WorldWideScience

Sample records for plastics distribution statement

  1. Nonlinear Progressive Collapse Analysis Including Distributed Plasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Osama Ahmed; Imam Zubair Syed; Khattab Rania

    2016-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the effect of incorporating distributed plasticity in nonlinear analytical models used to assess the potential for progressive collapse of steel framed regular building structures. Emphasis on this paper is on the deformation response under the notionally removed column, in a typical Alternate Path (AP) method. The AP method employed in this paper is based on the provisions of the Unified Facilities Criteria – Design of Buildings to Resist Progressive Collapse, develop...

  2. Nonlinear Progressive Collapse Analysis Including Distributed Plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Osama Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates the effect of incorporating distributed plasticity in nonlinear analytical models used to assess the potential for progressive collapse of steel framed regular building structures. Emphasis on this paper is on the deformation response under the notionally removed column, in a typical Alternate Path (AP method. The AP method employed in this paper is based on the provisions of the Unified Facilities Criteria – Design of Buildings to Resist Progressive Collapse, developed and updated by the U.S. Department of Defense [1]. The AP method is often used for to assess the potential for progressive collapse of building structures that fall under Occupancy Category III or IV. A case study steel building is used to examine the effect of incorporating distributed plasticity, where moment frames were used on perimeter as well as the interior of the three dimensional structural system. It is concluded that the use of moment resisting frames within the structural system will enhance resistance to progressive collapse through ductile deformation response and that it is conserative to ignore the effects of distributed plasticity in determining peak displacement response under the notionally removed column.

  3. 10 CFR 51.81 - Distribution of draft environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Distribution of draft environmental impact statement. 51...-Regulations Implementing Section 102(2) Draft Environmental Impact Statements-Materials Licenses § 51.81 Distribution of draft environmental impact statement. Copies of the draft environmental impact statement and...

  4. 10 CFR 51.86 - Distribution of draft environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Distribution of draft environmental impact statement. 51...-Regulations Implementing Section 102(2) Draft Environmental Impact Statements-Rulemaking § 51.86 Distribution of draft environmental impact statement. Copies of the draft environmental impact statement and any...

  5. 10 CFR 51.77 - Distribution of draft environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Distribution of draft environmental impact statement. 51...-Regulations Implementing Section 102(2) Draft Environmental Impact Statements-Production and Utilization Facilities § 51.77 Distribution of draft environmental impact statement. (a) In addition to the distribution...

  6. Compliance of Systematic Reviews in Plastic Surgery With the PRISMA Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seon-Young; Sagoo, Harkiran; Whitehurst, Katharine; Wellstead, Georgina; Fowler, Alexander J; Agha, Riaz A; Orgill, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    Systematic reviews attempt to answer research questions by synthesizing the data in primary articles. They are an increasingly important tool within evidence-based medicine, guiding clinical practice, future research, and health care policy. To determine the reporting quality of recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses in plastic surgery with the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) statement. MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched for systematic reviews published between January 1, 2013, and December 31, 2014, in 5 major plastic surgery journals. Screening, identification, and data extraction were performed independently by 2 teams. Articles were reviewed for compliance with reporting of 27 items in the PRISMA checklist. Data analysis was conducted from January 1 to July 30, 2015. The sum of PRISMA checklist items (1-27) per systematic review. From an initial set of 163 articles, 79 met the inclusion criteria. The median PRISMA score was 16 of 27 items (59%) (range, 6%-26%; 95% CI, 14%-17%). Compliance varied between individual PRISMA items. It was poorest for items related to the use of review protocol (item 5; 4 articles [5%]) and presentation of data on the risk of bias of each study (item 19; 14 articles [18%]). Compliance was the highest for description of rationale (item 3; 78 articles [99%]), sources of funding and other support (item 27; 75 articles [95%]), and inclusion of a structured summary in the abstract (item 2; 75 articles [95%]). The reporting quality of systematic reviews in plastic surgery requires improvement. Enforcement of compliance through journal submission systems, as well as improved education, awareness, and a cohesive strategy among all stakeholders, is called for. NA.

  7. 10 CFR 51.74 - Distribution of draft environmental impact statement and supplement to draft environmental impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Distribution of draft environmental impact statement and supplement to draft environmental impact statement; news releases. 51.74 Section 51.74 Energy NUCLEAR... Impact Statements § 51.74 Distribution of draft environmental impact statement and supplement to draft...

  8. The vertical distribution of buoyant plastics at sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Reisser

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Millimeter-sized plastics are numerically abundant and widespread across the world's ocean surface. These buoyant macroscopic particles can be mixed within the upper water column due to turbulent transport. Models indicate that the largest decrease in their concentration occurs within the first few meters of water, where subsurface observations are very scarce. By using a new type of multi-level trawl at 12 sites within the North Atlantic accumulation zone, we measured concentrations and physical properties of plastics from the air–seawater interface to a depth of 5 m, at 0.5 m intervals. Our results show that plastic concentrations drop exponentially with water depth, but decay rates decrease with increasing Beaufort scale. Furthermore, smaller pieces presented lower rise velocities and were more susceptible to vertical transport. This resulted in higher depth decays of plastic mass concentration (mg m−3 than numerical concentration (pieces m−3. Further multi-level sampling of plastics will improve our ability to predict at-sea plastic load, size distribution, drifting pattern, and impact on marine species and habitats.

  9. 10 CFR 51.93 - Distribution of final environmental impact statement and supplement to final environmental impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Distribution of final environmental impact statement and supplement to final environmental impact statement; news releases. 51.93 Section 51.93 Energy NUCLEAR... Environmental Impact Statements-General Requirements § 51.93 Distribution of final environmental impact...

  10. Testing phenanthrene distribution properties of virgin plastic pellets and plastic eroded pellets found on lesvos island beaches (Greece)

    OpenAIRE

    Hrissi K. Karapanagioti; Klontza, Irene

    2008-01-01

    Testing phenanthrene distribution properties of virgin plastic pellets and plastic eroded pellets found on lesvos island beaches (Greece) correspondance: Corresponding author. (Karapanagioti, Hrissi K.) (Karapanagioti, Hrissi K.) Department of Chemistry--> , University of Patras--> , Rio--> - GREECE (Karapanagioti, Hrissi K.) GREECE (Karapanagioti, Hrissi K.) Marine Sciences Departmen...

  11. 16 CFR 307.11 - Rotation, display, and distribution of warning statements on smokeless tobacco packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rotation, display, and distribution of... COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS REGULATIONS UNDER THE COMPREHENSIVE SMOKELESS TOBACCO HEALTH EDUCATION ACT OF 1986 Plans § 307.11 Rotation, display, and distribution of warning statements on...

  12. 76 FR 63923 - Notice of Availability To Distribute a Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-14

    ... ADMINISTRATION Notice of Availability To Distribute a Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) for the Construction of a New Land Port of Entry in International Falls, MN AGENCY: Public Buildings Service, General... distribute a FEIS under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 to assess the potential...

  13. Frequent Statement and Dereference Elimination for Imperative and Object-Oriented Distributed Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Zawawy, Mohamed A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces new approaches for the analysis of frequent statement and dereference elimination for imperative and object-oriented distributed programs running on parallel machines equipped with hierarchical memories. The paper uses languages whose address spaces are globally partitioned. Distributed programs allow defining data layout and threads writing to and reading from other thread memories. Three type systems (for imperative distributed programs) are the tools of the proposed techniques. The first type system defines for every program point a set of calculated (ready) statements and memory accesses. The second type system uses an enriched version of types of the first type system and determines which of the ready statements and memory accesses are used later in the program. The third type system uses the information gather so far to eliminate unnecessary statement computations and memory accesses (the analysis of frequent statement and dereference elimination). Extensions to these type systems are also presented to cover object-oriented distributed programs. Two advantages of our work over related work are the following. The hierarchical style of concurrent parallel computers is similar to the memory model used in this paper. In our approach, each analysis result is assigned a type derivation (serves as a correctness proof). PMID:24892098

  14. Frequent Statement and Dereference Elimination for Imperative and Object-Oriented Distributed Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. El-Zawawy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces new approaches for the analysis of frequent statement and dereference elimination for imperative and object-oriented distributed programs running on parallel machines equipped with hierarchical memories. The paper uses languages whose address spaces are globally partitioned. Distributed programs allow defining data layout and threads writing to and reading from other thread memories. Three type systems (for imperative distributed programs are the tools of the proposed techniques. The first type system defines for every program point a set of calculated (ready statements and memory accesses. The second type system uses an enriched version of types of the first type system and determines which of the ready statements and memory accesses are used later in the program. The third type system uses the information gather so far to eliminate unnecessary statement computations and memory accesses (the analysis of frequent statement and dereference elimination. Extensions to these type systems are also presented to cover object-oriented distributed programs. Two advantages of our work over related work are the following. The hierarchical style of concurrent parallel computers is similar to the memory model used in this paper. In our approach, each analysis result is assigned a type derivation (serves as a correctness proof.

  15. Frequent statement and dereference elimination for imperative and object-oriented distributed programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Zawawy, Mohamed A

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces new approaches for the analysis of frequent statement and dereference elimination for imperative and object-oriented distributed programs running on parallel machines equipped with hierarchical memories. The paper uses languages whose address spaces are globally partitioned. Distributed programs allow defining data layout and threads writing to and reading from other thread memories. Three type systems (for imperative distributed programs) are the tools of the proposed techniques. The first type system defines for every program point a set of calculated (ready) statements and memory accesses. The second type system uses an enriched version of types of the first type system and determines which of the ready statements and memory accesses are used later in the program. The third type system uses the information gather so far to eliminate unnecessary statement computations and memory accesses (the analysis of frequent statement and dereference elimination). Extensions to these type systems are also presented to cover object-oriented distributed programs. Two advantages of our work over related work are the following. The hierarchical style of concurrent parallel computers is similar to the memory model used in this paper. In our approach, each analysis result is assigned a type derivation (serves as a correctness proof).

  16. Distribution and biological implications of plastic pollution on the fringing reef of Mo’orea, French Polynesia

    OpenAIRE

    Connors, Elizabeth J.

    2017-01-01

    Coral reef ecosystems of the South Pacific are extremely vulnerable to plastic pollution from oceanic gyres and land-based sources. To describe the extent and impact of plastic pollution, the distribution of both macro- (>5 mm) and microplastic (plastic

  17. Calculation of temperature distribution in adiabatic shear band based on gradient-dependent plasticity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王学滨

    2004-01-01

    A method for calculation of temperature distribution in adiabatic shear band is proposed in terms of gradient-dependent plasticity where the characteristic length describes the interactions and interplaying among microstructures. First, the increment of the plastic shear strain distribution in adiabatic shear band is obtained based on gradient-dependent plasticity. Then, the plastic work distribution is derived according to the current flow shear stress and the obtained increment of plastic shear strain distribution. In the light of the well-known assumption that 90% of plastic work is converted into the heat resulting in increase in temperature in adiabatic shear band, the increment of the temperature distribution is presented. Next, the average temperature increment in the shear band is calculated to compute the change in flow shear stress due to the thermal softening effect. After the actual flow shear stress considering the thermal softening effect is obtained according to the Johnson-Cook constitutive relation, the increment of the plastic shear strain distribution, the plastic work and the temperature in the next time step are recalculated until the total time is consumed. Summing the temperature distribution leads to rise in the total temperature distribution. The present calculated maximum temperature in adiabatic shear band in titanium agrees with the experimental observations. Moreover, the temperature profiles for different flow shear stresses are qualitatively consistent with experimental and numerical results. Effects of some related parameters on the temperature distribution are also predicted.

  18. Testing phenanthrene distribution properties of virgin plastic pellets and plastic eroded pellets found on Lesvos island beaches (Greece).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karapanagioti, Hrissi K; Klontza, Irene

    2008-05-01

    Plastic pellets have been characterized as toxic pollutant carriers throughout the world oceans and coastal zones. However, their sorptive properties are not yet well understood. In the present study, virgin pellets and plastic eroded pellets (PEP) are used to elucidate their distribution characteristics through distribution kinetic studies. Distribution occurs through diffusion into the pellet for all materials (polyethylene, polyoxymethylene, and PEP) except polypropylene (PP). Although diffusion into the polymer happens with similar rates for both freshwater and saltwater external solutions, apparent diffusion is dependent on the solution salinity because it results in higher equilibrium distribution coefficients. Distribution coefficient into the PEP is higher and diffusion is slower than into the virgin materials. This is attributed to increased crystallinity of the PEP due to weathering. PP demonstrates diffusion rates that are increased by salinity and is apparently faster than into the other polymers suggesting a surface diffusion process.

  19. Plastic zone distribution laws and its types of surrounding rock in large-span roadway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Chong; Xu Jinhai; Pan Jianzhong; Ma Chao

    2012-01-01

    In order to study the distribution laws and types of plastic zone of surrounding rock in large-span roadway,we analyzed the distribution laws with different spans and lateral pressures using FLAC3D numerical calculation software.Based on the roadway support difficulty and distribution laws of the plastic zone of surrounding rock,we defined the large-span roadway and classified the types of large-span rectangular roadways.As a result,the distribution laws of the plastic zone on surrounding rock in a rectangular roadway with different spans and lateral pressures were obtained.The results show that the area of the plastic zone on surrounding rock increased with the increase of the spans and lateral pressures,and the plastic zone was symmetrical to the center line of roadway.At λ =0.5,1.0,1.5,and 2.0,the plastic zone presented "addleshape" distribution,"ellipse" distribution."thin and high" distribution and "inverse trapezium" distribution,respectively.In addition,we classified the roadways into four types according to the different lateral pressures and spans,including small-span,moderate-span,large-span and extreme-large-span roadways.

  20. Evolution of root plasticity responses to variation in soil nutrient distribution and concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Judah D; Rice, Kevin J

    2012-12-01

    Root plasticity, a trait that can respond to selective pressure, may help plants forage for nutrients in heterogeneous soils. Agricultural breeding programs have artificially selected for increased yield under comparatively homogeneous soil conditions, potentially decreasing the capacity for plasticity in crop plants like barley (Hordeum vulgare). However, the effects of domestication on the evolution of root plasticity are essentially unknown. Using a split container approach, we examined the differences in root plasticity among three domestication levels of barley germplasm (wild, landrace, and cultivar) grown under different concentrations and distribution patterns of soil nutrients. Domestication level, nutrient concentration, and nutrient distribution interactively affected average root diameter; differential root allocation (within-plant plasticity) was greatest in wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum), especially under low nutrient levels. Correlations of within-plant root plasticity and plant size were most pronounced in modern cultivars under low-nutrient conditions. Barley plants invested more resources to root systems when grown in low-nutrient soils and allocated more roots to higher-nutrient locations. Root plasticity in barley is scale dependent and varies with domestication level. Although wild barley harbors a greater capacity for within-plant root plasticity than domesticated barley, cultivars exhibited the greatest capacity to translate within-plant plasticity into increased plant size.

  1. The effect of wind mixing on the vertical distribution of buoyant plastic debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukulka, T.; Proskurowski, G.; Morét-Ferguson, S.; Meyer, D. W.; Law, K. L.

    2012-04-01

    Micro-plastic marine debris is widely distributed in vast regions of the subtropical gyres and has emerged as a major open ocean pollutant. The fate and transport of plastic marine debris is governed by poorly understood geophysical processes, such as ocean mixing within the surface boundary layer. Based on profile observations and a one-dimensional column model, we demonstrate that plastic debris is vertically distributed within the upper water column due to wind-driven mixing. These results suggest that total oceanic plastics concentrations are significantly underestimated by traditional surface measurements, requiring a reinterpretation of existing plastic marine debris data sets. A geophysical approach must be taken in order to properly quantify and manage this form of marine pollution.

  2. Absorbed Dose Distributions in Irradiated Plastic Tubing and Wire Insulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Arne; McLaughlin, W. L.

    1979-01-01

    Plastic tubing and wire insulation were simulated by radiochromic dye dosimeter films having electron absorbing properties similar to the materials of interest (polyethylene and PVC). A 400-keV electron accelerator was used to irradiate from 1, 2, 3 and 4 sides simulating possible industrial...

  3. Evaluation of Plasticity and Particle Size Distribution Characteristics of Bagasse Ash on Cement Treated Lateritic Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Abdullahi MU'AZU

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Lateritic soil was treated with 1-4% cement contents and was admixtured with 2-8% bagasse ash content. The paper evaluated the plasticity and particle size distribution characteristic of bagasse ash on cement treated laterite. It was observed that liquid limit and plasticity index reduced while plastic limit increased. As regards the particle size distribution, the was reduction in the percentage of fines as a result of formation of heavier pseudo- and particle with percentage passing BS Sieve No. 200 reduced from 63% to almost zero. However the recommended percentage of bagasse ash should be between 4%-6%.

  4. Isotope Production and Distribution Program. Financial statements, September 30, 1994 and 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marwick, P.

    1994-11-30

    The attached report presents the results of the independent certified public accountants` audit of the Isotope Production and Distribution (IP&D) Program`s financial statements as of September 30, 1994. The auditors have expressed an unqualified opinion on IP&D`s 1994 statements. Their reports on IP&D`s internal control structure and on compliance with laws,and regulations are also provided. The charter of the Isotope Program covers the production and sale of radioactive and stable isotopes, byproducts, and related isotope services. Prior to October 1, 1989, the Program was subsidized by the Department of Energy through a combination of appropriated funds and isotope sales revenue. The Fiscal Year 1990 Appropriations Act, Public Law 101-101, authorized a separate Isotope Revolving Fund account for the Program, which was to support itself solely from the proceeds of isotope sales. The initial capitalization was about $16 million plus the value of the isotope assets in inventory or on loan for research and the unexpended appropriation available at the close of FY 1989. During late FY 1994, Public Law 103--316 restructured the Program to provide for supplemental appropriations to cover costs which are impractical to incorporate into the selling price of isotopes. Additional information about the Program is provided in the notes to the financial statements.

  5. Distribution of small plastic debris in cross-section and high strandline on Heungnam beach, South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Nak Won; Hong, Sang Hee; Han, Gi Myung; Hong, Sunwook; Lee, Jongmyoung; Song, Young Kyung; Jang, Mi; Shim, Won Joon

    2013-06-01

    The spatial distribution of small plastic debris on Heungnam beach in February 2011 was investigated. The abundances of small plastic debris over 2 mm in size along the high strandline and cross-sectional line of the beach were determined. The mean abundances of small plastics were 976 ± 405 particles/m2 at the high strandline in the upper tidal zone along the shoreline and 473 ± 866 particles/m2 at the cross-section perpendicular to the shoreline. Specifically, styrofoam (expanded polystyrene) spherules accounted for 90.7% of the total plastic abundance in the high strandline and 96.3% in the cross-section. The spatial distribution patterns of small plastic debris differed between the high strandline and cross-sectional line. The cross-sectional distribution of small plastic abundance differed among plastic types, indicating that representative sampling of small plastic debris on a beach is necessary.

  6. 77 FR 69553 - Policy Statement on the Principles for Development and Distribution of Annual Stress Test Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-20

    ... Part 325 Policy Statement on the Principles for Development and Distribution of Annual Stress Test... and factors to be used by the FDIC in developing and distributing the stress test scenarios for the annual stress tests required by the Dodd- Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010...

  7. Stochastically forced dislocation density distribution in plastic deformation

    CERN Document Server

    Chattopadhyay, Amit K

    2016-01-01

    The dynamical evolution of dislocations in plastically deformed metals is controlled by both deterministic factors arising out of applied loads and stochastic effects appearing due to fluctuations of internal stress. Such type of stochastic dislocation processes and the associated spatially inhomogeneous modes lead to randomness in the observed deformation structure. Previous studies have analyzed the role of randomness in such textural evolution but none of these models have considered the impact of a finite decay time (all previous models assumed instantaneous relaxation which is "unphysical") of the stochastic perturbations in the overall dynamics of the system. The present article bridges this knowledge gap by introducing a colored noise in the form of an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck noise in the analysis of a class of linear and nonlinear Wiener and Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes that these structural dislocation dynamics could be mapped on to. Based on an analysis of the relevant Fokker-Planck model, our results sh...

  8. Plastic optical fiber serial communications link for distributed control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Piyush; Sharangpani, K. K.; Vora, H. S.; Nakhe, S. V.; Jain, R.; Shenoy, N. M.; Bhatnagar, R.; Shirke, N. D.

    2001-09-01

    One of the most common interface for communications specified is RS 232C standard. Though widely accepted, RS232 has limited transmission speed, range and networking capabilities. RS 422 standard overcomes limitations by using differential signal lines. In automation of the operation of gas discharge lasers, multiple processors are used for control of lasers, cooling system, vacuum system etc. High EMI generated by lasers interfere through galvanic transmission or by radiation over the length of cables, and hang up operation of processors or control PC. A serial communications link was designed eliminating copper transmission media, using plastic optical fiber cables and components, to connect local controllers with the master PC working on RS232 protocols. The paper discusses the design and implementation of a high ly reliable EMI harden serial communications link.

  9. Distribution and biological implications of plastic pollution on the fringing reef of Mo’orea, French Polynesia

    OpenAIRE

    Connors, Elizabeth Janice

    2017-01-01

    Plastic pollution has been recognized as a major pollutant of the open ocean, but the extent and impact of plastic pollution on the coral reef environment has yet to be fully understood. In this study, the distribution of both macro- (>5mm) and micro- plastic (

  10. Molecular Dynamics Study on the Distributed Plasticity of Penta-twinned Silver Nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangryun eLee

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The distributed plasticity of pentatwinned silver nanowires has been revealed in recent computational and experimental studies. However, the molecular dynamics (MD simulations have not considered the imperfections seen in experiments, such as irregular surface undulations, the high aspect ratio of nanowires, and the stiffness of loading devices. In this work, we report the effect of such inherent imperfections on the distributed plasticity of penta-twinned silver nanowires in MD simulations. We find that the distributed plasticity occurs for nanowires having undulations that are less than 5% of the nanowire diameter. The elastic stress field induced by a stacking fault promotes the nucleation of successive stacking fault decahedrons (SFDs at long distance, making it hard for necking to occur. By comparing the tensile simulation using the steered molecular dynamics (SMD method with the tensile simulation with periodic boundary condition (PBC, we show that a sufficiently long nanowire must be used in the constant strain rate simulations with PBC, because the plastic displacement burst caused by the SFD formation induces compressive stress, promoting the removal of other SFDs. Our finding can serve as a guidance for the molecular dynamics simulation of crystalline materials with large plastic deformation, and in the design of mechanically reliable devices based on silver nanowires.

  11. Modelling global distribution, risk and mitigation strategies of floating plastic pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Sebille, Erik; Wilcox, Chris; Sherman, Peter; Hardesty, Britta Denise; Lavender Law, Kara

    2016-04-01

    Microplastic debris floating at the ocean surface can harm marine life. Understanding the severity of this harm requires knowledge of plastic abundance and distributions. Dozens of expeditions measuring microplastics have been carried out since the 1970s, but they have primarily focused on the North Pacific and North Atlantic accumulation zones, with much sparser coverage elsewhere. Here, we use the largest dataset of microplastic measurements assembled to date to assess the confidence we can have in global estimates of microplastic abundance and mass. We use a rigorous statistical framework to standardise a global dataset of plastic marine debris measured using surface-trawling plankton nets and couple this with three different ocean circulation models to spatially interpolate the observations. Our estimates show that the accumulated number of microplastic particles in 2014 ranges from 15 to 51 trillion particles, weighing between 93 and 236 thousand metric tons. A large fraction of the uncertainty in these estimates comes from sparse sampling in coastal and Southern Hemisphere regions. We then use this global distribution of small floating plastic debris to map out where in the ocean the risk to marine life (in particular seabirds and plankton growth) is greatest, using a quantitative risk framework. We show that the largest risk occurs not necessarily in regions of high plastic concentration, but rather in regions of extensive foraging with medium-high plastic concentrations such as coastal upwelling regions and the Southern Ocean. Finally, we use the estimates of distribution to investigate where in the ocean plastic can most optimally be removed, assuming hypothetical clean-up booms following the ideas from The Ocean Cleanup project. We show that mitigation of the plastic problem can most aptly be done near coastlines, particularly in Asia, rather than in the centres of the gyres. Based on these results, we propose more focus on the coastal zones when

  12. Measurements of the electron dose distribution near inhomogeneities using a plastic scintillation detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, C.M.M.; Mackie, T.R.; Podgorsak, M.B.; Holmes, M.A.; Papanikolaou, N.; Reckwerdt, P.J. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Cygler, J. [Ottawa Regional Cancer Center, Ontario (Canada); Rogers, D.W.O.; Bielajew, A.F. [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Schmidt, D.G. [Radiation Measurements, Inc., Middleton, WI (United States)] [and others

    1994-07-30

    Accurate measurement of the electron dose distribution near an inhomogeneity is difficult with traditional dosimeters which themselves perturb the electron field. The authors tested the performance of a new high resolution, water-equivalent plastic scintillation detector which has ideal properties for this application. A plastic scintillation detector with a 1 mm diameter, 3 mm long cylindrical sensitive volume was used to measure the dose distributions behind standard benchmark inhomogeneities in water phantoms. The plastic scintillator material is more water equivalent than polystyrene in terms of its mass collision stopping power and mass scattering power. Measurements were performed for beams of electrons having initial energies of 6 and 18 MeV at depths from 0.2-4.2 cm behind the inhomogeneities. The detector reveals hot and cold spots behind heterogeneities at resolutions equivalent to typical film digitizer spot sizes. Plots of the dose distributions behind air, aluminum, lead, and formulations for cortical and inner bone-equivalent materials are presented. The plastic scintillation detector is suited for measuring the electron dose distribution near an inhomogeneity. 14 refs., 9 figs.

  13. Enabling functional neural circuit simulations with distributed computing of neuromodulated plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potjans, Wiebke; Morrison, Abigail; Diesmann, Markus

    2010-01-01

    A major puzzle in the field of computational neuroscience is how to relate system-level learning in higher organisms to synaptic plasticity. Recently, plasticity rules depending not only on pre- and post-synaptic activity but also on a third, non-local neuromodulatory signal have emerged as key candidates to bridge the gap between the macroscopic and the microscopic level of learning. Crucial insights into this topic are expected to be gained from simulations of neural systems, as these allow the simultaneous study of the multiple spatial and temporal scales that are involved in the problem. In particular, synaptic plasticity can be studied during the whole learning process, i.e., on a time scale of minutes to hours and across multiple brain areas. Implementing neuromodulated plasticity in large-scale network simulations where the neuromodulatory signal is dynamically generated by the network itself is challenging, because the network structure is commonly defined purely by the connectivity graph without explicit reference to the embedding of the nodes in physical space. Furthermore, the simulation of networks with realistic connectivity entails the use of distributed computing. A neuromodulated synapse must therefore be informed in an efficient way about the neuromodulatory signal, which is typically generated by a population of neurons located on different machines than either the pre- or post-synaptic neuron. Here, we develop a general framework to solve the problem of implementing neuromodulated plasticity in a time-driven distributed simulation, without reference to a particular implementation language, neuromodulator, or neuromodulated plasticity mechanism. We implement our framework in the simulator NEST and demonstrate excellent scaling up to 1024 processors for simulations of a recurrent network incorporating neuromodulated spike-timing dependent plasticity.

  14. Enabling functional neural circuit simulations with distributed computing of neuromodulated plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiebke ePotjans

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A major puzzle in the field of computational neuroscience is how to relate system-level learning in higher organisms to synaptic plasticity. Recently, plasticity rules depending not only on pre- and post-synaptic activity but also on a third, non-local neuromodulatory signal have emerged as key candidates to bridge the gap between the macroscopic and the microscopic level of learning. Crucial insights into this topic are expected to be gained from simulations of neural systems, as these allow the simultaneous study of the multiple spatial and temporal scales that are involved in the problem. In particular, synaptic plasticity can be studied during the whole learning process, i.e. on a time scale of minutes to hours and across multiple brain areas. Implementing neuromodulated plasticity in large-scale network simulations where the neuromodulatory signal is dynamically generated by the network itself is challenging, because the network structure is commonly defined purely by the connectivity graph without explicit reference to the embedding of the nodes in physical space. Furthermore, the simulation of networks with realistic connectivity entails the use of distributed computing. A neuromodulated synapse must therefore be informed in an efficient way about the neuromodulatory signal, which is typically generated by a population of neurons located on different machines than either the pre- or post-synaptic neuron. Here, we develop a general framework to solve the problem of implementing neuromodulated plasticity in a time-driven distributed simulation, without reference to a particular implementation language, neuromodulator or neuromodulated plasticity mechanism. We implement our framework in the simulator NEST and demonstrate excellent scaling up to 1024 processors for simulations of a recurrent network incorporating neuromodulated spike-timing dependent plasticity.

  15. Apparent plasticity in functional traits determining competitive ability and spatial distribution: a case from desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jiang-Bo; Xu, Gui-Qing; Jenerette, G Darrel; Bai, Yong-fei; Wang, Zhong-Yuan; Li, Yan

    2015-07-20

    Species competitive abilities and their distributions are closely related to functional traits such as biomass allocation patterns. When we consider how nutrient supply affects competitive abilities, quantifying the apparent and true plasticity in functional traits is important because the allometric relationships among traits are universal in plants. We propose to integrate the notion of allometry and the classical reaction norm into a composite theoretical framework that quantifies the apparent and true plasticity. Combining the framework with a meta-analysis, a series of field surveys and a competition experiment, we aimed to determine the causes of the dune/interdune distribution patterns of two Haloxylon species in the Gurbantonggut Desert. We found that (1) the biomass allocation patterns of both Haloxylon species in responses to environmental conditions were apparent rather than true plasticity and (2) the allometric allocation patterns affected the plants' competition for soil nutrient supply. A key implication of our results is that the apparent plasticity in functional traits of plants determines their response to environmental change. Without identifying the apparent and true plasticity, we would substantially overestimate the magnitude, duration and even the direction of plant responses in functional traits to climate change.

  16. Statement of value added (dva: wealth distribution to staff and entities capital of sectors autoind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Wink

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aimed to analyze the distribution of benefit produced by companies belonging to sectors of Autoindústria and capital goods to the production of agents and working capital in the period between 2008 and 2012, through the Statement of Value Added (DVA. Methodologically we carried out a survey of descriptive purpose, documentary and bibliographic procedure and qualitative approach to the problem. The chosen population was formed by the group of entities named by Exame Magazine - Biggest and Best, 2012 edition, classified in the sectors of Autoindústria and Capital Goods. Being given sample for data accessibility and non-probabilistic, consisting of a Autoindústria the sector, by Embraer, Marcopolo and Mahle companies and in the Capital Goods sector, by companies Romi SA, Kepler-Weber SA and Bardella SA The results revealed Embraer was the entity with higher revenue figures of the group surveyed. Regarding the ability of benefit generation, the entity that became more revenues in value added was Romi on average 51% of the realized revenue. The Companies generally distributed more value added to personal than to capital.

  17. Elastic-plastic Contact between Rough Surfaces with Gauss and Exponential Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Rodríguez F.J.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to model the elastic-plastic contact between rough surfaces, the exponential probabilistic distribution function of asperity heights, proposed by Greenwood and Williamson (1966, is analyzed as an approach of the Gaussian distribution function, and it is found to be impractical in most studied cases. The exponential probabilistic distribution modified function proposed by Polycarpou and Etsión (1999 is applied to the recent model of elastic-plastic contact of Kogut and Etsión (2004, to facilitate the calculations in obtaining the contact parameters (real area, normal load and mean pressure using Simpson square method subroutines showing results with a minimum error in the order of 2.2%. The results show that it is possible to simplify the modeling and simulation of more complex contact cases and the determination of other parameters of contact.

  18. Elastic Plastic Stress Distributions in Weld-bonded Lap Joint under Axial Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essam A. Al-Bahkali

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Weld-bonding process is increasingly used in many industries such like automobile and aerospace. It offers significant improvements of sheet metal joints in static, dynamic, corrosion, noise resistance, stiffness and impact toughness properties. A full understanding of this process, including the elastic-plastic stress distribution in the joint, is a must for joints design and automation of manufacturing. Also, the modelling and analysis of this process, though it is complex, proves to be of prime importance. Thus, in this study a systematic experimental and theoretical study employing Finite Element Analysis (FEA is conducted on the weld-bonded joint, fabricated from Austenitic Stainless steel (AISI 304 sheets of 1.00 mm thickness and Epoxy adhesive Araldite 2011, subjected to axial loading. Complete 3-D finite element models are developed to evaluate the normal, shear and triaxial Von Mises stresses distributions across the entire joint, in both the elastic and plastic regions. The, needed quantities and properties, for the FE modelling and analysis, of the base metals and the adhesive, such like the elastic-plastic properties, modulus of elasticity, fracture limit, the nugget and Heat Affected Zones (HAZ properties, etc., are obtained from the experiments. The stress distribution curves obtained are found to be consistent with those obtained from the FE models and in excellent agreement with the experimental and theoretical published data, particularly in the elastic region. Furthermore, the stress distribution curves obtained for the weld-bonded joint display the best uniform smooth distribution curves compared to those obtained for the spot and bonded joint cases. The stress concentration peaks at the edges of the weld-bonded region, are almost eliminated resulting in achieving the strongest joint.

  19. Distributed cerebellar plasticity implements generalized multiple-scale memory components in real-robot sensorimotor tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eCasellato

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The cerebellum plays a crucial role in motor learning and it acts as a predictive controller. Modeling it and embedding it into sensorimotor tasks allows us to create functional links between plasticity mechanisms, neural circuits and behavioral learning. Moreover, if applied to real-time control of a neurorobot, the cerebellar model has to deal with a real noisy and changing environment, thus showing its robustness and effectiveness in learning. A biologically inspired cerebellar model with distributed plasticity, both at cortical and nuclear sites, has been used. Two cerebellum-mediated paradigms have been designed: an associative Pavlovian task and a vestibulo-ocular reflex, with multiple sessions of acquisition and extinction and with different stimuli and perturbation patterns. The cerebellar controller succeeded to generate conditioned responses and finely tuned eye movement compensation, thus reproducing human-like behaviors. Through a productive plasticity transfer from cortical to nuclear sites, the distributed cerebellar controller showed in both tasks the capability to optimize learning on multiple time-scales, to store motor memory and to effectively adapt to dynamic ranges of stimuli.

  20. Constitutive Laws for Visco-plastic Porous Medium Shaped by Regularly Distributed Circular Particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yunzhu Cai; Huaicui Li

    2016-01-01

    A numerical study is presented, using a homogenization technique to consider the plain strain problem of visco⁃plastic porous medium shaped by regularly distributed circular particles. Based on a rigid plastic material, the paper derives the macroscopic constitutive laws for homogenous equivalent medium. By changing the shape parameter of circular particles, the effect of pore shape on macroscopic constitutive laws is explored. Yield surfaces with different pore shapes are obtained. About voids, a two⁃scale conception is introduced, which regards main void as macroscopic scale and secondary cavities as microscopic scale. The macroscopic potential involving main and secondary voids is achieved. The proposed macroscopic constitutive law taking microscopic features as influence factors is helpful for exploring the macroscopic mechanical properties of porous medium when numerical simulation is required.

  1. Distribution of Energy Deposited in Plastic Tubing and Copper-Wire Insulation by Electron Beam Irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Walther Batsberg; Miller, Arne; Pejtersen, K.

    1978-01-01

    Scanned electron beam treatment is used to improve the physical properties of certain polymers, such as shrinkable plastic tubing and insulated wire and cable. Tubing or wires are passed at high speed under the beam scanner, and the material is irradiated to absorbed doses of several Mrad...... as uniformly as possible, usually by means of a multipass arrangement. In the present study, using irradiation by a scanned 0.4 MeV electron beam, measurements were made of high-resolution distributions of absorbed dose in polyethylene tubing and copper wire coated with polyethylene, nylon, or polyvinyl...... chloride insulation. Radiochromic dye films equivalent to the insulating materials were used as accurate dosimeters having a response independent of dose rate. Irradiations were in various geometries, wire and plastic thicknesses, positions along the beam scan, and with different backing materials near...

  2. Plasticity in dendroclimatic response across the distribution range of Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin de Luis

    Full Text Available We investigated the variability of the climate-growth relationship of Aleppo pine across its distribution range in the Mediterranean Basin. We constructed a network of tree-ring index chronologies from 63 sites across the region. Correlation function analysis identified the relationships of tree-ring index to climate factors for each site. We also estimated the dominant climatic gradients of the region using principal component analysis of monthly, seasonal, and annual mean temperature and total precipitation from 1,068 climatic gridpoints. Variation in ring width index was primarily related to precipitation and secondarily to temperature. However, we found that the dendroclimatic relationship depended on the position of the site along the climatic gradient. In the southern part of the distribution range, where temperature was generally higher and precipitation lower than the regional average, reduced growth was also associated with warm and dry conditions. In the northern part, where the average temperature was lower and the precipitation more abundant than the regional average, reduced growth was associated with cool conditions. Thus, our study highlights the substantial plasticity of Aleppo pine in response to different climatic conditions. These results do not resolve the source of response variability as being due to either genetic variation in provenance, to phenotypic plasticity, or a combination of factors. However, as current growth responses to inter-annual climate variability vary spatially across existing climate gradients, future climate-growth relationships will also likely be determined by differential adaptation and/or acclimation responses to spatial climatic variation. The contribution of local adaptation and/or phenotypic plasticity across populations to the persistence of species under global warming could be decisive for prediction of climate change impacts across populations. In this sense, a more complex forest dynamics

  3. Slepian simulation of plastic displacement distributions for shear frame excited by filtered Gaussian white noise ground motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov

    2003-01-01

    frame. A suitable number of the lower floors has been considered to represent the soil both as a filter of a white noise base rock excitation and as a simplified model for soil structure interaction. In the present paper the Slepian model is applied to obtain plastic displacement distributions...... frame with partial or full feed back from the movement of the top mass to the second and the first mass (top soil layer mass and base rock mass, respectively). Keywords: Clough-Penzien filtered white noise excitation, elasto-plastic shear frame oscillator, plastic displacement distributions, simplified...

  4. GEFCom2012: Statement and the Concept of Multidimensional Stochastic Distributed Energy Consumption Model Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander G. Janovsky

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A task statement and a concept of solution of GEFCom2012 (USA problem are considered as a contribution. The aspects of solution including (i methods of correlation-spectral analysis and rank analysis for multidimensional stochastic processes, (ii identification and forecasting of multidimensional stochastic systems are proposed

  5. Analysis of Stomata Distribution Patterns for Quantification of the Foliar Plasticity of Tradescantia Zebrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista Florindo, Joao; Landini, Gabriel; Almeida Filho, Humberto; Martinez Bruno, Odemir

    2015-09-01

    Here we propose a method for the analysis of the stomata distribution patterns on the surface of plant leaves. We also investigate how light exposure during growth can affect stomata distribution and the plasticity of leaves. Understanding foliar plasticity (the ability of leaves to modify their structural organization to adapt to changing environmental resources) is a fundamental problem in Agricultural and Environmental Sciences. Most published work on quantification of stomata has concentrated on descriptions of their density per unit of leaf area, however density alone does not provide a complete description of the problem and leaves several unanswered questions (e.g. whether the stomata patterns change across various areas of the leaf, or how the patterns change under varying observational scales). We used two approaches here, to know, multiscale fractal dimension and complex networks, as a means to provide a description of the complexity of these distributions. In the experiments, we used 18 samples from the plant Tradescantia Zebrina grown under three different conditions (4 hours of artificial light each day, 24 hours of artificial light each day, and sunlight) for a total of 69 days. The network descriptors were capable of correctly discriminating the different conditions in 88% of cases, while the fractal descriptors discriminated 83% of the samples. This is a significant improvement over the correct classification rates achieved when using only stomata density (56% of the samples).

  6. ANALYTICAL SOLUTIONS OF THERMAL STRESS DISTRIBUTION IN PLASTIC ENCAPSULATED INTEGRATED CIRCUIT PACKAGES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉岚; 王彪; 王殿富

    2003-01-01

    Due to the mismatch in the coefficients of thermal expansion of slicon chip and the surrounding plastic encapsulation materials, the induced thermal stress is the main cause for die and encapsulant rupture. The corner geometry is simplified as the semi-infinite wedge. Then the two-dimensional thermal stress distribution around the corner was obtained explicitly. Based on the stress calculation, the strain energy density factor criterion is used to evaluate the strength of the structure, which can not only give the critical condition for the stresses, but also determine the direction of fracture initiation around the corner.

  7. ANALYTICAL SOLUTIONS OF THERMAL STRESS DISTRIBUTION IN PLASTIC ENCAPSULATED INTEGRATED CIRCUIT PACKAGES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUYu-lan; WANGBiao; WANGDian-fu

    2003-01-01

    Due to the mismatch in the coefficients of thermal epansion of slicon chip and the surrounding plastic encapsulation materials,the induced thermal stress is the main cause for die and encapsulant rupture.The corner geometry is simplified as the semi-infinite wedge.The the two-dimensional thermal stress distribution around the coner was obtained explicitly.Based on the stress calculation,the strain energy density factor criterion is used to evaluate the strength of the structure,which can not only give the critical condition for the stresses,but also determine the direction of fracture iuntiation around the corner.

  8. Three-dimensional distribution of plastic pellets in sandy beaches: shifting paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turra, Alexander; Manzano, Aruanã B.; Dias, Rodolfo Jasão S.; Mahiques, Michel M.; Barbosa, Lucas; Balthazar-Silva, Danilo; Moreira, Fabiana T.

    2014-03-01

    Plastic pellets are worldwide contaminants that accumulate in the ocean, especially in sandy beaches, where their historic standing-stock quantification relies on surface sediment samples. We demonstrated these particles present a three-dimensional instead of a simple along-across shore distribution, being found as deep as 2.0 m, with surface layers accounting for microplastics and sedimentary environments as a whole should be investigated. This poses criticism in the exactness of standing-stock records and demands urgent discussion of sampling protocols.

  9. Distribution and biological implications of plastic pollution on the fringing reef of Mo’orea, French Polynesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Coral reef ecosystems of the South Pacific are extremely vulnerable to plastic pollution from oceanic gyres and land-based sources. To describe the extent and impact of plastic pollution, the distribution of both macro- (>5 mm) and microplastic (plastic Microplastics were discovered in the water column of the fringing reef of the island, at a concentration of 0.74 pieces m−2. Additionally, this study reports for the first time the ingestion of microplastic by the corallimorpha Discosoma nummiforme. Microplastics were made available to corallimorph polyps in a laboratory setting over the course of 108 h. Positively and negatively buoyant microplastics were ingested, and a microplastic particle that was not experimentally introduced was also discovered in the stomach cavity of one organism. This study indicates that plastic pollution has the potential to negatively impact coral reef ecosystems of the South Pacific, and warrants further study to explore the broader potential impacts of plastic pollution on coral reef ecosystems.

  10. Distributed cerebellar plasticity implements adaptable gain control in a manipulation task: a closed-loop robotic simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus A Garrido Alcazar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Adaptable gain regulation is at the core of the forward controller operation performed by the cerebro-cerebellar loops and it allows the intensity of motor acts to be finely tuned in a predictive manner. In order to learn and store information about body-object dynamics and to generate an internal model of movement, the cerebellum is thought to employ long-term synaptic plasticity. LTD at the PF-PC synapse has classically been assumed to subserve this function (Marr, 1969. However, this plasticity alone cannot account for the broad dynamic ranges and time scales of cerebellar adaptation. We therefore tested the role of plasticity distributed over multiple synaptic sites (Gao et al., 2012; Hansel et al., 2001 by generating an analog cerebellar model embedded into a control loop connected to a robotic simulator. The robot used a three-joint arm and performed repetitive fast manipulations with different masses along an 8-shape trajectory. In accordance with biological evidence, the cerebellum model was endowed with both LTD and LTP at the PF-PC, MF-DCN and PC-DCN synapses. This resulted in a network scheme whose effectiveness was extended considerably compared to one including just PF-PC synaptic plasticity. Indeed, the system including distributed plasticity reliably self-adapted to manipulate different masses and to learn the arm-object dynamics over a time course that included fast learning and consolidation, along the lines of what has been observed in behavioral tests. In particular, PF-PC plasticity operated as a time correlator between the actual input state and the system error, while MF-DCN and PC-DCN plasticity played a key role in generating the gain controller. This model suggests that distributed synaptic plasticity allows generation of the complex learning properties of the cerebellum. The incorporation of further plasticity mechanisms and of spiking signal processing will allow this concept to be extended in a more realistic

  11. Beyond phthalates: Gas phase concentrations and modeled gas/particle distribution of modern plasticizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schossler, Patricia [Fraunhofer WKI, Department of Material Analysis and Indoor Chemistry, Bienroder Weg 54E, D-38108 Braunschweig (Germany); Institute of Environmental and Sustainable Chemistry, Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, Hagenring 30, D-38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Schripp, Tobias, E-mail: tobias.schripp@wki.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer WKI, Department of Material Analysis and Indoor Chemistry, Bienroder Weg 54E, D-38108 Braunschweig (Germany); Salthammer, Tunga [Fraunhofer WKI, Department of Material Analysis and Indoor Chemistry, Bienroder Weg 54E, D-38108 Braunschweig (Germany); Bahadir, Muefit [Institute of Environmental and Sustainable Chemistry, Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, Hagenring 30, D-38106 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2011-09-01

    The ongoing health debate about polymer plasticizers based on the esters of phthalic acid, especially di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), has caused a trend towards using phthalates of lower volatility such as diisononyl phthalate (DINP) and towards other acid esters, such as adipates, terephthalates, citrates, etc. Probably the most important of these so-called 'alternative' plasticizers is diisononyl cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylate (DINCH). In the indoor environment, the continuously growing market share of this compound since its launch in 2002 is inter alia apparent from the increasing concentration of DINCH in settled house dust. From the epidemiological point of view there is considerable interest in identifying how semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) distribute in the indoor environment, especially in air, airborne particles and sedimented house dust. This, however, requires reliable experimental concentration data for the different media and good measurements or estimates of their physical and chemical properties. This paper reports on air concentrations for DINP, DINCH, diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP), diisobutyl adipate (DIBA), diisobutyl succinate (DIBS) and diisobutyl glutarate (DIBG) from emission studies in the Field and Laboratory Emission Cell (FLEC). For DINP and DINCH it took about 50 days to reach the steady-state value: for four months no decay in the concentration could be observed. Moreover, vapor pressures p{sub 0} and octanol-air partitioning coefficients K{sub OA} were obtained for 37 phthalate and non-phthalate plasticizers from two different algorithms: EPI Suite and SPARC. It is shown that calculated gas/particle partition coefficients K{sub p} and fractions can widely differ due to the uncertainty in the predicted p{sub 0} and K{sub OA} values. For most of the investigated compounds reliable experimental vapor pressures are not available. Rough estimates can be obtained from the measured emission rate of the pure compound in a

  12. Distribution of filamentous fungi in a manufacturing factory for plastic caps for soft drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Jun

    2010-09-01

    The distribution of filamentous fungi was studied in a production line for plastic caps for soft drinks. Of 52 samples from both the swab and air sampling tests, a total of 47 filamentous fungi were isolated. Of those 47 fungi, 32 (68.0%) were found in the swab test samples. As for the swab test results, the area where most of the filamentous fungi were isolated was the printing/inspection room followed by the resin storage room. The breakdown of the filamentous fungi showed Cladosporium: 14.9%; Penicillium: 10.6%; Acremonium: 8.5%; Trichoderma: 8.5%; Arthrinium: 6.4%; and Aureobasidium: 6.4%. The fungal count of raw material (MPN/100g) was zero for the base resin, 0.36 for the master batch and 4.3 for the liner material, respectively. Those fungal counts seemed to be very low and it was concluded that the hygienic conditions of the plastic cap production line were very good.

  13. Occurrence, distribution and characteristics of beached plastic production pellets on the island of Malta (central Mediterranean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Andrew; Holmes, Luke

    2011-02-01

    The distribution, abundance and chemical characteristics of plastic production pellets on beaches of the island of Malta have been determined. Pellets were observed at all locations visited and were generally most abundant (> 1000m⁻² at the surface) on the backshores of beaches with a westerly aspect. Most pellets were disc-shaped or flattened cylinders and could be categorised as white, yellow, amber or brown. The polymeric matrix of all pellets analysed by infrared spectroscopy was polyethylene and the degree of yellowing or darkening was associated with an increase in the carbonyl index, hence extent of photo-oxidation or aging. Qualitatively, pellets are similar to those reported for other regions of the Mediterranean in surveys spanning three decades, suggesting that they are a general and persistent characteristic of the region.

  14. Distribution and biological implications of plastic pollution on the fringing reef of Mo'orea, French Polynesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, Elizabeth J

    2017-01-01

    Coral reef ecosystems of the South Pacific are extremely vulnerable to plastic pollution from oceanic gyres and land-based sources. To describe the extent and impact of plastic pollution, the distribution of both macro- (>5 mm) and microplastic (plastic reef of an isolated South Pacific island, Mo'orea, French Polynesia was quantified. Macroplastic was found on every beach on the island that was surveyed. The distribution of this plastic was categorized by site type and by the presence of Turbinaria ornata, a common macroalgae on Mo'orea. Microplastics were discovered in the water column of the fringing reef of the island, at a concentration of 0.74 pieces m(-2). Additionally, this study reports for the first time the ingestion of microplastic by the corallimorpha Discosoma nummiforme. Microplastics were made available to corallimorph polyps in a laboratory setting over the course of 108 h. Positively and negatively buoyant microplastics were ingested, and a microplastic particle that was not experimentally introduced was also discovered in the stomach cavity of one organism. This study indicates that plastic pollution has the potential to negatively impact coral reef ecosystems of the South Pacific, and warrants further study to explore the broader potential impacts of plastic pollution on coral reef ecosystems.

  15. Distribution and biological implications of plastic pollution on the fringing reef of Mo’orea, French Polynesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth J. Connors

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Coral reef ecosystems of the South Pacific are extremely vulnerable to plastic pollution from oceanic gyres and land-based sources. To describe the extent and impact of plastic pollution, the distribution of both macro- (>5 mm and microplastic (plastic < 5 mm of the fringing reef of an isolated South Pacific island, Mo’orea, French Polynesia was quantified. Macroplastic was found on every beach on the island that was surveyed. The distribution of this plastic was categorized by site type and by the presence of Turbinaria ornata, a common macroalgae on Mo’orea. Microplastics were discovered in the water column of the fringing reef of the island, at a concentration of 0.74 pieces m−2. Additionally, this study reports for the first time the ingestion of microplastic by the corallimorpha Discosoma nummiforme. Microplastics were made available to corallimorph polyps in a laboratory setting over the course of 108 h. Positively and negatively buoyant microplastics were ingested, and a microplastic particle that was not experimentally introduced was also discovered in the stomach cavity of one organism. This study indicates that plastic pollution has the potential to negatively impact coral reef ecosystems of the South Pacific, and warrants further study to explore the broader potential impacts of plastic pollution on coral reef ecosystems.

  16. Slepian simulation of plastic displacement distributions for shear frame excited by filtered Gaussian white noise ground motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov

    2003-01-01

    , and with no force feed back from any of the three masses to masses situated below it. The first mass from the ground is force excited by stationary Gaussian white noise as specified in the Clough-Penzien filter definition. The study includes comparisons between plastic displacement results for the same three story...... for a single story shear frame excited by stationary Gaussian ground motion defined by the output of a Clough-Penzien filter with Gaussian white noise input. This is equivalent to considering an artificial three story elasto-plastic shear frame with possible yielding solely in the third column connection...... frame with partial or full feed back from the movement of the top mass to the second and the first mass (top soil layer mass and base rock mass, respectively). Keywords: Clough-Penzien filtered white noise excitation, elasto-plastic shear frame oscillator, plastic displacement distributions, simplified...

  17. Effect of grain refinement by severe plastic deformation on the next-neighbor misorientation distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toth, L.S., E-mail: toth@univ-metz.fr [Laboratoire d' Etude des Microstructures et de Mecanique des Materiaux (LEM3), Universite Paul Verlaine - Metz/CNRS, 57045 Metz (France); Beausir, B. [Institut fuer Strukturphysik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Gu, C.F. [Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800 (Australia); Estrin, Y. [Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800 (Australia); CSIRO Division of Process Science and Engineering, Clayton, VIC (Australia); Scheerbaum, N. [Institut fuer Strukturphysik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Davies, C.H.J. [Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800 (Australia)

    2010-12-15

    Next-neighbor misorientation distributions (NNMD) in severely deformed polycrystalline materials are commonly measured by orientation imaging. A procedure is proposed which enables the separation of NNMD of ultrafine-grained materials into two parts: the distribution of misorientations between newly emerged grains within the original ('parent') grain interior ('internal daughter grains') and the distribution of misorientations between grains adjacent to an original grain boundary on its opposite sides ('grain boundary daughter grains'). The procedure is based on electron backscatter diffraction orientation map analyses carried out on different planes of deformed samples considering the evolution of the grain size and shape during severe plastic deformation. It was applied to copper processed by up to three passes of equal-channel angular pressing. A characteristic feature of the measured NNMD is the occurrence of a double peak, which is clearly due to the differences between the NNMD of the two distinct populations of new grains defined above. The peak at low angles represents mainly the continual grain subdivision process in the interior of a parent grain (and is associated with internal daughter grains), while the peak at large angles is due to the high angle misorientations of the grain boundary daughter grains.

  18. Bringing home the trash: do colony-based differences in foraging distribution lead to increased plastic ingestion in Laysan albatrosses?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay C Young

    Full Text Available When searching for prey, animals should maximize energetic gain, while minimizing energy expenditure by altering their movements relative to prey availability. However, with increasing amounts of marine debris, what once may have been 'optimal' foraging strategies for top marine predators, are leading to sub-optimal diets comprised in large part of plastic. Indeed, the highly vagile Laysan albatross (Phoebastria immutabilis which forages throughout the North Pacific, are well known for their tendency to ingest plastic. Here we examine whether Laysan albatrosses nesting on Kure Atoll and Oahu Island, 2,150 km apart, experience different levels of plastic ingestion. Twenty two geolocators were deployed on breeding adults for up to two years. Regurgitated boluses of undigestable material were also collected from chicks at each site to compare the amount of plastic vs. natural foods. Chicks from Kure Atoll were fed almost ten times the amount of plastic compared to chicks from Oahu despite boluses from both colonies having similar amounts of natural food. Tracking data indicated that adults from either colony did not have core overlapping distributions during the early half of the breeding period and that adults from Kure had a greater overlap with the putative range of the Western Garbage Patch corroborating our observation of higher plastic loads at this colony. At-sea distributions also varied throughout the year suggesting that Laysan albatrosses either adjusted their foraging behavior according to constraints on time away from the nest or to variation in resources. However, in the non-breeding season, distributional overlap was greater indicating that the energy required to reach the foraging grounds was less important than the total energy available. These results demonstrate how a marine predator that is not dispersal limited alters its foraging strategy throughout the reproductive cycle to maximize energetic gain and how this has led to

  19. Evolution of root plasticity responses to variation in soil nutrient distribution and concentration

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Root plasticity, a trait that can respond to selective pressure, may help plants forage for nutrients in heterogeneous soils. Agricultural breeding programs have artificially selected for increased yield under comparatively homogeneous soil conditions, potentially decreasing the capacity for plasticity in crop plants like barley (Hordeum vulgare). However, the effects of domestication on the evolution of root plasticity are essentially unknown. Using a split container approach, we examined th...

  20. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean Sea: Types, occurrence and distribution along Adriatic shorelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munari, Cristina; Scoponi, Marco; Mistri, Michele

    2017-09-01

    Small plastic debris in sediments from five beaches were investigated to evaluate their occurrence and abundance in the Northern Adriatic coast for the first time. Plastic debris extracted from sediments were counted, weighted and identified by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). A total of 1345 items of debris (13.491g) were recorded, with a mean density of 12.1 items kg(-1) d.w. and 0.12gkg(-1) d.w. Fragments were the most frequent type of small plastics debris detected. In terms of abundance, microplastics (types of plastic. Primary microplastics accounted for only 5.6% of the total plastic debris. There were greater quantities of microplastics at sites subjected to stronger riverine runoff. The results will provide useful background information for further investigations to understand the sink and sources of this emergent and priority contaminant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Sulfur Distribution during Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Lignite, Wheat Straw and Plastic Waste in Sub-Critical Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Baofeng; Huang Yaru; Zhang Jinjun

    2015-01-01

    The distribution and transformation of sulfur in products during hydrothermal liquefaction of lignite, wheat straw and plastic waste in sub-critical water were investigated in an autoclave. The inlfuence of blending ratio, temperature, initial nitrogen pressure, residence time and additives on sulfur distribution was studied systematically. The results showed that most of sulfur existed as organic sulfur and transferred into the residue, and only a small part of sulfur transferred into oil and gas during hydrothermal liquefaction of lignite, wheat straw and plastic waste in sub-critical water. The results also showed that lower temperature (less than 300℃) was favorable for obtaining oil with low sulfur content. It can be also seen from the results that the best condition to obtain the oil with low sulfur content should be implemented at a lignite/wheat straw/plastic waste blending ratio of 5:4:1, an initial nitrogen pressure of 3 MPa and a residence time of 30 minutes. Fur-thermore, the results indicated that adding tourmaline during hydrothermal liquefaction of lignite, wheat straw and plastic waste was beneifcial to production of oil with low sulfur content.

  2. Temperature distribution in adiabatic shear band for ductile metal based on JOHNSON-COOK and gradient plasticity models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xue-bin

    2006-01-01

    Gradient-dependent plasticity considering interactions and interplay among microstructures was included into JOHNSON-COOK model to calculate the temperature distribution in adiabatic shear band(ASB), the peak and average temperatures as well as their evolutions. The differential local plastic shear strain was derived to calculate the differential local plastic work and the temperature rise due to the microstructural effect. The total temperature in ASB is the sum of initial temperature, temperature rise at strain-hardening stage and non-uniform temperature due to the microstructural effect beyond the peak shear stress. The flow shear stress-average plastic shear strain curve, the temperature distribution, the peak and average temperatures in ASB are computed for Ti-6Al-4V. When the imposed shear strain is less than 2 and the shear strain rate is 1 000 s-1, the dynamic recovery and recrystallization processes occur. However, without the microstructural effect, the processes might have not occurred since heat diffusion decreases the temperature in ASB. The calculated maximum temperature approaches 1 500 K so that phase transformation might take place. The present predictions support the previously experimental results showing that the transformed and deformed ASBs are observed in Ti-6Al-4V. Higher shear strain rate enhances the possibility of dynamic recrystallization and phase transformation.

  3. A mathematical model of the global processes of plastic degradation in the World Ocean with account for the surface temperature distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsev, S. I.; Gitelson, J. I.

    2016-02-01

    The suggested model of plastic garbage degradation allows us to obtain an estimate of the stationary density of their distribution over the surface of the World Ocean with account for the temperature dependence on the degradation rate. The model also allows us to estimate the characteristic time periods of degradation of plastic garbage and the dynamics of the mean density variation as the mean rate of plastic garbage entry into the ocean varies

  4. Enabling functional neural circuit simulations with distributed computing of neuromodulated plasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Wiebke ePotjans; Abigail Morrison; Markus Diesmann

    2010-01-01

    A major puzzle in the field of computational neuroscience is how to relate system-level learning in higher organisms to synaptic plasticity. Recently, plasticity rules depending not only on pre- and post-synaptic activity but also on a third, non-local neuromodulatory signal have emerged as key candidates to bridge the gap between the macroscopic and the microscopic level of learning. Crucial insights into this topic are expected to be gained from simulations of neural systems, as these allow...

  5. Isotope Production and Distribution Program`s Fiscal Year 1997 financial statement audit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-27

    The Department of Energy Isotope Production and Distribution Program mission is to serve the national need for a reliable supply of isotope products and services for medicine, industry and research. The program produces and sells hundreds of stable and radioactive isotopes that are widely utilized by domestic and international customers. Isotopes are produced only where there is no U.S. private sector capability or other production capacity is insufficient to meet U.S. needs. The Department encourages private sector investment in new isotope production ventures and will sell or lease its existing facilities and inventories for commercial purposes. The Isotope Program reports to the Director of the Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology. The Isotope Program operates under a revolving fund established by the Fiscal Year (FY) 1990 Energy and Water Appropriations Act and maintains financial viability by earning revenues from the sale of isotopes and services and through annual appropriations. The FY 1995 Energy and Water Appropriations Act modified predecessor acts to allow prices charged for Isotope Program products and services to be based on production costs, market value, the needs of the research community, and other factors. Although the Isotope Program functions as a business, prices set for small-volume, high-cost isotopes that are needed for research purposes may not achieve full-cost recovery. As a result, isotopes produced by the Isotope Program for research and development are priced to provide a reasonable return to the U.S. Government without discouraging their use. Commercial isotopes are sold on a cost-recovery basis. Because of its pricing structure, when selecting isotopes for production, the Isotope Program must constantly balance current isotope demand, market conditions, and societal benefits with its determination to operate at the lowest possible cost to U.S. taxpayers. Thus, this report provides a financial analysis of this situation.

  6. Spike timing regulation on the millisecond scale by distributed synaptic plasticity at the cerebellum input stage: a simulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus A Garrido

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The way long-term synaptic plasticity regulates neuronal spike patterns is not completely understood. This issue is especially relevant for the cerebellum, which is endowed with several forms of long-term synaptic plasticity and has been predicted to operate as a timing and a learning machine. Here we have used a computational model to simulate the impact of multiple distributed synaptic weights in the cerebellar granular layer network. In response to mossy fiber bursts, synaptic weights at multiple connections played a crucial role to regulate spike number and positioning in granule cells. The weight at mossy fiber to granule cell synapses regulated the delay of the first spike and the weight at mossy fiber and parallel fiber to Golgi cell synapses regulated the duration of the time-window during which the first-spike could be emitted. Moreover, the weights of synapses controlling Golgi cell activation regulated the intensity of granule cell inhibition and therefore the number of spikes that could be emitted. First spike timing was regulated with millisecond precision and the number of spikes ranged from 0 to 3. Interestingly, different combinations of synaptic weights optimized either first-spike timing precision or spike number, efficiently controlling transmission and filtering properties. These results predict that distributed synaptic plasticity regulates the emission of quasi-digital spike patterns on the millisecond time scale and allows the cerebellar granular layer to flexibly control burst transmission along the mossy fiber pathway.

  7. Achieving large macroscopic compressive plastic deformation and work-hardening-like behavior in a monolithic bulk metallic glass by tailoring stress distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L. Y.; Ge, Q.; Qu, S.; Jiang, Q. K.; Nie, X. P.; Jiang, J. Z.

    2008-05-01

    The limited plastic deformation and lack of work hardening seriously restrict the applications of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs). Here, large macroscopic compressive plastic deformation (over 15%) and work-hardening-like behavior were achieved in a monolithic BMG through tailoring loading stress distribution experimentally. Numerical analysis was also carried out to investigate the stress distribution under the same mechanical condition. It is shown that loading induced stress gradient is responsible for the achievement mentioned above.

  8. Spatial distributions of photons in plastic scintillator detected by multi-anode photomultiplier for heavy-ion position determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omika, S. [Department of Physics, Saitama University, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Yamaguchi, T., E-mail: yamaguti@phy.saitama-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Saitama University, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Fukuda, M. [Department of Physics, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Kitagawa, A. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Matsunaga, S. [Department of Physics, Saitama University, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Nagae, D. [Institute of Physics, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Nishimura, D. [Department of Physics, Tokyo University of Science, Noda 278-8510 (Japan); Nishimura, T. [Department of Physics, Saitama University, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Ozawa, A. [Institute of Physics, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Sato, S. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Sawahata, K. [Institute of Physics, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Suzuki, T.; Takeuchi, Y. [Department of Physics, Saitama University, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan)

    2015-10-11

    The spatial distributions of scintillation photons in a plastic scintillation detector were measured using a multi-anode photomultiplier H7546A coupled with 1-mm-diameter optical fibers. A row of several tens of fibers connected to the scintillator generates one-dimensional spatial distributions of photons induced by the swift passage of heavy ions. The pulse heights from each channel change depending on the beam position. This can be utilized to determine the positions of the heavy ions. To test the performance of the proposed detection method, an experiment using a {sup 84}Kr beam with intermediate energies ranging from 40 to 85 MeV/nucleon was performed at the heavy-ion medical accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC). The photon spatial distributions were successfully observed. By optimizing the photomultiplier bias voltage and threshold in the pulse height analyses, a detection efficiency of 98% and a position resolution of 1.1 mm in σ were achieved simultaneously.

  9. Distribution of phthalate esters in agricultural soil with plastic film mulching in Shandong Peninsula, East China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kankan; Ma, Dong; Wu, Juan; Chai, Chao; Shi, Yanxi

    2016-12-01

    The content of phthalate esters (PAEs) was investigated in 36 vegetable fields with plastic film mulching in Shandong Peninsula, East China. Soils at depths of 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, and 20-40 cm were collected, and 16 PAEs were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. PAEs were detected in all the analyzed samples. The total contents of the 16 PAEs (Σ16PAEs) ranged from 1.374 to 18.810 mg/kg, with an average of 6.470 mg/kg. Among the four areas of Shandong Peninsula, including Qingdao, Weihai, Weifang, and Yantai, the highest Σ16PAE in the soil was observed in Weifang district (9.786 mg/kg), which is famous for large-scale vegetable production. Despite the significant differences among the Σ16PAEs, the PAE compositions in soils with plastic film mulching in Shandong Peninsula were comparable. Diethyl phthalate (DEP), diisobutyl phthalate, and di(4-methyl-2-pentyl) phthalate were present in all the samples, whereas di-n-hexyl phthalate was detected only in Qingdao (∼1%) and dicyclohexyl phthalate was observed only in Weifang (5.7-8.2%) in low proportions. The ratios of dimethyl phthalate, DEP, and di-n-butyl phthalate, which exceeded allowable concentrations, were 63.9-100% at different soil depths, indicating high PAE pollution. The concentration of butyl benzyl phthalate detected only in Weifang exceeded the recommended allowable soil concentration. Overall, the high PAE content in the soil with plastic film mulching in Shandong Peninsula is an issue of concern because of the large amounts of plastic film used.

  10. 78 FR 64153 - Policy Statement on the Principles for Development and Distribution of Annual Stress Test Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ..., assessing capital adequacy, and evaluating risk management practices. The OCC also may use stress test... Office of the Comptroller of the Currency 12 CFR Part 46 Policy Statement on the Principles for... covered institutions by November 15th of each year. This document articulates the principles that the OCC...

  11. Distribution and abundance of small plastic debris on beaches in the SE Pacific (Chile): a study supported by a citizen science project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo-Ruz, Valeria; Thiel, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The accumulation of large and small plastic debris is a problem throughout the world's oceans and coastlines. Abundances and types of small plastic debris have only been reported for some isolated beaches in the SE Pacific, but these data are insufficient to evaluate the situation in this region. The citizen science project "National Sampling of Small Plastic Debris" was supported by schoolchildren from all over Chile who documented the distribution and abundance of small plastic debris on Chilean beaches. Thirty-nine schools and nearly 1000 students from continental Chile and Easter Island participated in the activity. To validate the data obtained by the students, all samples were recounted in the laboratory. The results of the present study showed that the students were able to follow the instructions and generate reliable data. The average abundance obtained was 27 small plastic pieces per m(2) for the continental coast of Chile, but the samples from Easter Island had extraordinarily higher abundances (>800 items per m(2)). The abundance of small plastic debris on the continental coast could be associated with coastal urban centers and their economic activities. The high abundance found on Easter Island can be explained mainly by the transport of plastic debris via the surface currents in the South Pacific Subtropical Gyre, resulting in the accumulation of small plastic debris on the beaches of the island. This first report of the widespread distribution and abundance of small plastic debris on Chilean beaches underscores the need to extend plastic debris research to ecological aspects of the problem and to improve waste management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Distributed parameter system coupled ARMA expansion identification and adaptive parallel IIR filtering - A unified problem statement. [Auto Regressive Moving-Average

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C. R., Jr.; Balas, M. J.

    1980-01-01

    A novel interconnection of distributed parameter system (DPS) identification and adaptive filtering is presented, which culminates in a common statement of coupled autoregressive, moving-average expansion or parallel infinite impulse response configuration adaptive parameterization. The common restricted complexity filter objectives are seen as similar to the reduced-order requirements of the DPS expansion description. The interconnection presents the possibility of an exchange of problem formulations and solution approaches not yet easily addressed in the common finite dimensional lumped-parameter system context. It is concluded that the shared problems raised are nevertheless many and difficult.

  13. Limited phenotypic plasticity in range-edge populations: a comparison of co-occurring populations of two Agrimonia species with different geographical distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mägi, Maris; Semchenko, Marina; Kalamees, Reïn; Zobel, Kristjan

    2011-01-01

    Increased importance of genetic drift and selection for stress resistance have been predicted to lead to a reduction in the degree of phenotypic plasticity in populations at margins of a species' geographical range, relative to those in the centre. We examined the effect of population positioning within the species range on degree of active morphological plasticity to vegetation shade. Importantly, we discriminated between active, size-independent morphological adjustments in response to shade and passive changes in morphology caused by the dependence of morphological traits on plant size, as only the former are considered to be adaptive. Two closely related and ecologically similar Agrimonia species were examined in the same geographical location, where one species reaches the edge of its distribution (Agrimonia pilosa) and the other does not (A. eupatoria). Plasticity to light availability is likely to be advantageous for both species as they occupy habitats with variable light conditions. However, we hypothesised that high levels of environmental stress should lead to reduced active plasticity in marginal compared with more central populations. Agrimonia eupatoria exhibited active adjustments in leaf morphology in response to tree shade, and in elongation of stems and inflorescences in response to herbaceous shade. In contrast, A. pilosa exhibited very limited active plasticity. High active plasticity allowed A. eupatoria to retain constant shoot growth in a wide range of light conditions, while the lack of active plasticity in A. pilosa resulted in a strong dependence of shoot growth on light availability. We propose that high levels of environmental stress in marginal areas of a species' range may lead to a significant reduction in the degree of active plasticity. Our results clearly indicate that discrimination between active and passive plasticity is crucial for reaching valid conclusions about differences in adaptive plasticity between marginal and non

  14. Do estrogenic compounds in drinking water migrating from plastic pipe distribution system pose adverse effects to human? An analysis of scientific literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ze-Hua; Yin, Hua; Dang, Zhi

    2017-01-01

    With the widespread application of plastic pipes in drinking water distribution system, the effects of various leachable organic chemicals have been investigated and their occurrence in drinking water supplies is monitored. Most studies focus on the odor problems these substances may cause. This study investigates the potential endocrine disrupting effects of the migrating compound 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol (2,4-d-t-BP). The summarized results show that the migration of 2,4-d-t-BP from plastic pipes could result in chronic exposure and the migration levels varied greatly among different plastic pipe materials and manufacturing brands. Based on estrogen equivalent (EEQ), the migrating levels of the leachable compound 2,4-d-t-BP in most plastic pipes were relative low. However, the EEQ levels in drinking water migrating from four out of 15 pipes may pose significant adverse effects. With the increasingly strict requirements on regulation of drinking water quality, these results indicate that some drinking water transported with plastic pipes may not be safe for human consumption due to the occurrence of 2,4-d-t-BP. Moreover, 2,4-d-t-BP is not the only plastic pipe-migrating estrogenic compound, other compounds such as 2-tert-butylphenol (2-t-BP), 4-tert-butylphenol (4-t-BP), and others may also be leachable from plastic pipes.

  15. Parametric analysis of plastic strain and force distribution in single pass metal spinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhary, Shashank, E-mail: shashankbit08@gmail.com, E-mail: mohantejesh93@gmail.com, E-mail: regalla@hyderabad.bits-pilani.ac.in, E-mail: ksuresh@hyderabad.bits-pilani.ac.in; Tejesh, Chiruvolu Mohan, E-mail: shashankbit08@gmail.com, E-mail: mohantejesh93@gmail.com, E-mail: regalla@hyderabad.bits-pilani.ac.in, E-mail: ksuresh@hyderabad.bits-pilani.ac.in; Regalla, Srinivasa Prakash, E-mail: shashankbit08@gmail.com, E-mail: mohantejesh93@gmail.com, E-mail: regalla@hyderabad.bits-pilani.ac.in, E-mail: ksuresh@hyderabad.bits-pilani.ac.in; Suresh, Kurra, E-mail: shashankbit08@gmail.com, E-mail: mohantejesh93@gmail.com, E-mail: regalla@hyderabad.bits-pilani.ac.in, E-mail: ksuresh@hyderabad.bits-pilani.ac.in [Department of Mechanical Engineering, BITS-Pilani, Hyderabad Campus, Shamirpet, Hyderabad, 500078, Andhra Pradesh (India)

    2013-12-16

    Metal spinning also known as spin forming is one of the sheet metal working processes by which an axis-symmetric part can be formed from a flat sheet metal blank. Parts are produced by pressing a blunt edged tool or roller on to the blank which in turn is mounted on a rotating mandrel. This paper discusses about the setting up a 3-D finite element simulation of single pass metal spinning in LS-Dyna. Four parameters were considered namely blank thickness, roller nose radius, feed ratio and mandrel speed and the variation in forces and plastic strain were analysed using the full-factorial design of experiments (DOE) method of simulation experiments. For some of these DOE runs, physical experiments on extra deep drawing (EDD) sheet metal were carried out using En31 tool on a lathe machine. Simulation results are able to predict the zone of unsafe thinning in the sheet and high forming forces that are hint to the necessity for less-expensive and semi-automated machine tools to help the household and small scale spinning workers widely prevalent in India.

  16. Occurrence and distribution of organophosphate flame retardants/plasticizers in wastewater treatment plant sludges from the Pearl River Delta, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiangying; He, Lixiong; Cao, Shuxia; Ma, Shengtao; Yu, Zhiqiang; Gui, Hongyan; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo

    2014-08-01

    Organophosphate esters (OPs) are widely used as flame retardants or plasticizers and are ubiquitously distributed in the environment. In the present study, the occurrence and distribution of 7 widely used OPs were analyzed in sludge samples collected from 19 municipal wastewater treatment plants in the Pearl River Delta, South China. All analytes were detected in these samples, and the total concentration of OPs ranged from 96.7 µg/kg to 1312.9 µg/kg dry weight, with a mean value of 420.1 µg/kg dry weight. In most sludge samples OPs exhibited a similar distribution pattern, for example, tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBEP) and triphenyl phosphate (TPhP) were identified as the dominant compounds. However, the results also indicated significantly higher levels of OPs in specific sludges, such as tri-n-butyl phosphate (804.9 µg/kg), TBEP (783.7 µg/kg), TPhP (656.7 µg/kg), and tritolyl phosphate (265.0 µg/kg), which implied different discharge sources in the studied areas.

  17. GREENHOUSE PLASTIC FILMS CAPABLE OF MODIFYING THE SPECTRAL DISTRIBUTION OF SOLAR RADIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelia Schettini

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to investigate the radiometric properties of innovative covering films for protected cultivation capable of modifying the spectral distribution of the transmitted radiation and thus the vegetative activity. Two photoselective films, three photoluminescent films and one low-density polyethylene film were used as greenhouse coverings for cherry trees and peach trees, grown in pots. The photoselective films were characterised by a reduction of the R/FR ratio in comparison to the natural solar radiation. Tree growth parameters, such as the apical shoot of cherry trees and the shoot of peach trees, were monitored. Different responses to vegetative activities were observed under the films, depending on the species, with a higher shoots growth rate in the peach with respect to the cherry. The photoselective film characterised by the lowest R/FR ratio significantly enhanced the growth of cherry and peach trees in comparison to the trees cultivated under the other greenhouse films

  18. On the Anisotropy of the He+, C+, O+, and Ne+ Pickup Ion Velocity Distribution Function: STEREO PLASTIC Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taut, A.; Drews, C.; Berger, L.; Peleikis, T.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.

    2015-12-01

    PickUp Ions (PUIs) are typically characterized by (1) their almost exclusively single charge state, (2) a highly non-thermal and anisotropic Velocity Distribution Function (VDF) [Drews et al., 2015], and (3) an extended source population of neutral atoms somewhere between the observer and the Sun. The origin of pickup ions ranges from sources only several solar radii away from the Sun, the so-called inner-source of pickup ions, up to a distance of several hundreds of astronomical units, the local interstellar medium. Their continuous production inside the heliosphere and complex interactions with the magnetized solar wind plasma leads to the development of non-thermal, anisotropic features of both the solar wind and pickup ion velocity distribution functions. In this study, we present observations of the VDF of He+, C+, N+, O+ and Ne+ pickup ions with PLASTIC on STEREO A. We have found a PUI flux increase during perpendicular configurations of the local magnetic field that is generally linked to the existence of a so-called torus-distribution [Drews et al., 2015] which is attributed to the production of PUIs close to the observer. A comparison of the PUI VDF between radial and perpendicular configurations of the local magnetic field vector is used to quantify the anisotropy of the PUI VDF and thereby enables us to estimate the mean free path for pitch-angle scattering of He, C, N, O and Ne pickup ions without the necessity of an over-simplified heliospheric model to describe the PUI phase space transport. Our results show a clear signature of a C+ torus signature at 1 AU as well as significant differences between the anisotropies of the He+ and O+ VDF. We will discuss our results in the light of recent studies about the nature of the inner-source of PUIs [Berger et al., 2015] and observations of the 2D VDF of He+[Drews et al., 2015]. Figure Caption: Velocity space diagrams of a pickup ion torus distribution as a (vx-vy)-projection (top left panel) and in the vz = 0

  19. Plastic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Plastic Surgery KidsHealth > For Teens > Plastic Surgery Print A A ... forehead lightened with a laser? What Is Plastic Surgery? Just because the name includes the word "plastic" ...

  20. Brain-robot interface driven plasticity: Distributed modulation of corticospinal excitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Dominic; Naros, Georgios; Bauer, Robert; Leão, Maria Teresa; Ziemann, Ulf; Gharabaghi, Alireza

    2016-01-15

    Brain-robot interfaces (BRI) are studied as novel interventions to facilitate functional restoration in patients with severe and persistent motor deficits following stroke. They bridge the impaired connection in the sensorimotor loop by providing brain-state dependent proprioceptive feedback with orthotic devices attached to the hand or arm of the patients. The underlying neurophysiology of this BRI neuromodulation is still largely unknown. We investigated changes of corticospinal excitability with transcranial magnetic stimulation in thirteen right-handed healthy subjects who performed 40min of kinesthetic motor imagery receiving proprioceptive feedback with a robotic orthosis attached to the left hand contingent to event-related desynchronization of the right sensorimotor cortex in the β-band (16-22Hz). Neural correlates of this BRI intervention were probed by acquiring the stimulus-response curve (SRC) of both motor evoked potential (MEP) peak-to-peak amplitudes and areas under the curve. In addition, a motor mapping was obtained. The specificity of the effects was studied by comparing two neighboring hand muscles, one BRI-trained and one control muscle. Robust changes of MEP amplitude but not MEP area occurred following the BRI intervention, but only in the BRI-trained muscle. The steep part of the SRC showed an MEP increase, while the plateau of the SRC showed an MEP decrease. MEP mapping revealed a distributed pattern with a decrease of excitability in the hand area of the primary motor cortex, which controlled the BRI, but an increase of excitability in the surrounding somatosensory and premotor cortex. In conclusion, the BRI intervention induced a complex pattern of modulated corticospinal excitability, which may boost subsequent motor learning during physiotherapy.

  1. Journal of CHINA PLASTICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Journal of CHINA PLASTICS was authorized and approved by The State Committee of Science and Technology of China and The Bureau of News Press of China, and published by The China Plastics Processing Industry Association,Beijing Technology and Business University and The Institute of Plastics Processing and Application of Light Industry, distributed worldwide. Since its birth in 1987, CHINA PLASTICS has become a leading magazine in plastics industry in China, a national Chinese core journal and journal of Chinese scientific and technological article statistics. It is covered by CA.

  2. 77 FR 68047 - Policy Statement on the Principles for Development and Distribution of Annual Stress Test Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-15

    ... of Annual Stress Test Scenarios AGENCY: Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC), Treasury... general processes and factors to be used by the OCC in development and distributing the stress test scenarios for the annual stress test required by the Dodd- Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer...

  3. Kurumsal Sosyal Sorumluluk Kapsamında Çevre Açıklamaları İle Firma Özellikleri Arasındaki İlişki: Kimya, Petrol, Kauçuk ve Plastik Ürünler Sektöründe Bir Uygulama - Relation Between Company Features And Environmental Statement Within Corporate Social Responsibility: An Application In Chemistry, Petroleum, Rubber And Plastics Products Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şule YILDIZ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to determine the relation between company features and environmental statement amounts in the annual activity reports of companies. To this end, activity reports of 19 companies making business in chemistry, petroleum, rubber and plastic products industry in Borsa Istanbul were inspected with content analysis method for 2008 - 2014. The company features inspected within the research are size, equity profitability, active profitability, debt levels, stock market listing date and date of foundation of companies. In the research, the relation between environmental statement level and related company features were analyzed with panel regression model. According to the results of research, the environmental statement level has positive relation with date of foundation and debt level and it has negative relation with size and stock market listing and it is statistically meaningful. However, no statistically meaningful relation was found between equity profitability and asset profitability and the environmental statement level.

  4. Retraction statement: 'Species distributions shift downward across western North America' by M.A. Harsch and J. Hille Ris Lambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The above article, published online on 18 August 2014 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), has been retracted by agreement between the authors, Dr Melanie Harsch and Associate Professor Janneke Hille Ris Lambers, journal Editor-in-Chief, Professor Stephen Long, and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. The retraction has been agreed for the following reasons: a coding error affected the results and therefore invalidated the broadscale conclusions presented in the article. The article presented broad-scale patterns of species distribution shifts in response to recent climate change. Unfortunately, it has since been found that one approach used to account for sampling bias, the null model approach, was affected by the coding error. Following the identification of the coding error, we are therefore retracting the article. We thank Drs Adam Wolf and William Anderegg for bringing this issue to our attention.

  5. Biodegradation of plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimao, M

    2001-06-01

    Widespread studies on the biodegradation of plastics have been carried out in order to overcome the environmental problems associated with synthetic plastic waste. Recent work has included studies of the distribution of synthetic polymer-degrading microorganisms in the environment, the isolation of new microorganisms for biodegradation, the discovery of new degradation enzymes, and the cloning of genes for synthetic polymer-degrading enzymes.

  6. Isotope production and distribution Programs Fiscal Year (FY) 1995 Financial Statement Audit (ER-FC-96-01)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-12

    The charter of the Department of Energy (DOE) Isotope Production and Distribution Program (Isotope Program) covers the production and sale of radioactive and stable isotopes, associated byproducts, surplus materials such as lithium and deuterium, and related isotope services. Services provided include, but are not limited to, irradiation services, target preparation and processing, source encapsulation and other special preparations, analyses, chemical separations, and leasing of stable isotopes for research purposes. Isotope Program products and services are sold worldwide for use in a wide variety of research, development, biomedical, and industrial applications. The Isotope Program reports to the Director of the Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology. The Isotope Program operates under a revolving fund, as established by the Fiscal Year 1990 Energy and Water Appropriations Act (Public Law 101-101). The Fiscal Year 1995 Appropriations Act (Public Law 103-316) modified predecessor acts to allow prices charged for Isotope Program products and services to be based on production costs, market value, the needs of the research community, and other factors. Prices set for small-volume, high-cost isotopes that are needed for research may not achieve full-cost recovery. Isotope Program costs are financed by revenues from the sale of isotopes and associated services and through payments from the isotope support decision unit, which was established in the DOE fiscal year 1995 Energy, Supply, Research, and Development appropriation. The isotope decision unit finances the production and processing of unprofitable isotopes that are vital to the national interest.

  7. Plasticity theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lubliner, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    The aim of Plasticity Theory is to provide a comprehensive introduction to the contemporary state of knowledge in basic plasticity theory and to its applications. It treats several areas not commonly found between the covers of a single book: the physics of plasticity, constitutive theory, dynamic plasticity, large-deformation plasticity, and numerical methods, in addition to a representative survey of problems treated by classical methods, such as elastic-plastic problems, plane plastic flow, and limit analysis; the problem discussed come from areas of interest to mechanical, structural, and

  8. Comparison of surface emissions and subsurface distribution of cis- and trans-1,3-dichloropropene and chloropicrin in sandy field beds covered with four different plastic films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Li-Tse; Thomas, John E; Allen, L Hartwell; Vu, Joseph C; Dickson, Donald W

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a field study at a Florida field site on surface emissions and subsurface distribution of cis-and trans-1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and chloropicrin (CP) in raised beds injected with Telone C35 with four replications. A total of 16 beds were applied with Telone C35 by chisel injection and covered with four different plastic films, 4 beds for each film. Each bed was installed with five 20-cm long soil pore air probes and a surface air collection pan at arbitrarily locations along the length of each bed for sampling soil pore air and surface air, respectively, for analysis of the three biologically active compounds, cis- and trans-1,3-D and CP. We found that average concentrations of the three compounds at 20-cm depth among the beds covered with four different plastic films generally were not statistically different. Among the four beds covered with the same plastic film, average concentrations of the three compounds were statistically different only in the four metallic PE covered beds at 5 and 24 hours after injection. Volatilization rates of the three compounds among the beds covered with four different plastic films, with the exception of CP at 48 hours after injection, were not statistically different. It appeared that initial upward diffusion and volatilization flux were influenced by solar radiation. Initial subsurface concentrations of the three compounds and volatilization flux, especially cis-1,3-D, were greater in the beds on the east side of the field than that in the beds on the west side of the field. Whether or not difference in initial subsurface concentrations of the compounds between east side beds and west side beds may influence fumigant efficacy remains to be determined.

  9. INFLUENCES OF EDGING ROLL SHAPE ON THE PLASTIC STRAIN DISTRIBUTION OF SLAB DURING MULTI-PASS V-H ROLLING PROCESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.L. Yu; X.H. Liu; C.S. Li; X.M. Zhao; Y. Kusaba

    2006-01-01

    Multi-pass slab vertical-horizontal (V-H) rolling process with variable edging roll shape have been simulated with explicit dynamic finite element method and updating geometric method. The distributions of plastic strain contour in slab during rolling process with different edging roll and under different rolling stage have been obtained. The results show that there exist two thin strain assembling zones in slab when the flat edging roll is used, and there just exist one strain assembling zone in slab when the edging roll with groove is used. And compared the deformation equality between flat edging roll and edging rollwith groove, the lateris better than the former, which supplies the theory prove to the slab deformation distribution during V-H rolling process and is helpful for predicting the slab texture.

  10. Plastic Jellyfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Christine

    2000-01-01

    Presents an environmental science activity designed to enhance students' awareness of the hazards of plastic waste for wildlife in aquatic environments. Discusses how students can take steps to reduce the effects of plastic waste. (WRM)

  11. Slepian simulation of distributions of plastic displacements of earthquake excited shear frames with a large number of stories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov; Ditlevsen, Ove

    2005-01-01

    motion that interacts with the structure above the bottom floors. As in a recent work by the authors the paper is about application of so-called Slepian model simulation, but in this paper supplemented by a simplification principle that allows a manageable calculation for the considered type of elasto......The object of study is a stationary Gaussian white noise excited plane multistory shear frame with a large number of rigid traverses. All the traverse-connecting columns have finite symmetrical yield limits except the columns in one or more of the bottom floors. The columns behave linearly elastic...... within the yield limits and ideally plastic outside these without accumulating eigenstresses. Within the elastic domain the frame is modeled as a linearly damped oscillator. The white noise excitation acts on the mass of the first floor making the movement of the elastic bottom floors simulate a ground...

  12. Editorial Statement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ At the request of Dr. Hideharu AKIYOSHI of the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) of Japan and with the apology of Dr. ZHOU Libo for his misconduct, we hereby announce that the paper of "Middle-High Latitude N2O Distributions Related to the Arctic Vortex Breakup", authored by ZHOU Libo,ZOU Han, and GAO Yongqi, be retracted from Volume 23, No. 2, March 2006 of Advances in Atmospheric Sciences (AAS) on page number 215-223.

  13. Influence of bending on power distribution in step-index plastic optical fibers and the calculation of bending loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacević, M S; Nikezić, D

    2006-09-10

    A means of calculating optical power distribution in bent multimode optical fibers is proposed. It employs the power-flow equation approximated by the Fokker-Planck equation that is solved by the explicit finite-difference method. Conceptually important steps of this procedure include (i) dividing the full length of the bent optical fiber into a finite number of short, straight segments; (ii) solving the power equation for each segment sequentially to find its output distribution; and (iii) expressing that output distribution in rotated coordinates of the subsequent segment along the curved fiber to determine the input distribution for that subsequent segment and thus enable the calculation of the power flow and output distribution for it. The segment length and bend-induced perturbation of output angles are determined by geometric optics. The resulting power distributions are given at different cross sections along the curved fiber axis. They vary with the radius of fiber curvature and launch conditions. Results are compared to those for straight fiber. Bending loss is calculated as well.

  14. Persistence, distribution, and emission of Telone C35 injected into a Florida sandy soil as affected by moisture, organic matter, and plastic film cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J E; Ou, L T; Allen, L H; McCormack, L A; Vu, J C; Dickson, D W

    2004-05-01

    With the phase-out of methyl bromide scheduled for 2005, alternative fumigants are being sought. This study of Telone C35, a mixture of (Z)- and (E)-1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) with chloropicirin (CP), focuses on its emissions, distribution, and persistence in Florida sandy soil in microplots with different soil-water and organic matter carbon (C) content with and without two different plastic film mulches. The addition of CP did not affect the physical behavior of the isomers of 1,3-D. Slower subsurface dispersion and longer residence time of the mixed fumigant occurred at higher water content. An increase in the percent organic carbon in the soil led to a more rapid decrease for chloropicirin than for 1,3-dichloropene isomers. The use of a virtually impermeable film (VIF) for soil cover provided a more even distribution and longer persistence under all the conditions studied in comparison to polyethylene (PE) film cover or no cover. The conditions of near field capacity water content, low organic matter, and a virtually impermeable film cover yielded optimum conditions for the distribution, emission control, and persistence of Telone C35 in a Florida sandy soil.

  15. Distribution of cytoskeletal proteins, integrins, leukocyte adhesion molecules and extracellular matrix proteins in plastic-embedded human and rat kidneys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Goor, H; Coers, W; van der Horst, MLC; Suurmeijer, AJH

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the distribution of cytoskeletal proteins (actin, alpha -actinin, vinculin, beta -tubulin, keratin, vimentin, desmin), adhesion molecules for cell-matrix interations (very later antigens [VLA1-6], beta1, beta2 [CD18], vitronectin receptor [alphav beta3], CD 11b), leukocyte adhesi

  16. Financial Statements Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Tănase Alin-Eliodor

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on analyzing of a consolidated financial statements of a hypothetically SME. The interpretation of the financial position and performances is based on the more than 40 financial key ratios computed by using financial data from consolidated income statement, consolidated financial position and cash flow. However additional data from notes to financial statements are provided.

  17. Financial Statements Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tănase Alin-Eliodor

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on analyzing of a consolidated financial statements of a hypothetically SME. The interpretation of the financial position and performances is based on the more than 40 financial key ratios computed by using financial data from consolidated income statement, consolidated financial position and cash flow. However additional data from notes to financial statements are provided.

  18. The Ethics of Stem Cell-Based Aesthetic Surgery: Attitudes and Perceptions of the Plastic Surgery Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayar, Harry S; Caplan, Arthur L; Eaves, Felmont F; Rubin, J Peter

    2014-08-01

    The emerging field of stem cell-based aesthetics has raised ethical concerns related to advertising campaigns and standards for safety and efficacy. The authors sought to characterize the attitudes of plastic surgeons regarding the ethics of stem cell-based aesthetics. A cross-sectional electronic survey was distributed to 4592 members of the American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery and the American Society of Plastic Surgeons. Statements addressed ethical concerns about informed consent, conflicts of interest, advertising, regulation, and stem cell tourism. An agreement score (AS) from 0 to 100 was calculated for each statement. Majority agreement was designated as ≥60 and majority disagreement as ≤40. A total of 770 questionnaires were received (16.7%). The majority of respondents indicated that knowledge regarding the risks and benefits of stem cell procedures is insufficient to obtain valid informed consent (AS, 29) and that direct-to-consumer advertising for these technologies is inappropriate and unethical (AS, 23). Most respondents reported that patients should be actively warned against traveling abroad to receive aesthetic cell therapies (AS, 86) and that registries and evaluations of these clinics should be made publicly available (AS, 71). Even more respondents noted that financial conflicts of interest should be disclosed to patients (AS, 96) and that professional societies should participate in establishing regulatory standards (AS, 93). The plastic surgeons surveyed in this study support a well-regulated, evidence-based approach to aesthetic procedures involving stem cells. © 2014 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc.

  19. Plastics Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Tommy G.

    This curriculum guide is designed to assist junior high schools industrial arts teachers in planning new courses and revising existing courses in plastics technology. Addressed in the individual units of the guide are the following topics: introduction to production technology; history and development of plastics; safety; youth leadership,…

  20. Field evaluation of a new plastic film (vapor safe) to reduce fumigant emissions and improve distribution in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Ruijun; Gao, Suduan; Ajwa, Husein; Sullivan, David; Wang, Dong; Hanson, Bradley D

    2011-01-01

    Preplant soil fumigation is an important pest management practice in coastal California strawberry production regions. Potential atmospheric emissions of fumigants from field treatment, however, have drawn intensive environmental and human health concerns; increasingly stringent regulations on fumigant use have spurred research on low-emission application techniques. The objectives of this research were to determine the effects of a new low-permeability film, commonly known as totally impermeable film (TIF), on fumigant emissions and on fumigant distribution in soil. A 50/50 mixture of 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and chloropicrin (CP) was shank-applied at 314 kg ha in two location-separate field plots (0.4 ha each) in Ventura County, California, in fall 2009. One plot was surface-covered with standard polyethylene (PE) film, and the other was covered with TIF immediately after fumigant application. Data collection included emissions, soil-gas phase concentration profile, air concentration under the film, and soil residuals of the applied fumigants. Peak emission flux of 1,3-D and CP from the TIF field was substantially lower than from the PE field. Total through-film emission loss was 2% for 1,3-D and emission surge compared with the PE field, while CP emissions were fairly low in both fields. Higher concentrations and a more uniform distribution in the soil profile for 1,3-D and CP were observed under the TIF compared with the PE film, suggesting that the TIF may allow growers to achieve satisfactory pest control with lower fumigant rates. The surging 1,3-D emissions after film-cutting could result in high exposure risks to workers and bystanders and must be addressed with additional mitigation measures.

  1. Hydrogen diffusion and distribution in alloy 600 and related effects on the plasticity; Diffusion et distribution de l`hydrogene dans l`alliage 600, effet sur la plasticite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecoester, F.; Brass, A.M.; Chene, J. [Laboratoire de metalurgie structurale, URA CNRS No. 1107, Bat. 413, Universit Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay (France); Noel, D. [Electricite de France (EDF), 77 - Ecuelles (France)

    1997-12-31

    Hydrogen can play a part in several mechanisms proposed for explaining the stress corrosion cracking of nickel based alloy 600, used in steam generators of pressurized water nuclear reactors. This study presents data on diffusion and hydrogen trapping in alloy 600 as well as the embrittlement which results from it. Distribution data were obtained by deuterium analysis of samples cathodically charged with heavy water. Secondary ion mass spectrometry, liquid scintillation counting and tritium autoradiography have been used for analysis. Data on hydrogen embrittlement were obtained by imposed tensile tests on samples with or without cathodic charging. Different microstructures were studied. The results show that alloy 600 embrittlement greatly depend on the structure and increases with the degree of intergranular precipitation. An effect of hydrogen on the plasticity of the alloy was noted. (author). 9 refs.

  2. Plastic bronchitis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Singhi, Anil Kumar; Vinoth, Bharathi; Kuruvilla, Sarah; Sivakumar, Kothandam

    2015-01-01

    Plastic bronchitis, a rare but serious clinical condition, commonly seen after Fontan surgeries in children, may be a manifestation of suboptimal adaptation to the cavopulmonary circulation with unfavorable hemodynamics...

  3. Plastic Fishes

    CERN Multimedia

    Trettnak, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    In terms of weight, the plastic pollution in the world’s oceans is estimated to be around 300,000 tonnes. This plastic comes from both land-based and ocean-based sources. A lecture at CERN by chemist Wolfgang Trettnak addressed this issue and highlighted the role of art in raising people’s awareness. The slideshow below gives you a taste of the artworks by Wolfgang Trettnak and Margarita Cimadevila.

  4. Plastic Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    履之

    1994-01-01

    Already ubiquitous in homes and cars, plastic is now appearing inbridges. An academic-industrial consortium based at the University ofCalifornia in San Diego is launching a three-year research program aimed atdeveloping the world’s first plastic highway bridge, a 450-foot span madeentirely from glass-,carbon,and polymer-fiber-reinforced composite mate-rials, the stuff of military aircraft. It will cross Interstate 5 to connect thetwo sides of the school’s campus.

  5. Universal features of amorphous plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budrikis, Zoe; Castellanos, David Fernandez; Sandfeld, Stefan; Zaiser, Michael; Zapperi, Stefano

    2017-07-01

    Plastic yielding of amorphous solids occurs by power-law distributed deformation avalanches whose universality is still debated. Experiments and molecular dynamics simulations are hampered by limited statistical samples, and although existing stochastic models give precise exponents, they require strong assumptions about fixed deformation directions, at odds with the statistical isotropy of amorphous materials. Here, we introduce a fully tensorial, stochastic mesoscale model for amorphous plasticity that links the statistical physics of plastic yielding to engineering mechanics. It captures the complex shear patterning observed for a wide variety of deformation modes, as well as the avalanche dynamics of plastic flow. Avalanches are described by universal size exponents and scaling functions, avalanche shapes, and local stability distributions, independent of system dimensionality, boundary and loading conditions, and stress state. Our predictions consistently differ from those of mean-field depinning models, providing evidence that plastic yielding is a distinct type of critical phenomenon.

  6. About AGU Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, Elizabeth

    2010-07-01

    AGU occasionally releases statements on relevant science policy issues that affect our members. The purpose of these statements is to support the global community of Earth and space scientists by providing relevant information to members, policy makers, and the public. We encourage our members to share and discuss this information with others as one way to engage in science outreach and expand scientific discourse. Statements are written with collaboration between AGU member experts along with AGU leadership and staff. Seismologists who work internationally participated in the writing of the accompanying statement. Comments are welcome.

  7. GREEN PLASTIC: A NEW PLASTIC FOR PACKAGING

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. Pankaj Kumar*, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    This paper gives a brief idea about a new type of plastic called as bio-plastic or green plastic. Plastic is used as a packaging material for various products, but this plastic is made up of non renewable raw materials. There are various disadvantages of using conventional plastic like littering, CO2 production, non-degradable in nature etc. To overcome these problems a new type of plastic is discovered called bio-plastic or green plastic. Bio-plastic is made from renewable resources and also...

  8. Teaching Philosophy Statements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faryadi, Qais

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the rationale for my teaching philosophy. Using a personal perspective, I explain my objectives, mission, and vision in writing my philosophy of teaching statements. This article also creates a road map and reference points for educators who want to write their own teaching philosophy statements to help them make informed…

  9. Plastic condoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-01-01

    Only simple equipment, simple technology and low initial capital investment are needed in their manufacture. The condoms can be made by people who were previously unskilled or only semi-skilled workers. Plastic condoms differ from those made of latex rubber in that the nature of the plastic film allows unlimited shelf-life. Also, the plastic has a higher degree of lubricity than latex rubber; if there is a demand for extra lubrication in a particular market, this can be provided. Because the plastic is inert, these condoms need not be packaged in hermetically sealed containers. All these attributes make it possible to put these condoms on the distributors' shelves in developing countries competitively with rubber condoms. The shape of the plastic condom is based on that of the lamb caecum, which has long been used as luxury-type condom. The plastic condom is made from plastic film (ethylene ethyl acrilate) of 0.001 inch (0.0254 mm.) thickness. In addition, a rubber ring is provided and sealed into the base of the condom for retention during coitus. The advantage of the plastic condom design and the equipment on which it is made is that production can be carried out either in labour-intensive economy or with varying degrees of mechanization and automation. The uniform, finished condom if made using previously untrained workers. Training of workers can be done in a matter of hours on the two machines which are needed to produce and test the condoms. The plastic film is provided on a double wound roll, and condom blanks are prepared by means of a heat-sealing die on the stamping machine. The rubber rings are united to the condom blanks on an assembly machine, which consists of a mandrel and heat-sealing equipment to seal the rubber ring to the base of the condom. Built into the assembly machine is a simple air-testing apparatus that can detect the smallest pinhole flaw in a condom. The manufacturing process is completed by unravelling the condom from the assembly

  10. Plastic Bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Bruce K

    2016-09-01

    Plastic bronchitis is an uncommon and probably underrecognized disorder, diagnosed by the expectoration or bronchoscopic removal of firm, cohesive, branching casts. It should not be confused with purulent mucous plugging of the airway as seen in patients with cystic fibrosis or bronchiectasis. Few medications have been shown to be effective and some are now recognized as potentially harmful. Current research directions in plastic bronchitis research include understanding the genetics of lymphatic development and maldevelopment, determining how abnormal lymphatic malformations contribute to cast formation, and developing new treatments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Mixed plastics recycling technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hegberg, Bruce

    1995-01-01

    Presents an overview of mixed plastics recycling technology. In addition, it characterizes mixed plastics wastes and describes collection methods, costs, and markets for reprocessed plastics products.

  12. Emissions and distribution of methyl bromide in field beds applied at two rates and covered with two types of plastic mulches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Li-Tse; Thomas, John E; Allen, L Hartwell; Vu, Joseph C; Dickson, Donald W

    2007-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to compare two plastic mulches and two application rates on surface emissions and subsurface distribution of methyl bromide (MBr) in field beds in Florida. Within 30 minutes after injection of MBr to 30 cm depth, MBr had diffused upward to soil surface in all beds covered with polyethylene film (PE) or virtually impermeable film (VIF) and applied at a high rate (392 kg/ha) and a low rate (196 kg/ha). Due to the highly permeable nature of PE, within 30 minutes after injection, MBr volatilized from the bed surfaces of the two PE-covered beds into the atmosphere. The amount of volatilization was greater for the high rate-treatment bed. On the other hand, volatilization of MBr from the bed surfaces of the two VIF-covered beds were negligible. Volatilization losses occurred from the edges of all the beds covered with PE or VIF and were greater from the high rate-treatment beds. Initial vertical diffusion of MBr in the subsurface of the beds covered with PE or VIF was mainly upward, as large concentrations of MBr were detected from near bed surfaces to 20 cm depth in these beds 30 minutes after injection and little or no MBr was found at 40 cm depth. The two VIF-covered beds exhibited greater MBr concentrations and longer resident times in the root zone (0.5-40 cm depth) than corresponding PE-covered beds. Concentrations of MBr in the root zone of the high rate-treatment beds were 3.6-6.1 times larger than the low rate-treatment beds during the first days after application. In conclusion, VIF promoted retention of MBr in the root zone and, if volatilization loss from bed edges can be blocked, volatilization loss from VIF-covered beds should be negligible.

  13. Effects of injection systems and plastic mulches on distribution and emissions of cis- and trans-1,3-dichloropropene and chloropicrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Li-Tse; Thomas, John E; Allen, L Hartwell; Vu, Joseph C; Dickson, Donald W

    2007-08-01

    The concentration and distribution of a soil fumigant in the subsurface of field plots are two key factors in the determination of the fumigant efficacy. Subsurface concentrations of the biologically active compounds cis- and trans-1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and chloropicrin (CP) were determined in soil at two adjacent injection traces and midpoint between the two traces in plastic-covered field beds after injection of the fumigant Telone C35 by conventional chisels or by a coulter rig (Avenger coulters). Two of the four beds were covered with metallic polyethylene film (MPE) and the remaining two were covered with virtually impermeable film (VIF). Three hours after chisel injection, concentrations of the three compounds at the two adjacent injection traces in the two beds were highly variable. Large concentrations of the compounds were detected at the side traces, whereas the compounds were not detected at the middle traces (bed centers) in the two chisel-injected beds covered with MPE or VIF. Initial concentrations of the three compounds at the two adjacent injection traces in the two Avenger-coulter-injected beds were more uniform than in the chisel-injected beds but still variable. Also, the three compounds had diffused horizontally to midpoint between the two injection traces in all four beds, generally in smaller concentrations. Concentrations of the three compounds in the shallow subsurface soil layer (0.5-30 cm) in the beds became progressively more uniform and then declined slowly. Volatilization losses from the two Avenger-coulter-injected beds and the chisel-injected bed covered with VIF were low. Combination of Avenger coulter injection and VIF provided better retention of the compounds in this soil layer and, thus, likely would provide better fumigant efficacy and crop yield.

  14. Plastic fish

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    In terms of weight, the plastic pollution in the world’s oceans is estimated to be around 300,000 tonnes. This plastic comes from both land-based and ocean-based sources. A lecture at CERN by chemist Wolfgang Trettnak addressed this issue and highlighted the role of art in raising people’s awareness.   Artwork by Wolfgang Trettnak. Packaging materials, consumer goods (shoes, kids’ toys, etc.), leftovers from fishing and aquaculture activities… our oceans and beaches are full of plastic litter. Most of the debris from beaches is plastic bottles. “PET bottles have high durability and stability,” explains Wolfgang Trettnak, a chemist by education and artist from Austria, who gave a lecture on this topic organised by the Staff Association at CERN on 26 May. “PET degrades very slowly and the estimated lifetime of a bottle is 450 years.” In addition to the beach litter accumulated from human use, rivers bring several ki...

  15. Plastic zonnecellen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roggen, Marjolein

    1998-01-01

    De zonnecel van de toekomst is in de maak. Onderzoekers van uiteenlopend pluimage werken eendrachtig aan een plastic zonnecel. De basis is technisch gelegd met een optimale, door invallend licht veroorzaakte, vorming van ladingdragers binnen een composiet van polymeren en buckyballs. Nu is het zaak

  16. Cash flow statement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Miloš

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A cash flow is "bloodstream" of business and without constant cash flow a company would not be able to function. The cash flow statement is statutory financial report that provides information to the interested parties on cash inflows and outflows from operating, investing and financing activities during the accounting period. This paper will discuss the origin and significance of the cash slow statement; in addition, we will define the main categories of this statement and present the methodology of its composition in accordance with IAS 7.

  17. Plastic Surgery Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PSN PSEN GRAFT Contact Us News Plastic Surgery Statistics Plastic surgery procedural statistics from the American Society of Plastic Surgeons. Statistics by Year Print 2016 Plastic Surgery Statistics 2015 ...

  18. How to Overcome Information Anxiety: Assignment and Use of DoD Distribution Statements for Technical Documents. Volume 2. Participant Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-01

    Washington, DC 20350 October 1991 The Reduction of Reverberation and Ambient Noise by Ocean Surface Films Distribution authorized to U.S. Government... soundtracks , musical compositions, Page 24 of 25 and adaptations; histories of departments, agencies, services or units thereof; surveys of

  19. Cash flow statement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pavlović Miloš; Bogdanović Jovan

    2013-01-01

    .... The cash flow statement is statutory financial report that provides information to the interested parties on cash inflows and outflows from operating, investing and financing activities during the accounting period...

  20. Farm and Ranch Financial Statements

    OpenAIRE

    Israelsen, Clark; Feuz, Dillon

    2014-01-01

    This fact sheet is a brief overview of the financial statements and budgeting tools that are likely a part of most farm financial record keeping systems. Links are provided for additional detail on any one financial report or topic. A brief description of a Balance Sheet, a Profit Loss Statement or Income Statement, Statement of Cash Flows and Enterprise Analysis is included.

  1. Plastic bronchitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Singhi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastic bronchitis, a rare but serious clinical condition, commonly seen after Fontan surgeries in children, may be a manifestation of suboptimal adaptation to the cavopulmonary circulation with unfavorable hemodynamics. They are ominous with poor prognosis. Sometimes, infection or airway reactivity may provoke cast bronchitis as a two-step insult on a vulnerable vascular bed. In such instances, aggressive management leads to longer survival. This report of cast bronchitis discusses its current understanding.

  2. New Class of Plastic Bulk Metallic Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L. Y.; Fu, Z. D.; Zhang, G. Q.; Hao, X. P.; Jiang, Q. K.; Wang, X. D.; Cao, Q. P.; Franz, H.; Liu, Y. G.; Xie, H. S.; Zhang, S. L.; Wang, B. Y.; Zeng, Y. W.; Jiang, J. Z.

    2008-02-01

    An intrinsic plastic Cu45Zr46Al7Ti2 bulk metallic glass (BMG) with high strength and superior compressive plastic strain of up to 32.5% was successfully fabricated by copper mold casting. The superior compressive plastic strain was attributed to a large amount of randomly distributed free volume induced by Ti minor alloying, which results in extensive shear band formation, branching, interaction and self-healing of minor cracks. The mechanism of plasticity presented here suggests that the creation of a large amount of free volume in BMGs by minor alloying or other methods might be a promising new way to enhance the plasticity of BMGs.

  3. An evaluation of the Navy Resale System's operating and financial statements

    OpenAIRE

    Barnett, Michael Stephen

    1984-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution unlimited This thesis contains an evaluation of the Navy Resale System financial and operating statements used to manage the sales activities from the headquarters, region, main, and branch levels. Navy Resale System (NRS) statements are compared to the National Retail Merchants Association's (NRMA) statements presented in the Retail Accounting Manual and to statements provided by major retailers. From the results of the evalua...

  4. Overcoming maladaptive plasticity through plastic compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R.J. MORRIS, Sean M. ROGERS

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Most species evolve within fluctuating environments, and have developed adaptations to meet the challenges posed by environmental heterogeneity. One such adaptation is phenotypic plasticity, or the ability of a single genotype to produce multiple environmentally-induced phenotypes. Yet, not all plasticity is adaptive. Despite the renewed interest in adaptive phenotypic plasticity and its consequences for evolution, much less is known about maladaptive plasticity. However, maladaptive plasticity is likely an important driver of phenotypic similarity among populations living in different environments. This paper traces four strategies for overcoming maladaptive plasticity that result in phenotypic similarity, two of which involve genetic changes (standing genetic variation, genetic compensation and two of which do not (standing epigenetic variation, plastic compensation. Plastic compensation is defined as adaptive plasticity overcoming maladaptive plasticity. In particular, plastic compensation may increase the likelihood of genetic compensation by facilitating population persistence. We provide key terms to disentangle these aspects of phenotypic plasticity and introduce examples to reinforce the potential importance of plastic compensation for understanding evolutionary change [Current Zoology 59 (4: 526–536, 2013].

  5. Overcoming maladaptive plasticity through plastic compensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matthew R.J.MORRIS; Sean M.ROGERS

    2013-01-01

    Most species evolve within fluctuating environments,and have developed adaptations to meet the challenges posed by environmental heterogeneity.One such adaptation is phenotypic plasticity,or the ability of a single genotype to produce multiple environmentally-induced phenotypes.Yet,not all plasticity is adaptive.Despite the renewed interest in adaptive phenotypic plasticity and its consequences for evolution,much less is known about maladaptive plasticity.However,maladaptive plasticity is likely an important driver of phenotypic similarity among populations living in different environments.This paper traces four strategies for overcoming maladaptive plasticity that result in phenotypic similarity,two of which involve genetic changes (standing genetic variation,genetic compensation) and two of which do not (standing epigenetic variation,plastic compensation).Plastic compensation is defined as adaptive plasticity overcoming maladaptive plasticity.In particular,plastic compensation may increase the likelihood of genetic compensation by facilitating population persistence.We provide key terms to disentangle these aspects of phenotypic plasticity and introduce examples to reinforce the potential importance of plastic compensation for understanding evolutionary change.

  6. Consolidating Financial Statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Marcia R.

    This publication is designed to be a desktop reference and assist financial officers in both public and independent institutions of higher education in the preparation of consolidated financial statements. Chapter 1 covers generally accepted accounting principles and other accounting literature, and summarizes reporting rules of the Financial…

  7. Sustainability Statement and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Education for Sustainable Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This article presents nine resources that focus on environmental education and sustainability. These include: (1) "Sustainability Statement and Policy," Dalhousie University, Nova Scotia, Canada, 2009, which is available at http://office.sustainability.dal.ca/Governance; (2) "Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate…

  8. 3 CFR - Presidential Signing Statements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... issued statements addressing constitutional or other legal questions upon signing bills into law (signing... of the use of signing statements to raise constitutional objections to statutory provisions. There is no doubt that the practice of issuing such statements can be abused. Constitutional...

  9. Recycling of Plastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2011-01-01

    Plastic is produced from fossil oil. Plastic is used for many different products. Some plastic products like, for example, wrapping foil, bags and disposable containers for food and beverage have very short lifetimes and thus constitute a major fraction of most waste. Other plastic products like......, good strength and long durability. Recycling of plastic waste from production is well-established, while recycling of postconsumer plastic waste still is in its infancy. This chapter describes briefly how plastic is produced and how waste plastic is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements...

  10. Python Switch Statement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The Python programming language does not have a built in switch/case control structure as found in many other high level programming languages. It is thought by some that this is a deficiency in the language, and the control structure should be added. This paper demonstrates that not only is the control structure not needed, but that the methods available in Python are more expressive than built in case statements in other high level languages.

  11. Mechanical heterogeneity and mechanism of plasticity in metallic glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. G.; Zhao, D. Q.; Pan, M. X.; Shek, C. H.; Wang, W. H.

    2009-01-01

    The mechanical heterogeneity is quantified based on the spatial nanohardness distributions in three bulk metallic glasses with different plasticities. It is found that the metallic glass with high mechanical heterogeneity is more plastic. We propose that the appropriate mechanical heterogeneity makes the metallic glasses meliorate their plasticity by increasing inelastic strained area and promoting energy dissipation.

  12. Distributions of energy storage rate and microstructural evolution in the area of plastic strain localization during uniaxial tension of austenitic steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliferuk, W.; Maj, M.

    2015-08-01

    The presented work is devoted to an experimental determination of the energy storage rate in the area of strain localization. The experimental procedure involves two complementary techniques: i.e. infrared thermography (IRT) and visible light imaging. The results of experiments have shown that during the evolution of plastic strain localization the energy storage rate in some areas of the deformed specimen drops to zero. To interpret the decrease of the energy storage rate in terms of micro-mechanisms, microstructural observations using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Electron Back Scattered Diffraction (EBSC) were performed. On the basis of microstructural studies it is believed that a 0 value of energy storage rate corresponds to the state in which only two dominant components of the texture appear, creating conditions for crystallographic shear banding.

  13. Fumigant distribution in forest nursery soil under water seal and plastic film after application of dazomet, metam-sodium and chloropicrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong Wang; Stephen W. Fraedrich; Jennifer Juzwik; Kurt Spokas; Yi Zhang; William C. Koskinen

    2006-01-01

    Adequate concentration, exposure time and distribution uniformity of activated fumigant gases are prerequisites for successful soil fumigation. Field experiments were conducted to evaluate gas phase distributions of methyl isothiocyanate (MITC) and chloropicrin (CP) in two forest-tree nurseries. Concentrations of MITC and CP in soil air were measured from replicated...

  14. Cooling simulation of plastic injection molding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Analyses the cooling of mold and plastic part during injectionmolding and the continued cooling of plastic part after being ejected from mold using the heat transfer theory and Boundary Element Method (BEM) to predict the temperature distribution in both mold and plastic part,and presents the experiments carried out with plates of ABS (Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene) to verify the validity of the cooling analysis software used to simulate the temperature distribution in ABS plate parts, and concludes that the analysis software agree qualitatively well with actual experimental findings.

  15. Recycling of Plastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2011-01-01

    Plastic is produced from fossil oil. Plastic is used for many different products. Some plastic products like, for example, wrapping foil, bags and disposable containers for food and beverage have very short lifetimes and thus constitute a major fraction of most waste. Other plastic products like......, for example, gutters, window frames, car parts and transportation boxes have long lifetimes and thus appear as waste only many years after they have been introduced on the market. Plastic is constantly being used for new products because of its attractive material properties: relatively cheap, easy to form......, good strength and long durability. Recycling of plastic waste from production is well-established, while recycling of postconsumer plastic waste still is in its infancy. This chapter describes briefly how plastic is produced and how waste plastic is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements...

  16. Statement on virginity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Virginity testing (virginity examination) is a gynecological examination that is intended to correlate the status and appearance of the hymen with previous sexual contact to determine whether a female has had or is habituated to sexual intercourse. Virginity examinations are practiced in many countries, often forcibly, including in detention places; on women who allege rape or are accused of prostitution; and as part of public or social policies to control sexuality. The Independent Forensic Expert Group (IFEG) - thirty-five preeminent independent forensic experts from eighteen countries specialized in evaluating and documenting the physical and psychological effects of torture and ill-treatment - released a statement on the practice in December 2014. In its statement, the IFEG outlines the physical and psychological effects of forcibly conducting virginity examinations on females based on its collective experience. The Group assesses whether, based on the effects, forcibly conducted virginity examinations constitute cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or torture. Finally, the IFEG addresses the medical interpretation, relevance, and ethical implications of such examinations. The IFEG concludes that virginity examinations are medically unreliable and have no clinical or scientific value. These examinations are inherently discriminatory and, in almost all instances, when conducted forcibly, result in significant physical and mental pain and suffering, thereby constituting cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment or torture. When virginity examinations are forcibly conducted and involve vaginal penetration, the examination should be considered as sexual assault and rape. Involvement of health professionals in these examinations violates the basic standards and ethics of the professions.

  17. EU Universities’ Mission Statements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila Arcimaviciene

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the last 10 years, a highly productive space of metaphor analysis has been established in the discourse studies of media, politics, business, and education. In the theoretical framework of Conceptual Metaphor Theory and Critical Discourse Analysis, the restored metaphorical patterns are especially valued for their implied ideological value as realized both conceptually and linguistically. By using the analytical framework of Critical Metaphor Analysis and procedurally employing Pragglejaz Group’s Metaphor Identification Procedure, this study aims at analyzing the implied value of the evoked metaphors in the mission statements of the first 20 European Universities, according to the Webometrics ranking. In this article, it is proposed that Universities’ mission statements are based on the positive evaluation of the COMMERCE metaphor, which does not fully correlate with the ideological framework of sustainability education but is rather oriented toward consumerism in both education and society. Despite this overall trend, there are some traceable features of the conceptualization reflecting the sustainability approach to higher education, as related to freedom of speech, tolerance, and environmental concerns. Nonetheless, these are suppressed by the metaphoric usages evoking traditional dogmas of the conservative ideology grounded in the concepts of the transactional approach to relationship, competitiveness for superiority, the importance of self-interest and strength, and quantifiable quality.

  18. 77 FR 54930 - Carlyle Plastics and Resins, Formerly Known as Fortis Plastics, A Subsidiary of Plastics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... Employment and Training Administration Carlyle Plastics and Resins, Formerly Known as Fortis Plastics, A... plastic parts. New information shows that Fortis Plastics is now called Carlyle Plastics and Resins. In... of Carlyle Plastics and Resins, formerly known as Fortis Plastics, a subsidiary of...

  19. Presentation of Consolidated Statement of Cash Flows under IAS 7, Statement of Cash Flows

    OpenAIRE

    Tănase Alin-Eliodor; Calota Traian-Ovidiu

    2013-01-01

    The consolidated financial statements must includ a specific statement, regarding cash flows from all activities of the entity, called „consolidated statement of cash flow”. Information for preparing cash flow statements can be found in all other components of the financial statements, such as financial position, statement of comprehensive income and statement of changes in equity. The cash flow statement shall report cash flows during the period classified by operating, investing and financi...

  20. Our plastic age

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Richard C. Thompson; Shanna H. Swan; Charles J. Moore; Frederick S. vom Saal

    2009-01-01

    Within the last few decades, plastics have revolutionized our daily lives. Globally we use in excess of 260 million tonnes of plastic per annum, accounting for approximately 8 per cent of world oil production...

  1. Weinig plastic in vissenmaag

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foekema, E.M.

    2012-01-01

    Waar de magen van sommige zeevogels vol plastic zitten, lijken vissen in de Noordzee nauwelijks last te hebben van kunststofafval. Onderzoekers die plastic resten zochten in vissenmagen vonden ze in elk geval nauwelijks.

  2. Ear Plastic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ENTCareers Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Plastic Surgery Ear Plastic Surgery Patient Health Information ... they may improve appearance and self-confidence. Can Ear Deformities Be Corrected? Formation of the ear during ...

  3. Biodegradability of Plastics

    OpenAIRE

    Yutaka Tokiwa; Calabia, Buenaventurada P.; Charles U. Ugwu; Seiichi Aiba

    2009-01-01

    Plastic is a broad name given to different polymers with high molecular weight, which can be degraded by various processes. However, considering their abundance in the environment and their specificity in attacking plastics, biodegradation of plastics by microorganisms and enzymes seems to be the most effective process. When plastics are used as substrates for microorganisms, evaluation of their biodegradability should not only be based on their chemical structure, but also on their physical ...

  4. Aerospace Education. NSTA Position Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Science Teachers Association (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) has developed a new position statement, "Aerospace Education." NSTA believes that aerospace education is an important component of comprehensive preK-12 science education programs. This statement highlights key considerations that should be addressed when implementing a high quality aerospace education…

  5. Making a Statement with Philanthropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legon, Richard D.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses how a policy statement on board philanthropy can clarify fundraising expectations of all governing and foundation board members. Describes essential components of such a policy statement: mission and vision, recognition of board responsibility for fundraising, specific expectations, and commitment to project and campaign goals. Also…

  6. Statement: Presence of microplastics and nanoplastics in food, with particular focus on seafood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom, L.A.P.

    2016-01-01

    Following a request from the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR), the EFSA Panel for Contaminants in the Food Chain was asked to deliver a statement on the presence of microplastics and nanoplastics in food, with particular focus on seafood. Primary microplastics are plastics original

  7. Chemical Recycle of Plastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Fatima

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Various chemical processes currently prevalent in the chemical industry for plastics recycling have been discussed. Possible future scenarios in chemical recycling have also been discussed. Also analyzed are the effects on the environment, the risks, costs and benefits of PVC recycling. Also listed are the various types of plastics and which plastics are safe to use and which not after rcycle

  8. Plastic value chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baxter, John; Wahlstrom, Margareta; Zu Castell-Rüdenhausen, Malin

    2014-01-01

    Optimizing plastic value chains is regarded as an important measure in order to increase recycling of plastics in an efficient way. This can also lead to improved awareness of the hazardous substances contained in plastic waste, and how to avoid that these substances are recycled. As an example...

  9. Usage of internal statements in making consolidated financial statement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.N. Herman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of the consolidated financial statements is the result of integration processes in the businesses that lead to pooling of different companies. As consolidated financial statements present an aggregated look at the financial position of a parent and its subsidiaries, they let you gauge the overall health of an entire group of companies as opposed to one company’s standalone position. Consolidation of financial statements requires from the participants of joining elaborating their individual statements. The article describes the general scheme of consolidation process and defines the key trends of consolidation adjustments, in particular, financial investments, internal operations, goodwill and exchange rate differences. It is found out that to get information about internal operations and financial investments such data have to be synthesized from internal statements. This approach allows using the same accounting methods to parent and subsidiary entities. The objects, the users and the subject domain of internal statements are determined in order to make consolidation of financial statements of joining.

  10. Nano-plastics in the aquatic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, K; Hansson, L-A; Cedervall, T

    2015-10-01

    The amount of plastics released to the environment in modern days has increased substantially since the development of modern plastics in the early 1900s. As a result, concerns have been raised by the public about the impact of plastics on nature and on, specifically, aquatic wildlife. Lately, much attention has been paid to macro- and micro-sized plastics and their impact on aquatic organisms. However, micro-sized plastics degrade subsequently into nano-sizes whereas nano-sized particles may be released directly into nature. Such particles have a different impact on aquatic organisms than larger pieces of plastic due to their small size, high surface curvature, and large surface area. This review describes the possible sources of nano-sized plastic, its distribution and behavior in nature, the impact of nano-sized plastic on the well-being of aquatic organisms, and the difference of impact between nano- and micro-sized particles. We also identify research areas which urgently need more attention and suggest experimental methods to obtain useful data.

  11. Plastic debris in the open ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cózar, Andrés; Echevarría, Fidel; González-Gordillo, J. Ignacio; Irigoien, Xabier; Úbeda, Bárbara; Hernández-León, Santiago; Palma, Álvaro T.; Navarro, Sandra; García-de-Lomas, Juan; Ruiz, Andrea; Fernández-de-Puelles, María L.; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2014-01-01

    There is a rising concern regarding the accumulation of floating plastic debris in the open ocean. However, the magnitude and the fate of this pollution are still open questions. Using data from the Malaspina 2010 circumnavigation, regional surveys, and previously published reports, we show a worldwide distribution of plastic on the surface of the open ocean, mostly accumulating in the convergence zones of each of the five subtropical gyres with comparable density. However, the global load of plastic on the open ocean surface was estimated to be on the order of tens of thousands of tons, far less than expected. Our observations of the size distribution of floating plastic debris point at important size-selective sinks removing millimeter-sized fragments of floating plastic on a large scale. This sink may involve a combination of fast nano-fragmentation of the microplastic into particles of microns or smaller, their transference to the ocean interior by food webs and ballasting processes, and processes yet to be discovered. Resolving the fate of the missing plastic debris is of fundamental importance to determine the nature and significance of the impacts of plastic pollution in the ocean. PMID:24982135

  12. Plastic debris in the open ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cózar, Andrés; Echevarría, Fidel; González-Gordillo, J Ignacio; Irigoien, Xabier; Ubeda, Bárbara; Hernández-León, Santiago; Palma, Alvaro T; Navarro, Sandra; García-de-Lomas, Juan; Ruiz, Andrea; Fernández-de-Puelles, María L; Duarte, Carlos M

    2014-07-15

    There is a rising concern regarding the accumulation of floating plastic debris in the open ocean. However, the magnitude and the fate of this pollution are still open questions. Using data from the Malaspina 2010 circumnavigation, regional surveys, and previously published reports, we show a worldwide distribution of plastic on the surface of the open ocean, mostly accumulating in the convergence zones of each of the five subtropical gyres with comparable density. However, the global load of plastic on the open ocean surface was estimated to be on the order of tens of thousands of tons, far less than expected. Our observations of the size distribution of floating plastic debris point at important size-selective sinks removing millimeter-sized fragments of floating plastic on a large scale. This sink may involve a combination of fast nano-fragmentation of the microplastic into particles of microns or smaller, their transference to the ocean interior by food webs and ballasting processes, and processes yet to be discovered. Resolving the fate of the missing plastic debris is of fundamental importance to determine the nature and significance of the impacts of plastic pollution in the ocean.

  13. Plastic debris in the open ocean

    KAUST Repository

    Cozar, Andres

    2014-06-30

    There is a rising concern regarding the accumulation of floating plastic debris in the open ocean. However, the magnitude and the fate of this pollution are still open questions. Using data from the Malaspina 2010 circumnavigation, regional surveys, and previously published reports, we show a worldwide distribution of plastic on the surface of the open ocean, mostly accumulating in the convergence zones of each of the five subtropical gyres with comparable density. However, the global load of plastic on the open ocean surface was estimated to be on the order of tens of thousands of tons, far less than expected. Our observations of the size distribution of floating plastic debris point at important size-selective sinks removing millimeter-sized fragments of floating plastic on a large scale. This sink may involve a combination of fast nano-fragmentation of the microplastic into particles of microns or smaller, their transference to the ocean interior by food webs and ballasting processes, and processes yet to be discovered. Resolving the fate of the missing plastic debris is of fundamental importance to determine the nature and significance of the impacts of plastic pollution in the ocean.

  14. Public Perceptions of Plastic Surgery Practice in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denadai, Rafael; Araujo, Karin Milleni; Samartine, Hugo; Denadai, Rodrigo; Raposo-Amaral, Cassio Eduardo

    2016-12-01

    The perception of medical specialists by the public has a significant effect on health-care decisions, research funding allocation, and implantation of educational measures. The purpose of this survey was to assess the public's perception of the field of plastic surgery practice. General public members (n = 1290) completed a survey where they matched nine specialties with 28 plastic surgery-related scenarios. Response patterns were distributed as "plastic surgeon alone," "plastic surgeon combined with other specialists," or "no plastic surgeon." Sociodemographic data and previous plastic surgery contact were also collected. "Plastic surgeon alone" was identified as an expert by more than 70 % of respondents in four (40 %) aesthetic-related scenarios and in one (5.5 %) general/reconstructive-related scenario. "Plastic surgeon alone" was significantly (all p plastic surgeons in facial fracture surgery, facial paralysis management, chest wall surgery, hand surgery-related scenarios, and tumor surgery-related scenarios. Age, health-care professional, education level, and prior plastic surgery contact were significant (all p plastic surgeon" as a response pattern, according to bivariate analysis and multiple linear regression analysis. The public has a poor understanding of the broad field of plastic surgery practice. Therefore, improved public education about the scope of plastic surgery is needed.

  15. Biodegradability of plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokiwa, Yutaka; Calabia, Buenaventurada P; Ugwu, Charles U; Aiba, Seiichi

    2009-08-26

    Plastic is a broad name given to different polymers with high molecular weight, which can be degraded by various processes. However, considering their abundance in the environment and their specificity in attacking plastics, biodegradation of plastics by microorganisms and enzymes seems to be the most effective process. When plastics are used as substrates for microorganisms, evaluation of their biodegradability should not only be based on their chemical structure, but also on their physical properties (melting point, glass transition temperature, crystallinity, storage modulus etc.). In this review, microbial and enzymatic biodegradation of plastics and some factors that affect their biodegradability are discussed.

  16. Plastic value chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baxter, John; Wahlstrom, Margareta; Zu Castell-Rüdenhausen, Malin

    2014-01-01

    Optimizing plastic value chains is regarded as an important measure in order to increase recycling of plastics in an efficient way. This can also lead to improved awareness of the hazardous substances contained in plastic waste, and how to avoid that these substances are recycled. As an example......, plastics from WEEE is chosen as a Nordic case study. The project aims to propose a number of improvements for this value chain together with representatives from Nordic stakeholders. Based on the experiences made, a guide for other plastic value chains shall be developed....

  17. Biodegradability of Plastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Tokiwa

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Plastic is a broad name given to different polymers with high molecular weight, which can be degraded by various processes. However, considering their abundance in the environment and their specificity in attacking plastics, biodegradation of plastics by microorganisms and enzymes seems to be the most effective process. When plastics are used as substrates for microorganisms, evaluation of their biodegradability should not only be based on their chemical structure, but also on their physical properties (melting point, glass transition temperature, crystallinity, storage modulus etc.. In this review, microbial and enzymatic biodegradation of plastics and some factors that affect their biodegradability are discussed.

  18. Challenges in plastics recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Jakobsen, L. G.; Eriksen, Marie Kampmann

    2015-01-01

    Recycling of waste plastics still remains a challenging area in the waste management sector. The current and potential goals proposed on EU or regional levels are difficult to achieve, and even to partially fullfil them the improvements in collection and sorting should be considerable. A study...... was undertaken to investigate the factors affecting quality in plastics recycling. The preliminary results showed factors primarily influencing quality of plastics recycling to be polymer cross contamination, presence of additives, non-polymer impurities, and polymer degradation. Deprivation of plastics quality......, with respect to recycling, has been shown to happen throughout the plastics value chain, but steps where improvements may happen have been preliminary identified. Example of Cr in plastic samples analysed showed potential spreading and accumulation of chemicals ending up in the waste plastics. In order...

  19. Glassy metallic plastics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports a class of bulk metallic glass including Ce-, LaCe-, CaLi-, Yb-, and Sr-based metallic glasses, which are regarded as glassy metallic plastics because they combine some unique properties of both plastics and metallic alloys. These glassy metallic plastics have very low glass transition temperature (Tg~25oC to 150oC) and low Young’s modulus (~20 GPa to 35 GPa). Similar to glassy plastics, these metallic plastics show excellent plastic-like deformability on macro-, micro- and even nano-scale in their supercooled liquid range and can be processed, such as elongated, compressed, bent, and imprinted at low temperatures, in hot water for instance. Under ambient conditions, they display such metallic properties as high thermal and electric conductivities and excellent mechanical properties and other unique properties. The metallic plastics have potential applications and are also a model system for studying issues in glass physics.

  20. Strain gradient plasticity analysis of elasto-plastic contact between rough surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, H.; Van der Giessen, E.; Liu, X.

    2016-11-01

    From a microscopic point of view, the real contact area between two rough surfaces is the sum of the areas of contact between facing asperities. Since the real contact area is a fraction of the nominal contact area, the real contact pressure is much higher than the nominal contact pressure, which results in plastic deformation of asperities. As plasticity is size dependent at size scales below tens of micrometers, with the general trend of smaller being harder, macroscopic plasticity is not suitable to describe plastic deformation of small asperities and thus fails to capture the real contact area and pressure accurately. Here we adopt conventional mechanism-based strain gradient plasticity (CMSGP) to analyze the contact between a rigid platen and an elasto-plastic solid with a rough surface. Flattening of a single sinusoidal asperity is analyzed first to highlight the difference between CMSGP and J2 isotropic plasticity. For the rough surface contact, besides CMSGP, pure elastic and J2 isotropic plasticity analysis is also carried out for comparison. In all cases, the contact area A rises linearly with the applied load, but with a different slope which implies that the mean contact pressures are different. CMSGP produces qualitative changes in the distributions of local contact pressures compared with pure elastic and J2 isotropic plasticity analysis, furthermore, bounded by the two.

  1. AAE and AAOMR Joint Position Statement: Use of Cone Beam Computed Tomography in Endodontics 2015 Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The following statement was prepared by the Special Committee to Revise the Joint American Association of Endodontists/American Academy of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology Position on Cone Beam Computed Tomography, and approved by the AAE Board of Directors and AAOMR Executive Council in May 2015. AAE members may reprint this position statement for distribution to patients or referring dentists.

  2. Environmental Impact Statement Filing Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Describes how to submit an environmental impact statement through the e-NEPA electronic submission system. Describes how EPA submits a notice of availability in to the Federal Register and how the comment time period if set forth.

  3. 7 CFR 4279.137 - Financial statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... § 4279.137 Financial statements. (a) The lender will determine the type and frequency of submission of financial statements by the borrower. At a minimum, annual financial statements prepared by an accountant in... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Financial statements. 4279.137 Section...

  4. Are interim management statements redundant?

    OpenAIRE

    Schleicher, T.; Walker, Martin

    2015-01-01

    In 2004 the Transparency Directive increased the reporting frequency by mandating the Interim Management Statement (IMS). However, only nine years later, the EU announced that it was making quarterly reporting voluntary again arguing that IMSs are redundant as they are unlikely to contain any additional information not already required by the Market Abuse Directive (MAD). The current paper tests this argument empirically. For that it collects data on trading statements from a post-MAD pre-IMS...

  5. Plastic Pollution from Ships

    OpenAIRE

    Čulin, Jelena; Bielić, Toni

    2016-01-01

    The environmental impact of shipping on marine environment includes discharge of garbage. Plastic litter is of particular concern due to abundance, resistance to degradation and detrimental effect on marine biota. According to recently published studies, a further research is required to assess human health risk. Monitoring data indicate that despite banning plastic disposal at sea, shipping is still a source of plastic pollution. Some of the measures to combat the problem are discussed.

  6. Surface properties of beached plastic pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotopoulou, Kalliopi N; Karapanagioti, Hrissi K

    2012-10-01

    The presence of pollutants on plastic debris is an emerging environmental hot topic. Understanding the surface alteration of plastics while in the marine environment increases our understanding of the pollutant-plastic debris interaction. Plastic pellets are widely distributed throughout the world oceans. Eroded and virgin polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP) pellets were studied for their surface properties to better understand the interaction between plastic and compounds in marine environment. Surface properties such as point of zero charge, surface area and pore volume, surface topography, functional groups and acid-base behavior are important factors which affect sorption. Virgin plastic pellets had homogeneous smooth surfaces that do not have any acid-base behavior. Eroded PE demonstrates an altered surface that at seawater pH acquires a negative charge due to ketone groups. The uneven surface and possible functional groups could have been formed from the erosion processes while floating at the sea surface and might explain the interaction of eroded plastics with microbes and metals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Handbook of Plastic Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul

    The purpose of this document is to summarize the information about the laser welding of plastic. Laser welding is a matured process nevertheless laser welding of micro dimensional plastic parts is still a big challenge. This report collects the latest information about the laser welding of plasti...... as a knowledge handbook for laser welding of plastic components. This document should provide the information for all aspects of plastic laser welding and help the design engineers to take all critical issues into consideration from the very beginning of the design phase....

  8. Plastics and health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halden, Rolf U

    2010-01-01

    By 2010, the worldwide annual production of plastics will surpass 300 million tons. Plastics are indispensable materials in modern society, and many products manufactured from plastics are a boon to public health (e.g., disposable syringes, intravenous bags). However, plastics also pose health risks. Of principal concern are endocrine-disrupting properties, as triggered for example by bisphenol A and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). Opinions on the safety of plastics vary widely, and despite more than five decades of research, scientific consensus on product safety is still elusive. This literature review summarizes information from more than 120 peer-reviewed publications on health effects of plastics and plasticizers in lab animals and humans. It examines problematic exposures of susceptible populations and also briefly summarizes adverse environmental impacts from plastic pollution. Ongoing efforts to steer human society toward resource conservation and sustainable consumption are discussed, including the concept of the 5 Rs--i.e., reduce, reuse, recycle, rethink, restrain--for minimizing pre- and postnatal exposures to potentially harmful components of plastics.

  9. Synaptic Plasticity and Nociception

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChenJianguo

    2004-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity is one of the fields that progresses rapidly and has a lot of success in neuroscience. The two major types of synaptie plasticity: long-term potentiation ( LTP and long-term depression (LTD are thought to be the cellular mochanisms of learning and memory. Recently, accumulating evidence suggests that, besides serving as a cellular model for learning and memory, the synaptic plasticity involves in other physiological or pathophysiological processes, such as the perception of pain and the regulation of cardiovascular system. This minireview will focus on the relationship between synaptic plasticity and nociception.

  10. 食品塑料包装中纳米氧化钛填料的分布及迁移特性%Distribution and Migration Character of Nano-meter TiO2 Filler in Food Plastic Package

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹国洲; 关荣发; 刘在美; 肖道清; 朱晓艳

    2015-01-01

    Distribution and morphology of nano-meter TiO2 in food plastic package were studied by means of SEM.It was found that nanometer TiO2 reunited easily.The migration character of Nano-meter TiO2 was in-vestigated,by simulate testing in four food simulants including water,4% acetic acids,20% alcohol and n-hexane.The results showed migration in 4% acetic acid was largest and least in 20% alcohol.%借助扫描电镜观察了市售和自制食品塑料包装中纳米氧化钛颗粒的分布及其形态,发现氧化钛纳米颗粒以团聚状分布于聚合物基体中,且不均匀;通过水、4%乙酸、20%乙醇和正己烷4种食品模拟迁移试验,考察了纳米氧化钛迁移规律,其迁移量在酸性环境下最大,酒精类环境下最小。

  11. Financial statements in selected business corporation

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The master thesis solvesissuesof the financial statements as a procedure where both compilation of statements and problems of preliminary and other actions, related with financial statements and final accounts are analysed. The thesis includes the theoretical basis and analytical part. The mainaim of the projectis evaluating the financial statements procedure in a chosen business corporation. The theoretical basis characterizes basic information about the financial statements, concerning t...

  12. Plasticity predicts evolution in a marine alga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaum, C Elisa; Collins, Sinéad

    2014-10-22

    Under global change, populations have four possible responses: 'migrate, acclimate, adapt or die' (Gienapp et al. 2008 Climate change and evolution: disentangling environmental and genetic response. Mol. Ecol. 17, 167-178. (doi:10.1111/j.1365-294X.2007.03413.x)). The challenge is to predict how much migration, acclimatization or adaptation populations are capable of. We have previously shown that populations from more variable environments are more plastic (Schaum et al. 2013 Variation in plastic responses of a globally distributed picoplankton species to ocean acidification. Nature 3, 298-230. (doi:10.1038/nclimate1774)), and here we use experimental evolution with a marine microbe to learn that plastic responses predict the extent of adaptation in the face of elevated partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2). Specifically, plastic populations evolve more, and plastic responses in traits other than growth can predict changes in growth in a marine microbe. The relationship between plasticity and evolution is strongest when populations evolve in fluctuating environments, which favour the evolution and maintenance of plasticity. Strikingly, plasticity predicts the extent, but not direction of phenotypic evolution. The plastic response to elevated pCO2 in green algae is to increase cell division rates, but the evolutionary response here is to decrease cell division rates over 400 generations until cells are dividing at the same rate their ancestors did in ambient CO2. Slow-growing cells have higher mitochondrial potential and withstand further environmental change better than faster growing cells. Based on this, we hypothesize that slow growth is adaptive under CO2 enrichment when associated with the production of higher quality daughter cells.

  13. Halos of Plastic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maya Reid

    2012-01-01

    The halos that span South Africa's coastline are anything but angelic. Fanning out around four major urban centers-Cape Town, Port Elizabeth, East London and Durban-they are made up of innumerable bits and pieces of plastic. As a form of pollution, their shelflife is unfathomable. Plastic is essentially chemically inactive. It's designed to never break down.

  14. DESIGNERS’ KNOWLEDGE IN PLASTICS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Kaare

    2013-01-01

    The Industrial designers’ knowledge in plastics materials and manufacturing principles of polymer products is very important for the innovative strength of the industry, according to a group of Danish plastics manufacturers, design students and practicing industrial designers. These three groups...... answered the first Danish national survey, PD13[1], investigating the importance of industrial designers’ knowledge in plastics and the collaboration between designers and the polymer industry. The plastics industry and the industrial designers collaborate well, but both groups frequently experience...... that the designers’ lack of knowledge concerning polymer materials and manufacturing methods can be problematic or annoying, and design students from most Danish design universities express the need for more contact with the industry and more competencies and tools to handle even simple topics when designing plastic...

  15. Consciousness and neural plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In contemporary consciousness studies the phenomenon of neural plasticity has received little attention despite the fact that neural plasticity is of still increased interest in neuroscience. We will, however, argue that neural plasticity could be of great importance to consciousness studies....... If consciousness is related to neural processes it seems, at least prima facie, that the ability of the neural structures to change should be reflected in a theory of this relationship "Neural plasticity" refers to the fact that the brain can change due to its own activity. The brain is not static but rather...... the relation between consciousness and brain functions. If consciousness is connected to specific brain structures (as a function or in identity) what happens to consciousness when those specific underlying structures change? It is therefore possible that the understanding and theories of neural plasticity can...

  16. The genetics of phenotypic plasticity. XIII. Interactions with developmental instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiner, Samuel M

    2014-04-01

    In a heterogeneous environment, natural selection on a trait can lead to a variety of outcomes, including phenotypic plasticity and bet-hedging through developmental instability. These outcomes depend on the magnitude and pattern of that heterogeneity and the spatial and temporal distribution of individuals. However, we do not know if and how those two outcomes might interact with each other. I examined the joint evolution of plasticity and instability through the use of an individual-based simulation in which each could be genetically independent or pleiotropically linked. When plasticity and instability were determined by different loci, the only effect on the evolution of plasticity was the elimination of plasticity as a bet-hedging strategy. In contrast, the effects on the evolution of instability were more substantial. If conditions were such that the population was likely to evolve to the optimal reaction norm, then instability was disfavored. Instability was favored only when the lack of a reliable environmental cue disfavored plasticity. When plasticity and instability were determined by the same loci, instability acted as a strong limitation on the evolution of plasticity. Under some conditions, selection for instability resulted in maladaptive plasticity. Therefore, before testing any models of plasticity or instability evolution, or interpreting empirical patterns, it is important to know the ecological, life history, developmental, and genetic contexts of trait phenotypic plasticity and developmental instability.

  17. Glassy features of crystal plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtinen, Arttu; Costantini, Giulio; Alava, Mikko J.; Zapperi, Stefano; Laurson, Lasse

    2016-08-01

    Crystal plasticity occurs by deformation bursts due to the avalanchelike motion of dislocations. Here we perform extensive numerical simulations of a three-dimensional dislocation dynamics model under quasistatic stress-controlled loading. Our results show that avalanches are power-law distributed and display peculiar stress and sample size dependence: The average avalanche size grows exponentially with the applied stress, and the amount of slip increases with the system size. These results suggest that intermittent deformation processes in crystalline materials exhibit an extended critical-like phase in analogy to glassy systems instead of originating from a nonequilibrium phase transition critical point.

  18. Plastic scintillators modifications for a selective radiation detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamel, Matthieu; Bertrand, Guillaume H.V.; Carrel, Frederick; Coulon, Romain; Dumazert, Jonathan; Montbarbon, Eva; Sguerra, Fabien [CEA, LIST, Laboratoire Capteurs and Architectures electroniques, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France)

    2015-07-01

    Recent developments of plastic scintillators are reviewed, from January 2000 to June 2015. All examples are distributed into the main application, i.e. how the plastic scintillator was modified to enhance the detection towards a given radiation particle. The main characteristics of these newly created scintillators and their detection properties are given. (authors)

  19. Accumulation and fragmentation of plastic debris in global environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, David K. A.; Galgani, Francois; Thompson, Richard C.; Barlaz, Morton

    2009-01-01

    One of the most ubiquitous and long-lasting recent changes to the surface of our planet is the accumulation and fragmentation of plastics. Within just a few decades since mass production of plastic products commenced in the 1950s, plastic debris has accumulated in terrestrial environments, in the open ocean, on shorelines of even the most remote islands and in the deep sea. Annual clean-up operations, costing millions of pounds sterling, are now organized in many countries and on every continent. Here we document global plastics production and the accumulation of plastic waste. While plastics typically constitute approximately 10 per cent of discarded waste, they represent a much greater proportion of the debris accumulating on shorelines. Mega- and macro-plastics have accumulated in the highest densities in the Northern Hemisphere, adjacent to urban centres, in enclosed seas and at water convergences (fronts). We report lower densities on remote island shores, on the continental shelf seabed and the lowest densities (but still a documented presence) in the deep sea and Southern Ocean. The longevity of plastic is estimated to be hundreds to thousands of years, but is likely to be far longer in deep sea and non-surface polar environments. Plastic debris poses considerable threat by choking and starving wildlife, distributing non-native and potentially harmful organisms, absorbing toxic chemicals and degrading to micro-plastics that may subsequently be ingested. Well-established annual surveys on coasts and at sea have shown that trends in mega- and macro-plastic accumulation rates are no longer uniformly increasing: rather stable, increasing and decreasing trends have all been reported. The average size of plastic particles in the environment seems to be decreasing, and the abundance and global distribution of micro-plastic fragments have increased over the last few decades. However, the environmental consequences of such microscopic debris are still poorly

  20. Plastic Anisotropy Prediction by Ultrasonic Texture Data

    OpenAIRE

    Serebryany, V. N.

    1996-01-01

    The plastic anisotropy parameters (R coefficient and height of ears of the drawn cup) have been calculated from ultrasonic orientation distribution function (ODF) coefficients on the basis of Taylor theory for low carbon steel and aluminium alloy sheets. The ODF coefficients were defined by Sayers method and using the iterative procedure on the basis of measurement of bulk longitudinal and shear wave time delays.

  1. Distributed Logics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-03

    that must be woven into proofs of security statements. 03-10-2014 Memorandum Report Logic System-on-a-Chip Distributed systems 9888 ASDR&EAssistant...can be removed without damaging the logic. For all propositional letters p, E1. p ⊃ [r] p From now on, a distributed logic contains at least the...a ∈ x iff 〈h〉 ∈ x. These same definitions work for the canonical relation R for r : h y k where now a ∈ MA(k), [r] a, 〈r〉 a ∈ MA(h), x ∈ CF(h), and

  2. 75 FR 6178 - Mission Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-08

    ...), thermal coal, and palm oil exports for bio fuel, dominate energy exports. Sound fiscal and monetary.... Mission Statement Secretarial Indonesia Clean Energy Business Development Mission May 23-25, 2010. Mission... to Jakarta, Indonesia May 23-25, 2010 to discuss market development policies and promote U.S. exports...

  3. Paradigm Statements of Educational Objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Peter J.

    Five distinct format categories are used in this study to describe the form of educational objectives: clarity, range, level of abstractness, behavioralness, and observability. These form concepts are used to describe paradigm statements of three kinds of educational objectives: goals, intended learning outcomes, and behavioral evidence. Goals are…

  4. Accounting Principles and Financial Statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Daniel D.

    1973-01-01

    This document presents the background and analysis of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) guide to auditing colleges and universities. Highlights include the approval of the market value option, the treatment of endowment gains, debt services as transfers, the decisions on pledges, the use of financial statements, the…

  5. Informative document waste plastics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagelhout D; Sein AA; Duvoort GL

    1989-01-01

    This "Informative document waste plastics" forms part of a series of "informative documents waste materials". These documents are conducted by RIVM on the indstruction of the Directorate General for the Environment, Waste Materials Directorate, in behalf of the program of

  6. A Plastic Menagerie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Mary Jane

    2010-01-01

    Bobble heads had become quite popular, depicting all sorts of sports figures, animals, and even presidents. In this article, the author describes how her fourth graders made bobble head sculptures out of empty plastic drink bottles. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  7. Cortical plasticity and rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moucha, Raluca; Kilgard, Michael P

    2006-01-01

    The brain is constantly adapting to environmental and endogenous changes (including injury) that occur at every stage of life. The mechanisms that regulate neural plasticity have been refined over millions of years. Motivation and sensory experience directly shape the rewiring that makes learning and neurological recovery possible. Guiding neural reorganization in a manner that facilitates recovery of function is a primary goal of neurological rehabilitation. As the rules that govern neural plasticity become better understood, it will be possible to manipulate the sensory and motor experience of patients to induce specific forms of plasticity. This review summarizes our current knowledge regarding factors that regulate cortical plasticity, illustrates specific forms of reorganization induced by control of each factor, and suggests how to exploit these factors for clinical benefit.

  8. Mechanical plasticity of cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonakdar, Navid; Gerum, Richard; Kuhn, Michael; Spörrer, Marina; Lippert, Anna; Schneider, Werner; Aifantis, Katerina E.; Fabry, Ben

    2016-10-01

    Under mechanical loading, most living cells show a viscoelastic deformation that follows a power law in time. After removal of the mechanical load, the cell shape recovers only incompletely to its original undeformed configuration. Here, we show that incomplete shape recovery is due to an additive plastic deformation that displays the same power-law dynamics as the fully reversible viscoelastic deformation response. Moreover, the plastic deformation is a constant fraction of the total cell deformation and originates from bond ruptures within the cytoskeleton. A simple extension of the prevailing viscoelastic power-law response theory with a plastic element correctly predicts the cell behaviour under cyclic loading. Our findings show that plastic energy dissipation during cell deformation is tightly linked to elastic cytoskeletal stresses, which suggests the existence of an adaptive mechanism that protects the cell against mechanical damage.

  9. Targeting tumour Cell Plasticity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elizabeth D. WILLIAMS

    2009-01-01

    @@ Her research is focused on understanding the mechanisms of tumour progression and metastasis, particularly in uro-logical carcinomas (bladder and prostate). Tumour cell plasticity, including epithelial-mesenchymal transition, is a cen-tral theme in Dr Williams' work.

  10. COMPARATIVE FINANCIAL STATEMENTS. CONVERGENCE VERSUS DIVERGENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae ECOBICI

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I compared the Romanian financial statements with the US GAAP financial statements in terms of two criteria: first the reference period and secondly the shape, structure and content of financial statements. Nowadays the two accounting systems, the French and Anglo-Saxon, tend to harmonize. I will present the convergences and the divergences between the financial statements of Romania, subject to OMFP 3055/2009, in parallel with the Anglo-Saxon accounting system.

  11. Laser cutting plastic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Cleave, R.A.

    1980-08-01

    A 1000-watt CO/sub 2/ laser has been demonstrated as a reliable production machine tool for cutting of plastics, high strength reinforced composites, and other nonmetals. More than 40 different plastics have been laser cut, and the results are tabulated. Applications for laser cutting described include fiberglass-reinforced laminates, Kevlar/epoxy composites, fiberglass-reinforced phenolics, nylon/epoxy laminates, ceramics, and disposable tooling made from acrylic.

  12. Localization of plastic deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, J R

    1976-04-01

    The localization of plastic deformation into a shear band is discussed as an instability of plastic flow and a precursor to rupture. Experimental observations are reviewed, a general theoretical framework is presented, and specific calculations of critical conditions are carried out for a variety of material models. The interplay between features of inelastic constitutive description, especially deviations from normality and vertex-like yielding, and the onset of localization is emphasized.

  13. Determining Relevant Financial Statement Ratios in Department of Defense Service Component General Fund Financial Statements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    users of corporate financial statements are included in Table 1. 11 Lenders Investors Managers Suppliers Customers Employees Competitors The... financial statements . For example, lenders and investors may use financial statements to achieve their profit or interest objectives by predicting...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA JOINT APPLIED PROJECT DETERMINING RELEVANT FINANCIAL STATEMENT RATIOS IN

  14. Development of plastic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pećanac Marija Đ.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Plastic surgery is a medical specialty dealing with corrections of defects, improvements in appearance and restoration of lost function. Ancient Times. The first recorded account of reconstructive plastic surgery was found in ancient Indian Sanskrit texts, which described reconstructive surgeries of the nose and ears. In ancient Greece and Rome, many medicine men performed simple plastic cosmetic surgeries to repair damaged parts of the body caused by war mutilation, punishment or humiliation. In the Middle Ages, the development of all medical braches, including plastic surgery was hindered. New age. The interest in surgical reconstruction of mutilated body parts was renewed in the XVIII century by a great number of enthusiastic and charismatic surgeons, who mastered surgical disciplines and became true artists that created new forms. Modern Era. In the XX century, plastic surgery developed as a modern branch in medicine including many types of reconstructive surgery, hand, head and neck surgery, microsurgery and replantation, treatment of burns and their sequelae, and esthetic surgery. Contemporary and future plastic surgery will continue to evolve and improve with regenerative medicine and tissue engineering resulting in a lot of benefits to be gained by patients in reconstruction after body trauma, oncology amputation, and for congenital disfigurement and dysfunction.

  15. 75 FR 22577 - Proposed Privacy Policy Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... request for public comment on Proposed Privacy Policy Statement. SUMMARY: The U.S. Election Assistance Commission (EAC) seeks public comment on the Proposed Privacy Policy Statement. OMB Memorandum M-99- 18.... These statements are intended to inform the public of government- wide policies and how each...

  16. finite element analysis of plastic recycling machine designed

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    This paper presents the conceptual design of plastic recycling machine for production of thin filament coil. The machine ... waste management system to curb the menace of the ... temperature distribution across the die. ... 2.1 Design Concept.

  17. Sorting Plastic Waste in Hydrocyclone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernestas Šutinys

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The article presents material about sorting plastic waste in hydrocyclone. The tests on sorting plastic waste were carried out. Also, the findings received from the performed experiment on the technology of sorting plastic waste are interpreted applying an experimental model of the equipment used for sorting plastics of different density.Article in Lithuanian

  18. Statement on the presence of microplastics and nanoplastics in food, with particular focus on seafood

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Annette

    2016-01-01

    Following a request from the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR), the EFSA Panel for Contaminants in the Food Chain was asked to deliver a statement on the presence of microplastics and nanoplastics in food, with particular focus on seafood. Primary microplastics are plastics originally manufactured to be that size, while secondary microplastics originate from fragmentation. Nanoplastics can originate from engineered material or can be produced during fragmentation of microplas...

  19. Consolidated financial statements for fiscal year 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    The following overview and accompanying audited financial statements have been prepared for Fiscal Year (FY) 1996 to report the financial position and the results of operations of the Department of Energy. These statements include the consolidated Statement of Financial Position and the consolidated Statement of Operations and Changes in Net Position. The statements have been prepared in accordance with the Office of Management and Budget Bulletin No. 94-01, Form and Content for Agency Financial Statements, and were developed in accordance with the hierarchy of accounting standards described therein. The overview provides a narrative on the Department of Energy`s mission, activities, and accomplishments. Utilizing performance measures as the primary vehicle for communicating Departmental accomplishments and results, this overview discusses the most significant measures while others are discussed in the supplemental information to the financial statements.

  20. "Oriental anthropometry" in plastic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senna-Fernandes Vasco

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : According to Chinese medicine, the acupuncture-points′ (acupoints locations are proportionally and symmetrically distributed in well-defined compartment zones on the human body surface Oriental Anthropometry" (OA. Acupoints, if considered as aesthetic-loci, might be useful as reference guides in plastic surgery (PS. Aim: This study aimed to use aesthetic-loci as anatomical reference in surgical marking of Aesthetic Plastic Surgery. Method: This was an observational study based on aesthetic surgeries performed in private clinic. This study was based on 106 cases, comprising of 102 women and 4 men, with ages varying from 07 to 73 years, and with heights of between 1.34 m and 1.80 m. Patients were submitted to aesthetic surgical planning by relating aesthetic-loci to conventional surgical marking, including breast surgeries, abdominoplasty, rhytidoplasty, blepharoplasty, and hair implant. The aesthetic-surgical-outcome (ASO of the patients was assessed by a team of plastic surgeons (who were not involved in the surgical procedures over a follow-up period of one year by using a numeric-rating-scale in percentage (% terms. A four-point-verbal-rating-scale was used to record the patients′ opinion of therapeutic-satisfaction (TS. Results: ASO was 75.3 ± 9.4% and TS indicated that most patients (58.5% obtained "good" results. Of the remainder, 38.7% found the results "excellent", and 2.8% found them "fair". Discussion and Conclusion : The data suggested that the use of aesthetic-loci may be a useful tool for PS as an anatomical reference for surgical marking. However, further investigation is required to assess the efficacy of the OA by providing the patients more reliable balance and harmony in facial and body contours surgeries.

  1. Structural plasticity mechanisms and developmental psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique eMuller

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Synaptic plasticity mechanisms are usually discussed in terms of changes in synaptic strength. The capacity of excitatory synapses to rapidly modify the membrane expression of glutamate receptors in an activity-dependent manner plays a critical role in learning and memory processes by re-distributing activity within neuronal networks. Recent work has however also shown that functional plasticity properties are associated with a rewiring of synaptic connections and a selective stabilization of activated synapses. These structural aspects of plasticity have the potential to continuously modify the organization of synaptic networks and thereby introduce specificity in the wiring diagram of cortical circuits. Recent work has started to unravel some of the molecular mechanisms that underlie these properties of structural plasticity, highlighting an important role of signaling pathways that are also major candidates for contributing to developmental psychiatric disorders. We review here some of these recent advances and discuss the hypothesis that alterations of structural plasticity could represent a common mechanism contributing to the cognitive and functional defects observed in diseases such as intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia.

  2. Network-timing-dependent plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent eDelattre

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bursts of activity in networks of neurons are thought to convey salient information and drive synaptic plasticity. Here we report that network bursts also exert a profound effect on Spike-Timing-Dependent Plasticity (STDP. In acute slices of juvenile rat somatosensory cortex we paired a network burst, which alone induced long-term depression (LTD, with STDP-induced long-term potentiation and depression (LTP and LTD. We observed that STDP-induced LTP was either unaffected, blocked or flipped into LTD by the network burst, and that STDP-induced LTD was either saturated or flipped into LTP, depending on the relative timing of the network burst with respect to spike coincidences of the STDP event. We hypothesized that network bursts flip STDP-induced LTP to LTD by depleting resources needed for LTP and therefore developed a resource-dependent STDP learning rule. In a model neural network under the influence of the proposed resource-dependent STDP rule, we found that excitatory synaptic coupling was homeostatically regulated to produce power law distributed burst amplitudes reflecting self-organized criticality, a state that ensures optimal information coding.

  3. Network-timing-dependent plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delattre, Vincent; Keller, Daniel; Perich, Matthew; Markram, Henry; Muller, Eilif B

    2015-01-01

    Bursts of activity in networks of neurons are thought to convey salient information and drive synaptic plasticity. Here we report that network bursts also exert a profound effect on Spike-Timing-Dependent Plasticity (STDP). In acute slices of juvenile rat somatosensory cortex we paired a network burst, which alone induced long-term depression (LTD), with STDP-induced long-term potentiation (LTP) and LTD. We observed that STDP-induced LTP was either unaffected, blocked or flipped into LTD by the network burst, and that STDP-induced LTD was either saturated or flipped into LTP, depending on the relative timing of the network burst with respect to spike coincidences of the STDP event. We hypothesized that network bursts flip STDP-induced LTP to LTD by depleting resources needed for LTP and therefore developed a resource-dependent STDP learning rule. In a model neural network under the influence of the proposed resource-dependent STDP rule, we found that excitatory synaptic coupling was homeostatically regulated to produce power law distributed burst amplitudes reflecting self-organized criticality, a state that ensures optimal information coding.

  4. Elasto-plastic contact between rollers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Kunliang; Li, Penghui

    1991-12-01

    Knowledge of the three-dimensional contact stress between roller and rolling road for a strain- hardening material in an elasto-plastic state is limited, to say the least. Mathematical analyses of stress for this problem meet with extreme difficulties. Therefore, experimental approaches are desirable. The experimental elasto-plastic stress analysis method proposed by A. R. Hunter is extended in this investigation. The model material is epoxy resin, which exhibits a frozen nonlinear effective stress-strain behavior similar to that of bearing steel when subjected to a thermal cycle whose maximum temperature is significantly less than the critical temperature of the material. This effective stress-strain curve and an effective birefringence- stress curve were obtained by subjecting uniaxial tensile specimens to constant stress and the appropriate thermal cycle. Then the model was subjected to the same thermal cycle and a uniform distributed load that would develop a plastic zone. The stress distributions on the contact surface and the plastic-zone expansion law were obtained from photomechanical analysis of the slices removed from the model. Several important conclusions were summed up that would greatly improve the roller bearing design.

  5. SABIC Innovative Plastics: Be the World Best Plastic Resin Manufacturer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jenny Du

    2007-01-01

    @@ "SABIC Innovative Plastics is a global supplier of plastic resins, manufacturing and compounding polycarbonate, ABS, SAN, ASA, PPE, PC/ABS, PBT and PEI resins, as well as the LNP* line of high performance specialty compounds," said Hiroshi Yoshida, the Global Market Director for Electronics of SABIC Innovative Plastics based in Tokyo at the press conference held by SABIC Innovative Plastics, November 8th 2007, Shanghai.

  6. Preserving in Plastic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahla, James

    1985-01-01

    Outlines steps for casting insects in permanent molds prepared from commercially available liquid plastic. Also describes dry mountings in glass, acrylic, and petri dishes. The rationale for specimen use, hints for producing quality results, purchasing information, and safety precautions are considered. (DH)

  7. Informative document waste plastics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagelhout D; Sein AA; Duvoort GL

    1989-01-01

    This "Informative document waste plastics" forms part of a series of "informative documents waste materials". These documents are conducted by RIVM on the indstruction of the Directorate General for the Environment, Waste Materials Directorate, in behalf of the program of acti

  8. Discrete dislocation plasticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Giessen, E.; Finel, A; Maziere, D; Veron, M

    2003-01-01

    Conventional continuum mechanics models of inelastic deformation processes axe size scale independent. In contrast, there is considerable experimental evidence that plastic flow in crystalline materials is size dependent over length scales of the order of tens of microns and smaller. At present ther

  9. Progress in neural plasticity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    POO; Mu-Ming

    2010-01-01

    One of the properties of the nervous system is the use-dependent plasticity of neural circuits.The structure and function of neural circuits are susceptible to changes induced by prior neuronal activity,as reflected by short-and long-term modifications of synaptic efficacy and neuronal excitability.Regarded as the most attractive cellular mechanism underlying higher cognitive functions such as learning and memory,activity-dependent synaptic plasticity has been in the spotlight of modern neuroscience since 1973 when activity-induced long-term potentiation(LTP) of hippocampal synapses was first discovered.Over the last 10 years,Chinese neuroscientists have made notable contributions to the study of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of synaptic plasticity,as well as of the plasticity beyond synapses,including activity-dependent changes in intrinsic neuronal excitability,dendritic integration functions,neuron-glia signaling,and neural network activity.This work highlight some of these significant findings.

  10. New plastic recycling technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greater than 60% of the total plastic content of municipal solid waste is comprised of polyolefins (high-density, low-density, and linear polyethylene and polypropylene. Polyethylene (PE) is the largest-volume component but presents a challenge due to the absence of low-energy de...

  11. Persisting Plastic Addiction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The policy on curbing plastic shopping bag use implemented three years ago has produced mixed results In a bustling farmers’market tucked in a narrow street in Xisanqi residential community in north Beijing,stalls selling vegetables,fruits and other foods line the sidewalk.

  12. Statement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In order to meet the requirement of the informatization construction in our country, and to expand the academic exchange channel for the authors, SPAT has acceded to Chinese Academic Journal-CD(CAJ-CD), Chinajournal net and ChinaInfo. The fee of the copyright for the authors will be paid together with the author's remuneration at same time. Those who don't want their articles to be edited into this database may declare at the moment the manuscripts submitted to us so that we can appropriately deal with them. Editorial Board of SPAT

  13. Position Statement On Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The North Carolina Environmental Justice Network (NCEJN), a coalition of grassroots organizations, developed a statement to explain our environmental justice perspective on climate change to predominantly white environmental groups that seek to partner with us. NCEJN opposes strategies that reduce greenhouse emissions while maintaining or magnifying existing social, economic, and environmental injustices. Wealthy communities that consume a disproportionate share of resources avoid the most severe consequences of their consumption by displacing pollution on communities of color and low income. Therefore, the success of climate change activism depends on building an inclusive movement based on principles of racial, social and economic justice, and self-determination for all people.

  14. New statement of leave format

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Following the communication of the Standing Concertation Committee published in Weekly Bulletin No. 18-19 of 27 April 2009, the current statement of leave on monthly pay slips has been replaced with the EDH Leave Transactions report that displays the up-to-date situation of individual leave balances at all times. The report is available on EDH. Additionally, the layout of the pay slip has been modernised. The new version of the pay slip will be send out from September 2009 onwards. Finance and Purchasing Department, Personnel Accounting Human Resources Department, Organisation and Procedures General Infrastructure Services Department, Administrative Information Services

  15. GABAA receptor plasticity in Jurkat T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionisio, Leonardo; Arias, Verónica; Bouzat, Cecilia; Esandi, María del Carmen

    2013-12-01

    GABAA receptors (GABAAR) mediate inhibitory neurotransmission in the human brain. Neurons modify subunit expression, cellular distribution and function of GABAAR in response to different stimuli, a process named plasticity. Human lymphocytes have a functional neuronal-like GABAergic system with GABAAR acting as inhibitors of proliferation. We here explore if receptor plasticity occurs in lymphocytes. To this end, we analyzed human T lymphocyte Jurkat cells exposed to different physiological stimuli shown to mediate plasticity in neurons: GABA, progesterone and insulin. The exposure to 100 μM GABA differently affected the expression of GABAAR subunits measured at both the mRNA and protein level, showing an increase of α1, β3, and γ2 subunits but no changes in δ subunit. Exposure of Jurkat cells to different stimuli produced different changes in subunit expression: 0.1 μM progesterone decreased δ and 0.5 μM insulin increased β3 subunits. To identify the mechanisms underlying plasticity, we evaluated the Akt pathway, which is involved in the phosphorylation of β subunits and receptor translocation to the membrane. A significant increase of phosphorylated Akt and on the expression of β3 subunit in membrane occurred in cells exposed 15 h to GABA. To determine if plastic changes are translated into functional changes, we performed whole cell recordings. After 15 h GABA-exposure, a significantly higher percentage of cells responded to GABA application when compared to 0 and 40 h exposure, thus indicating that the detected plastic changes may have a role in GABA-modulated lymphocyte function. Our results reveal that lymphocyte GABAAR are modified by different stimuli similarly and by similar mechanisms to those in neurons. This property is of significance for the development of future therapies involving pharmacological modulation of the immune response. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of constitutive parameters on adiabatic shear localization for ductile metal based on JOHNSON-COOK and gradient plasticity models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xue-bin

    2006-01-01

    By using the widely used JOHNSON-COOK model and the gradient-dependent plasticity to consider microstmctural effect beyond the occurrence of shear strain localization, the distributions of local plastic shear strain and deformation in adiabatic shear band(ASB) were analyzed. The peak local plastic shear strain is proportional to the average plastic shear strain, while it is inversely proportional to the critical plastic shear strain corresponding to the peak flow shear stress. The relative plastic shear deformation between the top and base of ASB depends on the thickness of ASB and the average plastic shear strain. A parametric study was carried out to study the influence of constitutive parameters on shear strain localization. Higher values of static shear strength and work to heat conversion factor lead to lower critical plastic shear strain so that the shear localization is more apparent at the same average plastic shear strain. Higher values of strain-hardening exponent, strain rate sensitive coefficient, melting point,thermal capacity and mass density result in higher critical plastic shear strain, leading to less apparent shear localization at the same average plastic shear strain. The strain rate sensitive coefficient has a minor influence on the critical plastic shear strain, the distributions of local plastic shear strain and deformation in ASB. The effect of strain-hardening modulus on the critical plastic shear strain is not monotonous. When the maximum critical plastic shear strain is reached, the least apparent shear localization occurs.

  17. 7 CFR 900.350 - General statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Determining the Qualification of Cooperative Milk Marketing Associations § 900.350 General statement. Cooperative marketing associations apply for qualification by the Secretary under the Federal milk...

  18. Financial Statement Fraud Detection using Text Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajan Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Data mining techniques have been used enormously by the researchers’ community in detecting financial statement fraud. Most of the research in this direction has used the numbers (quantitative information i.e. financial ratios present in the financial statements for detecting fraud. There is very little or no research on the analysis of text such as auditor’s comments or notes present in published reports. In this study we propose a text mining approach for detecting financial statement fraud by analyzing the hidden clues in the qualitative information (text present in financial statements.

  19. A QSPR for the plasticization efficiency of polyvinylchloride plasticizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandola, Mridula; Marathe, Sujata

    2008-01-01

    A simple quantitative structure property relationship (QSPR) for correlating the plasticization efficiency of 25 polyvinylchloride (PVC) plasticizers was obtained using molecular modeling. The plasticizers studied were-aromatic esters (phthalate, terephthalate, benzoate, trimellitate), aliphatic esters (adipate, sebacate, azelate), citrates and a phosphate. The low temperature flex point, Tf, of plasticized polyvinylchloride resins was considered as an indicator of plasticization efficiency. Initially, we attempted to predict plasticization efficiency of PVC plasticizers from physical and structural descriptors derived from the plasticizer molecule alone. However, the correlation of these descriptors with Tf was not very good with R=0.78 and r2=0.613. This implied that the selected descriptors were unable to predict all the interactions between PVC and plasticizer. Hence, to account for these interactions, a model containing two polyvinylchloride (PVC) chain segments along with a plasticizer molecule in a simulation box was constructed, using molecular mechanics. A good QSPR equation correlating physical and structural descriptors derived from the model to Tf of the plasticized resins was obtained with R=0.954 and r2=0.909.

  20. 7 CFR 1980.445 - Periodic financial statements and audits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... periodic financial statements to the lender. Lenders must forward copies of the financial statements and the lender's analysis of the statements to the Agency. (a) Audited financial statements. Except as... section shall be considered an impediment to the lender requiring financial statements more......

  1. Objectives of Financial Statements. Report of the Study Group on the Objectives of Financial Statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Inst. of Certified Public Accountants, New York, NY.

    This report discusses the objectives of financial statements. Emphasis is placed on the function of objectives; users, their goals, and their information needs; the primary enterprise goal and earning power; accountability and financial statements; financial statements--reporting on the goal attainment of business enterprises; financial…

  2. The renewable energies development policy. Statement of renewable energies. Cogeneration. Gas distribution. Oil rates. The after-mining. The European helps; La politique de developpement des energies renouvelables. Bilan des energies renouvelables. La cogeneration. La desserte gaziere. Les cours du petrole. L`apres mine. Les aides europeennes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierret, Ch. [Ministere de l`Economie, des Finances et de l`Industrie, 75 - Paris (France). Direction Generale de L`Energie et des Matieres Premieres

    1999-11-01

    This issue of `Energies et Matieres Premieres` comprises 7 papers dealing successively with: the French policy for the development of renewable energies (talk given by C. Pierret, French state secretary of Industry, at the colloquium `energy diversification and environment protection: the renewable energies at the 2010 vista`); the statement of the renewable energies development policy (wood-fuel, wind energy, thermal solar energy, electrification of isolated areas, biomass for power production, revalorization of the conditions of power repurchase); the recent development of cogeneration in France (advantages, promotion, financial incentives, contracts, future developments); the natural gas distribution or how to combine public utility and market deregulation; the crude oil rates (key-role of Saudi Arabia, effect of speculation, perspectives and uncertainties); the human, technical, financial and legal problems linked with mines decommissioning; the European helps in favour of energy mastery (the fifth R and D management program, the energy program and its 6 specific programs: ETAP, SYNERGY, ALTENER, SAVE, CARNOT, SURE). (J.S.)

  3. Sustainable reverse logistics for household plastic waste

    OpenAIRE

    Bing, X

    2014-01-01

    Summary of the thesis titled “Sustainable Reverse Logistics for Household Plastic Waste” PhD Candidate: Xiaoyun Bing Recycled plastic can be used in the manufacturing of plastic products to reduce the use of virgin plastics material. The cost of recycled plastics is usually lower than that of virgin plastics. Therefore, it is environmentally and economically beneficial to improve the plastic recycling system to ensure more plastic waste from households is properly collected and pr...

  4. Recyclable plastics as substrata for settlement and growth of bryozoans Bugula neritina and barnacles Amphibalanus amphitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Heng-Xiang; Orihuela, Beatriz; Zhu, Mei; Rittschof, Daniel

    2016-11-01

    Plastics are common and pervasive anthropogenic debris in marine environments. Floating plastics provide opportunities to alter the abundance, distribution and invasion potential of sessile organisms that colonize them. We selected plastics from seven recycle categories and quantified settlement of (i) bryozoans Bugula neritina (Linnaeus, 1758) in the lab and in the field, and of (ii) barnacles Amphibalanus (= Balanus) amphitrite (Darwin, 1854) in the field. In the laboratory we cultured barnacles on the plastics for 8 weeks and quantified growth, mortality, and breaking strength of the side plates. In the field all recyclable plastics were settlement substrata for bryozoans and barnacles. Settlement depended on the type of plastic. Fewer barnacles settled on plastic surfaces compared to glass. In the lab and in the field, bryozoan settlement was higher on plastics than on glass. In static laboratory rearing, barnacles growing on plastics were initially significantly smaller than on glass. This suggested juvenile barnacles were adversely impacted by materials leaching from the plastics. Barnacle mortality was not significantly different between plastic and glass surfaces, but breaking strength of side plates of barnacles on polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polycarbonate (PC) were significantly lower than breakage strength on glass. Plastics impact marine ecosystems directly by providing new surfaces for colonization with fouling organisms and by contaminants shown previously to leach out of plastics and impact biological processes.

  5. Spikes Synchronization in Neural Networks with Synaptic Plasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Borges, Rafael R; Batista, Antonio M; Caldas, Iberê L; Borges, Fernando S; Lameu, Ewandson L

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigated the neural spikes synchronisation in a neural network with synaptic plasticity and external perturbation. In the simulations the neural dynamics is described by the Hodgkin Huxley model considering chemical synapses (excitatory) among neurons. According to neural spikes synchronisation is expected that a perturbation produce non synchronised regimes. However, in the literature there are works showing that the combination of synaptic plasticity and external perturbation may generate synchronised regime. This article describes the effect of the synaptic plasticity on the synchronisation, where we consider a perturbation with a uniform distribution. This study is relevant to researches of neural disorders control.

  6. Plasticity modeling & computation

    CERN Document Server

    Borja, Ronaldo I

    2013-01-01

    There have been many excellent books written on the subject of plastic deformation in solids, but rarely can one find a textbook on this subject. “Plasticity Modeling & Computation” is a textbook written specifically for students who want to learn the theoretical, mathematical, and computational aspects of inelastic deformation in solids. It adopts a simple narrative style that is not mathematically overbearing, and has been written to emulate a professor giving a lecture on this subject inside a classroom. Each section is written to provide a balance between the relevant equations and the explanations behind them. Where relevant, sections end with one or more exercises designed to reinforce the understanding of the “lecture.” Color figures enhance the presentation and make the book very pleasant to read. For professors planning to use this textbook for their classes, the contents are sufficient for Parts A and B that can be taught in sequence over a period of two semesters or quarters.

  7. Low temperature creep plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. Kassner

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The creep behavior of crystalline materials at low temperatures (T < 0.3Tm is discussed. In particular, the phenomenological relationships that describe primary creep are reviewed and analyzed. A discussion of the activation energy for creep at T < 0.3Tm is discussed in terms of the context of higher temperature activation energy. The basic mechanism(s of low temperature creep plasticity are discussed, as well.

  8. Spallation products induced by energetic neutrons in plastic detector material

    CERN Document Server

    Grabisch, K; Enge, W; Scherzer, R

    1977-01-01

    Cellulose nitrate plastic detector sheets were irradiated with secondary neutrons of the 22 GeV/c proton beam at the CERN accelerator. He, Li and Be particles which are produced in nuclear interactions of the neutrons with the target elements C, N and O of the plastic detector material are measured. Preliminary angle and range distributions and isotropic abundances of the secondary particles are discussed. (6 refs).

  9. New perspectives in plastic biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivan, Alex

    2011-06-01

    During the past 50 years new plastic materials, in various applications, have gradually replaced the traditional metal, wood, leather materials. Ironically, the most preferred property of plastics--durability--exerts also the major environmental threat. Recycling has practically failed to provide a safe solution for disposal of plastic waste (only 5% out of 1 trillion plastic bags, annually produced in the US alone, are being recycled). Since the most utilized plastic is polyethylene (PE; ca. 140 million tons/year), any reduction in the accumulation of PE waste alone would have a major impact on the overall reduction of the plastic waste in the environment. Since PE is considered to be practically inert, efforts were made to isolate unique microorganisms capable of utilizing synthetic polymers. Recent data showed that biodegradation of plastic waste with selected microbial strains became a viable solution. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Microelectronics plastic molded packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.R. [Ktech Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Palmer, D.W.; Peterson, D.W. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1997-02-01

    The use of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) microelectronics for nuclear weapon applications will soon be reality rather than hearsay. The use of COTS for new technologies for uniquely military applications is being driven by the so-called Perry Initiative that requires the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) to accept and utilize commercial standards for procurement of military systems. Based on this philosophy, coupled with several practical considerations, new weapons systems as well as future upgrades will contain plastic encapsulated microelectronics. However, a conservative Department of Energy (DOE) approach requires lifetime predictive models. Thus, the focus of the current project is on accelerated testing to advance current aging models as well as on the development of the methodology to be used during WR qualification of plastic encapsulated microelectronics. An additional focal point involves achieving awareness of commercial capabilities, materials, and processes. One of the major outcomes of the project has been the definition of proper techniques for handling and evaluation of modern surface mount parts which might be used in future systems. This program is also raising the familiarity level of plastic within the weapons complex, allowing subsystem design rules accommodating COTS to evolve. A two year program plan is presented along with test results and commercial interactions during this first year.

  11. The stress statistics of the first pop-in or discrete plastic event in crystal plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derlet, P. M.; Maaß, R.

    2016-12-01

    The stress at which the first discrete plastic event occurs is investigated using extreme value statistics. It is found that the average of this critical stress is inversely related to the deforming volume, via an exponentially truncated power-law. This is demonstrated for the first pop-in event observed in experimental nano-indentation data as a function of the indenter volume, and for the first discrete plastic event seen in a dislocation dynamics simulation. When the underlying master distribution of critical stresses is assumed to be a power-law, it becomes possible to extract the density of discrete plastic events available to the crystal, and to understand the exponential truncation as a break-down of the asymptotic Weibull limit.

  12. Interfacial interactions between plastic particles in plastics flotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong-qing; Wang, Hui; Gu, Guo-hua; Fu, Jian-gang; Lin, Qing-quan; Liu, You-nian

    2015-12-01

    Plastics flotation used for recycling of plastic wastes receives increasing attention for its industrial application. In order to study the mechanism of plastics flotation, the interfacial interactions between plastic particles in flotation system were investigated through calculation of Lifshitz-van der Waals (LW) function, Lewis acid-base (AB) Gibbs function, and the extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek potential energy profiles. The results showed that van der Waals force between plastic particles is attraction force in flotation system. The large hydrophobic attraction, caused by the AB Gibbs function, is the dominant interparticle force. Wetting agents present significant effects on the interfacial interactions between plastic particles. It is found that adsorption of wetting agents promotes dispersion of plastic particles and decreases the floatability. Pneumatic flotation may improve the recovery and purity of separated plastics through selective adsorption of wetting agents on plastic surface. The relationships between hydrophobic attraction and surface properties were also examined. It is revealed that there exists a three-order polynomial relationship between the AB Gibbs function and Lewis base component. Our finding provides some insights into mechanism of plastics flotation.

  13. 29 CFR 570.101 - Introductory statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION General Statements of Interpretation of the Child Labor...) This subpart discusses the meaning and scope of the child labor provisions contained in the Fair Labor...

  14. 29 CFR 531.25 - Introductory statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Introductory statement. 531.25 Section 531.25 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS WAGE PAYMENTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT OF 1938 Interpretations § 531.25 Introductory statement. (a...

  15. Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S. Tremblay

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A diverse, cross-sectorial group of partners, stakeholders and researchers, collaborated to develop an evidence-informed Position Statement on active outdoor play for children aged 3–12 years. The Position Statement was created in response to practitioner, academic, legal, insurance and public debate, dialogue and disagreement on the relative benefits and harms of active (including risky outdoor play. The Position Statement development process was informed by two systematic reviews, a critical appraisal of the current literature and existing position statements, engagement of research experts (N = 9 and cross-sectorial individuals/organizations (N = 17, and an extensive stakeholder consultation process (N = 1908. More than 95% of the stakeholders consulted strongly agreed or somewhat agreed with the Position Statement; 14/17 participating individuals/organizations endorsed it; and over 1000 additional individuals and organizations requested their name be listed as a supporter. The final Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play states: “Access to active play in nature and outdoors—with its risks— is essential for healthy child development. We recommend increasing children’s opportunities for self-directed play outdoors in all settings—at home, at school, in child care, the community and nature.” The full Position Statement provides context for the statement, evidence supporting it, and a series of recommendations to increase active outdoor play opportunities to promote healthy child development.

  16. 14 CFR 313.6 - Energy statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy statements. 313.6 Section 313.6... REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT § 313.6 Energy statements. (a) Each major... action taken or to be taken upon energy efficiency and conservation. The administrative law judge or...

  17. Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Mark S; Gray, Casey; Babcock, Shawna; Barnes, Joel; Bradstreet, Christa Costas; Carr, Dawn; Chabot, Guylaine; Choquette, Louise; Chorney, David; Collyer, Cam; Herrington, Susan; Janson, Katherine; Janssen, Ian; Larouche, Richard; Pickett, William; Power, Marlene; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Simon, Brenda; Brussoni, Mariana

    2015-06-08

    A diverse, cross-sectorial group of partners, stakeholders and researchers, collaborated to develop an evidence-informed Position Statement on active outdoor play for children aged 3-12 years. The Position Statement was created in response to practitioner, academic, legal, insurance and public debate, dialogue and disagreement on the relative benefits and harms of active (including risky) outdoor play. The Position Statement development process was informed by two systematic reviews, a critical appraisal of the current literature and existing position statements, engagement of research experts (N=9) and cross-sectorial individuals/organizations (N=17), and an extensive stakeholder consultation process (N=1908). More than 95% of the stakeholders consulted strongly agreed or somewhat agreed with the Position Statement; 14/17 participating individuals/organizations endorsed it; and over 1000 additional individuals and organizations requested their name be listed as a supporter. The final Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play states: "Access to active play in nature and outdoors--with its risks--is essential for healthy child development. We recommend increasing children's opportunities for self-directed play outdoors in all settings--at home, at school, in child care, the community and nature." The full Position Statement provides context for the statement, evidence supporting it, and a series of recommendations to increase active outdoor play opportunities to promote healthy child development.

  18. 38 CFR 41.310 - Financial statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... position, results of operations or changes in net assets, and, where appropriate, cash flows for the fiscal... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Financial statements. 41...) AUDITS OF STATES, LOCAL GOVERNMENTS, AND NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Auditees § 41.310 Financial statements...

  19. 19 CFR 10.511 - Supporting statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... relevant facts. (c) Language. The supporting statement required to be submitted under paragraph (a) of this section must be completed in the English language. (d) Applicability of supporting statement. The... TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Singapore Free...

  20. The Role of Statements of Institutional Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Daniel W.; Lopers-Sweetman, Rosanne

    1991-01-01

    Examination of 32 college and 12 higher education system mission statements suggests they are effective in some situations but may be disadvantageous in others. Several different roles for the statements emerged: (1) goals clarification; (2) smoke screens for opportunism; (3) descriptions of status quo; (4) aspirations; and (5) marketing tools.…

  1. An Analysis of Private School Mission Statements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerema, Albert J.

    2006-01-01

    This article is a study of private school mission/vision statements using content analysis. Statements from private schools in British Columbia, Canada, that provided instruction to Grade 12 students were analyzed to explore the diversity that lies within the private school sector. The concepts that emerged from the analysis were grouped into five…

  2. 17 CFR 230.252 - Offering statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., language and pagination. The requirements for offering statements are the same as those specified in § 230... Officer, a majority of the members of its board of directors or other governing body, and each selling... that contains the following language: This offering statement shall become qualified on the...

  3. The 7 Aarhus Statements on Climate Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse, Ellen Margrethe; Svenning, J.-C.; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2009-01-01

    . The statements were also communicated to the Danish Government as well as to the press. This article is the product of the collective subsequent work of the seven theme responsibles and is a presentation of each theme statement in detail, emphasizing the current state of knowledge and how it may be used...

  4. 75 FR 8988 - Environmental Impact Statements; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... Environmental Impact Statements; Availability AGENCY: National Park Service. ACTION: Notice of availability for the Record of Decision on the Final Environmental Impact Statement, disposition of Bureau of Mines... 102(2)(C) of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4332(C)), the National Park...

  5. 76 FR 21345 - Environmental Impacts Statements;

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements Filed 04/04/2011 Through 04/08/2011 Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice In...

  6. 78 FR 48672 - Environmental Impacts Statements;

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements Filed 07/29/2013 Through 08/02/2013 Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice Section...

  7. 27 CFR 7.52 - Mandatory statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mandatory statements. 7.52 Section 7.52 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT....52 Mandatory statements. (a) Responsible advertiser. The advertisement shall state the name...

  8. 27 CFR 5.63 - Mandatory statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....” (2) Optional statement. In addition, the advertisement may also state the alcohol content in degrees... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mandatory statements. 5.63 Section 5.63 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU,...

  9. 27 CFR 4.62 - Mandatory statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mandatory statements. 4.62 Section 4.62 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... statements. (a) Responsible advertiser. The advertisement shall state the name and address of the...

  10. 27 CFR 7.54 - Prohibited statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prohibited statements. 7.54 Section 7.54 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... § 7.54 Prohibited statements. (a) General prohibition. An advertisement of malt beverages must...

  11. 78 FR 57447 - Environmental Impact Statement for the ACEforward

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration Environmental Impact Statement for the ACEforward Program From.... Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice of intent to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement... Joaquin Regional Rail Commission (SJRRC) will jointly prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and...

  12. Control of Bank Consolidated Financial Statements Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita S. Ambarchyan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The author presents the multiple linear regression model of bank consolidated financial statements quality. The article considers six characteristics that can be used to estimate the level of bank consolidated financial statements quality. The multiple linear regression model was developed, using the results of point-based system of consolidated financial statements of thirty European bank and financial groups on the basis of the developed characteristics. The author offers to use the characteristic significance factor in the process of consolidated financial statements appraisal by points. The constructed regression model is checked on accuracy and statistical significance. The model can be used by internal auditors and financial analytics as an instrument for bank and non-bank consolidated financial statements quality control

  13. Use of recycled plastics in wood plastic composites - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi Najafi, Saeed

    2013-09-01

    The use of recycled and waste thermoplastics has been recently considered for producing wood plastic composites (WPCs). They have great potential for WPCs manufacturing according to results of some limited researches. This paper presents a detailed review about some essential properties of waste and recycled plastics, important for WPCs production, and of research published on the effect of recycled plastics on the physical and mechanical properties of WPCs.

  14. The functional asymmetry of negative and positive self-statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, J D

    1982-09-01

    Subjects were divided into high and low negative self-statement and high and low positive-self-statement groups on the basis of the assertiveness self-statement test (Schwartz & Gottman, 1976). High negative self-statement subjects reported more anxiety during assertion role plays than did low negative self-statement subjects and were rated by judges as exhibiting more non-verbal anxiety and performing less assertively than low negative self-statement subjects. Judges rated high positive self-statement subjects as more irritable and brusque than low positive self-statement subjects. Theoretical implications are discussed.

  15. Direct liquefaction of plastics and coprocessing of coal with plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, G.P.; Feng, Z.; Mahajan, V. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The objectives of this work were to optimize reaction conditions for the direct liquefaction of waste plastics and the coprocessing of coal with waste plastics. In previous work, the direct liquefaction of medium and high density polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PPE), poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), and a mixed plastic waste, and the coliquefaction of these plastics with coals of three different ranks was studied. The results established that a solid acid catalyst (HZSM-5 zeolite) was highly active for the liquefaction of the plastics alone, typically giving oil yields of 80-95% and total conversions of 90-100% at temperatures of 430-450 {degrees}C. In the coliquefaction experiments, 50:50 mixtures of plastic and coal were used with a tetralin solvent (tetralin:solid = 3:2). Using approximately 1% of the HZSM-5 catalyst and a nanoscale iron catalyst, oil yields of 50-70% and total conversion of 80-90% were typical. In the current year, further investigations were conducted of the liquefaction of PE, PPE, and a commingled waste plastic obtained from the American Plastics Council (APC), and the coprocessing of PE, PPE and the APC plastic with Black Thunder subbituminous coal. Several different catalysts were used in these studies.

  16. Plastic Surgery and Suicide: A Clinical Guide for Plastic Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Vikram; Coffey, M Justin

    2016-08-01

    Several studies have identified an increased risk of suicide among patient populations which a plastic surgeon may have a high risk of encountering: women undergoing breast augmentation, cosmetic surgery patients, and breast cancer patients. No formal guidelines exist to assist a plastic surgeon when faced with such a patient, and not every plastic surgery team has mental health clinicians that are readily accessible for consultation or referral. The goal of this clinical guide is to offer plastic surgeons a set of practical approaches to manage potentially suicidal patients. In addition, the authors review a screening tool, which can assist surgeons when encountering high-risk patients.

  17. Large-scale optical diffraction tomography for inspection of optical plastic lenses

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Kyoohyun; Park, YongKeun

    2015-01-01

    Herein is presented an optical diffraction tomography (ODT) technique for measuring 3-D refractive index (RI) maps of optical plastic lenses. A Mach-Zehnder interferometer was used to measure multiple complex optical fields of a plastic lens immersed in RI matching oil, at various rotational orientations. From this, ODT was used to reconstruct a 3-D RI distribution of the plastic lens with unprecedented RI sensitivity (dn = 4.21 x 10^-5) and high resolution (12.8 um). As a demonstration, 3-D RI distributions of a 2-mm-diameter borosilicate sphere and a 5-mm-diameter plastic lens

  18. Tree plastic bark

    OpenAIRE

    Casado Arroyo, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    “Tree plastic bark" consiste en la realización de una intervención artística en un entorno natural concreto, generando de esta manera un Site Specific(1). Como hace alusión Rosalind Krauss en sus reflexiones “La escultura en el campo expandido”(2), comenta que su origen esta claramente ligado con el concepto de monumentalidad. La escultura es un monumento, se crea para conmemorar algún hecho o personaje relevante y está realizada para una ubicación concreta. La investigación parte de la id...

  19. Fabrication of plastic biochips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saaem, Ishtiaq; Ma, Kuo-Sheng; Alam, S. Munir; Tian Jingdong [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Institute for Genome Sciences and Policy, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Department of Medicine and Human Vaccine Institute, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering and Institute for Genome Sciences and Policy, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    A versatile surface functionalization procedure based on rf magnetron sputtering of silica was performed on poly(methylmethacrylate), polycarbonate, polypropylene, and cyclic olefin copolymers (Topas 6015). The hybrid thermoplastic surfaces were characterized by x-ray photoelectron spectrometer analysis and contact angle measurements. The authors then used these hybrid materials to perform a sandwich assay targeting an HIV-1 antibody using fluorescent detection and biotinylated peptides immobilized using the bioaffinity of biotin-neutravidin. They found a limit of detection similar to arrays on glass surfaces and believed that this plastic biochip platform may be used for the development of disposable immunosensing and diagnostic applications.

  20. Plastic food packaging and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raika Durusoy

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Plastics have a wide usage in our daily lives. One of their uses is for food packaging and food containers. The aim of this review is to introduce different types of chemicals that can leach from food packaging plastics into foods and cause human exposure and to mention their effects on health. The types of plastics were reviewed under the 13 headings in Turkish Codex Alimentarius and plastics recycling symbols were provided to enable the recognition of the type of plastic when applicable. Chemicals used during the production and that can cause health risks are investigated under the heading of the relevant type of plastic. The most important chemicals from plastic food packaging that can cause toxicity are styrene, 1,3-butadiene, melamine, formaldehyde, acrylamide, di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, di-2-ethylhexyl adipate, vinyl chloride and bisphenol A. These chemicals have endocrine disrupting, carcinogenic and/or development disrupting effects. These chemicals may leach into foods depending on the chemical properties of the plastic or food, temperature during packaging, processing and storage, exposure to UV and duration of storage. Contact with fatty/oily or acidic foods, heating of the food inside the container, or drinking hot drinks from plastic cups, use of old and scratched plastics and some detergents increase the risk of leaching. The use of plastic containers and packaging for food and beveradges should be avoided whenever possible and when necessary, less harmful types of plastic should be preferred. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(1.000: 87-96

  1. The commercialization of plastic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Eric

    2013-09-01

    The last decade has brought a major challenge to the traditional practice of plastic surgery from corporations that treat plastic surgery as a commercial product and market directly to the public. This corporate medicine model may include promotion of a trademarked procedure or device, national advertising that promises stunning results, sales consultants, and claims of innovation, superiority, and improved safety. This article explores the ethics of this business practice and whether corporate medicine is a desirable model for patients and plastic surgeons.

  2. 烧伤整形外科医院感染的病原菌分布及耐药性%Nosocomial infections in department of burn and plastic surgery:distribution and antimicrobiai resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭友林

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the status of nosocomial infections and drug resistance of pathogens in department of burn and plastic surgery and provide the reference for the prevention and control of nosocomial infections in department of surgery. METHODS Retrospective review was performed for data, from medical record of patients with nosocomial infections. The primary diseases, operation category and resistance rate were analyzed statistically. RESULTS The pathogenic bacteria causing nosocomial infections in department of burn and plastic surgery mainly comprised Staphylococcus aureus (28. 1 % ), coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (18. 0%), Pseud-omonas aeruginosa (17. 2%) , and Klebsiellar pneumonia (13. 3%) , etc. The above strains all showed high drug resistance. Among 59 strains of Staphylococci, 28 strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRS) were detected with the detection rate of 47. 5%. CONCLUSION Effective interventions should be adopted to prevent and control the nosocomial infections in department of burn and plastic surgery.%目的 探讨烧伤整形外科医院感染现状及病原菌耐药性,为预防与控制外科医院感染提供参考依据.方法 同顾性医院感染患者的病案资科,统计医院感染的原发疾病及手术种类、病原菌耐药率.结果 烧伤整形外科医院感染主要病原菌是:金黄色葡萄球菌、凝固酶阴性葡萄球菌、铜绿假单胞菌、肺炎克雷伯菌,分别占28.1%、18.0%、17.2%、13.3%;以上病原菌均显示出较高的耐药性;59株葡萄球菌属中,检出耐甲氧西林葡萄球菌(MRS)28株,检出率为47.5%.结论 务必采取有效的干预措施,预防与控制烧伤整形外科医院感染.

  3. Multiscale modeling and synaptic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, Upinder S

    2014-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity is a major convergence point for theory and computation, and the process of plasticity engages physiology, cell, and molecular biology. In its many manifestations, plasticity is at the hub of basic neuroscience questions about memory and development, as well as more medically themed questions of neural damage and recovery. As an important cellular locus of memory, synaptic plasticity has received a huge amount of experimental and theoretical attention. If computational models have tended to pick specific aspects of plasticity, such as STDP, and reduce them to an equation, some experimental studies are equally guilty of oversimplification each time they identify a new molecule and declare it to be the last word in plasticity and learning. Multiscale modeling begins with the acknowledgment that synaptic function spans many levels of signaling, and these are so tightly coupled that we risk losing essential features of plasticity if we focus exclusively on any one level. Despite the technical challenges and gaps in data for model specification, an increasing number of multiscale modeling studies have taken on key questions in plasticity. These have provided new insights, but importantly, they have opened new avenues for questioning. This review discusses a wide range of multiscale models in plasticity, including their technical landscape and their implications.

  4. Plastics recycling: challenges and opportunities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jefferson Hopewell; Robert Dvorak; Edward Kosior

    2009-01-01

    .... Advances in technologies and systems for the collection, sorting and reprocessing of recyclable plastics are creating new opportunities for recycling, and with the combined actions of the public...

  5. Americium behaviour in plastic vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legarda, F.; Herranz, M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Idoeta, R., E-mail: raquel.idoeta@ehu.e [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Abelairas, A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    The adsorption of {sup 241}Am dissolved in water in different plastic storage vessels was determined. Three different plastics were investigated with natural and distilled waters and the retention of {sup 241}Am by these plastics was studied. The same was done by varying vessel agitation time, vessel agitation speed, surface/volume ratio of water in the vessels and water pH. Adsorptions were measured to be between 0% and 70%. The adsorption of {sup 241}Am is minimized with no water agitation, with PET or PVC plastics, and by water acidification.

  6. [Erythropoietin in plastic surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günter, C I; Rezaeian, F; Harder, Y; Lohmeyer, J A; Egert, S; Bader, A; Schilling, A F; Machens, H-G

    2013-04-01

    EPO is an autologous hormone, which is known to regulate erythropoiesis. For 30 years it has been used for the therapy of diverse forms of anaemia, such as renal anaemia, tumour-related anaemias, etc. Meanwhile, a multitude of scientific publications were able to demonstrate its pro-regenerative effects after trauma. These include short-term effects such as the inhibition of the "primary injury response" or apoptosis, and mid- and long-term effects for example the stimulation of stem cell recruitment, growth factor production, angiogenesis and re-epithelialisation. Known adverse reactions are increases of thromboembolic events and blood pressure, as well as a higher mortality in patients with tumour anaemias treated with EPO. Scientific investigations of EPO in the field of plastic surgery included: free and local flaps, nerve regeneration, wound healing enhancement after dermal thermal injuries and in chronic wounds.Acute evidence for the clinical use of EPO in the field of plastic surgery is still not satisfactory, due to the insufficient number of Good Clinical Practice (GCP)-conform clinical trials. Thus, the initiation of more scientifically sound trials is indicated.

  7. Optogenetics and synaptic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yu-feng; Jackson, Michael F; Macdonald, John F

    2013-11-01

    The intricate and complex interaction between different populations of neurons in the brain has imposed limits on our ability to gain detailed understanding of synaptic transmission and its integration when employing classical electrophysiological approaches. Indeed, electrical field stimulation delivered via traditional microelectrodes does not permit the targeted, precise and selective control of neuronal activity amongst a varied population of neurons and their inputs (eg, cholinergic, dopaminergic or glutamatergic neurons). Recently established optogenetic techniques overcome these limitations allowing precise control of the target neuron populations, which is essential for the elucidation of the neural substrates underlying complex animal behaviors. Indeed, by introducing light-activated channels (ie, microbial opsin genes) into specific neuronal populations, optogenetics enables non-invasive optical control of specific neurons with milliseconds precision. These approaches can readily be applied to freely behaving live animals. Recently there is increased interests in utilizing optogenetics tools to understand synaptic plasticity and learning/memory. Here, we summarize recent progress in applying optogenetics in in the study of synaptic plasticity.

  8. Polish Society of Endocrinology Position statement on endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowska, Aleksandra; Rachoń, Dominik; Milewicz, Andrzej; Ruchała, Marek; Bolanowski, Marek; Jędrzejuk, Diana; Bednarczuk, Tomasz; Górska, Maria; Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, Alicja; Kos-Kudła, Beata; Lewiński, Andrzej; Zgliczyński, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    With the reference to the position statements of the Endocrine Society, the Paediatric Endocrine Society, and the European Society of Paediatric Endocrinology, the Polish Society of Endocrinology points out the adverse health effects caused by endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) commonly used in daily life as components of plastics, food containers, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. The statement is based on the alarming data about the increase of the prevalence of many endocrine disorders such as: cryptorchidism, precocious puberty in girls and boys, and hormone-dependent cancers (endometrium, breast, prostate). In our opinion, it is of human benefit to conduct epidemiological studies that will enable the estimation of the risk factors of exposure to EDCs and the probability of endocrine disorders. Increasing consumerism and the industrial boom has led to severe pollution of the environment with a corresponding negative impact on human health; thus, there is great necessity for the biomonitoring of EDCs in Poland.

  9. Plastic Surgery Residents' Understanding and Attitudes Toward Biostatistics: A National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susarla, Srinivas M; Lifchez, Scott D; Losee, Joseph; Hultman, Charles Scott; Redett, Richard J

    2016-08-01

    An understanding of biostatistics is a critical skill for the practicing plastic surgeon. The purpose of the present study was to assess plastic surgery residents' attitudes and understanding of biostatistics. This was a cross-sectional study of plastic surgery residents. A survey assessing resident attitudes regarding biostatistics, confidence with biostatistical concepts, and objective knowledge of biostatistics was distributed electronically to trainees in plastic surgery programs in the United States. Bivariate and regression analyses were used to identify significant associations and adjust for confounders/effect modifiers. One hundred twenty-three residents responded to the survey (12.3% response rate). Respondents expressed positive attitudes regarding biostatistics in plastic surgery practice, but only moderate levels of confidence with various biostatistical concepts. Both attitudes and confidence were positively associated with the number of plastic surgery journals read monthly and formal coursework in biostatistics (P biostatistics in the practice of plastic surgery but have only a fair understanding of core statistical concepts.

  10. European consensus statement on leptospirosis in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuller, S; Francey, T; Hartmann, K; Hugonnard, M; Kohn, B; Nally, J E; Sykes, J

    2015-03-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease with a worldwide distribution affecting most mammalian species. Clinical leptospirosis is common in dogs but appears to be rare in cats. Both dogs and cats, however, can shed leptospires in the urine. This is problematic as it can lead to exposure of humans. The control of leptospirosis, therefore, is important not only from an animal but also from a public health perspective. The aim of this consensus statement is to raise awareness of leptospirosis and to outline the current knowledge on the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnostic tools, prevention and treatment measures relevant to canine and feline leptospirosis in Europe.

  11. Floating plastic debris in the Central and Western Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Orejón, Luis F; Sardá, Rafael; Ramis-Pujol, Juan

    2016-09-01

    In two sea voyages throughout the Mediterranean (2011 and 2013) that repeated the historical travels of Archduke Ludwig Salvator of Austria (1847-1915), 71 samples of floating plastic debris were obtained with a Manta trawl. Floating plastic was observed in all the sampled sites, with an average weight concentration of 579.3 g dw km(-2) (maximum value of 9298.2 g dw km(-2)) and an average particle concentration of 147,500 items km(-2) (the maximum concentration was 1,164,403 items km(-2)). The plastic size distribution showed microplastics (<5 mm) in all the samples. The most abundant particles had a surface area of approximately 1 mm(2) (the mesh size was 333 μm). The general estimate obtained was a total value of 1455 tons dw of floating plastic in the entire Mediterranean region, with various potential spatial accumulation areas.

  12. Plastic flow of foams and emulsions in a channel

    CERN Document Server

    Dollet, B; Sbragaglia, M

    2014-01-01

    In order to understand the flow profiles of complex fluids, a crucial issue concerns the emergence of spatial correlations among plastic rearrangements exhibiting cooperativity flow behaviour at the macroscopic level. In this paper, the rate of plastic events in a Poiseuille flow is experimentally measured on a confined foam in a Hele-Shaw geometry. The correlation with independently measured velocity profiles is quantified. To go beyond a limitation of the experiments, namely the presence of wall friction which complicates the relation between shear stress and shear rate, we compare the experiments with simulations of emulsion droplets based on the lattice-Boltzmann method, which are performed both with, and without, wall friction. Our results indicate a correlation between the localisation length of the velocity profiles and the localisation length of the number of plastic events. Finally, unprecedented results on the distribution of the orientation of plastic events show that there is a non-trivial correla...

  13. White noise excited non-ideal elasto-plastic oscillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Tarp-Johansen, Niels Jacob

    1997-01-01

    . By use of the measured displacement-retaining force relation for the aluminum connection the plastic displacement responses were isolated from the sample records. From the obtained samples of plastic displacement records various distributions were estimated as well as the time development of the variance...... in the calculations, i.e. the given displacement-retaining force relations, the traverse masses, the modal damping ratios for the vibrations within the elastic domain, and the two white noise excitation intensities, all as measured. First the Slepian model process method is applied to a single degree of freedom...... oscillator with linear-elastic non-ideal plastic displacement restoring force relation. The method is based on a direct generalization of the Slepian model process method that quite successfully has been developed for the linear-elastic ideal-plastic oscillator. Next the method is modified to be applicable...

  14. The intermittency of plasticity in an Al3%Mg alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bougherira, Y; Entemeyer, D; Fressengeas, C; Lebyodkin, M A [Laboratoire de Physique et Mecanique des Materiaux, Universite Paul Verlaine-Metz, CNRS, Ile du Saulcy, 57045 Metz (France); Kobelev, N P; Lebedkina, T A, E-mail: Youcef.bougherira@univ-metz.f [Institute of Solid State Physics, Russian Ac. Sci., 142432 Chernogolovka (Russian Federation)

    2010-07-01

    Statistics of acoustic emission accompanying plastic deformation and of stress serrations caused by the Portevin-Le Chatelier effect are studied during tension of an Al3%Mg alloy at room temperature. Power-law distributions of acoustic emission reflecting self-organization of dislocations and intermittency of plastic flow are found, irrespective of the strain rate, both before and after the critical strain for the onset of the serrated flow. In contrast, several regimes including both power-law and peaked distributions are observed at the macroscopic scale of stress serrations, depending on the applied strain rate.

  15. Reaching Our Successors: Millennial Generation Medical Students and Plastic Surgery as a Career Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Abdulrasheed; Asuku, Malachy E

    2016-01-01

    Background: Research shows that career choices are made as a result of preconceived ideas and exposure to a specialty. If plastic surgery is to continue to attract the best, factors that may dissuade the millennial generation medical students from pursuing plastic surgery as a career must be identified and addressed. We explored the determinants of interest in plastic surgery as a career choice amongst millennial generation medical students. Materials and Methods: A survey regarding factors considered important in choosing plastic surgery was conducted amongst final year medical students in September 2011. Participants were asked to rate their agreement or disagreement with 18 statements on a four-point Likert scale (1 = very unimportant; 4 = very important). Statistical analyses were performed using Chi-square test to compare categorical variables between male and female medical students. Values of P 3.0 was seen in all the subscales except in gender equity and life style concerns. There were statistically significant differences between male and female students in opinions of a spouse, a significant other, or family members in choosing plastic surgery P < 0.5 and my choice of plastic surgery will be influenced by my decision to have a family P < 0.5. Conclusion: Factors influencing the decision of medical students to choose plastic surgery were related to the perceived quality of life as a plastic surgeon and the ability of plastic surgeons to provide good role models for medical students. Female medical students were more concerned with gender equity and work-life balance in selecting plastic surgery compared to male medical students. PMID:27013852

  16. Reaching Our Successors: Millennial Generation Medical Students and Plastic Surgery as a Career Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrasheed Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research shows that career choices are made as a result of preconceived ideas and exposure to a specialty. If plastic surgery is to continue to attract the best, factors that may dissuade the millennial generation medical students from pursuing plastic surgery as a career must be identified and addressed. We explored the determinants of interest in plastic surgery as a career choice amongst millennial generation medical students. Materials and Methods: A survey regarding factors considered important in choosing plastic surgery was conducted amongst final year medical students in September 2011. Participants were asked to rate their agreement or disagreement with 18 statements on a four-point Likert scale (1 = very unimportant; 4 = very important. Statistical analyses were performed using Chi-square test to compare categorical variables between male and female medical students. Values of P 3.0 was seen in all the subscales except in gender equity and life style concerns. There were statistically significant differences between male and female students in opinions of a spouse, a significant other, or family members in choosing plastic surgery P < 0.5 and my choice of plastic surgery will be influenced by my decision to have a family P < 0.5. Conclusion: Factors influencing the decision of medical students to choose plastic surgery were related to the perceived quality of life as a plastic surgeon and the ability of plastic surgeons to provide good role models for medical students. Female medical students were more concerned with gender equity and work-life balance in selecting plastic surgery compared to male medical students.

  17. Reaching Our Successors: Millennial Generation Medical Students and Plastic Surgery as a Career Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Abdulrasheed; Asuku, Malachy E

    2016-01-01

    Research shows that career choices are made as a result of preconceived ideas and exposure to a specialty. If plastic surgery is to continue to attract the best, factors that may dissuade the millennial generation medical students from pursuing plastic surgery as a career must be identified and addressed. We explored the determinants of interest in plastic surgery as a career choice amongst millennial generation medical students. A survey regarding factors considered important in choosing plastic surgery was conducted amongst final year medical students in September 2011. Participants were asked to rate their agreement or disagreement with 18 statements on a four-point Likert scale (1 = very unimportant; 4 = very important). Statistical analyses were performed using Chi-square test to compare categorical variables between male and female medical students. Values of P 3.0 was seen in all the subscales except in gender equity and life style concerns. There were statistically significant differences between male and female students in opinions of a spouse, a significant other, or family members in choosing plastic surgery P < 0.5 and my choice of plastic surgery will be influenced by my decision to have a family P < 0.5. Factors influencing the decision of medical students to choose plastic surgery were related to the perceived quality of life as a plastic surgeon and the ability of plastic surgeons to provide good role models for medical students. Female medical students were more concerned with gender equity and work-life balance in selecting plastic surgery compared to male medical students.

  18. Sustainable reverse logistics for household plastic waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bing, X.

    2014-01-01

    Summary of the thesis titled “Sustainable Reverse Logistics for Household Plastic Waste” PhD Candidate: Xiaoyun Bing Recycled plastic can be used in the manufacturing of plastic products to reduce the use of virgin plastics material. The cost of recycled plastics is usually lower than th

  19. Sustainable reverse logistics for household plastic waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bing, X.

    2014-01-01

    Summary of the thesis titled “Sustainable Reverse Logistics for Household Plastic Waste” PhD Candidate: Xiaoyun Bing Recycled plastic can be used in the manufacturing of plastic products to reduce the use of virgin plastics material. The cost of recycled plastics is usually lower than

  20. Sustainable reverse logistics for household plastic waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bing, X.

    2014-01-01

    Summary of the thesis titled “Sustainable Reverse Logistics for Household Plastic Waste” PhD Candidate: Xiaoyun Bing Recycled plastic can be used in the manufacturing of plastic products to reduce the use of virgin plastics material. The cost of recycled plastics is usually lower than th

  1. Plastics recycling: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopewell, Jefferson; Dvorak, Robert; Kosior, Edward

    2009-07-27

    Plastics are inexpensive, lightweight and durable materials, which can readily be moulded into a variety of products that find use in a wide range of applications. As a consequence, the production of plastics has increased markedly over the last 60 years. However, current levels of their usage and disposal generate several environmental problems. Around 4 per cent of world oil and gas production, a non-renewable resource, is used as feedstock for plastics and a further 3-4% is expended to provide energy for their manufacture. A major portion of plastic produced each year is used to make disposable items of packaging or other short-lived products that are discarded within a year of manufacture. These two observations alone indicate that our current use of plastics is not sustainable. In addition, because of the durability of the polymers involved, substantial quantities of discarded end-of-life plastics are accumulating as debris in landfills and in natural habitats worldwide. Recycling is one of the most important actions currently available to reduce these impacts and represents one of the most dynamic areas in the plastics industry today. Recycling provides opportunities to reduce oil usage, carbon dioxide emissions and the quantities of waste requiring disposal. Here, we briefly set recycling into context against other waste-reduction strategies, namely reduction in material use through downgauging or product reuse, the use of alternative biodegradable materials and energy recovery as fuel. While plastics have been recycled since the 1970s, the quantities that are recycled vary geographically, according to plastic type and application. Recycling of packaging materials has seen rapid expansion over the last decades in a number of countries. Advances in technologies and systems for the collection, sorting and reprocessing of recyclable plastics are creating new opportunities for recycling, and with the combined actions of the public, industry and governments it

  2. Plastics recycling: challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopewell, Jefferson; Dvorak, Robert; Kosior, Edward

    2009-01-01

    Plastics are inexpensive, lightweight and durable materials, which can readily be moulded into a variety of products that find use in a wide range of applications. As a consequence, the production of plastics has increased markedly over the last 60 years. However, current levels of their usage and disposal generate several environmental problems. Around 4 per cent of world oil and gas production, a non-renewable resource, is used as feedstock for plastics and a further 3–4% is expended to provide energy for their manufacture. A major portion of plastic produced each year is used to make disposable items of packaging or other short-lived products that are discarded within a year of manufacture. These two observations alone indicate that our current use of plastics is not sustainable. In addition, because of the durability of the polymers involved, substantial quantities of discarded end-of-life plastics are accumulating as debris in landfills and in natural habitats worldwide. Recycling is one of the most important actions currently available to reduce these impacts and represents one of the most dynamic areas in the plastics industry today. Recycling provides opportunities to reduce oil usage, carbon dioxide emissions and the quantities of waste requiring disposal. Here, we briefly set recycling into context against other waste-reduction strategies, namely reduction in material use through downgauging or product reuse, the use of alternative biodegradable materials and energy recovery as fuel. While plastics have been recycled since the 1970s, the quantities that are recycled vary geographically, according to plastic type and application. Recycling of packaging materials has seen rapid expansion over the last decades in a number of countries. Advances in technologies and systems for the collection, sorting and reprocessing of recyclable plastics are creating new opportunities for recycling, and with the combined actions of the public, industry and governments it

  3. DECWEB - Internet Fiscal Statement Submission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Ianciu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The latest technologies are used not only in business, considered the most dynamic field of activity, but also in Governmental strategies of interaction with the civil society and  the business environment. The governmental functional and technological requirements created new concepts and approaches of electronic business (G2G, G2B, and G2C. In Romania, the Ministry of Communications and Information Technology was the trend setter. It developed a large number of proofs of concept and pilot projects covering a wide area of services that needed to evolve electronically. Together with the Ministry of Public Finance, it defined the requirements and specifications for DECWEB, the programme that allows companies to submit their fiscal statements via Internet.

    DECWEB system is a keystone programme for the Ministry of Public Finance on its way towards moving administration and services for society to information age. Highly awarded, the first DECWEB initiative was a successful proof of concept and it needed to be upgraded to a new professional version with extended functionalities, higher flexibility and advanced security mechanisms. This paper describes the DECWEB project and how technology and professional services enhanced Governmental activities, why the project was such a success and how it will evolve.

  4. DECWEB - Internet Fiscal Statement Submission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Ianciu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The latest technologies are used not only in business, considered the most dynamic field of activity, but also in Governmental strategies of interaction with the civil society and  the business environment. The governmental functional and technological requirements created new concepts and approaches of electronic business (G2G, G2B, and G2C. In Romania, the Ministry of Communications and Information Technology was the trend setter. It developed a large number of proofs of concept and pilot projects covering a wide area of services that needed to evolve electronically. Together with the Ministry of Public Finance, it defined the requirements and specifications for DECWEB, the programme that allows companies to submit their fiscal statements via Internet. DECWEB system is a keystone programme for the Ministry of Public Finance on its way towards moving administration and services for society to information age. Highly awarded, the first DECWEB initiative was a successful proof of concept and it needed to be upgraded to a new professional version with extended functionalities, higher flexibility and advanced security mechanisms. This paper describes the DECWEB project and how technology and professional services enhanced Governmental activities, why the project was such a success and how it will evolve.

  5. Assessing Risk with GASB Statement No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Venita M.; Scott, Bob

    1987-01-01

    Discusses a Government Accounting Standards Board (GASB) publication designed to provide financial statement users with information to assess a government's actual and future deposit and investment market and credit risk. (MLF)

  6. Briefing statement : Waubay Wetland Management District

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This briefing statement details the Waubay National Wildlife Refuge, staff, funding, history, refuges facts and maps, general management, public use and depredation...

  7. Corporate Statements in the Facilities Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holzweber, Markus

    In today’s services business domain, especially in facility services and facilities management (FM), customers are becoming more informed as to the level of choice and competition for their custom. This has led businesses to develop and maintain strategic elements of corporate statements...... that will increase their competitiveness. This article is concerned with the review of the principles of strategic statements and capability coherence. The purpose is to test if there is a relationship between strategic statements and its underlying capability coherence toward profitability. A sample of 27 strategic...... statements from FM organizations was selected and linked to financial data. The article reveals that the FM services industry would benefit from the concept of capability coherence. Findings showed that FM organizations showing higher scores of capability coherence have higher profitability scores....

  8. An Official American Thoracic Society Research Statement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slatore, Christopher G; Horeweg, Nanda; Jett, James R

    2015-01-01

    : In this research statement from the American Thoracic Society, a multidisciplinary group of clinicians, researchers, and patient advocates reviewed available evidence for pulmonary nodule evaluation, characterized six focus areas to direct future research efforts, and identified fundamental gaps in knowledge...

  9. Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tremblay, Mark S; Gray, Casey; Babcock, Shawna; Barnes, Joel; Bradstreet, Christa Costas; Carr, Dawn; Chabot, Guylaine; Choquette, Louise; Chorney, David; Collyer, Cam; Herrington, Susan; Janson, Katherine; Janssen, Ian; Larouche, Richard; Pickett, William; Power, Marlene; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Simon, Brenda; Brussoni, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    .... The Position Statement was created in response to practitioner, academic, legal, insurance and public debate, dialogue and disagreement on the relative benefits and harms of active (including risky) outdoor play...

  10. 33 CFR 385.7 - Concurrency statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... DEFENSE PROGRAMMATIC REGULATIONS FOR THE COMPREHENSIVE EVERGLADES RESTORATION PLAN General Provisions § 385.7 Concurrency statements. The administrative record of the programmatic regulations in this part..., Jacksonville District, 701 San Marco Blvd., Jacksonville, Florida 32207, or by accessing the...

  11. Financial Statement Analysis for Nonprofit Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Travaglini,Claudio

    2007-01-01

    A financial statement analysis framework for nonprofit organizations is proposed, based on Nonprofit Commission of Certified Public Accountants Association (Commissione Aziende Nonprofit Ordine Nazionale Dottori Commercialisti) for Italian Nonprofits.

  12. Threat of plastic pollution to seabirds is global, pervasive, and increasing

    OpenAIRE

    Wilcox, Chris; van Sebille, Erik; Hardesty, Britta Denise

    2015-01-01

    Plastic pollution in the ocean is a rapidly emerging global environmental concern, with high concentrations (up to 580,000 pieces per km2) and a global distribution, driven by exponentially increasing production. Seabirds are particularly vulnerable to this type of pollution and are widely observed to ingest floating plastic. We used a mixture of literature surveys, oceanographic modeling, and ecological models to predict the risk of plastic ingestion to 186 seabird species globally. Impacts ...

  13. 40 CFR 1502.9 - Draft, final, and supplemental statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... statements. 1502.9 Section 1502.9 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT § 1502.9 Draft, final, and supplemental statements. Except for proposals for legislation as provided in § 1506.8 environmental impact statements shall be prepared in two stages and may...

  14. Back to Basics: Teaching the Statement of Cash Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecil, H. Wayne; King, Teresa T.; Andrews, Christine P.

    2011-01-01

    A conceptual foundation for the Statement of Cash Flows based on the ten elements of financial statements provides students with a deep understanding of core accounting concepts. Traditional methods of teaching the statement of cash flows tend to focus on statement preparation rules, masking the effect of business events on the change in cash.…

  15. 18 CFR 706.410 - Confidentiality of statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT Statements of Employment and Financial Interests § 706.410 Confidentiality of statements. Each statement of employment and financial interests, and each supplementary... decision of the Director for good cause shown: Provided, That information from a statement or...

  16. 20 CFR 404.632 - Statements filed with a hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Statements filed with a hospital. 404.632... § 404.632 Statements filed with a hospital. A statement (generally a hospital admission form) filed with a hospital may serve as a written statement under § 404.630 if the requirements of this section are...

  17. 12 CFR 263.105 - Statement of net worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Statement of net worth. 263.105 Section 263.105... Statement of net worth. (a) General rule. A statement of net worth shall be filed with the application for an award of fees. The statement shall reflect the net worth of the applicant and all affiliates...

  18. 21 CFR 201.61 - Statement of identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Statement of identity. 201.61 Section 201.61 Food...: GENERAL LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.61 Statement of identity. (a) The... features a statement of the identity of the commodity. (b) Such statement of identity shall be in terms...

  19. 21 CFR 801.61 - Statement of identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Statement of identity. 801.61 Section 801.61 Food... DEVICES LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Devices § 801.61 Statement of identity. (a... principal features a statement of the identity of the commodity. (b) Such statement of identity shall be...

  20. 46 CFR 504.7 - Environmental impact statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Environmental impact statements. 504.7 Section 504.7... POLICY ANALYSIS § 504.7 Environmental impact statements. (a) General. (1) An environmental impact... environmental impact statements. (1) A draft environmental impact statement (DEIS) will initially be prepared in...

  1. 22 CFR 216.7 - Environmental impact statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Environmental impact statements. 216.7 Section... Environmental impact statements. (a) Applicability. An Environmental Impact Statement shall be prepared when... Environmental Impact Statement relating to paragraph (a)(2) of this section shall comply with the CEQ...

  2. 32 CFR 651.23 - Environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Environmental impact statement. 651.23 Section...) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Records and Documents § 651.23 Environmental impact statement. An Environmental Impact statement (EIS) is a detailed written statement required...

  3. Culture and Corporate Governance Statement Disclosure

    OpenAIRE

    Theo Christopher; Salleh Hassan

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the influence of culture on Corporate Governance Statement disclosure in the annual reports of the major airline companies in Malaysia and Australia. The cultural research of Hofstede (1980) and the accounting value dimensions of Gray (1988) imply that Malaysian Airlines, from a large power distance country, will disclose less Corporate Governance Statement information in their annual report than Qantas Airlines, from a small power distance country. The results obtained fr...

  4. CONSIDERATIONS ON AUDIT OF GROUP FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Attila Tamas Szora; Iulian Bogdan Dobra

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a comparative analysis of the consolidatedfinancial statements according to the International Financial Reporting Standards or the EuropeanDirectives and see how such accounting alternative affect the explanatory notes to the consolidatedfinancial statements, especially regarding to the revaluation basis of the assets. The study seeks todetermine if the accounting diversity influences the work of the financial auditor. The resultsindicate that the two...

  5. LEGAL-EASE:Analyzing Chinese Financial Statements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    EDWARD; MA

    2008-01-01

    In this article,we will focus on under- standing and analyzing the typical accounts of Chinese financial statements,including the balance sheet and income statement. Accounts are generally incorrectly prepared. This can be due to several factors,incom- petence,as well as more serious cases of deliberate attempts to deceive.Regardless, accounts can be understood and errors or specific acts of misrepresentation uncovered. We will conduct some simple analysis to demonstrate how these can be spotted.

  6. Plastic in North Sea Fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foekema, E.M.; Gruijter, de C.; Mergia, M.T.; Franeker, van J.A.; Murk, A.J.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    To quantify the occurrence of ingested plastic in fish species caught at different geographical positions in the North Sea, and to test whether the fish condition is affected by ingestion of plastics, 1203 individual fish of seven common North Sea species were investigated: herring, gray gurnard, wh

  7. The scope of plastic surgery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-08-03

    Aug 3, 2013 ... areas of surgery (especially general surgery), plastic surgeons are arguably the .... Who do you feel are experts in laparoscopic surgery? e (general surgeons) a. Maxillofacial .... of pressure sore. ORIF = open reduction internal fixation. ... Plastic versus cosmetic surgery: What's the difference? Plast Reconstr.

  8. New Life for Old Plastics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Recycling joint venture utilizes innovative technology to reuse plastics Recycling,despite its green connotations,can be a messy business.In China,more than 400,000 companies are engaged in plastic recycling,but 70 percent of them are family enterprises,

  9. Computational strain gradient crystal plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Kysar, Jeffrey W.

    2014-01-01

    of plane crystal plasticity are studied: pure shear of a single crystal between rigid platens as well as plastic deformation around cylindrical voids in hexagonal close packed and face centered cubic crystals. Effective in-plane constitutive slip parameters for plane strain deformation of specifically...

  10. Architecture of European Plastic Surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicolai, J. -P. A.; Banic, A.; Molea, G.; Mazzola, R.; Poell, J. G.

    2006-01-01

    The architecture of European Plastic Surgery was published in 1996 [Nicolai JPA, Scuderi N. Plastic surgical Europe in an organogram. Eur J Plast Surg 1996; 19: 253-6.] It is the objective of this paper to update information of that article. Continuing medical education (CME), science, training,

  11. Plastics for corrosion inhibition

    CERN Document Server

    Goldade, Victor A; Makarevich, Anna V; Kestelman, Vladimir N

    2005-01-01

    The development of polymer composites containing inhibitors of metal corrosion is an important endeavour in modern materials science and technology. Corrosion inhibitors can be located in a polymer matrix in the solid, liquid or gaseous phase. This book details the thermodynamic principles for selecting these components, their compatibility and their effectiveness. The various mechanisms of metal protection – barrier, inhibiting and electromechanical – are considered, as are the conflicting requirements placed on the structure of the combined material. Two main classes of inhibited materials (structural and films/coatings) are described in detail. Examples are given of structural plastics used in friction units subjected to mechano-chemical wear and of polymer films/coatings for protecting metal objects against corrosion.

  12. Macrophage plasticity in experimental atherosclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamila Khallou-Laschet

    Full Text Available As in human disease, macrophages (MØ are central players in the development and progression of experimental atherosclerosis. In this study we have evaluated the phenotype of MØ associated with progression of atherosclerosis in the apolipoprotein E (ApoE knockout (KO mouse model.We found that bone marrow-derived MØ submitted to M1 and M2 polarization specifically expressed arginase (Arg II and Arg I, respectively. This distinct arginase expression was used to evaluate the frequency and distribution of M1 and M2 MØ in cross-sections of atherosclerotic plaques of ApoE KO mice. Early lesions were infiltrated by Arg I(+ (M2 MØ. This type of MØ favored the proliferation of smooth muscle cells, in vitro. Arg II(+ (M1 MØ appeared and prevailed in lesions of aged ApoE KO mice and lesion progression was correlated with the dominance of M1 over the M2 MØ phenotype. In order to address whether the M2->M1 switch could be due to a phenotypic switch of the infiltrated cells, we performed in vitro repolarization experiments. We found that fully polarized MØ retained their plasticity since they could revert their phenotype. The analysis of the distribution of Arg I- and Arg II-expressing MØ also argued against a recent recruitment of M1 MØ in the lesion. The combined data therefore suggest that the M2->M1 switch observed in vivo is due to a conversion of cells already present in the lesion. Our study suggests that interventional tools able to revert the MØ infiltrate towards the M2 phenotype may exert an atheroprotective action.

  13. Warning Statements and Safety Practices among Manufacturers and Distributors of Electronic Cigarette Liquids in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Pebbles; Pokhrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus A; Guy, Mignonne C; Sakuma, Kari-Lyn K; Trinidad, Dennis R; Cassel, Kevin; Jorgensen, Dorothy; Lynch, Tania; Felicitas-Perkins, Jamie Q; Palafox, Sherilyn; Hamamura, Faith; Maloney, Sarah; Degree, Kaylah; Sterling, Kymberle; Moolchan, Eric; Clanton, Mark S; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2017-05-18

    Prior to the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) regulation of electronic cigarettes and warning statements related to nicotine addiction, there was no critical examination of manufacturer/distributor voluntary practices that could potentially inform FDA actions aimed to protect consumers. This study examined the content of warning statements and safety characteristics of electronic cigarette liquid bottles using a national sample. Research staff randomly selected four electronic cigarette liquid manufacturers/distributors from four U.S. geographic regions. Staff documented the characteristics of product packaging and content of warning statements on 147 electronic cigarette liquids (0-30 mg/ml of nicotine) purchased online from 16 manufacturers/distributors in April of 2016. Data showed that 97.9% of the electronic cigarette liquid bottles included a warning statement, most of which focused on nicotine exposure rather than health. Only 22.4% of bottles used a warning statement that indicated the product "contained nicotine". Of bottles that advertised a nicotine-based concentration of 12 mg/ml, 26% had a warning statements stated that the product "contains nicotine". None of the statements that indicated that the product "contained nicotine" stated that nicotine was "addictive". All bottles had a safety cap and 12% were in plastic shrink-wrap. Fifty-six percent of the websites had a minimum age requirement barrier that prevented under-aged persons from entering. Most manufacturers/distributors printed a warning statement on electronic cigarette liquid bottles, but avoided warning consumers about the presence and the addictiveness of nicotine. Studies are needed to examine manufacturer/distributor modifications to product packaging and how packaging affects consumer behaviors. These data can inform future FDA requirements related to the packaging and advertising of e-cigarette liquids; regulation related to the content of warning statements, including exposure

  14. Phenotypic Plasticity and Species Coexistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcotte, Martin M; Levine, Jonathan M

    2016-10-01

    Ecologists are increasingly interested in predicting how intraspecific variation and changing trait values impact species interactions and community composition. For many traits, much of this variation is caused by phenotypic plasticity, and thus the impact of plasticity on species coexistence deserves robust quantification. Partly due to a lack of sound theoretical expectations, empirical studies make contradictory claims regarding plasticity effects on coexistence. Our critical review of this literature, framed in modern coexistence theory, reveals that plasticity affects species interactions in ways that could impact stabilizing niche differences and competitive asymmetries. However, almost no study integrates these measures to quantify the net effect of plasticity on species coexistence. To address this challenge, we outline novel empirical approaches grounded in modern theory.

  15. Imaging brain plasticity after trauma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhifeng Kou; Armin Iraji

    2014-01-01

    The brain is highly plastic after stroke or epilepsy;however, there is a paucity of brain plasticity investigation after traumatic brain injury (TBI). This mini review summarizes the most recent evidence of brain plasticity in human TBI patients from the perspective of advanced magnetic resonance imaging. Similar to other forms of acquired brain injury, TBI patients also demonstrat-ed both structural reorganization as well as functional compensation by the recruitment of other brain regions. However, the large scale brain network alterations after TBI are still unknown, and the ifeld is still short of proper means on how to guide the choice of TBI rehabilitation or treat-ment plan to promote brain plasticity. The authors also point out the new direction of brain plas-ticity investigation.

  16. Size effects in crystal plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Ulrik

    2007-01-01

    Numerical analyses of plasticity size effects have been carried out for different problems using a developed strain gradient crystal plasticiy theory. The theory employs higher order stresses as work conjugates to slip gradients and uses higher order boundary conditions. Problems on localization...... of plastic flow in a single crystal, grain boundary effects in a bicrystal, and grain size effects in a polycrystal are studied. Single crystals containing micro-scale voids have also been analyzed at different loading conditions with focus on the stress and deformation fields around the voids, on void...... growth and interaction between neighboring voids, and on a comparison between the developed strain gradient crystal plasticity theory and a discrete dislocation plasticity theory. Furthermore, voids and rigid inclusions in isotropic materials have been studied using a strain gradient plasticity theory...

  17. Molecular mechanisms underlying neuronal synaptic plasticity: systems biology meets computational neuroscience in the wilds of synaptic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Kim T; Jedrzejewska-Szmek, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Interactions among signaling pathways that are activated by transmembrane receptors produce complex networks and emergent dynamical behaviors that are implicated in synaptic plasticity. Temporal dynamics and spatial aspects are critical determinants of cell responses such as synaptic plasticity, although the mapping between spatiotemporal activity pattern and direction of synaptic plasticity is not completely understood. Computational modeling of neuronal signaling pathways has significantly contributed to understanding signaling pathways underlying synaptic plasticity. Spatial models of signaling pathways in hippocampal neurons have revealed mechanisms underlying the spatial distribution of extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) activation in hippocampal neurons. Other spatial models have demonstrated that the major role of anchoring proteins in striatal and hippocampal synaptic plasticity is to place molecules near their activators. Simulations of yet other models have revealed that the spatial distribution of synaptic plasticity may differ for potentiation versus depression. In general, the most significant advances have been made by interactive modeling and experiments; thus, an interdisciplinary approach should be applied to investigate critical issues in neuronal signaling pathways. These issues include identifying which transmembrane receptors are key for activating ERK in neurons, and the crucial targets of kinases that produce long-lasting synaptic plasticity. Although the number of computer programs for computationally efficient simulation of large reaction-diffusion networks is increasing, parameter estimation and sensitivity analysis in these spatial models remain more difficult than in single compartment models. Advances in live cell imaging coupled with further software development will continue to accelerate the development of spatial models of synaptic plasticity. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Nano-Ceramic Coated Plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Junghyun

    2013-01-01

    Plastic products, due to their durability, safety, and low manufacturing cost, are now rapidly replacing cookware items traditionally made of glass and ceramics. Despite this trend, some still prefer relatively expensive and more fragile ceramic/glassware because plastics can deteriorate over time after exposure to foods, which can generate odors, bad appearance, and/or color change. Nano-ceramic coatings can eliminate these drawbacks while still retaining the advantages of the plastic, since the coating only alters the surface of the plastic. The surface coating adds functionality to the plastics such as self-cleaning and disinfectant capabilities that result from a photocatalytic effect of certain ceramic systems. These ceramic coatings can also provide non-stick surfaces and higher temperature capabilities for the base plastics without resorting to ceramic or glass materials. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) are the candidates for a nano-ceramic coating to deposit on the plastics or plastic films used in cookware and kitchenware. Both are wide-bandgap semiconductors (3.0 to 3.2 eV for TiO2 and 3.2 to 3.3 eV for ZnO), so they exhibit a photocatalytic property under ultraviolet (UV) light. This will lead to decomposition of organic compounds. Decomposed products can be easily washed off by water, so the use of detergents will be minimal. High-crystalline film with large surface area for the reaction is essential to guarantee good photocatalytic performance of these oxides. Low-temperature processing (nano-ceramic coatings (TiO2, ZnO) on plastic materials (silicone, Teflon, PET, etc.) that can possess both photocatalytic oxide properties and flexible plastic properties. Processing cost is low and it does not require any expensive equipment investment. Processing can be scalable to current manufacturing infrastructure.

  19. Biodegradability of degradable plastic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agamuthu, P; Faizura, Putri Nadzrul

    2005-04-01

    Plastic waste constitutes the third largest waste volume in Malaysian municipal solid waste (MSW), next to putrescible waste and paper. The plastic component in MSW from Kuala Lumpur averages 24% (by weight), whereas the national mean is about 15%. The 144 waste dumps in the country receive about 95% of the MSW, including plastic waste. The useful life of the landfills is fast diminishing as the plastic waste stays un-degraded for more than 50 years. In this study the compostability of polyethylene and pro-oxidant additive-based environmentally degradable plastics (EDP) was investigated. Linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) samples exposed hydrolytically or oxidatively at 60 degrees C showed that the abiotic degradation path was oxidative rather than hydrolytic. There was a weight loss of 8% and the plastic has been oxidized as shown by the additional carbonyl group exhibited in the Fourier transform infra red (FTIR) Spectrum. Oxidation rate seemed to be influenced by the amount of pro-oxidant additive, the chemical structure and morphology of the plastic samples, and the surface area. Composting studies during a 45-day experiment showed that the percentage elongation (reduction) was 20% for McD samples [high-density polyethylene, (HDPE) with 3% additive] and LL samples (LLDPE with 7% additive) and 18% reduction for totally degradable plastic (TDP) samples (HDPE with 3% additive). Lastly, microbial experiments using Pseudomonas aeroginosa on carbon-free media with degradable plastic samples as the sole carbon source, showed confirmatory results. A positive bacterial growth and a weight loss of 2.2% for degraded polyethylene samples were evident to show that the degradable plastic is biodegradable.

  20. Using a Student-Directed Teaching Philosophy Statement to Assess and Improve One's Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinthaupt, Thomas M.; Decker, Stephen C.; Lawrence, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Faculty members traditionally develop a teaching philosophy statement (TPS) as part of the job application process, for tenure reviews, or to encourage reflection. In this paper, we propose an alternative approach--to develop the TPS with students as the primary target audience, distribute it to students at the beginning of a course, and collect…

  1. 21 CFR 801.16 - Medical devices; Spanish-language version of certain required statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical devices; Spanish-language version of....16 Medical devices; Spanish-language version of certain required statements. If devices restricted to prescription use only are labeled solely in Spanish for distribution in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico...

  2. 21 CFR 201.16 - Drugs; Spanish-language version of certain required statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drugs; Spanish-language version of certain...; Spanish-language version of certain required statements. An increasing number of medications restricted to prescription use only are being labeled solely in Spanish for distribution in the Commonwealth of Puerto...

  3. 21 CFR 201.15 - Drugs; prominence of required label statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... appear thereon in the English language: Provided, however, That in the case of articles distributed... than English, the predominant language may be substituted for English. (2) If the label contains any... use of label space for any representation in a foreign language. (c)(1) All words, statements,...

  4. Reversible phenotypic plasticity with continuous adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfab, Ferdinand; Gabriel, Wilfried; Utz, Margarete

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a novel model for continuous reversible phenotypic plasticity. The model includes a one-dimensional environmental gradient, and we describe performance of an organism as a function of the environmental state by a Gaussian tolerance curve. Organisms are assumed to adapt their tolerance curve after a change of the environmental state. We present a general framework for calculating the genotype fitness if such adaptations happen in a continuous manner and apply the model to a periodically changing environment. Significant differences of our model with previous models for plasticity are the continuity of adaptation, the presence of intermediate phenotypes, that the duration of transformations depends on their extent, fewer restrictions on the distribution of the environment, and a higher robustness with respect to assumptions about environmental fluctuations. Further, we show that continuous reversible plasticity is beneficial mainly when environmental changes occur slow enough so that fully developed phenotypes can be exhibited. Finally we discuss how the model framework can be generalized to a wide variety of biological scenarios from areas that include population dynamics, evolution of environmental tolerance and physiology.

  5. Plasticity and beyond microstructures, crystal-plasticity and phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Hackl, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    The book presents the latest findings in experimental plasticity, crystal plasticity, phase transitions, advanced mathematical modeling of finite plasticity and multi-scale modeling. The associated algorithmic treatment is mainly based on finite element formulations for standard (local approach) as well as for non-standard (non-local approach) continua and for pure macroscopic as well as for directly coupled two-scale boundary value problems. Applications in the area of material design/processing are covered, ranging from grain boundary effects in polycrystals and phase transitions to deep-drawing of multiphase steels by directly taking into account random microstructures.

  6. International policies to reduce plastic marine pollution from single-use plastics (plastic bags and microbeads): A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xanthos, Dirk; Walker, Tony R

    2017-02-18

    Marine plastic pollution has been a growing concern for decades. Single-use plastics (plastic bags and microbeads) are a significant source of this pollution. Although research outlining environmental, social, and economic impacts of marine plastic pollution is growing, few studies have examined policy and legislative tools to reduce plastic pollution, particularly single-use plastics (plastic bags and microbeads). This paper reviews current international market-based strategies and policies to reduce plastic bags and microbeads. While policies to reduce microbeads began in 2014, interventions for plastic bags began much earlier in 1991. However, few studies have documented or measured the effectiveness of these reduction strategies. Recommendations to further reduce single-use plastic marine pollution include: (i) research to evaluate effectiveness of bans and levies to ensure policies are having positive impacts on marine environments; and (ii) education and outreach to reduce consumption of plastic bags and microbeads at source.

  7. Coliquefaction of coal, tar sand bitumen and plastic (interaction among coal, bitumen and plastic); Sekitan/tar sand bitumen/plastic no kyoekika ni okeru kyozon busshitsu no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, H.; Okuyama, Y.; Matsubara, K. [NKK Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Kamo, T.; Sato, Y. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    For the improvement of economy, coliquefaction of coal, tar sand bitumen and plastic was performed under low hydrogen pressure, to investigate the influence of interaction among these on the liquefaction characteristics. For comparison, coliquefaction was also performed under the hydrogen pressure same as the NEDOL process. In addition, for clarifying its reaction mechanism, coliquefaction of dibenzyl and plastic was performed as a model experiment, to illustrate the distribution of products and composition of oil, and to discuss the interaction between dibenzyl and various plastics, and between various plastics. Under direct coal liquefaction conditions, coprocessing of Tanito Harum coal, Athabasca tar sand and plastic was carried out under low hydrogen pressure with an autoclave. The observed value of oil yield was higher than the calculated value based on the values from separate liquefaction of coal and plastic, which suggested the interaction between coal and the mixed plastic. The results of coliquefaction of coal, tar sand bitumen and plastic could be explained from the obtained oil yield and its composition by the coliquefaction of dibenzyl and plastic. 2 refs., 3 tabs.

  8. Thermal image analysis of plastic deformation and fracture behavior by a thermo-video measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohbuchi, Yoshifumi; Sakamoto, Hidetoshi; Nagatomo, Nobuaki

    2016-12-01

    The visualization of the plastic region and the measurement of its size are necessary and indispensable to evaluate the deformation and fracture behavior of a material. In order to evaluate the plastic deformation and fracture behavior in a structural member with some flaws, the authors paid attention to the surface temperature which is generated by plastic strain energy. The visualization of the plastic deformation was developed by analyzing the relationship between the extension of the plastic deformation range and the surface temperature distribution, which was obtained by an infrared thermo-video system. Furthermore, FEM elasto-plastic analysis was carried out with the experiment, and the effectiveness of this non-contact measurement system of the plastic deformation and fracture process by a thermography system was discussed. The evaluation method using an infrared imaging device proposed in this research has a feature which does not exist in the current evaluation method, i.e. the heat distribution on the surface of the material has been measured widely by noncontact at 2D at high speed. The new measuring technique proposed here can measure the macroscopic plastic deformation distribution on the material surface widely and precisely as a 2D image, and at high speed, by calculation from the heat generation and the heat propagation distribution.

  9. Comparison of methods for the measurement of radiation dose distributions in high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy: Ge-doped optical fiber, EBT3 Gafchromic film, and PRESAGE{sup Registered-Sign} radiochromic plastic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, A. L. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Science, University of Surrey, Surrey GU2 7JP (United Kingdom); Department of Medical Physics, F-Level, Queen Alexandra Hospital, Portsmouth Hospitals NHS Trust, Portsmouth, Hampshire PO6 3LY (United Kingdom); Di Pietro, P.; Alobaidli, S.; Issa, F.; Doran, S.; Bradley, D. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Science, University of Surrey, Surrey GU2 7JP (United Kingdom); Nisbet, A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Science, University of Surrey, Surrey GU2 7JP (United Kingdom); Department of Medical Physics, Royal Surrey County Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XX (United Kingdom)

    2013-06-15

    Purpose: Dose distribution measurement in clinical high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy is challenging, because of the high dose gradients, large dose variations, and small scale, but it is essential to verify accurate treatment planning and treatment equipment performance. The authors compare and evaluate three dosimetry systems for potential use in brachytherapy dose distribution measurement: Ge-doped optical fibers, EBT3 Gafchromic film with multichannel analysis, and the radiochromic material PRESAGE{sup Registered-Sign} with optical-CT readout. Methods: Ge-doped SiO{sub 2} fibers with 6 {mu}m active core and 5.0 mm length were sensitivity-batched and their thermoluminescent properties used via conventional heating and annealing cycles. EBT3 Gafchromic film of 30 {mu}m active thickness was calibrated in three color channels using a nominal 6 MV linear accelerator. A 48-bit transmission scanner and advanced multichannel analysis method were utilized to derive dose measurements. Samples of the solid radiochromic polymer PRESAGE{sup Registered-Sign }, 60 mm diameter and 100 mm height, were analyzed with a parallel beam optical CT scanner. Each dosimetry system was used to measure the dose as a function of radial distance from a Co-60 HDR source, with results compared to Monte Carlo TG-43 model data. Each system was then used to measure the dose distribution along one or more lines through typical clinical dose distributions for cervix brachytherapy, with results compared to treatment planning system (TPS) calculations. Purpose-designed test objects constructed of Solid Water and held within a full-scatter water tank were utilized. Results: All three dosimetry systems reproduced the general shape of the isolated source radial dose function and the TPS dose distribution. However, the dynamic range of EBT3 exceeded those of doped optical fibers and PRESAGE{sup Registered-Sign }, and the latter two suffered from unacceptable noise and artifact. For the experimental

  10. The Effect of Attitude and Statement Favorability Upon the Judgment of Attitude Statements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corenblum, B.; Corfield, Vera K.

    1976-01-01

    Male and female introductory psychology students (N=96) who held extreme attitudes toward legalized abortion judged the favorability of attitude statements on that issue. Judgments of the statements were shown to be largely inconsistent with predictions from social judgment theory and adaptation-level theory, but consistent with accentuation…

  11. 10 CFR 51.29 - Scoping-environmental impact statement and supplement to environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scoping-environmental impact statement and supplement to environmental impact statement. 51.29 Section 51.29 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED... Environmental Policy Act-Regulations Implementing Section 102(2) Scoping § 51.29 Scoping-environmental impact...

  12. Phenotypic plasticity, costs of phenotypes, and costs of plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callahan, Hilary S; Maughan, Heather; Steiner, Uli

    2008-01-01

    Why are some traits constitutive and others inducible? The term costs often appears in work addressing this issue but may be ambiguously defined. This review distinguishes two conceptually distinct types of costs: phenotypic costs and plasticity costs. Phenotypic costs are assessed from patterns...... of covariation, typically between a focal trait and a separate trait relevant to fitness. Plasticity costs, separable from phenotypic costs, are gauged by comparing the fitness of genotypes with equivalent phenotypes within two environments but differing in plasticity and fitness. Subtleties associated with both...... types of costs are illustrated by a body of work addressing predator-induced plasticity. Such subtleties, and potential interplay between the two types of costs, have also been addressed, often in studies involving genetic model organisms. In some instances, investigators have pinpointed the mechanistic...

  13. Biodegradable plastics from renewable sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flieger, M; Kantorová, M; Prell, A; Rezanka, T; Votruba, J

    2003-01-01

    Plastic waste disposal is a huge ecotechnological problem and one of the approaches to solving this problem is the development of biodegradable plastics. This review summarizes data on their use, biodegradability, commercial reliability and production from renewable resources. Some commercially successful biodegradable plastics are based on chemical synthesis (i.e. polyglycolic acid, polylactic acid, polycaprolactone, and polyvinyl alcohol). Others are products of microbial fermentations (i.e. polyesters and neutral polysaccharides) or are prepared from chemically modified natural products (e.g., starch, cellulose, chitin or soy protein).

  14. Plastics recycling: challenges and opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Hopewell, Jefferson; Dvorak, Robert; Kosior, Edward

    2009-01-01

    Plastics are inexpensive, lightweight and durable materials, which can readily be moulded into a variety of products that find use in a wide range of applications. As a consequence, the production of plastics has increased markedly over the last 60 years. However, current levels of their usage and disposal generate several environmental problems. Around 4 per cent of world oil and gas production, a non-renewable resource, is used as feedstock for plastics and a further 3–4% is expended to pro...

  15. Circadian Regulation of Synaptic Plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos G. Frank

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Circadian rhythms refer to oscillations in biological processes with a period of approximately 24 h. In addition to the sleep/wake cycle, there are circadian rhythms in metabolism, body temperature, hormone output, organ function and gene expression. There is also evidence of circadian rhythms in synaptic plasticity, in some cases driven by a master central clock and in other cases by peripheral clocks. In this article, I review the evidence for circadian influences on synaptic plasticity. I also discuss ways to disentangle the effects of brain state and rhythms on synaptic plasticity.

  16. PLASMA GASIFICATION OF WASTE PLASTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Mączka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the process of obtaining liquid fuels and fuel gas in the process of plasma processing of organic materials, including waste plastics. The concept of plasma pyrolysis of plastics was presented and on its basis a prototype installation was developed. The article describes a general rule of operating the installation and its elements in the process and basic operation parameters determined during its start-up. Initial results of processing plastics and the directions further investigations are also discussed. The effect of the research is to be the design of effective technology of obtaining fuels from gasification/pyrolysis of organic waste and biomass.

  17. India (country/area statements).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    According to this statement presented at the Committee on Population of the UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, India's population increased by 24.8% between the 1961 and 1971 censuses and by 25% between the 1971 and 1981 censuses. The population was 685.2 million in 1981 and is projected to increase to 996.0 million in 2001. The growth rate is expected to decline to 2% during 1981-91 and to 1.6% from 1991-2001. Life expectancy at birth in 1980 was estimated at 54.1 for males and 54.7 for females. The national health policy envisages health as a vital component of overall integrated socioeconomic development but emphasizes the need to ensure adequate nutrition, safe drinking water and improved sanitation. The family welfare program is voluntary and involves intensive efforts to create awareness of population through multimedia and interpersonal channels and to provide a wide choice of contraceptives for eligible couples. Emphasis has been placed on increasing female literacy and on population education for youth. The goal is a net reproduction rate of 1 by the year 2000. Currently 40 million of the 126 million reproductive aged couples use an effective method of birth control. Sterilization continues to be an important method, but emphasis on spacing methods began at the outset of the 6th 5-year plan in 1980 and will continue during the 7th 5-year plan. Adequate training will be provided for rural health workers as part of the strategy to lower birth rates. The urban family welfare infrastructure will be strengthened to cover low-income population groups, and the mass media infrastructure is being restructured and strengthened. Efforts are underway to encourage participation in family planning by voluntary organizations. The medical education curriculum is undergoing revision to introduce formal family planning training. It is expected that the combined impact of improvement in social and economic living conditions and the national program

  18. Research on Standardization of Zhejiang Plastics City Online Trade Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cen Guanjun

    2006-01-01

    @@ Since the establishment of the online trading market for Zhejiang Plastics City in Yuyao, by using leading information technology we consolidate the business, logistics, information, and capital with purchasing, transportation,warehousing, forwarding, and distribution into an integrated online trading system in terms of standardization of each process.

  19. A global inventory of small floating plastic debris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sebille, van Erik; Wilcox, Chris; Lebreton, Laurent; Maximenko, Nikolai; Hardesty, Britta Denise; Franeker, van J.A.; Eriksen, Marcus; Siegel, David; Galgani, F.; Law, Kara Lavender

    2015-01-01

    Microplastic debris floating at the ocean surface can harm marine life. Understanding the severity of this harm requires knowledge of plastic abundance and distributions. Dozens of expeditions measuring microplastics have been carried out since the 1970s, but they have primarily focused on the
    N

  20. Recycling of Reinforced Plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, R. D.; Collins, Andrew; Cooper, Duncan; Wingfield-Digby, Mark; Watts-Farmer, Archibald; Laurence, Anna; Patel, Kayur; Stevens, Mark; Watkins, Rhodri

    2014-02-01

    This work has shown is that it is possible to recycle continuous and short fibre reinforced thermosetting resins while keeping almost the whole of the original material, both fibres and matrix, within the recyclate. By splitting, crushing hot or cold, and hot forming, it is possible to create a recyclable material, which we designate a Remat, which can then be used to remanufacture other shapes, examples of plates and tubes being demonstrated. Not only can remanufacturing be done, but it has been shown that over 50 % of the original mechanical properties, such as the E modulus, tensile strength, and interlaminar shear strength, can be retained. Four different forms of composite were investigated, a random mat Glass Fibre Reinforced Plastic (GFRP) bathroom component and boat hull, woven glass and carbon fibre cloth impregnated with an epoxy resin, and unidirectional carbon fibre pre-preg. One of the main factors found to affect composite recyclability was the type of resin matrix used in the composite. Thermoset resins tested were shown to have a temperature range around the Glass Transition Temperature (Tg) where they exhibit ductile behaviour, hence aiding reforming of the material. The high-grade carbon fibre prepreg was found to be less easy to recycle than the woven of random fibre laminates. One method of remanufacturing was by heating the Remat to above its glass transition temperature, bending it to shape, and then cooling it. However, unless precautions are taken, the geometric form may revert. This does not happen with the crushed material.

  1. ELASTIC-PLASTIC TRANSVERSE BENDING OF A ROD DURING LIMITED PLASTIC DEFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V.Bakushev

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Issue No1(25,2015ISSN 2075-081175UDC539.373Penza State University of Architecture and ConstructionD.Sc.in Engineering, Prof. of Dept. of Mechanics S.V.BakushevRussia, Penza, tel.: (841248-27-37;e-mail: tim-graf_penza@rambler.ruS.V.BakushevELASTIC-PLASTIC TRANSVERSE BENDING OF A ROD DURING LIMITED PLASTIC DEFORMATIONStatement of the problem. Theproblem of calculating bending of a rod in the state of flat trans-verse elastoplastic bend during limited plastic deformation is discussed. The transverse section of a rod with two axes of symmetry has a form of a fifty-fifty beam with two shelves: external and in-ternal. A complex form of cross section explains practically unsolved difficulties in terms of its analytical solution. It leads to the use of math software and programming and math support, par-ticularly MathCAD. In the first case we take as external loading a point force applied in the middle of the flange; in the second case it is an evenly distributed loading acting along the whole rod.Results.As a result the bearing ability of the rod during limited plasticity is determined as well as the boundary of plastic and elastic deformations; residual stress in the rod following its complete unloading; deflected rod axe and residual deflection in the rod following its complete unloading.Conclusions. The calculation shows that the use of modern information technologies, particularly software and math support of PC allow one to deal with difficult and laborious problems, in terms of the design of the analytical solution of mechanics of a deformed solid body.

  2. Stochastic approach to plasticity and yield in amorphous solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentschel, H. G. E.; Jaiswal, Prabhat K.; Procaccia, Itamar; Sastry, Srikanth

    2015-12-01

    We focus on the probability distribution function (PDF) P (Δ γ ;γ ) where Δ γ are the measured strain intervals between plastic events in a athermal strained amorphous solids, and γ measures the accumulated strain. The tail of this distribution as Δ γ →0 (in the thermodynamic limit) scales like Δ γη . The exponent η is related via scaling relations to the tail of the PDF of the eigenvalues of the plastic modes of the Hessian matrix P (λ ) which scales like λθ, η =(θ -1 )/2 . The numerical values of η or θ can be determined easily in the unstrained material and in the yielded state of plastic flow. Special care is called for in the determination of these exponents between these states as γ increases. Determining the γ dependence of the PDF P (Δ γ ;γ ) can shed important light on plasticity and yield. We conclude that the PDF's of both Δ γ and λ are not continuous functions of γ . In slowly quenched amorphous solids they undergo two discontinuous transitions, first at γ =0+ and then at the yield point γ =γ Y to plastic flow. In quickly quenched amorphous solids the second transition is smeared out due to the nonexisting stress peak before yield. The nature of these transitions and scaling relations with the system size dependence of are discussed.

  3. Practice patterns in the perioperative treatment of patients undergoing septorhinoplasty: a survey of facial plastic surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadfar, Scott; Deal, Allison M; Jarchow, Andrea M; Yang, Hojin; Shockley, William W

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE The common practices used in the perioperative care of patients undergoing septorhinoplasty are diverse and controversial. A consensus statement on the preferred clinical pathway in the perioperative treatment of patients undergoing septorhinoplasty has yet to be approached formally. OBJECTIVES To investigate the perioperative treatment of patients undergoing septorhinoplasty and to identify common practice patterns based on the preferences of leading facial plastic surgeons. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS We distributed an online survey to members of the American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Specifically, fellowship directors and academic contact members were anonymously polled and stratified by the number of septorhinoplasties performed annually. MAIN OUTCOME AND MEASURE A cohesive clinical guide to perioperative treatment after rhinoplasty. RESULTS Of the 92 members surveyed, 67 (73%) successfully completed the survey. The distribution of respondents included 43 academicians (64%) and 24 physicians in private practice (36%). Twenty-eight surgeons (42%) performed fewer than 50 rhinoplasties a year and 39 (58%), more than 50, representing 3510 to 4549 septorhinoplasties in total among respondents. Forty-four surgeons (66%) refrained from using any packing, and 41 (61%) used intranasal splints, with polymeric silicone splints the most popular of these (n = 24 [59%]). Sixty-six surgeons (99%) used external nasal splints, including 49 (74%) who used a thermoplastic splint and 49 (74%) who left the external nasal splint in place for 7 days or longer. The most common postoperative interventions to reduce edema and ecchymosis were elevation of the head of bed by 62 (93%), ice packs by 50 (75%), and Arnica montana by 33 (49%). Only 12 surgeons (18%) used postoperative corticosteroids to reduce edema. Fifty-six respondents (84%) prohibited participation in contact sports until at least 6 weeks after surgery. CONCLUSIONS AND

  4. Flash Cracking Reactor for Waste Plastic Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timko, Michael T.; Wong, Hsi-Wu; Gonzalez, Lino A.; Broadbelt, Linda; Raviknishan, Vinu

    2013-01-01

    Conversion of waste plastic to energy is a growing problem that is especially acute in space exploration applications. Moreover, utilization of heavy hydrocarbon resources (wastes, waxes, etc.) as fuels and chemicals will be a growing need in the future. Existing technologies require a trade-off between product selectivity and feedstock conversion. The objective of this work was to maintain high plastic-to-fuel conversion without sacrificing the liquid yield. The developed technology accomplishes this goal with a combined understanding of thermodynamics, reaction rates, and mass transport to achieve high feed conversion without sacrificing product selectivity. The innovation requires a reaction vessel, hydrocarbon feed, gas feed, and pressure and temperature control equipment. Depending on the feedstock and desired product distribution, catalyst can be added. The reactor is heated to the desired tempera ture, pressurized to the desired pressure, and subject to a sweep flow at the optimized superficial velocity. Software developed under this project can be used to determine optimal values for these parameters. Product is vaporized, transferred to a receiver, and cooled to a liquid - a form suitable for long-term storage as a fuel or chemical. An important NASA application is the use of solar energy to convert waste plastic into a form that can be utilized during periods of low solar energy flux. Unlike previous work in this field, this innovation uses thermodynamic, mass transport, and reaction parameters to tune product distribution of pyrolysis cracking. Previous work in this field has used some of these variables, but never all in conjunction for process optimization. This method is useful for municipal waste incinerator operators and gas-to-liquids companies.

  5. Plasticity and creep of metals

    CERN Document Server

    Rusinko, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Here is a systematic presentation of the postulates, theorems and principles of mathematical theories of plasticity and creep in metals, and their applications. Special attention is paid to analysis of the advantages and shortcomings of the classical theories.

  6. American Society of Plastic Surgeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PRS PRS GO PSN PSEN GRAFT Contact Us Cosmetic Surgery New procedures and advanced technologies offer plastic surgery ... David Berman MD 14 Pidgeon Hill Drive Berman Cosmetic Surgery & S... Sterling, VA 20165 Website Franklin Richards MD Suite ...

  7. Plastic deformation of nanocrystalline nickel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    A high-resolution electron microscopy study has uncovered the plastic behavior of accommodating large strains in nanocrystalline (NC) Ni subject to cold rolling at liquid nitrogen temperature. The activation of grain-boundary-mediated-plasticity is evidenced in NC-Ni, including twinning and formation of stacking fault via partial dislocation slips from the grain boundary. The formation and storage of 60? full dislocations are observed inside NC-grains. The grain/twin boundaries act as the barriers of dislocation slips, leading to dislocation pile-up, severe lattice distortion, and formation of sub-grain boundary. The vicinity of grain/twin boundary is where defects preferentially accumulate and likely the favorable place for onset of plastic deformation. The present results indicate the heterogeneous and multiple natures of accommodating plastic strains in NC-grains.

  8. Plastic deformation of nanocrystalline nickel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU XiaoLei

    2009-01-01

    A high-resolution electron microscopy study has uncovered the plastic behavior of accommodating large strains in nanocrystalline(NC)Ni subject to cold rolling at liquid nitrogen temperature.The acti vation of grain-boundary-mediated-plasticity is evidenced in NC-Ni,including twinning and formation of stacking fault via partial dislocation slips from the grain boundary.The formation and storage of 60° full dislocations are observed inside NC-grains.The grain/twin boundaries act as the barriers of dislocation slips,leading to dislocation pile-up,severe lattice distortion,and formation of sub-grain boundary.The vicinity of grain/twin boundary is where defects preferentially accumulate and likely the favorable place for onset of plastic deformation.The present results indicate the heterogeneous and multiple natures of accommodating plastic strains in NC-grains.

  9. Exceptional plasticity of silicon nanobridges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishida, Tadashi; Sato, Takaaki; Toshiyoshi, Hiroshi; Collard, Dominique; Fujita, Hiroyuki [University of Tokyo, Institute of Industrial Science, 4-6-1 Komaba Meguro, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Cleri, Fabrizio [Institut d' Electronique Microelectronique et Nanotechnologie (CNRS UMR 8520), Universite de Lille I, Avenue Poincare BP60069 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Kakushima, Kuniyuki [Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259, Nagatsuda, Midori, Yokohama, Kanagawa 226-8502 (Japan); Mita, Makoto [Department of Spacecraft Engineering, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1, Yoshinodai, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-8510 (Japan); Miyata, Masaki; Itamura, Noriaki; Sasaki, Naruo [Department of Materials and Life Sciences, Seikei University, 3-3-1, Kitamachi, Kichijoji, Musashino, Tokyo 180-8633 (Japan); Endo, Junji, E-mail: tadashii@iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp [FK Optical laboratory, 1-13-4 Nakano Niiza Saitama, 352-0005 (Japan)

    2011-09-02

    The plasticity of covalently bonded materials is a subject at the forefront of materials science, bearing on a wide range of technological and fundamental aspects. However, covalent materials fracture in a brittle manner when the deformation exceeds just a few per cent. It is predicted that a macroscopically brittle material like silicon can show nanoscale plasticity. Here we report the exceptional plasticity observed in silicon nanocontacts ('nanobridges') at room temperature using a special experimental setup combining a transmission electron microscope and a microelectromechanical system. When accounting for surface diffusion, we succeeded in elongating the nanocontact into a wire-like structure, with a fivefold increase in volume, up to more than twenty times the original length. Such a large plasticity was caused by the stress-assisted diffusion and the sliding of the intergranular, amorphous-like material among the nanocrystals.

  10. Globally Oriented Chinese Plastics Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liao Zhengpin

    2004-01-01

    @@ Through continued endeavor and persistent opening to the whole world the Chinese plastics industry has been developed into a comprehensive industrial system that forms the basic material industries side by side with the steel, cement and the timber industry.

  11. Computational materials science: Nanoscale plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel; Schiøtz, Jakob

    2002-01-01

    How does plastic deformation of polycrystalline materials with grain sizes less than 100 nm look at the atomic scale? A large-scale molecular dynamics simulation of nanocrystalline alluminium reveals some surprising behaviour.......How does plastic deformation of polycrystalline materials with grain sizes less than 100 nm look at the atomic scale? A large-scale molecular dynamics simulation of nanocrystalline alluminium reveals some surprising behaviour....

  12. Sorting Techniques for Plastics Recycling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the basic principles of three different types of separating methods and a general guideline for choosing the most effective method for sorting plastic mixtures. It also presents the results of the tests carried out for separation of PVC, ABS and PET from different kinds of plastic mixtures in order to improve the grade of the raw input used in mechanical or feedstock recycling.

  13. [Modern neuroimaging of brain plasticity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprian, G; Seidel, S

    2010-02-01

    Modern neuroimaging methods offer new insights into the plasticity of the human brain. As the techniques of functional MRI and diffusion tensor imaging are increasingly being applied in a clinical setting, the examiner is now frequently confronted with the interpretation of imaging findings related to regenerative processes in response to lesions of the central and also of the peripheral nervous system. In this article individual results of modern neuroimaging studies are discussed in the context of structural and functional plasticity of the CNS.

  14. Plastic bronchitis: a management challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberlein, Michael H; Drummond, Michael B; Haponik, Edward F

    2008-02-01

    Plastic bronchitis is an uncommon and underdiagnosed entity, characterized by recurrent expectoration of large, branching bronchial casts. We describe a 39-year-woman with no prior lung disease who had episodic wheezing, severe dyspnea with expectoration of large and thick secretions, branching in appearance, which she described as resembling squid. A comprehensive evaluation revealed no specific cause and a diagnosis of idiopathic plastic bronchitis was made. In plastic bronchitis the bronchial casts may vary in size from small segmental casts of a bronchus to casts filling the airways of an entire lung. Plastic bronchitis can therefore present as an acute life-threatening emergency if mechanical obstruction of major airways occurs. The casts are differentiated into type I, inflammatory casts, or type II, acellular casts. The type I inflammatory casts are often associated with bronchial disease and often have an acute presentation. The acellular type of cast production is often chronic or recurrent. Numerous systemic illnesses are associated with plastic bronchitis, but often, as in our patient, no underlying cause can be identified. The treatment of plastic bronchitis includes acute therapy to aid the removal and expectoration of casts, and specific short- or long-term treatments attempting to address the underlying hypersecretory process. The therapeutic options are supported only by anecdotal evidence based on case reports as the rarity and heterogeneity of plastic bronchitis confounds systematic investigations of its treatment. Improved understanding of the regulation of mucus production may allow for new treatment options in plastic bronchitis and other chronic lung diseases characterized by hypersecretion of mucus.

  15. The Portuguese plastic carrier bag tax: The effects on consumers' behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinho, Graça; Balaia, Natacha; Pires, Ana

    2017-03-01

    Marine litter from lightweight plastic bags is a global problem that must be solved. A plastic bag tax was implemented in February 2015 to reduce the consumption of plastic grocery bags in Portugal and in turn reduce the potential contribution to marine litter. This study analyzes the effect of the plastic bag tax on consumer behavior to learn how it was received and determine the perceived effectiveness of the tax 4months after its implementation. In addition, the study assessed how proximity to coastal areas could influence behaviors and opinions. The results showed a 74% reduction of plastic bag consumption with a simultaneously 61% increase of reusable plastic bags after the tax was implemented. Because plastic bags were then reused for shopping instead of garbage bags, however, the consumption of garbage bags increased by 12%. Although reduction was achieved, the tax had no effect on the perception of marine litter or the impact of plastic bags on environment and health. The majority of respondents agree with the tax but view it as an extra revenue to the State. The distance to the coast had no meaningful influence on consumer behavior or on the perception of the tax. Although the tax was able to promote the reduction of plastics, the role of hypermarkets and supermarkets in providing alternatives through the distribution of reusable plastic bags was determinant to ensuring the reduction.

  16. Presence of plastic particles in waterbirds faeces collected in Spanish lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Delgado, J A; Guijarro, D; Gosálvez, R U; López-Iborra, G M; Ponz, A; Velasco, A

    2017-01-01

    Plastic intake by marine vertebrates has been widely reported, but information about its presence in continental waterfowl is scarce. Here we analyzed faeces of waterbirds species (European coot, Fulica atra, mallard, Anas platyrhynchos and shelduck, Tadorna tadorna) for plastic debris in five wetlands in Central Spain. We collected 89 faeces of shelduck distributed in four lakes, 43.8% of them presented plastic remnants. Sixty percent of 10 faeces of European coot and 45% of 40 faeces of mallard contained plastic debris. Plastic debris found was of two types, threads and fragments, and were identified as remnants of plastic objects used in agricultural fields surrounding the lakes. Differences in prevalence of plastic in faeces, number of plastic pieces per excrement and size of the plastic pieces were not statistically significant between waterfowl species. Thus, our results suggest that plastic may also be frequently ingested by waterfowl in continental waters, at least in our study area. Future studies should address this potential problem for waterbird conservation in other wetlands to evaluate the real impact of this pollutant on waterbirds living in inland water.

  17. The contribution of phenotypic plasticity to complementary light capture in plant mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Junqi; van der Werf, Wopke; Anten, Niels P R; Vos, Jan; Evers, Jochem B

    2015-09-01

    Interspecific differences in functional traits are a key factor for explaining the positive diversity-productivity relationship in plant communities. However, the role of intraspecific variation attributable to phenotypic plasticity in diversity-productivity relationships has largely been overlooked. By taking a wheat (Triticum aestivum)-maize (Zea mays) intercrop as an elementary example of mixed vegetation, we show that plasticity in plant traits is an important factor contributing to complementary light capture in species mixtures. We conceptually separated net biodiversity effect into the effect attributable to interspecific trait differences and species distribution (community structure effect), and the effect attributable to phenotypic plasticity. Using a novel plant architectural modelling approach, whole-vegetation light capture was simulated for scenarios with and without plasticity based on empirical plant trait data. Light capture was 23% higher in the intercrop with plasticity than the expected value from monocultures, of which 36% was attributable to community structure and 64% was attributable to plasticity. For wheat, plasticity in tillering was the main reason for increased light capture, whereas for intercropped maize, plasticity induced a major reduction in light capture. The results illustrate the potential of plasticity for enhancing resource acquisition in mixed stands, and indicate the importance of plasticity in the performance of species-diverse plant communities.

  18. Academic plastic surgery: a study of current issues and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zetrenne, Eleonore; Kosins, Aaron M; Wirth, Garrett A; Bui, Albert; Evans, Gregory R D; Wells, James H

    2008-06-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate the role of a full-time academic plastic surgeon, (2) to define the indicators predictive of a successful career in academic plastic surgery, and (3) to understand the current issues that will affect future trends in the practice of academic plastic surgery. A questionnaire was developed to evaluate the role of current full-time academic plastic surgeons and to understand the current issues and future challenges facing academic plastic surgery. Each plastic surgery program director in the United States was sent the survey for distribution among all full-time academic plastic surgeons. Over a 6-week period, responses from 143 full-time academic plastic surgeons (approximately 31%) were returned. Fifty-three percent of respondents had been academic plastic surgeons for longer than 10 years. Seventy-three percent of respondents defined academic plastic surgeons as clinicians who are teachers and researchers. However, 53% of respondents believed that academic plastic surgeons were not required to teach or practice within university hospitals/academic centers. The 3 factors reported most frequently as indicative of a successful career in academic plastic surgery were peer recognition, personal satisfaction, and program reputation. Dedication and motivation were the personal characteristics rated most likely to contribute to academic success. Forty-four percent of respondents were unable to identify future academic plastic surgeons from plastic surgery residency applicants, and 27% were not sure. Most (93%) of the respondents believed that academic surgery as practiced today will change. The overall job description of a full-time academic plastic surgeon remains unchanged (teacher and researcher). Whereas peer recognition, personal satisfaction, and program reputation were most frequently cited as indicative of a successful plastic surgery career, financial success was rated the least indicative. Similarly, whereas the

  19. Knowledge representation of rock plastic deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davarpanah, Armita; Babaie, Hassan

    2017-04-01

    The first iteration of the Rock Plastic Deformation (RPD) ontology models the semantics of the dynamic physical and chemical processes and mechanisms that occur during the deformation of the generally inhomogeneous polycrystalline rocks. The ontology represents the knowledge about the production, reconfiguration, displacement, and consumption of the structural components that participate in these processes. It also formalizes the properties that are known by the structural geology and metamorphic petrology communities to hold between the instances of the spatial components and the dynamic processes, the state and system variables, the empirical flow laws that relate the variables, and the laboratory testing conditions and procedures. The modeling of some of the complex physio-chemical, mathematical, and informational concepts and relations of the RPD ontology is based on the class and property structure of some well-established top-level ontologies. The flexible and extensible design of the initial version of the RPD ontology allows it to develop into a model that more fully represents the knowledge of plastic deformation of rocks under different spatial and temporal scales in the laboratory and in solid Earth. The ontology will be used to annotate the datasets related to the microstructures and physical-chemical processes that involve them. This will help the autonomous and globally distributed communities of experimental structural geologists and metamorphic petrologists to coherently and uniformly distribute, discover, access, share, and use their data through automated reasoning and enhanced data integration and software interoperability.

  20. Has Financial Statement Information become Less Relevant?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thinggaard, Frank; Damkier, Jesper

    as the total market-adjusted return that could be earned from investment strategies based on foreknowledge of financial statement information. It answers the question: Are investments based on financial statement information able to capture progressively less information in security returns over time......? The sample is based on non-financial companies listed on the Copenhagen Stock Exchange in the period 1984-2002. Our analyses show that all the applied accounting measures are value-relevant as investment strategies based on the information earn positive market-adjusted returns in our sample period....... The results provide some indication of a decline in the value-relevance of earnings information in the 1984-2001 period, and mixed, but not statistically reliable, evidence for accounting measures where book value information and asset values are also extracted from financial statements. The results seem...

  1. Consensus statement on genetic research in dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rikkert, M.G. Olde; der, V van; Burns, A.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe how the European Dementia Consensus Network developed a consensus on research ethics in dementia, taking into account the questions posed by the era of genetic research and its new research methods. The consensus process started with a Delphi procedure...... to analyze relevant stakeholders' positions by describing their statements on the possibilities and limitations of research into genetic determinants of Alzheimer disease and to describe and analyze the moral desirability of genetic research on Alzheimer disease. The conclusions drawn from the Delphi...... procedure fuelled the development of the consensus statement, which is presented in this paper. The consensus statement aims to stimulate ethically acceptable research in the field of dementia and the protection of vulnerable elderly patients with dementia from application of inadequate research methods...

  2. Has Financial Statement Information become Less Relevant?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thinggaard, Frank; Damkier, Jesper

    as the total market-adjusted return that could be earned from investment strategies based on foreknowledge of financial statement information. It answers the question: Are investments based on financial statement information able to capture progressively less information in security returns over time......? The sample is based on non-financial companies listed on the Copenhagen Stock Exchange in the period 1984-2002. Our analyses show that all the applied accounting measures are value-relevant as investment strategies based on the information earn positive market-adjusted returns in our sample period....... The results provide some indication of a decline in the value-relevance of earnings information in the 1984-2001 period, and mixed, but not statistically reliable, evidence for accounting measures where book value information and asset values are also extracted from financial statements. The results seem...

  3. Final environmental statement for the geothermal leasing program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1973-12-31

    This second of the four volumes of the Geothermal Leasing Program final impact statement contains the individual environmental statements for the leasing of federally owned geothermal resources for development in three specific areas: Clear Lake-Geysers; Mono Lake-Long Valley; and Imperial Valley, all in California. It also includes a summary of the written comments received and departmental responses relative to the Draft Environmental Impact Statement issued in 1971; comments and responses on the Draft Environmental Impact Statement; consultation and coordination in the development of the proposal and in the preparation of the Draft Environmental Statement; and coordination in the review of the Draft Environmental Statement.

  4. ARE PLASTIC GROCERY BAGS SACKING THE ENVIRONMENT?

    OpenAIRE

    Mangal Gogte

    2009-01-01

    This paper is oriented on analysis impacts of plastic bags on environment. In this paper is analyzed did plastic bags are so harmful, and what are the main ingredients of it. One part of this paper is oriented on effects of plastic bags and management of their usage. There is also made comparative analysis between impacts of plastic and paper bags on environment.

  5. Experiments with elasto-plastic oscillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randrup-thomsen, Søren; Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager

    1996-01-01

    Plastic displacements of a Gaussian white noise excited three degrees of freedom non-ideal elasto-plastic oscillator are measured in laboratory experiments and the plastic displacements are compared to computer simulated results for the corresponding ideal elasto-plastic oscillator. The comparative...

  6. Experiments with elasto-plastic oscillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randrup-Thomsen, S.; Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager

    1999-01-01

    Plastic displacements of a Gaussian white noise excited three degrees of freedom non-ideal elasto-plastic oscillator are measured in laboratory experiments and the plastic displacements are compared to computer simulated results for the corresponding ideal elasto-plastic oscillator. The comparative...

  7. 49 CFR 192.281 - Plastic pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Plastic pipe. 192.281 Section 192.281... Plastic pipe. (a) General. A plastic pipe joint that is joined by solvent cement, adhesive, or heat fusion may not be disturbed until it has properly set. Plastic pipe may not be joined by a threaded joint...

  8. 49 CFR 192.59 - Plastic pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Plastic pipe. 192.59 Section 192.59 Transportation... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.59 Plastic pipe. (a) New plastic pipe... specification; and (2) It is resistant to chemicals with which contact may be anticipated. (b) Used plastic...

  9. The Story of the Plastics Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Don, Ed.

    This is an illustrated informative booklet, designed to serve members of the Society of the Plastics Industry, Inc., and the plastics industry as a whole. It provides basic information about the industry's history and growth, plastics raw materials, typical uses of plastics, properties, and methods of processing and fabricating. (Author/DS)

  10. Malaysia (country/area statements).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    According to this statement presented to the Committee on Population of the UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Malaysia by 1984 achieved a crude death rate of 5.3/1000, an infant mortality rate of 17/1000 live births, and a 1983 life expectancy at birth of 67.6 for males and 72.3 for females due primarily to socioeconomic development, better nutrition, and a health system covering 95% of the rural population. Substantial mortality differentials still exist between Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, and Sarawak, between urban and rural areas, and among ethnic groups. Differences in the coverage and quality of mortality statistics also exist. 83.2% of Malaysia's total population of 15.5 million is in Peninsular Malaysia, 7.3% in Sabah, and 9.5% in Sarawak. In Peninsular Malaysia, 55.1% are Malays, 33.9% Chinese, and 10.3% Indians. About 40% of the population is urban, and 39% is under age 15. The average annual rate of growth declined from 2.6% in the 1960s to 2.3% in the 1970s. The total fertility rate fell from 5.1 children in 1970 to 4.1 in 1980. A rise in age at 1st marriage and reduction in marital fertility have been partly offset by an increase in the proportion of women of childbearing age. The population is projected to grow to about 22 million by the year 2000. Chinese and Indians are expected to approach replacement level fertility by that year, but Malay fertility is expected to remain high for some time. Internal migration, 45% of which is intrarural, increased markedly in the 1970s, probably due to rapid modernization, industrialization, land development, and regional imbalances in economic development. In absolute terms a total of 410,000 persons moved from rural to urban areas during the 1970s. Important progress has been made in regional development programs, but further regional development requires resolution of problems related to internal migration and greater efforts to relocate industries in the less developed areas. The

  11. Statement on the identity of apple snails

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, R.; Candresse, T.; Dormannsné Simon, E.

    2012-01-01

    Following a request by the European Commission, EFSA’s Panel on Plant Health was asked to deliver a statement to clarify the current scientific knowledge regarding the identity of the apple snails in the context of the evaluation of the pest risk analysis prepared by the Spanish Ministry of Envir......Following a request by the European Commission, EFSA’s Panel on Plant Health was asked to deliver a statement to clarify the current scientific knowledge regarding the identity of the apple snails in the context of the evaluation of the pest risk analysis prepared by the Spanish Ministry...

  12. Statement on the identity of apple snails

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, R.; Candresse, T.; Dormannsné Simon, E.

    2012-01-01

    Following a request by the European Commission, EFSA’s Panel on Plant Health was asked to deliver a statement to clarify the current scientific knowledge regarding the identity of the apple snails in the context of the evaluation of the pest risk analysis prepared by the Spanish Ministry of Envir......Following a request by the European Commission, EFSA’s Panel on Plant Health was asked to deliver a statement to clarify the current scientific knowledge regarding the identity of the apple snails in the context of the evaluation of the pest risk analysis prepared by the Spanish Ministry...

  13. Resource Contingency Program : Draft Environmental Impact Statement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-02-01

    In 1990, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) embarked upon the Resource Contingency Program (RCP) to fulfill its statutory responsibilities to supply electrical power to its utility, industrial and other customers in the Pacific Northwest. Instead of buying or building generating plants now, BPA has purchased options to acquire power later if needed. Three option development agreements were signed in September 1993 with three proposed natural gas-fired, combined cycle combustion turbine CT projects near Chehalis and Satsop Washington and near Hermiston, Oregon. This environmental impact statement addresses the environmental consequences of purchasing power from these options. This environmental impact statement addresses the environmental consequences of purchasing power from these options.

  14. The utility of Pro Forma Income Statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiboldt, Max; Reiboldt, John

    2002-01-01

    Recent headlines surrounding the financial demise of the nation's seventh largest company, Enron, and its subsequent entanglements with its accounting and consulting firm, Arthur Andersen, have placed a cloud of suspicion upon many reasonable business practices that otherwise are considered standard procedure. The proforma income statement is one of those practices. An oft-used tool in financial management, pro formas play a useful role for projecting financial performance based on predictable forecasts or assumptions. Regardless of the current scrutiny, there is still a valid use for accurately prepared statements.

  15. Corporate Statements in the Facilities Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holzweber, Markus

    statements from FM organizations was selected and linked to financial data. The article reveals that the FM services industry would benefit from the concept of capability coherence. Findings showed that FM organizations showing higher scores of capability coherence have higher profitability scores.......In today’s services business domain, especially in facility services and facilities management (FM), customers are becoming more informed as to the level of choice and competition for their custom. This has led businesses to develop and maintain strategic elements of corporate statements...

  16. Deformation mechanisms of plasticized starch materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikus, P-Y; Alix, S; Soulestin, J; Lacrampe, M F; Krawczak, P; Coqueret, X; Dole, P

    2014-12-19

    The aim of this paper is to understand the influence of plasticizer and plasticizer amount on the mechanical and deformation behaviors of plasticized starch. Glycerol, sorbitol and mannitol have been used as plasticizers. After extrusion of the various samples, dynamic mechanical analyses and video-controlled tensile tests have been performed. It was found that the nature of plasticizer, its amount as well as the aging of the material has an impact on the involved deformation mechanism. The variations of volume deformation could be explained by an antiplasticization effect (low plasticizer amount), a phase-separation phenomenon (excess of plasticizer) and/or by the retrogradation of starch.

  17. Numerical Simulation of the Mechanical Properties and Failure of Heterogeneous Elasto-Plastic Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A general numerical approach was developed to simulate the mechanical properties and the failure of heterogeneous elasto-plastic materials using statistical distributions of the material properties. An appropriate elastic-plastic constitutive relation is used to describe the material behavior and failure in each element, with a two-parameter Weibull distribution used to produce the initial heterogeneous material property variations. An adaptive incremental load-step is applied so that only one or a few elements (or integration points) change their status (i.e., from elastic to plastic, or from plastic to strain failure) within one load step. A failed element is then assigned a very small modulus to simulate the failure rather than removing it from the model, which keeps the continuity of the geometric mesh. The numerical results show that the model is suitable for simulating the effective mechanical properties and failure of heterogeneous materials with local elasto-plastic constitutive relations.

  18. Evolution of phenotypic plasticity in colonizing species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lande, Russell

    2015-05-01

    I elaborate an hypothesis to explain inconsistent empirical findings comparing phenotypic plasticity in colonizing populations or species with plasticity from their native or ancestral range. Quantitative genetic theory on the evolution of plasticity reveals that colonization of a novel environment can cause a transient increase in plasticity: a rapid initial increase in plasticity accelerates evolution of a new optimal phenotype, followed by slow genetic assimilation of the new phenotype and reduction of plasticity. An association of colonization with increased plasticity depends on the difference in the optimal phenotype between ancestral and colonized environments, the difference in mean, variance and predictability of the environment, the cost of plasticity, and the time elapsed since colonization. The relative importance of these parameters depends on whether a phenotypic character develops by one-shot plasticity to a constant adult phenotype or by labile plasticity involving continuous and reversible development throughout adult life. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Adiabatic Shear Localization for Steels Based on Johnson-Cook Model and Second- and Fourth-Order Gradient Plasticity Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xue-bin

    2007-01-01

    To consider the effects of the interactions and interplay among microstructures, gradient-dependent models of second- and fourth-order are included in the widely used phenomenological Johnson-Cook model where the effects of strain-hardening, strain rate sensitivity, and thermal-softening are successfully described. The various parameters for 1006 steel, 4340 steel and S-7 tool steel are assigned. The distributions and evolutions of the local plastic shear strain and deformation in adiabatic shear band (ASB) are predicted. The calculated results of the second- and fourth-order gradient plasticity models are compared. S-7 tool steel possesses the steepest profile of local plastic shear strain in ASB, whereas 1006 steel has the least profile. The peak local plastic shear strain in ASB for S-7 tool steel is slightly higher than that for 4340 steel and is higher than that for 1006 steel. The extent of the nonlinear distribution of the local plastic shear deformation in ASB is more apparent for the S-7 tool steel, whereas it is the least apparent for 1006 steel. In fourth-order gradient plasticity model, the profile of the local plastic shear strain in the middle of ASB has a pronounced plateau whose width decreases with increasing average plastic shear strain, leading to a shrink of the portion of linear distribution of the profile of the local plastic shear deformation. When compared with the second-order gradient plasticity model, the fourth-order gradient plasticity model shows a lower peak local plastic shear strain in ASB and a higher magnitude of plastic shear deformation at the top or base of ASB, which is due to wider ASB. The present numerical results of the second- and fourth-order gradient plasticity models are consistent with the previous numerical and experimental results at least qualitatively.

  20. Changes in the Floating Plastic Pollution of the Mediterranean Sea in Relation to the Distance to Land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrotti, Maria Luiza; Petit, Stéphanie; Elineau, Amanda; Bruzaud, Stéphane; Crebassa, Jean-Claude; Dumontet, Bruno; Martí, Elisa; Gorsky, Gabriel; Cózar, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    The composition, size distribution, and abundance of floating plastic debris in surface waters of the Mediterranean Sea were analyzed in relation to distance to land. We combined data from previously published reports with an intensive sampling in inshore waters of the Northwestern Mediterranean. The highest plastic concentrations were found in regions distant from from land as well as in the first kilometer adjacent to the coastline. In this nearshore water strip, plastic concentrations were significantly correlated with the nearness to a coastal human population, with local areas close to large human settlements showing hundreds of thousands of plastic pieces per km2. The ratio of plastic to plankton abundance reached particularly high values for the coastal surface waters. Polyethylene, polypropylene and polyamides were the predominant plastic polymers at all distances from coast (86 to 97% of total items), although the diversity of polymers was higher in the 1-km coastal water strip due to a higher frequency of polystyrene or polyacrylic fibers. The plastic size distributions showed a gradual increase in abundance toward small sizes indicating an efficient removal of small plastics from the surface. Nevertheless, the relative abundance of small fragments (plastic debris in areas closest to Mediterranean coast. The presence of a high concentration of plastic including tiny plastic items could have significant environmental, health and economic impacts.

  1. Adiabatic shear localization evolution for steel based on the Johnson-Cook model and gradient-dependent plasticity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuebin Wang

    2006-01-01

    Gradient-dependent plasticity is introduced into the phenomenological Johnson-Cook model to study the effects of strainhardening, strain rate sensitivity, thermal-softening, and microstructure. The microstructural effect (interactions and interplay among microstructures) due to heterogeneity of texture plays an important role in the process of development or evolution of an adiabatic shear band with a certain thickness depending on the grain diameter. The distributed plastic shear strain and deformation in the shear band are derived and depend on the critical plastic shear strain corresponding to the peak flow shear stress, the coordinate or position, the internal length parameter, and the average plastic shear strain or the flow shear stress. The critical plastic shear strain, the distributed plastic shear strain, and deformation in the shear band are numerically predicted for a kind of steel deformed at a constant shear strain rate.Beyond the peak shear stress, the local plastic shear strain in the shear band is highly nonuniform and the local plastic shear deformation in the band is highly nonlinear. Shear localization is more apparent with the increase of the average plastic shear strain. The calculated distributions of the local plastic shear strain and deformation agree with the previous numerical and experimental results.

  2. Modeling the drift of plastics in the Adriatic Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liubartseva, Svitlana; Coppini, Giovanni; Lecci, Rita; Creti, Sergio

    2016-04-01

    Recently, plastic pollution at sea has become widely recognized as an acute environmental problem. Distribution of plastics in the marine environment is controlled by (1) locations and time-varying intensity of inputs; (2) the dynamics of the upper mixed layer of the ocean, where the majority of plastics float; and (3) the sinks of plastics. In the present work, we calculate the plastic concentrations at the sea surface and fluxes onto the coastline (2009-2015) that originated from terrestrial and maritime inputs. We construct a Markov chain model based on coupling the MEDSLIK-II model (De Dominicis et al., 2013) with the daily Adriatic Forecasting System (AFS) ocean currents simulations (1/45° horizontal resolution) (Guarneri et al., 2010) and ECMWF surface wind analyses (0.25° horizontal and 6-h temporal resolutions). We assume that the coastline is the main sink of plastics in the Adriatic Sea (Liubartseva et al., 2015). Our calculations have shown that the mean particle half-life in the basin approximately equals 43.7 days, which allows us to define the Adriatic Sea as a highly dissipative system with respect to floating plastics. On long-term time-mean scales, the most polluted sea surface area (more than 10 g/km2 floating plastics) is represented by an elongated band shifted to the Italian coastline and narrowed from northwest to southeast. That corresponds to the spatial distributions of plastic inputs, and indicates a tight connection with patterns of the general Adriatic circulation, including the Western Adriatic Coastal Current and the South Adriatic gyre. On seasonal time-mean scales, we indicate the winter plastics' expansion into the basin's interior, spring trapping in the northern Adriatic, summer cleansing the middle and southern Adriatic and autumn spreading into the southeastern Adriatic. Distinctive coastal "hot spot" is found on the Po Delta coastline that receives a plastic flux of 70 kg/(kmṡday). Complex source-receptor relationships

  3. Positive self-statements: power for some, peril for others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Joanne V; Perunovic, W Q Elaine; Lee, John W

    2009-07-01

    Positive self-statements are widely believed to boost mood and self-esteem, yet their effectiveness has not been demonstrated. We examined the contrary prediction that positive self-statements can be ineffective or even harmful. A survey study confirmed that people often use positive self-statements and believe them to be effective. Two experiments showed that among participants with low self-esteem, those who repeated a positive self-statement ("I'm a lovable person") or who focused on how that statement was true felt worse than those who did not repeat the statement or who focused on how it was both true and not true. Among participants with high self-esteem, those who repeated the statement or focused on how it was true felt better than those who did not, but to a limited degree. Repeating positive self-statements may benefit certain people, but backfire for the very people who "need" them the most.

  4. 32 CFR 1636.10 - Statement of reasons for denial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CLASSIFICATION OF CONSCIENTIOUS OBJECTORS § 1636.10 Statement of reasons for denial. (a) Denial of a conscientious objector claim by a board must be accompanied by a statement specifying the reason(s) for...

  5. 77 FR 46790 - Environmental Impact Statement: Dane County, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Dane County, WI AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement. SUMMARY:...

  6. 76 FR 49526 - Environmental Impact Statement; Saint Louis County, MN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement; Saint Louis County, MN AGENCY: Federal... advise the public that an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) will be prepared to respond to the terms... INFORMATION CONTACT: Philip Forst, Environmental Specialist, Federal Highway Administration, 380 Jackson...

  7. 78 FR 46677 - Environmental Impact Statement; Calcasieu Parish, LA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement; Calcasieu Parish, LA AGENCY: Federal... is issuing this notice to advise the public that an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) will be... the potential for impacts and issues associated with various socioeconomic and environmental resources...

  8. 75 FR 52804 - Environmental Impact Statement: Stanislaus County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Stanislaus County, CA AGENCY: Federal... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) will be prepared for a proposed highway project in Stanislaus County... subsequent environmental documentation for project-specific impacts. Letters describing the proposed action...

  9. Resonating Statements: Discursive acts in IT projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelholt, Morten; Jensen, Tina Blegind

    2015-01-01

    IT projects are often complex arrangements of technological components, social actions, and organizational transformation that are difficult to manage in practice. This paper takes an analytical discourse perspective to explore the process of legitimizing IT projects. We introduce the concept of ...... as part of a feedback loop to re-attach the localized IT project to the broader national discourse. The paper concludes with reflections on how to actively build on resonating statements as a strategic resource for legitimizing IT projects.......IT projects are often complex arrangements of technological components, social actions, and organizational transformation that are difficult to manage in practice. This paper takes an analytical discourse perspective to explore the process of legitimizing IT projects. We introduce the concept...... of resonating statements to highlight how central actors navigate in various discourses over time. Particularly, the statements and actions of an IT project manager are portrayed to show how individuals can legitimize actions by connecting statements to historically produced discourses. The case study...

  10. 12 CFR 611.515 - Information statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Information statement. 611.515 Section 611.515 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ORGANIZATION Transfer of Authorities... letters and boldface type, that: THE FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION HAS NEITHER APPROVED NOR PASSED UPON...

  11. 78 FR 42893 - Statement on Regulatory Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-18

    ... serve the credit needs of its customers, i.e., America's farmers, ranchers, aquatic producers and... CREDIT ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Chapter VI RIN 3052-AC88 Statement on Regulatory Burden AGENCY: Farm Credit Administration. ACTION: Notice of intent; request for comment. SUMMARY: The Farm Credit Administration (FCA,...

  12. 12 CFR 327.2 - Certified statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the FDIC's e-business Web site FDICconnect a quarterly certified statement invoice each assessment... of the Assessments Section. (4) Each assessment period, the FDIC will provide courtesy e-mail... available and may be accessed on FDICconnect. E-mail notification will be sent to all individuals with...

  13. Academic Program Statement of Sangamon State University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangamon State Univ., Springfield, IL.

    The Statement is divided into four parts. The first part discusses the goals and organization of Sangamon State University. The institution will open in the Fall of 1970 as an upper division and graduate institution with emphasis on the liberal arts and the general area of public affairs, government, and related professions. It will operate on a…

  14. 29 CFR 511.8 - Prehearing statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROCEDURE FOR AMERICAN SAMOA § 511.8 Prehearing statements. (a) Every employer, employee, trade association, trade union, or group of employers, employees, associations, or unions in the industry as defined, or in... section 6(c) of the Administrative Procedure Act, the industry committee shall, after considering...

  15. 76 FR 63957 - Consumer Product Policy Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-14

    ... COMMISSION Consumer Product Policy Statement AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Proposed revision... general public (consumer products). While the NRC is not making any significant changes to the policy... intended for use by the general public (consumer products). Under this policy, the AEC and then the...

  16. Intellectual Capital Statements -When Rhetoric meets Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Lotte

    This article discusses the transversal lines between science and rhetoric and how it is possible to create reliable accounting statements by using rhetoric and not only traditional logic arguments. The underlying assumption in accounting - namely that it is possible to describe a firm completely ...... rhetoric and thus should be analyzed accordingly instead of being compared with traditional accounting. Finally, the case of Byggeplandata is used as an illustration of how rhetoric is applied in an intellectual capital statement.......This article discusses the transversal lines between science and rhetoric and how it is possible to create reliable accounting statements by using rhetoric and not only traditional logic arguments. The underlying assumption in accounting - namely that it is possible to describe a firm completely...... through numbers - is not sufficient. To give a nuanced description of a firm it is necessary to supplement the traditional accounting statement with descriptions based on other means than just numbers. The article describes the differences in ways of seeing the world through the rhetorical concepts...

  17. 37 CFR 2.33 - Verified statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... behalf of the applicant under § 2.193(e)(1). (b)(1) In an application under section 1(a) of the Act, the... likely, when applied to the goods or services of the other person, to cause confusion or mistake, or to... 44 of the Act, the verified statement must allege: That the applicant has a bona fide intention...

  18. 5 CFR 610.302 - Policy statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS HOURS OF DUTY Administrative Dismissals of Daily, Hourly, and Piecework Employees § 610.302 Policy statement. The authority in this... practicable, each administrative order issued under this subpart shall provide benefits for regular employees...

  19. Statement of the Authors Guild, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Irwin

    This paper is related to a similar statement presented at a Federal Trade Commission Symposium on Media Concentration. It was submitted by the Authors Guild to Senator Edward Kennedy's Subcommittee on Antitrust and Monopoly on May 10, 1978. It is one of several memoranda by the Guild opposing the acquisitions and mergers they feel have given…

  20. IAS 1 Presentation of Financial Statements - A Closer Look

    OpenAIRE

    Muthupandian, K S

    2008-01-01

    The International Accounting Standards Committee issued the International Accounting Standard 1 Presentation of Financial Statements. The objective of IAS 1 is to prescribe the basis for presentation of general purpose financial statements (GPFS), to ensure comparability both with the entity's financial statements of previous periods and with the financial statements of other entities. The objective of GPFS is to provide information about the financial position, financial performance, and cas...

  1. The Interim Financial Statements: The Case of Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Rogdaki, E.I.; Kazantzis, Ch.

    1999-01-01

    The following paper refers to the accounting and auditing issues which emerge in the preparation of the interim financial statements of the companies: Firstly, the interim financial statements are defined as being the financial statements that provide useful information about the financial position and the financial results of a company which are realized and accrued during the fiscal year. The interim financial statements can be prepared on a monthly basis, on a quarterly basis or covering a...

  2. Fraudulent Financial Statement: Evidence from Statement on Auditing Standard No. 99

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyanto Suyanto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The goals of this study are to empirically identify fraud risk factors and construct a model to predict the likelihood of financial statement frauds based on SAS No. 99. Employing logistic regression on 143 firms, this research  finds that fraud risk factor proxies for Pressure—net profit/total assets—and Opportunity— inventory/total assets ratio, related party transactions, and Big 4—are significantly associated with fraudulent financial statements, whereas none of the fraud risk factor proxies for Rationalization is significantly associated with fraudulent financial statements. Consistent with prior research, it seems that the likelihood of fraudulent financial statements is easier to be observed publicly using fraud risk factor proxies for Pressure and Opportunity rather than Rationalization. The constructed model can correctly classify firms with a relatively high success rate.

  3. Smartphones and the plastic surgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hadithy, Nada; Ghosh, Sudip

    2013-06-01

    Surgical trainees are facing limited training opportunities since the introduction of the European Working Time Directive. Smartphone sales are increasing and have usurped computer sales for the first time. In this context, smartphones are an important portable reference and educational tool, already in the possession of the majority of surgeons in training. Technology in the palm of our hands has led to a revolution of accessible information for the plastic surgery trainee and surgeon. This article reviews the uses of smartphones and applications for plastic surgeons in education, telemedicine and global health. A comprehensive guide to existing and upcoming learning materials and clinical tools for the plastic surgeon is included. E-books, podcasts, educational videos, guidelines, work-based assessment tools and online logbooks are presented. In the limited resource setting of modern clinical practice, savvy plastic surgeons can select technological tools to democratise access to education and best clinical care. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Mechanisms of GABAergic Homeostatic Plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wenner

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Homeostatic plasticity ensures that appropriate levels of activity are maintained through compensatory adjustments in synaptic strength and cellular excitability. For instance, excitatory glutamatergic synapses are strengthened following activity blockade and weakened following increases in spiking activity. This form of plasticity has been described in a wide array of networks at several different stages of development, but most work and reviews have focussed on the excitatory inputs of excitatory neurons. Here we review homeostatic plasticity of GABAergic neurons and their synaptic connections. We propose a simplistic model for homeostatic plasticity of GABAergic components of the circuitry (GABAergic synapses onto excitatory neurons, excitatory connections onto GABAergic neurons, cellular excitability of GABAergic neurons: following chronic activity blockade there is a weakening of GABAergic inhibition, and following chronic increases in network activity there is a strengthening of GABAergic inhibition. Previous work on GABAergic homeostatic plasticity supports certain aspects of the model, but it is clear that the model cannot fully account for some results which do not appear to fit any simplistic rule. We consider potential reasons for these discrepancies.

  5. Mitochondria, synaptic plasticity, and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Shachar, Dorit; Laifenfeld, Daphna

    2004-01-01

    The conceptualization of schizophrenia as a disorder of connectivity, i.e., of neuronal?synaptic plasticity, suggests abnormal synaptic modeling and neuronal signaling, possibly as a consequence of flawed interactions with the environment, as at least a secondary mechanism underlying the pathophysiology of this disorder. Indeed, deficits in episodic memory and malfunction of hippocampal circuitry, as well as anomalies of axonal sprouting and synapse formation, are all suggestive of diminished neuronal plasticity in schizophrenia. Evidence supports a dysfunction of mitochondria in schizophrenia, including mitochondrial hypoplasia, and a dysfunction of the oxidative phosphorylation system, as well as altered mitochondrial-related gene expression. Mitochondrial dysfunction leads to alterations in ATP production and cytoplasmatic calcium concentrations, as well as reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide production. All of the latter processes have been well established as leading to altered synaptic strength or plasticity. Moreover, mitochondria have been shown to play a role in plasticity of neuronal polarity, and studies in the visual cortex show an association between mitochondria and synaptogenesis. Finally, mitochondrial gene upregulation has been observed following synaptic and neuronal activity. This review proposes that mitochondrial dysfunction in schizophrenia could cause, or arise from, anomalies in processes of plasticity in this disorder.

  6. SOME DISCLOSURE ASPECTS REGARDING CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cirstea Andreea

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to analyze the current state of consolidated reporting practice harmonization concerning the choice of presenting the income statement, the changes in equity, the methods used for presenting the cash flow statement, the extant methods for evaluating and reporting goodwill, the extant methods in which jointly controlled entities are accounted in the consolidated financial statements, or the choice for recognizing investments in subsidiaries, jointly controlled entities and associates in the separate statements of the parent company. In order to achieve our goal we selected the first 10 groups, in order of their capitalization value, that were listed on each of the following capital markets: London Stock Exchange, NYSE Euronext (Paris Stock Exchange and Deutsche Börse (Frankfurt Stock Exchange and we analyzed, in a qualitative and in a quantitative manner, for a period of six years starting with 2007, their consolidated financial statements with the design to establish exactly which of the aspects stated in the International Financial Reporting Standards were being used for the items presented above. In order to complete the empirical research part of the paper that addresses from a comparative perspective the evaluation of the degree of material harmony between the reporting practices of groups listed on the three stock exchanges above-mentioned, we used statistical and mathematical methods represented by the I Index first described by Van der Tas. Taking into account the fact that since 2005 all listed companies on the European stock exchanges were required to adopt the international accounting standards for their consolidated financial disclosures, the degree of material harmony was studied only in reference to those requirements that presented two methods or possibilities of disclosure.Our findings suggest that the groups analyzed present a high degree of material harmonization with respect to the reporting

  7. Economic values and corporate financial statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magness, Vanessa

    2003-07-01

    Corporate financial statements do not include environmental values. This deficiency has contributed to the criticism that company managers do not include environmental impacts in the internal decision-making process. The accounting profession has not developed effective environmental reporting guidelines. This situation contributes to a second problem: the apparent inability of corporate reports to provide useful information to external parties. It has been suggested that by using nonmarket valuation methodologies, financial statements can be used to measure progress toward sustainable development. Nonmarket valuations are not generally accepted by the accounting profession. They are too subjective to support effective decisions, and too costly to obtain. Furthermore, demand for this sort of information appears small. Some of these issues may be resolved over time. The most serious challenge, however, concerns how enhanced financial reports would be used. Financial statements are supposed to help investors assess the amount, timing, and uncertainty of future cash flows. A substantial portion of environmental value is based on nonuse benefits, much of which will never be realized in company cash flows. In other words, the role of financial statements would have to change. Furthermore, since there is no general agreement as to the meaning of "sustainable development," efforts to operationalize the term have been fraught with difficulty. Moreover, monetization of environmental values could jeopardize their preservation, leaving some to question the overall objective of this form of reporting. For these reasons, while it is to be hoped that better reporting of environmental impacts will be forthcoming, the greatest advances will likely be outside the financial statements themselves.

  8. Mount Isa statement on quad bike safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Richard C; Knight, Sabina; Lower, Tony

    2014-01-01

    Quad bikes are the leading cause of death in Australian agriculture, with half of these deaths resulting from rollovers. Between 2001 and 2012, there were more than 160 such deaths in Australia, representing a significant burden. There is a diversity of public opinions offered about quad bike safety. The Are You Remotely Interested … in Prevention; Building a Culture of Safety conference held in Mount Isa, Queensland, in August 2012 brought together subject matter experts from across Australia to discuss a range of issues relevant to rural Australia (including quad bikes). During this conference, the Mount Isa Statement for Quad Bike Safety was produced. The intent of the Statement was to draw on existing evidence to highlight solutions and provide a direction for future efforts to reduce the burden of death and injury related to quad bike use. The conference provided an opportunity for those with an interest in quad bike safety to come together in one location, discuss the issues and develop a common direction (the Statement). The Statement is presented in three sections: a statement of the facts that were available at the time of development; a set of recommendations; and what needs to happen next. We believe to the best of our knowledge this is the first time where many potential solutions for keeping people safe while operating quad bikes in agriculture have been explored in a public forum. There are some immediate solutions that people can undertake to keep themselves and those in their care safe when using a quad bike: initially selecting safer vehicles to use; fitting quad bikes with crush protection devices; not carrying passengers or overloading the quads; and wearing helmets.

  9. Don’t Like RDF Reification? Making Statements about Statements Using Singleton Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Vinh; Bodenreider, Olivier; Sheth, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Statements about RDF statements, or meta triples, provide additional information about individual triples, such as the source, the occurring time or place, or the certainty. Integrating such meta triples into semantic knowledge bases would enable the querying and reasoning mechanisms to be aware of provenance, time, location, or certainty of triples. However, an efficient RDF representation for such meta knowledge of triples remains challenging. The existing standard reification approach allows such meta knowledge of RDF triples to be expressed using RDF by two steps. The first step is representing the triple by a Statement instance which has subject, predicate, and object indicated separately in three different triples. The second step is creating assertions about that instance as if it is a statement. While reification is simple and intuitive, this approach does not have formal semantics and is not commonly used in practice as described in the RDF Primer. In this paper, we propose a novel approach called Singleton Property for representing statements about statements and provide a formal semantics for it. We explain how this singleton property approach fits well with the existing syntax and formal semantics of RDF, and the syntax of SPARQL query language. We also demonstrate the use of singleton property in the representation and querying of meta knowledge in two examples of Semantic Web knowledge bases: YAGO2 and BKR. Our experiments on the BKR show that the singleton property approach gives a decent performance in terms of number of triples, query length and query execution time compared to existing approaches. This approach, which is also simple and intuitive, can be easily adopted for representing and querying statements about statements in other knowledge bases. PMID:25750938

  10. Don't Like RDF Reification? Making Statements about Statements Using Singleton Property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Vinh; Bodenreider, Olivier; Sheth, Amit

    2014-04-11

    Statements about RDF statements, or meta triples, provide additional information about individual triples, such as the source, the occurring time or place, or the certainty. Integrating such meta triples into semantic knowledge bases would enable the querying and reasoning mechanisms to be aware of provenance, time, location, or certainty of triples. However, an efficient RDF representation for such meta knowledge of triples remains challenging. The existing standard reification approach allows such meta knowledge of RDF triples to be expressed using RDF by two steps. The first step is representing the triple by a Statement instance which has subject, predicate, and object indicated separately in three different triples. The second step is creating assertions about that instance as if it is a statement. While reification is simple and intuitive, this approach does not have formal semantics and is not commonly used in practice as described in the RDF Primer. In this paper, we propose a novel approach called Singleton Property for representing statements about statements and provide a formal semantics for it. We explain how this singleton property approach fits well with the existing syntax and formal semantics of RDF, and the syntax of SPARQL query language. We also demonstrate the use of singleton property in the representation and querying of meta knowledge in two examples of Semantic Web knowledge bases: YAGO2 and BKR. Our experiments on the BKR show that the singleton property approach gives a decent performance in terms of number of triples, query length and query execution time compared to existing approaches. This approach, which is also simple and intuitive, can be easily adopted for representing and querying statements about statements in other knowledge bases.

  11. Mission Statements--Rhetoric, Reality, or Road Map to Success?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeling, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Mission statements are expected elements of business plans and corporate communications. Yet, practice in creating them and monitoring their impact varies and skeptics wonder about their usefulness. A survey of business literature provides a context for school library mission statements. Mission statements define the nature, purpose, and role of…

  12. 12 CFR 328.3 - Official advertising statement requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... OF GENERAL POLICY ADVERTISEMENT OF MEMBERSHIP § 328.3 Official advertising statement requirements. (a... advertising statement in advertisements—(1) General requirement. Except as provided in § 328.3(d), each... not insured in all of its advertisements requiring use of the official advertising statement....

  13. Pedagogical Declarations: Feminist Engagements with the Teaching Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sarah; Collard, Rosemary-Claire; Hoogeveen, Dawn

    2014-01-01

    To produce a teaching statement, current and aspiring teachers undertake the ostensibly straightforward task of putting their teaching philosophy onto paper. But upon close examination, the teaching statement--a seemingly simple object--is much more complex. The teaching statement is full of dual functions, many of which can be conceived of as…

  14. 7 CFR 1427.1081 - General statement and administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... with approval of the Director, KCCO, or the Director's designee. Financial statements shall show the... by the Director, KCCO, or the Director's designee, the financial statement of a parent company, which... Linters,” (2) A current financial statement on Form WA-51, “Financial Statement”, supported by...

  15. 12 CFR 308.177 - Statement of net worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... Unaudited financial statements are acceptable unless the administrative law judge or the Board of Directors otherwise requires. Financial statements or reports to a Federal or state agency, prepared before the... proceeding. (c) Statement confidential. Unless otherwise ordered by the Board of Directors or required by...

  16. 7 CFR 1775.21 - Audit or financial statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Audit or financial statements. 1775.21 Section 1775... Audit or financial statements. The grantee will provide an audit report or financial statements as follows: (a) Grantees expending $500,000 or more Federal funds per fiscal year will submit an...

  17. 14 CFR 21.130 - Statement of conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Statement of conformity. 21.130 Section 21... conformity. Each holder or licensee of a type certificate only, for a product manufactured in the United... Administrator a statement of conformity (FAA Form 317). This statement must be signed by an authorized...

  18. 39 CFR 3001.115 - Participant statement or brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Participant statement or brief. 3001.115 Section... Participant statement or brief. (a) Participant statement. Upon the filing of the petition for review of a... or she may file a brief as described in paragraph (b) of this section presenting the arguments,...

  19. 32 CFR 776.49 - Truthfulness in statements to others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Truthfulness in statements to others. 776.49... ADVOCATE GENERAL Rules of Professional Conduct § 776.49 Truthfulness in statements to others. (a) Truthfulness in statements to others. In the course of representing a client a covered attorney shall not...

  20. 48 CFR 552.270-24 - Statement of Lease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Statement of Lease. 552... Statement of Lease. As prescribed in 570.603, insert the following clause: Statement of Lease (SEP 1999) (a... this clause and, if such is the case, that (1) the lease is in full force and effect; and (2) the...

  1. 40 CFR 156.70 - Precautionary statements for human hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS LABELING REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES AND DEVICES Human Hazard and Precautionary Statements § 156.70 Precautionary statements for human hazards. (a) Requirement. Human hazard and... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Precautionary statements for human...

  2. 17 CFR 229.1010 - (Item 1010) Financial statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... share data, statements of cash flows, and comprehensive income required to be included in the company's... statements. 229.1010 Section 229.1010 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION....1010 (Item 1010) Financial statements. (a) Financial information. Furnish the following financial...

  3. 40 CFR 156.212 - Personal protective equipment statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...: (body protection statement); (glove statement, if applicable); (footwear statement, if applicable... shall be based on the more toxic (lower numbered) category. 2 For labeling language for chemical-resistant gloves, see paragraph (f) of this section. 3 For labeling language for respiratory...

  4. 21 CFR 201.50 - Statement of identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Statement of identity. 201.50 Section 201.50 Food... identity. (a) The label of prescription and insulin-containing drugs in package form shall bear as one of its principal features a statement of the identity of the drug. (b) Such statement of identity...

  5. 46 CFR 298.42 - Reporting requirements-financial statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting requirements-financial statements. 298.42... OBLIGATION GUARANTEES Defaults and Remedies, Reporting Requirements, Applicability of Regulations § 298.42 Reporting requirements—financial statements. (a) In general. The financial statements of the Company...

  6. 42 CFR 426.517 - CMS' statement regarding new evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false CMS' statement regarding new evidence. 426.517... DETERMINATIONS Review of an NCD § 426.517 CMS' statement regarding new evidence. (a) CMS may review any new... experts; and (5) Presented during any hearing. (b) CMS may submit a statement regarding whether the...

  7. 16 CFR 1.85 - Final environmental impact statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Final environmental impact statements. 1.85... Final environmental impact statements. (a) After the close of the comment period, the Bureau responsible for the matter will consider the comments received on the draft environmental impact statement and...

  8. 77 FR 25782 - Environmental Impact Statement: Madison County, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Madison County, IL AGENCY: Federal Highway... advise the public that an Environmental Impact Statement will be prepared for a proposed transportation... Transportation (IDOT) will prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for a project that involves improved...

  9. 40 CFR 124.61 - Final environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Final environmental impact statement... environmental impact statement. No final NPDES permit for a new source shall be issued until at least 30 days after the date of issuance of a final environmental impact statement if one is required under 40 CFR 6...

  10. 77 FR 6622 - Environmental Impact Statement: Caddo Parish, LA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Caddo Parish, LA AGENCY: Federal Highway... public that an Environmental Impact Statement will be prepared for a proposed highway project in Caddo... Council of Governments (NLCOG), will prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on a proposal to...

  11. 47 CFR 1.1314 - Environmental impact statements (EISs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Environmental impact statements (EISs). 1.1314... Procedures Implementing the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 § 1.1314 Environmental impact statements (EISs). (a) Draft Environmental Impact Statements (DEISs) (§ 1.1315) and Final Environmental...

  12. 78 FR 20714 - Environmental Impact Statement: Cook County, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Cook County, Illinois AGENCY: Federal... revised notice of intent to advise the public that an environmental impact statement is being prepared for... Transportation, is preparing an environmental impact statement (EIS) on a proposal to improve Interstate 290 (I...

  13. 76 FR 13017 - Environmental Impact Statement: Los Angeles County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Los Angeles County, CA AGENCY: Federal... Environmental Impact Statement will be prepared for a proposed highway project in Los Angeles County, California... Environmental Impact Statement on a proposal for the State Route 710 Gap North Closure project in Los Angeles...

  14. 76 FR 53531 - Environmental Impact Statement: Hancock County, MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-26

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Hancock County, MS AGENCY: Federal Highway... this notice to advise the public that an environmental impact statement will be prepared for a proposed... Transportation (MDOT), will prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the proposed widening and/or...

  15. 78 FR 75919 - Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    ... AGENCY Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements filed 12/02/2013 through 12/06/2013 pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice Section..., Interstate 66 Corridor Tier 1 Final Environmental Impact Statement and Tier 1 Record of Decision, Contact...

  16. 40 CFR 1508.11 - Environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Environmental impact statement. 1508.11 Section 1508.11 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.11 Environmental impact statement. Environmental impact statement means a detailed written...

  17. 39 CFR 775.11 - Environmental impact statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Environmental impact statements. 775.11 Section... POLICY ACT PROCEDURES § 775.11 Environmental impact statements. (a) Determining scope. Before an environmental impact statement is prepared, the following procedures must be followed to determine what issues...

  18. 7 CFR 1794.61 - Environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental impact statement. 1794.61 Section 1794..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Procedure for Environmental Impact Statements § 1794.61 Environmental impact statement. An EIS shall be prepared in accordance with...

  19. 78 FR 59414 - Environmental Impact Statement; King County, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement; King County, Washington AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Intent to prepare an environmental impact statement... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) will be prepared for a proposed project to (1) manage congestion and...

  20. 27 CFR 5.40 - Statements of age and percentage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... (b) Statements of age for rum, brandy, and Tequila. Age may, but need not, be stated on labels of rums, brandies, and Tequila, except that an appropriate statement with respect to age shall appear on... immature brandies) not required to bear a statement of age, and rum and Tequila aged for not less than...

  1. Background sounds contribute to spectrotemporal plasticity in primary auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moucha, Raluca; Pandya, Pritesh K; Engineer, Navzer D; Rathbun, Daniel L; Kilgard, Michael P

    2005-05-01

    The mammalian auditory system evolved to extract meaningful information from complex acoustic environments. Spectrotemporal selectivity of auditory neurons provides a potential mechanism to represent natural sounds. Experience-dependent plasticity mechanisms can remodel the spectrotemporal selectivity of neurons in primary auditory cortex (A1). Electrical stimulation of the cholinergic nucleus basalis (NB) enables plasticity in A1 that parallels natural learning and is specific to acoustic features associated with NB activity. In this study, we used NB stimulation to explore how cortical networks reorganize after experience with frequency-modulated (FM) sweeps, and how background stimuli contribute to spectrotemporal plasticity in rat auditory cortex. Pairing an 8-4 kHz FM sweep with NB stimulation 300 times per day for 20 days decreased tone thresholds, frequency selectivity, and response latency of A1 neurons in the region of the tonotopic map activated by the sound. In an attempt to modify neuronal response properties across all of A1 the same NB activation was paired in a second group of rats with five downward FM sweeps, each spanning a different octave. No changes in FM selectivity or receptive field (RF) structure were observed when the neural activation was distributed across the cortical surface. However, the addition of unpaired background sweeps of different rates or direction was sufficient to alter RF characteristics across the tonotopic map in a third group of rats. These results extend earlier observations that cortical neurons can develop stimulus specific plasticity and indicate that background conditions can strongly influence cortical plasticity.

  2. China Plastics Industry (2011) China Plastics Processing Industry Association

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ying

    2012-01-01

    General situation of China plastics industry in 2011 was reviewed, including the output and export/import of plastics products, synthetic resins,and plastics processing machinery, as well as major economic data, such as the total industrial values, sales and profits of plastics products, etc. Analysis of the market of plastics products in 2011 was made, and the developing trend of China plastics industry in 2012 was proposed.

  3. The Prism Plastic Calorimeter (PPC)

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This proposal supports two goals: \\\\ \\\\ First goal:~~Demonstrate that current, widely used plastic technologies allow to design Prism Plastic Calorimeter~(PPC) towers with a new ``liquid crystal'' type plastic called Vectra. It will be shown that this technique meets the requirements for a LHC calorimeter with warm liquids: safety, hermeticity, hadronic compensation, resolution and time response. \\\\ \\\\ Second goal:~~Describe how one can design a warm liquid calorimeter integrated into a LHC detector and to list the advantages of the PPC: low price, minimum of mechanical structures, minimum of dead space, easiness of mechanical assembly, accessibility to the electronics, possibility to recirculate the liquid. The absorber and the electronic being outside of the liquid and easily accessible, one has maximum flexibility to define them. \\\\ \\\\ The R&D program, we define here aims at showing the feasibility of these new ideas by building nine towers of twenty gaps and exposing them to electron and hadron beams.

  4. Plasticity in glutamatergic NTS neurotransmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, David D

    2008-12-10

    Changes in the physiological state of an animal or human can result in alterations in the cardiovascular and respiratory system in order to maintain homeostasis. Accordingly, the cardiovascular and respiratory systems are not static but readily adapt under a variety of circumstances. The same can be said for the brainstem circuits that control these systems. The nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) is the central integration site of baroreceptor and chemoreceptor sensory afferent fibers. This central nucleus, and in particular the synapse between the sensory afferent and second-order NTS cell, possesses a remarkable degree of plasticity in response to a variety of stimuli, both acute and chronic. This brief review is intended to describe the plasticity observed in the NTS as well as the locus and mechanisms as they are currently understood. The functional consequence of NTS plasticity is also discussed.

  5. Plastic litter accumulation on high-water strandline of urban beaches in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasiri, H B; Purushothaman, C S; Vennila, A

    2013-09-01

    Today, almost every beach on every coastline is threatened by human activities. The inadequate recycling and poor management of waste in developing countries has resulted in considerable quantities of plastic contaminating beaches. Though India has long coastline of 5,420 km along the mainland with 43 % of sandy beaches, data on litter accumulation, particularly the plastics, which are one of the most common and persistent pollutants in marine environment, are scanty. The abundance and distribution of plastic litter was quantitatively assessed in four sandy beaches in Mumbai, India, bimonthly from May 2011 to March 2012. Triplicates of 2 × 2 m (4 m(2)) quadrats were sampled in each beach with a total of 72 quadrats. Overall, average abundance of 11.6 items m(-2) (0.25-282.5 items m(-2)) and 3.24 g m(-2) (0.27-15.53 g m(-2)) plastic litter was recorded in Mumbai beaches. Plastic litter accumulation significantly varied temporally and spatially at p = 0.05. Significantly higher plastic litter accumulation was recorded in Juhu beach. Furthermore, the highest abundance by weight was recorded in November and May numerically. More than 80 % of plastic particles were within the size range of 5-100 mm both by number and weight. Moreover, coloured plastics were predominant with 67 % by number of items and 51 % by weight. Probably, the intense use of beaches for recreation, tourism, and religious activities has increased the potential for plastic contamination in urban beaches in Mumbai.

  6. Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowell, Michael S.

    1995-01-01

    A polishing compound for plastic surfaces. The compound contains by weight approximately 4 to 17 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 6 parts mineral spirits, 2.5 to 15 parts abrasive particles, and 2.5 to 10 parts water. The abrasive is tripoli or a similar material that contains fine particles silica. Preferably, most of the abrasive particles are less than approximately 10 microns, more preferably less than approximately 5 microns in size. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS.TM., LEXAN.TM., LUCITE.TM., polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired.

  7. Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stowell, M.S.

    1993-01-01

    A polishing compound for plastic surfaces is disclosed. The compound contains by weight approximately 4 to 17 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 6 parts mineral spirits, 2.5 to 15 parts abrasive particles, and 2.5 to 10 parts water. The abrasive is tripoli or a similar material that contains colloidal silica. Preferably, most of the abrasive particles are less than approximately 10 microns, more preferably less than approximately 5 microns in size. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS{sup TM}, LEXAN{sup TM}, LUCITE{sup TM}, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired.

  8. GAP-43 in synaptic plasticity: molecular perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holahan MR

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Matthew R HolahanDepartment of Neuroscience, Carleton University, Ottawa, ON, CanadaAbstract: The growth-associated protein, GAP-43 (also known as F1, neuromodulin, B-50, participates in the developmental regulation of axonal growth and neural network formation via protein kinase C-mediated regulation of cytoskeletal elements. Transgenic overexpression of GAP-43 can result in the formation of new synapses, neurite outgrowth, and synaptogenesis after injury. In a number of adult mammalian species, GAP-43 has been implicated in the regulation of synaptic transmission and plasticity, such as long-term potentiation, drug sensitization, and changes in memory processes. This review examines the molecular and biochemical attributes of GAP-43, its distribution in the central nervous system, subcellular localization, role in neurite outgrowth and development, and functions related to plasticity, such as those occurring during long-term potentiation, memory formation, and drug sensitization.Keywords: GAP-43, protein kinase C, axons, development, regeneration, long-term potentiation, memory

  9. On precision and accuracy (bias) statements for measurement procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruckner, L.A.; Hume, M.W.; Delvin, W.L.

    1988-01-01

    Measurement procedures are often required to contain precision and accuracy of precision and bias statements. This paper contains a glossary that explains various terms that often appear in these statements as well as an example illustrating such statements for a specific set of data. Precision and bias statements are shown to vary according to the conditions under which the data were collected. This paper emphasizes that the error model (an algebraic expression that describes how the various sources of variation affect the measurement) is an important consideration in the formation of precision and bias statements.

  10. CRAG (Composite Research Advisory Group) Test Methods for the Measurement of the Engineering Properties of Fibre Reinforced Plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-01

    coefficients in fibre reinforced plastic laminates. RAE Technical Report 81105, August 1981. UNLIMITED fig 900.1 00 Z a r40 N 6)l I...through- thickness moisture distribution and diffusion coefficients in fibre reinforced plastic laminates. RAE Technical Report 81105, August 1981. 4 C...procedures to be used to determine the fibre volume fraction (Vf) and the resin volume fraction (Vr) of cured fibre reinforced plastic laminates. It is not

  11. Studying plastic shear localization in aluminum alloys under dynamic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilalov, D. A.; Sokovikov, M. A.; Chudinov, V. V.; Oborin, V. A.; Bayandin, Yu. V.; Terekhina, A. I.; Naimark, O. B.

    2016-12-01

    An experimental and theoretical study of plastic shear localization mechanisms observed under dynamic deformation using the shear-compression scheme on a Hopkinson-Kolsky bar has been carried out using specimens of AMg6 alloy. The mechanisms of plastic shear instability are associated with collective effects in the microshear ensemble in spatially localized areas. The lateral surface of the specimens was photographed in the real-time mode using a CEDIP Silver 450M high-speed infrared camera. The temperature distribution obtained at different times allowed us to trace the evolution of the localization of the plastic strain. Based on the equations that describe the effect of nonequilibrium transitions on the mechanisms of structural relaxation and plastic flow, numerical simulation of plastic shear localization has been performed. A numerical experiment relevant to the specimen-loading scheme was carried out using a system of constitutive equations that reflect the part of the structural relaxation mechanisms caused by the collective behavior of microshears with the autowave modes of the evolution of the localized plastic flow. Upon completion of the experiment, the specimens were subjected to microstructure analysis using a New View-5010 optical microscope-interferometer. After the dynamic deformation, the constancy of the Hurst exponent, which reflects the relationship between the behavior of defects and roughness induced by the defects on the surfaces of the specimens is observed in a wider range of spatial scales. These investigations revealed the distinctive features in the localization of the deformation followed by destruction to the script of the adiabatic shear. These features may be caused by the collective multiscale behavior of defects, which leads to a sharp decrease in the stress-relaxation time and, consequently, a localized plastic flow and generation of fracture nuclei in the form of adiabatic shear. Infrared scanning of the localization zone of the

  12. Theory of Lattice Strain for Materials Undergoing Plastic Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karato, S.

    2008-12-01

    Radial x-ray diffraction is used to probe physical properties of materials including elastic and plastic properties. The theory used behind such an practice is the one developed by Singh (1993) in which the relation between lattice strain and elastic constants and macroscopic stress is derived. In this theory, the variation of inferred stress with the crystallographic planes, (hkl), is due to the elastic anisotropy. However, recent experimental studies showed that in many cases, the variation of stress with (hkl) far exceeds the value expected from this theory. I have developed a modified theory to rectify this problem with Singh's theory. In Singh's theory, the stress distribution in a polycrystalline material is treated only either unrelaxed or relaxed state. The role of plastic deformation is included only to the extent that plastic flow influences this stress state. Such an assumption corresponds to a Voigt model behavior, which is not an appropriate model at high temperatures where continuing plastic flow occurs with concurrent microscopic equilibrium, elastic deformation. This is a Maxwell model type behavior, and my model provides a stress analysis in a Maxwell material with anisotropic and non-linear power-law rheology. In this theory, the lattice strain corresponding to an imposed macroscopic strain-rate is calculated by three steps: (i) conversion of macroscopic strain-rate to macroscopic stress, (ii) conversion of macroscopic stress to microscopic stress at individual grains, and (iii) calculation of microscopic strain due to microscopic stress. The first step involves anisotropy in macroscopic viscosity that depends on anisotropy in crystal plasticity and lattice-preferred orientation. The second step involves anisotropic crystal plasticity and finally the third step involves elastic crystal anisotropy. In most cases, the influence of LPO is weak and in such a case, the lattice strain depends on (hkl) due to the anisotropy in both elastic and plastic

  13. Polycarbazoles microcavities: towards plastic blue lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castex, M.C.; Olivero, C.; Fischer, A.; Mousel, S.; Michelon, J.; Ades, D.; Siove, A

    2002-09-30

    With the aim of developing a plastic blue laser emitting around 400 nm, we have investigated the luminescence and lasing possibilities of recently designed new polymeric materials based on carbazole chromophores. Our carbazole compounds are used either as doping organic dyes in usual polymer cast films (e.g. PMMA) or as thin layers deposited onto a quartz substrate. In both cases, by using different interferometric methods, periodic patterning of surfaces has been realised and compared. Efficient relief gratings are produced by laser irradiation at 193 nm of a phase mask ({lambda}=1090 nm) in con onto carbazolic films. We demonstrate that such patterning allows photopumping of doped PMMA films in a planar waveguide configuration with distributed feedback (DFB) even for high Bragg grating order (m=6). Monomode stimulated emission is observed for rhodamine doped PMMA film. Preliminary results concerning UV photopumping of carbazolic films are presented.

  14. Polycarbazoles microcavities: towards plastic blue lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castex, M. C.; Olivero, C.; Fischer, A.; Mousel, S.; Michelon, J.; Adès, D.; Siove, A.

    2002-09-01

    With the aim of developing a plastic blue laser emitting around 400 nm, we have investigated the luminescence and lasing possibilities of recently designed new polymeric materials based on carbazole chromophores. Our carbazole compounds are used either as doping organic dyes in usual polymer cast films (e.g. PMMA) or as thin layers deposited onto a quartz substrate. In both cases, by using different interferometric methods, periodic patterning of surfaces has been realised and compared. Efficient relief gratings are produced by laser irradiation at 193 nm of a phase mask ( Λ=1090 nm) in contact onto carbazolic films. We demonstrate that such patterning allows photopumping of doped PMMA films in a planar waveguide configuration with distributed feedback (DFB) even for high Bragg grating order ( m=6). Monomode stimulated emission is observed for rhodamine doped PMMA film. Preliminary results concerning UV photopumping of carbazolic films are presented.

  15. Plasticizers effect on native biodegradable package materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozar, Onuc; Cioica, Nicolae; Coţa, Constantin; Nagy, Elena Mihaela; Fechete, Radu

    2017-01-01

    Changes in intensity of some IR and Raman bands suggest the plasticizing - antiplasticizing effects of water and glycerol contents and a small increase of amorphous/crystalline ratio, too. The nuclear magnetic relaxation data show that the amorphous/crystalline ratio depends on amylose/amylopectin mobility and also by the place of their polymer chain segments. Thus the distributions of spin-spin (T2) relaxation times and the shift toward higher values of some T2 characteristic peaks show that the increasing of water and glycerol content in the starch package materials lead to the more mobile amylose and amylopectin polymer chain segments and the prevalence of amorphous regions in the prepared native corn starch samples.

  16. Ways of Viewing Pictorial Plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten W. A. Wijntjes

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The plastic effect is historically used to denote various forms of stereopsis. The vivid impression of depth often associated with binocular stereopsis can also be achieved in other ways, for example, using a synopter. Accounts of this go back over a hundred years. These ways of viewing all aim to diminish sensorial evidence that the picture is physically flat. Although various viewing modes have been proposed in the literature, their effects have never been compared. In the current study, we compared three viewing modes: monocular blur, synoptic viewing, and free viewing (using a placebo synopter. By designing a physical embodiment that was indistinguishable for the three experimental conditions, we kept observers naïve with respect to the differences between them; 197 observers participated in an experiment where the three viewing modes were compared by performing a rating task. Results indicate that synoptic viewing causes the largest plastic effect. Monocular blur scores lower than synoptic viewing but is still rated significantly higher than the baseline conditions. The results strengthen the idea that synoptic viewing is not due to a placebo effect. Furthermore, monocular blur has been verified for the first time as a way of experiencing the plastic effect, although the effect is smaller than synoptic viewing. We discuss the results with respect to the theoretical basis for the plastic effect. We show that current theories are not described with sufficient details to explain the differences we found.

  17. Vascular plasticity in cerebrovascular disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edvinsson, Lars I H; Povlsen, Gro Klitgaard

    2011-01-01

    Cerebral ischemia remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality with little advancement in subacute treatment options. This review aims to cover and discuss novel insight obtained during the last decade into plastic changes in the vasoconstrictor receptor profiles of cerebral arteries and micr...

  18. American Society of Plastic Surgeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... know the risks and trust a board-certified plastic surgeon to perform your cosmetic or reconstructive surgery. ASPS member surgeons have the training and experience that ... 1300 Chain Bridge Road McLean, VA 22101 (703) 790-5454 Timothy Germain ...

  19. Biobased plastics in a bioeconomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philp, J C; Ritchie, R J; Guy, K

    2013-02-01

    Bioeconomy plans include a biobased industries sector in which some oil-derived plastics and chemicals are replaced by new or equivalent products derived, at least partially, from biomass. Some of these biobased products are here today, but to fulfil their societal potential, greater attention is required to promote awareness, and to improve their market share while making valuable contributions to climate change mitigation.

  20. Field based plastic contamination sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States has a long-held reputation of being a dependable source of high quality, contaminant-free cotton. Recently, increased incidence of plastic contamination from sources such as shopping bags, vegetable mulch, surface irrigation tubing, and module covers has threatened the reputation o...

  1. Plasticity Theory of Fillet Welds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with simple methods for calculation of fillet welds based on the theory of plasticity. In developing the solutions the lower-bound theorem is used. The welding material and parts of the base material are subdivided into triangular regions with homogeneous stress fields; thereby...

  2. For the Classroom: "Plastic" Jellyfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current: The Journal of Marine Education, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Describes an activity in which students monitor the plastic waste production in their households, research its effects on freshwater and marine life, and propose ways to lessen the problem. Provides objectives, background information, materials, procedures, extension activities, and an evaluation for students. (Author/RT)

  3. Oxytocin and Maternal Brain Plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sohye; Strathearn, Lane

    2016-01-01

    Although dramatic postnatal changes in maternal behavior have long been noted, we are only now beginning to understand the neurobiological mechanisms that support this transition. The present paper synthesizes growing insights from both animal and human research to provide an overview of the plasticity of the mother's brain, with a particular…

  4. Making sense of plastics recycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Bruggen, E.; Koster, R.P.; Rageart, K.; Cardon, L.; Moerman, M.; Blessing, E.

    2012-01-01

    Major benefits of plastics recycling are reduced depletion of non-renewable resources and reduction of world-wide waste. Traditional thermo-mechanical recycling causes reduction of mechanical properties for most thermoplastics. Down-cycled materials may nevertheless be suited for certain useful appl

  5. Action Knowledge in Intellectual Capital Statements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    2004-01-01

    Within the field of intellectual capital and knowledge management, the concept of knowledge is burdened by the naïve view of knowledge as passive representations of external reality. An alternative definition is proposed. ''Action knowledge'' is the categories and distinctions that guide human...... activity in appropriate ways. In the organisation, this definition highlights the intelligent actions taken by organisational members in pursuit of their goals. The paper offers a design for an intellectual capital statement that emphasises action knowledge in the organisation. A case is presented......: the intellectual capital statement of the Danish consulting firm, Nellemann Konsulenterne A/S. It shows a major concern with knowledge sharing and learning activities that bring out the dynamic nature of knowledge, as opposed to the ''amount'' of knowledge stored in databases and intranets...

  6. Plastic Surgeons Often Miss Patients' Mental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... More Health News on: Mental Disorders Plastic and Cosmetic Surgery Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Mental Disorders Plastic and Cosmetic Surgery About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get ...

  7. Lecture notes on Elasto-plastic materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hededal, Ole

    2007-01-01

    Brief introduction to material modelling within the framework of rate independent elasto-plastic constitutive modelling......Brief introduction to material modelling within the framework of rate independent elasto-plastic constitutive modelling...

  8. Phenotypic plasticity with instantaneous but delayed switches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Utz, Margarete; Jeschke, Jonathan M.; Loeschcke, Volker; Gabriel, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is a widespread phenomenon, allowing organisms to better adapt to changing environments. Most empirical and theoretical studies are restricted to irreversible plasticity where the expression of a specific phenotype is mostly determined during development. However, reversible pl

  9. Interpretation on Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is considering an interpretation of its regulations that would generally allow for recycling of plastic separated from shredder residue under the conditions described in the Voluntary Procedures for Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue.

  10. Developmental plasticity and evolution--quo vadis?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moczek, A P

    2015-01-01

    The role of developmental (phenotypic) plasticity in ecology and evolution is receiving a growing appreciation among the biologists, and many plasticity-specific concepts have become well established as part of the mainstream evolutionary...

  11. Gas Experiments with Plastic Soda Bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanah, Patrick; Zipp, Arden P.

    1998-01-01

    Describes the use of an inexpensive device consisting of a plastic soda bottle and a modified plastic cap in a range of demonstrations and experimental activities having to do with the behavior of gases. (Author/WRM)

  12. [The history of plastic surgery in Israel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiser, Itay; Scheflan, Michael; Heller, Lior

    2014-09-01

    The medical institutions in the country have advanced together with the development of the state of Israel. Plastic surgery, which has progressed significantly during the 20th century, has also grown rapidly in the new state. The arrival of Jewish plastic surgeons from all over the world with the knowledge and experience gained in their countries of origin, as well as the need for reconstructive surgical treatment for many combat injured soldiers, also contributed to the development of plastic surgery. This review tells the story of plastic surgery in Israel, since its foundation until nowadays. This article reviews the work of the founders of plastic surgery in Israel, indicating significant milestones in its development, and clinical and scientific contribution to the international plastic surgery profession. Moreover, the article describes the current condition of the field of plastic surgery in Israel and presents the trends and the future challenges facing the next generation of plastic surgery in Israel.

  13. Innovation Promotes Development of Plastic Assistant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Driven by the rapid growth of China's plastic product sector, the development of the plastic sector has been accelerated and assistant products are now becoming more multi-function, high performance, high in molecular weight and environmentfriendly.

  14. Perambulator: An Artist’s Statement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Qualmann

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This artist’s statement describes the development of a participatory performance project ‘Perambulator’. Conceived in response to the shift in walking practice experienced in early motherhood, the project invited other pram users (predominantly mothers to walk together exploring and highlighting the everyday awkwardness of pram use in the city. Alongside an overview of the projects’ methods: walking, talking and mapping, connections to walking art and participatory art practices are considered.

  15. Hanford science and technology needs statements document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piper, L.L.

    1997-12-31

    This document is a compilation of the Hanford science and technology needs statements for FY 1998. The needs were developed by the Hanford Site Technology Coordination Group (STCG) with full participation and endorsement of site user organizations, stakeholders, and regulators. The purpose of this document is to: (a) provide a comprehensive listing of Hanford science and technology needs, and (b) identify partnering and commercialization opportunities with industry, other federal and state agencies, and the academic community. The Hanford STCG reviews and updates the needs annually. Once completed, the needs are communicated to DOE for use in the development and prioritization of their science and technology programs, including the Focus Areas, Cross-Cutting Programs, and the Environmental Management Science Program. The needs are also transmitted to DOE through the Accelerating Cleanup: 2006 Plan. The public may access the need statements on the Internet on: the Hanford Home Page (www.hanford.gov), the Pacific Rim Enterprise Center`s web site (www2.pacific-rim.org/pacific rim), or the STCG web site at DOE headquarters (em-52.em.doegov/ifd/stcg/stcg.htm). This page includes links to science and technology needs for many DOE sites. Private industry is encouraged to review the need statements and contact the Hanford STCG if they can provide technologies that meet these needs. On-site points of contact are included at the ends of each need statement. The Pacific Rim Enterprise Center (206-224-9934) can also provide assistance to businesses interested in marketing technologies to the DOE.

  16. Influence of stimulated plasticity training method on coordination indicators of high pedagogic educational estableshments’ girl students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolumbet A.N.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: study of stimulated plasticity training’s influence on coordination indicators of pedagogic HEEs’ girl students. Material: 264 girl students participated in the research. Experiment was being carried out during three years. Responding abilities, static and dynamic balance, orientation in space, promptness of operative thinking, volume of mechanical memorizing, distribution of attention, accuracy, quickness and of attention re-switching, accuracy of tasks’ fulfillment were assessed. Results: it was found that plasticity has different kinds and forms of manifestation. Creative motor tasks require different conditions for their realization. We determined rates of plasticity increment by its main kinds. Plasticity of body movements was achieved at high level of different muscular groups’ coordination, optimal rhythm, rational correlation of tension and relaxation. Conclusions: it was found that plasticity shall be trained in compliance with its kinds and manifestations. It requires appropriated approach to content of methodic of its perfection.

  17. Plastic Strain Induced Damage Evolution and Martensitic Transformation in Ductile Materials at Cryogenic Temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Garion, C

    2002-01-01

    The Fe-Cr-Ni stainless steels are well known for their ductile behaviour at cryogenic temperatures. This implies development and evolution of plastic strain fields in the stainless steel components subjected to thermo-mechanical loads at low temperatures. The evolution of plastic strain fields is usually associated with two phenomena: ductile damage and strain induced martensitic transformation. Ductile damage is described by the kinetic law of damage evolution. Here, the assumption of isotropic distribution of damage (microcracks and microvoids) in the Representative Volume Element (RVE) is made. Formation of the plastic strain induced martensite (irreversible process) leads to the presence of quasi-rigid inclusions of martensite in the austenitic matrix. The amount of martensite platelets in the RVE depends on the intensity of the plastic strain fields and on the temperature. The evolution of the volume fraction of martensite is governed by a kinetic law based on the accumulated plastic strain. Both of thes...

  18. The 7 Aarhus Statements on Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margrethe Basse, Ellen; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Olesen, Jørgen E.; Besenbacher, Flemming; Læssøe, Jeppe; Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig; Lange, Lene

    2009-03-01

    More than 1000 prominent representatives from science, industry, politics and NGOs were gathered in Aarhus on 5-7 March 2009 for the international climate conference 'Beyond Kyoto: Addressing the Challenges of Climate Change'. Thematically, Beyond Kyoto was divided into seven areas of particular interest for understanding the effects of the projected future climate change and how the foreseen negative impacts can be counteracted by mitigation and adaptation measures. The themes were: Climate policy: the role of law and economics; Biodiversity and ecosystems; Agriculture and climate change; Nanotechnology solutions for a sustainable future; Citizens and society, and The Arctic. The main responsible scientists for the seven conference themes and representatives from the think-tank CONCITO delivered 'The 7 Aarhus Statements on Climate Change' as part of the closing session of the conference. The statements were also communicated to the Danish Government as well as to the press. This article is the product of the collective subsequent work of the seven theme responsibles and is a presentation of each theme statement in detail, emphasizing the current state of knowledge and how it may be used to minimize the expected negative impacts of future climate change.

  19. ARE PLASTIC GROCERY BAGS SACKING THE ENVIRONMENT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangal Gogte

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is oriented on analysis impacts of plastic bags on environment. In this paper is analyzed did plastic bags are so harmful, and what are the main ingredients of it. One part of this paper is oriented on effects of plastic bags and management of their usage. There is also made comparative analysis between impacts of plastic and paper bags on environment.

  20. Economical and Ecological Fesasibility of Plastic Recycling

    OpenAIRE

    Hirschpold, Andrew; Juctye, Kristina; Renzhong, Jiang; Debin, LIU; Varona, Hector P.; Kevelaitis, Karolis

    2005-01-01

    #Group 3 International Nat Bas Economical and Ecological Feasibility of Plastic Recycling Abstract This project is carried out as the final project for the first semester of Bachelor of Science studies. Our project will aim on plastic recycling. Plastic is a manmade material which covers a range of synthetic or semi-synthetic products made thru polymerization. The development of plastic products has accompanied the development of human’s history since it was invented while they ...

  1. WE(EE) Demand - Recycled Plastic

    OpenAIRE

    Førby, Marie; Pedersen, Jakob; Borgen, Nanna; Hansen, Rasmus Nør

    2015-01-01

    Plastic management – from production to waste – has massive negative effects on the environment of which one of the main problems are the CO2 released from the fossil fuels. The focus of this paper lies on the possibilities of increasing demand for recycled plastics from electric and electronic equipment (WEEE-plastic) through modifications in the Danish waste systems. Due to the chemical build of plastic, it is not possible to reprocess it with mechanical recycle technologies while keeping t...

  2. Think small: nanotechnology for plastic surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Amir R; Brenner, Sara A

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce the topic of nanotechnology to plastic surgeons and to discuss its relevance to medicine in general and plastic surgery in particular. Nanotechnology will be defined, and some important historical milestones discussed. Common applications of nanotechnology in various medical and surgical subspecialties will be reviewed. Future applications of nanotechnology to plastic surgery will be examined. Finally, the critical field of nanotoxicology and the safe use of nanotechnology in medicine and plastic surgery will be addressed.

  3. The advent of the restorative plastic surgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carty, Matthew J; Pribaz, Julian J; Talbot, Simon G; Caterson, Edward J; Pomahac, Bohdan

    2014-01-01

    Plastic surgery is presently typified by the existence of discrete clinical identities, namely that of the cosmetic plastic surgeon and the reconstructive plastic surgeon. The emergence of vascularized composite allotransplantation has been accompanied by the development of a third distinct clinical identity, that of the restorative plastic surgeon. The authors describe the core competencies that characterize this new identity, and discuss the implications of the advent of this new professional paradigm.

  4. Economical and Ecological Fesasibility of Plastic Recycling

    OpenAIRE

    Hirschpold, Andrew; Juctye, Kristina; Renzhong, Jiang; Debin, Liu; Varona, Hector P.; Kevelaitis, Karolis

    2005-01-01

    #Group 3 International Nat Bas Economical and Ecological Feasibility of Plastic Recycling Abstract This project is carried out as the final project for the first semester of Bachelor of Science studies. Our project will aim on plastic recycling. Plastic is a manmade material which covers a range of synthetic or semi-synthetic products made thru polymerization. The development of plastic products has accompanied the development of human’s history since it was invented while they ...

  5. Will Banning Free Plastic Bags Reduce Pollution?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    No more free plastic bags from June 1,2008.That’s the message to Chinese shoppers after a government ban on all production,sales or use of plastic bags less than 0.025 mm thick comes into force from this date.Nowadays,supermarkets give out 1 billion plastic bags every day while other shops collectively use double that amount. Consumers will have to pay for plastic bags exceeding this thickness,if they want this option.

  6. ANALYSIS ON THERMAL ELASTO- PLASTIC ASPERITY CONTACTS OF LAYERED MEDIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TONG Ruiting; LIU Geng; ZENG Quanren; LIU ianxiang

    2008-01-01

    A thermal elasto-plastic asperity contact model is investigated, which takes into account the steady-state heat transfer and the asperity distortion due to thermal elasto-plastic deformations. A hard coating and a soft coating are applied to study the correlations between contact area and contact pressure, average gap and contact pressure, coating thickness and contours of the contact stress distribution, etc. The effects of material properties, coating thickness, frictional coefficient, and the heat input combinations on the stress distribution are investigated and discussed. The frictional heat input increases the maximum value of von Mises stress. Finally, the appropriate thickness of the hard coating is also discussed. To protect the substrate, one can choose hard coating and the thickness of that is suggested that can be hc=70 Rm.

  7. Social media use and impact on plastic surgery practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardanian, Andrew J; Kusnezov, Nicholas; Im, Daniel D; Lee, James C; Jarrahy, Reza

    2013-05-01

    Social media platforms have revolutionized the way human beings communicate, yet there is little evidence describing how the plastic surgery community has adopted social media. In this article, the authors evaluate current trends in social media use by practicing plastic surgeons. An anonymous survey on the use of social media was distributed to members of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons. Prevalent patterns of social media implementation were elucidated. One-half of respondents were regular social media users. Reasons for using social media included the beliefs that incorporation of social media into medical practice is inevitable (56.7 percent), that they are an effective marketing tool (52.1 percent), and that they provide a forum for patient education (49 percent). Surgeons with a primarily aesthetic surgery practice were more likely to use social media. Most respondents (64.6 percent) stated that social media had no effect on their practice, whereas 33.8 percent reported a positive impact and 1.5 percent reported a negative impact. This study depicts current patterns of social media use by plastic surgeons, including motivations driving its implementation and impressions on its impact. Many feel that social media are an effective marketing tool that generates increased exposure and referrals. A small number of surgeons have experienced negative repercussions from social media involvement. Our study reveals the presence of a void. There is a definite interest among those surveyed in developing best practice standards and oversight to ensure ethical use of social media platforms throughout the plastic surgery community. Continuing discussion regarding these matters should be ongoing as our experience with social media in plastic surgery evolves.

  8. A Coupled Multiscale Model of Texture Evolution and Plastic Anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawad, J.; Van Bael, A.; Yerra, S. K.; Samaey, G.; Van Houtte, P.; Roose, D.

    2010-06-01

    In this paper we present a multiscale model of a plastic deformation process in which the anisotropy of plastic properties is related to the evolution of the crystallographic texture. The model spans several length scales from the macroscopic deformation of the workpiece to the microscale interactions between individual grains in a polycrystalline material. The macroscopic behaviour of the material is described by means of a Finite Element (FE) model. Plastic anisotropy is taken into account in a constitutive law, based on the concept of a plastic potential in strain rate space. The coefficients of a sixth-order Facet equation are determined using the Taylor theory, provided that the current crystallographic texture at a given FE integration point is known. Texture evolution in the FE integration points is predicted by an ALAMEL micromechanical model. Mutual interactions between coarse and fine scale are inherent in the physics of the deformation process. These dependencies are taken into account by full bidirectional coupling in the model. Therefore, the plastic deformation influences the crystallographic texture and the evolution of the texture induces anisotropy of the macroscopic deformation. The presented approach enables an adaptive texture and yield surface update scheme with respect to the local plastic deformation in the FE integration points. Additionally, the computational cost related to the updates of the constitutive law is reduced by application of parallel computing techniques. Suitability of on-demand computing for this computational problem is discussed. The parallelisation strategy addresses both distributed memory and shared memory architectures. The cup drawing process has been simulated using the multiscale model outlined above. The discussion of results includes the analysis of the planar anisotropy in the cup and the influence of complex deformation path on texture development. Evolution of texture at selected material points is assessed as

  9. Plastics. A Handbook for Workplace Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Donna; Smith, Mikki

    This handbook was designed to help adult literacy education teachers to understand the plastics industry, develop a curriculum, and teach basic skills classes in a plastics company. The book contains four main sections. The first section, on the basics of plastics, contains a brief history of the industry, an elementary description of the…

  10. 7 CFR 58.326 - Plastic cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Plastic cream. 58.326 Section 58.326 Agriculture... Material § 58.326 Plastic cream. To produce plastic cream eligible for official certification, the quality of the cream used shall meet the requirements of cream acceptable for the manufacture of U.S....

  11. Adult myelination:wrapping up neuronal plasticity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Megan ORourke; Robert Gasperini; Kaylene M.Young

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we outline the major neural plasticity mechanisms that have been identiifed in the adult central nervous system (CNS), and offer a perspective on how they regulate CNS function. In particular we examine how myelin plasticity can operate alongside neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity to inlfuence information processing and transfer in the mature CNS.

  12. The evolution of age-dependent plasticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Barbara; van Doorn, G. Sander; Dieckmann, Ulf; Taborsky, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    When organisms encounter environments that are heterogeneous in time, phenotypic plasticity is often favored by selection. The degree of such plasticity can vary during an organism''s lifetime, but the factors promoting differential plastic responses at different ages or life stages remain poorly un

  13. 75 FR 34170 - Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC, Anderson, SC; Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... Employment and Training Administration Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC, Anderson, SC; Plastic Omnium... Assistance on March 18, 2010, applicable to workers of Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC, Anderson... have occurred involving workers in support of the Anderson, South Carolina location of Plastic...

  14. Plastic deformation and contact area of an elastic-plastic contact of ellipsoid bodies after unloading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamari, Jamari; Schipper, Dirk J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents theoretical and experimental results of the residual or plastic deformation and the plastic contact area of an elastic–plastic contact of ellipsoid bodies after unloading. There are three regime responses of the deformation and contact area: elastic, elastic–plastic and fully

  15. Strain rate dependence in plasticized and un-plasticized PVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siviour C.R.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available An experimental and analytical investigation has been made into the mechanical behaviour of two poly (vinyl chloride (PVC polymers – an un-plasticized PVC and a diisononyl phthalate (DINP-plasticized PVC. Measurements of the compressive stress-strain behaviour of the PVCs at strain rates ranging from 10−3 to 103s−1 and temperatures from − 60 to 100∘C are presented. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis was also performed in order to understand the material transitions observed in compression testing as the strain rate is increased. This investigation develops a better understanding of the interplay between the temperature dependence and rate dependence of polymers, with a focus on locating the temperature and rate-dependent material transitions that occur during high rate testing.

  16. Strain rate dependence in plasticized and un-plasticized PVC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, M. J.; Siviour, C. R.

    2012-08-01

    An experimental and analytical investigation has been made into the mechanical behaviour of two poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC) polymers - an un-plasticized PVC and a diisononyl phthalate (DINP)-plasticized PVC. Measurements of the compressive stress-strain behaviour of the PVCs at strain rates ranging from 10-3 to 103s-1 and temperatures from - 60 to 100∘C are presented. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis was also performed in order to understand the material transitions observed in compression testing as the strain rate is increased. This investigation develops a better understanding of the interplay between the temperature dependence and rate dependence of polymers, with a focus on locating the temperature and rate-dependent material transitions that occur during high rate testing.

  17. [The ALANAM statement on public health policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goic, Alejando; Armas, Rodolfo

    2010-12-01

    The ALANAM (Association of Latin American National Academies of Medicine) statement on public health policy, issued following its 19th Congress, held October 28–30, 2010, in Santiago, Chile, declares that cardiovascular diseases, cancer, accidents and violence are the leading causes of death in the region, while in several of its member nations, emergent and re-emergent infectious diseases, malnutrition, and mother-child illnesses remain prevalent. The statement calls attention to the lack of functioning water supply and sewage systems in many villages and rural areas. After describing the social causes of the present state of public health in Latin America (poverty levels reaching upwards of 44% of the total population, or some 110 million people), it calls on governments, first, to spare no efforts in the task of eradicating extreme poverty in the short-term, and poverty in the long-term. Second, considering that about 15 million 3-to-6 year-olds have no access to education, it recommends extending educational services to these children, and to improve the quality of existing pre-school and primary education. Third, the statement calls for universal health care coverage and for equal access to good quality medical care for everyone, and for programs aimed at promoting healthy personal habits and self-care. In this regard, it also recommends that disease prevention programs be sustained over time, that national sanitary objectives be defined, and that its results be periodically reviewed. Fourth, it recommends that primary health care be extended to everyone, and that it be enhanced by improving coverage and coordination with secondary and tertiary level health care institutions. The statement lays special stress on the need for adopting public health policies aimed at lowering the cost of medicines; to this end, it calls for the creation of an official list of generic drugs. The statement ends by calling on governments to support public health research as a

  18. On One Application of Fourier Analysis in Plastic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhimov, Abdumalik; Zainuddin, Hishamuddin

    In present paper, we discuss the spectral methods of measurement of the degree of speech and/or quality of sound by comparing the coefficient of performance indicators depending on energy distributions, ratio of energy of the fundamental tone and energy of overtones. Such a method is very efficient for string oscillation with different initial conditions and it is useful for justification of applications of Fourier analysis in plastic surgery in treatment of some medical diseases.

  19. Isogeometric Analysis of Nearly Incompressible Large Strain Plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT We study the behavior of NURBS -based Isogeometric Analysis on problems of large-deformation...plasticity. We evaluate the performance of standard NURBS elements and elements based on the F formulation of Elguedj et al. (T. Elguedj, Y. Bazilevs... NURBS elements, Com- puter Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 197 (2008), 2732{2762). We determine that standard measures of evaluation

  20. American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is the world's largest specialty association for facial plastic surgery. It represents more than 2,700 facial plastic ... the American Board of Otolaryngology , which includes facial plastic surgery. Others are certified in plastic surgery, ophthalmology, and ...