Sample records for plate boundary earthquake

  1. Hidden Earthquake Potential in Plate Boundary Transition Zones (United States)

    Furlong, Kevin P.; Herman, Matthew; Govers, Rob


    Plate boundaries can exhibit spatially abrupt changes in their long-term tectonic deformation (and associated kinematics) at triple junctions and other sites of changes in plate boundary structure. How earthquake behavior responds to these abrupt tectonic changes is unclear. The situation may be additionally obscured by the effects of superimposed deformational signals - juxtaposed short-term (earthquake cycle) kinematics may combine to produce a net deformational signal that does not reflect intuition about the actual strain accumulation in the region. Two examples of this effect are in the vicinity of the Mendocino triple junction (MTJ) along the west coast of North America, and at the southern end of the Hikurangi subduction zone, New Zealand. In the region immediately north of the MTJ, GPS-based observed crustal displacements (relative to North America (NAm)) are intermediate between Pacific and Juan de Fuca (JdF) motions. With distance north, these displacements rotate to become more aligned with JdF - NAm displacements, i.e. to motions expected along a coupled subduction interface. The deviation of GPS motions from the coupled subduction interface signal near the MTJ has been previously interpreted to reflect clock-wise rotation of a coastal, crustal block and/or reduced coupling at the southern Cascadia margin. The geologic record of crustal deformation near the MTJ reflects the combined effects of northward crustal shortening (on geologic time scales) associated with the MTJ Crustal Conveyor (Furlong and Govers, 1999) overprinted onto the subduction earthquake cycle signal. With this interpretation, the Cascadia subduction margin appears to be well-coupled along its entire length, consistent with paleo-seismic records of large earthquake ruptures extending to its southern limit. At the Hikurangi to Alpine Fault transition in New Zealand, plate interactions switch from subduction to oblique translation as a consequence of changes in lithospheric structure of

  2. The Cause of the Republic Day Earthquake of India: Intraplate or Plate Boundary Process? (United States)

    Li, Q.


    The Mw 7.6 Republic Day (1/26/2001) earthquake of India killed at least 14,000 people and destroyed tens of thousands of homes. The cause of this earthquake and other historic earthquakes in the surrounding region, all thrust faults with roughly N-S compression, has been the subject of intensive debate. Some workers argued that this earthquake, located ~400 km from the plate boundary, is an intraplate event that may bear important implications for other intraplate earthquakes such as those in the New Madrid seismic zone. Others, however, recognize the diffuse plate boundary in western India and regard this earthquake as part of the plate boundary activity. We have developed a viscoelastic finite element model to address the question of why this and other historic earthquakes concentrated in this part of the India plate. The computer model includes relevant boundary conditions and first-order rheologic variations as indicated by geological and seismic data. We calculated the stresses within the India plate using displacement boundary conditions as indicated by the GPS data and compared the predicted stresses with the theoretical crustal strengths. Our results indicate that the change of plate boundary conditions (from transform fault along the Owen Fracture zone in the India ocean to continental thrusting and shearing along northwestern India) causes stress to accumulate in a broad zone near the junction of the Indian, the Arabian, and the Eurasian plates. Crustal weakening by diffuse seismicity along the northwestern Indian plate boundary may cause further inland migration of stress accumulation. With additional factors, including the contrasts of the crustal strength between the continental and oceanic Indian plate, the presence of the Kachchh rift zone, and the pronounced thinning of the lithosphere in this region as indicated by seismic tomography, the model predict an earthquake-prone belt extending hundreds of kilometers into the interior of the India plate

  3. Rupture across arc segment and plate boundaries in the 1 April 2007 Solomons earthquake (United States)

    Taylor, Frederick W.; Briggs, Richard W.; Frohlich, Cliff; Brown, Abel; Hornbach, Matt; Papabatu, Alison K.; Meltzner, Aron J.; Billy, Douglas


    The largest earthquakes are generated in subduction zones, and the earthquake rupture typically extends for hundreds of kilometres along a single subducting plate. These ruptures often begin or end at structural boundaries on the overriding plate that are associated with the subduction of prominent bathymetric features of the downgoing plate. Here, we determine uplift and subsidence along shorelines for the 1 April 2007 moment magnitude MW 8.1 earthquake in the western Solomon Islands, using coral microatolls which provide precise measurements of vertical motions in locations where instrumental data are unavailable. We demonstrate that the 2007 earthquake ruptured across the subducting Simbo ridge transform and thus broke through a triple junction where the Australian and Woodlark plates subduct beneath the overriding Pacific plate. Previously, no known major megathrust rupture has involved two subducting plates. We conclude that this event illustrates the uncertainties of predicting the segmentation of subduction zone rupture on the basis of structural discontinuities.

  4. Earthquake prediction on boundaries of the Arabian Plate: premonitory chains of small earthquakes (United States)

    Yaniv, M.; Agnon, A.; Shebalin, P.


    The RTP method is a probabilistic prediction method for strong earthquakes (Keilis-Borok et al., 2004). Based on simple pattern recognition algorithms and tuned on historical seismic catalogs, RTP has been running as a prediction in advance experiment since 1997. We present a similar system aimed at improving the algorithm and tuning it to regional catalogs, focusing on the Arabian Plate. RTP is based on recognition of "Earthquake chains", microseismic patterns that capture a rise in activity and in correlation range. A chain is defined as a closed set of "neighbor events" with epicenters and times of occurrences separated by less than a spatial parameter R0 and a temporal parameter τ, respectively. The seismic catalog can be viewed as a non-directional graph, with earthquakes as vertices, neighbor pairs as edges and chains as connected components of the graph. Various algorithms were tried, based on different concepts. Some using graph theory concepts, and others focusing on the data structure in the catalog. All algorithms aim at recognizing neighboring pairs of events, and combining the pairs into chains.They relies on a number of parameters: -Minimum length for a valid chain L0 -Weights for the spatial and temporal thresholds -Target magnitude: the minimum magnitude we aim to predict -Cutoff value: the minimum magnitude to be taken into account The output for an algorithms is a set of chains. The list is filtered for chains longer than L0. The 2D parameter space was mapped. For every pair of R0 and τ three characteristics were calculated: -Number of chains found -Mean number of events in a chain -Mean size (Max distance between events in a chain) of chains Each of these plots as a surface, showing dependance on the parameters R0 and τ. The most recent version of the algorithm was run on the NEIC catalog. It recognizes three chains longer than 15 events, with Target events, shown in the figure. In the GII catalog only two chains are found. Both start with a

  5. Towards understanding earthquake nucleation on a severely misoriented plate boundary fault, Alpine Fault, New Zealand (United States)

    Boulton, C. J.; Faulkner, D. R.; Allen, M. J.; Coussens, J.; Menzies, C. D.; Mariani, E.


    New Zealand's Alpine Fault has accommodated relative motion between the Australian and Pacific plates for over 23 million years: first as strike-slip fault and then as an oblique transpressional fault. Despite being driven by principal stresses whose orientations have undoubtedly changed with time, the Alpine Fault continues to accommodate 70% of the relative plate boundary motion. Fault outcrop data and seismic reflection data indicate that the central Alpine Fault is consistently oriented 055/45°SE at depths up to 15 km (i.e., throughout the seismogenic zone); focal mechanisms indicate that the stress tensor is oriented σ1=σHmax=0/117°, σ2=σv, and σ3=0/207° (Boese et al. 2013, doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2013.06.030). At depth, the central Alpine Fault lies at an angle of 51° to σ1. The Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion stipulates that, for incohesive rocks, reactivation of a fault requires sufficient driving stress to overcome frictional resistance to slip. Using a coefficient of friction (μ) of 0.6, as measured for representative Alpine Fault rocks under in situ conditions (Neimeijer et al. 2016, doi:10.1002/2015JB012593), and an estimated stress shape ratio (Φ=(σ2 - σ3)/(σ1 - σ3)=0.5), a 3-D reactivation analysis was performed (Leclère and Fabbri 2013, doi:10.1016/j.jsg.2012.11.004). Results show that the Alpine Fault is severely misoriented for failure, requiring pore fluid pressures greater than the least principal stress to initiate frictional sliding. However, microstructural evidence, including pseudotachylytes and fault gouge injection structures, suggests that earthquakes nucleate and propagate along this major plate boundary fault. By assuming an increase in differential stress of 15 MPa/km, our analysis shows that reactivation may occur with suprahydrostatic pore fluid pressures given a ≥10° counterclockwise rotation of σHmax. Using measured hydraulic data, we estimate the potential for pore fluid overpressure development within the Alpine

  6. A plate boundary earthquake record from a wetland adjacent to the Alpine fault in New Zealand refines hazard estimates (United States)

    Cochran, U. A.; Clark, K. J.; Howarth, J. D.; Biasi, G. P.; Langridge, R. M.; Villamor, P.; Berryman, K. R.; Vandergoes, M. J.


    Discovery and investigation of millennial-scale geological records of past large earthquakes improve understanding of earthquake frequency, recurrence behaviour, and likelihood of future rupture of major active faults. Here we present a ∼2000 year-long, seven-event earthquake record from John O'Groats wetland adjacent to the Alpine fault in New Zealand, one of the most active strike-slip faults in the world. We linked this record with the 7000 year-long, 22-event earthquake record from Hokuri Creek (20 km along strike to the north) to refine estimates of earthquake frequency and recurrence behaviour for the South Westland section of the plate boundary fault. Eight cores from John O'Groats wetland revealed a sequence that alternated between organic-dominated and clastic-dominated sediment packages. Transitions from a thick organic unit to a thick clastic unit that were sharp, involved a significant change in depositional environment, and were basin-wide, were interpreted as evidence of past surface-rupturing earthquakes. Radiocarbon dates of short-lived organic fractions either side of these transitions were modelled to provide estimates for earthquake ages. Of the seven events recognised at the John O'Groats site, three post-date the most recent event at Hokuri Creek, two match events at Hokuri Creek, and two events at John O'Groats occurred in a long interval during which the Hokuri Creek site may not have been recording earthquakes clearly. The preferred John O'Groats-Hokuri Creek earthquake record consists of 27 events since ∼6000 BC for which we calculate a mean recurrence interval of 291 ± 23 years, shorter than previously estimated for the South Westland section of the fault and shorter than the current interseismic period. The revised 50-year conditional probability of a surface-rupturing earthquake on this fault section is 29%. The coefficient of variation is estimated at 0.41. We suggest the low recurrence variability is likely to be a feature of

  7. How does the 2010 El Mayor - Cucapah Earthquake Rupture Connect to the Southern California Plate Boundary Fault System (United States)

    Donnellan, A.; Ben-Zion, Y.; Arrowsmith, R.


    The Pacific - North American plate boundary in southern California is marked by several major strike slip faults. The 2010 M7.2 El Mayor - Cucapah earthquake ruptured 120 km of upper crust in Baja California to the US-Mexico border. The earthquake triggered slip along an extensive network of faults in the Salton Trough from the Mexican border to the southern end of the San Andreas fault. Earthquakes >M5 were triggered in the gap between the Laguna Salada and Elsinore faults at Ocotillo and on the Coyote Creek segment of the San Jacinto fault 20 km northwest of Borrego Springs. UAVSAR observations, collected since October of 2009, measure slip associated with the M5.7 Ocotillo aftershock with deformation continuing into 2014. The Elsinore fault has been remarkably quiet, however, with only M5.0 and M5.2 earthquakes occurring on the Coyote Mountains segment of the fault in 1940 and 1968 respectively. In contrast, the Imperial Valley has been quite active historically with numerous moderate events occurring since 1935. Moderate event activity is increasing along the San Jacinto fault zone (SJFZ), especially the trifurcation area, where 6 of 12 historic earthquakes in this 20 km long fault zone have occurred since 2000. However, no recent deformation has been detected using UAVSAR measurements in this area, including the recent M5.2 June 2016 Borrego earthquake. Does the El Mayor - Cucapah rupture connect to and transfer stress primarily to a single southern California fault or several? What is its role relative to the background plate motion? UAVSAR observations indicate that the southward extension of the Elsinore fault has recently experienced the most localized deformation. Seismicity suggests that the San Jacinto fault is more active than neighboring major faults, and geologic evidence suggests that the Southern San Andreas fault has been the major plate boundary fault in southern California. Topographic data with 3-4 cm resolution using structure from motion from

  8. Plate Boundary Observatory Strainmeter Recordings of The M6.0 August 24, 2014 South Napa Earthquake (United States)

    Hodgkinson, Kathleen; Mencin, David; Phillips, David; Mattioli, Glen; Meertens, Charles


    The 2014 Mw6.0 South Napa earthquake nucleated at 11 km depth near the West Napa fault, one of a complex system of sub-parallel major right lateral faults north of San Francisco that together accommodate much of the relative motion between the Pacific and North American tectonic plates. The South Napa event was the largest to have shaken the San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA) in almost 25 years. A major goal of the NSF-funded EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), installed and maintained by UNAVCO, was to enable researchers to study the interaction between the faults that form a plate boundary zone, and in particular, to investigate the role that aseismic transients contribute to strain accumulation and release. To realize this goal, PBO includes borehole tensor strainmeters (BSMs) installed in several targeted regions, including on to the north and east of San Francisco. Two PBO BSMs have been operating in the SFBA since 2008: B057, north of San Francisco and 30 km from the epicenter, and B054, 3 km from the Hayward Fault and 40 km from the epicenter. We find the coseismic strains recorded by B057 are close to those predicted using elastic half-space dislocation theory and the seismically determined focal mechanism, while a more complicated variable slip model may be required for observations from B054. Months after the event, B057 continued to record a significant postseismic signal. In this presentation we document the coseismic signals recorded by the PBO BSMs and characterize the temporal behavior of the postseismic signal at B057. The PBO network includes over 1100 GPS, 75 BSMs, 79 seismometers and arrays of tiltmeters, pore pressure sensors and meteorological instrumentation. UNAVCO generates an Earthscope Level 2 processed strain time-series combined into areal and shear strains for the PBO BSM network; the raw data are available from the IRIS DMC in mSEED format. For events of interest, such as the South Napa earthquake, UNAVCO generates a 1-sps

  9. Obliquity along plate boundaries (United States)

    Philippon, Mélody; Corti, Giacomo


    Most of the plate boundaries are activated obliquely with respect to the direction of far field stresses, as roughly only 8% of the plate boundaries total length shows a very low obliquity (ranging from 0 to 10°, sub-orthogonal to the plate displacement). The obliquity along plate boundaries is controlled by (i) lateral rheological variations within the lithosphere and (ii) consistency with the global plate circuit. Indeed, plate tectonics and magmatism drive rheological changes within the lithosphere and consequently influence strain localization. Geodynamical evolution controls large-scale mantle convection and plate formation, consumption, and re-organization, thus triggering plate kinematics variations, and the adjustment and re-orientation of far field stresses. These geological processes may thus result in plate boundaries that are not perpendicular but oblique to the direction of far field stresses. This paper reviews the global patterns of obliquity along plate boundaries. Using GPlate, we provide a statistical analysis of present-day obliquity along plate boundaries. Within this framework, by comparing natural examples and geological models, we discuss deformation patterns and kinematics recorded along oblique plate boundaries.

  10. The October 28, 2012 Mw 7.8 Haida Gwaii underthrusting earthquake and tsunami: Slip partitioning along the Queen Charlotte Fault transpressional plate boundary (United States)

    Lay, Thorne; Ye, Lingling; Kanamori, Hiroo; Yamazaki, Yoshiki; Cheung, Kwok Fai; Kwong, Kevin; Koper, Keith D.


    The Pacific/North American plate boundary is undergoing predominantly right-lateral strike-slip motion along the Queen Charlotte and Fairweather transform faults. The Queen Charlotte Fault (QCF) hosted the largest historical earthquake in Canada, the 1949 MS 8.1 strike-slip earthquake, which ruptured from offshore northern Haida Gwaii several hundred kilometers northwestward. On January 5, 2013 an Mw 7.5 strike-slip faulting event occurred near the northern end of the 1949 rupture zone. Along central and southern Haida Gwaii the relative plate motion has ∼20% oblique convergence across the left-stepping plate boundary. There had been uncertainty in how the compressional component of plate motion is accommodated. The October 28, 2012 Mw 7.8 Haida Gwaii earthquake involved slightly (∼20°) oblique thrust faulting on a shallow (∼18.5°) northeast-dipping fault plane with strike (∼320°) parallel to the QCF, consistent with prior inferences of Pacific Plate underthrusting beneath Haida Gwaii. The rupture extended to shallow depth offshore of Moresby Island beneath a 25-30 km wide terrace of sediments that has accumulated in a wedge seaward of the QCF. The shallow thrusting caused seafloor uplift that generated substantial localized tsunami run-up and a modest far-field tsunami that spread across the northern Pacific, prompting a tsunami warning, beach closure, and coastal evacuation in Hawaii, although ultimately tide gauges showed less than 0.8 m of water level increase. The mainshock rupture appears to have spread with a ∼2.3 km/s rupture velocity over a length of ∼150 km, with slip averaging 3.3 m concentrated beneath the sedimentary wedge. The event was followed by a substantial aftershock sequence, in which almost all of the larger events involve distributed intraplate normal faulting extending ∼50 km oceanward from the QCF. The highly oblique slip partitioning in southern Haida Gwaii is distinctive in that the local plate boundary-parallel motion on

  11. Were they all giants? Perspectives on late Holocene plate-boundary earthquakes at the northern end of the Cascadia subduction zone (United States)

    Hutchinson, Ian; Clague, John


    The relative magnitude of plate-boundary earthquakes at the northern end of the Cascadia subduction zone was assessed from the temporal concordance between the ages of coseismically buried late Holocene soils in southwest Washington, their counterparts in central and southern Cascadia, offshore turbidites, and paleoseismic deposits on the west coast of Vancouver Island. Only three of the seven buried soils in southwest Washington that can be reliably traced as buried soils or paleotsunami deposits in the coastal lowlands of south-central and southern Cascadia have well-dated counterparts in northern Cascadia. The three wide-ranging events date from Cascadia earthquakes Y (∼250 cal BP), U (∼1260 cal BP), and N (∼2520 cal BP). All three likely ruptured the entire plate margin, and therefore potentially qualify as ;giants; (Mw ≥ 9). Deposits that may derive from tsunamis generated by earthquakes S (∼1570 cal BP), L (∼2870 cal BP) and J (∼3360 cal BP) can also be found in northern Cascadia, but the ages of these deposits are not yet well-enough constrained to determine whether they are coeval with their southern counterparts. Earthquake W (∼850 cal BP), appears to be present in the northern Cascadia paleoseismic record, but yields considerably older ages than in central Cascadia, and may be missing from southernmost Cascadia. The onshore record of an offshore turbidite (T2) displays a similar spatio-temporal pattern to that of earthquake W.

  12. Seismic link at plate boundary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Faical Ramdani; Omar Kettani; Benaissa Tadili


    Seismic triggering at plate boundaries has a very complex nature that includes seismic events at varying distances. The spatial orientation of triggering cannot be reduced to sequences from the main shocks. Seismic waves propagate at all times in all directions, particularly in highly active zones. No direct evidence can be obtained regarding which earthquakes trigger the shocks. The first approach is to determine the potential linked zones where triggering may occur. The second step is to determine the causality between the events and their triggered shocks. The spatial orientation of the links between events is established from pre-ordered networks and the adapted dependence of the spatio-temporal occurrence of earthquakes. Based on a coefficient of synchronous seismic activity to grid couples, we derive a network link by each threshold. The links of high thresholds are tested using the coherence of time series to determine the causality and related orientation. The resulting link orientations at the plate boundary conditions indicate that causal triggering seems to be localized along a major fault, as a stress transfer between two major faults, and parallel to the geothermal area extension.

  13. The INGV National Earthquake Centre research infrastructure to study the plate boundary deformation in the Central Mediterranean (United States)

    Selvaggi, Giulio; Mazza, Salvatore; Delladio, Alberto; Cecere, Gianpaolo; Devoti, Roberto


    To understand the complex kinematics within the plate boundary zone between Africa and Eurasia in the central Mediterranean, INGV installed a monitoring system based on broad-band seismometers, CGPS and strong motion sensors, most of them co-located in the same site. Established since early '80 with some tens of short period seismometers and analogue transmission, now the monitoring system consists of more than 200 real time broad-band seismometers, 140 CGPS and about 80 strong motions connected to different centres of acquisition. A dedicated disaster recovery guarantees continuity of acquisition and data sharing among centres. Beside essential services connected to Italian Civil Protection agency and basic research, we believe that our network represents an important reality in the framework of the EPOS infrastructure and we strongly support the idea of an European research approach to data sharing among the scientific community. In the presentation we will show the network, from the sites to the acquisition centres, and the level of the seismic and geodetic products and the primary scientific targets addressed when designing the networks.

  14. Tectonic and Kinematic Regime along the Northern Caribbean Plate Boundary: New Insights from Broad-band Modeling of the May 25, 1992, Ms = 6.9 Cabo Cruz, Cuba, Earthquake (United States)

    Perrot, J.; Calais, E.; Mercier de Lépinay, B.

    On May 25th, 1992, an Ms = 6.9 earthquake occurred off the southwestern tip of Cuba, along the boundary between the Caribbean and North American plates. This earthquake was the largest to strike southern Cuba since 1917 and the largest ever recorded in that region by global seismic networks. It is therefore a key element for our understanding of the tectonic and kinematic regime along the northern Caribbean plate boundary. In order to test the previously proposed source parameters of the Cabo Cruz earthquake and to better constrain its focal mechanism, we derived a new set of source parameters from unfiltered broad-band teleseismic records. We used a hybrid ray tracing method that allows us to take into account propagation effects of seismic waves in a realistic crustal model around the source. Our solution is consistent with the long-period focal mechanism solution of Virieux et al. (1992). Our solution also models the higher frequency crustal and water layer phases. The primarily strike-slip focal mechanism has a small thrust component. Its shows an east-west trending nodal plane dipping 55° to the north that we interpret as the rupture plane since it corresponds to the geometry of the major active fault in that area. The displacement on this plane is a left-lateral strike-slip combined with a small amount of southward thrust. The result is in good agreement with the active tectonic structures observed along the Oriente fault south of Cuba. The small thrust component demonstrates that, contrary to prior belief, the transpressive regime extends along this whole segment of the Caribbean/North American plate boundary. Together with historical seismicity, it suggests that most of the stress accumulated by the Caribbean/North American plate motion is released seismically along the southern Cuban margin during relatively few but large earthquakes.

  15. The seismotectonics of plate boundaries (United States)

    Berger, J.; Brune, J. N.; Goodkind, J.; Wyatt, F.; Agnew, D. C.; Beaumont, C.


    Research on the seismotectonics of plate boundaries is summarized. Instrumental development and an observational program designed to study various aspects of the seismotectonics of southern California and the northern Gulf of California are described. A unique superconducting gravimeter was further developed and supported under this program for deployment and operation at several sites. Work on Earth tides is also discussed.

  16. Diffuse oceanic plate boundaries: Strain rates, vertically averaged rheology, and comparisons with narrow plate boundaries and stable plate interiors (United States)

    Gordon, Richard G.

    Diffuse plate boundaries occur in both oceanic and continental lithosphere and cover ≈ 15% of Earth's solid surface. The fastest plate speeds accommodated across diffuse oceanic plate boundaries are ≈ 15 mm/yr. The smallest strain rates averaged across narrow plate boundaries are at least 102 times larger than the largest strain rates across diffuse oceanic plate boundaries and at least 102 times larger than those across stable plate interiors. The effective viscosity (ηeff) of the lithosphere is estimated from the ratio of vertically averaged shear stresses to strain rates for three tectonic settings: (i) oceanic transform fault zones, for which ηeff = 3 ×1016 to 5×1019 Pa s, comparable to estimates for the asthenosphere, (ii) diffuse oceanic plate boundaries, for which ηeff = 1×1023 to 6×l023 Pa s, ≈ 10 times larger than for diffuse continental plate boundaries, and (iii) stable plate interiors, for which ηeff = 1x1024 to 2×1027 Pa s. The rheology of oceanic lithosphere over times longer than earthquake cycles is modeled as a plastic layer overlying a layer that deforms by creeping flow [Martinod and Davy, 1992]. Oceanic lithosphere deforms when the yield strength of the upper lithosphere is exceeded. The vertically averaged rheology of deforming oceanic lithosphere can be approximated by a power-law fluid for which ɛ. ∝ (τs)n where ɛ. is the rate of shear strain and τs is the shear stress. If the ratio of the yield strength of the upper lithosphere to the force required to deform the lower lithosphere at a strain rate of 10-16 s-1 is varied from 10-2 to 102 , the calculated value of n varies from ≈3 to ≈300. The map-view aspect ratio of a deforming zone in a thin sheet of power-law fluid is proportional to n-½ [England et al., 1985]. A profile of displacement versus distance inferred from a seismic profile across the Central Indian Basin (India-Capricorn diffuse oceanic plate boundary), where the lithosphere is about 60-Myr old

  17. Dynamic subduction process of local plate revealed by Ibaraki earthquake sequence of 1982 in Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The kinematics and dynamics of plate tectonics are frontalsubjects in geosciences and the strong earthquake oc-curred along the plate boundary result directly from plate movement. By analyzing Ibaraki earthquake sequence, it has been found that the focal fault plane shows a special image of grading expansion along the direction of strike and adjustment along the dip direction respectively. With the consideration of strike, dip and slip directions of focal mechanism, we have confirmed that Ibaraki earthquake belongs to a thrust fault earthquake occurred under the Japan Trench. The cause of the earthquake sequence is discussed in the paper. The study on the temporal-spatial distribution of the earthquake sequence with a time-scale between the year-scale spatial geodetic data and the second-scale moment tensor of the strong earthquake has indicated the dynamic process of Pacific Plate sub-duction under the Eurasia Plate. According to the average slip distance of earthquake and the velocity of plate movement, it is predicted that a strong earthquake might occur in recent years.

  18. Mixed boundary conditions for piezoelectric plates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    For plate bending and stretching problems in piezoelectric materials,the reciprocal theorem and the general solution of piezoelasticity are applied in a novel way to obtain the appropriate mixed boundary conditions accurate to all order.A decay analysis technique is used to establish necessary conditions that the prescribed data on the edge of the plate must satisfy in order that it should generate a decaying state within the plate.For the case of axisymmetric bending and stretching of a circular plate,these decaying state conditions are obtained explicitly for the first time when the mixed conditions are imposed on the plate edge.They are then used for the correct formulation of boundary conditions for the interior solution.

  19. Highly variable coastal deformation in the 2016 MW7.8 Kaikōura earthquake reflects rupture complexity along a transpressional plate boundary (United States)

    Clark, K. J.; Nissen, E. K.; Howarth, J. D.; Hamling, I. J.; Mountjoy, J. J.; Ries, W. F.; Jones, K.; Goldstien, S.; Cochran, U. A.; Villamor, P.; Hreinsdóttir, S.; Litchfield, N. J.; Mueller, C.; Berryman, K. R.; Strong, D. T.


    Coseismic coastal deformation is often used to understand slip on offshore faults in large earthquakes but in the 2016 MW 7.8 Kaikōura earthquake multiple faults ruptured across and sub-parallel to the coastline. Along ∼110 km of coastline, a rich dataset of coastal deformation comprising airborne lidar differencing, field surveying and satellite geodesy reveals highly variable vertical displacements, ranging from -2.5 to 6.5 m. These inform a refined slip model for the Kaikōura earthquake which incorporates changes to the slip on offshore faults and inclusion of an offshore reverse crustal fault that accounts for broad, low-amplitude uplift centered on Kaikōura Peninsula. The exceptional detail afforded by differential lidar and the high variability in coastal deformation combine to form the highest-resolution and most complex record of coseismic coastal deformation yet documented. This should prompt reassessment of coastal paleoseismic records that may not have considered multi-fault ruptures and high complexity deformation fields.

  20. The EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory and allied networks, the makings of nascent Earthquake and Tsunami Early Warning System in Western North America. (United States)

    Mattioli, Glen; Mencin, David; Hodgkinson, Kathleen; Meertens, Charles; Phillips, David; Blume, Fredrick; Berglund, Henry; Fox, Otina; Feaux, Karl


    The NSF-funded GAGE Facility, managed by UNAVCO, operates approximately ~1300 GNSS stations distributed across North and Central America and in the circum-Caribbean. Following community input starting in 2011 from several workshops and associated reports,UNAVCO has been exploring ways to increase the capability and utility of the geodetic resources under its management to improve our understanding in diverse areas of geophysics including properties of seismic, volcanic, magmatic and tsunami deformation sources. Networks operated by UNAVCO for the NSF have the potential to profoundly transform our ability to rapidly characterize events, provide rapid characterization and warning, as well as improve hazard mitigation and response. Specific applications currently under development include earthquake early warning, tsunami early warning, and tropospheric modeling with university, commercial, non-profit and government partners on national and international scales. In the case of tsunami early warning, for example, an RT-GNSS network can provide multiple inputs in an operational system starting with rapid assessment of earthquake sources and associated deformation, which leads to the initial model of ocean forcing and tsunami generation. In addition, terrestrial GNSScan provide direct measurements of the tsunami through the associated traveling ionospheric disturbance from several 100's of km away as they approach the shoreline,which can be used to refine tsunami inundation models. Any operational system like this has multiple communities that rely on a pan-Pacific real-time open data set. Other scientific and operational applications for high-rate GPS include glacier and ice sheet motions, tropospheric modeling, and better constraints on the dynamics of space weather. Combining existing data sets and user communities, for example seismic data and tide gauge observations, with GNSS and Met data products has proven complicated because of issues related to metadata

  1. Turbulent boundary layer over flexible plates (United States)

    Rostami, Parand; Ioppolo, Tindaro


    This research describes the structure of a turbulent boundary layer flow with a zero pressure gradient over elastic plates. The elastic plates made of a thin aluminum sheets with thickness between 50 and 500 microns were placed on the floor of a subsonic wind tunnel and exposed to a turbulent boundary layer flow with a free stream velocity between 20m/s and 100m/s. The ceiling of the test section of the wind tunnel is adjustable so that a nearly zero pressure gradient is obtained in the test section. Hot-wire anemometry was used to measure the velocity components. Mean, fluctuating velocities and Reynolds stresses will be presented and compared with the values of a rigid plate.

  2. Are segment boundaries of subduction earthquakes structurally controlled? Evidences from the Ecuador-Colombia 20th century earthquake sequence (United States)

    Collot, J.-Y.; Marcaillou, B.; Sage, F.; Gutscher, M.-A.; Charvis, P.; Michaud, F.


    Great subduction earthquakes nucleate along the seismogenic zone, a shallow portion of the plate-boundary interface. The mechanical factors that control the lateral limits of the rupture zones are yet poorly understood. In Northern Ecuador-SW Colombia, the subduction of the Nazca plate beneath the South America plate has produced one of the best examples of variable rupture behavior. In 1906, the plate interface ruptured in a single great thrust earthquake (Mw=8.8) with an estimated rupture length of 500 km. Approximately the same segment of the plate interface ruptured again from south to north, in three smaller thrust events abutting one another, in 1942 (Mw=7.8), 1958 (Mw=7.7) and 1979 (Mw=8.2). The simple asperity model, in which failure of one asperity produces a rupture that propagates through the neighboring weak zones and is pinned by the adjacent asperities, applies well to the 1942-1958-rupture sequence, but does not fully apply to the 1958-1979 earthquake sequence. The propagation of the 1958 rupture did not stop at the 1979 asperity, but mid-way between the earthquakes respective asperities. Multichannel seismic reflection and bathymetric data acquired during the SISTEUR cruise show evidence for a major NW-trending sub-vertical crustal fault, the Manglares Fault (MF), which correlates with the barrier between the 1958 and 1979 rupture zones. MF divides the margin transversally in two distinct tectonic blocks with distinct deformation styles. South of MF, deformation concentrates between the margin front, and a major landward-dipping crustal splay-fault. East of the splay fault, the fore-arc basin area does not show evidence for active shortening, supporting a relatively strong margin/weak plate interface. This area coincides with the rupture zone of the 1958 earthquake, suggesting that the splay fault accommodates great earthquake ruptures. North of MF, deformation is distributed across most of the margin width, and concentrated both at the margin front

  3. Upper boundary of the Pacific plate subducting beneath Hokkaido, Japan, estimated from ScSp phase


    Osada, Kinue; Yoshizawa, Kazunori; YOMOGIDA, Kiyoshi


    Three-dimensional geometry of the upper boundary of the Pacific plate subducting beneath Hokkaido, Japan, was obtained using the ScSp phase: the phase converted from ScS (S wave reflected at the core-mantle boundary) to P wave at the plate boundary. Taking the advantage of a dense seismic network, "Hi-net", recently deployed across the Japanese islands, we applied several seismic array analyses to the recorded waveform data for a large nearby deep earthquake, in order to enhance very weak ScS...

  4. Spatio-temporal mapping of plate boundary faults in California using geodetic imaging (United States)

    Donnellan, Andrea; Arrowsmith, Ramon; DeLong, Stephen B.


    The Pacific–North American plate boundary in California is composed of a 400-km-wide network of faults and zones of distributed deformation. Earthquakes, even large ones, can occur along individual or combinations of faults within the larger plate boundary system. While research often focuses on the primary and secondary faults, holistic study of the plate boundary is required to answer several fundamental questions. How do plate boundary motions partition across California faults? How do faults within the plate boundary interact during earthquakes? What fraction of strain accumulation is relieved aseismically and does this provide limits on fault rupture propagation? Geodetic imaging, broadly defined as measurement of crustal deformation and topography of the Earth’s surface, enables assessment of topographic characteristics and the spatio-temporal behavior of the Earth’s crust. We focus here on crustal deformation observed with continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) data and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) from NASA’s airborne UAVSAR platform, and on high-resolution topography acquired from lidar and Structure from Motion (SfM) methods. Combined, these measurements are used to identify active structures, past ruptures, transient motions, and distribution of deformation. The observations inform estimates of the mechanical and geometric properties of faults. We discuss five areas in California as examples of different fault behavior, fault maturity and times within the earthquake cycle: the M6.0 2014 South Napa earthquake rupture, the San Jacinto fault, the creeping and locked Carrizo sections of the San Andreas fault, the Landers rupture in the Eastern California Shear Zone, and the convergence of the Eastern California Shear Zone and San Andreas fault in southern California. These examples indicate that distribution of crustal deformation can be measured using interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR), Global Navigation

  5. Flexure of the Indian plate and intraplate earthquakes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Roger Bilham; Rebecca Bendick; Kali Wallace


    The flexural bulge in central India resulting from India's collision with Tibet has a wavelength of approximately 670 km. It is manifest topographically and in the free-air gravity anomaly and the geoid. Calculations of the stress distribution within a flexed Indian plate reveal spatial variations throughout the depth of the plate and also a function of distance from the Himalaya. The wave- length (and therefore local gradient) of stress variation is a function of the effective elastic thickness of the plate, estimates of which have been proposed to lie in the range 40-120 km. The imposition of this stress field on the northward moving Indian plate appears fundamental to explaining the current distribution of intraplate earthquakes and their mechanisms. The current study highlights an outer trough south of the flexural bulge in central India where surface stresses are double the contiguous compressional stresses to the north and south. The Bhuj, Latur and Koyna earthquakes and numerous other recent reverse faulting events occurred in this compressional setting. The N/S spatial gradient of stress exceeds 2 bars/km near the flexural bulge. The overall flexural stress distribution provides a physical basis for earthquake hazard mapping and suggests that areas of central India where no historic earthquakes are recorded may yet be the locus of future damaging events.

  6. This Dynamic Planet: World map of volcanoes, earthquakes, impact craters and plate tectonics (United States)

    Simkin, Tom; Tilling, Robert I.; Vogt, Peter R.; Kirby, Stephen H.; Kimberly, Paul; Stewart, David B.


    Our Earth is a dynamic planet, as clearly illustrated on the main map by its topography, over 1500 volcanoes, 44,000 earthquakes, and 170 impact craters. These features largely reflect the movements of Earth's major tectonic plates and many smaller plates or fragments of plates (including microplates). Volcanic eruptions and earthquakes are awe-inspiring displays of the powerful forces of nature and can be extraordinarily destructive. On average, about 60 of Earth's 550 historically active volcanoes are in eruption each year. In 2004 alone, over 160 earthquakes were magnitude 6.0 or above, some of which caused casualties and substantial damage. This map shows many of the features that have shaped--and continue to change--our dynamic planet. Most new crust forms at ocean ridge crests, is carried slowly away by plate movement, and is ultimately recycled deep into the earth--causing earthquakes and volcanism along the boundaries between moving tectonic plates. Oceans are continually opening (e.g., Red Sea, Atlantic) or closing (e.g., Mediterranean). Because continental crust is thicker and less dense than thinner, younger oceanic crust, most does not sink deep enough to be recycled, and remains largely preserved on land. Consequently, most continental bedrock is far older than the oldest oceanic bedrock. (see back of map) The earthquakes and volcanoes that mark plate boundaries are clearly shown on this map, as are craters made by impacts of extraterrestrial objects that punctuate Earth's history, some causing catastrophic ecological changes. Over geologic time, continuing plate movements, together with relentless erosion and redeposition of material, mask or obliterate traces of earlier plate-tectonic or impact processes, making the older chapters of Earth's 4,500-million-year history increasingly difficult to read. The recent activity shown on this map provides only a present-day snapshot of Earth's long history, helping to illustrate how its present surface came to

  7. Accelerated plate tectonics. (United States)

    Anderson, D L


    The concept of a stressed elastic lithospheric plate riding on a viscous asthenosphere is used to calculate the recurrence interval of great earthquakes at convergent plate boundaries, the separation of decoupling and lithospheric earthquakes, and the migration pattern of large earthquakes along an arc. It is proposed that plate motions accelerate after great decoupling earthquakes and that most of the observed plate motions occur during short periods of time, separated by periods of relative quiescence.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王元汉; 伍佑伦; 余飞


    Fracture of Kirchhoff plates is analyzed by the theory of complex variables and boundary collocation method. The deflections, moments and shearing forces of the plates are assumed to be the functions of complex variables. The functions can satisfy a series of basic equations and governing conditions, such as the equilibrium equations in the domain, the boundary conditions on the crack surfaces and stress singularity at the crack tips. Thus, it ts only necessary to consider the boundary conditions on the external boundaries of the plate, which can be approximately satisfied by the collocation method and least square technique. Different boundary conditions and loading cases of the cracked plates are analyzed and calculated. Compared to other methods, the numerical examples show that the present method has many advantages such as good accuracy and less computer time This is an effective semi-analytical and semi-numerical method.

  9. Estimating area of inclusions in anisotropic plates from boundary data

    CERN Document Server

    Morassi, Antonino; Vessella, Sergio


    We consider the inverse problem of determining the possible presence of an inclusion in a thin plate by boundary measurements. The plate is made by non-homogeneous linearly elastic material belonging to a general class of anisotropy. The inclusion is made by different elastic material. Under some a priori assumptions on the unknown inclusion, we prove constructive upper and lower estimates of the area of the unknown defect in terms of an easily expressed quantity related to work, which is given in terms of measurements of a couple field applied at the boundary and of the induced transversal displacement and its normal derivative taken at the boundary of the plate.

  10. Seismicity and Seismic Hazard along the Western part of the Eurasia-Nubia plate boundary (United States)

    Bezzeghoud, Mourad; Fontiela, João; Ferrão, Celia; Borges, José Fernando; Caldeira, Bento; Dib, Assia; Ousadou, Farida


    The seismic phenomenon is the most damaging natural hazard known in the Mediterranean area. The western part of the Eurasia-Nubia plate boundary extends from the Azores to the Mediterranean region. The oceanic part of the plate boundary is well delimited from the Azores Islands, along the Azores-Gibraltar fault to approximately 12°W (west of the Strait of Gibraltar). From 12°W to 3.5°E, including the Iberia-Nubia region and extending to the western part of Algeria, the boundary is more diffuse and forms a wider area of deformation. The boundary between the Iberia and Nubia plates is the most complex part of the margin. This region corresponds to the transition from an oceanic boundary to a continental boundary, where Iberia and Nubia collide. Although most earthquakes along this plate boundary are shallow and generally have magnitudes less than 5.5, there have been several high-magnitude events. Many devastating earthquakes, some of them tsunami-triggering, inflicted heavy loss and considerable economic damage to the region. From 1920 to present, three earthquakes with magnitudes of about 8.0 (Mw 8.2, 25 November 1941; Ms 8.0, 25 February 1969; and Mw 7.9, 26 May 1975) occurred in the oceanic region, and four earthquakes with magnitudes of about 7.0 (Mw 7.1, 8 May 1939, Santa Maria Island and Mw 7.1, January 1980, Terceira and Graciosa Islands, both in the Azores; Ms 7.1, 20 May 1931, Azores-Gibraltar fracture zone; and Mw 7.3, 10 October 1980, El Asnam, Algeria) occurred along the western part of the Eurasia-Nubia plate boundary. In general, large earthquakes (M ≥7) occur within the oceanic region, with the exception of the El Asnam (Algeria) earthquakes. Some of these events caused extensive damage. The 1755 Lisbon earthquake (˜Mw 9) on the Portugal Atlantic margin, about 200 km W-SW of Cape St. Vincent, was followed by a tsunami and fires that caused the near-total destruction of Lisbon and adjacent areas. Estimates of the death toll in Lisbon alone (~70

  11. Laboratory-observed frictional slip instabilities in samples of the Tohoku plate boundary megathrust (United States)

    Ikari, M.; Ito, Y.; Ujiie, K.; Kopf, A.


    The plate boundary megathrust at the Japan Trench is remarkable due to its capability for a wide range of fault slip styles. In addition to the extraordinarily large amount of coseismic slip (several 10's of meters) that reached the seafloor during the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, the the Japan Trench is also known host slow earthquakes. The location of these slow earthquakes coincide with the rupture area of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake; one was observed to occur in the month before the 2011 earthquake and was likely ongoing during the earthquake. This shows that the frictional behavior of the Japan Trench megathrust is complex and thus failure can occur in a variety of styles. Samples of the plate boundary fault zone in the Tohoku region were recovered ~7 km from the Japan Trench axis, within the region of largest coseismic slip during the Tohoku earthquakes, during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 343, the Japan Trench Fast Drilling Project (JFAST). We used these samples in laboratory friction experiments in order to examine the slip behavior of the shallow Tohoku megathrust. In our tests, we sheared the samples at 10 μm/s to establish a steady shear geometry and friction level and subsequently decrease the slip velocity to 2.7 nm/s, equal to the convergence rate between the Pacific and North American plates (85 mm/yr) and thus simulating realistically slow fault slip rates. Regular stick-slip behavior was observed soon after the velocity decrease but ceases as friction evolves to a new residual level. Shearing then mostly proceeds as stable creep, however infrequent friction perturbations are observed which occur two to three times over several mm. Unlike normal stick-slip behavior, we observe stress increases before the stress drop so that the friction level before and after the event are similar. The stress drop is ~0.015 in friction (~100 kPa) and occurs over several hours; therefore we interpret these events to be laboratory-generated slow

  12. Vibration Analysis of Annular Sector Plates under Different Boundary Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongyan Shi


    Full Text Available An analytical framework is developed for the vibration analysis of annular sector plates with general elastic restraints along each edge of plates. Regardless of boundary conditions, the displacement solution is invariably expressed as a new form of trigonometric expansion with accelerated convergence. The expansion coefficients are treated as the generalized coordinates and determined using the Rayleigh-Ritz technique. This work allows a capability of modeling annular sector plates under a variety of boundary conditions and changing the boundary conditions as easily as modifying the material properties or dimensions of the plates. Of equal importance, the proposed approach is universally applicable to annular sector plates of any inclusion angles up to 2π. The reliability and accuracy of the current method are adequately validated through numerical examples.

  13. Upper-plate splay fault earthquakes recorded by uplifted coral microatolls on Ramree Island, the western coast of Myanmar (Burma) (United States)

    Shyu, J. Bruce H.; Wang, Chung-Che; Wang, Yu; Chiang, Hong-Wei; Shen, Chuang-Chou; Thura Tun, Soe


    Myanmar is located at the convergent boundary between the Indian-Australian and the Eurasian plates. Offshore western Myanmar, the Indian-Australian plate subducts northeastward underneath the Burma micro-plate along the northernmost part of the Sunda megathrust. Wide-spread marine terraces with numerous uplifted corals are evident for the active deformation along the coast of western Myanmar. The 1762 Arakan earthquake, the last major seismic event along this plate boundary belt, has been proposed to result from slip on upper-plate splay faults, in addition to rupture of the megathrust. Some previous studies also proposed that the interval between large earthquakes in this area is about 900 years from the ages of the marine terraces, but the seismic activity of upper-plate splay faults remains unclear. From the ages of multiple steps of uplifted coral microatolls, we have identified several previous earthquake events that are likely produced by the upper-plate splay faults. Near the small village of Leik-Ka-Maw at the northwestern corner of the Ramree Island, western Myanmar, we found three groups of uplifted coral colonies with different elevations on the wave-cut platform. U-Th ages of the corals indicate that the second group of corals was killed by co-seismic uplift during the 1762 earthquake. A lower group of corals suggests that there was at least one event after the 1762 earthquake, probably in 1848 according to Myanmar's recorded history. This event has not been reported previously elsewhere, thus it may represent a minor, local event that occurred entirely on a splay fault. Geomorphic evidence for such a local structure is also present near the central western Ramree coast. Detailed topographic survey revealed that the uplifted marine terrace gets higher oceanward. This deformation pattern is likely produced by an east-dipping reverse fault not too far offshore the coastline there. Since most previous studies focused on megathrust earthquakes, the

  14. Extending Alaska's plate boundary: tectonic tremor generated by Yakutat subduction (United States)

    Wech, Aaron G.


    The tectonics of the eastern end of the Alaska-Aleutian subduction zone are complicated by the inclusion of the Yakutat microplate, which is colliding into and subducting beneath continental North America at near-Pacific-plate rates. The interaction among these plates at depth is not well understood, and further east, even less is known about the plate boundary or the source of Wrangell volcanism. The drop-off in Wadati-Benioff zone (WBZ) seismicity could signal the end of the plate boundary, the start of aseismic subduction, or a tear in the downgoing plate. Further compounding the issue is the possible presence of the Wrangell slab, which is faintly outlined by an anemic, eastward-dipping WBZ beneath the Wrangell volcanoes. In this study, I performed a search for tectonic tremor to map slow, plate-boundary slip in south-central Alaska. I identified ∼11,000 tremor epicenters, which continue 85 km east of the inferred Pacific plate edge marked by WBZ seismicity. The tremor zone coincides with the edges of the downgoing Yakutat terrane, and tremors transition from periodic to continuous behavior as they near the aseismic Wrangell slab. I interpret tremor to mark slow, semicontinuous slip occurring at the interface between the Yakutat and North America plates. The slow slip region lengthens the megathrust interface beyond the WBZ and may provide evidence for a connection between the Yakutat slab and the aseismic Wrangell slab.

  15. Novel boundary element method for resolving plate bending problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈颂英; 王乐勤; 焦磊


    This paper discusses the application of the boundary contour method for resolving plate bending problems. The exploitation of the integrand divergence free property of the plate bending boundary integral equation based on the Kirchhoff hypothesis and a very useful application of Stokes' Theorem are presented to convert surface integrals on boundary elements to the computation of bending potential functions on the discretized boundary points, even for curved surface elements of arbitrary shape. Singularity and treatment of the discontinued corner point are not needed at all. The evaluation of the physics variant at internal points is also shown in this article. Numerical results are presented for some plate bending problems and compared against analytical and previous solutions.

  16. The Okhotsk Plate and the Eurasia-North America plate boundary zone. (United States)

    Hindle, David; Mackey, Kevin


    The Eurasia-North America plate boundary zone transitions from spreading at rates of ~ 25mm/yr in the North Atlantic, to compression at rates of ~ 5mm/yr in the region of the Okhotsk plate. Because the pole of rotation between Eurasia and North America lies more or less on their mutual boundary, there is a linear change in rate along the boundary, and regions near the euler pole are subject to extremely low deformation rates. The Okhotsk - Eurasia - North America triple junction lies slightly south of the rotation pole, placing the Okhotsk plate entirely in a weakly contractional setting. Regions near the triple junction absorb 1mm/yr contraction. Further south, towards the shoreline of the Okhotsk sea, up to 5 mm/yr contraction may be absorbed within the plate. How shortening is accommodated across the boundary remains an open question. One possibility is wholesale extrusion of the entire Okhotsk plate (or possibly its northwestern corner) along two plate boundary strike slip faults (Eurasia-Okhostk and North America Okhotsk). The problem with this model is that the seismic record does not presently clearly support it, with the largest events distributed both within the plate interior and on its boundaries. This may suggest that instead, the Okhotsk plate, and particularly its north-western end, consists of a series of smaller blocks which shuffle against each other, partially accommodating extrusion, but also permitting some internal deformation and change of shape of the Okhotsk plate itself. We present analyses of the very sparse seismic record from the region, as well as geometric-kinematic, tectonic models of the possible deformation of northwest Okhotsk to try to better understand the different probabilities of how this slowly deforming plate boundary zone is behaving.

  17. Discovering Plate Boundaries Update: Builds Content Knowledge and Models Inquiry-based Learning (United States)

    Sawyer, D. S.; Pringle, M. S.; Henning, A. T.


    Discovering Plate Boundaries (DPB) is a jigsaw-structured classroom exercise in which students explore the fundamental datasets from which plate boundary processes were discovered. The exercise has been widely used in the past ten years as a classroom activity for students in fifth grade through high school, and for Earth Science major and general education courses in college. Perhaps more importantly, the exercise has been used extensively for professional development of in-service and pre-service K-12 science teachers, where it simultaneously builds content knowledge in plate boundary processes (including natural hazards), models an effective data-rich, inquiry-based pedagogy, and provides a set of lesson plans and materials which teachers can port directly into their own classroom (see Pringle, et al, this session for a specific example). DPB is based on 4 “specialty” data maps, 1) earthquake locations, 2) modern volcanic activity, 3) seafloor age, and 4) topography and bathymetry, plus a fifth map of (undifferentiated) plate boundary locations. The jigsaw is structured so that students are first split into one of the four “specialties,” then re-arranged into groups with each of the four specialties to describe the boundaries of a particular plate. We have taken the original DPB materials, used the latest digital data sets to update all the basic maps, and expanded the opportunities for further student and teacher learning. The earthquake maps now cover the recent period including the deadly Banda Aceh event. The topography/bathymetry map now has global coverage and uses ice-free elevations, which can, for example, extend to further inquiry about mantle viscosity and loading processes (why are significant portions of the bedrock surface of Greenland and Antarctica below sea level?). The volcanic activity map now differentiates volcano type and primary volcanic lithology, allowing a more elaborate understanding of volcanism at different plate boundaries

  18. Tectonic plate under a localized boundary stress: fitting of a zero-range solvable model

    CERN Document Server

    Petrova, L


    We suggest a method of fitting of a zero-range model of a tectonic plate under a boundary stress on the basis of comparison of the theoretical formulae for the corresponding eigenfunctions/eigenvalues with the results extraction under monitoring, in the remote zone, of non-random (regular) oscillations of the Earth with periods 0.2-6 hours, on the background seismic process, in case of low seismic activity. Observations of changes of the characteristics of the oscillations (frequency, amplitude and polarization) in course of time, together with the theoretical analysis of the fitted model, would enable us to localize the stressed zone on the boundary of the plate and estimate the risk of a powerful earthquake at the zone.

  19. Seismotectonics of the Lwandle-Nubia plate boundary between South Africa and the Southwest Indian Ridge (United States)

    Hartnady, Chris; Okal, Emile; Calais, Eric; Stamps, Sarah; Saria, Elifuraha


    The Lwandle (LW) plate shares a boundary with the Nubia (NU) plate, extending from a diffuse triple junction with the Rovuma plate in Southern Mozambique to a triple junction with the Antarctic plate along a segment of the Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR). The LW-NU boundary terminates in the ~750 km-long, complex transform of the Andrew Bain Fracture Zone (ABFZ), but its exact locus is still unclear. Recent works locate it along the eastern boundary of the submarine Mozambique Ridge, parallel to the pre-existing, oceanic transform-fault fabric. However, an early concept of the LW block ('ambiguous region' of Hartnady, 1990, Fig. 2) indicates a more westerly trajectory in the north that includes parts of South Africa, with a southerly extension across old oceanic crust of the submarine Natal Valley and Transkei Basin. This proposed boundary is marked by several, aligned epicentres of moderate to strong earthquakes (1941, 1942, 1956, 1969, 1972, 1975, 1981 and 1989). Our re-examination of seismographic records from the 1975 'intraplate' earthquake (-37.62°N, 30.98°E, mb5.0), in the oceanic crust of the distal Transkei Basin, shows a thrust-faulting focal mechanism along a nodal plane striking N272°E. The largest (ML4.2) of a series of three small earthquakes in the Natal Valley in 2009, close to a zone of recent seafloor deformation mapped in 1992, has similar first-motion patterns at Southern African seismograph stations. When the 1975 slip-vector result (N173°E) is combined with a normal-faulting slip vector (N078°E) from a 1986 onland earthquake (-30.53°N, 28.84°E, mb5.0) near the Lesotho-KZN border, and both are incorporated into the wider data-set previously used to solve for East African Rift kinematics, they produce a LW-NU rotation pole that is located south of Africa, near the Agulhas Plateau, and approximately 950 km from the Natal Valley deformation zone. The modeled low rate of right-lateral, LW-NU slip (~0.50-0.75 mm/yr) across this LW-NU boundary

  20. A diffuse plate boundary model for Indian Ocean tectonics (United States)

    Wiens, D. A.; Demets, C.; Gordon, R. G.; Stein, S.; Argus, D.


    It is suggested that motion along the virtually aseismic Owen fracture zone is negligible, so that Arabia and India are contained within a single Indo-Arabian plate divided from the Australian plate by a diffuse boundary. The boundary is a zone of concentrated seismicity and deformation commonly characterized as 'intraplate'. The rotation vector of Australia relative to Indo-Arabia is consistent with the seismologically observed 2 cm/yr of left-lateral strike-slip along the Ninetyeast Ridge, north-south compression in the Central Indian Ocean, and the north-south extension near Chagos.

  1. BOLIVAR & GEODINOS: Investigations of the Southern Caribbean Plate Boundary (United States)

    Levander, A.; Schmitz, M.; Working Groups, B.


    The southern Caribbean-South American plate boundary has many similarities to California's San Andreas system: 1) The CAR-SA system consists of a series of strands of active right lateral strike-slip faults extending >1000 km from the Antilles subduction zone. This system has several names and includes the El Pilar, Coche, San Sebastian, Moron, and Oca faults. 2) The CAR-SA relative velocity has been about 20 mm/yr of mostly right lateral motion since about 55 Ma, giving a total displacement on the CAR-SA plate boundary similar to that of the San Andreas system. 3) The plate boundary has about 10% convergence in western SA, with less as one moves eastward due to relative convergence between North and South America. 4) The CAR-SA system has fold and thrust belts best developed continentward of the strike-slip faults, similar to the San Andreas. 5) There is a big bend in the CAR plate boundary at approximately the same distance from the Antilles trench as the big bend in Southern California is from the Cascadia subduction zone. The tectonic origins of the CAR-SA plate boundary and the San Andreas are very different, however, despite the similarities between the systems. Rather than impingement of a ridge on a trench, the CAR-SA system is thought to have resulted from a continuous oblique collision of the southern end of a Cretaceous island arc system with the northern edge of South America. During this process the CAR island arc and the modern CAR plate overrode a proto-Caribbean plate and destroyed a Mesozoic passive margin on the northern edge of SA. BOLIVAR and GEODINOS are multi-disciplinary investigations of the lithosphere and deeper structures associated with the diffuse CAR-SA plate boundary zone. We review a number of observations regarding the plate boundary obtained or confirmed from these studies: 1) The Caribbean Large Igneous Province, being overridden by the Maracaibo block in western Venezuela, can be identified beneath Aruba and coastal Venezuela

  2. The Plate Boundary Observatory: Data Management Progress and Highlights (United States)

    Anderson, G.; Blackman, B.; Eakins, J.; Hodgkinson, K.; Matykiewicz, J.; Boler, F.; Beldyk, M.; Henderson, B.; Hoyt, B.; Lee, E.; Persson, E.; Smith, J.; Torrez, D.; Wright, J.; Jackson, M.; Meertens, C.


    The Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), part of the NSF-funded EarthScope project, is designed to study the three- dimensional strain field resulting from deformation across the active boundary zone between the Pacific and North American plates in the western United States. To meet these goals, UNAVCO will install 880 continuous GPS stations, 103 borehole strainmeter stations, 28 tiltmeters, and five laser strainmeters by October 2008, as well as manage data for 209 previously existing continuous GPS stations and one laser strainmeter through the PBO Nucleus project and 11 GPS stations installed by the USArray segment of EarthScope. As of 1 September 2007, UNAVCO had completed 680 PBO GPS stations and had upgraded 89% of the planned PBO Nucleus stations. Most of these stations return data to the UNAVCO Boulder Network Operations Center (NOC) on a daily basis, with about 40 stations returning data on an hourly basis. Overall, the combined PBO and Nucleus network has now provided almost 350 GB of raw standard rate data, which are routinely processed by the PBO GPS Analysis Centers, at Central Washington University and the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, and the PBO GPS Analysis Center Coordinator at MIT. These groups create a range of GPS products, including station position time series, GPS velocity vectors, and related information. As of September 2007, these centers processed data on a daily basis from about 920 stations; typical position uncertainties are under 1.5 mm horizontally and 4 mm vertically. All PBO GPS data products are archived at and available from the UNAVCO Facility, with a second archive at the IRIS Data Management Center (DMC). All these products may be accessed via the PBO web page at As part of PBO, UNAVCO will also install and operate the largest borehole seismic and strainmeter networks in North America, as well as tiltmeters and laser strainmeters. As of September 2007, 41 PBO borehole stations

  3. Swath sonar mapping of Earth's submarine plate boundaries (United States)

    Carbotte, S. M.; Ferrini, V. L.; Celnick, M.; Nitsche, F. O.; Ryan, W. B. F.


    The recent loss of Malaysia Airlines flight MH370 in an area of the Indian Ocean where less than 5% of the seafloor is mapped with depth sounding data (Smith and Marks, EOS 2014) highlights the striking lack of detailed knowledge of the topography of the seabed for much of the worlds' oceans. Advances in swath sonar mapping technology over the past 30 years have led to dramatic improvements in our capability to map the seabed. However, the oceans are vast and only an estimated 10% of the seafloor has been mapped with these systems. Furthermore, the available coverage is highly heterogeneous and focused within areas of national strategic priority and community scientific interest. The major plate boundaries that encircle the globe, most of which are located in the submarine environment, have been a significant focus of marine geoscience research since the advent of swath sonar mapping. While the location of these plate boundaries are well defined from satellite-derived bathymetry, significant regions remain unmapped at the high-resolutions provided by swath sonars and that are needed to study active volcanic and tectonic plate boundary processes. Within the plate interiors, some fossil plate boundary zones, major hotspot volcanoes, and other volcanic provinces have been the focus of dedicated research programs. Away from these major tectonic structures, swath mapping coverage is limited to sparse ocean transit lines which often reveal previously unknown deep-sea channels and other little studied sedimentary structures not resolvable in existing low-resolution global compilations, highlighting the value of these data even in the tectonically quiet plate interiors. Here, we give an overview of multibeam swath sonar mapping of the major plate boundaries of the globe as extracted from public archives. Significant quantities of swath sonar data acquired from deep-sea regions are in restricted-access international archives. Open access to more of these data sets would

  4. Upper-Plate Earthquake Swarms Remotely Triggered by the 2012 Mw-7.6 Nicoya Earthquake, Costa Rica (United States)

    Linkimer, L.; Arroyo, I. G.; Montero Pohly, W. K.; Lücke, O. H.


    Remotely triggered seismicity that takes place at distances greater than 1-2 fault lengths appears to be a frequent phenomenon after large earthquakes, including damaging upper-plate 5.0-to-6.0 magnitude earthquakes in Costa Rica after the large (Mw greater than 7.0) inter-plate earthquakes in 1941, 1950, 1983, 1990, and 1991. On 5 of September 2012, an inter-plate 7.6-Mw earthquake struck the Nicoya Peninsula, triggering upper-plate seismicity in the interior of Costa Rica again. The number of upper plate-earthquakes outside the Nicoya source region that were recorded by the National Seismological Network (RSN: UCR-ICE) for the six-month period after the Nicoya event was two times higher than that number of upper plate-earthquakes during the six months before it happened. We analyze the three largest upper-plate earthquake swarms that took place during the first six months after the Nicoya event. We relocate the epicenters using a double difference algorithm with a 1D velocity model (HypoDD) and using a probabilistic method with a 3D velocity model (NonLinLoc). Additionally we compute first motion focal mechanisms for the largest events. The three swarms analyzed occurred at distances of 170 to 350 km from the Nicoya source region in three different tectonic settings: the Cartago area in the central part of Costa Rica near the active volcanic arc (approximately 170 km from the source region), the Calero Island near the Costa Rica-Nicaragua border in the backarc Caribbean region (approximately 220 km), and the San Vito area in the Costa Rica-Panama border region, at the southern flank of the Talamanca Cordillera, an inactive portion of the magmatic arc (approximately 300 km). The Cartago swarm with 95 1.8-to-4.1 Mw earthquakes occurred from September 5 to October 31, 2012. The location and left-lateral solution of the largest event suggest that the Aguacaliente fault, which caused the deadliest earthquake in Costa Rican history on May 4, 1910 (Ms 6.4), is the

  5. Coefficient of Variation Estimates for the Plate Boundary Fault System of California (United States)

    Biasi, G. P.; Scharer, K. M.


    The number of high-quality paleoseismic records on major strike-slip faults of California has increased in recent years to the point that patterns in earthquake recurrence are emerging. The degree of predictability in time intervals between ground-rupturing earthquakes can be measured by the CoV (coefficient of variation). The CoV approximately normalizes for mean recurrence, and is thus useful to isolate the temporal variability of earthquake records. CoV estimates are themselves uncertain because input dates are actually probability distributions and because paleoseismic records are short and not necessarily representative samples from the underlying recurrence distribution. Radiocarbon dating uncertainty can be incorporated by sampling from event PDFs and compiling sample CoV estimates. Uncertainty due to the brevity of the site event record is larger, and neglect of it can lead to improbable estimates. Long records are now available on the San Andreas and San Jacinto faults in Southern California, and the San Andreas and Hayward faults in northern California. These faults accommodate most of the Pacific-North American relative plate motion in their respective regions. CoV estimates from sites with 8 or more events cluster around 0.63, but are as low as 0.4 for the southern Hayward fault. Sites with fewer events give similar estimates, though with lower resolution. The one prominent outlier, Burro Flats, with a CoV near 1.0, is in a region of severe fault complexity and rapid fault-normal compression. Quasi-periodic recurrence is emerging as a general property for these plate boundary faults. Some individual site records allow that, at low probabilities, recurrence could be random in time. When the ensemble is considered together, however, it is improbable that we would see the observed degree of agreement among boundary fault paleoseismic records; the more likely explanation is that quasi-periodic recurrence is a real property of the boundary fault system.

  6. The ultra low frequency electromagnetic radiation observed in the topside ionosphere above boundaries of tectonic plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Athanasiou


    Full Text Available In this paper we present results of a comparison between ultra low frequency (ULF electromagnetic (EM radiation, recorded by an electric field instrument onboard the satellite detection of electromagnetic emissions transmitted from earthquake regions in the topside ionosphere, and the seismicity of regions with high and low seismic activity. In particular, we evaluated the energy variations of the ULF Ezelectric field component during a period of four years (2006-2009, in order to examine the possible relation of ULF EM radiation with seismogenic regions located in Central America, Indonesia, the Eastern Mediterranean Basin and Greece. As a tool for evaluating the ULF Ez energy variations we used singular spectrum analysis techniques. The results of our analysis clearly show a significant increase of the ULF EM energy emitted from regions of highest seismic activity at the boundaries tectonic plates. Furthermore, we found that higher electromagnetic radiation was detected in a region above the northern- western Greek Arc (R1 than above the adjacent region including Athens and its urban area. We interpret these results of the present study as suggesting that: i the seismogenic regions at the boundary of tectonic plates radiate ULF EM emissions observed by satellites in the topside ionosphere; and ii that this EM radiation is not only related with the occurrence time of great (M≥5 earthquakes, but it is often present in intermediate times and it appears as a quasi-permanent phenomenon.

  7. Stress Transfer Processes during Great Plate Boundary Thrusting Events: A Study from the Andaman and Nicobar Segments (United States)

    Andrade, V.; Rajendran, K.


    The response of subduction zones to large earthquakes varies along their strike, both during the interseismic and post-seismic periods. The December 26, 2004 earthquake nucleated at 3° N latitude and its rupture propagated northward, along the Andaman-Sumatra subduction zone, terminating at 15°N. Rupture speed was estimated at about 2.0 km per second in the northern part under the Andaman region and 2.5 - 2.7 km per second under southern Nicobar and North Sumatra. We have examined the pre and post-2004 seismicity to understand the stress transfer processes within the subducting plate, in the Andaman (10° - 15° N ) and Nicobar (5° - 10° N) segments. The seismicity pattern in these segments shows distinctive characteristics associated with the outer rise, accretionary prism and the spreading ridge, all of which are relatively better developed in the Andaman segment. The Ninety East ridge and the Sumatra Fault System are significant tectonic features in the Nicobar segment. The pre-2004 seismicity in both these segments conform to the steady-state conditions wherein large earthquakes are fewer and compressive stresses dominate along the plate interface. Among the pre-2004 great earthquakes are the 1881 Nicobar and 1941 Andaman events. The former is considered to be a shallow thrust event that generated a small tsunami. Studies in other subduction zones suggest that large outer-rise tensional events follow great plate boundary breaking earthquakes due to the the up-dip transfer of stresses within the subducting plate. The seismicity of the Andaman segment (1977-2004) concurs with the steady-state stress conditions where earthquakes occur dominantly by thrust faulting. The post-2004 seismicity shows up-dip migration along the plate interface, with dominance of shallow normal faulting, including a few outer rise events and some deeper (> 100 km) strike-slip faulting events within the subducting plate. The September 13, 2002, Mw 6.5 thrust faulting earthquake at

  8. Plate boundary deformation and man-made subsidence around geothermal fields on the Reykjanes Peninsula, Iceland

    KAUST Repository

    Keiding, Marie


    We present Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data from 1992-1999 and 2003-2008 as well as GPS data from 2000-2009 for the active plate boundary on the Reykjanes Peninsula, southwest Iceland. The geodetic data reveal deformation mainly due to plate spreading, anthropogenic subsidence caused by geothermal fluid extraction and, possibly, increasing pressure in a geothermal system. Subsidence of around 10. cm is observed during the first 2. years of production at the Reykjanes geothermal power plant, which started operating in May 2006. We model the surface subsidence around the new power plant using point and ellipsoidal pressure sources in an elastic halfspace. Short-lived swarms of micro-earthquakes as well as aseismic fault movement are observed near the geothermal field following the start of production, possibly triggered by the stresses induced by geothermal fluid extraction. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  9. World Stress Map Release 2005 - Stress orientations from single focal mechanisms at plate boundaries (United States)

    Heidbach, O.; Barth, A.; Müller, B.; Reinecker, J.; Sperner, B.; Tingay, M.


    The World Stress Map (WSM) is a global compilation of data about recent tectonic stresses from a wide range of indicators (e.g. focal mechanisms, borehole breakouts). It is a valuable tool for the solution of numerous of technological and scientific problems. The orientation of the stress field, for instance, is a primary control on subsurface fluid flow and thus WSM data can be used to improve petroleum production or the efficiency of geothermal power stations. In scientific context, information on the stress state is essential for seismic hazard assessment. The WSM database release 2005 contains more than 14,000 data sets all classified according to a unified quality ranking. Thus, the comparability of data from different types of measurement is guaranteed. The database as well as guidelines and software for plotting stress maps are available free of charge from our website Users can create their own stress map including their own stress data almost instantly with the CASMO (Create A Stress Map Online) web tool. Alternatively, users can download the software CASMI (Create A Stress Map Interactively) free of charge and produce their own stress maps. In the WSM 2005 release we refined the definition of so-called Possible Plate Boundary Events (PBE) for stress data from single focal mechanisms (FMS) considering that the orientations of these earthquakes might be rather controlled by the geometry of the plate boundary than by the stress field orientation. In general, it is assumed that numerous randomly oriented faults are present in the crust, so that earthquakes occur on faults optimally oriented relative to the regional stress field. In such a setting the principal axes of the moment tensor (P, B, T) provide good approximations for the principal stress orientations (σ_1, σ2, σ3). However, plate boundaries show a different mechanical behavior. They are characterized by faults with preferred orientations and presumably include major

  10. Do magnitudes of great subduction earthquakes depend on strength of mechanical coupling between the plates? (United States)

    Sobolev, Stephan; Muldashev, Iskander


    The common thinking is that the magnitude of a great subduction earthquake correlates with the strength of mechanical coupling between slab and overriding plate. Based on this idea, Ruff and Kanamori (1980) suggested that maximum earthquake's magnitude is controlled by two parameters: age of subducting plate and plate convergence rate, when the youngest and the fastest slabs generate the largest earthquakes. This view was supported by many researches since then. However, since 1980 a number of great earthquakes, and particularly two largest earthquakes of the last 12 years, i.e. Great Sumatra/Andaman 2004 Earthquake and Tohoku 2011 earthquake, have violated the suggested correlation. We address the relation between strength of mechanical coupling and earthquake magnitude directly by cross-scale geodynamic modeling of seismic cycles of great subduction earthquakes. This modeling technique employs elasticity, non-linear transient viscous rheology, and rate-and-state friction at slab interface. It generates spontaneous earthquake sequences, and, by using an adaptive time-step algorithm, recreates the deformation process as observed naturally over single and multiple seismic cycles. We model seismic cycles for the great subduction earthquakes with different geometries of subducting plates, different static friction coefficients in subduction channels and different subduction velocities. Under the assumption that rupture length scales with the rupture width, our models demonstrate that maximum magnitudes of the earthquakes are exclusively controlled by the factors that increase rupture width. These factors are: low slab's dipping angle (the largest effect), low friction coefficient in subduction channel (smaller effect) and high subduction velocity (the smallest effect). Models suggest that maximum magnitudes of earthquakes do not correlate significantly with the magnitudes of normal and shear stresses at subduction interface. In agreement with observations, our models

  11. Locking, mass flux and topographic response at convergent plate boundaries - the Chilean case (United States)

    Oncken, Onno


    On the long term, convergent plate boundaries have been shown to be controlled by either accretion/underplating or by subduction erosion. Vertical surface motion is coupled to convergence rate - typically with an uplift rate of the coastal area ranging from 0 to +50% of convergence rate in accretive systems, and -20 to +30% in erosive systems. Vertical kinematics, however, are not necessarily linked to horizontal strain mode, i.e. upper plate shortening or extension, in a simple way. This range of kinematic behaviors - as well as their acceleration where forearcs collide with oceanic ridges/plateau - is well expressed along the Chilean plate margin. Towards the short end of the time scale, deformation appears to exhibit a close correlation with the frictional properties and geodetic locking at the plate interface. Corroborating analogue experiments of strain accumulation during multiple earthquake cycles, forearc deformation and uplift focus above the downdip and updip end of seismic coupling and slip and are each related to a particular stage of the seismic cycle, but with opposite trends for both domains. Similarly, barriers separating locked domains along strike appear to accumulate most upper plate faulting interseismically. Hence, locking patters are reflected in topography. From the long-term memory contained in the forearc topography the relief of the Chilean forearc seems to reflect long term stability of the observed heterogeneity of locking at the plate interface. This has fundamental implications for spatial and temporal distribution of seismic hazard. Finally, the nature of locking at the plate interface controlling the above kinematic behavior appears to be strongly controlled by the degree of fluid overpressuring at the plate interface suggesting that the hydraulic system at the interface takes a key role for the forearc response.

  12. Free, transverse vibrations of thin plates with discontinuous boundary conditions (United States)

    Febbo, M.; Vera, S. A.; Laura, P. A. A.


    Vibrations of circular and rectangular plates clamped on part of the boundary and simply supported along the remainder are analyzed by means of a method of perturbation of boundary conditions. This approach appears to be simple and straightforward, giving excellent results for the first mode and its versatility permits to extend it to higher modes of vibration without difficulty. Furthermore, it is shown that the fundamental frequency coefficient can also be determined using a modified Galerkin approach and very simple polynomial coordinate functions which yield good engineering accuracy.

  13. The role of near-trench extension at convergent plate boundaries (United States)

    Vannucchi, P.


    Knowledge of how convergent plate boundary coupling in the seismogenic zone controls the nucleation of subduction zone earthquakes is fundamental to assess seismic risks. Increased data at convergent margins has revealed the complexity of the earthquake cycle through the detection of strain-release processes like episodic tremors and slip events, low frequency earthquakes, afterslip, slip heterogeneity along the fault plane. The processes controlling the earthquake cycle and their interactions are still far from being understood; improved understanding will require better characterization of the fault zone. Here we compare in-situ observations from two major subduction zones drilled by ODP and IODP (Costa Rica Trench and Nankai Trough) with a well-preserved fossil convergent plate boundary zone in the Northern Apennines of Italy. At all three sites, deformation in the region above and at the updip limit of the seismogenic zone is dominated by extension and normal faulting (i.e. maximum principal stress is oriented sub-vertically). Episodes of reverse shearing are also present, but occur with less intensity, alternating with extension. Ocean Drilling Program Legs 170 and 205 offshore Costa Rica provide structural observations of the frontal part of the upper plate and décollement at about 2 km from the trench. Analysis of drilled cores reveals the presence of normal faults cutting the frontal part of the upper plate. Normal faults are also seen from seismic reflection to develop along all the forearc (about 60 km from the trench). The décollement damage zone is a few tens of meters in width; it develops mainly within frontal prism material. A clear cm-thick fault core is observed 1.6 km from the trench. Both the upper plate and the décollement damage zone show the co-existence of two distinct fracturing processes in which extension fracturing is frequent in the upper part of the damage zone farthest from the fault core, while both extension and shear fracturing

  14. Global plate boundary evolution and kinematics since the late Paleozoic (United States)

    Matthews, Kara J.; Maloney, Kayla T.; Zahirovic, Sabin; Williams, Simon E.; Seton, Maria; Müller, R. Dietmar


    Many aspects of deep-time Earth System models, including mantle convection, paleoclimatology, paleobiogeography and the deep Earth carbon cycle, require high-resolution plate motion models that include the evolution of the mosaic of plate boundaries through time. We present the first continuous late Paleozoic to present-day global plate model with evolving plate boundaries, building on and extending two previously published models for the late Paleozoic (410-250 Ma) and Mesozoic-Cenozoic (230-0 Ma). We ensure continuity during the 250-230 Ma transition period between the two models, update the absolute reference frame of the Mesozoic-Cenozoic model and add a new Paleozoic reconstruction for the Baltica-derived Alexander Terrane, now accreted to western North America. This 410-0 Ma open access model provides a framework for deep-time whole Earth modelling and acts as a base for future extensions and refinement. We analyse the model in terms of the number of plates, predicted plate size distribution, plate and continental root mean square (RMS) speeds, plate velocities and trench migration through time. Overall model trends share many similarities to those for recent times, which we use as a first order benchmark against which to compare the model and identify targets for future model refinement. Except for during the period 260-160 Ma, the number of plates (16-46) and ratio of "large" plates (≥ 107.5 km2) to smaller plates ( 2.7-6.6) are fairly similar to present-day values (46 and 6.6, respectively), with lower values occurring during late Paleozoic assembly and growth of Pangea. This temporal pattern may also reflect difficulties in reconstructing small, now subducted oceanic plates further back in time, as well as whether a supercontinent is assembling or breaking up. During the 260-160 Ma timeframe the model reaches a minima in the number of plates, in contrast to what we would expect during initial Pangea breakup and thus highlighting the need for refinement

  15. Tectonics of the Nazca-Antarctic plate boundary (United States)

    Anderson-Fontana, Sandra; Larson, Roger L.; Engeln, Joseph F.; Lundgren, Paul; Stein, Seth


    A new bathymetric chart of part of the Chile transform system is constructed, based mainly on an R/V Endeavor survey from 100 deg W to its intersection with the East Ridge of the Juan Fernandez microplate. A generally continuous lineated trend can be followed through the entire region, with the transform valley being relatively narrow and well-defined from 109 deg W to approximately 104 deg 30 min W. The fracture zone then widens to the east, with at least two probable en echelon offsets to the south at 104 deg and 102 deg W. Six new strike-slip mechanisms along the Chile Transform and one normal fault mechanism near the northern end of the Chile Rise, inverted together with other plate-motion data from the eastern portion of the boundary, produce a new best-fit Euler pole for the Nazca-Antarctic plate pair, providing tighter constraints on the relative plate motions.

  16. Tectonics of the Nazca-Antarctic plate boundary (United States)

    Anderson-Fontana, Sandra; Larson, Roger L.; Engeln, Joseph F.; Lundgren, Paul; Stein, Seth


    A new bathymetric chart of part of the Chile transform system is constructed, based mainly on an R/V Endeavor survey from 100 deg W to its intersection with the East Ridge of the Juan Fernandez microplate. A generally continuous lineated trend can be followed through the entire region, with the transform valley being relatively narrow and well-defined from 109 deg W to approximately 104 deg 30 min W. The fracture zone then widens to the east, with at least two probable en echelon offsets to the south at 104 deg and 102 deg W. Six new strike-slip mechanisms along the Chile Transform and one normal fault mechanism near the northern end of the Chile Rise, inverted together with other plate-motion data from the eastern portion of the boundary, produce a new best-fit Euler pole for the Nazca-Antarctic plate pair, providing tighter constraints on the relative plate motions.

  17. Monitoring the northern Chile megathrust with the Integrated Plate boundary Observatory Chile (IPOC) (United States)

    Schurr, Bernd; Asch, Günter; Cailleau, Beatrice; Diaz, Guillermo Chong; Barrientos, Sergio; Vilotte, Jean-Pierre; Oncken, Onno


    thousand aftershocks during the following week using waveform cross-correlation and the double-difference algorithm. Aftershocks reveal that rupture during this earthquake was confined to the deeper part (35 - 55 km depth) of the seismogenic coupling zone, except near the Mejillones peninsula that marks rupture termination in the south. Here earthquake activity reaches to depths of 20 km and even shallower, possibly indicating upper plate activation. The sequence also features an M 6.8 earthquake that broke the oceanic slab on an almost vertical plane at the down-dip end of the megathrust rupture. Confrontation with the aftershock distribution of the 1995 M 8.0 Antofagasta earthquake on the adjoining southern segment reveals an intriguing mirror symmetry with an axis crossing the Mejillones peninsula, emphasizing the penisula's significance as a segment boundary. Since then activity inside the remaining seismic gap to the north picked up with three earthquakes exceeding magnitude 6, maybe heralding the next great rupture.

  18. Spatially developing turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, J H; Hutchins, N; Monty, J P


    This fluid dynamics video submitted to the Gallery of Fluid motion shows a turbulent boundary layer developing under a 5 metre-long flat plate towed through water. A stationary imaging system provides a unique view of the developing boundary layer as it would form over the hull of a ship or fuselage of an aircraft. The towed plate permits visualisation of the zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layer as it develops from the trip to a high Reynolds number state ($Re_\\tau \\approx 3000$). An evolving large-scale coherent structure will appear almost stationary in this frame of reference. The visualisations provide an unique view of the evolution of fundamental processes in the boundary layer (such as interfacial bulging, entrainment, vortical motions, etc.). In the more traditional laboratory frame of reference, in which fluid passes over a stationary body, it is difficult to observe the full evolution and lifetime of turbulent coherent structures. An equivalent experiment in a wind/water-tunnel would requ...

  19. Lost in Iceland? Fracture Zone Complications Along the Mid-Atlantic Plate Boundary (United States)

    Brandsdóttir, B.; Einarsson, P.; Detrick, R. S.; Mayer, L.; Calder, B.; Driscoll, N.; Richter, B.


    The mid-Atlantic plate boundary breaks up into a series of segments across Iceland. Two transform zones, the South Iceland Seismic Zone (SISZ) and the Tjörnes Fracture Zone (TFZ) separate the on land rift zones from the Reykjanes Ridge (RR), and the Kolbeinsey Ridge (KR), offshore N-Iceland. Both are markedly different from fracture zones elsewhere along the plate boundary. The 80 km E-W and 10--15 km N-S SISZ is made up of more than 20 N-S aligned, right-lateral, strike-slip faults whereas the TFZ consists of a broad zone of deformation, roughly 150 km E-W and 75 km N-S. The over-all left-lateral transform motion within the SISZ is accommodated by bookshelf faulting whereas the right-lateral transform motion within the TFZ is incorporated within two WNW-trending seismic zones, spaced ˜40 km apart, the Grímsey Seismic Zone (GSZ) and the Húsavík-Flatey fault (HFF). Recently collected EM300 and RESON8101 multibeam bathymetric data along with CHIRP subbottom data has unveiled some tectonic details within the TFZ. The GSZ runs along the offshore extension of the Northern Volcanic Rift Zone (NVRZ) and is made up of four left-stepping, en-echelon, NS-striking rift segments akin to those on land. Large GSZ earthquakes seem to be associated with lateral strike-slip faulting along ESE-striking fault planes. Fissure swarms transecting the offshore volcanic systems have also been subjected to right-lateral transformation along the spreading direction. As the Reykjanes Peninsula, the on land extension of the RR, the GSZ bears the characteristics of an oblique rift zone. The plate boundary segments connecting to the RR and KR are thus symmetrical with respect to the plate separation vector (105° ) and orientation of individual volcanic systems. The HFF has an overall strike of N65° W and can be traced continuously along its 75--80 km length, between the Theistareykir volcanic system within the NVRZ, across the central TFZ-graben, the Skjálfandi bay, and into the largest

  20. Architectural Blueprint for Plate Boundary Observatories based on interoperable Data Management Platforms (United States)

    Kerschke, D. I.; Häner, R.; Schurr, B.; Oncken, O.; Wächter, J.


    Interoperable data management platforms play an increasing role in the advancement of knowledge and technology in many scientific disciplines. Through high quality services they support the establishment of efficient and innovative research environments. Well-designed research environments can facilitate the sustainable utilization, exchange, and re-use of scientific data and functionality by using standardized community models. Together with innovative 3D/4D visualization, these concepts provide added value in improving scientific knowledge-gain, even across the boundaries of disciplines. A project benefiting from the added value is the Integrated Plate boundary Observatory in Chile (IPOC). IPOC is a European-South American network to study earthquakes and deformation at the Chilean continental margin and to monitor the plate boundary system for capturing an anticipated great earthquake in a seismic gap. In contrast to conventional observatories that monitor individual signals only, IPOC captures a large range of different processes through various observation methods (e.g., seismographs, GPS, magneto-telluric sensors, creep-meter, accelerometer, InSAR). For IPOC a conceptual design has been devised that comprises an architectural blueprint for a data management platform based on common and standardized data models, protocols, and encodings as well as on an exclusive use of Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) including visualization components. Following the principles of event-driven service-oriented architectures, the design enables novel processes by sharing and re-using functionality and information on the basis of innovative data mining and data fusion technologies. This platform can help to improve the understanding of the physical processes underlying plate deformations as well as the natural hazards induced by them. Through the use of standards, this blueprint can not only be facilitated for other plate observing systems (e.g., the European Plate

  1. Discovering plate boundaries: Laboratory and classroom exercises using geodetic data to develop students' understanding of plate motion (United States)

    Olds, S. E.


    To introduce the concept of plate boundaries, typical introductory geology exercises include students observing and plotting the location of earthquakes and volcanoes on a map to visually demarcate plate boundaries. Accompanying these exercises, students are often exposed to animations depicting the movement of Earth’s tectonic plates over time. Both of these teaching techniques are very useful for describing where the tectonics plates have been in the past, their shapes, and where the plates are now. With the integration of data from current geodetic techniques such as GPS, InSAR, LiDAR, students can learn that not only have the tectonic plates moved in the past, but they are moving, deforming, and changing shape right now. Additionally, GPS data can be visualized using time scales of days to weeks and on the scale of millimeters to centimeters per year. The familiar temporal and spatial scales of GPS data also help students understand that plate tectonics is a process that is happening in the present and can ease the transition to thinking about processes that are typically described using deep time, a very difficult concept for students to grasp. To provide a more robust learning environment, UNAVCO has been incorporating high-precision GPS data into free, place-based, data-rich learning modules for educators and students in introductory Earth science courses at secondary and undergraduate levels. These modules integrate new scientific discoveries related to crustal deformation and explore applications of GPS, LiDAR, and InSAR techniques to research. They also provide students with case studies highlighting the process of scientific discovery, providing context and meaning. Concurrent to these efforts, tools to visualize the inter-relationships of geophysical and geologic processes, structures, and measurements including high-precision GPS velocity data are an essential part of the learning materials. Among the suite of visualization tools that UNAVCO has made

  2. Identification and Estimation of Postseismic Deformation: Implications for Plate Motion Models, Models of the Earthquake Cycle, and Terrestrial Reference Frame Definition (United States)

    Kedar, S.; Bock, Y.; Moore, A. W.; Argus, D. F.; Fang, P.; Liu, Z.; Haase, J. S.; Su, L.; Owen, S. E.; Goldberg, D.; Squibb, M. B.; Geng, J.


    Postseismic deformation indicates a viscoelastic response of the lithosphere. It is critical, then, to identify and estimate the extent of postseismic deformation in both space and time, not only for its inherent information on crustal rheology and earthquake physics, but also since it must considered for plate motion models that are derived geodetically from the "steady-state" interseismic velocities, models of the earthquake cycle that provide interseismic strain accumulation and earthquake probability forecasts, as well as terrestrial reference frame definition that is the basis for space geodetic positioning. As part of the Solid Earth Science ESDR System) SESES project under a NASA MEaSUREs grant, JPL and SIO estimate combined daily position time series for over 1800 GNSS stations, both globally and at plate boundaries, independently using the GIPSY and GAMIT software packages, but with a consistent set of a prior epoch-date coordinates and metadata. The longest time series began in 1992, and many of them contain postseismic signals. For example, about 90 of the global GNSS stations out of more than 400 that define the ITRF have experienced one or more major earthquakes and 36 have had multiple earthquakes; as expected, most plate boundary stations have as well. We quantify the spatial (distance from rupture) and temporal (decay time) extent of postseismic deformation. We examine parametric models (log, exponential) and a physical model (rate- and state-dependent friction) to fit the time series. Using a PCA analysis, we determine whether or not a particular earthquake can be uniformly fit by a single underlying postseismic process - otherwise we fit individual stations. Then we investigate whether the estimated time series velocities can be directly used as input to plate motion models, rather than arbitrarily removing the apparent postseismic portion of a time series and/or eliminating stations closest to earthquake epicenters.

  3. Earthquake stress drops, ambient tectonic stresses and stresses that drive plate motions (United States)

    Hanks, T.C.


    A variety of geophysical observations suggests that the upper portion of the lithosphere, herein referred to as the elastic plate, has long-term material properties and frictional strength significantly greater than the lower lithosphere. If the average frictional stress along the non-ridge margin of the elastic plate is of the order of a kilobar, as suggested by the many observations of the frictional strength of rocks at mid-crustal conditions of pressure and temperature, the only viable mechanism for driving the motion of the elastic plate is a basal shear stress of several tens of bars. Kilobars of tectonic stress are then an ambient, steady condition of the earth's crust and uppermost mantle. The approximate equality of the basal shear stress and the average crustal earthquake stress drop, the localization of strain release for major plate margin earthquakes, and the rough equivalence of plate margin slip rates and gross plate motion rates suggest that the stress drops of major plate margin earthquakes are controlled by the elastic release of the basal shear stress in the vicinity of the plate margin, despite the existence of kilobars of tectonic stress existing across vertical planes parallel to the plate margin. If the stress differences available to be released at the time of faulting are distributed in a random, white fasbion with a mean-square value determined by the average earthquake stress drop, the frequency of occurrence of constant stress drop earthquakes will be proportional to reciprocal faulting area, in accordance with empirically known frequency of occurrence statistics. ?? 1977 Birkha??user Verlag.

  4. Subducting plate geology in three great earthquake ruptures of the western Alaska margin, Kodiak to Unimak (United States)

    von Huene, Roland; Miller, John J.; Weinrebe, Wilhelm


    Three destructive earthquakes along the Alaska subduction zone sourced transoceanic tsunamis during the past 70 years. Since it is reasoned that past rupture areas might again source tsunamis in the future, we studied potential asperities and barriers in the subduction zone by examining Quaternary Gulf of Alaska plate history, geophysical data, and morphology. We relate the aftershock areas to subducting lower plate relief and dissimilar materials in the seismogenic zone in the 1964 Kodiak and adjacent 1938 Semidi Islands earthquake segments. In the 1946 Unimak earthquake segment, the exposed lower plate seafloor lacks major relief that might organize great earthquake rupture. However, the upper plate contains a deep transverse-trending basin and basement ridges associated with the Eocene continental Alaska convergent margin transition to the Aleutian island arc. These upper plate features are sufficiently large to have affected rupture propagation. In addition, massive slope failure in the Unimak area may explain the local 42-m-high 1946 tsunami runup. Although Quaternary geologic and tectonic processes included accretion to form a frontal prism, the study of seismic images, samples, and continental slope physiography shows a previous history of tectonic erosion. Implied asperities and barriers in the seismogenic zone could organize future great earthquake rupture.

  5. Vibration suppression for laminated composite plates with arbitrary boundary conditions (United States)

    Li, J.; Narita, Y.


    An analysis of vibration suppression for laminated composite plates subject to active constrained layer damping under various boundary conditions is presented. Piezoelectric-fiber-reinforced composites (PFRCs) are used as active actuators, and the effect of PFRC patches on vibration control is reported here. An analytical approach is expanded to analyze the vibration of laminated composites with arbitrary boundary conditions. By using Hamilton's principle and the Rayleigh-Ritz method, the equation of motion for the resulting electromechanical coupling system is derived. A velocity feedback control rule is employed to obtain an effective active damping in the vibration control. The orientation effect of piezoelectric fibers in the PFRC patches on the suppression of forced vibrations is also investigated.

  6. Active faulting and transpression tectonics along the plate boundary in North Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustapha Meghraoui


    Full Text Available We present a synthesis of the active tectonics of the northern Atlas Mountains, and suggest a kinematic model of transpression and block rotation that illustrates the mechanics of this section of the Africa–Eurasia plate boundary. Neotectonic structures and significant shallow seismicity (with Mw >5.0 indicate that coeval E-W-trending, right-lateral faulting and NE-SW, thrust-related folding result from oblique convergence at the plate boundary, which forms a transpressional system. The strain distribution obtained from fault–fold structures and P axes of focal mechanism solutions, and the geodetic (NUVEL-1 and GPS convergence show that the shortening and convergence directions are not coaxial. The transpressional strain is partitioned along the strike and the quantitative description of the displacement field yields a compression-to-transcurrence ratio varying from 33% near Gibraltar, to 50% along the Tunisian Atlas. Shortening directions oriented NNE and NNW for the Pliocene and Quaternary, respectively, and the S shape of the Quaternary anticline axes, are in agreement with the 2.24˚/Myr to 3.9˚/Myr modeled clockwise rotation of the small tectonic blocks and with the paleomagnetic data. The convergence between Africa and Eurasia is absorbed along the Atlas Mountains at the upper crustal level, by means of thrusting above decollement systems, which are controlled by subdued transcurrent faults. The Tell Atlas of northwest Algeria, which has experienced numerous large earthquakes with respect to the other regions, is interpreted as a restraining bend that localizes the strain distribution along the plate boundary.

  7. Modeling the Philippine Mobile Belt: Tectonic blocks in a deforming plate boundary zone (United States)

    Galgana, G. A.; Hamburger, M. W.; McCaffrey, R.; Bacolcol, T. C.; Aurelio, M. A.


    The Philippine Mobile Belt, a seismically active, rapidly deforming plate boundary zone situated along the convergent Philippine Sea/Eurasian plate boundary, is examined using geodetic and seismological data. Oblique convergence between the Philippine Sea Plate and the Eurasian plate is accommodated by nearly orthogonal subduction along the Philippine Trench and the Manila Trench, as well as by strike-slip faulting along the Philippine Fault system. We develop a model of active plate boundary deformation in this region, using elastic block models constrained by known fault geometries, published GPS observations and focal mechanism solutions. We then present an estimate of block rotations, fault coupling, and intra-block deformation, based on the best-fit model that minimizes the misfit between observed and predicted geodetic vectors and earthquake slip vectors. Slip rates along the Philippine fault vary from ~22 - 36 mm/yr in the Central Visayas and about 10 to 40 mm/yr in Luzon, trending almost parallel to the fault trace. In northern Luzon, Philippine Fault splays accommodate transpressional strain. The Central Visayas block experiences convergence with the Sundaland block along the Negros Trench and the Mindoro-Palawan collision zone. On the eastern side of Central Visayas, sinistral strike-slip faulting occurs along the NNW-SSE-trending Philippine Fault. Mindanao Island in southern Philippines is dominated by east-verging subduction along the Cotabato Trench, and strain partitioning (strike- slip faulting with west-verging subduction) in eastern Mindanao along the southern Philippine Fault and Philippine Trench, respectively. Oblique active sinistral strike slip faults in Central and Eastern Mindanao that were hypothesized to be responsible for basin formation are obvious boundaries for tectonic blocks. Located south of Mindanao Island we define an adjoining oceanic block defined by the N-S trending complex dual subduction zone of Sangihe and Halmahera

  8. Distributed Plate Boundary Deformation Across the San Andreas Fault System, Central California (United States)

    Dyson, M.; Titus, S. J.; Demets, C.; Tikoff, B.


    Plate boundaries are now recognized as broad zones of complex deformation as opposed to narrow zones with discrete offsets. When assessing how plate boundary deformation is accommodated, both spatially and temporally, it is therefore crucial to understand the relative contribution of the discrete and distributed components of deformation. The creeping segment of the San Andreas fault is an ideal location to study the distribution of plate boundary deformation for several reasons. First, the geometry of the fault system in central California is relatively simple. Plate motion is dominated by slip along the relatively linear strike-slip San Andreas fault, but also includes lesser slip along the adjacent and parallel Hosgri-San Gregorio and Rinconada faults, as well as within the borderlands between the three fault strands. Second, the aseismic character of the San Andreas fault in this region allows for the application of modern geodetic techniques to assess creep rates along the fault and across the region. Third, geologic structures within the borderlands are relatively well-preserved allowing comparison between modern and ancient rates and styles of deformation. Continuous GPS stations, alignment arrays surveys, and other geodetic methods demonstrate that approximately 5 mm/yr of distributed slip is accumulated (on top of the fault slip rate) across a 70-100 km wide region centered on the San Andreas fault. New campaign GPS data also suggest 2-5 mm/yr of deformation in the borderlands. These rates depend on the magnitude of the coseismic and postseismic corrections that must be made to our GPS time series to compensate for the 2003 San Simeon and 2004 Parkfield earthquakes, which rupture faults outside, but near the edges of our GPS network. The off-fault deformation pattern can be compared to the style of permanent deformation recorded in the geologic record. Fold and thrust belts in the borderlands are better developed in the Tertiary sedimentary rocks west of

  9. New GPS constraints on active deformation along the Africa-Iberia plate boundary (United States)

    Koulali, A.; Ouazar, D.; Tahayt, A.; King, R. W.; Vernant, P.; Reilinger, R. E.; McClusky, S.; Mourabit, T.; Davila, J. M.; Amraoui, N.


    We use velocities from 65 continuous stations and 31 survey-mode GPS sites as well as kinematic modeling to investigate present day deformation along the Africa-Iberia plate boundary zone in the western Mediterranean region. The GPS velocity field shows southwestward motion of the central part of the Rif Mountains in northern Morocco with respect to Africa varying between 3.5 and 4.0 mm/yr, consistent with prior published results. Stations in the southwestern part of the Betic Mountains of southern Spain move west-southwest with respect to Eurasia (˜ 2-3 mm/yr). The western component of Betics motion is consistent with partial transfer of Nubia-Eurasia plate motion into the southern Betics. The southward component of Betics motion with respect to Iberia is kinematically consistent with south to southwest motion of the Rif Mountains with respect to Africa. We use block modeling, constrained by mapped surface faults and seismicity to estimate the geometry and rates of strain accumulation on plate boundary structures. Our preferred plate boundary geometry includes one block between Iberia and Africa including the SW Betics, Alboran Sea, and central Rif. This geometry provides a good fit to the observed motions, suggesting a wide transpressive boundary in the westernmost Mediterranean, with deformation mainly accommodated by the Gloria-Azores fault system to the West and the Rif-Tell lineament to the East. Block boundaries encompass aspects of earlier interpretations suggesting three main deformation styles: (i) extension along the NE-SW trending Trans-Alboran shear zone, (ii) dextral strike-slip in the Betics corresponding to a well defined E-W seismic lineament, and (iii) right lateral strike-slip motion extending West to the Azores and right-lateral motion with compression extending East along the Algerian Tell. We interpret differential motion in the Rif-Alboran-Betic system to be driven both by surface processes related the Africa-Eurasia oblique convergence and

  10. How transpressive is the northern Caribbean plate boundary? (United States)

    Corbeau, J.; Rolandone, F.; Leroy, S.; Meyer, B.; Mercier de Lépinay, B.; Ellouz-Zimmermann, N.; Momplaisir, R.


    Transpressive deformation at the northern Caribbean plate boundary is accommodated mostly by two major strike-slip faults, but the amount and location of accommodation of the compressional component of deformation are still debated. We collected marine geophysical data including multibeam bathymetry and multichannel seismic reflection profiles along this plate boundary around Hispaniola, in the Jamaica Passage, and in the Gulf of Gonâve. The data set allows us to image the offshore active strike-slip faults as well as the compressional structures. We confirm that the Enriquillo-Plantain-Garden Fault Zone (EPGFZ) in the Jamaica Passage has a primary strike-slip motion, as indicated by active left-lateral strike-slip-related structures, i.e., restraining bend, asymmetrical basin, en echelon pressures ridges, and horsetail splay. Based on topographic cross sections across the EPGFZ, we image a very limited compressional component, if any, for at least the western part of the Jamaica Passage. Toward the east of the Jamaica Passage, the fault trace becomes more complex, and we identify adjacent compressional structures. In the Gulf of Gonâve, distributed folding and thrust faulting of the most recent sediments indicate active pervasive compressional tectonics. Estimates of shortening in the Jamaica Passage and in the Gulf of Gonâve indicate an increase of the compressional component of deformation toward the east, which nonetheless remains very small compared to that inferred from block modeling based on GPS measurements.

  11. The GEORED and Plate Boundary Observatory Engineer Exchange Program (United States)

    Feaux, K.; Mora-Paez, H.


    In early 2007, the Colombian Institute of Geology and Mining - INGEOMINAS initiated GEORED (Geodesia: Red de Estudios de Deformación) in order to increase the knowledge of the geodynamics of northwestern South America. GEORED is an essential tool for determining crustal deformation and is primary in the analysis of inter- plate and intraplate deformation and the present seismic cycle. Some of the objectives of the project are to improve the technical, scientific, and operational capabilities of Colombian scientists regarding tectonic and volcanic deformation in Colombia, to implement a Colombian GPS permanent network for the study of geodynamics, with near real-time data retrieval and processing, and to establish a high precision geodetic reference frame for multipurpose activities within INGEOMINAS. Phase 1 of GEORED, which includes the installation of 30 permanent GPS stations in Colombia, will commence in early 2007. The Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), part of the larger NSF-funded EarthScope project managed by UNAVCO, will study the three-dimensional strain field resulting from active plate boundary deformation across the Western United States. PBO is a large construction project involving the reconnaissance, permitting, installation, documentation, and maintenance of 875 permanent GPS stations scheduled for completion in September 2008. PBO is currently in the fourth year of the project, with over 550 GPS stations completed to date. INGEOMINAS recently became a member of the UNAVCO consortium. UNAVCO has been working with INGEOMINAS by providing technical support for the GEORED project relating to GPS receiver specifications. In the spirit of collaboration and outreach, INGEOMINAS and UNAVCO will begin an engineer exchange program starting in early summer 2007. The purpose of this outreach program is to provide a mechanism for the exchange of ideas relating to GPS station construction techniques, hardware designs, data communications, and data archiving

  12. The fluid budget of a continental plate boundary fault: Quantification from the Alpine Fault, New Zealand (United States)

    Menzies, Catriona D.; Teagle, Damon A. H.; Niedermann, Samuel; Cox, Simon C.; Craw, Dave; Zimmer, Martin; Cooper, Matthew J.; Erzinger, Jörg


    Fluids play a key role in modifying the chemical and physical properties of fault zones, which may prime them for repeated rupture by the generation of high pore fluid pressures and precipitation of commonly weak, secondary minerals. Fluid flow paths, sources and fluxes, and the permeability evolution of fault zones throughout their seismic cycles remain poorly constrained, despite their importance to understanding fault zone behaviour. Here we use geochemical tracers of fluid-rock exchange to determine budgets for meteoric, metamorphic and mantle fluids on a major compressional tectonic plate boundary. The Alpine Fault marks the transpressional Pacific-Australian plate boundary through South Island, New Zealand and appears to fail in regular (329 ± 68 yrs) large earthquakes (Mw ∼ 8) with the most recent event in 1717 AD. Significant convergent motion has formed the Southern Alps and elevated geothermal gradients in the hangingwall, which drive crustal fluid flow. Along the Alpine Fault the Alpine Schist of the Pacific Plate is thrust over radiogenic metasedimentary rocks on the Australian plate. The absence of highly radiogenic (87Sr/86Sr > 0.7200) strontium isotope ratios of hangingwall hot springs and hydrothermal minerals formed at a range of depths in the Alpine Fault damage zone indicates that the fluid flow is restricted to the hangingwall by a cross-fault fluid flow barrier throughout the seismogenic crust. Helium isotope ratios measured in hot springs near to the Alpine Fault (0.15-0.81 RA) indicate the fault is a crustal-scale feature that acts as a conduit for fluids from the mantle. Rock-exchanged oxygen, but meteoric water-like hydrogen isotope signatures of hydrothermal veins indicate that partially rock-exchanged meteoric fluids dominate down to the top of the brittle to ductile transition zone at ∼6 km. Geochemical tracer transport modelling suggests only ∼0.02 to 0.05% of total rainfall west of the Main Divide penetrates to depth, yet this

  13. Transients in Pacific/North American Plate Boundary Deformation: Synthesis and Modeling of GPS and Borehole Strain Observations (United States)

    Solomon, Sean C.; Frey, H. V. (Technical Monitor)


    This is the Final Technical Report on research conducted between 1 June 1997 and 14 September 2001 entitled "Transients in Pacific/North American plate boundary deformation: Synthesis and modeling of GPS and borehole strain observations." As the project title implies, our effort involved a geodetic study of strain transients, i.e., temporal variations in deformation rates, that occur within plate boundary zones and their relationship to earthquakes and plate motions. Important transients occur during and following large earthquakes, and there are also strain transients not apparently associated with earthquakes. A particularly intriguing class of transients, for which there is a modest but growing list of examples, are preseismic anomalies. Such earthquake precursors, if further documented and understood, would have obvious importance for earthquake hazard mitigation. Because the timescales for these diverse transients range over at least 6 orders of magnitude (minutes to years), no single geodetic technique is optimum. We therefore undertook a systematic synthesis of Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) and borehole strainmeter data in three areas in California where there are adequate numbers of both types of instruments (or their equivalent): the San Francisco Bay region (within the Bay Area Regional Deformation network), southern California (within the Southern California Integrated GPS Network), and Parkfield (where a two-color laser system provides a proxy for continuous GPS measurements). An integral component of our study was the elucidation of the physical mechanisms by which such transients occur and propagate. We therefore initiated the development of multiple forward models, using two independent approaches. In the first, we explored the response to specified earthquake slip in viscoelastic models that incorporated failure criteria and the geometry of major faults in California. In the second approach, we examined the dynamical response of a complex

  14. Seismic heating signatures in the Japan Trench subduction plate-boundary fault zone: evidence from a preliminary rock magnetic `geothermometer' (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Dekkers, Mark J.; Zhang, Bo


    Frictional heating during earthquake rupture reveals important information on earthquake mechanisms and energy dissipation. The amount of annealing varies widely and is, as yet, poorly constrained. Here we use magnetic susceptibility versus temperature measurements during cycling to increasingly elevated temperatures to constrain the maximum temperature a slip zone has experienced. The case study comprises sheared clay cored from the Japan Trench subduction plate-boundary fault zone (décollement), which accommodated the large slip of the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku-oki earthquake. The décollement was cored during the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 343, the Japan Trench Fast Drilling Project (JFAST). Heating signatures with estimated maximum temperatures ranging from ˜300 to over 500 °C are determined close to the multiple slip surfaces within the décollement. Since it is impossible to tie a specific slip surface to a certain earthquake, thermal evidence for the cumulative effect of several earthquakes is unveiled. This as yet preliminary rock magnetic `geothermometer' would be a useful tool to detect seismic heating along faults that experienced medium temperature rise, a range which is difficult to assess with other approaches.

  15. Controllability of a viscoelastic plate using one boundary control in displacement or bending


    Pandolfi, L.


    In this paper we consider a viscoelastic plate (linear viscoelasticity of the Maxwell-Boltzmann type) and we compare its controllability properties with the (known) controllability of a purely elastic plate (the control acts on the boundary displacement or bending). By combining operator and moment methods, we prove that the viscoelastic plate inherits the controllability properties of the purely elastic plate.

  16. The transition from linear to diffuse plate boundary in the Azores-Gibraltar region: results from a thin-sheet model (United States)

    Jiménez-Munt, Ivone; Fernàndez, Manel; Torne, Montse; Bird, Peter


    We use the thin-sheet plane-stress approach to study the present-day dynamic behavior of the plate boundary between Eurasia and Africa along the Azores-Gibraltar region. This plate boundary, which extends from the Azores triple junction to the Gibraltar strait, shows a tectonic regime that changes from transtension in the west to transpression in the east, with a strike-slip motion in its central segment. Seismological data reveal that the western and central segments are currently marked by a linear series of earthquakes indicating that the plate boundary is located in a narrow zone. In contrast, the eastern segment is not so well defined and deformation spreads over a much broader area. To apply the thin-sheet approach, we combined heat flow, elevation and crustal thickness data to calculate the steady-state geotherm and the total strength of the lithosphere. Several models with different fault friction coefficients and geometries at the eastern segment of the plate boundary were tested. Results are compared with the maximum compressive stress directions from the World Stress Map, and the calculated seismic strain rates and slip vectors from earthquake data. The best fitting models are consistent with the rotation pole of Argus et al. [D.F. Argus et al., J. Geophys. Res. 94 (1989) 5585-5602], and show that the rheological behavior of the plate boundary must necessarily change from the western and central segments to the eastern segment. The diffuse character of the plate boundary east of the Gorringe Bank is dominated by the transition from oceanic to continental lithosphere, the weakness of the Alboran domain, and the convergence between the African and the Eurasian plates. The displacement of the Alboran domain relative to the African plate may play a major role in stress propagation through the Iberian Peninsula and its Atlantic margin.

  17. Seismicity and seismotectonics of the diffusive Iberian/African plate boundary: Horseshoe Abyssal Plain and Gorringe Bank (United States)

    Grevemeyer, Ingo; Lange, Dietrich; Matias, Luis


    In the area to the west of the Gibraltar Arc the plate boundary between Africa and Iberia is poorly defined. The deformation in the area is forced by the slow NW-SE convergence of 4 mm/yr between the oceanic domains of Iberia/Eurasia and Africa and is accommodated over a 200 km broad tectonically-active deformation zone. The region, however, is also characterized by large earthquakes and tsunamis, such as the 1969 Mw=7.9 Horseshoe Abyssal Plain earthquake and the November 1, 1755 Great Lisbon earthquake with an estimated magnitude of Mw~8.5. The exact location of the source of the 1755 Lisbon earthquake is still unknown. Recent work may suggest that the event occurred in the vicinity of the Horseshoe fault, an oblique thrust fault. However, estimates of tsunami arrival times suggested a source near the Gorringe Bank, a ~180 km-long and ~70 km-wide ridge that has a relieve of ~5000 m. Deep Sea Drilling (DSDP) and rock samples indicated that the bank is mainly composed of serpentinized peridotites with gabbroic intrusions, perhaps being created by overthrusting of the Horseshoe Abyssal Plain onto the Tagus Abyssal Plain in NW direction. Further, the Horseshoe Abyssal Plain is marked by the presence of compressive structures with a roughly NE-SW orientation and E-W trending, segmented, crustal-scale, strike slip faults that extend from the Gorringe Bank to the Gibraltar Arc in the eastern Gulf of Cadiz, which were called "South West Iberian Margin" or SWIM faults. The fault system may mark a developing Eurasia-Africa plate boundary. Two local seismic networks were operated in the area. First, a network of 14 ocean-bottom seismometers (OBS) was operated between April and October 2012 in the vicinity of the Horseshoe fault between 10°W to 11°W, and 35°50'N to 36°10'N. From October 2013 to March 2014 a second network of 15 OBS monitored seismicity at the Gorringe Bank. Both networks benefitted from seismic stations operated in Portugal. The first network provided in

  18. Crustal structure and seismicity distribution adjacent to the Pacific and North American plate boundary in southern California


    Hauksson, Egill


    New three-dimensional (3-D) V_P and V_P/V_S models are determined for southern California using P and S-P travel times from local earthquakes and controlled sources. These models confirm existing tectonic interpretations and provide new insights into the configuration of geological structures at the Pacific-North America plate boundary. The models extend from the U.S.-Mexico border in the south to the southernmost Coast Ranges and Sierra Nevada in the north and have a 15-km horizontal grid sp...

  19. Geometry of the Subducting Nazca Plate Beneath Colombia From Relocation of Intermediate-Depth Earthquakes (United States)

    Chang, Y.; Warren, L. M.; Prieto, G. A.; Grigsby, I.


    In subduction zones, earthquakes help distinguish the location of the downgoing slab to hundreds of kilometers depth. However, beneath northwestern South America, the distribution of large intermediate-depth earthquakes in the Global CMT catalog has gaps along the subduction zone, so the position of the subducting Nazca plate is uncertain. In addition, the earthquake focal mechanisms, which range from along-strike compression to down-dip extension, vary over short distances, suggesting that the subducting slab may have a complicated morphology. To clarify the geometry of the subducting Nazca plate beneath Colombia, we relocate regional seismicity recorded by the Colombian National Seismic Network (RSNC). Our data set contains 1231 earthquakes with catalog locations from 0°N-6°N and 72°W-81°W at depths of 0-200 km and magnitudes from M2.5-6.5 that occurred between 1/2010-2/2013. Catalog hypocenters show an ~20 km thick slab subducting to the east, as well as vertical columns extending up from the slab. The shape, thickness, and position of the slab and other features can be refined by using differential travel times to relocate the earthquakes relative to each other. We verify and adjust the network P and S wave picks and pick arrivals at additional or temporary stations, and these arrival times are used to relocate the earthquakes. The hypocenters of the relocated earthquakes are used to generate 3D contours of the subducting plate and visualize bends and folds in the slab.

  20. Geophysical surveys of the Queen Charlotte Fault plate boundary off SE Alaska: Preliminary results (United States)

    Ten Brink, U. S.; Brothers, D. S.; Andrews, B. D.; Kluesner, J.; Haeussler, P. J.; Miller, N. C.; Watt, J. T.; Dartnell, P.; East, A. E.


    Recent multibeam sonar and high-resolution seismic surveys covering the northern 400-km-long segment of Queen Charlotte Fault off SE Alaska, indicate that the entire 50 mm/yr right-lateral Pacific-North America plate motion is currently accommodated by a single fault trace. The trace is remarkably straight rarely interrupted by step-overs, and is often Internal basin stratigraphy indicates possible southward migration of the step-over with time. Slight outward curving of the southern strand may suggest the presence of a deeper barrier there, which could have terminated the northward super-shear rupture of the 2013 M7.5 Craig Earthquake. Whether this possible barrier is related to the intersection of the Aja Fracture Zone with the plate boundary is unclear. No other surficial impediments to rupture were observed along the 315 km trace between this fault step-over and a 20° bend near Icy Point, where the fault extends onshore and becomes highly transpressional. An enigmatic oval depression, 1.5-2 km wide and 500 m deep, south of the step-over and a possible mud volcano north of the step-over, may attest to possible vigorous gas and fluid upwelling along the fault zone.

  1. Seismicity of the diffusive Iberian/African plate boundary at the eastern terminus of the Azores-Gibraltar Transform fault (United States)

    Lange, D.; Grevemeyer, I.; Matias, L. M.


    The plate boundary at the eastern terminus of the Azores-Gibraltar transform fault between Africa and Iberia is poorly defined. The deformation in the area is forced by the slow NW-SE convergence of 4 mm/yr between the oceanic domains of Iberia/Eurasia and Africa and is accommodated over a 200 km broad tectonically-active deformation zone. The region, however, is also characterized by large earthquakes, such as the 1969 Mw=7.9 Horseshoe event and the November 1, 1755 Great Lisbon earthquake with an estimated magnitude of Mw~8.5. The exact location of the source of the 1755 Lisbon earthquake is still unknown. Recent work may suggest that the event occurred in the vicinity of the Horseshoe fault, an oblique thrust fault. However, estimates of tsunami arrival times suggested a source near the Gorringe Bank, a ~180 km-long and ~70 km-wide ridge that has a relieve of ~5000 m. Deep Sea Drilling (DSDP) and rock samples indicated that the bank is mainly composed of serpentinized peridotites with gabbroic intrusions, perhaps being created by overthrusting of the Horseshoe Abyssal Plain onto the Tagus Abyssal Plain in NW direction. Further, the Horseshoe Abyssal Plain is marked by the presence of compressive structures with a roughly NE-SW orientation and E-W trending, segmented, crustal-scale, strike slip faults that extend from the Gorringe Bank to the Gibraltar Arc in the eastern Gulf of Cadiz, which were called "South West Iberian Margin" or SWIM faults. The fault system may mark a developing Eurasia-Africa plate boundary. Two local seismic networks were operated in the area. First, a network of 14 ocean-bottom seismometers (OBS) was operated between April and October 2012 in the vicinity of the Horseshoe fault between 10°W to 11°W, and 35°50'N to 36°10'N. From October 2013 to March 2014 a second network of 15 OBS monitored seismicity at the Gorringe Bank. Both networks benefitted from seismic stations operated in Portugal. The first network provided in the order of

  2. Comparison of earthquake source parameters and interseismic plate coupling variations in global subduction zones (Invited) (United States)

    Bilek, S. L.; Moyer, P. A.; Stankova-Pursley, J.


    Geodetically determined interseismic coupling variations have been found in subduction zones worldwide. These coupling variations have been linked to heterogeneities in interplate fault frictional conditions. These connections to fault friction imply that observed coupling variations are also important in influencing details in earthquake rupture behavior. Because of the wealth of newly available geodetic models along many subduction zones, it is now possible to examine detailed variations in coupling and compare to seismicity characteristics. Here we use a large catalog of earthquake source time functions and slip models for moderate to large magnitude earthquakes to explore these connections, comparing earthquake source parameters with available models of geodetic coupling along segments of the Japan, Kurile, Kamchatka, Peru, Chile, and Alaska subduction zones. In addition, we use published geodetic results along the Costa Rica margin to compare with source parameters of small magnitude earthquakes recorded with an onshore-offshore network of seismometers. For the moderate to large magnitude earthquakes, preliminary results suggest a complex relationship between earthquake parameters and estimates of strongly and weakly coupled segments of the plate interface. For example, along the Kamchatka subduction zone, these earthquakes occur primarily along the transition between strong and weak coupling, with significant heterogeneity in the pattern of moment scaled duration with respect to the coupling estimates. The longest scaled duration event in this catalog occurred in a region of strong coupling. Earthquakes along the transition between strong and weakly coupled exhibited the most complexity in the source time functions. Use of small magnitude (0.5 Osa Peninsula relative to the Nicoya Peninsula, mimicking the along-strike variations in calculated interplate coupling.

  3. Investigating crustal deformation associated with the North America-Pacific plate boundary in southern California with GPS geodesy (United States)

    Spinler, Joshua C.

    The three largest earthquakes in the last 25 years in southern California occurred on faults located adjacent to the southern San Andreas fault, with the M7.3 1992 Landers and M7.1 1999 Hector Mine earthquakes occurring in the eastern California shear zone (ECSZ) in the Mojave Desert, and the M7.2 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake occurring along the Laguna Salada fault in northern Baja California, Mexico. The locations of these events near to but not along the southern San Andreas fault (SSAF) is unusual in that the last major event on the SSAF occurred more than 300 years ago, with an estimated recurrence interval of 215 +/- 25 years. The focus of this dissertation is to address the present-day deformation field along the North America-Pacific plate boundary in southern California and northern Baja California, through the analysis of GPS data, and elastic block and viscoelastic earthquake models to determine fault slip rates and rheological properties of the lithosphere in the plate boundary zone. We accomplish this in three separate studies. The first study looks at how strain is partitioned northwards along-strike from the southern San Andreas fault near the Salton Sea. We find that estimates for slip-rates on the southern San Andreas decrease from ~23 mm/yr in the south to ~8 mm/yr as the fault passes through San Gorgonio Pass to the northwest, while ~13-18 mm/yr of slip is partitioned onto NW-SE trending faults of the ECSZ where the Landers and Hector Mine earthquakes occurred. This speaks directly to San Andreas earthquake hazards, as a reduction in the slip rate would require greater time between events to build up enough slip deficit in order to generate a large magnitude earthquake. The second study focuses on inferring the rheological structure beneath the Salton Trough region. This is accomplished through analysis of postseismic deformation observed using a set of the GPS data collected before and after the 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake. By

  4. Initial-boundary value problems for a class of nonlinear thermoelastic plate equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jian-Wen; Rong Xiao-Liang; Wu Run-Heng


    This paper studies initial-boundary value problems for a class of nonlinear thermoelastic plate equations. Under some certain initial data and boundary conditions,it obtains an existence and uniqueness theorem of global weak solutions of the nonlinear thermoelstic plate equations,by means of the Galerkin method. Moreover,it also proves the existence of strong and classical solutions.

  5. Lithospheric flexure under the Hawaiian volcanic load: Internal stresses and a broken plate revealed by earthquakes (United States)

    Klein, Fred W.


    Several lines of earthquake evidence indicate that the lithospheric plate is broken under the load of the island of Hawai`i, where the geometry of the lithosphere is circular with a central depression. The plate bends concave downward surrounding a stress-free hole, rather than bending concave upward as with past assumptions. Earthquake focal mechanisms show that the center of load stress and the weak hole is between the summits of Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea where the load is greatest. The earthquake gap at 21 km depth coincides with the predicted neutral plane of flexure where horizontal stress changes sign. Focal mechanism P axes below the neutral plane display a striking radial pattern pointing to the stress center. Earthquakes above the neutral plane in the north part of the island have opposite stress patterns; T axes tend to be radial. The M6.2 Honomu and M6.7 Kiholo main shocks (both at 39 km depth) are below the neutral plane and show radial compression, and the M6.0 Kiholo aftershock above the neutral plane has tangential compression. Earthquakes deeper than 20 km define a donut of seismicity around the stress center where flexural bending is a maximum. The hole is interpreted as the soft center where the lithospheric plate is broken. Kilauea's deep conduit is seismically active because it is in the ring of maximum bending. A simplified two-dimensional stress model for a bending slab with a load at one end yields stress orientations that agree with earthquake stress axes and radial P axes below the neutral plane. A previous inversion of deep Hawaiian focal mechanisms found a circular solution around the stress center that agrees with the model. For horizontal faults, the shear stress within the bending slab matches the slip in the deep Kilauea seismic zone and enhances outward slip of active flanks.

  6. Accommodation of collisional shortening along the Alpine plate boundary : plate kinematics vs rheological controls (United States)

    Rosenberg, Claudio; Bellahsen, Nicolas


    The style of collision in the Alps varies along strike, reflecting different amounts and different modes of accommodation of collisional shortening. These differences control the patterns of exhumation during collision. Whereas the western Alps largely consist of a metamorphic complex formed during subduction and largely exhumed before the initiation of collision, the subduction nappe-stack of the Central and the Eastern Alps is strongly overprinted by collisional shortening and by Barrovian metamorphism. Based on compiled and new data we estimate amounts of collisional shortening along the strike of the chain and set it in relationship to the geometry of the collisional prism. The western Alpine collisional structures form a very large (in map view), but moderately shortened wedge, terminating in front of a poorly developed Molasse basin. Shortening of this wedge was mainly localized along its external parts, resulting in accretion of basement and cover units thrusted towards the foreland. Back-folding and back-thrusting are barely developed and no shortening takes place in the upper, Adriatic plate. In the Central Alps, the amount of collisional shortening is larger and it is distributed both in the lower and in the upper plate. The collisional prism is bivergent and partitioning of the amount of shortening between the upper and lower plates varies along strike, being most probably controlled by rheological, heterogeneities. The thickened accreted lower plate is strongly affected by Barrovian metamorphism where shortening is largest and localized within a confined area. A deep Molasse basin developed in front of the prism. In the Eastern Alps collisional kinematics vary from east to west, with orogen-parallel displacements dominating in the east and orogen-perpendicular ones in the West, where they culminate in the structural and metamorphic dome of the Tauern Window. Nowhere else in the Alps collisional shortening is so strongly localized in one and the same

  7. Dike-induced contraction along oceanic and continental divergent plate boundaries

    KAUST Repository

    Trippanera, D.


    The axis of divergent plate boundaries shows extension fractures and normal faults at the surface. Here we present evidence of contraction along the axis of the oceanic ridge of Iceland and the continental Main Ethiopian Rift. Contraction is found at the base of the tilted hanging wall of dilational normal faults, balancing part of their extension. Our experiments suggest that these structures result from dike emplacement. Multiple dike injection induces subsidence above and uplift to the sides of the dikes; the transition in between is accommodated by reverse faults and subsequent peripheral inward dipping normal faults. Our results suggest that contraction is a direct product of magma emplacement along divergent plate boundaries, at various scales, marking a precise evolutionary stage and initiating part of the extensional structures (extension fractures and normal faults). Key Points Contraction along divergent plate boundaries results from dike emplacementContraction generates extensional structures along divergent plate boundariesSurface deformation along divergent plate boundaries may be magma induced

  8. Evolving seismogenic plate boundary megathrust and mega-splay faults in subduction zone (Invited) (United States)

    Kimura, G.; Hamahashi, M.; Fukuchi, R.; Yamaguchi, A.; Kameda, J.; Kitamura, Y.; Hashimoto, Y.; Hamada, Y.; Saito, S.; Kawasaki, R.


    Understanding the fault mechanism and its relationship to the sesimo-tsunamigenesis is a key of the scientific targets of subduction zone and therefore NantroSEIZE project of IODP and future new drilling project of International Ocean Discovery Program keeps focusing on that. Mega-splay fault branched from plate boundary megathrust in subduction zone is located around the border between outer and inner wedges and is considered to cause great earthquake and tsunami such as 1960 Alaska earthquake, 1944 and 1946 Nankai-Tonankai earthquakes, and 2004 Sumatra earthquakes. Seismic reflection studies for the mega-splay fault in 2D and 3D in the Nankai forearc present the reflector with negative or positive polarities with various amplitudes and suggest complicated petrophysical properties and condition of the fault and its surroundings. The Nankai mega-splay fault at a depth of ~5km is going to be drilled and cored by NantroSEIZE experiments and is expected for great progress of understanding of the fault mechanics. Before drilling the really targeted seismogenic fault, we are conducting many exercises of geophysical and geological observations. The core-log-seismic integrated exercise for the exhumed mega-splay fault by drilling was operated for the Nobeoka thrust in the Shimanto Belt, Kyushu, Japan. The Nobeoka thrust was once buried in the depth >~10km and suffered maximum temperature >~300 dgree C. As the core recovery is ~99%, perfect correlation between the core and logging data is possible. Thickness of the fault zone is >200 m with a ~50 cm thick central fault core dividing the phyllitic hanging wall and the footwall of broken-melange like cataclasite. A-few-meter-thick discrete damage zones with fault cores are recognized by difference in physical properties and visual deformation textures at several horizons in the fault zone. Host rocks for those damaged zones are completely lithified cataclasites with abundant mineral veins, which record the older and deeper

  9. EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory Data in the College Classroom (Invited) (United States)

    Eriksson, S. C.; Olds, S. E.


    The Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) is the geodetic component of the EarthScope project, designed to study the 3-D strain field across the active boundary zone between the Pacific and North American tectonics plates in the western United States. All PBO data are freely available to scientific and educational communities and have been incorporated into a variety of activities for college and university classrooms. UNAVCO Education and Outreach program staff have worked closely with faculty users, scientific researchers, and facility staff to create materials that are scientifically and technically accurate as well as useful to the classroom user. Availability of processed GPS data is not new to the geoscience community. However, PBO data staff have worked with education staff to deliver data that are readily accessible to educators. The UNAVCO Data for Educators webpage, incorporating an embedded Google Map with PBO GPS locations and providing current GPS time series plots and downloadable data, extends and updates the datasets available to our community. Google Earth allows the visualization GPS data with other types of datasets, e.g. LiDAR, while maintaining the self-contained and easy-to-use interface of UNAVCO’s Jules Verne Voyager map tools, which have multiple sets of geological and geophysical data. Curricular materials provide scaffolds for using EarthScope data in a variety of forms for different learning goals. Simple visualization of earthquake epicenters and locations of volcanoes can be used with velocity vectors to make simple deductions of plate boundary behaviors. Readily available time series plots provide opportunities for additional science skills, and there are web and paper-based support materials for downloading data, manipulating tables, and using plotting programs for processed GPS data. Scientists have provided contextual materials to explore the importance of these data in interpreting the structure and dynamics of the Earth. These data

  10. Detection of Reflected Waves from Plate Boundary Using ACROSS Source and Seismic Array (United States)

    Soma, T.; Watanabe, T.; Ikuta, R.; Saiga, A.; Miyajima, R.; Yamaoka, K.; Tsuruga, K.; Kunitomo, T.; Hasada, Y.; Kasahara, J.; Satomura, M.; Kumazawa, M.; Fujii, N.


    ACROSS (Accurately Controlled and Routinely Operated Signal System) is effective in monitoring temporary changes of Earth's interior. A long-term operation experiment near Nojima fault [Ikuta et al.,2004] detected small temporary changes of travel time of P and S waves at tele-seismic events. Toward Tokai monitoring plan to detect the reflected phases from the top of Philippine Sea Plate and monitor its temporal changes, a mid-term continuous experiment was conducted using ACROSS source and a seismic array. The experiment was operated for the period from Dec. 2004 to Sep.2005 in the Tokai area, Pacific side of the central part of Japan. In this region, the expected Tokai earthquake is a serious concern. In addition, slow slip events and low-frequency tremors are observed in this area. A strong reflected phase from the plate boundary was found by the seismic observation using artificial sources [Iidaka et al.,2003]. The purpose of the experiment is to establish a method to detect and monitor the reflection from the plate boundary using ACROSS. The ACROSS source is located in Toki city and operated by Tono Geoscience Center. The ACROSS source continuously transmits precisely-controlled frequency-modulated signals whose frequency band ranges from 10 to 20 Hz with an interval of 50 seconds. We deployed a short-span seismic array at the distance of 55 km from the ACROSS source. The cross-shaped seismic array spanning 2 km consists of 12 seismometers equipped with an offline data logger, amplifier and solarpanel. We stacked the received signal for a month with an interval of 200 seconds in order to improve signal noise ratio. We extracted a series of line spectrum of ACROSS signal. Transfer function can be obtained by dividing spectrum by the source. Applying inverse Fourier transform, we can obtain the transfer function in time-domain. We identified direct P and S phases by comparing with the standard travel time table by JMA. We also found some coherent later phases

  11. The Quest for the Africa-Eurasia plate boundary West of the Strait of Gibraltar (United States)

    Zitellini, N.


    A new swath bathymetry compilation of the Gulf of Cadiz Area and SW Iberia is presented. The new map is the result of a collaborative research performed after year 2000 by teams from 7 European countries and 14 research institutions. This new dataset allow for the first time to present and to discuss the missing link in the plate boundary between Eurasia and Africa in the Central Atlantic. A set of almost linear and sub parallel dextral strike-slip faults, the SWIM Faults (SWIM is the acronym of the ESF EuroMargins project "Earthquake and Tsunami hazards of active faults at the South West Iberian Margin: deep structure, high-resolution imaging and paleoseismic signature") was mapped using a the new swath bathymetry compilation available in the area. The SWIM Faults form a narrow band of deformation over a length of 600 km coincident with a small circle centred on the pole of rotation of Africa with respect to Eurasia, This narrow band of deformation connects the Gloria Fault to the Rif-Tell Fault Zone, two segments of the plate boundary between Africa and Eurasia. In addition, the SWIM faults cuts across the Gulf of Cadiz, in the Atlantic Ocean, where the 1755 Great Lisbon earthquake, M~8.5-8.7, and tsunami were generated, providing a new insights on its source location. SWIM Team: E. Gràcia (2), L. Matias (3), P. Terrinha (4), M.A. Abreu (5), G. DeAlteriis(6), J.P. Henriet (7), J.J. Dañobeitia (2), D.G. Masson (8), T. Mulder (9), R. Ramella (10), L. Somoza (11) and S. Diez (2) (2) Unitat de Tecnologia Marina (CSIC), Centre Mediterrani d'Investigacions Marines i Ambientals, Barcelona, Spain (3) Centro Geofísica da Universidade de Lisboa (CGUL, IDL), Lisboa, Portugal (4) National Institute for Engineering, Technology and Innovation (INETI, LATTEX), Departamento de Geologia Marinha, Amadora, Portugal (5) Estrutura de Missão para a Extensão da Plataforma Continental, Lisboa, Portugal (6) Geomare Sud IAMC, CNR, Napoli, Italy (7) Renard Centre of Marine Geology

  12. Formulation and Application of a Physically-Based Rupture Probability Model for Large Earthquakes on Subduction Zones: A Case Study of Earthquakes on Nazca Plate (United States)

    Mahdyiar, M.; Galgana, G.; Shen-Tu, B.; Klein, E.; Pontbriand, C. W.


    -based rupture probability models for large earthquakes on subduction zones that is consistent with their true locking state and earthquake history. We will present the formulation of the proposed model and its application to the Nazca plate subduction zone.

  13. EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory, Southwest Region - Communications, Challenges, and Cooperation (United States)

    Turner, R. C.; Mann, D.; Walls, C. P.; Basset, A.; Lawrence, S.; Berglund, H. T.


    The Southwest Region of the EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory is engaged in efforts to expand capabilities and renovate the network. These efforts include GNSS hardware modernization (in cooperation with state and local agencies), communications upgrades that improve data throughput and decrease recurring costs, co-location of prototype instruments for use in earthquake early warning, and working to ensure consistent high-quality data in the face of radio spectrum encroachment.The Global Positioning System (GPS) is but one of a growing number of global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) with the potential to improve geodetic observations. In addition to strategic deployment of GNSS-capable hardware, the Southwest region is currently developing an agreement with Caltrans to augment the network with GNSS systems at about a dozen stations. The upgrades will consist of a number of Caltrans-provided GLONASS-ready receivers and project is scheduled for completion by early 2016.The Southwest Region has continued to upgrade and build new radio networks to improve dependability, monitoring, and data download rates (including transfers of high-rate data). Here, we highlight one such network near Hollister, CA, which eliminated several cellular modems and improved reliability.UNAVCO and Scripps have been working in collaboration to augment a subset of GPS stations with low-cost strong-motion sensors for use in Earthquake Early Warning systems. To date, 21 PBO stations have been upgraded with MEMS accelerometers along the San Andreas and San Jacinto Faults in Northern and Southern California, 15 of which stream data to UNAVCO in real time.As the use of the radio frequency spectrum increases, PBO faces more radio frequency interference (RFI) in our data communications networks; in addition, RFI issues are beginning to impact GNSS data collection. Here we report on a PBO site suspected of suffering from RFI and discuss briefly mitigation efforts to minimize these effects.

  14. Mesoproterozoic Earthquake Events and Breakup of the Sino-Korean Plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAO Xiufu; GAO Linzhi; PENG Yang


    In the Mesoproterozoic time, the northern part of the Sino-Korean Plate experienced a period of intensive tectonic extension and breakup. 1. An abundance of sedimentary earthquake records is preserved in the Chuanlinggou, Tuanshanzi and Gaoyuzhuang formations in the Mesoproterozoic Changcheng System (1800-1400 Ma) and in the Mesoproterozoic Wumishan Formation of the Jixian System (1400-1000 Ma). These earthquake records are characterized by various liquefied sand-veins, carbonate microspar and coarser spar veins, limestone dikes, liquefied breccia and various forms of liquefied contorted bedding. This deformation is always associated with synsedimentary faults and igneous activity. 2. Three liquefaction models for soft carbonate sediments are recognized, including liquefaction in laminated carbonate rocks, liquefaction in thin-bedded carbonates and large-scale liquefaction along huge carbonate dikes. 3. Based on the record of earthquake and volcanic activities, the Sino-Korean Plate experienced at least twice intraplate breakups. One occurred between 1800-1400 Ma, and the other occurred at about 1200 Ma. The last breakup resulted in formation of the Yan-Liao aulacogen, a tectonic zone characterized by deeper material vibrancy, active faults, major igneous activity and frequent earthquakes.

  15. Research on the Characteristics of Large Earthquake Activity on the Active Tectonic Boundaries on the Chinese Mainland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Hongsheng; Zhang Guomin; Liu Jie; Wang Hui


    Based on the research and the division of the active tectonic blocks and their boundaries on the Chinese mainland, the feature of the large earthquake activities on the 24 boundaries between the 6 active tectonic block regions (grade Ⅰ ) and the 22 active tectonic blocks (grade Ⅱ ) are studied. The seismicity levels on the active tectonic block boundaries are discussed considering the large earthquake frequency and the released strain energy in unit distance and time. The theoretic maximal magnitude and the recurrence period of each boundary are then calculated from the G-R relation. By comparing this with the actual earthquake records, it is found that the intensities of the earthquake deduced from the seismic activity parameter (a/b) on the main active boundaries on the Chinese mainland are consistent with that of the natural earthquakes. Meanwhile, an inverse relation is found between the recurrence periods of large earthquakes and the tectonic motion rate on the boundaries. These results show that the a, b values of each boundary obtained in this paper are valuable. In addition, the present seismic activities and hazards of these boundaries are also probed into with the historical data and their elapsed time on each boundary based on the hypothesis that the large earthquakes satisfy Poisson distribution.

  16. Seismo-electromagnetic phenomena in the western part of the Eurasia-Nubia plate boundary (United States)

    Gonçalves da Silva, Hugo; Bezzeghoud, Mourad; Biagi, Pier; Namorado Rosa, Rui; Salgueiro da Silva, Manuel; Caldeira, Bento; Heitor Reis, Artur; Borges, José Fernando; Tlemçani, Mouhaydine; Manso, Marco


    This paper presents a future research plan that aims to monitor Seismo-electromagnetic (SEM) phenomena in the western part of the Eurasia-Nubia plate boundary (WENP). This region has a significant tectonic activity [1] combined with relatively low electromagnetic noise levels and for that reason presents the possibility to perform high quality SEM measurements. Further, it is known that low-frequency [ultra (ULF), very (VLF), and low-frequencies (LF)] electromagnetic (EM) waves produce more convincing earthquake precursors (compared to higher frequencies) because of less contamination, large skin depth, and low attenuation [2]. Thus, two SEM effects will be considered: ULF electromagnetic field emissions [3], and VLF/LF radio broadcastings [4]. With respect to the ULF measurements, as a start, three ULF sensors are planned to be installed in the South of Iberian Peninsula supported by the existing networks of seismic research stations. Subsequent development of this initial plan could result in the implementation of a lager ULF monitoring network not only in the Iberian Peninsula, but also in the rest of Europe. Possible integration in the SEGMA array is now under consideration. Another perspective is to use a portable station to track seismic events. Regarding the VLF/LF radio broadcastings, a receiver is planned to be mounted in University of Évora. Radio signals from up to 10 transmitters (in these bands) of interest to study the seismic activity in the WENP region will be monitored. Actually, the radio path from the transmitter to the receiver should cross the epicentral area, therefore two possible transmitters are the ones installed in Monaco (France) and Sicily (Italy). Furthermore, the system will integrate the INFREP network and in this context it will not be restricted to WENP region. With the development of these research plans we aim to collect novel SEM data emerging from the seismic activity in the WENP region. We expect to address the time

  17. MHD Boundary Layer Slip Flow and Heat Transfer over a Flat Plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Krishnendu Bhattacharyya; Swati Mukhopadhyay; G.C.Layek


    An analysis of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) boundary layer flow and heat transfer over a flat plate with slip condition at the boundary is presented. A complete self-similar set of equations are obtained from the governing equations using similarity transformations and are solved by a shooting method. In the boundary slip condition no local similarity occurs. Velocity and temperature distributions within the boundary layer are presented. Our analysis reveals that the increase of magnetic and slip parameters reduce the boundary layer thickness and also enhance the heat transfer from the plate.%@@ An analysis of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) boundary layer flow and heat transfer over a flat plate with slip condition at the boundary is presented.A complete self-similar set of equations are obtained from the governing equations using similarity transformations and are solved by a shooting method.In the boundary slip condition no local similarity occurs.Velocity and temperature distributions within the boundary layer are presented.Our analysis reveals that the increase of magnetic and slip parameters reduce the boundary layer thickness and also enhance the heat transfer from the plate.

  18. Hydrological Effects in the EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (United States)

    Meertens, C.; Wahr, J.; Borsa, A.; Jackson, M.; Wahr, A.


    The dense network of 1,100 continuously operating GPS stations in the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) is providing high quality position time series. Data are processed by PBO Analysis Centers at the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology and at Central Washington University. The results are combined by the Analysis Center Coordinator at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and are made available from the UNAVCO Data Center in Boulder. Analysis software of Langbein, 2008, was used to estimate secular trends and annual variations in the time series. The results were interpreted in terms of hydrological loading and poroelastic effects, from both natural and anthropogenic changes in water storage. The effects of monument stability were also considered. The density of PBO observations allows for the identification of spatial patterns that appear coherent over relatively broad areas. Vertical annual signals of 8-10 mm peak-to-peak amplitude are evident at stations in the mountains of northern and central California and southern Oregon showing peak uplift in October and are correlated to hydrological loading. The vertical elastic loading signal, calculated from the 0.25 by 0.25 degree community Noah land-surface model, fits the annual signal well and appears also to model the secular trends, although the time duration of ~3 years is still limited. In contrast to mountainous regions, stations in the valleys of California show greater spatial variability ranging from stations with almost no detectable annual signal to stations with very large, 20-30 mm, amplitudes with peak uplift in March. The vertical signals are temporally correlated to ground-water variations caused by pumping for agricultural irrigation and likely are caused by poroelastic effects in the sediments rather than loading. Annual vertical signals in southern California, where not obviously influenced from localized ground-water fluctuations, are small with ~2 mm amplitude and may be due to

  19. Lithospheric flexure under the Hawaiian volcanic load: Internal stresses and a broken plate revealed by earthquakes (United States)

    Klein, Fred W.


    Several lines of earthquake evidence indicate that the lithospheric plate is broken under the load of the island of Hawai`i, where the geometry of the lithosphere is circular with a central depression. The plate bends concave downward surrounding a stress-free hole, rather than bending concave upward as with past assumptions. Earthquake focal mechanisms show that the center of load stress and the weak hole is between the summits of Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea where the load is greatest. The earthquake gap at 21 km depth coincides with the predicted neutral plane of flexure where horizontal stress changes sign. Focal mechanism P axes below the neutral plane display a striking radial pattern pointing to the stress center. Earthquakes above the neutral plane in the north part of the island have opposite stress patterns; T axes tend to be radial. The M6.2 Honomu and M6.7 Kiholo main shocks (both at 39 km depth) are below the neutral plane and show radial compression, and the M6.0 Kiholo aftershock above the neutral plane has tangential compression. Earthquakes deeper than 20 km define a donut of seismicity around the stress center where flexural bending is a maximum. The hole is interpreted as the soft center where the lithospheric plate is broken. Kilauea's deep conduit is seismically active because it is in the ring of maximum bending. A simplified two-dimensional stress model for a bending slab with a load at one end yields stress orientations that agree with earthquake stress axes and radial P axes below the neutral plane. A previous inversion of deep Hawaiian focal mechanisms found a circular solution around the stress center that agrees with the model. For horizontal faults, the shear stress within the bending slab matches the slip in the deep Kilauea seismic zone and enhances outward slip of active flanks.

  20. Plate boundaries and evolution of the Solomon Sea region (United States)

    Honza, E.; Davies, H. L.; Keene, J. B.; Tiffin, D. L.


    The Solomon Sea Plate was widely developed during late Oligocene, separating the proto-West Melanesian Arc from the proto-Trobriand Arc. Spreading in the Bismarck Sea and in the Woodlark Basin resulted from interaction between the Pacific and Australian Plates, specifically from the collision of the proto-West Melanesian Arc with north New Guinea, which occurred after arc reversal. This model explains the extensive Miocene, Pliocene, and Quaternary volcanism of the Papua New Guinea mainland as it related to southward subduction of the Trobriand Trough. Our interpreted plate motions are concordant with the geological evidence onshore and also with complex tectonic features in the Solomon Sea Basin Region.

  1. Active faulting and transpression tectonics along the plate boundary in North Africa


    Mustapha Meghraoui; Silvia Pondrelli


    International audience; We present a synthesis of the active tectonics of the northern Atlas Mountains , and suggest a kinematic model of transpression and block rotation that illustrates the mechanics of this section of the Africa–Eurasia plate boundary. Neotectonic structures and significant shallow seismicity (with Mw >5.0) indicate that coeval E-W-trending, right-lateral faulting and NE-SW, thrust-related folding result from oblique convergence at the plate boundary, which forms a transpr...

  2. Evidence for the 1762 Tsunamigenic Earthquake in an Extremely Sedimented Segment of the Sunda Subduction/Collision Boundary, SE Bangladesh (United States)

    McHugh, C. M.; Mansfield, V.; Mondal, D. R.; Seeber, L.; Steckler, M. S.; Mustaque, S.; Ahkter, S. H.


    After the catastrophic 2004 Sumatra earthquake and tsunami, attention focussed on the segment of the Sunda subduction system along the heavily populated region of the Bay of Bengal. Here the Indian plate is converging obliquely with the Burma arc at GPS rates of 14mm/yr. The extremely thick sediments (~20km) of the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta (GBD) are accreted into a very wide thrust-fold belt. Despite some likely aseismic deformation, the great 1762 earthquake proves the seismogenic potential of this boundary. Evidence is mounting that the earthquake ruptured 700km of the boundary from the Bengal Fan to the GBD shelf along Myanmar and Bangladesh. Recent U-Th ages and GPS measurements in Saint Martin Island, an anticline in the outer part of the accretion belt on the shelf, showed that corals died and were uplifted 2.5m coseismically during the 1762 earthquake. Historic accounts and modelling predicted a 1762 tsunami, but geologic evidence for it was not previously reported. We found in both Saint Martin and ~20km north on the Teknaf coast strong evidence for tsunami emplacement. In Saint Martin we discovered a shelly sand layer that extends ~4km in the center of the island. The layer contains shallow water foraminifers, coral fragments and molluscs. Twenty C-14 ages from the shell layer range 1440-1753 cal yrs AD and average 1600 cal yrs AD. We also studied a shell layer that extends for 16,500 m2 on top of a terrace that is now 2m above present sea level and pre-1762 earthquake elevation. Ten C14 ages obtained from the shell bed range 1689-1875 cal yrs AD and average 1753 cal yrs AD. This bed is 1.2m thick and composed of molluscs and foraminifers of intertidal and subtidal origin currently found in shelf depths of 0-100 m. The layer is composed of cobble to mud size sediment and although chaotic, we identified at least three pulses of coarse sediment within an overall fining-upwards unit. The studied 1762 shoreline uplift is likely to partly include coseiesmic

  3. The interpretation of crustal dynamics data in terms of plate motions and regional deformation near plate boundaries (United States)

    Solomon, Sean C.

    During our participation in the NASA Crustal Dynamics Project under NASA contract NAS-27339 and grant NAG5-814 for the period 1982-1991, we published or submitted for publication 30 research papers and 52 abstracts of presentations at scientific meetings. In addition, five M.I.T. Ph.D. students (Eric Bergman, Steven Bratt, Dan Davis, Jeanne Sauber, Anne Sheehan) were supported wholly or in part by this project during their thesis research. Highlights of our research progress during this period include the following: application of geodetic data to determine rates of strain in the Mojave block and in central California and to clarify the relation of such strain to the San Andreas fault and Pacific-North American plate motions; application of geodetic data to infer post seismic deformation associated with large earthquakes in the Imperial Valley, Hebgen Lake, Argentina, and Chile; determination of the state of stress in oceanic lithosphere from a systematic study of the centroid depths and source mechanisms of oceanic intraplate earthquakes; development of models for the state of stress in young oceanic regions arising from the differential cooling of the lithosphere; determination of the depth extent and rupture characteristics of oceanic transform earthquakes; improved determination of earthquake slip vectors in the Gulf of California, an important data set for the estimation of Pacific-North American plate motions; development of models for the state of stress and mechanics of fold-and-thrust belts and accretionary wedges; development of procedures to invert geoid height, residual bathymetry, and differential body wave travel time residuals for lateral variations in the characteristic temperature and bulk composition of the oceanic upper mantle; and initial GPS measurements of crustal deformation associated with the Imperial-Cerro Prieto fault system in southern California and northern Mexico. Full descriptions of the research conducted on these topics may be

  4. Stress in the contorted Nazca Plate beneath southern Peru from local earthquakes (United States)

    Schneider, John F.; Sacks, I. Selwyn


    We study earthquake focal mechanisms in a region of highly contorted subducting lithosphere to identify dominant sources of stress in the subduction process. We observe a stress pattern in the contorted Nazca plate beneath southern Peru from an analysis of hypocentral trend and focal mechanisms of intermediate-depth earthquakes. Expanding on previous studies, we examine the hypocentral trend using 1673 of 2178 well-located local events from the nine-station Arequipa network. The dip of the plate beneath southern Peru averages 25°-30° from 25- to 100-km depth. Below this depth there is an 80- to 100-km-wide contortion between a zone of increasing dip (convex) to the southeast and a flat lying (concave) zone to the northwest. Using more than 6000 P wave first motions of events deeper than 50 km, we derive stress orientations from a moving average of composite focal mechanisms across a 200 by 350 km region including the contortion. The in-plate distribution of tension (T) and compression (P) axes reveals a coherent stress pattern. The trend is most clear beneath south-central Peru (NW section) and below 100- km depth in southernmost Peru (SE section). Both T and P axes tend to be dominantly in plate, especially below 100-km depth. T axes orient toward the contortion in a fan-shaped trend, which suggests that the deepest part of the seismic zone, within the convex SE section, is sinking and pulling the more buoyant NW section. We conclude that from 50- to 200-km depth, slab-pull forces are dominant in the observed stress. Our results suggest that a significant amount of plate extension occurs in this region of intermediate-depth subduction.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Suo-wen; WANG Yue-sheng; ZHANG Zi-mao; MA Xing-rui


    The theoretical analysis and numerical calculation of scattering of elastic waves and dynamic stress concentrations in the thin plate with the cutout was studied using dual reciprocity boundary element method (DRM). Based on the work equivalent law, the dual reciprocity boundary integral equations for flexural waves in the thin plate were established using static fundamental solution. As illustration, numerical results for the dynamic stress concentration factors in the thin plate with a circular hole are given.The results obtained demonstrate good agreement with other reported results and show high accuracy.

  6. Relationship between outer forearc subsidence and plate boundary kinematics along the Northeast Japan convergent margin (United States)

    Regalla, Christine; Fisher, Donald M.; Kirby, Eric; Furlong, Kevin P.


    Tectonic erosion along convergent plate boundaries, whereby removal of upper plate material along the subduction zone interface drives kilometer-scale outer forearc subsidence, has been purported to explain the evolution of nearly half the world's subduction margins, including part of the history of northeast Japan. Here, we evaluate the role of plate boundary dynamics in driving forearc subsidence in northeastern Japan. A synthesis of newly updated analyses of outer forearc subsidence, the timing and kinematics of upper plate deformation, and the history of plate convergence along the Japan trench demonstrate that the onset of rapid fore-arc tectonic subsidence is contemporaneous with upper plate extension during the opening of the Sea of Japan and with an acceleration in convergence rate at the trench. In Plio-Quaternary time, relative uplift of the outer forearc is contemporaneous with contraction across the arc and a decrease in plate convergence rate. The coincidence of these changes across the forearc, arc, backarc system appears to require an explanation at the scale of the entire plate boundary. Similar observations along other western Pacific margins suggest that correlations between forearc subsidence and major changes in plate kinematics are the rule, rather than the exception. We suggest that a significant component of forearc subsidence at the northeast Japan margin is not the consequence of basal tectonic erosion, but instead reflects dynamic changes in plate boundary geometry driven by temporal variations in plate kinematics. If correct, this model requires a reconsideration of the mass balance and crustal recycling of continental crust at nonaccretionary margins.

  7. Interaction between the Dauki and the Indo-Burman convergence boundaries from teleseismic and locally recorded earthquake data (United States)

    Howe, M.; Moulik, P.; Seeber, L.; Kim, W.; Steckler, M. S.


    The Himalayan and the Burma Arcs converge onto the Indian plate from opposite sides near their syntaxial juncture and have reduced it to a sliver. Both geology and seismicity point to recent internal deformation and high seismogenic potential within this sliver. Large historical earthquakes, including the Great Indian earthquake of 1897 (Mw ~8.1), along with the recent seismicity, suggest that the cratonic blocks in the region are bounded by active faults. The most prominent is the E-W trending Dauki Fault, a deeply-rooted, north-dipping thrust fault, situated between the Shillong massif to the north and the Sylhet Basin to the south. Along the Burma Arc, the subducted seismogenic slab of the Indian plate is continuous north to the syntaxis. Yet the Naga and Tripura segments of the accretionary fold belt, respectively north and south of the easterly extrapolation of the Dauki fault, are distinct. Accretion has advanced far westward into the foredeep of the Dauki structure along the front of the Tripura segment, while it has remained stunted facing the uplifted Shillong massif along the Naga segment. Moreover, the Dauki topographic front can be traced eastwards across the Burma Arc separating the two segments. Recent earthquakes support the hypothesis that the Dauki convergence structure continues below the Burma accretionary belt. Using teleseismic and regional data from the deployment of a local network, we explore the interaction of the Dauki thrust fault with the Burma Arc subduction zone. Preliminary observations include: While seismicity is concentrated in the slab at the eastward extrapolation of the Dauki fault, shallow seismicity is diffuse and does not illuminate the Dauki fault itself. P-axes in moment-tensor solutions of earthquakes within the Indian plate tend to be directed N-S and are locally parallel to the India-Burma boundary, particularly in the slab. T-axes tend to be oriented E-W with a strong tendency to follow the slab down dip. This pattern

  8. Refined Views of Strike-slip Fault Zones, Seismicity, and State of Stress Associated With the Pacific-North America Plate Boundary in Southern California (United States)

    Hauksson, E.; Nicholson, C.; Shaw, J. H.; Plesch, A.; Shearer, P. M.; Sandwell, D. T.; Yang, W.


    The mostly strike-slip plate boundary in southern California is expressed as a system of late Quaternary faults or principal slip zones (PSZs), with numerous adjacent smaller slip surfaces. It is complex, even after large cumulative displacements, and consists of major fault systems with multi-stranded, non-planar fault geometry, including some in close proximity to each other. There are also secondary cross faults and low-angle detachments that interact with the PSZs accommodating main plate boundary motion. The loading of plate-tectonic strain causes the largest earthquakes along PSZs, moderate-sized events in their immediate vicinity, and small earthquakes across the whole region. We apply relocated earthquake and refined focal mechanism (1981-2013) catalogs, as well as other geophysical datasets to provide refined views of the 3D fault geometry of these active fault systems. To determine properties of individual fault zones, we measure the Euclidian distance from every hypocenter to the nearest PSZ. In addition, we assign crustal geophysical parameters such as heat flow value and shear or dilatation strain rates to each epicenter. We investigate seismogenic thickness and fault zone width as well as earthquake source processes. We find that the seismicity rate is a function of location, with the rate dying off exponentially with distance from the PSZ. About 80% of small earthquakes are located within 5 km of a PSZ. For small earthquakes, stress drops increase in size with distance away from the PSZs. The magnitude distribution near the PSZs suggests that large earthquakes are more common close to PSZs, and they are more likely to occur at greater depth than small earthquakes. In contrast, small quakes can occur at any geographical location. An optimal combination of heat flow and strain rate is required to concentrate the strain along rheologically weak fault zones, which accommodate the crustal deformation processes, causing seismicity. The regional trend of

  9. Stress and mixed boundary conditions for two-dimensional dodecagonal quasi-crystal plates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yan Gao; Si-Peng Xu; Bao-Sheng Zhao


    For plate bending and stretching problems in two-dimensional (2D) dodecagonal quasi-crystal (QC) media, the reciprocal theorem and the general solution for QCs are applied in a novel way to obtain the appropriate stress and mixed boundary conditions accurate to all order. The method developed by Gregory and Wan is used to generate necessary conditions which the prescribed data on the edge of the plate must satisfy in order that it should generate a decaying state within the plate; these decaying state conditions are obtained explicitly for axisymmetric bending and stretching of a circular plate when stress or mixed conditions are imposed on the plate edge. They are then used for the correct formulation of boundary conditions for the interior solution. For the stress data, our boundary conditions coincide with those obtained in conventional forms of plate theories. More importantly, appropriate boundary conditions with a set of mixed edge-data are obtained for the first time. Furthermore, the corresponding necessary conditions for transversely isotropic elastic plate are obtained directly, and their isotropic elastic counterparts are also obtained.

  10. Systematic Underestimation of Earthquake Magnitudes from Large Intracontinental Reverse Faults: Historical Ruptures Break Across Segment Boundaries (United States)

    Rubin, C. M.


    Because most large-magnitude earthquakes along reverse faults have such irregular and complicated rupture patterns, reverse-fault segments defined on the basis of geometry alone may not be very useful for estimating sizes of future seismic sources. Most modern large ruptures of historical earthquakes generated by intracontinental reverse faults have involved geometrically complex rupture patterns. Ruptures across surficial discontinuities and complexities such as stepovers and cross-faults are common. Specifically, segment boundaries defined on the basis of discontinuities in surficial fault traces, pronounced changes in the geomorphology along strike, or the intersection of active faults commonly have not proven to be major impediments to rupture. Assuming that the seismic rupture will initiate and terminate at adjacent major geometric irregularities will commonly lead to underestimation of magnitudes of future large earthquakes.

  11. New method for solving the bending problem of rectangular plates with mixed boundary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xin Min


    Full Text Available A new method is used to solve the rectangular plate bending problem with mixed boundary conditions. The method overcomes the complicated derivation of the classical solution by Fourth-order differential problem into integrating question. Under uniform loading rectangular plate bending problem with one side fixed the opposite side half simply supported half fixed the other two sides free rectangular plate, one side simply supported the opposite side half simply supported half fixed the other two sides free rectangular plate is systematically solved. According to the actual boundary conditions of the rectangular plate, the corresponding characteristic equation can easily be set up. It is presented deflection curve equation and the numerical calculation. By compared the results of the equation to the finite element program, we are able to demonstrate the correctness of the method. So the method not only has certain theoretical value, but also can be directly applied to engineering practice.

  12. Kinematics to dynamics in the New Zealand plate-boundary zone (United States)

    Lamb, S. H.


    New Zealand straddles the boundary between the Australian and Pacific plate, with a transition from subduction of Pacific oceanic lithosphere beneath North Island, to oblique continental collision in South Island. Cenozoic relative plate motion has resulted in a complex pattern of faulting and block rotation in a zone up to 250 km wide, with displacements on individual faults up to 100s of kilometres. Active deformation must be driven by a combination of plate-boundary forces and internal buoyancy forces. I use a compilation of seismic reflection/refraction studies and high quality receiver function analyses, together with simple Airy isostasy, to determine regional crustal and mantle structure. Integration of the vertical normal stress to the base of the deforming layer yields the buoyancy stress. Horizontal gradients of this can be compared with horizontal gradients of strain rate, using the method of England & Molnar (1997), in the context of a simple thin sheet model of deformation. Thus, if deformation is that of a Newtonian fluid, then appropriate combinations of the horizontal gradients of vorticity and dilatation are related to gradients of buoyancy stress by the fluid viscosity. However, the short term geodetic deformation is strongly biased by elastic strain accumulation related to locking on the plate interface, and cannot be used to determine the plate-boundary velocity field averaged over many seismic cycles (see Lamb & Smith 2013). Therefore, I derive here a velocity field for the plate-boundary zone, which is representative of deformation over tens of thousands of years. This is based on an inversion of fault slip, strain rate azimuth and paleomagnetic data, in the context of the short term relative plate motions, solved in a network of triangles spanning the plate-boundary, using the method of Lamb (2000). A comparison of gradients of buoyancy stress with the appropriate combinations of gradients of vorticity and dilatation shows that deformation in

  13. Reorganization of convergent plate boundaries. Geologica Ultraiectina (340)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baes, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304824739


    It is still unclear where a subduction is initiated and what are the responsible mechanisms involved in subduction initiation process. Understanding of subduction initiation will advance our knowledge of how and when plate tectonics started on Earth. Another issue concerning the subduction process

  14. Linking mantle dynamics, plate tectonics and surface processes in the active plate boundary zones of eastern New Guinea (Invited) (United States)

    Baldwin, S.; Moucha, R.; Fitzgerald, P. G.; Hoke, G. D.; Bermudez, M. A.; Webb, L. E.; Braun, J.; Rowley, D. B.; Insel, N.; Abers, G. A.; Wallace, L. M.; Vervoort, J. D.


    Eastern New Guinea lies within the rapidly obliquely converging Australian (AUS)- Pacific (PAC) plate boundary zone and is characterized by transient plate boundaries, rapidly rotating microplates and a globally significant geoid high. As the AUS plate moved northward in the Cenozoic, its leading edge has been a zone of subduction and arc accretion. The variety of tectonic settings in this region permits assessment of the complex interplay among mantle dynamics, plate tectonics, and surface processes. Importantly, the timescale of tectonic events (e.g., subduction, (U)HP exhumation, seafloor spreading) are within the valid bounds of mantle convection models. A record of changes in bathymetry and topography are preserved in high standing mountain belts, exhumed extensional gneiss domes and core complexes, uplifted coral terraces, and marine sedimentary basins. Global seismic tomography models indicate accumulation of subducted slabs beneath eastern New Guinea at the bottom of the upper mantle (i.e., 250-300 km). Preliminary global-scale backward advected mantle convection models, driven by density inferred from joint seismic-geodynamic tomography models, exhibit large-scale flow associated with these subducted slab remnants and predict the timing and magnitude (up to 1500 m) of dynamic topography change (both subsidence and uplift) since the Oligocene. In this talk we will explore the effects of large-scale background mantle flow and plate tectonics on the evolution of topography and bathymetry in eastern New Guinea, and discuss possible mechanisms to explain basin subsidence and surface uplift in the region.

  15. Analytical Solutions to the Fundamental Frequency of Arbitrary Laminated Plates under Various Boundary Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yingqin Luo; Ming Hong; Yuan Liu


    In recent years, as the composite laminated plates are widely used in engineering practice such as aerospace, marine and building engineering, the vibration problem of the composite laminated plates is becoming more and more important. Frequency, especially the fundamental frequency, has been considered as an important factor in vibration problem. In this paper, a calculation method of the fundamental frequency of arbitrary laminated plates under various boundary conditions is proposed. The vibration differential equation of the laminated plates is established at the beginning of this paper and the frequency formulae of specialty orthotropic laminated plates under various boundary conditions and antisymmetric angle-ply laminated plates with simply-supported edges are investigated. They are proved to be correct. Simple algorithm of the fundamental frequency for multilayer antisymmetric and arbitrary laminated plates under various boundary conditions is studied by a series of typical examples. From the perspective of coupling, when the number of laminated plates layersN > 8–10, some coupling influence on the fundamental frequency can be neglected. It is reasonable to use specialty orthotropic laminated plates with the same thickness but less layers to calculate the corresponding fundamental frequency of laminated plates. Several examples are conducted to prove correctness of this conclusion. At the end of this paper, the influence of the selected number of layers of specialty orthotropic laminates on the fundamental frequency is investigated. The accuracy and complexity are determined by the number of layers. It is necessary to use proper number of layers of special orthotropic laminates with the same thickness to simulate the fundamental frequency in different boundary conditions.

  16. Low-latency high-rate GPS data from the EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (United States)

    Anderson, G.; Jackson, M.; Meertens, C.; Stark, K.


    Real-time processing of high rate GPS data can give precise (e.g., 5-10 mm for data recorded once per second) recordings of rapid volcanic and seismic deformation. GPS is also an inertial sensor that records ground displacement with very high dynamic range, which allows the use of high rate GPS as a strong-motion seismometer. Such processing applied to low-latency streams of high sample rate GPS provide an emerging tool for earthquake, volcano, and tsunami geodesy and early warning. UNAVCO, as part of the EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory project, is developing a system to provide such streams from some PBO and other UNAVCO-operated GPS stations, which we call UStream. UStream will be based on the Ntrip standard, a widely used protocol for streaming GNSS data over the Internet. Remote GPS stations will provide a stream of BINEX data at 1 sample/sec to an Ntrip server at UNAVCO's Boulder offices, while at the same time recording data locally in the event of communications failure. Once in Boulder, the data will be forked into three output streams: BINEX files stored at the UNAVCO archive and streams of data in BINEX and RTCM format. These data will flow to an Ntrip broadcaster that will distribute data to Ntrip clients, which can be anything from epoch-by-epoch processing systems to external data archiving systems. Data will flow through this system with no artificial latency and will be freely available to the community for use in scientific research.

  17. Anisotropy from SKS splitting across the Pacific-North America plate boundary offshore southern California (United States)

    Ramsay, Joseph; Kohler, Monica D.; Davis, Paul M.; Wang, Xinguo; Holt, William; Weeraratne, Dayanthie S.


    SKS arrivals from ocean bottom seismometer (OBS) data from an offshore southern California deployment are analysed for shear wave splitting. The project involved 34 OBSs deployed for 12 months in a region extending up to 500 km west of the coastline into the oceanic Pacific plate. The measurement process consisted of removing the effects of anisotropy using a range of values for splitting fast directions and delay times to minimize energy along the transverse seismometer axis. Computed splitting parameters are unexpectedly similar to onland parameters, exhibiting WSW-ENE fast polarization directions and delays between 0.8 and 1.8 s, even for oceanic plate sites. This is the first SKS splitting study to extend across the entire boundary between the North America and Pacific plates, into the oceanic part of the Pacific plate. The splitting results show that the fast direction of anisotropy on the Pacific plate does not align with absolute plate motion (APM), and they extend the trend of anisotropy in southern California an additional 500 km west, well onto the oceanic Pacific plate. We model the finite strain and anisotropy within the asthenosphere associated with density-buoyancy driven mantle flow and the effects of APM. In the absence of plate motion effects, such buoyancy driven mantle flow would be NE-directed beneath the Pacific plate observations. The best-fit patterns of mantle flow are inferred from the tomography-based models that show primary influences from foundering higher-density zones associated with the history of subduction beneath North America. The new offshore SKS measurements, when combined with measurements onshore within the plate boundary zone, indicate that dramatic lateral variations in density-driven upper-mantle flow are required from offshore California into the plate boundary zone in California and western Basin and Range.

  18. Core-mantle boundary deformations and J2 variations resulting from the 2004 Sumatra earthquake

    CERN Document Server

    Cannelli, V; De Michelis, P; Piersanti, A; Florindo, F


    The deformation at the core-mantle boundary produced by the 2004 Sumatra earthquake is investigated by means of a semi-analytic theoretical model of global coseismic and postseismic deformation, predicting a millimetric coseismic perturbation over a large portion of the core-mantle boundary. Spectral features of such deformations are analysed and discussed. The time-dependent postseismic evolution of the elliptical part of the gravity field (J2) is also computed for different asthenosphere viscosity models. Our results show that, for asthenospheric viscosities smaller than 10^18 Pa s, the postseismic J2 variation in the next years is expected to leave a detectable signal in geodetic observations.

  19. Plate boundaries in the Woodlark Basin and Solomon Sea Region, Papua New Guinea (United States)

    Goodliffe, A. M.; Cameron, M.


    The Solomon Sea and Woodlark Basin region of eastern Papua New Guinea is a tectonically complex region between the obliquely converging Pacific and Australian plates. Despite numerous marine geophysical surveys in the region, the exact nature of the tectonic boundaries between the Solomon Sea and the Woodlark Basin remains controversial. Marine geophysical data collected in the last decade provides additional insight into this region and clearly defines the boundaries of the Solomon Sea, Trobriand, Woodlark, and Australian plates. Multibeam bathymetry data collected in 2004 along the Trobriand Trough, together with seismic profiles across the trough, show a prominent deformation front in the trench that defines the southern boundary of the Solomon Sea plate. Petrologic data from volcanoes to the south of this boundary indicate that they have a subduction affinity. Heat flow profiles to the south of the plate boundary show a clear subduction signature. At the eastern termination of the Trobriand Trough the plate boundary forms a triple junction with the NE-SW trending Nubaru strike-slip fault. To the NE this major fault separates the Solomon Sea plate from the Woodlark plate. The morphology of this fault and a CMT solution indicate that it is right-lateral. To the SW the Nubaru strike-slip fault passes to the south of the Trobriand Trough, forming the southern boundary of the Trobriand plate (with the Trobriand Trough as the northern boundary). Further west the trend of the strike slip fault becomes more ENE-WSW. A significant extension component is evident as the fault passes to the north of Egum Graben and meets the Woodlark Basin spreading system at the current rifting to seafloor spreading transition directly to the east of Moresby Seamount. The revised tectonic model for this region has important implications for tectonic reconstructions that include an active rifting to spreading transition and prominent core complexes. In the past, models have assumed a

  20. Late 18th to early 19th century sea-level history and inter-seismic behavior along the western Myanmar plate boundary belt recorded by coral microatolls (United States)

    Liu, Sze-Chieh; Shyu, J. Bruce H.


    Along the western Myanmar plate boundary belt, the Indian-Australian plate is subducting obliquely beneath the Burma micro-plate at a rate of about 23 mm/yr. Although information about the 1762 Arakan earthquake, the only major historical event occurred along this plate boundary belt, has been delineated recently from uplifted coastal features, constraints on the inter-seismic behavior of this belt is still very limited, due to the lack of high resolution instrumental records in the area. Therefore, we utilized coral microatolls to analyze relative sea level history, in order to obtain potential information of land-level change along the western coast of Myanmar. Our sample was collected from northwestern Ramree Island, approximately 80 km away from the trench. Previous studies suggest that the coral was uplifted and killed during a local earthquake event in 1848, and recorded relative sea level history of ~80 years prior to that event. Since the highest level of survival (HLS) of coral microatolls is constrained within a few centimeters of the lowest tide level of the area, the patterns of annual growth bands of the coral microatoll in x-radiograph provide us yearly record of relative sea level, and we used U-Th dating technique to constrain the age of the coral. Our results show that this coral microatoll may have recorded the inter-seismic subsidence of northwestern Ramree Island, punctuated by several climatic events that produced die-down records of the coral growth bands. We hope the data obtained from this coral microatoll, combined with previously reported information of the area, will enable us to further understand the seismic behavior of this major plate boundary belt.

  1. The Baja California Borderland and the Neogene Evolution of the Pacific-North American Plate Boundary (United States)

    Fletcher, J. M.; Eakins, B. W.


    New observational data on Neogene faulting in the borderland of Baja California places important constraints on tectonic models for the evolution of the Pacific-North American (P-NA) plate boundary and rifting in the Gulf of California. Neogene faults in the borderland range from strike slip to normal slip and accommodate integrated transtension. Most have east-facing escarpments and likely reactivate the former east-dipping accretionary complex. Numerous lines of evidence indicate that Neogene faults are still active and accomplish a significant component ( ~1-5 mm/yr) of Pacific-North American shearing. Quaternary volcanoes are found offshore and along the Pacific coastal margin, Quaternary marine terraces are warped and uplifted as high as 200 masl. Many of the offshore faults have fresh escarpments and cut Holocene sediments. Extensive arrays of Quaternary fault scarps are found throughout the coastal region and in Bahia Magdalena they are clearly associated with major faults that bound recently uplifted islands. A prominent band of seismicity follows the coast and eight earthquakes (Ms>5.0) were teleseismically recorded between 1973 and 1998. This evidence for active shearing indicates that the Baja microplate has not yet been completely transferred to the Pacific plate. The best lithologic correlation that can be used to define the total Neogene slip across the borderland faults is the offset between the Magdalena submarine fan and its Baja source terrane. The distal facies of the fan drilled during DSDP leg 63 is dominated by mudstone and siltstone that contain reworked Paleogene cocoliths derived from strata correlative with the Tepetate formation found throughout the borderland and fine-grained sandstone derived from a source terrane of granitoid basement. The Middle Miocene La Calera formation of the Cabo trough is one of many granitoid-clast syn-rift alluvial deposits that could form the continental counterpart of the submarine fan near the mouth of the

  2. Analytical solution of conjugate turbulent forced convection boundary layer flow over plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joneydi Shariatzadeh Omid


    Full Text Available A conjugate (coupled forced convection heat transfer from a heated conducting plate under turbulent boundary layer flow is considered. A heated plate of finite thickness is cooled under turbulent forced convection boundary layer flow. Because the conduction and convection boundary layer flow is coupled (conjugated in the problem, a semi-analytical solution based on Differential Transform Method (DTM is presented for solving the non-linear integro-differential equation occurring in the problem. The main conclusion is that in the conjugate heat transfer case the temperature distribution of the plate is flatter than the one in the non-conjugate case. This feature is more pronounced under turbulent flow when compared with the laminar flow.

  3. Asymptotic analysis of the equations and boundary conditions of thermoelasticity of micropolar thin plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vardanyan S. A.


    Full Text Available In the framework of the asymmetrical momental micropolar theory in the present work the boundary value problem of thermal stresses in a three-dimensional thin plate with independent fields of displacements and rotations is studied on the basis of asymptotic method. Depending on the values of physical dimensionless constants of the material three applied two-dimensional theories of thermoelasticity of micropolar thin plate are constructed (theories with independent rotations, with constrained rotations and with small shift rigidity.

  4. Dynamic Stationary Response of Reinforced Plates by the Boundary Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Facundo Sanches


    Full Text Available A direct version of the boundary element method (BEM is developed to model the stationary dynamic response of reinforced plate structures, such as reinforced panels in buildings, automobiles, and airplanes. The dynamic stationary fundamental solutions of thin plates and plane stress state are used to transform the governing partial differential equations into boundary integral equations (BIEs. Two sets of uncoupled BIEs are formulated, respectively, for the in-plane state (membrane and for the out-of-plane state (bending. These uncoupled systems are joined to form a macro-element, in which membrane and bending effects are present. The association of these macro-elements is able to simulate thin-walled structures, including reinforced plate structures. In the present formulation, the BIE is discretized by continuous and/or discontinuous linear elements. Four displacement integral equations are written for every boundary node. Modal data, that is, natural frequencies and the corresponding mode shapes of reinforced plates, are obtained from information contained in the frequency response functions (FRFs. A specific example is presented to illustrate the versatility of the proposed methodology. Different configurations of the reinforcements are used to simulate simply supported and clamped boundary conditions for the plate structures. The procedure is validated by comparison with results determined by the finite element method (FEM.

  5. Uppermost mantle Pn Velocity of the Arabian Plate, a Preliminary study (United States)

    Al-Lazki, A. I.; Al-Damegh, K. S.; Al-Enizi, A.; Elhusain, I.; Al-Mahrooqi, I.


    The Arabian plate represents a unique tectonic setup. The uniqueness of this plate is its boundaries that constitute the three known types of plate boundaries. The Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden represent the south and southwest plate boundary with Africa plate. Farther north the Dead Sea Fault system represents the remainder of the northwestern boundary with Africa plate. Continent-continent collision along the Bitlis-Zagros Suture zones represents the northern and northeastern boundary with Eurasia plate. Farther south the convergent plate boundary is manifested by the Makran Subduction Zone. Finally, the Owen and Murray Transform Faults represent the southeast boundary of Arabia with India plate. The broad objective of this study is to map uppermost mantle Pn velocity and anisotropy within the Arabian plate and around its boundaries. Zones that are along the north and the northeast boundaries of Arabia plate historically and in recent years has been effected by devastating earthquakes, a recent example is the Bam earthquake on December, 2003. In this region, accurate earthquake location is essential to delineate seismically active zones, where, without proper velocity models for the region, located earthquake may have large location error. In this preliminary study we present uppermost mantle Pn velocity tomography results of the north and northeastern regions of Arabia plate. We used in this study Pn phase data from the bulletins of Oman Seismic Network, Saudi Seismic Network, Kuwait Seismic Network, International Seismological Center and the National Earthquake Information Center,USA.

  6. Lithospheric deformation in the Africa-Iberia plate boundary: Improved neotectonic modeling testing a basal-driven Alboran plate (United States)

    Neres, M.; Carafa, M. M. C.; Fernandes, R. M. S.; Matias, L.; Duarte, J. C.; Barba, S.; Terrinha, P.


    We present an improved neotectonic numerical model of the complex NW Africa-SW Eurasia plate boundary segment that runs from west to east along the Gloria Fault up to the northern Algerian margin. We model the surface velocity field and the ongoing lithospheric deformation using the most recent version of the thin-shell code SHELLS and updated lithospheric model and fault map of the region. To check the presence versus the absence of an independently driven Alboran domain, we develop two alternative plate models: one does not include an Alboran plate; another includes it and determines the basal shear tractions necessary to drive it with known velocities. We also compare two alternative sets of Africa-Eurasia velocity boundary conditions, corresponding to geodetic and geological-scale averages of plate motion. Finally, we perform an extensive parametric study of fault friction coefficient, trench resistance, and velocities imposed in Alboran nodes. The final run comprises 5240 experiments, each scored to geodetic velocities (estimated for 250 stations and here provided), stress direction data, and seismic strain rates. The model with the least discrepancy to the data includes the Alboran plate driven by a basal WSW directed shear traction, slightly oblique to the westward direction of Alboran motion. We provide estimates of long-term strain rates and slip rates for the modeled faults, which can be useful for further hazard studies. Our results support that a mechanism additional to the Africa-Eurasia convergence is required to drive the Alboran domain, which can be related to subduction processes occurring within the mantle.

  7. Geodynamic Evolution of the Nubia-Arabia-Somalia Plate Boundary System (United States)

    Reilinger, R. E.; McClusky, S.; Vernant, P.; Ogubazghi, G.; Fisseha, S.; Arrajehi, A.; Bendick, R. O.; Sholan, J.


    We present a geodynamic scenario for the evolution of the Nubia (Nu)-Arabia (Ar)-Somalia (So) plate boundary system that is based on new geodetic constraints on the kinematics of active deformation, and published estimates of the timing of regional tectonic processes. This scenario supports two, long debated, principal hypotheses for plate dynamics, 1) plate motions are driven primarily by sinking of oceanic lithosphere at subduction zones, and 2) the lithosphere is strong in relation to plate boundaries and drag forces on the base of the lithosphere (and likely, resisting forces associate with continental collision). 1) During the Late Oligocene (~30 Ma), domal uplift of the Afar region due to the Afar hot spot caused regional extension and the initial development of the Afar Triple Junction (TJ) along pre-existing zones of weakness; 2) The So-Nu plate boundary, East African Rift (EAR), developed at a slow rate due to the absence of boundary-normal extensional stresses (i.e., no subduction “pulling” the So Plate), slow motion that continues to the present; 3) Larger extensional stresses across the Nu-Ar and Ar-So boundaries (Red Sea and Gulf of Aden) due to active subduction of the Neotethys ocean lithosphere beneath Eu caused more rapid extension of these early rifts, with full scale continental rifting beginning ~ 25-30 Ma; 4) Between 16 - 11 Ma full ocean rifting in the Gulf of Aden caused a decrease in the forces transmitted to the So and Nu plates, causing slowing of the Nu and So plates with respect to Eu and Ar, and (possibly) an additional component of N-S oriented extension across the Red Sea; 5) Around this time (~10 Ma), activity shifted from the Gulf of Suez to the DSF system in the N Red Sea, and the Danakil Block in the southern Red Sea began rotating with respect to Nu and Ar, both changes related to the change in Nu-Ar relative motion; and 6) The balance of forces on the plate system have remained roughly unchanged since ~10 Ma, as have

  8. Normalized rupture potential for small and large earthquakes along the Pacific Plate off Japan (United States)

    Tormann, Thessa; Wiemer, Stefan; Enescu, Bogdan; Woessner, Jochen


    We combine temporal variability in local seismic activity rates and size distributions to estimate the evolution of a Gutenberg-Richter-based metric, the normalized rupture potential (NRP), comparing differences between smaller and larger earthquakes. For the Pacific Plate off Japan, we study both complex spatial patterns and how they evolve over the last 18 years, and more detailed temporal characteristics in a simplified spatial selection, i.e., inside and outside the high-slip zone of the 2011 M9 Tohoku earthquake. We resolve significant changes, in particular an immediate NRP increase for large events prior to the Tohoku event in the subsequent high-slip patch, a very rapid decrease inside this high-stress-release area coupled with a lasting increase of NRP in the immediate surroundings. Even in the center of the Tohoku rupture, the NRP for large magnitudes has not dropped below the 12 year average and is not significantly different from conditions a decade before the M9 event.

  9. Analysis of Blasius Equation for Flat-Plate Flow with Infinite Boundary Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miansari, M. O.; Miansari, M. E.; Barari, Amin;


    This paper applies the homotopy perturbation method (HPM) to determine the well-known Blasius equation with infinite boundary value for Flat-plate Flow. We study here the possibility of reducing the momentum and continuity equations to ordinary differential equations by a similarity transformatio...

  10. What drives microplate motion and deformation in the northeastern Caribbean plate boundary region?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Benthem, S.A.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304833657; Govers, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/108173836; Wortel, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068439202


    The north Caribbean plate boundary zone is a broad deformation zone with several fault systems and tectonic blocks that move with different velocities. The indentation by the Bahamas Platform (the “Bahamas Collision”) is generally invoked as a cause of this fragmentation. We propose that a second

  11. Exact controllability of the Euler-Bernoulli plate with variable coefficients and simply supported boundary condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengyan Yang


    Full Text Available This article studies the exact controllability of an Euler-Bernoulli plate equation with variable coefficients, subject to the simply supported boundary condition. By the Riemannian geometry approach, the duality method, the multiplier technique, and the compactness-uniqueness argument, we establish the corresponding observability inequality and obtain the exact controllability results.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Xiang-qiao


    A simple and effective boundary element method for stress intensity factor calculation for crack problems in a plane elastic plate is presented. The boundary element method consists of the constant displacement discontinuity element presented by Crouch and Starfield and the crack-tip displacement discontinuity elements proposed by YAN Xiangqiao. In the boundary element implementation the left or the right crack-tip displacement discontinuity element was placed locally at the corresponding left or right each crack tip on top of the constant displacement discontinuity elements that cover the entire crack surface and the other boundaries. Test examples ( i. e. , a center crack in an infinite plate under tension, a circular hole and a crack in an infinite plate under tension) are included to illustrate that the numerical approach is very simple and accurate for stress intensity factor calculation of plane elasticity crack problems. In addition, specifically, the stress intensity factors of branching cracks emanating from a square hole in a rectangular plate under biaxial loads were analysed. These numerical results indicate the present numerical approach is very effective for calculating stress intensity factors of complex cracks in a 2-D finite body, and are used to reveal the effect of the biaxial loads and the cracked body geometry on stress intensity factors.

  13. What drives microplate motion and deformation in the northeastern Caribbean plate boundary region?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Benthem, S.A.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304833657; Govers, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/108173836; Wortel, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068439202


    The north Caribbean plate boundary zone is a broad deformation zone with several fault systems and tectonic blocks that move with different velocities. The indentation by the Bahamas Platform (the “Bahamas Collision”) is generally invoked as a cause of this fragmentation. We propose that a second dr

  14. Scientific Advances from Paul Silver's Inspirational Leadership of the EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (United States)

    Miller, M. M.; Calais, E.; Jackson, M. E.; Owen, S. E.; Segall, P.


    While major scientific endeavors and advances rely on the work and dedication of many, they are often made possible thanks to the passion and clear vision articulated by one or two leading scientists. Paul Silver was that leading visionary for EarthScope’s Plate Boundary Observatory. Paul Silver understood early on that the synergy of seismic and geodetic observations contained fundamental information on the coupled lithosphere-mantle system, the key to cracking the dynamics that underlies plate tectonics and continental deformation. This became a central theme of the Earthscope initiative, and Paul, a seismologist by training, became a tireless advocate for geodesy at all stages of the project - and for instrumentation over the broadest possible temporal bandwidth, from GPS geodesy to strainmeters. The presentation, given on behalf of UNAVCO and the UNAVCO community, will review and honor Paul's contributions to UNAVCO and the Plate Boundary Observatory science.

  15. Cocos Ridge Collision as a Driver for Plate Boundary Deformation in the Western Caribbean (United States)

    La Femina, P. C.; Govers, R. M.; Geirsson, H.; Kobayashi, D.


    The subduction and collision of bathymetric highs can result in geodynamic changes along convergent plate boundaries, including intense upper plate deformation, increases in mechanical coupling and seismicity, migration and or cessation of volcanism and formation of forearc terranes. But how extensive can the deformation associated with these features be and what are the implications for the long-term formation and evolution of plate boundary zones? Plate boundary evolution and upper plate deformation in southern Central America associated with Cocos Ridge collision is well studied and indicates, 1) migration of the volcanic arc toward the backarc northwest of and cessation of volcanism directly inboard the ridge, 2) uplift of the Cordillera de Talamanca inboard the ridge, 3) shortening across the forearc Fila Costena fold and thrust belt, and 4) outer forearc uplift above and flanking the ridge. Recent geodynamical modeling of Cocos Ridge collision, combined with the results of kinematic block models for the Central American margin, suggests the ridge drives northwest-directed forearc motion from central Costa Rica northwest to the Cocos - Caribbean (Central American forearc block) - North America triple junction, greatly increasing the spatial scale of deformation. Upperplate deformation of the Central American margin to the southeast of the Cocos Ridge in Panama was not investigated in these models. We investigate the dynamics of Cocos Ridge collision along the entire Central American margin and the implications on plate boundary evolution with a new geodynamic model of ridge collision. Our model results are compared to a new GPS derived horizontal velocity field for Central America and preliminary results indicate that the Cocos Ridge drives the Panamanian isthmus into northern South America (i.e., the North Andes block).

  16. The Earthscope Plate Boundary Observatory Alaska Region an Overview of Network Operation, Maintenance and Improvement (United States)

    Enders, M.; Boyce, E. S.; Bierma, R.; Walker, K.; Feaux, K.


    UNAVCO has now completed its third year of operation of the 138 continuous GPS stations, 12 tiltmeters and 31 communications relays that comprise the Alaska Region of the Earthscope Plate Boundary Observatory. Working in Alaska has been challenging due to the extreme environmental conditions encountered and logistics difficulties. Despite these challenges we have been able to complete each summer field season with network operation at 95% or better. Throughout the last three years we have analyzed both our successes and failures to improve the quality of our network and better serve the scientific community. Additionally, we continue to evaluate and deploy new technologies to improve station reliability and add to the data set available from our stations. 2011 was a busy year for the Alaska engineering team and some highlights from last year's maintenance season include the following. This spring we completed testing and deployment of the first Inmarsat BGAN satellite terminal for data telemetry at AC60 Shemya Island. Shemya Island is at the far western end of the Aleutian Islands and is one of the most remote and difficult to access stations in the PBO AK network. Until the installation of the BGAN, this station was offline with no data telemetry for almost one year. Since the installation of the BGAN in early April 2011 dataflow has been uninterrupted. This year we also completed the first deployments of Stardot NetCamSC webcams in the PBO Network. Currently, these are installed and operational at six GPS stations in Alaska, with plans to install several more next season in Alaska. Images from these cameras can be found at the station homepages linked to from the UNAVCO website. In addition to the hard work put in by PBO engineers this year, it is important that we recognize the contributions of our partners. In particular the Alaska Volcano Observatory, the Alaska Earthquake Information Center and others who have provided us with valuable engineering assistance

  17. "Discovering Plate Boundaries in Data-Rich Environments": Supporting Pre-service Teachers involvement in Unique Practices of Geosciences (United States)

    Barrie, A. S.; Moore, J.


    plate tectonics using key scientific practices. As a result of the educational activities developed in this project, we will try help teachers to overcome their challenges and develop the pedagogical skills that novice teachers need to use to teach plate tectonics by focusing on key scientific practices with the help of previously-developed educational resources. Learning about the processes that occur at plate boundaries will help future teachers (and their students) understand natural disasters such as earthquakes and volcanoes. Furthermore, the study will have a significant, and broader, impact by 'teaching the teachers' and empowering novice teachers to overcome the challenges of reading maps and using argumentation in science classrooms.

  18. Seismic evidence for sharp lithosphere-asthenosphere boundaries of oceanic plates. (United States)

    Kawakatsu, Hitoshi; Kumar, Prakash; Takei, Yasuko; Shinohara, Masanao; Kanazawa, Toshihiko; Araki, Eiichiro; Suyehiro, Kiyoshi


    The mobility of the lithosphere over a weaker asthenosphere constitutes the essential element of plate tectonics, and thus the understanding of the processes at the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) is fundamental to understand how our planet works. It is especially so for oceanic plates because their relatively simple creation and evolution should enable easy elucidation of the LAB. Data from borehole broadband ocean bottom seismometers show that the LAB beneath the Pacific and Philippine Sea plates is sharp and age-dependent. The observed large shear wave velocity reduction at the LAB requires a partially molten asthenosphere consisting of horizontal melt-rich layers embedded in meltless mantle, which accounts for the large viscosity contrast at the LAB that facilitates horizontal plate motions.

  19. Tectonics of the Easter plate (United States)

    Engeln, J. F.; Stein, S.


    A new model for the Easter plate is presented in which rift propagation has resulted in the formation of a rigid plate between the propagating and dying ridges. The distribution of earthquakes, eleven new focal mechanisms, and existing bathymetric and magnetic data are used to describe the tectonics of this area. Both the Easter-Nazca and Easter-Pacific Euler poles are sufficiently close to the Easter plate to cause rapid changes in rates and directions of motion along the boundaries. The east and west boundaries are propagating and dying ridges; the southwest boundary is a slow-spreading ridge and the northern boundary is a complex zone of convergent and transform motion. The Easter plate may reflect the tectonics of rift propagation on a large scale, where rigid plate tectonics requires boundary reorientation. Simple schematic models to illustrate the general features and processes which occur at plates resulting from large-scale rift propagation are used.

  20. Tectonics of the Easter plate (United States)

    Engeln, J. F.; Stein, S.


    A new model for the Easter plate is presented in which rift propagation has resulted in the formation of a rigid plate between the propagating and dying ridges. The distribution of earthquakes, eleven new focal mechanisms, and existing bathymetric and magnetic data are used to describe the tectonics of this area. Both the Easter-Nazca and Easter-Pacific Euler poles are sufficiently close to the Easter plate to cause rapid changes in rates and directions of motion along the boundaries. The east and west boundaries are propagating and dying ridges; the southwest boundary is a slow-spreading ridge and the northern boundary is a complex zone of convergent and transform motion. The Easter plate may reflect the tectonics of rift propagation on a large scale, where rigid plate tectonics requires boundary reorientation. Simple schematic models to illustrate the general features and processes which occur at plates resulting from large-scale rift propagation are used.

  1. Lower plate deformation structures along the Costa Rica erosive plate boundary - results from IODP Expedition 344 (CRISP 2) (United States)

    Brandstätter, Jennifer; Kurz, Walter; Micheuz, Peter; Krenn, Kurt


    1414 is located ~1 km seaward of the deformation front offshore the Osa Peninsula and Caño Island. Primary science goals at Site U1414 included characterization of the alteration state of the magmatic basement. Brittle structures within the incoming plate (sites U1380, U1414) are mineralized extensional fractures and shear fractures. The shear fractures mainly show a normal component of shear. Within the sedimentary sequence both types of fractures dip steeply (vertical to subvertical) and strike NNE-SSW. Deformation bands trend roughly ENE-WSW, sub-parallel to the trend of the Cocos ridge. Structures in the Cocos Ridge basalt mainly comprise mineralized veins at various orientations. A preferred orientation of strike directions was not observed. Some veins show straight boundaries, others are characterized by an irregular geometry characterized by brecciated wall rock clasts embedded within vein precipitates. The vein mineralization was analysed in detail by RAMAN spectroscopy. Precipitation conditions and fluid chemistry were analysed by fluid inclusions entrapped within vein minerals. Vein mineralizations mainly consist of carbonate (fibrous aragonite, calcite), chalcedony, and quartz. Vein mineralization is mainly characterized by zoned antitaxial growth of carbonate fibres including a suture along the central vein domains. Quartz is often characterized by fibre growth of crystals perpendicular to the vein boundaries, too. These zoned veins additinally have wall rock alteration seams consisting of clay minerals. The precipitation sequence basically indicates that fluid chemistry evolved from an CO2-rich towards a SiO2- rich fluid.

  2. Geological record of fluid flow and seismogenesis along an erosive subducting plate boundary. (United States)

    Vannucchi, Paola; Remitti, Francesca; Bettelli, Giuseppe


    Tectonic erosion of the overriding plate by the downgoing slab is believed to occur at half the Earth's subduction zones. In situ investigation of the geological processes at active erosive margins is extremely difficult owing to the deep marine environment and the net loss of forearc crust to deeper levels in the subduction zone. Until now, a fossil erosive subduction channel-the shear zone marking the plate boundary-has not been recognized in the field, so that seismic observations have provided the only information on plate boundary processes at erosive margins. Here we show that a fossil erosive margin is preserved in the Northern Apennines of Italy. It formed during the Tertiary transition from oceanic subduction to continental collision, and was preserved by the late deactivation and fossilization of the plate boundary. The outcropping erosive subduction channel is approximately 500 m thick. It is representative of the first 5 km of depth, with its deeper portions reaching approximately 150 degrees C. The fossil zone records several surprises. Two décollements were simultaneously active at the top and base of the subduction channel. Both deeper basal erosion and near-surface frontal erosion occurred. At shallow depths extension was a key deformation component within this erosive convergent plate boundary, and slip occurred without an observable fluid pressure cycle. At depths greater than about 3 km a fluid cycle is clearly shown by the development of veins and the alternation of fast (co-seismic) and slow (inter-seismic) slip. In the deepest portions of the outcropping subduction channel, extension is finally overprinted by compressional structures. In modern subduction zones the onset of seismic activity is believed to occur at approximately 150 degrees C, but in the fossil channel the onset occurred at cooler palaeo-temperatures.

  3. Structural vibration a uniform accurate solution for laminated beams, plates and shells with general boundary conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Jin, Guoyong; Su, Zhu


    This book develops a uniform accurate method which is capable of dealing with vibrations of laminated beams, plates and shells with arbitrary boundary conditions including classical boundaries, elastic supports and their combinations. It also provides numerous solutions for various configurations including various boundary conditions, laminated schemes, geometry and material parameters, which fill certain gaps in this area of reach and may serve as benchmark solutions for the readers. For each case, corresponding fundamental equations in the framework of classical and shear deformation theory are developed. Following the fundamental equations, numerous free vibration results are presented for various configurations including different boundary conditions, laminated sequences and geometry and material properties. The proposed method and corresponding formulations can be readily extended to static analysis.

  4. Plate boundary forces in the vicinity of Trinidad-the-transition from transpression to transtension in the Southern Caribbean plate boundary zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Algar, S.T.; Pindell, J.L. (Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH (United States))


    Deformation in the southern Caribbean plate boundary zones as recorded in the Northern Range of Trinidad initiated in the Oligocene with northward vergent gravity sliding of Northern Range sediments due to uplift and oversteepening of the previously passive margin by the eastward migration of the Caribbean flexural forebulge. Progressive east-southeast transvergence of the Caribbean Plate with respect to South America overthrust incorporated the Northern Range sediments into the Caribbean accretionary prism, thrusting them south-southeast to produce a Middle Miocene transpressive foreland fold and thrust belt in southern Trinidad. Late Miocene deformation within Trinidad was increasingly dominated by right-lateral strike-slop (RLSS) faulting, at the expense of transpressive compressional features. Right-stepping of RLSS motion initiated the Gulf of Paria and Caroni pull-apart basins, Since Early Pliocene these basins and other areas to the north of Trinidad have undergone north-south extension in addition to east-west trending RLSS. Such extension caused the northward withdrawal of Caribbean terranes from atop of the Northern Range, Resulting in rapid isostatically induced uplift (approximately 0.5 mmyr[sup -1]). This change in deformation style may relate to a hitherto unrecognized shift in the relative motion of the eastern Caribbean Plate with respect to South America: from east-southeast-directed transpression to east-northeast-directed transtension.

  5. Prominent reflector beneath around the segmentation boundary between Tonankai-Nankai earthquake area (United States)

    Nakanishi, A.; Shimomura, N.; Fujie, G.; Kodaira, S.; Obana, K.; Takahashi, T.; Yamamoto, Y.; Yamashita, M.; Takahashi, N.; Kaneda, Y.; Mochizuki, K.; Kato, A.; Iidaka, T.; Kurashimo, E.; Shinohara, M.; Takeda, T.; Shiomi, K.


    In the Nankai Trough subduction seismogenic zone, the Nankai and Tonankai earthquakes had often occurred simultaneously, and caused a great event. In most cases, first break of such large events of Nankai Trough usually begins from southwest off the Kii Peninsula so far. The idea of split Philippine Sea plate between the Kii Peninsula and the Shikoku Island, which explains seismicity, tectonic background, receiver function image and historical plate motion, was previously suggested. Moreover, between the Kii Peninsula and the Shikoku Island, there is a gap of deep low-frequency events observed in the belt-like zone along the strike of the subducting Philippine Sea plate. In 2010 and 2011, we conducted the large-scale high-resolution wide-angle and reflection (MCS) seismic study, and long-term observation from off Shikoku and Kii Peninsula. Marine active source seismic data have been acquired along grid two-dimensional profiles having the total length of ~800km/year. A three-dimensional seismic tomography using active and passive seismic data observed both land and ocean bottom stations have been also performed. From those data, we found a possible prominent reflector imaged in the offshore side in the Kii channel at the depth of ~18km. The velocity just beneath the reflector cannot be determined due to the lack of ray paths. Based of the amplitude information, we interpret the reflector as the forearc Moho based on the velocity gap (from ~6.4km/s to ~7.4km/s). However, the reflector is shallower than the forearc Moho of other area along the Nankai Trough. Similar reflectors are recognized along other seismic profiles around the Kii channel. In this presentation, we will show the result of structure analysis to understand the peculiar structure including the prominent reflector around the Kii channel. Relation between the structure and the existence of the segmentation of the Nankai megathrust earthquake or seismic gap of the deep low-frequency events will be also

  6. MHD free convective boundary layer flow of a nanofluid past a flat vertical plate with Newtonian heating boundary condition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed J Uddin

    Full Text Available Steady two dimensional MHD laminar free convective boundary layer flows of an electrically conducting Newtonian nanofluid over a solid stationary vertical plate in a quiescent fluid taking into account the Newtonian heating boundary condition is investigated numerically. A magnetic field can be used to control the motion of an electrically conducting fluid in micro/nano scale systems used for transportation of fluid. The transport equations along with the boundary conditions are first converted into dimensionless form and then using linear group of transformations, the similarity governing equations are developed. The transformed equations are solved numerically using the Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg fourth-fifth order method with shooting technique. The effects of different controlling parameters, namely, Lewis number, Prandtl number, buoyancy ratio, thermophoresis, Brownian motion, magnetic field and Newtonian heating on the flow and heat transfer are investigated. The numerical results for the dimensionless axial velocity, temperature and nanoparticle volume fraction as well as the reduced Nusselt and Sherwood number have been presented graphically and discussed. It is found that the rate of heat and mass transfer increase as Newtonian heating parameter increases. The dimensionless velocity and temperature distributions increase with the increase of Newtonian heating parameter. The results of the reduced heat transfer rate is compared for convective heating boundary condition and found an excellent agreement.

  7. MHD free convective boundary layer flow of a nanofluid past a flat vertical plate with Newtonian heating boundary condition. (United States)

    Uddin, Mohammed J; Khan, Waqar A; Ismail, Ahmed I


    Steady two dimensional MHD laminar free convective boundary layer flows of an electrically conducting Newtonian nanofluid over a solid stationary vertical plate in a quiescent fluid taking into account the Newtonian heating boundary condition is investigated numerically. A magnetic field can be used to control the motion of an electrically conducting fluid in micro/nano scale systems used for transportation of fluid. The transport equations along with the boundary conditions are first converted into dimensionless form and then using linear group of transformations, the similarity governing equations are developed. The transformed equations are solved numerically using the Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg fourth-fifth order method with shooting technique. The effects of different controlling parameters, namely, Lewis number, Prandtl number, buoyancy ratio, thermophoresis, Brownian motion, magnetic field and Newtonian heating on the flow and heat transfer are investigated. The numerical results for the dimensionless axial velocity, temperature and nanoparticle volume fraction as well as the reduced Nusselt and Sherwood number have been presented graphically and discussed. It is found that the rate of heat and mass transfer increase as Newtonian heating parameter increases. The dimensionless velocity and temperature distributions increase with the increase of Newtonian heating parameter. The results of the reduced heat transfer rate is compared for convective heating boundary condition and found an excellent agreement.

  8. The South Boundary of the Subducted Yakutat Terrane Seems to Affect the Distribution of Forearc Subsidence Since the 1964 Great Alaska Earthquake (Mw=9.2) (United States)

    Fisher, M. A.; Freymueller, J. T.; Ruppert, N. A.; Parsons, T.; Ebberhart-Phillips, D. M.; Sliter, R. W.; Wong, F. L.


    During the past 5-10 Ma, the Yakutat terrane has been colliding with and subducting beneath the Alaskan part of the North American Plate. Modeling of GPS data and analysis of deep-crustal structure bolster a hypothesized connection between the terrane collision and seismogenesis. GPS data collected near Prince William Sound indicate that forearc subsidence following the 1964 Great Alaska Earthquake (Mw=9.2) is concentrated in two areas. Crustal-structure data reveal that the subducted south boundary of the Yakutat terrane passes between these two areas, and subsidence is reduced directly above this boundary. Overall, the subsidence is consistent with elastic deformation from a locked subduction zone. However, the two separate regions of subsidence suggest that the Prince William Sound asperity, previously assumed to be a single large locked region on the plate interface, probably consists of two separate locked patches. Because the gap between the two corresponds in location with the edge of the subducted Yakutat terrane, this edge may control the seismogenic behavior of the subduction interface. We tentatively identify the two inferred asperities with the Yakutat-North America and Pacific-North America interfaces, respectively. GPS vertical velocities are based on data collected between 1993 and 2005, with all GPS solutions in the ITRF2000 reference frame and corrected for displacements due to the 2002 Denali Fault Earthquake. Vertical displacements from the 2002 earthquake in Prince William Sound were very small. The regional deep-crustal structure is interpreted from aeromagnetic and multichannel seismic-reflection (MCS) data. The shelf-edge magnetic anomaly (SEMA) closely follows the south side of the Yakutat terrane. North- trending magnetic anomalies of the Pacific Plate terminate along the south side of the SEMA, and to the north over the Yakutat terrane, the magnetic field is smooth. The SEMA indicates that the Transition fault zone (TFZ) forms the boundary

  9. Alternate model of Chladni figures for the circular homogenous thin plate case with open boundaries (United States)

    Trejo-Mandujano, H. A.; Mijares-Bernal, G.; Ordoñez-Casanova, E. G.


    The wave equation is a direct but a complex approach to solve analytically for the Chladni figures, mainly because of the complications that non-smooth and open boundary conditions impose. In this paper, we present an alternate solution model based on the principle of Huygens-Fresnel and on the ideas of Bohr for the hydrogen atom. The proposed model has been implemented numerically and compared, with good agreement, to our own experimental results for the case of a thin homogenous circular plate with open boundaries.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xing Li; Xuemei You


    In this paper, we combine the Muskhelishvili's complex variable method and boundary collocation method, and choose a set of new stress function based on the stress boundary condition of crack surface,the higher precision and less computation are reached. This method is applied to calculating the stress intensity factor for a finite plate with an inclined crack. The influence of θ (the obliquity of crack) on the stress intensity factors, as well as the number of summation terms on the stress intensity factor are studied and graphically represented.

  11. Seismic ACROSS Transmitter Installed at Morimachi above the Subducting Philippine Sea Plate for the Test Monitoring of the Seismogenic Zone of Tokai Earthquake not yet to Occur (United States)

    Kunitomo, T.; Kumazawa, M.; Masuda, T.; Morita, N.; Torii, T.; Ishikawa, Y.; Yoshikawa, S.; Katsumata, A.; Yoshida, Y.


    reflected wave from an anticipated fault plane of Tokai Earthquake, the boundary between Eurasian lithosphere and the subducting Philippine Sea Plate. Further several trials of new transmission protocol and also remote control are being made for the transmitter network of the next generation. The whole system appears working well as reported by Yoshida et al. (2008, This meeting).

  12. Near Continuum Velocity and Temperature Coupled Compressible Boundary Layer Flow over a Flat Plate (United States)

    He, Xin; Cai, Chunpei


    The problem of a compressible gas flows over a flat plate with the velocity-slip and temperature-jump boundary conditions are being studied. The standard single- shooting method is applied to obtain the exact solutions for velocity and temperature profiles when the momentum and energy equations are weakly coupled. A double-shooting method is applied if these two equations are closely coupled. If the temperature affects the velocity directly, more significant velocity slip happens at locations closer to the plate's leading edge, and inflections on the velocity profiles appear, indicating flows may become unstable. As a consequence, the temperature-jump and velocity-slip boundary conditions may trigger earlier flow transitions from a laminar to a turbulent flow state.

  13. MHD Natural Convection with Convective Surface Boundary Condition over a Flat Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad M. Rashidi


    Full Text Available We apply the one parameter continuous group method to investigate similarity solutions of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD heat and mass transfer flow of a steady viscous incompressible fluid over a flat plate. By using the one parameter group method, similarity transformations and corresponding similarity representations are presented. A convective boundary condition is applied instead of the usual boundary conditions of constant surface temperature or constant heat flux. In addition it is assumed that viscosity, thermal conductivity, and concentration diffusivity vary linearly. Our study indicates that a similarity solution is possible if the convective heat transfer related to the hot fluid on the lower surface of the plate is directly proportional to (x--1/2 where x- is the distance from the leading edge of the solid surface. Numerical solutions of the ordinary differential equations are obtained by the Keller Box method for different values of the controlling parameters associated with the problem.

  14. Control of boundary layer transition location and plate vibration in the presence of an external acoustic field (United States)

    Maestrello, L.; Grosveld, F. W.


    The experiment is aimed at controlling the boundary layer transition location and the plate vibration when excited by a flow and an upstream sound source. Sound has been found to affect the flow at the leading edge and the response of a flexible plate in a boundary layer. Because the sound induces early transition, the panel vibration is acoustically coupled to the turbulent boundary layer by the upstream radiation. Localized surface heating at the leading edge delays the transition location downstream of the flexible plate. The response of the plate excited by a turbulent boundary layer (without sound) shows that the plate is forced to vibrate at different frequencies and with different amplitudes as the flow velocity changes indicating that the plate is driven by the convective waves of the boundary layer. The acoustic disturbances induced by the upstream sound dominate the response of the plate when the boundary layer is either turbulent or laminar. Active vibration control was used to reduce the sound induced displacement amplitude of the plate.

  15. Geodetic observations in Iceland: divergent plate boundary influenced by a hotspot (United States)

    Ofeigsson, Benedikt Gunnar; Hreinsdóttir, Sigrun; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Arnadottir, Thora; Vogfjord, Kristin; Geirsson, Halldor; Einarsson, Pall; Jonsson, Sigurjon; Villemin, Thierry; Fjalar Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Roberts, Matthew; Sturkell, Erik; Lafemina, Peter C.; Bennett, Richard; Voelksen, Christof; Valsson, Gudmundur; Sigurdsson, Thorarinn


    The mid Atlantic ridge, separating the Eurasian and North American tectonic plates, is mostly buried below the Atlantic. There are, however, a few places where subaerial exposure of the mid-oceanic rift system allows geodetic observations of the deformation associated with the plate boundary. Iceland is the largest portion of the system emerged above sea level, a consequence of excessive volcanism caused by the interaction of a mantle plume with the mid-oceanic ridge. Iceland is therefore a unique site to study processes associated with divergent plate boundaries, and the effects of the plume-ridge interaction. A network of continuous GPS stations have been operating in Iceland since 1995 when the first station was installed in Reykjavik. Since then, stations have been added to the network at different points in time, with over 70 stations presently in operation. The network has been used e.g. for studies of deformation associated with the divergent plate boundary, micro-plate formation due to rift jumps, the plate-spreading deformation cycle associated with rifting episodes, strain rates and stress accumulation on transform zones connecting the ridge segments and deformation due to magmatic processes. In addition the GPS network is used in studies of the deformation associated with mass variations of Iceland's glaciers. The continuous GPS network serves as monitoring tool in Iceland, both for volcanic and seismic hazards but also as a research tool. In the recent Futurvolc project, which partly builds on EPOS, the data from the continuous GPS network along with data from the seismic network and InSAR observations, will serve as the main input in joint analyses of long and short term magma movements in volcanic regions. The establishment of the continuous GPS network in Iceland has provided an ideal tool to further increase our understanding of the geodynamic processes associated with divergent plate boundaries and plume-ridge interaction as well as establishing a

  16. Unsteady Boundary-Layer Flow over Jerked Plate Moving in a Free Stream of Viscoelastic Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sufian Munawar


    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the unsteady boundary-layer flow of a viscoelastic non-Newtonian fluid over a flat surface. The plate is suddenly jerked to move with uniform velocity in a uniform stream of non-Newtonian fluid. Purely analytic solution to governing nonlinear equation is obtained. The solution is highly accurate and valid for all values of the dimensionless time 0≤τ<∞. Flow properties of the viscoelastic fluid are discussed through graphs.

  17. Seismo-electromagnetic phenomena in the western part of the Eurasia-Nubia plate boundary


    Silva, H. G; Bezzeghoud, M.; J. P. Rocha; P. F. Biagi; Tlemçani, M.; Rosa, R.N.; M. A. Salgueiro da Silva; Borges, J. F.; Caldeira, B.; Reis, A. H.; MANSO M.


    This paper presents a future research plan that aims to monitor Seismo-electromagnetic (SEM) phenomena in the western part of the Eurasia-Nubia plate boundary (WENP). This region has a significant tectonic activity [1] combined with relatively low electromagnetic noise levels and for that reason presents the possibility to perform high quality SEM measurements. Further, it is known that low-frequency [ultra (ULF), very (VLF), and low-frequencies (LF)] electromag- netic (EM) waves produce m...

  18. Long-term exhumation of landscapes along the Pacific-North American plate boundary as inferred from apatite (U-Th)/He and ArcGIS analyses


    Buscher, Jamie Todd


    The Pacific-North American plate boundary is typified by transpression and convergence, yet the relationship between interplate deformation and long-term crustal shortening is not fully understood. The continuous belt of rugged topography that extends along the entire plate boundary is generally associated with oblique tectonic plate motion, strong interplate coupling, and terrane accretion, but relating plate boundary orogenesis to variations in plate geometry and behavior requires detailed ...

  19. Progressive migration of slab break-off along the southern Tyrrhenian plate boundary: Constraints for the present day kinematics (United States)

    Chiarabba, Claudio; Palano, Mimmo


    The Ionian subduction in the central Mediterranean, just 200 km wide, is one of the narrowest in the world. Its evolution has involved a progressive disruption of the subducting slab, contemporaneous to the retreat and step-wise opening of back-arc basins. In this study, we analyse velocity anomalies of the upper mantle, together with the most comprehensive set of earthquake locations and kinematic indicators available for Italy, to reconstruct the geodynamics and tectonic evolution of the Ionian subduction system. Along the Sicilian boundary, we identify an eastward migration of the slab edge with detachment of the Ionian oceanic lithosphere. We hypothesize that the progressive detachment of the slab took place along lithospheric transform faults of the Neo-Tethys Ocean. Among the main active kinematic elements of the Ionian accretionary wedge, we suggest that a ∼400-km-long and highly segmented shear zone formed by the Aeolian-Tindari-Letojanni fault system and the Ionian fault represents the surface expression of such a lithospheric tearing. The present day convergence between the Eurasian and African plates is accommodated both at the frontal thrust of the flexed Hyblean margin in southern Sicily and offshore along the Tyrrhenian Sea. Lithospheric bending favors the wedging of the mantle underneath northern Sicily, while magmatic fluids are channeled along slab tears.

  20. Integration of the Plate Boundary Observatory and Existing GPS Networks in Southern California: A Multi Use Geodetic Network (United States)

    Walls, C.; Blume, F.; Meertens, C.; Arnitz, E.; Lawrence, S.; Miller, S.; Bradley, W.; Jackson, M.; Feaux, K.


    The ultra-stable GPS monument design developed by Southern California Geodetic Network (SCIGN) in the late 1990s demonstrates sub-millimeter errors on long time series where there are a high percentage of observations and low multipath. Following SCIGN, other networks such as PANGA and BARGEN have adopted the monument design for both deep drilled braced monuments (DDBM = 5 legs grouted 10.7 meters into bedrock/stratigraphy) and short drilled braced monuments (SDBM = 4 legs epoxied 2 meters into bedrock). A Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) GPS station consists of a "SCIGN" style monument and state of the art NetRS receiver and IP based communications. Between the years 2003-2008 875 permanent PBO GPS stations are being built throughout the United States. Concomitant with construction of the PBO the majority of pre-existing GPS stations that meet stability specifications are being upgraded with Trimble NetRS and IP based communications to PBO standards under the EarthScope PBO Nucleus project. In 2008, with completed construction of the Plate Boundary Observatory, more than 1100 GPS stations will share common design specifications and have identical receivers with common communications making it the most homogenous geodetic network in the World. Of the 875 total Plate Boundary Observatory GPS stations, 211 proposed sites are distributed throughout the Southern California region. As of August 2007 the production status is: 174 stations built (81 short braced monuments, 93 deep drilled braced monuments), 181 permits signed, 211 permits submitted and 211 station reconnaissance reports. The balance of 37 stations (19 SDBM and 18 DDBM) will be built over the next year from Long Valley to the Mexico border in order of priority as recommended by the PBO Transform, Extension and Magmatic working groups. Fifteen second data is archived for each station and 1 Hz as well as 5 Hz data is buffered to be triggered for download in the event of an earthquake. Communications

  1. Earthquake and Geothermal Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Kapoor, Surya Prakash


    The origin of earthquake has long been recognized as resulting from strike-slip instability of plate tectonics along the fault lines. Several events of earthquake around the globe have happened which cannot be explained by this theory. In this work we investigated the earthquake data along with other observed facts like heat flow profiles etc... of the Indian subcontinent. In our studies we found a high-quality correlation between the earthquake events, seismic prone zones, heat flow regions and the geothermal hot springs. As a consequence, we proposed a hypothesis which can adequately explain all the earthquake events around the globe as well as the overall geo-dynamics. It is basically the geothermal power, which makes the plates to stand still, strike and slip over. The plates are merely a working solid while the driving force is the geothermal energy. The violent flow and enormous pressure of this power shake the earth along the plate boundaries and also triggers the intra-plate seismicity. In the light o...

  2. It's "Your" Fault!: An Investigation into Earthquakes, Plate Tectonics, and Geologic Time (United States)

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James


    Earthquakes "have" been in the news of late--from the disastrous 2010 Haitian temblor that killed more than 300,000 people to the March 2011 earthquake and devastating tsunami in Honshu, Japan, to the unexpected August 2011 earthquake in Mineral, Virginia, felt from Alabama to Maine and as far west as Illinois. As expected, these events…

  3. It's "Your" Fault!: An Investigation into Earthquakes, Plate Tectonics, and Geologic Time (United States)

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James


    Earthquakes "have" been in the news of late--from the disastrous 2010 Haitian temblor that killed more than 300,000 people to the March 2011 earthquake and devastating tsunami in Honshu, Japan, to the unexpected August 2011 earthquake in Mineral, Virginia, felt from Alabama to Maine and as far west as Illinois. As expected, these events…

  4. Earthquake depth-energy release: thermomechanical implications for dynamic plate theory

    CERN Document Server

    Patton, Regan L


    Analysis of the global centroid-moment tensor catalog reveals significant regional variations of seismic energy release to 290 km depth. These variations reflect radial and lateral contrasts in thermomechanical competence, consistent with a shear-dominated non-adiabatic boundary layer some 700-km thick, capped by denser oceanic lithosphere as much as 100 km thick, or lighter continental tectosphere 170 to 260 km thick. Thus, isobaric shearing at fractally-distributed depths likely facilitates toroidal plate rotations while minimizing global energy dissipation. Shear localization in the shallow crust occurs as dislocations at finite angles with respect to the shortening direction, with a 30 degree angle being the most likely. Consequently, relatively low-angle reverse faults, steep normal faults, and triple junctions with orthogonal or hexagonal symmetry are likely to form in regions of crustal shortening, extension, and transverse motion, respectively. Thermomechanical theory also predicts adiabatic condition...

  5. Streamwise counter-rotating vortices generated by triangular leading edge pattern in flat plate boundary layer

    KAUST Repository

    Hasheminejad, S. M.


    A series of flow visualizations were conducted to qualitatively study the development of streamwise counter-rotating vortices over a flat plate induced by triangular patterns at the leading edge of a flat plate. The experiments were carried out for a Reynolds number based on the pattern wavelength (λ) of 3080. The results depict the onset, development and breakdown of the vortical structures within the flat plate boundary layer. Moreover, the effect of one spanwise array of holes with diameter of 0.2λ (=3 mm) was examined. This investigation was done on two different flat plates with holes placed at the location x/λ = 2 downstream of the troughs and peaks. The presence of holes after troughs does not show any significant effect on the vortical structures. However, the plate with holes after peaks noticeably delays the vortex breakdown. In this case, the “mushroom-like” vortices move away from the wall and propagate downstream with stable vortical structures. The vortex growth is halted further downstream but start to tilt aside.

  6. Plate boundary deformation at the latitude of the Salton Trough - northern Gulf of California (Invited) (United States)

    Stock, J. M.


    Along the Pacific-North America plate boundary zone, the segment including the southern San Andreas fault to Salton Trough and northern Gulf of California basins has been transtensional throughout its evolution, based on Pacific-North America displacement vectors calculated from the global plate circuit (900 × 20 km at N54°W since 20 Ma; 460 × 20 km at N48°W since 11 Ma). Nevertheless, active seismicity and focal mechanisms show a broad zone of plate boundary deformation within which the inferred stress regime varies locally (Yang & Hauksson 2013 GJI), and fault patterns in some regions suggest ongoing tectonic rotation. Similar behavior is inferred to have occurred in this zone over most of its history. Crustal structure in this region is constrained by surface geology, geophysical experiments (e.g., the 2011 Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP), USGS Imperial Valley 1979, PACE), and interdisciplinary marine and onland studies in Mexico (e.g., NARS-Baja, Cortes, and surveys by PEMEX). Magnetic data (e.g., EMAG-2) aids in the recognition of large-scale crustal provinces and fault boundaries in regions lacking detailed geophysical surveys. Consideration of existing constraints on crustal thickness and architecture, and fault and basin evolution suggests that to reconcile geological deformation with plate motion history, the following additional factors need to be taken into account. 1) Plate boundary displacement via interacting systems of rotating blocks, coeval with slip on steep strike slip faults, and possibly related to slip on low angle extensional faults (e.g, Axen & Fletcher 1998 IGR) may be typical prior to the onset of seafloor spreading. This fault style may have accommodated up to 150 km of plate motion in the Mexican Continental Borderland and north of the Vizcaino Peninsula, likely between 12 and 15 Ma, as well as explaining younger rotations adjacent to the Gulf of California and current deformation southwest of the Salton Sea. 2) Geophysical

  7. Earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    正A serious earthquake happened in Wenchuan, Sichuan. Over 60,000 people died in the earhtquake, millins of people lost their homes. After the earthquake, people showed their love in different ways. Some gave food, medicine and everything necessary, some gave money,

  8. The EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory Distributed Data Management System (United States)

    Anderson, G.; Eakins, J.; Hodgkinson, K.; Matykiewicz, J.; Beldyk, M.; Blackman, B.; Boler, F.; Henderson, B.; Hoyt, B.; Lee, E.; Persson, E.; Smith, J.; Torrez, D.; Wright, J.; Jackson, M.; Meertens, C.


    EarthScope is an ambitious multi-year project funded by the United States National Science Foundation to explore the structure and dynamics of the North American continent using a wide range of geophysical methods. The Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), being built by UNAVCO, is the geodetic component of EarthScope, and will comprise 880 continuous GPS stations, 103 borehole strainmeter stations, 28 tiltmeters, and five laser strainmeters; in addition, PBO will manage data for 209 existing GPS stations and 11 GPS stations installed by the USArray segment of EarthScope. As of February 2007, 561 of these stations have been installed. PBO data flow is managed from the PBO Boulder Network Operations Center (NOC), located at UNAVCO Headquarters. Automated systems at the NOC retrieve data from our stations at least daily, monitor the status of the network and alert operators to problems, and pass data on for analysis, archiving, and distribution. Real-time network status can be found at PBO's analysis centers generate high-quality derived data products from PBO raw data. Two centers, at Central Washington University and the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, process raw GPS data to produce initial PBO GPS products including network solutions and station position time series, andthese products are combined by the Analysis Center Coordinator at MIT to produce the official PBO GPS products. Two analysis centers, at UNAVCO's Socorro office and the University of California, San Diego, process data from the PBO borehole and laser strainmeter networks and produce cleaned time series of shear, areal, and linear strain, Earth tides, pore fluid pressure, and other parameters. The UNAVCO Facility archives and distributes all PBO GPS data products and runs a secondary archive offsite; to date, these centers hold more than 2.5 TB of PBO products. The IRIS Data Management Center and Northern California Earthquake Data Center archive and

  9. How diking affects the longer-term structure and evolution of divergent plate boundaries

    KAUST Repository

    Trippanera, Daniele


    Recurrent diking episodes along divergent plate boundaries, as at Dabbahu (2005, Afar) or at Bardarbunga (2014, Iceland) , highlight the possibility to have m-wide opening in a short time (days to weeks). This suggests a prominent role of magma enhancing transient plate separations. However, the role of diking on a longer term (> 102 years) and its influence on the structure and the evolution of a divergent plate boundary is still poorly investigated. Here we use field surveys along the oceanic Icelandic and continental Ethiopian plate boundaries, along five eruptive fissures and four rift segments. Field observations have also been integrated with analogue and numerical models of dike emplacement to better understand the effect of dike emplacement at depth and at the surface. Our results show that the dike-fed eruptive fissures are systematically associated with graben structures formed by inward dipping normal faults having throws up to 10 m and commonly propagating downward. Moreover, rift segments (i.e. mature rift zones), despite any asymmetry and repetition, are characterized by the same features as the eruptive fissures, the only difference lying in the larger size (higher fault throws, up to 40 m, and wider deformation zones). Analogue and numerical models of dike intrusion confirm that all the structural features observed along the rift segments may be dike-induced; these features include downward propagating normal faults bordering graben structures, contraction at the base of the hanging walls of the faults and upward propagating faults. Simple calculations based on the deeper structure of the eroded rift segments in eastern and western Iceland also suggest that all the fault slip in the active rift segments may result from diking. These results suggest that the overall deformation pattern of eruptive fissures and rift segments may be explained only by dike emplacement. In a magmatic rift, the regional tectonic stress may rarely be high enough to be

  10. The boundary between the Indian and Asian tectonic plates below Tibet. (United States)

    Zhao, Junmeng; Yuan, Xiaohui; Liu, Hongbing; Kumar, Prakash; Pei, Shunping; Kind, Rainer; Zhang, Zhongjie; Teng, Jiwen; Ding, Lin; Gao, Xing; Xu, Qiang; Wang, Wei


    The fate of the colliding Indian and Asian tectonic plates below the Tibetan high plateau may be visualized by, in addition to seismic tomography, mapping the deep seismic discontinuities, like the crust-mantle boundary (Moho), the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB), or the discontinuities at 410 and 660 km depth. We herein present observations of seismic discontinuities with the P and S receiver function techniques beneath central and western Tibet along two new profiles and discuss the results in connection with results from earlier profiles, which did observe the LAB. The LAB of the Indian and Asian plates is well-imaged by several profiles and suggests a changing mode of India-Asia collision in the east-west direction. From eastern Himalayan syntaxis to the western edge of the Tarim Basin, the Indian lithosphere is underthrusting Tibet at an increasingly shallower angle and reaching progressively further to the north. A particular lithospheric region was formed in northern and eastern Tibet as a crush zone between the two colliding plates, the existence of which is marked by high temperature, low mantle seismic wavespeed (correlating with late arriving signals from the 410 discontinuity), poor Sn propagation, east and southeast oriented global positioning system displacements, and strikingly larger seismic (SKS) anisotropy.

  11. Active faulting south of the Himalayan Front: Establishing a new plate boundary (United States)

    Yeats, Robert S.; Thakur, V. C.


    New tectonic uplifts south of the Salt Range Thrust and Himalayan Front Thrust (HFT) represent an outward step of the plate boundary from the principal tectonic displacement zone into the Indo-Gangetic Plain. In Pakistan, the Lilla Anticline deforms fine-grained overbank deposits of the Jhelum River floodplain 15 km south of the Salt Range. The anticline is overpressured in Eocambrian non-marine strata. In northwest India south of Dehra Dun, the Piedmont Fault (PF) lies 15 km south of the HFT. Coalescing fans derived from the Himalaya form a piedmont (Old Piedmont Zone) 15-20 km wide east of the Yamuna River. This zone is uplifted as much as 15-20 m near the PF, and bedding is tilted 5-7° northeast. Holocene thermoluminescence-optically-stimulated luminescence dates for sediments in the Old Piedmont Zone suggest that the uplift rate might be as high as several mm/a. The Old Piedmont Zone is traced northwest 200 km and southeast another 200 km to the Nepal border. These structures, analogous to protothrusts in subduction zones, indicate that the Himalayan plate boundary is not a single structure but a series of structures across strike, including reactivated parts of the Main Boundary Thrust north of the range front, the HFT sensu stricto, and stepout structures on the Indo-Gangetic Plain. Displacement rates on all these structures must be added to determine the local India-Himalaya convergence rate.

  12. Flat plate heat transfer for laminar transition and turbulent boundary layers using a shock tube (United States)

    Brostmeyer, J. D.; Nagamatsu, H. T.


    Heat transfer results are presented for laminar, transition, and turbulent boundary layers for a Mach number of 0.12 with gas temperatures of 425 K and 1000 K over a flat plate at room temperature. The measurements were made in air for a Reynolds number range of 600 to 6 million. The heat transfer measurements were conducted in a 70-ft long, 4 in. diameter shock tube. Reflecting wedges were used to reflect the incident shock wave to produce a flow Mach number of 0.12 behind the reflected shock wave. Thin film platinum heat gages were mounted on the plate surface to measure the local heat flux. The laminar results for gas temperatures of 425 K to 1000 K agree well with theory. The turbulent results are also close to incompressible theory, with the 1000 K flow case being slightly higher. The transition results lie between the laminar and turbulent predictions.

  13. Lithospheric loading by the 1896 Riku-u earthquake, northern Japan: implications for plate flexure and asthenospheric rheology. (United States)

    Thatcher, W.; Matsuda, T.; Kato, T.; Rundle, J.B.


    Under favorable circumstances the time-dependent aseismic deformation resulting from the loading of the lithosphere by the stress drop of large dip slip earthquakes can be used to determine both the effective elastic plate thickness and the asthenospheric viscosity. The deformation has several similarities with the deflection of the lithosphere by surface loads and with movements due to postglacial rebound. Level changes obtained in the 80 years since the M = 7.5, 1896 Riku-u earthquake, an intraplate thrust event in northern Honshu, provide convincing evidence that asthenospheric readjustments are responsible for the observed movements. Leveling surveys crossing the zone of surface faulting have been repeated five times since 1900 and delineate a localized depression that has subsided at a continually decreasing rate. The depression is centered close to the 1896 faulting, and its shape and width, about 75 km, are matched by our model using a plate thickness of 30 km. The decaying subsidence rate constrains the viscosity of the uppermost asthenosphere to be 1 x 1020 P. A linear viscous rheology matches the observed decay quite well, although measurements are sparse during the several decades following the earthquake. -Authors

  14. The boundary point method for Reissner′s plates%Reissner型板边界点法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴约; 王左辉


    In this paper, a series of particular solutions are formed by utilizing correspondent Reissher′s plate fundamental solutions. Thus all elements in the coefficient matrix of boundary element equations for plates to be solved will be determined by boundary point method. In the process of solving, interpolation and numerical integration are not needed and numerical treatment for singular integration is avoided, meanwhile, the calculation of physical characteristics of any point does not depend on boundary unknowns to be solved, therefore, the accuracy is excellent. The method presented may be applied to solving the problems of all kinds of plates and shells no matter if the problem is isotropic or anisotropic. But it should be noticed that the matrix of all particular solution field should conform with the fundamental solution of the specific problem.%文章采用Reissner型板基本解来构建一系列特解,再通过边界点法确定边界元方程系效矩阵的全部元素。解算中不涉及具体插值,不用数值积分,避免了奇性处理,而任意点物理量的计算不依赖于待解的边界未知量,算效高,精度好。该法还可用来分析其它各类板壳问题,无论是各向同性还是各向异性的,不同的只是应按各自的基本解来构造全特解场矩阵。

  15. Inherited segmentation of the Iberian-African margins and tectonic reconstruction of a diffuse plate boundary. (United States)

    Fernàndez, Manel; Torne, Montserrat; Vergés, Jaume; Casciello, Emilio


    Diffuse plate-boundary regions are characterized by non-well defined contacts between tectonic plates thus making difficult their reconstruction through time. The Western Mediterranean is one of these regions, where the convergence between the African and Iberian plates since Late Cretaceous resulted in the Betic-Rif arcuate orogen, the Gulf of Cadiz imbricate wedge, and the Alboran back-arc basin. Whereas the Iberia-Africa plate boundary is well defined west to the Gorringe Bank and along the Gloria Fault, it becomes much more diffuse eastwards with seismicity spreading over both the south-Iberian and north-African margins. Gravity data, when filtered for short wavelengths, show conspicuous positive Bouguer anomalies associated with the Gorringe Bank, the Gulf of Cadiz High and the Ronda/Beni-Bousera peridotitic massifs reflecting an inherited Jurassic margin segmentation. The subsequent Alpine convergence between Africa and Iberia reactivated these domains, producing crustal-scale thrusting in the Atlantic segments and eventually subduction in the proto-Mediterranean segments. The Jurassic segmentation of the Iberia-Africa margins substantiates the double-polarity subduction model proposed for the region characterized by a change from SE-dipping polarity in the Gorringe, Gulf of Cadiz and Betic-Rif domains, to NW-dipping polarity in the proto-Algerian domain. Therefore, the Algerian and Tyrrhenian basins in the east and the Alboran basin in the west are the result of SSE-E and NW-W retreating slabs of oceanic and/or hyper-extended Tethyan domains, respectively.

  16. The Northern Caribbean Plate Boundary Offshore Hispaniola: Strike-slip and Compressive Tectonic Processes (United States)

    Corbeau, J.; Rolandone, F.; Leroy, S. D.; Mercier De Lepinay, B. F.; Meyer, B.; Ellouz, N.


    The boundary between the Caribbean plate and the North American plate is transpressive due to the oblique collision between these two plates. The transpressive movement is partitioned and accommodated in the Hispaniola region along two left-lateral strike-slip structures surrounding a fold-and-thrust belt. New multibeam bathymetry data and multichannel seismic reflection profiles have been recently collected during the Haiti-SIS and Haiti-SIS 2 cruises, along part of the northern Caribbean plate boundary between Cuba, Jamaica and Hispaniola. From the north to the south, three types of deformations are observed. In the Windward Passage, the analysis of the data set reveals that the movement on the Oriente fault between Cuba and Hispaniola is purely left-lateral strike-slip according to the GPS measurements. In the Gonave basin, west of Hispaniola, the deformation is compressive. A series of folds is identified and moves toward the southwest. The Enriquillo-Plantain-Garden Fault (EPGF) is localized in the Jamaica Passage, between Jamaica and Hispaniola. The analysis of the data set reveals that the left-lateral EPGF recently intersects inherited basins from the eastern Cayman Trough margin. The study of the actual EPGF active trace shows that this fault moves with a pure strike-slip component, at least in its western part: the presence of a little push-up structure and a set of three en echelon folds is highlighting in the western part of the Jamaica Passage. The shortening rate in the inherited basins crossed by the EPGF increases from west to east (5.8% to 8.5%), indicating that a thrusting component is also accommodated around the EPGF.

  17. Geodetic and tectonic analyses along an active plate boundary: The central Gulf of California (United States)

    Ortlieb, L.; Ruegg, J. C.; Angelier, J.; Colletta, B.; Kasser, M.; Lesage, P.


    The Gulf of California is traversed by the shear plate boundary between Pacific and North American plates and, because of several islands in its central part, offers the possibility of direct geodetic measurements of plate motion. A geodetic network of 150 km aperture, and comprising 11 stations, was measured in 1982 and 1986 by laser trilateration methods. The deformations deduced from the comparison of the two epochs indicate right-lateral shear strain covering the entire gulf rather than localized movements. In the eastern part of the network, between the axial islands and the Sonoran coast, significant right-lateral shear deformation occurs with a relative displacement of about 23 ± 12 cm over 4 years. In the northwestern region (Canal de Ballenas) a right-lateral displacement of about 17 ± 4 cm is observed, whereas in the southwestern part of the network (Canal Sal-si-Puedes), the deformation remains very weak. This suggests that south of the Canal de Ballenas the plate boundary is locked. A tectonic analysis of Neogene and Quaternary faults in Baja California, Sonora, and the central islands of the gulf, permitted the reconstruction of the stress pattern evolution of this area. These data also indicate the predominance of right-lateral motion on a NW-SE trending zone within a regional framework characterized by an approximately N-S compression and an E-W extension. The geodetic results are discussed in comparison with the neotectonic analysis and the seismic data available in the area. The data suggest a broad strain accumulation zone covering the totality of the central Gulf of California. A NW-SE relative velocity of about 8 ± 3 cm/yr is found between the two sides of the gulf during the 1982-1986 interval.

  18. Triangular Differential Quadrature for Bending Analysis of Reissner Plates with Curved Boundaries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华永霞; 钟宏志


    The recently proposed concept of the triangular differential quadrature method (TDQM) is applied to the bending analysis of Reissner plates with various curvilinear geometries subjected to various combinations of boundary conditions. A unit isosceles right triangle is used as the standard triangle for all the derivatives expressed using the triangular differential quadrature rule. Geometric transformations are introduced using basis functions to determine the weighting coefficients for the triangular differential quadrature to map an arbitrary curvilinear triangle into the standard triangle. The triangular differential quadrature method provides good accuracy and rapid convergence relative to other available exact and numerical results.

  19. Stability and coherent structures of the asymptotic suction boundary layer over a heated plate

    CERN Document Server

    Zammert, Stefan; Eckhardt, Bruno


    The asymptotic suction boundary layer (ASBL) is a parallel shear flow that becomes turbulent in a bypass transition in parameter regions where the laminar profile is stable. We here add a temperature gradient perpendicular to the plate and explore the interaction between convection and shear in determining the transition. We find that the laminar state becomes unstable in a subcritical bifurcation and that the critical Rayleigh number and wave number depend strongly on the Prandtl number. We also track several secondary bifurcations and identify states that are localized in two directions, showing different symmetries. In the subcritical regime, transient turbulent states which are connected to exact coherent states and follow the same transition scenario as found in linearly stable shear flows are identified and analyzed. The study extends the bypass transition scenario from shear flows to thermal boundary layers and shows the intricate interactions between thermal and shear forces in determining critical po...

  20. Boundary Layer Flow and Heat Transfer of FMWCNT/Water Nanofluids over a Flat Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Safaei


    Full Text Available In the present study, the heat transfer and flow of water/FMWCNT (functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotube nanofluids over a flat plate was investigated using a finite volume method. Simulations were performed for velocity ranging from 0.17 mm/s to 1.7 mm/s under laminar regime and nanotube concentrations up to 0.2%. The 2-D governing equations were solved using an in-house FORTRAN code. For a specific free stream velocity, the presented results showed that increasing the weight percentage of nanotubes increased the Nusselt number. However, an increase in the solid weight percentage had a negligible effect on the wall shear stress. The results also indicated that increasing the free stream velocity for all cases leads to thinner boundary layer thickness, while increasing the FMWCNT concentration causes an increase in the boundary layer thickness.

  1. Coherent Structures in Transition of a Flat-Plate Boundary Layer at Ma=0.7

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Ying; LI Xin-Liang; FU De-Xun; MA Yan-Wen


    @@ Direct numerical simulation (DNS) of a spatially evolving flat-plate boundary layer transition process at free stream Mach number 0.7 is performed. Tollmien-Schlichting (T-S) waves are added on the inlet boundary as the disturbances before transition. Typical coherent structures in the transition process are investigated based on the second invariant of velocity gradient tensor. The instantaneous shear stress and the mean velocity profile in the transition region are studied. In our view, the fact that the peak value of shear stress in the stress concentration area increases and exceeds a threshold value during the later stage of the transition process plays an important role in the laminar breakdown process.

  2. Determination of Euler parameters of Philippine Sea plate and the inferences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    臧绍先; 陈起永; 宁杰远; 沈正康; 刘永刚


    Euler vectors of 12 plates, including Philippine Sea plate (PH), relative to a randomly fixed Pacific plate(PA) were determined by inverting the 1122 data from NUVEL-1 global plate motion model, earthquake slip vectors along Philippine Sea plate boundary, and GPS observed velocities. Euler vectors of Philippine Sea plate relative to adjacent plates are also gained. Our results are well consistent with observed data and can satisfy the geological and geophysical constraints along the Caroline(CR)-PH and PA-CR boundaries. Deformation of Philippine Sea plate is also discussed by using the plate motion Euler parameters.

  3. Fluid-mechanical Representation of Plate Boundaries - Trench-Ridge System - (United States)

    Takaku, M.; Fukao, Y.


    Seismic tomography models have been used extensively to simulate mantle convection driven by density heterogeneity. Such simulation to date has been unsuccessful to reconcile itself with the most obvious convection-related phenomenon of plate motions. Here we present a theoretical framework for tomography-based convection modeling to include the plates as an integral part of the mantle convection. We model the lithosphere as a highly viscous, incompressible, Newtonian fluid layer and plate boundaries as faults across which tangential velocities are discontinuous. Fluid-mechanical expressions of such faults have their exact analogies in the seismic source representation theory and can be derived by referring to it. We test this idea against the simplest two-dimensional case with only trench and ridge as plate boundaries, and with only subducting slab as mass anomaly. We model ridge (trench) as the horizontal (vertical) tensile fault that comprises of a conjugate pair of 45-degree dip normal (reverse) faults extending over the entire thickness of the surface layer. The system comprises of three elementary convections, slab mass-driven convection, trench fault-driven convection and ridge fault-driven convection. Flow due to the slab excess mass imposes vertical tensile stress on trench, which is released by flow driven by trench faulting. This faulting converts efficiently the vertical tensile stress to the horizontal tensile stress, which can transmit to extreme distances through the surface viscous layer. This horizontal tensile stress is relieved by flow driven by ridge faulting. The three elementary convections are thus coupled through the stress minimum conditions at ridge and trench. The resultant coupled flow is very plate-like in the surface viscous layer. In this system the horizontal surface velocity depends little on the relative distance between the ridge and trench and depends mostly on the excess weight of the subducting slab. The horizontal speed can be

  4. Structural and Tectonic Map Along the Pacific-North America Plate Boundary in Northern Gulf of California, Sonora Desert and Valle de Mexicali, Mexico, from Seismic Reflection Evidence (United States)

    Gonzalez-Escobar, M.; Suarez-Vidal, F.; Mendoza-Borunda, R.; Martin Barajas, A.; Pacheco-Romero, M.; Arregui-Estrada, S.; Gallardo-Mata, C.; Sanchez-Garcia, C.; Chanes-Martinez, J.


    Between 1978 and 1983, Petróleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) carried on an intense exploration program in the northern Gulf of California, the Sonora Desert and the southern part of the Mexicali Valley. This program was supported by a seismic reflection field operation. The collected seismic data was 2D, with travel time of 6 s recording, in 48 channels, and the source energy was: dynamite, vibroseis and air guns. Since 2007 to present time, the existing seismic data has been re-processing and ire-interpreting as part of a collaboration project between the PEMEX's Subdirección de Exploración (PEMEX) and CICESE. The study area is located along a large portion of the Pacific-North America plate boundary in the northern Gulf of California and the Southern part of the Salton Trough tectonic province (Mexicali Valley). We present the result of the processes reflection seismic lines. Many of the previous reported known faults were identify along with the first time described located within the study region. We identified regions with different degree of tectonic activity. In structural map it can see the location of many of these known active faults and their associated seismic activity, as well as other structures with no associated seismicity. Where some faults are mist placed they were deleted or relocated based on new information. We included historical seismicity for the region. We present six reflection lines that cross the aftershocks zone of the El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake of April 4, 2010 (Mw7.2). The epicenter of this earthquake and most of the aftershocks are located in a region where pervious to this earthquake no major earthquakes are been reported. A major result of this study is to demonstrate that there are many buried faults that increase the seismic hazard.

  5. Flowfield measurements in a separated and reattached flat plate turbulent boundary layer (United States)

    Patrick, William P.


    The separation and reattachment of a large-scale, two-dimensional turbulent boundary layer at low subsonic speed on a flat plate has been studied experimentally. The separation bubble was 55 cm long and had a maximum bubble thickness, measured to the height of the mean dividing streamline, of 17 cm, which was twice the thickness of the inlet boundary layer. A combination of laser velocimetry, hot-wire anemometry, pneumatic probing techniques, and flow visualization were used as diagnostics. Principal findings were that an outer inviscid rotational flow was defined which essentially convected over the blockage associated with the inner, viscously dominated bubble recirculation region. A strong backflow region in which the flow moved upstream 100 percent of the time was measured near the test surface over the central 35 percent of the bubble. A laminar backflow boundary layer having pseudo-turbulent characteristics including a log-linear velocity profile was generated under the highly turbulent backflow. Velocity profile shapes in the reversed flow region matched a previously developed universal backflow profile at the upstream edge of the separation region but not in the steady backflow region downstream. A smoke flow visualization movie and hot-film measurements revealed low frequency nonperiodic flapping at reattachment. However, forward flow fraction data at reattachment and mean velocity profiles in the redeveloping boundary layer downstream of reattachment correlated with backward-facing step data when the axial dimension was scaled by the distance from the maximum bubble thickness to reattachment.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙述尧; 熊渊博


    The meshless local boundary integral equation method is a currently developed numerical method, which combines the advantageous features of Galerkin finite element method(GFEM), boundary element method(BEM) and element free Galerkin method(EFGM), and is a truly meshless method possessing wide prospects in engineering applications.The companion solution and all the other formulas required in the meshless local boundary integral equation for a thin plate were presented, in order to make this method apply to solve the thin plate problem.

  7. Relaminarization of the boundary layer over a flat plate in shock tube experiments (United States)

    Hinckel, J. N.; Nagamatsu, H. T.


    The relaminarization of the boundary layer over a flat plate in the shock tube was investigated by using the partially reflected shock wave technique. The flow Mach number was approximately 0.14, which corresponds to the inleft flow Mach number for the first row of vanes in a gas turbine. The thin film platinum heat gauges were used to measure the heat transfer rate and the Stanton number was calculated from the oscilloscope voltage traces. The Reynolds number was varied by changing the operation pressure of the shock tube and the values varied from 2.3 x 10 to the 4th to 5.3 x 10 to the 5th. For a Reynolds number range of 7 x 10 to the 4th to 3.5 x 10 to the 5th, the relaminarization of the boundary layer was observed. This phenomenon is due to the decay of the turbulence level in the flow as the reflected shock wave moves upstream from the flat plate. As the Reynolds number increased, the relaminarization was delayed and the delay was related to the turbulence generated by the reflected shock wave.

  8. The 2014 Mw6.2 Eketahuna earthquake, Hikurangi subduction zone - normal faulting in the subducted Pacific Plate crust (United States)

    Abercrombie, R. E.; Bannister, S. C.; Francois-Holden, C.; Hamling, I. J.; Ristau, J. P.


    The 2014 January 20th M6.2 Eketahuna earthquake occurred in the subducted crust of the Pacific plate at the Hikurangi subduction zone, beneath North Island, New Zealand. Moment tensor analysis together with aftershock relocations show that this event was an oblique-normal faulting intraplate event, with hypocentre depth ca.30 km, and with rupture on a northwest-dipping fault extending through the subducted crust up to the subduction megathrust at ca.18-20 km depth. More than 3500 aftershocks were subsequently recorded by the New Zealand GeoNet network, with only minor migration of the aftershocks away from the inferred mainshock rupture, and with very few aftershocks within +/- 1 km of the subduction megathrust. The megathrust in this particular region is inferred to be interseismically locked with no seismic or aseismic slip, although slow slip is occurring ca.15-30 km down-dip (Wallace et al, 2013). Similar oblique-normal faulting events have previously occurred along the Hikurangi subduction margin, including in 1985 (ML5.7) and 1990 (Mw6.2). Earlier earthquakes in 1942 (Mw6.8) and 1921 (Mw6.8) are also inferred to have occurred at a similar depth within the subducted crust. The 1990 earthquake sequence occurred ~40 km along-strike from the 2014 Eketahuna event, and involved a Mw6.2 oblique-normal faulting event in the subducted crust, which was quickly followed by a Mw6.4 event in the overlying crust, with both thrust and dextral strike-slip components, possibly responding to deeper aseismic slip. Deeper earthquakes of similar type at other subduction margins are thought to be high stress drop. We calculate the stress drops of the mainshock and larger aftershocks, using a direct wave, empirical Green's function (EGF) approach that includes measurement uncertainties and objective criteria for assessing the quality of each spectral ratio (Abercrombie, 2013). We compare the results to those for earthquakes in other tectonic regions of New Zealand, calculated using

  9. Constraints on fault slip rates of the southern California plate boundary from GPS velocity and stress inversions (United States)

    Becker, T.W.; Hardebeck, J.L.; Anderson, G.


    We use Global Positioning System (GPS) velocities and stress orientations inferred from seismicity to invert for the distribution of slip on faults in the southern California plate-boundary region. Of particular interest is how long-term slip rates are partitioned between the Indio segment of the San Andreas fault (SAF), the San Jacinto fault (SJF) and the San Bernardino segment of the SAE We use two new sets of constraints to address this problem. The first is geodetic velocities from the Southern California Earthquake Center's (SCEC) Crustal Motion Map (version 3 by Shen et al.), which includes significantly more data than previous models. The second is a regional model of stress-field orientations at seismogenic depths, as determined from earthquake focal mechanisms. While GPS data have been used in similar studies before, this is the first application of stress-field observations to this problem. We construct a simplified model of the southern California fault system, and estimate the interseismic surface velocities using a backslip approach with purely elastic strain accumulation, following Meade et al. In addition, we model the stress orientations at seismogenic depths, assuming that crustal stress results from the loading of active faults. The geodetically derived stressing rates are found to be aligned with the stress orientations from seismicity. We therefore proceed to invert simultaneously GPS and stress observations for slip rates of the faults in our network. We find that the regional patterns of crustal deformation as imaged by both data sets can be explained by our model, and that joint inversions lead to better constrained slip rates. In our preferred model, the SJF accommodates ???15 mm yr-1 and the Indio segment of the SAF ???23 mm yr-1 of right-lateral motion, accompanied by a low slip rate on the San Bernardino segment of the SAF 'Anomalous' fault segments such as around the 1992 Mw = 7.3 Landers surface rupture can be detected. There, observed

  10. Crustal structure of the Eurasia-Africa plate boundary across the Gloria Fault, North Atlantic Ocean (United States)

    Batista, Luis; Hübscher, Christian; Terrinha, Pedro; Matias, Luis; Afilhado, Alexandra; Lüdmann, Thomas


    The oceanic crustal and uppermost lithospheric mantle structure across the Gloria Fault (GF) transcurrent plate boundary between Africa and Eurasia in the Northeast Atlantic is investigated based on seismic reflection, seismic refraction and wide-angle reflection data. This experiment used 18 ocean bottom stations along an N-S 150 km long traverse together with acquisition of a multichannel seismic reflection profile. Modeling of P and S seismic waves and gravimetric anomalies allowed estimation of P- and S-wave velocities, density, Poisson's ratio and discussion of a compositional model. A five-layer model is proposed in which layers 1-3 correspond to normal sediments through typical oceanic crust layers 2 and 3. Layer 5 yielded mantle velocities above 7.9 km s-1. Layer 4 with 4 km of thickness has Vp velocities between 7.1 and 7.4 km s-1 and is clearly separated from typical oceanic crust and mantle layers. Comparison with natural analogues and published lab measurements suggest that layer 4 can be a mix of lithologies that comply with the estimated P and S velocities and computed Poisson's ratio and densities, such as, olivine cumulates, peridotite, gabbro and hydrated mantle. We favour the tectonic process that produces secondary porosity from which results serpentinization due to sea water circulation in fractures. Structural and seismic stratigraphic interpretation of the reflection profile shows that Neogene to recent tectonic deformation on this segment of the plate boundary concentrated on the southern side of the GF, that is, the Africa plate.

  11. Space-time model for migration of weak earthquakes along the northern boundary of the Amurian microplate (United States)

    Trofimenko, S. V.; Bykov, V. G.; Merkulova, T. V.


    In this paper, we aimed to investigate the statistical distributions of shallow earthquakes with 2 ≤ M ≤ 4, located in 13 rectangular areas (clusters) bounded by 120°E and 144°E along the northern boundary of the Amurian microplate. As a result of our study, the displacement of seismicity maxima has been determined and three recurrent spatial cycles have been observed. The clusters with similar distribution of earthquakes are suggested to alternate being equally spaced at 7.26° (360-420 km). A comparison of investigation results on the structure of seismicity in various segments of the Amurian microplate reveals the identity between the alternation pattern observed for meridional zones of large earthquakes and a distinguished spatial period. The displacement vector for seismicity in the annual cycles is determined, and the correspondence between its E-W direction and the displacement of the fronts of large earthquakes is established. The elaborated model of seismic and deformation processes is considered, in which subsequent activation of clusters of weak earthquakes (2 ≤ M ≤ 4), tending to extend from the Japanese-Sakhalin island arc to the eastern closure of the Baikal rift zone, is initiated by the displacement of the strain wave front.

  12. Thermochronology and tectonics of the Leeward Antilles: Evolution of the southern Caribbean Plate boundary zone (United States)

    van der Lelij, Roelant; Spikings, Richard A.; Kerr, Andrew C.; Kounov, Alexandre; Cosca, Michael; Chew, David; Villagomez, Diego


    Tectonic reconstructions of the Caribbean Plate are severely hampered by a paucity of geochronologic and exhumation constraints from anastomosed basement blocks along its southern margin. New U/Pb, 40Ar/39Ar, apatite fission track, and apatite (U-Th)/He data constrain quantitative thermal and exhumation histories, which have been used to propose a model for the tectonic evolution of the emergent parts of the Bonaire Block and the southern Caribbean Plate boundary zone. An east facing arc system intruded through an oceanic plateau during ~90 to ~87 Ma and crops out on Aruba. Subsequent structural displacements resulted in >80°C of cooling on Aruba during 70–60 Ma. In contrast, exhumation of the island arc sequence exposed on Bonaire occurred at 85–80 Ma and 55–45 Ma. Santonian exhumation on Bonaire occurred immediately subsequent to burial metamorphism and may have been driven by the collision of a west facing island arc with the Caribbean Plate. Island arc rocks intruded oceanic plateau rocks on Gran Roque at ~65 Ma and exhumed rapidly at 55–45 Ma. We attribute Maastrichtian-Danian exhumation on Aruba and early Eocene exhumation on Bonaire and Gran Roque to sequential diachronous accretion of their basement units to the South American Plate. Widespread unconformities indicate late Eocene subaerial exposure. Late Oligocene–early Miocene dextral transtension within the Bonaire Block drove subsidence and burial of crystalline basement rocks of the Leeward Antilles to ≤1 km. Late Miocene–recent transpression caused inversion and ≤1 km of exhumation, possibly as a result of the northward escape of the Maracaibo Block.

  13. Unsteady Hydromagnetic Flow past a Moving Vertical Plate with Convective Surface Boundary Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauri Shanker Seth


    Full Text Available Investigation of unsteady MHD natural convection flow through a fluid-saturated porous medium of a viscous, incompressible, electrically-conducting and optically-thin radiating fluid past an impulsively moving semi-infinite vertical plate with convective surface boundary condition is carried out. With the aim to replicate practical situations, the heat transfer and thermal expansion coefficients are chosen to be constant and a new set of non-dimensional quantities and parameters are introduced to represent the governing equations along with initial and boundary conditions in dimensionless form. Solution of the initial boundary-value problem (IBVP is obtained by an efficient implicit finite-difference scheme of the Crank-Nicolson type which is one of the most popular schemes to solve IBVPs. The numerical values of fluid velocity and fluid temperature are depicted graphically whereas those of the shear stress at the wall, wall temperature and the wall heat transfer are presented in tabular form for various values of the pertinent flow parameters. A comparison with previously published papers is made for validation of the numerical code and the results are found to be in good agreement.

  14. Boundary integral equation methods and numerical solutions thin plates on an elastic foundation

    CERN Document Server

    Constanda, Christian; Hamill, William


    This book presents and explains a general, efficient, and elegant method for solving the Dirichlet, Neumann, and Robin boundary value problems for the extensional deformation of a thin plate on an elastic foundation. The solutions of these problems are obtained both analytically—by means of direct and indirect boundary integral equation methods (BIEMs)—and numerically, through the application of a boundary element technique. The text discusses the methodology for constructing a BIEM, deriving all the attending mathematical properties with full rigor. The model investigated in the book can serve as a template for the study of any linear elliptic two-dimensional problem with constant coefficients. The representation of the solution in terms of single-layer and double-layer potentials is pivotal in the development of a BIEM, which, in turn, forms the basis for the second part of the book, where approximate solutions are computed with a high degree of accuracy. The book is intended for graduate students and r...

  15. Interior Baja B.C. : Continuing Rotation on a Diffuse Plate Boundary (United States)

    Symons, D. T.; Harris, M. J.; McCausland, P. J.; Blackburn, W. H.; Hart, C. J.


    Interior Baja B.C. - the Intermontane Belt (IMB) and Yukon-Tanana (YT) terranes of northwestern North America - provide a geological record of the complex interactions between the northeastern Pacific basin plates and craton. Geophysical evidence from earthquake seismology, gravity, global positioning system and heat flow data indicate motion of the IMB terranes toward the craton today. Paleomagnetic data show the YT terrane to be parautochthonous and part of the craton's ramp onto which the IMB terranes were obducted. Conversely the IMB terranes behaved as an allochthonous reasonably-coherent microplate with its own apparent polar wander path. Relative to the craton, the path dictates that: 1) from 0-54 Ma the IMB rotated steadily on the craton's ramp at 0.29±±0.11° /Ma or 16±6° clockwise (CW), consistent with Lithoprobe SNORCLE deep crustal seismic evidence for thin skinned tectonics; 2) from 54 to 102±14 Ma the IMB was offshore and was further rotated by 35±14° CW and translated northward by 8.3±7.0° (915±75 km), consistent with geological estimates for total dextral fault displacement and seafloor plate vectors; and 3) more speculatively, from Early Cretaceous to Early Jurassic, the IMB moved in concert with the craton off the western USA seaboard. This history fits with major geologic events such as extensive Eocene extension in southern British Columbia, development of the 1000 km-long Selwyn-Mackenzie orogenic arc in Yukon, YT terrane exposure on either side of the IMB, etc. Further it requires continuing crust-mantle interactions that extend some hundreds of kilometers into the craton today.

  16. Tectonic lineaments in the cenozoic volcanics of southern Guatemala: Evidence for a broad continental plate boundary zone (United States)

    Baltuck, M.; Dixon, T. H.


    The northern Caribbean plate boundary has been undergoing left lateral strike slip motion since middle Tertiary time. The western part of the boundary occurs in a complex tectonic zone in the continental crust of Guatemala and southernmost Mexico, along the Chixoy-Polochic, Motogua and possibly Jocotan-Chamelecon faults. Prominent lineaments visible in radar imagery in the Neogene volcanic belt of southern Guatemala and western El Salvador were mapped and interpreted to suggest southwest extensions of this already broad plate boundary zone. Because these extensions can be traced beneath Quaternary volcanic cover, it is thought that this newly mapped fault zone is active and is accommodating some of the strain related to motion between the North American and Caribbean plates. Onshore exposures of the Motoqua-Polochic fault systems are characterized by abundant, tectonically emplaced ultramafic rocks. A similar mode of emplacement for these off shore ultramafics, is suggested.

  17. Plate tectonics and offshore boundary delimitation: Tunisia-Libya case at the International Court of Justice (United States)

    Stanley, Daniel Jean


    The first major offshore boundary dispute where plate tectonics constituted a significant argument was recently brought before the International Court of Justice by Libya and Tunisia concerning the delimitation of their continental shelves. Libya placed emphasis on this concept to determine natural prolongation of its land territory under the sea. Tunisia contested use of the entire African continental landmass as a reference unit and views geography, geomorphology and bathymetry as relevant as geology. The Court pronounced that “It is the outcome, not the evolution in the long-distant past, which is of importance.” Moreover, it is the present-day configuration of coasts and seabed that are the main factors, not geology.

  18. Abrupt thermal transition reveals hydrothermal boundary and role of seamounts within the Cocos Plate (United States)

    Fisher, A. T.; Stein, C. A.; Harris, R. N.; Wang, K.; Silver, E. A.; Pfender, M.; Hutnak, M.; Cherkaoui, A.; Bodzin, R.; Villinger, H.


    New thermal data from 18-24 Ma lithosphere on the Cocos Plate delineate contrasting subsurface thermal conditions in adjacent sections of crust. Heat flow through seafloor created at the East Pacific Rise is generally suppressed by ~70% relative to conductive lithospheric cooling models, whereas heat flow through adjacent, similarly-aged lithosphere generated at the Cocos-Nazca Spreading Center is consistent with these models. The transition between thermal regimes is remarkably abrupt, only 2-5 km wide, indicating a shallow hydrothermal origin. The transition is more closely associated with differences in the distribution of basement outcrops than with tectonic boundaries, demonstrating the importance of the former in extracting heat from the lithosphere on a regional basis.

  19. Logistical Support for the Installation of the Plate Boundary Observatory GPS and Borehole Strainmeter Networks (United States)

    Kurnik, C.; Austin, K.; Coyle, B.; Dittmann, T.; Feaux, K.; Friesen, B.; Johnson, W.; Mencin, D.; Pauk, B.; Walls, C.


    The Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), part of the NSF-funded EarthScope project, is designed to study the three- dimensional strain field resulting from deformation across the active boundary zone between the Pacific and North American plates in the western United States. To meet these goals, UNAVCO will install 880 continuous GPS stations, 103 borehole strainmeter stations, 28 tiltmeters, and five laser strainmeters by October 2008. Such a broad network presents significant logisitical challenges, including moving supplies, equipment, and personnel around 6 million square kilometers, and this requires accurate tracking and careful planning. The PBO logistics chain includes the PBO headquarters at UNAVCO in Boulder, Colorado and five regional offices in the continental United States and Alaska, served by dozens of suppliers spread across the globe. These offices are responsible for building and maintaining sites in their region. Most equipment and supplies first arrive in Boulder, where they are tagged and entered into a UNAVCO-wide equipment database, assembled and quality checked as necessary, and sent on to the appropriate regional office. Larger items which are costly to store and ship from Boulder, such as batteries or long sections of stainless steel pipe and bar required for monuments, are shipped directly from the supplier to each region as needed. These supplies and equipment are also tracked through the ordering, delivery, installation, and maintenance cycle via Earned Value Management techniques which allow us to meet NSF and other Federal procurement rules. Early prototypes and assembly configurations aid the development of material and supply budgets. A thorough understanding of Federal procurement rules at project start up is critical as the project moves forward.

  20. Recovering physical property information from subduction plate boundaries using 3D full-waveform seismic inversion (United States)

    Bell, R. E.; Morgan, J. V.; Warner, M.


    Our understanding of subduction margin seismogenesis has been revolutionised in the last couple of decades with the discovery that the size of the seismogenic zone may not be controlled simply by temperature and a broad spectrum of seismic behaviour exists from stick-slip to stable sliding. Laboratory and numerical experiments suggest that physical properties, particularly fluid pressure may play an important role in controlling the seismic behaviour of subduction margins. Although drilling can provide information on physical properties along subduction thrust faults at point locations at relatively shallow depths, correlations between physical properties and seismic velocity using rock physics relationships are required to resolve physical properties along the margin and down-dip. Therefore, high resolution seismic velocity models are key to recovering physical property information at subduction plate boundaries away from drill sites. 3D Full waveform inversion (FWI) is a technique pioneered by the oil industry to obtain high-resolution high-fidelity models of physical properties in the sub-surface. 3D FWI involves the inversion of low-frequency (>2 to noise and inverted the windowed transmitted arrivals only. We also ran a suite of resolution tests across the model. The results show that 3D FWI of conventionally collected 3D seismic data across the Muroto Basin would be capable of resolving variations in P-wave velocity along the décollement of the order of half the seismic wavelength at the plate boundary. This is a significant improvement on conventional travel-time tomography which resolves to the Fresnel width. In this presentation we will also postulate on the optimal 3D FWI experiment design for the next generation of 3D seismic surveys across subduction margins as a guide for those embarking on new data collection.

  1. A mixed problem of plate bending for doubly connected domains with partially unknown boundaries in the presence of cyclic symmetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Odishelidze; N; Criado-Aldeanueva; F


    This paper addresses the problem of plate bending for a doubly connected body with outer and inner boundaries in the form of regular polygons with a common center and parallel sides.The neighborhoods of the vertices of the inner boundary are equal full-strength smooth arcs symmetric about the rays coming from the vertices to the center,but have unknown positions.Rigid bars are attached to the linear parts of the boundary.The plate bends by the moments applied to the middle point bars.The unknown arcs are free from external stresses.The same problem of plate bending is considered for a regular hexagon weakened by a full-strength hole.Using the methods of complex analysis,the analytical image of Kolosov-Muskhelishvili’s complex potentials (characterizing an elastic equilibrium of the body),the plate deflection and unknown parts of its boundary are determined under the condition that the tangential normal moment on that plate takes a constant value.Numerical analyses are also performed and the corresponding graphs are constructed.

  2. Pleistocene slip rates on the Boconó fault along the North Andean Block plate boundary, Venezuela (United States)

    Pousse-Beltran, Lea; Vassallo, Riccardo; Audemard, Franck; Jouanne, François; Carcaillet, Julien; Pathier, Erwan; Volat, Matthieu


    The Boconó fault is a strike-slip fault lying between the North Andean Block and the South American plate which has triggered at least five Mw > 7 historical earthquakes in Venezuela. The North Andean Block is currently moving toward NNE with respect to a stable South American plate. This relative displacement at 12 mm yr-1 in Venezuela (within the Maracaibo Block) was measured by geodesy, but until now the distribution and rates of Quaternary deformation have remained partially unclear. We used two alluvial fans offset by the Boconó fault (Yaracuy Valley) to quantify slip rates, by combining 10Be cosmogenic dating with measurements of tectonic displacements on high-resolution satellite images (Pleiades). Based upon a fan dated at >79 ka and offset by 1350-1580 m and a second fan dated at 120-273 ka and offset by 1236-1500 m, we obtained two Pleistocene rates of 5.0-11.2 and <20.0 mm yr-1, consistent with the regional geodesy. This indicates that the Boconó fault in the Yaracuy Valley accommodates 40 to 100% of the deformation between the South American plate and the Maracaibo Block. As no aseismic deformation was shown by interferometric synthetic aperture radar analysis, we assume that the fault is locked since the 1812 event. This implies that there is a slip deficit in the Yaracuy Valley since the last earthquake ranging from 1 to 4 m, corresponding to a Mw 7-7.6 earthquake. This magnitude is comparable to the 1812 earthquake and to other historical events along the Boconó fault.

  3. Changes in Student Knowledge and Views of Geohazards, Societal Risks, and Monitoring at Active Plate Boundaries Using a Data-Rich Curriculum (United States)

    Selkin, P. A.; Goodell, L. P.; Teasdale, R.


    The "Living on the Edge: Building Resilient Societies on Active Plate Margins" curriculum consists of six data-rich activities, each intended for a 50-minute class, in which students assess risk at active plate boundaries due to earthquakes and volcanoes. Developed as part of the InTeGrate NSF STEP Center the peer-reviewed, publically available materials ( have been used at several institutions in diverse classroom settings including small laboratory sections, large lecture courses, medium-sized upper division courses and professional development programs for middle and high school teachers. Pre- and post-instruction surveys measured content knowledge and geoscience literacy, self-efficacy in using geologic data to assess hazards and risk, and attitudes towards the value of monitoring plate margins. The activities have overall positive effects on knowledge of geohazard concepts. Views about the value of scientific practice also became more positive: 74% of students indicated they "agree" or "strongly agree" that monitoring geologic activity has value to them personally (even if they don't live on an active plate margin) and 94% indicated that such monitoring is valuable to society. Most became more confident in evaluating geologic hazard and risk (>60% of students self-described increased confidence by one or more Likert levels). Student knowledge of both the types and limits of data in forecasting geological hazards and their effects also improved. However, attitudes toward sustainability and geoscience careers did not change. Learning and attitudinal improvements are true for all classroom types, but the degree of change varies with class size and the amount of time spent on activities. Learning data and instructor feedback suggest that interactive classroom activities that use real-world data to address societally relevant issues increase student learning and enhance students' ability to synthesize scientific information.

  4. Long aftershock sequences within continents and implications for earthquake hazard assessment. (United States)

    Stein, Seth; Liu, Mian


    One of the most powerful features of plate tectonics is that the known plate motions give insight into both the locations and average recurrence interval of future large earthquakes on plate boundaries. Plate tectonics gives no insight, however, into where and when earthquakes will occur within plates, because the interiors of ideal plates should not deform. As a result, within plate interiors, assessments of earthquake hazards rely heavily on the assumption that the locations of small earthquakes shown by the short historical record reflect continuing deformation that will cause future large earthquakes. Here, however, we show that many of these recent earthquakes are probably aftershocks of large earthquakes that occurred hundreds of years ago. We present a simple model predicting that the length of aftershock sequences varies inversely with the rate at which faults are loaded. Aftershock sequences within the slowly deforming continents are predicted to be significantly longer than the decade typically observed at rapidly loaded plate boundaries. These predictions are in accord with observations. So the common practice of treating continental earthquakes as steady-state seismicity overestimates the hazard in presently active areas and underestimates it elsewhere.

  5. Natural convective boundary layer flow of a nano-fluid past a convectively heated vertical plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aziz, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering and Applied Science, Gonzaga University, Spokane, WA 99258 (United States); Khan, W.A. [Department of Engineering Sciences, PN Engineering College, National University of Sciences and Technology, Karachi 75350 (Pakistan)


    Natural convective flow of a nano-fluid over a convectively heated vertical plate is investigated using a similarity analysis of the transport equations followed by their numerical computations. The transport model employed includes the effect of Brownian motion and thermophoresis. The analysis shows that velocity, temperature and solid volume fraction of the nano-fluid profiles in the respective boundary layers depend, besides the Prandtl and Lewis numbers, on four additional dimensionless parameters, namely a Brownian motion parameter Nb, a thermophoresis parameter Nt, a buoyancy-ratio parameter Nr and convective parameter Nc. In addition to the study of these parameters on the boundary layer flow characteristics (velocity, temperature, solid volume fraction of the nano-fluid, skin friction, and heat transfer), correlations for the Nusselt and Sherwood numbers have been developed based on a regression analysis of the data. These linear regression models provide a highly accurate (with a maximum standard error of 0.004) representation of the numerical data and can be conveniently used in engineering practice. (authors)

  6. Boundary Layer of Photon Absorption Applied to Heterogeneous Photocatalytic Solar Flat Plate Reactor Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor L. Otálvaro-Marín


    Full Text Available This study provides information to design heterogeneous photocatalytic solar reactors with flat plate geometry used in treatment of effluents and conversion of biomass to hydrogen. The concept of boundary layer of photon absorption taking into account the efficient absorption of radiant energy was introduced; this concept can be understood as the reactor thickness measured from the irradiated surface where 99% of total energy is absorbed. Its thickness and the volumetric rate of photons absorption (VRPA were used as design parameters to determine (i reactor thickness, (ii maximum absorbed radiant energy, and (iii the optimal catalyst concentration. Six different commercial brands of titanium dioxide were studied: Evonik-Degussa P-25, Aldrich, Merck, Hombikat, Fluka, and Fisher. The local volumetric rate of photon absorption (LVRPA inside the reactor was described using six-flux absorption-scattering model (SFM applied to solar radiation. The radiation field and the boundary layer thickness of photon absorption were simulated with absorption and dispersion effects of catalysts in water at different catalyst loadings. The relationship between catalyst loading and reactor thickness that maximizes the absorption of radiant energy was obtained for each catalyst by apparent optical thickness. The optimum concentration of photocatalyst Degussa P-25 was 0.2 g/l in 0.86 cm of thickness, and for photocatalyst Aldrich it was 0.3 g/l in 0.80 cm of thickness.

  7. Continued Trenchward Procession of Upper Plate GPS Sites Following the 2012 Mw 7.6 Nicoya Earthquake (United States)

    Hobbs, T. E.; Newman, A. V.; Protti, M.


    When studying subduction zone deformation one is often forced to consider a region significantly landward of the trench. The Nicoya Peninsula in Costa Rica presents a unique opportunity to obtain rich datasets from land in relatively close proximity to an active megathrust. A recent moment magnitude (Mw) 7.6 earthquake in September 2012 on this portion of the Middle America Trench affords an opportunity to constrain the ongoing postseismic deformation on the subduction interface between the Cocos and Caribbean plates. GPS campaigns occupying 22 sites were undertaken immediately following the earthquake in September-December 2012 and most recently in March 2015. Combined with data from a network of 17 continuous GPS in the region, we analyze the spatial and temporal changes in the postseismic velocity field. Another campaign is planned for 2017, in conjunction with our ongoing analysis of the continuous GPS network. After 2.5 years, campaign GPS results indicate significant trenchward motion of at least 7 cm, relative to a fixed Caribbean plate, for all sites up to the volcanic chain. Maximum values of 22 cm are observed above and updip of the coseismic rupture zone. The trench-parallel component of the displacement field is small, with few deviations between sites. Together these observations are substantially more self-similar over a larger region than what was observed for the coseismic offset. This implies that there may be a low stress differential across the upper plate, suggesting that the subduction interface environment, including the mainshock and surrounding area, has remained relatively weak following the earthquake. By utilizing a dense and long-term geodetic network we will report on initial modeling that aims to characterize the evolution of afterslip. The effect of regional aftershocks, including an Mw 6.5 in October 2012, and viscoelastic mantle relaxation will be considered to establish the necessity of such effects in robustly accounting for

  8. Application of laser ranging and VLBI data to a study of plate tectonic driving forces. [finite element method (United States)

    Solomon, S. C.


    The measurability of changes in plate driving or resistive forces associated with plate boundary earthquakes by laser rangefinding or VLBI is considered with emphasis on those aspects of plate forces that can be characterized by such measurements. Topics covered include: (1) analytic solutions for two dimensional stress diffusion in a plate following earthquake faulting on a finite fault; (2) two dimensional finite-element solutions for the global state of stress at the Earth's surface for possible plate driving forces; and (3) finite-element solutions for three dimensional stress diffusion in a viscoelastic Earth following earthquake faulting.

  9. Water Release from Cold Serpentinized Forearc Mantle During Subduction Associated with Changes in Incoming Oceanic Plate Thermal Structure and Plate Boundary Kinematics: New Insights into Serpentinite Belts and Plate-Boundary Rheology (United States)

    Kirby, Stephen


    Kirby, Wang, and Brocher (Earth Planets and Space, 2014) recently showed how the change in kinematics of the California margin from subduction motion to continental transform motion with the birth and growth of the San Andreas Fault System (SAFS) beginning at about 33 Ma BP likely led to a warming of the former forearc mantle and the release of water from serpentinized mantle by dehydration and a likely increase in fluid pressures along the SAFS. Such a mantle source of pressurized water gives insights into both the low sliding resistance for the SAFS and the mobilization and ascent of some serpentinized mantle peridotites through the crust. Thermal modeling by others has also shown that changes in the incoming plate age and subduction rate can also lead to warming of the forearc mantle during subduction. This development gives insights into the Mesozoic and Paleogene ages of emplacement of some, but not all, California serpentinites. Recent mineralogical and geochemical observations of serpentinite blocks in serpentinize mélange bodies in the San Francisco Bay Area (Uno and Kirby, 2014 AGU Meeting and Lewis and Kirby, 2015 AGU Meeting) suggest that these rocks sustained multiple stages of serpentinization that are broadly consistent with the model of Kirby et al. (2014). A new development comes from interpretation of investigations in the literature of localized late-stage silica-carbonate-water alteration of serpentinite bodies in California that this alteration occurred largely in Neogene time when the highest rates of water release from the former forearc mantle probably occurred. This presentation also suggests that the occurrence of serpentinite belts emplaced in Cenozoic time during changing plate-boundary kinematics, such as the Cenozoic closing of the Tethys Ocean bordering Eurasia by subduction and collision and arc reversal and decreasing convergence rates under the Greater Antilles and Colombia and New Guinea, may give insights into the serpentinite

  10. High resolution image of the Lithosphere-Asthenosphere Boundary of the subducting Nazca plate beneath northern Chile (United States)

    Sodoudi, F.; Yuan, X.; Asch, G.; Kind, R.


    Results obtained from S and P receiver functions produced a clear image of the top and bottom of the subducting Nazca lithosphere beneath northern Chile. Using data from the teleseismic events recorded at 15 permanent IPOC (Integrated Plate boundary Observatory Chile) stations, we were able to obtain new constraints on the shape and thickness of the descending Nazca lithosphere. We observed the subducted crust of the Nazca plate at depths ranging from 40 km beneath the Coastal Cordillera down to 110 km beneath the Western Cordillera. We found significant along-strike variations in the geometry of the Nazca plate beneath northern Chile. On closer inspection, it appears that the oceanic Nazca plate is divided into two distinct segments as it descends beneath the continental South American plate. The transition from the relatively steeper and deeper slab to the north of 21° S to the flatter southern segment is shown reasonably clearly by our data. This feature could well be associated with variations in the curvature of the plate margin and the geometry of the Chile trench, which is mainly curved to the north of 21° S. We have also mapped the continental Moho of the South American plate at depths ranging between 60-70 km to the east of the Longitudinal Valley. Beneath the Coastal Cordillera, this boundary becomes invisible, probably due to the serpentinization of the forearc mantle wedge. The Lithosphere-Astheonsphere Boundary (LAB) of the subducted Nazca plate was clearly identified as a sharp boundary in the results obtained from the P and S receiver functions. The LAB lies at a depth of 80 km beneath the coastal area and dips from a depth of 100 km beneath the Coastal Cordillera to about 150 km underneath the Western Cordillera. High frequency PRF data enabled us to make confident estimates of the top and bottom of the Nazca lithosphere, which results in a lithospheric thickness of 57-60 km. In relation to the age of the Nazca plate, which is assumed to be ~ 50

  11. Characteristic earthquake model, 1884 -- 2011, R.I.P

    CERN Document Server

    Kagan, Yan Y; Geller, Robert J


    Unfortunately, working scientists sometimes reflexively continue to use "buzz phrases" grounded in once prevalent paradigms that have been subsequently refuted. This can impede both earthquake research and hazard mitigation. Well-worn seismological buzz phrases include "earthquake cycle," "seismic cycle," "seismic gap," and "characteristic earthquake." They all assume that there are sequences of earthquakes that are nearly identical except for the times of their occurrence. If so, the complex process of earthquake occurrence could be reduced to a description of one "characteristic" earthquake plus the times of the others in the sequence. A common additional assumption is that characteristic earthquakes dominate the displacement on fault or plate boundary "segments." The "seismic gap" (or the effectively equivalent "seismic cycle") model depends entirely on the "characteristic" assumption, with the added assumption that characteristic earthquakes are quasi-periodic. However, since the 1990s numerous statistica...

  12. Propagation of rifting along the Arabia-Somalia Plate Boundary: Into Afar (United States)

    Manighetti, I.; Tapponnier, P.; Gillot, P. Y.; Jacques, E.; Courtillot, V.; Armijo, R.; Ruegg, J. C.; King, G.


    It is generally accepted that the Aden ridge has propagated westward from ˜58°E to the western tip of the Gulf of Aden/Tadjoura, at the edge of Afar. Here, we use new tectonic and geochronological data to examine the geometry and kinematics of deformation related to the penetration of that ridge on dry land in the Republic of Djibouti. We show that it veers northward, forming a narrow zone of dense faulting along the northeastern edge of the Afar depression. The zone includes two volcanic rifts (Asal-Ghoubbet and Manda Inakir), connected to one another and to the submarine part of the ridge by transfer zones. Both rifts are composite, divided into two or three disconnected, parallel, NW-SE striking subrifts, all of which appear to have propagated northwestward. In Asal-Ghoubbet as in Manda Inakir, the subrifts appear to have formed in succession, through north directed jumps from subrifts more farther south. At present, the northernmost subrifts (Manda and Dirko Koma) of the Manda Inakir rift, form the current tip of the northward propagating Arabia-Somalia plate boundary in Afar. We account for most observations by a mechanical model similar to that previously inferred for the Gulf of Aden, in which propagation is governed by the intensity and direction of the minimum horizontal principal stress, σ3. We interpret the northward propagation on land, almost orthogonal to that in the gulf, to be related to necking of the Central Afar lithosphere where it is thinnest. Such necking may be a consequence of differential magmatic thickening, greater in the center of the Afar depression where the Ethiopian hot spot enhanced profuse basaltic effusion and underplating than along the edges of the depression. The model explains why the Aden ridge foregoes its WSW propagation direction, constant from ˜58°E to Asal-Ghoubbet. At a smaller scale, individual rifts and subrifts keep opening perpendicular to the Arabia-Somalia (or Danakil-Somalia) motion vector and propagate

  13. Are rupture zone limits of great subduction earthquakes controlled by upper plate structures? Evidence from multichannel seismic reflection data acquired across the northern Ecuador-southwest Colombia margin (United States)

    Collot, Jean-Yves; Marcaillou, Boris; Sage, FrançOise; Michaud, FrançOis; Agudelo, William; Charvis, Philippe; Graindorge, David; Gutscher, Marc-André; Spence, George


    Subduction of the Nazca plate beneath the Ecuador-Colombia margin has produced four megathrust earthquakes during the last century. The 500-km-long rupture zone of the 1906 (Mw = 8.8) event was partially reactivated by three thrust events, in 1942 (Mw = 7.8), 1958 (Mw = 7.7), and 1979 (Mw = 8.2), whose rupture zones abut one another. Multichannel seismic reflection and bathymetric data acquired during the SISTEUR cruise show evidence that the margin wedge is segmented by transverse crustal faults that potentially correlate with the limits of the earthquake coseismic slip zones. The Paleogene-Neogene Jama Quininde and Esmeraldas crustal faults define a ˜200-km-long margin crustal block that coincides with the 1942 earthquake rupture zone. Subduction of the buoyant Carnegie Ridge is inferred to partially lock the plate interface along central Ecuador. However, coseismic slip during the 1942 and 1906 earthquakes may have terminated against the subducted northern flank of the ridge. We report on a newly identified Manglares crustal fault that cuts transversally through the margin wedge and correlates with the limit between the 1958 and 1979 rupture zones. During the earthquake cycle the fault is associated with high-stress concentration on the plate interface. An outer basement high, which bounds the margin seaward of the 1958 rupture zone, may act as a deformable buttress to seaward propagation of coseismic slip along a megathrust splay fault. Coseismic uplift of the basement high is interpreted as the cause for the 1958 tsunami. We propose a model of weak transverse faults which reduce coupling between adjacent margin segments, together with a splay fault and an asperity along the plate interface as controlling the seismogenic rupture of the 1958 earthquake.

  14. Application of Laser Ranging and VLBI Data to a Study of Plate Tectonic Driving Forces (United States)

    Solomon, S. C.


    The conditions under which changes in plate driving or resistive forces associated with plate boundary earthquakes are measurable with laser ranging or very long base interferometry were investigated. Aspects of plate forces that can be characterized by such measurements were identified. Analytic solutions for two dimensional stress diffusion in a viscoelastic plate following earthquake faulting on a finite fault, finite element solutions for three dimensional stress diffusion in a viscoelastic Earth following earthquake faulting, and quantitative constraints from modeling of global intraplate stress on the magnitude of deviatoric stress in the lithosphere are among the topics discussed.

  15. Global crustal movement and tectonic plate boundary deformation constrained by the ITRF2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Ze


    Full Text Available On the basis of the newly released International Terrestrial Reference Frame(ITRF2008 by the International Earth Rotation Service (IERS, a new global plate model ITRF2008 plate for the major plates is established. This ITRF2008-derived model is analyzed in comparison with NNR-NUVEL1A model, which is mainly based on geological and geophysical data. The Eurasia and Pacific plates display obvious differences in terms of the velocity fields derived from the two plate motion models. Plate acceleration is also introduced to characterize the differences of the two velocity fields which obtained from ITRF2008 -plate and NNR-NUVEL1A models for major individual plates. The results show that the Africa, South America and Eurasia plates are undergoing acceleration, while the North America and Australia plates are in the state of deceleration motion.

  16. Surface constraints on the temporal and spatial evolution of the Farallon-Pacific-North America plate boundary (United States)

    McQuarrie, N.; Oskin, M.


    Extension and volcanism are two surface derived data sets used to infer mantle processes back in time. We integrate two new large GIS-based datasets to create palinspastic restorations of extension and volcanism allowing us to readdress the relationship between plate-boundary deformation, intra-plate extension and magmatism in western North America. Using ArcGIS and custom software, we retrodeformed the NAVDat (North American Volcanic Database, using the western North America reconstruction of McQuarrie and Wernicke (2005). We compare this data to strain rates calculated over a 50 km-grid forward- deformed from 36 Ma to present. With the deformed grid and palinspastically restored volcanic dataset we quantitatively compare rates of magmatism and deformation and evaluate the age, location, and migration of Cenozoic volcanic arcs. A first order conclusion from this study is that magmatism, throughout the Basin and Range, is primarily driven by plate boundary effects. The plate boundary effects include subduction and rollback of the Farallon plate, creation and expansion of slab windows as the Pacific plate intercepts the North American plate and re-establishment of the ancestral Cascade arc along the eastern margin of the Sierra Nevada at ˜ 15 Ma. Notable exceptions include the Yellowstone hotspot system along the northern boarder of our study area and late-stage (<8 Ma) passive, extension related asthenospheric upwelling that accompanied a thinning lithosphere along the eastern and western margins of the Basin and Range. The palinspastic reconstructions presented here highlight that the classic, high-angle, Basin and Range faulting that comprises most of the physiographic Basin and Range province commenced during a remarkably amagmatic period. These observations largely contradicts the active rifting model where magmatism triggers Basin and Range extension

  17. Tsujal Marine Survey: Crustal Characterization of the Rivera Plate-Jalisco Block Boundary and its Implications for Seismic and Tsunami Hazard Assessment (United States)

    Bartolome, R.; Danobeitia, J.; Barba, D. C., Sr.; Nunez-Cornu, F. J.; Cameselle, A. L.; Estrada, F.; Prada, M.; Bandy, W. L.


    During the spring of 2014, a team of Spanish and Mexican scientists explored the western margin of Mexico in the frame of the TSUJAL project. The two main objectives were to characterize the nature and structure of the lithosphere and to identify potential sources triggering earthquakes and tsunamis at the contact between Rivera plate-Jalisco block with the North American Plate. With these purposes a set of marine geophysical data were acquired aboard the RRS James Cook. This work is focus in the southern part of the TSUJAL survey, where we obtain seismic images from the oceanic domain up to the continental shelf. Thus, more than 800 km of MCS data, divided in 7 profiles, have been acquired with a 6km long streamer and using an air-gun sources ranging from 5800 c.i. to 3540 c.i. Furthermore, a wide-angle seismic profile of 190 km length was recorded in 16 OBS deployed perpendicular to the coast of Manzanillo. Gravity and magnetic, multibeam bathymetry and sub-bottom profiler data were recorded simultaneously with seismic data in the offshore area. Preliminary stacked MCS seismic sections reveal the crustal structure in the different domains of the Mexican margin. The contact between the Rivera and NA Plates is observed as a strong reflection at 6 s two way travel time (TWTT), in a parallel offshore profile (TS01), south of Manzanillo. This contact is also identified in a perpendicular profile, TS02, along a section of more than 100 km in length crossing the Rivera transform zone, and the plate boundary between Cocos and Rivera Plates. Northwards, offshore Pto. Vallarta, the MCS data reveals high amplitude reflections at around 7-8.5 s TWTT, roughly 2.5-3.5 s TWTT below the seafloor, that conspicuously define the subduction plane (TS06b). These strong reflections which we interpret as the Moho discontinuity define the starting bending of subduction of Rivera Plate. Another clear pattern observed within the first second of the MCS data shows evidences of a bottom

  18. Plate tectonics and offshore boundary delimitation: Tunisia-Libya case at the International Court of Justice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanley, D.J.


    Advances in the technology for exploiting resources of the oceans, particularly recovery of hydrocarbons and minerals in deep water, is benefiting a growing number of nations. At the same time, however, economic and political pressures have induced concern and there is now a much increased emphasis on jurisdiction to divide the offshore areas between the 132 coastal nations. Negotiations affect research operations at sea and, in consequence, marine scientists have been made aware of offshore problems as highlighted by the Law of the Sea Treaty (UNCLOS III) and complications arising from the legal versus scientific definitions of continental shelves and margins. The first major offshore boundary case of international scope where plate tectonics has constituted a significant argument is the one recently brought before the International Court of Justice by Libya and Tunisia concerning the delimitation of their continental shelves. Of the two parties, Libya placed the greatest emphasis on this concept as a means to determine natural prolongation of its land territory into and under the sea. Tunisia contested Libya's use of the whole of the African continental landmass as a reference unit; in Tunisia's view, considerations of geography, geomorphology, and bathymetry are at least as relevant as are those of geology. In its landmark judgment (February 1982) - which almost certainly will have far-reaching consequences in future such boundary delimitation cases - the court pronounced that It is the outcome, not the evolution in the long-distant past, which is of importance, and that it is the present-day configuration of the coasts and sea bed which are the main factors to be considered, not geology.

  19. Seismotectonics of a diffuse plate boundary: Observations off the Sumatra-Andaman trench (United States)

    Aderhold, K.; Abercrombie, R. E.


    The actively deforming Indo-Australian intraplate region off the Sumatra-Andaman trench hosted the largest strike-slip earthquake recorded by modern instruments, the 2012 Mw 8.6 Wharton Basin earthquake, closely followed by a Mw 8.2 aftershock. These two large events ruptured either parallel north-south trending faults or a series of north-south and nearly perpendicular east-west fault planes. No active east-west faults had been identified in the region prior to these earthquakes, and the seismic rupture for these two earthquakes extended past the 800°C isotherm for lithosphere of this age, deep into the oceanic mantle and possibly beyond the inferred transition to ductile failure. To investigate the seismic behavior of this region, we calculate moment tensors with teleseismic body waves for 6.0 ≤ Mw ≤ 8.0 intraplate strike-slip earthquakes. The centroid depths are located throughout the seismogenic mantle and could extend through the oceanic crust, but are generally well constrained by the 600°C isotherm and do not appear to rupture beyond the 800°C isotherm. We conclude that while many earthquakes are consistent with a thermal limit to depth, large magnitude earthquakes may be able to rupture typically aseismic zones. We also perform finite-fault modeling for Mw ≥ 7.0 earthquakes and find a slight preference for rupture on east-west oriented faults for the 2012 Mw 7.2 and 2005 Mw 7.2 earthquakes. This lends support for the presence of active east-west faults in this region, consistent with the majority of previously published models of the 2012 M8+ earthquakes.

  20. Distribution and migration of aftershocks of the 2010 Mw 7.4 Ogasawara Islands intraplate normal-faulting earthquake related to a fracture zone in the Pacific plate (United States)

    Obana, Koichiro; Takahashi, Tsutomu; No, Tetsuo; Kaiho, Yuka; Kodaira, Shuichi; Yamashita, Mikiya; Sato, Takeshi; Nakamura, Takeshi


    describe the aftershocks of a Mw 7.4 intraplate normal-faulting earthquake that occurred 150 km east Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands, Japan, on 21 December 2010. It occurred beneath the outer trench slope of the Izu-Ogasawara trench, where the Pacific plate subducts beneath the Philippine Sea plate. Aftershock observations using ocean bottom seismographs (OBSs) began soon after the earthquake and multichannel seismic reflection surveys were conducted across the aftershock area. Aftershocks were distributed in a NW-SE belt 140 km long, oblique to the N-S trench axis. They formed three subparallel lineations along a fracture zone in the Pacific plate. The OBS observations combined with data from stations on Chichi-jima and Haha-jima Islands revealed a migration of the aftershock activity. The first hour, which likely outlines the main shock rupture, was limited to an 80 km long area in the central part of the subsequent aftershock area. The first hour activity occurred mainly around, and appears to have been influenced by, nearby large seamounts and oceanic plateau, such as the Ogasawara Plateau and the Uyeda Ridge. Over the following days, the aftershocks expanded beyond or into these seamounts and plateau. The aftershock distribution and migration suggest that crustal heterogeneities related to a fracture zone and large seamounts and oceanic plateau in the incoming Pacific plate affected the rupture of the main shock. Such preexisting structures may influence intraplate normal-faulting earthquakes in other regions of plate flexure prior to subduction.

  1. Chlorine isotope geochemistry of Icelandic thermal fluids: Implications for geothermal system behavior at divergent plate boundaries (United States)

    Stefánsson, Andri; Barnes, Jaime D.


    The chlorine isotope composition of thermal fluids from Iceland were measured in order to evaluate the source of chlorine and possible chlorine isotope fractionation in geothermal systems at divergent plate boundaries. The geothermal systems studied have a wide range of reservoir temperatures from 40 to 437 °C and in-situ pH of 6.15 to 7.15. Chlorine concentrations range from 5.2 to 171 ppm and δ37 Cl values are -0.3 to + 2.1 ‰ (n = 38). The δ37 Cl values of the thermal fluids are interpreted to reflect the source of the chlorine in the fluids. Geothermal processes such as secondary mineral formation, aqueous and vapor speciation and boiling were found to have minimal effects on the δ37 Cl values. However, further work is needed on incorporation of Cl into secondary minerals and its effect on Cl isotope fractionation. Results of isotope geochemical modeling demonstrate that the range of δ37 Cl values documented in the natural thermal fluids can be explained by leaching of the basaltic rocks by meteoric source water under geothermal conditions. Magmatic gas partitioning may also contribute to the source of Cl in some cases. The range of δ37 Cl values of the fluids result mainly from the large range of δ37 Cl values observed for Icelandic basalts, which range from -0.6 to + 1.2 ‰.

  2. Numerical-perturbation technique for stability of flat-plate boundary layers with suction (United States)

    Reed, H. L.; Nayfeh, A. H.


    A numerical-perturbation scheme is proposed for determining the stability of flows over plates with suction through a finite number of porous suction strips. The basic flow is calculated as the sum of the Blasius flow and closed-form linearized triple-deck solutions of the flow due to the strips. A perturbation technique is used to determine the increment a(ij) in the complex wavenumber at a given location x(j) due to the presence of a strip centered at x(i). The end result is a set of influence coefficients that can be used to determine the growth rates and amplification factors for any suction levels without repeating the calculations. The numerical-perturbation results are verified by comparison with interacting boundary layers for the case of six strips and the experimental data of Reynolds and Saric for single- and multiple-strip configurations. The influence coefficient form of the solution suggests a scheme for optimizing the strip configuration. The results show that one should concentrate the suction near branch I of the neutral stability curve, a conclusion verified by the experiments.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    This study experimentally investigated the film cooling flowfield of a single row of diffusion holes, from which the secondary air flow was injected into a turbulent boundary layer with zero pressure gradient on a flat plate. Circular-shaped holes were also tested as a basis for comparison. All the holes were inclined downstream at 35° with respect to the surface and the lateral spacing between the holes was 3 diameters of the hole. The mainstream velocity was maintained at 17 m/s and the Reynolds number based on the injection hole diameter was almost 11000. The density ratio of the jet to mainstream was 1.0, and the jet-to-mainstream velocity ratios M were 0.5 and 1.5. Normal-type and X-type hot wire anemometries were used to measure the streamwise mean velocity and its components, the normal and shear turbulent Reynolds stress components at the locations from the backward edge of the injection hole to 25 diameters downstream.

  4. A variety of slip behaviors along plate interface and interplay among them before and after the 2011 Mw9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake (Invited) (United States)

    Kato, A.; Obara, K.


    Prior to the 11 March 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku earthquake in Japan, two distinct sequences of foreshock migrations along the trench axis toward the mainshock epicenter were identified by an earthquake catalog created using a waveform correlation technique [Kato et al., 2012, Science]. In addition, the time history of quasi-static slip along the plate interface extracted from small repeating earthquakes shows that transient slip coincided with the two sequences of earthquake migrations. The transient slip first started to build up from mid- to late February. After the Mw 7.3 foreshock, the amount of transient slip increased abruptly to the north of the Mw 7.3 epicenter, though it slightly slowed down logarithmically with time, a phenomenon commonly observed in afterslip. In contrast, slip in the earthquake migration zone (to the south of the Mw 7.3 epicenter) increased almost linearly during the final phase. Geodetic measurements also detected transient deformation after the Mw 7.3 foreshock [Ohta et al., 2012, GRL]. These results provide strong evidence for the propagation of slow-slip events toward the Mw 9.0 epicenter. The slow-slip events may have caused stress loading onto the prospective hypocenter of the Mw 9.0 mainshock and prompted the initiation of unstable dynamic rupture. Similar stress loading by transient slip onto prospective hypocenter was identified by earthquake migrations prior to the 2008 Mw 6.8 interplate (Ibaraki-Oki) earthquake, and by geodetic measurement before the 2004 Mw 7.0 earthquake offshore of eastern Hokkaido [Murakami et al., 2006, GRL]. Stress loading by slow slip transients plays a crucial role to prompt initiation of dynamic rupture, provided that large-sized potential earthquake-nucleation patch is close to failure. After the Tohoku-Oki mainshock rupture, any subsequent seismicity along the plate interface in the foreshock area was abruptly terminated, and has remained very low ever since [Kato and Igarashi, 2012, GRL]. This

  5. Contrasting styles of (U)HP rock exhumation along the Cenozoic Adria-Europe plate boundary (Western Alps, Calabria, Corsica) (United States)

    Malusà, Marco G.; Faccenna, Claudio; Baldwin, Suzanne L.; Fitzgerald, Paul G.; Rossetti, Federico; Balestrieri, Maria Laura; Danišík, Martin; Ellero, Alessandro; Ottria, Giuseppe; Piromallo, Claudia


    Since the first discovery of ultrahigh pressure (UHP) rocks 30 years ago in the Western Alps, the mechanisms for exhumation of (U)HP terranes worldwide are still debated. In the western Mediterranean, the presently accepted model of synconvergent exhumation (e.g., the channel-flow model) is in conflict with parts of the geologic record. We synthesize regional geologic data and present alternative exhumation mechanisms that consider the role of divergence within subduction zones. These mechanisms, i.e., (i) the motion of the upper plate away from the trench and (ii) the rollback of the lower plate, are discussed in detail with particular reference to the Cenozoic Adria-Europe plate boundary, and along three different transects (Western Alps, Calabria-Sardinia, and Corsica-Northern Apennines). In the Western Alps, (U)HP rocks were exhumed from the greatest depth at the rear of the accretionary wedge during motion of the upper plate away from the trench. Exhumation was extremely fast, and associated with very low geothermal gradients. In Calabria, HP rocks were exhumed from shallower depths and at lower rates during rollback of the Adriatic plate, with repeated exhumation pulses progressively younging toward the foreland. Both mechanisms were active to create boundary divergence along the Corsica-Northern Apennines transect, where European southeastward subduction was progressively replaced along strike by Adriatic northwestward subduction. The tectonic scenario depicted for the Western Alps trench during Eocene exhumation of (U)HP rocks correlates well with present-day eastern Papua New Guinea, which is presented as a modern analog of the Paleogene Adria-Europe plate boundary.

  6. Seismotectonics at the junction of the Philippine Sea plate and the Eurasian plate, in light of the 1990 Hualien earthquake and the near-field waveform inversion (United States)

    Cheng, Hou-Sheng; Mozziconacci, Laetitia; Chang, Emmy T. Y.; Huang, Bor-Shouh


    In eastern Taiwan, the Longitudinal Valley (LV) is the suture zone separating the Eurasian plate (EUP) to the West from the Philippine Sea plate (PSP) to the East. The northern tip of the LV (near Hualien city) is the junction point where the collision evolve northward to a subduction of the PSP under the EUP. As a result, a high seismic activity is observed. Based on the CWB (Central Weather Bureau, Taiwan) earthquake catalog, four distinct seismic clusters can be observed in this area since 1990. We restrict our effort to the cluster caused by a doublet events of 1990 with two moderate-large earthquakes. The first shock of these doublet occurred on 13rd December with ML 6.5. Seventeen hours later and 15 km to the southeast occurred the second shock of ML 6.7. A campaign seismic network of 15 short-period stations - the Hualien Temporary Seismic Network (HTSN) was deployed during 2 months to detect the aftershocks of the doublet. By applying the near-field waveform inversion to the HTSN records, we can retrieve the focal mechanism solutions (FMS) from 50 aftershocks of local magnitude ranging from 2.5 to 5.0. A modified version of the program "FMNEAR" is adopted in this study, which has been proven to be efficient to retrieve FMS for small-to-moderate earthquakes with a limited number of stations. In practice, the near-field waveforms, were processed by band-pass filter between 0.52 and 1.2 Hz. Synthetic waveforms are built from the discrete wave number method of Bouchon (1981). The inversion is done by grid searches on the FMS parameters while the rake is inverted, the best result gives the lowest waveform misfit. The waveform adjustment are improved by depth optimization and a specific 1D velocity model for each station. Focal depths of events are in average 10km deeper than the depth determined by the island-wide seismic stations that suffered from the lack of stations to the east due to the ocean. The FMS of the 50 aftershocks can be classified into three

  7. Propagation of rifting along the Arabia-Somalia Plate Boundary: The Gulfs of Aden and Tadjoura (United States)

    Manighetti, Isabelle; Tapponnier, Paul; Courtillot, Vincent; Gruszow, Sylvie; Gillot, Pierre-Yves


    The localization and propagation of rifting between Arabia and Somalia are investigated by assessing the deformation geometry and kinematics at different scales between the eastern Gulf of Aden and the Gulf of Tadjoura, using bathymetric, magnetic, seismological, and structural evidence. Large-scale, southwestward propagation of the Aden ridge, markedly oblique to the Arabia-Somalia relative motion vector, began about 30 Myr ago between the Error and Sharbithat ridges. It was an episodic process, with stages of rapid propagation, mostly at rates >10 cm/yr, interrupted by million year pauses on transverse discontinuities coinciding with rheological boundaries between different crustal provinces of the Arabia-Somalia plate. The longest pause was at the Shukra-El Sheik discontinuity (≈45°E), where the ridge tip stalled for ≈13 Myr, between ≈17 and ≈4 Ma. West of that discontinuity, rifting and spreading took place at an azimuth (≈N25°±10°E) and rate (1.2±0.3 cm/yr) different from those of the global Arabia-Somalia motion vector (≈N39°, ≈1.73 cm/yr), implying an additional component of movement (N65°±10°E, 0.7±0.2 cm/yr) due to rotation of the Danakil microplate. At Shukra-El Sheik, the typical oceanic ridge gives way to a narrow, WSW trending axial trough, resembling a large fissure across a shallow shelf. This trough is composed of about eight rift segments, which result from normal faulting and fissuring along N110°-N130°E trends. All the segments step to the left southwestward, mostly through oblique transfer zones with en échelon normal faults. Only two segments show clear, significant overlap. There is one clear transform, the Maskali fault, between the Obock and Tadjoura segments. The latter segment, which encroaches onland, is composed of two parallel subrifts (Iboli, Ambabbo) that propagated northwestward and formed in succession. The most recent, southwestern subrift (Ambabbo) represents the current tip of the Aden ridge. We propose


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChengWanzheng; YangYongling


    Deformation measurements such as short-range leveling, short-baseline, continuous cross-fault strain measurement are carried out at different intervals from 1982 to 2001. All these measurement sites are built across the boundary tectonic belts of Yunnan-Sichuan block. On the basis of these deformation data, the annual deformation rates at all sites are calculated and their change curves with time are plotted respectively. With these calculated results, we analyze the vertical and horizontal movements of tectonic belts of Yunnan-Sichuan block, and the relationship to grouped strong earthquakes occurred in the block are discussed as well. These results show that the tectonic activities in the western and southeastern Yunnan are intensive. Along some eastern boundary belts: from Qujiang, Xiaojiang fault belts in the south of Yunnan to Xianshuihe fault belts in northwestern Sichuan, present annual rate of horizontal deformation decreases. Along Xianshuihe, Xiaojiang and Longmenshan fault belts the rates of vertical deformation change are small, but the vertical deformation change rates along Anninghe and Zemuhe faul tbelts are comparatively large. The comprehensive analysis shows that grouped strong earthquakes will occur probably when the deformation rate changes sharply. Thus we think that sharp changes of deformation rates may be one of the seismic precursors.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Wanzheng; Yang Yongling


    Deformation measurements such as short-range leveling, short-baseline, continuous cross-fault strain measurement are carried out at different intervals from 1982 to 2001. All these measurement sites are built across the boundary tectonic belts of Yunnan-Sichuan block. On the basis of these deformation data, the annual deformation rates at all sites are calculated and their change curves with time are plotted respectively. With these calculated results, we analyze the vertical and horizontal movements of tectonic belts of Yunnan-Sichuan block, and the relationship to grouped strong earthquakes occurred in the block are discussed as well. These results show that the tectonic activities in the western and southeastern Yunnan are intensive. Along some eastern boundary belts: from Qujiang, Xiaojiang fault belts in the south of Yunnan to Xianshuihe fault belts in northwestern Sichuan, present annual rate of horizontal deformation decreases. Along Xianshuihe, Xiaojiang and Longmenshan fault belts the rates of vertical deformation change are small, but the vertical deformation change rates along Anninghe and Zemuhe fault belts are comparatively large. The comprehensive analysis shows that grouped strong earthquakes will occur probably when the deformation rate changes sharply. Thus we think that sharp changes of deformation rates may be one of the seismic precursors.

  10. Strength and Deformation Rate of Plate Boundaries: The Rheological Effects of Grain Size Reduction, Structure, and Serpentinization. (United States)

    Montesi, L.; Gueydan, F.


    Global strain rate maps reveal 1000-fold contrasts between plate interiors, oceanic or continental diffuse plate boundaries and narrow plate boundaries. Here, we show that rheological models based on the concepts of shear zone localization and the evolution of rock structure upon strain can explain these strain rate contrasts. Ductile shear zones constitute a mechanical paradox in the lithosphere. As every plastic deformation mechanism is strain-rate-hardening, ductile rocks are expected to deform at low strain rate and low stress (broad zone of deformation). Localized ductile shear zones require either a localized forcing (locally high stress) or a thermal or structural anomaly in the shear zone; either can be inherited or develop progressively as rocks deform. We previously identified the most effective process at each depth level of the lithosphere. In the upper crust and middle crust, rocks fabric controls localization. Grain size reduction is the most efficient mechanism in the uppermost mantle. This analysis can be generalized to consider a complete lithospheric section. We assume strain rate does not vary with depth and that the depth-integrated strength of the lithospheric does not change over time, as the total force is controlled by external process such as mantle convection and plate and slab buoyancy. Reducing grain size from a coarse value typical of undeformed peridotite to a value in agreement with the stress level (piezometer) while letting that stress vary from depth to depth (the integrated stress remains the same) increases the lithospheric strain rate by about a factor of 1000. This can explain the development of diffuse plate boundaries. The slightly higher strain rate of continental plate boundary may reflect development of a layered rock fabric in the middle crust. Narrow plate boundaries require additional weakening process. The high heat flux near mid-ocean ridge implies a thin lithosphere, which enhances stress (for constant integrated

  11. Using EarthScope Construction of the Plate Boundary Observatory to Provide Locally Based Experiential Education and Outreach (United States)

    Jackson, M.; Eriksson, S.; Barbour, K.; Venator, S.; Mencin, D.; Prescott, W.


    EarthScope is an NSF-funded, national science initiative to explore the structure and evolution of the North American continent and to understand the physical processes controlling earthquakes and volcanoes. This large-scale experiment provides locally based opportunities for education and outreach which engage students at various levels and the public. UNAVCO is responsible for the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) component of EarthScope. PBO includes the installation and operations and maintenance of large networks of Global Positioning Satellite (GPS), strainmeter, seismometer, and tiltmeter instruments and the acquisition of satellite radar imagery, all of which will be used to measure and map the smallest movements across faults, the magma movement inside active volcanoes and the very wide areas of deformation associated with plate tectonic motion. UNAVCO, through its own education and outreach activities and in collaboration with the EarthScope E&O Program, uses the PBO construction activities to increase the understanding and public appreciation of geodynamics, earth deformation processes, and their relevance to society. These include programs for public outreach via various media, events associated with local installations, a program to employ students in the construction of PBO, and development of curricular materials by use in local schools associated with the EarthScope geographic areas of focus. PBO provides information to the media to serve the needs of various groups and localities, including interpretive centers at national parks and forests, such as Mt. St. Helens. UNAVCO staff contributed to a television special with the Spanish language network Univision Aquí y Ahora program focused on the San Andreas Fault and volcanoes in Alaska. PBO participated in an Education Day at the Pathfinder Ranch Science and Outdoor Education School in Mountain Center, California. Pathfinder Ranch hosts two of the eight EarthScope borehole strainmeters in the Anza

  12. The Loma Prieta earthquake of October 17, 1989 : a brief geologic view of what caused the Loma Prieta earthquake and implications for future California earthquakes: What happened ... what is expected ... what can be done. (United States)

    Ward, Peter L.; Page, Robert A.


    The San Andreas fault, in California, is the primary boundary between the North American plate and the Pacific plate. Land west of the fault has been moving northwestward relative to land on the east at an average rate of 2 inches per year for millions of years. This motion is not constant but occurs typically in sudden jumps during large earthquakes. This motion is relentless; therefore earthquakes in California are inevitable.

  13. Study of Transition from Laminar to Turbulent Boundary Layer on a Tilted Flat Plate Using Heat Transfer Measurements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E.Sanz; C.Nicot; R.Point; F.Plaza


    The boundary layer transition over a flat tilted plate has been studied by means of heat transfer measurements. A heat flux sensor has been developed, in order to measure the efficiency of convective heat transfer for various types of surfaces or flows. Its operation at constant temperature allows direct and fast measurements of heat flux. The present paper reports the development of the sensor and presents its application to the study of transition in a boundary layer depending on the angle of incidence of the external flow. An exponential relationship between critical Reynolds number and pressure gradient parameter has been found.

  14. What do Great Subduction Earthquakes tell us About Continental Deformation of the Upper Plate in the Central Andes Forearc? Insights From Seismotectonics, Continental Deformation and Coulomb Modelisation Along Southern Peru Margin (United States)

    Audin, L.; Perfettini, H.; Tavera, H.


    Subduction of the Nazca plate beneath the Peruvian margin has produced numerous megathrust earthquakes during the last century and still constitutes mature seismic gaps in some places such as in between Ilo (Peru) and Arica (Chile). The rupture zones of the 1604, 1784 and 1868 southern Peru events were partially reactivated by the Arequipa 2001 (Mw = 8.5) seismic event, whose rupture zone was about 350km-long and stopped its propagation towards the south on Ilo Peninsula. Just after the occurrence of 2001 event, some reactivation of continental fault systems are identified and monitored thanks to the Peruvian seismic network and describe continental deformation processes occurring perpendicularly to the trench or parallel to the trench, traducing the continental plate response to major subduction earthquakes and some partitioning of the deformation. The Chololo and associated ( perpendicular to the trench) fault systems define some 80-km-long margin crustal blocks and the major one coincides with the 2001 earthquake southern limit of the rupture zone as it propagated to the south. These blocks are made from Late Jurassic and Cretaceous plutonic rocks from the Coastal Batholith; these are outcropping in some places and are evidenced by the aeromagnetic mapping elsewhere around the area. Northward along the subduction zone, another boundary between two rupture zones of major subduction earthquake was reactivated recently, perpendicularly to the trench, by the seismic crisis of October 2006, M=6.4, near Lima, right at the southern end of the rupture zone of the 1974 event (Mw=8.1).Those boundaries corresponding to discontinuities (lithospheric fault systems) in the upper plate, trending nearly perpendicular to the trench, act as earthquake barriers during rupture of large seismic events. Additionally occurred on 20 of November 2006 another seismic event (Mw=5.6 Neic, Ml=5.3) in Tacna region, showing a reverse focal mechanism compatible with the trend of the Sama

  15. The EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) Facility: Innovations, Transformations, and Impact (United States)

    Jackson, M. E.; Mencin, D.; Feaux, K.


    The word 'transformation' is not used lightly in science. However, the transformative nature of the EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory facility on the science community is large and measurable. The impact of the creation, execution and delivery of the PBO resulted in radical changes in the way the geodesy community views permanent, continuously operating (and often) real-time GPS and strain networks, open data policies, and the ability for consortium based facilities, such as UNAVCO, to manage and deliver on large National Science Foundation investments. Our presentation will explore these innovations and transformations from the community, facility, and science perspectives. In the genesis of the EarthScope proposal there was a distinct shift away from the PBO being managed and constructed by prominent PI's within the community to a vesting of the responsibility and authority in UNAVCO to execute on behalf of the entire community. This tipping away from individual PI concerns towards a communal behavior allowed the construction of a facility based on broad input from, and equal access for, any member of the geodesy community. The open and transparent nature of EarthScope, including the open data policy for both facility and PI derived data was truly transformative. One of the key tenants of the PBO was strict adherence to not redesigning unless absolutely necessary. For example PBO monumentation and data processing practices were adopted wholesale from the SCIGN project, while the station selection, project management, permitting practices, data downloading, metadata, and, data communications were refactored for optimum use for the broader geodesy community and to scale with the large geography that confronted PBO. The PBO strainmeter network, one of the largest in the world, started by looking at the procedures of 30 years of heterogeneous installations around the word then crafted, created, and amalgamated new drilling, grouting, installation, and data

  16. Update on Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) Activities in the PNW Region (United States)

    Austin, K. E.; Fengler, K.; Doelger, S.


    The Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), which is part of the larger NSF-funded EarthScope project, is nearing the end of year 3 of the installation phase of 852 continuously operating GPS stations in the Western United States. The Pacific Northwest (PNW) region will install 134 continuous GPS stations by the end of September 2008. The sites are distributed along the fore and back-arc of the Cascadia Subduction Zone and at Mt. St. Helens. At the end of September 2007, the PNW region will be several stations short of its installation goal of 110 GPS stations, mostly due to an unusually early and high danger wildfire season. The scientific priority during this past year was to concentrate installations in the Oregon back arc region, the Southwest Oregon fore arc region and the Idaho panhandle. In the last year UNAVCO has added 10 stations to the Pacific Northwest region, raising the number of stations from 124 to 134. The majority of these stations are located within the fore and back arc regions of Southern Oregon. In addition the UNAVCO installed its first building mounted site within a difficult area along the Southwest Oregon coast. UNAVCO will install its remaining 24 new continuous GPS stations in the Pacific Northwest in year 5. The remaining stations are distributed throughout the region, and comprise a mix of standard monuments, and strainmeter collocations. Our goal is to have all stations installed by August 31 2008. Reconnaissance work for all of the GPS sites have been completed, and have had permits submitted.

  17. High-Resolution LiDAR Topography of the Plate-Boundary Faults in Northern California (United States)

    Prentice, C. S.; Phillips, D. A.; Furlong, K. P.; Brown, A.; Crosby, C. J.; Bevis, M.; Shrestha, R.; Sartori, M.; Brocher, T. M.; Brown, J.


    GeoEarthScope acquired more than 1500 square km of airborne LiDAR data in northern California, providing high-resolution topographic data of most of the major strike-slip faults in the region. The coverage includes the San Andreas Fault from its northern end near Shelter Cove to near Parkfield, as well as the Rodgers Creek, Maacama, Calaveras, Green Valley, Paicines, and San Gregorio Faults. The Hayward fault was added with funding provided by the US Geological Survey, the City of Berkeley, and the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission. Data coverage is typically one kilometer in width, centered on the fault. In areas of particular fault complexity the swath width was increased to two kilometers, and in selected areas swath width is as wide as five kilometers. A five-km-wide swath was flown perpendicular to the plate boundary immediately south of Cape Mendocino to capture previously unidentified faults and to understand off-fault deformation associated with the transition zone between the transform margin and the Cascadia subduction zone. The data were collected in conjunction with an intensive GPS campaign designed to improve absolute data accuracy and provide quality control. Data processing to classify the LiDAR point data by return type allows users to filter out vegetation and produce high-resolution DEMs of the ground surface beneath forested regions, revealing geomorphic features along and adjacent to the faults. These data will allow more accurate mapping of fault traces in regions where the vegetation canopy has hampered this effort in the past. In addition, the data provide the opportunity to locate potential sites for detailed paleoseismic studies aimed at providing slip rates and event chronologies. The GeoEarthScope LiDAR data will be made available via an interactive data distribution and processing workflow currently under development.

  18. Fault and graben growth along active magmatic divergent plate boundaries in Iceland and Ethiopia

    KAUST Repository

    Trippanera, D.


    Recent studies highlight the importance of annual-scale dike-induced rifting episodes in developing normal faults and graben along the active axis of magmatic divergent plate boundaries (MDPB). However, the longer-term (102-105 years) role of diking on the cumulative surface deformation and evolution of MDPB is not yet well understood. To better understand the longer-term normal faults and graben along the axis of MDPB, we analyze fissure swarms in Iceland and Ethiopia. We first focus on the simplest case of immature fissure swarms, with single dike-fed eruptive fissures; these consist of a <1 km wide graben bordered by normal faults with displacement up to a few meters, consistent with theoretical models and geodetic data. A similar structural pattern is found, with asymmetric and multiple graben, within wider mature fissure swarms, formed by several dike-fed eruptive fissures. We then consider the lateral termination of normal faults along these graben, to detect their upward or downward propagation. Most faults terminate as open fractures on flat surface, suggesting downward fault propagation; this is consistent with recent experiments showing dike-induced normal faults propagating downward from the surface. However, some normal faults also terminate as open fractures on monoclines, which resemble fault propagation folds; this suggests upward propagation of reactivated buried faults, promoted by diking. These results suggest that fault growth and graben development, as well as the longer-term evolution of the axis of MDPB, may be explained only through dike emplacement and that any amagmatic faulting is not necessary.

  19. Double-diffusive natural convective boundary-layer flow of a nano-fluid past a vertical plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, A.V. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, North Carolina State University, Campus Box 7910, Raleigh, NC 27695-7910 (United States); Nield, D.A. [Department of Engineering Science, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand)


    The double-diffusive natural convective boundary-layer flow of a nano-fluid past a vertical plate is studied analytically. The model used for the binary nano-fluid incorporates the effects of Brownian motion and thermophoresis. In addition the thermal energy equations include regular diffusion and cross-diffusion terms. A similarity solution is presented. Numerical calculations were performed in order to obtain correlation formulas giving the reduced Nusselt number as a function of the various relevant parameters. (authors)

  20. Boundary value analysis of parallel plate capacitors%平板电容器的边值分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵琳; 蒋泽


    将平板电容器电容的计算作为典型的场边值问题进行处理,从而得到了可适用于对具有任意极板半径与其间隔之比的平板电容器电容的分析求解关系,数值计算结果与有关理论分析的高度一致性,表明了所建立的分析模型的有效性。%By taking the computation of capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor as a boundary value problem.a formula for the computation with any ratio of the plate separation to the radius of the plate is presented.The model shows effectiveness by the good agreement between the analytical and the numerical results.

  1. DNS of heat transfer in transitional, accelerated boundary layer flow over a flat plate affected by free-stream fluctuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wissink, Jan G. [School of Engineering and Design, Howell Building, Brunel University, Uxbridge UB8 3PH (United Kingdom)], E-mail:; Rodi, Wolfgang [Institute for Hydromechanics, University of Karlsruhe, Kaiserstr. 12, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany)


    Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of flow over and heat transfer from a flat plate affected by free-stream fluctuations were performed. A contoured upper wall was employed to generate a favourable streamwise pressure gradient along a large portion of the flat plate. The free-stream fluctuations originated from a separate LES of isotropic turbulence in a box. In the laminar portions of the accelerating boundary layer flow the formation of streaks was observed to induce an increase in heat transfer by the exchange of hot fluid near the surface of the plate and cold fluid from the free-stream. In the regions where the streamwise pressure gradient was only mildly favourable, intermittent turbulent spots were detected which relaminarised downstream as the streamwise pressure gradient became stronger. The relaminarisation of the turbulent spots was reflected by a slight decrease in the friction coefficient, which converged to its laminar value in the region where the streamwise pressure gradient was strongest.

  2. Unsteady heat-flux measurements of second-mode instability waves in a hypersonic flat-plate boundary layer (United States)

    Kegerise, Michael A.; Rufer, Shann J.


    In this paper, we report on the application of the atomic layer thermopile (ALTP) heat-flux sensor to the measurement of laminar-to-turbulent transition in a hypersonic flat-plate boundary layer. The centerline of the flat-plate model was instrumented with a streamwise array of ALTP sensors, and the flat-plate model was exposed to a Mach 6 freestream over a range of unit Reynolds numbers. Here, we observed an unstable band of frequencies that are associated with second-mode instability waves in the laminar boundary layer that forms on the flat-plate surface. The measured frequencies, group velocities, phase speeds, and wavelengths of these instability waves are consistent with data previously reported in the literature. Heat flux time series, and the Morlet wavelet transforms of them, revealed the wave-packet nature of the second-mode instability waves. In addition, a laser-based radiative heating system was used to measure the frequency response functions (FRF) of the ALTP sensors used in the wind tunnel test. These measurements were used to assess the stability of the sensor FRFs over time and to correct spectral estimates for any attenuation caused by the finite sensor bandwidth.

  3. Magnitude 8.1 Earthquake off the Solomon Islands (United States)


    On April 1, 2007, a magnitude 8.1 earthquake rattled the Solomon Islands, 2,145 kilometers (1,330 miles) northeast of Brisbane, Australia. Centered less than ten kilometers beneath the Earth's surface, the earthquake displaced enough water in the ocean above to trigger a small tsunami. Though officials were still assessing damage to remote island communities on April 3, Reuters reported that the earthquake and the tsunami killed an estimated 22 people and left as many as 5,409 homeless. The most serious damage occurred on the island of Gizo, northwest of the earthquake epicenter, where the tsunami damaged the hospital, schools, and hundreds of houses, said Reuters. This image, captured by the Landsat-7 satellite, shows the location of the earthquake epicenter in relation to the nearest islands in the Solomon Island group. Gizo is beyond the left edge of the image, but its triangular fringing coral reefs are shown in the upper left corner. Though dense rain forest hides volcanic features from view, the very shape of the islands testifies to the geologic activity of the region. The circular Kolombangara Island is the tip of a dormant volcano, and other circular volcanic peaks are visible in the image. The image also shows that the Solomon Islands run on a northwest-southeast axis parallel to the edge of the Pacific plate, the section of the Earth's crust that carries the Pacific Ocean and its islands. The earthquake occurred along the plate boundary, where the Australia/Woodlark/Solomon Sea plates slide beneath the denser Pacific plate. Friction between the sinking (subducting) plates and the overriding Pacific plate led to the large earthquake on April 1, said the United States Geological Survey (USGS) summary of the earthquake. Large earthquakes are common in the region, though the section of the plate that produced the April 1 earthquake had not caused any quakes of magnitude 7 or larger since the early 20th century, said the USGS.

  4. A new algorithm for three-dimensional joint inversion of body wave and surface wave data and its application to the Southern California plate boundary region (United States)

    Fang, Hongjian; Zhang, Haijiang; Yao, Huajian; Allam, Amir; Zigone, Dimitri; Ben-Zion, Yehuda; Thurber, Clifford; van der Hilst, Robert D.


    We introduce a new algorithm for joint inversion of body wave and surface wave data to get better 3-D P wave (Vp) and S wave (Vs) velocity models by taking advantage of the complementary strengths of each data set. Our joint inversion algorithm uses a one-step inversion of surface wave traveltime measurements at different periods for 3-D Vs and Vp models without constructing the intermediate phase or group velocity maps. This allows a more straightforward modeling of surface wave traveltime data with the body wave arrival times. We take into consideration the sensitivity of surface wave data with respect to Vp in addition to its large sensitivity to Vs, which means both models are constrained by two different data types. The method is applied to determine 3-D crustal Vp and Vs models using body wave and Rayleigh wave data in the Southern California plate boundary region, which has previously been studied with both double-difference tomography method using body wave arrival times and ambient noise tomography method with Rayleigh and Love wave group velocity dispersion measurements. Our approach creates self-consistent and unique models with no prominent gaps, with Rayleigh wave data resolving shallow and large-scale features and body wave data constraining relatively deeper structures where their ray coverage is good. The velocity model from the joint inversion is consistent with local geological structures and produces better fits to observed seismic waveforms than the current Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) model.

  5. Spatial and temporal variations in creep rate along the El Pilar fault at the Caribbean-South American plate boundary (Venezuela), from InSAR (United States)

    Pousse Beltran, Léa.; Pathier, Erwan; Jouanne, François; Vassallo, Riccardo; Reinoza, Carlos; Audemard, Franck; Doin, Marie Pierre; Volat, Matthieu


    In eastern Venezuela, the Caribbean-South American plate boundary follows the El Pilar fault system. Previous studies based on three GPS campaigns (2003-2005-2013) demonstrated that the El Pilar fault accommodates the whole relative displacement between the two tectonic plates (20 mm/yr) and proposed that 50-60% of the slip is aseismic. In order to quantify the possible variations of the aseismic creep in time and space, we conducted an interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) time series analysis, using the (NSBAS) New Small BAseline Subset method, on 18 images from the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS-1) satellite spanning the 2007-2011 period. During this 3.5 year period, InSAR observations show that aseismic slip decreases eastward along the fault: the creep rate of the western segment reaches 25.3 ± 9.4 mm/yr on average, compared to 13.4 ± 6.9 mm/yr on average for the eastern segment. This is interpreted, through slip distribution models, as being related to coupled and uncoupled areas between the surface and 20 km in depth. InSAR observations also show significant temporal creep rate variations (accelerations) during the considered time span along the western segment. The transient behavior of the creep is not consistent with typical postseismic afterslip following the 1997 Ms 6.8 earthquake. The creep is thus interpreted as persistent aseismic slip during an interseismic period, which has a pulse- or transient-like behavior.

  6. Unsteady boundary layer flow and heat transfer of a Casson fluid past an oscillating vertical plate with Newtonian heating. (United States)

    Hussanan, Abid; Zuki Salleh, Mohd; Tahar, Razman Mat; Khan, Ilyas


    In this paper, the heat transfer effect on the unsteady boundary layer flow of a Casson fluid past an infinite oscillating vertical plate with Newtonian heating is investigated. The governing equations are transformed to a systems of linear partial differential equations using appropriate non-dimensional variables. The resulting equations are solved analytically by using the Laplace transform method and the expressions for velocity and temperature are obtained. They satisfy all imposed initial and boundary conditions and reduce to some well-known solutions for Newtonian fluids. Numerical results for velocity, temperature, skin friction and Nusselt number are shown in various graphs and discussed for embedded flow parameters. It is found that velocity decreases as Casson parameters increases and thermal boundary layer thickness increases with increasing Newtonian heating parameter.

  7. Earthquake potential revealed by tidal influence on earthquake size-frequency statistics (United States)

    Ide, Satoshi; Yabe, Suguru; Tanaka, Yoshiyuki


    The possibility that tidal stress can trigger earthquakes is long debated. In particular, a clear causal relationship between small earthquakes and the phase of tidal stress is elusive. However, tectonic tremors deep within subduction zones are highly sensitive to tidal stress levels, with tremor rate increasing at an exponential rate with rising tidal stress. Thus, slow deformation and the possibility of earthquakes at subduction plate boundaries may be enhanced during periods of large tidal stress. Here we calculate the tidal stress history, and specifically the amplitude of tidal stress, on a fault plane in the two weeks before large earthquakes globally, based on data from the global, Japanese, and Californian earthquake catalogues. We find that very large earthquakes, including the 2004 Sumatran, 2010 Maule earthquake in Chile and the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake in Japan, tend to occur near the time of maximum tidal stress amplitude. This tendency is not obvious for small earthquakes. However, we also find that the fraction of large earthquakes increases (the b-value of the Gutenberg-Richter relation decreases) as the amplitude of tidal shear stress increases. The relationship is also reasonable, considering the well-known relationship between stress and the b-value. This suggests that the probability of a tiny rock failure expanding to a gigantic rupture increases with increasing tidal stress levels. We conclude that large earthquakes are more probable during periods of high tidal stress.

  8. Radiation and Viscous Dissipation Effects on Laminar Boundary Layer Flow Nanofluid over a Vertical Plate with a Convective Surface Boundary Condition with Suction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Gangadhar


    Full Text Available The problem of laminar radiation and viscous dissipation effects on laminar boundary layer flow over a vertical plate with a convective surface boundary condition is studied using different types of nanoparticles. The general governing partial differential equations are transformed into a set of two nonlinear ordinary differential equations using unique similarity transformation. Numerical solutions of the similarity equations are obtained using the Nachtsheim-Swigert Shooting iteration technique along with the fourth order Runga Kutta method. Two different types of nanoparticles copper water nanofluid and alumina water nanofluid are studied. The effects of radiation and viscous dissipation on the heat transfer characteristics are discussed in detail. It is observed that as Radiation parameter increases, temperature decreases for copper water and alumina water nanofluid and the heat transfer coefficient of nanofluids increases with the increase of convective heat transfer parameter for copper water and alumina water nanofluids.

  9. MHD forced convective laminar boundary layer flow from a convectively heated moving vertical plate with radiation and transpiration effect. (United States)

    Uddin, Md Jashim; Khan, Waqar A; Ismail, A I Md


    A two-dimensional steady forced convective flow of a Newtonian fluid past a convectively heated permeable vertically moving plate in the presence of a variable magnetic field and radiation effect has been investigated numerically. The plate moves either in assisting or opposing direction to the free stream. The plate and free stream velocities are considered to be proportional to x(m) whilst the magnetic field and mass transfer velocity are taken to be proportional to x((m-1)/2) where x is the distance along the plate from the leading edge of the plate. Instead of using existing similarity transformations, we use a linear group of transformations to transform the governing equations into similarity equations with relevant boundary conditions. Numerical solutions of the similarity equations are presented to show the effects of the controlling parameters on the dimensionless velocity, temperature and concentration profiles as well as on the friction factor, rate of heat and mass transfer. It is found that the rate of heat transfer elevates with the mass transfer velocity, convective heat transfer, Prandtl number, velocity ratio and the magnetic field parameters. It is also found that the rate of mass transfer enhances with the mass transfer velocity, velocity ratio, power law index and the Schmidt number, whilst it suppresses with the magnetic field parameter. Our results are compared with the results existing in the open literature. The comparisons are satisfactory.

  10. Source parameters of the 2005-2008 Balâ-Sırapınar (central Turkey) earthquakes: Implications for the internal deformation of the Anatolian plate (United States)

    Çubuk, Yeşim; Yolsal-Çevikbilen, Seda; Taymaz, Tuncay


    Active tectonics of central Anatolia is mainly governed by the collision of the African, Arabian and Anatolian plates, which causes westward escape of Anatolia along the North and East Anatolian Fault zones, and the counterclockwise rotation of the Kırşehir block with insignificant internal deformation. The formation of the present-day tectonic processes in this region can be deduced from geophysical prospecting and seismological data. Although the seismicity in central Anatolia is distinctively lower than that in the northern and eastern parts of the Anatolian plate, small and moderate earthquakes (2.5 ≤ Mw ≤ 6.0) mostly occurred in the region in the past decades or so. For example, intense earthquake activity was observed in the Balâ-Afşar-Sırapınar (Ankara, central Anatolia) region in the period of 2005 to 2008 with destructive earthquakes of July 30, 2005 (Mw = 5.2); December 20, 2007 (Mw = 5.7) and December 26, 2007 (Mw = 5.6). Therefore, these earthquakes are crucial to analyze the shallow crustal deformation in the central Anatolian block. In the present study, we obtained source parameters of 2005-2008 earthquake sequence using the regional moment tensor (RMT) inversion method. We analyzed complete broad-band waveforms recorded at near-field distances (0.45° ≤ Δ ≤ 3.6°). Our results reveal NW-SE directed right-lateral strike-slip faulting and NE-SW directed left-lateral strike-slip faulting mechanisms, which are clearly correlated with the conjugate fault systems in the Balâ-Afşar-Sırapınar region. However, some earthquakes also have E-W directed normal faulting components. We suggest that the major characteristics of 2005-2006 and 2007-2008 earthquake activity could have been dominantly associated with left-lateral and right-lateral strike-slip faulting mechanisms, respectively. The seismogenic depth is found to be about 8-10 km. This result implies that earthquakes in the study region occurred mostly in the upper crust, which

  11. Paleomagnetic constraints on Cenozoic deformation along the northwest margin of the Pacific-Australian plate boundary zone through New Zealand (United States)

    Turner, Gillian M.; Michalk, Daniel M.; Little, Timothy A.


    New Zealand straddles the boundary between the Australian and Pacific plates, a zone of oblique continental convergence and transform motion. The actively deforming region offers a unique opportunity to study the dynamics of deformation, including vertical-axis rotation of rigid blocks within a transcurrent plate boundary zone. We present and interpret paleomagnetic data from three new and three previously published sites from the NW part of the South Island (NW Nelson region), where sedimentary strata dated between 36 and 10 Ma overlie the crystalline Paleozoic basement assemblages of the Gondwana margin. Compared with reference directions from the Australian apparent polar wander path, none of the results provide evidence of post-Eocene vertical-axis rotation. This suggests that for the past 36 Myr NW Nelson has remained a strong, coherent block that has moved as a contiguous part of the Australian plate. This is in marked contrast to the strongly rotated nature of more outboard accreted terranes to the east. For example, the Hikurangi Margin in the North Island (NW of the Alpine Fault) and the Marlborough region in the NE of the South Island (SE of the Alpine Fault), have both undergone diverse clockwise rotations of up to 140° since the early Paleogene. The NW tip of the South Island seems to have acted as a rigid backstop relative to these more complex oroclinal deformations. We infer that, because of its relatively stiff bulk rheology, it has not been drawn into the distributed plate boundary rotational deformation associated with the New Zealand Orocline.

  12. The EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory Alaska Region: Highlights from the 2012 Summer Field Season (United States)

    Enders, M.; Bierma, R. M.; Boyce, E. S.; Willoughby, H.; Fend, M.; Feaux, K.


    UNAVCO has now completed its fourth year of operation and maintenance of the 138 continuous GPS stations, 12 tiltmeters and 31 data communications relays that comprise the Alaska region of the EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO). The successful operation of the autonomous GPS and tiltmeter network in Alaska continues to be a challenge, because of logistics, weather, and other difficulties related to working in Alaska. PBO engineers continue to work on network enhancements to make the stations more robust, while improving overall data quality and station uptime to better serve the EarthScope science community. In the summer of 2012, PBO engineers completed maintenance activities in Alaska, which resulted in a 95% operational status for the Alaska network within PBO. PBO engineers completed a total of 87 maintenance visits in the summer of FY2012, including 62 routine maintenance and 25 unscheduled maintenance visits to GPS and data communications stations. We present a number of highlights and accomplishments from the PBO 2012 summer field season in Alaska, for example the deployment of a newly designed methanol fuel cell at AV35, a critical station that serves as the main repeater for the real time network on Unimak Island. In addition, PBO engineers also completed the installation of three Inmarsat BGAN terminals for data telemetry following successful testing at AC60 Shemya. Lastly, PBO engineers completed scheduled battery replacements at most of the PBO stations on Unimak Island, in collaboration with the USGS/Alaska Volcano Observatory. In addition to routine maintenance and planned station improvements to sites in Alaska, numerous critical repairs were made at stations on Unimak Island and elsewhere to ensure that the PBO network continues to function well and continues to meet the requirements stipulated by the NSF. We also present some of the station failures unique to Alaska, which we encountered during the course of the 2012 field season, as well

  13. The Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) Network in the PNW region of the United States (United States)

    Hafner, K.; Austin, K.; Feaux, K.; Jackson, M.; Fengler, K.; Doelger, S.


    The Pacific Northwest Region (PNW) of the United States contains a variety of geologic regions and tectonic problems. These include the Cascadia Subduction Zone, Mt. St. Helens and the transition to the Basin and Range province. Since September of 2003, the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), which is part of the larger NSF-funded EarthScope project, has been installing a network of continuously operating GPS, strainmeter and tiltmeter instruments. There are currently 78 GPS, 13 strainmeter/borehole seismometers, and 4 tiltmeters operating in the PNW region. The data from this network has already been used to study Episodic Tremor Events (ETS) during September 2005 and January 2007, and renewed activity on Mt. St. Helens that began on September 23, 2004. The goal is have 134 continuously operating GPS stations by the end of September 2008. The locations of the GPS stations were determined by scientific committees. Whenever possible, multiple instruments are deployed at the same location, and share power and communications resources. Examples of this are GPS antennas mounted on top of strainmeter boreholes in the forearc region of western Washington and tiltmeters collecting data through GPS receivers on Mt. St. Helens. In addition, a number of stations provide real time kinematic data to professional surveyors within the region. During the fall of 2006, a 16 GPS and 4 tiltmeter station network was completed on Mt. St. Helens. Results from analysis of both PBO and USGS GPS stations on the mountain, show a radially inward and downward motion, with the maximum vertical offsets high on the mountain and the maximum horizontal offsets located at distances of 5-10km from the crater. Displacements are small over the 2004-present eruption with a maximum of 3cm of inward movement. GPS stations installed high on the mountain experience severe weather and heavy rime accumulations for approximately 6 months of the year. Ice build-up causes distortion of the GPS antenna phase

  14. The Plate Boundary Observatory: Current status and plans for the next five years (United States)

    Mattioli, G. S.; Feaux, K.; Meertens, C. M.; Mencin, D.; Miller, M.


    UNAVCO currently operates and maintains the NSF-funded Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), which is the geodetic facility of EarthScope. PBO was designed and built from 2003 to 2008 with $100M investment from the NSF Major Research Equipment and Facilities Construction (MREFC) Program. UNAVCO operated and maintained PBO under a Cooperative Agreement (CA) with NSF from 2008 to 2013 and will continue PBO O&M for the next five years as part of the new Geodesy Advancing Geosciences and EarthScope (GAGE) Facility. PBO is largest continuous GPS and borehole geophysical network in the Americas, with 1100 continuous Global Positioning System (cGPS) sites, including several with multiple monuments, 79 boreholes, with 75 tensor strainmeters, 78 short-period, 3-component seismometers, and pore pressure sensors at 23 sites. PBO also includes 26 tiltmeters deployed at volcanoes in Alaska, Mt St Helens, and Yellowstone caldera and 6 long-baseline laser strainmeters. Surface meteorological sensors are collocated at 154 GPS sites. UNAVCO provides high-rate (1 Hz), low-latency (streams (RT-GPS) from 382 stations in PBO. UNAVCO has delivered over 62 Tb of geodetic data to the EarthScope community since its PBO's inception in 2004. Over the past year, data return for the cGPS component of PBO is 98%, well above the data return metric of 85% set by the NSF, a result of efforts to upgrade power systems and communications infrastructure. In addition, PBO has set the standard for the design, construction, and operation of other multi-hazard networks across the Americas, including COCONet in the Caribbean region and TLALOCNet in Mexico. Funding to support ongoing PBO O&M has declined from FY2012 CA levels under the new GAGE Facility. The implications for data return and data quality metrics as well as replacement of aging PBO GPS instruments with GNSS-compatible systems are as yet unknown. A process to assess the cost of specific PBO components, data rates, enhanced capabilities, and method

  15. Seismology: tectonic strain in plate interiors? (United States)

    Calais, E; Mattioli, G; DeMets, C; Nocquet, J-M; Stein, S; Newman, A; Rydelek, P


    It is not fully understood how or why the inner areas of tectonic plates deform, leading to large, although infrequent, earthquakes. Smalley et al. offer a potential breakthrough by suggesting that surface deformation in the central United States accumulates at rates comparable to those across plate boundaries. However, we find no statistically significant deformation in three independent analyses of the data set used by Smalley et al., and conclude therefore that only the upper bounds of magnitude and repeat time for large earthquakes can be inferred at present.

  16. Earthquake occurrence processes in the Indo-Burmese wedge and Sagaing fault region (United States)

    Kundu, Bhaskar; Gahalaut, V. K.


    Earthquakes in the Indo-Burmese wedge and Sagaing fault regions occur in response to the partitioning of the India-Sunda motion along these two distinct boundaries. Under the accretionary wedge of the Indo-Burmese arc, majority of the earthquakes occur in the depth range of 30-60 km and define an eastward gently dipping seismicity trend surface that coincides with the Indian slab. The dip of the slab steepens in the east direction and earthquakes occur down to a depth of 150 km, though the slab can be traced up to the 660 km discontinuity. Although these features are similar to a subduction zone, the nature of the earthquakes and our analysis of their focal mechanisms suggest that these earthquakes are of intra-slab type which occur on steep plane within the Indian plate and the sense of motion implies a northward relative motion with respect to the Sunda plate. Thus these earthquakes and the stress state do not support active subduction across the Indo-Burmese arc which is also consistent with the relative motion of India-Sunda plates. The absence of inter-plate earthquakes, lack of evidence of the occurrence of great earthquakes in the historical records and non-seismogenic nature of the plate interface under the accretionary wedge suggest that seismic hazard due to earthquakes along the plate boundary may be relatively low. However, major intra-slab earthquakes at shallow and intermediate depths may still cause damage in the sediment filled valley regions of Manipur and Cachar in India and Chittagong and Sylhet regions of Bangladesh. In the Sagaing fault region, earthquakes occur through dextral strike slip motion along the north-south oriented plane and the stress state is consistent with the plate motion across the Sagaing fault.

  17. Intermediate-Depth Intraplate Strike-Slip Earthquake Along the Subducted Nazca Plate: Stress Conditions Related to Flat-Slab Transition Zone? (United States)

    Carrizo, D.; Peyrat, S.; Comte, D.; Boroschek, R.


    On October 11th, 2012 an strike-slip intraplate earthquake Mw=5.6 occurred at about 15 km NE of Santiago-Chile, at 107 km depth. This earthquake had a distribution of intensities of about VI MM, around Santiago region. In the past only few similar seismic events had been occurred, the majority of them without reported intensities. The location, the focal mechanism, and the depth of this earthquake, make it particularly interesting because the processes responsible for this kind of ruptures is still an open question. Moreover, it was also recorded by a local strong motion networks, allowing for the first time the possibility to study this kind of earthquakes using seismic and accelerographic data. We study the nature of this event using the aftershocks recorded by the Chilean Seismological Network and with a joint inversion of local strong-motion and teleseimic data, to understand the kinematic of rupture. Preliminary results suggest a singular stress condition in the subducted plate related to the transition from flat to normal subduction, which could be accommodated by strike-slip faulting. The strong motion analysis reveals high horizontal accelerations in agreement with high angle fault planes. Understand the tectonic setting associated to this type of earthquakes represents a relevant goal for seismic risk evaluation in the most populated Chilean region.

  18. Investigating the deformation of upper crustal faults at the N-Chilean convergent plate boundary at different scales using high-resolution topography datasets and creepmeter measurements (United States)

    Ewiak, O.; Victor, P.; Ziegenhagen, T.; Oncken, O.


    The Chilean convergent plate boundary is one of the tectonically most active regions on earth and prone to large megathrust earthquakes as e. g. the 2010 Mw 8.8 Maule earthquake which ruptured a mature seismic gap in south-central Chile. In northern Chile historical data suggests the existence of a seismic gap between Arica and Mejillones Peninsula (MP), which has not ruptured since 1877. Further south, the 1995 Mw 8.0 Antofagasta earthquake ruptured the subduction interface between MP and Taltal. In this study we investigate the deformation at four active upper plate faults (dip-slip and strike-slip) located above the coupling zone of the subduction interface. The target faults (Mejillones Fault - MF, Salar del Carmen Fault - SCF, Cerro Fortuna Fault - CFF, Chomache Fault - CF) are situated in forearc segments, which are in different stages of the megathrust seismic cycle. The main question of this study is how strain is accumulated in the overriding plate, what is the response of the target faults to the megathrust seismic cycle and what are the mechanisms / processes involved. The hyper arid conditions of the Atacama desert and the extremely low erosion rates enable us to investigate geomorphic markers, e .g. fault scarps and knickpoints, which serve as a record for upper crustal deformation and fault activity about ten thousands years into the past. Fault scarp data has been acquired with Differential-GPS by measuring high-resolution topographic profiles perpendicular to the fault scarps and along incised gullies. The topographic data show clear variations between the target faults which possibly result from their position within the forearc. The surveyed faults, e. g. the SCF, exhibit clear along strike variations in the morphology of surface ruptures attributed to seismic events and can be subdivided into individual segments. The data allows us to distinguish single, composite and multiple fault scarps and thus to detect differences in fault growth initiated

  19. Unusual geologic evidence of coeval seismic shaking and tsunamis shows variability in earthquake size and recurrence in the area of the giant 1960 Chile earthquake (United States)

    Cisternas, M; Garrett, E; Wesson, Robert L.; Dura, T.; Ely, L. L


    An uncommon coastal sedimentary record combines evidence for seismic shaking and coincident tsunami inundation since AD 1000 in the region of the largest earthquake recorded instrumentally: the giant 1960 southern Chile earthquake (Mw 9.5). The record reveals significant variability in the size and recurrence of megathrust earthquakes and ensuing tsunamis along this part of the Nazca-South American plate boundary. A 500-m long coastal outcrop on Isla Chiloé, midway along the 1960 rupture, provides continuous exposure of soil horizons buried locally by debris-flow diamicts and extensively by tsunami sand sheets. The diamicts flattened plants that yield geologically precise ages to correlate with well-dated evidence elsewhere. The 1960 event was preceded by three earthquakes that probably resembled it in their effects, in AD 898 - 1128, 1300 - 1398 and 1575, and by five relatively smaller intervening earthquakes. Earthquakes and tsunamis recurred exceptionally often between AD 1300 and 1575. Their average recurrence interval of 85 years only slightly exceeds the time already elapsed since 1960. This inference is of serious concern because no earthquake has been anticipated in the region so soon after the 1960 event, and current plate locking suggests that some segments of the boundary are already capable of producing large earthquakes. This long-term earthquake and tsunami history of one of the world's most seismically active subduction zones provides an example of variable rupture mode, in which earthquake size and recurrence interval vary from one earthquake to the next.

  20. Fault Segmentation and Earthquake Generation in the Transition from Strike-slip to Subduction Plate Motion, Saint Elias Orogen, Alaska and Yukon (Invited) (United States)

    Bruhn, R. L.; Shennan, I.; Pavlis, T. L.


    The structural transition from strike-slip motion along the Fairweather transform fault to subduction on the Aleutian megathrust occurs within the collision zone between the Yakutat microplate and southern Alaska. The collision is marked by belts of thrust and strike-slip faulting both within the microplate and along its margins, forming a complex fault network that mechanically interacts with rupturing of the Aleutian megathrust on one hand, and the Fairweather transform fault on the other. For example, stress released by M8+ earthquakes within the central and eastern parts of the Yakutat microplate in 1899 may have constrained the 1964 rupture on the Aleutian megathrust to the western part of the microplate. However, megathrust earthquakes circa 900 BP and 1500 BP may have ruptured farther east than in 1964, generating earthquakes of significantly greater magnitude and tsunami potential. Structurally, the thrust-faulting earthquake of Sept. 10, 1899 occurred on faults that are loaded primarily by the Fairweather transform, but the earlier event of Sept. 4 is more closely linked to the Aleutian megathrust. Large reverse faults that rise off of the megathrust are superimposed on older structures within the microplate; creating complex duplex and wedge fault geometries beneath the mountains onshore that link to simpler fault propagation folds offshore. These lateral variations in fault network style correlate with 1) permanent uplift of the coast at ≈ 1 cm/yr in the Yakataga region of the microplate, 2) an abrupt change in structural style and orientation across the Kayak Island - Bering Glacier deformation zone, and 3) the seaward limit of ruptures in the 1899 earthquakes which occurred beneath the mountains onshore. Future goals include refining locations of earthquake source faults and determining the recurrence history of earthquakes within the Yakutat microplate. The history of rupturing within the microplate offshore is of particular interest given the

  1. Punctuated Neogene tectonics and stratigraphy of the African-Iberian plate-boundary zone: concurrent development of Betic-Rif basins (southern Spain, northern Morocco)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sissingh, W.


    This paper integrates the sequence stratigraphic and tectonic data related to the Neogene geodynamic and palaeogeographic development of the African-Iberian plate boundary zone between Spain and Morocco. Though the dating of individual tectonostratigraphic sequences and their delimiting sequence

  2. Can mine tremors be predicted? Observational studies of earthquake nucleation, triggering and rupture in South African mines

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Durrheim, RJ


    Full Text Available Mining-induced earthquakes pose a risk to workers in deep mines, while natural earthquakes pose a risk to people living close to plate boundaries and even in stable continental regions. A five-year ca. US$3 million Japan-SA collaborative project...

  3. Large-eddy simulation of separation and reattachment of a flat plate turbulent boundary layer

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, W.


    © 2015 Cambridge University Press. We present large-eddy simulations (LES) of separation and reattachment of a flat-plate turbulent boundary-layer flow. Instead of resolving the near wall region, we develop a two-dimensional virtual wall model which can calculate the time- and space-dependent skin-friction vector field at the wall, at the resolved scale. By combining the virtual-wall model with the stretched-vortex subgrid-scale (SGS) model, we construct a self-consistent framework for the LES of separating and reattaching turbulent wall-bounded flows at large Reynolds numbers. The present LES methodology is applied to two different experimental flows designed to produce separation/reattachment of a flat-plate turbulent boundary layer at medium Reynolds number Reθ based on the momentum boundary-layer thickness θ. Comparison with data from the first case at demonstrates the present capability for accurate calculation of the variation, with the streamwise co-ordinate up to separation, of the skin friction coefficient, Reθ, the boundary-layer shape factor and a non-dimensional pressure-gradient parameter. Additionally the main large-scale features of the separation bubble, including the mean streamwise velocity profiles, show good agreement with experiment. At the larger Reθ = 11000 of the second case, the LES provides good postdiction of the measured skin-friction variation along the whole streamwise extent of the experiment, consisting of a very strong adverse pressure gradient leading to separation within the separation bubble itself, and in the recovering or reattachment region of strongly-favourable pressure gradient. Overall, the present two-dimensional wall model used in LES appears to be capable of capturing the quantitative features of a separation-reattachment turbulent boundary-layer flow at low to moderately large Reynolds numbers.

  4. Consideration of SH-wave fundamental modes in piezoelectromagnetic plate: electrically open and magnetically open boundary conditions (United States)

    Zakharenko, A. A.


    This report studies the dispersive wave propagation in the transversely isotropic (6 mm) piezoelectromagnetic (PEM) plate when the mechanical, electrical, and magnetic boundary conditions for both the upper and lower free surfaces of the plate are as follows: the mechanically free, electrically open, and magnetically open surfaces. This study follows some original results obtained in book. The fundamental modes' dispersion relations are graphically shown for the following well-known PEM composite materials: BaTiO3-CoFe2O4 and PZT-5H-Terfenol-D. It is natural that for large values of the nondimensional parameter kd (k is the wave number and d is the plate half-thickness), the velocities of both the fundamental modes approach the surface shear-horizontal wave called the piezomagnetic exchange surface Melkumyan wave. It is well known that plate waves are usually utilized in the nondestructive testing and evaluation, for instance, in the airspace industry. Also, PEM materials are used as smart ones in various technical devices such as dispersive wave delay lines, (biochemi)sensors, lab-on-a-chip, etc.

  5. Searching for Active Faults in the Western Eurasia-Nubia plate boundary (United States)

    Antunes, Veronica; Custodio, Susana; Arroucau, Pierre; Carrilho, Fernando


    The repeated occurrence of large magnitude earthquakes in southwest Iberia in historical and instrumental times suggests the presence of active faults in the region. However, the region undergoes slow deformation, which results in low rates of seismic activity, and the location, dimension and geometry of active structures remains unsettled. We recently developed a new algorithm for earthquake location in 3D complex media with laterally varying interface depths, which allowed us to relocate 2363 events that occurred from 2007 to 2013. The method takes as inputs P- and S-wave catalog arrival times obtained from the Portuguese Meteorological Institute (IPMA, Instituto Portugues do Mar e da Atmosfera), for a study area defined by 8.5°W < lon < 5°W and 36° < lat < 37.5°. After relocation, we obtain a lineation of events in the Guadalquivir bank region, in the northern Gulf of Cadiz. The lineation defines a low-angle northward-dipping plane rooted at the base of the crust, which could indicate the presence of a major fault. We provide seismological evidence for the existence of this seemingly active structure based on earthquake relocations, focal mechanisms and waveform similarity between neighboring events.

  6. Boundary layer flow and heat transfer on a moving plate in a copper-water nanofluid using Buongiorno model (United States)

    Bakar, Nor Ashikin Abu; Bachok, Norfifah; Arifin, Norihan Md.


    The study of the steady two dimensional boundary layer flow of a copper (Cu)-water nanofluid on a moving plate is investigated. The assumption is the plate moves in the same or opposite direction to the free stream. The nonlinear partial differential equations are transformed into nonlinear ordinary differential equations using a similarity variables,then a shooting technique is used to solved it numerically. The numerical results for skin friction coefficient, the local Nusselt number, the local Sherwood number as well as the velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are obtained. The effect of nanoparticle volume fraction, Brownian motion and thermophoresis parameters on heat transfer are examined. The results show that the local Nusselt number and the local Sherwood number increase with increasing in the Brownian motion parameter Nb and thermophoresis parameter Nt.

  7. Disruption of Esrom and Ryk identifies the roof plate boundary as an intermediate target for commissure formation. (United States)

    Hendricks, Michael; Mathuru, Ajay Sriram; Wang, Hui; Silander, Olin; Kee, Michelle Zhi Ling; Jesuthasan, Suresh


    Growth cones are guided to their final destination by intermediate targets. Here, we identify intermediate targets and signaling components acting on zebrafish habenula commissural axons. Live imaging establishes that axons pause at the medial habenula before and after crossing the roof plate. esrom mutants axons fail to advance beyond the ipsilateral medial habenula. Tsc2 function is reduced in mutant axons, indicating cell autonomous defects in signaling. Consistent with signaling properties changing outside the roof plate, EphB is surface localized on axon segments within a zone demarcated by the medial habenula. wnt4a is expressed in the medial habenula and morpholino knockdown causes loss of the commissure. Electroporation of truncated Ryk causes axons to reenter the midline after reaching the contralateral habenula. These data identify Esrom as a mediator of growth cone navigation at an intermediate target and underscore the importance of midline boundaries as signaling centers for commissure formation.

  8. Aftershocks of the 2010 Mw 7.4 Bonin Islands normal-faulting earthquake: Implication for deformation of the Pacific Plate (United States)

    Obana, K.; Takahashi, T.; No, T.; Kaiho, Y.; Kodaira, S.; Yamashita, M.; Sato, T.; Noguchi, N.; Nakamura, T.


    A Mw 7.4 normal-faulting earthquake occurred 150 km east of Chichi-jima Island, Bonin Islands, Japan on December 21, 2010 (UTC). This is an earthquake occurred within the Pacific plate beneath the outer trench-slope region along the Izu-Ogasawara (Bonin) trench, where the Pacific plate subducts beneath the Philippine Sea plate. According to Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), the associated tsunami was observed over a wide area along the Pacific coast of Japan. Normal faulting earthquakes in outer trench-slope region are a result of the bending of the incoming/subducting oceanic plates. The bending-related normal faults cutting the oceanic plate are likely associated with hydration of the oceanic plate prior to subduction [e.g., Ranero et al., 2003]. The normal faulting earthquakes can be a key to understand deformation and resulting hydration of the oceanic plate. That is also important for consideration of tsunami generation in shallow outer trench-slope region. Aftershock observation of the 2010 Bonin Islands earthquake were conducted by R/V Kairei of Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) using ocean bottom seismographs (OBSs). First OBS was deployed in the source area on December 25, 2010 and retrieved on January 7, 2011. Other 4 OBSs were deployed on January 6 and 7 and retrieved on March 11 and 12, 2011. Overall aftershocks distributed in a 130 km long area extended in a NW-SE direction although Izu-Bonin trench extends N-S direction in this area. Most of the aftershocks were located at depths shallower than 30 km, corresponding to the oceanic crust and the uppermost mantle of the Pacific plate. The aftershocks show a complicated distribution. In the central part of the aftershock area, aftershocks formed three subparallel lines with roughly 15 km intervals oriented NW-SE direction. In the southeastern part of the aftershock area away from the trench, the aftershocks distributed along ESE-WNW direction. We estimated aftershock

  9. Plate Boundary Observatory Infrastructure and Data Products in Education and Outreach (United States)

    Eriksson, S. C.; Barbour, K.; Lee, E.


    As one of three major components of NSF's EarthScope program, the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) encourages the integration of research and education. Informing various communities about the current work of PBO and the scientific discoveries related to the use of this instrumentation has contributed to the success of PBO during the first two years of the EarthScope project. UNAVCO(PBO), IRIS (USArray), and the EarthScope project office work together to integrate Education and Outreach (E&O) opportunities into a program that is greater than the sum of its parts and yet maintains the identity of each organization. Building and maintaining the PBO website, documenting and archiving activities of PBO, providing short courses for professional development of scientists using EarthScope data, and developing higher level data products with an appropriate educational framework are a few of the activities that provide both challenges and opportunities. The internet, particularly the World Wide Web, has become the primary tool for disseminating information to various audiences. The primary goals of the PBO website are to provide current information on the progress of GPS and Strainmeter facility construction; to provide access to different levels of data products; and to facilitate networking with and among scientists. Challenges for the PBO website include publishing current stories on installation projects while coordinating with field engineers on a regular basis; providing near to real time updates and maintaining quality assurance processes; and defining personnel requirements for a maintaining a dynamic website. Currently, archived photographs, web diaries, and numerous web highlights document PBO's success and provide a visual record of PBO's accomplishments and behind-the-scene activities over the last two years. The community charged PBO with increasing the number of scientists using its data. UNAVCO does this by providing short courses for professional development

  10. EarthScope: Cyberinfrastructure to access Plate Boundary Observatory data products and services (United States)

    Meertens, C. M.; Mattioli, G. S.; Miller, M.; Boler, F. M.; Crosby, C. J.; Mencin, D.; Phillips, D. A.; Snett, L.


    The wealth of data from geodetic observing systems, especially the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), presents major data management challenges. The challenges are driven by ingenious new uses of Global Positioning System (GPS) data, demands for higher-rate, lower latency data, the need for continued access and long term preservation of archival data, the expansion of data users into other science, engineering and commercial arenas, and the growth of enhanced products that expand the utility of the data. To meet these challenges, UNAVCO has established a comprehensive suite of data services encompassing sensor network data operations, data product generation (through the activities of partners at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Central Washington University, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, and the University of California, San Diego - UCSD), data management, access and archiving, and advanced cyberinfrastructure. PBO sensor systems include 1,100 continuously operating GPS stations, 79 borehole geophysical sites (with a combination of strainmeters, tiltmeters, seismometers, pore pressure gauges, and meteorological sensors), and 6 long baseline strainmeters. Imaging data acquired for EarthScope include large volumes of satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and airborne LiDAR data. Core data products such as daily GPS position time series and derived crustal motion velocities have been augmented with real-time data streams and positions calculated every second from 367 PBO stations. Higher rate (5 Hz) data files are available for applications such as GPS seismology. Efforts are underway with UCSD to integrate GPS and accelerometers at a subset of PBO sites to increase the reliability and capability of the observations. These observations have utility for research and hazards mitigation. Ingenious methods of GPS data analysis, developed by the University of Colorado and the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, measure snow depth

  11. What can we Learn From Small Non-Recoverable Strains at Plate Boundaries? (United States)

    Lewis, J. C.; Pluhar, C. J.


    Background seismicity carries often overlooked information about how the crust responds to plate motions. Integrating focal mechanisms for background seismicity with (1) geologic observations, and (2) geodetic constraints, is critical to establishing a better understanding of both the rock record and contemporary deformation. Treating the crust as a micropolar continuum it is possible to constrain not only the orientations and relative magnitudes of the principal strains but also the vorticity of crustal blocks with respect to the large-scale continuum. We show the utility of this approach with examples from the Cascadia margin and the Coso Range (within the Eastern California shear zone). In the upper crust of the Cascadia margin, seismogenic strain appears to be dominated by accommodation of motion of the Oregon forearc block. This suggests that the shallow crust is responding to long-term motion of the Oregon forearc rather than the interseismic locking of the subduction megathrust. In the area west of Mt. Rainier, this response is marked by non-zero relative vorticity in a regime of N-S shortening and crustal thickening. To date, geologic studies necessary to evaluate the significance of this vorticity have not been completed. In contrast within the Coso Range of California, seismogenic strain at Wild Horse Mesa indicates a component of relative vorticity that is broadly consistent with paleomagnetically constrained finite rotations of the ca. 3 Ma lava flows that compose the mesa. This area is centered at a right-releasing step in the Eastern California shear zone and thus is experiencing active transtension. Stratigraphic constraints have been used to suggest that significant dextral shearing in this region initiated ca. 3.5-2 Ma. The seismogenic response to transtension is depth-dependent plane strain with crustal thinning above 5 km and horizontal dextral shearing from 5-8 km. Both structural levels indicate subhorizontal E-W maximum stretching. Relative

  12. Secular and annual hydrologic effects from the Plate Boundary Observatory GPS network (United States)

    Meertens, C. M.; Wahr, J. M.; Borsa, A. A.; Jackson, M. E.; Herring, T.


    The Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) GPS network is providing accurate and spatially coherent vertical signals that can be interpreted in terms of hydrological loading and poroelastic effects from both natural and anthropogenic changes in water storage. Data used for this analysis are the precise coordinate time series produced on a daily basis by PBO Analysis Centers at New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology and at Central Washington University and combined by the Analysis Center Coordinator at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. These products, as well as derived velocity solutions, are made freely available from the UNAVCO Data Center in Boulder. Analysis of secular trends and annual variations in the time series was made using the analysis software of Langbein, 2008. Spatial variations in the amplitude and phase of the annual vertical component of motion allow for identification of anthropogenic effects due to water pumping, irrigation, and reservoir lake variations, and of outliers due to instrumental or other local site effects. Vertical annual signals of 8-10 mm peak-to-peak amplitude are evident at stations in the mountains of northern and central California and the Pacific Northwest. The peak annual uplift is in October and is correlated to hydrological loading effects. Mountainous areas appear to be responding elastically to the load of the water contained in surface soil, fractures, and snow. Vertical signals are highest when the water load is at a minimum. The vertical elastic hydrologic loading signal was modeled using the 0.25 degree community NOAH land-surface model (LSM) and generally fits the observed GPS signal. Addition comparisons will be made using the Mosaic LSM and the NOAA “Leaky Bucket” hydrologic model. In contrast to mountain stations that are installed principally in bedrock, stations in the valleys of California are installed in sediments. Observations from these stations show greater spatial variability ranging from

  13. EarthScope's Plate Boundary Observatory as the Mother of Invention (Invited) (United States)

    Blewitt, G.; Hammond, W. C.; Kreemer, C.


    The Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) component of EarthScope includes a network of over 1,100 permanent, continuously operating GPS stations. After 5 years of site selection, permitting, and construction, the network was completed in 2008. Having such an unprecedented number of high quality stations in western North America has enabled us to image geology in action, as it happens, such as contemporary uplift of the Sierra Nevada, and block rotation in the Walker Lane. Yet, when PBO was in its planning stages, questions were raised as to whether GPS analysis could keep up with the flood of data, while producing results with the highest achievable accuracy. The general consensus was that the challenge would be met by a combination of innovative data processing methods together with the inevitable progress in computer speed and capacity. Various innovations made by the geodetic community over the last decade have enabled massive operational processing of GPS data with high accuracy. For example, now in 2013, the Nevada Geodetic Laboratory operationally produces position time series and quality assurance data from all ~7,000 GPS geodetic stations in the world that make data publicly available. Of these stations, 4,000 have daily time series updated the next day, and 2,000 have 5-minute time series updated within 1-2 hours of real time. The RMS precision of daily positions for well-sited stations are at the level of 1-2 mm horizontal, and 3-6 mm vertical in the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). For 5-minute positions, the precision is at the level of 6-12 mm horizontal, and 15-30 mm vertical. Here we review some of the innovations that have made all of this possible, which were in part driven by challenges presented by EarthScope. First of all, at the data processing level, much creative effort went into making computer processing time scale linearly with the number of GPS stations. The Precise Point Positioning (PPP) technique invented in 1997 has been

  14. The reliability of the improved eN method for the transition prediction of boundary layers on a flat plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU CaiHong


    The transition criterion in the improved eN method is that transition would occur whenever the velocity amplitude of disturbance reaches 1%-2% of the free stream velocity,while in the conventional eN method,the N factor is an empirical factor.In this paper the reliability of this key assumption in the improved eN method is checked by results of transition prediction by using the Parabolized Stability Equations (PSE).Transition locations of an incompressible boundary layer and a hypersonic boundary layer at Mach number 6 on a flat plate are predicted by both the improved eN method and the PSE method.Results from both methods agree fairly well with each other,implying that the transition criterion proposed in the improved eN method is reliable.

  15. PLATE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kling, Joyce; Hjulmand, Lise-Lotte


    ’s level of English is sufficient for the increasing number of courses offered in English each semester. This paper addresses these concerns and describes a pilot project initiated in 2003 at CBS to gauge the overall English language proficiency of those teaching content courses in English. Through......Copenhagen Business School (CBS) finds itself needing to address the issue of English-medium instruction for its increasing number of foreign exchange and full degree students. With internationalisation as a main pillar of the institution’s agenda, there are concerns whether the teaching faculty...... the Project in Language Assessment for Teaching in English (PLATE) language professionals from CBS’s Language Center observe teachers and provide feedback using evaluation criteria from the Common European Framework for Reference (CEFR) supplemented by some additional criteria which take the LSP nature...

  16. PLATE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kling, Joyce; Hjulmand, Lise-Lotte


    Copenhagen Business School (CBS) finds itself needing to address the issue of English-medium instruction for its increasing number of foreign exchange and full degree students. With internationalisation as a main pillar of the institution’s agenda, there are concerns whether the teaching faculty......’s level of English is sufficient for the increasing number of courses offered in English each semester. This paper addresses these concerns and describes a pilot project initiated in 2003 at CBS to gauge the overall English language proficiency of those teaching content courses in English. Through...... the Project in Language Assessment for Teaching in English (PLATE) language professionals from CBS’s Language Center observe teachers and provide feedback using evaluation criteria from the Common European Framework for Reference (CEFR) supplemented by some additional criteria which take the LSP nature...

  17. DSMC simulations of leading edge flat-plate boundary layer flows at high Mach number (United States)

    Pradhan, Sahadev, , Dr.


    The flow over a 2D leading-edge flat plate is studied at Mach number Ma = (Uinf /√{kBTinf / m }) in the range Boltzmann constant. The variation of streamwise velocity, temperature, number-density, and mean free path along the wall normal direction away from the plate surface is studied. The qualitative nature of the streamwise velocity at high Mach number is similar to those in the incompressible limit (parabolic profile). However, there are important differences. The amplitudes of the streamwise velocity increase as the Mach number increases and turned into a more flatter profile near the wall. There is significant velocity and temperature slip at the surface of the plate, and the slip increases as the Mach number is increased. It is interesting to note that for the highest Mach numbers considered here, the streamwise velocity at the wall exceeds the sound speed, and the flow is supersonic throughout the flow domain.

  18. Influence of conducting plate boundary conditions on the transverse envelope equations describing intense ion beam transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M. Lund


    Full Text Available In typical diagnostic applications, intense ion beams are intercepted by a conducting plate associated with devices used to measure beam phase-space projections. This results in the transverse space-charge field near the plate being shorted out, rendering simple envelope models with constant space-charge strength inaccurate. Here we develop corrected envelope models based on analytical calculations to account for this effect on the space-charge term of the envelope equations, thereby removing a systematic source of error in the equations and enabling more accurate comparisons with experiment. For common intense beam parameters, we find that the envelope correction occurs primarily in the envelope angles near the plate and that the effect can be large enough to degrade precision beam matching in periodic transport lattices. Results are verified with 3D self-consistent particle-in-cell simulations based on intense beam experiments associated with driver development for heavy-ion fusion.

  19. Non-Similar Computational Solution for Boundary Layer Flows of Non-Newtonian Fluid from an Inclined Plate with Thermal Slip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The laminar boundary layer flow and heat transfer of Casson non-Newtonian fluid from an inclined (solar collector plate in the presence of thermal and hydrodynamic slip conditions is analysed. The inclined plate surface is maintained at a constant temperature. The boundary layer conservation equations, which are parabolic in nature, are normalized into non-similar form and then solved numerically with the well-tested, efficient, implicit, stable Keller-box finite-difference scheme. Increasing velocity slip induces acceleration in the flow near the inclined plate surface. Increasing velocity slip consistently enhances temperatures throughout the boundary layer regime. An increase in thermal slip parameter strongly decelerates the flow and also reduces temperatures in the boundary layer regime. An increase in Casson rheological parameter acts to elevate considerably the velocity and this effect is pronounced at higher values of tangential coordinate. Temperatures are however very slightly decreased with increasing values of Casson rheological parameter.

  20. Earthquake prediction from China's mobile gravity data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiqing Zhu


    Full Text Available The relation between plate tectonics and earthquake evolution is analyzed systematically on the basis of 1998–2010 absolute and relative gravity data from the Crustal Movement Observation Network of China. Most earthquakes originated in the plate boundary or within the fault zone. Tectonic deformation was most intense and exhibited discontinuity within the tectonically active fault zone because of the differential movement; the stress accumulation produced an abrupt gravity change, which was further enhanced by the earthquake. The gravity data from mainland China since 2000 obviously reflected five major earthquakes (Ms > 7, all of which were better reflected than before 2000. Regional gravity anomalies and a gravity gradient change were observed in the area around the epicenter about 2 or 3 years before the earthquake occurred, suggesting that gravity change may be a seismic precursor. Furthermore, in this study, the medium-term predictions of the Ms7.3 Yutian, Ms8.0 Wenchuan, and Ms7.0 Lushan earthquakes are analytically presented and evaluated, especially to estimate location of earthquake.

  1. Analytical Solution of Forced-Convective Boundary-Layer Flow over a Flat Plate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirgolbabaei, H.; Barari, Amin; Ibsen, Lars Bo


    In this letter, the problem of forced convection heat transfer over a horizontal flat plate is investigated by employing the Adomian Decomposition Method (ADM). The series solution of the nonlinear differential equations governing on the problem is developed. Comparison between results obtained...

  2. Analytical Solution of Forced-Convective Boundary-Layer Flow over a Flat Plate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirgolbabaei, H.; Barari, Amin; Ibsen, Lars Bo;


    In this letter, the problem of forced convection heat transfer over a horizontal flat plate is investigated by employing the Adomian Decomposition Method (ADM). The series solution of the nonlinear differential equations governing on the problem is developed. Comparison between results obtained...

  3. The Plate Boundary Observatory Cascadia Network: Development and Installation of a Large Scale Real-time GPS Network (United States)

    Austin, K. E.; Blume, F.; Berglund, H. T.; Feaux, K.; Gallaher, W. W.; Hodgkinson, K. M.; Mattioli, G. S.; Mencin, D.


    The EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), through a NSF-ARRA supplement, has enhanced the geophysical infrastructure in in the Pacific Northwest by upgrading a total of 282 Plate Boundary Observatory GPS stations to allow the collection and distribution of high-rate (1 Hz), low-latency (BGAN satellite communications systems has been conducted to support the Cascadia RT-GPS upgrades and the installation of three BGAN satellite fail over systems along the Cascadia margin will allow for the continuation of data flow in the event of a loss of primary communications during in a large geophysical event or other interruptions in commercial cellular networks. In summary, with these additional upgrades in the Cascadia region, the PBO RT-GPS network will increase to 420 stations. Upgrades to the UNAVCO data infrastructure included evaluation and purchase of the Trimble Pivot Platform, servers, and additional hardware for archiving the high rate data, as well as testing and implementation of GLONASS and Trimble RTX positioning on the receivers. UNAVCO staff is working closely with the UNAVCO community to develop data standards, protocols, and a science plan for the use of RT-GPS data.

  4. New Evidences for Preserved Segmentation of the Alpine-Tethyan Domain in the Iberia-Africa Plate Boundary Region (United States)

    Fernandez, M.; Torne, M.; Verges, J.; Buffett, G. G.


    Based on gravity analysis and previous integrated studies combining potential fields and seismic data, we demonstrate that the Iberia-Africa plate boundary region is characterized by several tectonically inverted transtensional domains inherited from the Jurassic. Gravity data, when filtered for short wavelengths, show conspicuous positive Bouguer anomalies associated with the Gorringe Bank, the Guadalquivir Bank and the Ronda/Beni-Bousera peridotitic massifs. Gravity modelling combined with seismic and geological data shows that the filtered Bouguer anomalies are compatible with relatively high-density and shallow-buried bodies, which correspond to partly serpentinized peridotitic slices with similar densities and geometries as those proved for the Gorringe Bank. The study indicates that the Alpine convergence between Africa and Iberia since Late Cretaceous times reactivated these transtensional domains, which were less deformed westwards and thus preserved their segmentation. The interpretation of these Bouguer anomalies and their distribution substantiates the double-polarity subduction model proposed for the region, and agrees with the present-day seismically diffuse character of the Iberia-Africa plate boundary.

  5. Crustal deformation evidences for viscous coupling and fragmented lithosphere at the Nubia-Iberia plate boundary (Western Mediterranean) (United States)

    Palano, Mimmo; González, Pablo J.; Fernández, José


    A spatially dense crustal velocity field, based on up to 15 years of GNSS observations at more than 380 sites and extensively covering the Iberian Peninsula and Northern Africa, allow us to provide new insights into two main tectonic processes currently occurring in this area. We detected a slow large-scale clockwise rotation of the Iberian Peninsula with respect to a local pole located closely to the northwestern sector of the Pyrenean mountain range (Palano et al., 2015). Although this crustal deformation pattern could suggest a rigid rotating lithosphere block, this model would predict significant shortening along the Western (off-shore Lisbon) and North Iberian margin which cannot totally ruled out but currently is not clearly observed. Conversely, we favour the interpretation that this pattern reflects the quasi-continuous straining of the ductile lithosphere in some sectors of South and Western Iberia in response to viscous coupling of the NW Nubia and Iberian plate boundary in the Gulf of Cádiz. Furthermore, the western Mediterranean basin appears fragmented into independent crustal tectonic blocks, which delimited by inherited lithospheric shear structures and trapped within the Nubia-Eurasia collision, are currently accommodating most of the plate convergence rate. Among these blocks, an (oceanic-like western) Algerian one is currently transferring a significant fraction of the Nubia-Eurasia convergence rate into the Eastern Betics (SE Iberia) and likely causing the eastward motion of the Baleares Promontory. Most of the observed crustal ground deformation can be attributed to processes driven by spatially variable lithospheric plate forces imposed along the Nubia-Eurasia convergence boundary. Nevertheless, the observed deformation field infers a very low convergence rates as observed also at the eastern side of the western Mediterranean, along the Calabro Peloritan Arc, by space geodesy (e.g. Palano, 2015). References Palano M. (2015). On the present

  6. Clustered and transient earthquake sequences in mid-continents (United States)

    Liu, M.; Stein, S. A.; Wang, H.; Luo, G.


    Earthquakes result from sudden release of strain energy on faults. On plate boundary faults, strain energy is constantly accumulating from steady and relatively rapid relative plate motion, so large earthquakes continue to occur so long as motion continues on the boundary. In contrast, such steady accumulation of stain energy does not occur on faults in mid-continents, because the far-field tectonic loading is not steadily distributed between faults, and because stress perturbations from complex fault interactions and other stress triggers can be significant relative to the slow tectonic stressing. Consequently, mid-continental earthquakes are often temporally clustered and transient, and spatially migrating. This behavior is well illustrated by large earthquakes in North China in the past two millennia, during which no single large earthquakes repeated on the same fault segments, but moment release between large fault systems was complementary. Slow tectonic loading in mid-continents also causes long aftershock sequences. We show that the recent small earthquakes in the Tangshan region of North China are aftershocks of the 1976 Tangshan earthquake (M 7.5), rather than indicators of a new phase of seismic activity in North China, as many fear. Understanding the transient behavior of mid-continental earthquakes has important implications for assessing earthquake hazards. The sequence of large earthquakes in the New Madrid Seismic Zone (NMSZ) in central US, which includes a cluster of M~7 events in 1811-1812 and perhaps a few similar ones in the past millennium, is likely a transient process, releasing previously accumulated elastic strain on recently activated faults. If so, this earthquake sequence will eventually end. Using simple analysis and numerical modeling, we show that the large NMSZ earthquakes may be ending now or in the near future.

  7. Are Earthquake Clusters/Supercycles Real or Random? (United States)

    Salditch, L.; Brooks, E. M.; Stein, S.; Spencer, B. D.


    Long records of earthquakes at plate boundaries such as the San Andreas or Cascadia often show that large earthquakes occur in temporal clusters, also termed supercycles, separated by less active intervals. These are intriguing because the boundary is presumably being loaded by steady plate motion. If so, earthquakes resulting from seismic cycles - in which their probability is small shortly after the past one, and then increases with time - should occur quasi-periodically rather than be more frequent in some intervals than others. We are exploring this issue with two approaches. One is to assess whether the clusters result purely by chance from a time-independent process that has no "memory." Thus a future earthquake is equally likely immediately after the past one and much later, so earthquakes can cluster in time. We analyze the agreement between such a model and inter-event times for Parkfield, Pallet Creek, and other records. A useful tool is transformation by the inverse cumulative distribution function, so the inter-event times have a uniform distribution when the memorylessness property holds. The second is via a time-variable model in which earthquake probability increases with time between earthquakes and decreases after an earthquake. The probability of an event increases with time until one happens, after which it decreases, but not to zero. Hence after a long period of quiescence, the probability of an earthquake can remain higher than the long-term average for several cycles. Thus the probability of another earthquake is path dependent, i.e. depends on the prior earthquake history over multiple cycles. Time histories resulting from simulations give clusters with properties similar to those observed. The sequences of earthquakes result from both the model parameters and chance, so two runs with the same parameters look different. The model parameters control the average time between events and the variation of the actual times around this average, so

  8. Plate Boundary Observatory East Region Update and Status: Supporting New Science Through Enhanced Telemetry, Monument Evaluation, and Continued Operations and Maintenance (United States)

    Dittmann, S. T.


    The EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) - East Region consists of 280 continuously operating GPS sites in a region that extends from the western border of California to the East Coast of the U.S. We present a number of highlights from the operations and maintenance (O&M) of the network in FY2012. One goal for 2012 was to replace poorly performing stations and another was to fill in some of the gaps in the eastern region of PBO. Accordingly, new GPS sites were installed at several locations across the mid-west, including in Wisconsin and South Dakota. CAYU, a GPS station at Cayuga College, New York also was incorporated into the PBO data flow to replace the poorly performing PBO station, LOZ1. UNAVCO now manages over 20 PBO GPS stations east of the Rocky Mountains, including 2 GPS stations installed in November 2011 as part of an NSF-funded RAPID project to the study of the post-rupture crustal relaxation resulting from the M5.8 Mineral, VA earthquake. PBO engineers also are constructing two additional monuments at five existing PBO sites to compare the performance of different monument types in different geological and tectonic settings. In addition, PBO engineers are upgrading GPS stations in Colorado and New Mexico, which comprise the semi-permanent Rio Grande Rift GPS network, and which have been downloaded manually for over 6 years, to cellular data communications. Lastly, engineers from the PBO-East region continued to support special projects from EarthScope-funded PIs, including Dr. Kristine Larson, who is advancing the use of GPS multipath observations to estimate snow depth (PBO H20) and vegetation growth. In summary, the PBO East Region sub-network state of health remained consistently above 97% throughout 2012, a testament to network hardening completed during the last three years of PBO O&M.

  9. 2010 Chile Earthquake Aftershock Response (United States)

    Barientos, Sergio


    The Mw=8.8 earthquake off the coast of Chile on 27 February 2010 is the 5th largest megathrust earthquake ever to be recorded and provides an unprecedented opportunity to advance our understanding of megathrust earthquakes and associated phenomena. The 2010 Chile earthquake ruptured the Concepcion-Constitucion segment of the Nazca/South America plate boundary, south of the Central Chile region and triggered a tsunami along the coast. Following the 2010 earthquake, a very energetic aftershock sequence is being observed in an area that is 600 km along strike from Valparaiso to 150 km south of Concepcion. Within the first three weeks there were over 260 aftershocks with magnitude 5.0 or greater and 18 with magnitude 6.0 or greater (NEIC, USGS). The Concepcion-Constitucion segment lies immediately north of the rupture zone associated with the great magnitude 9.5 Chile earthquake, and south of the 1906 and the 1985 Valparaiso earthquakes. The last great subduction earthquake in the region dates back to the February 1835 event described by Darwin (1871). Since 1835, part of the region was affected in the north by the Talca earthquake in December 1928, interpreted as a shallow dipping thrust event, and by the Chillan earthquake (Mw 7.9, January 1939), a slab-pull intermediate depth earthquake. For the last 30 years, geodetic studies in this area were consistent with a fully coupled elastic loading of the subduction interface at depth; this led to identify the area as a mature seismic gap with potential for an earthquake of magnitude of the order 8.5 or several earthquakes of lesser magnitude. What was less expected was the partial rupturing of the 1985 segment toward north. Today, the 2010 earthquake raises some disturbing questions: Why and how the rupture terminated where it did at the northern end? How did the 2010 earthquake load the adjacent segment to the north and did the 1985 earthquake only partially ruptured the plate interface leaving loaded asperities since

  10. Experiments of dike-induced deformation: Insights on the long-term evolution of divergent plate boundaries

    KAUST Repository

    Trippanera, D.


    The shallow transport of magma occurs through dikes causing surface deformation. Our understanding of the effects of diking at the surface is limited, especially on the long term, for repeated intrusive episodes. We use analogue models to study the upper crustal deformation induced by dikes. We insert metal plates within cohesive sand with three setups: in setup A, the intrusion rises upward with constant thickness and in setups B and C, the intrusion thickens at a fixed depth, with final rectangular (setup B) or triangular (setup C) shape in section. Setup A creates a doming delimited by reverse faults, with secondary apical graben, without close correspondence in nature. In setups B and C, a depression flanked by two uplifted areas is bordered by inward dipping normal faults propagating downward and, for deeper intrusions in setup B, also by inner faults, reverse at the surface; this deformation is similar to what is observed in nature, suggesting a consistent physical behavior. Dikes in nature initially propagate developing a mode I fracture at the tip, subsequently thickened by magma intrusion, without any host rock translation in the propagation direction (as in setup A). The deformation pattern in setups B and C depends on the intrusion depth and thickness, consistently to what is observed along divergent plate boundaries. The early deformation in setups B and C is similar to that from a single rifting episode (i.e., Lakagigar, Iceland, and Dabbahu, Afar), whereas the late stages resemble the structure of mature rifts (i.e., Krafla, Iceland), confirming diking as a major process in shaping divergent plate boundaries.

  11. Boundary integral equation methods in eigenvalue problems of elastodynamics and thin plates

    CERN Document Server

    Kitahara, M


    The boundary integral equation (BIE) method has been used more and more in the last 20 years for solving various engineering problems. It has important advantages over other techniques for numerical treatment of a wide class of boundary value problems and is now regarded as an indispensable tool for potential problems, electromagnetism problems, heat transfer, fluid flow, elastostatics, stress concentration and fracture problems, geomechanical problems, and steady-state and transient electrodynamics.In this book, the author gives a complete, thorough and detailed survey of the method. It pro

  12. Evidence for Ancient Mesoamerican Earthquakes (United States)

    Kovach, R. L.; Garcia, B.


    Evidence for past earthquake damage at Mesoamerican ruins is often overlooked because of the invasive effects of tropical vegetation and is usually not considered as a casual factor when restoration and reconstruction of many archaeological sites are undertaken. Yet the proximity of many ruins to zones of seismic activity would argue otherwise. Clues as to the types of damage which should be soughtwere offered in September 1999 when the M = 7.5 Oaxaca earthquake struck the ruins of Monte Alban, Mexico, where archaeological renovations were underway. More than 20 structures were damaged, 5 of them seriously. Damage features noted were walls out of plumb, fractures in walls, floors, basal platforms and tableros, toppling of columns, and deformation, settling and tumbling of walls. A Modified Mercalli Intensity of VII (ground accelerations 18-34 %b) occurred at the site. Within the diffuse landward extension of the Caribbean plate boundary zone M = 7+ earthquakes occur with repeat times of hundreds of years arguing that many Maya sites were subjected to earthquakes. Damage to re-erected and reinforced stelae, walls, and buildings were witnessed at Quirigua, Guatemala, during an expedition underway when then 1976 M = 7.5 Guatemala earthquake on the Motagua fault struck. Excavations also revealed evidence (domestic pttery vessels and skeleton of a child crushed under fallen walls) of an ancient earthquake occurring about the teim of the demise and abandonment of Quirigua in the late 9th century. Striking evidence for sudden earthquake building collapse at the end of the Mayan Classic Period ~A.D. 889 was found at Benque Viejo (Xunantunich), Belize, located 210 north of Quirigua. It is argued that a M = 7.5 to 7.9 earthquake at the end of the Maya Classic period centered in the vicinity of the Chixoy-Polochic and Motagua fault zones cound have produced the contemporaneous earthquake damage to the above sites. As a consequences this earthquake may have accelerated the

  13. Defeating Earthquakes (United States)

    Stein, R. S.


    The 2004 M=9.2 Sumatra earthquake claimed what seemed an unfathomable 228,000 lives, although because of its size, we could at least assure ourselves that it was an extremely rare event. But in the short space of 8 years, the Sumatra quake no longer looks like an anomaly, and it is no longer even the worst disaster of the Century: 80,000 deaths in the 2005 M=7.6 Pakistan quake; 88,000 deaths in the 2008 M=7.9 Wenchuan, China quake; 316,000 deaths in the M=7.0 Haiti, quake. In each case, poor design and construction were unable to withstand the ferocity of the shaken earth. And this was compounded by inadequate rescue, medical care, and shelter. How could the toll continue to mount despite the advances in our understanding of quake risk? The world's population is flowing into megacities, and many of these migration magnets lie astride the plate boundaries. Caught between these opposing demographic and seismic forces are 50 cities of at least 3 million people threatened by large earthquakes, the targets of chance. What we know for certain is that no one will take protective measures unless they are convinced they are at risk. Furnishing that knowledge is the animating principle of the Global Earthquake Model, launched in 2009. At the very least, everyone should be able to learn what his or her risk is. At the very least, our community owes the world an estimate of that risk. So, first and foremost, GEM seeks to raise quake risk awareness. We have no illusions that maps or models raise awareness; instead, earthquakes do. But when a quake strikes, people need a credible place to go to answer the question, how vulnerable am I, and what can I do about it? The Global Earthquake Model is being built with GEM's new open source engine, OpenQuake. GEM is also assembling the global data sets without which we will never improve our understanding of where, how large, and how frequently earthquakes will strike, what impacts they will have, and how those impacts can be lessened by

  14. On the Estimation of Spanwise Pressure Coherence of a Turbulent Boundary Layer over a Flat Plate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Velden, W.C.P.; Van Zuijlen, A.H.; De Jong, A.T.; Bijl, H.


    A Large Eddy Simulation (LES) with four different closure models are analyzed in OpenFOAM, an open source Computional Fluid Dynamics (CFD) package and validated for the determination of the streamwise and spanwise coherence length of the pressure field below a turbulent boundary layer at low

  15. Relationships among temperature, dehydration of the subducting Philippine Sea plate, and the occurrence of a megathrust earthquake, low-frequency earthquakes, and a slow slip event in the Tokai district, central Japan (United States)

    Suenaga, Nobuaki; Yoshioka, Shoichi; Matsumoto, Takumi


    In this study, we performed two-dimensional numerical simulations of temperature distribution associated with subduction of the Philippine Sea (PHS) plate, and estimated the dehydration process of hydrous mid-ocean-ridge basalt (MORB) in the oceanic crust in the Tokai district, central Japan. We discuss the relationship among temperature, dehydration, and a seismogenic zone of an expected megathrust Tokai earthquake, and the occurrence of a slow slip event (SSE) and deep low-frequency earthquakes (LFEs). The depth range of the seismogenic zone for the megathrust earthquake was estimated to be 8-22 km, narrowing toward the east. The most suitable value of the pore pressure ratio on the plate interface was estimated to be 0.97, indicating minimal frictional heating there. The temperatures of the upper surface of the PHS plate, where the Tokai SSE occurred from 2000 to 2005, were estimated to be 350-450 °C. Therefore, the Tokai SSE is considered to have occurred at the transition zone between unstable and stable sliding. In addition, hydrous MORB was transformed from blueschist into greenschist near the region where the Tokai SSE occurred. The temperatures of the upper surface of the PHS plate, where LFEs occur, were estimated to be 450-500 °C. Therefore, LFEs are considered to occur near the down-dip limit of the transition zone. The amount of dehydration from the oceanic crust of the subducting PHS plate near the region where LFEs are distributed in a belt-like form decreases toward the east with deepening of the hypocenters of the LFEs. Thus, the mechanisms of generation of LFEs in the Tokai district might differ from those in southwest and central Japan where LFEs generally occur at depths between 27 and 35 km. In summary, we consider that the occurrence of LFEs is related to both temperature conditions and dehydration process. However, there is an exceptional area in the eastern part of the Tokai district where the occurrence of LFEs is restricted by

  16. Turbulent Friction in the Boundary Layer of a Flat Plate in a Two-Dimensional Compressible Flow at High Speeds (United States)

    Frankl, F.; Voishel, V.


    In the present report an investigation is made on a flat plate in a two-dimensional compressible flow of the effect of compressibility and heating on the turbulent frictional drag coefficient in the boundary layer of an airfoil or wing radiator. The analysis is based on the Prandtl-Karman theory of the turbulent boundary later and the Stodola-Crocco, theorem on the linear relation between the total energy of the flow and its velocity. Formulas are obtained for the velocity distribution and the frictional drag law in a turbulent boundary later with the compressibility effect and heat transfer taken into account. It is found that with increase of compressibility and temperature at full retardation of the flow (the temperature when the velocity of the flow at a given point is reduced to zero in case of an adiabatic process in the gas) at a constant R (sub x), the frictional drag coefficient C (sub f) decreased, both of these factors acting in the same sense.

  17. Water Release from Cold Serpentinized Forearc Mantle During Subduction Associated with Changes in Incoming Oceanic Plate Thermal Structure and Plate Boundary Kinematics: New Insights (United States)

    Kirby, S. H.


    Kirby, Wang, and Brocher (Earth Planets and Space, 2014) recently showed how the change in kinematics of the California margin from subduction motion to continental transform motion with the birth and growth of the San Andreas Fault System (SAFS) beginning at about 33 Ma BP likely led to a warming of the former forearc mantle and the release of water by serpentinite dehydration. Such discharges from serpentinized mantle increase fluid pressures along the SAFS under the Coast Ranges and this gives insights into both the low sliding resistance for the SAFS and the mobilization and ascent of some serpentinized mantle peridotites through the crust. Thermal modeling by others has also shown that changes in the incoming plate age and subduction rate can also lead to warming of the forearc mantle during subduction. This development gives insights into the Mesozoic and Paleogene ages of emplacement of some, but not all, California serpentinites. Recent mineralogical and geochemical observations of serpentinized blocks in serpentinize mélange bodies in the San Francisco Bay Area (Uno and Kirby, 2015; Lewis and Kirby, 2015, this session) suggest that these rocks sustained multiple stages of serpentinization that are broadly consistent with the model of Kirby et al. (2014). Previous studies of localized late-stage silica-carbonate-water alteration of serpentinite bodies in California by carbonated water suggest that this alteration occurred largely in Neogene time when the highest rate of water release from the former forearc mantle probably happened. I also suggest that the occurrence of serpentinite belts emplaced in Cenozoic time during changing plate-boundary kinematics, such as the Cenozoic closing of the Tethys Ocean bordering Eurasia and arc reversal and decreasing convergence rates under the Greater Antilles, may give insights into the serpentinite belts in those regions.

  18. Hypersonic Laminar Boundary Layer Velocimetry with Discrete Roughness on a Flat Plate (United States)

    Bathel, Brett; Danehy, Paul M.; Inman, Jennifer A.; Watkins, A. Neal; Jones, Stephen B.; Lipford, William E.; Goodman, Kyle Z.; Ivey, Christopher B.; Goyne, Christopher P.


    Laminar boundary layer velocity measurements are made on a 10-degree half-angle wedge in a Mach 10 flow. Two types of discrete boundary layer trips were used to perturb the boundary layer gas. The first was a 2-mm tall, 4-mm diameter cylindrical trip. The second was a scaled version of the Orbiter Boundary Layer Transition (BLT) Detailed Test Objective (DTO) trip. Both 1-mm and 2.5-mm tall BLT DTO trips were tested. Additionally, side-view and plan-view axial boundary layer velocity measurements were made in the absence of these tripping devices. The free-stream unit Reynolds numbers tested for the cylindrical trips were 1.7x10(exp 6)/m and 3.3x10(exp 6)/m. The free-stream unit Reynolds number tested for the BLT DTO trips was 1.7x10(exp 6)/m. The angle of attack was kept at approximately 5-degrees for most of the tests resulting in a Mach number of approximately 8.3. These combinations of unit Reynolds numbers and angle of attack resulted in laminar flowfields. To study the precision of the measurement technique, the angle of attack was varied during one run. Nitric-oxide (NO) molecular tagging velocimetry (MTV) was used to obtain averaged axial velocity values and associated uncertainties. These uncertainties are as low as 20 m/s. An interline, progressive scan CCD camera was used to obtain separate images of the initial reference and shifted NO molecules that had been tagged by the laser. The CCD configuration allowed for sub-microsecond sequential acquisition of both images. The maximum planar spatial resolution achieved for the side-view velocity measurements was 0.07-mm in the wall-normal direction by 1.45-mm in the streamwise direction with a spatial depth of 0.5-mm. For the plan-view measurements, the maximum planar spatial resolution in the spanwise and streamwise directions was 0.69-mm by 1.28-mm, respectively, with a spatial depth of 0.5-mm. Temperature sensitive paint (TSP) measurements are provided to compliment the velocity data and to provide further

  19. Seismic heating signatures in the Japan Trench subduction plate-boundary fault zone : evidence from a preliminary rock magnetic 'geothermometer'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, T.; Dekkers, M.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073463744; Zhang, Bo


    Frictional heating during earthquake rupture reveals important information on earthquake mechanisms and energy dissipation. The amount of annealing varies widely and is, as yet, poorly constrained. Here we use magnetic susceptibility versus temperature measurements during cycling to increasingly ele


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JinShuanggen; ZhuWenyao


    The circum-Pacific tectonic system that contains of convergent, divergent and transform boundaries, is the most active region of volcanoes and earthquakes in the world, and involves many important theoretical questions in geosciences. The relative motion and deformation of Pacific plate is still an active subject of research. In this note, we analyze the deformation of Pacific plate and obtain reliable results of the relative motion rates at the circum-Pacific boundaries based on space geodetic data, which reveals the present-day motion characteristics of Pacific plate.

  1. Seismic velocity structure of the Juan de Fuca and Gorda plates revealed by a joint inversion of ambient noise and regional earthquakes (United States)

    Gao, Haiying


    The crust and upper mantle seismic structure, spanning from the Juan de Fuca and Gorda spreading centers to the Cascade back arc, is imaged with full-wave propagation simulation and a joint inversion of ambient noise and regional earthquake recordings. The spreading centers have anomalously low shear wave velocity beneath the oceanic lithosphere. Around the Cobb axial seamount, we observe a low-velocity anomaly underlying a relatively thin oceanic lithosphere, indicating its influence on the Juan de Fuca ridge. The oceanic Moho is clearly defined by a P velocity increase from 6.3 km/s to 7.5 km/s at about 6 km depth beneath the seafloor. The thickness of the oceanic plates is less than 40 km prior to subduction, and the structure of the oceanic lithosphere varies both along strike and along dip. Farther landward, very low velocity anomalies are observed above the plate interface along the Cascade fore arc, indicative of subducted sediments.

  2. Hydromagnetic natural convection flow between vertical parallel plates with time-periodic boundary conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adesanya, S.O., E-mail: [Department of Mathematical Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Redeemer’s University (Nigeria); Oluwadare, E.O. [Department of Mathematical Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Redeemer’s University (Nigeria); Falade, J.A., E-mail: [Department of Physical Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Redeemer’s University (Nigeria); Makinde, O.D., E-mail: [Faculty of Military Science, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X2, Saldanha 7395 (South Africa)


    In this paper, the free convective flow of magnetohydrodynamic fluid through a channel with time periodic boundary condition is investigated by taking the effects of Joule dissipation into consideration. Based on simplifying assumptions, the coupled governing equations are reduced to a set of nonlinear boundary valued problem. Approximate solutions are obtained by using semi-analytical Adomian decomposition method. The effect of pertinent parameters on the fluid velocity, temperature distribution, Nusselt number and skin friction are presented graphically and discussed. The result of the computation shows that an increase in the magnetic field intensity has significant influence on the fluid flow. - Highlights: • The influence of magnetic field on the free convective fluid flow is considered. • The coupled equations are solved by using Adomian decomposition method. • The Adomian series solution agreed with previously obtained result. • Magnetic field decreases the velocity maximum but enhances temperature field.

  3. Isla Guadalupe, a Plate Boundary Observatory Remote GPS System: What's Next in PBO-Mexico? (United States)

    Gonzalez Garcia, J.


    As a join project between scientific and technical personnel from Southern California Integrated GPS Network, the University NAVSTAR Consortium, Nanometrics Inc, and CICESE, we installed a VSAT remote communications on Isla Guadalupe in support of data telemetry from a cluster of GPS, meteorological and seismic instrumentation. This Mexican island located between 28\\deg53' and 29\\deg 11'N and 118\\deg 13' to 118\\deg 22'W, lies too far from the main land to allow regular radio link. The station now in operation (GUAX) is near of the early GEOMEX site (GUAD), which recent GPS survey mode result show, is fully located on the Pacific plate within the prediction (1 mm/yr N and 2 mm/yr E) of both the geophysical (NNR-NUVEL1-A) and geodetic (ITRF2000) Plate Tectonic models. Thus, GUAX serve as an important clue to accurately monitor the plate's motion, as well as a reference for studies of California Borderland deformation. During the last 5 years we have built two more sites in northern Baja California: SPMX (1998) and CORX (2000); these together with the IGS station in Ensenada (CICE established in 1995 and replaced by CIC1 in 1999), became part of SCIGN-SOPAC (, In Mexico the major organizations working with GPS are INEGI (15 sites) and UNAM (different groups: 20-25 sites). Other State Universities and agencies are increasingly using permanent GPS stations for diverse purposes. It seems that in order to achieve our commitment for PBO-Mexico we must to follow the PGGA/SCIGN/CSRC waybill.

  4. Mixed convection boundary layer flow past vertical flat plate in nanofluid:case of prescribed wall heat flux

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    An analysis is carried out to investigate the steady mixed convection bound-ary layer flow of a water based nanofluid past a vertical semi-infinite flat plate. Using an appropriate similarity transformation, the governing partial differential equations are transformed into the coupled, nonlinear ordinary (similar) differential equations, which are then solved numerically for the Prandtl number Pr = 6.2. The skin friction coeffi-cient, the local Nusselt number, and the velocity and temperature profiles are presented graphically and discussed. Effects of the solid volume fractionφand the mixed convection parameterλon the fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics are thoroughly examined. Different from an assisting flow, it is found that the solutions for an opposing flow are non-unique. In order to establish which solution branch is stable and physically realizable in practice, a stability analysis is performed.

  5. Double diffusive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) mixed convective slip flow along a radiating moving vertical flat plate with convective boundary condition. (United States)

    Rashidi, Mohammad M; Kavyani, Neda; Abelman, Shirley; Uddin, Mohammed J; Freidoonimehr, Navid


    In this study combined heat and mass transfer by mixed convective flow along a moving vertical flat plate with hydrodynamic slip and thermal convective boundary condition is investigated. Using similarity variables, the governing nonlinear partial differential equations are converted into a system of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The transformed equations are then solved using a semi-numerical/analytical method called the differential transform method and results are compared with numerical results. Close agreement is found between the present method and the numerical method. Effects of the controlling parameters, including convective heat transfer, magnetic field, buoyancy ratio, hydrodynamic slip, mixed convective, Prandtl number and Schmidt number are investigated on the dimensionless velocity, temperature and concentration profiles. In addition effects of different parameters on the skin friction factor, [Formula: see text], local Nusselt number, [Formula: see text], and local Sherwood number [Formula: see text] are shown and explained through tables.

  6. Development of Streamwise Counter-Rotating Vortices in Flat Plate Boundary Layer Pre-set by Leading Edge Patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Hasheminejad, S.M.


    Development of streamwise counter-rotating vortices induced by leading edge patterns with different pattern shape is investigated using hot-wire anemometry in the boundary layer of a flat plate. A triangular, sinusoidal and notched patterns with the same pattern wavelength λ of 15mm and the same pattern amplitude A of 7.5mm were examined for free-stream velocity of 3m/s. The results show a good agreement with earlier studies. The inflection point on the velocity profile downstream of the trough of the patterns at the beginning of the vortex formation indicates that the vortices non-linearly propagate downstream. An additional vortex structure was also observed between the troughs of the notched pattern.

  7. Mixed convection boundary layer flow over a moving vertical flat plate in an external fluid flow with viscous dissipation effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norfifah Bachok

    Full Text Available The steady boundary layer flow of a viscous and incompressible fluid over a moving vertical flat plate in an external moving fluid with viscous dissipation is theoretically investigated. Using appropriate similarity variables, the governing system of partial differential equations is transformed into a system of ordinary (similarity differential equations, which is then solved numerically using a Maple software. Results for the skin friction or shear stress coefficient, local Nusselt number, velocity and temperature profiles are presented for different values of the governing parameters. It is found that the set of the similarity equations has unique solutions, dual solutions or no solutions, depending on the values of the mixed convection parameter, the velocity ratio parameter and the Eckert number. The Eckert number significantly affects the surface shear stress as well as the heat transfer rate at the surface.

  8. Double Diffusive Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Mixed Convective Slip Flow along a Radiating Moving Vertical Flat Plate with Convective Boundary Condition (United States)

    Rashidi, Mohammad M.; Kavyani, Neda; Abelman, Shirley; Uddin, Mohammed J.; Freidoonimehr, Navid


    In this study combined heat and mass transfer by mixed convective flow along a moving vertical flat plate with hydrodynamic slip and thermal convective boundary condition is investigated. Using similarity variables, the governing nonlinear partial differential equations are converted into a system of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The transformed equations are then solved using a semi-numerical/analytical method called the differential transform method and results are compared with numerical results. Close agreement is found between the present method and the numerical method. Effects of the controlling parameters, including convective heat transfer, magnetic field, buoyancy ratio, hydrodynamic slip, mixed convective, Prandtl number and Schmidt number are investigated on the dimensionless velocity, temperature and concentration profiles. In addition effects of different parameters on the skin friction factor, , local Nusselt number, , and local Sherwood number are shown and explained through tables. PMID:25343360

  9. Fracture analysis of one-dimensional hexagonal quasicrystals: Researches of a finite dimension rectangular plate by boundary collocation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiaxing, Cheng; Dongfa, Sheng [Southwest Forestry University, Yunnan (China)


    As an important supplement and development to crystallography, the applications about quasicrystal materials have played a core role in many fields, such as manufacturing and the space industry. Due to the sensitivity of quasicrystals to defects, the research on the fracture problem of quasicrystals has attracted a great deal of attention. We present a boundary collocation method to research fracture problems for a finite dimension rectangular one-dimensional hexagonal quasicrystal plate. Because mode I and mode II problems for one- dimensional hexagonal quasicrystals are like that for the classical elastic materials, only the anti-plane problem is discussed in this paper. The correctness of the present numerical method is verified through a comparison of the present results and the existing results. And then, the size effects on stress field, stress intensity factor and energy release rate are discussed in detail. The obtained results can provide valuable references for the fracture behavior of quasicrystals.

  10. Motion of the Philippine Sea plate consistent with the NUVEL-1A model (United States)

    Zang, Shao Xian; Chen, Qi Yong; Ning, Jie Yuan; Shen, Zheng Kang; Liu, Yong Gang


    We determine Euler vectors for 12 plates, including the Philippine Sea plate (PH), relative to the fixed Pacific plate (PA) by inverting the earthquake slip vectors along the boundaries of the Philippine Sea plate, GPS observed velocities, and 1122 data from the NUVEL-1 and the NUVEL-1A global plate motion model, respectively. This analysis thus also yields Euler vectors for the Philippine Sea plate relative to adjacent plates. Our results are consistent with observed data and can satisfy the geological and geophysical constraints along the Caroline (CR)-PH and PA-CR boundaries. The results also give insight into internal deformation of the Philippine Sea plate. The area enclosed by the Ryukyu Trench-Nankai Trough, Izu-Bonin Trench and GPS stations S102, S063 and Okino Torishima moves uniformly as a rigid plate, but the areas near the Philippine Trench, Mariana Trough and Yap-Palau Trench have obvious deformation.

  11. Exploring Earthquakes in Real-Time (United States)

    Bravo, T. K.; Kafka, A. L.; Coleman, B.; Taber, J. J.


    Earthquakes capture the attention of students and inspire them to explore the Earth. Adding the ability to view and explore recordings of significant and newsworthy earthquakes in real-time makes the subject even more compelling. To address this opportunity, the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS), in collaboration with Moravian College, developed ';jAmaSeis', a cross-platform application that enables students to access real-time earthquake waveform data. Students can watch as the seismic waves are recorded on their computer, and can be among the first to analyze the data from an earthquake. jAmaSeis facilitates student centered investigations of seismological concepts using either a low-cost educational seismograph or streamed data from other educational seismographs or from any seismic station that sends data to the IRIS Data Management System. After an earthquake, students can analyze the seismograms to determine characteristics of earthquakes such as time of occurrence, distance from the epicenter to the station, magnitude, and location. The software has been designed to provide graphical clues to guide students in the analysis and assist in their interpretations. Since jAmaSeis can simultaneously record up to three stations from anywhere on the planet, there are numerous opportunities for student driven investigations. For example, students can explore differences in the seismograms from different distances from an earthquake and compare waveforms from different azimuthal directions. Students can simultaneously monitor seismicity at a tectonic plate boundary and in the middle of the plate regardless of their school location. This can help students discover for themselves the ideas underlying seismic wave propagation, regional earthquake hazards, magnitude-frequency relationships, and the details of plate tectonics. The real-time nature of the data keeps the investigations dynamic, and offers students countless opportunities to explore.

  12. The Garzon fault: active southwestern boundary of the Caribbean plate in Colombia (United States)

    Chorowicz, J.; Chotin, P.; Guillande, R.


    We propose active right-lateral strike-slip motion on the Garzon fault zone of the Neiva basin, Colombia, based on the identification of two active right-stepping releasing bend basins along the fault using stereoscopic analysis of 1/250000 SPOT images. The Garzon fault connects the Bocono-Pamplona-Guaicaramo fault zones of Venezuela and Colombia with the Romeral, Dolores and Guayaquil faults of Colombia. Together these faults form a continuous, active right-lateral fault between accreted terranes in northwestern South America and a more stable South America plate. We infer 5-km right-lateral offset of the Garzon fault based on the width of the Algeciras releasing bend basin.

  13. Plate Boundary Observatory Nucleus Education and Outreach: Bringing GPS and Data- Rich Activities Into College and Secondary Earth Science Classrooms (United States)

    Walker, B.; Eriksson, S. C.


    Incorporating scientific data into the curriculum provides students with insight into elements of the scientific process such as developing questions and hypotheses, understanding how data are collected, evaluating data quality and limitations, and formulating conclusions based on scientific results (Manduca et al., 2003.) UNAVCO, a geodetic consortium and co-administrator of the Plate Boundary Observatory Nucleus project, seeks to increase public appreciation and understanding of Earth deformation processes and their societal relevance through education and outreach. To that end, we are developing place-based instructional materials for college and secondary Earth science classrooms in which GPS data are used to teach students about plate tectonics. To assess the needs of our users, we conducted interviews with college geoscience faculty from a variety of institution types and focus groups with secondary Earth science teachers to solicit feedback on the types of educational materials that they would likely use in their classrooms. We are engaging members of the scientific and educational communities to develop the materials and are catering the modules to accommodate diverse groups of learners and learning styles. In addition, we have completed and scheduled several professional development opportunities on the local and national levels for college and university faculty and secondary teachers and have created a new education and outreach website. Our education programs are being assessed by an external evaluator. We will present interview and focus group results, report on the status of our education programs, and discuss upcoming UNAVCO education activities.

  14. Discovering Plate Boundaries in Data-integrated Environments: Preservice Teachers' Conceptualization and Implementation of Scientific Practices (United States)

    Sezen-Barrie, Asli; Moore, Joel; Roig, Cara E.


    Drawn from the norms and rules of their fields, scientists use variety of practices, such as asking questions and arguing based on evidence, to engage in research that will contribute to our understanding of Earth and beyond. In this study, we explore how preservice teachers' learn to teach scientific practices while teaching plate tectonic theory. In particular, our aim is to observe which scientific practices preservice teachers use while teaching an earth science unit, how do they integrate these practices into their lessons, and what challenges do they face during their first time teaching of an earth science content area integrated with scientific practices. The study is designed as a qualitative, exploratory case study of seven preservice teachers while they were learning to teach plate tectonic theory to a group of middle school students. The data were driven from the video records and artifacts of the preservice teachers' learning and teaching processes as well as written reflections on the teaching. Intertextual discourse analysis was used to understand what scientific practices preservice teachers choose to integrate into their teaching experience. Our results showed that preservice teachers chose to focus on four aspects of scientific practices: (1) employing historical understanding of how the theory emerged, (2) encouraging the use of evidence to build up a theory, (3) observation and interpretation of data maps, and (4) collaborative practices in making up the theory. For each of these practices, we also looked at the common challenges faced by preservice teachers by using constant comparative analysis. We observed the practices that preservice teachers decided to use and the challenges they faced, which were determined by what might have come as in their personal history as learners. Therefore, in order to strengthen preservice teachers' background, college courses should be arranged to teach important scientific ideas through scientific practices

  15. Most-Critical Transient Disturbances in an Incompressible Flat-Plate Boundary Layer (United States)

    Monschke, Jason; White, Edward


    Transient growth is a linear disturbance growth mechanism that plays a key role in roughness-induced boundary-layer transition. It occurs when superposed stable, non-orthogonal continuous spectrum modes experience algebraic disturbance growth followed by exponential decay. Algebraic disturbance growth can modify the basic state making it susceptible to secondary instabilities rapidly leading to transition. Optimal disturbance theory was developed to model the most-dangerous disturbances. However, evidence suggests roughness-induced transient growth is sub-optimal yet leads to transition earlier than optimal theory suggests. This research computes initial disturbances most unstable to secondary instabilities to further develop the applicability of transient growth theory to surface roughness. The main approach is using nonlinear adjoint optimization with solutions of the parabolized Navier-Stokes and BiGlobal stability equations. Two objective functions were considered: disturbance kinetic energy growth and sinuous instability growth rate. The first objective function was used as validation of the optimization method. Counter-rotating streamwise vortices located low in the boundary layer maximize the sinuous instability growth rate. The authors would like to acknowledge NASA and the AFOSR for funding this work through AFOSR Grant FA9550-09-1-0341.

  16. The 2014 Iquique Chile earthquake: Preparatory breaking processes of a locked asperity and natural constraints for fluid migration along the plate interface (United States)

    Moreno, M.; Li, S.; Angiboust, S.; Schurr, B.; Bedford, J. R.; Oncken, O.


    Variations in pore fluid pressure are of paramount importance in controlling fault stability. Recent studies have focused on investigating the underlying causes of pore fluid pressure, but natural constraints for lateral fluid migration have not yet been described. Here, we investigate the evolution of the plate interface kinematics and fluid pressure migration leading up to the Mw 8.1 Iquique earthquake. We present the deformation evolution of the last decade from a combination of ~40 continuous and ~70 survey-type GPS. The slip distribution of Iquique event covered areas that were previously intermediately to highly locked and enclosed by creeping interface zones. The seismicity recorded in the years before the mainshock tended to encircle the central locked patch (~40 km length asperity), which itself exhibited a low amount of seismicity. This earthquake was preceded by a series of foreshocks and transient deformation that was initiated by an Mw=6.7 event and which lasted for 16 days. The observed transient GPS signals can be explained by deformation due to foreshocks, indicating that slow slip was not a dominant factor in the stress build up that led to the mainshock. Foreshocks initiated at the edge of the asperity and migrated along the plate interface towards the mainshock hypocentre. The spatial and temporal proximity to the mainshock, as well as the migration pattern of events suggest that the foreshocks and mainshock were mechanically coupled. We suggest that the Mw 6.7 (that likely occurred on a splay fault) is responsible for a transient pore fluid pressure increase in the plate interface region, hence diminishing the effective normal stress on the interface. This segment of the plate interface, presumably mechanically weakened by near-lithostatic pore fluid pressures, was subsequently subjected to a propagation of foreshocks. We propose that the 16-days seismicity swarm could represent the lateral propagation of a fluid front through the place

  17. QuakeCaster, an earthquake physics demonstration and exploration tool (United States)

    Linton, K.; Stein, R.S.


    A fundamental riddle of earthquake occurrence is that tectonic motions at plate interiors are steady, changing only subtly over millions of years, but at plate boundary faults, the plates are stuck for hundreds of years and then suddenly jerk forward in earthquakes. Why does this happen? The answer, as formulated by Harry F. Reid (Reid 1910, 192) is that the Earth’s crust is elastic, behaving like a very stiff slab of rubber sliding over a substrate of “honey”-like asthenosphere, and that faults are restrained by friction. The crust near the faults—zones of weakness that separate the plates—slowly deforms, building up stress until frictional resistance on the fault is overcome and the fault suddenly slips. For the past century, scientists have sought ways to use this knowledge to forecast earthquakes.

  18. Numerical Investigation of Wall Cooling and Suction Effects on Supersonic Flat-Plate Boundary Layer Transition Using Large Eddy Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suozhu Wang


    Full Text Available Reducing friction resistance and aerodynamic heating has important engineering significance to improve the performances of super/hypersonic aircraft, so the purpose of transition control and turbulent drag reduction becomes one of the cutting edges in turbulence research. In order to investigate the influences of wall cooling and suction on the transition process and fully developed turbulence, the large eddy simulation of spatially evolving supersonic boundary layer transition over a flat-plate with freestream Mach number 4.5 at different wall temperature and suction intensity is performed in the present work. It is found that the wall cooling and suction are capable of changing the mean velocity profile within the boundary layer and improving the stability of the flow field, thus delaying the onset of the spatial transition process. The transition control will become more effective as the wall temperature decreases, while there is an optimal wall suction intensity under the given conditions. Moreover, the development of large-scale coherent structures can be suppressed effectively via wall cooling, but wall suction has no influence.

  19. MHD boundary layer slip flow and radiative nonlinear heat transfer over a flat plate with variable fluid properties and thermophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Parida


    Full Text Available This work considers the two-dimensional steady MHD boundary layer flow of heat and mass transfer over a flat plate with partial slip at the surface subjected to the convective heat flux. The particular attraction lies in searching the effects of variable viscosity and variable thermal diffusivity on the behavior of the flow. In addition, non-linear thermal radiation effects and thermophoresis are taken into account. The governing nonlinear partial differential equations for the flow, heat and mass transfer are transformed into a set of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations by using similarity variable, which are solved numerically by applying Runge–Kutta fourth–fifth order integration scheme in association with quasilinear shooting technique. The novel results for the dimensionless velocity, temperature, concentration and ambient Prandtl number within the boundary layer are displayed graphically for various parameters that characterize the flow. The local skin friction, Nusselt number and Sherwood number are shown graphically. The numerical results obtained for the particular case are fairly in good agreement with the result of Rahman [6].

  20. Magmatism at the Eurasian–North American modern plate boundary: Constraints from alkaline volcanism in the Chersky Belt (Yakutia) (United States)

    Tschegg, Cornelius; Bizimis, Michael; Schneider, David; Akinin, Vyacheslav V.; Ntaflos, Theodoros


    The Chersky seismic belt (NE-Russia) forms the modern plate boundary of the Eurasian−North American continental plate. The geodynamic evolution of this continent−continent setting is highly complex and remains a matter of debate, as the extent and influence of the Mid-Arctic Ocean spreading center on the North Asian continent since the Eocene remains unclear. The progression from a tensional stress regime to a modern day transpressional one in the Chersky seismic belt, makes the understanding even more complicated. The alkaline volcanism that has erupted along the Chersky range from Eocene through to the Recent can provide constraints on the geodynamic evolution of this continental boundary, however, the source and petrogenetic evolution of these volcanic rocks and their initiating mechanisms are poorly understood. We studied basanites of the central Chersky belt, which are thought to represent the first alkaline volcanic activity in the area, after initial opening of the Arctic Ocean basin. We present mineral and bulk rock geochemical data as well as Sr–Nd–Pb–Hf isotopes of the alkaline suite of rocks combined with new precise K–Ar and 40Ar/39Ar dating, and discuss an integrated tectono-magmatic model for the Chersky belt. Our findings show that the basanites were generated from a homogeneous asthenospheric mantle reservoir with an EM-1 isotopic flavor, under relatively ‘dry’ conditions at segregation depths around 110 km and temperatures of ~ 1500 °C. Trace element and isotope systematics combined with mantle potential temperature estimates offer no confirmation of magmatism related to subduction or plume activity. Mineral geochemical and petrographical observations together with bulk geochemical evidence indicate a rapid ascent of melts and high cooling rates after emplacement in the continental crust. Our preferred model is that volcanism was triggered by extension and thinning of the lithosphere combined with adiabatic upwelling of the


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜大椿; 张汉勋


    A systematic research on the buoyancy instability in the natural convection boundary layer was conducted, including the basic characteristics such as its spectral components, wave length and velocity, the location of its critical layer,and amplitude distributions of the triple independent eigenmodes with the linear instability theory, the growth rates of its temperature and velocity fluctuations and the corresponding neutral curves for the buoyancy eigenmode were also obtained.Results indicated that the neutral curve of the velocity fluctuation had a nose shape consistent with that obtained in the numerical calculation, but for the temperature fluctuation, a ring-like region could be measured at a lower Grashof number before the nose-shaped main portion of the neutral curve.

  2. Assessment of precast beam-column using capacity demand response spectrum subject to design basis earthquake and maximum considered earthquake (United States)

    Ghani, Kay Dora Abd.; Tukiar, Mohd Azuan; Hamid, Nor Hayati Abdul


    Malaysia is surrounded by the tectonic feature of the Sumatera area which consists of two seismically active inter-plate boundaries, namely the Indo-Australian and the Eurasian Plates on the west and the Philippine Plates on the east. Hence, Malaysia experiences tremors from far distant earthquake occurring in Banda Aceh, Nias Island, Padang and other parts of Sumatera Indonesia. In order to predict the safety of precast buildings in Malaysia under near field ground motion the response spectrum analysis could be used for dealing with future earthquake whose specific nature is unknown. This paper aimed to develop of capacity demand response spectrum subject to Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) and Maximum Considered Earthquake (MCE) in order to assess the performance of precast beam column joint. From the capacity-demand response spectrum analysis, it can be concluded that the precast beam-column joints would not survive when subjected to earthquake excitation with surface-wave magnitude, Mw, of more than 5.5 Scale Richter (Type 1 spectra). This means that the beam-column joint which was designed using the current code of practice (BS8110) would be severely damaged when subjected to high earthquake excitation. The capacity-demand response spectrum analysis also shows that the precast beam-column joints in the prototype studied would be severely damaged when subjected to Maximum Considered Earthquake (MCE) with PGA=0.22g having a surface-wave magnitude of more than 5.5 Scale Richter, or Type 1 spectra.

  3. Complexity in Size, Recurrence and Source of Historical Earthquakes and Tsunamis in Central Chile (United States)

    Cisternas, M.


    Central Chile has a 470-year-long written earthquake history, the longest of any part of the country. Thanks to the early and continuous Spanish settlement of this part of Chile (32°- 35° S), records document destructive earthquakes and tsunamis in 1575, 1647, 1730, 1822, 1906 and 1985. This sequence has promoted the idea that central Chile's large subduction inter-plate earthquakes recur at regular intervals of about 80 years. The last of these earthquakes, in 1985, was even forecast as filling a seismic gap on the thrust boundary between the subducting Nazca Plate and the overriding South America Plate. Following this logic, the next large earthquake in metropolitan Chile will not occur until late in the 21st century. However, here I challenge this conclusion by reporting recently discovered historical evidence in Spain, Japan, Peru, and Chile. This new evidence augments the historical catalog in central Chile, strongly suggests that one of these earthquakes previously assumed to occur on the inter-plate interface in fact occurred elsewhere, and forces the conclusion that another of these earthquakes (and its accompanying tsunami) dwarfed the others. These findings complicate the task of assessing the hazard of future earthquakes in Chile's most populated region.

  4. Active tectonic deformation of the western Indian plate boundary: A case study from the Chaman Fault System (United States)

    Crupa, Wanda E.; Khan, Shuhab D.; Huang, Jingqiu; Khan, Abdul S.; Kasi, Aimal


    Collision of the Eurasian and Indian plates has resulted in two spatially offset subduction zones, the Makran subduction zone to the south and the Himalayan convergent margin to the north. These zones are linked by a system of left-lateral strike-slip faults known as the Chaman Fault System, ∼1200 km, which spans along western Pakistan. Although this is one of the greatest strike-slip faults, yet temporal and spatial variation in displacement has not been adequately defined along this fault system. This study conducted geomorphic and geodetic investigations along the Chaman Fault in a search for evidence of spatial variations in motion. Four study areas were selected over the span of the Chaman Fault: (1) Tarnak-Rud area over the Tarnak-Rud valley, (2) Spinatizha area over the Spinatizha Mountain Range, (3) Nushki area over the Nushki basin, and (4) Kharan area over the northern tip of the Central Makran Mountains. Remote sensing data allowed for in depth mapping of different components and faults within the Kohjak group. Wind and water gap pairs along with offset rivers were identified using high-resolution imagery and digital-elevation models to show displacement for the four study areas. The mountain-front-sinuosity ratio, valley height-to-width-ratio, and the stream-length-gradient index were calculated and used to determine the relative tectonic activity of each area. These geomorphic indices suggest that the Kharan area is the most active and the Tarnak-Rud area is the least active. GPS data were processed into a stable Indian plate reference frame and analyzed. Fault parallel velocity versus fault normal distance yielded a ∼8-10 mm/yr displacement rate along the Chaman Fault just north of the Spinatizha area. InSAR data were also integrated to assess displacement rates along the fault system. Geodetic data support that ultra-slow earthquakes similar to those that strike along other major strike-slip faults, such as the San Andreas Fault System, are

  5. Direct numerical simulation methods of hypersonic flat-plate boundary layer in thermally perfect gas (United States)

    Jia, WenLi; Cao, Wei


    High-temperature effects alter the physical and transport properties of air such as vibrational excitation in a thermally perfect gas, and this factor should be considered in order to compute the flow field correctly. Herein, for the thermally perfect gas, a simple method of direct numerical simulation on flat-plat boundary layer is put forward, using the equivalent specific heat ratio instead of constant specific heat ratio in the N-S equations and flux splitting form of a calorically perfect gas. The results calculated by the new method are consistent with that by solving the N-S equations of a thermally perfect gas directly. The mean flow has the similarity, and consistent to the corresponding Blasius solution, which confirms that satisfactory results can be obtained basing on the Blasius solution as the mean flow directly in stability analysis. The amplitude growth curve of small disturbance is introduced at the inlet by using direct numerical simulation, which is consistent with that obtained by linear stability theory. It verified that the equation established and the simulation method is correct.

  6. Punctuated Neogene tectonics and stratigraphy of the African-Iberian plate-boundary zone: concurrent development of Betic-Rif basins (southern Spain, northern Morocco)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sissingh, W.


    This paper integrates the sequence stratigraphic and tectonic data related to the Neogene geodynamic and palaeogeographic development of the African-Iberian plate boundary zone between Spain and Morocco. Though the dating of individual tectonostratigraphic sequences and their delimiting sequence bou

  7. Punctuated Neogene tectonics and stratigraphy of the African-Iberian plate-boundary zone: concurrent development of Betic-Rif basins (southern Spain, northern Morocco)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sissingh, W.


    This paper integrates the sequence stratigraphic and tectonic data related to the Neogene geodynamic and palaeogeographic development of the African-Iberian plate boundary zone between Spain and Morocco. Though the dating of individual tectonostratigraphic sequences and their delimiting sequence bou

  8. Kinematics of the New Zealand Plate Boundary: Relative Motion by GPS Across Networks of 1000 km and 50 km Spacing (United States)

    Scholz, Chris; Beavan, John


    From the 1995-97 data we are able to estimate interseismic velocities - the original aim of the project - though corrections must first be made for the coseismic effects of the Cass earthquake and postseismic effects of the Arthur's Pass event. In the following, we present four sets of results: (1) Interseismic velocities, (2) Arthur's Pass earthquake - coseismic, (3) Cass earthquake, and (4) Arthur's Pass earthquake postseismic. Work on all these fronts is still incomplete, but is being actively continued with funding from the NZ Foundation for Research, Science and Technology (FRST).

  9. The northern Caribbean plate boundary in the Jamaica Passage: Structure and seismic stratigraphy (United States)

    Corbeau, J.; Rolandone, F.; Leroy, S.; Mercier de Lépinay, B.; Meyer, B.; Ellouz-Zimmermann, N.; Momplaisir, R.


    Multibeam bathymetry data and multichannel seismic reflection profiles have been collected at the end of 2012 along the Enriquillo-Plantain-Garden Fault Zone (EPGFZ) in the Jamaica Passage, between Jamaica and Hispaniola. Analysis of the data set reveals the tectonic evolution and the stratigraphic complexity of the northern Caribbean boundary. Stratigraphic correlations with previous marine and on land studies are proposed to place the identified seismic sequences in their regional tectonic history. Two distinct crustal domains are interpreted. Typical stratigraphic sequences for the rifted blocks of the Eastern Cayman Trough margin are identified in five basins of the Jamaica Passage, highlighting the eastward limit of the Cayman Trough margin. These inherited basins are deformed and folded during a first phase of compression that could correspond to the regional tectonic rearrangement recorded in the early Miocene (about 20 Ma). A distinct crustal domain that we propose to relate to the Carib Beds (Caribbean typical reflectors A″, B″ and V) is identified in the southern part of the Jamaica Passage, indicating that the Caribbean Large Igneous Province could extend up to the extreme northeast part of the Lower Nicaragua Rise. The left-lateral EPGFZ currently cuts across two pre-existing basins, the Morant and Matley basins. During the activity of the EPGFZ, these basins are deformed and folded indicating a second phase of compression. In contrast, the Navassa basin, located in the middle of the Jamaica Passage, results from the strike-slip motion of the EPGFZ and is interpreted as an asymmetrical basin bordered by the EPGFZ only on its northern side.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The dynamic pressure distribution on a rectangular plate attached to a rigid wall and supporting an infinitely large extent of fluid subjected to a harmonic ground excitation is evaluated in the time domain. Governing equations for the fluid domain are set considering the compressibility of the fluid with negligibly small change in density and a linearized free surface. A far boundary condition for the three-dimensional fluid domain is developed so that the far boundary is truncated at a closer proximity to the structure. The coupled problem is solved independently for the structure and the fluid domain by transferring the acceleration of the plate to the fluid and pressure of the fluid to the plate in sequence. Helmholtz equation for the three-dimensional fluid domain and Mindlin's theory for the two-dimensional plate are used for the solution of the interacting domains. Finite element technique is adopted for the solution of this problem with pressure as nodal variable for the fluid domain and displacement for the plate. The time dependent equations are solved in each of the interacting domain using Newmark-b method. The effectiveness of the technique is demonstrated and the influences of surface wave, exciting frequency and flexibility of the plate on dynamic pressure are investigated.

  11. Far-Field Deformation Resulting from Rheologic Differences Interacting with Tectonic Stresses: An Example from the Pacific/Australian Plate Boundary in Southern New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phaedra Upton


    Full Text Available The Miocene in Southern New Zealand was dominated by strike-slip tectonics. Stratigraphic evidence from this time attests to two zones of subsidence in the south: (a a middle Cenozoic pull-apart basin and (b a regionally extensive subsiding lake complex, which developed east and distal to the developing plate boundary structure. The lake overlay a block of crust with a significantly weak mid-crustal section and we pose the question: can rheological transitions at an angle to a plate boundary produce distal subsidence and/or uplift? We use stratigraphic, structural and geophysical observations from Southern New Zealand to constrain three-dimensional numerical models for a variety of boundary conditions and rheological scenarios. We show that coincident subsidence and uplift can result from purely strike-slip boundary conditions interacting with a transition from strong to weak to strong mid-crustal rheology. The resulting pattern of vertical displacement is a function of the symmetry or asymmetry of the boundary conditions and the extent and orientation of the rheological transitions. For the Southern New Zealand case study, subsidence rates of ~0.1 mm/yr are predicted for a relative plate motion of 25 mm/yr, leading to ~500 m of subsidence over a 5 Ma time period, comparable to the thickness of preserved lacustrine sediments.

  12. The SOUTHERN PUNA Seismic Experiment: Shape of the Subducting Nazca Plate, Areas of Concentrated Mantle and Crustal Earthquakes, and Crustal Focal Mechanisms (United States)

    Mulcahy, P.; Chen, C.; Kay, S. M.; Brown, L. D.; Alvarado, P. M.; Sandvol, E. A.; Heit, B.; Yuan, X.


    The SOUTHERN PUNA Seismic Experiment in the Central Andes between 25° - 28°S and 70° - 65°W recorded data in a 74-instrument array from Dec 07 to Nov 09 with the purpose of evaluating the structure and seismic character of the mantle and crust at the southern end of the Puna-Antiplano Plateau. Hypocenter locations for local and regional mantle earthquakes from 16 months of continuous recording confirm the persistence of the backarc teleseismic Antofalla Gap in intermediate depth mantle seismicity between 25.5° and 27.5°S consistent with the interpretation of a hot mantle wedge under this region. The best located Wadati Benioff Zone events agree with the subducting Nazca Plate contours of Cahill and Isacks (1992) north of 27°S, but show a more abrupt southward shallowing of contours in agreement with the Anderson et al. (2007) contours outlining the projected path of the already subducted Juan Fernandez Ridge. Another prominent feature in the data is the concentration of hypocenters in the Pipanaco nest to the south of the Antofalla Gap between 27° and 29°S. New PUNA results together with available HCMT solutions indicate NW oriented normal and strike-slip faulting in three general clusters within this nest at ~130km, 150km and 180km depth. Hypocenter locations and fault solutions for the Pipanaco Nest suggest flexure associated with steepening of the subducting slab consistent with the revised Wadati Benioff Zone contours. In an area of little to no crustal seismicity in global catalogs over the same time period, hundreds of well-located crustal earthquakes at depths less than 15km were recorded by the PUNA array. Among these earthquakes are three distinct clusters near relatively young volcanic centers. One cluster defines a nest northeast of the < 1 Ma Cerro Blanco caldera. The other two clusters are characterized by large quantities of earthquakes within 24-36 hours (swarms) near the Cerro Galan caldera that last erupted at ~2 Ma and near a ~1 Ma or

  13. Tectonic isolation of the Levant basin offshore Galilee-Lebanon effects of the Dead Sea fault plate boundary on the Levant continental margin, eastern Mediterranean (United States)

    Schattner, U.; Ben-Avraham, Z.; Lazar, M.; Hüebscher, C.


    The continental margin of the central Levant, offshore northern Israel and southern Lebanon is characterized by a sharp continental-oceanic crustal transition, exhibited on the bathymetry as a steep continental slope. At the base of the slope a narrow zone of faulting deforms the upper Messinian-recent sedimentary sequence. Further into the basin no major deformations are observed. However, onland a restraining bend along the Dead Sea fault plate boundary results in the formation of the Lebanon and anti-Lebanon mountain ranges, which exhibit a large positive isostatic anomaly not compensated at depth. All these geologic features follow a NNE-SSW trend. A dense network of multi-channel and single-channel seismic profiles, covering 5000 km of ship-track offshore northern Israel and southern Lebanon, was analyzed for the purpose of characterizing the continental margin. Additional seismic surveys covering the area between the Levant margin and the Cyprean arc were examined. Data were then incorporated with magnetic, gravity and earthquake measurements to reveal the deep crustal structure of the area and integrated with bathymetry data to describe the behavior of the young sedimentary basin fill. Results indicate that the Levant basin, offshore northern Israel and southern Lebanon (up to Beirut) is more-or-less unaffected by the intense tectonic deformation occurring onland. The transition between the deformed area onland and the undeformed Levant basin occurs along the base of the continental slope. Along the base, the upper Messinian-recent sedimentary sequence is cut by two sets of faults: shallow growth faults resulting from salt tectonics and high angle faults, marking the surface expression of a deeper crustal discontinuity - the marine extension of the Carmel fault zone. The central Levant continental margin is being reactivated by transpressional faulting of the marine continuation of the Carmel fault, at the base of the continental slope. This fault system

  14. Relocating Seismicity on the Arctic Plate Boundary Using Teleseismic and Regional Phases and a Bayesian Multiple Event Locator (United States)

    Gibbons, Steven J.; Dahl-Jensen, Trine; Kværna, Tormod; Larsen, Tine B.; Paulsen, Berit; Voss, Peter


    The tectonophysics of plate boundaries are illuminated by the pattern of seismicity - and the ability to locate seismic events accurately depends upon the number and quality of observations, the distribution of recording stations, and how well the traveltimes of seismic phases are modelled. The boundary between the Eurasian and North American plates between 70 and 84 degrees North hosts large seismic events which are well recorded teleseismically and many more events at far lower magnitudes that are well recorded only at regional distances. Existing seismic bulletins have considerable spread and bias resulting from limited station coverage and deficiencies in the velocity models applied; this is particularly acute for the lower magnitude events which may only be constrained by a small number of Pn and Sn arrivals. Over the past 15 years, there has been a significant improvement in the seismic network in the Arctic - a difficult region to instrument due to the harsh climate, a sparsity of quiet and accessible sites, and the expense and difficult logistics of deploying and maintaining stations. New deployments and upgrades to stations on Greenland, Svalbard, and the islands Jan Mayen, Hopen, and Bjørnøya have resulted in a sparse but stable regional seismic network which results in events down to magnitudes below 3 generating high quality Pn and Sn signals on multiple stations. A catalog of over 1000 events in the region since 1998 has been generated using many new phase readings on stations on both sides of the spreading ridge in addition to teleseismic P phases. The Bayesloc program, a Bayesian hierarchical multiple event location algorithm, has been used to relocate the full set of events iteratively and this has resulted in a significant reduction in the spread in hypocenter estimates for both large and small events. Whereas single event location algorithms minimize the vector of time residuals on an event-by-event basis, Bayesloc favours the hypocenters which

  15. Joint inversion of local, regional and teleseismic data for crustal thickness in the Eurasia-Africa plate boundary region (United States)

    Marone, Federica; van der Meijde, Mark; van der Lee, Suzan; Giardini, Domenico


    A new map for the Moho discontinuity (EAM02) in the Eurasia-Africa plate boundary region is presented. Reliable results have also been obtained for the southern and eastern Mediterranean Basin, the northern African coasts and the eastern Atlantic Ocean, regions only occasionally considered in studies on the Mediterranean region. The Moho topography model is derived from two independent sets of constraints. Information contained in the fundamental and higher-mode Rayleigh waves obtained from waveform modelling is used to constrain the Moho depth between estimates of crustal thickness taken from published reflection and refraction surveys, gravity studies and receiver function analysis. Strong lateral variations in the Moho topography have been observed in the Mediterranean Sea, confirming the complex evolution of this plate boundary region. In the west, the Moho discontinuity has been found at 15-20 km depth, suggesting extended and, at least in some locations, oceanic crust, while in the east the crust is on average 25-30 km thick. There it is interpreted either as Mesozoic oceanic or thinned Precambrian continental crust covered by thick sedimentary deposits. Standard continental crust (30-35 km) is observed along the eastern part of the northern African coast, while to the west a rapid change from a relatively deep Moho (down to 42 km) below the Atlas Mountain Range to the thin crust of the southwestern Mediterranean Sea has been found. The crust beneath the eastern North Atlantic Ocean can be up to 5 km thicker compared with standard oceanic crust (6 km). The crust has been interpreted to be heterogeneous as a consequence of irregular magma supply at the Mid-Atlantic ridge. In addition, serpentinization of the sub-Moho mantle could contribute to the imaging of apparently anomalous thick oceanic crust. In Europe, the presence of crustal roots (>45 km) beneath the major mountain belts has been confirmed, while thin crust (isostatic compensation at 60 km depth

  16. Intra Plate Stresses Using Finite Element Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayalakshmi S.


    Full Text Available One of the most challenging problems in the estimation of seismic hazard is the ability to quantify seismic activity. Empirical models based on the available earthquake catalogue are often used to obtain activity of source regions. The major limitation with this approach is the lack of sufficient data near a specified source. The non-availability of data poses difficulties in obtaining distribution of earthquakes with large return periods. Such events recur over geological time scales during which tectonic processes, including mantle convection, formation of faults and new plate boundaries, are likely to take place. The availability of geometries of plate boundaries, plate driving forces, lithospheric stress field and GPS measurements has provided numerous insights on the mechanics of tectonic plates. In this article, a 2D finite element model of Indo-Australian plate is developed with the focus of representing seismic activity in India. The effect of large scale geological features including sedimentary basins, fold belts and cratons on the stress field in India is explored in this study. In order to address long term behaviour, the orientation of stress field and tectonic faults of the present Indo-Australian plate are compared with a reconstructed stress field from the early Miocene (20 Ma.

  17. The August 15, 2007 M=8.0 Ica, Peru Earthquake (United States)

    Morin, A.; Detweiler, S.; Mooney, W. D.


    On August 15 at 6:40 PM a magnitude 8.0 earthquake occurred off the coast of central Peru. The hypocentral depth was 40 km. The earthquake was located 180 km southeast of the capital city of Lima, near the cities of Ica and Pisco. At least 500 people were killed, and over 1500 were injured. Tens of thousands of buildings were ruined and up to one-hundred thousand people were left homeless with most of the damage occurring in rural areas. In the two week period following the earthquake, at least 16 aftershocks hit Peru, with magnitudes ranging from 4.5 to 6.3. The earthquake occurred at the boundary between the Nazca and South American tectonic plates. The two plates are converging at a rate of 77 millimeters per year, and the earthquake was caused by the downward and eastward movement of the Nazca plate under the South American plate. Since Peru is located at the boundary of these plates, earthquakes are quite common in this area, the last being an M=8.1 near the city of Arequipa in southern Peru in 2001. Prior to this event, the deadliest earthquake to hit Peru was in 1970 when an earthquake in the Peruvian Andes triggered landslides that buried the town of Yungay and killed more than 66,000 people. Since the epicenter of the recent earthquake was in the Pacific Ocean, it was feared that a major tsunami would be generated, however only minor waves were recorded along the Peruvian coast.

  18. Possible occurrence of a giant interplate earthquake in northeast Japan greater than the 2011 Tohoku earthquake (United States)

    Ohtani, M.; Hirahara, K.; Hori, T.; Hyodo, M.


    We supposed there occur M7-class earthquakes and the co-rupturing M8 earthquakes on the Pacific plate interface subducting beneath northeast Japan. Against our speculation, the 2011 Tohoku earthquake grew up to Mw9.0. We have so far constructed cycle models of this giant earthquake to understand why this grew up to Mw9.0. Next question is; is there any possibility that a much larger earthquake occurs in this region? In this study, we explore this possibility through quasi-dynamic earthquake cycle simulations. The 2011 Tohoku earthquake ruptured a large region of 200km x 500km. The rupture region includes a confined area with huge coseismic slip over 50 m in the shallow Off-Miyagi region close to the Japan Trench, and several M7 asperities in Off-Miyagi and Ibaraki regions which have been ruptured repeatedly at intervals of several ten years. The tsunami deposit surveys suggest this giant earthquake has the recurrence time of several hundred years. The afterslip occurs mainly in the deeper region of the coseismic slip region, except the Off-Miyagi region [Ozawa et al., 2012]. At Off-Kamaishi and Off-Fukushima regions located in the northern and southern sides of the Off-Miyagi region, we can find the local maximum of the afterslip. The Off-Kamaishi region did not produce much coseismic slip, and has not experienced historical large earthquakes. And no large afterslip extended to the northern region beyond Off-Kamaishi. Then, the Off-Kamaishi region is a kind of boundary between the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and its adjacent northern regions. In the northern region, there occurred the 1968 Off-Tokachi Mw8.3 earthquake, which has three M7 asperities with recurrence times of several ten years [Yamanaka & Kikuchi, 2004]. An aftershock of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, which occurred 22 minutes after the main shock, is located at the southern asperity area. And there is a region close to the Japan Trench, where the 1897 Meiji-sanriku tsunami earthquake occurred. We performed

  19. Jet-boundary and Plan-form Corrections for Partial-Span Models with Reflection-Plane, End-Plate, or No End-Plate in a Closed Circular Wind Tunnel (United States)

    Sivells, James C; Deters, Owen J


    A method is presented for determining the jet-boundary and plan-form corrections necessary for application to test data for a partial-span model with a reflection plane, an end plate, or no end plate in a closed circular wind tunnel. Examples are worked out for a partial-span model with each of the three end conditions in the Langley 19-foot pressure tunnel and the corrections are applied to measured values of lift, drag, pitching-moment, rolling-moment, and yawing-moment coefficients.

  20. Monitoring the Earthquake source process in North America (United States)

    Herrmann, Robert B.; Benz, H.; Ammon, C.J.


    With the implementation of the USGS National Earthquake Information Center Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response system (PAGER), rapid determination of earthquake moment magnitude is essential, especially for earthquakes that are felt within the contiguous United States. We report an implementation of moment tensor processing for application to broad, seismically active areas of North America. This effort focuses on the selection of regional crustal velocity models, codification of data quality tests, and the development of procedures for rapid computation of the seismic moment tensor. We systematically apply these techniques to earthquakes with reported magnitude greater than 3.5 in continental North America that are not associated with a tectonic plate boundary. Using the 0.02-0.10 Hz passband, we can usually determine, with few exceptions, moment tensor solutions for earthquakes with M w as small as 3.7. The threshold is significantly influenced by the density of stations, the location of the earthquake relative to the seismic stations and, of course, the signal-to-noise ratio. With the existing permanent broadband stations in North America operated for rapid earthquake response, the seismic moment tensor of most earthquakes that are M w 4 or larger can be routinely computed. As expected the nonuniform spatial pattern of these solutions reflects the seismicity pattern. However, the orientation of the direction of maximum compressive stress and the predominant style of faulting is spatially coherent across large regions of the continent.

  1. A boundary-integral model for drop deformation between two parallel plates with non-unit viscosity ratio drops (United States)

    Janssen, P. J. A.; Anderson, P. D.


    A boundary-integral method is presented for drop deformation between two parallel walls for non-unit viscosity ratio systems. To account for the effect of the walls the Green's functions are modified and all terms for the double-layer potential are derived. The full three-dimensional implementation is validated, and the model is shown to be accurate and consistent. The method is applied to study drop deformation in shear flow. An excellent match with small-deformation theory is found at low capillary numbers, and our results match with other BIM simulations for pressure-driven flows. For shear flow with moderate capillary numbers, we see that the behavior of a low-viscosity drop is similar to that of drop with a viscosity ratio of unity. High-viscosity drops, on the other hand, are prevented from rotating in shear flow, which results in a larger deformation, but less overshoot in the drop axes is observed. In contrast with unconfined flow, high-viscosity drops can be broken in shear flow between parallel plates; for low-viscosity drops the critical capillary number is higher in confined situations.

  2. Motion of the Scotia sea plates (United States)

    Thomas, C.; Livermore, R.; Pollitz, F.


    Earthquake data from the Scotia Arc to early 2002 are reviewed in the light of satellite gravity and other data in order to derive a model for the motion of plates in the Scotia Sea region. Events with magnitude ???5, which occurred on or near the boundaries of the Scotia and Sandwich plates, and for which Centroid Moment Tensor (CMT) solutions are available, are examined. The newer data fill some of the previous sampling gaps along the boundaries of the Scotia and Sandwich plates, and provide tighter constraints on relative motions. Variations in the width of the Brunhes anomaly on evenly spaced marine magnetic profiles over the East Scotia Ridge provide new estimates of Scotia-Sandwich plate spreading rates. Since there are no stable fracture zones in the east Scotia Sea, the mean azimuth of sea floor fabric mapped by sidescan is used to constrain the direction of spreading. 18 new rate estimates and four azimuths from the East Scotia Ridge are combined with 68 selected earthquake slip vectors from the boundaries of the Scotia Sea in a least-squares inversion for the best-fitting set of Euler poles and angular rotation rates describing the 'present-day' motions of the Scotia and Sandwich plates relative to South America and Antarctica. Our preferred model (TLP2003) gives poles that are similar to previous estimates, except for Scotia Plate motion with respect to South America, which is significantly different from earlier estimates; predicted rates of motion also differ slightly. Our results are much more robust than earlier work. We examine the implications of the model for motion and deformation along the various plate boundaries, with particular reference to the North and South Scotia Ridges, where rates are obtained by closure.

  3. Crustal Structure of the Caribbean-South American Diffuse Plate Boundary: Subduction Zone Migration and Polarity Reversal Along BOLIVAR Profile 64W (United States)

    Clark, S. A.; Levander, A.; Magnani, M.; Zelt, C. A.; Sawyer, D. S.; Ave Lallemant, H. G.


    The BOLIVAR (Broadband Ocean-Land Investigation of Venezuela and the Antilles arc Region) project is an NSF funded, collaborative seismic experiment in the southeast Caribbean region. The purpose of the project is to understand the diffuse plate boundary created by the oblique collision between the Caribbean and South American plates. Profile 64W of the BOLIVAR experiment, a 450 km-long, N-S transect onshore and offshore Venezuela located at ~64°W longitude, images the deep crustal structures formed by this collision. The active source components of profile 64W include 300 km of MCS reflection data, 33 coincident OBSs, and 344 land seismic stations which recorded 7500 offshore airgun shots and 2 explosive land shots. Results from the reflection and refraction seismic data along 64W show complex crustal structure across the entire span of the diffuse plate boundary. The onshore portion of 64W crosses the fold and thrust belt of the Serrania del Interior, which formed at ~16 Ma by collision of the Caribbean forearc with the northern South American passive margin. Underlying the Serrania del Interior is a south-vergent, remnant Lesser Antillean subduction zone. As this Lesser Antilles subduction impinged on continental crust, it caused a polarity reversal and jump offshore to the north. Convergence was initially localized in the closure and inversion of the Grenada Basin. However, subduction could not develop because of the ~20-km-thick crust of the Aves Ridge; instead, north-vergent subduction initiated further to the north, where ~12-km-thick Caribbean oceanic crust of the Venezuela Basin began to subduct beneath the Aves Ridge in the Pliocene (~4 Ma) and appears to continue subducting today. Between the remnant subduction zone and the modern one, the El Pilar and Coche dextral strike-slip faults accommodate most of the transform motion of the plate boundary. From the Serrania del Interior to the Aves Ridge, ~260 km of accreted orogenic float comprises the diffuse

  4. A multiple-approach radiometric age estimate for the Rotoiti and Earthquake Flat eruptions, New Zealand, with implications for the MIS 4/3 boundary (United States)

    Wilson, C.J.N.; Rhoades, D.A.; Lanphere, M.A.; Calvert, A.T.; Houghton, B.F.; Weaver, S.D.; Cole, J.W.


    Pyroclastic fall deposits of the paired Rotoiti and Earthquake Flat eruptions from the Taupo Volcanic Zone (New Zealand) combine to form a widespread isochronous horizon over much of northern New Zealand and the southwest Pacific. This horizon is important for correlating climatic and environmental changes during the Last Glacial period, but has been the subject of numerous disparate age estimates between 35.1??2.8 and 71??6 ka (all errors are 1 s.d.), obtained by a variety of techniques. A potassium-argon (K-Ar) age of 64??4 ka was previously determined on bracketing lavas at Mayor Island volcano, offshore from the Taupo Volcanic Zone. We present a new, more-precise 40Ar/39Ar age determination on a lava flow on Mayor Island, that shortly post-dates the Rotoiti/Earthquake Flat fall deposits, of 58.5??1.1 ka. This value, coupled with existing ages from underlying lavas, yield a new estimate for the age of the combined eruptions of 61.0??1.4 ka, which is consistent with U-Th disequilibrium model-age data for zircons from the Rotoiti deposits. Direct 40Ar/39Ar age determinations of plagioclase and biotite from the Rotoiti and Earthquake Flat eruption products yield variable values between 49.6??2.8 and 125.3??10.0 ka, with the scatter attributed to low radiogenic Ar yields, and/or alteration, and/or inheritance of xenocrystic material with inherited Ar. Rotoiti/Earthquake Flat fall deposits occur in New Zealand in association with palynological indicators of mild climate, attributed to Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3 and thus used to suggest an age that is post-59 ka. The natures of the criteria used to define the MIS 4/3 boundary in the Northern and Southern hemispheres, however, imply that the new 61 ka age for the Rotoiti/Earthquake Flat eruption deposits will provide the inverse, namely, a more accurate isochronous marker for correlating diverse changes across the MIS 4/3 boundary in the southwest Pacific. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Earthquake Activity in the North Greenland Region (United States)

    Larsen, Tine B.; Dahl-Jensen, Trine; Voss, Peter H.


    Many local and regional earthquakes are recorded on a daily basis in northern Greenland. The majority of the earthquakes originate at the Arctic plate boundary between the Eurasian and the North American plates. Particularly active regions away from the plate boundary are found in NE Greenland and in northern Baffin Bay. The seismograph coverage in the region is sparse with the main seismograph stations located at the military outpost, Stations Nord (NOR), the weather station outpost Danmarkshavn (DAG), Thule Airbase (TULEG), and the former ice core drilling camp (NEEM) in the middle of the Greenland ice sheet. Furthermore, data is available from Alert (ALE), Resolute (RES), and other seismographs in northern Canada as well as from a temporary deployment of BroadBand seismographs along the north coast of Greenland from 2004 to 2007. The recorded earthquakes range in magnitude from less than 2 to a 4.8 event, the largest in NE Greenland, and a 5.7 event, the largest recorded in northern Baffin Bay. The larger events are recorded widely in the region allowing for focal mechanisms to be calculated. Only a few existing focal mechanisms for the region can be found in the ISC bulletin. Two in NE Greenland representing primarily normal faulting and one in Baffin Bay resulting from reverse faulting. New calculations of focal mechanisms for the region will be presented as well as improved hypocenters resulting from analysis involving temporary stations and regional stations that are not included in routine processing.

  6. Earthquake nucleation in weak subducted carbonates (United States)

    Kurzawski, Robert M.; Stipp, Michael; Niemeijer, André R.; Spiers, Christopher J.; Behrmann, Jan H.


    Ocean-floor carbonate- and clay-rich sediments form major inputs to subduction zones, especially at low-latitude convergent plate margins. Therefore, knowledge of their frictional behaviour is fundamental for understanding plate-boundary earthquakes. Here we report results of mechanical tests performed on simulated fault gouges prepared from ocean-floor carbonates and clays, cored during IODP drilling offshore Costa Rica. Clay-rich gouges show internal friction coefficients (that is, the slope of linearized shear stress versus normal stress data) of μint = 0.44 - 0.56, irrespective of temperature and pore-fluid pressure (Pf). By contrast, μint for the carbonate gouge strongly depends on temperature and pore-fluid pressure, with μint decreasing dramatically from 0.84 at room temperature and Pf = 20 MPa to 0.27 at T = 140 °C and Pf = 120 MPa. This effect provides a fundamental mechanism of shear localization and earthquake generation in subduction zones, and makes carbonates likely nucleation sites for plate-boundary earthquakes. Our results imply that rupture nucleation is prompted by a combination of temperature-controlled frictional instability and temperature- and pore-pressure-dependent weakening of calcareous fault gouges.

  7. The San Andreas fault in the San Francisco Bay region, California: Structure and kinematics of a Young plate boundary (United States)

    Jachens, R.C.; Zoback, M.L.


    Recently acquired high-resolution aeromagnetic data delineate offset and/or truncated magnetic rock bodies of the Franciscan Complex that define the location and structure of, and total offset across, the San Andreas fault in the San Francisco Bay region. Two distinctive magnetic anomalies caused by ultramafic rocks and metabasalts east of, and truncated at, the San Andreas fault have clear counterparts west of the fault that indicate a total right-lateral offset of only 22 km on the Peninsula segment, the active strand that ruptured in 1906. The location of the Peninsula segment is well defined magnetically on the northern peninsula where it goes offshore, and can be traced along strike an additional ~6 km to the northwest. Just offshore from Lake Merced, the inferred fault trace steps right (northeast) 3 km onto a nearly parallel strand that can be traced magnetically northwest more than 20 km as the linear northeast edge of a magnetic block bounded by the San Andreas fault, the Pilarcitos fault, and the San Gregorio-Hosgri fault zone. This right-stepping strand, the Golden Gate segment, joins the eastern mapped trace of the San Andreas fault at Bolinas Lagoon and projects back onshore to the southeast near Lake Merced. Inversion of detailed gravity data on the San Francisco Peninsula reveals a 3 km wide basin situated between the two strands of the San Andreas fault, floored by Franciscan basement and filled with Plio-Quaternary sedimentary deposits of the Merced and Colma formations. The basin, ~1 km deep at the coast, narrows and becomes thinner to the southeast along the fault over a distance of ~12 km. The length, width, and location of the basin between the two strands are consistent with a pull-apart basin formed behind the right step in the right-lateral strike-slip San Andreas fault system and currently moving southeast with the North American plate. Slight nonparallelism of the two strands bounding the basin (implying a small component of convergence

  8. Complex rupture mechanism and topography control symmetry of mass - wasting pattern, 2010 Haiti earthquake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorum, T.; van Westen, C.J.; Korup, Oliver; van der Meijde, M.; Fan, Xuanmei; van der Meer, F.D.


    The 12 January 2010 Mw 7.0 Haiti earthquake occurred in a complex deformation zone at the boundary between the North American and Caribbean plates. Combined geodetic, geological and seismological data posited that surface deformation was driven by rupture on the Léogâne blind thrust fault, while par

  9. Complex rupture mechanism and topography control symmetry of mass - wasting pattern, 2010 Haiti earthquake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorum, Tolga; Westen, van Cees J.; Korup, Oliver; Meijde, van der Mark; Fan, Xuanmei; Meer, van der Freek D.


    The 12 January 2010 Mw 7.0 Haiti earthquake occurred in a complex deformation zone at the boundary between the North American and Caribbean plates. Combined geodetic, geological and seismological data posited that surface deformation was driven by rupture on the Léogâne blind thrust fault, while par

  10. Nonlinear radiation heat transfer effects in the natural convective boundary layer flow of nanofluid past a vertical plate: a numerical study. (United States)

    Mustafa, Meraj; Mushtaq, Ammar; Hayat, Tasawar; Ahmad, Bashir


    The problem of natural convective boundary layer flow of nanofluid past a vertical plate is discussed in the presence of nonlinear radiative heat flux. The effects of magnetic field, Joule heating and viscous dissipation are also taken into consideration. The governing partial differential equations are transformed into a system of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations via similarity transformations and then solved numerically using the Runge-Kutta fourth-fifth order method with shooting technique. The results reveal an existence of point of inflection for the temperature distribution for sufficiently large wall to ambient temperature ratio. Temperature and thermal boundary layer thickness increase as Brownian motion and thermophoretic effects intensify. Moreover temperature increases and heat transfer from the plate decreases with an increase in the radiation parameter.

  11. Nonlinear radiation heat transfer effects in the natural convective boundary layer flow of nanofluid past a vertical plate: a numerical study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meraj Mustafa

    Full Text Available The problem of natural convective boundary layer flow of nanofluid past a vertical plate is discussed in the presence of nonlinear radiative heat flux. The effects of magnetic field, Joule heating and viscous dissipation are also taken into consideration. The governing partial differential equations are transformed into a system of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations via similarity transformations and then solved numerically using the Runge-Kutta fourth-fifth order method with shooting technique. The results reveal an existence of point of inflection for the temperature distribution for sufficiently large wall to ambient temperature ratio. Temperature and thermal boundary layer thickness increase as Brownian motion and thermophoretic effects intensify. Moreover temperature increases and heat transfer from the plate decreases with an increase in the radiation parameter.

  12. Monitoring the terrestrial water cycle with reflected GPS signals recorded by the Plate Boundary Observatory Network (Invited) (United States)

    Small, E. E.; Larson, K. M.; Braun, J.; Chew, C. C.; McCreight, J. L.


    Data from NSF's EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), and similar GPS networks worldwide, can be used to monitor the terrestrial water cycle. GPS satellites transmit L-band microwave signals, which are strongly influenced by water at the surface of the Earth. GPS signals take two different paths: (1) the 'direct' signal travels from the satellite to the antenna; (2) the 'reflected' signal interacts with the Earth's surface before travelling to the antenna. The direct signal is used by geophysicists to measure the position of the antenna. By analyzing these GPS data over multiple years, the motion of the site can be estimated. The effects of reflected signals are generally ignored by geophysicists because they are small. This is not happenstance, as significant effort has been made to design and deploy a GPS antenna that suppresses ground reflections. Our group has developed a new remote sensing technique to retrieve terrestrial water cycle variables from GPS data. We extract the water cycle products from signal strength data that measures the interference between the direct and reflected GPS signals. The sensing footprint is intermediate in scale between in situ observations and most remote sensing measurements. Snow depth, soil moisture, and an index of vegetation water content are estimated from data collected at over 400 PBO sites. The products are updated daily and are available online. Validation studies show that retrieved products are of sufficient quality to be used in a variety of applications. In order to improve the resolution of GPS water cycle products, we are also developing a new sensor especially designed to measure reflected GPS signals. This will yield a more sensitive instrument that costs an order of magnitude less than existing geodetic-quality GPS systems. Such a technology would have broad applications in both research and agricultural settings.

  13. PBO H2O: Monitoring the Terrestrial Water Cycle with reflected GPS signals recorded by the Plate Boundary Observatory Network (United States)

    Small, E. E.; Fairfax, E. J.; Chew, C. C.; Larson, K. M.


    Data from NSF's EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), and similar GPS networks worldwide, can be used to monitor the terrestrial water cycle. GPS satellites transmit L-band microwave signals, which are strongly influenced by water at the surface of the Earth. GPS signals take two different paths: (1) the "direct" signal travels from the satellite to the antenna; (2) the "reflected" signal interacts with the Earth's surface before travelling to the antenna. The direct signal is used by geophysicists to measure the position of the antenna. By analyzing these GPS data over multiple years, the motion of the site can be estimated. The effects of reflected signals are generally ignored by geophysicists because they are small. This is not happenstance, as significant effort has been made to design and deploy a GPS antenna that suppresses ground reflections. Our group has developed a remote sensing technique to retrieve terrestrial water cycle variables from GPS data. We extract the water cycle products from signal strength data that measures the interference between the direct and reflected GPS signals. The sensing footprint is intermediate in scale between in situ observations and most remote sensing measurements. Snow depth, snow water equivalent (SWE), near surface soil moisture, and an index of vegetation water content are currently estimated from nearly 500 PBO sites. These PBO H2O products are updated daily and are available online ( Validation studies show that retrieved products are of sufficient quality to be used in a variety of applications. The root mean square error (RMSE) of GPS-based SWE is 2 cm, based on a comparison to snow survey data at nearly 20 GPS sites. The RMSE of near surface volumetric soil moisture is moisture and similar products.

  14. Low-latency high-rate GPS data streams from the EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (United States)

    Anderson, G.; Borsa, A.; Jackson, M.; Stark, K.


    Real-time processing of high rate GPS data can give precise (e.g., 5-10 mm for data recorded once per second) recordings of rapid volcanic and seismic deformation. These time series now provide an emerging tool for seismic, volcanic, and tsunami geodesy and early warning applications. UNAVCO, as part of the EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory project, has developed the UStream system to provide streaming GPS data from some PBO and other UNAVCO-operated GPS stations. UStream is based on the Ntrip standard, a widely used protocol for streaming GNSS data over the Internet. Remote GPS stations provide a stream of BINEX data at 1 sample/sec to an Ntrip server at UNAVCO's Boulder offices, while simultaneously recording data locally in the event of communications failure. Once in Boulder, the data fork into three output streams: BINEX files stored at UNAVCO and streams of data in BINEX and RTCM 2.3 format. These streams flow to an Ntrip broadcaster that distributes data to Ntrip clients, which can be anything from low-latency processing systems to external data archiving systems. Current development efforts are geared toward providing data in RTCM 3.x format. This system is now operating in a public beta test mode, with data available from over 55 PBO and Nucleus GPS stations across the western United States. Data latencies from stations operating on mobile telephone communications are under 1.1 seconds at 95% confidence, and data completeness is typically more than 95% barring transient communications disruptions. Data from the system are available under the terms of the draft UNAVCO streaming data usage policy. For further information, please visit or send e-mail to

  15. An application of Global Positioning System data from the Plate Boundary Observatory for deformation monitoring purposes (Invited) (United States)

    Murray-Moraleda, J. R.; Liu, Z.; Segall, P.


    The Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) represents a major step forward in Global Positioning System (GPS) coverage for the western United States by increasing the spatial density of stations, generating daily position estimates, and providing the infrastructure for high-rate and real-time positioning. In addition to producing vital input for a wide range of crustal deformation studies, PBO significantly expands opportunities for monitoring and event response. This presentation will focus on one such effort. Data from large continuous GPS networks like PBO should be monitored for temporal changes, be they tectonic, volcanic, hydrologic, anthropogenic, or instrumental in origin. Since it is not feasible to review time series by eye on a daily basis, automated approaches are required. Here we apply a Kalman filtering based method, termed the Network Inversion Filter (Segall and Matthews, 1997; McGuire and Segall, 2003), to monitor daily GPS data for deformation-related transient signals. This approach relies on the spatial coherence of signals due to transient sources such as fault slip in order to separate them from spatially-localized time-dependent noise. The dense GPS coverage provided by PBO has augmented pre-existing continuous GPS networks making it now feasible to test this method in California. Results from synthetic tests using the >400 station southern California continuous GPS network configuration demonstrate this approach can extract fault slip signals from data contaminated by plausible noise processes. We will present results using real data from the San Francisco Bay Area and discuss the role and limitations of this methodology in hazard monitoring.

  16. Heat and mass transfer for natural convection MHD flow over a permeable moving vertical plate with convective boundary condition in the presence of viscous dissipation (United States)

    Shateyi, Stanford


    The spectral relaxation method is employed to examine natural convective heat and mass transfer, MHD flow over a permeable moving vertical plate with convective boundary condition in the presence of viscous dissipation, thermal radiation and chemical reaction. The governing partial differential equations were transformed into a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations by using a similarity approach. The pertinent results are then displayed in tabular form and graphically.

  17. Anatomy of the Dead Sea transform: Does it reflect continuous changes in plate motion? (United States)

    ten Brink, U.S.; Rybakov, M.; Al-Zoubi, A. S.; Hassouneh, M.; Frieslander, U.; Batayneh, A.T.; Goldschmidt, V.; Daoud, M.N.; Rotstein, Y.; Hall, J.K.


    A new gravity map of the southern half of the Dead Sea transform offers the first regional view of the anatomy of this plate boundary. Interpreted together with auxiliary seismic and well data, the map reveals a string of subsurface basins of widely varying size, shape, and depth along the plate boundary and relatively short (25-55 km) and discontinuous fault segments. We argue that this structure is a result of continuous small changes in relative plate motion. However, several segments must have ruptured simultaneously to produce the inferred maximum magnitude of historical earthquakes.

  18. Effects of Thermal Radiation and Chemical Reaction on MHD Free Convection Flow past a Flat Plate with Heat Source and Convective Surface Boundary Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the radiation and chemical reaction effects on MHD steady two-dimensional laminar viscous incompressible radiating boundary layer flow over a flat plate in the presence of internal heat generation and convective boundary condition. It is assumed that lower surface of the plate is in contact with a hot fluid while a stream of cold fluid flows steadily over the upper surface with a heat source that decays exponentially. The Rosseland approximation is used to describe radiative heat transfer as we consider optically thick fluids. The governing boundary layer equations are transformed into a system of ordinary differential equations using similarity transformations, which are then solved numerically by employing fourth order Runge-Kutta method along with shooting technique. The effects of various material parameters on the velocity, temperature and concentration as well as the skin friction coefficient, the Nusselt number, the Sherwood number and the plate surface temperature are illustrated and interpreted in physical terms. A comparison of present results with previously published results shows an excellent agreement.

  19. Gravitational body forces focus North American intraplate earthquakes (United States)

    Levandowski, William Brower; Zellman, Mark; Briggs, Richard


    Earthquakes far from tectonic plate boundaries generally exploit ancient faults, but not all intraplate faults are equally active. The North American Great Plains exemplify such intraplate earthquake localization, with both natural and induced seismicity generally clustered in discrete zones. Here we use seismic velocity, gravity and topography to generate a 3D lithospheric density model of the region; subsequent finite-element modelling shows that seismicity focuses in regions of high-gravity-derived deviatoric stress. Furthermore, predicted principal stress directions generally align with those observed independently in earthquake moment tensors and borehole breakouts. Body forces therefore appear to control the state of stress and thus the location and style of intraplate earthquakes in the central United States with no influence from mantle convection or crustal weakness necessary. These results show that mapping where gravitational body forces encourage seismicity is crucial to understanding and appraising intraplate seismic hazard.

  20. Gravitational body forces focus North American intraplate earthquakes (United States)

    Levandowski, Will; Zellman, Mark; Briggs, Rich


    Earthquakes far from tectonic plate boundaries generally exploit ancient faults, but not all intraplate faults are equally active. The North American Great Plains exemplify such intraplate earthquake localization, with both natural and induced seismicity generally clustered in discrete zones. Here we use seismic velocity, gravity and topography to generate a 3D lithospheric density model of the region; subsequent finite-element modelling shows that seismicity focuses in regions of high-gravity-derived deviatoric stress. Furthermore, predicted principal stress directions generally align with those observed independently in earthquake moment tensors and borehole breakouts. Body forces therefore appear to control the state of stress and thus the location and style of intraplate earthquakes in the central United States with no influence from mantle convection or crustal weakness necessary. These results show that mapping where gravitational body forces encourage seismicity is crucial to understanding and appraising intraplate seismic hazard.

  1. New study on the 1941 Gloria Fault earthquake and tsunami (United States)

    Baptista, Maria Ana; Miranda, Jorge Miguel; Batlló, Josep; Lisboa, Filipe; Luis, Joaquim; Maciá, Ramon


    The M ˜ 8.3-8.4 25 November 1941 was one of the largest submarine strike-slip earthquakes ever recorded in the Northeast (NE) Atlantic basin. This event occurred along the Eurasia-Nubia plate boundary between the Azores and the Strait of Gibraltar. After the earthquake, the tide stations in the NE Atlantic recorded a small tsunami with maximum amplitudes of 40 cm peak to through in the Azores and Madeira islands. In this study, we present a re-evaluation of the earthquake epicentre location using seismological data not included in previous studies. We invert the tsunami travel times to obtain a preliminary tsunami source location using the backward ray tracing (BRT) technique. We invert the tsunami waveforms to infer the initial sea surface displacement using empirical Green's functions, without prior assumptions about the geometry of the source. The results of the BRT simulation locate the tsunami source quite close to the new epicentre. This fact suggests that the co-seismic deformation of the earthquake induced the tsunami. The waveform inversion of tsunami data favours the conclusion that the earthquake ruptured an approximately 160 km segment of the plate boundary, in the eastern section of the Gloria Fault between -20.249 and -18.630° E. The results presented here contribute to the evaluation of tsunami hazard in the Northeast Atlantic basin.

  2. Age and significance of earthquake-induced liquefaction near Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada (United States)

    Clague, J.J.; Naesgaard, E.; Nelson, A.R.


    In late 1994, sand dykes, large sand blows, and deformed strata were exposed in the walls of an excavation at Annacis Island on the Fraser River delta near Vancouver, British Columbia. The features record liquefaction during a large earthquake about 1700 years ago; this was perhaps the largest earthquake to affect the Vancouver area in the last 3500 years. Similar, less well-dated features have been reported from several other sites on the Fraser delta and may be products of the same earthquake. Three radiocarbon ages that closely delimit the time of liquefaction on Annacis Island are similar to the most precise radiocarbon ages on coseismically subsided marsh soils at estuaries in southern Washington and Oregon. Both the liquefaction and the subsidence may have been produced by a single great plate-boundary earthquake at the Cascadia subduction zone. Alternatively, liquefaction at Annacis Island may have been caused by a large crustal or subcrustal earthquake of about the same age as a plate-boundary earthquake farther west. The data from Annacis Island and other sites on the Fraser delta suggest that earthquakes capable of producing extensive liquefaction in this area are rare events. Further, liquefaction analysis using historical seismicity suggests that current assessment procedures may overestimate liquefaction risk.

  3. UNAVCO Enhanced data products for the EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory, COCONet, and other regional networks (United States)

    Puskas, C. M.; Phillips, D. A.; Mattioli, G. S.; Meertens, C. M.; Herring, T.; Murray, M. H.; Melbourne, T. I.; Boler, F. M.; Blewitt, G.; Larson, K. M.; Feaux, K.; Braun, J. J.; Small, E. E.


    As part of an initiative to improve data services and support new research in the geodetic community, UNAVCO and its partners are expanding our supported data products and releasing new visualization tools. The enhanced data products, primarily associated with the UNAVCO-managed EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) and COCONet project, have open access and are archived at UNAVCO. UNAVCO manages community data services for a range of geodetic systems: GPS, borehole strainmeters, laser strainmeters, tiltmeters, pore pressure sensors, and geodetic imaging (InSAR, LIDAR, and terrestrial laser scanning). As part of the expansion, UNAVCO will incorporate data products submitted or downloaded from outside agencies. We focus here on the GPS products, which will include improved geodetic coverage in the western U.S. and expanded coverage in North America, access to new station quality parameters, information on site hydrologic conditions, and hydrologic loading models. Existing, open-access GPS stations from other networks are being incorporated into current 1112-station PBO processing stream to obtain station position time series and velocities for an additional 500+ stations. The primary data sources will be the Southern California Integrated GPS Network (SCIGN), the Scripps Orbit and Permanent Array Center (SOPAC), and the National Geodetic Survey's Continuously Operating Reference (NGS CORS) network. These additional stations will comprise a backbone network across continental North America to better resolve the surface velocity field in central and eastern U.S. and Canada, regions not presently covered by PBO. The expanded geographic coverage will address possible tectonic signals on a continental scale and will improve resolution of intraplate seismic zones and glacial-isostatic adjustments. The large data set will also have non-tectonic applications such as hydrologic studies, reference frame determination, and atmospheric studies. Station quality parameters

  4. Nature and distribution of geological domains at the Africa-Eurasia plate boundary off SW Iberia and regional geodynamic implications (United States)

    Martínez-Loriente, Sara; Sallarès, Valentí; Gràcia, Eulàlia; Bartolome, Rafael


    We present a new classification of geological domains at the Africa-Eurasia plate boundary off SW Iberia, together with a regional geodynamic reconstruction spanning from the Mesozoic extension to the Neogene-to-present-day convergence. It is based on seismic velocity and density models along two regional wide-angle seismic transects, one running NW-SE from the Horseshoe to the Seine abyssal plains, and the other running N-S from S Portugal to the Seine Abyssal Plain, combined with previously available information. The seismic velocity and density structure at the Seine Abyssal Plain and the internal Gulf of Cadiz indicates the presence of a highly heterogeneous oceanic crust, similar to that described in ultra-slow spreading centers, whereas in the Horseshoe and Tagus abyssal plains, the basement structure resembles that of exhumed mantle sections identified in the Northern Atlantic margin. The integration of all this new information allows defining the presence of three oceanic domains offshore SW Iberia: (1) the Seine Abyssal Plain domain, generated during the first stages of slow seafloor spreading in the NE Central Atlantic (Early Jurassic); (2) the Gulf of Cadiz domain, made of oceanic crust generated in the Alpine-Tethys spreading system between Iberia and Africa, which was coeval with the formation of the Seine Abyssal Plain domain and lasted up to the North Atlantic continental break-up (Late Jurassic); and (3) the Gorringe Bank domain, mainly made of rocks exhumed from the mantle with little synchronous magmatism, which formed during the first stages of North Atlantic opening. Our models suggest that the Seine Abyssal Plain and Gulf of Cadiz domains are separated by the Lineament South strike-slip fault, whereas the Gulf of Cadiz and Gorringe Bank domains appear to be limited by a deep thrust fault located at the center of the Horseshoe Abyssal Plain. The formation and evolution of these three domains during the Mesozoic is key to understand the sequence

  5. Controls on Earthquake Rupture and Triggering Mechanisms in Subduction Zones (United States)


    of stressing rate variations in space and time from seismicity data can be used in tectonic settings besides subduction zones and has other...2004), Pre- and post- seismic slow slip on the plate boundary off Sanriku, NE Japan associated with three interplate earthquakes as estimated from...observed deformation transients in various tectonic environments. We find that stressing rate transients increase the background seismicity rate without

  6. The Teisseyre-Tornquist Zone - early Palaeozoic strike-slip plate boundary or Ediacaran rifted margin of Baltica? (United States)

    Mazur, Stanislaw; Krzywiec, Piotr; Malinowski, Michal; Lewandowski, Marek; Buffenmeyer, Vinton; Green, Christopher


    area is dominated by high density lower crustal bodies similar to those that are found along present-day passive continental margins. Moreover, an extensive succession of the uppermost Neoproterozoic sediments is emplaced outboard of the southeastern section of the TTZ. These results obtained do not support the occurrence of a Palaeozoic terrane boundary along the TTZ. Instead, it is suggested that the crystalline basement of the EEC extends westward beyond the TTZ and continues in the substratum of the Permo-Mesozoic basin of central and western Poland. If the crustal keel underneath the TTZ indeed represents a fossil plate boundary, it must have formed in the Precambrian during the amalgamation of the Rodinia supercontinent. However, the contrast of crustal thickness across the TTZ between the EEC and the adjacent Palaeozoic Platform may have formed later during the Ediacaran rifting and subsequent break-up of the Tornquist Ocean. The Caledonian collisional suture must be located farther southwest in western Poland or NE Germany and deeply concealed beneath a thick cover of Palaeozoic and younger sediments.

  7. Visualizing Earthquakes in '3D' using the IRIS Earthquake Browser (IEB) Website (United States)

    Welti, R.; McQuillan, P. J.; Weertman, B. R.


    The distribution of earthquakes is often easier to interpret in 3D, but most 3D visualization tools require the installation of specialized software and some practice in their use. To reduce this barrier for students and the general public, a pseudo-3D seismicity viewer has been developed which runs in a web browser as part of the IRIS Earthquake Browser (IEB). IEB is an interactive map for viewing earthquake epicenters all over the world, and is composed of a Google map, HTML, JavaScript and a fast earthquake hypocenter web service. The web service accesses seismic data at IRIS from the early 1960s until present. Users can change the region, the number of events, and the depth and magnitude ranges to display. Earthquakes may also be viewed as a table, or exported to various formats. Predefined regions can be selected and zoomed to, and bookmarks generally preserve whatever region and settings are in effect when bookmarked, allowing the easy sharing of particular "scenarios" with other users. Plate boundaries can be added to the display. The 3DV viewer displays events for the currently-selected IEB region in a separate window. They can be rotated and zoomed, with a fast response for plots of up to several thousand events. Rotation can be done manually by dragging or automatically at a set rate, and tectonic plate boundaries turned on or off. 3DV uses a geographical projection algorithm provided by Gary Pavils and collaborators. It is written in HTML5, and is based on CanvasMol by Branislav Ulicny.; A region SE of Fiji, selected in IRIS Earthquake Browser. ; The same region as viewed in 3D Viewer.

  8. How to build and teach with QuakeCaster: an earthquake demonstration and exploration tool (United States)

    Linton, Kelsey; Stein, Ross S.


    QuakeCaster is an interactive, hands-on teaching model that simulates earthquakes and their interactions along a plate-boundary fault. QuakeCaster contains the minimum number of physical processes needed to demonstrate most observable earthquake features. A winch to steadily reel in a line simulates the steady plate tectonic motions far from the plate boundaries. A granite slider in frictional contact with a nonskid rock-like surface simulates a fault at a plate boundary. A rubber band connecting the line to the slider simulates the elastic character of the Earth’s crust. By stacking and unstacking sliders and cranking in the winch, one can see the results of changing the shear stress and the clamping stress on a fault. By placing sliders in series with rubber bands between them, one can simulate the interaction of earthquakes along a fault, such as cascading or toggling shocks. By inserting a load scale into the line, one can measure the stress acting on the fault throughout the earthquake cycle. As observed for real earthquakes, QuakeCaster events are not periodic, time-predictable, or slip-predictable. QuakeCaster produces rare but unreliable “foreshocks.” When fault gouge builds up, the friction goes to zero and fault creep is seen without large quakes. QuakeCaster events produce very small amounts of fault gouge that strongly alter its behavior, resulting in smaller, more frequent shocks as the gouge accumulates. QuakeCaster is designed so that students or audience members can operate it and record its output. With a stopwatch and ruler one can measure and plot the timing, slip distance, and force results of simulated earthquakes. People of all ages can use the QuakeCaster model to explore hypotheses about earthquake occurrence. QuakeCaster takes several days and about $500.00 in materials to build.

  9. MHD Heat and Mass Transfer of Chemical Reaction Fluid Flow over a Moving Vertical Plate in Presence of Heat Source with Convective Surface Boundary Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. R. Rout


    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate the influence of chemical reaction and the combined effects of internal heat generation and a convective boundary condition on the laminar boundary layer MHD heat and mass transfer flow over a moving vertical flat plate. The lower surface of the plate is in contact with a hot fluid while the stream of cold fluid flows over the upper surface with heat source and chemical reaction. The basic equations governing the flow, heat transfer, and concentration are reduced to a set of ordinary differential equations by using appropriate transformation for variables and solved numerically by Runge-Kutta fourth-order integration scheme in association with shooting method. The effects of physical parameters on the velocity, temperature, and concentration profiles are illustrated graphically. A table recording the values of skin friction, heat transfer, and mass transfer at the plate is also presented. The discussion focuses on the physical interpretation of the results as well as their comparison with previous studies which shows good agreement as a special case of the problem.

  10. Earthquakes: Risk, Monitoring, Notification, and Research (United States)


    far away as Bangladesh , Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam. Several large aftershocks have occurred since the main seismic event. The May 12 earthquake...motion of tectonic plates; ! Earthquake geology and paleoseismology: studies of the history, effects, and mechanics of earthquakes; ! Earthquake hazards

  11. Fractal Models of Earthquake Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, Pathikrit; Kamal,; Samanta, Debashis


    Our understanding of earthquakes is based on the theory of plate tectonics. Earthquake dynamics is the study of the interactions of plates (solid disjoint parts of the lithosphere) which produce seismic activity. Over the last about fifty years many models have come up which try to simulate seismic activity by mimicking plate plate interactions. The validity of a given model is subject to the compliance of the synthetic seismic activity it produces to the well known empirical laws which describe the statistical features of observed seismic activity. Here we present a review of two such models of earthquake dynamics with main focus on a relatively new model namely The Two Fractal Overlap Model.

  12. The M8.1 Intraplate, Strike-Slip Macquarie Earthquake of 23 December 2004 (United States)

    Murphy, K.; Abercrombie, R. E.; Antolik, M.; Yamada, T.


    The M8.1, strike-slip earthquake on 23 December 2004 was ~150 km from the Macquarie Ridge plate boundary. This large intraplate earthquake provides an opportunity to investigate both the source processes of oceanic strike-slip earthquakes, which are controversial and poorly known, and to constrain the tectonics of the complex region surrounding the Macquarie Ridge. We model teleseismic P and SH waves from 29 stations using a point source moment tensor inversion. Our preferred model has two subevents, both strike-slip with strike and dip within about 15 degrees of one another; the first is tightly constrained by the first motions. The sources overlap by 17 s and have a combined duration of ~50 s. The centroid depths are 30 -- 35 km. There is no evidence for directivity in the waveforms, so our result is consistent with bilateral rupture along a slightly curved or bent fault. The lack of directivity means that we cannot unambiguously identify the fault plane. We prefer the NNW-SSE plane as it aligns with the aftershocks and the fossil transform faults in the region. We are performing a slip inversion to constrain further the fault plane and slip distribution. The apparent stress of the earthquake is ~5 MPa, higher than continental strike-slip earthquakes, but similar to previous intraplate oceanic earthquakes, e.g. 1998 M8.1 Antarctica. The stress drop (based on the 200 km aftershock extent, and the depth of 35 km) is ~3 MPa, consistent with previous oceanic and also continental strike-slip earthquakes. The tectonics of the region around the Macquarie Ridge are poorly known. Cande and Stock (2004) proposed that the SE part of the Australian plate is actually a separate plate (the Macquarie plate) separated by a diffuse plate boundary. Their model predicts NNE-SSW extension in the region of the 2004 M8.1 earthquake, which is at the northerly extent of a group of previous, smaller, earthquakes. They all have T axis orientations that fit this plate model. The age of the

  13. 3-D simulation of temporal change in tectonic deformation pattern and evolution of the plate boundary around the Kanto Region of Japan due to the collision of the Izu-Bonin Arc (United States)

    Hashima, A.; Sato, T.; Ito, T.; Miyauchi, T.; Furuya, H.; Tsumura, N.; Kameo, K.; Yamamoto, S.


    The Kanto region of Japan is in a highly complex tectonic setting with four plates interacting with each other: beneath Kanto, situated on the Eurasian and North American plates, the Philippine sea plate subducts and the Pacific plate further descends beneath the North American and Philippine sea plates, forming the unique trench-trench-trench triple junction on the earth. In addition, the Izu-Bonin (Ogasawara) arc on the Philippine sea plate is colliding with the Japan islands, which is considered to be a significant effect on the tectonics of Kanto. To reveal the present crustal structure and the present internal stress fields in such a complex tectonic setting, it is essential to comprehend them through the long-term tectonic evolution process. In this study, we estimate the temporal change in tectonic deformation pattern along with the geometry of the plate boundary around Kanto by numerical simulation with a kinematic plate subduction model based on the elastic dislocation theory. This model is based on the idea that mechanical interaction between plates can rationally be represented by the increase of the displacement discontinuity (dislocation) across plate interfaces. Given the 3-D geometry of plate interfaces, the distribution of slip rate vectors for simple plate subduction can be obtained directly from relative plate velocities. In collision zones, the plate with arc crust cannot easily descend because of its buoyancy. This can be represented by giving slip-rate deficit. When crustal deformation occurs, it also causes change in geometry of the plate boundary itself. This geometry change sensitively affects mechanical interaction at the plate boundary. Then the renewed plate-to-plete interaction alters crustal deformation rates. This feedback system has a large effect on collision zones. Indeed, the plate boundary around the Izu peninsula, the northernmost end of the Izu-Bonin arc, intends landward as large as 100 km. Iterating this effect sequentially

  14. Vertical tectonics at a continental crust-oceanic plateau plate boundary zone: Fission track thermochronology of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia (United States)

    Villagómez, Diego; Spikings, Richard; Mora, AndréS.; GuzmáN, Georgina; Ojeda, GermáN.; CortéS, Elizabeth; van der Lelij, Roelant


    The topographically prominent Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta forms part of a faulted block of continental crust located along the northern boundary of the South American Plate, hosts the highest elevation in the world (˜5.75 km) whose local base is at sea level, and juxtaposes oceanic plateau rocks of the Caribbean Plate. Quantification of the amount and timing of exhumation constrains interpretations of the history of the plate boundary, and the driving forces of rock uplift along the active margin. The Sierra Nevada Province of the southernmost Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta exhumed at elevated rates (≥0.2 Km/My) during 65-58 Ma in response to the collision of the Caribbean Plateau with northwestern South America. A second pulse of exhumation (≥0.32 Km/My) during 50-40 Ma was driven by underthrusting of the Caribbean Plate beneath northern South America. Subsequent exhumation at 40-25 Ma (≥0.15 Km/My) is recorded proximal to the Santa Marta-Bucaramanga Fault. More northerly regions of the Sierra Nevada Province exhumed rapidly during 26-29 Ma (˜0.7 Km/My). Further northward, the Santa Marta Province exhumed at elevated rates during 30-25 Ma and 25-16 Ma. The highest exhumation rates within the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta progressed toward the northwest via the propagation of NW verging thrusts. Exhumation is not recorded after ˜16 Ma, which is unexpected given the high elevation and high erosive power of the climate, implying that rock and surface uplift that gave rise to the current topography was very recent (i.e., ≤1 Ma?), and there has been insufficient time to expose the fossil apatite partial annealing zone.

  15. Finite difference analysis of hydromagnetic mixed convective mass diffusion boundary layer flow past an accelerated vertical porous plate through a porous medium with suction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, S.S. [Department of Physics, K.B.D.A.V. College, Nirakarpur, Khordha-752 019 (Odisha) (India); Saran, M.R. [Department of Physics, Maharishi College of Natural Law, Sahid Nagar, Bhubaneswar-751 007 (Odisha) (India); Mohanty, S. [Department of Chemistry, Christ College, Mission Road, Cuttack-753 001 (Odisha) (India); Padhy, R.K. [Department of Physics, ODM Public School, Shishu Vihar, Patia, Bhubaneswar-751 024 (Odisha) (India)


    This paper focuses on the unsteady hydromagnetic mixed convective heat and mass transfer boundary layer flow of a viscous incompressible electrically conducting fluid past an accelerated infinite vertical porous flat plate in a porous medium with suction in presence of foreign species such as H2, He, H2O vapour and NH3. The governing equations are solved both analytically and numerically using error function and finite difference scheme. The flow phenomenon has been characterized with the help of flow parameters such as magnetic parameter (M), suction parameter (a), permeability parameter (Kp), Grashof number for heat and mass transfer (Gr, Gc), Schmidt number (Sc) and Prandtl number (Pr). The effects of the above parameters on the fluid velocity, temperature, concentration distribution, skin friction and heat flux have been analyzed and the results are presented graphically and discussed quantitatively for Grashof number Gr>0 corresponding to cooling of the plate. It is observed that a growing magnetic parameter (M) retards the velocity of the flow field at all points and a greater suction leads to a faster reduction in the velocity of the flow field. Further, as we increase the permeability parameter (Kp) and the Grashof numbers for heat and mass transfer (Gr, Gc) the velocity of the flow field enhances at all points, while a greater suction/Prandtl number leads to a faster cooling of the plate. It is also observed that a more diffusive species has a significant decrease in the concentration boundary layer of the flow field and a growing suction parameter enhances both skin friction (T') and heat flux (Nu) at the wall corresponding to cooling of the plate (Gr>0).

  16. Abbot Ice Shelf, structure of the Amundsen Sea continental margin and the southern boundary of the Bellingshausen Plate seaward of West Antarctica. (United States)

    Cochran, James R; Tinto, Kirsty J; Bell, Robin E


    Inversion of NASA Operation IceBridge airborne gravity over the Abbot Ice Shelf in West Antarctica for subice bathymetry defines an extensional terrain made up of east-west trending rift basins formed during the early stages of Antarctica/Zealandia rifting. Extension is minor, as rifting jumped north of Thurston Island early in the rifting process. The Amundsen Sea Embayment continental shelf west of the rifted terrain is underlain by a deeper, more extensive sedimentary basin also formed during rifting between Antarctica and Zealandia. A well-defined boundary zone separates the mildly extended Abbot extensional terrain from the deeper Amundsen Embayment shelf basin. The shelf basin has an extension factor, β, of 1.5-1.7 with 80-100 km of extension occurring across an area now 250 km wide. Following this extension, rifting centered north of the present shelf edge and proceeded to continental rupture. Since then, the Amundsen Embayment continental shelf appears to have been tectonically quiescent and shaped by subsidence, sedimentation, and the advance and retreat of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. The Bellingshausen Plate was located seaward of the Amundsen Sea margin prior to incorporation into the Antarctic Plate at about 62 Ma. During the latter part of its independent existence, Bellingshausen plate motion had a clockwise rotational component relative to Antarctica producing convergence across the north-south trending Bellingshausen Gravity Anomaly structure at 94°W and compressive deformation on the continental slope between 94°W and 102°W. Farther west, the relative motion was extensional along an east-west trending zone occupied by the Marie Byrd Seamounts. Abbot Ice Shelf is underlain by E-W rift basins created at ∼90 Ma Amundsen shelf shaped by subsidence, sedimentation, and passage of the ice sheet Bellingshausen plate boundary is located near the base of continental slope and rise.

  17. Large-scale right-slip displacement on the East San Francisco Bay Region fault system, California: Implications for location of late Miocene to Pliocene Pacific plate boundary (United States)

    McLaughlin, R.J.; Sliter, W.V.; Sorg, D.H.; Russell, P.C.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A. M.


    . Major transpression across the boundary between the Pacific and North American plates at about 3 to 5 Ma would have resulted in the transfer of significant slip back to the San Francisco Peninsula segment of the San Andreas fault. Since that time, the ESFBR fault system has continued to slip at rates of 11-14 mm/yr. If this interpretation is valid, the ESFBR fault system was the Pacific-North American plate boundary between 8 and 6 Ma, and this boundary has migrated both eastward and westward with time, in response to changing plate margin geometry and plate motions.

  18. Tomographic evidence for a subducted seamount beneath the Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica: The cause of the 1990 Mw = 7.0 Gulf of Nicoya earthquake (United States)

    Husen, S.; Kissling, E.; Quintero, R.


    Tomographic images constrain the existence of a subducted seamount beneath the Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica. The subducted seamount is found at a depth of 30 km within the rupture area of the March 25, 1990, Mw = 7.0 Gulf of Nicoya earthquake. The Gulf of Nicoya earthquake was a typical thrust-type subduction earthquake and occurred on a shallow dipping thrust fault parallel or along the boundary between the subducting Cocos plate and the overriding plate. Precise relocation of the mainshock and its aftershocks in a 3-D P-wave velocity model shows that the area of the mainshock rupture is coincident with the imaged subducted seamount. Most of the aftershocks are relocated within or close to the inferred subducted seamount above the subducting oceanic plate. We interpret the subducted seamount as an asperity whose rupture caused the 1990 Gulf of Nicoya earthquake.

  19. Effect of strain-weakening on Oligocene-Miocene self-organization of the Australian-Pacific plate boundary fault in southern New Zealand: Insights from numerical modelling (United States)

    Feng, Xiaojun; Jessell, Mark Walter; Amponsah, Prince Ofori; Martin, Roland; Ganne, Jérôme; Liu, Daqing; Batt, Geoffrey E.


    Tectonic inheritance acquired from past geological events can control the formation of new plate boundaries. The aim of this paper is to explore the role of inherited NE and NW trending fabrics and their rheological influence on the propagation of Oligocene-Miocene strike-slip faulting that matured to become the Australian-Pacific plate boundary fault in southern New Zealand. Strain weakening plays a significant role in controlling the formation, growth and evolution of strain localization. In this study, three-dimensional thermo-mechanical models have been used to explore the effect of strain weakening on the Oligocene-Miocene self-organization of strain localization. Strain weakening is simulated through decreasing either the coefficient of friction of upper crust, its cohesion, or the rheological viscosity contrast between the inherited structures and their surrounding wall rocks. Viscosity contrast is obtained by varying the viscosity of inherited structures. Softening coefficient (α) is a measure of strain weakening. Our experiments robustly demonstrate that a primary boundary shear zone becomes mature quicker when softening coefficients are increased. Deformation is focused along narrow high-strain shear zones in the centre of the model when the softening coefficients are high, whereas the strain is more diffuse with many shear zones spread over the model and possibly some high-strain shear zones focused near one border at lower softening coefficients. Varying the viscosity contrast has less effect on the distribution of maximum finite strain. Under simple-shear boundary conditions, NW trending inherited structures make a major contribution to forming early zones of highly focused strain, up to a shear strain of about γ = 3.7. During this process, most NE-trending structures move and rotate passively, accommodate less strain, or even be abandoned through time.

  20. A numerical method for solving the boundary layer equations of laminar natural convention about a vertical plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liancun Zheng; Chen Liang; Xinxin Zhang


    An improved shooting method was presented for solving the natural convention boundary layer equations,with a coupling of the velocity field to the temperature field.The numerical results are consistent with the approximate solution obtained by former researchers.

  1. Numerical Study of Non-Newtonian Boundary Layer Flow of Jeffreys Fluid Past a Vertical Porous Plate in a Non-Darcy Porous Medium (United States)

    Ramachandra Prasad, V.; Gaffar, S. Abdul; Keshava Reddy, E.; Bég, O. Anwar


    Polymeric enrobing flows are important in industrial manufacturing technology and process systems. Such flows are non-Newtonian. Motivated by such applications, in this article we investigate the nonlinear steady state boundary layer flow, heat, and mass transfer of an incompressible Jefferys non-Newtonian fluid past a vertical porous plate in a non-Darcy porous medium. The transformed conservation equations are solved numerically subject to physically appropriate boundary conditions using a versatile, implicit, Keller-box finite-difference technique. The numerical code is validated with previous studies. The influence of a number of emerging non-dimensional parameters, namely Deborah number (De), Darcy number (Da), Prandtl number (Pr), ratio of relaxation to retardation times (λ), Schmidt number (Sc), Forchheimer parameter (Λ), and dimensionless tangential coordinate (ξ) on velocity, temperature, and concentration evolution in the boundary layer regime are examined in detail. Furthermore, the effects of these parameters on surface heat transfer rate, mass transfer rate, and local skin friction are also investigated. It is found that the boundary layer flow is decelerated with increasing De and Forchheimer parameter, whereas temperature and concentration are elevated. Increasing λ and Da enhances the velocity but reduces the temperature and concentration. The heat transfer rate and mass transfer rates are found to be depressed with increasing De and enhanced with increasing λ. Local skin friction is found to be decreased with a rise in De, whereas it is elevated with increasing λ. An increasing Sc decreases the velocity and concentration but increases temperature.

  2. The Ionian and Alfeo-Etna fault zones : New segments of an evolving plate boundary in the central Mediterranean Sea?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polonia, A.; Torelli, L.; Artoni, A.; Carlini, M.; Faccenna, C.; Ferranti, L.; Gasperini, L.; Govers, R.; Klaeschen, D.; Monaco, C.; Neri, G.; Nijholt, N.; Orecchio, B.; Wortel, R.


    The Calabrian Arc is a narrow subduction-rollback system resulting from Africa/Eurasia plate convergence. While crustal shortening is taken up in the accretionary wedge, transtensive deformation accounts for margin segmentation along transverse lithospheric faults. One of these structures is the NNW

  3. The Ionian and Alfeo-Etna fault zones : New segments of an evolving plate boundary in the central Mediterranean Sea?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polonia, A.; Torelli, L.; Artoni, A.; Carlini, M.; Faccenna, C.; Ferranti, L.; Gasperini, L.; Govers, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/108173836; Klaeschen, D.; Monaco, C.; Neri, G.; Nijholt, N.; Orecchio, B.; Wortel, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068439202


    The Calabrian Arc is a narrow subduction-rollback system resulting from Africa/Eurasia plate convergence. While crustal shortening is taken up in the accretionary wedge, transtensive deformation accounts for margin segmentation along transverse lithospheric faults. One of these structures is the NNW

  4. Film Condensation with and Without Body Force in Boundary-Layer Flow of Vapor Over a Flat Plate (United States)

    Chung, Paul M.


    Laminar film condensation under the simultaneous influence of gas-liquid interface shear and body force (g force) is analyzed over a flat plate. Important parameters governing condensation and heat transfer of pure vapor are determined. Mixtures of condensable vapor and noncondensable gas are also analyzed. The conditions under which the body force has a significant influence on condensation are determined.

  5. Influence of boundary conditions on the response of multilayered plates with cohesive interfaces and delaminations using a homogenized approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Massabò


    Full Text Available Stress and displacement fields in multilayered composites with interfacial imperfections, such as imperfect bonding of the layers or delaminations, or where the plies are separated by thin interlayers allowing relative motion, have large variations in the thickness, with characteristic zigzag patterns and jumps at the layer interfaces. These effects are well captured by a model recently formulated by the author for multilayered plates with imperfect interfaces and affine interfacial traction laws (Massabò & Campi, Meccanica, 2014, in press; Compos Struct, 2014, 116, 311-324. The model defines a homogenized displacement field, which satisfies interfacial continuity, and uses a variational technique to derive equilibrium equations depending on only six generalized displacement functions, for any arbitrary numbers of layers and interfaces. The model accurately predicts stresses and displacements in simply supported, highly anisotropic, thick plates with continuous, sliding interfaces. In this paper the model is applied to wide plates with clamped edges and some inconsistencies, which have been noted in the literature for models based on similar approaches and have limited their utilization, are explained. A generalized transverse shear force is introduced as the gross stress resultant which is directly related to the bending moment in the equilibrium equations of multilayered structures with imperfect interfaces and substitutes for the shear force of single-layer theory. An application to a delaminated wide plate highlights the potential and limitations of the proposed model for the solution of fracture mechanics problems.

  6. Quadratic Convective Flow of a Micropolar Fluid along an Inclined Plate in a Non-Darcy Porous Medium with Convective Boundary Condition (United States)

    RamReddy, Ch.; Naveen, P.; Srinivasacharya, D.


    The objective of the present study is to investigate the effect of nonlinear variation of density with temperature and concentration on the mixed convective flow of a micropolar fluid over an inclined flat plate in a non-Darcy porous medium in the presence of the convective boundary condition. In order to analyze all the essential features, the governing non-dimensional partial differential equations are transformed into a system of ordinary differential equations using a local non-similarity procedure and then the resulting boundary value problem is solved using a successive linearisation method (SLM). By insisting the comparison between vertical, horizontal and inclined plates, the physical quantities of the flow and its characteristics are exhibited graphically and quantitatively with various parameters. An increase in the micropolar parameter and non-Darcy parameter tend to increase the skin friction and the reverse change is observed in wall couple stress, mass and heat transfer rates. The influence of the nonlinear concentration parameter is more prominent on all the physical characteristics of the present model, compared with that of nonlinear temperature parameter.

  7. Numerical solution of thermo-solutal mixed convective slip flow from a radiative plate with convective boundary condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    A mathematical model for mixed convective slip flow with heat and mass transfer in the presence of thermal radiation is presented. A convective boundary condition is included and slip is simulated via the hydrodynamic slip parameter. Heat generation and absorption effects are also incorporated. The Rosseland diffusion flux model is employed. The governing partial differential conservation equations are reduced to a system of coupled, ordinary differential equations via Lie group theory method. The resulting coupled equations are solved using shooting method. The influences of the emerging parameters on dimensionless velocity, tempera- ture and concentration distributions are investigated. Increasing radiative-conductive parameter accelerates the boundary layer flow and increases temperature whereas it depresses concentration. An elevation in convection-conduction parameter also accelerates the flow and temperatures whereas it reduces concentrations. Velocity near the wall is considerably boosted with increasing momentum slip parameter although both temperature and concentration boundary layer thicknesses are decreased. The presence of a heat source is found to increase momentum and thermal boundary layer thicknesses but reduces concentration boundary layer thickness. Excelle- nt correlation of the numerical solutions with previous non-slip studies is demonstrated. The current study has applications in bio- reactor diffusion flows and high-temperature chemical materials processing systems.

  8. Large vertical motions and basin evolution in the Outer Continental Borderland off Southern California associated with plate boundary development and continental rifting (United States)

    Nicholson, C.; Sorlien, C. C.; Schindler, C. S.; De Hoogh, G.


    The Continental Borderland offshore southern California occupies a strategic position along the continental margin. It was the locus of ~75% of Pacific-North America displacement history, it helped accommodate the large-scale (>90°) tectonic rotation of the Western Transverse Ranges province, and is still accommodating potentially 20% of PAC-NAM plate motion today. As such, it represents an ideal natural laboratory to investigate plate boundary evolution and basin development associated with transform initiation, oblique continental rifting, transrotation and transpression. We have been using newly released grids of high-quality industry multichannel seismic (MCS) reflection data, combined with multibeam bathymetry and offshore well data to map and construct digital 3D fault surfaces and stratigraphic reference horizons over large parts of the Outer Continental Borderland. These 3D surfaces of structure and stratigraphy can be used to better understand and evaluate regional patterns of uplift, subsidence, fault interaction and other aspects of plate boundary deformation. In the northern Outer Borderland, mapping in Santa Cruz basin, and across both Santa Rosa and Santa Cruz-Catalina ridges reveals a pattern of interacting high-and low-angle faults, fault reactivation, basin subsidence, folding, and basin inversion. Subsidence since early-Miocene time is significant (up to 4 km) and is much larger than predicted by simple thermal cooling models of continental rifting. This requires additional tectonic components to drive this regional subsidence and subsequent basin inversion. Farther south, a more en echelon pattern of ridges and basins suggests a distributed component of right-lateral shear also contributed to much of the modern Borderland seafloor topography, including major Borderland basins. Vertical motions of uplift and subsidence can be estimated from a prominent early-Miocene unconformity that likely represents a regional, paleo-horizontal, near

  9. Effect of inherited structures on strike-slip plate boundaries: insight from analogue modelling of the central Levant Fracture System, Lebanon (United States)

    Ghalayini, Ramadan; Daniel, Jean-Marc; Homberg, Catherine; Nader, Fadi


    Analogue sandbox modeling is a tool to simulate deformation style and structural evolution of sedimentary basins. The initial goal is to test what is the effect of inherited and crustal structures on the propagation, evolution, and final geometry of major strike-slip faults at the boundary between two tectonic plates. For this purpose, we have undertaken a series of analogue models to validate and reproduce the structures of the Levant Fracture System, a major NNE-SSW sinistral strike-slip fault forming the boundary between the Arabian and African plates. Onshore observations and recent high quality 3D seismic data in the Levant Basin offshore Lebanon demonstrated that Mesozoic ENE striking normal faults were reactivated into dextral strike-slip faults during the Late Miocene till present day activity of the plate boundary which shows a major restraining bend in Lebanon with a ~ 30°clockwise rotation in its trend. Experimental parameters consisted of a silicone layer at the base simulating the ductile crust, overlain by intercalated quartz sand and glass sand layers. Pre-existing structures were simulated by creating a graben in the silicone below the sand at an oblique (>60°) angle to the main throughgoing strike-slip fault. The latter contains a small stepover at depth to create transpression during sinistral strike-slip movement and consequently result in mountain building similarly to modern day Lebanon. Strike-slip movement and compression were regulated by steady-speed computer-controlled engines and the model was scanned using a CT-scanner continuously while deforming to have a final 4D model of the system. Results showed that existing normal faults were reactivated into dextral strike-slip faults as the sinistral movement between the two plates accumulated. Notably, the resulting restraining bend is asymmetric and segmented into two different compartments with differing geometries. One compartment shows a box fold anticline, while the second shows an

  10. Alteration and dehydration of subducting oceanic crust within subduction zones: implications for décollement step-down and plate-boundary seismogenesis (United States)

    Kameda, Jun; Inoue, Sayako; Tanikawa, Wataru; Yamaguchi, Asuka; Hamada, Yohei; Hashimoto, Yoshitaka; Kimura, Gaku


    The alteration and dehydration of predominantly basaltic subducting oceanic crustal material are thought to be important controls on the mechanical and hydrological properties of the seismogenic plate interface below accretionary prisms. This study focuses on pillow basalts exposed in an ancient accretionary complex within the Shimanto Belt of southwest Japan and provides new quantitative data that provide insight into clay mineral reactions and the associated dehydration of underthrust basalts. Whole-rock and clay-fraction X-ray diffraction analyses indicate that the progressive conversion of saponite to chlorite proceeds under an almost constant bulk-rock mineral assemblage. These clay mineral reactions may persist to deep crustal levels ( 320 °C), possibly contributing to the bulk dehydration of the basalt and supplying fluid to plate-boundary fault systems. This dehydration can also cause fluid pressurization at certain horizons within hydrous basalt sequences, eventually leading to fracturing and subsequent underplating of upper basement rock into the overriding accretionary prism. This dehydration-induced breakage of the basalt can explain variations in the thickness of accreted basalt fragments within accretionary prisms as well as the reported geochemical compositions of mineralized veins associated with exposed basalts in onland locations. This fracturing of intact basalt can also nucleate seismic rupturing that would subsequently propagate along seismogenic plate interfaces.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  11. Recent regressions in plate boundary modelling - subducting the Himalayan orogen, and taking it with a growing grain of salt (United States)

    Ueda, Kosuke


    One particular and maybe peculiar approach is to make inferences from the larger to the smaller scale. A promising starting point is the well-studied geodynamic plate subduction margin setup, from which many smaller-scale or process-specific findings have been successfully extracted. I present a series of models that were aiming to combine many of these findings to test the feasibility of conceptual models for the evolution of the Himalayan-Tibetan system. Are the Himalayas not feasible? Do the limitations lie within the method (i.e. 2D), the author, or the proposed history? Having not found the fundamental process control on major observables, I also move on to other regional settings. The presentation concludes with a display of early trial-stage of grain size evolution experiments, to plate-scale geodynamic processes.

  12. A revised estimate of Pacific-North America motion and implications for Western North America plate boundary zone tectonics (United States)

    Demets, Charles; Gordon, Richard G.; Stein, Seth; Argus, Donald F.


    Marine magnetic profiles from the Gulf of Californa are studied in order to revise the estimate of Pacific-North America motion. It is found that since 3 Ma spreading has averaged 48 mm/yr, consistent with a new global plate motion model derived without any data. The present data suggest that strike-slip motion on faults west of the San Andreas is less than previously thought, reducing the San Andreas discrepancy with geodetic, seismological, and other geologic observations.

  13. Active control of flow noise sources in turbulent boundary layer on a flat-plate using piezoelectric bimorph film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Woo Seog; Lee, Seung Bae [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Dong Shin [Hongik University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Na, Yang [Konkuk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    The piezoelectric bimorph film, which, as an actuator, can generate more effective displacement than the usual PVDF film, is used to control the turbulent boundary-layer flow. The change of wall pressures inside the turbulent boundary layer is observed by using the multi-channel microphone array flush-mounted on the surface when actuation at the non-dimensional frequency f{sub b}{sup +} =0.008 and 0.028 is applied to the turbulent boundary layer. The wall pressure characteristics by the actuation to produce local displacement are more dominantly influenced by the size of the actuator module than the actuation frequency. The movement of large-scale turbulent structures to the upper layer is found to be the main mechanism of the reduction in the wall-pressure energy spectrum when the 700{nu}/u{sub {tau}}-long bimorph film is periodically actuated at the non-dimensional frequency f{sub b}{sup +} =0.008 and 0.028. The bimorph actuator is triggered with the time delay for the active forcing at a single frequency when a 1/8' pressure-type, pin-holed microphone sensor detects the large-amplitude pressure event by the turbulent spot. The wall-pressure energy in the late-transitional boundary layer is partially reduced near the convection wavenumber by the open-loop control based on the large amplitude event.

  14. Upper crustal structure beneath Southwest Iberia north of the convergent boundary between the Eurasian and African plates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohamed K. Salah


    The 3-D P-and S-wave velocity models of the upper crust beneath Southwest Iberia are determined by inverting arrival time data from local earthquakes using a seismic tomography method. We used a total of 3085 P- and 2780 S-wave high quality arrival times from 886 local earthquakes recorded by a per-manent seismic network, which is operated by the Institute of Meteorology (IM), Lisbon, Portugal. The computed P- and S-wave velocities are used to determine the 3-D distributions of Vp/Vs ratio. The 3-D velocity and Vp/Vs ratio images display clear lateral heterogeneities in the study area. Significant veloc-ity variations up to ?6%are revealed in the upper crust beneath Southwest Iberia. At 4 km depth, both P-and S-wave velocity take average to high values relative to the initial velocity model, while at 12 km, low P-wave velocities are clearly visible along the coast and in the southern parts. High S-wave velocities at 12 km depth are imaged in the central parts, and average values along the coast;although some scattered patches of low and high S-wave velocities are also revealed. The Vp/Vs ratio is generally high at depths of 4 and 12 km along the coastal parts with some regions of high Vp/Vs ratio in the north at 4 km depth, and low Vp/Vs ratio in the central southern parts at a depth of 12 km. The imaged low velocity and high Vp/Vs ratios are related to the thick saturated and unconsolidated sediments covering the region;whereas the high velocity regions are generally associated with the Mesozoic basement rocks.

  15. Is There Really A North American Plate? (United States)

    Krill, A.


    Lithospheric plates are typically identified from earthquake epicenters and evidence such as GPS movements. But no evidence indicates a plate boundary between the North American and South American Plates. Some plate maps show them separated by a transform boundary, but it is only a fracture zone. Other maps show an "undefined plate boundary" or put no boundary between these two plates (check Google images). Early plate maps showed a single large American Plate, quite narrow east of the Caribbean Plate (Le Pichon 1968, Morgan 1968). The North and South American Plates became established by the leading textbook Earth (Press & Siever 1974). On their map, from a Scientific American article by John Dewey (1972), these new plates were separated by an "uncertain plate boundary." The reasons for postulating a North American Plate were probably more psychological than geological. Each of the other continents of the world had its own plate, and North American geologists naturally wanted theirs. Similarly, European geographers used to view Europe as its own continent. A single large plate should again be hypothesized. But the term American Plate would now be ambiguous ("Which plate, North or South?") Perhaps future textbook authors could call it the "Two-American Plate." Textbook authors ultimately decide such global-tectonic matters. I became aware of textbook authors' opinions and influence from my research into the history of Alfred Wegener's continental drift (see Fixists vs. Mobilists by Krill 2011). Leading textbook author Charles Schuchert realized that continental drift would abolish his cherished paleogeographic models of large east-west continents (Eria, Gondwana) and small oceans (Poseiden, Nereis). He and his junior coauthors conspired to keep drift evidence out of their textbooks, from the 1934-editions until the 1969-editions (Physical Geology by Longwell et al. 1969, Historical Geology by Dunbar & Waage 1969). Their textbooks ruled in America. Textbooks

  16. Mathematical Study of Laminar Boundary Layer Flow and Heat Transfer of Tangenthyperbolic Fluid Pasta Vertical Porous Plate with Biot Number Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandra Prasad


    Full Text Available In this article, we investigate the nonlinear steady boundary layer flow and heat transfer of an incompressible Tangent Hyperbolicnon-Newtonian fluid from a vertical porous plate. The transformed conservation equations are solved numerically subject to physically appropriate boundary conditions using a second-order accurate implicit finite-difference Keller Box technique. The numerical code is validated with previous studies. The influence of a number of emerging non-dimensional parameters, namely the Weissenberg number (We, the power law index (n, Prandtl number (Pr, Biot number (, and dimensionless local suction parameter(on velocity and temperature evolution in the boundary layer regime are examined in detail. Furthermore the effects of these parameters on surface heat transfer rate and local skin friction are also investigated. Validation with earlier Newtonian studies is presented and excellent correlation achieved. It is found that velocity, Skin friction and Nusselt number (heat transfer rate are reduced with increasing Weissenberg number (We, whereas, temperature is enhanced. Increasing power law index (n enhances velocity and Nusselt number (heat transfer rate but temperature and Skin friction decrease. An increase in the Biot number ( is observed to enhance velocity, temperature, local skin friction and Nusselt number. An increasing Prandtl number, Pr, is found to decrease both velocity, temperature and skin friction but elevates heat transfer rate (Nusselt number. The study is relevant to chemical materials processing applications.

  17. Seismic activities of earthquake clusters and small repeating earthquakes in Japan before and after the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake (United States)

    Igarashi, T.


    The 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake (M9.0) had a great effect on seismic activities over vast areas. In this study, we investigated spatio-temporal changes of seismic activities of earthquake clusters and small repeating earthquakes before and after the main shock. We have already reported many small repeating earthquakes occur at the upper boundary of the subducting plates in Japan. From these sequences, we can estimate the space-time characteristics of the inter-plate slip. In the 21st century, the resultant slip-rates correspond to relative plate motion in the Ryukyu-arc. In contrast, the shallow part and the southern part of the northeastern Japan arc indicated slip deficits. There were few after-slips following the 2005 off Miyagi earthquake (M7.2), which located near the hypocenter of the 2011 main shock. On the other hand, slip deficits of the southern shallow part were slightly decreased by after-slips following the 2003 and 2008 M7 class earthquakes. We also identified quasi-static slips associated with foreshocks off Miyagi that started from February 2011. After the main shock, we detect many small repeating earthquakes in the aftershocks. The distributions suggest after-slips near the trench of the southeastern part as well as in the deep part of the source region estimated by GPS data analysis. However, some of them are burst-type repeating sequences which occurred only after the main shock. Many continual-type repeating sequences are distributed in the southern part of the source region, and it is difficult to estimate slip-rates in the northern part at present. This uneven distribution may have been caused because observed seismograms are distorted by the multiplicity of the waves to come from various locations, the seismic velocity changes at the propagation path or site, or changes of physical properties at the plate interface. Furthermore, we automatically extracted earthquake clusters by using the unified JMA hypocenter catalogue

  18. Seismicity of the Earth 1900-2010 eastern margin of the Australia plate (United States)

    Benz, Harley M.; Herman, Matthew; Tarr, Arthur C.; Hayes, Gavin P.; Furlong, Kevin P.; Villaseñor, Antonio; Dart, Richard L.; Rhea, Susan


    The eastern margin of the Australia plate is one of the most seismically active areas of the world due to high rates of convergence between the Australia and Pacific plates. In the region of New Zealand, the 3,000 km long Australia-Pacific plate boundary extends from south of Macquarie Island to the southern Kermadec Island chain. It includes an oceanic transform (the Macquarie Ridge), two oppositely verging subduction zones (Puysegur and Hikurangi), and a transpressive continental transform, the Alpine Fault through South Island, New Zealand. Since 1900, there have been 15 M7.5+ earthquakes recorded near New Zealand. Nine of these, and the four largest, occurred along or near the Macquarie Ridge, including the 1989 M8.2 event on the ridge itself, and the 2004 M8.1 event 200 km to the west of the plate boundary, reflecting intraplate deformation. The largest recorded earthquake in New Zealand itself was the 1931 M7.8 Hawke's Bay earthquake, which killed 256 people. The last M7.5+ earthquake along the Alpine Fault was 170 years ago; studies of the faults' strain accumulation suggest that similar events are likely to occur again.

  19. Plate boundary deformation in North Iceland during 1992–2009 revealed by InSAR time-series analysis and GPS

    KAUST Repository

    Metzger, Sabrina


    In North Iceland, extensional plate motion is accommodated by the Northern Volcanic Zone, a set of en-echelon volcanic systems, and the Tjörnes Fracture Zone, a transform offset in the mid-Atlantic Ridge consisting of two parallel transform lineaments. The southern lineament, the Húsavík–Flatey fault, is a 100 km-long right-lateral strike slip fault that has not ruptured for more than 140 years and poses a significant seismic hazard to Húsavík, a fishing town located by the fault, and to other coastal communities. We present results of InSAR time-series analysis data spanning almost two decades (1992–2009) that show extensional and interseismic deformation within the Northern Volcanic Zone and the on-shore part of the Tjörnes Fracture Zone. The results also exhibit transient inflation at Theistareykir volcano, deflation at Krafla central volcano and a broad uplift north of Krafla. The current plate extension is not uniform across the Northern Volcanic Zone, but concentrated at the western fissures of the Theistareykir volcanic system and the outermost fissures of the Krafla fissure swarm. We combine a back-slip plate boundary model with a set of point pressure sources representing volcanic changes to describe the current extensional plate boundary deformation and update the previous estimations of the locking depth and slip rate of the Húsavík–Flatey fault that were based on GPS data alone. Using different combinations of input data, we find that the Húsavík–Flatey fault has a locking depth of 6–10 km and, with a slip rate of 6–9 mm/yr, is accommodating about a third of the full transform motion. We furthermore show that while the InSAR data provide important constraints on the volcanic deformation within the NVZ, they do not significantly improve the model parameter estimation for the HFF, as the dense GPS network appears to better capture the deformation across the fault.

  20. Comparison of Different Analytic Solutions to Axisymmetric Squeezing Fluid Flow between Two Infinite Parallel Plates with Slip Boundary Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Khan


    Full Text Available We investigate squeezing flow between two large parallel plates by transforming the basic governing equations of the first grade fluid to an ordinary nonlinear differential equation using the stream functions ur(r,z,t=(1/r(∂ψ/∂z and uz(r,z,t=−(1/r(∂ψ/∂r and a transformation ψ(r,z=r2F(z. The velocity profiles are investigated through various analytical techniques like Adomian decomposition method, new iterative method, homotopy perturbation, optimal homotopy asymptotic method, and differential transform method.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Choudhury


    Full Text Available The two-dimensional free convection flow of visco-elastic and electrically conducting fluid past a vertical impermeable flat plate is considered in presence of a uniform transverse magnetic field. The governing equations are reduced to ordinary differential equation by introducing appropriate co-ordinate transformation. The analytical expressions for the velocity, temperature and species concentration fields have been obtained. The corresponding expressions for the non-dimensional rates of heat transfer and mass transfer have beenobtained. The velocity profile and the shearing stress have been illustrated graphically, for various values of flow parameters involved in the solution to observe the effect of visco-elastic parameter.

  2. Uniform California earthquake rupture forecast, version 2 (UCERF 2) (United States)

    Field, E.H.; Dawson, T.E.; Felzer, K.R.; Frankel, A.D.; Gupta, V.; Jordan, T.H.; Parsons, T.; Petersen, M.D.; Stein, R.S.; Weldon, R.J.; Wills, C.J.


    The 2007 Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities (WGCEP, 2007) presents the Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast, Version 2 (UCERF 2). This model comprises a time-independent (Poisson-process) earthquake rate model, developed jointly with the National Seismic Hazard Mapping Program and a time-dependent earthquake-probability model, based on recent earthquake rates and stress-renewal statistics conditioned on the date of last event. The models were developed from updated statewide earthquake catalogs and fault deformation databases using a uniform methodology across all regions and implemented in the modular, extensible Open Seismic Hazard Analysis framework. The rate model satisfies integrating measures of deformation across the plate-boundary zone and is consistent with historical seismicity data. An overprediction of earthquake rates found at intermediate magnitudes (6.5 ??? M ???7.0) in previous models has been reduced to within the 95% confidence bounds of the historical earthquake catalog. A logic tree with 480 branches represents the epistemic uncertainties of the full time-dependent model. The mean UCERF 2 time-dependent probability of one or more M ???6.7 earthquakes in the California region during the next 30 yr is 99.7%; this probability decreases to 46% for M ???7.5 and to 4.5% for M ???8.0. These probabilities do not include the Cascadia subduction zone, largely north of California, for which the estimated 30 yr, M ???8.0 time-dependent probability is 10%. The M ???6.7 probabilities on major strike-slip faults are consistent with the WGCEP (2003) study in the San Francisco Bay Area and the WGCEP (1995) study in southern California, except for significantly lower estimates along the San Jacinto and Elsinore faults, owing to provisions for larger multisegment ruptures. Important model limitations are discussed.

  3. Seismicity of the Earth 1900-2012 Philippine Sea plate and vicinity (United States)

    Smoczyk, Gregory M.; Hayes, Gavin P.; Hamburger, Michael W.; Benz, Harley M.; Villaseñor, Antonio; Furlong, Kevin P.


    The complex tectonics surrounding the Philippine Islands are dominated by the interactions of the Pacific, Sunda, and Eurasia plates with the Philippine Sea plate (PSP). The latter is unique because it is almost exclusively surrounded by zones of plate convergence. At its eastern and southeastern edges, the Pacific plate is subducted beneath the PSP at the Izu-Bonin, Mariana, and Yap trenches. Here, the subduction zone exhibits high rates of seismic activity to depths of over 600 km, though no great earthquakes (M>8.0) have been observed, likely because of weak coupling along the plate interface. In the northeast, the PSP subducts beneath Japan and the eastern margin of the Eurasia plate at the Nankai and Ryukyu trenches, extending westward to Taiwan. The Nankai portion of this subduction zone has hosted some of the largest earthquakes along the margins of the PSP, including a pair of Mw8.1 megathrust events in 1944 and 1946. Along its western margin, the convergence of the PSP and the Sunda plate is responsible for a broad and active plate boundary system extending along both sides of the Philippine Islands chain. The region is characterized by opposite-facing subduction systems on the east and west sides of the islands, and the archipelago is cut by a major transform structure: the Philippine Fault. Subduction of the Philippine Sea plate occurs at the eastern margin of the islands along the Philippine Trench and its northern extension, the East Luzon Trough. On the west side of Luzon, the Sunda Plate subducts eastward along a series of trenches, including the Manila Trench in the north, the smaller Negros Trench in the central Philippines, and the Sulu and Cotabato trenches in the south. Twentieth and early twentyfirst century seismic activity along the boundaries of the Philippine Sea plate has produced seven great (M>8.0) earthquakes and 250 large (M>7) events. Among the most destructive events were the 1923 Kanto, the 1948 Fukui, and the 1995 Kobe, Japan

  4. Outer rise seismicity of the subducting Nazca Plate: Plate stress distribution, fault orientation and plate hydration (United States)

    Barama, Louisa

    Subduction of the Nazca plate beneath the South American plate drives frequent and sometimes large magnitude earthquakes. During the past 40 years, significant numbers of outer rise earthquakes have occurred in the offshore regions of Colombia and Chile. In this study, we investigate the distribution of stress due to lithospheric bending and the extent of faults within the subducting plate. To calculate more accurate epicenters and to constrain which earthquakes occurred within the outer rise, we use hypocentroidal decomposition to relocate earthquakes with Global Centroid Moment Tensor (GCMT) solutions occurring after 1976 offshore Colombia and Chile. We determine centroid depths of outer rise earthquakes by inverting teleseismic P-, SH-, and SV- waveforms for earthquakes occurring from 1993 to 2014 with Mw ≥ 5.5. In order to further constrain the results of the waveform inversion, we estimate depths by comparing earthquake duration, amplitude, and arrival times for select stations with waveforms with good signal to noise ratios. Our results indicate that tensional earthquakes occur at depths down to 13 km and 24 km depth beneath the surface in the Colombia and Chile regions, respectively. Since faulting within the outer rise can make the plate susceptible to hydration and mantle serpentinization, we therefore infer the extent of possible hydration of the Nazca plate to extend no deeper than the extent of tensional outer rise earthquakes.

  5. Some Exact Solutions of Boundary Layer Flows along a Vertical Plate with Buoyancy Forces Combined with Lorentz Forces under Uniform Suction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asterios Pantokratoras


    Full Text Available Exact analytical solutions of boundary layer flows along a vertical porous plate with uniform suction are derived and presented in this paper. The solutions concern the Blasius, Sakiadis, and Blasius-Sakiadis flows with buoyancy forces combined with either MHD Lorentz or EMHD Lorentz forces. In addition, some exact solutions are presented specifically for water in the temperature range of 0∘C≤≤8∘C, where water density is nearly parabolic. Except for their use as benchmarking means for testing the numerical solution of the Navier-Stokes equations, the presented exact solutions with EMHD forces have use in flow separation control in aeronautics and hydronautics, whereas the MHD results have applications in process metallurgy and fusion technology. These analytical solutions are valid for flows with strong suction.

  6. Influence of yield stress on free convective boundary-layer flow of a non-Newtonian nanofluid past a vertical plate in a porous medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hady, F. M.; Ibrahim, F. S. [Assiut University, Assiut (Egypt); Abdel-Gaied, S. M.; Eid, M. R. [Assiut University, The New Valley (Egypt)


    The effect of yield stress on the free convective heat transfer of dilute liquid suspensions of nanofluids flowing on a vertical plate saturated in porous medium under laminar conditions is investigated considering the nanofluid obeys the mathematical model of power-law. The model used for non-Newtonian nanofluid incorporates the effects of Brownian motion and thermophoresis. The governing boundary- layer equations are cast into dimensionless system which is solved numerically using a deferred correction technique and Newton iteration. This solution depends on yield stress parameter {Omega}, a power-law index n, Lewis number Le, a buoyancy-ratio number Nr, a Brownian motion number Nb, and a thermophoresis number Nt. Analyses of the results found that the reduced Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are decreasing functions of the higher yield stress parameter for each dimensionless numbers, n and Le, except the reduced Sherwood number is an increasing function of higher Nb for different values of yield stress parameter.

  7. Chemically Reacting MHD Boundary Layer Flow of Heat and Mass Transfer over a Moving Vertical Plate in a Porous Medium with Suction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available A mathematical model is presented for a two-dimensional, steady, incompressible electrically conducting, laminar free convection boundary layer flow of a continuously moving vertical porous plate in a chemically reactive and porous medium in the presence of a transverse magnetic field. The basic equations governing the flow are in the form of partial differential equations and have been reduced to a set of non-linear ordinary differential equations by applying suitable similarity transformations. The problem is tackled numerically using shooting techniques with the forth order Runga-Kutta method. Pertinent results with respect to embedded parameters are displayed graphically for the velocity,temperature and concentration profiles and were discussed quantitatively.

  8. Heat Transfer Analysis for Stationary Boundary Layer Slip Flow of a Power-Law Fluid in a Darcy Porous Medium with Plate Suction/Injection. (United States)

    Aziz, Asim; Ali, Yasir; Aziz, Taha; Siddique, J I


    In this paper, we investigate the slip effects on the boundary layer flow and heat transfer characteristics of a power-law fluid past a porous flat plate embedded in the Darcy type porous medium. The nonlinear coupled system of partial differential equations governing the flow and heat transfer of a power-law fluid is transformed into a system of nonlinear coupled ordinary differential equations by applying a suitable similarity transformation. The resulting system of ordinary differential equations is solved numerically using Matlab bvp4c solver. Numerical results are presented in the form of graphs and the effects of the power-law index, velocity and thermal slip parameters, permeability parameter, suction/injection parameter on the velocity and temperature profiles are examined.

  9. Аsymptotic solution of a class thermoelasticity nonclassical boundary value problems for the package of an orthotropic plate of variable thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aghalovyan M.L.


    Full Text Available We solve the non-classical boundary value problem for an orthotropic packet when on one of its front surface the corresponding components of the stress tensor are equal to zero and sets the value of the displacement vector. The task, in particular, is modeling the behavior of the lithospheric plates of the Earth, or a specific region of the earth's crust subject to tectonic movements of the fixed seismic stations, GPS and other measuring instruments. On the basis of three-dimensional equations of thermo-elasticity asymptotic method derived recurrence equations allow for a package of orthotropic layers of varying thickness. We derive recursive formulas for determining the components of the stress tensor and the displacement vector.

  10. The Effect of Heat Transfer on MHD Marangoni Boundary Layer Flow Past a Flat Plate in Nanofluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. V. S. R. K. Sastry


    Full Text Available The problem of heat transfer on the Marangoni convection boundary layer flow in an electrically conducting nanofluid is studied. Similarity transformations are used to transform the set of governing partial differential equations of the flow into a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. Numerical solutions of the similarity equations are then solved through the MATLAB “bvp4c” function. Different nanoparticles like Cu, Al2O3, and TiO2 are taken into consideration with water as base fluid. The velocity and temperature profiles are shown in graphs. Also the effects of the Prandtl number and solid volume fraction on heat transfer are discussed.

  11. The 2012 August 27 Mw7.3 El Salvador earthquake: expression of weak coupling on the Middle America subduction zone (United States)

    Geirsson, Halldor; LaFemina, Peter C.; DeMets, Charles; Hernandez, Douglas Antonio; Mattioli, Glen S.; Rogers, Robert; Rodriguez, Manuel; Marroquin, Griselda; Tenorio, Virginia


    Subduction zones exhibit variable degrees of interseismic coupling as resolved by inversions of geodetic data and analyses of seismic energy release. The degree to which a plate boundary fault is coupled can have profound effects on its seismogenic behaviour. Here we use GPS measurements to estimate co- and post-seismic deformation from the 2012 August 27, Mw7.3 megathrust earthquake offshore El Salvador, which was a tsunami earthquake. Inversions of estimated coseismic displacements are in agreement with published seismically derived source models, which indicate shallow (El Salvador-Nicaragua segment of the Central American margin and may be a characteristic of margins hosting tsunami earthquakes.

  12. Pakistan’s Earthquake and Tsunami Hazards Potential Impact on Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Interaction of the Indian, Arabian and Eurasian tectonic plates has resulted in the formation of major active fault systems in South Asia. Compression along the tectonic boundaries results in thrust or reverse type of faulting and zones of crustal deformation characterized by high seismic activity and continuing Orogenesis. The more intense seismic activity occurs near regions of thrust faulting which is developing at the Himalayan foothills. In northern Pakistan, the Hindu Kush Mountains converge with the Karakoram Range to form a part of the Himalayan mountain system. Northern, western as well as southern Pakistan, Kashmir and northern India and Afghanistan are along such zones of high seismic activity. In Pakistan, most of the earthquakes occur in the north and western regions along the boundary of the Indian tectonic plate with the Iranian and Afghan micro-plates. The active zone extends from the Makran region in the southwest to the Hazara-Kashmir syntaxial bend in the north. Southwest Pakistan is vulnerable to both earthquake and tsunami hazards. In 2005, earthquakes devastated northern Pakistan and Kashmir and severely affected the cities of Muzaffarabad, Islamadad and Rawalpindi, causing severe destruction to the infrastructure of the northern region. A major earthquake along an extensive transform fault system in 1935 destroyed the city Quetta and the adjoining region. A major earthquake along the northern Arabian sea in 1945 generated a very destructive tsunami along the coasts of Baluchistan and Sindh Provinces. The region near Karachi is vulnerable as it is located near four major faults where destructive earthquakes and tsunamis have occurred in the past. Given Pakistan’s vulnerability and extensive infrastructure development in recent years, the present study reviews briefly the earthquake and tsunami risk factors and assesses the impact that such disasters can have on the country’s critical infrastructure - which includes

  13. The oaxaca, Mexico, earthquake of 29 november 1978: a preliminary report on aftershocks. (United States)

    Singh, S K; Havskov, J; McNally, K; Ponce, L; Hearn, T; Vassiliou, M


    Aftershocks of the 29 November 1978 Oaxaca, Mexico, earthquake (surface-wave magnitude Ms = 7.8) define a rupture area of about 6000 square kilometers along the boundary of the Cocos sea-plate subduction. This area had not ruptured in a large (Ms >/= 7), shallow earthquake since the years 1928 and 1931 and had been designated a seismic "gap." The region has also been seismically quiet for small to moderate (M >/= 4), shallow (depth earthquakes since 1966; this quiet zone became about six times larger in 1973. A major earthquake (Ms = 7.5 +/- 0.25) was forecast at this location on the basis of the quiescence that began in 1973. The aftershock data indicate that an area approximately equivalent in size to the seismic gap has now broken.

  14. Permanent upper plate deformation in western Myanmar during the great 1762 earthquake: Implications for neotectonic behavior of the northern Sunda megathrust (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Shyu, J. Bruce H.; Sieh, Kerry; Chiang, Hong-Wei; Wang, Chung-Che; Aung, Thura; Lin, Yu-Nung Nina; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Min, Soe; Than, Oo; Lin, Kyaw Kyaw; Tun, Soe Thura


    The 1762 Arakan earthquake resulted from rupture of the northern Sunda megathrust and is one of those rare preinstrumental earthquakes for which early historical accounts document ground deformations. In order to obtain more comprehensive and detailed measurements of coseismic uplift, we conducted comprehensive field investigations and geochronological analyses of marine terraces on the two largest islands in western Myanmar. We confirm 3-4 m of coseismic coastal emergence along southwestern Cheduba Island, diminishing northeastward to less than 1 m. Farther northeast, uplift associated with the earthquake ranges from slightly more than 1 m to 5-6 m along the western coast of Ramree Island but is insignificant along the island's eastern coast. This double-hump pattern of uplift coincides with the long-term anticlinal growth of these two islands. Thus, we propose that the 1762 earthquake resulted from slip on splay faults under the islands, in addition to rupture of the megathrust. Elastic modeling implies that fault slip during the 1762 earthquake ranges from about 9 to 16 m beneath the islands and corresponds to a magnitude of Mw 8.5 if the rupture length of the megathrust is ~500 km. The island's uplift histories suggest recurrence intervals of such events of about 500-700 years. Additional detailed paleoseismological studies would add significant additional detail to the history of large earthquakes in this region.

  15. On a character of the forced vibrations of two-layer plate in the second boundary value problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poghosyan H. M.


    Full Text Available The three-dimensional dynamic problem of the elasticity theory on forced vibration of orthotropic plate at coulomb friction between layers is solved by the asymptotic method. The bottom obverse surface is subject to external dynamic influences, and top - is rigidly fixed. The common asymptotic solution of the problem is found. The closed solution for particular type of problems is found. The resonance arising conditions are established. It is known, that constant tangential displacements acting to the second layer do not influence in stress-strain state of the first layer. It is shown, that the same phenomenon with the big accuracy remains in force at linearly varying on coordinates influences.

  16. Earthquake faulting in subduction zones: insights from fault rocks in accretionary prisms (United States)

    Ujiie, Kohtaro; Kimura, Gaku


    Subduction earthquakes on plate-boundary megathrusts accommodate most of the global seismic moment release, frequently resulting in devastating damage by ground shaking and tsunamis. As many earthquakes occur in deep-sea regions, the dynamics of earthquake faulting in subduction zones is poorly understood. However, the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment (NanTroSEIZE) and fault rock studies in accretionary prisms exhumed from source depths of subduction earthquakes have greatly improved our understanding of earthquake faulting in subduction zones. Here, we review key advances that have been made over the last decade in the studies of fault rocks and in laboratory experiments using fault zone materials, with a particular focus on the Nankai Trough subduction zone and its on-land analog, the Shimanto accretionary complex in Japan. New insights into earthquake faulting in subduction zones are summarized in terms of the following: (1) the occurrence of seismic slip along velocity-strengthening materials both at shallow and deep depths; (2) dynamic weakening of faults by melt lubrication and fluidization, and possible factors controlling coseismic deformation mechanisms; (3) fluid-rock interactions and mineralogical and geochemical changes during earthquakes; and (4) geological and experimental aspects of slow earthquakes.

  17. The 2 March 2016 Wharton Basin Mw 7.8 earthquake: High stress drop north-south strike-slip rupture in the diffuse oceanic deformation zone between the Indian and Australian Plates (United States)

    Lay, Thorne; Ye, Lingling; Ammon, Charles J.; Dunham, Audrey; Koper, Keith D.


    The diffuse deformation zone between the Indian and Australian plates has hosted numerous major and great earthquakes during the seismological record, including the 11 April 2012 Mw 8.6 event, the largest recorded intraplate earthquake. On 2 March 2016, an Mw 7.8 strike-slip faulting earthquake occurred in the northwestern Wharton Basin, in a region bracketed by north-south trending fracture zones with no previously recorded large event nearby. Despite the large magnitude, only minor source finiteness is evident in aftershock locations or resolvable from seismic wave processing including high-frequency P wave backprojections and Love wave directivity analysis. Our analyses indicate that the event ruptured bilaterally on a north-south trending fault over a length of up to 70 km, with rupture speed of ≤ 2 km/s, and a total duration of 35 s. The estimated stress drop, 20 MPa, is high, comparable to estimates for other large events in this broad intraplate oceanic deformation zone.

  18. Direct numerical simulation of K-type and H-type transitions to turbulence in a low Mach number flat plate boundary layer (United States)

    Sayadi, Taraneh; Hamman, Curtis; Moin, Parviz


    Transition to turbulence via spatially evolving secondary instabilities in compressible, zero-pressure-gradient flat plate boundary layers is numerically simulated for both the Klebanoff K-type and Herbert H-type disturbances. The objective of this work is to evaluate the universality of the breakdown process between different routes through transition in wall-bounded shear flows. Each localized linear disturbance is amplified through weak non-linear instability that grows into lambda-vortices and then hairpin-shaped eddies with harmonic wavelength, which become less organized in the late-transitional regime once a fully populated spanwise turbulent energy spectrum is established. For the H-type transition, the computational domain extends from Rex =105 , where laminar blowing and suction excites the most unstable fundamental and a pair of oblique waves, to fully turbulent stage at Rex = 10 . 6 ×105 . The computational domain for the K-type transition extends to Rex = 9 . 6 ×105 . The computational algorithm employs fourth-order central differences with non-reflective numerical sponges along the external boundaries. For each case, the Mach number is 0.2. Supported by the PSAAP program of DoE, ANL and LLNL.

  19. High-Resolution P'P' Precursor Imaging of Nazca-South America Plate Boundary Zones and Inferences for Transition Zone Temperature and Composition (United States)

    Gu, Y. J.; Schultz, R.


    Knowledge of upper mantle transition zone stratification and composition is highly dependent on our ability to efficiently extract and properly interpret small seismic arrivals. A promising high-frequency seismic phase group particularly suitable for a global analysis is P'P' precursors, which are capable of resolving mantle structures at vertical and lateral resolution of approximately 5 and 200 km, respectively, owing to their shallow incidence angle and small, quasi-symmetric Fresnel zones. This study presents a simultaneous analysis of SS and P'P' precursors based on deconvolution, Radon transform and depth migration. Our multi-resolution survey of the mantle near Nazca-South America subduction zone reveals both olivine and garnet related transitions at depth below 400 km. We attribute a depressed 660 to thermal variations, whereas compositional variations atop the upper-mantle transition zone are needed to explain the diminished or highly complex reflected/scattered signals from the 410 km discontinuity. We also observe prominent P'P' reflections within the transition zone, especially near the plate boundary zone where anomalously high reflection amplitudes result from a sharp (~10 km thick) mineral phase change resonant with the dominant frequency of the P'P' precursors. Near the base of the upper mantle, the migration of SS precursors shows no evidence of split reflections near the 660-km discontinuity, but potential majorite-ilmenite (590-640 km) and ilmenite-perovskite transitions (740-750 km) are identified based on similarly processed high-frequency P'P' precursors. At nominal mantle temperatures these two phase changes may be seismically indistinguishable, but colder mantle conditions from the descending Nazca plate, the presence of water and variable Fe contents may cause sufficient separation for a reliable analysis. In addition, our preliminary results provide compelling evidence for multiple shallow lower-mantle reflections (at ~800 km) along the

  20. Deep-rooted “thick skinned” model for the High Atlas Mountains (Morocco. Implications for the seismic Eurasia-Africa plate boundary region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiraud, M.


    Full Text Available Previous crustal models of the High Atlas suppose the existence of a mid-crustal detachment where all the surface thrusts merged and below which the lower crust was continuous. However, both seismic refraction data and gravity modeling detected a jump in crustal thickness between the High Atlas and the northern plains. Here we show that this rapid and vertical jump in the depth of Moho discontinuity suggests that a thrust fault may penetrate the lower crust and offset the Moho (deep-rooted “thick skinned” model. The distribution of Neogene and Quaternary volcanisms along and at the northern part of the High Atlas lineament can be related to the beginning of a partial continental subduction of the West African plate to the north underneath Moroccan microplate. Allowing from the complex problem of the plate boundary in the western zone of the Mediterranean, we propose to interpret the South-Atlasic fault zone as the actual northwestern boundary of the stable part of the African plate rather than the Azores-Gibraltar fault currently used.Los modelos geodinámicos existentes sobre la estructura profunda del alto Atlas suponen la existencia de un despegue medio-cortical donde convergen los cabalgamientos superficiales y bajo el cual la corteza inferior es continua. Los datos de sísmica de refracción y gravimetría, sin embargo, indican la existencia de una discontinuidad en el grosor de la corteza (profundidad del Moho bajo el Alto Atlas. En este artículo ponemos de manifiesto que este salto rápido en la profundidad del Moho puede ser causado por un cabalgamiento que penetra la corteza inferior, desplazando la base de la misma ("deeprooted thick skinned model". La distribución del volcanismo Neógeno y Cuaternario a lo largo de y al norte de la alineación del Alto Atlas pueden estar relacionados con el comienzo de una subducción continental parcial de la placa Africana occidental hacia el norte, bajo la microplaca marroquí. La expresi

  1. Earthquake probabilities in the San Francisco Bay Region: 2000 to 2030 - a summary of findings (United States)



    The San Francisco Bay region sits astride a dangerous “earthquake machine,” the tectonic boundary between the Pacific and North American Plates. The region has experienced major and destructive earthquakes in 1838, 1868, 1906, and 1989, and future large earthquakes are a certainty. The ability to prepare for large earthquakes is critical to saving lives and reducing damage to property and infrastructure. An increased understanding of the timing, size, location, and effects of these likely earthquakes is a necessary component in any effective program of preparedness. This study reports on the probabilities of occurrence of major earthquakes in the San Francisco Bay region (SFBR) for the three decades 2000 to 2030. The SFBR extends from Healdsberg on the northwest to Salinas on the southeast and encloses the entire metropolitan area, including its most rapidly expanding urban and suburban areas. In this study a “major” earthquake is defined as one with M≥6.7 (where M is moment magnitude). As experience from the Northridge, California (M6.7, 1994) and Kobe, Japan (M6.9, 1995) earthquakes has shown us, earthquakes of this size can have a disastrous impact on the social and economic fabric of densely urbanized areas. To reevaluate the probability of large earthquakes striking the SFBR, the U.S. Geological Survey solicited data, interpretations, and analyses from dozens of scientists representing a wide crosssection of the Earth-science community (Appendix A). The primary approach of this new Working Group (WG99) was to develop a comprehensive, regional model for the long-term occurrence of earthquakes, founded on geologic and geophysical observations and constrained by plate tectonics. The model considers a broad range of observations and their possible interpretations. Using this model, we estimate the rates of occurrence of earthquakes and 30-year earthquake probabilities. Our study considers a range of magnitudes for earthquakes on the major faults in the

  2. Tsunami Hazards From Strike-Slip Earthquakes (United States)

    Legg, M. R.; Borrero, J. C.; Synolakis, C. E.


    Strike-slip faulting is often considered unfavorable for tsunami generation during large earthquakes. Although large strike-slip earthquakes triggering landslides and then generating substantial tsunamis are now recognized hazards, many continue to ignore the threat from submarine tectonic displacement during strike-slip earthquakes. Historical data record the occurrence of tsunamis from strike-slip earthquakes, for example, 1906 San Francisco, California, 1994 Mindoro, Philippines, and 1999 Izmit, Turkey. Recognizing that strike-slip fault zones are often curved and comprise numerous en echelon step-overs, we model tsunami generation from realistic strike-slip faulting scenarios. We find that tectonic seafloor uplift, at a restraining bend or"pop-up" structure, provides an efficient mechanism to generate destructive local tsunamis; likewise for subsidence at divergent pull-apart basin structures. Large earthquakes on complex strike-slip fault systems may involve both types of structures. The California Continental Borderland is a high-relief submarine part of the active Pacific-North America transform plate boundary. Natural harbors and bays created by long term vertical motion associated with strike-slip structural irregularities are now sites of burgeoning population and major coastal infrastructure. Significant local tsunamis generated by large strike-slip earthquakes pose a serious, and previously unrecognized threat. We model several restraining bend pop-up structures offshore southern California to quantify the local tsunami hazard. Maximum runup derived in our scenarios ranges from one to several meters, similar to runup observed from the 1994 Mindoro, Philippines, (M=7.1) earthquake. The runup pattern is highly variable, with local extremes along the coast. We only model the static displacement field for the strike-slip earthquake source; dynamic effects of moving large island or submerged banks laterally during strike-slip events remains to be examined

  3. A New Estimate for Total Offset on the Southern San Andreas Fault: Implications for Cumulative Plate Boundary Shear in the Northern Gulf of California (United States)

    Darin, M. H.; Dorsey, R. J.


    Development of a consistent and balanced tectonic reconstruction for the late Cenozoic San Andreas fault (SAF) in southern California has been hindered for decades by incompatible estimates of total dextral offset based on different geologic cross-fault markers. The older estimate of 240-270 km is based on offset fluvial conglomerates of the middle Miocene Mint Canyon and Caliente Formations west of the SAF from their presumed source area in the northern Chocolate Mountains NE of the SAF (Ehlig et al., 1975; Ehlert, 2003). The second widely cited offset marker is a distinctive Triassic megaporphyritic monzogranite that has been offset 160 ± 10 km between Liebre Mountain west of the SAF and the San Bernadino Mountains (Matti and Morton, 1993). In this analysis we use existing paleocurrent data and late Miocene clockwise rotation in the eastern Transverse Ranges (ETR) to re-assess the orientation of the piercing line used in the 240 km-correlation, and present a palinspastic reconstruction that satisfies all existing geologic constraints. Our reconstruction of the Mint Canyon piercing line reduces the original estimate of 240-270 km to 195 ± 15 km of cumulative right-lateral slip on the southern SAF (sensu stricto), which is consistent with other published estimates of 185 ± 20 km based on correlative basement terranes in the Salton Trough region. Our estimate of ~195 km is consistent with the lower estimate of ~160 km on the Mojave segment because transform-parallel extension along the southwestern boundary of the ETR during transrotation produces ~25-40 km of displacement that does not affect offset markers of the Liebre/San Bernadino correlation located northwest of the ETR rotating domain. Reconciliation of these disparate estimates places an important new constraint on the total plate boundary shear that is likely accommodated in the adjacent northern Gulf of California. Global plate circuit models require ~650 km of cumulative Pacific-North America (PAC

  4. An Overview of the 28 October 2012 Mw 7.7 Earthquake in Haida Gwaii, Canada: A Tsunamigenic Thrust Event Along a Predominantly Strike-Slip Margin (United States)

    Cassidy, John F.; Rogers, Garry C.; Hyndman, Roy D.


    The boundary between the Pacific and North America plates along Canada's west coast is one of the most seismically active regions of Canada, and is where Canada's two largest instrumentally recorded earthquakes have occurred. Although this is a predominantly strike-slip transform fault boundary, there is a component of oblique convergence between the Pacific and North America plates off Haida Gwaii. The 2012 Mw 7.7 Haida Gwaii earthquake was a thrust event that generated a tsunami with significant run up of over 7 m in several inlets on the west coast of Moresby Island (several over 6 m, with a maximum of 13 m). Damage from this earthquake and tsunami was minor due to the lack of population and vulnerable structures on this coast.

  5. Earthquakes: no danger for deep underground nuclear waste repositories; erdbeben: keine gefahr fuer tiefenlager. Themenheft Nr. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    On the Earth, the continental plates are steadily moving. Principally at the plate boundaries such shifts produce stresses which are released in form of earthquakes. The highest the built-up energy, the more violent will be the shaking. Earthquakes accompany mankind from very ancient times on and they disturb the population. Till now nobody is able to predict where and when they will take place. But on the Earth there are regions where, due to their geological situation, the occurrence of earthquakes is more probable than elsewhere. The impact of a very strong earthquake on the structures at the Earth surface depends on several factors. Besides the ground structure, the density of buildings, construction style and materials used play an important role. Construction-related technical measures can improve the safety of buildings and, together with a correct behaviour of the people concerned, save many lives. Earthquakes are well known in Switzerland. Here, the stresses are due to the collision of the African and European continental plates that created the Alps. The impact of earthquake is more limited in the underground than at the Earth surface. There is no danger for deep underground repositories

  6. New methods to cope with temperature elevations in heated segments of flat plates cooled by boundary layer flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajmohammadi Mohammad R.


    Full Text Available This paper documents two reliable methods to cope with the rising temperature in an array of heated segments with a known overall heat load and exposed to forced convective boundary layer flow. Minimization of the hot spots (peak temperatures in the array of heated segments constitutes the primary goal that sets the platform to develop the methods. The two proposed methods consist of: 1 Designing an array of unequal heaters so that each heater has a different size and generates heat at different rates, and 2 Distancing the unequal heaters from each other using an insulated spacing. Multi-scale design based on constructal theory is applied to estimate the optimal insulated spacing, heaters size and heat generation rates, such that the minimum hot spots temperature is achieved when subject to space constraint and fixed overall heat load. It is demonstrated that the two methods can considerably reduce the hot spot temperatures and consequently, both can be utilized with confidence in industry to achieve optimized heat transfer.

  7. Kinematic evidence for the effect of changing plate boundary conditions on the tectonics of the northern U.S. Rockies (United States)

    Schmeelk, Dylan; Bendick, Rebecca; Stickney, Michael; Bomberger, Cody


    We derive surface velocities from GPS sites in the interior Northwest U.S. relative to a fixed North American reference frame to investigate surface tectonic kinematics from the Snake River Plain (SRP) to the Canadian border. The Centennial Tectonic Belt (CTB) on the northern margin of the SRP exhibits west directed extensional velocity gradients and strain distributions similar to the main Basin and Range Province (BRP) suggesting that the CTB is part of the BRP. North of the CTB, however, the vergence of velocities relative to North America switches from westward to eastward along with a concomitant rotation of the principal stress axes based on available seismic focal mechanisms, revealing paired extension in the northern Rockies and shortening across the Rocky Mountain Front. This change in orientation of surface velocities suggests that the change in the boundary conditions on the western margin of North America influences the direction of gravitational collapse of Laramide thickened crust. Throughout the study region, fault slip rate estimates calculated from the new geodetic velocity field are consistently larger than previously reported fault slip rates determined from limited geomorphic and paleoseismic studies.

  8. Complex rupture during the 12 January 2010 Haiti earthquake (United States)

    Hayes, G.P.; Briggs, R.W.; Sladen, A.; Fielding, E.J.; Prentice, C.; Hudnut, K.; Mann, P.; Taylor, F.W.; Crone, A.J.; Gold, R.; Ito, T.; Simons, M.


    Initially, the devastating Mw 7.0, 12 January 2010 Haiti earthquake seemed to involve straightforward accommodation of oblique relative motion between the Caribbean and North American plates along the Enriquillog-Plantain Garden fault zone. Here, we combine seismological observations, geologic field data and space geodetic measurements to show that, instead, the rupture process may have involved slip on multiple faults. Primary surface deformation was driven by rupture on blind thrust faults with only minor, deep, lateral slip along or near the main Enriquillog-Plantain Garden fault zone; thus the event only partially relieved centuries of accumulated left-lateral strain on a small part of the plate-boundary system. Together with the predominance of shallow off-fault thrusting, the lack of surface deformation implies that remaining shallow shear strain will be released in future surface-rupturing earthquakes on the Enriquillog-Plantain Garden fault zone, as occurred in inferred Holocene and probable historic events. We suggest that the geological signature of this earthquakeg-broad warping and coastal deformation rather than surface rupture along the main fault zoneg-will not be easily recognized by standard palaeoseismic studies. We conclude that similarly complex earthquakes in tectonic environments that accommodate both translation and convergenceg-such as the San Andreas fault through the Transverse Ranges of Californiag-may be missing from the prehistoric earthquake record. ?? 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  9. A Comparison of Geodetic Strain Rates With Earthquake Moment Tensors (United States)

    Zhu, W.; Holt, W. E.


    In this paper we compare the global model from interpolation of GPS data with the global model inferred from earthquake moment tensors. We use the Harvard CMT catalog to calculate moment rates based on 3 assumptions: a. we assume earthquakes are self-similar; b. we assume a uniform Beta value of the Gutenberg-Richter distribution; c. we assume that all of the long-term strain is accommodated seismically. If these assumptions are correct then the seismicity rate is proportional to the tectonic moment rate. We then inferred a long-term moment rate tensor field estimate for all plate boundary zones from which we inferred a long-term seismic strain rate estimate. Using this estimate we solved for a self-consistent kinematic global solution (motions of rigid spherical caps and motions within plate boundary zones) using bi-cubic spline interpolation of the inferred strain rates. We tested the above assumptions by comparing the global kinematic model obtained from earthquake data with a global model inferred from interpolation of space geodetic data [Kreemer et al., 2003]. A comparison between the two models shows good agreement for motion directions of the North American, and Eurasian plates and for the plate boundary zones within these regions (e.g., Tibet). Problems arise, and our assumptions break down, for plates adjacent to fast spreading ridges where divergence of plates appears to be accommodated aseismically. We next investigated the correlation of strain rate tensor inferred from the interpolation of GPS observations within deforming Asia with the earthquake moment tensors, using both elastic and viscous rheologies. Our solutions satisfy the force balance equations for a given rheology. Our goal for this exercise is to investigate whether the interseismic signal, inferred from GPS, correlates better with moment tensor style for an elastic rheology as opposed to a viscous rheology. Results to date suggest that the viscous models only provide a better agreement

  10. Late Holocene liquefaction features in the Dominican Republic: A powerful tool for earthquake hazard assessment in the northeastern Caribbean (United States)

    Tuttle, M.P.; Prentice, C.S.; Dyer-Williams, K.; Pena, L.R.; Burr, G.


    Several generations of sand blows and sand dikes, indicative of significant and recurrent liquefaction, are preserved in the late Holocene alluvial deposits of the Cibao Valley in northern Dominican Republic. The Cibao Valley is structurally controlled by the Septentrional fault, an onshore section of the North American-Caribbean strike-slip plate boundary. The Septentrional fault was previously studied in the central part of the valley, where it sinistrally offsets Holocene terrace risers and soil horizons. In the eastern and western parts of the valley, the Septentrional fault is buried by Holocene alluvial deposits, making direct study of the structure difficult. Liquefaction features that formed in these Holocene deposits as a result of strong ground shaking provide a record of earthquakes in these areas. Liquefaction features in the eastern Cibao Valley indicate that at least one historic earthquake, probably the moment magnitude, M 8, 4 August 1946 event, and two to four prehistoric earthquakes of M 7 to 8 struck this area during the past 1100 yr. The prehistoric earthquakes appear to cluster in time and could have resulted from rupture of the central and eastern sections of the Septentrional fault circa A.D. 1200. Liquefaction features in the western Cibao Valley indicate that one historic earthquake, probably the M 8, 7 May 1842 event, and two prehistoric earthquakes of M 7-8 struck this area during the past 1600 yr. Our findings suggest that rupture of the Septentrional fault circa A.D. 1200 may have extended beyond the central Cibao Valley and generated an earthquake of M 8. Additional information regarding the age and size distribution of liquefaction features is needed to reconstruct the prehistoric earthquake history of Hispaniola and to define the long-term behavior and earthquake potential of faults associated with the North American-Caribbean plate boundary.

  11. Aftershock mechanisms from the 2010 Mw 8.8 Maule, Chile earthquake: detailed analysis using full waveform inversion (United States)

    Rietbrock, A.; Hicks, S. P.; Chagas, B.; Detzel, H. A.


    Since the earthquake rupture process is extremely heterogeneous, it is vital to understand how structural variations in the overriding plate and downgoing slab may control slip style along the subduction megathrust. The large-scale 3-D geometry of subduction plate boundaries is rapidly becoming well understood; however, the nature of any finer-scale structure along the plate interface remains elusive. A detailed study of earthquake source mechanisms along a megathrust region can shed light on the nature of fine-scale structures along the megathrust. The Mw 8.8 Maule earthquake that struck central Chile in 2010 is the sixth largest earthquake ever recorded. Following the earthquake, there was an international deployment of seismic stations in the rupture area, making this one of the best datasets of an aftershock sequence following a large earthquake. This dataset provides a unique opportunity to perform a detailed study of megathrust earthquake source mechanisms. Based on a high-resolution 3-D velocity model and robust earthquake locations [Hicks et al., 2014], we calculate regional moment tensors using the ISOLA software package [Sokos & Zahradnik, 2008]. We incorporate accelerometer recordings, important for constraining solutions of large earthquakes in the overriding plate. We also validate the robustness of our solutions by assessing the consistency of mechanisms with P-wave polarities observed at both onshore and offshore seismic stations, and compare them to already published solutions. We find that accurate earthquake locations are vital for the fine-scale interpretation of focal mechanisms, particularly for offshore events. Our results show that most moment tensor solutions with thrusting mechanisms have a nodal plane dipping parallel to the subducting plate interface. Interestingly, we also find earthquakes with normal faulting mechanisms lying along to the megathrust plate interface in the south of the rupture area. This finding suggests that megathrust

  12. Small repeating earthquakes activity and interplate quasi-static slips in the Hyuga-nada, SW Japan (United States)

    Yamashita, Y.; Shimizu, H.; Goto, K.


    The Hyuga-nada region, a high-angle subduction zone belong the Kyushu-Ryukyu arc, is one of the most seismically active area in Japan and earthquakes with magnitude from 6.5 to 7.5 usually occur at dozens of years interval. In this region, the Philippine Sea Plate (PHS) subducts northwestward beneath the Eurasian Plate (EU) at a rate of about 5cm/year [Seno et al. (1993)]. We detected small repeating earthquakes in and around the Hyuga-nada using waveform similarity based on Igarashi et al. (2003). We used about 20,000 earthquakes which occurred in and around the Hyuga-nada and magnitude range is more than 2.0 detected by SEVO, Kyushu University from 1994 to 2008. We identified about 1,000 small repeating earthquakes, and they were compiled 390 groups. Most of small repeating earthquakes occur near the plate boundary between the PHS and the EU. They do not distribute in large moment-release areas of large earthquakes, but they distribute in those areas surrounding them; these characteristics are also found in NE Japan [e.g. Igarashi et al. (2003); Uchida et al. (2003)]. We selected 145 groups of small repeating earthquakes occurring in the plate boundary based on focal mechanism analysis. Almost all of them distribute the southern side from 32.5N, which suggests that an interplate coupling is probably changing near 32.5N. This result is consistent with present study of interplate coupling in and around Hyuga-nada using a geodetic data by GPS observation [e.g., Nishimura et al. (1999)]. We also estimated interplate quasi-static slip rate distribution in the Hyuga-nada using small repeating earthquakes. The result shows that the slip rate of shallow side of plate boundary is relatively larger than deep side of that in the area of 31.3~32N. In the deep side, the Hyuga-nada earthquakes (Mw6.7) occurred in Dec. 1996. It suggests that the interplate coupling of deep side is stronger than that of shallow side. Acknowledgments: In this study, we have used the data of

  13. Coseismic deformation observed with radar interferometry: Great earthquakes and atmospheric noise (United States)

    Scott, Chelsea Phipps

    Spatially dense maps of coseismic deformation derived from Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) datasets result in valuable constraints on earthquake processes. The recent increase in the quantity of observations of coseismic deformation facilitates the examination of signals in many tectonic environments associated with earthquakes of varying magnitude. Efforts to place robust constraints on the evolution of the crustal stress field following great earthquakes often rely on knowledge of the earthquake location, the fault geometry, and the distribution of slip along the fault plane. Well-characterized uncertainties and biases strengthen the quality of inferred earthquake source parameters, particularly when the associated ground displacement signals are near the detection limit. Well-preserved geomorphic records of earthquakes offer additional insight into the mechanical behavior of the shallow crust and the kinematics of plate boundary systems. Together, geodetic and geologic observations of crustal deformation offer insight into the processes that drive seismic cycle deformation over a range of timescales. In this thesis, I examine several challenges associated with the inversion of earthquake source parameters from SAR data. Variations in atmospheric humidity, temperature, and pressure at the timing of SAR acquisitions result in spatially correlated phase delays that are challenging to distinguish from signals of real ground deformation. I characterize the impact of atmospheric noise on inferred earthquake source parameters following elevation-dependent atmospheric corrections. I analyze the spatial and temporal variations in the statistics of atmospheric noise from both reanalysis weather models and InSAR data itself. Using statistics that reflect the spatial heterogeneity of atmospheric characteristics, I examine parameter errors for several synthetic cases of fault slip on a basin-bounding normal fault. I show a decrease in uncertainty in fault

  14. Effects of crystal preferred orientation on upper-mantle flow near plate boundaries: rheologic feedbacks and seismic anisotropy (United States)

    Blackman, D. K.; Boyce, D. E.; Castelnau, O.; Dawson, P. R.; Laske, G.


    Insight into upper-mantle processes can be gained by linking flow-induced mineral alignment to regional deformation and seismic anisotropy patterns. Through a series of linked micro-macro scale numerical experiments, we explore the rheologic effects of crystal preferred orientation (CPO) and evaluate the magnitude of possible impacts on the pattern of flow and associated seismic signals for mantle that includes a cooling, thickening young oceanic lithosphere. The CPO and associated anisotropic rheology, computed by a micromechanical polycrystal model, are coupled with a large scale flow model (Eulerian Finite Element method) via a local viscosity tensor field, which quantifies the stress:strain rate response of a textured polycrystal. CPO is computed along streamlines throughout the model space and the corresponding viscosity tensor field at each element defines the local properties for the next iteration of the flow field. Stable flow and CPO distributions were obtained after several iterations for the two dislocation glide cases tested: linear and nonlinear stress:strain rate polycrystal behaviour. The textured olivine polycrystals are found to have anisotropic viscosity tensors in a significant portion of the model space. This directional dependence in strength impacts the pattern of upper-mantle flow. For background asthenosphere viscosity of ˜1020 Pa s and a rigid lithosphere, the modification of the corner flow pattern is not drastic but the change could have geologic implications. Feedback in the development of CPO occurs, particularly in the region immediately below the base of the lithosphere. Stronger fabric is predicted below the flanks of a spreading centre for fully coupled, power-law polycrystals than was determined using prior linear, intermediate coupling polycrystal models. The predicted SKS splitting is modestly different (˜0.5 s) between the intermediate and fully coupled cases for oceanic plates less than 20 Myr old. The magnitude of azimuthal

  15. Kinematic History and Tectonic Evolution of the Amerasian Basin: Investigating Palaeo-Plate Boundaries around the Chukchi Borderlands (United States)

    Brumley, K.; Coakley, B.; Stone, D.; Wallace, W.


    The multi-stage opening of the Arctic Ocean's Amerasian Basin is only partially understood due to the difficulty of utilizing traditional marine geologic and geophysical techniques in ice-covered waters. While the kinematic development of the Eurasian Basin is well-understood to be the northernmost extension of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, the history of the morphologically complex Amerasian Basin may be due to multiple events, significantly complicating interpretation of its history. Any detailed model for the opening of the Amerasian Basin must both incorporate structures that accommodate spreading as well as explain the tectonic mechanisms that drove basin development. Cretaceous-age tholeiitic flood basalts and associated radiating dike swarms of the High Arctic Large Igneous Province (HALIP), found along the basin margin, provide a tectonic mechanism and geometry to substantiate sound reconstruction. Detailed models need also consider pre-existing zones of weakness such as the deformation front of the Devonian Caledonides, which may underlie Barents Shelf sediments (Gee and Bogolepova, 2003). Reactivation of these ancient structural trends along this suture zone may explain the motion of Mendeleev Ridge as it rifted from Lomonosov Ridge and created the rectangular pull-apart basin between them. We propose a revised plate model for the development of the Amerasian Basin. A Cretaceous magmatic source localized under the Alpha Ridge accompanied the onset of rifting. This generated the HALIP radiating dike swarms and tholeiitic flood basalts found on the DeLong Islands, Svalbard, Franz Joseph Land, Greenland, Sverdrup Basin and, possibly, the Alpha and Mendeleev Ridges. New bathymetric and sub-bottom profiling data also suggests the existence of igneous dikes on Chukchi Cap. The subsequent development of a triple junction resulted in dilational opening of the Canada Basin. Spreading was accommodated by the migration of the southern edges of the northeastern Siberian

  16. Fundamental structure model of island arcs and subducted plates in and around Japan (United States)

    Iwasaki, T.; Sato, H.; Ishiyama, T.; Shinohara, M.; Hashima, A.


    The eastern margin of the Asian continent is a well-known subduction zone, where the Pacific (PAC) and Philippine Sea (PHS) plates are being subducted. In this region, several island arcs (Kuril, Northeast Japan, Southwest Japan, Izu-Bonin and Ryukyu arcs) meet one another to form a very complicated tectonic environment. At 2014, we started to construct fundamental structure models for island arcs and subducted plates in and around Japan. Our research is composed of 6 items of (1) topography, (2) plate geometry, (3) fault models, (4) the Moho and brittle-ductile transition zone, (5) the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary, and (6) petrological/rheological models. Such information is basic but inevitably important in qualitative understanding not only for short-term crustal activities in the subduction zone (particularly caused by megathrust earthquakes) but also for long-term cumulative deformation of the arcs as a result of strong plate-arc/arc-arc interactions. This paper is the first presentation of our research, mainly presenting the results of items (1) and (2). The area of our modelling is 12o-54o N and 118o-164o E to cover almost the entire part of Japanese Islands together with Kuril, Ryukyu and Izu-Bonin trenches. The topography model was constructed from the 500-m mesh data provided from GSJ, JODC, GINA and Alaska University. Plate geometry models are being constructed through the two steps. In the first step, we modelled very smooth plate boundaries of the Pacific and Philippine Sea plates in our whole model area using 42,000 earthquake data from JMA, USGS and ISC. For 7,800 cross sections taken with several directions to the trench axes, 2D plate boundaries were defined by fitting to the earthquake distribution (the Wadati-Benioff zone), from which we obtained equi-depth points of the plate boundary. These equi-depth points were then approximated by spline interpolation technique to eliminate shorter wave length undulation (plate geometry with longer

  17. Slip distribution of the 2013 Mw 8.0 Santa Cruz Islands earthquake by tsunami waveforms inversion (United States)

    Romano, Fabrizio; Molinari, Irene; Lorito, Stefano; Piatanesi, Alessio


    On February 6, 2013 a Mw8.0 interplate earthquake occurred in the Santa Cruz Islands region. The epicenter is located near a complex section of the Australia-Pacific plate boundary, where a short segment of dominantly strike-slip plate motion links the Solomon Trench to the New Hebrides Trench. In this region, the Australia plate subducts beneath the Pacific plate with a convergence rate of ~9cm/yr. This earthquake generated a tsunami that struck the city of Lata and several villages located on the main island, Nendo, near the epicenter. The tsunami has been distinctly recorded by 5 DART buoys located in the Pacific ocean. In this work we present the slip distribution of the earthquake obtained by inverting the tsunami signals recorded by the DART buoys. In order to honour the complex geometry of the subducting plate, we use a fault model that accounts for the variability of the strike and dip angles along the slipping surface. We use the Green's function approach and a simulated annealing technique to solve the inverse problem. Synthetic checkerboard tests indicate that the azimuthal coverage of the available DART stations is sufficient to retrieve the main features of the rupture process with a minimum subfault area of about 20x20 km. We retrieve the slip distribution of the Santa Cruz Island earthquake that, at the first order, is consistent with previous slip models obtained by using teleseismic data.

  18. The ancestral cascades arc: Cenozoic evolution of the central Sierra Nevada (California) and the birth of the new plate boundary (United States)

    Busby, C.J.; Hagan, J.C.; Putirka, K.; Pluhar, C.J.; Gans, P.B.; Wagner, D.L.; Rood, D.; DeOreo, S.B.; Skilling, I.


    We integrate new stratigraphic, structural, geochemical, geochronological, and magnetostratigraphic data on Cenozoic volcanic rocks in the central Sierra Nevada to arrive at closely inter-related new models for: (1) the paleogeography of the ancestral Cascades arc, (2) the stratigraphic record of uplift events in the Sierra Nevada, (3) the tectonic controls on volcanic styles and compositions in the arc, and (4) the birth of a new plate margin. Previous workers have assumed that the ancestral Cascades arc consisted of stratovolcanoes, similar to the modern Cascades arc, but we suggest that the arc was composed largely of numerous, very small centers, where magmas frequently leaked up strands of the Sierran frontal fault zone. These small centers erupted to produce andesite lava domes that collapsed to produce block-and-ash flows, which were reworked into paleocanyons as volcanic debris flows and streamflow deposits. Where intrusions rose up through water-saturated paleocanyon fill, they formed peperite complexes that were commonly destabilized to form debris flows. Paleocanyons that were cut into Cretaceous bedrock and filled with Oligocene to late Miocene strata not only provide a stratigraphic record of the ancestral Cascades arc volcanism, but also deep unconformities within them record tectonic events. Preliminary correlation of newly mapped unconformities and new geochronological, magnetostratigraphic, and structural data allow us to propose three episodes of Cenozoic uplift that may correspond to (1) early Miocene onset of arc magmatism (ca. 15 Ma), (2) middle Miocene onset of Basin and Range faulting (ca. 10 Ma), and (3) late Miocene arrival of the triple junction (ca. 6 Ma), perhaps coinciding with a second episode of rapid extension on the range front. Oligocene ignimbrites, which erupted from calderas in central Nevada and filled Sierran paleocanyons, were deeply eroded during the early Miocene uplift event. The middle Miocene event is recorded by growth

  19. Tectonics Earthquake Distribution Pattern Analysis Based Focal Mechanisms (Case Study Sulawesi Island, 1993???2012)


    Ismullah M, Muh.Fawzy; Lantu; Aswad, Sabrianto; MASSINAI, MUH.ALTIN


    Indonesia is the meeting zone between three world main plates: Eurasian Plate, Pacific Plate, and Indo ??? Australia Plate. Therefore, Indonesia has a high seismicity degree. Sulawesi is one of whose high seismicity level. The earthquake centre lies in fault zone so the earthquake data gives tectonic visualization in a certain place. This research purpose is to identify Sulawesi tectonic model by using earthquake data from 1993 to 2012. Data used in this research is the earthquake...

  20. Dynamic strains for earthquake source characterization (United States)

    Barbour, Andrew J.; Crowell, Brendan W


    Strainmeters measure elastodynamic deformation associated with earthquakes over a broad frequency band, with detection characteristics that complement traditional instrumentation, but they are commonly used to study slow transient deformation along active faults and at subduction zones, for example. Here, we analyze dynamic strains at Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) borehole strainmeters (BSM) associated with 146 local and regional earthquakes from 2004–2014, with magnitudes from M 4.5 to 7.2. We find that peak values in seismic strain can be predicted from a general regression against distance and magnitude, with improvements in accuracy gained by accounting for biases associated with site–station effects and source–path effects, the latter exhibiting the strongest influence on the regression coefficients. To account for the influence of these biases in a general way, we include crustal‐type classifications from the CRUST1.0 global velocity model, which demonstrates that high‐frequency strain data from the PBO BSM network carry information on crustal structure and fault mechanics: earthquakes nucleating offshore on the Blanco fracture zone, for example, generate consistently lower dynamic strains than earthquakes around the Sierra Nevada microplate and in the Salton trough. Finally, we test our dynamic strain prediction equations on the 2011 M 9 Tohoku‐Oki earthquake, specifically continuous strain records derived from triangulation of 137 high‐rate Global Navigation Satellite System Earth Observation Network stations in Japan. Moment magnitudes inferred from these data and the strain model are in agreement when Global Positioning System subnetworks are unaffected by spatial aliasing.

  1. Preliminary Earthquake Hazard Map of Afghanistan (United States)

    Boyd, Oliver S.; Mueller, Charles S.; Rukstales, Kenneth S.


    Introduction Earthquakes represent a serious threat to the people and institutions of Afghanistan. As part of a United States Agency for International Development (USAID) effort to assess the resource potential and seismic hazards of Afghanistan, the Seismic Hazard Mapping group of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) has prepared a series of probabilistic seismic hazard maps that help quantify the expected frequency and strength of ground shaking nationwide. To construct the maps, we do a complete hazard analysis for each of ~35,000 sites in the study area. We use a probabilistic methodology that accounts for all potential seismic sources and their rates of earthquake activity, and we incorporate modeling uncertainty by using logic trees for source and ground-motion parameters. See the Appendix for an explanation of probabilistic seismic hazard analysis and discussion of seismic risk. Afghanistan occupies a southward-projecting, relatively stable promontory of the Eurasian tectonic plate (Ambraseys and Bilham, 2003; Wheeler and others, 2005). Active plate boundaries, however, surround Afghanistan on the west, south, and east. To the west, the Arabian plate moves northward relative to Eurasia at about 3 cm/yr. The active plate boundary trends northwestward through the Zagros region of southwestern Iran. Deformation is accommodated throughout the territory of Iran; major structures include several north-south-trending, right-lateral strike-slip fault systems in the east and, farther to the north, a series of east-west-trending reverse- and strike-slip faults. This deformation apparently does not cross the border into relatively stable western Afghanistan. In the east, the Indian plate moves northward relative to Eurasia at a rate of about 4 cm/yr. A broad, transpres