and GPS

    KAUST Repository

    Metzger, Sabrina


    In North Iceland, extensional plate motion is accommodated by the Northern Volcanic Zone, a set of en-echelon volcanic systems, and the Tjörnes Fracture Zone, a transform offset in the mid-Atlantic Ridge consisting of two parallel transform lineaments. The southern lineament, the Húsavík–Flatey fault, is a 100 km-long right-lateral strike slip fault that has not ruptured for more than 140 years and poses a significant seismic hazard to Húsavík, a fishing town located by the fault, and to other coastal communities. We present results of InSAR time-series analysis data spanning almost two decades (1992–2009) that show extensional and interseismic deformation within the Northern Volcanic Zone and the on-shore part of the Tjörnes Fracture Zone. The results also exhibit transient inflation at Theistareykir volcano, deflation at Krafla central volcano and a broad uplift north of Krafla. The current plate extension is not uniform across the Northern Volcanic Zone, but concentrated at the western fissures of the Theistareykir volcanic system and the outermost fissures of the Krafla fissure swarm. We combine a back-slip plate boundary model with a set of point pressure sources representing volcanic changes to describe the current extensional plate boundary deformation and update the previous estimations of the locking depth and slip rate of the Húsavík–Flatey fault that were based on GPS data alone. Using different combinations of input data, we find that the Húsavík–Flatey fault has a locking depth of 6–10 km and, with a slip rate of 6–9 mm/yr, is accommodating about a third of the full transform motion. We furthermore show that while the InSAR data provide important constraints on the volcanic deformation within the NVZ, they do not significantly improve the model parameter estimation for the HFF, as the dense GPS network appears to better capture the deformation across the fault.

  6. Plate boundary deformation in North Iceland during 1992–2009 revealed by InSAR time-series analysis and GPS

    KAUST Repository

    Metzger, Sabrina; Jonsson, Sigurjon


    In North Iceland, extensional plate motion is accommodated by the Northern Volcanic Zone, a set of en-echelon volcanic systems, and the Tjörnes Fracture Zone, a transform offset in the mid-Atlantic Ridge consisting of two parallel transform lineaments. The southern lineament, the Húsavík–Flatey fault, is a 100 km-long right-lateral strike slip fault that has not ruptured for more than 140 years and poses a significant seismic hazard to Húsavík, a fishing town located by the fault, and to other coastal communities. We present results of InSAR time-series analysis data spanning almost two decades (1992–2009) that show extensional and interseismic deformation within the Northern Volcanic Zone and the on-shore part of the Tjörnes Fracture Zone. The results also exhibit transient inflation at Theistareykir volcano, deflation at Krafla central volcano and a broad uplift north of Krafla. The current plate extension is not uniform across the Northern Volcanic Zone, but concentrated at the western fissures of the Theistareykir volcanic system and the outermost fissures of the Krafla fissure swarm. We combine a back-slip plate boundary model with a set of point pressure sources representing volcanic changes to describe the current extensional plate boundary deformation and update the previous estimations of the locking depth and slip rate of the Húsavík–Flatey fault that were based on GPS data alone. Using different combinations of input data, we find that the Húsavík–Flatey fault has a locking depth of 6–10 km and, with a slip rate of 6–9 mm/yr, is accommodating about a third of the full transform motion. We furthermore show that while the InSAR data provide important constraints on the volcanic deformation within the NVZ, they do not significantly improve the model parameter estimation for the HFF, as the dense GPS network appears to better capture the deformation across the fault.

  7. Interaction between central volcanoes and regional tectonics along divergent plate boundaries: Askja, Iceland (United States)

    Trippanera, Daniele; Ruch, Joël; Acocella, Valerio; Thordarson, Thor; Urbani, Stefano


    Activity within magmatic divergent plate boundaries (MDPB) focuses along both regional fissure swarms and central volcanoes. An ideal place to investigate their mutual relationship is the Askja central volcano in Iceland. Askja consists of three nested calderas (namely Kollur, Askja and Öskjuvatn) located within a hyaloclastite massif along the NNE-SSW trending Icelandic MDPB. We performed an extensive field-based structural analysis supported by a remote sensing study of tectonic and volcanic features of Askja's calderas and of the eastern flank of the hyaloclastite massif. In the massif, volcano-tectonic structures trend N 10° E to N 40° E, but they vary around the Askja caldera being both parallel to the caldera rim and cross-cutting on the Western side. Structural trends around the Öskjuvatn caldera are typically rim parallel. Volcanic vents and dikes are preferentially distributed along the caldera ring faults; however, they follow the NNE-SSW regional structures when located outside the calderas. Our results highlight that the Askja volcano displays a balanced amount of regional (fissure-swarm related) and local (shallow-magma-chamber related) tectonic structures along with a mutual interaction among these. This is different from Krafla volcano (to the north of Askja) dominated by regional structures and Grímsvötn (to the South) dominated by local structures. Therefore, Askja represents an intermediate tectono-magmatic setting for volcanoes located in a slow divergent plate boundary. This is also likely in accordance with a northward increase in the spreading rate along the Icelandic MDPB.

  8. Interaction between central volcanoes and regional tectonics along divergent plate boundaries: Askja, Iceland

    KAUST Repository

    Trippanera, Daniele


    Activity within magmatic divergent plate boundaries (MDPB) focuses along both regional fissure swarms and central volcanoes. An ideal place to investigate their mutual relationship is the Askja central volcano in Iceland. Askja consists of three nested calderas (namely Kollur, Askja and Öskjuvatn) located within a hyaloclastite massif along the NNE-SSW trending Icelandic MDPB. We performed an extensive field-based structural analysis supported by a remote sensing study of tectonic and volcanic features of Askja’s calderas and of the eastern flank of the hyaloclastite massif. In the massif, volcano-tectonic structures trend N 10° E to N 40° E, but they vary around the Askja caldera being both parallel to the caldera rim and cross-cutting on the Western side. Structural trends around the Öskjuvatn caldera are typically rim parallel. Volcanic vents and dikes are preferentially distributed along the caldera ring faults; however, they follow the NNE-SSW regional structures when located outside the calderas. Our results highlight that the Askja volcano displays a balanced amount of regional (fissure-swarm related) and local (shallow-magma-chamber related) tectonic structures along with a mutual interaction among these. This is different from Krafla volcano (to the north of Askja) dominated by regional structures and Grímsvötn (to the South) dominated by local structures. Therefore, Askja represents an intermediate tectono-magmatic setting for volcanoes located in a slow divergent plate boundary. This is also likely in accordance with a northward increase in the spreading rate along the Icelandic MDPB.

  9. Development of the Plate Boundary Observatory GPS Low Latency Salton Trough Radio Network (United States)

    Walls, C.; Miller, S.; Wilson, B.; Lawrence, S.; Arnitz, E.


    UNAVCO is developing a 20 GPS station low latency radio network that spans the San Andreas and San Jacinto faults in the region of highest strain in southern California and the narrowest part of the North America-Pacific plate boundary. The Salton Trough Radio Network (STRN) is instrumented with Ethernet bridge Intuicom EB6+ (900 MHz) radios to transmit a high rate low latency data stream from each permanent GPS site for the purpose of the following: 1) telemeter 15 second data (1 MB/day/station) to the Plate Boundary Observatory archive, 2) accommodate the timely download of 1 and 5 sample per second data following large earthquakes (4 MB/hour/station), and 3) test the UStream of 1Hz BINEX and RTCM data. Three of four phases have been completed. Office radio testing yielded transfer rates of 30-50 KB/s with subsecond latency while streaming 1 Hz data. Latency climbed to ~1.8 seconds while simultaneously streaming 1 Hz and downloading hourly 1 and 5 sample per second data files. Field testing demonstrated rates on the order of 30 KB/s. At present the radios are installed and have transfer rates of 10-40 KB/s between sites that span 10-32 km. The final phase will be the installation of the main telemetry relay where master radios will be connected to a high speed ISP near the town of Brawley. The high-rate low latency UStream data will be available to researchers who are developing prototype earthquake early warning systems in Southern California. A goal of the STRN is to make the data available rapidly enough for GPS-derived coseismic and dynamic displacements to be integrated into early warning system earthquake models. The improved earthquake models will better assist emergency response. UStream data will also aid surveyors who wish to use PBO GPS stations as permanent, high-quality base stations in real-time kinematic surveys.

  10. The potential influence of subduction zone polarity on overriding plate deformation, trench migration and slab dip angle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, W. P.


    A geodynamic model exists, the westward lithospheric drift model, in which the variety of overriding plate deformation, trench migration and slab dip angles is explained by the polarity of subduction zones. The model predicts overriding plate extension, a fixed trench and a steep slab dip for

  11. Gabor zone-plate apertures for imaging with the mercuric iodide gamma-ray camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patt, B E [EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Goleta, CA (USA); Meyyappan, A; Cai, A; Wade, G [California Univ., Santa Barbara (USA). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering


    Gabor zone-plate (GZP) apertures have been developed for use in EG and G EM's mercuric iodide (HgI{sub 2}) gamma-ray camera. The purpose of such an aperture is to increase efficiency, while maintaining good resolution. The GZP is similar to the Fresnel zone plate (FZP) but it has continuous transitions between opaque and transparent regions. Because there are no sharp transitions in the transmission, the inherent interference noise in GZP imaging is lower than that in FZP imaging. GZP parameters were chosen by considering the effects of constraints such as detector pixel size, number of pixels, minimum field of view required, maximum angle of incidence tolerated, and the Nyquist criterion for the minimum sampling rate. As a result an aperture was designed and fabricated with eight zones and a diameter of 3 cm. Lead was chosen as the aperture medium due to its high attenuation coefficient. Experimental data were obtained from the camera with the above GZP aperture. The point-spread function was determined and compared to the calculated response. Excellent agreement was obtained. The reconstruction process involves simulating, by computer, planar-wave illumination of a scaled transparency of the image and recording the intensity pattern at the focal plane. (orig.).

  12. Microchip analysis of lithium in blood using moving boundary electrophoresis and zone electrophoresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrouwe, E.X.; Lüttge, Regina; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert

    The determination of inorganic cations in blood plasma is demonstrated using a combination of moving boundary electrophoresis (MBE) and zone electrophoresis. The sample loading performed under MBE conditions is studied with the focus on the quantitative analysis of lithium. A concentration

  13. Microchip analysis of lithium in blood using moving boundary electrophoresis and zone electrophoresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrouwe, E.X.; Luttge, R.; Olthuis, W.; Berg, van den A.


    The determination of inorganic cations in blood plasma is demonstrated using a combination of moving boundary electrophoresis (MBE) and zone electrophoresis. The sample loading performed under MBE conditions is studied with the focus on the quantitative analysis of lithium. A concentration

  14. Entrainment Zone Characteristics and Entrainment Rates in Cloud-Topped Boundary Layers from DYCOMS-II (United States)


    Malinowski , J. L. Brenguier, and F. Burnet, 2005: Holes and entrainment in stratocumulus. J. Atmos. Sci., 62, 443–459. Glickman, T. S...of the Entrainment Zone in Cloud-topped Boundary Layers. Department of Meteorology, NPS, 93 pp. Krzysztof, Haman E., S. P. Malinowski , M. J

  15. Boundary Layer of Photon Absorption Applied to Heterogeneous Photocatalytic Solar Flat Plate Reactor Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor L. Otálvaro-Marín


    Full Text Available This study provides information to design heterogeneous photocatalytic solar reactors with flat plate geometry used in treatment of effluents and conversion of biomass to hydrogen. The concept of boundary layer of photon absorption taking into account the efficient absorption of radiant energy was introduced; this concept can be understood as the reactor thickness measured from the irradiated surface where 99% of total energy is absorbed. Its thickness and the volumetric rate of photons absorption (VRPA were used as design parameters to determine (i reactor thickness, (ii maximum absorbed radiant energy, and (iii the optimal catalyst concentration. Six different commercial brands of titanium dioxide were studied: Evonik-Degussa P-25, Aldrich, Merck, Hombikat, Fluka, and Fisher. The local volumetric rate of photon absorption (LVRPA inside the reactor was described using six-flux absorption-scattering model (SFM applied to solar radiation. The radiation field and the boundary layer thickness of photon absorption were simulated with absorption and dispersion effects of catalysts in water at different catalyst loadings. The relationship between catalyst loading and reactor thickness that maximizes the absorption of radiant energy was obtained for each catalyst by apparent optical thickness. The optimum concentration of photocatalyst Degussa P-25 was 0.2 g/l in 0.86 cm of thickness, and for photocatalyst Aldrich it was 0.3 g/l in 0.80 cm of thickness.

  16. Zoogeography of the San Andreas Fault system: Great Pacific Fracture Zones correspond with spatially concordant phylogeographic boundaries in western North America. (United States)

    Gottscho, Andrew D


    The purpose of this article is to provide an ultimate tectonic explanation for several well-studied zoogeographic boundaries along the west coast of North America, specifically, along the boundary of the North American and Pacific plates (the San Andreas Fault system). By reviewing 177 references from the plate tectonics and zoogeography literature, I demonstrate that four Great Pacific Fracture Zones (GPFZs) in the Pacific plate correspond with distributional limits and spatially concordant phylogeographic breaks for a wide variety of marine and terrestrial animals, including invertebrates, fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. These boundaries are: (1) Cape Mendocino and the North Coast Divide, (2) Point Conception and the Transverse Ranges, (3) Punta Eugenia and the Vizcaíno Desert, and (4) Cabo Corrientes and the Sierra Transvolcanica. However, discussion of the GPFZs is mostly absent from the zoogeography and phylogeography literature likely due to a disconnect between biologists and geologists. I argue that the four zoogeographic boundaries reviewed here ultimately originated via the same geological process (triple junction evolution). Finally, I suggest how a comparative phylogeographic approach can be used to test the hypothesis presented here. © 2014 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  17. A boundary integral method for a dynamic, transient mode I crack problem with viscoelastic cohesive zone

    KAUST Repository

    Leise, Tanya L.


    We consider the problem of the dynamic, transient propagation of a semi-infinite, mode I crack in an infinite elastic body with a nonlinear, viscoelastic cohesize zone. Our problem formulation includes boundary conditions that preclude crack face interpenetration, in contrast to the usual mode I boundary conditions that assume all unloaded crack faces are stress-free. The nonlinear viscoelastic cohesive zone behavior is motivated by dynamic fracture in brittle polymers in which crack propagation is preceeded by significant crazing in a thin region surrounding the crack tip. We present a combined analytical/numerical solution method that involves reducing the problem to a Dirichlet-to-Neumann map along the crack face plane, resulting in a differo-integral equation relating the displacement and stress along the crack faces and within the cohesive zone. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  18. The demarcation of arbitrary boundaries for coastal zone management: the Israeli case. (United States)

    Sas, Eliraz; Fischhendler, Itay; Portman, Michelle E


    Integrated coastal zone management (ICZM) addresses the interconnections, complexities, and conflicts between many users of the coastal area with different goals. It requires setting managerial boundaries that capture many elements of human and natural systems. Experience teaches us that without a directed effort managerial rules and laws are not likely to coincide with the physical sensitivity of units that reflect different environmental characteristics of the coastal zone. Hence the aim of this study is to explore why coastal managerial boundaries are set arbitrarily and whether and how it is possible to address the problems this poses. We examine what influences the decisions of a new coastal management authority in Israel to determine how this body overcomes the limits of arbitrary boundary demarcation. The study found that real life management succeeded to both address areas outside the arbitrary boundaries and also to respect some of the different socio-economic needs and physical constraints of the coastal sub-units. Israel's Coastal Environment Protection Law allows and, in fact, encourages the regulator to use discretion and to employ various criteria to balance development and conservation. This implies that policy makers are cognizant of a need to balance ecologically-sensitive boundaries that consider the homogeneity of the coast with politically feasible boundaries that are set arbitrarily. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. System zones in capillary zone electrophoresis: Moving boundaries caused by freely migrating hydroxide ions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beckers, J. L.; Urbánek, Marek; Boček, Petr


    Roč. 26, č. 10 (2005), s. 1869-1873 ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4031103 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : background electrolyte * capillary electrophoresis * system zone s Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.850, year: 2005

  20. Coded aperture imaging and the introduction of the modulated zone plate in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, C.J.M. van den


    Imaging radioactive distributions is an elementary problem in nuclear medicine. There are no media with refracting properties large enough to obtain a gamma lens. At this moment the images in nuclear medicine are produced with help of collimators. The disadvantages of the use of collimators are: limited resolution; low efficiency; only a small fraction of the total of the emitted radiation is detected; without special techniques a collimator cannot produce tomographic images. Recent developments of coded aperture imaging are trying to meet these disadvantages. One of the coded apertures is the Fresnel Zone Plate. In order to understand its use some of its optical properties are briefly discussed

  1. Using zone plates for X-ray microimaging and microspectroscopy in environmental science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemner, K.M.; Yun, W.; Cai, Z. (and others)


    Understanding the transport and ultimate fate of environmental contaminants is of fundamental importance for developing effective remediation strategies and determining the risk associated with the contaminants. Focusing X-rays by using recently developed zone plates allows determination of the spatial distribution and chemical speciation of contaminants at the micron and submicron length scales. This ability is essential for studying the microscopic physical, geological, chemical, and biological interfaces that play a crucial role in determining contaminant fate and mobility. The following is an overview of some current problems in environmental science that are being addressed with synchrotron-based X-ray microimaging and microspectroscopy. (au) 7 refs.

  2. Using zone plates for X-ray microimaging and microspectroscopy in environmental science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemner, K.M.; Yun, W.; Cai, Z. [and others


    Understanding the transport and ultimate fate of environmental contaminants is of fundamental importance for developing effective remediation strategies and determining the risk associated with the contaminants. Focusing X-rays by using recently developed zone plates allows determination of the spatial distribution and chemical speciation of contaminants at the micron and submicron length scales. This ability is essential for studying the microscopic physical, geological, chemical, and biological interfaces that play a crucial role in determining contaminant fate and mobility. The following is an overview of some current problems in environmental science that are being addressed with synchrotron-based X-ray microimaging and microspectroscopy. (au) 7 refs.

  3. Beam propagation modeling of modified volume Fresnel zone plates fabricated by femtosecond laser direct writing. (United States)

    Srisungsitthisunti, Pornsak; Ersoy, Okan K; Xu, Xianfan


    Light diffraction by volume Fresnel zone plates (VFZPs) is simulated by the Hankel transform beam propagation method (Hankel BPM). The method utilizes circularly symmetric geometry and small step propagation to calculate the diffracted wave fields by VFZP layers. It is shown that fast and accurate diffraction results can be obtained with the Hankel BPM. The results show an excellent agreement with the scalar diffraction theory and the experimental results. The numerical method allows more comprehensive studies of the VFZP parameters to achieve higher diffraction efficiency.

  4. Femtosecond laser-ablated Fresnel zone plate fiber probe and sensing applications (United States)

    Tan, Xiaoling; Geng, Youfu; Chen, Yan; Li, Shiguo; Wang, Xinzhong


    We investigate the Fresnel zone plate (FZP) inscribed on multimode fiber endface using femtosecond laser ablation and its application in sensing. The mode transmission through fiber tips with FZP is investigated both by the beam propagation method theoretically and by measuring the beam images with a charge-coupled device camera experimentally, which show a good agreement. Such devices are tested for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) using the aqueous solution of rhodamine 6G under a Raman spectroscopy. The experimental results demonstrate that the SERS signal is enhanced benefiting from focal ability of FZP, which is a promising method for the particular biochemical spectra sensing applications.

  5. Depth of focus enhancement of a modified imaging quasi-fractal zone plate. (United States)

    Zhang, Qinqin; Wang, Jingang; Wang, Mingwei; Bu, Jing; Zhu, Siwei; Gao, Bruce Z; Yuan, Xiaocong


    We propose a new parameter w for optimization of foci distribution of conventional fractal zone plates (FZPs) with a greater depth of focus (DOF) in imaging. Numerical simulations of DOF distribution on axis directions indicate that the values of DOF can be extended by a factor of 1.5 or more by a modified quasi-FZP. In experiments, we employ a simple object-lens-image-plane arrangement to pick up images at various positions within the DOF of a conventional FZP and a quasi-FZP, respectively. Experimental results show that the parameter w improves foci distribution of FZPs in good agreement with theoretical predictions.

  6. Rheology of the Indian and Tarim plates in the Karakoram continent-to-continent collision zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Caporali


    Full Text Available Bouguer gravity anomalies in the region of Western Himalayas, Karakoram and Tien Shan show large negative values, but classical isostatic models are insufficient to account for the detailed pattern of the observed anomalies. In the past years the gravimetric surveys in the Karakoram done by Marussi, Caputo and others in 1954 have been extended and intensified. The full body of available gravimetric data, including the pendulum observations by De Filippi and Hedin at the beginning of this century, have been re-analyzed. Terrain corrections have been computed systematically for all available data using a unique algorithm and Digital Terrain Model. The isostatic anomalies along a profile from the Indo-Gangetic foredeep, across the Karakoram range and terminating in the Tarim basin show the oscillating values already noted by Marussi. It is here proposed that this oscillatory pattern can be explained by a model in which the convergent boundaries of the Indian and Tarim plates deform by elastic flexure, besides isostasy. The gravity data constrain the numerical values of the model parameters, particularly the flexural rigidity of the plates. For the Indian plate the best fitting value of the flexural rigidity is D = 5 1024 N m, a value very similar to those reported in Central Himalaya. The flexural rigidity of the Tarim plate turns out to be considerably larger D = 7 1025 N m, which makes the Tarim more rigid than the neighboring Central Tibet. Both plates are loaded by an estimated shear stress of 7 1012 N m-1 located in a region corresponding to the Nanga Parbat Haramosh syntaxis. It is concluded that the Indo-Asian continental collision in the Western Himalaya and Karakoram resulted in the development of flexural basins on both sides, unlike the Central Himalaya where the collision produced a flexural basin, the Ganga basin, to the south and, to the north, the indentation of an isostatically supported Tibetan block with possible rheological

  7. Overriding plate shortening and extension above subduction zones : A parametric study to explain formation of the Andes Mountains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, Wouter P.


    Mountain building above subduction zones, such as observed in the Andes, is enigmatic, and the key parameter controlling the underlying dynamics remains a matter of considerable debate. A global survey of subduction zones is presented here, illustrating the correlation between overriding plate

  8. Robust multi-model predictive control of multi-zone thermal plate system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poom Jatunitanon


    Full Text Available A modern controller was designed by using the mathematical model of a multi–zone thermal plate system. An important requirement for this type of controller is that it must be able to keep the temperature set-point of each thermal zone. The mathematical model used in the design was determined through a system identification process. The results showed that when the operating condition is changed, the performance of the controller may be reduced as a result of the system parameter uncertainties. This paper proposes a weighting technique of combining the robust model predictive controller for each operating condition into a single robust multi-model predictive control. Simulation and experimental results showed that the proposed method performed better than the conventional multi-model predictive control in rise time of transient response, when used in a system designed to work over a wide range of operating conditions.

  9. Water, oceanic fracture zones and the lubrication of subducting plate boundaries—insights from seismicity (United States)

    Schlaphorst, David; Kendall, J.-Michael; Collier, Jenny S.; Verdon, James P.; Blundy, Jon; Baptie, Brian; Latchman, Joan L.; Massin, Frederic; Bouin, Marie-Paule


    We investigate the relationship between subduction processes and related seismicity for the Lesser Antilles Arc using the Gutenberg-Richter law. This power law describes the earthquake-magnitude distribution, with the gradient of the cumulative magnitude distribution being commonly known as the b-value. The Lesser Antilles Arc was chosen because of its along-strike variability in sediment subduction and the transition from subduction to strike-slip movement towards its northern and southern ends. The data are derived from the seismicity catalogues from the Seismic Research Centre of The University of the West Indies and the Observatoires Volcanologiques et Sismologiques of the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris and consist of subcrustal events primarily from the slab interface. The b-value is found using a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for a maximum-likelihood straight line-fitting routine. We investigate spatial variations in b-values using a grid-search with circular cells as well as an along-arc projection. Tests with different algorithms and the two independent earthquake cataloges provide confidence in the robustness of our results. We observe a strong spatial variability of the b-value that cannot be explained by the uncertainties. Rather than obtaining a simple north-south b-value distribution suggestive of the dominant control on earthquake triggering being water released from the sedimentary cover on the incoming American Plates, or a b-value distribution that correlates with on the obliquity of subduction, we obtain a series of discrete, high b-value `bull's-eyes' along strike. These bull's-eyes, which indicate stress release through a higher fraction of small earthquakes, coincide with the locations of known incoming oceanic fracture zones on the American Plates. We interpret the results in terms of water being delivered to the Lesser Antilles subduction zone in the vicinity of fracture zones providing lubrication and thus changing the character of the

  10. An eddy-viscosity treatment of the unsteady turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate in an expansion tube (United States)

    Gupta, R. N.; Trimpi, R. L.


    An analysis is presented for the relaxation of a turbulent boundary layer on a semiinfinite flat plate after passage of a shock wave and a trailing driver gas-driven gas interface. The problem has special application to expansion tube flows. The flow-governing equations have been transformed into the Lamcrocco variables. The numerical results indicate that a fully turbulent boundary layer relaxes faster to the final steady-state values of heat transfer and skin-friction than a fully laminar boundary layer.

  11. Large-eddy simulation of separation and reattachment of a flat plate turbulent boundary layer

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, W.; Pullin, D. I.; Samtaney, Ravi


    © 2015 Cambridge University Press. We present large-eddy simulations (LES) of separation and reattachment of a flat-plate turbulent boundary-layer flow. Instead of resolving the near wall region, we develop a two-dimensional virtual wall model which

  12. Experiments of dike-induced deformation: Insights on the long-term evolution of divergent plate boundaries

    KAUST Repository

    Trippanera, D.; Ruch, Joel; Acocella, V.; Rivalta, E.


    on the intrusion depth and thickness, consistently to what is observed along divergent plate boundaries. The early deformation in setups B and C is similar to that from a single rifting episode (i.e., Lakagigar, Iceland, and Dabbahu, Afar), whereas the late stages

  13. Interlaced zone plate optics for hard X-ray imaging in the 10 nm range (United States)

    Mohacsi, Istvan; Vartiainen, Ismo; Rösner, Benedikt; Guizar-Sicairos, Manuel; Guzenko, Vitaliy A.; McNulty, Ian; Winarski, Robert; Holt, Martin V.; David, Christian


    Multi-keV X-ray microscopy has been particularly successful in bridging the resolution gap between optical and electron microscopy. However, resolutions below 20 nm are still considered challenging, as high throughput direct imaging methods are limited by the availability of suitable optical elements. In order to bridge this gap, we present a new type of Fresnel zone plate lenses aimed at the sub-20 and the sub-10 nm resolution range. By extending the concept of double-sided zone plate stacking, we demonstrate the doubling of the effective line density and thus the resolution and provide large aperture, singlechip optical devices with 15 and 7 nm smallest zone widths. The detailed characterization of these lenses shows excellent optical properties with focal spots down to 7.8 nm. Beyond wave front characterization, the zone plates also excel in typical imaging scenarios, verifying their resolution close to their diffraction limited optical performance.

  14. MT2D Inversion to Image the Gorda Plate Subduction Zone (United States)

    Lubis, Y. K.; Niasari, S. W.; Hartantyo, E.


    The magnetotelluric method is applicable for studying complicated geological structures because the subsurface electrical properties are strongly influenced by the electric and magnetic fields. This research located in the Gorda subduction zone beneath the North American continental plate. Magnetotelluric 2D inversion was used to image the variation of subsurface resistivity although the phase tensor analysis shows that the majority of dimensionality data is 3D. 19 MT sites were acquired from EarthScope/USArray Project. Wepresent the image of MT 2D inversion to exhibit conductivity distribution from the middle crust to uppermost asthenosphere at a depth of 120 kilometers. Based on the inversion, the overall data misfit value is 3.89. The Gorda plate subduction appears as a high resistive zone beneath the California. Local conductive features are found in the middle crust downward Klamath Mountain, Bonneville Lake, and below the eastern of Utah. Furthermore, mid-crustal is characterized by moderately resistive. Below the extensional Basin and Range province was related to highly resistive. The middle crust to the uppermost asthenosphere becomes moderately resistive. We conclude that the electrical parameters and the dimensionality of datain the shallow depth(about 22.319 km) beneath the North American platein accordance with surface geological features.

  15. Global crustal movement and tectonic plate boundary deformation constrained by the ITRF2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Ze


    Full Text Available On the basis of the newly released International Terrestrial Reference Frame(ITRF2008 by the International Earth Rotation Service (IERS, a new global plate model ITRF2008 plate for the major plates is established. This ITRF2008-derived model is analyzed in comparison with NNR-NUVEL1A model, which is mainly based on geological and geophysical data. The Eurasia and Pacific plates display obvious differences in terms of the velocity fields derived from the two plate motion models. Plate acceleration is also introduced to characterize the differences of the two velocity fields which obtained from ITRF2008 -plate and NNR-NUVEL1A models for major individual plates. The results show that the Africa, South America and Eurasia plates are undergoing acceleration, while the North America and Australia plates are in the state of deceleration motion.

  16. Constraining the hydration of the subducting Nazca plate beneath Northern Chile using subduction zone guided waves (United States)

    Garth, Tom; Rietbrock, Andreas


    Guided wave dispersion is observed from earthquakes at 180-280 km depth recorded at stations in the fore-arc of Northern Chile, where the 44 Ma Nazca plate subducts beneath South America. Characteristic P-wave dispersion is observed at several stations in the Chilean fore-arc with high frequency energy (>5 Hz) arriving up to 3 s after low frequency (accounted for if dipping low velocity fault zones are included within the subducting lithospheric mantle. A grid search over possible LVL and faults zone parameters (width, velocity contrast and separation distance) was carried out to constrain the best fitting model parameters. Our results imply that fault zone structures of 0.5-1.0 km thickness, and 5-10 km spacing, consistent with observations at the outer rise are present within the subducted slab at intermediate depths. We propose that these low velocity fault zone structures represent the hydrated structure within the lithospheric mantle. They may be formed initially by normal faults at the outer rise, which act as a pathway for fluids to penetrate the deeper slab due to the bending and unbending stresses within the subducting plate. Our observations suggest that the lithospheric mantle is 5-15% serpentinised, and therefore may transport approximately 13-42 Tg/Myr of water per meter of arc. The guided wave observations also suggest that a thin LVL (∼1 km thick) interpreted as un-eclogitised subducted oceanic crust persists to depths of at least 220 km. Comparison of the inferred seismic velocities with those predicted for various MORB assemblages suggest that this thin LVL may be accounted for by low velocity lawsonite-bearing assemblages, suggesting that some mineral-bound water within the oceanic crust may be transported well beyond the volcanic arc. While older subducting slabs may carry more water per metre of arc, approximately one third of the oceanic material subducted globally is of a similar age to the Nazca plate. This suggests that subducting oceanic

  17. 16 Years, 16 Cruises, 1.6 Billion Soundings: a Compilation of High-Resolution Multibeam Bathymetry of the Active Plate Boundary Along the Chilean Continental Margin (United States)

    Weinrebe, W.; Flueh, E. R.; Hasert, M.; Behrmann, J. H.; Voelker, D.; Geersen, J.; Ranero, C. R.; Diaz-Naveas, J. L.


    Chile, a country stranding the active plate boundary between the South-American and the Nazca Plate is afflicted by recurrent earthquakes and hazardous volcanic eruptions. The strongest earthquake ever recorded occurred here, and volcanic hazards are frequent. Consequently, this area has been studied by geoscientists for many years to improve the understanding of subduction zone processes. Swath bathymetry mapping of the ocean floor has proven to bear a large potential for the interpretation of subduction-related processes, such as tectonic deformation of the marine forearc, release and migration of fluids as well as earthquake-triggered mass wasting. Multibeam bathymetry data of 16 major cruises of German, British, and Chilean research vessels recorded between 1995 and December 2010, in total more than 10,000 data files comprising about 1.6 billion soundings, have now been carefully reprocessed, compiled and merged into a unifying set of high-resolution bathymetric maps of the Chilean continental margin from latitude 40°S to 20°S. The imprint of subsurface processes on the surface morphology is well displayed in the case of the Chilean continental margin. The 3,500 km long Chilean convergent margin is not uniform, as various segments with different tectonic characteristics can be distinguished. Major factors that control margin morphology and thus the style of subduction are (1) relief and structure of the incoming oceanic plate, (2) supply of trench sediment, (3) turbidite transport within the trench, and (4) the input of terrigeneous sediments down the continental slope. A major segment boundary occurs at latitude 32°-33° S where the hotspot-related volcanic chain of Juan Fernandez is presently subducting. South of the area of ridge subduction the trench is filled with turbidites, and accretionary ridges develop across the base of the slope along most of the segment, whereas north of this boundary the turbiditic infill is reduced and subduction erosion is

  18. Three-dimensional model of plate geometry and velocity model for Nankai Trough seismogenic zone based on results from structural studies (United States)

    Nakanishi, A.; Shimomura, N.; Kodaira, S.; Obana, K.; Takahashi, T.; Yamamoto, Y.; Yamashita, M.; Takahashi, N.; Kaneda, Y.


    In the Nankai Trough subduction seismogenic zone, the Nankai and Tonankai earthquakes had often occurred simultaneously, and caused a great event. In order to reduce a great deal of damage to coastal area from both strong ground motion and tsunami generation, it is necessary to understand rupture synchronization and segmentation of the Nankai megathrust earthquake. For a precise estimate of the rupture zone of the Nankai megathrust event based on the knowledge of realistic earthquake cycle and variation of magnitude, it is important to know the geometry and property of the plate boundary of the subduction seismogenic zone. To improve a physical model of the Nankai Trough seismogenic zone, the large-scale high-resolution wide-angle and reflection (MCS) seismic study, and long-term observation has been conducted since 2008. Marine active source seismic data have been acquired along grid two-dimensional profiles having the total length of ~800km every year. A three-dimensional seismic tomography using active and passive seismic data observed both land and ocean bottom stations have been also performed. From those data, we found that several strong lateral variations of the subducting Philippine Sea plate and overriding plate corresponding to margins of coseismic rupture zone of historical large event occurred along the Nankai Trough. Particularly a possible prominent reflector for the forearc Moho is recently imaged in the offshore side in the Kii channel at the depth of ~18km which is shallower than those of other area along the Nankai Trough. Such a drastic variation of the overriding plate might be related to the existence of the segmentation of the Nankai megathrust earthquake. Based on our results derived from seismic studies, we have tried to make a geometrical model of the Philippine Sea plate and a three-dimensional velocity structure model of the Nankai Trough seismogenic zone. In this presentation, we will summarize major results of out seismic studies, and

  19. Effects of freestream on the characteristics of thermally-driven boundary layers along a heated vertical flat plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abedin, Mohammad Zoynal; Tsuji, Toshihiro; Lee, Jinho


    Highlights: ► A time-developing direct numerical simulations are done for water along a heated vertical plate. ► The objective is to see the effects of free streams on the combined-convection boundary layers. ► There are no reports for water with direct numerical simulation in this regards. ► An experiment is also conducted on the transitional and turbulent boundary layer in water. ► This is to collect informations on the integral thickness of the velocity boundary layer. - Abstract: Time-developing thermally-driven boundary layers created by imposing aiding and opposing freestreams on the natural-convection boundary layer in water along a heated vertical flat plate have been examined with a direct numerical simulation to clarify their transition and turbulence behaviors. The numerical results for aiding flow reveal that the transition begins at a thick laminar boundary layer due to the delay of the transition and large-scale vortexes centering on the spanwise direction are followed, while, for opposing flow, the transition begins at a thin laminar boundary layer due to the quickening of the transition and relatively small-scale vortexes are generated with the progress of transition. To improve the significance of the present numerical results, the association of turbulence statistics between time- and space-developing flows has been investigated. Consequently, the numerical results for time-developing flow are converted to those for space-developing flow through the integral thickness of the velocity boundary layer for pure natural convection, and thus the regimes of boundary layer flows can be quantitatively assessed. Moreover, the turbulence statistics and the flow structures in the thermally-driven boundary layers are also presented.

  20. Evolution of the Adria-Europe plate boundary in the northern Dinarides: From continent-continent collision to back-arc extension (United States)

    Ustaszewski, Kamil; Kounov, Alexandre; Schmid, Stefan M.; Schaltegger, Urs; Krenn, Erwin; Frank, Wolfgang; Fügenschuh, Bernhard


    The Sava Zone of the northern Dinarides is part of the Cenozoic Adria-Europe plate boundary. Here Late Cretaceous subduction of remnants of Meliata-Vardar oceanic lithosphere led to the formation of a suture, across which upper plate European-derived units of Tisza-Dacia were juxtaposed with Adria-derived units of the Dinarides. Late Cretaceous siliciclastic sediments, deposited on the Adriatic plate, were incorporated into an accretionary wedge that evolved during the initial stages of continent-continent collision. Structurally deeper parts of the exposed accretionary wedge underwent amphibolite-grade metamorphism. Grt-Pl-Ms-Bt thermobarometry and multiphase equilibria indicate temperatures between 550°C and 630°C and pressures between 5 and 7 kbar for this event. Peak metamorphic conditions were reached at around 65 Ma. Relatively slow cooling from peak metamorphic conditions throughout most of the Paleogene was possibly induced by hanging wall erosion in conjunction with southwest directed propagation of thrusting in the Dinarides. Accelerated cooling took place in Miocene times, when the Sava Zone underwent substantial extension that led to the exhumation of the metamorphosed units along a low-angle detachment. Footwall exhumation started under greenschist facies conditions and was associated with top-to-the-north tectonic transport, indicating exhumation from below European plate units. Extension postdates the emplacement of a 27 Ma old granitoid that underwent solid-state deformation under greenschist facies conditions. The 40Ar/39Ar sericite and zircon and apatite fission track ages from the footwall allow bracketing this extensional unroofing between 25 and 14 Ma. This extension is hence linked to Miocene rift-related subsidence in the Pannonian basin, which represents a back-arc basin formed due to subduction rollback in the Carpathians.

  1. The EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory: Bringing Low Latency Data From Unimak Island, Alaska (United States)

    Feaux, K.; Mencin, D.; Jackson, M.; Gallaher, W.; Pauk, B.; Smith, S.


    The Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), part of the NSF-funded EarthScope project, will complete the installation of a fourteen station GPS network on Unimak Island, Alaska in August, 2008. The primary data communications goal of the project is to design and implement a robust data communications network capable of downloading 15-sec daily GPS files and streaming 1 Hz GPS data, via Ustream, from Unimak Island to three data relay points in the Aleutian chain. As part of the permitting agreement with the landowner, PBO will co-locate the GPS stations with existing USGS seismic stations. The technical challenges involved in optimizing the data communications network for both the GPS data and the seismic data will be presented. From Unimak island, there will be three separate data telemetry paths: 1) West through a radio repeater on Akutan volcano to a VSAT in Akutan village, 2) East through a radio repeater to a T1 connection in Cold Bay, AK, 3) South through a radio repeater to a VSAT at an existing PBO GPS station in King Cove, AK. The difficulties involved in the project include complex network geometries with multiple radio repeaters, long distance RF transmission over water, hardware bandwidth limitations, power limitations, space limitations, as well as working in bear country on an incredibly remote and active volcano.

  2. Seismic attenuation structure beneath Nazca Plate subduction zone in southern Peru (United States)

    Jang, H.; Kim, Y.; Clayton, R. W.


    We estimate seismic attenuation in terms of quality factors, QP and QS using P and S phases, respectively, beneath Nazca Plate subduction zone between 10°S and 18.5°S latitude in southern Peru. We first relocate 298 earthquakes with magnitude ranges of 4.0-6.5 and depth ranges of 20-280 km. We measure t*, which is an integrated attenuation through the seismic raypath between the regional earthquakes and stations. The measured t* are inverted to construct three-dimensional attenuation structures of southern Peru. Checkerboard test results for both QP and QS structures ensure good resolution in the slab-dip transition zone between flat and normal slab subduction down to a depth of 200 km. Both QP and QS results show higher attenuation continued down to a depth of 50 km beneath volcanic arc and also beneath the Quimsachata volcano, the northernmost young volcano, located far east of the main volcanic front. We also observe high attenuation in mantle wedge especially beneath the normal subduction region in both QP and QS (100-130 in QP and 100-125 in QS) and slightly higher QP and QS beneath the flat-subduction and slab-dip transition regions. We plan to relate measured attenuation in the mantle wedge to material properties such as viscosity to understand the subduction zone dynamics.

  3. Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Districts, Enterprise Zones: Boundaries of Maryland's Enterprise Districts that are within Washington County., Published in 2006, 1:7200 (1in=600ft) scale, Washington County Government. (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Districts dataset current as of 2006. Enterprise Zones: Boundaries of Maryland's Enterprise Districts that are within Washington...

  4. Streamwise counter-rotating vortices generated by triangular leading edge pattern in flat plate boundary layer

    KAUST Repository

    Hasheminejad, S. M.; Mitsudharmadi, Hatsari; Winoto, S. H.; Lua, K. B.; Low, H. T.


    A series of flow visualizations were conducted to qualitatively study the development of streamwise counter-rotating vortices over a flat plate induced by triangular patterns at the leading edge of a flat plate. The experiments were carried out

  5. Extended residence time centrifugal contactor design modification and centrifugal contactor vane plate valving apparatus for extending mixing zone residence time (United States)

    Wardle, Kent E.


    The present invention provides an annular centrifugal contactor, having a housing adapted to receive a plurality of flowing liquids; a rotor on the interior of the housing; an annular mixing zone, wherein the annular mixing zone has a plurality of fluid retention reservoirs with ingress apertures near the bottom of the annular mixing zone and egress apertures located above the ingress apertures of the annular mixing zone; and an adjustable vane plate stem, wherein the stem can be raised to restrict the flow of a liquid into the rotor or lowered to increase the flow of the liquid into the rotor.

  6. Comparison of earthquake source parameters and interseismic plate coupling variations in global subduction zones (Invited) (United States)

    Bilek, S. L.; Moyer, P. A.; Stankova-Pursley, J.


    Geodetically determined interseismic coupling variations have been found in subduction zones worldwide. These coupling variations have been linked to heterogeneities in interplate fault frictional conditions. These connections to fault friction imply that observed coupling variations are also important in influencing details in earthquake rupture behavior. Because of the wealth of newly available geodetic models along many subduction zones, it is now possible to examine detailed variations in coupling and compare to seismicity characteristics. Here we use a large catalog of earthquake source time functions and slip models for moderate to large magnitude earthquakes to explore these connections, comparing earthquake source parameters with available models of geodetic coupling along segments of the Japan, Kurile, Kamchatka, Peru, Chile, and Alaska subduction zones. In addition, we use published geodetic results along the Costa Rica margin to compare with source parameters of small magnitude earthquakes recorded with an onshore-offshore network of seismometers. For the moderate to large magnitude earthquakes, preliminary results suggest a complex relationship between earthquake parameters and estimates of strongly and weakly coupled segments of the plate interface. For example, along the Kamchatka subduction zone, these earthquakes occur primarily along the transition between strong and weak coupling, with significant heterogeneity in the pattern of moment scaled duration with respect to the coupling estimates. The longest scaled duration event in this catalog occurred in a region of strong coupling. Earthquakes along the transition between strong and weakly coupled exhibited the most complexity in the source time functions. Use of small magnitude (0.5 earthquake spectra, with higher corner frequencies and higher mean apparent stress for earthquakes that occur in along the Osa Peninsula relative to the Nicoya Peninsula, mimicking the along-strike variations in

  7. Hard x-ray microimaging techniques based on phase zone plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, B.; Yun, W.B.; Legnini, D.; Xiao, Y.H.; Chrzas, J.


    Phase zone plates of high focusing efficiency and submicron resolution have been demonstrated in the hard x-ray region. A scanning microscope based on these focusing optics will create many new applications. Preliminary results in the applications of the microscope are reported here. In the area of imaging, we have utilized absorption contrast to clearly identify the locations of Au and Ni constituents in a sample of two interleaved grids. Micro-EXAFS spectra has also been obtained on a Ni foil. Fluorescence from a nuclear fuel sample, as an example of microanalysis, has revealed the elemental distribution at the interfaces. Lastly, microdiffraction from AgBr crystallites has been studied. 5 figs, 7 refs

  8. Optical image encryption using fresnel zone plate mask based on fast walsh hadamard transform (United States)

    Khurana, Mehak; Singh, Hukum


    A new symmetric encryption technique using Fresnel Zone Plate (FZP) based on Fast Walsh Hadamard Transform (FWHT) is proposed for security enhancement. In this technique, bits of plain image is randomized by shuffling the bits randomly. The obtained scrambled image is then masked with FZP using symmetric encryption in FWHT domain to obtain final encrypted image. FWHT has been used in the cryptosystem so as to protect image data from the quantization error and for reconstructing the image perfectly. The FZP used in proposed scheme increases the key space and makes it robust to many traditional attacks. The effectiveness and robustness of the proposed cryptosystem has been analyzed on the basis of various parameters by simulating on MATLAB 8.1.0 (R2012b). The experimental results are provided to highlight suitability of the proposed cryptosystem and prove that the system is secure.

  9. Depth compensating calculation method of computer-generated holograms using symmetry and similarity of zone plates (United States)

    Wei, Hui; Gong, Guanghong; Li, Ni


    Computer-generated hologram (CGH) is a promising 3D display technology while it is challenged by heavy computation load and vast memory requirement. To solve these problems, a depth compensating CGH calculation method based on symmetry and similarity of zone plates is proposed and implemented on graphics processing unit (GPU). An improved LUT method is put forward to compute the distances between object points and hologram pixels in the XY direction. The concept of depth compensating factor is defined and used for calculating the holograms of points with different depth positions instead of layer-based methods. The proposed method is suitable for arbitrary sampling objects with lower memory usage and higher computational efficiency compared to other CGH methods. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated by numerical and optical experiments.

  10. Development of a high-resolution electron-beam profile monitor using Fresnel zone plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Norio; Sakai, Hiroshi; Muto, Toshiya; Hayano, Hitoshi


    We present a high-resolution and real-time beam profile monitor using Fresnel zone plates (FZPs) developed in the KEK-ATF damping ring. The monitor system has an X-ray imaging optics with two FZPs. In this monitor, the synchrotron radiation from the electron beam at the bending magnet is monochromatized by a crystal monochromator and the transverse electron beam image is twenty-times magnified by the two FZPs and detected on an X-ray CCD camera. The expected spatial resolution for the selected photon energy of 3.235 keV is less than 1 μm. With the beam profile monitor, we succeeded in obtaining a clear electron-beam image and measuring the extremely small beam size less than 10 μm. It is greatly expected that the beam profile monitor will be used in high-brilliance light sources and low-emittance accelerators. (author)

  11. Digital in-line X-ray holography with zone plates. (United States)

    Heine, R; Gorniak, T; Nisius, T; Christophis, C; Pettitt, M E; Staier, F; Wilhein, T; Rehbein, S; Grunze, M; Rosenhahn, A


    Single pulse imaging with radiation provided by free-electron laser sources is a promising approach towards X-ray microscopy, which is expected to provide high resolution images of biological samples unaffected by radiation damage. One fully coherent imaging technique for this purpose is digital in-line holography. Key to its successful application is the creation of X-ray point sources with high photon flux. In this study we applied zone plates to create such point sources with synchrotron radiation provided by the storage ring BESSY II. The obtained, divergent light cone is applied to holographic microscopy of biological objects such as critical point dried Navicula perminuta diatoms and human cells using photons with an energy of 250 eV. Compared to conventional experiments employing pinholes, exposure times are reduced by two orders of magnitude. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Segmentation along the Queen Charlotte Fault: The long-lived influence of plate-motion rotation and Explorer Ridge fracture zones (United States)

    Miller, N. C.; Walton, M. A. L.; Brothers, D. S.; Haeussler, P. J.; Ten Brink, U. S.; Conrad, J. E.; Kluesner, J.; Andrews, B. D.


    The Queen Charlotte Fault (QCF) generally tracks the flow line for Pacific/North America (Pa/NA) relative motion since 20 Ma, indicating that the plate boundary localized along an optimally oriented small circle geometry. Rotation in Pa/NA motion at 10—12 Ma caused the QCF south of 53 N to be oblique to plate motion by 10—20. This oblique convergence appears to be accommodated in part by underthrusting of the Pacific Plate beneath Haida Gwaii and in part by slip on faults west of the QCF. On the west side of the QCF, a series of ridges and small basins oriented subparallel to either the QCF or relative plate motion form a 40-km-wide terrace. New high-resolution seismic reflection data image the seaward edge of the ridges as a vertical contact between horizontal or sometimes downwarped deep-sea sediments and west-vergent anticlinal structures within the ridges, supporting earlier interpretations that these ridges have accommodated some component of oblique motion. We argue that the ridges originated as step overs from fracture zones on Explorer Ridge, analogous to the current fault geometry at the southernmost end of the QCF. There, the Revere-Dellwood Fracture Zone (RDFZ) overlaps the QCF for 120 km and connects to the QCF via a more-optimally oriented extensional right step. 3.9—6.4 Mw strike-slip earthquakes along the RDFZ and a lack of contractional seafloor morphologies along the QCF south of the RDFZ-QCF right step suggest that the step over and reactivation along the RDFZ accommodates a majority of plate motion in this region. Kinematic reconstruction of ridges from 54—56 N indicates that they also originated in a similar location, potentially as right steps from either the RDFZ or Sovanco Fracture Zone. Similarly, the RDFZ flow path is coincident with a truncation of seafloor magnetic anomalies and the outer edge of the ridge-bounded terrace, which both parallel the QCF since at least the onset of Explorer Ridge spreading at 8 Ma. The RDFZ-QCF right

  13. The M w = 5.8 14 August 2016 middle Sakhalin earthquake on a boundary between Okhotsk and Eurasian (Amurian) plates (United States)

    Konovalov, A. V.; Stepnov, A. A.; Safonov, D. A.; Kozhurin, A. I.; Pavlov, A. S.; Gavrilov, A. V.; Manaychev, K. A.; Tomilev, D. Ye.; Takahashi, H.; Ichiyanagi, M.


    An earthquake with the moment magnitude M w = 5.8 occurred in the middle part of the Sakhalin Island, Russian Federation, on 14 August 2016, at 11:17 a.m. UTC. The earthquake source was located west of the Central Sakhalin Fault Zone, which is considered to mark the boundary between the Okhotsk and Eurasian (Amurian) plates. Moment tensor solution of the mainshock as well as the configuration of aftershock cloud suggests that the earthquake was caused by slip on a SW-dipping reverse fault. For the first time for Sakhalin, we have got the felt reports unified in accordance with DYFI. We also analyzed observed PGA values and, based on them, produced shaking maps.

  14. Corrosion behavior of the tube - tubular plate joint zone in the presence of sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucan, D.; Fulger, M.; Pirvan, I.; Cotolan, V.


    The corrosion is a very important problem which concerns the safe operation of steam generators. The predominant part of corrosion problems is related to the local concentration of aggressive species and/or to the impurities from the slow-flow regions, like those created by cracks in tube - tubular plate joint zones. The consequences of such local concentrations are very important and as such entail interest in the design and utilization of steam generators. This study presents the results of the corrosion tests performed under specific operation conditions of the secondary circuit in NPP (temperature, 260 o C; pressure, 5.1 MPa) on a crack simulating device made of carbon steel SA 508 cl.2 (forming the tubular plate) and Incoloy-800 (forming the tubes). The chemical medium of these tests was the following: solution of NaCl, 25g/l (pH=10.5); solution of NaCl, 50 g/l (pH=10.5); solution of NaCl, 75g/l (pH=10.5); solution of NaCl, 75g/l + solution of Na 2 SO 4 , 10 g/l (pH=10.5). The behavior of these two materials to corrosion was studied by metallographic investigations. The results are presented as microphotographs evidencing the occurrence of pitting corrosion first on material of the tubular plate, in the presence of medium particularly aggressive and on the material of the tubes. The aim of this study is to establish the corrosion mechanism as well as the formation of the oxide layer on the carbon steel in crack simulating devices. (authors)

  15. A Geodetic Strain Rate Model for the Pacific-North American Plate Boundary, western United States (United States)

    Kreemer, C.; Hammond, W. C.; Blewitt, G.; Holland, A. A.; Bennett, R. A.


    We present a model of crustal strain rates derived from GPS measurements of horizontal station velocities in the Pacific-North American plate boundary in the western United States. The model reflects a best estimate of present-day deformation from the San Andreas fault system in the west to the Basin and Range province in the east. Of the total 2,846 GPS velocities used in the model, 1,197 are derived by ourselves, and 1,649 are taken from (mostly) published results. The velocities derived by ourselves (the "UNR solution") are estimated from GPS position time-series of continuous and semi-continuous stations for which data are publicly available. We estimated ITRF2005 positions from 2002-2011.5 using JPL's GIPSY-OASIS II software with ambiguity resolution applied using our custom Ambizap software. Only stations with time-series that span at least 2.25 years are considered. We removed from the time-series continental-scale common-mode errors using a spatially-varying filtering technique. Velocity uncertainties (typically 0.1-0.3 mm/yr) assume that the time-series contain flicker plus white noise. We used a subset of stations on the stable parts of the Pacific and North American plates to estimate the Pacific-North American pole of rotation. This pole is applied as a boundary condition to the model and the North American - ITRF2005 pole is used to rotate our velocities into a North America fixed reference frame. We do not include parts of the time-series that show curvature due to post-seismic deformation after major earthquakes and we also exclude stations whose time-series display a significant unexplained non-linearity or that are near volcanic centers. Transient effects longer than the observation period (i.e., slow viscoelastic relaxation) are left in the data. We added to the UNR solution velocities from 12 other studies. The velocities are transformed onto the UNR solution's reference frame by estimating and applying a translation and rotation that minimizes

  16. Study of Boundary Layer Convective Heat Transfer with Low Pressure Gradient Over a Flat Plate Via He's Homotopy Perturbation Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fathizadeh, M.; Aroujalian, A.


    The boundary layer convective heat transfer equations with low pressure gradient over a flat plate are solved using Homotopy Perturbation Method, which is one of the semi-exact methods. The nonlinear equations of momentum and energy solved simultaneously via Homotopy Perturbation Method are in good agreement with results obtained from numerical methods. Using this method, a general equation in terms of Pr number and pressure gradient (λ) is derived which can be used to investigate velocity and temperature profiles in the boundary layer.

  17. Fault and graben growth along active magmatic divergent plate boundaries in Iceland and Ethiopia

    KAUST Repository

    Trippanera, D.; Acocella, V.; Ruch, Joel; Abebe, B.


    Recent studies highlight the importance of annual-scale dike-induced rifting episodes in developing normal faults and graben along the active axis of magmatic divergent plate boundaries (MDPB). However, the longer-term (102-105 years) role of diking on the cumulative surface deformation and evolution of MDPB is not yet well understood. To better understand the longer-term normal faults and graben along the axis of MDPB, we analyze fissure swarms in Iceland and Ethiopia. We first focus on the simplest case of immature fissure swarms, with single dike-fed eruptive fissures; these consist of a <1 km wide graben bordered by normal faults with displacement up to a few meters, consistent with theoretical models and geodetic data. A similar structural pattern is found, with asymmetric and multiple graben, within wider mature fissure swarms, formed by several dike-fed eruptive fissures. We then consider the lateral termination of normal faults along these graben, to detect their upward or downward propagation. Most faults terminate as open fractures on flat surface, suggesting downward fault propagation; this is consistent with recent experiments showing dike-induced normal faults propagating downward from the surface. However, some normal faults also terminate as open fractures on monoclines, which resemble fault propagation folds; this suggests upward propagation of reactivated buried faults, promoted by diking. These results suggest that fault growth and graben development, as well as the longer-term evolution of the axis of MDPB, may be explained only through dike emplacement and that any amagmatic faulting is not necessary.

  18. The Plate Boundary Observatory Student Field Assistant Program in Southern California (United States)

    Seider, E. L.


    Each summer, UNAVCO hires students as part of the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) Student Field Assistant Program. PBO, the geodetic component of the NSF-funded EarthScope project, involves the reconnaissance, permitting, installation, documentation, and maintenance of 880 permanent GPS stations in five years. During the summer 2007, nine students from around the US and Puerto Rico were hired to assist PBO engineers during the busy summer field season. From June to September, students worked closely with PBO field engineers to install and maintain permanent GPS stations in all regions of PBO, including Alaska. The PBO Student Field Assistant Program provides students with professional hands-on field experience as well as continuing education in the geosciences. It also gives students a glimpse into the increasing technologies available to the science community, the scope of geophysical research utilizing these technologies, and the field techniques necessary to complete this research. Students in the PBO Field Assistant Program are involved in all aspects of GPS support, including in-warehouse preparation and in-field installations and maintenance. Students are taught practical skills such as drilling, wiring, welding, hardware configuration, documentation, and proper field safety procedures needed to construct permanent GPS stations. These real world experiences provide the students with technical and professional skills that are not always available to them in a classroom, and will benefit them greatly in their future studies and careers. The 2007 summer field season in Southern California consisted of over 35 GPS permanent station installations. To date, the Southern California region of PBO has installed over 190 GPS stations. This poster presentation will highlight the experiences gained by the Southern California student field assistants, while supporting PBO- Southern California GPS installations in the Mohave Desert and the Inyo National Forest.

  19. Crustal Structure and Evolution of the Eastern Himalayan Plate Boundary System, Northeast India (United States)

    Mitra, S.; Priestley, K. F.; Borah, Kajaljyoti; Gaur, V. K.


    We use data from 24 broadband seismographs located south of the Eastern Himalayan plate boundary system to investigate the crustal structure beneath Northeast India. P wave receiver function analysis reveals felsic continental crust beneath the Brahmaputra Valley, Shillong Plateau and Mikir Hills, and mafic thinned passive margin transitional crust (basement layer) beneath the Bengal Basin. Within the continental crust, the central Shillong Plateau and Mikir Hills have the thinnest crust (30 ± 2 km) with similar velocity structure, suggesting a unified origin and uplift history. North of the plateau and Mikir Hills the crustal thickness increases sharply by 8-10 km and is modeled by ˜30∘ north dipping Moho flexure. South of the plateau, across the ˜1 km topographic relief of the Dawki Fault, the crustal thickness increases abruptly by 12-13 km and is modeled by downfaulting of the plateau crust, overlain by 13-14 km thick sedimentary layer/rocks of the Bengal Basin. Farther south, beneath central Bengal Basin, the basement layer is thinner (20-22 km) and has higher Vs (˜4.1 km s-1) indicating a transitional crystalline crust, overlain by the thickest sedimentary layer/rocks (18-20 km). Our models suggest that the uplift of the Shillong Plateau occurred by thrust faulting on the reactivated Dawki Fault, a continent margin paleorift fault, and subsequent back thrusting on the south dipping Oldham Fault, in response to flexural loading of the Eastern Himalaya. Our estimated Dawki Fault offset combined with timing of surface uplift of the plateau reveals a reasonable match between long-term uplift and convergence rate across the Dawki Fault with present-day GPS velocities.

  20. Fault and graben growth along active magmatic divergent plate boundaries in Iceland and Ethiopia

    KAUST Repository

    Trippanera, D.


    Recent studies highlight the importance of annual-scale dike-induced rifting episodes in developing normal faults and graben along the active axis of magmatic divergent plate boundaries (MDPB). However, the longer-term (102-105 years) role of diking on the cumulative surface deformation and evolution of MDPB is not yet well understood. To better understand the longer-term normal faults and graben along the axis of MDPB, we analyze fissure swarms in Iceland and Ethiopia. We first focus on the simplest case of immature fissure swarms, with single dike-fed eruptive fissures; these consist of a <1 km wide graben bordered by normal faults with displacement up to a few meters, consistent with theoretical models and geodetic data. A similar structural pattern is found, with asymmetric and multiple graben, within wider mature fissure swarms, formed by several dike-fed eruptive fissures. We then consider the lateral termination of normal faults along these graben, to detect their upward or downward propagation. Most faults terminate as open fractures on flat surface, suggesting downward fault propagation; this is consistent with recent experiments showing dike-induced normal faults propagating downward from the surface. However, some normal faults also terminate as open fractures on monoclines, which resemble fault propagation folds; this suggests upward propagation of reactivated buried faults, promoted by diking. These results suggest that fault growth and graben development, as well as the longer-term evolution of the axis of MDPB, may be explained only through dike emplacement and that any amagmatic faulting is not necessary.

  1. Boundary Layer Flow and Heat Transfer with Variable Fluid Properties on a Moving Flat Plate in a Parallel Free Stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norfifah Bachok


    Full Text Available The steady boundary layer flow and heat transfer of a viscous fluid on a moving flat plate in a parallel free stream with variable fluid properties are studied. Two special cases, namely, constant fluid properties and variable fluid viscosity, are considered. The transformed boundary layer equations are solved numerically by a finite-difference scheme known as Keller-box method. Numerical results for the flow and the thermal fields for both cases are obtained for various values of the free stream parameter and the Prandtl number. It is found that dual solutions exist for both cases when the fluid and the plate move in the opposite directions. Moreover, fluid with constant properties shows drag reduction characteristics compared to fluid with variable viscosity.

  2. Pinhole diffraction holography for fabrication of high-resolution Fresnel zone plates. (United States)

    Sarkar, Sankha S; Solak, Harun H; David, Christian; van der Veen, J Friso


    Fresnel zone plates (FZPs) play an essential role in high spatial resolution x-ray imaging and analysis of materials in many fields. These diffractive lenses are commonly made by serial writing techniques such as electron beam or focused ion beam lithography. Here we show that pinhole diffraction holography has potential to generate FZP patterns that are free from aberrations and imperfections that may be present in alternative fabrication techniques. In this presented method, FZPs are fabricated by recording interference pattern of a spherical wave generated by diffraction through a pinhole, illuminated with coherent plane wave at extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelength. Fundamental and practical issues involved in formation and recording of the interference pattern are considered. It is found that resolution of the produced FZP is directly related to the diameter of the pinhole used and the pinhole size cannot be made arbitrarily small as the transmission of EUV or x-ray light through small pinholes diminishes due to poor refractive index contrast found between materials in these spectral ranges. We also find that the practical restrictions on exposure time due to the light intensity available from current sources directly imposes a limit on the number of zones that can be printed with this method. Therefore a trade-off between the resolution and the FZP diameter exists. Overall, we find that this method can be used to fabricate aberration free FZPs down to a resolution of about 10 nm.

  3. Multilayer on-chip stacked Fresnel zone plates: Hard x-ray fabrication and soft x-ray simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Kenan; Wojcik, Michael J.; Ocola, Leonidas E.; Divan, Ralu; Jacobsen, Chris


    Fresnel zone plates are widely used as x-ray nanofocusing optics. To achieve high spatial resolution combined with good focusing efficiency, high aspect ratio nanolithography is required, and one way to achieve that is through multiple e-beam lithography writing steps to achieve on-chip stacking. A two-step writing process producing 50 nm finest zone width at a zone thickness of 1.14 µm for possible hard x-ray applications is shown here. The authors also consider in simulations the case of soft x-ray focusing where the zone thickness might exceed the depth of focus. In this case, the authors compare on-chip stacking with, and without, adjustment of zone positions and show that the offset zones lead to improved focusing efficiency. The simulations were carried out using a multislice propagation method employing Hankel transforms.

  4. DNS of heat transfer in transitional, accelerated boundary layer flow over a flat plate affected by free-stream fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wissink, Jan G.; Rodi, Wolfgang


    Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of flow over and heat transfer from a flat plate affected by free-stream fluctuations were performed. A contoured upper wall was employed to generate a favourable streamwise pressure gradient along a large portion of the flat plate. The free-stream fluctuations originated from a separate LES of isotropic turbulence in a box. In the laminar portions of the accelerating boundary layer flow the formation of streaks was observed to induce an increase in heat transfer by the exchange of hot fluid near the surface of the plate and cold fluid from the free-stream. In the regions where the streamwise pressure gradient was only mildly favourable, intermittent turbulent spots were detected which relaminarised downstream as the streamwise pressure gradient became stronger. The relaminarisation of the turbulent spots was reflected by a slight decrease in the friction coefficient, which converged to its laminar value in the region where the streamwise pressure gradient was strongest.

  5. Dynamic Stress Concentration at the Boundary of an Incision at the Plate Under the Action of Weak Shock Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikulich Olena


    Full Text Available This paper proposes the novel technique for analysis of dynamic stress state of multi-connected infinite plates under the action of weak shock waves. For solution of the problem it uses the integral and discrete Fourier transforms. Calculation of transformed dynamic stresses at the incisions of plates is held using the boundary-integral equation method and the theory of complex variable functions. The numerical implementation of the developed algorithm is based on the method of mechanical quadratures and collocation technique. For calculation of originals of the dynamic stresses it uses modified discrete Fourier transform. The algorithm is effective in the analysis of the dynamic stress state of defective plates.

  6. Imaging the deep structures of the convergent plates along the Ecuadorian subduction zone through receiver function analysis (United States)

    Galve, A.; Charvis, P.; Regnier, M. M.; Font, Y.; Nocquet, J. M.; Segovia, M.


    The Ecuadorian subduction zone was affected by several large M>7.5 earthquakes. While we have low resolution on the 1942, 1958 earthquakes rupture zones extension, the 2016 Pedernales earthquake, that occurs at the same location than the 1942 earthquake, give strong constraints on the deep limit of the seismogenic zone. This downdip limit is caused by the onset of plasticity at a critical temperature (> 350-450 °C for crustal materials, or serpentinized mantle wedge, and eventually > 700 °C for dry mantle). However we still don't know exactly where is the upper plate Moho and therefore what controls the downdip limit of Ecuadorian large earthquakes seismogenic zone. For several years Géoazur and IG-EPN have maintained permanent and temporary networks (ADN and JUAN projects) along the margin to register the subduction zone seismological activity. Although Ecuador is not a good place to perform receiver function due to its position with respect to the worldwide teleseismic sources, the very long time deployment compensate this issue. We performed a frequency dependent receiver function analysis to derive (1) the thickness of the downgoing plate, (2) the interplate depth and (3) the upper plate Moho. These constraints give the frame to interpretation on the seismogenic zone of the 2016 Pedernales earthquake.

  7. Unsteady heat-flux measurements of second-mode instability waves in a hypersonic flat-plate boundary layer (United States)

    Kegerise, Michael A.; Rufer, Shann J.


    In this paper, we report on the application of the atomic layer thermopile (ALTP) heat-flux sensor to the measurement of laminar-to-turbulent transition in a hypersonic flat-plate boundary layer. The centerline of the flat-plate model was instrumented with a streamwise array of ALTP sensors, and the flat-plate model was exposed to a Mach 6 freestream over a range of unit Reynolds numbers. Here, we observed an unstable band of frequencies that are associated with second-mode instability waves in the laminar boundary layer that forms on the flat-plate surface. The measured frequencies, group velocities, phase speeds, and wavelengths of these instability waves are consistent with data previously reported in the literature. Heat flux time series, and the Morlet wavelet transforms of them, revealed the wave-packet nature of the second-mode instability waves. In addition, a laser-based radiative heating system was used to measure the frequency response functions (FRF) of the ALTP sensors used in the wind tunnel test. These measurements were used to assess the stability of the sensor FRFs over time and to correct spectral estimates for any attenuation caused by the finite sensor bandwidth.

  8. Lithospheric Structure of the Incoming Nazca Plate Adjacent to the 2014 Iquique Earthquake Rupture Zone (United States)

    Myers, E. K.; Trehu, A. M.; Davenport, K. K.; Roland, E. C.


    The 2014 Iquique Mw 8.1 earthquake occurred within a 500-km long segment of the Peru-Chile subduction zone that had not experienced a significant earthquake since 1877. This event did not fill the entire seismic gap and details of the deformation, along with local gravity anomalies, point to a geologic control on slip behavior. To better constrain along-strike changes in geologic or morphologic features and the correlation with earthquake rupture, the 2016 PICTURES (Pisagua-Iquique Crustal Tomography to Understand the Region of the Earthquake Source) experiment collected multichannel seismic (MCS) and ocean bottom seismometer (OBS) data from across the deformation front and incoming Nazca plate within the area of the 2014 earthquake. Here, we provide a first look at MCS reflection data from this experiment that images the Nazca plate along an uninterrupted 170 km line perpendicular to the region of greatest slip, acquired using the R/V Langseth's 12.5 km streamer and 6600 cc gun array. We summarize structural features of the incoming oceanic lithosphere and present a preliminary 2D velocity model that spans the Nazca outer rise to the trench along the Iquique Ridge (IR). The IR represents a broad, high oceanic feature (HOF) that roughly spans the entire seismic gap. The source of buoyancy and reduced seismic velocities of the IR swell are thought to be produced by isostatically compensated, overthickened crust or anomalously low density mantle due to heating or serpentinization, and we explore these two hypotheses using our preliminary velocity model. Past outer rise deformation modeling suggests a significant bending moment and vertical force at the trench axis, a source for broad, homogenous coupling as the HOF converges the margin. However, decreased incoming sediment and rough topography associated with numerous large seamounts may also lead to a thin subduction channel, influencing heterogeneous rupture behavior. Seaward of the Iquique 2014 event, our initial

  9. Unsteady boundary layer flow and heat transfer of a Casson fluid past an oscillating vertical plate with Newtonian heating.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abid Hussanan

    Full Text Available In this paper, the heat transfer effect on the unsteady boundary layer flow of a Casson fluid past an infinite oscillating vertical plate with Newtonian heating is investigated. The governing equations are transformed to a systems of linear partial differential equations using appropriate non-dimensional variables. The resulting equations are solved analytically by using the Laplace transform method and the expressions for velocity and temperature are obtained. They satisfy all imposed initial and boundary conditions and reduce to some well-known solutions for Newtonian fluids. Numerical results for velocity, temperature, skin friction and Nusselt number are shown in various graphs and discussed for embedded flow parameters. It is found that velocity decreases as Casson parameters increases and thermal boundary layer thickness increases with increasing Newtonian heating parameter.

  10. Unsteady boundary layer flow and heat transfer of a Casson fluid past an oscillating vertical plate with Newtonian heating. (United States)

    Hussanan, Abid; Zuki Salleh, Mohd; Tahar, Razman Mat; Khan, Ilyas


    In this paper, the heat transfer effect on the unsteady boundary layer flow of a Casson fluid past an infinite oscillating vertical plate with Newtonian heating is investigated. The governing equations are transformed to a systems of linear partial differential equations using appropriate non-dimensional variables. The resulting equations are solved analytically by using the Laplace transform method and the expressions for velocity and temperature are obtained. They satisfy all imposed initial and boundary conditions and reduce to some well-known solutions for Newtonian fluids. Numerical results for velocity, temperature, skin friction and Nusselt number are shown in various graphs and discussed for embedded flow parameters. It is found that velocity decreases as Casson parameters increases and thermal boundary layer thickness increases with increasing Newtonian heating parameter.

  11. Studying the active deformation of distributed plate boundaries by integration of GNSS networks (United States)

    D'Agostino, Nicola; Avallone, Antonio; Cecere, Gianpaolo; D'Anastasio, Elisabetta


    In the last decade GNSS networks installed for different purposes have proliferated in Italy and now provide a large amount of data available to geophysical studies. In addition to the existing regional and nation-wide scientific GNSS networks developed by ASI (, INGV ( and OGS (, a large number (> 400) of continuously-operating GPS stations have been installed in the framework of regional and national networks, both publicly-operated and commercial, developed to provide real-time positioning capability to surveyors. Although the quality of the data and metadata associated to these stations is generally lower with respect to the "scientific" CGPS stations, the increased density and redundancy in crustal motion information, resulting in more than 500 stations with more than 2.5 years of observations, significantly increase the knowledge of the active deformation of the Italian territory and provides a unique image of the crustal deformation field. The obtained GPS velocity field is analysed and various features ranging from the definition of strain distribution and microplate kinematics within the plate boundary, to the evaluation of tectonic strain accumulation on active faults are presented in this work. Undeforming, aseismic regions (Sardinia, Southern Apulia) provide test sites to evaluate the lower bound on the accuracy achievable to measure tectonic deformation. Integration of GNSS networks significantly improves the resolution of the strain rate field in Central Italy showing that active deformation is concentrated in a narrow belt along the crest of the Apennines, consistently with the distribution of the largest historical and recent earthquakes. Products derived from dense GPS velocity and strain rate fields include map of earthquake potential developed under the assumption that the rate of seismic moment accumulation measured from geodesy distributes into earthquake sizes that

  12. 77 FR 55800 - Foreign-Trade Zone 242-Boundary County, ID; Application for Subzone AREVA Enrichment Services... (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [B-68-2012] Foreign-Trade Zone 242--Boundary County, ID; Application for Subzone AREVA Enrichment Services, LLC; Bonneville County, ID An application... FTZ 242, requesting special-purpose subzone status for the facility of AREVA Enrichment Services, LLC...

  13. The analysis of bainitic ferrite microstructure in microalloyed plate steels through quantitative characterization of intervariant boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Singon, E-mail: [Advanced Steel Processing and Products Research Center, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Speer, John G.; Regier, Ryan W. [Advanced Steel Processing and Products Research Center, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Nako, Hidenori [Advanced Steel Processing and Products Research Center, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Materials Research Laboratory, Kobe Steel Ltd., Kobe, Hyogo 651-2271 (Japan); Kennett, Shane C. [Advanced Steel Processing and Products Research Center, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Exponent Failure Analysis Associates, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Findley, Kip O. [Advanced Steel Processing and Products Research Center, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401 (United States)


    Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) measurements were performed to investigate the bainitic ferrite microstructure in low-carbon, microalloyed steels with varying C and Mn contents. Fully austenitized samples were isothermally heat treated at temperatures ranging from 450 to 550 °C to form bainitic ferrite. The bainitic ferrite microstructures and boundary characteristics obtained from the EBSD measurements were analyzed based on an inferred Kurdjumov-Sachs (K-S) orientation relationship. The heat treated samples exhibit a microstructure composed of laths and the lath aspect ratio tends to increase at lower isothermal heat treatment temperatures. High fractions of boundary misorientation angles below 5° are observed, which are due to lath boundaries in the microstructure. Additionally, misorientations of approximately 7°, 53° and 60° are observed, which are related to the sub-block, packet, and block boundaries, respectively. With decreasing isothermal heat treatment temperature, there is an increase of block boundaries; these boundaries are intervariant boundaries between different blocks within a packet, most of which have the misorientation angle of 60°. The specimens with a higher carbon level contained increased length of block boundaries, whereas the addition of Mn moderated the dependence of block boundary length on the heat treatment temperature within the experimental temperature range. Meanwhile, the length of intervariant boundaries of both packet and sub-block character did not vary much with heat treatment temperature and alloy composition.

  14. Greenland Fracture Zone-East Greenland Ridge(s) revisited: Indications of a C22-change in plate motion?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Døssing, Arne; Funck, T.


    a reinterpretation of the Greenland Fracture Zone -East Greenland Ridge based on new and existing geophysical data. Evidence is shown for two overstepping ridge segments (Segments A and B) of which Segment A corresponds to the already known East Greenland Ridge while Segment B was not detected previously......Changes in the lithospheric stress field, causing axial rift migration and reorientation of the transform, are generally proposed as an explanation for anomalously old crust and/or major aseismic valleys in oceanic ridge-transform-ridge settings. Similarly, transform migration of the Greenland...... Fracture Zone and separation of the 200-km-long, fracture-zone-parallel continental East Greenland Ridge from the Eurasia plate is thought to be related to a major change in relative plate motions between Greenland and Eurasia during the earliest Oligocene (Chron 13 time). This study presents...

  15. Constraints on the rheology of the lower crust in a strike-slip plate boundary: evidence from the San Quintín xenoliths, Baja California, Mexico (United States)

    van der Werf, Thomas; Chatzaras, Vasileios; Marcel Kriegsman, Leo; Kronenberg, Andreas; Tikoff, Basil; Drury, Martyn R.


    The rheology of lower crust and its transient behavior in active strike-slip plate boundaries remain poorly understood. To address this issue, we analyzed a suite of granulite and lherzolite xenoliths from the upper Pleistocene-Holocene San Quintín volcanic field of northern Baja California, Mexico. The San Quintín volcanic field is located 20 km east of the Baja California shear zone, which accommodates the relative movement between the Pacific plate and Baja California microplate. The development of a strong foliation in both the mafic granulites and lherzolites, suggests that a lithospheric-scale shear zone exists beneath the San Quintín volcanic field. Combining microstructural observations, geothermometry, and phase equilibria modeling, we estimated that crystal-plastic deformation took place at temperatures of 750-890 °C and pressures of 400-560 MPa, corresponding to 15-22 km depth. A hot crustal geotherm of 40 ° C km-1 is required to explain the estimated deformation conditions. Infrared spectroscopy shows that plagioclase in the mafic granulites is relatively dry. Microstructures are interpreted to show that deformation in both the uppermost lower crust and upper mantle was accommodated by a combination of dislocation creep and grain-size-sensitive creep. Recrystallized grain size paleopiezometry yields low differential stresses of 12-33 and 17 MPa for plagioclase and olivine, respectively. The lower range of stresses (12-17 MPa) in the mafic granulite and lherzolite xenoliths is interpreted to be associated with transient deformation under decreasing stress conditions, following an event of stress increase. Using flow laws for dry plagioclase, we estimated a low viscosity of 1.1-1.3×1020 Pa ṡ s for the high temperature conditions (890 °C) in the lower crust. Significantly lower viscosities in the range of 1016-1019 Pa ṡ s, were estimated using flow laws for wet plagioclase. The shallow upper mantle has a low viscosity of 5.7×1019 Pa ṡ s

  16. Pyrolysis and Boundary Layer Combustion of a Non-Charring Solid Plate Under Forced Flow

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ananth, Ramagopal


    Solutions of Navier-Stokes (NS) equations were obtained for burning rate Nu and temperature distributions for a flat PMMA plate using an iterative method to impose steady-state, pyrolysis kinetics at the surface...

  17. Large-eddy simulation of separation and reattachment of a flat plate turbulent boundary layer

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, W.


    © 2015 Cambridge University Press. We present large-eddy simulations (LES) of separation and reattachment of a flat-plate turbulent boundary-layer flow. Instead of resolving the near wall region, we develop a two-dimensional virtual wall model which can calculate the time- and space-dependent skin-friction vector field at the wall, at the resolved scale. By combining the virtual-wall model with the stretched-vortex subgrid-scale (SGS) model, we construct a self-consistent framework for the LES of separating and reattaching turbulent wall-bounded flows at large Reynolds numbers. The present LES methodology is applied to two different experimental flows designed to produce separation/reattachment of a flat-plate turbulent boundary layer at medium Reynolds number Reθ based on the momentum boundary-layer thickness θ. Comparison with data from the first case at demonstrates the present capability for accurate calculation of the variation, with the streamwise co-ordinate up to separation, of the skin friction coefficient, Reθ, the boundary-layer shape factor and a non-dimensional pressure-gradient parameter. Additionally the main large-scale features of the separation bubble, including the mean streamwise velocity profiles, show good agreement with experiment. At the larger Reθ = 11000 of the second case, the LES provides good postdiction of the measured skin-friction variation along the whole streamwise extent of the experiment, consisting of a very strong adverse pressure gradient leading to separation within the separation bubble itself, and in the recovering or reattachment region of strongly-favourable pressure gradient. Overall, the present two-dimensional wall model used in LES appears to be capable of capturing the quantitative features of a separation-reattachment turbulent boundary-layer flow at low to moderately large Reynolds numbers.

  18. Effects of Thermal Radiation and Chemical Reaction on MHD Free Convection Flow past a Flat Plate with Heat Source and Convective Surface Boundary Condition


    E.Hemalatha; N. Bhaskar Reddy


    This paper analyzes the radiation and chemical reaction effects on MHD steady two-dimensional laminar viscous incompressible radiating boundary layer flow over a flat plate in the presence of internal heat generation and convective boundary condition. It is assumed that lower surface of the plate is in contact with a hot fluid while a stream of cold fluid flows steadily over the upper surface with a heat source that decays exponentially. The Rosseland approximation is used to desc...

  19. Measurement of an electron-beam size with a beam profile monitor using Fresnel zone plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, K.; Nakamura, N.; Sakai, H.; Shinoe, K.; Takaki, H.; Fujisawa, M.; Hayano, H.; Nomura, M.; Kamiya, Y.; Koseki, T.; Amemiya, Y.; Aoki, N.; Nakayama, K.


    We present a non-destructive and real-time beam profile monitor using Fresnel zone plates (FZPs) and the measurement of an electron-beam size with this monitor in the KEK-Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) damping ring. The monitor system has the structure of a long-distance X-ray microscope, where two FZPs constitute an X-ray imaging optics. The synchrotron radiation from the electron beam at the bending magnet is monochromatized by a crystal monochromator and the transverse electron beam image is twenty times magnified by the two FZPs and detected on an X-ray CCD camera. The expected spatial resolution for the selected photon energy of 3.235 keV is sufficiently high to measure the horizontal and vertical beam sizes of the ATF damping ring. With the beam profile monitor, we succeeded in obtaining a clear electron-beam image and measuring the extremely small beam size less than 10 μm. The measured magnification of the X-ray imaging optics in the monitor system was in good agreement with the design value

  20. Plate Boundary Observatory Infrastructure and Data Products in Education and Outreach (United States)

    Eriksson, S. C.; Barbour, K.; Lee, E.


    As one of three major components of NSF's EarthScope program, the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) encourages the integration of research and education. Informing various communities about the current work of PBO and the scientific discoveries related to the use of this instrumentation has contributed to the success of PBO during the first two years of the EarthScope project. UNAVCO(PBO), IRIS (USArray), and the EarthScope project office work together to integrate Education and Outreach (E&O) opportunities into a program that is greater than the sum of its parts and yet maintains the identity of each organization. Building and maintaining the PBO website, documenting and archiving activities of PBO, providing short courses for professional development of scientists using EarthScope data, and developing higher level data products with an appropriate educational framework are a few of the activities that provide both challenges and opportunities. The internet, particularly the World Wide Web, has become the primary tool for disseminating information to various audiences. The primary goals of the PBO website are to provide current information on the progress of GPS and Strainmeter facility construction; to provide access to different levels of data products; and to facilitate networking with and among scientists. Challenges for the PBO website include publishing current stories on installation projects while coordinating with field engineers on a regular basis; providing near to real time updates and maintaining quality assurance processes; and defining personnel requirements for a maintaining a dynamic website. Currently, archived photographs, web diaries, and numerous web highlights document PBO's success and provide a visual record of PBO's accomplishments and behind-the-scene activities over the last two years. The community charged PBO with increasing the number of scientists using its data. UNAVCO does this by providing short courses for professional development

  1. Locating seismicity on the Arctic plate boundary using multiple-event techniques and empirical signal processing (United States)

    Gibbons, S. J.; Harris, D. B.; Dahl-Jensen, T.; Kværna, T.; Larsen, T. B.; Paulsen, B.; Voss, P. H.


    The oceanic boundary separating the Eurasian and North American plates between 70° and 84° north hosts large earthquakes which are well recorded teleseismically, and many more seismic events at far lower magnitudes that are well recorded only at regional distances. Existing seismic bulletins have considerable spread and bias resulting from limited station coverage and deficiencies in the velocity models applied. This is particularly acute for the lower magnitude events which may only be constrained by a small number of Pn and Sn arrivals. Over the past two decades there has been a significant improvement in the seismic network in the Arctic: a difficult region to instrument due to the harsh climate, a sparsity of accessible sites (particularly at significant distances from the sea), and the expense and difficult logistics of deploying and maintaining stations. New deployments and upgrades to stations on Greenland, Svalbard, Jan Mayen, Hopen, and Bjørnøya have resulted in a sparse but stable regional seismic network which results in events down to magnitudes below 3 generating high-quality Pn and Sn signals on multiple stations. A catalogue of several hundred events in the region since 1998 has been generated using many new phase readings on stations on both sides of the spreading ridge in addition to teleseismic P phases. A Bayesian multiple event relocation has resulted in a significant reduction in the spread of hypocentre estimates for both large and small events. Whereas single event location algorithms minimize vectors of time residuals on an event-by-event basis, the Bayesloc program finds a joint probability distribution of origins, hypocentres, and corrections to traveltime predictions for large numbers of events. The solutions obtained favour those event hypotheses resulting in time residuals which are most consistent over a given source region. The relocations have been performed with different 1-D velocity models applicable to the Arctic region and

  2. Predictions of the effect of stratification on superimposed forced and free convection between vertical parallel plates for various boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, G.H.; Irvine, T.J. Jr.; Quarini, G.L.


    The velocity and temperature equations for laminar buoyancy and forced convection flows between vertical flat parallel plates are presented. The thermal boundary conditions on the plate define the buoyancy driven field, while the channel Reynolds number defines the forced flow field. Specific examples relating to tall narrow channels with laminar convention and to closed high ratio cavities (as may be found in the proposed active and passive insulation systems for sodium cooled fast reactors) are presented. The analysis is limited to the laminar flow regimes, whilst some reactor situations are likely to be turbulent, hence a proposal for a simple extension of this analysis to the turbulent regime is made. It is shown how the analysis can be made to apply to fluids of various Prandtl numbers. (author)

  3. Coupled effects of director orientations and boundary conditions on light induced bending of monodomain nematic liquid crystalline polymer plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, Yue; Ding, Shurong; Huo, Yongzhong; Xu, Changwei


    A photo-chromic liquid crystal polymers (LCPs) is a smart material for large light-activated variation or bending to transfer luminous energy into mechanical energy. We study the light induced behavior by modeling planar and homeotropic nematic network polymer plates. We effectively illustrate some reported experimental outcomes and theoretically predict some possible bending patterns. This paper constructs an understanding between the bending behaviors and interactions among the alignments, aspect ratios and boundary conditions, etc. Our work provides information on optimizing light induced bending in the process of micro-opto-mechanical system (MOMS) design. (paper)

  4. Hall effects on free convection hydromagnetic boundary layer flow of Rivlin-Ericksen fluid past a vertical plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, P.K.


    An attempt has been made to study the problem of free convection hydromagnetic flow of an elastico-viscous fluid past a porous vertical plate in a rotating frame of reference taking ohmic and viscous dissipations into account in the presence of Hall current. The nature of velocity profile shows the existence of multiple boundary layers. Their 'thickness' is seen to decrease with increasing values of Ekman, Hartman and Prandtl numbers and Hall parameter. The graphical study reveals that the increasing values of Hall parameter and Ekman number (for a fixed large value of Hall parameter) exert opposite influence on the flow. (author). 11 refs., 2 tables

  5. An experimental investigation of laminar free convection from a vertical flat plate at general boundary condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aharon, J.; Lahav, C.; Kalman, H.; Shai, I.


    The present work deals with natural convection on a vertical flat plate, where one side of the plate is exposed to an environment of constant temperature - T a , with which heat is exchanged at an effective heat transfer coefficient, Glen. The other side of the plate is exposed to a fluid at a different temperature -T ∞ . The temperature gradient induces a natural convection in the fluid. The present investigation treats the heat transfer problem in the laminar cone in air (P r =1). An experimental apparatus has been constructed to confirm the heat transfer features predicted analytically in previous work. The local experimental Nusselt number was correlated with the modified Rayleigh number, for the laminar range. (authors)

  6. Creep deformation behavior of weld metal and heat affected zone on 316FR steel thick plate welded joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hongo, Hiromichi; Yamazaki, Masayoshi; Watanabe, Takashi; Kinugawa, Junichi; Tanabe, Tatsuhiko; Monma, Yoshio; Nakazawa, Takanori


    Using hot-rolled 316FR stainless plate (50 mm thick) and 16Cr-8Ni-2Mo filler wire, a narrow-gap welded joint was prepared by GTAW (gas tungsten arc welding) process. In addition to conventional round bar specimens of base metals and weld metal, full-thickness joint specimens were prepared for creep test. Creep tests were conducted at 550degC in order to examine creep deformation and rupture behavior in the weld metal of the welded joint. Creep strain distribution on the surface of the joint specimen was measured by moire interferometry. In the welded joint, creep strength of the weld metal zone apart from the surface was larger than that in the vicinity of the surface due to repeating heat cycles during welding. Creep strain and creep rate within the HAZ adjacent to the weld metal zone were smaller than those within the base metal zone. Creep rate of the weld metal zone in the welded joint was smaller than that of the weld metal specimen due to the restraint of the hardened HAZ adjacent to the zone. The full-thickness welded joint specimens showed longer lives than weld metal specimens, though the lives of the latter was shorter than those of the base metal (undermatching). In the full-thickness welded joint specimen, crack started from the last pass layer of the weld metal zone and fracture occurred at the zone. From the results mentioned above, in order to evaluate the creep properties of the welded joint correctly, it is necessary to conduct the creep test using the full-thickness welded joint specimen which includes the weakest zones of the weld metal, the front and back sides of the plate. (author)

  7. Fresnel zone-plate based X-ray microscopy in Zernike phase contrast with sub-50 nm resolution at NSRL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Jie; Li Wenjie; Tian Jinping; Liu Longhua; Xiong Ying; Liu Gang; Wu Ziyu; Tian Yangchao [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (China); Liu Yijin [School of Physics (China); Yue Zhengbo; Yu Hanqing [Laboratory of Environmental Engineering, School of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei Anhui 230029 (China); Wang Chunru, E-mail: [Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 10060 (China)


    A transmission X-ray microscope using Fresnel zone-plates (FZPs) has been installed at U7A beamline of National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (NSRL). The objective FZP with 45 nm outermost zone width delivers a sub-50 nm resolution. A gold phase ring with 2.5 {mu}m thickness and 4 {mu}m width was placed at the focal plane of the objective FZP at 8 keV to produce a negative Zernike phase contrast. A series of samples were used to test the performance of the Zernike phase contrast X-ray microscopy.

  8. Fresnel zone-plate based X-ray microscopy in Zernike phase contrast with sub-50 nm resolution at NSRL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jie; Li Wenjie; Tian Jinping; Liu Longhua; Xiong Ying; Liu Gang; Wu Ziyu; Tian Yangchao; Liu Yijin; Yue Zhengbo; Yu Hanqing; Wang Chunru


    A transmission X-ray microscope using Fresnel zone-plates (FZPs) has been installed at U7A beamline of National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (NSRL). The objective FZP with 45 nm outermost zone width delivers a sub-50 nm resolution. A gold phase ring with 2.5 μm thickness and 4 μm width was placed at the focal plane of the objective FZP at 8 keV to produce a negative Zernike phase contrast. A series of samples were used to test the performance of the Zernike phase contrast X-ray microscopy.

  9. The thermal effects of steady-state slab-driven mantle flow above a subducting plate: the Cascadia subduction zone and backarc (United States)

    Currie, C. A.; Wang, K.; Hyndman, Roy D.; He, Jiangheng


    At subduction zones, geophysical and geochemical observations indicate that the arc and backarc regions are hot, in spite of the cooling effects of a subducting plate. At the well-studied Cascadia subduction zone, high mantle temperatures persist for over 500 km into the backarc, with little lateral variation. These high temperatures are even more surprising due to the juxtaposition of the hot Cascadia backarc against the thick, cold North America craton lithosphere. Given that local heat sources appear to be negligible, mantle flow is required to transport heat into the wedge and backarc. We have examined the thermal effects of mantle flow induced by traction along the top of the subducting plate. Through systematic tests of the backarc model boundary, we have shown that the model thermal structure of the wedge is primarily determined by the assumed temperatures along this boundary. To get high temperatures in the wedge, it is necessary for flow to mine heat from depth, either by using a temperature-dependent rheology, or by introducing a deep cold boundary through a thick adjacent lithosphere, consistent with the presence of a craton. Regardless of the thermal conditions along the backarc boundary, flow within an isoviscous wedge is too slow to transport a significant amount of heat into the wedge corner. With a more realistic stress- and temperature-dependent wedge rheology, flow is focused into the wedge corner, resulting in rapid flow upward toward the corner and enhanced temperatures below the arc, compatible with temperatures required for arc magma generation. However, this strong flow focusing produces a nearly stagnant region further landward in the shallow backarc mantle, where model temperatures and heat flow are much lower than observed. Observations of high backarc temperatures, particularly in areas that have not undergone recent extension, provide an important constraint on wedge dynamics. None of the models of simple traction-driven flow were able

  10. Analysis and interpretation of soft X-ray photographs of coronal active regions taken with Fresnel zone plates. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraemer, G.; Einighammer, H.J.; Elwert, G.; Braeuninger, H.; Fink, H.H.; Truemper, J.


    Soft X-ray photographs of the Sun taken at O VII 21.6 A and in a spectral band ranging from 13.2 to 22.1 A have been analysed in order to establish spatially resolved maps of temperature and emission measure for several active regions in the corona. The photographs were taken on 11 March, 1971, and on 2 March, 1972, with Fresnel zone plate cameras which were flown on ESRO and NRI sounding rockets. The authors deal with those aspects of the instrumentation which are important for setting up a suitable image analysis procedure. The characteristics of the wavelength dependent image formation by zone plates combined with absorption filters are discussed. Results of the calibration of the X-ray film are given. Then a specific iterative data reduction procedure is described and finally the resulting maps of temperature and emission measure are presented for a selected active region. (Auth.)

  11. Free Convection over a Permeable Horizontal Flat Plate Embedded in a Porous Medium with Radiation Effects and Mixed Thermal Boundary Conditions


    Najiyah S. Khasi'ie; Roziena Khairuddin; Najihah Mohamed; Mohd Zuki Salleh; Roslinda Nazar; Ioan Pop


    Problem statement: In this study, the mathematical modeling of free convection boundary layer flow over a permeable horizontal flat plate embedded in a porous medium under mixed thermal boundary conditions and radiation effects is considered. Approach: The transformed boundary layer equations are solved numerically using the shooting method. Results: Numerical solutions are obtained for the wall temperature, the heat transfer coefficient, as well as the velocity and temperature profiles. The ...

  12. Trigonal warping and photo-induced effects on zone boundary phonon in monolayer graphene (United States)

    Akay, D.


    We have reported the electronic band structure of monolayer graphene when the combined effects arising from the trigonal warp and highest zone-boundary phonons having A1 g symmetry with Haldane interaction which induced photo-irradiation effect. On the basis of our model, we have introduced a diagonalization to solve the associated Fröhlich Hamiltonian. We have examined that, a trigonal warping effect is introduced on the K and K ' points, leading to a dynamical band gap in the graphene electronic band spectrum due to the electron-A1 g phonon interaction and Haldane mass interaction. Additionally, the bands exhibited an anisotropy at this point. It is also found that, photo-irradiation effect is quite smaller than the trigonal warp effects in the graphene electronic band spectrum. In spite of this, controllability of the photo induced effects by the Haldane mass will have extensive implications in the graphene.

  13. Invasion of alien plants in fire-damaged forests at southern boundary of the taiga zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khapugin, A.A.; Vargot, E.V.; Chugunov, G.G.; Shugaev, N.I.


    Aim of the study: Biological invasions are one of the most important areas of forest research. In this study, we revealed invasibility of fire-damaged forests at the southern boundary of the taiga zone. Area of study: The Mordovia State Nature Reserve (Central Russia). Material and Methods: Altogether, 11 square plots of each 100 ×100 m were established in different types of fire-damaged forests. To test plant invasion outside the established plots, field researches were carried out by route method in fire-damaged area of the Mordovia Reserve. Main Results: Six alien species (Erigeron canadensis, E. annuus, Oenothera biennis, Lactuca serriola, Sambucus racemosa, Viola arvensis) were registered within the established plots in 2011–2014. In addition, two alien invasive plants (Solidago canadensis and Bidens frondosa) were found outside these plots. No differences were detected in invasibility of the tested forest ecosystems. Research highlights: Among the revealed alien species, Erigeron canadensis, Lactuca serriola and Solidago canadensis are the most invasive plants in forest ecosystems. The first one was observed with a high occurrence frequency and abundance in all forest types tested. The second one has not been differed by abundance, but it characterized by a high competition as well as a large biomass and a large number of seeds. Solidago canadensis penetrated to natural forest ecosystem in a short time period due to closest location of its dispersal centers near the boundary of the Mordovia Reserve. These species are the most probable invaders of the forest ecosystems. (Author)

  14. Boundary integral equation methods in eigenvalue problems of elastodynamics and thin plates

    CERN Document Server

    Kitahara, M


    The boundary integral equation (BIE) method has been used more and more in the last 20 years for solving various engineering problems. It has important advantages over other techniques for numerical treatment of a wide class of boundary value problems and is now regarded as an indispensable tool for potential problems, electromagnetism problems, heat transfer, fluid flow, elastostatics, stress concentration and fracture problems, geomechanical problems, and steady-state and transient electrodynamics.In this book, the author gives a complete, thorough and detailed survey of the method. It pro

  15. Boundary layer structure observed by Shipborne Doppler Sodar in the Suez Canal zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiocco, G.; Mastrantonio, G.; Ricotta, A.


    Observations of the boundary layer with a monostatic Sodar and other instrumentation were carried out in the Suez canal zone in January and March 1979, from the Italian m.v. Salernum on its way to and from a GARP assignment. The Sodar was operated almost continuously throughout the passages. In addition to the intensity records, an off-line Doppler analysis involving the use of the fast Fourier transform of the digitized Sodar echoes has provided the vertical component w of the velocity. In general, because of efficient filtering and of the good quality of the data, a vertical profile of w has been determined for each transmitted pulse. During a prolonged stay in the Bitter lakes vertical profiles of temperature and humidity were also obtained by deploying a tethered balloon. Large temporal and spatial temperature contrasts exist in the canal zone due to the presence of the desert and of large and small bodies of water. The ensuring phenomenology during the time of observation was quite varied. (author)

  16. Boundary layer structure observed by Shipborne Doppler Sonar in the Suez Canal zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiocco, G. (Rome Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica); Mastrantonio, G.; Ricotta, A. (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Frascati (Italy). Lab. per il Plasma nello Spazio)

    Observations of the boundary layer with a monostatic Sonar and other instrumentation were carried out in the Suez canal zone in January and March 1979, from the Italian m.v. Salernum on its way to and from a GARP assignment. The Sonar was operated almost continuously throughout the passages. In addition to the intensity records, an off-line Doppler analysis involving the use of the fast Fourier transform of the digitized Sonar echoes has provided the vertical component w of the velocity. In general, because of efficient filtering and of the good quality of the data, a vertical profile of w has been determined for each transmitted pulse. During a prolonged stay in the Bitter lakes vertical profiles of temperature and humidity were also obtained by deploying a tethered balloon. Large temporal and spatial temperature contrasts exist in the canal zone due to the presence of the desert and of large and small bodies of water. The ensuring phenomenology during the time of observation was quite varied.

  17. Experiments of dike-induced deformation: Insights on the long-term evolution of divergent plate boundaries

    KAUST Repository

    Trippanera, D.


    The shallow transport of magma occurs through dikes causing surface deformation. Our understanding of the effects of diking at the surface is limited, especially on the long term, for repeated intrusive episodes. We use analogue models to study the upper crustal deformation induced by dikes. We insert metal plates within cohesive sand with three setups: in setup A, the intrusion rises upward with constant thickness and in setups B and C, the intrusion thickens at a fixed depth, with final rectangular (setup B) or triangular (setup C) shape in section. Setup A creates a doming delimited by reverse faults, with secondary apical graben, without close correspondence in nature. In setups B and C, a depression flanked by two uplifted areas is bordered by inward dipping normal faults propagating downward and, for deeper intrusions in setup B, also by inner faults, reverse at the surface; this deformation is similar to what is observed in nature, suggesting a consistent physical behavior. Dikes in nature initially propagate developing a mode I fracture at the tip, subsequently thickened by magma intrusion, without any host rock translation in the propagation direction (as in setup A). The deformation pattern in setups B and C depends on the intrusion depth and thickness, consistently to what is observed along divergent plate boundaries. The early deformation in setups B and C is similar to that from a single rifting episode (i.e., Lakagigar, Iceland, and Dabbahu, Afar), whereas the late stages resemble the structure of mature rifts (i.e., Krafla, Iceland), confirming diking as a major process in shaping divergent plate boundaries.

  18. Shear flow beneath oceanic plates: Local nonsimilarity boundary layers for olivine rheology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuen, D.A.; Tovish, A.; Schubert, G.


    The principle of local similarity, which has been used to model the two-dimensional boundary layers in the oceanic upper mantle, permits calculation of the temperature, velocity, and stress fields with essentially analytic techniques. Finite difference numerical methods are hard pressed to resolve the detail required by the large variation of viscosity between the lithosphere and the asthenosphere. In this paper the local similarity approximation has been justified by quantitatively evaluating the effect of nonsimilarity due to viscous heating, nonlinear temperature- and pressure-dependent rheology, buoyancy, adiabatic cooling, etc. Nonsimilar effects produce only small modifications of the locally similar boundary layers; important geophysical observables such as surface heat flux and ocean floor topography are given to better than 10% by the locally similar solution. A posteriori evaluations of the term neglected in the boundary layer simplification of the complete equations have been conducted on the locally similar temperature and velocity profiles close to the spreading ridge. The boundary layer models are valid to depths of 100 km at 3 m.y. and 10 km at 0.3 m.y

  19. The Devils Mountain Fault zone: An active Cascadia upper plate zone of deformation, Pacific Northwest of North America (United States)

    Barrie, J. Vaughn; Greene, H. Gary


    The Devils Mountain Fault Zone (DMFZ) extends east to west from Washington State to just south of Victoria, British Columbia, in the northern Strait of Juan de Fuca of Canada and the USA. Recently collected geophysical data were used to map this fault zone in detail, which show the main fault trace, and associated primary and secondary (conjugate) strands, and extensive northeast-southwest oriented folding that occurs within a 6 km wide deformation zone. The fault zone has been active in the Holocene as seen in the offset and disrupted upper Quaternary strata, seafloor displacement, and deformation within sediment cores taken close to the seafloor expression of the faults. Data suggest that the present DMFZ and the re-activated Leech River Fault may be part of the same fault system. Based on the length and previously estimated slip rates of the fault zone in Washington State, the DMFZ appears to have the potential of producing a strong earthquake, perhaps as large as magnitude 7.5 or greater, within 2 km of the city of Victoria.

  20. Large Eddy Simulation of Supersonic Boundary Layer Transition over a Flat-Plate Based on the Spatial Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suozhu Wang


    Full Text Available The large eddy simulation (LES of spatially evolving supersonic boundary layer transition over a flat-plate with freestream Mach number 4.5 is performed in the present work. The Favre-filtered Navier-Stokes equations are used to simulate large scales, while a dynamic mixed subgrid-scale (SGS model is used to simulate subgrid stress. The convective terms are discretized with a fifth-order upwind compact difference scheme, while a sixth-order symmetric compact difference scheme is employed for the diffusive terms. The basic mean flow is obtained from the similarity solution of the compressible laminar boundary layer. In order to ensure the transition from the initial laminar flow to fully developed turbulence, a pair of oblique first-mode perturbation is imposed on the inflow boundary. The whole process of the spatial transition is obtained from the simulation. Through the space-time average, the variations of typical statistical quantities are analyzed. It is found that the distributions of turbulent Mach number, root-mean-square (rms fluctuation quantities, and Reynolds stresses along the wall-normal direction at different streamwise locations exhibit self-similarity in fully developed turbulent region. Finally, the onset and development of large-scale coherent structures through the transition process are depicted.

  1. Thinking and meddling with boundaries: Critical reflections on Matthew Weinstein's narrative of street medics, red-zones and glop (United States)

    Alsop, Steve


    In pursuit of more mindful notions of hybridity, this review essay provides a series of reflections on Mathew Weinstein's representations of Street Medics and `sciences for the red zones of neoliberalism'. My analysis draws on three popular ways of thinking with boundaries to offer a critical reading of the boundary-work that the essay performs with respect to three dialectics: (1) technical and political; (2) disciplinarily and multidisciplinarities; and (3) structures and agencies. I conclude with reflections on my boundary labour as a researcher, writer and pedagogue and how such cultural work might learn to live better with difference, ambiguities, hybrids and cross-hybrid learning.

  2. Where should the upper boundary of the earth's critical zone be? (United States)

    Liu, W.; Zhang, X. J.


    Recently increasing attention has been paid to the study of the critical zone (CZ) of the earth. The upper boundary of the CZ is generally defined as the top of plant canopy, and the lower boundary at the bottom of deep groundwater. The question is whether the ecological, biogeochemical and hydrological processes that are the focuses of CZ research occur within the scope of such boundaries. The role of water is central in these processes as is shown by the current studies as follows. First, there exist water vapor transport strips or pathways with higher flux strength than the surrounding areas in the troposphere, known as "tropospheric rivers" or "atmospheric rivers" (Newell, et al, 1992; Zhu, et al, 1998), specially dubbed as "sky rivers" (Wang, et al, 2016). The sky rivers are connected with the surface and underground rivers by precipitation and evapotranspiration processes, forming a complete water cycle system of the earth. Second, changes in atmospheric composition, such as aerosol increases, the formation of smog, CO2 concentration rising, directly or indirectly affected solar radiation and plant growth, which to a large extent determine potential evapotranspiration and vegetation cover change. Based on the Budyko model, annual water balance at a catchment is closely related to these changes (Zhang, et al., 2001; Ning, et al., 2017). Third, the theory of evaporation complementarity holds that surface evapotranspiration can be completely determined and calculated by meteorological data. Based on the eddy covariance observation for water and heat flux in the Loess Plateau (Brutsaert, et al., 2017), the relationship between calculated and observed ET values becomes stronger from 2m to 32m, which may be related to the existence of a blending height at higher elevations above the ground. Therefore, we deem that the CZ upper boundary should be selected at the tropopause of the atmosphere. The troposphere, directly affected by the earth surface, contains 3/4 of

  3. Recharge and Lateral Groundwater Flow Boundary Conditions for the Saturated Zone Site-Scale Flow and Transport Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Arnold; T. Corbet


    The purpose of the flow boundary conditions analysis is to provide specified-flux boundary conditions for the saturated zone (SZ) site-scale flow and transport model. This analysis is designed to use existing modeling and analysis results as the basis for estimated groundwater flow rates into the SZ site-scale model domain, both as recharge at the upper (water table) boundary and as underflow at the lateral boundaries. The objective is to provide consistency at the boundaries between the SZ site-scale flow model and other groundwater flow models. The scope of this analysis includes extraction of the volumetric groundwater flow rates simulated by the SZ regional-scale flow model to occur at the lateral boundaries of the SZ site-scale flow model and the internal qualification of the regional-scale model for use in this analysis model report (AMR). In addition, the scope includes compilation of information on the recharge boundary condition taken from three sources: (1) distributed recharge as taken from the SZ regional-scale flow model, (2) recharge below the area of the unsaturated zone (UZ) site-scale flow model, and (3) focused recharge along the Fortymile Wash channel.

  4. Hydromagnetic natural convection flow between vertical parallel plates with time-periodic boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adesanya, S.O.; Oluwadare, E.O.; Falade, J.A.; Makinde, O.D.


    In this paper, the free convective flow of magnetohydrodynamic fluid through a channel with time periodic boundary condition is investigated by taking the effects of Joule dissipation into consideration. Based on simplifying assumptions, the coupled governing equations are reduced to a set of nonlinear boundary valued problem. Approximate solutions are obtained by using semi-analytical Adomian decomposition method. The effect of pertinent parameters on the fluid velocity, temperature distribution, Nusselt number and skin friction are presented graphically and discussed. The result of the computation shows that an increase in the magnetic field intensity has significant influence on the fluid flow. - Highlights: • The influence of magnetic field on the free convective fluid flow is considered. • The coupled equations are solved by using Adomian decomposition method. • The Adomian series solution agreed with previously obtained result. • Magnetic field decreases the velocity maximum but enhances temperature field

  5. Laminar-Boundary-Layer Oscillations and Transition on a Flat Plate (United States)


    ft) \\ axp <— b) Tha solution with the positiv « exponent must bo Ignored as it is Infinite at y • ». As the outor boundary con- dition, then, 0...34’.»*•* *’"**’ "• .F *- ^’•--i»-v 40 When quantitative work was attempted, It became ap- parent that the complicated sound field In the tunnel wae a decided...gradients decreased ampllfica damping) of .the oscillations while pos creased amplification. A quantitative this effect was therefore undertaken w


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Kuchay


    Full Text Available The inversion seismic tomography algorithm (ITS was used to calculate 3D seismic anomalies models for velocities of P- and S-waves in the zone of the Sunda arc, Indonesia. In the area under study, strong earthquakes (M>4.8 are clustered in the zone of high P-wave velocities. Earthquake hypocenters are located in zones of both high and low velocity anomalies of S-waves. The giant Sumatra earthquake (December 26, 2004, Mw=9.0 ruptured the greatest fault length of any recorded earthquake, and the rupture started in the area wherein the sign of P-wave velo­city anomalies is abruptly changed. We calculated seismotectonic deformations (STD from data on mechanisms of 2227 earthquakes recorded from 1977 to 2013, and our calculations show that the STD component, that controls vertical extension of rocks, is most stable through all the depth levels. In the marginal regions at the western and eastern sides of the Sunda arc, the crustal areas (depths from 0 to 35 km are subject to deformations which sign is opposite to that of deformations in the central part. Besides, at depths from 70 to 150 km beneath the Sumatra earthquake epicentre area, the zone is subject to deformations which sign is opposite to that of deformations in the studied part of the Sunda arc. For earthquakes that may occur in the crust in the Sunda arc in the contact zone of the plates, maximum magnitudes depend on the direction of pressure imposed by the actively subducting plate, which is an additional criteria for determining the limit magnitude for the region under study. 

  7. Mixed convection boundary layer flow over a moving vertical flat plate in an external fluid flow with viscous dissipation effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norfifah Bachok

    Full Text Available The steady boundary layer flow of a viscous and incompressible fluid over a moving vertical flat plate in an external moving fluid with viscous dissipation is theoretically investigated. Using appropriate similarity variables, the governing system of partial differential equations is transformed into a system of ordinary (similarity differential equations, which is then solved numerically using a Maple software. Results for the skin friction or shear stress coefficient, local Nusselt number, velocity and temperature profiles are presented for different values of the governing parameters. It is found that the set of the similarity equations has unique solutions, dual solutions or no solutions, depending on the values of the mixed convection parameter, the velocity ratio parameter and the Eckert number. The Eckert number significantly affects the surface shear stress as well as the heat transfer rate at the surface.

  8. Development of Streamwise Counter-Rotating Vortices in Flat Plate Boundary Layer Pre-set by Leading Edge Patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Hasheminejad, S.M.


    Development of streamwise counter-rotating vortices induced by leading edge patterns with different pattern shape is investigated using hot-wire anemometry in the boundary layer of a flat plate. A triangular, sinusoidal and notched patterns with the same pattern wavelength λ of 15mm and the same pattern amplitude A of 7.5mm were examined for free-stream velocity of 3m/s. The results show a good agreement with earlier studies. The inflection point on the velocity profile downstream of the trough of the patterns at the beginning of the vortex formation indicates that the vortices non-linearly propagate downstream. An additional vortex structure was also observed between the troughs of the notched pattern.

  9. Fracture analysis of one-dimensional hexagonal quasicrystals: Researches of a finite dimension rectangular plate by boundary collocation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiaxing, Cheng; Dongfa, Sheng [Southwest Forestry University, Yunnan (China)


    As an important supplement and development to crystallography, the applications about quasicrystal materials have played a core role in many fields, such as manufacturing and the space industry. Due to the sensitivity of quasicrystals to defects, the research on the fracture problem of quasicrystals has attracted a great deal of attention. We present a boundary collocation method to research fracture problems for a finite dimension rectangular one-dimensional hexagonal quasicrystal plate. Because mode I and mode II problems for one- dimensional hexagonal quasicrystals are like that for the classical elastic materials, only the anti-plane problem is discussed in this paper. The correctness of the present numerical method is verified through a comparison of the present results and the existing results. And then, the size effects on stress field, stress intensity factor and energy release rate are discussed in detail. The obtained results can provide valuable references for the fracture behavior of quasicrystals.

  10. A New Estimate for Total Offset on the Southern San Andreas Fault: Implications for Cumulative Plate Boundary Shear in the Northern Gulf of California (United States)

    Darin, M. H.; Dorsey, R. J.


    Development of a consistent and balanced tectonic reconstruction for the late Cenozoic San Andreas fault (SAF) in southern California has been hindered for decades by incompatible estimates of total dextral offset based on different geologic cross-fault markers. The older estimate of 240-270 km is based on offset fluvial conglomerates of the middle Miocene Mint Canyon and Caliente Formations west of the SAF from their presumed source area in the northern Chocolate Mountains NE of the SAF (Ehlig et al., 1975; Ehlert, 2003). The second widely cited offset marker is a distinctive Triassic megaporphyritic monzogranite that has been offset 160 ± 10 km between Liebre Mountain west of the SAF and the San Bernadino Mountains (Matti and Morton, 1993). In this analysis we use existing paleocurrent data and late Miocene clockwise rotation in the eastern Transverse Ranges (ETR) to re-assess the orientation of the piercing line used in the 240 km-correlation, and present a palinspastic reconstruction that satisfies all existing geologic constraints. Our reconstruction of the Mint Canyon piercing line reduces the original estimate of 240-270 km to 195 ± 15 km of cumulative right-lateral slip on the southern SAF (sensu stricto), which is consistent with other published estimates of 185 ± 20 km based on correlative basement terranes in the Salton Trough region. Our estimate of ~195 km is consistent with the lower estimate of ~160 km on the Mojave segment because transform-parallel extension along the southwestern boundary of the ETR during transrotation produces ~25-40 km of displacement that does not affect offset markers of the Liebre/San Bernadino correlation located northwest of the ETR rotating domain. Reconciliation of these disparate estimates places an important new constraint on the total plate boundary shear that is likely accommodated in the adjacent northern Gulf of California. Global plate circuit models require ~650 km of cumulative Pacific-North America (PAC

  11. Most-Critical Transient Disturbances in an Incompressible Flat-Plate Boundary Layer (United States)

    Monschke, Jason; White, Edward


    Transient growth is a linear disturbance growth mechanism that plays a key role in roughness-induced boundary-layer transition. It occurs when superposed stable, non-orthogonal continuous spectrum modes experience algebraic disturbance growth followed by exponential decay. Algebraic disturbance growth can modify the basic state making it susceptible to secondary instabilities rapidly leading to transition. Optimal disturbance theory was developed to model the most-dangerous disturbances. However, evidence suggests roughness-induced transient growth is sub-optimal yet leads to transition earlier than optimal theory suggests. This research computes initial disturbances most unstable to secondary instabilities to further develop the applicability of transient growth theory to surface roughness. The main approach is using nonlinear adjoint optimization with solutions of the parabolized Navier-Stokes and BiGlobal stability equations. Two objective functions were considered: disturbance kinetic energy growth and sinuous instability growth rate. The first objective function was used as validation of the optimization method. Counter-rotating streamwise vortices located low in the boundary layer maximize the sinuous instability growth rate. The authors would like to acknowledge NASA and the AFOSR for funding this work through AFOSR Grant FA9550-09-1-0341.

  12. Active tectonic deformation of the western Indian plate boundary: A case study from the Chaman Fault System (United States)

    Crupa, Wanda E.; Khan, Shuhab D.; Huang, Jingqiu; Khan, Abdul S.; Kasi, Aimal


    Collision of the Eurasian and Indian plates has resulted in two spatially offset subduction zones, the Makran subduction zone to the south and the Himalayan convergent margin to the north. These zones are linked by a system of left-lateral strike-slip faults known as the Chaman Fault System, ∼1200 km, which spans along western Pakistan. Although this is one of the greatest strike-slip faults, yet temporal and spatial variation in displacement has not been adequately defined along this fault system. This study conducted geomorphic and geodetic investigations along the Chaman Fault in a search for evidence of spatial variations in motion. Four study areas were selected over the span of the Chaman Fault: (1) Tarnak-Rud area over the Tarnak-Rud valley, (2) Spinatizha area over the Spinatizha Mountain Range, (3) Nushki area over the Nushki basin, and (4) Kharan area over the northern tip of the Central Makran Mountains. Remote sensing data allowed for in depth mapping of different components and faults within the Kohjak group. Wind and water gap pairs along with offset rivers were identified using high-resolution imagery and digital-elevation models to show displacement for the four study areas. The mountain-front-sinuosity ratio, valley height-to-width-ratio, and the stream-length-gradient index were calculated and used to determine the relative tectonic activity of each area. These geomorphic indices suggest that the Kharan area is the most active and the Tarnak-Rud area is the least active. GPS data were processed into a stable Indian plate reference frame and analyzed. Fault parallel velocity versus fault normal distance yielded a ∼8-10 mm/yr displacement rate along the Chaman Fault just north of the Spinatizha area. InSAR data were also integrated to assess displacement rates along the fault system. Geodetic data support that ultra-slow earthquakes similar to those that strike along other major strike-slip faults, such as the San Andreas Fault System, are

  13. Late Quaternary uplift along the North America-Caribbean plate boundary: Evidence from the sea level record of Guantanamo Bay, Cuba (United States)

    Muhs, Daniel R.; Schweig, Eugene S.; Simmons, Kathleen R.; Halley, Robert B.


    The tectonic setting of the North America-Caribbean plate boundary has been studied intensively, but some aspects are still poorly understood, particularly along the Oriente fault zone. Guantanamo Bay, southern Cuba, is considered to be on a coastline that is under a transpressive tectonic regime along this zone, and is hypothesized to have a low uplift rate. We tested this by studying emergent reef terrace deposits around the bay. Reef elevations in the protected, inner part of the bay are ∼11-12 m and outer-coast, wave-cut benches are as high as ∼14 m. Uranium-series analyses of corals yield ages ranging from ∼133 ka to ∼119 ka, correlating this reef to the peak of the last interglacial period, marine isotope stage (MIS) 5.5. Assuming a span of possible paleo-sea levels at the time of the last interglacial period yields long-term tectonic uplift rates of 0.02-0.11 m/ka, supporting the hypothesis that the tectonic uplift rate is low. Nevertheless, on the eastern and southern coasts of Cuba, east and west of Guantanamo Bay, there are flights of multiple marine terraces, at higher elevations, that could record a higher rate of uplift, implying that Guantanamo Bay may be anomalous. Southern Cuba is considered to have experienced a measurable but modest effect from glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) processes. Thus, with a low uplift rate, Guantanamo Bay should show no evidence of emergent marine terraces dating to the ∼100 ka (MIS 5.3) or ∼80 ka (MIS 5.1) sea stands and results of the present study support this.

  14. Ultra-low velocity zone heterogeneities at the core-mantle boundary from diffracted PKKPab waves (United States)

    Ma, Xiaolong; Sun, Xinlei


    Diffracted waves around Earth's core could provide important information of the lowermost mantle that other seismic waves may not. We examined PKKPab diffraction waves from 52 earthquakes occurring at the western Pacific region and recorded by USArray to probe the velocity structure along the core-mantle boundary (CMB). These diffracted waves emerge at distances up to 10° past the theoretical cutoff epicentral distance and show comparable amplitudes. We measured the ray parameters of PKKPab diffraction waves by Radon transform analysis that is suitable for large-aperture arrays. These ray parameters show a wide range of values from 4.250 to 4.840 s/deg, suggesting strong lateral heterogeneities in sampling regions at the base of the mantle. We further estimated the P-wave velocity variations by converting these ray parameters and found the CMB regions beneath the northwestern edge of African Anomaly (Ritsma et al. in Science 286:1925-1928, 1999) and southern Sumatra Islands exhibit velocity reductions up to 8.5% relative to PREM. We suggest that these low velocity regions are Ultra-low velocity zones, which may be related to partial melt or iron-enriched solids.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  15. Propagation of acoustic shock waves between parallel rigid boundaries and into shadow zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desjouy, C.; Ollivier, S.; Dragna, D.; Blanc-Benon, P.; Marsden, O.


    The study of acoustic shock propagation in complex environments is of great interest for urban acoustics, but also for source localization, an underlying problematic in military applications. To give a better understanding of the phenomenon taking place during the propagation of acoustic shocks, laboratory-scale experiments and numerical simulations were performed to study the propagation of weak shock waves between parallel rigid boundaries, and into shadow zones created by corners. In particular, this work focuses on the study of the local interactions taking place between incident, reflected, and diffracted waves according to the geometry in both regular or irregular – also called Von Neumann – regimes of reflection. In this latter case, an irregular reflection can lead to the formation of a Mach stem that can modify the spatial distribution of the acoustic pressure. Short duration acoustic shock waves were produced by a 20 kilovolts electric spark source and a schlieren optical method was used to visualize the incident shockfront and the reflection/diffraction patterns. Experimental results are compared to numerical simulations based on the high-order finite difference solution of the two dimensional Navier-Stokes equations

  16. Features of HF Radio Wave Attenuation in the Midlatitude Ionosphere Near the Skip Zone Boundary (United States)

    Denisenko, P. F.; Skazik, A. I.


    We briefly describe the history of studying the decameter radio wave attenuation by different methods in the midlatitude ionosphere. A new method of estimating the attenuation of HF radio waves in the ionospheric F region near the skip zone boundary is presented. This method is based on an analysis of the time structure of the interference field generated by highly stable monochromatic X-mode radio waves at the observation point. The main parameter is the effective electron collision frequency νeff, which allows for all energy losses in the form of equivalent heat loss. The frequency νeff is estimated by matching the assumed (model) and the experimentally observed structures. Model calculations are performed using the geometrical-optics approximation. The spatial attenuation caused by the influence of the medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances is taken into account. Spherical shape of the ionosphere and the Earth's magnetic field are roughly allowed for. The results of recording of the level of signals from the RWM (Moscow) station at a frequency of 9.996 MHz at point Rostov are used.

  17. Low-frequency zone boundary phonons in Li doped ZnO ceramics (United States)

    Yadav, Harish Kumar; Sreenivas, K.; Gupta, Vinay; Katiyar, R. S.


    Room temperature Raman spectra of Li doped ZnO (Zn1-xLixO) ceramics with varying Li concentrations (x =0.0, 0.05, 0.10, and 0.15) are investigated in this study. Four peaks were identified at 96.6, 127, 157, and 194 cm-1 in the Li doped samples. The peaks at 127, 157, and 194 cm-1 are assigned to zone boundary phonons in ZnO [J. M. Calleja and M. Cardona, Phys. Rev. B 16, 3753 (1977)], and appear due to disorder in ZnO lattice with Li incorporation. Lithium, owing to its smaller radius, adjusts itself anywhere in the ZnO lattice and breaks the crystal translational symmetry to a large extent, compared to other dopants. Disorder in the lattice is seen to be finely modulated with varying Li content. The peak at 96.6 cm-1 is hypothesized to be a projection of the vibrational motion of Li atoms at lower frequencies, which contributes in a major fashion at higher frequencies, due to its lighter mass than Zn or O atoms.

  18. Irradiation effects on weld heat-affected zone and plate materials (series 11)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanstad, R.K.; McCabe, D.E.


    The purpose of this task is to examine the effects of neutron irradiation on the fracture toughness (ductile and brittle) of the HAZ of welds and of A 302 grade B (A302B) plate materials typical of those used fabricating older RPVs. The initial plate material of emphasis will be A302B steel, not the A302B modified with nickel additions. This decision was made by the NRC following a survey of the materials of construction for RPBs in operating U.S. nuclear plants. Reference 1 was used for the preliminary survey, and the information from that report was revised by NRC staff based on information contained in the licensee responses to Generic Letter (GL) 92-01, open-quotes Reactor Vessel Structural Integrity, 10CFR50.54(f).close quotes The resulting survey showed a total of eight RPVs with A302B, ten with A302B (modified), and one with A302 grade A plate. Table 5.1 in the previous semiannual report provides a summary of that survey. For the HAZ portion of the program, the intent is to examine HAZ material in the A302B (i.e., with low nickel content) and in A302B (modified) or A533B-1 (i.e., with medium nickel content). During this reporting period, two specific plates were identified as being applicable to this task. One plate is A302B and the other is A302B (modified). The A302B plate (43 x 42 x 7 in.) will be prepared for welding, while the A302B (modified) plate already contains a commercially produced weld (heat 33A277, Linde 0091 flux). These plates were identified from a list of ten materials provided by Mr. E. Biemiller of Yankee Atomic Electric Company (YAEC). The materials have been requested from YAEC for use in this irradiation task, and arrangements are being made with YAEC for procurement of the plates mentioned above

  19. Numerical Investigation of Wall Cooling and Suction Effects on Supersonic Flat-Plate Boundary Layer Transition Using Large Eddy Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suozhu Wang


    Full Text Available Reducing friction resistance and aerodynamic heating has important engineering significance to improve the performances of super/hypersonic aircraft, so the purpose of transition control and turbulent drag reduction becomes one of the cutting edges in turbulence research. In order to investigate the influences of wall cooling and suction on the transition process and fully developed turbulence, the large eddy simulation of spatially evolving supersonic boundary layer transition over a flat-plate with freestream Mach number 4.5 at different wall temperature and suction intensity is performed in the present work. It is found that the wall cooling and suction are capable of changing the mean velocity profile within the boundary layer and improving the stability of the flow field, thus delaying the onset of the spatial transition process. The transition control will become more effective as the wall temperature decreases, while there is an optimal wall suction intensity under the given conditions. Moreover, the development of large-scale coherent structures can be suppressed effectively via wall cooling, but wall suction has no influence.

  20. Digital filtering of scintigrams and an investigation into the application of the fresnel zone plate in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, C.J.M. van den


    By lack of media large enough to obtain a gamma-lens gamma radiation imaging detectors are based on collimation by absorbence. At present, routine static studies in Nuclear Medicine generally make use of gamma cameras equiped with conventional collimators of limited resolution characterized by their impulse response function. Two methods of improvement of scintigraphic imaging are investigated in this thesis: i) Digital filtering of scintigrams obtained with a conventional collimator (Chapter III); ii) Use of alternative collimation techniques i.e. the use of coded apertures, especially of Zone Plates

  1. Analysis Of Convective Plane Stagnation Point Chemically Reactive Mhd Flow Past A Vertical Porous Plate With A Convective Boundary Condition In The Presence Of A Uniform Magnetic Field.


    Adeniyan, A.,


    The numerical investigation of a stagnation point boundary layer flow , mass and heat transfer of a steady two dimensional , incompressible , viscous electrically conducting, chemically reacting laminar fluid over a vertical convectively heated , electrically neutral flat plate exposed to a transverse uniform magnetic field has been carried out to examine the influence of the simultaneous presence of the effects of a convective boundary condition, chemical reaction, heat transfer and suctio...

  2. A zone plate soft x-ray microscope using monochromatized undulator radiation at the beamline NE1B of the TRISTAN Accumulation Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.; Kagoshima, Y.; Miyahara, T.; Ando, M.; Aoki, S.; Anderson, E.; Attwood, D.; Kern, D.


    A soft x-ray microscope has been developed at the beamline NE1B of the 6.5-GeV TRISTAN Accumulation Ring (AR). It makes use of undulator radiation as its source and a zone plate with the outermost zone width of 50 nm as its imaging element. It has two main features. First, the undulator radiation is monochromatized by a grazing incidence grating monochromator to match to the monochromaticity requirement of the zone plate. Second, a visible light prefocus unit consisting of two objectives has been designed and installed in the x-ray microscope. The x-ray optical system of the microscope can be adjusted easily, quickly, and precisely by using this unit. The microscope can resolve 55-nm lines and spaces in a zone plate test pattern

  3. Diapir versus along-channel ascent of crustal material during plate convergence: constrained by the thermal structure of subduction zones (United States)

    Liu, M. Q.; Li, Z. H.


    Crustal rocks can be subducted to mantle depths, interact with the mantle wedge, and then exhume to the crustal depth again, which is generally considered as the mechanism for the formation of ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks in nature. The crustal rocks undergo dehydration and melting at subarc depths, giving rise to fluids that metasomatize and weaken the overlying mantle wedge. There are generally two ways for the material ascent from subarc depths: one is along subduction channel; the other is through the mantle wedge by diapir. In order to study the conditions and dynamics of these contrasting material ascent modes, systematic petrological-thermo-mechanical numerical models are constructed with variable thicknesses of the overriding and subducting continental plates, ages of the subducting oceanic plate, as well as the plate convergence rates. The model results suggest that the thermal structures of subduction zones control the thermal condition and fluid/melt activity at the slab-mantle interface in subcontinental subduction channels, which further strongly affect the material transportation and ascent mode. Thick overriding continental plate and low-angle subduction style induced by young subducting oceanic plate both contribute to the formation of relatively cold subduction channels with strong overriding mantle wedge, where the along-channel exhumation occurs exclusively to result in the exhumation of HP-UHP metamorphic rocks. In contrast, thin overriding lithosphere and steep subduction style induced by old subducting oceanic plate are the favorable conditions for hot subduction channels, which lead to significant hydration and metasomatism, melting and weakening of the overriding mantle wedge and thus cause the ascent of mantle wedge-derived melts by diapir through the mantle wedge. This may corresponds to the origination of continental arc volcanism from mafic to ultramafic metasomatites in the bottom of the mantle wedge. In addition, the plate

  4. Miocene uplift of the NE Greenland margin linked to plate tectonics: Seismic evidence from the Greenland Fracture Zone, NE Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Døssing Andreasen, Arne; Japsen, Peter; Watts, Anthony B.


    Tectonic models predict that, following breakup, rift margins undergo only decaying thermal subsidence during their post-rift evolution. However, post-breakup stratigraphy beneath the NE Atlantic shelves shows evidence of regional-scale unconformities, commonly cited as outer margin responses to ...... by plate tectonic forces, induced perhaps by a change in the Iceland plume (a hot pulse) and/or by changes in intra-plate stresses related to global tectonics.......Tectonic models predict that, following breakup, rift margins undergo only decaying thermal subsidence during their post-rift evolution. However, post-breakup stratigraphy beneath the NE Atlantic shelves shows evidence of regional-scale unconformities, commonly cited as outer margin responses...... backstripping. We explain the thermo-mechanical coupling and the deposition of contourites by the formation of a continuous plate boundary along the Mohns and Knipovich ridges, leading to an accelerated widening of the Fram Strait. We demonstrate that the IMU event is linked to onset of uplift and massive shelf...

  5. Plate boundary deformation of the Pacific plate. Two case studies. (1) Crustal structure of the northwestern Vizcaino block and Gorda escarpment, offshore northern California, and implications for postsubduction deformation of a paleoaccretionary margin. (2) A focused look at the Alpine fault, New Zealand: Seismicity, focal mechanisms and stress observations (United States)

    Leitner, Beate

    Two examples of Pacific rim plate boundary deformation are presented. In the first part of the thesis crustal models are derived for the northwestern part of the Vizcaino block in California using marine seismic and gravity data collected by the Mendocino Triple Junction Seismic Experiment. A northwest-southeast trending kink in the Moho is imaged and interpreted to have formed under compression by reactivation of preexisting thrust faults in the paleoaccretionary prism at the seaward margin of the Vizcaino block. The study suggests that the deformation resulted from mainly north-south compression between the Pacific-Juan de Fuca plates across the Mendocino transform fault and predates late Pliocene Pacific-North America plate convergence. In the second part, 195 earthquakes recorded during the duration of the Southern Alps Passive Seismic Experiment (SAPSE) are analysed. Precise earthquake locations and focal mechanisms provide unprecedented detail of the seismotectonics in the central South Island. The short term (6 month) SAPSE seismicity is compared with long term (8 years) seismicity recorded by the New Zealand National Seismic network and the Lake Pukaki network. The seismicity rate of the Alpine fault is low, but comparable to locked sections of the San Andreas fault, with large earthquakes expected. Changes of the depth of the seismogenic zone, generally uniform at about 10--12 km, occur only localised over distances smaller than 30 km, suggesting that thermal perturbations must be of similar scale. This implies that the thermal effects of the uplift of the Southern Alps do not change the seismogenic depth significantly and are not in accordance with most of the present thermal models. Both the Hope and Porters Pass fault zones are seismically active and deformation is accommodated near the fault zones and in the adjacent crust. North of Mt Cook, a triangular shaped region along the Alpine fault is characterised by absence of earthquakes. We interpret this


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Xiao; Tan, Jonathan C.; Chatterjee, Sourav; Zhu, Zhaohuan


    The Kepler mission has discovered more than 4000 exoplanet candidates. Many of them are in systems with tightly packed inner planets. Inside-out planet formation (IOPF) has been proposed as a scenario to explain these systems. It involves sequential in situ planet formation at the local pressure maximum of a retreating dead zone inner boundary (DZIB). Pebbles accumulate at this pressure trap, which builds up a pebble ring and then a planet. The planet is expected to grow in mass until it opens a gap, which helps to both truncate pebble accretion and also induce DZIB retreat that sets the location of formation of the next planet. This simple scenario may be modified if the planet undergoes significant migration from its formation location. Thus, planet–disk interactions play a crucial role in the IOPF scenario. Here we present numerical simulations that first assess the degree of migration for planets of various masses that are forming at the DZIB of an active accretion disk, where the effective viscosity is undergoing a rapid increase in the radially inward direction. We find that torques exerted on the planet by the disk tend to trap the planet at a location very close to the initial pressure maximum where it formed. We then study gap opening by these planets to assess at what mass a significant gap is created. Finally, we present a simple model for DZIB retreat due to penetration of X-rays from the star to the disk midplane. Overall, these simulations help to quantify both the mass scale of first (“Vulcan”) planet formation and the orbital separation to the location of second planet formation

  7. Coastal Zone Management Act Boundary for the United States and US Territories as of December 2013 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data represents the extent of the nation's coastal zone, as defined by the individual states and territories under the Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972...

  8. Development of gravity theory application in the internalregional inter-zone commodity movement distribution with the origin zone movement generation boundary (United States)

    Akbardin, J.; Parikesit, D.; Riyanto, B.; TMulyono, A.


    Zones that produce land fishery commodity and its yields have characteristics that is limited in distribution capability because infrastructure conditions availability. High demand for fishery commodities caused to a growing distribution at inefficient distribution distance. The development of the gravity theory with the limitation of movement generation from the production zone can increase the interaction inter-zones by distribution distances effectively and efficiently with shorter movement distribution distances. Regression analysis method with multiple variable of transportation infrastructure condition based on service level and quantitative capacity is determined to estimate the 'mass' of movement generation that is formed. The resulting movement distribution (Tid) model has the equation Tid = 27.04 -0.49 tid. Based on barrier function of power model with calibration value β = 0.0496. In the way of development of the movement generation 'mass' boundary at production zone will shorten the distribution distance effectively with shorter distribution distances. Shorter distribution distances will increase the accessibility inter-zones to interact according to the magnitude of the movement generation 'mass'.

  9. Shallow very-low-frequency earthquakes accompanied with slow slip event along the plate boundary of the Nankai trough (United States)

    Nakano, M.; Hori, T.; Araki, E.; Kodaira, S.; Ide, S.


    Recent improvements of seismic and geodetic observations have revealed the existence of a new family of slow earthquakes occurring along or close to the plate boundary worldwide. In the viewpoint of the characteristic time scales, the slow earthquakes can be classified into several groups as low-frequency tremor or tectonic tremor (LFT) dominated in several hertz, very-low-frequency earthquake (VLFE) dominated in 10 to 100 s, and short- and long-term slow-slip event (SSE) with durations of days to years. In many cases, these slow earthquakes are accompanied with other types of slow events. However, the events occurring offshore, especially beneath the toe of accretionary prism, are poorly understood because of the difficulty to detect signals. Utilizing the data captured from oceanfloor observation networks which many efforts have recently been taken to develop is necessary to improve our understandings for these events. Here, we investigated CMT analysis of shallow VLFEs using data obtained from DONET oceanfloor observation networks along the Nankai trough, southwest of Japan. We found that shallow VLFEs have almost identical history of moment release with that of synchronous SSE which occurred at the same region recently found by Araki et al. (2017). VLFE sources show updip migrations during the activity, coincident with the migration of SSE source. From these findings we conclude that these slow events share the same fault slip, and VLFE represent high-frequency fluctuations of slip during SSE. This result imply that shallow SSE along the plate interface would have occurred in the background during the shallow VLFE activities repeatedly observed along the Nankai trough, but the SSE was not reported because of difficult detections.

  10. Frequency response of rectangular plates with free-edge openings and carlings subjected to point excitation force and enforced displacement at boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae Seung Cho


    Full Text Available In this paper, a numerical procedure for the natural vibration analysis of plates with openings and carlings based on the assumed mode method is extended to assess their forced response. Firstly, natural response of plates with openings and carlings is calculated from the eigenvalue equation derived by using Lagrange's equation of motion. Secondly, the mode superposition method is applied to determine frequency response. Mindlin theory is adopted for plate modelling and the effect of openings is taken into account by subtracting their potential and kinetic energies from the corresponding plate energies. Natural and frequency response of plates with openings and carlings subjected to point excitation force and enforced acceleration at boundaries, respectively, is analysed by using developed in-house code. For the validation of the developed method and the code, extensive numerical results, related to plates with different opening shape, carlings and boundary conditions, are compared with numerical data from the relevant literature and with finite element solutions obtained by general finite element tool.

  11. Dual Solutions in a Boundary Layer Flow of a Power Law Fluid over a Moving Permeable Flat Plate with Thermal Radiation, Viscous Dissipation and Heat Generation/Absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aftab Ahmed


    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to investigate the combined effects of the thermal radiation, viscous dissipation, suction/injection and internal heat generation/absorption on the boundary layer flow of a non-Newtonian power law fluid over a semi infinite permeable flat plate moving in parallel or reversely to a free stream. The resulting system of partial differential equations (PDEs is first transformed into a system of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs which are then solved numerically by using the shooting technique. It is found that the dual solutions exist when the flat plate and the free stream move in the opposite directions. Dimensionless boundary layer velocity and temperature distributions are plotted and discussed for various values of the emerging physical parameters. Finally, the tables of the relevant boundary derivatives are presented for some values of the governing physical parameters.

  12. Compact and Light-Weight Solar Spaceflight Instrument Designs Utilizing Newly Developed Miniature Free-Standing Zone Plates: EUV Radiometer and Limb-Scanning Monochromator (United States)

    Seely, J. F.; McMullin, D. R.; Bremer, J.; Chang, C.; Sakdinawat, A.; Jones, A. R.; Vest, R.


    Two solar instrument designs are presented that utilize newly developed miniature free-standing zone plates having interconnected Au opaque bars and no support membrane resulting in excellent long-term stability in space. Both instruments are based on a zone plate having 4 mm outer diameter and 1 to 2 degree field of view. The zone plate collects EUV radiation and focuses a narrow bandpass through a pinhole aperture and onto a silicon photodiode detector. As a miniature radiometer, EUV irradiance is accurately determined from the zone plate efficiency and the photodiode responsivity that are calibrated at the NIST SURF synchrotron facility. The EUV radiometer is pointed to the Sun and measures the absolute solar EUV irradiance in high time cadence suitable for solar physics and space weather applications. As a limb-scanning instrument in low earth orbit, a miniature zone-plate monochromator measures the extinction of solar EUV radiation by scattering through the upper atmosphere which is a measure of the variability of the ionosphere. Both instruments are compact and light-weight and are attractive for CubeSats and other missions where resources are extremely limited.

  13. Pool Structures: A New Type of Interaction Zones of Lithospheric Plate Flows (United States)

    Garetskyi, R. G.; Leonov, M. G.


    Study of tectono-geodynamic clusters of the continental lithosphere (the Sloboda cluster of the East European Platform and the Pamir cluster of Central Asia) permitted identification of pool structures, which are a specific type of zone of intraplate interaction of rock masses.

  14. Lithosphere Structure of the Rivera Plate - Jalisco Block Contact Zone: Septentrional Region of the Islas Marías (Mexico) (United States)

    Madrigal-Ávalos, L. A.; Nunez, D.; Escalona-Alcazar, F. D. J.; Nuñez-Cornu, F. J.; Barba, D. C., Sr.; Danobeitia, J.


    The western margin of Mexico is a tectonic complex region where large earthquakes occurred with very destructive consequences, including the generation of big tsunamis. This fact is mainly the result of the Rivera plate subduction beneath the North American plate and the Jalisco Block implying a high potential seismic risk. In the north, between the Tamayo Fracture Zone and the Mesoamerican Trench, the Islas Marías region is a complex tectonic limit within the interaction of the Rivera plate oceanic crust and the Jalisco Block continental crust. In order to know the shallow and deep structure of the Rivera plate - Jalisco Block contact zone and to be able to determine these potential seismic sources, the TSUJAL geophysical experiment was carried out from 2012 to 2016. As part of this project, we present the results of the processed and analyzed MCS and WAS data along the TS09 and RTSIM01 seismic transects, respectively, across the septentrional region of Islas Marías. These marine seismic lines are coincident with 110 km length for MCS and 240 km for WAS, and perpendicular to the coastline with SW-NE orientation. The seismic sources used in this work aboard RRS James Cook consisted of 12 guns with a total capacity for WAS data of 5800 in3 every 120 s and 3540 in3 every 50 m for MCS data. The MCS data were acquired with a 5.85 km length streamer with a 468 active channels, while the WAS data were recorded by a network of 4 OBS and 27 land seismic stations. After data processing and joint interpretation, it was possible to determine that shallow structure is mainly constituted by normal faults associated to graben structures forming sedimentary basins with non-deformed sediments in the basement. While the deep structure is characterized by depths from 9 to 12 km in the oceanic crust and 18 to 21 km in the continental crust. The deepest layers of the upper mantle were determined up to 35 km depth. In this study, it was possible to calculate a dip angle between 6

  15. Reducing risk where tectonic plates collide—U.S. Geological Survey subduction zone science plan (United States)

    Gomberg, Joan S.; Ludwig, Kristin A.; Bekins, Barbara; Brocher, Thomas M.; Brock, John C.; Brothers, Daniel; Chaytor, Jason D.; Frankel, Arthur; Geist, Eric L.; Haney, Matt; Hickman, Stephen H.; Leith, William S.; Roeloffs, Evelyn A.; Schulz, William H.; Sisson, Thomas W.; Wallace, Kristi; Watt, Janet; Wein, Anne M.


    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) serves the Nation by providing reliable scientific information and tools to build resilience in communities exposed to subduction zone earthquakes, tsunamis, landslides, and volcanic eruptions. Improving the application of USGS science to successfully reduce risk from these events relies on whole community efforts, with continuing partnerships among scientists and stakeholders, including researchers from universities, other government labs and private industry, land-use planners, engineers, policy-makers, emergency managers and responders, business owners, insurance providers, the media, and the general public.Motivated by recent technological advances and increased awareness of our growing vulnerability to subduction-zone hazards, the USGS is uniquely positioned to take a major step forward in the science it conducts and products it provides, building on its tradition of using long-term monitoring and research to develop effective products for hazard mitigation. This science plan provides a blueprint both for prioritizing USGS science activities and for delineating USGS interests and potential participation in subduction zone science supported by its partners.The activities in this plan address many USGS stakeholder needs:High-fidelity tools and user-tailored information that facilitate increasingly more targeted, neighborhood-scale decisions to mitigate risks more cost-effectively and ensure post-event operability. Such tools may include maps, tables, and simulated earthquake ground-motion records conveying shaking intensity and frequency. These facilitate the prioritization of retrofitting of vulnerable infrastructure;Information to guide local land-use and response planning to minimize development in likely hazardous zones (for example, databases, maps, and scenario documents to guide evacuation route planning in communities near volcanoes, along coastlines vulnerable to tsunamis, and built on landslide-prone terrain);New tools

  16. Structural and Tectonic Map Along the Pacific-North America Plate Boundary in Northern Gulf of California, Sonora Desert and Valle de Mexicali, Mexico, from Seismic Reflection Evidence (United States)

    Gonzalez-Escobar, M.; Suarez-Vidal, F.; Mendoza-Borunda, R.; Martin Barajas, A.; Pacheco-Romero, M.; Arregui-Estrada, S.; Gallardo-Mata, C.; Sanchez-Garcia, C.; Chanes-Martinez, J.


    Between 1978 and 1983, Petróleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) carried on an intense exploration program in the northern Gulf of California, the Sonora Desert and the southern part of the Mexicali Valley. This program was supported by a seismic reflection field operation. The collected seismic data was 2D, with travel time of 6 s recording, in 48 channels, and the source energy was: dynamite, vibroseis and air guns. Since 2007 to present time, the existing seismic data has been re-processing and ire-interpreting as part of a collaboration project between the PEMEX's Subdirección de Exploración (PEMEX) and CICESE. The study area is located along a large portion of the Pacific-North America plate boundary in the northern Gulf of California and the Southern part of the Salton Trough tectonic province (Mexicali Valley). We present the result of the processes reflection seismic lines. Many of the previous reported known faults were identify along with the first time described located within the study region. We identified regions with different degree of tectonic activity. In structural map it can see the location of many of these known active faults and their associated seismic activity, as well as other structures with no associated seismicity. Where some faults are mist placed they were deleted or relocated based on new information. We included historical seismicity for the region. We present six reflection lines that cross the aftershocks zone of the El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake of April 4, 2010 (Mw7.2). The epicenter of this earthquake and most of the aftershocks are located in a region where pervious to this earthquake no major earthquakes are been reported. A major result of this study is to demonstrate that there are many buried faults that increase the seismic hazard.

  17. Geometry of the Arabia-Somalia Plate Boundary into Afar: Preliminary Results from the Seismic Profile Across the Asal Rift (Djibouti) (United States)

    Vergne, J.; Doubre, C.; Mohamed, K.; Tiberi, C.; Leroy, S.; Maggi, A.


    In the Afar Depression, the Asal-Ghoubbet Rift in Djibouti is a young segment on land at the propagating tip of the Aden Ridge. This segment represents an ideal laboratory to observe the mechanisms of extension and the structural evolutions involved, from the continental break-up to the first stage of oceanic spreading. However, we lack first order information about the crustal and upper mantle structure in this region, which for example prevent detailed numerical modeling of the deformations observed at the surface from GPS or InSAR. Moreover the current permanent network is not well suited to precisely constrain the ratio of seismic/aseismic deformation and to characterize the active deformation and the rifting dynamics. Since November 2009 we have maintained a temporary network of 25 seismic stations deployed along a 150 km-long profile. Because we expect rapid variations of the lithospheric structure across the 10 km-wide central part of the rift, we gradually decreased the inter-stations spacing to less than 1 km in the middle section of the profile. In order to obtain a continuous image of the plate boundary, from the topographic surface to the upper mantle, several techniques and methods will be applied: P and S wave receiver functions, tomographies based on body waves, surface waves and seismic noise correlation, anisotropy, and finally a gravity-seismic joint inversion. We present some preliminary results deduced from the receiver functions applied to the data acquired during the first months of the experiment. We migrate several sets of receiver functions computed in various frequency bands to resolve both mantle interfaces and fine scale structures within the thin crust in the center of the rift. These first images confirm a rapid variation of the Moho depth on both sides of the rift and a very complex lithospheric structure in the central section with several low velocity zones within the top 50km that might correspond to magma lenses.

  18. Resolving plate structure across the seismogenic zone in Cascadia from onshore-offshore receiver function imaging (United States)

    Audet, P.; Schaeffer, A. J.


    Studies of the forearc structure in the Cascadia subduction zone using teleseismic P-wave receiver function have resolved structures associated with deep fluid cycling, such as the basalt-to-eclogite reaction and fluid overpressure within the subducting oceanic crust, as well as the serpentinization of the forearc mantle wedge. Unfortunately, the updip extent of the over-pressured zone, and therefore the possible control on the transition from episodic slow slip to seismic slip, occurs offshore and is not resolved in those studies. The Cascadia Initiative (CI) has provided an opportunity to extend this work to the locked zone using teleseismic receiver functions from the deployment of a dense line of ocean-bottom seismograph stations offshore of Washington State, from the trench to the coastline. Here we calculate P-wave receiver functions using data from offshore (CI) and onshore (CAFE) broadband seismic stations. These data clearly show the various scattered phases associated with a dipping low-velocity layer that was identified in previous studies as the downgoing oceanic crust. These signals are difficult to untangle offshore because they arrive at similar times. We process receiver functions using a modified common-conversion point (CCP) stacking technique that uses a coherency filter to optimally stack images obtained from the three main scattered phases. The resulting image shows along-dip variations in the character of the seismic discontinuities associated with the top and bottom of the low-velocity layer. Combined with focal depth information of regular and low-frequency earthquakes, these variations may reflect changes in the material properties of the megathrust across the seismogenic zone in Cascadia.

  19. A viscoplastic shear-zone model for deep (15-50 km) slow-slip events at plate convergent margins (United States)

    Yin, An; Xie, Zhoumin; Meng, Lingsen


    A key issue in understanding the physics of deep (15-50 km) slow-slip events (D-SSE) at plate convergent margins is how their initially unstable motion becomes stabilized. Here we address this issue by quantifying a rate-strengthening mechanism using a viscoplastic shear-zone model inspired by recent advances in field observations and laboratory experiments. The well-established segmentation of slip modes in the downdip direction of a subduction shear zone allows discretization of an interseismic forearc system into the (1) frontal segment bounded by an interseismically locked megathrust, (2) middle segment bounded by episodically locked and unlocked viscoplastic shear zone, and (3) interior segment that slips freely. The three segments are assumed to be linked laterally by two springs that tighten with time, and the increasing elastic stress due to spring tightening eventually leads to plastic failure and initial viscous shear. This simplification leads to seven key model parameters that dictate a wide range of mechanical behaviors of an idealized convergent margin. Specifically, the viscoplastic rheology requires the initially unstable sliding to be terminated nearly instantaneously at a characteristic velocity, which is followed by stable sliding (i.e., slow-slip). The characteristic velocity, which is on the order of <10-7 m/s for the convergent margins examined in this study, depends on the (1) effective coefficient of friction, (2) thickness, (3) depth, and (4) viscosity of the viscoplastic shear zone. As viscosity decreases exponentially with temperature, our model predicts faster slow-slip rates, shorter slow-slip durations, more frequent slow-slip occurrences, and larger slow-slip magnitudes at warmer convergent margins.

  20. An analysis of the relaxation of laminar boundary layer on a flat plate after passage of an interface with application to expansion-tube flows (United States)

    Gupta, R. N.


    The relaxation of the accelerating-gas boundary layer to the test-gas boundary layer over a flat plate in an expansion tube is analyzed. Several combinations of test gas and acceleration gas are considered. The problem is treated in two conically similar limits: (1) when the time lag between the arrival of the shock and the interface at the leading edge of the plate is very large, and (2) when this lag is negligible. The time-dependent laminar-boundary-layer equations of a binary mixture of perfect gases are taken as the flow-governing equations. This coupled set of differential equations, written in terms of the Lam-Crocco variables, has been solved by a line-relaxation finite-difference techniques. The results presented include the Stanton number and the local skin-friction coefficient as functions of shock Mach number and the nondimensional distance-time variable. The results indicate that more than 95 percent of the test-gas boundary layer exists over a length, measured from the leading edge of the plate, equal to about three-tenths of the distance traversed by the interface in the free stream.

  1. An integral wall model for Large Eddy Simulation (iWMLES) and applications to developing boundary layers over smooth and rough plates (United States)

    Yang, Xiang; Sadique, Jasim; Mittal, Rajat; Meneveau, Charles


    A new wall model for Large-Eddy-Simulations is proposed. It is based on an integral boundary layer method that assumes a functional form for the local mean velocity profile. The method, iWMLES, evaluates required unsteady and advective terms in the vertically integrated boundary layer equations analytically. The assumed profile contains a viscous or roughness sublayer, and a logarithmic layer with an additional linear term accounting for inertial and pressure gradient effects. The iWMLES method is tested in the context of a finite difference LES code. Test cases include developing turbulent boundary layers on a smooth flat plate at various Reynolds numbers, over flat plates with unresolved roughness, and a sample application to boundary layer flow over a plate that includes resolved roughness elements. The elements are truncated cones acting as idealized barnacle-like roughness elements that often occur in biofouling of marine surfaces. Comparisons with data show that iWMLES provides accurate predictions of near-wall velocity profiles in LES while, similarly to equilibrium wall models, its cost remains independent of Reynolds number and is thus significantly lower compared to standard zonal or hybrid wall models. This work is funded by ONR Grant N00014-12-1-0582 (Dr. R. Joslin, program manager).

  2. Quasi-kinoform type multilayer zone plate with high diffraction efficiency for high-energy X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, S; Yasumoto, M; Kamijo, N; Uesugi, K; Takeuchi, A; Terada, Y; Suzuki, Y


    Fresnel zone plate (FZP) with high diffraction efficiency leads to high performance X-ray microscopy with the reduction of the radiation damage to biological specimens. In order to attain high diffraction efficiency in high energy X-ray region, we have developed multilevel-type (6-step) multilayer FZPs with the diameter of 70 micron. The efficiencies of two FZPs were evaluated at the BL20XU beamline of SPring-8. For one FZP, the peak efficiency for the 1st-order diffraction of 51% has been obtained at 70 keV. The efficiencies higher than 40% have been achieved in the wide energy range of 70-90 keV. That for the 2nd-order diffraction of 46% has been obtained at 37.5 keV.

  3. High spatial resolution X-UV Fresnel zone plates imaging; Imagerie a haute resolution spatiale dans le domaine X-UV a l'aide de lentilles a zone de Fresnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pichet-Thomasset, M


    The goal of this work is to study the capabilities of imaging of Fresnel zone plates in the 1.5. and 2 keV X-ray range for the imaging of laser-produced plasmas. The diagnostic is composed of a Fresnel zone plate with good imaging capabilities and a multilayer mirror to select the spectral emission bandwidth of the plasma we want to study. This diagnostic was evaluated at the Centre d'Etudes de Limeil-Valenton experiments to study spatial resolution with this kind of X-ray source. The images we obtained showed that there is no geometric aberrations over an object field of several millimetre. Fresnen zone plates are often used for monochromatic biological objects imaging in the water window around 400 eV but they offer large prospects for laser produced plasma imaging. (author)

  4. Inspection of welded zone and flat plate using flexible ECA probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Jun; Lee, Kyu Sung; Shin, Chung Ho; Lee, Kyoung Jun; Jang, Yoon Young [ANSCO Inc., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    This paper aims to compare the ability to detect notch defects existing in the plate and welded area using a flexible ECA (eddy current array) probe with OmniScan MX and MS-5800E. The characteristics of signals with various frequencies and lift-offs were also compared. As a result, when signals of frequencies 500, 1000, and 1500 kHz were used, the amplitude of the signal increased, as the depth of the notch increased, but reduced linearly in accordance with the lift-off variation. In addition, the detection sensitivity of the weld defect was found to be closely related to the contact surface of the probe and specimen. In this paper, it was demonstrated that the detection sensitivity was excellent when the contact surface of the probe and the specimen was sufficient, but it was poor when the contact surface was insufficient.

  5. Dynamics of interplate domain in subduction zones: influence of rheological parameters and subducting plate age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Arcay


    Full Text Available The properties of the subduction interplate domain are likely to affect not only the seismogenic potential of the subduction area but also the overall subduction process, as it influences its viability. Numerical simulations are performed to model the long-term equilibrium state of the subduction interplate when the diving lithosphere interacts with both the overriding plate and the surrounding convective mantle. The thermomechanical model combines a non-Newtonian viscous rheology and a pseudo-brittle rheology. Rock strength here depends on depth, temperature and stress, for both oceanic crust and mantle rocks. I study the evolution through time of, on one hand, the brittle-ductile transition (BDT depth, zBDT, and, on the other hand, of the kinematic decoupling depth, zdec, simulated along the subduction interplate. The results show that both a high friction and a low ductile strength at the asthenospheric wedge tip shallow zBDT. The influence of the weak material activation energy is of second order but not negligible. zBDT becomes dependent on the ductile strength increase with depth (activation volume if the BDT occurs at the interplate decoupling depth. Regarding the interplate decoupling depth, it is shallowed (1 significantly if mantle viscosity at asthenospheric wedge tip is low, (2 if the difference in mantle and interplate activation energy is weak, and (3 if the activation volume is increased. Very low friction coefficients and/or low asthenospheric viscosities promote zBDT = zdec. I then present how the subducting lithosphere age affects the brittle-ductile transition depth and the kinematic decoupling depth in this model. Simulations show that a rheological model in which the respective activation energies of mantle and interplate material are too close hinders the mechanical decoupling at the down-dip extent of the interplate

  6. Heterogeneous distribution of pelagic sediments incoming the Japan Trench possibly controlling slip propagation on shallow plate boundary fault (United States)

    Yamaguchi, A.; Nakamura, Y.; Fukuchi, R.; Kurano, H.; Ikehara, K.; Kanamatsu, T.; Arai, K.; Usami, K.; Ashi, J.


    Catastrophic tsunami of the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake was triggered by large coseismic slip reached to the Japan Trench axis (e.g. Fujiwara et al., 2011, Science; Kodaira et al., 2012, Nature Geoscience). Results of the IODP Expedition 343 (JFAST) suggest that small friction of smectite-rich pelagic clay caused slip propagation on shallow plate boundary fault (Ujiie et al., 2013, Science; Kameda et al., 2015, Geology; Moore et al., 2015, Geosphere). On the other hand, JAMSTEC high-resolution seismic profiles show that incoming sediments have large heterogeneities in thicknesses, and two areas of extremely thin sediments on the Pacific Plate (thickness less than 100 m) were found at around 39°N (Nakamura et al., AGU 2017, this session). To reconcile whether the smectite-rich pelagic clay even exists in these areas, we sampled surface sediments during the R/V Shinsei Maru KS-15-3 cruise. Seven piston cores were retrieved from seaward trench slope, horst, graben, and graben edge. Core lithologies are mainly diatomaceous ooze/clay including tephra layers, not resemble to pelagic clays discovered in JFAST. Ages of tephra layers were estimated by correlating mineral assemblages and refractive indices of volcanic glasses to Japanese widespread tephras. Averaged sedimentation rates of seaward trench slope, horst, graben, and graben edge are estimated to be 25-30, 6.5-20, 45, 0.9 cm/kyr, respectively. These sedimentation rates imply that sediments on seaward trench slope and horst have been deposited in the last 160-500 kyr, suggesting that entire pelagic sediments, including smectite-rich pelagic clay, have been removed by some reasons in the last 0.5 million years. Possible reason for such modification of sediment is near-trench igneous activity known as petit-spot volcanism (Hirano et al., 2006, Science). The lack of smectite-rich pelagic clay near 39°N of the Japan Trench is consistent with results of tsunami inversions proposing shallow large coseismic slip propagated

  7. Global correlations between maximum magnitudes of subduction zone interface thrust earthquakes and physical parameters of subduction zones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, W. P.; Rawlinson, N.


    The maximum earthquake magnitude recorded for subduction zone plate boundaries varies considerably on Earth, with some subduction zone segments producing giant subduction zone thrust earthquakes (e.g. Chile, Alaska, Sumatra-Andaman, Japan) and others producing relatively small earthquakes (e.g.

  8. The Fairway-Aotea Basin and the New Caledonia Trough, witnesses of the Pacific-Australian plate boundary evolution : from mid-Cretaceous cessation of subduction to Eocene subduction renewal (United States)

    Collot, J.; Geli, L. B.; Lafoy, Y.; Sutherland, R.; Herzer, R. H.; Roest, W. R.


    The geodynamical history of the SW Pacific is controlled since the Mesozoic by the evolution of peri-Pacific subduction zones, in a trench retreat by slab roll-back process, which successively occurred along the Eastern Gondwana margin. In this context, most basins which formed after 45 Ma reached a stage of seafloor spreading, have recorded the inversions of the earth's magnetic field and present typical oceanic crust morphologies. By contrast, the New Caledonia and Fairway basins, which are narrower and present thick sedimentary covers have a less known and more controversial origin. Based on a regional geological synthesis and on interpretation of multichannel seismic reflection and refraction data, combined with drill hole data off New Zealand and a compilation of regional potential data, we distinguish 2 phases of the evolution of the Fairway-Aotea Basin (FAB) and the New Caledonia Trough (NCT), which reflect the evolution of the Gondwana-Pacific plate boundary: Phase 1: Mid Cretaceous formation of the FAB in a continental intra- or back- arc position of the Pacific-Gondwana subduction system. The formation of this shallow basin reflects the onset of continental breakup of the Eastern Gondwana margin during Cenomanian which was most probably caused by a dynamic change of the subduction zone through a « verticalization » of the slab. This event may be the result of the 99 Ma kinematic plate reorganization which probably led to subduction cessation along the Gondwana-Pacific plate boundary. A tectonic escape mechanism, in relation with the locking of the subduction zone by the Hikurangi Plateau, could also be responsible of the trench retreat leading to backarc extension. Phase 2: Regional Eocene-Oligocene uplift followed by rapid subsidence (3-4 km) of the system « Lord Howe Rise - FAB - Norfolk Ridge ». The structural style of this deformation leads us to suggest that detachment of the lower crust is the cause of subsidence. We therefore propose a model in

  9. Terahertz Harmonic Operation of Microwave Fresnel Zone Plate Lens and Antenna: Frequency Filtering and Space Resolution Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristo D. Hristov


    Full Text Available This paper examines the binary Fresnel zone plate (FZP lens frequency-harmonic and space-resolution focusing, and its application as a FZP lens antenna. A microwave FZP lens antenna (FZPA radiates both at design (90 GHz and terahertz (THz odd harmonic frequencies. Frequency and space domain antenna operation are studied analytically by use of the vector diffraction integral applied to a realistic printed FZPA. It is found that all harmonic gain peaks are roughly identical in form, bandwidth, and top values. At each harmonic frequency, the FZPA has a beamwidth that closely follows the Rayleigh resolution criterion. If the lens/antenna resolution is of prime importance and the small aperture efficiency is a secondary problem the microwave-design FZP lens antenna can be of great use at much higher terahertz frequencies. Important feature of the microwave FZP lens is its broader-zone construction compared to the equal in resolution terahertz-design FZP lens. Thus, unique and expensive microtechnology for the microwave FZP lens fabrication is not required. High-order harmonic operation of the FZP lens or lens antenna could find space resolution and frequency filtering applications in the terahertz and optical metrology, imaging tomography, short-range communications, spectral analysis, synchrotron facilities, and so on.

  10. Influence of electrical boundary conditions on profiles of acoustic field and electric potential of shear-horizontal acoustic waves in potassium niobate plates. (United States)

    Kuznetsova, I E; Nedospasov, I A; Kolesov, V V; Qian, Z; Wang, B; Zhu, F


    The profiles of an acoustic field and electric potential of the forward and backward shear-horizontal (SH) acoustic waves of a higher order propagating in X-Y potassium niobate plate have been theoretically investigated. It has been shown that by changing electrical boundary conditions on a surface of piezoelectric plates, it is possible to change the distributions of an acoustic field and electric potential of the forward and backward acoustic waves. The dependencies of the distribution of a mechanical displacement and electrical potential over the plate thickness for electrically open and electrically shorted plates have been plotted. The influence of a layer with arbitrary conductivity placed on a one or on the both plate surfaces on the profiles under study, phase and group velocities of the forward and backward acoustic waves in X-Y potassium niobate has been also investigated. The obtained results can be useful for development of the method for control of a particle or electrical charge movement inside the piezoelectric plates, as well a sensor for definition of the thin film conductivity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Thrust-wrench interference tectonics in the Gulf of Cadiz (Africa-Iberia plate boundary in the North-East Atlantic): Insights from analog models


    Duarte , João ,; Rosas , Filipe ,; Terrinha , Pedro; Gutscher , Marc-André ,; Malavielle , Jacques; Silva , Sonia; Matias , Luis


    International audience; In the Gulf of Cadiz key segment of the Africa-Iberia plate boundary (North-East Atlantic ocean), three main different modes of tectonic interference between a recently identified wrench system (SWIM) and the Gulf of Cadiz Accretionary Wedge (GCAW) were tested through analog sand-box modeling: a) An active accretionary wedge on top of a pre-existent inactive basement fault; b) An active strike-slip fault cutting a previously formed, inactive, accretionary wedge; and c)...

  12. Spectral assessment of the turbulent convection velocity in a spatially developing flat plate turbulent boundary layer at Reynolds numbers up to Re θ = 13000


    Renard , N.; Deck , S.; Sagaut , P.


    International audience; A method inspired by del Alamo et al. [1] is derived to assess the wavelength-dependent convection velocity in a zero pressure gradient spatially developing flat plate turbulent boundary layer at Retheta = 13 000 for all wavelengths and all wall distances, using only estimates of the time power spectral density of the streamwise velocity and of its local spatial derivative. The resulting global convection velocity has a least-squares interpretation and is easily relate...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In this paper predecessors′ achievements about the division between subtropical zone and warm temperate zone on the south slope of Funiu Mountain are firstly summarized, and the cause why these viewpoints about the division are different also has been presented. Seven soil profiles at different heights above sea level are dug along the south slope of Funiu Mountain. Many compositions and properties of soil humus have been analyzed in laboratory. A comprehensive study has been made about the division according to the compositions and properties of soil humus with mathematical method. During the analysis process eight indexes have been used, such as altitude, organic carbon, humic acid (HA), fulvic acid (FA), the ratio of humic acid and fulvic acid (HA/FA), two extinction coefficients (E4,E6), and their ratio (E4/E6).The result indicates that the boundary is at about 1000 meters above sea level.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAJian-hua; ZHAOQing-liang; 等


    In this paper predecessorsˊ achievements about the division between subtropical zone and warm temperate zone on the south slope of Funiu Mountain are firstly summarized,and the cause why these viewpoints about the division are different also has been presented.Seven soil profiles at different heights above sea level are dug along the south slope of Funiu Mountain.Many compositions and properties of soil humus have been analyzed in laboratory.A comprehensive study has been made about the division according to the compositions and properties of soil humus with mathematical method.During the analysis process eitht indexes have been used,such as altitude,organic carbon,humic acid(HA),fulvic acid(FA),the ratio of humic acid and fulvic acid(HA/FA),two extinction coefficients(E4,E6), and their ratio (E4/E6).The result indicates that the boundary is at about 1000 meters above sea level.

  15. Vibration characteristics of functionally graded carbon nanotube reinforced composite rectangular plates on Pasternak foundation with arbitrary boundary conditions and internal line supports (United States)

    Zhong, Rui; Wang, Qingshan; Tang, Jinyuan; Shuai, Cijun; Liang, Qian


    This paper presents the first known vibration characteristics of moderately thick functionally graded carbon nanotube reinforced composite rectangular plates on Pasternak foundation with arbitrary boundary conditions and internal line supports on the basis of the firstorder shear deformation theory. Different distributions of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) along the thickness are considered. Uniform and other three kinds of functionally graded distributions of carbon nanotubes along the thickness direction of plates are studied. The solutions carried out using an enhanced Ritz method mainly include the following three points: Firstly, create the Lagrange energy function by the energy principle; Secondly, as the main innovation point, the modified Fourier series are chosen as the basic functions of the admissible functions of the plates to eliminate all the relevant discontinuities of the displacements and their derivatives at the edges; Lastly, solve the natural frequencies as well as the associated mode shapes by means of the Ritz-variational energy method. In this study, the influences of the volume fraction of CNTs, distribution type of CNTs, boundary restrain parameters, location of the internal line supports, foundation coefficients on the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the FG-CNT reinforced composite rectangular plates are presented.

  16. Frictional properties of JFAST core samples and implications for slow earthquakes at the Tohoku subduction zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sawai, Michiyo; Niemeijer, André R.; Hirose, Takehiro; Spiers, Christopher J.


    Slow earthquakes occur in the shallow (<20 km deep) part of the Tohoku subduction zone. To understand how frictional properties of the plate boundary fault affect the generation of these slow earthquakes, we conducted friction experiments using borehole samples retrieved from the plate boundary

  17. Using EarthScope Construction of the Plate Boundary Observatory to Provide Locally Based Experiential Education and Outreach (United States)

    Jackson, M.; Eriksson, S.; Barbour, K.; Venator, S.; Mencin, D.; Prescott, W.


    EarthScope is an NSF-funded, national science initiative to explore the structure and evolution of the North American continent and to understand the physical processes controlling earthquakes and volcanoes. This large-scale experiment provides locally based opportunities for education and outreach which engage students at various levels and the public. UNAVCO is responsible for the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) component of EarthScope. PBO includes the installation and operations and maintenance of large networks of Global Positioning Satellite (GPS), strainmeter, seismometer, and tiltmeter instruments and the acquisition of satellite radar imagery, all of which will be used to measure and map the smallest movements across faults, the magma movement inside active volcanoes and the very wide areas of deformation associated with plate tectonic motion. UNAVCO, through its own education and outreach activities and in collaboration with the EarthScope E&O Program, uses the PBO construction activities to increase the understanding and public appreciation of geodynamics, earth deformation processes, and their relevance to society. These include programs for public outreach via various media, events associated with local installations, a program to employ students in the construction of PBO, and development of curricular materials by use in local schools associated with the EarthScope geographic areas of focus. PBO provides information to the media to serve the needs of various groups and localities, including interpretive centers at national parks and forests, such as Mt. St. Helens. UNAVCO staff contributed to a television special with the Spanish language network Univision Aquí y Ahora program focused on the San Andreas Fault and volcanoes in Alaska. PBO participated in an Education Day at the Pathfinder Ranch Science and Outdoor Education School in Mountain Center, California. Pathfinder Ranch hosts two of the eight EarthScope borehole strainmeters in the Anza

  18. Slip parameters on major thrusts at a convergent plate boundary: regional heterogeneity of potential slip distance at the shallow portion of the subducting plate (United States)

    Mukoyoshi, Hideki; Kaneki, Shunya; Hirono, Tetsuro


    Understanding variations of slip distance along major thrust systems at convergent margins is an important issue for evaluation of near-trench slip and the potential generation of large tsunamis. We derived quantitative estimates of slip along ancient subduction fault systems by using the maturity of carbonaceous material (CM) of discrete slip zones as a proxy for temperature. We first obtained the Raman spectra of CM in ultracataclasite and pseudotachylyte layers in discrete slip zones at depths below the seafloor of 1-4 km and 2.5-5.5 km, respectively. By comparing the area-under-the-peak ratios of graphitic and disordered bands in those Raman spectra with spectra of experimentally heated CM from surrounding rocks, we determined that the ultracataclasite and pseudotachylyte layers had been heated to temperatures of up to 700 and 1300 °C, respectively. Numerical simulation of the thermal history of CM extracted from rocks near the two slip zones, taking into consideration these temperature constraints, indicated that slip distances in the ultracataclasite and pseudotachylyte layers were more than 3 and 7 m, respectively. Thus, potential distance of coseismic slip along the subduction-zone fault system could have regional variations even at shallow depth (≤ 5.5 km). The slip distances we determined probably represent minimum slips for subduction-zone thrusts and thus provide an important contribution to earthquake preparedness plans in coastal areas facing the Nankai and Sagami Troughs.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyra, Wladimir; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark


    It has been suggested that the transition between magnetorotationally active and dead zones in protoplanetary disks should be prone to the excitation of vortices via Rossby wave instability (RWI). However, the only numerical evidence for this has come from alpha disk models, where the magnetic field evolution is not followed, and the effect of turbulence is parameterized by Laplacian viscosity. We aim to establish the phenomenology of the flow in the transition in three-dimensional resistive-magnetohydrodynamical models. We model the transition by a sharp jump in resistivity, as expected in the inner dead zone boundary, using the PENCIL CODE to simulate the flow. We find that vortices are readily excited in the dead side of the transition. We measure the mass accretion rate finding similar levels of Reynolds stress at the dead and active zones, at the α ≈ 10 –2 level. The vortex sits in a pressure maximum and does not migrate, surviving until the end of the simulation. A pressure maximum in the active zone also triggers the RWI. The magnetized vortex that results should be disrupted by parasitical magneto-elliptic instabilities, yet it subsists in high resolution. This suggests that either the parasitic modes are still numerically damped or that the RWI supplies vorticity faster than they can destroy it. We conclude that the resistive transition between the active and dead zones in the inner regions of protoplanetary disks, if sharp enough, can indeed excite vortices via RWI. Our results lend credence to previous works that relied on the alpha-disk approximation, and caution against the use of overly reduced azimuthal coverage on modeling this transition.

  20. Seismic ACROSS Transmitter Installed at Morimachi above the Subducting Philippine Sea Plate for the Test Monitoring of the Seismogenic Zone of Tokai Earthquake not yet to Occur (United States)

    Kunitomo, T.; Kumazawa, M.; Masuda, T.; Morita, N.; Torii, T.; Ishikawa, Y.; Yoshikawa, S.; Katsumata, A.; Yoshida, Y.


    Here we report the first seismic monitoring system in active and constant operation for the wave propagation characteristics in tectonic region just above the subducting plate driving the coming catastrophic earthquakes. Developmental works of such a system (ACROSS; acronym for Accurately Controlled, Routinely Operated, Signal System) have been started in 1994 at Nagoya University and since 1996 also at TGC (Tono Geoscience Center) of JAEA promoted by Hyogoken Nanbu Earthquakes (1995 Jan.17, Mj=7.3). The ACROSS is a technology system including theory of signal and data processing based on the brand new concept of measurement methodology of Green function between a signal source and observation site. The works done for first generation system are reported at IWAM04 and in JAEA report (Kumazawa et al.,2007). The Meteorological Research Institute of JMA has started a project of test monitoring of Tokai area in 2004 in corporation with Shizuoka University to realize the practical use of the seismic ACROSS for earthquake prediction researches. The first target was set to Tokai Earthquake not yet to take place. The seismic ACROSS transmitter was designed so as to be appropriate for the sensitive monitoring of the deep active fault zone on the basis of the previous technology elements accumulated so far. The ground coupler (antenna) is a large steel-reinforced concrete block (over 20m3) installed in the basement rocks in order to preserve the stability. Eccentric moment of the rotary transmitter is 82 kgm at maximum, 10 times larger than that of the first generation. Carrier frequency of FM signal for practical use can be from 3.5 to 15 Hz, and the signal phase is accurately controlled by a motor with vector inverter synchronized with GPS clock with a precision of 10-4 radian or better. By referring to the existing structure model in this area (Iidaka et al., 2003), the site of the transmitting station was chosen at Morimachi so as to be appropriate for detecting the

  1. Holocene faulting in the Bellingham forearc basin: upper-plate deformation at the northern end of the Cascadia subduction zone (United States)

    Kelsey, Harvey M.; Sherrod, Brian L.; Blakely, Richard J.; Haugerud, Ralph A.


    The northern Cascadia forearc takes up most of the strain transmitted northward via the Oregon Coast block from the northward-migrating Sierra Nevada block. The north-south contractional strain in the forearc manifests in upper-plate faults active during the Holocene, the northern-most components of which are faults within the Bellingham Basin. The Bellingham Basin is the northern of four basins of the actively deforming northern Cascadia forearc. A set of Holocene faults, Drayton Harbor, Birch Bay, and Sandy Point faults, occur within the Bellingham Basin and can be traced from onshore to offshore using a combination of aeromagnetic lineaments, paleoseismic investigations and scarps identified using LiDAR imagery. With the recognition of such Holocene faults, the northernmost margin of the actively deforming Cascadia forearc extends 60 km north of the previously recognized limit of Holocene forearc deformation. Although to date no Holocene faults are recognized at the northern boundary of the Bellingham Basin, which is 15 km north of the international border, there is no compelling tectonic reason to expect that Holocene faults are limited to south of the international border.

  2. Development of sanitary-protection zones and sanitation gaps for the kuibyshev railway within the boundaries of settlements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teplykh Svetlana


    Full Text Available Nowadays it is quite relevant to work on projects development and projects coordination of sanitary protection zones (SPZ and sanitation gaps (SG. It is explained by mutual proximity of objects of regulation and objects of the Kuybyshev railroad within the boundaries of settlements in a dense residential development. The aim of this work is to attract attention of project organizations and design contractors to the minimum limitations of SPZ and SG (according to existing standards and regulations as far as the factor of noise is concerned. This factor has the most tangible impact for the population. Meanwhile, there is no express reference in these documents to the cases of exceeding maximum permissible levels of noise (MPL and to the cases of SPZ and SG crossings by several enterprises. The paper shows the results of mathematical calculations of the spread of noise from railway with and without noise screens on different test sites. The authors come to the conclusion that the existing regulations do not provide clear guidance in cases where there is an excess of physical factors of influence on the air (noise, etc., taking into account the background, or crossings of SPZ borders and SG by several groups of enterprises. Therefore, the question whether standardized territory, (housing in particular lies within the boundaries of SPZ (SG of the railway or this territory is within the object of regulation boundaries is settled by court of law.

  3. High efficiency and flexible working distance digital in-line holographic microscopy based on Fresnel zone plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Peng; Yang, Fan; Li, Fanxing; Hu, Song; Yan, Wei; Hua, Yilei


    Traditional digital in-line holography suffers from twin-image noise problems and extremely short working distances between the object and light source. Here, we propose lensless Fourier transform digital in-line holographic microscopy based on a single optical element. A Fresnel zone plate is used to split the incident light into two parts: one is scattered along the original direction, the other is gathered at a focal point and the sample is put behind the focus. The interference fringe pattern, formed by the two beams, is recorded digitally by a CCD camera. A novel reconstruction algorithm is proposed to present the object image. The proof-of-concept experiments demonstrate that the proposed technique can eliminate the twin-image noise problem, improving the image contrast with high efficiency, and increasing the flexibility of the working distance. Furthermore, a wide field of view and no contact make it a promising tool for the study of materials science, biology and microelectronics. (paper)

  4. Distribution and migration of aftershocks of the 2010 Mw 7.4 Ogasawara Islands intraplate normal-faulting earthquake related to a fracture zone in the Pacific plate (United States)

    Obana, Koichiro; Takahashi, Tsutomu; No, Tetsuo; Kaiho, Yuka; Kodaira, Shuichi; Yamashita, Mikiya; Sato, Takeshi; Nakamura, Takeshi


    describe the aftershocks of a Mw 7.4 intraplate normal-faulting earthquake that occurred 150 km east Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands, Japan, on 21 December 2010. It occurred beneath the outer trench slope of the Izu-Ogasawara trench, where the Pacific plate subducts beneath the Philippine Sea plate. Aftershock observations using ocean bottom seismographs (OBSs) began soon after the earthquake and multichannel seismic reflection surveys were conducted across the aftershock area. Aftershocks were distributed in a NW-SE belt 140 km long, oblique to the N-S trench axis. They formed three subparallel lineations along a fracture zone in the Pacific plate. The OBS observations combined with data from stations on Chichi-jima and Haha-jima Islands revealed a migration of the aftershock activity. The first hour, which likely outlines the main shock rupture, was limited to an 80 km long area in the central part of the subsequent aftershock area. The first hour activity occurred mainly around, and appears to have been influenced by, nearby large seamounts and oceanic plateau, such as the Ogasawara Plateau and the Uyeda Ridge. Over the following days, the aftershocks expanded beyond or into these seamounts and plateau. The aftershock distribution and migration suggest that crustal heterogeneities related to a fracture zone and large seamounts and oceanic plateau in the incoming Pacific plate affected the rupture of the main shock. Such preexisting structures may influence intraplate normal-faulting earthquakes in other regions of plate flexure prior to subduction.

  5. MHD Heat and Mass Transfer of Chemical Reaction Fluid Flow over a Moving Vertical Plate in Presence of Heat Source with Convective Surface Boundary Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. R. Rout


    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate the influence of chemical reaction and the combined effects of internal heat generation and a convective boundary condition on the laminar boundary layer MHD heat and mass transfer flow over a moving vertical flat plate. The lower surface of the plate is in contact with a hot fluid while the stream of cold fluid flows over the upper surface with heat source and chemical reaction. The basic equations governing the flow, heat transfer, and concentration are reduced to a set of ordinary differential equations by using appropriate transformation for variables and solved numerically by Runge-Kutta fourth-order integration scheme in association with shooting method. The effects of physical parameters on the velocity, temperature, and concentration profiles are illustrated graphically. A table recording the values of skin friction, heat transfer, and mass transfer at the plate is also presented. The discussion focuses on the physical interpretation of the results as well as their comparison with previous studies which shows good agreement as a special case of the problem.

  6. Constraints on the rheology of the lower crust in a strike-slip plate boundary: evidence from the San Quintín xenoliths, Baja California, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. van der Werf


    Full Text Available The rheology of lower crust and its transient behavior in active strike-slip plate boundaries remain poorly understood. To address this issue, we analyzed a suite of granulite and lherzolite xenoliths from the upper Pleistocene–Holocene San Quintín volcanic field of northern Baja California, Mexico. The San Quintín volcanic field is located 20 km east of the Baja California shear zone, which accommodates the relative movement between the Pacific plate and Baja California microplate. The development of a strong foliation in both the mafic granulites and lherzolites, suggests that a lithospheric-scale shear zone exists beneath the San Quintín volcanic field. Combining microstructural observations, geothermometry, and phase equilibria modeling, we estimated that crystal-plastic deformation took place at temperatures of 750–890 °C and pressures of 400–560 MPa, corresponding to 15–22 km depth. A hot crustal geotherm of 40 ° C km−1 is required to explain the estimated deformation conditions. Infrared spectroscopy shows that plagioclase in the mafic granulites is relatively dry. Microstructures are interpreted to show that deformation in both the uppermost lower crust and upper mantle was accommodated by a combination of dislocation creep and grain-size-sensitive creep. Recrystallized grain size paleopiezometry yields low differential stresses of 12–33 and 17 MPa for plagioclase and olivine, respectively. The lower range of stresses (12–17 MPa in the mafic granulite and lherzolite xenoliths is interpreted to be associated with transient deformation under decreasing stress conditions, following an event of stress increase. Using flow laws for dry plagioclase, we estimated a low viscosity of 1.1–1.3×1020 Pa ⋅ s for the high temperature conditions (890 °C in the lower crust. Significantly lower viscosities in the range of 1016–1019 Pa ⋅ s, were estimated using flow laws for wet plagioclase. The

  7. Investigation of nonlinear 2D bottom transportation dynamics in coastal zone on optimal curvilinear boundary adaptive grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhinov Alexander


    Full Text Available One of the practically important tasks of hydrophysics for sea coastal systems is the problem of modeling and forecasting bottom sediment transportation. A number of problems connected to ship safety traffic, water medium condition near the coastal line etc. depends on forecasting bottom deposit transportation under natural and technogenic influences. Coastal systems are characterized by a complicated form of coastline - the presence of long, narrow and curvilinear peninsulas and bays. Water currents and waves near the beach are strongly depend on complicated coastal line and in turn, exert on the bottom sediment transportation near the shore. The use of rectangular grids in the construction of discrete models leads to significant errors in both the specification of boundary conditions and in the modeling of hydrophysical processes in the coastal zone. In this paper, we consider the construction of a finite-element approximation of the initial-boundary value problem for the spatially two-dimensional linearized equation of sediment transportation using optimal boundary-adaptive grid. First, the linearization of a spatially two-dimensional nonlinear parabolic equation on the time grid is performed-when the coefficients of the equation that are nonlinearly dependent on the bottom relief function are set on the previous time layer, and the corresponding initial conditions are used on the first time layer. The algorithm for constructing the grid is based on the procedure for minimizing the generalized Dirichlet functional. On the constructed grid, finite element approximation using bilinear basis functions is performed, which completes the construction of a discrete model for the given problem. The using of curvilinear boundary adaptive grids leads to decreasing of total grid number in 5-20 times and respectively the total modeling time and/or it allows to improve modeling accuracy.

  8. The effect of small streamwise velocity distortion on the boundary layer flow over a thin flat plate with application to boundary layer stability theory (United States)

    Goldstein, M. E.; Leib, S. J.; Cowley, S. J.


    Researchers show how an initially linear spanwise disturbance in the free stream velocity field is amplified by leading edge bluntness effects and ultimately leads to a small amplitude but linear spanwise motion far downstream from the edge. This spanwise motion is imposed on the boundary layer flow and ultimately causes an order-one change in its profile shape. The modified profiles are highly unstable and can support Tollmein-Schlichting wave growth well upstream of the theoretical lower branch of the neutral stability curve for a Blasius boundary layer.

  9. Seismic Tomography of the Arabian-Eurasian Collision Zone and Surrounding Areas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Toksoz, M. N; Van der Hilst, Robert D; Sun, Youshun; Gulen, Levent; Kalafat, Dogan; Kuleli, Huseyin S; Li, Chang; Zhang, Haijiang


    ... and surrounding areas, including Iran, Arabia, Eastern Turkey, and the Caucasus. The Arabian-Eurasian plate boundary is a complex tectonic zone shaped by continent-continent collision processes...

  10. Deformation of the Northwestern Okhotsk Plate: How is it happening? (United States)

    Hindle, D.; Fujita, K.; Mackey, K.


    The Eurasia (EU) - North America (NA) plate boundary zone across Northeast Asia still presents many open questions within the plate tectonic paradigm. Constraining the geometry and number of plates or microplates present in the plate boundary zone is especially difficult because of the location of the EU-NA euler pole close to or even upon the EU-NA boundary. One of the major challenges remains the geometry of the Okhotsk plate (OK). whose northwestern portion terminates on the EU-OK-NA triple junction and is thus caught and compressed between converging EU and NA. We suggest that this leads to a coherent and understandable large scale deformation pattern of mostly northwest-southeast trending strike-slip faults which split Northwest OK into several extruding slivers. When the fault geometry is analysed together with space geodetic and focal mechanism data it suggests a central block which is extruding faster bordered east and west by progressively slower extruding blocks until the OK plate boundary faults are encountered. Taking into account elastic loading from both the intra-OK faults and the OK-Pacific (PA) boundary reconciles geodetic motions with geologic slip rates on at least the OK-NA boundary which corresponds to the Ulakhan fault.

  11. Efficient focusing of 8 keV X-rays with multilayer Fresnel zone plates fabricated by atomic layer deposition and focused ion beam milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, Marcel; Keskinbora, Kahraman; Grévent, Corinne; Szeghalmi, Adriana; Knez, Mato; Weigand, Markus; Snigirev, Anatoly; Snigireva, Irina; Schütz, Gisela


    The fabrication and performance of multilayer Al 2 O 3 /Ta 2 O 5 Fresnel zone plates in the hard X-ray range and a discussion of possible future developments considering available materials are reported. Fresnel zone plates (FZPs) recently showed significant improvement by focusing soft X-rays down to ∼10 nm. In contrast to soft X-rays, generally a very high aspect ratio FZP is needed for efficient focusing of hard X-rays. Therefore, FZPs had limited success in the hard X-ray range owing to difficulties of manufacturing high-aspect-ratio zone plates using conventional techniques. Here, employing a method of fabrication based on atomic layer deposition (ALD) and focused ion beam (FIB) milling, FZPs with very high aspect ratios were prepared. Such multilayer FZPs with outermost zone widths of 10 and 35 nm and aspect ratios of up to 243 were tested for their focusing properties at 8 keV and shown to focus hard X-rays efficiently. This success was enabled by the outstanding layer quality thanks to ALD. Via the use of FIB for slicing the multilayer structures, desired aspect ratios could be obtained by precisely controlling the thickness. Experimental diffraction efficiencies of multilayer FZPs fabricated via this combination reached up to 15.58% at 8 keV. In addition, scanning transmission X-ray microscopy experiments at 1.5 keV were carried out using one of the multilayer FZPs and resolved a 60 nm feature size. Finally, the prospective of different material combinations with various outermost zone widths at 8 and 17 keV is discussed in the light of the coupled wave theory and the thin-grating approximation. Al 2 O 3 /Ir is outlined as a promising future material candidate for extremely high resolution with a theoretical efficiency of more than 20% for as small an outermost zone width as 10 nm at 17 keV

  12. Imaging b-value depth variations within the Cocos and Rivera plates at the Mexican subduction zone (United States)

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Quetzalcoatl; Zuñiga, F. Ramón


    By a systematic mapping of the b-value along profiles perpendicular to the Mexican Wadati-Benioff zone, we obtained important characteristics pertaining the stress state and faulting style related to the subduction process. To this purpose, we used data from the earthquake catalog reported by the Servicio Sismologico Nacional (1988-2016). We investigate depth variations of the b-value for the Cocos and Rivera under North American plates interface, by a detailed analysis of 15 cross-sections. The obtained b-value profiles vary from 0.50 to 2.50, which nevertheless appear related to the faulting style and stress state. By comparing the locations and focal mechanism of the largest events with the b-values of the surrounding regions, our analysis corroborates the dependence of the b-value on the faulting style. Thrust events occur in regions of low and high b-value at depths 30 km), in agreement with global studies. These results support the hypothesis that differential stress processes may be behind the occurrence of the different faulting style. On the contrary, by analyzing the mean b-values for both types of faulting mechanism at each of the cross-sections, we found a significantly lower mean b-value related to normal faulting for those regions where the 8 (Mw 8.2) and 19 (Mw 7.1) September 2017 earthquakes occur. These results lead us to conclude that those regions experienced an increased stress state prone to the occurrence of normal-intraplate events. We also compare the b-value distribution with Vp and Q tomography studies obtaining a good correlation between them. We found evidence to relate b-value variations with subduction processes such as stress state due to tectonic and flexural conditions, and to a lesser extent to material heterogeneity and fluid dehydration.

  13. Effects of Grain Boundary Microconstituents on Heat-Affected Zone Cracks in a Mar-M004 Weldment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Cheng Chen


    Full Text Available Repair-welding of a cast Mar-M004 superalloy by gas tungsten arc welding was performed. Liquation cracks of the heat-affected zone (HAZ in a Mar-M004 weldment were closely related to the presence of low-melting constituents along the solidified boundaries in the weld. The metal carbides (MC, M3B2 and M5B3 borides, Ni7(Hf,Zr2 intermetallic compounds, and γ-γ′colonies were found at the interdendritic boundaries. Fine boride precipitates mixed with intermetallic compounds in lamellar form were more likely to liquate during repair-welding. The melting of borides and intermetallic compounds in 1180 °C/4 h treated samples confirmed the poor weldability of the Mar-M004 superalloy due to enhanced liquation cracking. In addition to boride formation, fractographs of liquation cracks revealed strong segregation of B element in carbides and intermetallics, which might further lower the solidus temperature of the repair weld.

  14. Geothermal Frontier: Penetrate a boundary between hydrothermal convection and heat conduction zones to create 'Beyond Brittle Geothermal Reservoir' (United States)

    Tsuchiya, N.; Asanuma, H.; Sakaguchi, K.; Okamoto, A.; Hirano, N.; Watanabe, N.; Kizaki, A.


    EGS has been highlightened as a most promising method of geothermal development recently because of applicability to sites which have been considered to be unsuitable for geothermal development. Meanwhile, some critical problems have been experimentally identified, such as low recovery of injected water, difficulties to establish universal design/development methodology, and occurrence of large induced seismicity. Future geothermal target is supercritical and superheated geothermal fluids in and around ductile rock bodies under high temperatures. Ductile regime which is estimated beyond brittle zone is target region for future geothermal development due to high enthalpy fluids and relatively weak water-rock interaction. It is very difficult to determine exact depth of Brittle-Ductile boundary due to strong dependence of temperature (geotherm) and strain rate, however, ductile zone is considered to be developed above 400C and below 3 km in geothermal fields in Tohoku District. Hydrothermal experiments associated with additional advanced technology will be conducting to understand ';Beyond brittle World' and to develop deeper and hotter geothermal reservoir. We propose a new concept of the engineered geothermal development where reservoirs are created in ductile basement, expecting the following advantages: (a)simpler design and control the reservoir, (b)nearly full recovery of injected water, (c)sustainable production, (d)cost reduction by development of relatively shallower ductile zone in compression tectonic zones, (e)large quantity of energy extraction from widely distributed ductile zones, (f)establishment of universal and conceptual design/development methodology, and (g) suppression of felt earthquakes from/around the reservoirs. In ductile regime, Mesh-like fracture cloud has great potential for heat extraction between injection and production wells in spite of single and simple mega-fracture. Based on field observation and high performance hydrothermal

  15. Thermochronometrically constrained anatomy and evolution of a Miocene extensional accommodation zone and tilt domain boundary: The southern Wassuk Range, Nevada (United States)

    Gorynski, Kyle E.; Stockli, Daniel F.; Douglas Walker, J.


    (AHe) and Zircon (ZHe) (U-Th)/He thermochronometric data from the southern Wassuk Range (WR) coupled with 40Ar/39Ar age data from the overlying tilted Tertiary section are used to constrain the thermal evolution of an extensional accommodation zone and tilt-domain boundary. AHe and ZHe data record two episodes of rapid cooling related to the tectonic exhumation of the WR fault block beginning at ~15 and ~4 Ma. Extension was accommodated through fault-block rotation and variably tilted the southern WR to the west from ~60°-70° in the central WR to ~15°-35° in the southernmost WR and Pine Grove Hills, and minimal tilting in the Anchorite Hills and along the Mina Deflection to the south. Middle Miocene geothermal gradient estimates record heating immediately prior to large-magnitude extension that was likely coeval with the extrusion of the Lincoln Flat andesite at ~14.8 Ma. Geothermal gradients increase from ~19° ± 4°C/km to ≥ 65° ± 20°C/km toward the Mina Deflection, suggesting that it was the focus of Middle Miocene arc magmatism in the upper crust. The decreasing thickness of tilt blocks toward the south resulted from a shallowing brittle/ductile transition zone. Postmagmatic Middle Miocene extension and fault-block advection were focused in the northern and central WR and coincidentally moderated the large lateral thermal gradient within the uppermost crust.

  16. Impact of The N - S Fracture Zone Along The Indo-Australia Plate Analyzed from Local Seismic Data In The Western Offshore of Sumatra, Indonesia (United States)

    Haridhi, H. A.; Klingelhoefer, F.; Huang, B. S.; Lee, C. S.


    Large subduction earthquake have repeatedly occurred along the Sumatra and Andaman subduction zones where the Indo-Australia plate is subducting beneath the Eurasian plate. We have analyzed earthquake data from local seismic network along the Sumatra region that provided by the Meteorology Climatology Geophysical Agencies of Indonesia (MCGAI), giving a reliable P-wave velocity model by using joint inversion of picked P-wave travel time using VELEST and a re-scanned single channel seismic reflection of Sumatra cruise I and II. As much as 1,503 events are being analyzed, that is from two years and three months of data recording (2009/04 - 2011/07). The VELEST and DD technique are used to relocate all events by forcing the obtained velocity model. It is found that the surface deformation and earthquake cluster are strongly influenced by the impact of an N - S subparalel fracture zone along the Indo-Australia plate. This also explains the seismic gaps along the Sumatra and Andaman subduction zones. So far, the intriguing seismogenic behaviour and forearc structure are not well explained by the existing models. Therefore, the planned IODP Expedition 362 is trying to ground truth the scientific questions. The aftershock earthquake data are huge, but they will provide a gateway to help the understanding of this shallow megathrust slip and reduce its devastated harzards.

  17. Influence of boundary conditions on the response of multilayered plates with cohesive interfaces and delaminations using a homogenized approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Massabò


    Full Text Available Stress and displacement fields in multilayered composites with interfacial imperfections, such as imperfect bonding of the layers or delaminations, or where the plies are separated by thin interlayers allowing relative motion, have large variations in the thickness, with characteristic zigzag patterns and jumps at the layer interfaces. These effects are well captured by a model recently formulated by the author for multilayered plates with imperfect interfaces and affine interfacial traction laws (Massabò & Campi, Meccanica, 2014, in press; Compos Struct, 2014, 116, 311-324. The model defines a homogenized displacement field, which satisfies interfacial continuity, and uses a variational technique to derive equilibrium equations depending on only six generalized displacement functions, for any arbitrary numbers of layers and interfaces. The model accurately predicts stresses and displacements in simply supported, highly anisotropic, thick plates with continuous, sliding interfaces. In this paper the model is applied to wide plates with clamped edges and some inconsistencies, which have been noted in the literature for models based on similar approaches and have limited their utilization, are explained. A generalized transverse shear force is introduced as the gross stress resultant which is directly related to the bending moment in the equilibrium equations of multilayered structures with imperfect interfaces and substitutes for the shear force of single-layer theory. An application to a delaminated wide plate highlights the potential and limitations of the proposed model for the solution of fracture mechanics problems.

  18. Effect of inherited structures on strike-slip plate boundaries: insight from analogue modelling of the central Levant Fracture System, Lebanon (United States)

    Ghalayini, Ramadan; Daniel, Jean-Marc; Homberg, Catherine; Nader, Fadi


    Analogue sandbox modeling is a tool to simulate deformation style and structural evolution of sedimentary basins. The initial goal is to test what is the effect of inherited and crustal structures on the propagation, evolution, and final geometry of major strike-slip faults at the boundary between two tectonic plates. For this purpose, we have undertaken a series of analogue models to validate and reproduce the structures of the Levant Fracture System, a major NNE-SSW sinistral strike-slip fault forming the boundary between the Arabian and African plates. Onshore observations and recent high quality 3D seismic data in the Levant Basin offshore Lebanon demonstrated that Mesozoic ENE striking normal faults were reactivated into dextral strike-slip faults during the Late Miocene till present day activity of the plate boundary which shows a major restraining bend in Lebanon with a ~ 30°clockwise rotation in its trend. Experimental parameters consisted of a silicone layer at the base simulating the ductile crust, overlain by intercalated quartz sand and glass sand layers. Pre-existing structures were simulated by creating a graben in the silicone below the sand at an oblique (>60°) angle to the main throughgoing strike-slip fault. The latter contains a small stepover at depth to create transpression during sinistral strike-slip movement and consequently result in mountain building similarly to modern day Lebanon. Strike-slip movement and compression were regulated by steady-speed computer-controlled engines and the model was scanned using a CT-scanner continuously while deforming to have a final 4D model of the system. Results showed that existing normal faults were reactivated into dextral strike-slip faults as the sinistral movement between the two plates accumulated. Notably, the resulting restraining bend is asymmetric and segmented into two different compartments with differing geometries. One compartment shows a box fold anticline, while the second shows an

  19. Seafloor spreading on the Southeast Indian Ridge over the last one million years: a test of the Capricorn plate hypothesis (United States)

    Conder, James A.; Forsyth, Donald W.


    Plate motions in the Indian Ocean are inconsistent with a rigid Indo-Australian plate. An equatorial, diffuse boundary dividing the plate into separate Indian and Australian plates significantly improves the fit of kinematic plate models to the spreading rates, transform azimuths, and earthquake slip vectors on the spreading center boundaries. An additional boundary, further dividing the Australian plate into Australian and Capricorn plates has been proposed to account for much of the remaining inconsistency and the pattern of intraplate earthquakes [J.-Y. Royer, R.G. Gordon, Science 277 (1997) 1268-1274]. The proposed boundary is ˜2000 km wide where it intersects the Southeast Indian Ridge. Several recent geophysical cruises to the Southeast Indian Ridge, including a cruise within the proposed boundary, provide many new data for investigating the validity of the Capricorn plate model. These new observations strongly support the hypothesis that the Capricorn plate exists. Statistical tests of the data from the Southeast Indian Ridge alone are not sufficient to confirm it, but motion about the Rodriguez Triple Junction (RTJ) suggests some non-rigidity in the Antarctica-Australia-Somalia circuit. Inferred deformation with enforced closure about the RTJ leads to an estimate of plate motion consistent with the Capricorn plate model. However, the diffuse Capricorn-Australia boundary does not extend south of the St. Paul Fracture Zone, 800 km narrower than the previously proposed boundary.

  20. Study on the Delimitation of the Urban Development Boundary in a Special Economic Zone: A Case Study of the Central Urban Area of Doumen in Zhuhai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biao Zheng


    Full Text Available Since it implemented open-door policies, China has become the fastest growing economy in the world, and its urbanization level has steadily improved. Taking a special economic zone as the object of study, this paper delineates the urban development boundary of the Central Urban Area of Doumen. Using multiple models and methods, the urban development rigid and elastic boundaries are delineated separately, with the rigid boundary serving as the premise and foundation for delineating the elastic boundary. The results are as follows. First, the scale of the urban development rigid boundary is 79.60 km². Moreover, the scales of the urban development elastic boundaries in 2020 and 2026 are 24.51 km² and 28.53 km², respectively. Second, by delimiting the urban development elastic boundary, the compactness of urban land will be improved. Third, the urban development boundary of this paper is reasonable in theory. This paper suggests that the urban development boundary can curb urban sprawl and guide rational urban development, which is conducive to optimizing an urban spatial layout.



    Rita Choudhury; Hridi Ranjan Deb


    The two-dimensional free convection flow of visco-elastic and electrically conducting fluid past a vertical impermeable flat plate is considered in presence of a uniform transverse magnetic field. The governing equations are reduced to ordinary differential equation by introducing appropriate co-ordinate transformation. The analytical expressions for the velocity, temperature and species concentration fields have been obtained. The corresponding expressions for the non-dimensional rates of he...

  2. Active control of flow noise sources in turbulent boundary layer on a flat-plate using piezoelectric bimorph film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Woo Seog; Lee, Seung Bae; Shin, Dong Shin; Na, Yang


    The piezoelectric bimorph film, which, as an actuator, can generate more effective displacement than the usual PVDF film, is used to control the turbulent boundary-layer flow. The change of wall pressures inside the turbulent boundary layer is observed by using the multi-channel microphone array flush-mounted on the surface when actuation at the non-dimensional frequency f b + =0.008 and 0.028 is applied to the turbulent boundary layer. The wall pressure characteristics by the actuation to produce local displacement are more dominantly influenced by the size of the actuator module than the actuation frequency. The movement of large-scale turbulent structures to the upper layer is found to be the main mechanism of the reduction in the wall-pressure energy spectrum when the 700ν/u τ -long bimorph film is periodically actuated at the non-dimensional frequency f b + =0.008 and 0.028. The bimorph actuator is triggered with the time delay for the active forcing at a single frequency when a 1/8' pressure-type, pin-holed microphone sensor detects the large-amplitude pressure event by the turbulent spot. The wall-pressure energy in the late-transitional boundary layer is partially reduced near the convection wavenumber by the open-loop control based on the large amplitude event

  3. Changes in Student Knowledge and Views of Geohazards, Societal Risks, and Monitoring at Active Plate Boundaries Using a Data-Rich Curriculum (United States)

    Selkin, P. A.; Goodell, L. P.; Teasdale, R.


    The "Living on the Edge: Building Resilient Societies on Active Plate Margins" curriculum consists of six data-rich activities, each intended for a 50-minute class, in which students assess risk at active plate boundaries due to earthquakes and volcanoes. Developed as part of the InTeGrate NSF STEP Center the peer-reviewed, publically available materials ( have been used at several institutions in diverse classroom settings including small laboratory sections, large lecture courses, medium-sized upper division courses and professional development programs for middle and high school teachers. Pre- and post-instruction surveys measured content knowledge and geoscience literacy, self-efficacy in using geologic data to assess hazards and risk, and attitudes towards the value of monitoring plate margins. The activities have overall positive effects on knowledge of geohazard concepts. Views about the value of scientific practice also became more positive: 74% of students indicated they "agree" or "strongly agree" that monitoring geologic activity has value to them personally (even if they don't live on an active plate margin) and 94% indicated that such monitoring is valuable to society. Most became more confident in evaluating geologic hazard and risk (>60% of students self-described increased confidence by one or more Likert levels). Student knowledge of both the types and limits of data in forecasting geological hazards and their effects also improved. However, attitudes toward sustainability and geoscience careers did not change. Learning and attitudinal improvements are true for all classroom types, but the degree of change varies with class size and the amount of time spent on activities. Learning data and instructor feedback suggest that interactive classroom activities that use real-world data to address societally relevant issues increase student learning and enhance students' ability to synthesize scientific information.

  4. Application of the High Gradient hydrodynamics code to simulations of a two-dimensional zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layer over a flat plate (United States)

    Kaiser, Bryan E.; Poroseva, Svetlana V.; Canfield, Jesse M.; Sauer, Jeremy A.; Linn, Rodman R.


    The High Gradient hydrodynamics (HIGRAD) code is an atmospheric computational fluid dynamics code created by Los Alamos National Laboratory to accurately represent flows characterized by sharp gradients in velocity, concentration, and temperature. HIGRAD uses a fully compressible finite-volume formulation for explicit Large Eddy Simulation (LES) and features an advection scheme that is second-order accurate in time and space. In the current study, boundary conditions implemented in HIGRAD are varied to find those that better reproduce the reduced physics of a flat plate boundary layer to compare with complex physics of the atmospheric boundary layer. Numerical predictions are compared with available DNS, experimental, and LES data obtained by other researchers. High-order turbulence statistics are collected. The Reynolds number based on the free-stream velocity and the momentum thickness is 120 at the inflow and the Mach number for the flow is 0.2. Results are compared at Reynolds numbers of 670 and 1410. A part of the material is based upon work supported by NASA under award NNX12AJ61A and by the Junior Faculty UNM-LANL Collaborative Research Grant.

  5. Analysis of the Slab Temperature, Thermal Stresses and Fractures Computed with the Implementation of Local and Average Boundary Conditions in the Secondary Cooling Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadała B.


    Full Text Available The numerical simulations of the temperature fields have been accomplished for slab casting made of a low carbon steel. The casting process of slab of 1500 mm in width and 225 mm in height has been modeled. Two types of boundary condition models of heat transfer have been employed in numerical simulations. The heat transfer coefficient in the first boundary condition model was calculated from the formula which takes into account the slab surface temperature and water flow rate in each secondary cooling zone. The second boundary condition model defines the heat transfer coefficient around each water spray nozzle. The temperature fields resulting from the average in zones water flow rate and from the nozzles arrangement have been compared. The thermal stresses and deformations resulted from such temperature field have given higher values of fracture criterion at slab corners.

  6. The northern Lesser Antilles oblique subduction zone: new insight about the upper plate deformation, 3D slab geometry and interplate coupling. (United States)

    Marcaillou, B.; Laurencin, M.; Graindorge, D.; Klingelhoefer, F.


    In subduction zones, the 3D geometry of the plate interface is thought to be a key parameter for the control of margin tectonic deformation, interplate coupling and seismogenic behavior. In the northern Caribbean subduction, precisely between the Virgin Islands and northern Lesser Antilles, these subjects remain controversial or unresolved. During the ANTITHESIS cruises (2013-2016), we recorded wide-angle seismic, multichannel reflection seismic and bathymetric data along this zone in order to constrain the nature and the geometry of the subducting and upper plate. This experiment results in the following conclusions: 1) The Anegada Passage is a 450-km long structure accross the forearc related to the extension due to the collision with the Bahamas platform. 2) More recently, the tectonic partitioning due to the plate convergence obliquity re-activated the Anegada Passage in the left-lateral strike-slip system. The partitioning also generated the left-lateral strike-slip Bunce Fault, separating the accretionary prism from the forearc. 3) Offshore of the Virgin Islands margin, the subducting plate shows normal faults parallel to the ancient spreading center that correspond to the primary fabric of the oceanic crust. In contrast, offshore of Barbuda Island, the oceanic crust fabric is unresolved (fracture zone?, exhumed mantle? ). 4) In the direction of the plate convergence vector, the slab deepening angle decreases northward. It results in a shallower slab beneath the Virgin Islands Platform compared to the St Martin-Barbuda forearc. In the past, the collision of the Bahamas platform likely changed the geodynamic settings of the northeastern corner of the Caribbean subduction zone and we present a revised geodynamic history of the region. Currently, various features are likely to control the 3D geometry of the slab: the margin convexity, the convergence obliquity, the heterogeneity of the primary fabric of the oceanic crust and the Bahamas docking. We suggest that

  7. Pleistocene slip rates on the Boconó fault along the North Andean Block plate boundary, Venezuela (United States)

    Pousse-Beltran, Lea; Vassallo, Riccardo; Audemard, Franck; Jouanne, François; Carcaillet, Julien; Pathier, Erwan; Volat, Matthieu


    The Boconó fault is a strike-slip fault lying between the North Andean Block and the South American plate which has triggered at least five Mw > 7 historical earthquakes in Venezuela. The North Andean Block is currently moving toward NNE with respect to a stable South American plate. This relative displacement at 12 mm yr-1 in Venezuela (within the Maracaibo Block) was measured by geodesy, but until now the distribution and rates of Quaternary deformation have remained partially unclear. We used two alluvial fans offset by the Boconó fault (Yaracuy Valley) to quantify slip rates, by combining 10Be cosmogenic dating with measurements of tectonic displacements on high-resolution satellite images (Pleiades). Based upon a fan dated at >79 ka and offset by 1350-1580 m and a second fan dated at 120-273 ka and offset by 1236-1500 m, we obtained two Pleistocene rates of 5.0-11.2 and <20.0 mm yr-1, consistent with the regional geodesy. This indicates that the Boconó fault in the Yaracuy Valley accommodates 40 to 100% of the deformation between the South American plate and the Maracaibo Block. As no aseismic deformation was shown by interferometric synthetic aperture radar analysis, we assume that the fault is locked since the 1812 event. This implies that there is a slip deficit in the Yaracuy Valley since the last earthquake ranging from 1 to 4 m, corresponding to a Mw 7-7.6 earthquake. This magnitude is comparable to the 1812 earthquake and to other historical events along the Boconó fault.

  8. Experimental quantification of solute transport through the vadose zone under dynamic boundary conditions with dye tracers and optical methods. (United States)

    Cremer, Clemens; Neuweiler, Insa


    transport through the material interface which differs between the stationary (unilateral) and dynamic cases (bilateral). This qualitative observation is confirmed by breakthrough curves for dynamic experiments which generally show the trend of faster initial breakthrough and increased tailing when compared to stationary infiltration results. Literature Cremer, C.J.M., I. Neuweiler, M. Bechtold, J. Vanderborght (2016): Solute Transport in Heterogeneous Soil with Time-Dependent Boundary Conditions, Vadose Zone Journal 15 (6) DOI: 10.2136/vzj2015.11.0144

  9. Application of He's homotopy perturbation method to boundary layer flow and convection heat transfer over a flat plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esmaeilpour, M.; Ganji, D.D.


    In this Letter, the problem of forced convection over a horizontal flat plate is presented and the homotopy perturbation method (HPM) is employed to compute an approximation to the solution of the system of nonlinear differential equations governing on the problem. It has been attempted to show the capabilities and wide-range applications of the homotopy perturbation method in comparison with the previous ones in solving heat transfer problems. The obtained solutions, in comparison with the exact solutions admit a remarkable accuracy. A clear conclusion can be drawn from the numerical results that the HPM provides highly accurate numerical solutions for nonlinear differential equations

  10. Comparison of Different Analytic Solutions to Axisymmetric Squeezing Fluid Flow between Two Infinite Parallel Plates with Slip Boundary Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Khan


    Full Text Available We investigate squeezing flow between two large parallel plates by transforming the basic governing equations of the first grade fluid to an ordinary nonlinear differential equation using the stream functions ur(r,z,t=(1/r(∂ψ/∂z and uz(r,z,t=−(1/r(∂ψ/∂r and a transformation ψ(r,z=r2F(z. The velocity profiles are investigated through various analytical techniques like Adomian decomposition method, new iterative method, homotopy perturbation, optimal homotopy asymptotic method, and differential transform method.

  11. Transpressional Tectonics across the N. American-Caribbean Plate Boundary: Preliminary Results of a Multichannel Seismic Survey of Lake Azuei, Haiti. (United States)

    Hearn, C. K.; Cormier, M. H.; Sloan, H.; Wattrus, N. J.; Boisson, D.; Brown, B.; Guerrier, K.; King, J. W.; Knotts, P.; Momplaisir, R.; Sorlien, C. C.; Stempel, R.; Symithe, S. J.; Ulysse, S. M. J.


    On January 12, 2010, a Mw 7.0 earthquake struck Haiti, killing over 200,000 people and devastating the Capital city of Port-au-Prince and the surrounding regions. It ruptured a previously unknown blind-thrust fault that abuts the Enriquillo Plantain Garden Fault (EPGF), one of two transform faults that define the North American-Caribbean plate boundary. That earthquake highlighted how transpression across this complex boundary is accommodated by slip partitioning into strike-slip and compressional structures. Because the seismic hazard is higher for a rupture on a reverse or oblique-slip fault than on a vertical strike-slip fault, the need to characterize the geometry of that fault system is clear. Lake Azuei overlies this plate boundary 60 km east of the 2010 epicenter. The lake's 23 km long axis trends NW-SE, parallel to the Haitian fold-and-thrust belt and oblique to the EPGF. This tectonic context makes it an ideal target for investigating the partitioning of plate motion between strike-slip and compressional structures. In January 2017, we acquired 222 km of multichannel seismic (MCS) profiles in the lake, largely concurrent with subbottom seismic (CHIRP) profiles. The MCS data were acquired using a high-frequency BubbleGun source and a 75 m-long, 24-channel streamer, achieving a 24 seismic fold with a penetration of 200 m below lakebed. With the goal of resolving tectonic structures in 3-D, survey lines were laid out in a grid with profiles spaced 1.2 km apart. Additional profiles were acquired at the SE end of the lake where most of the tectonic activity is presumably occurring. The co-located CHIRP and MCS profiles document the continuity of tectonic deformation between the surficial sediments and the deeper strata. Preliminary processing suggests that a SW-dipping blind thrust fault, expressed updip as a large monocline fold, may control the western edge of the lake. Gentle, young folds that protrude from the flat lakebed are also imaged with the CHIRP

  12. The N-terminal cleavage of chondromodulin-I in growth-plate cartilage at the hypertrophic and calcified zones during bone development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigenori Miura

    Full Text Available Chondromodulin-I (ChM-I is a 20-25 kDa anti-angiogenic glycoprotein in cartilage matrix. In the present study, we identified a novel 14-kDa species of ChM-I by immunoblotting, and purified it by immunoprecipitation with a newly raised monoclonal antibody against ChM-I. The N-terminal amino acid sequencing indicated that it was an N-terminal truncated form of ChM-I generated by the proteolytic cleavage at Asp37-Asp38. This 14-kDa ChM-I was shown by the modified Boyden chamber assay to have very little inhibitory activity on the VEGF-A-induced migration of vascular endothelial cells in contrast to the intact 20-25 kDa form of ChM-I (ID50 = 8 nM. Immunohistochemistry suggested that 20-25 kDa ChM-I was exclusively localized in the avascular zones, i.e. the resting, proliferating, and prehypertrophic zones, of the cartilaginous molds of developing long bone, whereas the 14-kDa form of ChM-I was found in hypertrophic and calcified zones. Immunoblotting demonstrated that mature growth-plate chondrocytes isolated from rat costal cartilage actively secrete ChM-I almost exclusively as the intact 20-25 kDa form into the medium in primary culture. Taken together, our results suggest that intact 20-25 kDa ChM-I is stored as a component of extracellular matrix in the avascular cartilage zones, but it is inactivated by a single N-terminal proteolytic cleavage in the hypertrophic zone of growth-plate cartilage.

  13. Motion of the Rivera plate since 10 Ma relative to the Pacific and North American plates and the mantle (United States)

    DeMets, Charles; Traylen, Stephen


    To better understand the influence of Rivera plate kinematics on the geodynamic evolution of western Mexico, we use more than 1400 crossings of seafloor spreading magnetic lineations along the Pacific-Rivera rise and northern Mathematician ridge to solve for rotations of the Rivera plate relative to the underlying mantle and the Pacific and North American plates at 14 times since 9.9 Ma. Our comparison of magnetic anomaly crossings from the undeformed Pacific plate to their counterparts on the Rivera plate indicates that significant areas of the Rivera plate have deformed since 9.9 Ma. Dextral shear along the southern edge of the plate from 3.3-2.2 Ma during a regional plate boundary reorganization deformed the Rivera plate farther into its interior than previously recognized. In addition, seafloor located north of two rupture zones within the Rivera plate sutured to North America after 1.5 Ma. Anomaly crossings from these two deformed regions thus cannot be used to reconstruct motion of the Rivera plate. Finite rotations that best reconstruct Pacific plate anomaly crossings onto their undeformed counterparts on the Rivera plate yield stage spreading rates that decrease gradually by 10% between 10 and 3.6 Ma, decrease rapidly by 20% after ˜3.6 Ma, and recover after 1 Ma. The slowdown in Pacific-Rivera seafloor spreading at 3.6 Ma coincided with the onset of dextral shear across the then-incipient southern boundary of the Rivera plate with the Pacific plate. The available evidence indicates that the Rivera plate has been an independent microplate since at least 10 Ma, contrary to published assertions that it fragmented from the Cocos plate at ˜5 Ma. Motion of the Rivera plate relative to North America has changed significantly since 10 Ma, in concert with significant changes in Pacific-Rivera motion. A significant and robust feature of Rivera-North America motion not previously recognized is the cessation of margin-normal convergence and thus subduction from 2

  14. The Effect of Heat Transfer on MHD Marangoni Boundary Layer Flow Past a Flat Plate in Nanofluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. V. S. R. K. Sastry


    Full Text Available The problem of heat transfer on the Marangoni convection boundary layer flow in an electrically conducting nanofluid is studied. Similarity transformations are used to transform the set of governing partial differential equations of the flow into a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. Numerical solutions of the similarity equations are then solved through the MATLAB “bvp4c” function. Different nanoparticles like Cu, Al2O3, and TiO2 are taken into consideration with water as base fluid. The velocity and temperature profiles are shown in graphs. Also the effects of the Prandtl number and solid volume fraction on heat transfer are discussed.

  15. Influence of yield stress on free convective boundary-layer flow of a non-Newtonian nanofluid past a vertical plate in a porous medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hady, F. M.; Ibrahim, F. S.; Abdel-Gaied, S. M.; Eid, M. R.


    The effect of yield stress on the free convective heat transfer of dilute liquid suspensions of nanofluids flowing on a vertical plate saturated in porous medium under laminar conditions is investigated considering the nanofluid obeys the mathematical model of power-law. The model used for non-Newtonian nanofluid incorporates the effects of Brownian motion and thermophoresis. The governing boundary- layer equations are cast into dimensionless system which is solved numerically using a deferred correction technique and Newton iteration. This solution depends on yield stress parameter Ω, a power-law index n, Lewis number Le, a buoyancy-ratio number Nr, a Brownian motion number Nb, and a thermophoresis number Nt. Analyses of the results found that the reduced Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are decreasing functions of the higher yield stress parameter for each dimensionless numbers, n and Le, except the reduced Sherwood number is an increasing function of higher Nb for different values of yield stress parameter

  16. Free convection boundary layer flow past a horizontal flat plate embedded in porous medium filled by nano-fluid containing gyro-tactic microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aziz, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering and Applied Science, Gonzaga University, Spokane, WA 99258 (United States); Khan, W.A. [Department of Engineering Sciences, National University of Sciences and Technology, Karachi 75350 (Pakistan); Pop, I. [Department of Applied Mathematics, Babes-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)


    The steady boundary layer free convection flow past a horizontal flat plate embedded in a porous medium filled by a water-based nano-fluid containing gyro-tactic microorganisms is investigated. The Oberbeck-Boussinesq approximation is assumed in the analysis. The effects of bio-convection parameters on the dimensionless velocity, temperature, nano-particle concentration and density of motile microorganisms as well as on the local Nusselt, Sherwood and motile microorganism numbers are investigated and presented graphically. In the absence of bio-convection, the results are compared with the existing data in the open literature and found to be in good agreement. The bio-convection parameters strongly influence the heat, mass, and motile microorganism transport rates. (authors)

  17. Some Exact Solutions of Boundary Layer Flows along a Vertical Plate with Buoyancy Forces Combined with Lorentz Forces under Uniform Suction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asterios Pantokratoras


    Full Text Available Exact analytical solutions of boundary layer flows along a vertical porous plate with uniform suction are derived and presented in this paper. The solutions concern the Blasius, Sakiadis, and Blasius-Sakiadis flows with buoyancy forces combined with either MHD Lorentz or EMHD Lorentz forces. In addition, some exact solutions are presented specifically for water in the temperature range of 0∘C≤≤8∘C, where water density is nearly parabolic. Except for their use as benchmarking means for testing the numerical solution of the Navier-Stokes equations, the presented exact solutions with EMHD forces have use in flow separation control in aeronautics and hydronautics, whereas the MHD results have applications in process metallurgy and fusion technology. These analytical solutions are valid for flows with strong suction.

  18. The metallogenic role of east-west fracture zones in South America with regard to the motion of lithospheric plates (with an example from Brazil) (United States)

    Kutina, J.; Carter, William D.; Lopez, F.X.


    The role of east-west fracture zones in South America is discussed with regard to global fracturing and the motion of lithospheric plates. A set of major NW-trending lineaments has been derived which show a tendency to be spaced equidistantly and may correspond to a set of east-west fractures in the "pre-drift" position of the South American plate. Statistical analysis of linears in the ERTS-mosaics shows that NW-fractures are also among the most important ones in the Andes region, suggesting that the above major lineaments extend into the basement of the Andes. Some of the old major fractures, trending east-west in the present orientation of South America, are discussed and their NE orientation in the pre-drift position of the plate is considered. An example of structural control of ore deposition in the Brazilian Shield is presented, using the maps of the RADAM Project. It is concluded that the small tin-bearing granitic bodies concentrated in the region of Sao Felix do Xingu in the state of Para represent upper parts of an unexposed granitoid massif which is controlled by the intersection of a major east-west fracture zone probably represents westward extension of the Patos Lineament of the easternmost part of Brazil, connected with the east-west fracture zone of the Para state through the basement of the Maranhao Basin (Sineclise do Maranhao-Piaui). It is expected that the proposed "Patos-Para Lineament" extends further westward and may similarly control, at intersections with fractures of other trends, some mineralization centers in the western part of the state of Para and in the state of Amazonas.

  19. New reductions of the Astrographic Catalogue. Plate adjustments of the Algiers, Oxford I and II, and Vatican Zones. (United States)

    Urban, S. E.; Martin, J. C.; Jackson, E. S.; Corbin, T. E.


    The U. S. Naval Observatory is in the process of making new reductions of the Astrographic Catalogue using a modern reference catalog, the ACRS, and new data analysis and reduction software. Currently ten AC zones have been reduced. This papers discusses the reduction models and results from the Algiers, Oxford I and II, and Vatican zones (those of the Cape zone are discussed elsewhere). The resulting star positions will be combined with those of the U.S. Naval Observatory's Twin Astrograph Catalog to produce a catalog of positions and proper motions in support of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey.

  20. Characteristics and landcover of estuarine boundaries: implications for the delineation of the South African estuarine functional zone

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Veldkornet, DA


    Full Text Available Zulu-Natal), cultivation has removed estuarine habitat. Although delineation of boundaries can be complicated by landcover changes, the estuarine lateral boundary in Cape estuaries could be identified based on sediment characteristics (moisture content, organic content...

  1. Mantle enrichment by volatiles as the Nazca plate subducts beneath the Payenia backarc of the Southern Volcanic Zone, Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Frederik Ejvang

    The thesis is a contribution towards the understanding of the generation of the source mantle for magmas related to the subduction of the Nazca plate under South America with an emphasis on the geochemistry of the volatiles Cl, F, S, H2O and CO2. The study presents analytical data for tephra, min...

  2. Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Beam in Shear Zone by Compensation the Stirrups with Equivalent External Steel Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khamail Abdul-Mahdi Mosheer


    Full Text Available An experimental study on reinforced concrete beams strengthened with external steel plates instead of shear stirrups has been held in this paper. Eight samples of the same dimensions and properties were used. Two of them were tested up to failure and specified as references beams; one with shear reinforcement and the other without shear reinforcement. Another samples without shear reinforcement were tested until the first shear crack occurs, then the samples strengthened on both sides with external steel plates as equivalent area of removed stirrups. The strengthened beams were divided into three groups according to the thickness of plates (1, 1.5, 2 mm, each group involved two beams; one bonded using epoxy and the other bonded using epoxy with anchored bolts. Finally, the strengthened beams tested when using anchored bolts with epoxy glue to bond plates. Where the increasing in maximum load is higher than that in reference beam with no internal stirrups reach to (75.46 –106.13% and has a good agreement with the control beam with shear reinforcement reach to (76.06 – 89.36% of ultimate load.

  3. Effective strength of incoming sediments and its implications for plate boundary propagation: Nankai and Costa Rica as type examples of accreting vs. erosive convergent margins (United States)

    Kopf, Achim


    The location of the seaward tip of a subduction thrust controls material transfer at convergent plate margins, and hence global mass balances. At approximately half of those margins, the material of the subducting plate is completely underthrust so that no accretion or even subduction erosion takes place. Along the remaining margins, material is scraped off the subducting plate and added to the upper plate by frontal accretion. We here examine the physical properties of subducting sediments off Costa Rica and Nankai, type examples for an erosional and an accretionary margin, to investigate which parameters control the level where the frontal thrust cuts into the incoming sediment pile. A series of rotary-shear experiments to measure the frictional strength of the various lithologies entering the two subduction zones were carried out. Results include the following findings: (1) At Costa Rica, clay-rich strata at the top of the incoming succession have the lowest strength (μres = 0.19) while underlying calcareous ooze, chalk and diatomite are strong (up to μres = 0.43; μpeak = 0.56). Hence the entire sediment package is underthrust. (2) Off Japan, clay-rich deposits within the lower Shikoku Basin inventory are weakest (μres = 0.13-0.19) and favour the frontal proto-thrust to migrate into one particular horizon between sandy, competent turbidites below and ash-bearing mud above. (3) Taking in situ data and earlier geotechnical testing into account, it is suggested that mineralogical composition rather than pore-pressure defines the position of the frontal thrust, which locates in the weakest, clay mineral-rich (up to 85 wt.%) materials. (4) Smectite, the dominant clay mineral phase at either margin, shows rate strengthening and stable sliding in the frontal 50 km of the subduction thrust (0.0001-0.1 mm/s, 0.5-25 MPa effective normal stress). (5) Progressive illitization of smectite cannot explain seismogenesis, because illite-rich samples also show velocity

  4. New methods to cope with temperature elevations in heated segments of flat plates cooled by boundary layer flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajmohammadi Mohammad R.


    Full Text Available This paper documents two reliable methods to cope with the rising temperature in an array of heated segments with a known overall heat load and exposed to forced convective boundary layer flow. Minimization of the hot spots (peak temperatures in the array of heated segments constitutes the primary goal that sets the platform to develop the methods. The two proposed methods consist of: 1 Designing an array of unequal heaters so that each heater has a different size and generates heat at different rates, and 2 Distancing the unequal heaters from each other using an insulated spacing. Multi-scale design based on constructal theory is applied to estimate the optimal insulated spacing, heaters size and heat generation rates, such that the minimum hot spots temperature is achieved when subject to space constraint and fixed overall heat load. It is demonstrated that the two methods can considerably reduce the hot spot temperatures and consequently, both can be utilized with confidence in industry to achieve optimized heat transfer.

  5. Clouds in the atmospheres of extrasolar planets. V. The impact of CO2 ice clouds on the outer boundary of the habitable zone


    Kitzmann, Daniel


    Clouds have a strong impact on the climate of planetary atmospheres. The potential scattering greenhouse effect of CO2 ice clouds in the atmospheres of terrestrial extrasolar planets is of particular interest because it might influence the position and thus the extension of the outer boundary of the classic habitable zone around main sequence stars. Here, the impact of CO2 ice clouds on the surface temperatures of terrestrial planets with CO2 dominated atmospheres, orbiting different types of...

  6. Paper microzone plates. (United States)

    Carrilho, Emanuel; Phillips, Scott T; Vella, Sarah J; Martinez, Andres W; Whitesides, George M


    This paper describes 96- and 384-microzone plates fabricated in paper as alternatives to conventional multiwell plates fabricated in molded polymers. Paper-based plates are functionally related to plastic well plates, but they offer new capabilities. For example, paper-microzone plates are thin (approximately 180 microm), require small volumes of sample (5 microL per zone), and can be manufactured from inexpensive materials ($0.05 per plate). The paper-based plates are fabricated by patterning sheets of paper, using photolithography, into hydrophilic zones surrounded by hydrophobic polymeric barriers. This photolithography used an inexpensive formulation photoresist that allows rapid (approximately 15 min) prototyping of paper-based plates. These plates are compatible with conventional microplate readers for quantitative absorbance and fluorescence measurements. The limit of detection per zone loaded for fluorescence was 125 fmol for fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled bovine serum albumin, and this level corresponds to 0.02 the quantity of analyte per well used to achieve comparable signal-to-noise in a 96-well plastic plate (using a solution of 25 nM labeled protein). The limits of detection for absorbance on paper was approximately 50 pmol per zone for both Coomassie Brilliant Blue and Amaranth dyes; these values were 0.4 that required for the plastic plate. Demonstration of quantitative colorimetric correlations using a scanner or camera to image the zones and to measure the intensity of color, makes it possible to conduct assays without a microplate reader.

  7. Rheological structure of a lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary zone, decoded from EBSD analysis of mantle xenoliths from Ichinomegata, NE Japan (United States)

    Sato, Y.; Ozawa, K.


    Mantle xenoliths are fragments of mantle materials entrapped in alkali basalts or kimberlites and transported to the surface (Nixon, 1987). They provide information on rheological, thermal, chemical, petrological structures of the upper mantle (e.g. Green et al., 2010; McKenzie and Bickle, 1988; O'Reilly and Griffin, 1996). They potentially represent materials from a boundary zone of lithosphere and asthenosphere (LABZ), where the heat transportation mechanism changes from convection to conduction (Sleep, 2005, 2006). However, difficulties in geobarometry for spinel peridotite (e.g. O'Reilly et al., 1997) have hampered our understanding of shallow LABZ. Ichinomegata located in the back-arc side of NE Japan is a latest Pleistocene andesitic-dacitic volcano yielding spinel peridotite xenoliths (Katsui et al., 1979). Through our works (Sato and Ozawa, 2016, 2017a, 2017b), we have overcome difficulties in geobarometry of spinel peridotites and gained accurate thermal structure (0.74-1.60 GPa, 832-1084 °C) from eight of the nine examined xenoliths. The rheological and chemical features suggest drastic changes: undeformed (granular), depleted, subsolidus mantle representing lithospheric mantle (ca. 28-35 km) and deformed (porphyroclastic), fertile, hydrous supersolidus mantle representing rheological LABZ (ca. 35-54 km). We investigate depth dependent variation of crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) of constituent minerals of the xenoliths by electron back-scattered diffraction analysis (using JSM-7000F with a CCD detector and the CHANNEL5 software at the University of Tokyo). A shallower (ca. 32 km) sample with tabulargranular texture and coarse olivine size (0.92 mm) has A-type olivine CPO with [100] maximum as reported by Satsukawa and Michibayashi (2014) (hereafter SM14), whereas a deep (ca. 51 km) sample with porphyroclastic texture and finer olivine size (0.46 mm) has CPO with weaker fabric intensity characterized by a [100] girdle similar to AG-type and

  8. Solution-mass transfer and grain boundary sliding in mafic shear zones - comparison between experiments and nature (United States)

    Marti, Sina; Heilbronner, Renée; Stünitz, Holger; Plümper, Oliver; Drury, Martyn


    Grain size sensitive creep (GSSC) mechanisms are widely recognized to be the most efficient deformation mechanisms in shear zones. With or without initial fracturing and fluid infiltration, the onset of heterogeneous nucleation leading to strong grain size reduction is a frequently described process for the initiation of GSSC. Phase mixing due to reaction and heterogeneous nucleation during GSSC impedes grain growth, sustaining small grain sizes as a prerequisite for GSSC. Here we present rock deformation experiments on 'wet' plagioclase - pyroxene mixtures at T=800°C, P=1.0 and 1.5GPa and strain rates of 2e-5 - 2e-6 1/s, performed with a Griggs-type solid medium deformation apparatus. Microstructural criteria are used to show that both, grain boundary sliding (GBS) and solution-mass transfer processes are active and are interpreted to be the dominant strain accommodating processes. Displacement is localized within shear bands formed by fine-grained ( 300 - 500nm) plagioclase (Pl) and the syn-kinematic reaction products amphibole (Amph), quartz (Qz) and zoisite (Zo). We compare our experiments with a natural case - a sheared mafic pegmatite (P-T during deformation 0.7 - 0.9 GPa, 610 - 710 °C; Getsinger et al., 2013) from Northern Norway. Except for the difference in grain size of the experimental and natural samples, microstructures are strikingly alike. The experimental and natural P- and especially T-conditions are very similar. Consequently, extrapolation from experiments to nature must be made without a significant 'temperature-time' trade-off, which is normally taken advantage of when relating experimental to natural strain rates. We will discuss under which assumptions extrapolation to nature in our case is likely feasible. Syn-kinematic reactions during GBS and solution-mass transport are commonly interpreted to result in an ordered (anticlustered) phase mixture. However, phase mixing in our case is restricted: Mixing is extensive between Pl + Zo + Qz and

  9. Indonesian Landforms and Plate Tectonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Th. Verstappen


    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v5i3.103The horizontal configuration and vertical dimension of the landforms occurring in the tectonically unstable parts of Indonesia were resulted in the first place from plate tectonics. Most of them date from the Quaternary and endogenous forces are ongoing. Three major plates – the northward moving Indo-Australian Plate, the south-eastward moving SE-Asian Plate and the westward moving Pacific Plate - meet at a plate triple-junction situated in the south of New Guinea’s Bird’s Head. The narrow North-Moluccan plate is interposed between the Asia and Pacific. It tapers out northward in the Philippine Mobile Belt and is gradually disappearing. The greatest relief amplitudes occur near the plate boundaries: deep ocean trenches are associated with subduction zones and mountain ranges with collision belts. The landforms of the more stable areas of the plates date back to a more remote past and, where emerged, have a more subdued relief that is in the first place related to the resistance of the rocks to humid tropical weathering Rising mountain ranges and emerging island arcs are subjected to rapid humid-tropical river erosions and mass movements. The erosion products accumulate in adjacent sedimentary basins where their increasing weight causes subsidence by gravity and isostatic compensations. Living and raised coral reefs, volcanoes, and fault scarps are important geomorphic indicators of active plate tectonics. Compartmental faults may strongly affect island arcs stretching perpendicular to the plate movement. This is the case on Java. Transcurrent faults and related pull-apart basins are a leading factor where plates meet at an angle, such as on Sumatra. The most complicated situation exists near the triple-junction and in the Moluccas. Modern research methods, such as GPS measurements of plate movements and absolute dating of volcanic outbursts and raised coral reefs are important tools. The mega-landforms resulting

  10. Effect of glacial-interglacial sea-level changes on the displacement and stress field in the forearc and along the plate interface of subduction zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Li


    Full Text Available Combined seismological, space-geodetic and numerical studies have shown that the seismicity at subduction zones may be modulated by tides and glacier fluctuations on timescales of 1–100 a, because these changes in loads on Earth's surface are able to alter the stress field in the upper plate and along the plate interface. Here we use a two-dimensional finite-element model of a subduction zone to investigate how glacial-interglacial sea-level changes affect the forearc region and the plate interface. The model results show that a sea-level fall by 125 m over 100 ka causes up to 0.7 m of vertical displacement, with the maximum uplift occurring between the trench and the coast. The uplift signal induced by the sea-level fall decreases to zero ~20 km landward of the coastline. A subsequent sea-level rise by 125 m over 20 ka causes subsidence, which is again most pronounced in the submarine part of the forearc. The sea-level changes cause horizontal displacements of up to 0.12 m, which are directed seaward during sea-level fall and landward during sea-level rise. With respect to the stress field, the sea-level changes lead to variations in the vertical stress and the shear stress of up to 1.23 MPa and 0.4 MPa, respectively. The shear stress variations are highest beneath the coast, i.e. in the area where the sea-level changes cause the strongest flexure. The resulting Coulomb stress changes on the plate interface are of the order of 0.2–0.5 MPa and indicate that earthquakes are promoted during sea-level fall and delayed during sea-level rise. Our findings imply that eustatic sea-level changes during glacial-interglacial periods may have induced displacements and stress changes that were large enough to affect the seismic cycle of subduction thrusts.

  11. Variation of b and p values from aftershocks sequences along the Mexican subduction zone and their relation to plate characteristics (United States)

    Ávila-Barrientos, L.; Zúñiga, F. R.; Rodríguez-Pérez, Q.; Guzmán-Speziale, M.


    Aftershock sequences along the Mexican subduction margin (between coordinates 110ºW and 91ºW) were analyzed by means of the p value from the Omori-Utsu relation and the b value from the Gutenberg-Richter relation. We focused on recent medium to large (Mw > 5.6) events considered susceptible of generating aftershock sequences suitable for analysis. The main goal was to try to find a possible correlation between aftershock parameters and plate characteristics, such as displacement rate, age and segmentation. The subduction regime of Mexico is one of the most active regions of the world with a high frequency of occurrence of medium to large events and plate characteristics change along the subduction margin. Previous studies have observed differences in seismic source characteristics at the subduction regime, which may indicate a difference in rheology and possible segmentation. The results of the analysis of the aftershock sequences indicate a slight tendency for p values to decrease from west to east with increasing of plate age although a statistical significance is undermined by the small number of aftershocks in the sequences, a particular feature distinctive of the region as compared to other world subduction regimes. The b values show an opposite, increasing trend towards the east even though the statistical significance is not enough to warrant the validation of such a trend. A linear regression between both parameters provides additional support for the inverse relation. Moreover, we calculated the seismic coupling coefficient, showing a direct relation with the p and b values. While we cannot undoubtedly confirm the hypothesis that aftershock generation depends on certain tectonic characteristics (age, thickness, temperature), our results do not reject it thus encouraging further study into this question.

  12. Is There Really A North American Plate? (United States)

    Krill, A.


    Lithospheric plates are typically identified from earthquake epicenters and evidence such as GPS movements. But no evidence indicates a plate boundary between the North American and South American Plates. Some plate maps show them separated by a transform boundary, but it is only a fracture zone. Other maps show an "undefined plate boundary" or put no boundary between these two plates (check Google images). Early plate maps showed a single large American Plate, quite narrow east of the Caribbean Plate (Le Pichon 1968, Morgan 1968). The North and South American Plates became established by the leading textbook Earth (Press & Siever 1974). On their map, from a Scientific American article by John Dewey (1972), these new plates were separated by an "uncertain plate boundary." The reasons for postulating a North American Plate were probably more psychological than geological. Each of the other continents of the world had its own plate, and North American geologists naturally wanted theirs. Similarly, European geographers used to view Europe as its own continent. A single large plate should again be hypothesized. But the term American Plate would now be ambiguous ("Which plate, North or South?") Perhaps future textbook authors could call it the "Two-American Plate." Textbook authors ultimately decide such global-tectonic matters. I became aware of textbook authors' opinions and influence from my research into the history of Alfred Wegener's continental drift (see Fixists vs. Mobilists by Krill 2011). Leading textbook author Charles Schuchert realized that continental drift would abolish his cherished paleogeographic models of large east-west continents (Eria, Gondwana) and small oceans (Poseiden, Nereis). He and his junior coauthors conspired to keep drift evidence out of their textbooks, from the 1934-editions until the 1969-editions (Physical Geology by Longwell et al. 1969, Historical Geology by Dunbar & Waage 1969). Their textbooks ruled in America. Textbooks

  13. Prediction of an internal boundary layer on a flat plate after a step change in roughness using a near-wall RANS model (United States)

    Chu, Minghan; Meng, Fanxiao; Bergstrom, Donald J.


    An in-house computational fluid dynamics code was used to simulate turbulent flow over a flat plate with a step change in roughness, exhibiting a smooth-rough-smooth configuration. An internal boundary layer (IBL) is formed at the transition from the smooth to rough (SR) and then the rough to smooth (RS) surfaces. For an IBL the flow far above the surface has experienced a wall shear stress that is different from the local value. Within a Reynolds-Averaged-Navier-Stokes (RANS) formulation, the two-layer k- ɛ model of Durbin et al. (2001) was implemented to analyze the response of the flow to the change in surface condition. The numerical results are compared to experimental data, including some in-house measurements and the seminal work of Antonia and Luxton (1971,72). This problem captures some aspects of roughness in industrial and environmental applications, such as corrosion and the earth's surface heterogeneity, where the roughness is often encountered as discrete distributions. It illustrates the challenge of incorporating roughness models in RANS that are capable of responding to complex surface roughness profiles.

  14. A new algorithm for three-dimensional joint inversion of body wave and surface wave data and its application to the Southern California plate boundary region (United States)

    Fang, Hongjian; Zhang, Haijiang; Yao, Huajian; Allam, Amir; Zigone, Dimitri; Ben-Zion, Yehuda; Thurber, Clifford; van der Hilst, Robert D.


    We introduce a new algorithm for joint inversion of body wave and surface wave data to get better 3-D P wave (Vp) and S wave (Vs) velocity models by taking advantage of the complementary strengths of each data set. Our joint inversion algorithm uses a one-step inversion of surface wave traveltime measurements at different periods for 3-D Vs and Vp models without constructing the intermediate phase or group velocity maps. This allows a more straightforward modeling of surface wave traveltime data with the body wave arrival times. We take into consideration the sensitivity of surface wave data with respect to Vp in addition to its large sensitivity to Vs, which means both models are constrained by two different data types. The method is applied to determine 3-D crustal Vp and Vs models using body wave and Rayleigh wave data in the Southern California plate boundary region, which has previously been studied with both double-difference tomography method using body wave arrival times and ambient noise tomography method with Rayleigh and Love wave group velocity dispersion measurements. Our approach creates self-consistent and unique models with no prominent gaps, with Rayleigh wave data resolving shallow and large-scale features and body wave data constraining relatively deeper structures where their ray coverage is good. The velocity model from the joint inversion is consistent with local geological structures and produces better fits to observed seismic waveforms than the current Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) model.

  15. Mesozoic strike-slip movement of the Dunhua-Mishan Fault Zone in NE China: A response to oceanic plate subduction (United States)

    Liu, Cheng; Zhu, Guang; Zhang, Shuai; Gu, Chengchuan; Li, Yunjian; Su, Nan; Xiao, Shiye


    The NE-striking Dunhua-Mishan Fault Zone (DMFZ) is one of two branches of the continental-scale sinistral Tan-Lu Fault Zone in NE China. The field data presented here indicate that the ca. 1000 km long DMFZ records two phases of sinistral faulting. The structures produced by these two phases of faulting include NE-SW-striking ductile shear belts and brittle faults, respectively. Mylonite-hosted microstructures and quartz c-axis fabrics suggest deformation temperatures of 450 °C-500 °C for the ductile shear belts. Combining new zircon U-Pb dates for 14 igneous rock samples analyzed during this study with the geology of this region indicates these shear belts formed during the earliest Early Cretaceous. This phase of sinistral displacement represents the initial formation of the DMFZ in response to the northward propagation of the Tan-Lu Fault Zone into NE China. A phase of Early Cretaceous rifting was followed by a second phase of sinistral faulting at 102-96 Ma, as evidenced by our new U-Pb ages for associated igneous rocks. Combining our new data with the results of previous research indicates that the DFMZ records a four-stage Cretaceous evolutionary history, where initial sinistral faulting at the beginning of the Early Cretaceous gave way to rifting during the rest of the Early Cretaceous. This was followed by a second phase of sinistral faulting at the beginning of the Late Cretaceous and a second phase of local rifting during the rest of the Late Cretaceous. The Cretaceous evolution of the DMFZ records the synchronous tectonic evolution of the NE China continent bordering the Pacific Ocean. Two phases of regional N-S compression generated the two phases of sinistral faulting within the DMFZ, whereas two-stage regional extension generated the two phases of rifting. The two compressive events were the result of the rapid low-angle subduction of the Izanagi and Pacific plates, whereas the two-stage extension was caused by the roll-back of these respective

  16. Evolution of a Western Arctic Ice Ocean Boundary Layer and Mixed Layer Across a Developing Thermodynamically Forced Marginal Ice Zone (United States)


    heat and momentum transfer with the ice-ocean interface. These two observations demonstrate the intricate interplay between momentum, heat , and...summer evolution events: 1. Modulated shortwave radiative input to the ocean 2. Shoaled the ocean boundary layer increasing ocean heat storage 3... transfer in a stratified oceanic boundary layer. J. Geophys. Res., 92(C7), 6977–7986, doi:10.1029/JC092iC07p06977. McPhee, M. G., 1992: Turbulent heat

  17. Free vibration characteristics analysis of rectangular plate with rectangular opening based on Fourier series method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Minhao


    Full Text Available Plate structures with openings are common in many engineering structures. The study of the vibration characteristics of such structures is directly related to the vibration reduction, noise reduction and stability analysis of an overall structure. This paper conducts research into the free vibration characteristics of a thin elastic plate with a rectangular opening parallel to the plate in an arbitrary position. We use the improved Fourier series to represent the displacement tolerance function of the rectangular plate with an opening. We can divide the plate into an eight zone plate to simplify the calculation. We then use linear springs, which are uniformly distributed along the boundary, to simulate the classical boundary conditions and the boundary conditions of the boundaries between the regions. According to the energy functional and variational method, we can obtain the overall energy functional. We can also obtain the generalized eigenvalue matrix equation by studying the extremum of the unknown improved Fourier series expansion coefficients. We can then obtain the natural frequencies and corresponding vibration modes of the rectangular plate with an opening by solving the equation. We then compare the calculated results with the finite element method to verify the accuracy and effectiveness of the method proposed in this paper. Finally, we research the influence of the boundary condition, opening size and opening position on the vibration characteristics of a plate with an opening. This provides a theoretical reference for practical engineering application.

  18. Seismic link at plate boundary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    process constrain the seismic hazard assessment. Some frequent issues .... to obtain information on the causality between .... 2004), and low frequency deep triggering. (Miyazawa .... can trigger shallow thrust fault earthquakes; Science 306.

  19. Seismic link at plate boundary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    time series to determine the causality and related orientation. The resulting link ... Triggering causes changes in the Coulomb stress on a specified fault, which is ... work link shows that the alignment of the links is parallel to the Honshu Trench ...

  20. Atypical delta N-15 variations at the southern boundary of the East Pacific oxygen minimum zone over the last 50 ka


    P. Martinez; F. Lamy; R. R. Robinson; L. Pichevin; I. Billy;  


    We report a nitrogen isotope record (ODP Site 1233) from the southern Chile margin at 41�S. The site is located slightly south of the southern boundary of the Peru�Chile upwelling system and the associated oxygen minimum zone off Peru and northern Chile. We show that our nitrogen isotope record, from the time interval 0�50 calendar kiloyears before present (ka B.P.), bears an atypical pattern both in shape and timing when compared with records obtained from either the continental margin...

  1. Conservation Beyond Park Boundaries: The Impact of Buffer Zones on Deforestation and Mining Concessions in the Peruvian Amazon (United States)

    Weisse, Mikaela J.; Naughton-Treves, Lisa C.


    Many researchers have tested whether protected areas save tropical forest, but generally focus on parks and reserves, management units that have internationally recognized standing and clear objectives. Buffer zones have received considerably less attention because of their ambiguous rules and often informal status. Although buffer zones are frequently dismissed as ineffective, they warrant attention given the need for landscape-level approaches to conservation and their prevalence around the world—in Peru, buffer zones cover >10 % of the country. This study examines the effectiveness of buffer zones in the Peruvian Amazon to (a) prevent deforestation and (b) limit the extent of mining concessions. We employ covariate matching to determine the impact of 13 buffer zones on deforestation and mining concessions from 2007 to 2012. Despite variation between sites, these 13 buffer zones have prevented ~320 km2 of forest loss within their borders during the study period and ~1739 km2 of mining concessions, an outcome associated with the special approval process for granting formal concessions in these areas. However, a closer look at the buffer zone around the Tambopata National Reserve reveals the difficulties of controlling illegal and informal activities. According to interviews with NGO employees, government officials, and community leaders, enforcement of conservation is limited by uncertain institutional responsibilities, inadequate budgets, and corruption, although formal and community-based efforts to block illicit mining are on the rise. Landscape-level conservation not only requires clear legal protocol for addressing large-scale, formal extractive activities, but there must also be strategies and coordination to combat illegal activities.

  2. Conservation Beyond Park Boundaries: The Impact of Buffer Zones on Deforestation and Mining Concessions in the Peruvian Amazon. (United States)

    Weisse, Mikaela J; Naughton-Treves, Lisa C


    Many researchers have tested whether protected areas save tropical forest, but generally focus on parks and reserves, management units that have internationally recognized standing and clear objectives. Buffer zones have received considerably less attention because of their ambiguous rules and often informal status. Although buffer zones are frequently dismissed as ineffective, they warrant attention given the need for landscape-level approaches to conservation and their prevalence around the world-in Peru, buffer zones cover >10 % of the country. This study examines the effectiveness of buffer zones in the Peruvian Amazon to (a) prevent deforestation and (b) limit the extent of mining concessions. We employ covariate matching to determine the impact of 13 buffer zones on deforestation and mining concessions from 2007 to 2012. Despite variation between sites, these 13 buffer zones have prevented ~320 km(2) of forest loss within their borders during the study period and ~1739 km(2) of mining concessions, an outcome associated with the special approval process for granting formal concessions in these areas. However, a closer look at the buffer zone around the Tambopata National Reserve reveals the difficulties of controlling illegal and informal activities. According to interviews with NGO employees, government officials, and community leaders, enforcement of conservation is limited by uncertain institutional responsibilities, inadequate budgets, and corruption, although formal and community-based efforts to block illicit mining are on the rise. Landscape-level conservation not only requires clear legal protocol for addressing large-scale, formal extractive activities, but there must also be strategies and coordination to combat illegal activities.

  3. Impacts of variable thermal conductivity on stagnation point boundary layer flow past a Riga plate with variable thickness using generalized Fourier's law (United States)

    Shah, S.; Hussain, S.; Sagheer, M.


    This article explores the problem of two-dimensional, laminar, steady and boundary layer stagnation point slip flow over a Riga plate. The incompressible upper-convected Maxwell fluid has been considered as a rheological fluid model. The heat transfer characteristics are investigated with generalized Fourier's law. The fluid thermal conductivity is assumed to be temperature dependent in this study. A system of partial differential equations governing the flow of an upper-convected Maxwell fluid, heat and mass transfer using generalized Fourier's law is developed. The main objective of the article is to inspect the impacts of pertinent physical parameters such as the stretching ratio parameter (0 ⩽ A ⩽ 0.3) , Deborah number (0 ⩽ β ⩽ 0.6) , thermal relaxation parameter (0 ⩽ γ ⩽ 0.5) , wall thickness parameter (0.1 ⩽ α ⩽ 3.5) , slip parameter (0 ⩽ R ⩽ 1.5) , thermal conductivity parameter (0.1 ⩽ δ ⩽ 1.0) and modified Hartmann number (0 ⩽ Q ⩽ 3) on the velocity and temperature profiles. Suitable local similarity transformations have been used to get a system of non-linear ODEs from the governing PDEs. The numerical solutions for the dimensionless velocity and temperature distributions have been achieved by employing an effective numerical method called the shooting method. It is seen that the velocity profile shows the reduction in the velocity for the higher values of viscoelastic parameter and the thermal relaxation parameter. In addition, to enhance the reliability at the maximum level of the obtained numerical results by shooting method, a MATLAB built-in solver bvp4c has also been utilized.

  4. Formation of diapiric structure in the deformation zone, central ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    serpentinite layer existing near the base of the crust that is interpreted to have been formed at mid-ocean ... Keywords. Diffusive plate boundary; deformation zone; diapiric structure; serpentinized peridotites; crustal structure; ... calculated by applying Eotvos correction and nor- ..... trend of the basement and flat Moho, and.

  5. Accurate measurements of vadose zone fluxes using automated equilibrium tension plate lysimeters: A synopsis of results from the Spydia research facility, New Zealand. (United States)

    Wöhling, Thomas; Barkle, Greg; Stenger, Roland; Moorhead, Brian; Wall, Aaron; Clague, Juliet


    Automated equilibrium tension plate lysimeters (AETLs) are arguably the most accurate method to measure unsaturated water and contaminant fluxes below the root zone at the scale of up to 1 m². The AETL technique utilizes a porous sintered stainless-steel plate to provide a comparatively large sampling area with a continuously controlled vacuum that is in "equilibrium" with the surrounding vadose zone matric pressure to ensure measured fluxes represent those under undisturbed conditions. This novel lysimeter technique was used at an intensive research site for investigations of contaminant pathways from the land surface to the groundwater on a sheep and beef farm under pastoral land use in the Tutaeuaua subcatchment, New Zealand. The Spydia research facility was constructed in 2005 and was fully operational between 2006 and 2011. Extending from a central access caisson, 15 separately controlled AETLs with 0.2 m² surface area were installed at five depths between 0.4 m and 5.1 m into the undisturbed volcanic vadose zone materials. The unique setup of the facility ensured minimum interference of the experimental equipment and external factors with the measurements. Over the period of more than five years, a comprehensive data set was collected at each of the 15 AETL locations which comprises of time series of soil water flux, pressure head, volumetric water contents, and soil temperature. The soil water was regularly analysed for EC, pH, dissolved carbon, various nitrogen compounds (including nitrate, ammonia, and organic N), phosphorus, bromide, chloride, sulphate, silica, and a range of other major ions, as well as for various metals. Climate data was measured directly at the site (rainfall) and a climate station at 500m distance. The shallow groundwater was sampled at three different depths directly from the Spydia caisson and at various observation wells surrounding the facility. Two tracer experiments were conducted at the site in 2009 and 2010. In the 2009

  6. Relative motions of the Australian, Pacific and Antarctic plates estimated by the Global Positioning System (United States)

    Larson, Kristine M.; Freymueller, Jeff


    Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements spanning approximately 3 years have been used to determine velocities for 7 sites on the Australian, Pacific and Antarctic plates. The site velocities agree with both plate model predictions and other space geodetic techniques. We find no evidence for internal deformation of the interior of the Australian plate. Wellington, New Zealand, located in the Australian-Pacific plate boundary zone, moves 20 +/- 5 mm/yr west-southwest relative to the Australian plate. Its velocity lies midway between the predicted velocities of the two plates. Relative Euler vectors for the Australia-Antarctica and Pacific-Antarctica plates agree within one standard deviation with the NUVEL-1A predictions.

  7. Linear Fresnel zone plate based two-state alignment system for 0.25 micron x-ray lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, G.


    X-ray lithography has proven to be a cost effective and promising technique for fabricating Integrated Circuits (ICs) with minimum feature sizes of less than 0.25 μm. Since IC fabrication is a multilevel process, to preserve the functionality of devices, circuit patterns printed at each lithography level must match existing patterns on the wafer with an accuracy of less than 1/3 ∼ 1/5 of the minimum feature size. An alignment system is used to position the mask relative to the wafer so that mask circuit patterns can be printed on the wafer at the designed position. As the minimum printed feature size shrinks, the overlay requirements of a lithography tool become more stringent. A stepper for 0.25 μm feature device fabrication requires an overlay accuracy of 0.075 μm, of which only 0.05 μm (mean + 3σ) is allocated to its alignment system. This thesis presents the development of a linear Fresnel zone late based two-state alignment (TSA) method for a 0.25 μm x-ray lithography tool. The authors first analyze the overlay requirement in a lithography process and the error allocation to the alignment system for a 0.25 μ feature x-ray lithography tool. They then describe the principle of the two-state alignment, its computer simulation and the optimal alignment mark design. They carried out an optical bench test for the one-axes alignment setup and experimentally evaluated the performance of the system. They developed a three-axes TSA system and integrated the system with the ES-3 x-ray beamline to construct the CXrL aligner, an experimental x-ray exposure system in CXrL. They measured the alignment accuracy of the exposure system to be better than 0.035 μm (3σ) on both metal and dielectric alignment mark substrates. They also studied the effect of processing coatings on the alignment signal with different wafer mark substrates. They successfully printed the 0.5 μm gate level patterns for the first NMOS test chip at CXrL

  8. Subduction and Plate Edge Tectonics in the Southern Caribbean (United States)

    Levander, A.; Schmitz, M.; Niu, F.; Bezada, M. J.; Miller, M. S.; Masy, J.; Ave Lallemant, H. G.; Pindell, J. L.; Bolivar Working Group


    The southern Caribbean plate boundary consists of a subduction zone at at either end of a complex strike-slip fault system: In the east at the Lesser Antilles subduction zone, the Atlantic part of the South American plate subducts beneath the Caribbean. In the north and west in the Colombia basin, the Caribbean subducts under South America. In a manner of speaking, the two plates subduct beneath each other. Finite-frequency teleseismic P-wave tomography confirms this, imaging the Atlantic and the Caribbean plates subducting steeply in opposite directions to transition zone depths under northern South America (Bezada et al, 2010). The two subduction zones are connected by the El Pilar-San Sebastian strike-slip fault system, a San Andreas scale system that has been cut off at the Bocono fault, the southeastern boundary fault of the Maracaibo block. A variety of seismic probes identify subduction features at either end of the system (Niu et al, 2007; Clark et al., 2008; Miller et al. 2009; Growdon et al., 2009; Huang et al., 2010; Masy et al, 2011). The El Pilar system forms at the southeastern corner of the Antilles subduction zone with the Atlantic plate tearing from South America. The deforming plate edges control mountain building and basin formation at the eastern end of the strike-slip system. Tearing the Atlantic plate from the rest of South America appears to cause further lithospheric instability continentward. In northwestern South America the Caribbean plate very likely also tears, as its southernmost element subducts at shallow angles under northernmost Colombia but then rapidly descends to the transition zone under Lake Maracaibo (Bezada et al., 2010). We believe that the flat slab controls the tectonics of the Neogene Merida Andes, Perija, and Santa Marta ranges. The nonsubducting part of the Caribbean plate also underthrusts northern Venezuela to about the width of the coastal mountains (Miller et al., 2009). We infer that the edge of the underthrust

  9. GPS Installation Progress in the Northern California Region of the Plate Boundary Observatory Coyle, B., Basset, A., Williams, T., Enders, M., Feaux, K., Jackson, M. (United States)

    Coyle, B.; Basset, A.; Enders, M.; Williams, T.; Feaux, K.; Jackson, M.


    The Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) is the geodetic component of the NSF funded EarthScope Project . The final PBO GPS network will comprise 875 continuously operating GPS stations installed throughout the Western US and Alaska. There are 435 stations planned for California with 229 of these in Northern California (NCA). This poster will present the past year's progress of GPS installations in NCA. At the end of the first year of the Project, PBO NCA installed 12 stations. During the second year, another 56 were installed for a total of 68 stations including 18 SDBM, and 50 DDBM. We have sited 128 stations, submitted 112 permit applications and received 73 permits. A particularly important statistic for planning our schedules is the time lag between reconnaissance and permit accepted; our average thus far is 137 days. We have been particularly successful locating stations on Caltrans Rights of Way with 20 Stations built, 3 sites permitted and 5 permits pending. Other land use partners include: East Bay Regional Parks - 8 Stations built and 2 sites permitted, Bureau of Land Management - 5 Stations built, 3 permits pending, Water Municipalities - 4 Stations built, 3 sites permitted and 4 permits pending, and Airports - 4 Stations built and 3 permits pending. Highlights from last year: On September 28, 2004 a Mw 6.0 earthquake occurred on the San Andreas Fault seven miles southeast of the town of Parkfield, CA. Field crews from the Northern and Southern California offices of PBO began the site reconnaissance and permitting process the day after the earthquake and installation of the first Station was begun within 36 hours and completed the following day. In total, 5 Stations were installed by the first week of November. On June 14, 2045 a Mw 7.1 earthquake occurred on the Gorda Plate, approximately 100 miles NW of Eureka. PBO stations, P158, P162, P169 and P170, recorded coseismic deformation associated with this event. We plan to have 127 stations built by the end

  10. Deposition and alteration of carbonaceous series within a Neotethyan rift at the western boundary of the Arabian plate: The late Permian Um Irna Formation, NW Jordan, a petroleum system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dill, H.G.; Kus, J. [Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources, P.O. Box 51 01 53 D-30631 Hannover (Germany); Bechtel, A.; Gratzer, R. [Department of Applied Geosciences and Geophysics, University of Leoben, Peter Tunner Strasse 5, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Abu Hamad, A.M.B. [Geology Department, University of Jordan, Amman 11942 (Jordan)


    During the late Permian (Kungurian to Kazanian) a Neotethyan rift basin evolved at the western boundary of the Arabian Plate, in what is called today the Dead Sea Valley of western Jordan. The break-up of Pangaea was accompanied by low-sinuosity sandy braided- to meandering-fluvial drainage systems which were fed by the uplift of the Arabian Shield and by poorly aerated swamps and ponds that concentrated plant debris of the Cathaysian floral province in the Um Irna Formation. These proximal wet fan sediments are overlain by a dry fan characterized by extensive reddish floodplain deposits, anastomosing channel systems and paleosols. The wet fan is underlain by Cambrian sandstones. These units serve as the top and bottom seals of the OM-bearing system of the Um Irna Formation. The sedimentary rocks of the OM-bearing Um Irna Formation underwent supergene, diagenetic and epigenetic hydrothermal alteration under an elevated geothermal gradient. The temperature increased from the time of deposition of the wet to the time of deposition of the dry fan and caused remobilization of manganese already pre-concentrated in the Cambrian footwall rocks of the rift basin. The anomalous heat regime may be accounted for as a predecessor stage of the Dead Sea Rift which is still active today. Oil seeps are found along faults and fractures near this deep-seated lineamentary fault zone. The deposition and alteration of the organic matter in this late Permian rift are of great consequence for oil generation in the region. Organic petrographic investigations revealed that organic-rich terrestrial carbonaceous and coal rich sediments of mainly of type III kerogen are dominant in the Um Irna Formation. In addition, aquatic liptinite rich sedimentary input (fresh water lake and/or lacustrine swamp) of type I kerogen is also noted. Coal derived organic matter occurs in the form of coaly particles with ranks from subbituminous A to high volatile bituminous C. Higher plant-derived macerals as

  11. Plate Motion and Crustal Deformation Estimated with Geodetic Data from the Global Positioning System (United States)

    Argus, Donald F.; Heflin, Michael B.


    We use geodetic data taken over four years with the Global Positioning System (GPS) to estimate: (1) motion between six major plates and (2) motion relative to these plates of ten sites in plate boundary zones. The degree of consistency between geodetic velocities and rigid plates requires the (one-dimensional) standard errors in horizontal velocities to be approx. 2 mm/yr. Each of the 15 angular velocities describing motion between plate pairs that we estimate with GPS differs insignificantly from the corresponding angular velocity in global plate motion model NUVEL-1A, which averages motion over the past 3 m.y. The motion of the Pacific plate relative to both the Eurasian and North American plates is observed to be faster than predicted by NUVEL-1A, supporting the inference from Very Long B ase- line Interferometry (VLBI) that motion of the Pacific plate has speed up over the past few m.y. The Eurasia-North America pole of rotation is estimated to be north of NUVEL-1A, consistent with the independent hypothesis that the pole has recently migrated northward across northeast Asia to near the Lena River delta. Victoria, which lies above the main thrust at the Cascadia subduction zone, moves relative to the interior of the overriding plate at 30% of the velocity of the subducting plate, reinforcing the conclusion that the thrust there is locked beneath the continental shelf and slope.

  12. Bending and stretching of plates

    CERN Document Server

    Mansfield, E H; Hemp, W S


    The Bending and Stretching of Plates deals with elastic plate theory, particularly on small- and large-deflexion theory. Small-deflexion theory concerns derivation of basic equations, rectangular plates, plates of various shapes, plates whose boundaries are amenable to conformal transformation, plates with variable rigidity, and approximate methods. Large-deflexion theory includes general equations and some exact solutions, approximate methods in large-deflexion theory, asymptotic large-deflexion theories for very thin plates. Asymptotic theories covers membrane theory, tension field theory, a

  13. Mapping of 222Rn and 4He in soil gas over a karstic limestone-granite boundary: correlation of high indoor 222Rn with zones of enhanced permeability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connor, P.J.; Gallagher, V.; Van den Boom, G.


    Recent indoor radon reconnaissance surveys in Ireland have identified buildings with high radon concentrations (up to 1700 Bq.m -3 ) overlying Carboniferous karstic limestone sequences in the western part of the country. A detailed investigation of indoor 222 Rn and soil gas 222 Rn and 4 He concentrations has been carried out over a karstic limestone-uraniferous granite boundary in County Galway. High indoor 222 Rn concentrations occur in dwellings over both lithologies. Radon migratory routes in bedrock and overburden appear to be controlled by zones of enhanced permeability, e.g. fractures, faults, etc. which are defined by linear arrays of elevated 4 He soil gas values. While the ultimate source of radon remains conjectural, the greatly enhanced permeability of karstified limestone is thought to be of fundamental importance in providing a means of rapid radon transport into overlying soils and buildings. (author)

  14. Repair boundary for parent tube indications within the upper joint zone of hybrid expansion joint (HEJ) sleeved tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullen, W.K.; Keating, R.F.


    In the Spring and Fall of 1994, and the Spring of 1995, crack-like indications were found in the upper hybrid expansion joint (HEJ) region of Steam Generator (S/G) tubes which had been sleeved using Westinghouse HEJ sleeves. As a result of these findings, analytic and test evaluations were performed to assess the effect of the degradation on the structural, and leakage, integrity of the sleeve/tube joint relative to the requirements of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) draft Regulatory Guide (RG) 1.121. The results of these evaluations demonstrated that tubes with implied or known crack-like circumferential parent tube indications (PTIs) located 1.1 inches or farther below the bottom of the hardroll upper transition, have sufficient, and significant, integrity relative to the requirements of RG 1.121. Thus, the purpose of this report is to provide background information related to the justification of the modified tube repair boundary

  15. How Long Is Long Enough? Estimation of Slip-Rate and Earthquake Recurrence Interval on a Simple Plate-Boundary Fault Using 3D Paleoseismic Trenching (United States)

    Wechsler, N.; Rockwell, T. K.; Klinger, Y.; Agnon, A.; Marco, S.


    Models used to forecast future seismicity make fundamental assumptions about the behavior of faults and fault systems in the long term, but in many cases this long-term behavior is assumed using short-term and perhaps non-representative observations. The question arises - how long of a record is long enough to represent actual fault behavior, both in terms of recurrence of earthquakes and of moment release (aka slip-rate). We test earthquake recurrence and slip models via high-resolution three-dimensional trenching of the Beteiha (Bet-Zayda) site on the Dead Sea Transform (DST) in northern Israel. We extend the earthquake history of this simple plate boundary fault to establish slip rate for the past 3-4kyr, to determine the amount of slip per event and to study the fundamental behavior, thereby testing competing rupture models (characteristic, slip-patch, slip-loading, and Gutenberg Richter type distribution). To this end we opened more than 900m of trenches, mapped 8 buried channels and dated more than 80 radiocarbon samples. By mapping buried channels, offset by the DST on both sides of the fault, we obtained for each an estimate of displacement. Coupled with fault crossing trenches to determine event history, we construct earthquake and slip history for the fault for the past 2kyr. We observe evidence for a total of 9-10 surface-rupturing earthquakes with varying offset amounts. 6-7 events occurred in the 1st millennium, compared to just 2-3 in the 2nd millennium CE. From our observations it is clear that the fault is not behaving in a periodic fashion. A 4kyr old buried channel yields a slip rate of 3.5-4mm/yr, consistent with GPS rates for this segment. Yet in spite of the apparent agreement between GPS, Pleistocene to present slip rate, and the lifetime rate of the DST, the past 800-1000 year period appears deficit in strain release. Thus, in terms of moment release, most of the fault has remained locked and is accumulating elastic strain. In contrast, the

  16. Atypical δ15N variations at the southern boundary of the East Pacific oxygen minimum zone over the last 50 ka (United States)

    Martinez, Philippe; Lamy, Frank; Robinson, Rebecca R.; Pichevin, Laetitia; Billy, Isabelle


    We report a nitrogen isotope record (ODP Site 1233) from the southern Chile margin at 41°S. The site is located slightly south of the southern boundary of the Peru-Chile upwelling system and the associated oxygen minimum zone off Peru and northern Chile. We show that our nitrogen isotope record, from the time interval 0-50 calendar kiloyears before present (ka B.P.), bears an atypical pattern both in shape and timing when compared with records obtained from either the continental margin of the eastern Pacific or the Subantarctic Zone (SAZ) of the Southern Ocean. The δ15N values at Site 1233 are relatively high throughout the record, varying between 9‰ and 13‰. The major features are a pronounced δ15N increase at the beginning of the deglaciation, a maximum from 19 to 10 ka B.P.; thereafter a large decrease during the early Holocene, and millenial scale oscillations showing an Antarctic timing. We propose that the record results from an amalgam of low-latitude and high-latitude processes. Low-latitude processes, including a stronger advection signal of heavy nitrates from the denitrifying zones off Peru and northern Chile, would explain the timing of the deglaciation rise and the heaviest values found over this interval, excluding the Antarctic Cold Reversal period. The overall differences between site 1233 and records from Peru and northwest American margins suggest however that the origin of the δ15N signal off Chile is largely controlled by hydrologic and climatic changes in the Southern Ocean. We propose that the interplay between nutrient demand in the SAZ and latitudinal shifts of hydrologic fronts controlled both the concentrations and the isotopic signature of the remaining nitrate delivered to the Chile margin. Then, the glacial surface waters of the southern Chile margin were likely lower in nitrate concentration and bear a higher δ15N than during interglacial periods.

  17. Similarity Solution for Combined Free-Forced Convection Past a Vertical Porous Plate in a Porous Medium with a Convective Surface Boundary Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garg P.


    Full Text Available This paper studies the mathematical implications of the two dimensional viscous steady laminar combined free-forced convective flow of an incompressible fluid over a semi infinite fixed vertical porous plate embedded in a porous medium. It is assumed that the left surface of the plate is heated by convection from a hot fluid which is at a temperature higher than the temperature of the fluid on the right surface of the vertical plate. To achieve numerical consistency for the problem under consideration, the governing non linear partial differential equations are first transformed into a system of ordinary differential equations using a similarity variable and then solved numerically under conditions admitting similarity solutions. The effects of the physical parameters of both the incompressible fluid and the vertical plate on the dimensionless velocity and temperature profiles are studied and analysed and the results are depicted both graphically and in a tabular form. Finally, algebraic expressions and the numerical values are obtained for the local skin-friction coefficient and the local Nusselt number.

  18. Fundamental structure model of island arcs and subducted plates in and around Japan (United States)

    Iwasaki, T.; Sato, H.; Ishiyama, T.; Shinohara, M.; Hashima, A.


    The eastern margin of the Asian continent is a well-known subduction zone, where the Pacific (PAC) and Philippine Sea (PHS) plates are being subducted. In this region, several island arcs (Kuril, Northeast Japan, Southwest Japan, Izu-Bonin and Ryukyu arcs) meet one another to form a very complicated tectonic environment. At 2014, we started to construct fundamental structure models for island arcs and subducted plates in and around Japan. Our research is composed of 6 items of (1) topography, (2) plate geometry, (3) fault models, (4) the Moho and brittle-ductile transition zone, (5) the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary, and (6) petrological/rheological models. Such information is basic but inevitably important in qualitative understanding not only for short-term crustal activities in the subduction zone (particularly caused by megathrust earthquakes) but also for long-term cumulative deformation of the arcs as a result of strong plate-arc/arc-arc interactions. This paper is the first presentation of our research, mainly presenting the results of items (1) and (2). The area of our modelling is 12o-54o N and 118o-164o E to cover almost the entire part of Japanese Islands together with Kuril, Ryukyu and Izu-Bonin trenches. The topography model was constructed from the 500-m mesh data provided from GSJ, JODC, GINA and Alaska University. Plate geometry models are being constructed through the two steps. In the first step, we modelled very smooth plate boundaries of the Pacific and Philippine Sea plates in our whole model area using 42,000 earthquake data from JMA, USGS and ISC. For 7,800 cross sections taken with several directions to the trench axes, 2D plate boundaries were defined by fitting to the earthquake distribution (the Wadati-Benioff zone), from which we obtained equi-depth points of the plate boundary. These equi-depth points were then approximated by spline interpolation technique to eliminate shorter wave length undulation (75-150 km), but provide a

  19. Comment on “A similarity solution for laminar thermal boundary layer over a flat plate with a convective surface boundary condition” by A. Aziz, Comm. Nonlinear Sci. Numer. Simul. 2009;14:1064-8 (United States)

    Magyari, Eugen


    In a recent paper published in this Journal the title problem has been investigated numerically. In the present paper the exact solution for the temperature boundary layer is given in terms of the solution of the flow problem (the Blasius problem) in a compact integral form.

  20. 3-D Simulation of Tectonic Evolution in Mariana with a Coupled Model of Plate Subduction and Back-Arc Spreading (United States)

    Hashima, A.; Matsu'Ura, M.


    We obtained the expressions for internal deformation fields due to a moment tensor in an elastic-viscoelastic layered holf-space. This unified formulation of internal deformation fields for shear faulting and crack opening enabled us to deal with the problem of tectonic deformation at a composite type of plate boundary zones. The tectonic deformation can be ascribed to mechanical interaction at plate boundaries, which make a closed circuit with the mode of relative plate motion changing from divergence to convergence through transcurrent motion. One of the rational ways to represent mechanical interaction at plate boundaries is specifying the increase rates of normal or tangential displacement discontinuity across plate interfaces. On the basis of such a basic idea we developed a 3-D simulation model for the nonlinear, coupled system of plate subduction and back-arc spreading in Mariana. Through numerical simulations we revealed the evolution process of back-arc spreading. At the first stage, steady plate subduction (shear faulting at a plate interface) gradually forms tensile stress fields in the back-arc region of the overriding plate. When the accumulated tensile stress reaches a critical level, back-arc spreading (crack opening) starts at a structurally weak portion of the overriding plate. The horizontal motion of the frontal part of the overriding plate due to back-arc spreading pushes out the plate boundary toward the oceanic plate. In steady-state plate subduction the shear stress acting on a plate interface must balance with the maximum frictional resistance (shear strength) of the plate interface. Therefore, the increase of shear stress at the plate interface leads to the increase of slip rate at the plate interface. The local increase of slip rate at the plate interface produces the additional tensile stress in the back-arc region. The increased tensile stress must be canceled out by the additional crack opening. Such a feedback mechanism between plate

  1. Evolutionarily Conserved, Growth Plate Zone-Specific Regulation of the Matrilin-1 Promoter: L-Sox5/Sox6 and Nfi Factors Bound near TATA Finely Tune Activation by Sox9 ▿ (United States)

    Nagy, Andrea; Kénesi, Erzsébet; Rentsendorj, Otgonchimeg; Molnár, Annamária; Szénási, Tibor; Sinkó, Ildikó; Zvara, Ágnes; Thottathil Oommen, Sajit; Barta, Endre; Puskás, László G.; Lefebvre, Veronique; Kiss, Ibolya


    To help uncover the mechanisms underlying the staggered expression of cartilage-specific genes in the growth plate, we dissected the transcriptional mechanisms driving expression of the matrilin-1 gene (Matn1). We show that a unique assembly of evolutionarily conserved cis-acting elements in the Matn1 proximal promoter restricts expression to the proliferative and prehypertrophic zones of the growth plate. These elements functionally interact with distal elements and likewise are capable of restricting the domain of activity of a pancartilaginous Col2a1 enhancer. The proximal elements include a Pe1 element binding the chondrogenic L-Sox5, Sox6, and Sox9 proteins, a SI element binding Nfi proteins, and an initiator Ine element binding the Sox trio and other factors. Sox9 binding to Pe1 is indispensable for functional interaction with the distal promoter. Binding of L-Sox5/Sox6 to Ine and Nfib to SI modulates Sox9 transactivation in a protein dose-dependent manner, possibly to enhance Sox9 activity in early stages of chondrogenesis and repress it at later stages. Hence, our data suggest a novel model whereby Sox and Nfi proteins bind to conserved Matn1 proximal elements and functionally interact with each other to finely tune gene expression in specific zones of the cartilage growth plate. PMID:21173167

  2. Anisotropic elastic plates

    CERN Document Server

    Hwu, Chyanbin


    As structural elements, anisotropic elastic plates find wide applications in modern technology. The plates here are considered to be subjected to not only in plane load but also transverse load. In other words, both plane and plate bending problems as well as the stretching-bending coupling problems are all explained in this book. In addition to the introduction of the theory of anisotropic elasticity, several important subjects have are discussed in this book such as interfaces, cracks, holes, inclusions, contact problems, piezoelectric materials, thermoelastic problems and boundary element a

  3. An algorithm for full parametric solution of problems on the statics of orthotropic plates by the method of boundary states with perturbations (United States)

    Penkov, V. B.; Ivanychev, D. A.; Novikova, O. S.; Levina, L. V.


    The article substantiates the possibility of building full parametric analytical solutions of mathematical physics problems in arbitrary regions by means of computer systems. The suggested effective means for such solutions is the method of boundary states with perturbations, which aptly incorporates all parameters of an orthotropic medium in a general solution. We performed check calculations of elastic fields of an anisotropic rectangular region (test and calculation problems) for a generalized plane stress state.

  4. Subduction Drive of Plate Tectonics (United States)

    Hamilton, W. B.


    Don Anderson emphasizes that plate tectonics is self-organizing and is driven by subduction, which rights the density inversion generated as oceanic lithosphere forms by cooling of asthenosphere from the top. The following synthesis owes much to many discussions with him. Hinge rollback is the key to kinematics, and, like the rest of actual plate behavior, is incompatible with bottom-up convection drive. Subduction hinges (which are under, not in front of, thin leading parts of arcs and overriding plates) roll back into subducting plates. The Pacific shrinks because bounding hinges roll back into it. Colliding arcs, increasing arc curvatures, back-arc spreading, and advance of small arcs into large plates also require rollback. Forearcs of overriding plates commonly bear basins which preclude shortening of thin plate fronts throughout periods recorded by basin strata (100 Ma for Cretaceous and Paleogene California). This requires subequal rates of advance and rollback, and control of both by subduction. Convergence rate is equal to rates of rollback and advance in many systems but is greater in others. Plate-related circulation probably is closed above 650 km. Despite the popularity of concepts of plumes from, and subduction into, lower mantle, there is no convincing evidence for, and much evidence against, penetration of the 650 in either direction. That barrier not only has a crossing-inhibiting negative Clapeyron slope but also is a compositional boundary between fractionated (not "primitive"), sluggish lower mantle and fertile, mobile upper mantle. Slabs sink more steeply than they dip. Slabs older than about 60 Ma when their subduction began sink to, and lie down on and depress, the 650-km discontinuity, and are overpassed, whereas younger slabs become neutrally buoyant in mid-upper mantle, into which they are mixed as they too are overpassed. Broadside-sinking old slabs push all upper mantle, from base of oceanic lithosphere down to the 650, back under

  5. A unified analysis of kinetic models for the problem of thermal creep based on the boundary conditions of Cercignani-Lampis for heterogeneous plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, Cinara Ewerling da; Knackfuss, Rosenei Felippe


    In this work is presented a series of numerical results and graphical comparisons of the physical quantities of interest such as: the velocity profile and the heat on profile. This formulation is developed for the problem of Thermal Creep, where the gas is moving between two parallel plates with different chemical constitutions (heterogeneous plates) due to a temperature gradient. The flow of a rarefied gas, is investigated with special attention to the gas-surface interaction, modeled by the Cercignani-Lampis kernel, that unlike Maxwell's scattering kernel, is defined in terms of two accommodation coefficients (normal and tangential) to represent the physical properties of the gas. The kinetic theory for rarefied gas dynamics, derived from the linearized Boltzmann equation, is developed in an unified approach, to the BGK model, S model, GJ model and MRS model. In the search for solutions to solve the problem of Thermal Creep with kernel of the Cercignani-Lampis, we used a analytical version of the discrete ordinates method (ADO) based on an arbitrary quadrature scheme, under which is determined a problem of eigenvalues and their respective separation constants. Numerical results are developed by the computer program FORTRAN. (author)

  6. Validation of three-dimensional incompressible spatial direct numerical simulation code: A comparison with linear stability and parabolic stability equation theories for boundary-layer transition on a flat plate (United States)

    Joslin, Ronald D.; Streett, Craig L.; Chang, Chau-Lyan


    Spatially evolving instabilities in a boundary layer on a flat plate are computed by direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. In a truncated physical domain, a nonstaggered mesh is used for the grid. A Chebyshev-collocation method is used normal to the wall; finite difference and compact difference methods are used in the streamwise direction; and a Fourier series is used in the spanwise direction. For time stepping, implicit Crank-Nicolson and explicit Runge-Kutta schemes are used to the time-splitting method. The influence-matrix technique is used to solve the pressure equation. At the outflow boundary, the buffer-domain technique is used to prevent convective wave reflection or upstream propagation of information from the boundary. Results of the DNS are compared with those from both linear stability theory (LST) and parabolized stability equation (PSE) theory. Computed disturbance amplitudes and phases are in very good agreement with those of LST (for small inflow disturbance amplitudes). A measure of the sensitivity of the inflow condition is demonstrated with both LST and PSE theory used to approximate inflows. Although the DNS numerics are very different than those of PSE theory, the results are in good agreement. A small discrepancy in the results that does occur is likely a result of the variation in PSE boundary condition treatment in the far field. Finally, a small-amplitude wave triad is forced at the inflow, and simulation results are compared with those of LST. Again, very good agreement is found between DNS and LST results for the 3-D simulations, the implication being that the disturbance amplitudes are sufficiently small that nonlinear interactions are negligible.

  7. Global Dynamic Numerical Simulations of Plate Tectonic Reorganizations (United States)

    Morra, G.; Quevedo, L.; Butterworth, N.; Matthews, K. J.; Müller, D.


    We use a new numerical approach for global geodynamics to investigate the origin of present global plate motion and to identify the causes of the last two global tectonic reorganizations occurred about 50 and 100 million years ago (Ma) [1]. While the 50 Ma event is the most well-known global plate-mantle event, expressed by the bend in the Hawaiian-Emperor volcanic chain, a prominent plate reorganization at about 100 Ma, although presently little studied, is clearly indicated by a major bend in the fracture zones in the Indian Ocean and by a change in Pacific plate motion [2]. Our workflow involves turning plate reconstructions into surface meshes that are subsequently employed as initial conditions for global Boundary Element numerical models. The tectonic setting that anticipates the reorganizations is processed with the software GPlates, combining the 3D mesh of the paleo-plate morphology and the reconstruction of paleo-subducted slabs, elaborated from tectonic history [3]. All our models involve the entire planetary system, are fully dynamic, have free surface, are characterized by a spectacular computational speed due to the simultaneous use of the multi-pole algorithm and the Boundary Element formulation and are limited only by the use of sharp material property variations [4]. We employ this new tool to unravel the causes of plate tectonic reorganizations, producing and comparing global plate motion with the reconstructed ones. References: [1] Torsvik, T., Müller, R.D., Van der Voo, R., Steinberger, B., and Gaina, C., 2008, Global Plate Motion Frames: Toward a unified model: Reviews in Geophysics, VOL. 46, RG3004, 44 PP., 2008 [2] Wessel, P. and Kroenke, L.W. Pacific absolute plate motion since 145 Ma: An assessment of the fixed hot spot hypothesis. Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol 113, B06101, 2008 [3] L. Quevedo, G. Morra, R. D. Mueller. Parallel Fast Multipole Boundary Element Method for Crustal Dynamics, Proceeding 9th World Congress and 4th Asian

  8. The discovery of a conjugate system of faults in the Wharton Basin intraplate deformation zone. (United States)

    Singh, Satish C; Hananto, Nugroho; Qin, Yanfang; Leclerc, Frederique; Avianto, Praditya; Tapponnier, Paul E; Carton, Helene; Wei, Shengji; Nugroho, Adam B; Gemilang, Wishnu A; Sieh, Kerry; Barbot, Sylvain


    The deformation at well-defined, narrow plate boundaries depends on the relative plate motion, but how the deformation takes place within a distributed plate boundary zone remains a conundrum. This was confirmed by the seismological analyses of the 2012 great Wharton Basin earthquakes [moment magnitude ( M w ) 8.6], which suggested the rupture of several faults at high angles to one another. Using high-resolution bathymetry and seismic reflection data, we report the discovery of new N294°E-striking shear zones, oblique to the plate fabric. These shear zones are expressed by sets of normal faults striking at N335°E, defining the direction of the principal compressional stress in the region. Also, we have imaged left-lateral strike-slip faults along reactivated N7°E-oriented oceanic fracture zones. The shear zones and the reactivated fracture zones form a conjugate system of faults, which accommodate present-day intraplate deformation in the Wharton Basin.

  9. Remote life-detection criteria, habitable zone boundaries, and the frequency of Earth-like planets around M and late K stars. (United States)

    Kasting, James F; Kopparapu, Ravikumar; Ramirez, Ramses M; Harman, Chester E


    The habitable zone (HZ) around a star is typically defined as the region where a rocky planet can maintain liquid water on its surface. That definition is appropriate, because this allows for the possibility that carbon-based, photosynthetic life exists on the planet in sufficient abundance to modify the planet's atmosphere in a way that might be remotely detected. Exactly what conditions are needed, however, to maintain liquid water remains a topic for debate. In the past, modelers have restricted themselves to water-rich planets with CO2 and H2O as the only important greenhouse gases. More recently, some researchers have suggested broadening the definition to include arid, "Dune" planets on the inner edge and planets with captured H2 atmospheres on the outer edge, thereby greatly increasing the HZ width. Such planets could exist, but we demonstrate that an inner edge limit of 0.59 AU or less is physically unrealistic. We further argue that conservative HZ definitions should be used for designing future space-based telescopes, but that optimistic definitions may be useful in interpreting the data from such missions. In terms of effective solar flux, S(eff), the recently recalculated HZ boundaries are: recent Venus--1.78; runaway greenhouse--1.04; moist greenhouse--1.01; maximum greenhouse--0.35; and early Mars--0.32. Based on a combination of different HZ definitions, the frequency of potentially Earth-like planets around late K and M stars observed by Kepler is in the range of 0.4-0.5.

  10. Decomposition Methods For a Piv Data Analysis with Application to a Boundary Layer Separation Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václav URUBA


    Full Text Available Separation of the turbulent boundary layer (BL on a flat plate under adverse pressure gradient was studied experimentally using Time-Resolved PIV technique. The results of spatio-temporal analysis of flow-field in the separation zone are presented. For this purpose, the POD (Proper Orthogonal Decomposition and its extension BOD (Bi-Orthogonal Decomposition techniques are applied as well as dynamical approach based on POPs (Principal Oscillation Patterns method. The study contributes to understanding physical mechanisms of a boundary layer separation process. The acquired information could be used to improve strategies of a boundary layer separation control.

  11. Stretched flow of Carreau nanofluid with convective boundary ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    journal of. January 2016 physics pp. 3–17. Stretched flow of Carreau nanofluid with ... fluid over a flat plate subjected to convective surface condition. ... the steady laminar boundary layer flow over a permeable plate with a convective boundary.

  12. Structure of the la VELA Offshore Basin, Western Venezuela: AN Obliquely-Opening Rift Basin Within the South America-Caribbean Strike-Slip Plate Boundary (United States)

    Blanco, J. M.; Mann, P.


    Bathymetric, gravity and magnetic maps show that the east-west trend of the Cretaceous Great Arc of the Caribbean in the Leeward Antilles islands is transected by an en echelon series of obliquely-sheared rift basins that show right-lateral offsets ranging from 20 to 40 km. The basins are 75-100 km in length and 20-30 km in width and are composed of sub-parallel, oblique slip normal faults that define deep, bathymetric channels that bound the larger islands of the Leeward Antilles including Aruba, Curacao and Bonaire. A single basin of similar orientation and structure, the Urumaco basin, is present to the southwest in the Gulf of Venezuela. We mapped structures and sedimentation in the La Vela rift basin using a 3D seismic data volume recorded down to 6 seconds TWT. The basin can be mapped from the Falcon coast where it is correlative with the right-lateral Adicora fault mapped onshore, and its submarine extension. To the southeast of the 3D survey area, previous workers have mapped a 70-km-wide zone of northeast-striking, oblique, right-lateral faults, some with apparent right-lateral offsets of the coastline. On seismic data, the faults vary in dip from 45 to 60 degrees and exhibit maximum vertical offsets of 600 m. The La Vela and other obliquely-opening rifts accommodate right-lateral shear with linkages to intervening, east-west-striking right-lateral faults like the Adicora. The zone of oblique rifts is restricted to the trend of the Great Arc of the Caribbean and may reflect the susceptiblity of this granitic basement to active shearing. The age of onset for the basins known from previous studies on the Leeward Antilles is early Miocene. As most of these faults occur offshore their potential to generate damaging earthquakes in the densely populated Leeward Antilles is not known.

  13. Seismic imaging of the southern California plate-boundary around the South-Central Transverse Ranges using double-difference tomography (United States)

    Share, P. E.; Ben-Zion, Y.; Thurber, C. H.; Zhang, H.; Guo, H.


    We derive P and S seismic velocities within and around the South-Central Transverse Ranges section of the San Andreas Fault (SAF), using a new double-difference tomography algorithm incorporating both event-pair and station-pair differential times. The event-pair data can determine high-resolution relative earthquake locations and resolve fine-scale structure in seismogenic zones, whereas station-pair data allow for better absolute locations and higher resolution of structure near the surface where stations are most dense. The tomographic results are based on arrival times of P and S waves generated by 17,753 M>1 local events from 1/1/2010 to 6/30/2015 recorded by 259 stations within a 222 km x 164 km region. The resulting P and S velocity models include low velocities along major fault segments and across-fault velocity contrasts. For example, at depths 50 km parallel to the SAF around Coachella Valley but offset to the NE by 13 km. This is interpreted to mark a dipping section of the SAF that separates granites at depth in the SW from gneisses and schists in the NE. Analysis of fault zone head waves propagating along these sections of the SAF and SJFZ show that major bimaterial interfaces are associated with the observed velocity contrasts. Additional features within the models include elongated low velocity anomalies extending from the SJFZ trifurcation area, which itself has associated low velocity at great depth (>14 km), to the Elsinore Fault in the SW. Moreover, a deep (>13 km) velocity contrast appears beneath the SBB with an east-west strike oblique to both the northern SJFZ and SAF traces. The latter is potentially related to the ancestral Banning Fault, which dips to the north, separating low velocity Pelona schist in the north from high velocity granites in the south.

  14. Steady Boundary Layer Slip Flow along with Heat and Mass Transfer over a Flat Porous Plate Embedded in a Porous Medium (United States)

    Aziz, Asim; Siddique, J. I.; Aziz, Taha


    In this paper, a simplified model of an incompressible fluid flow along with heat and mass transfer past a porous flat plate embedded in a Darcy type porous medium is investigated. The velocity, thermal and mass slip conditions are utilized that has not been discussed in the literature before. The similarity transformations are used to transform the governing partial differential equations (PDEs) into a nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs). The resulting system of ODEs is then reduced to a system of first order differential equations which was solved numerically by using Matlab bvp4c code. The effects of permeability, suction/injection parameter, velocity parameter and slip parameter on the structure of velocity, temperature and mass transfer rates are examined with the aid of several graphs. Moreover, observations based on Schmidt number and Soret number are also presented. The result shows, the increase in permeability of the porous medium increase the velocity and decrease the temperature profile. This happens due to a decrease in drag of the fluid flow. In the case of heat transfer, the increase in permeability and slip parameter causes an increase in heat transfer. However for the case of increase in thermal slip parameter there is a decrease in heat transfer. An increase in the mass slip parameter causes a decrease in the concentration field. The suction and injection parameter has similar effect on concentration profile as for the case of velocity profile. PMID:25531301

  15. Steady boundary layer slip flow along with heat and mass transfer over a flat porous plate embedded in a porous medium. (United States)

    Aziz, Asim; Siddique, J I; Aziz, Taha


    In this paper, a simplified model of an incompressible fluid flow along with heat and mass transfer past a porous flat plate embedded in a Darcy type porous medium is investigated. The velocity, thermal and mass slip conditions are utilized that has not been discussed in the literature before. The similarity transformations are used to transform the governing partial differential equations (PDEs) into a nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs). The resulting system of ODEs is then reduced to a system of first order differential equations which was solved numerically by using Matlab bvp4c code. The effects of permeability, suction/injection parameter, velocity parameter and slip parameter on the structure of velocity, temperature and mass transfer rates are examined with the aid of several graphs. Moreover, observations based on Schmidt number and Soret number are also presented. The result shows, the increase in permeability of the porous medium increase the velocity and decrease the temperature profile. This happens due to a decrease in drag of the fluid flow. In the case of heat transfer, the increase in permeability and slip parameter causes an increase in heat transfer. However for the case of increase in thermal slip parameter there is a decrease in heat transfer. An increase in the mass slip parameter causes a decrease in the concentration field. The suction and injection parameter has similar effect on concentration profile as for the case of velocity profile.

  16. Seafloor morphology of the Eurasia-Nubia (Africa) plate boundary between the Tore-Madeira Rise and the Straits of Gibraltar: a case of coexistent Mesozoic through Present day features of tectonic, oceanographic and sedimentary origin (United States)

    Terrinha, Pedro; Duarte, João.; Valadares, Vasco; Batista, Luis; Zitellini, Nevio; Grácia, Eulalia; Lourenço, Nuno; Rosas, Filipe; Roque, Cristina


    The joint use of more than 10.000 km multichannel seismic reflection profiles and 180.000km2 of multibeam swath bathymetry and backscatter allowed for a new vision of the seafloor tectonic and geomorphic processes of the area that encompasses the present day plate boundary between Africa and Eurasia, between the Gibraltar Straits and the Tore-Madeira Rise, in the southern sector of the North Atlantic Ocean. The interpretation of this data allowed for the detailed description of the seafloor morphology (i.e. a morphologic map) and the classification of the morphologic features in what respects the genetic process and age. It can be seen that in the same region coexist morphologic features that result from tectonic processes associated with the Triassic-Cretaceous break-up of Pangea, the Paleogene-Miocene compressive phase, the Miocene through Present subduction under the Gibraltar Arc (Gutscher et al., 2002), the Pliocene-Quaternary wrench tectonics and possible coeval plate boundary (Zitellini et al., 2009), the Present day mud volcanism and propagation of the compressive deformation along the West Continental Margin of Portugal (Terrinha et al., 2009). Interpretation of the seismic profiles together with the bathymetry allows the understanding of endogenous and exogenous processes that creates reliefs associated with active structures (related to the Miocene through Present compressive stress field). Other reliefs generated in Mesozoic times by analogous processes can be as well preserved as these active ones. In what concerns exogenous processes, the analysis of the two datasets (reflection seismics and bathymetry) allowed for the description of morphologic features associated with oceanic currents that interact with the seafloor forming these important features. As is the case of the well known active contourites but also less known features, like giant scours at 4 km water depth that have recently been described, suggesting the interaction of deep currents and

  17. The Sorong Fault Zone, Indonesia: Mapping a Fault Zone Offshore (United States)

    Melia, S.; Hall, R.


    The Sorong Fault Zone is a left-lateral strike-slip fault zone in eastern Indonesia, extending westwards from the Bird's Head peninsula of West Papua towards Sulawesi. It is the result of interactions between the Pacific, Caroline, Philippine Sea, and Australian Plates and much of it is offshore. Previous research on the fault zone has been limited by the low resolution of available data offshore, leading to debates over the extent, location, and timing of movements, and the tectonic evolution of eastern Indonesia. Different studies have shown it north of the Sula Islands, truncated south of Halmahera, continuing to Sulawesi, or splaying into a horsetail fan of smaller faults. Recently acquired high resolution multibeam bathymetry of the seafloor (with a resolution of 15-25 meters), and 2D seismic lines, provide the opportunity to trace the fault offshore. The position of different strands can be identified. On land, SRTM topography shows that in the northern Bird's Head the fault zone is characterised by closely spaced E-W trending faults. NW of the Bird's Head offshore there is a fold and thrust belt which terminates some strands. To the west of the Bird's Head offshore the fault zone diverges into multiple strands trending ENE-WSW. Regions of Riedel shearing are evident west of the Bird's Head, indicating sinistral strike-slip motion. Further west, the ENE-WSW trending faults turn to an E-W trend and there are at least three fault zones situated immediately south of Halmahera, north of the Sula Islands, and between the islands of Sanana and Mangole where the fault system terminates in horsetail strands. South of the Sula islands some former normal faults at the continent-ocean boundary with the North Banda Sea are being reactivated as strike-slip faults. The fault zone does not currently reach Sulawesi. The new fault map differs from previous interpretations concerning the location, age and significance of different parts of the Sorong Fault Zone. Kinematic

  18. Cold plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marroquin, Christopher M.; O' Connell, Kevin M.; Schultz, Mark D.; Tian, Shurong


    A cold plate, an electronic assembly including a cold plate, and a method for forming a cold plate are provided. The cold plate includes an interface plate and an opposing plate that form a plenum. The cold plate includes a plurality of active areas arranged for alignment over respective heat generating portions of an electronic assembly, and non-active areas between the active areas. A cooling fluid flows through the plenum. The plenum, at the non-active areas, has a reduced width and/or reduced height relative to the plenum at the active areas. The reduced width and/or height of the plenum, and exterior dimensions of cold plate, at the non-active areas allow the non-active areas to flex to accommodate surface variations of the electronics assembly. The reduced width and/or height non-active areas can be specifically shaped to fit between physical features of the electronics assembly.

  19. The 2011 Tohoku-oki Earthquake related to a large velocity gradient within the Pacific plate (United States)

    Matsubara, Makoto; Obara, Kazushige


    We conduct seismic tomography using arrival time data picked by the high sensitivity seismograph network (Hi-net) operated by National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED). We used earthquakes off the coast outside the seismic network around the source region of the 2011 Tohoku-oki Earthquake with the centroid depth estimated from moment tensor inversion by NIED F-net (broadband seismograph network) as well as earthquakes within the seismic network determined by Hi-net. The target region, 20-48N and 120-148E, covers the Japanese Islands from Hokkaido to Okinawa. A total of manually picked 4,622,346 P-wave and 3,062,846 S-wave arrival times for 100,733 earthquakes recorded at 1,212 stations from October 2000 to August 2009 is available for use in the tomographic method. In the final iteration, we estimate the P-wave slowness at 458,234 nodes and the S-wave slowness at 347,037 nodes. The inversion reduces the root mean square of the P-wave traveltime residual from 0.455 s to 0.187 s and that of the S-wave data from 0.692 s to 0.228 s after eight iterations (Matsubara and Obara, 2011). Centroid depths are determined using a Green's function approach (Okada et al., 2004) such as in NIED F-net. For the events distant from the seismic network, the centroid depth is more reliable than that determined by NIED Hi-net, since there are no stations above the hypocenter. We determine the upper boundary of the Pacific plate based on the velocity structure and earthquake hypocentral distribution. The upper boundary of the low-velocity (low-V) oceanic crust corresponds to the plate boundary where thrust earthquakes are expected to occur. Where we do not observe low-V oceanic crust, we determine the upper boundary of the upper layer of the double seismic zone within high-V Pacific plate. We assume the depth at the Japan Trench as 7 km. We can investigate the velocity structure within the Pacific plate such as 10 km beneath the plate boundary since the

  20. Plating laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seamster, A.G.; Weitkamp, W.G.


    The lead plating of the prototype resonator has been conducted entirely in the plating laboratory at SUNY Stony Brook. Because of the considerable cost and inconvenience in transporting personnel and materials to and from Stony Brook, it is clearly impractical to plate all the resonators there. Furthermore, the high-beta resonator cannot be accommodated at Stony Brook without modifying the set up there. Consequently the authors are constructing a plating lab in-house

  1. Marginal inherited structures impact on the oblique convergent N American Plate/ Central Caribbean plate-boundary in the Northern Caribbean. The tectonic evolution since Miocene times based on Haiti data acquired onshore and offshore since 2012- a step toward an ADP Drilling Proposal (Haiti-DRILL). (United States)

    Ellouz, N.; Hamon, Y.; Deschamps, R.; Battani, A.; Wessels, R.; Boisson, D.; Prepetit, C.; Momplaisir, R.


    Since Early Paleogene times, the North Caribbean plate is colliding obliquely with the south continental part of the old N. American Margins, which is represented by various segments from West to East, inherited from Jurassic times. Location, amount of displacement, rotation and the structural deformation of these margin segments, resulting from the dislocation of the continental N American margin, are not clearly yet established. At present, the plate limits are marked either by two left lateral faults west and inside Haiti (OSF in the North and EPGF in the South), oblique collision front (further west in Cuba), oblique subducted segments (to the East, Porto-Rico). From our recent works operated both offshore (Haiti-SIS and Haiti-BGF surveys 2012-2015) and onshore (field campaigns 2013-2017) in Haitian zone, the position of the present-day and paleo major limits have been redefined. These paleolimits have been reconstructed up to early Miocene times, based on: restoration of regional structural cross-sections, sedimentology and on paleoenvironement studies. In a preliminary way, we analyzed the complexity of the tectonic heritage with possible nature, heterogeneity of the crustal fragments and associated margins close to Haiti (age, structure, environment, location of the dislocated blocks through times) which profoundly impact the partitioning of the deformation along this complex transformed margin. The change in the structure wavelength, decollement level variations are primary constraints in the restoration of the main units and do impose a deep connection along specific segments either related to strike-slip or to splay faults. The asymmetry on the repartition of the fault activity tend to prove that the past motion related to "EPGF transfer zone" is mainly partitioned in Haiti to the North of the present-day EPGF position. At present, these results are still coherent with the distribution of the aftershoks registered after 2010, and with the present

  2. Seismic cycle feedbacks in a mid-crustal shear zone (United States)

    Melosh, Benjamin L.; Rowe, Christie D.; Gerbi, Christopher; Smit, Louis; Macey, Paul


    Mid-crustal fault rheology is controlled by alternating brittle and plastic deformation mechanisms, which cause feedback cycles that influence earthquake behavior. Detailed mapping and microstructural observations in the Pofadder Shear Zone (Namibia and South Africa) reveal a lithologically heterogeneous shear zone core with quartz-rich mylonites and ultramylonites, plastically overprinted pseudotachylyte and active shear folds. We present evidence for a positive feedback cycle in which coseismic grain size reduction facilitates active shear folding by enhancing competency contrasts and promoting crystal plastic flow. Shear folding strengthens a portion of a shear zone by limb rotation, focusing deformation and promoting plastic flow or brittle slip in resulting areas of localized high stress. Using quartz paleopiezometry, we estimate strain and slip rates consistent with other studies of exhumed shear zones and modern plate boundary faults, helping establish the Pofadder Shear Zone as an ancient analogue to modern, continental-scale, strike-slip faults. This feedback cycle influences seismicity patterns at the scale of study (10s of meters) and possibly larger scales as well, and contributes to bulk strengthening of the brittle-plastic transition on modern plate boundary faults.

  3. Investigation of turbulence models with compressibility corrections for hypersonic boundary flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Tang


    Full Text Available The applications of pressure work, pressure-dilatation, and dilatation-dissipation (Sarkar, Zeman, and Wilcox models to hypersonic boundary flows are investigated. The flat plate boundary layer flows of Mach number 5–11 and shock wave/boundary layer interactions of compression corners are simulated numerically. For the flat plate boundary layer flows, original turbulence models overestimate the heat flux with Mach number high up to 10, and compressibility corrections applied to turbulence models lead to a decrease in friction coefficients and heating rates. The pressure work and pressure-dilatation models yield the better results. Among the three dilatation-dissipation models, Sarkar and Wilcox corrections present larger deviations from the experiment measurement, while Zeman correction can achieve acceptable results. For hypersonic compression corner flows, due to the evident increase of turbulence Mach number in separation zone, compressibility corrections make the separation areas larger, thus cannot improve the accuracy of calculated results. It is unreasonable that compressibility corrections take effect in separation zone. Density-corrected model by Catris and Aupoix is suitable for shock wave/boundary layer interaction flows which can improve the simulation accuracy of the peak heating and have a little influence on separation zone.

  4. Crustal structure of the Churchill-Superior boundary zone between 80 and 98 deg W longitude from Magsat anomaly maps and stacked passes (United States)

    Hall, D. H.; Millar, T. W.; Noble, I. A.


    A modeling technique using spherical shell elements and equivalent dipole sources has been applied to Magsat signatures at the Churchill-Superior boundary in Manitoba, Ontario, and Ungava. A large satellite magnetic anomaly (12 nT amplitude) on POGO and Magsat maps near the Churchill-Superior boundary was found to be related to the Richmond Gulf aulacogen. The averaged crustal magnetization in the source region is 5.2 A/m. Stacking of the magnetic traces from Magsat passes reveals a magnetic signature (10 nT amplitude) at the Churchill-Superior boundary in an area studied between 80 deg W and 98 deg W. Modeling suggests a steplike thickening of the crust on the Churchill side of the boundary in a layer with a magnetization of 5 A/m. Signatures on aeromagnetic maps are also found in the source areas for both of these satellite anomalies.

  5. Sample Stacking in capillary zone electrophoresis : Principles, advantages and limitations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beckers, J.L.; Bocek, P.


    The principles of stacking procedures are described and their properties are discussed, including the fundamentals of the behavior of zone boundaries and the consequences of the self-correcting properties of boundaries in moving boundary electrophoresis, isotachophoresis, and zone electrophoresis.

  6. Bottom nozzle for nuclear reactor fuel assembly having an adaptor plate and a coupled filtration plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdier, M.; Mortgat, R.


    The bottom nozzle includes an adaptor plate with openings to allow the passage of water and a filtration plate with small holes. The openings in the adaptor plate are symmetrical with regard to medians and diagonals. Within each zone, some of the openings are rectangular and some may be circular. The small holes in the filtration plate coincide with the rectangular openings in the adaptor plate

  7. Stability of diffusion flame formed in a laminar flat plate boundary layer. Effect of fuel dilution; Soryu heiban kyokai sonai ni keiseisareru kakusan kaen no anteisei. Nenryo kishaku no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, M [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan); Ueda, T; Mizumoto, M [Keio University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Science and Technology; Amari, T [Keio University, Tokyo (Japan)


    A stability limit of the diffusion flame with fuel injection from a porous wall in a laminar flat plate boundary layer is measured as functions of fuel (CH4) concentration of CH4/N2 injectant mixture ({chi}) and its injection velocity (v). The free stream velocity (U{infinity}) is set as 0.6 m/s. The thermal condition at the wall is controlled by setting temperature at the upstream end of the porous wall as a reference temperature. When v >20 mm/s, the flame becomes unstable with the separation of leading flame edge with decreasing {chi}. The value of {chi} at the stability limit is constant without regard to v as long as the wall temperature is kept constant. As the wall temperature is decreased the value of {chi} increases. The separation is supposed to take place as a result of the limit of the reaction rate. When v <20 mm/s, the flame becomes unstable with the oscillation. The value of {chi} at the stability limit increases drastically with decreasing v. The oscillation takes place mainly due to the repeat of the extinction due to heat loss to the wall and the flame propagation in the combustible layer. 10 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Decomposition Methods For a Piv Data Analysis with Application to a Boundary Layer Separation Dynamics


    Václav URUBA


    Separation of the turbulent boundary layer (BL) on a flat plate under adverse pressure gradient was studied experimentally using Time-Resolved PIV technique. The results of spatio-temporal analysis of flow-field in the separation zone are presented. For this purpose, the POD (Proper Orthogonal Decomposition) and its extension BOD (Bi-Orthogonal Decomposition) techniques are applied as well as dynamical approach based on POPs (Principal Oscillation Patterns) method. The study contributes...

  9. Seismic imaging along a 600 km transect of the Alaska Subduction zone (Invited) (United States)

    Calkins, J. A.; Abers, G. A.; Freymueller, J. T.; Rondenay, S.; Christensen, D. H.


    We present earthquake locations, scattered wavefield migration images, and phase velocity maps from preliminary analysis of combined seismic data from the Broadband Experiment Across the Alaska Range (BEAAR) and Multidisciplinary Observations of Onshore Subduction (MOOS) projects. Together, these PASSCAL broadband arrays sampled a 500+ km transect across a portion of the subduction zone characterized by the Yakutat terrane/Pacific plate boundary in the downgoing plate, and the Denali volcanic gap in the overriding plate. These are the first results from the MOOS experiment, a 34-station array that was deployed from 2006-2008 to fill in the gap between the TACT offshore refraction profile (south and east of the coastline of the Kenai Peninsula), and the BEAAR array (spanning the Alaska Range between Talkeetna and Fairbanks). 2-D images of the upper 150 km of the subduction zone were produced by migrating forward- and back-scattered arrivals in the coda of P waves from large teleseismic earthquakes, highlighting S-velocity perturbations from a smoothly-varying background model. The migration images reveal a shallowly north-dipping low velocity zone that is contiguous near 20 km depth on its updip end with previously obtained images of the subducting plate offshore. The low velocity zone steepens further to the north, and terminates near 120 km beneath the Alaska Range. We interpret this low velocity zone to be the crust of the downgoing plate, and the reduced seismic velocities to be indicative of hydrated gabbroic compositions. Earthquakes located using the temporary arrays and nearby stations of the Alaska Regional Seismic Network correlate spatially with the inferred subducting crust. Cross-sections taken along nearly orthogonal strike lines through the MOOS array reveal that both the dip angle and the thickness of the subducting low velocity zone change abruptly across a roughly NNW-SSE striking line drawn through the eastern Kenai Peninsula, coincident with a

  10. The verification of wilderness area boundaries as part of a buffer zone demarcation process: A case study from the uKhahlamba Drakensberg Park World Heritage Site (United States)

    Sonja C. Kruger; Ian A. Rusworth; Kirsten Oliver


    Wilderness areas are by definition free from the sights and sounds of modern man. The boundaries of wilderness areas have traditionally been defined based on the management authorities' perceptions of which areas have wilderness quality. Experience shows that many areas classified as wilderness do not actually have wilderness qualities and do not provide a true...

  11. Decadal GPS Time Series and Velocity Fields Spanning the North American Continent and Beyond: New Data Products, Cyberinfrastructure and Case Studies from the EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) and Other Regional Networks (United States)

    Phillips, D. A.; Herring, T.; Melbourne, T. I.; Murray, M. H.; Szeliga, W. M.; Floyd, M.; Puskas, C. M.; King, R. W.; Boler, F. M.; Meertens, C. M.; Mattioli, G. S.


    The Geodesy Advancing Geosciences and EarthScope (GAGE) Facility, operated by UNAVCO, provides a diverse suite of geodetic data, derived products and cyberinfrastructure services to support community Earth science research and education. GPS data and products including decadal station position time series and velocities are provided for 2000+ continuous GPS stations from the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) and other networks distributed throughout the high Arctic, North America, and Caribbean regions. The position time series contain a multitude of signals in addition to the secular motions, including coseismic and postseismic displacements, interseismic strain accumulation, and transient signals associated with hydrologic and other processes. We present our latest velocity field solutions, new time series offset estimate products, and new time series examples associated with various phenomena. Position time series, and the signals they contain, are inherently dependent upon analysis parameters such as network scaling and reference frame realization. The estimation of scale changes for example, a common practice, has large impacts on vertical motion estimates. GAGE/PBO velocities and time series are currently provided in IGS (IGb08) and North America (NAM08, IGb08 rotated to a fixed North America Plate) reference frames. We are reprocessing all data (1996 to present) as part of the transition from IGb08 to IGS14 that began in 2017. New NAM14 and IGS14 data products are discussed. GAGE/PBO GPS data products are currently generated using onsite computing clusters. As part of an NSF funded EarthCube Building Blocks project called "Deploying MultiFacility Cyberinfrastructure in Commercial and Private Cloud-based Systems (GeoSciCloud)", we are investigating performance, cost, and efficiency differences between local computing resources and cloud based resources. Test environments include a commercial cloud provider (Amazon/AWS), NSF cloud-like infrastructures within

  12. Development of boundary layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbst, R.


    Boundary layers develop along the blade surfaces on both the pressure and the suction side in a non-stationary flow field. This is due to the fact that there is a strongly fluctuating flow on the downstream blade row, especially as a result of the wakes of the upstream blade row. The author investigates the formation of boundary layers under non-stationary flow conditions and tries to establish a model describing the non-stationary boundary layer. For this purpose, plate boundary layers are measured, at constant flow rates but different interferent frequency and variable pressure gradients. By introducing the sample technique, measurements of the non-stationary boundary layer become possible, and the flow rate fluctuation can be divided in its components, i.e. stochastic turbulence and periodical fluctuation. (GL) [de

  13. VT Data - Zoning Stream Buffers 20081014, Hartford (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — OVERLAY DISTRICT. Models a municipality’s zoning zones and related information. Final boundary determinations must be obtained from the town Zoning Administrator....

  14. The Influence of the Heat-Affected Zone Mechanical Properties on the Behaviour of the Welding in Transverse Plate-to-Tube Joints. (United States)

    Lozano, Miguel; Serrano, Miguel A; López-Colina, Carlos; Gayarre, Fernando L; Suárez, Jesús


    Eurocode 3 establishes the component method to analytically characterize the structural joints between beam and columns. When one of the members involved in the joint is a hollow section (i.e., a tube) there is a lack of information for the specific components present in the joint. There are two different ways to bridge the gap: experimental testing on the actual beam column joints involving tubular sections; or numerical modelization, typically by means of finite element analysis. For this second option, it is necessary to know the actual mechanical properties of the material. As long as the joint implies a welding process, there is a concern related to how the mechanical properties in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) influence the behavior of the joint. In this work, some coupons were extracted from the HAZ of the beam-column joint. The coupons were tested and the results were implemented in the numerical model of the joint, in an attempt to bring it closer to the experimental results of the tested joints.

  15. Tholeitic basalts and ophiolitic complexes of the Mesorif Zone (External Rif, Morocco) at the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary and the importance of the Ouerrha Accident in the palaeogeographic and geodynamic evolution of the Rif Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benzaggagh, M.


    The stratigraphical series around the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary of the External Rif Mountains, in particular those in the Mesorif Zone, exhibits many outcrops with volcanic materials spread westwards over 200 km. These materials show diverse aspects: basalt lithoclasts reworked into calcareous breccia beds or in marly matrix breccia, interstratified lava flows and volcanoclastic complexes incorporated within the Berriasian marls. In the Central Rif, several magmatic blocks outcrop, usually regarded as granite scales from the Paleozoic basement or as intrusive gabbros of Barremian age. Actually these magmatic massifs display typical ophiolitic sequences and they are overlaid by mega-olistoliths of Jurassic materials and locally by radiolarite layers. Geochemical analysis of several basalt and gabbro samples belonging to the Mesorif Zone evidenced that both display a typical E-MORB magma indicating at least partial oceanization of the Mesorif basement. Concerning geodynamics, the Mesorif Zone had undergone, at the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary interval, two successive palaeogeographic phases: an uplift, close to emersion during the Kimmeridgian-Early Tithonian interval, stressed by important submarine volcanic activities and intense brecciation of the carbonate formations, followed by a general collapse at the Late Tithonian, underlined by lava flows, slumping as mega-olistoliths and the formation of an oceanic crust, at least in the Central Rif. These magmatic materials, distributed on both sides of the Ouerrha Valley, evidence that this westwards extending valley (the Nekor Accident), may correspond in the Central Rif, to two palaeo-subduction planes which become two major overlapping thrusts in the western part of the Rif Mountains. (Author)

  16. Reducing risk where tectonic plates collide (United States)

    Gomberg, Joan S.; Ludwig, Kristin A.


    Most of the world’s earthquakes, tsunamis, landslides, and volcanic eruptions are caused by the continuous motions of the many tectonic plates that make up the Earth’s outer shell. The most powerful of these natural hazards occur in subduction zones, where two plates collide and one is thrust beneath another. The U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) “Reducing Risk Where Tectonic Plates Collide—A USGS Plan to Advance Subduction Zone Science” is a blueprint for building the crucial scientific foundation needed to inform the policies and practices that can make our Nation more resilient to subduction zone-related hazards.

  17. Exact solution of nonsteady thermal boundary layer equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorfman, A.S.


    There are only a few exact solutions of the thermal boundary layer equation. Most of them are derived for a specific surface temperature distribution. The first exact solution of the steady-state boundary layer equation was given for a plate with constant surface temperature and free-stream velocity. The same problem for a plate with polynomial surface temperature distribution was solved by Chapmen and Rubesin. Levy gave the exact solution for the case of a power law distribution of both surface temperature and free-stream velocity. The exact solution of the steady-state boundary layer equation for an arbitrary surface temperature and a power law free-stream velocity distribution was given by the author in two forms: of series and of the integral with an influence function of unheated zone. A similar solution of the nonsteady thermal boundary layer equation for an arbitrary surface temperature and a power law free-stream velocity distribution is presented here. In this case, the coefficients of series depend on time, and in the limit t → ∞ they become the constant coefficients of a similar solution published before. This solution, unlike the one presented here, does not satisfy the initial conditions at t = 0, and, hence, can be used only in time after the beginning of the process. The solution in the form of a series becomes a closed-form exact solution for polynomial surface temperature and a power law free-stream velocity distribution. 7 refs., 2 figs

  18. Reconstruction of Northeast Asian Deformation Integrated with Western Pacific Plate Subduction since 200 Ma (United States)

    Liu, S.; Gurnis, M.; Ma, P.; Zhang, B.


    The configuration and kinematics of continental deformation and its marginal plate tectonics on the Earth's surface are intrinsic manifestations of plate-mantle coupling. The complex interactions of plate boundary forces result in plate motions that are dominated by slab pull and ridge push forces and the effects of mantle drag; these interactions also result in continental deformation with a complex basin-mountain architecture and evolution. The kinematics and evolution of the western Pacific subduction and northeast Asian continental-margin deformation are a first-order tectonic process whose nature and chronology remains controversial. This paper implements a "deep-time" reconstruction of the western Pacific subduction, continental accretion or collision and basin-mountain deformation in northeast Asia since 200 Ma based on a newly revised global plate model. The results demonstrate a NW-SE-oriented shortening from 200-137 Ma, a NWW-SEE-oriented extension from 136-101 Ma, a nearly N-S-oriented extension and uplift with a short-term NWW-SEE-oriented compressional inversion in northeast China from 100-67 Ma, and a NW-SE- and nearly N-S-oriented extension from 66 Ma to the present day. The western Pacific oceanic plate subducted forward under East Asia along Mudanjiang-Honshu Island during the Jurassic, and the trenches retreated to the Sikhote-Alin, North Shimanto, and South Shimanto zones from ca. 137-128 Ma, ca. 130-90 Ma, and in ca. 60 Ma, respectively. Our time-dependent analysis of plate motion and continental deformation coupling suggests that the multi-plate convergent motion and ocean-continent convergent orogeny were induced by advance subduction during the Jurassic and earliest Cretaceous. Our analysis also indicates that the intra-continent rifting and back-arc extension were triggered by trench retreat during the Cretaceous and that the subduction of oceanic ridge and arc were triggered by trench retreat during the Cenozoic. Therefore, reconstructing

  19. Re-evaluating fault zone evolution, geometry, and slip rate along the restraining bend of the southern San Andreas Fault Zone (United States)

    Blisniuk, K.; Fosdick, J. C.; Balco, G.; Stone, J. O.


    This study presents new multi-proxy data to provide an alternative interpretation of the late -to-mid Quaternary evolution, geometry, and slip rate of the southern San Andreas fault zone, comprising of the Garnet Hill, Banning, and Mission Creek fault strands, along its restraining bend near the San Bernardino Mountains and San Gorgonio Pass. Present geologic and geomorphic studies in the region indicate that as the Mission Creek and Banning faults diverge from one another in the southern Indio Hills, the Banning Fault Strand accommodates the majority of lateral displacement across the San Andreas Fault Zone. In this currently favored kinematic model of the southern San Andreas Fault Zone, slip along the Mission Creek Fault Strand decreases significantly northwestward toward the San Gorgonio Pass. Along this restraining bend, the Mission Creek Fault Strand is considered to be inactive since the late -to-mid Quaternary ( 500-150 kya) due to the transfer of plate boundary strain westward to the Banning and Garnet Hills Fault Strands, the Jacinto Fault Zone, and northeastward, to the Eastern California Shear Zone. Here, we present a revised geomorphic interpretation of fault displacement, initial 36Cl/10Be burial ages, sediment provenance data, and detrital geochronology from modern catchments and displaced Quaternary deposits that improve across-fault correlations. We hypothesize that continuous large-scale translation of this structure has occurred throughout its history into the present. Accordingly, the Mission Creek Fault Strand is active and likely a primary plate boundary fault at this latitude.

  20. IODP Expedition 319, NanTroSEIZE Stage 2: First IODP Riser Drilling Operations and Observatory Installation Towards Understanding Subduction Zone Seismogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Toczko


    Full Text Available The Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment (NanTroSEIZE is a major drilling project designed to investigate fault mechanics and the seismogenic behavior of subduction zone plate boundaries. Expedition 319 is the first riser drilling operation within scientific ocean drilling. Operations included riser drilling at Site C0009 in the forearc basin above the plate boundary fault, non-riser drilling at Site C0010 across the shallow part of the megasplay faultsystem—which may slip during plate boundary earthquakes—and initial drilling at Site C0011 (incoming oceanic plate for Expedition 322. At Site C0009, new methods were tested, including analysis of drill mud cuttings and gas, and in situ measurements of stress, pore pressure, and permeability. These results, in conjunction with earlier drilling, will provide a the history of forearc basin development (including links to growth of the megasplay fault system and modern prism, b the first in situ hydrological measurements of the plate boundary hanging wall, and c integration of in situ stress measurements (orientation and magnitude across the forearc and with depth. A vertical seismic profile (VSP experiment provides improved constraints on the deeper structure of the subduction zone. At Site C0010, logging-while-drilling measurements indicate significantchanges in fault zone and hanging wall properties over short (<5 km along-strike distances, suggesting different burial and/or uplift history. The first borehole observatory instruments were installed at Site C0010 to monitor pressure and temperature within the megasplay fault zone, and methods of deployment of more complex observatoryinstruments were tested for future operations.

  1. Strain resolving method of composite plane plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The paper deals with the extension of isotropic plates problem to the case of composite plates. In order to perform it, the Kirchhoff-Love hypotheses were “softened” by some additional ones. Considering the constitutive laws for composite materials the stress functions were eliminated by using Cauchy equations. As a result a partial derivative equation in displacements was obtained. Finally the boundary condition formulation was extended for the case of complex composite plates.

  2. Structural factors controlling inter-plate coupling and earthquake rupture process (United States)

    Kodaira, S.


    Recent availability of a large number of ocean bottom seismographs (OBSs), a large volume of air-gun array and a long streamer cable for academics provide several new findings of lithospheric scale structures in subduction seismogenic zones. JAMSTEC has acquired long-offset seismic data using a super-densely deploy OBS (i.e. 1 - 5 km spacing OBSs along 100 - 500 km long profiles) in the Nankai seismogeinc zone, SW. Japan, since 1999. Long-offset multichannel seismic (MCS) data by a two-ship experiment, as well as conventional 2D MCS data, have been also acquired at a part of the profiles. Some of those profiles have been designed as combined onshore - offshore profiles for imaging a land-ocean transition zone. One of the most striking findings is an image of several scales of subducted seamounts/ridges in the Nankai trough seismogenic zone. We detected the subducted seamount/ridges, which are 50 - 100 km wide, distributing from near trough axis to ~ 40 km deep beneath the Japanese island. From a point of seismogenic process, an important aspect is that those structures are strongly correlated with slip zones of magnitude 8-class earthquakes, i.e.; subducted seamounts/ridge control the rupture propagations. Moreover, the most recent seismic study crossing the segmentation boundary between M=8 class earthquakes detected a high seismic velocity body forming a strongly coupled patch at the segmentation boundary. The numerical simulation incorporating all those structures explained the historic rupture patterns, and shows the occurrence of a giant earthquake along the entire Nankai trough, a distance of over 600 km long (Mw=8.7). The growth processes of a rupture revealed from the simulation are; 1) prior to the giant earthquake, a small slow event (or earthquake) occurs near the segmentation boundary, 2) this accelerates a very slow slip (slower than the plate convergent rate), at the strong patch, which reduces a degree of coupling, 3) then a rupture easily propagates

  3. San Andreas tremor cascades define deep fault zone complexity (United States)

    Shelly, David R.


    Weak seismic vibrations - tectonic tremor - can be used to delineate some plate boundary faults. Tremor on the deep San Andreas Fault, located at the boundary between the Pacific and North American plates, is thought to be a passive indicator of slow fault slip. San Andreas Fault tremor migrates at up to 30 m s-1, but the processes regulating tremor migration are unclear. Here I use a 12-year catalogue of more than 850,000 low-frequency earthquakes to systematically analyse the high-speed migration of tremor along the San Andreas Fault. I find that tremor migrates most effectively through regions of greatest tremor production and does not propagate through regions with gaps in tremor production. I interpret the rapid tremor migration as a self-regulating cascade of seismic ruptures along the fault, which implies that tremor may be an active, rather than passive participant in the slip propagation. I also identify an isolated group of tremor sources that are offset eastwards beneath the San Andreas Fault, possibly indicative of the interface between the Monterey Microplate, a hypothesized remnant of the subducted Farallon Plate, and the North American Plate. These observations illustrate a possible link between the central San Andreas Fault and tremor-producing subduction zones.

  4. Optimization of material composition of nonhomogeneous plate for thermal stress relaxation making use of neural network. Analysis taking into account the relative heat transfer at boundary surfaces when subjected to unsteady heat supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ootao, Yoshihiro; Kawamura, Ryuusuke; Tanigawa, Yoshinobu; Imamura, Ryuutarou


    In this study, a neural network is applied to optimization problems of material compositions for a nonhomogeneous plate with arbitrarily distributed and continuously varied material properties such as Functionally Graded Material. Unsteady temperature distribution for such nonhomogeneous plate is evaluated by taking into account the bounds of the number of the layers. Furthermore, the thermal stress components for an infinitely long nonhomogeneous plate are formulated under the mechanical condition of being traction free. As a numerical example, the plate composed of zirconium oxide and titanium alloy is considered. And, as the optimization problem of minimizing the thermal stress distribution, the numerical calculations are carried out making use of neural network, and the optimum material composition is determined taking into account the effect of temperature-dependency of material properties. Furthermore, the results obtained by neural network and ordinary nonlinear programming method are compared. (author)

  5. Cascading ecohydrological transitions: Multiple changes in vegetation and hydrology over the past 500 years for a semiarid forest/woodland boundary zone in New Mexico, USA (United States)

    Allen, Craig D.


    On decadal and centennial time scales, multiple drivers can cause substantial changes in vegetation cover, which can trigger associated changes in runoff and erosion patterns and processes, with consequent feedbacks to the vegetation - cumulatively this can lead to a cascading series of non-equilibrial ecosystem changes through time. The work reported here provides a relatively detailed 500-year perspective of such changes on the mesas the eastern Jemez Mountains in northern New Mexico (USA), which today exhibit vegetation transitions along an elevational gradient between semiarid ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests, mixed woodlands dominated by piñon (Pinus edulis) and one-seed juniper (Juniperus monosperma), and juniper savannas. Using multiple lines of evidence, a history of major ecosystem changes since ca. 1500 A.D. is reconstructed for a dynamic transition zone on one such mesa (Frijolito Mesa). Evidence includes intensive archaeological surveys, dendrochronological reconstructions of the demographic and spatial patterns of establishment and mortality for these three main tree species, dendrochronological reconstructions of fire regimes and climate patterns, broad-scale mapping of vegetation changes from historic aerial photographs since 1935, monitoring of vegetation from permanent transects since 1991, detailed soil maps and interpretations, intensive ecohydrological studies since 1993 on portions of this mesa, and research on the ecosystem effects of an experimental tree-thinning experiment conducted in 1997. Frijolito Mesa was fully occupied by large numbers of Native American farmers from the A.D. 1200's until the late 1500's, when they left these mesas for settlements in the adjoining Rio Grande Valley. Archaeological evidence and tree ages indicate that the mesa was likely quite deforested when abandoned, followed by episodic tree establishment dominated by ponderosa pine during the Little Ice Age. By the late 1700's Frijolito Mesa included

  6. Inverse models of plate coupling and mantle rheology: Towards a direct link between large-scale mantle flow and mega thrust earthquakes (United States)

    Gurnis, M.; Ratnaswamy, V.; Stadler, G.; Rudi, J.; Liu, X.; Ghattas, O.


    We are developing high-resolution inverse models for plate motions and mantle flow to recover the degree of mechanical coupling between plates and the non-linear and plastic parameters governing viscous flow within the lithosphere and mantle. We have developed adjoint versions of the Stokes equations with fully non-linear viscosity with a cost function that measures the fit with plate motions and with regional constrains on effective upper mantle viscosity (from post-glacial rebound and post seismic relaxation). In our earlier work, we demonstrate that when the temperature field is known, the strength of plate boundaries, the yield stress and strain rate exponent in the upper mantle are recoverable. As the plate boundary coupling drops below a threshold, the uncertainty of the inferred parameters increases due to insensitivity of plate motion to plate coupling. Comparing the trade-offs between inferred rheological parameters found from a Gaussian approximation of the parameter distribution and from MCMC sampling, we found that the Gaussian approximation—which is significantly cheaper to compute—is often a good approximation. We have extended our earlier method such that we can recover normal and shear stresses within the zones determining the interface between subducting and over-riding plates determined through seismic constraints (using the Slab1.0 model). We find that those subduction zones with low seismic coupling correspond with low inferred values of mechanical coupling. By fitting plate motion data in the optimization scheme, we find that Tonga and the Marianas have the lowest values of mechanical coupling while Chile and Sumatra the highest, among the subduction zones we have studies. Moreover, because of the nature of the high-resolution adjoint models, the subduction zones with the lowest coupling have back-arc extension. Globally we find that the non-linear stress-strain exponent, n, is about 3.0 +/- 0.25 (in the upper mantle and lithosphere) and a

  7. Chile's seismogenic coupling zones - geophysical and neotectonic observations from the South American subduction zone prior to the Maule 2010 earthquake (United States)

    Oncken With Tipteq, Onno; Ipoc Research Groups


    Accumulation of deformation at convergent plate margins is recently identified to be highly discontinuous and transient in nature: silent slip events, non-volcanic tremors, afterslip, fault coupling and complex response patterns of the upper plate during a single event as well as across several seismic cycles have all been observed in various settings and combinations. Segments of convergent plate margins with high recurrence rates and at different stages of the rupture cycle like the Chilean margin offer an exceptional opportunity to study these features and their interaction resolving behaviour during the seismic cycle and over repeated cycles. A past (TIPTEQ) and an active international initiative (IPOC; Integrated Plate Boundary Observatory Chile) address these goals with research groups from IPG Paris, Seismological Survey of Chile, Free University Berlin, Potsdam University, Hamburg University, IFM-GEOMAR Kiel, and GFZ Potsdam employing an integrated plate boundary observatory and associated projects. We focus on the south Central Chilean convergent margin and the North Chilean margin as natural laboratories embracing the recent Maule 2010 megathrust event. Here, major recent seismic events have occurred (south Central Chile: 1960, Mw = 9.5; 2010, Mw = 8.8; North Chile: 1995, Mw = 8; 2001, Mw = 8.7; 2007, Mw: 7.8) or are expected in the very near future (Iquique, last ruptured 1877, Mw = 8.8) allowing observation at critical time windows of the seismic cycle. Seismic imaging and seismological data have allowed us to relocate major rupture hypocentres and to locate the geometry of the locked zone and the degree of locking in both areas. The reflection seismic data exhibit well defined changes of reflectivity and Vp/Vs ratio along the plate interface that can be correlated with different parts of the coupling zone as well as with changes during the seismic cycle. Observations suggest an important role of the hydraulic system, an inference that is strongly

  8. Heterogeneous coupling along Makran subduction zone (United States)

    Zarifi, Z.; Raeesi, M.


    The Makran subduction zone, located in the southeast of Iran and southern Pakistan, extends for almost 900 km along the Eurasian-Arabian plate boundary. The seismic activities in the eastern and western Makran exhibit very different patterns. The eastern Makran characterized by infrequent large earthquakes and low level of seismicity. The only large instrumentally recorded earthquake in the eastern Makran, the 27 Nov. 1945 (Mw=8.1) earthquake, was followed by tsunami waves with the maximum run-up height of 13 m and disastrous effects in Pakistan, India, Iran and Oman. The western Makran, however, is apparently quiescent without strong evidence on occurrence of large earthquakes in historical times, which makes it difficult to ascertain whether the slab subducts aseismically or experiences large earthquakes separated by long periods exceeding the historical records. We used seismicity and Trench Parallel Free air and Bouguer Anomalies (TPGA and TPBA) to study the variation in coupling in the slab interface. Using a 3D mechanical Finite Element (FE) model, we show how heterogeneous coupling can influence the rate of deformation in the overriding lithosphere and the state of stress in the outer rise, overriding, and subducting plates within the shortest expected cycle of earthquake. We test the results of FE model against the observed focal mechanism of earthquakes and available GPS measurements in Makran subduction zone.

  9. A microstructural study of F82H-MOD. Plate, powder HIP and EB and TIG weldments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuring, E.W.


    F82H is the heat identification number of a ferritic/martensitic steel. The steel has a chemical composition resulting in low activation after neutron irradiation. At ECN a microstructural study was conducted on plates of F82H (73, 15 and 25mm thick), a bar of HIPped F82H and EB and TIG welds in F82H plates. The investigation was aimed to characterise the microstructures for reference in irradiation experiments. The F82H mod. plates have a martensitic matrix with carbide precipitation on the prior austenite grain boundaries and the martensite laths. The carbide precipitation is most pronounced on the prior austenite grain boundaries. The PAG is comparable for the three plate thicknesses investigated. In two plates faint segregation bands were found with a denser carbide precipitation and 8-ferrite. Further Ta, Ti and Zr containing oxides are present. Hardness measurements show a higher overall hardness in the 25mm plate investigated compared to the 7.5 and 15mm plates. The F82H HIP bar shows a homogeneous PAG throughout the diameter. The microstructure shows a zone starting at about 1 mm below the surface with a width of 14mm, with a relatively high concentration of low precipitation density ferritic like fields, which corresponds to a zone with a 15HV5 lower hardness with respect to the rest of the bar. This zone is expected to be related to the HIP process. Further in the microstructure a circular pattern of W and Ta enriched inclusions is found, which mark the original HIP-powder grain boundaries. The EB-welds were manufactured by two manufactures and differ mostly in the heat input, resulting in differences in HAZ-width and the width of the weld cap. The F82H EB welds show comparable microstructures in the weld pool, with a martensitic microstructure free of carbides. All EB-welds contain 8-ferrite in concentrations of 0.1-1%. In the heat affected zone (HAZ), the coarse grained HAZ (CGHAZ) is free of carbide precipitation, whereas the fine grained HAZ (FGHAZ

  10. The Iberian Plate: myth or reality?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canerot, J.


    The plate tectonics theory generally leads us to consider that Iberia was an independent plate separated from Europe by the North Pyrenean Fault (NPF). The NPF has been commonly interpreted as a transform fault associated with a huge counterclockwise transverse and rotational movement that allowed the opening of the Bay of Biscay and the relative eastward motion of Iberia during the Mesozoic. According to some interpretations, this movement may have generated an interplate gap several hundreds of km wide, which led to the creation of an oceanic crust during the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous. However, field studies recently carried out in the Pyrenees do not support these interpretations. The North Pyrenean Fault (NPF) of Tertiary age is observed in the central and eastern Pyrenees, where pioneering researchers defined it as separating the North Pyrenean Zone from the Axial Zone.However, this fault cannot be identified in the western part of the range to the west of the Ossau valley. Consequently, the geodynamic evolution of Iberia has always been dependent on Europe, especially during the failed oceanic rifting in the Mid-Cretaceous. Indeed, during this period, a central zone of crustal thinning occupied by turbiditic basins separated the European from the Iberian continental crust, with a very localized mantle exhumation found only in the Mauleon basin. Therefore, far from being an interplate range, the Pyrenees can neither be considered as an intraplate unit. We can define this orogenic belt as resulting from the Tertiary tectonic inversion of a Mid-Cretaceous rift system. According to this new interpretation, Iberia would not have been an isolated plate but represented an unstable, outlying part of Europe. Rather than displaying the features of a rigid lithospheric unit with well-defined boundaries, Iberia grouped together different crustal blocks undergoing specific movements at particular times. During the Mesozoic, normal, reverse or strike

  11. Plate tectonics

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chaubey, A.K.

    's continental drift theory was later disproved, it was one of the first times that the idea of crustal movement had been introduced to the scientific community; and it has laid the groundwork for the development of modern plate tectonics. In the early... of the structure of the atom was to physical sciences and the theory of evolution was to the life sciences. Tectonics is the study of the forces within the Earth that give rise to continents, ocean basins, mountain ranges, earthquake belts and other large-scale...

  12. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Plate Share Create Your Plate ! Share: Seven Simple Steps to Create Your Plate It's simple and effective ... foods within each food category. Try these seven steps to get started: Using your dinner plate, put ...

  13. Systematic deficiency of aftershocks in areas of high coseismic slip for large subduction zone earthquakes (United States)

    Wetzler, Nadav; Lay, Thorne; Brodsky, Emily E.; Kanamori, Hiroo


    Fault slip during plate boundary earthquakes releases a portion of the shear stress accumulated due to frictional resistance to relative plate motions. Investigation of 101 large [moment magnitude (Mw) ≥ 7] subduction zone plate boundary mainshocks with consistently determined coseismic slip distributions establishes that 15 to 55% of all master event–relocated aftershocks with Mw ≥ 5.2 are located within the slip regions of the mainshock ruptures and few are located in peak slip regions, allowing for uncertainty in the slip models. For the preferred models, cumulative deficiency of aftershocks within the central three-quarters of the scaled slip regions ranges from 15 to 45%, increasing with the total number of observed aftershocks. The spatial gradients of the mainshock coseismic slip concentrate residual shear stress near the slip zone margins and increase stress outside the slip zone, driving both interplate and intraplate aftershock occurrence near the periphery of the mainshock slip. The shear stress reduction in large-slip regions during the mainshock is generally sufficient to preclude further significant rupture during the aftershock sequence, consistent with large-slip areas relocking and not rupturing again for a substantial time. PMID:29487902

  14. Dynamics of subduction and continental collision: Influence of the nature of the plate contact. Geologica Ultraiectina (284)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Franco, R.


    At convergent plate boundaries, the properties of the actual plate contact are important for the overall dynamics. Convergent plate boundaries both mechanically decouple and link tectonic plates and accommodate large amounts of strain. We investigate two fundamental physical states of the subduction

  15. Zoning, 2004, East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a graphical polygon dataset depicting the zoning boundaries of the East Baton Rouge Parish of the State of Louisiana. Zoning can be defined as the range of...

  16. The baffle influence on sound radiation characteristics of a plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao Liu


    Full Text Available The acoustic radiation characteristics of the baffle plates and unbaffle plates are calculated and compared by single-layer potential and double-layer potential. Based on the boundary integral equation, the sound pressure integral equation of the baffle and the baffle are deduced respectively. According to the boundary compatibility condition, the sound pressure and the vibration velocity of the plates are obtained. Further, the dynamic equation of the structure is substituted into the vibration equation in the form of the baffle plate and the baffle plate. The sound pressure difference and the displacement of a plate surface are in the form of the vibration mode superposition and the acoustic radiation impedance of the double integral form is obtained, which determines vibration mode coefficient and sound radiation parameters. The effect of the baffle on the acoustic radiation characteristics of the thin plate is analyzed by comparing the acoustic radiation parameters with the simple and simple rectangular plate in water.

  17. Free vibration analysis of corroded steel plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eslami-Majd, Alireza; Rahbar-Ranji, Ahmad [AmirKabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    Vibration analysis of unstiffened/stiffened plates has long been studied due to its importance in the design and condition assessments of ship and offshore structures. Corrosion is inevitable in steel structures and has been so far considered in strength analysis of structures. We studied the free vibration of pitted corroded plates with simply supported boundary conditions. Finite element analysis, with ABAQUS, was used to determine the natural frequencies and mode shapes of corroded plates. Influential parameters including plate aspect ratio, degree of pit, one-sided/both-sided corroded plate, and different corrosion patterns were investigated. By increasing the degree of corrosion, reduction of natural frequency increases. Plate aspect ratio and plate dimensions have no influence on reduction of natural frequency. Different corrosion patterns on the surface of one-sided corroded plates have little influence on reduction of natural frequency. Ratio of pit depth over plate thickness has no influence on the reduction of natural frequency. The reduction of natural frequency in both-sided corroded plates is higher than one-sided corroded plates with the same amount of total corrosion loss. Mode shapes of vibration would change due to corrosion, except square mode shapes.

  18. How broad and deep is the region of chemical alteration of oceanic plates at trenches? (United States)

    Ranero, C. R.; Grevemeyer, I.; Barckhausen, U.


    Different lines of evidence indicate that oceanic plates are affected by pervasive bending-related deformation approaching ocean trenches. Results from active-seismic work support that deformation provides paths for exchange between hydrosphere and lithosphere, possibly causing chemical alteration of the incoming lithosphere. Much work focused on the potential transformation of peridotite to serpentine in the uppermost mantle of incoming plates, but there is no consensus on the region where it may occur or the intensity of alteration, let alone on limiting factors for the process. Teleseismic (large-great) earthquakes with normal-fault mechanism in the outer rise region have been often called to speculate on the depth of penetration of plate hydration. However, large-great outer-rise earthquakes may be related to stress changes due to slab pull after decoupling along the inter-plate boundary, and not necessarily controlled by bending stresses only. If so, the majority of the time the depth of water percolation may be related to local bending stresses expressed by micro-earthquakes rather than large events. Seismic images and multibeam bathymetry from lithosphere of similar thermal thickness from different trenches display a remarkable variability of the intensity of bending-related deformation along the subduction zones where plate age does not change significantly indicating that the intensity of deformation (not the depth) and perhaps hydration is very variable in space and not controlled by plate age. Seismic images showing hundreds of kilometers perpendicular to the trench into the incoming plate show that the bending-related deformation reaches mantle under the outer rise, well before the lithosphere plunges into the trench and develops the marked bend-faulting fabric observable in bathymetric maps. Thus, alteration occurs in a hundreds-of-km wide area, with deformation intensity related to local characteristics, and deformation depth to plate age.

  19. A reworked Lake Zone margin: Chronological and geochemical constraints from the Ordovician arc-related basement of the Hovd Zone (western Mongolia) (United States)

    Soejono, Igor; Buriánek, David; Janoušek, Vojtěch; Svojtka, Martin; Čáp, Pavel; Erban, Vojtěch; Ganpurev, Nyamtsetseg


    The primary relationships and character of the boundaries between principal lithotectonic domains in the Mongolian tract of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) are still poorly constrained. This brings much uncertainty in understanding of the orogeny configuration and the complete accretionary history. The plutonic Khuurai Tsenkher Gol Complex and the mainly metasedimentary Bij Group represent associated medium- to high-grade basement complexes exposed in the Hovd Zone close to its boundary with the Lake Zone in western Mongolia. The Khuurai Tsenkher Gol Complex is composed of variously deformed acid to basic magmatic rocks intimately associated with the metamorphosed sedimentary and volcanic rocks of the Bij Group. Results of our field work, new U-Pb zircon ages and whole-rock geochemical data suggest an existence of two separate magmatic events within the evolution of the Khuurai Tsenkher Gol Complex. Early to Mid-Ordovician (476 ± 5 Ma and 467 ± 4 Ma protoliths) normal- to high-K calc-alkaline orthogneisses, metadiorites and metagabbros predominate over Mid-Silurian (430 ± 3 Ma) tholeiitic-mildly alkaline quartz monzodiorites. Whereas the geochemical signature of the former suite unequivocally demonstrates its magmatic-arc origin, that of the latter quartz monzodiorite suggests an intra-plate setting. As shown by Sr-Nd isotopic data, the older arc-related magmas were derived from depleted mantle and/or were generated by partial melting of juvenile metabasic crust. Detrital zircon age populations of the metasedimentary rocks together with geochemical signatures of the associated amphibolites imply that the Bij Group was a volcano-sedimentary sequence, formed probably in the associated fore-arc wedge basin. Moreover, our data argue for an identical provenance of the Altai and Hovd domains, overall westward sediment transport during the Early Palaeozoic and the east-dipping subduction polarity. The obvious similarities of the Khuurai Tsenkher Gol Complex

  20. Mathematical methods for elastic plates

    CERN Document Server

    Constanda, Christian


    Mathematical models of deformation of elastic plates are used by applied mathematicians and engineers in connection with a wide range of practical applications, from microchip production to the construction of skyscrapers and aircraft. This book employs two important analytic techniques to solve the fundamental boundary value problems for the theory of plates with transverse shear deformation, which offers a more complete picture of the physical process of bending than Kirchhoff’s classical one.   The first method transfers the ellipticity of the governing system to the boundary, leading to singular integral equations on the contour of the domain. These equations, established on the basis of the properties of suitable layer potentials, are then solved in spaces of smooth (Hölder continuous and Hölder continuously differentiable) functions.   The second technique rewrites the differential system in terms of complex variables and fully integrates it, expressing the solution as a combination of complex ana...

  1. Analysis of hydraulic instability of ANS involute fuel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartory, W.K.


    Curved shell equations for the involute Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) fuel plates are coupled to two-dimensional hydraulic channel flow equations that include fluid friction. A complete set of fluid and plate boundary conditions is applied at the entrance and exit and along the sides of the plate and the channel. The coupled system is linearized and solved to assess the hydraulic instability of the plates

  2. The Role of a Weak Layer at the Base of an Oceanic Plate on Subduction Dynamics (United States)

    Carluccio, R.; Moresi, L. N.; Kaus, B. J. P.


    Plate tectonics relies on the concept of an effectively rigid lithospheric lid moving over a weaker asthenosphere. In this model, the lithosphere asthenosphere boundary (LAB) is a first-order discontinuity that accommodates differential motion between tectonic plates and the underlying mantle. Recent seismic studies have revealed the existence of a low velocity and high electrical conductivity layer at the base of subducting tectonic plates. This thin layer has been interpreted as being weak and slightly buoyant and it has the potential to influence the dynamics of subducting plates. However, geodynamically, the role of a weak layer at the base of the lithosphere remains poorly studied, especially at subduction zones. Here, we use numerical models to investigate the first-order effects of a weak buoyant layer at the LAB on subduction dynamics. We employ both 2-D and 3-D models in which the slab and the mantle are either linear viscous or have a more realistic temperature-dependent, visco-elastic-plastic rheology and we vary the properties of the layer at the base of the oceanic lithosphere. Our results show that the presence of a weak layer affects the dynamics of plates, primarily by increasing the subduction speed and also influences the morphology of subducting slab. For moderate viscosity contrasts (1000), it can also change the morphology of the subduction itself and for thinner and more buoyant layers, the overall effect is reduced. The overall impact of this effects may depend on the effective contrast between the properties of the slab and the weak layer + mantle systems, and so, by the layer characteristics modelled such as its viscosity, density, thickness and rheology. In this study, we show and summarise this impact consistently with the recent seismological constraints and observations, for example, a pile-up of weak material in the bending zone of the subducting plate.

  3. Plate Like Convection with Viscous Strain Weakening and Corresponding Surface Deformation Pattern (United States)

    Fuchs, L.; Becker, T. W.


    How plate tectonic surface motions are generated by mantle convection on Earth and possibly other terrestrial type planets has recently become more readily accessible with fully dynamic convection computations. However, it remains debated how plate-like the behavior in such models truly is, and in particular how the well plate boundary dynamics are captured in models which typically exclude the effects of deformation history and memory. Here, we analyze some of the effects of viscous strain weakening on plate behavior and the interactions between interior convection dynamics and surface deformation patterns. We use the finite element code CitcomCU to model convection in a 3D Cartesian model setup. The models are internally heated, with an Arrhenius-type temperature dependent viscosity including plastic yielding and viscous strain weakening (VSW) and healing (VSWH). VSW can mimic first order features of more complex damage mechanisms such as grain-size dependent rheology. Besides plate diagnostic parameters (Plateness, Mobility, and Toroidal: Poloidal ratio) to analyze the tectonic behavior our models, we also explore how "plate boundaries" link to convective patterns. In a first model series, we analyze general surface deformation patterns without VSW. In the early stages, deformation patterns are clearly co-located with up- and downwelling limbs of convection. Along downwellings strain-rates are high and localized, whereas upwellings tend to lead to broad zones of high deformation. At a more advanced stage, however, the plates' interior is highly deformed due to continuous strain accumulation and resurfaced inherited strain. Including only VSW leads to more localized deformation along downwellings. However, at a more advanced stage plate-like convection fails due an overall weakening of the material. This is prevented including strain healing. Deformation pattern at the surface more closely coincide with the internal convection patterns. The average surface

  4. Diffusion of drag-reducing polymer solutions within a rough-walled turbulent boundary layer (United States)

    Elbing, Brian R.; Dowling, David R.; Perlin, Marc; Ceccio, Steven L.


    The influence of surface roughness on diffusion of wall-injected, drag-reducing polymer solutions within a turbulent boundary layer was studied with a 0.94 m long flat-plate test model at speeds of up to 10.6 m s-1 and Reynolds numbers of up to 9×106. The surface was hydraulically smooth, transitionally rough, or fully rough. Mean concentration profiles were acquired with planar laser induced fluorescence, which was the primary flow diagnostic. Polymer concentration profiles with high injection concentrations (≥1000 wppm) had the peak concentration shifted away from the wall, which was partially attributed to a lifting phenomenon. The diffusion process was divided into three zones—initial, intermediate, and final. Studies of polymer injection into a polymer ocean at concentrations sufficient for maximum drag reduction indicated that the maximum initial zone length is of the order of 100 boundary layer thicknesses. The intermediate zone results indicate that friction velocity and roughness height are important scaling parameters in addition to flow and injection conditions. Lastly, the current results were combined with those in Petrie et al. ["Polymer drag reduction with surface roughness in flat-plate turbulent boundary layer flow," Exp. Fluids 35, 8 (2003)] to demonstrate that the influence of polymer degradation increases with increased surface roughness.

  5. Pacific plate slab pull and intraplate deformation in the early Cenozoic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. P. Butterworth


    Full Text Available Large tectonic plates are known to be susceptible to internal deformation, leading to a~range of phenomena including intraplate volcanism. However, the space and time dependence of intraplate deformation and its relationship with changing plate boundary configurations, subducting slab geometries, and absolute plate motion is poorly understood. We utilise a buoyancy-driven Stokes flow solver, BEM-Earth, to investigate the contribution of subducting slabs through time on Pacific plate motion and plate-scale deformation, and how this is linked to intraplate volcanism. We produce a series of geodynamic models from 62 to 42 Ma in which the plates are driven by the attached subducting slabs and mantle drag/suction forces. We compare our modelled intraplate deformation history with those types of intraplate volcanism that lack a clear age progression. Our models suggest that changes in Cenozoic subduction zone topology caused intraplate deformation to trigger volcanism along several linear seafloor structures, mostly by reactivation of existing seamount chains, but occasionally creating new volcanic chains on crust weakened by fracture zones and extinct ridges. Around 55 Ma, subduction of the Pacific-Izanagi ridge reconfigured the major tectonic forces acting on the plate by replacing ridge push with slab pull along its northwestern perimeter, causing lithospheric extension along pre-existing weaknesses. Large-scale deformation observed in the models coincides with the seamount chains of Hawaii, Louisville, Tokelau and Gilbert during our modelled time period of 62 to 42 Ma. We suggest that extensional stresses between 72 and 52 Ma are the likely cause of large parts of the formation of the Gilbert chain and that localised extension between 62 and 42 Ma could cause late-stage volcanism along the Musicians volcanic ridges. Our models demonstrate that early Cenozoic changes in Pacific plate driving forces only cause relatively minor changes in Pacific

  6. Emerging boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvschal, Mette


    of temporal and material variables have been applied as a means of exploring the processes leading to their socioconceptual anchorage. The outcome of this analysis is a series of interrelated, generative boundary principles, including boundaries as markers, articulations, process-related devices, and fixation...

  7. Changing Boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodkin, Evelyn; Larsen, Flemming


    project that is altering the boundary between the democratic welfare state and the market economy. We see workfare policies as boundary-changing with potentially profound implications both for individuals disadvantaged by market arrangements and for societies seeking to grapple with the increasing...

  8. Negotiating boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarhus, Rikke; Ballegaard, Stinne Aaløkke


    to maintain the order of the home when managing disease and adopting new healthcare technology. In our analysis we relate this boundary work to two continuums of visibility-invisibility and integration-segmentation in disease management. We explore five factors that affect the boundary work: objects......, activities, places, character of disease, and collaboration. Furthermore, the processes are explored of how boundary objects move between social worlds pushing and shaping boundaries. From this we discuss design implications for future healthcare technologies for the home.......To move treatment successfully from the hospital to that of technology assisted self-care at home, it is vital in the design of such technologies to understand the setting in which the health IT should be used. Based on qualitative studies we find that people engage in elaborate boundary work...

  9. A geophysical potential field study to image the Makran subduction zone in SE of Iran (United States)

    Abedi, Maysam; Bahroudi, Abbas


    The Makran subduction wedge as one of the largest subduction complexes has been forming due to the Arabian oceanic lithosphere subducting beneath the Lut and the Afghan rigid block microplates. To better visualize the subducting oceanic crust in this region, a geophysical model of magnetic susceptibility from an airborne magnetic survey (line spacing about 7.5 km) over the Makran zone located at southeast of Iran is created to image various structural units in Iran plate. The constructed geophysical model from the 3D inverse modeling of the airborne magnetic data indicates a thin subducting slab to the north of the Makran structural zone. It is demonstrated that the thickness of sedimentary units varies approximately at an interval of 7.5-11 km from north to south of this zone in the Iranian plate, meanwhile the curie depth is also estimated approximately basement, while such intensity reduces over the Makran. The directional derivatives of the magnetic field data have subtle changes in the Makran, but strongly increase in the Jazmurian by enhancing and separating different structural boundaries in this region. In addition, the density variations of the subsurface geological layers were determined by 3D inversion of the ground-based gravity data over the whole study area, where the constructed density model was in good agreement with the magnetic one. According to the outputs of the magnetic susceptibility and the density contrast, the Arabian plate subducts to the north under the Eurasia with a very low dip angle in the Makran structural zone.

  10. Heterogeneous subduction structure within the Pacific plate beneath the Izu-Bonin arc (United States)

    Gong, Wei; Xing, Junhui; Jiang, Xiaodian


    The Izu-Bonin subduction zone is a subduction system formed in early Eocene. The structure of the subduction zone becomes complicated with the evolution of the surrounding plate motion, and many aspects are still unkown or ambiguous. The geodynamic implications are further investigated in related to published seismic observations and geochemical characters of the Izu-Bonin subduction zone. As indicated by seismic tomography and epicentral distributions, the dip angle of the plate beneath the segment to the south of 29°-30°N (the southern Izu-Bonin) is much steeper than the northern one (the northern Izu-Bonin). Deep focus events in the southern segment extend to the depth of ∼600 km, whereas in the northern section deep events just terminate at 420-450 km. Particularly, tomographic images show an obvious boundary between the northern and southern Izu-Bonin at depths of 150-600 km neglected in the previous studies. The northern and southern segments are even separated by a wide range of low-velocity anomaly in P and S wave tomography at 380 km and 450 km depths. In this depth range, three events near 30°N are characterized by strike-slip mechanisms with slab parallel σ1 and horizontally north-south trending σ3, which differ with the typical down-dip compression mechanisms for neighboring events. These events could be attributed to an abrupt change of the morphology and movement of the slab in the transition segment between the northern and southern Izu-Bonin. Indicated by the focal mechanisms, the northern and southern Izu-Bonin exhibits an inhomogeneous stress field, which is closely related to age differences of the downgoing slab. Because of the reheating process, the thermal age of the Pacific plate entering the Izu-Bonin trench in the past 10 Ma, is only 60-90 ± 20 Ma, along with the younger plate subducting in the northern segment. The seismic anisotropy implies that mantle wedge flow orientation is between the motion direction of the Pacific plate and

  11. Convergent plate margin dynamics : New perspectives from structural geology, geophysics and geodynamic modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, W. P.; Rawlinson, N.


    Convergent plate margins occur when two adjoining tectonic plates come together to form either a subduction zone, where at least one of the converging plates is oceanic and plunges beneath the other into the mantle, or a collision zone, where two continents or a continent and a magmatic arc collide.

  12. Three-dimensional dynamic laboratory models of subduction with an overriding plate and variable interplate rheology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte, João C.; Schellart, Wouter P.; Cruden, Alexander R.


    Subduction zones are complex 3-D features in which one tectonic plate sinks underneath another into the deep mantle. During subduction the overriding plate (OP) remains in physical contact with the subducting plate and stresses generated at the subduction zone interface and by mantle flowforce the

  13. Heat-flux gage measurements on a flat plate at a Mach number of 4.6 in the VSD high speed wind tunnel, a feasibility test (LA28). [wind tunnel tests of measuring instruments for boundary layer flow (United States)


    The feasibility of employing thin-film heat-flux gages was studied as a method of defining boundary layer characteristics at supersonic speeds in a high speed blowdown wind tunnel. Flow visualization techniques (using oil) were employed. Tabulated data (computer printouts), a test facility description, and photographs of test equipment are given.

  14. Fusion boundary microstructure evolution in aluminum alloys (United States)

    Kostrivas, Anastasios Dimitrios


    A melting technique was developed to simulate the fusion boundary of aluminum alloys using the GleebleRTM thermal simulator. Using a steel sleeve to contain the aluminum, samples were heated to incremental temperatures above the solidus temperature of a number of alloys. In alloy 2195, a 4wt%Cu-1wt%Li alloy, an equiaxed non-dendritic zone (EQZ) could be formed by heating in the temperature range from approximately 630 to 640°C. At temperatures above 640°C, solidification occurred by the normal epitaxial nucleation and growth mechanism. Fusion boundary behavior was also studied in alloys 5454-H34, 6061-T6, and 2219-T8. Additionally, experimental alloy compositions were produced by making bead on plate welds using an alloy 5454-H32 base metal and 5025 or 5087 filler metals. These filler metals contain zirconium and scandium additions, respectively, and were expected to influence nucleation and growth behavior. Both as-welded and welded/heat treated (540°C and 300°C) substrates were tested by melting simulation, resulting in dendritic and EQZ structures depending on composition and substrate condition. Orientation imaging microscopy (OIM(TM)) was employed to study the crystallographic character of the microstructures produced and to verify the mechanism responsible for EQZ formation. OIM(TM) proved that grains within the EQZ have random orientation. In all other cases, where the simulated microstructures were dendritic in nature, it was shown that epitaxy was the dominant mode of nucleation. The lack of any preferred crystallographic orientation relationship in the EQZ supports a theory proposed by Lippold et al that the EQZ is the result of heterogeneous nucleation within the weld unmixed zone. EDS analysis of the 2195 on STEM revealed particles with ternary composition consisted of Zr, Cu and Al and a tetragonal type crystallographic lattice. Microdiffraction line scans on EQZ grains in the alloy 2195 showed very good agreement between the measured Cu

  15. Kinematics of the Ethiopian Rift and Absolute motion of Africa and Somalia Plates (United States)

    Muluneh, A. A.; Cuffaro, M.; Doglioni, C.


    The Ethiopian Rift (ER), in the northern part of East African Rift System (EARS), forms a boundary zone accommodating differential motion between Africa and Somalia Plates. Its orientation was influenced by the inherited Pan-African collisional system and related lithospheric fabric. We present the kinematics of ER derived from compilation of geodetic velocities, focal mechanism inversions, structural data analysis, and construction of geological profiles. GPS velocity field shows a systematic eastward magnitude increase in NE direction in the central ER. In the same region, incremental extensional strain axes recorded by earthquake focal mechanism and fault slip inversion show ≈N1000E orientation. This deviation between GPS velocity trajectories and orientation of incremental extensional strain is developed due to left lateral transtensional deformation. This interpretation is consistent with the en-échelon pattern of tensional and transtensional faults, the distribution of the volcanic centers, and the asymmetry of the rift itself. Small amount of vertical axis blocks rotation, sinistral strike slip faults and dyke intrusions in the rift accommodate the transtensional deformation. We analyzed the kinematics of ER relative to Deep and Shallow Hot Spot Reference Frames (HSRF). Comparison between the two reference frames shows different kinematics in ER and also Africa and Somalia plate motion both in magnitude and direction. Plate spreading direction in shallow HSRF (i.e. the source of the plumes locates in the asthenosphere) and the trend of ER deviate by about 27°. Shearing and extension across the plate boundary zone contribute both to the style of deformation and overall kinematics in the rift. We conclude that the observed long wavelength kinematics and tectonics are consequences of faster SW ward motion of Africa than Somalia in the shallow HSRF. This reference frame seems more consistent with the geophysical and geological constraints in the Rift. The

  16. Boundary Spanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zølner, Mette

    The paper explores how locals span boundaries between corporate and local levels. The aim is to better comprehend potentialities and challenges when MNCs draws on locals’ culture specific knowledge. The study is based on an in-depth, interpretive case study of boundary spanning by local actors in...... approach with pattern matching is a way to shed light on the tacit local knowledge that organizational actors cannot articulate and that an exclusively inductive research is not likely to unveil....

  17. Structural control of the upper plate on the down-dip segmentation of subduction dynamics (United States)

    Shi, Q.; Barbot, S.; Karato, S. I.; Shibazaki, B.; Matsuzawa, T.; Tapponnier, P.


    The geodetic and seismic discoveries of slow earthquakes in subduction zones have provided the observational evidence for the existence of the transition between megathrust earthquakes and the creeping behaviors. However, the mechanics behind slow earthquakes, and the period differential motion between the subducting slab and the overlying plate below the seismogenic zone, remain controversial. In Nankai subduction zone, the very-low-frequency earthquakes (VLFE), megathrust earthquakes, long-term slow earthquakes (duration of months or years) and the episodic tremor and slip zone (ETS) are located within the accretionary prism, the continental upper crust, the continental lower crust and the upmost mantle of the overriding plate, respectively. We use the rate-and-state friction law to simulate the periodic occurrence of VLFEs, megathrust earthquakes and the tremors in the ETS zone because of relatively high rock strength within these depth ranges. However, it is not feasible to use frictional instabilities to explain the long-term slow earthquakes in the lower crust where the ductile rock physics plays a significant role in the large-scale deformation. Here, our numerical simulations show that slow earthquakes at the depth of the lower crust may be the results of plastic instabilities in a finite volume of ductile material accompanying by the grain-size evolution. As the thickness of the fault zone increases with depth, deformation becomes distributed and the dynamic equilibrium of grain size, as a competition between thermally activated grain growth and damage-related grain size reduction, results in cycles of strain acceleration and strain deficit. In addition, we took into account the elevated pore pressure in the accretinary prism which is associated with small stress drop and low-frequency content of VLFEs and may contribute to the occurrence of tsunamigenic earthquakes. Hence, in our numerical simulations for the plate boundary system in Nankai, the down

  18. Effect of Fe- and Si-Enriched Secondary Precipitates and Surface Roughness on Pore Formation on Aluminum Plate Surfaces During Anodizing (United States)

    Zhu, Yuanzhi; Wang, Shizhi; Yang, Qingda; Zhou, Feng


    Two twin roll casts (TRCs) and one hot rolled (HR) AA 1235 aluminum alloy plates with different microstructures are prepared. The plates were electrolyzed in a 1.2 wt% HCl solution with a voltage of 21 V and a current of 1.9 mA. The shape, size, and number of pores formed on the surfaces of these plates were analyzed and correlated with the microstructures of the plates. It is found that pores are easier to form on the alloy plates containing subgrains with a lower dislocation density inside the subgrains, rather than along the grain boundaries. Furthermore, Fe- and Si-enriched particles in the AA1235 aluminum alloys lead to the formation of pores on the surface during electrolyzing; the average precipitate sizes of 4, 3.5, and 2 μm in Alloy 1#, Alloy 2# and Alloy 3# result in the average pore sizes of 3.78, 2.76, and 1.9 μm on the surfaces of the three alloys, respectively; The G.P zone in the alloy also facilitates the surface pore formation. High-surface roughness enhances the possibility of entrapping more lubricants into the plate surface, which eventually blocks the formation of the pores on the surface of the aluminum plates in the following electrolyzing process.

  19. Fuel cell cooler-humidifier plate (United States)

    Vitale, Nicholas G.; Jones, Daniel O.


    A cooler-humidifier plate for use in a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell stack assembly is provided. The cooler-humidifier plate combines functions of cooling and humidification within the fuel cell stack assembly, thereby providing a more compact structure, simpler manifolding, and reduced reject heat from the fuel cell. Coolant on the cooler side of the plate removes heat generated within the fuel cell assembly. Heat is also removed by the humidifier side of the plate for use in evaporating the humidification water. On the humidifier side of the plate, evaporating water humidifies reactant gas flowing over a moistened wick. After exiting the humidifier side of the plate, humidified reactant gas provides needed moisture to the proton exchange membranes used in the fuel cell stack assembly. The invention also provides a fuel cell plate that maximizes structural support within the fuel cell by ensuring that the ribs that form the boundaries of channels on one side of the plate have ends at locations that substantially correspond to the locations of ribs on the opposite side of the plate.

  20. Potential field signatures along the Zagros collision zone in Iran (United States)

    Abedi, Maysam; Fournier, Dominique; Devriese, Sarah G. R.; Oldenburg, Douglas W.


    The Zagros orogenic belt, known as an active fold-thrust belt, was formed in southwestern Iran due to the convergence of the Arabian and Eurasian plates. In this study, potential field data are inverted in 3D to image the variations of magnetic susceptibility and density contrast along the collision zone, resulting in better tectonic understanding of the studied region. Geophysical data measured by airborne magnetic and ground-based gravity systems are used to construct an integrated model that facilitates the interpretations of various tectonic zones across a 450-km line. This line intersects the main structural units from the SW portion of the Zagros belt. The constructed model reveals a contrast that indicates the transition between the two continental plates coinciding with the western boundaries of the Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone (SSZ) at the Main Zagros Thrust (MZT) fault. The subduction of the Arabian continental crust below the Iranian one is evident because of its lower susceptibility property and alternating sequence of high and low density regions. Higher susceptibility, magnetic remanence and density are the mainstays of the Urumieh-Dokhtar Magmatic Assemblage (UDMA) zone at the NE of the studied route, whereas lower values of these properties correspond to (1) the thin massive Tertiary-Neogene and Quaternary sediments of the central domain (CD) zone, and (2) the thick sedimentary and salt intrusion cover over the Zagros Fold-and-Thrust belt (ZFTB). Higher density of regions in the Arabian crust below the ZFTB implies that fault activities have caused significant vertical displacement of the basement. Finally, a simplified geological model is presented based upon the inversions of the geophysical data, in which the main geological units are divided along the studied route.

  1. Large plates and small blocks: The Variscan orogeny in the Bohemian Massif (United States)

    Kroner, Uwe; Romer, Rolf L.


    The Bohemian Massif of the Central European Variscides consists of several late Proterozoic / early Paleozoic low-strain crustal units, namely the Bruno-Vistulian continen