WorldWideScience

Sample records for plastics cutting technology

  1. Laser cutting plastic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Cleave, R.A.

    1980-08-01

    A 1000-watt CO/sub 2/ laser has been demonstrated as a reliable production machine tool for cutting of plastics, high strength reinforced composites, and other nonmetals. More than 40 different plastics have been laser cut, and the results are tabulated. Applications for laser cutting described include fiberglass-reinforced laminates, Kevlar/epoxy composites, fiberglass-reinforced phenolics, nylon/epoxy laminates, ceramics, and disposable tooling made from acrylic.

  2. Plastics Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Tommy G.

    This curriculum guide is designed to assist junior high schools industrial arts teachers in planning new courses and revising existing courses in plastics technology. Addressed in the individual units of the guide are the following topics: introduction to production technology; history and development of plastics; safety; youth leadership,…

  3. Mixed plastics recycling technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hegberg, Bruce

    1995-01-01

    Presents an overview of mixed plastics recycling technology. In addition, it characterizes mixed plastics wastes and describes collection methods, costs, and markets for reprocessed plastics products.

  4. AHM cutting expenses, adding technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, S

    1990-04-30

    American Healthcare Management, emerging from bankruptcy protection is cutting corporate costs and expanding into new technology to attract more private-paying patients and lessen dependence on Medicare business.

  5. New plastic recycling technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greater than 60% of the total plastic content of municipal solid waste is comprised of polyolefins (high-density, low-density, and linear polyethylene and polypropylene. Polyethylene (PE) is the largest-volume component but presents a challenge due to the absence of low-energy de...

  6. Cutting Forces and Chip Morphology during Wood Plastic Composites Orthogonal Cutting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolei Guo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of chip thickness, rake angle, and edge radius on cutting forces and chip morphology in wood plastic composites (WPCs orthogonal cutting was investigated. Three types of WPCs, Wood flour/polyethylene composite (WFPEC, wood flour/polypropylene composite (WFPPC, and wood flour/polyvinyl chloride composite (WFPVCC, that were tested exhibited different behavior with respect to the machinability aspects. The cutting forces of WFPVCC were the highest, followed by WFPPC and WFPEC. The most significant factor on the parallel cutting force of these three types of WPCs was the chip thickness, which explained more than 90%, contribution of total variation, while rake angle, edge radius, and the interactions between these factors had small contributions. The most significant factor on the normal cutting force of WPCs was also the chip thickness, which accounted for more than 60% of the total variation. The chips produced included long continuous chips, short continuous chips, flake chips, and granule chips when cutting these three types of WPCs.

  7. Testing of Commercial Cutting Heads for Abrasive Water Jet Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Klich, J. (Jiří); Hlaváček, P.; M. Zeleňák; Sitek, L. (Libor); Foldyna, J. (Josef)

    2013-01-01

    Five different cutting heads designed for cutting by high-speed abrasive water jet technology were tested from cutting ability point of view. Straight kerfs were cut in several metal materials by abrasive water jet. Material removal volume was determined as a measure of performance of specific cutting head. Quality of cutting surface was observed, too. Results are compared and discussed.

  8. Features of energy impact on a billet material when cutting with outstripping plastic deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Yaroslavtsev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades the so-called combined machining methods based on parallel, serial or parallelserial combination of different types of energy impacts on the billet are designed and developed. Combination of two or more sources of external energy in one method of machining can be directed to the solution of different technological tasks, such as: improvement of a basic method to enhance technicaland-economic and technological indicators of machining, expansion of technological capabilities of the method, increase of reliability and stability of technological process to produce details, etc. Besides, the combined methods of machining are considered as one of the means, which enables reducing the number of operations in technological process, allows the growth of workforce productivity.When developing the combined technologies, one of the main scientific tasks is to define the general regularities of interaction and mutual influence of the energy fluxes brought to the zone of machining. The result of such mutual influence becomes apparent from the forming technological parameters of machining and determines the most rational operating conditions of technological process.In the context of conducted in BMSTU researches on the combined cutting method with outstripping plastic deformation (OPD the mutual influence of the energetic components of machining has been quantitatively assessed. The paper shows a direct relationship between the rational ratio of the two types of the mechanical energy brought in the machining zone, the machining conditions, and the optimum operating conditions.The paper offers a physical model of chip formation when machining with OPD. The essence of model is that specific works spent on material deformation of a cut-off layer are quantitatively compared at usual cutting and at cutting with OPD. It is experimentally confirmed that the final strain-deformed material states of a cut-off layer, essentially, coincide in both

  9. Plasticity, Fracture and Friction in Steady-State Plate Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup; Wierzbicki, Tomasz

    1997-01-01

    A closed form solution to the problem of steady-state wedge cutting through a ductile metal plate is presented. The considered problem is an idealization of a ship bottom raking process, i.e. a continuous cutting damage of a ship bottom by a hard knife-like rock in a grounding event. A new...

  10. Evaluation of cutting ability and plastic deformation of reciprocating files

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre KOWALCZUCK

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This in vitro study evaluated the cutting ability of reciprocating files and the deformations caused by their multiple use. Five Reciproc® R25 files were divided into five groups for 10 simulated root canal preparations each. The resin blocks were weighed and photographed (12.5X and 20X before and after preparation. The canals were prepared according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Enlargement of the root canals was evaluated by comparison of pre- and post-preparation images using a computer software. The preoperative and postoperative weight differences determined the cutting ability of repeatedly used instruments. The data were analyzed using Lilliefors and Friedman statistical tests. The cutting ability and enlargement of the canals gradually decreased after each use, with significant differences observed at the 8th and 9th repetitions, respectively. There was no evidence of file deformation. The cutting ability and enlargement of the simulated canals gradually decreased when a reciprocating file was used up to 10 times.

  11. Technological study of oxygen aided laser cutting silicon steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Lei; Mi, Chenglong; Wu, Gang

    2008-03-01

    It is easy to produce molten dross by using traditional laser cutting technology in laser cutting silicon steel sheet. The main reason is that oxidizing reaction will take place inevitably by using oxygen as aided gas, so high pressure and high purity N II or inert gases is used as aided cutting gas in laser cutting process. Although the cut quality is improved, the cutting efficiency is dropped because of the lack of energy resulting from an exothermic oxidation reaction. A fire new laser cutting technology by using an additional nozzle put under the workpiece that will form lateral gas flow to control the direction of the flowing dross gas is raised. In this technology oxygen is still used as aided gas, the laser power is reduced and the cut is fine. The experiments prove that by controlling the technical parameter reasonably, glossy and dross-free cutting kerfs are obtained. The gas flow acting under the workpiece is simulated by Finite Element Method (FEM). The varieties of pneumatic fields when the additional nozzle is in different degree and flow velocity are analyzed, which provides academic basis for controlling the flowing direction of the dross gas more reasonably. This laser cutting technology is practical and feasible.

  12. Study on precision cutting technology of complex shape microparts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Relatively to non-traditional and high-energy-beam micro-manufacturing technique, the micro-cutting technology has many merits. For instance, the machining range is bigger, the cost of equipments is much lower, and the productivity and machining accuracy are higher. Therefore, the micro-cutting technology will take an important effect on the machining technique of complex shape microparts. In this paper, based on selfly-developed machine tool, the precision cutting technology of complex shape microparts made of metal material was studied by analyzing the modeling method on complex shape, the means of toolpaths layout and the optimal selection for cutting parameters. On the basis of above work, a typical duralumin specimen of high precision, low surface roughness and complex shape micropart was manufactured. This result will provide favorable technical support for farther research on the micro-cutting technology.

  13. Plasma arc cutting technology: simulation and experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantoro, G; Colombo, V; Concetti, A; Ghedini, E; Sanibondi, P; Zinzani, F; Rotundo, F [Department of Mechanical Engineering (D.I.E.M.) and Research Center for Applied Mathematics (C.I.R.A.M.), Alma Mater Studiorum-Universita di Bologna, Via Saragozza 8, 40123 Bologna (Italy); Dallavalle, S; Vancini, M, E-mail: emanuele.ghedini@unibo.it [Cebora S.p.A., Via Andrea Costa 24, 40057 Cadriano di Granarolo (Italy)

    2011-01-01

    Transferred arc plasma torches are widely used in industrial processes for cutting of metallic materials because of their ability to cut a wide range of metals with very high productivity. The process is characterized by a transferred electric arc established between an electrode inside the torch (the cathode) and another electrode, the metallic workpiece to be cut (the anode). In order to obtain a high quality cut and a high productivity, the plasma jet must be as collimated as possible and must have the higher achievable power density. Plasma modelling and numerical simulation can be very useful tools for the designing and optimizing these devices, but research is still in the making for finding a link between simulation of the plasma arc and a consistent prevision of cut quality. Numerical modelling of the behaviour of different types of transferred arc dual gas plasma torches can give an insight on the physical reasons for the industrial success of various design and process solutions that have appeared over the last years. Diagnostics based on high speed imaging and Schlieren photography can play an important role for investigating piercing, dross generation, pilot arcing and anode attachment location. Also, the behaviour of hafnium cathodes at high current levels at the beginning of their service life can been experimentally investigated, with the final aim of understanding the phenomena that take place during those initial piercing and cutting phases and optimizing the initial shape of the surface of the emissive insert exposed to plasma atmosphere.

  14. Laser cutting, State of the art and technological trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove

    1999-01-01

    In this paper a short review of the development trends in laser cutting will be given. The technoloty which is the fastest expanding industrial production technology will develop in both its core market segment: Flat bed cutting of sheet metal as it will expand in heavy industry and in cutting of......-dimensional shapes. The CO2 laser will also in the near futre be the domination laser source in the market, although the new developments in ND-YAG-lasers opens for new possibilities for this laser type.......In this paper a short review of the development trends in laser cutting will be given. The technoloty which is the fastest expanding industrial production technology will develop in both its core market segment: Flat bed cutting of sheet metal as it will expand in heavy industry and in cutting of 3...

  15. The latest progress in research of plastics processing technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qu Jinping

    2012-01-01

    According to the great demand for the" green" plastics processing technology of the low energy consumption, high efficiency and environmental protection in plastics industry, the plastics processing method and technology based on the elongation rheology, with continuing evolution and innovation of the plastics plasticating and conveying method, are presented and researched on the basis of the plastics dynamic processing method arid equipment, and the plastics plasticating and conveying process in the vane extrusion system, the technical characteristics and the applications of vane plasticating and conveying technology are discussed. The research results show that compared with the conventional processing equipment, this new technology and equipment shows many outstanding advantages, such as shortening the thermo-meehanical history of the plastics processing by more than 50 % , reducing the energy consumption by 30 % or so, improving the mixing and blending effects, improving the quality of the products and the adaptability to materials, etc. , and it is found that the new technology and equipment has special superiority in the fields of the processing for material systems, such as the multiphase and multicomponent composite materials, the shear heat sensitive macromolecular materials, etc.

  16. Laser Cutting of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics - Investigation of Hazardous Process Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Juergen; Hustedt, Michael; Staehr, Richard; Kaierle, Stefan; Jaeschke, Peter; Suttmann, Oliver; Overmeyer, Ludger

    Carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) show high potential for use in lightweight applications not only in aircraft design, but also in the automotive or wind energy industry. However, processing of CFRP is complex and expensive due to their outstanding mechanical properties. One possibility to manufacture CFRP structures flexibly at acceptable process speeds is high-power laser cutting. Though showing various advantages such as contactless energy transfer, this process is connected to potentially hazardous emission of respirable dust and organic gases. Moreover, the emitted particles may be fibrous, thus requiring particular attention. Here, a systematic analysis of the hazardous substances emitted during laser cutting of CFRP with thermoplastic and thermosetting matrix is presented. The objective is to evaluate emission rates for the total particulate and gaseous fractions as well as for different organic key components. Furthermore, the influence of the laser process conditions shall be assessed, and first proposals to handle the emissions adequately are made.

  17. The importance of material structure in the laser cutting of glass fiber reinforced plastic composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caprino, G. (Univ. di Napoli (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria dei Materiali e della Produzione); Tagliaferri, V. (Univ. di Salerno (Italy). Istituto di Ingegneria Meccanica); Covelli, L. (IMU-Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Milano (Italy))

    1995-01-01

    A previously proposed micromechanical formula, aiming to predict the vaporization energy Q[sub v] of composite materials as a function of fiber and matrix properties and fiber volume ratio, was assessed. The experimental data, obtained on glass fiber reinforced plastic panels with different fiber contents cut by a medium power CO[sub 2] cw laser, were treated according to a procedure previously suggested, in order to evaluate Q[sub v]. An excellent agreement was found between experimental and theoretical Q[sub v] values. Theory was then used to predict the response to laser cutting of a composite material with a fiber content varying along the thickness. The theoretical predictions indicated that, in this case, the interpretation of the experimental results may be misleading, bringing to errors in the evaluation of the material thermal properties, or in the prediction of the kerf depth. Some experimental data were obtained, confirming the theoretical findings.

  18. Feasibility Study of Cryogenic Cutting Technology by Using a Computer Simulation and Manufacture of Main Components for Cryogenic Cutting System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Kyun; Lee, Dong Gyu; Lee, Kune Woo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Song, Oh Seop [Chungnam National University, Deajeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-06-15

    Cryogenic cutting technology is one of the most suitable technologies for dismantling nuclear facilities due to the fact that a secondary waste is not generated during the cutting process. In this paper, the feasibility of cryogenic cutting technology was investigated by using a computer simulation. In the computer simulation, a hybrid method combined with the SPH (smoothed particle hydrodynamics) method and the FE (finite element) method was used. And also, a penetration depth equation, for the design of the cryogenic cutting system, was used and the design variables and operation conditions to cut a 10 mm thickness for steel were determined. Finally, the main components of the cryogenic cutting system were manufactures on the basis of the obtained design variables and operation conditions.

  19. Laser cutting of carbon fiber reinforced thermo-plastics (CFRTP) by single-mode fiber laser irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niino, Hiroyuki; Kawaguchi, Yoshizo; Sato, Tadatake; Narazaki, Aiko; Kurosaki, Ryozo; Muramatsu, Mayu; Harada, Yoshihisa; Anzai, Kenji; Aoyama, Mitsuaki; Matsushita, Masafumi; Furukawa, Koichi; Nishino, Michiteru; Fujisaki, Akira; Miyato, Taizo; Kayahara, Takashi

    2014-03-01

    We report on the laser cutting of carbon fiber reinforced thermo-plastics (CFRTP) with a cw IR fiber laser (single-mode fiber laser, average power: 350 W). CFRTP is a high strength composite material with a lightweight, and is increasingly being used various applications. A well-defined cutting of CFRTP which were free of debris and thermal-damages around the grooves, were performed by the laser irradiation with a fast beam galvanometer scanning on a multiple-scanpass method.

  20. Thermo-elasto-visco-plastic constitutive equations fully coupled with ductile damage. Application to metal cutting by chip formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestriez, P.; Cherouat, A.; Saanouni, K.; Mariage, J. F.

    2004-06-01

    A fully coupled (strong coupling) thermo-elasto-visco-plastic-damage constitutive equations based on the state variables under large plastic deformation developed for metal forming simulation are presented. The relevant numerical aspects concerning either the local integration scheme as well as the global resolution strategy are discussed. This model is implemented into ABAQUS/EXPLICIT using the Vumat user subroutine. Applications are made to the orthogonal metal cutting by chip formation and segmentation. The interaction between hardening plasticity, ductile damage and thermal effects are carefully analyzed. The numerical results obtained with this procedure based on the damage coupling are compared with those obtained with the classical procedure neglecting the damage effect.

  1. Cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a traumatic experience, such as living through abuse , violence, or a disaster. Self-injury may feel like ... embarrassed." Sometimes self-injury affects a person's body image. Jen says, "I actually liked how the cuts ...

  2. Cutting Technology for Decommissioning of the Reactor Pressure Vessels in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kwan Seong; Kim, Geun Ho; Moon, Jei Kwon; Choi, Byung Seon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Lots of nuclear power plants have been decommissioned during the last 2 decades. An essential part of this work is the dismantling of the Reactor Pressure Vessel and its Internals. For this purpose a wide variety of different cutting technologies have been developed, adapted and applied. A detailed introduction to Plasma Arc cutting, Contact Arc Metal cutting and Abrasive Water Suspension Jet cutting is given, as it turned out that these cutting technologies are particularly suitable for these type of segmentation work. A comparison of these technologies including gaseous emissions, cutting power, manipulator requirements as well as selected design approaches are given. Process limits as well as actual limits of application are presented

  3. Potential interface slip analysis of Peribonka Dam plastic concrete cut-off wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morency, J.Y.; Chahde, J.; Bigras, A. [Hydro-Quebec, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Garand, P.; Rattue, A. [SNC-Lavalin Inc., Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    The Peribonka hydroelectric development is currently under construction near the confluence of the Manouane River with the Peribonka River in Quebec. It includes an 80 m high dam and two dykes of zoned earth fills with a till core, an underground power house with an installed capacity of 385 MW, a diversion tunnel and a spillway. The Peribonka dam will be built on a highly permeable alluvial foundation. The design includes a 10 m high working platform in the river between the cofferdams and a plastic concrete cut-off wall (COW) down to bedrock. The maximum depth of the COW in a narrow canyon will be 115 m. A bi-dimensional finite element stress and deformation analysis software (SDAS) was used to model the stress-strain behaviour of the foundation soils and the COW under the dam. The SDAS software made it possible to determine the vertical deformations as well as the horizontal stress distribution in the foundation soils. It was shown that due to the oedometric nature of the loading of the soil, no significant shear stress was generated due to the soil deformations in the foundation below the axis of the dam. However, the finite element program did not allow hyperbolic model slip elements. As such, it was not possible to evaluate if negative skin friction occurred at the soilplastic concrete interface. For that reason, a one-dimensional model allowing the simulation of negative or positive friction between the soil and the COW was developed. This model considered the elastic-plastic behaviour of the COW using a hyperbolic model. It showed that nowhere, except in the upper 2 to 3 m of the COW embedment in the core, was negative friction able to mobilize the full value of the internal friction angle of the soil. 4 refs., 1 tab., 9 figs.

  4. Research on plastic fender development and key technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Hao; Li Li; Liu Qiang; Yang Anzhi; Ma Fangwu; Zhao Fuquan; Guo Yihui; Song Leifeng

    2012-01-01

    Automotive lightweight and safety performance come into play as key technologies to promote competiveness, and average applied amount of automotive plastics has become a significant sign for automotive industrial development level of a country. Various performances of a vehicle with plastic automotive fenders are analyzed in the paper. The re- search is emphasized on sinking-resistance and pedestrian protection performance of the plastic fenders by studying plas- tics characteristics and simulation analysis. It offers references for engineering design in which both automotive light- weight and safety performance are achieved and well balanced.

  5. Miniaturized Technologies for Enhancement of Motor Plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira eMoorjani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The idea that the damaged brain can functionally reorganize itself ⎯ so when one part fails, there lies the possibility for another to substitute ⎯ is an exciting discovery of the twentieth century. We now know that motor circuits once presumed to be hardwired are not, and motor-skill learning, exercise, and even mental rehearsal of motor tasks can turn genes on or off to shape brain architecture, function and, consequently, behavior. This is a very significant alteration from our previously static view of the brain, and has profound implications for the rescue of function after a motor injury. Presentation of the right cues, applied in relevant spatiotemporal geometries, is required to awaken the dormant plastic forces essential for repair. The focus of this review is to highlight some of the recent progress in neural interfaces designed to harness motor plasticity, and the role of miniaturization in development of strategies that engage diverse elements of the neuronal machinery to synergistically facilitate recovery of function after motor damage.

  6. Simulation of metal cutting using the particle finite-element method and a physically based plasticity model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, J. M.; Jonsén, P.; Svoboda, A.

    2017-01-01

    Metal cutting is one of the most common metal-shaping processes. In this process, specified geometrical and surface properties are obtained through the break-up of material and removal by a cutting edge into a chip. The chip formation is associated with large strains, high strain rates and locally high temperatures due to adiabatic heating. These phenomena together with numerical complications make modeling of metal cutting difficult. Material models, which are crucial in metal-cutting simulations, are usually calibrated based on data from material testing. Nevertheless, the magnitudes of strains and strain rates involved in metal cutting are several orders of magnitude higher than those generated from conventional material testing. Therefore, a highly desirable feature is a material model that can be extrapolated outside the calibration range. In this study, a physically based plasticity model based on dislocation density and vacancy concentration is used to simulate orthogonal metal cutting of AISI 316L. The material model is implemented into an in-house particle finite-element method software. Numerical simulations are in agreement with experimental results, but also with previous results obtained with the finite-element method.

  7. A State-of-the-Art Report on Cutting Technologies for Decommissioning Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Kyun; Lee, Dong Gyu; Lee, Kune Woo; Jung, Chong Hun

    2007-10-15

    This report provides the status of the cryogenic cutting technology as a new dismantling technology for dismantling radioactive nuclear facilities and also presents the direction of study to apply it to a radioactive nuclear facility research aim of its nuclear. This report consists of four chapter : - 1. Background and objectives of dismantling technology for dismantling a radioactive nuclear facility. - 2. Analysis of the status of conventional cutting technologies - 3. Analysis of the status of cryogenic cutting technology - 4. Discussion, conclusion, and future work on state-of-the-art technology of dismantling for nuclear facilities.

  8. Precision Control of Billet Limited WeightCutting Technology Cutting Technology%方坯定重切割精度控制的提高

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左康君; 李智勇; 王振涛; 朱童峰

    2011-01-01

    This article introduces the steel works are shipped on the billet limited weight cutting technology characteristics of control and detailed analysis of the technology in cutting,weighing,network management need to solve the problem.%炼钢厂方坯定重切割精度控制的技术特点,分析该技术在切割控制、称重、网络管理方面需要解决的问题。

  9. EFFECT OF UNEQUAL DEFORMATION IN DEVELOPMENT OF ADVANCED PLASTIC PROCESSING TECHNOLOGIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    An effect of unequal deformation in development of advanced plastic processing technologies is researched by studying an in-plane bending process of strip metal under unequal compressing. The research results show the following: If appropriately controlled, unequal plastic deformation can play an important role not only in the improvement of quality of parts obtained by plastic processing technologies, but also in the development of new processes for advanced plastic working technologies. A coordinated growth of unequal plastic deformation can develop the deformation potentiality of material to the full. The degree of unequal plastic deformation can be used as bases for optimization design of processes and dies of plastic forming.

  10. Cutting edge technology to enhance nursing classroom instruction at Coppin State University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Crystal Day; Watties-Daniels, A Denyce

    2006-01-01

    Educational technologies have changed the paradigm of the teacher-student relationship in nursing education. Nursing students expect to use and to learn from cutting edge technology during their academic careers. Varied technology, from specified software programs (Tegrity and Blackboard) to the use of the Internet as a research medium, can enhance student learning. The authors provide an overview of current cutting edge technologies in nursing classroom instruction and its impact on future nursing practice.

  11. Analysis of Plasticity, Fracture and Friction in Steady State Plate Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup; Wierzbicki, Tomasz

    1996-01-01

    A closed form solution to the problem of steady state wedge cutting through a ductile metal plate is presented. The considered problem is an idealization of a ship bottom raking process, i.e. a continuous cutting damage of a ship bottom by a hard knife-like rock in a grounding event. A new...

  12. Application research on hydraulic coke cutting monitoring system based on optical fiber sensing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Dong; Tong, Xinglin

    2014-06-01

    With the development of the optical fiber sensing technology, the acoustic emission sensor has become one of the focal research topics. On the basis of studying the traditional hydraulic coke cutting monitoring system, the optical fiber acoustic emission sensor has been applied in the hydraulic coke cutting monitoring system for the first time, researching the monitoring signal of the optical fiber acoustic emission sensor in the system. The actual test results show that using the acoustic emission sensor in the hydraulic coke cutting monitoring system can get the real-time and accurate hydraulic coke cutting state and the effective realization of hydraulic coke cutting automatic monitoring in the Wuhan Branch of Sinopec.

  13. Technology and future prospects for lightweight plastic vehicle structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stodolsky, F.; Cuenca, R.M.; Bonsignore, P.V.

    1997-08-01

    The state of the technology and the materials and processing issues of using plastics in vehicle body applications (structural and semistructural) were assessed. Plastics are significantly lighter in weight, more easily fabricated into complex shapes, and more corrosion resistance than sheet steel, high-strength steel, or aluminum. However, at their current stage of development, plastics are deficient in one or more necessary properties: heat resistance and dimensional stability, stiffness and tensile strength, toughness, and impact resistance. To upgrade their physical properties for automotive chassis/body applications, plastics need to be compounds with suitable reinforcing fibers. As a short-term approach, the material of choice is a composite structure made with low-cost glass-fiber reinforcement, such as that made in the resin-transfer-molding (RTM) process and used in the body of the Dodge Viper. However, RTM technology based on thermosets requires a processing cycle time that is too long for large production runs. Adaptation of RTM to the formation of thermoplastic composite bodies could have a significant advantage over thermoset technology. Cyclic oligomers, which are precursors to thermoplastic matrix polymers, show promise for this application. Farther on the horizon are advanced composites compounds with the much more expensive (but stronger and stiffer) carbon-fiber reinforcement. However, significant price reductions of precursor materials and advances in processing and fabrication would be needed. Other materials holding promise are liquid crystal polymers (LCP) and LCP blends with other polymers (molecular composites). However, the cost of monomers and the subsequent polymerization technology also remains a considerable drawback to the widespread and increasing acceptance of LCPs.

  14. Energy technologies at the cutting edge: international energy technology collaboration IEA Implementing Agreements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pottinger, C. (ed.)

    2007-05-15

    Ensuring energy security and addressing climate change issues in a cost-effective way are the main challenges of energy policies and in the longer term will be solved only through technology cooperation. To encourage collaborative efforts to meet these energy challenges, the IEA created a legal contract - Implementing Agreement - and a system of standard rules and regulations. This allows interested member and non-member governments or other organisations to pool resources and to foster the research, development and deployment of particular technologies. For more than 30 years, this international technology collaboration has been a fundamental building block in facilitating progress of new or improved energy technologies. There are now 41 Implementing Agreements. This is the third in the series of publications highlighting the recent results and achievements of the IEA Implementing Agreements. This document is arranged in the following sections: Cross-cutting activities (sub-sectioned: Climate technology initiative; Energy Technology Data Eexchange; and Energy technology systems analysis programme); End-use technologies (sub-sectioned: Buildings; Electricity; Industry; and Transport; Fossil fuels (sub-sectioned: Clean Coal Centre; Enhanced oil recovery Fluidized bed conversion; Greenhouse Gas R & D; Multiphase flow sciences); Fusion power; Renewable energies and hydrogen; and For more information (including detail on the IEA energy technology network; IEA Secretariat Implementing Agreement support; and IEA framework. Addresses are given for the Implementing Agreements. The publication is based on core input from the Implementing Agreement Executive Committee.

  15. ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN CUTTING PROCESS OF COMPONENT BILLET SURFACE ON ANALYSIS BASIS FOR ENERGY-CONSUMPTION INDICES OF TECHNOLOGICAL EQUIPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Adamenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains investigation results and proposes a method for calculation of optimum cutting rate. The method takes into account energy-consumption indices of technological equipment that permits to improve technological energy efficiency of cutting process.

  16. Liquid nitrogen-cooled diamond-wire concrete cutting. Innovative technology summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Liquid nitrogen-cooled diamond-wire concrete cutting can be used to cut through thick concrete walls, floors, and structures without using water to cool the cutting wire. The diamond wire is cooled with liquid nitrogen in a 0.9-m (3-ft) long by 7.6-cm (3-in.) diameter pipe housing. The nitrogen evaporates, so no contaminated liquid waste is generated. Other than the use of liquid nitrogen, the system is a conventional diamond-wire saw assembly with remote hydraulic controls. Setup of the hydraulic-powered drive wheel and the diamond wire for cutting requires a relatively short period of time using people with minimal training. Concrete dust generated during the cutting is considerable and requires control. The production rate of this improved technology is 0.78 m{sup 2}/hr (8.4 ft{sup 2}/hr). The production rates of traditional (baseline) water-cooled diamond-wire cutting and circular saw cutting technologies are 1.11 m{sup 2}/hr (12 ft{sup 2}/hr), and 0.45 m{sup 2}/hr (4.8 ft{sup 2}/hr), respectively. The liquid nitrogen-cooled system costs 189% more than conventional diamond-wire cutting if contaminated liquid wastes collection, treatment, and disposal are not accounted for with the baseline. The new technology was 310% more costly than a conventional diamond circular saw, under the conditions of this demonstration (no wastewater control). For cutting a 0.9-m x 3.7-m (3-ft x 12-ft) wall, the improved technology costs $17,000, while baseline diamond-wire cutting would cost $9,000 and baseline circular-saw cutting would cost $5,500. The improved system may cost less than the baseline technologies or may be comparable in cost if wastewater control is included.

  17. Application of gas-fluid atomization technology in ultrosonic vibration cutting titanium alloy workpiece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhimin; Zhang, Yuangliang; Li, Xiaoyan; Sun, Baoyuan

    2009-11-01

    To further improve machined surface quality of diamond cutting titanium workpiece and reduce diamond tool wear, it puts forward a kind of machining technology with mixture of carbon dioxide gas, water and vegetable oil atomized mist as cooling media in the paper. The cooling media is sprayed to cutting area through gas-liquid atomizer device to achieve purpose of cooling, lubricating, and protecting diamond tool. Experiments indicate that carbon dioxide gas can touch cutting surface more adequately through using gas-liquid atomization technology, which makes iron atoms of cutting surface cause a chemical reaction directly with carbon in carbon dioxide gas and reduce graphitizing degree of diamond tool. Thus, this technology of using gas-liquid atomization and ultrasonic vibration together for cutting Titanium Alloy is able to improve machined surface quality of workpiece and slow of diamond tool wear.

  18. Restriction enzyme cutting site distribution regularity for DNA looping technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Ying; Zhang, Nan; Zhu, Pengyu; Luo, Yunbo; Huang, Kunlun; Tian, Wenying; Xu, Wentao

    2014-01-25

    The restriction enzyme cutting site distribution regularity and looping conditions were studied systematically. We obtained the restriction enzyme cutting site distributions of 13 commonly used restriction enzymes in 5 model organism genomes through two novel self-compiled software programs. All of the average distances between two adjacent restriction sites fell sharply with increasing statistic intervals, and most fragments were 0-499 bp. A shorter DNA fragment resulted in a lower looping rate, which was also directly proportional to the DNA concentration. When the length was more than 500 bp, the concentration did not affect the looping rate. Therefore, the best known fragment length was longer than 500 bp, and did not contain the restriction enzyme cutting sites which would be used for digestion. In order to make the looping efficiencies reach nearly 100%, 4-5 single cohesive end systems were recommended to digest the genome separately.

  19. Super plastic forming technology applied to aeroengine and space equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandai, Katsumi

    1992-03-01

    Titanium alloys, especially Ti-6Al-4V, are widely used for the aeroengine and space equipment because of their high strength ratio and excellent resistance to heat and corrosion. But this material is difficult to manufacture by conventional plastic forming technology. It has been reported that Ti-6Al-4V shows extensive ductility (superplasticity), more than 1000 percent under the condition of both low straining rate and high temperature ranges. Superplastic forming technology applying this characteristic is widely known as one of the most cost-effective methods to save material. At the plant, gas argon blowing equipment for the superplastic forming technology has been developed and 'V2500 nose fairing' and 'fuel tank of the H-II rocket second stage reaction control system' have been manufactured. This paper describes the superplastic forming equipment and the two products above.

  20. Creating a standardized and simplified cutting bill using group technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urs Buehlmann; Janice K. Wiedenbeck; R., Jr. Noble; D. Earl Kline

    2008-01-01

    From an analytical viewpoint, the relationship between rough mill cutting bill part requirements and lumber yield is highly complex. Part requirements can have almost any length, width, and quantity distribution within the boundaries set by physical limitations, such as maximum length and width of parts. This complexity makes it difficult to understand the specific...

  1. Advantages of Picosecond Laser Machining for Cutting-Edge Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorhouse, C.

    The demand to reduce the size, weight and material cost of modern electronic devices results in a requirement for precision micromachining to aid product development. Examples include making smaller and more powerful smartphones with brighter displays, eliminating the requirement for post-process cleaning and machining the latest bio- absorbable medical stents. The pace of innovation in high-tech industries has led to ultrafast (picosecond) industrial lasers becoming an important tool for many applications and the high repetition rates now available help to meet industrial throughput levels. This is due to the unique operating regime (megawatts of peak power) enabling clean cutting and patterning of sensitive materials and thin films used in a number of novel devices and allows micromachining of wide bandgap, "difficult" materials such as glass.

  2. Cutting-Edge Technologies and Social Media Use in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Vladlena, Ed.; Morgan, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    The inclusion of social media in higher education has transformed the way instructors teach and students learn. In order to effectively reach their students in this networked world, teachers must learn to utilize the latest technologies in their classrooms. "Cutting-Edge Technologies and Social Media Use in Higher Education" brings…

  3. Cutting-Edge Technologies and Social Media Use in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Vladlena, Ed.; Morgan, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    The inclusion of social media in higher education has transformed the way instructors teach and students learn. In order to effectively reach their students in this networked world, teachers must learn to utilize the latest technologies in their classrooms. "Cutting-Edge Technologies and Social Media Use in Higher Education" brings…

  4. Less pollution - less raw materials - less noise: Automatic cylinder cut-off technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    VW's automatic cylinder cut-off technology displays its advantages especially in city traffic - as road tests have proved. Though no fuel saving was measured on motorways it came up to 16% when driving on country roads and 30% in inner city traffic. One intends to use cylinder cut-off first for diesel cars as the restart reliability of diesel engines is much higher than that of petrol engines. (HW)

  5. Modelling and Optimization of Technological Process for Magnetron Synthesis of Altin Nanocomposite Films on Cutting Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozhina, T. D.

    2016-04-01

    The paper highlights the results of the research on developing the mechanism to model the technological process for magnetron synthesis of nanocomposite films on cutting tools, which provides their specified physical and mechanical characteristics by controlling pulsed plasma parameters. The paper presents optimal conditions for AlTiN coating deposition on cutting tools according to the ion energy of sputtered atoms in order to provide their specified physical and mechanical characteristics.

  6. Cutting-edge technology may yield elephants in Orphan basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, W.

    2006-10-15

    Controlled source electromagnetic survey (CSEM) technology may soon supply vital information to oil companies about Newfoundland's offshore basins. The technology shoots low-frequency electromagnetic signals at the sea-floor to measure resistivity. Natural gas, crude oil and water each have a particular strength to resist the power of an electromagnetic signal, and leave a unique signature. To collect data, the electromagnetic pulse emitter is towed back and forth over an area of seabed potentially holding hydrocarbons. Connected to the ship by a long tether, the emitter hangs approximately 30 to 50 m above the ocean floor, and reaches depths of 2.4 km. The sea floor has 36 receivers anchored to it in a grid of concrete blocks that dissolve within 3 months of installation. The test blocks are first dropped overboard to verify current speed and strength in order to calculate exactly where on the water's surface the concrete blocks will be lowered. The Canada Newfoundland and Labrador Offshore Petroleum Board (CNLOPB) has deemed the technology environmentally safe. Eight land parcels have now been leased for exploration in the Orphan Basin and are expected to receive approval for seismic and electromagnetic surveys. Industry players have shown unusual optimism about the basin's potential, which is estimated to contain 4 oilfields containing a billion barrels of oil each. 2 figs.

  7. Enabling cutting-edge semiconductor simulation through grid technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Dave; Millar, Campbell; Roy, Scott; Roy, Gareth; Sinnott, Richard; Stewart, Gordon; Stewart, Graeme; Asenov, Asen

    2009-06-28

    The progressive scaling of complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) transistors drives the success of the global semiconductor industry. Detailed knowledge of transistor behaviour is necessary to overcome the many fundamental challenges faced by chip and systems designers. Grid technology has enabled the unavoidable statistical variations introduced by scaling to be examined in unprecedented detail. Over 200 000 transistors have been simulated, the results of which provide detailed insight into underlying physical processes. This paper outlines recent scientific results of the nanoCMOS project and describes the way in which the scientific goals have been reflected in the grid-based e-Infrastructure.

  8. Technological study of laser cutting silicon steel controlled by rotating gas flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Hong; Yi, Zhang; chenglong, Mi

    2009-04-01

    Using traditional laser cutting technology, it is easy to produce molten slag in laser cutting silicon steel sheet. The main reason is the inevitable oxidizing reaction in the process caused by the use of oxygen as the aided gas. As a common solution, high pressure and high purity N 2 or an inert gas is therefore used instead of oxygen. Although the cut quality is improved, the cutting efficiency is reduced because of the lack of energy generated from an exothermic oxidation reaction. The technology used in this paper is to employ a newly developed cyclone slag separator. The slag separator is located under the workpiece to form rotating gas flow for controlling the direction of the flowing slag gas. Adopting the new technology reported here, oxygen is still used as the aided gas. The experiments prove that, by controlling the technical parameters reasonably tightly, glossy and dross-free cutting kerfs are obtained for reduced laser power. The gas flow acting under the workpiece is simulated using the finite element method (FEM). The operating law of the rotating gas flow is verified by ANSYS, which provides an academic basis for controlling the flowing direction of the slag gas.

  9. Information Technology: A Tool to Cut Health Care Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukkamala, Ravi; Maly, K. J.; Overstreet, C. M.; Foudriat, E. C.

    1996-01-01

    Old Dominion University embarked on a project to see how current computer technology could be applied to reduce the cost and or to improve the efficiency of health care services. We designed and built a prototype for an integrated medical record system (MRS). The MRS is written in Tool control language/Tool kit (Tcl/Tk). While the initial version of the prototype had patient information hard coded into the system, later versions used an INGRES database for storing patient information. Currently, we have proposed an object-oriented model for implementing MRS. These projects involve developing information systems for physicians and medical researchers to enhance their ability for improved treatment at reduced costs. The move to computerized patient records is well underway, several standards exist for laboratory records, and several groups are working on standards for other portions of the patient record.

  10. Cover Plastic Planting Technology of Spring Virus-free Potato%春季脱毒马铃薯地膜覆盖栽培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金龙

    2012-01-01

    The paper introduced cover plastic planting technology of spring virus-free potato,such as plowing soil deeply,cutting into parts and sprouting,cover plastic cultivation,fertilizing basic fertilizer,field management,pest control and so on,in order to provide a reference.%介绍春季脱毒马铃薯地膜覆盖栽培技术,包括土壤深翻、切块催芽、覆膜栽培、施基肥、田间管理、病虫害防治等方面内容,以供参考。

  11. The implementation of the high technology methods of cutting on St 50 alloyed steel and the examination of the effects of cutting operation at the surface of material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Dahil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since competition has risen in the manufacturing methods of present conditions, the chance of competition has lost in the situations which new or high technologies aren’t exactly known. The proper selection is important for competing in the market conditions. In this study, the aim is to present the most advantaged cutting method for obtaining quality products by using high technology for gaining a better chance of competition. In the test, St 50 alloyed steel is used as sample. This sample is cut with the methods of laser, erosion and abrasive water jet (AWJ among the cutting operations made with the high technology. The micro structure photograph of surface of sample, which is cut, are taken and the effects of different methods of cutting on the metallurgical structure of material are compared. Also, changes are examined by performing the measurement of rigidity to the core from the edge of cutting. The most advantaged cutting method is presented by considering these examinations.

  12. Exploring the Gas Chemistry of Old Submarine Technologies Using Plastic Bottles as Reaction Vessels and Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikoshi, Ryo; Takeiri, Fumitaka; Kobayashi, Yoji; Kageyama, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    We describe an activity that is suitable for high school students and makes use of plastic bottles. This activity allows students to familiarize themselves with gas chemistry by introducing technologies that were applied in old submarine systems. Plastic bottles, which are representative of submarines, are used as reaction vessels. Three simple…

  13. Impact of Plant Density on the Formation of Potato Mimitubers Derived from Microtubers and Tip-Cuttings in Plastic Houses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Hui; LIU Jun; SONG Bo-tao; XIE Cong-hua

    2013-01-01

    The potato minitubers have been widely used for the elite seed propagation to improve the seed potato system in China. However, little information is available for an efficient production of the minitubers with high plant density in the protected growing conditions like plastic houses. In present research, the minitubers of a wide-grown potato variety, Favorita, were produced with the microtubers from tissue culture and the tip-cuttings of the microtuber plants. Three plant densities, 200, 400 and 600 microtubers or plants m-2 were set up with the randomized block design of 3 replications and the experiment was repeated in 4 seasons in 2009-2010. The canopy development, light interception, dry weight production and partitioning, tuberization and tuber weight were investigated to elucidate the mechanism by which the plant density affects the formation and growth of the minitubers. The results showed that the number of the tubers formed per unite area was in line with the increase in plant density. The difference in leaf area index (LAI) between the plant densities, especially in early stage of the plant growth, resulted in more radiation interception and dry weight producing in higher plant density than in lower one. However, our analysis demonstrated that the conversion coefficient of the cumulative intercepted radiation to plant weight and the dry weight partition rate to the tubers were constant between plant densities, suggesting that less amount of the photoassimilates partitioned to individual tubers is causal for more small tubers in high plant density. A negative exponential curve model, determined by total number of tubers produced per unit area and the mean tuber weight, fitted well to the tuber size distribution pattern. The optimum plant density could be estimated from this model for a maximum production of the minitubers with desired size.

  14. Industrialization of Technology on Bio-degradable Plastics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ On August 14, 2004, aresearch project titled "Preparation of Aliphatic Ester Polycarbonate and Degradable Foam Plastics by Using Carbon Dioxide" passed its technical appraisal by experts under the sponsorship of the National Bureau of Environmental Protection.

  15. Technologies for recycling of plastic wastes; Tecnologias para el reciclado de residuos plasticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miguel, R.; Garcia, E.; Larraurim, E.

    1996-12-01

    The present article presents the last technologies to recycle the plastic wastes. the work is developed by Gaiker Center under the umbrella of Brite Euram project. The activities include the minimization, classification, and separation of wastes. (Author)

  16. Study on Moulding Technology of Starch-Based Totally-Biodegradable Plastic Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Tao; LIU Chang-jiang

    2005-01-01

    Based on monofactorial comparison experiment,the following two excellent technological formations are derived for the production of starch-based totally-biodegradable tray via extruding,pelleting,slicing,and sucking molding:The first formulation:40% of starch,12.5% of DOP,5% of EVA,15% of polyvinyl alcohol,20%of talc power and calcium carbonate,and 7.5% of other materials. The material temperature in high-speed kneader is about 90℃,rotation velocity is 600 r/min,kneading duration is 5 ~ 10 minutes,diameter of screw stem of extruder is 90 mm,ratio of length versus diameter of screw stem (L/D) is 44,rotation velocity of the screws stem is 40 ~ 50 r/min. Temperature in four segments of extruder is 145 ℃,155 ℃,150℃,and 160 ℃ respectively,and temperature in extruder head is 170 ℃; the material rod extruded is set while passing a cold water bath,and then is cut to pellets whose size is 3 mm × 3 mm; the latter is transformed into slices and subject to sucking molding after predrying; temperature of sucking molding is 180~190 ℃,and sucking molding duration is 15~20 seconds.The second formulation:60% of starch,15% of DOP,5% of PHB,15% of polyvinyl alcohol,and 5 % of other materials. All technological parameters are the same with that for the first formulation.According to the test result of Chinese Institute of Plastic Processing,the biodegradation ratio of the tray made through the above treatment 1 and 2 in 30 days amounted to 54.2 % and 70.6 % respectively,which shows that a satisfied biodegradation effect is realized.

  17. Development and application of fiber laser cutting technology%光纤激光切割技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈海平; 陈欣; 陈阳

    2013-01-01

    The laser cutting technology has been widely applied in cutting industry due to its perfect cutting quality,high dimension accuracy and small heat influence area.The advantages of fiber laser cutting machine in technology,structure and cost are analyzed by the description of fiber laser cutting and comparison with carbon dioxide laser cutting technology.In addition,relatively faster cutting speed,higher conversion rate from electricity to laser and flexible manufacturing ability promote fiber laser cuter to be advanced equipment in cutting industry.The intensive research topic about fiber laser cutting is introduced.Lastly,the current challenges with fiber laser cutting technology such as body security and the limit for thick steel plate cutting are discussed.%激光切割质量好,尺寸精度高,热影响小,在切割行业应用越来越广泛.通过对光纤激光切割机的介绍及其与二氧化碳激光切割机的对比,分析了光纤激光切割机在未来切割行业中的技术优势、结构优势、成本优势.光纤激光具有切割薄板速度快、能量集中、电光转化率高、柔性加工等众多优点.同时指出了目前光纤激光切割技术存在的安全问题及厚板切割局限性问题,提出了当前的一些解决方案及研究热点,并展望了光纤激光切割技术的发展前景.

  18. The influence of the cutting density on the magnetic properties of non-oriented electrical steels cut through mechanical punching and water jet technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paltanea, V.; Paltanea, G.; Gavrila, H.; Popovici, D.; Jiga, G.

    2017-02-01

    The use of high quality non-oriented electrical steel and of an innovative design for the magnetic cores of the electrical machines are very important, in order to minimize the value of the total energy losses. The energy losses are strongly influenced by the cutting technologies, and the producers of the electrical machines want to minimize the deterioration of the magnetic properties during the manufacturing process. The influence of the cutting density on the magnetic permeability and energy losses was analyzed and one can notice that these magnetic properties are strongly influenced by the cutting technologies. There were tested sheet samples of M400-50A and M700-50A industrial steel grades (thickness of 0.50 mm), cut through mechanical and water jet technologies. All samples have the length equal to 300 mm and the width of 30, 15, 10, 7.5 and 5 mm. The magnetic characterization was performed using a laboratory single strip tester, which can make measurements on samples with an area of 300 × 30 mm2. In order to have the standard width of 30 mm, there were put together side by side 2, 3, 4 and 6 pieces with different widths. The magnetic properties were analyzed at 1000 mT in the frequency range 10 ÷ 400 Hz. It was observed that the processing conditions must be controlled and optimized, in order to maintain a low deterioration of the magnetic properties of the non-oriented steels. In the case of water jet technology an increase of the cutting speed will be useful for the introduction of this method in the large scale manufacturing of the electrical machines.

  19. Effect of technological parameters and wood properties on cutting power in plane milling of juvenile poplar wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barcík Štefan

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of experimental measurements aimed at observing the effect of technological parameters (cutting speed vc and feed speed vf , type of wood (juvenile wood and mature wood andwood species (aspen Populus tremula, L. and hybrid poplar Populus x Euramericana „Serotina“ on cutting power during plane milling of poplar wood. The results showed the reduction of cutting power with the decrease of cutting speed and feed speed. Lower cutting power was also measured in milling hybrid poplar than in milling aspen. The test also confirmed the effect of different anatomical and chemical structure of juvenile wood in relation to mature wood on different physical and mechanical properties of such wood and hence also on the cutting power in processing juvenile wood.

  20. An evaluation of alternative reactor vessel cutting technologies for the experimental boiling water reactor at Argonne National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boing, L.E.; Henley, D.R. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Manion, W.J.; Gordon, J.W. (Nuclear Energy Services, Inc., Danbury, CT (USA))

    1989-12-01

    Metal cutting techniques that can be used to segment the reactor pressure vessel of the Experimental Boiling Water Reactor (EBWR) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) have been evaluated by Nuclear Energy Services. Twelve cutting technologies are described in terms of their ability to perform the required task, their performance characteristics, environmental and radiological impacts, and cost and schedule considerations. Specific recommendations regarding which technology should ultimately be used by ANL are included. The selection of a cutting method was the responsibility of the decommissioning staff at ANL, who included a relative weighting of the parameters described in this document in their evaluation process. 73 refs., 26 figs., 69 tabs.

  1. TECHNOLOGY OF REVERSE-BLAST CORROSION CLEANING OF STEEL SHEETS PRIOR TO LASER CUTTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Zguk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality of surface cleaning against corrosion influences on efficiency in realization of a number of technological processes. While using bentonite clays in power fluid reverse-blast cleaning ensures formation of anticorrosion protective coating with light absorbing properties on the cleaned surface and prevents formation of the repeated corrosion. The paper presents results of the investigations pertaining to influence of reverse-blast cleaning parameters of steel sheets on quality of the cleaned surface prior to laser cutting. Processing conditions, applied compositions of power fluid and also properties of the protective film coatings on the cleaned surface have been given in the paper. The paper considers topography, morphology and chemical composition of the given coating while applying complex metal micrographic, X-ray diffraction and electronic and microscopic investigations. A complex of laser cutting (refer to gas lasers with output continuous capacity of 2.5/4.0 kW has been applied for experimental works to evaluate influence of the formed surface quality on efficiency of laser cutting process. Specimens having dimension 120×120 mm, made of steel Ст3пс, with thickness from 3 to 10 mm have been prepared for the experiments. An analysis has shown that the application of reverse-blast cleaning ensures higher speed in laser cutting by a mean of 10–20 %. The investigations have made it possible to determine optimum cleaning modes: distance from a nozzle to the surface to be cleaned, jet velocity, pressure. It has been revealed that after drying of the specimens processed by power fluid based on water with concentrations of bentonite clay and calcined soda a protective film coating with thickness of some 5–7 µm has been formed on the whole cleaned specimen surfaces. Chemical base of the coating has been formed by the elements which are included in the composition of bentonite clay being the basic component of the power fluid. 

  2. TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCEMENT OF DEPOSIT WELDING AND GAS LASER CUTTING TO INCREASE THE EFFICIENCY OF THE BIMETALLIC TOOL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burlachenko Oleg Vasil’evich

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Deposit welding is the application of a layer of metal on the surface of a product using fusion welding. In this paper, we consider the method of improving the technology of gas laser cutting, which makes it possible to achieve a high productivity of manufacturing a bimetallic tool. The present paper is concerned with the advantages of gas laser cutting which allows to consider this particular process of separating materials as highly-productive, low-waste, and advanced method of removing allowances of weld-deposit high-speed steel on the working surfaces of bimetallic tool. Urgency of the use of deposit welding and gas laser cutting to improve the efficiency of production of bimetallic tool is shown. The comparative analysis of gas-laser cutting and other cutting methods is given according to the geometrical parameters of cutting and surface quality. Analysis of the results of experimental studies has confirmed the high technological attractiveness and economic efficiency of manufacturing composite structures of punches and matrices when applying deposit welding of cutting parts with high-speed steels. The cost of dimensional processing of the welded cutting part is reduced by 4 to 6 times, while the manufacturing time is reduced by 6 to 12 times.

  3. Curriculums in Industrial Technology. Plastics Technology. Industrial Maintenance. Computer Numerical Control. Teacher's Manuals and Student Learning Guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Paso Community Coll., TX.

    Curriculum guides are provided for plastics technology, industrial maintenance, and computer numerical control. Each curriculum is divided into a number of courses. For each course these instructor materials are presented in the official course outline: course description, course objectives, unit titles, texts and materials, instructor resources,…

  4. Spatio-temporal permanence and plasticity of foraging trails in young and mature leaf-cutting ant colonies (Atta spp.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Kost (Christian); E.G. de Oliveira (Evandro); T.A. Knoch (Tobias); R. Wirth (Rainer)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThe distribution and formation of foraging trails have largely been neglected as factors explaining harvesting patterns of leaf-cutting ants.We applied fractal analysis, circular, and conventional statistics to published and newly recorded trailmaps of seven Atta colonies focusing on

  5. Emerging sustainable technology for epoxidation directed toward plant oil-based plasticizers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chua, Seong-Chea; Xu, Xuebing; Guo, Zheng

    2012-01-01

    The chemical industry is increasingly looking toward sustainable technology to reduce the environmental impact and minimize the footprint of a chemical process. This work, which presents emerging technologies in academia and industry, discusses the development of advanced processes...... for the production of epoxidized plant oil-based plasticizers. The effects of the substrate structure, oxygen-donor properties, catalysts and biocatalysts on the specificity of the epoxidation reaction are intensively discussed. The progress in enzymatic epoxidation and the application of neoteric media...

  6. Environmental Aspects Of The Green Surface Plastic Deformation Technology Of Car Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoriev, S. N.; Bobrovskij, N. M.; Bobrovskij, I. N.; Melnikov, P. A.; Lukyanov, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    Foreign and domestic experience in development of dry processing technologies are considered. The results of the introduction of dry processing technologies (cutting, boring, milling, drilling) on the industrial companies in Germany are given. The negative impact on the environment and human health is shown. The possible ways of leakage of lubricoolant components in the atmosphere and soil are considered. Lubricoolants are considered as a required permanent component. Three main tasks for lubricoolant: cooling, lubricating and chip disposal are discribed.

  7. Effect of powdered activated carbon technology on short-cut nitrogen removal for coal gasification wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qian; Han, Hongjun; Xu, Chunyan; Zhuang, Haifeng; Fang, Fang; Zhang, Linghan

    2013-08-01

    A combined process consisting of a powdered activated carbon technology (PACT) and short-cut biological nitrogen removal reactor (SBNR) was developed to enhance the removal efficiency of the total nitrogen (TN) from the effluent of an upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor, which was used to treat coal gasification wastewater (CGW). The SBNR performance was improved with the increasing of COD and TP removal efficiency via PACT. The average removal efficiencies of COD and TP in PACT were respectively 85.80% and 90.30%. Meanwhile, the NH3-N to NO2-N conversion rate was achieved 86.89% in SBNR and the total nitrogen (TN) removal efficiency was 75.54%. In contrast, the AOB in SBNR was significantly inhibited without PACT or with poor performance of PACT in advance, which rendered the removal of TN. Furthermore, PAC was demonstrated to remove some refractory compounds, which therefore improved the biodegradability of the coal gasification wastewater.

  8. Single Crystal Si Layers on Glass Fabricated by Hydrophilic Fusion Bonding and Smart-Cut Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHEN Wan-Bao; LIU Wei-Li; SONG Zhi-Tang; FENG Song-Lin; ZHU Shi-Fu; ZHAO Bei-Jun

    2004-01-01

    @@ A single crystal Si thin film on a glass substrate has been obtained successfully by hydrophilic fusion bonding and the smart-cut technology. Tensile strength testing shows that the bonded interface has strong adhesion and the bonding strength is about 8.7 MPa. Crystallinity and microstructure of the samples have been characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Electrical properties have also been investigated by Hall measurements and four-point probe. The mobility of the transferred Si layer on glass is about 122cm2/V.s. The results show that the single-crystal silicon layer transferred onto glass by direct bonding keeps good quality for the applications of integrated circuits, transducers, and flat panel display.

  9. On the Research Progress of Laser Cutting Technology%激光切割技术的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭华锋; 李菊丽; 孙涛

    2015-01-01

    In response to the hot issues involved in the laser cutting technology research such as the cutting system innovation ,cutting process simulation ,cutting efficiency and quality control etc .,this paper , on the basis of the principle and classification of laser cutting technology ,reviewed and analyzed the re‐search progress of the key generic technologies in such aspects as the laser cutting system ,the numerical simulation of temperature field/stress field ,the planning and optimization of cutting path ,and the predic‐tion and control of cutting quality .It also pointed out the current problems and the development trend in the future .%针对激光切割技术研究中的切割系统创新、切割过程数值模拟、切割效率提高及切割质量控制等方面的热点问题,从激光切割技术的原理和分类出发,综述了切割系统、温度场与应力场数值模拟、切割路径规划及优化、切割质量预测及控制等关键共性技术方面的研究进展,并加以分析与展望,指出了目前激光切割技术中存在的问题及未来发展趋势。

  10. Plastic, Fantastic? What We Make. Science and Technology Education in Philippine Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippines Univ., Quezon City. Inst. for Science and Mathematics Education Development.

    This module provides information about plastics, focusing on the uses of plastic bags in particular. Topic areas considered include: (1) making plastic bags; (2) transparency of plastic bags; (3) plastic bags and food odors; (4) food containers (before and since plastics); and (5) disposing of plastic bags and other plastic products. The text is…

  11. Wall Street's assessment of plastic surgery--related technology: a clinical and financial analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, L M; Shaw, W W

    2000-02-01

    Many plastic surgeons develop technologies that are manufactured by Wall Street-financed companies. Others participate in the stock market as investors. This study examines the bioengineered skin industry to determine whether it integrates clinical and financial information as Wall Street tenets would predict, and to see whether the financial performance of these companies provides any lessons for practicing plastic surgeons. In efficient markets, the assumptions on which independent financial analysts base their company sales and earnings projections are clinically reasonable, the volatility of a company's stock price does not irrationally differ from that of its industry sector, and the buy/sell recommendations of analysts are roughly congruent. For the companies in this study, these key financial parameters were compared with a benchmark index of 69 biotech companies of similar age and annual revenues (Student's t test). Five bioengineered skin companies were included in the study. Analysts estimated that each company would sell its product to between 24 and 45 percent of its target clinical population. The average stock price volatility was significantly higher for study companies than for those in the benchmark index (p cycle of poor clinical correlation when assigning sales projections, which in turn leads to price volatility and discordance of buy/sell recommendations. This study's findings have implications for plastic surgeons who develop new technology or who participate in the equities markets as investors. Plastic surgeons who develop new medical devices or technology cannot universally depend on the market to drive clinically reasonable financial performance. Although inflated sales estimates have benefits in the short term, failure to meet projections exacts severe financial penalties. Plastic surgeons who invest in the stock market, because of their unique clinical experience, may sometimes be in the position to evaluate new technologies and

  12. Barriers and drivers in creating greener plastic toys: A technology management methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk Jensen, Maibritt; Liltorp, Helle; Tambo, Torben

    2012-01-01

    Given materials scarcity and drive for greener consumer products, marketers strive for redesigning products and realigning supply chains to accomplish these challenges. Plastic toys impose a complicated challenge as entertainment value, product safety, durability, globalization, cost, and environ......Given materials scarcity and drive for greener consumer products, marketers strive for redesigning products and realigning supply chains to accomplish these challenges. Plastic toys impose a complicated challenge as entertainment value, product safety, durability, globalization, cost...... of greening of the product portfolio based on management of the individual technologies of creative design, mold design, polymers, and supply chain. The study is conducted within plastic toys, but results are applicable to a wide range of durable consumer products....

  13. Surveillance as an innovative tool for furthering technological development as applied to the plastic packaging sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy Abel Vargas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The demand for production process efficiency and quality has made it necessary to resort to new tools for development and technological innovation. Surveillance of the enviroment has thus bee identified as beign a priority, paying special attention to technology which (by its changing nature is a key factor in competitiveness. Surveillance is a routine activity in developed countries ' organisations; however, few suitable studies have been carried out in Colombia and few instruments produced for applying it to existing sectors of the economy. The present article attempts to define a methodology for technological awareness (based on transforming the information contained in databases by means of constructing technological maps contributing useful knowledge to production processes. This methodology has been applied to the flexible plastic packaging sector. The main trends in this industry's technological development were identified allowing strategies to be proposed for incorporating these advances and tendencies in national companies and research groups involved in flexible plastic packaging technological development and innovation. Technological mappiong's possibilities as an important instrument for producing technological development in a given sector are the analysed as are their possibilities for being used in other production processes.

  14. USE OF TECHNOLOGIES OF PLASTIC AND RECONSTRUCTIVE MICROSURGERY IN TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH PATHOLOGY OF ELBOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Rodomanova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We have analyzed the results of using modern technologies of plastic and reconstructive microsurgery in treatment of 39 patients with pathology of elbow. We have stated that while using microsurgical technologies as independent and exhaustive method of treating such patients the operations have mainly mobilizing character. They aim to delete scarry contractures and recreate motion in elbow joint. The use of microsurgical technologies in a system of the specialized orthopedic treatment opens a lot of additional opportunities for the reabilitation of patients with pathology of elbow. It mainly concerns indications for performing total elbow arthroplasty and improving its results.

  15. A new technology for automatic identification and sorting of plastics for recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, S R

    2004-10-01

    A new technology for automatic sorting of plastics, based upon optical identification of fluorescence signatures of dyes, incorporated in such materials in trace concentrations prior to product manufacturing, is described. Three commercial tracers were selected primarily on the basis of their good absorbency in the 310-370 nm spectral band and their identifiable narrow-band fluorescence signatures in the visible band of the spectrum when present in binary combinations. This absorption band was selected because of the availability of strong emission lines in this band from a commercial Hg-arc lamp and high fluorescence quantum yields of the tracers at this excitation wavelength band. The plastics chosen for tracing and identification are HDPE, LDPE, PP, EVA, PVC and PET and the tracers were compatible and chemically non-reactive with the host matrices and did not affect the transparency of the plastics. The design of a monochromatic and collimated excitation source, the sensor system are described and their performances in identifying and sorting plastics doped with tracers at a few parts per million concentration levels are evaluated. In an industrial sorting system, the sensor was able to sort 300 mm long plastic bottles at a conveyor belt speed of 3.5 m.sec(-1) with a sorting purity of -95%. The limitation was imposed due to mechanical singulation irregularities at high speed and the limited processing speed of the computer used.

  16. Study on Treatment Technology of Drill Cuttings While Drilling%钻屑随钻处理技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牟顺泉; 董怀荣; 丁希军; 安庆宝

    2012-01-01

    介绍了国内外钻屑处理技术现状,提出一种新型钻屑随钻处理实施方案,研制出了关键技术设备.现场试验结果表明:具有钻屑随钻处理功能的新型钻井液固控系统能够满足我国实际钻井工况要求,推广应用前景广阔.%Based on analyzing the domestic and international situation of treatment technology of drill cuttings, the kind of new technical scheme of treatment technology of drill cuttings while drilling was put forward,that the drilling technology of minor cycle without mud pit can be realized and the drill cuttings according with the conditions of transport through dewatering and drying can be carried away from drilling well site before falling onto ground. The key equipment was developed, which has been tried in lab and on site through 3 wells. The results showed that the new mud solid control system with treatment technology of drill cuttings while drilling had a good adaptability to meet the actual drilling condition in China. This technology has broad application prospects.

  17. Development of a high speed cutting and pressure rolling technology for recycling of refrigerators with recovery of the fluorocarbon gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yotsumoto, M; Matsuda, Y. [Panasonic AVC Networks Co., (Japan)]|[Matsushita Electric Industrial Co. Ltd. (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    Refrigerators having reached end-of-life are a prime target for recycling because of their bulk and the relatively pristine condition of their components. This article reports on an innovative method of recycling these appliances. Conventional recycling relies on bulk crushing and then separation by magnetic, eddy current and possibly gravity methods. Separation of plastics by type is poor and the steel is often contaminated by copper. This innovative method replaces bulk crushing by high speed impact cutting, which cuts the metal-polymer-matrix composite material of the body into smaller parts (e.g. the walls, the door) of rectangular form. This is done by robots suitably controlled by sophisticated software which uses camera images as input, so that suitable pieces are precisely cut. High pressure rolling then liberates the cut plates of composite material into its constituent materials. The rolling process ruptures the polyurethane foam releasing the gas inside its unit cells. The gases traditionally used were fluorocarbons, but now flammable butane and cyclopentane is often used. The rolling system includes a gas recovery system to prevent escape of these environmentally sensitive substances. 5 refs., 2 tabs., 9 figs.

  18. 先进CNC复合加工刀具和复合切削技术%Summarization of Advanced CNC Composite Cutting Tools and Composite Cutting Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张平亮

    2012-01-01

    The characteristics and application area of advanced CNC composite machining tools in Germany, Japan, Italy and other countries were introduced. The essential hardware, software and expected result of CNC composite cutting technology were expounded. Development of the new CNC composite processing technology in future was proposed.%介绍了德国、日本、意大利等国生产的先进的CNC复合加工刀具的特点与应用范围,阐明了CNC复合切削技术必要的硬软件及期望达到的效果,并提出今后CNC复合加工技术发展方向.

  19. Gasification advanced research and technology development (AR and TD) cross-cut meeting and review. [US DOE supported

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    The US Department of Energy gasification advanced research and technology development (AR and TD) cross-cut meeting and review was held June 24 to 26, 1981, at Germantown, Maryland. Forty-eight papers from the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  20. Cutting propagation technology of cycad plants%苏铁植物扦插繁殖育苗技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍群玉; 马书云; 杜万平

    2013-01-01

    从幼苗繁殖、移栽、管理等过程介绍了苏铁植物扦插繁殖育苗技术。%From seedling propagation, transplantation, management etc to introduce Cutting Propagation Technology of Cycad Plants.

  1. Influencia de los parámetros de corte en el espesor de la zona de deformación plástica secundaria // Influence of cutting parameters on the thickness of the secondary-plastic-deformation zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Rodríguez - Moliner

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo tiene como objetivo estudiar la influencia de los parámetros de corte en el espesor de lazona de deformación plástica secundaria (ezdps, utilizando calzos recubiertos con nano capas deTiN/TiAlN en un acero AISI 1045. Los resultados han sido comparados contra los obtenidos con unacuchilla calzada convencional de la firma SANDVIK con recubrimientos de TiCN-Al2O3-TiN,posibilitando el estudio del efecto de los recubrimientos nano-capas en el proceso de corte demetales.Los resultados obtenidos demuestran que los efectos de la profundidad de corte y la velocidad deavance en el ezdps, usando cuchillas recubiertas con nano capas, siguen la misma tendencia que enlas cuchillas convencionales aunque con valores mucho menores. A medida que la profundidad decorte y la velocidad de avance aumentan el ezdps aumenta proporcionalmente. Estos resultados secorresponden con los obtenidos por otros autores usando cuchillas convencionales.Palabras claves: Deformación plástica secundaria, viruta, corte de metales, cuchillas recubiertas connanocapas.___________________________________________________________________________AbstractThe aim of this paper is to study the influence of the cutting parameters in the thickness of thesecondary plastic deformation zone (ezdps, for nano-layered (TiN/TiAlN cutting tools. The resultshave been compared with the ones obtained for a conventional cutting tool.The results show the effects of cutting speed, cut thickness and advance speed on the ezdps. Theezdps increases as the cut thickness, and advance speed increases. The effect of the cutting speedis contrary to the others. These results agree with the trend obtained by previous investigators,although the values obtained for the nano-layered-coated cutting tool are lower than withconventional tools.Key words: Secondary plastic deformation, chip, cutting metals, nano-layered-coated cutting tool.

  2. The potential environmental gains from recycling waste plastics: simulation of transferring recycling and recovery technologies to Shenyang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xudong; Xi, Fengming; Geng, Yong; Fujita, Tsuyoshi

    2011-01-01

    With the increasing attention on developing a low-carbon economy, it is necessary to seek appropriate ways on reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through innovative municipal solid waste management (MSWM), such as urban symbiosis. However, quantitative assessments on the environmental benefits of urban symbiosis, especially in developing countries, are limited because only a limited number of planned synergistic activities have been successful and it is difficult to acquire detailed inventory data from private companies. This paper modifies and applies a two-step simulation system and used it to assess the potential environmental benefits, including the reduction of GHG emissions and saving of fossil fuels, by employing various Japanese plastics recycling/energy-recovery technologies in Shenyang, China. The results showed that among various recycling/energy-recovery technologies, the mechanical waste plastics recycling technology, which produces concrete formwork boards (NF boards), has the greatest potential in terms of reducing GHG emissions (1.66 kg CO(2)e/kg plastics), whereas the technology for the production of refuse plastic fuel (RPF) has the greatest potential on saving fossil fuel consumption (0.77 kg ce/kg-plastics). Additional benefits can be gained by applying combined technologies that cascade the utilization of waste plastics. Moreover, the development of clean energy in conjunction with the promotion of new waste plastics recycling programs could contribute to additional reductions in GHG emissions and fossil fuel consumption.

  3. Effect of different moisturizing technology on the rooting of Ilex crenata ‘Golden Gem' cuttings%保湿方法对金叶龟甲冬青扦插生根的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史云光; 王珊; 史清云; 王以共; 胡玲; 魏峰; 胡萍; 张中伟

    2012-01-01

    The effect of rooting of Ilex crenata ‘Golden Gem' cuttings was studied by different moisturizing technology on the field trial.Three kinds of different moisturizing technology were used to culture the Ilex crenata ‘Golden Gem' cuttings.The results showed that the survival rate of cuttings,the rooting number and the average root length of Ilex crenata ‘Golden Gem' covered with plastic cup had been increased,with the survival rate of 90.3%,the root number of 16 and the average root length up to 11.2 cm,all at very significant level.The three treatments showed no significant difference in the length of root.For shoot cutting propagation of Ilex crenata ‘Golden Gem',the moisturizing technology of covering plastic cup was more suitable.%通过田间试验研究2种不同保湿方法对金叶龟甲冬青扦插生根的影响,筛选出最适合的扦插保湿方法。结果表明:用塑料杯覆盖处理金叶龟甲冬青,其扦插成活率、插条生根数、平均根长均有所提高,其中生根率达到了90.3%,生根数达到了16,平均根长达到了11.2 cm,均达到了极显著水平;生根所需时间3种处理无显著差异。金叶龟甲冬青嫩枝扦插繁殖,使用覆盖塑料杯的保湿方法较为适宜。

  4. C-105 heel pit removed and C-105 dome cut paves way for new retrieval technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackey, Thomas C.; Sutey, Michael J.

    2013-06-10

    For just the second time, crews have cut a hole in the top of an active radioactive waste storage tank at Hanford. Workers began cutting a 55-inch hole in the top of Tank C-105 last Tuesday night on graveyard shift, completing the cut early Wednesday. The hole will allow for installation of the Mobile Arm Retrieval System (MARS) Vacuum into the tank. The cut was made through 17 inches of concrete and rebar using the newly developed rotary-core cutting system, which uses a laser-guided steel canister with teeth on the bottom to drill a round hole into the tank dome. The project was completed safely and successfully in a high-rad area without contamination or significant dose to workers.

  5. C-105 heel pit removed and C-105 dome cut paves way for new retrieval technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackey, Thomas C.; Sutey, Michael J.

    2013-06-10

    For just the second time, crews have cut a hole in the top of an active radioactive waste storage tank at Hanford. Workers began cutting a 55-inch hole in the top of Tank C-105 last Tuesday night on graveyard shift, completing the cut early Wednesday. The hole will allow for installation of the Mobile Arm Retrieval System (MARS) Vacuum into the tank. The cut was made through 17 inches of concrete and rebar using the newly developed rotary-core cutting system, which uses a laser-guided steel canister with teeth on the bottom to drill a round hole into the tank dome. The project was completed safely and successfully in a high-rad area without contamination or significant dose to workers.

  6. Cutting fluids and clean technologies; Los fluidos de corte y las tecnologias limpias (III)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terradillos, J.; Arnaiz, A.

    2003-07-01

    Metalworking fluids are an essential constituent of manufacturing and represent an important part of machining cost and disposal charges. Practically all cutting fluids currently in use fall into four categories: straight oils, soluble oils, semi-synthetic fluids and synthetic oils. The composition of these fluids depends on the machining requirements and primary functions include improving tool life, reducing thermal deformation of parts and improving surface finish and flushing away chips from the cutting zone. To maintain cutting fluid quality in the long term and, at the same time, reduce its environmental impact, three strategies could be followed: Prevention, Minimization and Evaluation, Related to prevention, different approaches exist for reducing the impact of cutting fluids. They include dry cutting, machining using a minimum quantity of lubricant (MQL) and developing environmental friendly acceptable formulations or refrigerant gases. (Author)

  7. Knowledge base technology for CT-DIMS: Report 1. [CT-DIMS (Cutting Tool - Database and Information Management System)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, E.E.

    1993-05-01

    This report discusses progress on the Cutting Tool-Database and Information Management System (CT-DIMS) project being conducted by the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) under contract to the Department of Energy. This project was initiated in October 1991 by UIUC. The Knowledge-Based Engineering Systems Research Laboratory (KBESRL) at UIUC is developing knowledge base technology and prototype software for the presentation and manipulation of the cutting tool databases at Allied-Signal Inc., Kansas City Division (KCD). The graphical tool selection capability being developed for CT-DIMS in the Intelligent Design Environment for Engineering Automation (IDEEA) will provide a concurrent environment for simultaneous access to tool databases, tool standard libraries, and cutting tool knowledge.

  8. Research on Plastic Technology and Tensile Properties of Spirulina%螺旋藻的塑化技术及其拉伸性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程羊; 蔡军; 张德远

    2015-01-01

    In order to solve the problem of the poor mechanical properties of the original spirulina, plastic technology of spirulina was proposed in this paper. Silicone rubber with good tensile properties was used as plasticizer. And the silicone rubber was put into spirulina through plastic technology. Microscope was used to observe and analyze the morphology of spirulina before and after plastic process. In order to further reveal the tensile property of such plasticizing spring particles, they were mixed into Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) uniformly. Then the mixture was spin-coated on the silicon wafer. After the film was solidified, the tensile test was carried out with a strip cut from the film. The tensile phenomenon of the spirulina was monitored in real time by an optical microscope equipped with digital camera, until the particle was break. And the tensile properties of the spirulina before and after plastic process were analyzed. The results indicated that the silicone rubber was successfully put into the spirulina and the tensile properties of spirulina were enhanced after the plastic process.%为了提高螺旋藻原始模板的机械性能差的问题,本文提出了螺旋藻塑化的技术。以螺旋藻为模板,通过塑化技术向螺旋藻内部渗透进入塑性良好的硅橡胶。在显微镜下观察和分析螺旋藻塑化前后的形体变化。然后,将螺旋藻加入PDMS(polydimethylsiloxane)中充分混合,并将混合后的材料旋涂出薄膜,待PDMS固化之后,拉伸PDMS薄膜并通过光学显微镜观察和分析PDMS薄膜内部的微粒的形态变化。最后,分析螺旋藻塑化前后的拉伸性能的变化。结果表明,螺旋藻在塑化处理之后,螺旋藻内部和表面都附着了塑性良好的硅橡胶;螺旋藻塑化之后的拉伸性能较原始螺旋藻有了明显提高。

  9. 刀具仿生技术的研究进展%Development of cutting tool bionic technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      仿生学可以为提高刀具的耐磨性和工作效率提供良好的借鉴思路。从形态仿生、构形仿生和材料仿生3个方面总结仿生技术在各类刀具设计中的应用,介绍各种仿生刀具的生物体原型、仿生特征以及仿生刀具的应用领域和效果。刀具的仿生设计涉及刀具的几何形状、涂层以及刀具的表面结构,刀具的应用领域包括机械加工、地质与空间勘探以及与人们生活相关的轻工机械等领域。讨论仿生刀具的特征,分析存在的问题,并展望了刀具仿生技术的研究方向。%Bionics can provide better design thoughts to improve wear resistance and cutting efficiency of cutting tool. The applications of bionic technology in the design of various types of cutting tool are summarized from three aspects of structure, form and material. The biological prototype,bionic characteristics,application area and effect of bionic cutting tools are introduced. The bionic designs of cutting tools involve tool geometry,coating and surface structure. The application fields of bionic tools concern with machining,geology,space exploration and light industry machinery associated with daily life. Finally, the characteristics of bionic tools are discussed. The existing problems and development trend of cutting tool bionic technology are also given.

  10. Influence of wood properties and technological parameters of processing on cutting power in milling of thermally modified beechwood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandić Marija

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of influence of thermal modification on cutting power required for milling wood processing. The experiment was conducted for the different treatment temperatures (170°C, 190°C and 210°C and different technological parameters of processing (feed and cutting depth. Cutting powers during milling were measured on four groups of beech wood samples, dimensions 35×16×400 mm, separately for heartwood and sapwood. The following mechanical and physical properties of the processed samples were tested: bending properties (modulus of rupture and modulus of elasticity, cross-sectional and tangential hardness, and air-dry density. The measuring device used for measuring, monitoring and displaying cutting power was developed at the Wood Machining Centre at the Faculty of Forestry in Belgrade. The results point out the differences in the powers required for processing heat-treated wood compared to untreated wood. The analysis shows that with the increase in treatment temperature, the required cutting powers decrease.

  11. Flexible Laser Metal Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Sigurd; Jørgensen, Steffen Nordahl; Kristiansen, Morten

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a new flexible and fast approach to laser cutting called ROBOCUT. Combined with CAD/CAM technology, laser cutting of metal provides the flexibility to perform one-of-a-kind cutting and hereby realises mass production of customised products. Today’s laser cutting techniques...... possess, despite their wide use in industry, limitations regarding speed and geometry. Research trends point towards remote laser cutting techniques which can improve speed and geometrical freedom and hereby the competitiveness of laser cutting compared to fixed-tool-based cutting technology...... such as punching. This paper presents the concepts and preliminary test results of the ROBOCUT laser cutting technology, a technology which potentially can revolutionise laser cutting....

  12. Particle-scale Analysis of Key Technologies on Cut-and-over Tunnel in Slope Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.H. Yang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available When the shallow tunnel is constructed on the slope terrain in the mountains, there are the potential risks such as landslide induced by cutting the slope and the non-compacted backfill material during the construction of the cut-andcover tunnel. In order to solve these problems, based on a practical engineering, the optimized construction plans of the cut-and-cover tunnel were analyzed by particle flow code (PFC, the key parts of the open-cut construction were identified, and the anti-slide piles countermeasures were proposed. Furthermore, the grouting reinforcement process for the non-compacted backfill material around the shallow tunnel was simulated by PFC, and the variation characteristics of the porosity and grouting pressure were revealed as well. The results are of great value to the similar engineering.

  13. Clinical Application of Three-Dimensional Printing Technology in Craniofacial Plastic Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Jong Woo; Kim, Namkug

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing has been particularly widely adopted in medical fields. Application of the 3D printing technique has even been extended to bio-cell printing for 3D tissue/organ development, the creation of scaffolds for tissue engineering, and actual clinical application for various medical parts. Of various medical fields, craniofacial plastic surgery is one of areas that pioneered the use of the 3D printing concept. Rapid prototype technology was introduced in the 1990s to m...

  14. A new technology proposed to recycle waste plastics into hydrocarbon fuel in USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moinuddin Sarker, Mohammad Mamunor Rashid, Mohammed Molla, Muhammad Sadikur Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy crisis and environmental degradation by polymer wastes have been imperative to find and propose technologies for recovery of raw materials and energy from non-conventional sources like plastic wastes. A variety of methods and processes connected with global or national policies have been proposed worldwide. A new type of steel reactor is proposed for conversion of waste plastics to fuel like mixture of hydrocarbons. The results of the thermal degradation of waste plastics in the laboratory scale set-up based on this process in the paper. The melting and thermal cracking processes were carried out in a single batch process at the temperature range is 200–420 ºC. The final product consisted of light gas 6.3 % and liquid product 90%. 3.7% solid black products were produced. The light, ‘‘gas” fraction of the hydrocarbons mixture (C1–C4 and rest of liquid fuel made over 90% of the liquid product. It may be used for fuel production refinery or electricity generation.

  15. 切割技术的发展现状及发展趋势%Development and Trend of Cutting Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋晓妍

    2016-01-01

    With the development of science and technology , modern cutting technology of multi-energy and multi-technology has made breakthrough progress , and has been widely applied in the field of modern in‐dustrial manufacture .This thesis has talked about the cutting technology principles and applications of the flame cutting ,plasma arc cutting ,laser cutting ,elertrospark -wire cutting ,water ject cutting ,and prospects for the development of the cutting technology in the future .%随着科学技术的进步,多能源、多种工艺方法的现代切割技术取得突破性进展,并且广泛的应用于现代工业制造领域中。本文主要从工作原理及使用现状两个方面,分别介绍了火焰切割技术、等离子弧切割技术、激光切割技术、电火花线切割技术和水射流切割技术,并展望未来切割技术发展趋势。

  16. 绿色刀具设计的概念及关键技术%Concept & Key Technologies of Green Cutting Tool Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王跃进

    2001-01-01

    介绍了绿色刀具设计的概念及绿色材料选择技术、面向可拆卸设计技术、面向可回收设计技术、绿色刀具评价方法等关键技术,指出绿色刀具设计与制造技术的应用将引起刀具产业的深刻变革。%The concept of green cutting tool design and its key technologies, including selection technology for green mate- rials, design technology for disassembly, design technology for recovering and evaluation methods for green cutting tools are introduced. It is pointed out that a profound change will be created in the cutting tool industry with increasing applications of the green cutting tool design and manufacturing technologies.

  17. 干切削的关键技术%Key Technology of Dry Cutting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伯霖; 夏红梅; 黄晓明

    2001-01-01

    干切削作为一种新型的绿色制造技术,不仅能避免切削液对环境的污染,而且能大幅度降低产品的生产成本。本文论述干切削技术产生的历史背景、实现方法及其在工业中的实际应用。%As a new kind of green manufacturing, dry cutting is a effectivetechnology not only in avoiding the influences of cutting fluid on environment pollution, but also in reducing the production cost. The historical backgroround, realized methods and the application in industry of the dry cutting are presented in this paper.

  18. Clinical application of three-dimensional printing technology in craniofacial plastic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jong Woo; Kim, Namkug

    2015-05-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing has been particularly widely adopted in medical fields. Application of the 3D printing technique has even been extended to bio-cell printing for 3D tissue/organ development, the creation of scaffolds for tissue engineering, and actual clinical application for various medical parts. Of various medical fields, craniofacial plastic surgery is one of areas that pioneered the use of the 3D printing concept. Rapid prototype technology was introduced in the 1990s to medicine via computer-aided design, computer-aided manufacturing. To investigate the current status of 3D printing technology and its clinical application, a systematic review of the literature was conducted. In addition, the benefits and possibilities of the clinical application of 3D printing in craniofacial surgery are reviewed, based on personal experiences with more than 500 craniofacial cases conducted using 3D printing tactile prototype models.

  19. Prospect of Technology of Recycling Waste Plastics%废旧塑料回收利用技术展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董莲枝; 郭健; 靳新慧

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the authors introduced progress technologies of recycling common waste plastics, and put forward ex- isting problems of waste plastics and cross-linking agent in chemical modification of waste plastics.%介绍了常见的废旧塑料回收利用和回收方式的技术进展,提出在废旧塑料的化学改性中存在的问题及交联剂的选择。

  20. Use of Advanced Plastic Materials in Nigeria: Performance Assessment of Expanded Polystyrene Building Technology System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Nkem Ede (PhD

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The provision of affordable residential houses for the masses in the developing nations has been a mirage over the years and the future does not portend good as the cost of adopting conventional concrete material technologies is escalating while so many environmental issues like climate change are being raised in the recent times.To circumvent this poor housing provision trend, some innovative construction materials and technologies are being introduced to facilitate unique modular designs, reduction of labour, decline in the depletion of exhaustible materials,savings of time and fund. One of such materials is the expanded polystyrene. The introduction of advanced plastic materials and in particular the expanded polystyrene building technologies in the Nigerian constructionindustry will be a very useful and brilliant initiative that will aid the reduction of cost of construction and facilitate access to affordable houses for the masses.This researchaims at studying the applications of this innovative plastic material in the Nigerian building industry with special regard to the performance perception by the clients and the end users. A building estate where expanded polystyrene building technology has been predominantly used in Abuja is considered as a case study. Questionnaires were distributed among clients and residents of the building estate and statistical tools were used to analyse the data collected. Great satisfaction verified among the clients and residents and the high ranking performance confirmed for recyclability, reliability, versatility and moisture resistance of EPS building products all herald a great future for the applications of this advanced building products in the Nigerian building industry.

  1. The technology and mechanism of removal of plastic mulch and land preparation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Huiyou; HOU Shulin; NA Mingjun; YANG Xiaoli; BAI Shengnan

    2007-01-01

    In this article ,the characteristic of the field plastic mulch, the craft for mechanization removal and land preparation of plastic mulch and the mechanism frequently used in the removal and land preparation of plastic mulch were introduced, which offered references for the design of removal mechanism and land preparation of plastic mulch and structural optimization combination of working components.

  2. Research Progress of Laser Cutting Technology Domestic and Overseas%激光切割技术国内外研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓东; 王松; 赵凯华; 李国庆

    2012-01-01

    Laser cutting is one kind of advanced technology in the world. It is one of the most important parts in laser machining area. The characters of laser cutting equipment and laser cutting process are introduced, and the development trend of laser cutting process in the future is suggested.%总结了激光切割技术的特点,介绍了国内外激光切割设备和加工工艺研究现状,对激光切割工艺未来的发展提出了建议.

  3. 改良纸塑袋封口切割工作站效果评价%Impact of modified paper and plastic bags cutting sealing workstation on work efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司慧君; 王惠玲; 刘绍倩; 韩强

    2012-01-01

    目的 评价纸塑袋封口切割工作站改良对工作效率的影响.方法 选择4个有切割纸塑包装袋经验的人员,每人分别使用改良前和改良后切割机切割250 mm长的3M品牌纸塑包装袋100个,对改良前和改良后的两组结果进行切割所需时间、切割精准度及人员舒适度对比.结果 切割100个纸塑包装袋改良前平均时间为7min,改良后平均时间为4 min;改良前切割长度精准合格率为94.0%,改良后切割长度精准合格率为99.8%,舒适度改良前人员为19.8%,改良后人员为100.0%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 改良的纸塑袋封口切割工作站能大大缩短工作时间,提高切割长度精准度,同时增加工作人员的舒适度,明显提高工作效率.%OBJECTIVE To evaluate the influence of improved paper plastic bag sealing cutting workstation on the work efficiency. METHODS Totally four staff experienced on cutting paper plastic bag packaging were selected, each person cut 100 250mm-long paper and plastic bags (made by 3M) by respectively using the cutting machine before and after the modification. The cutting time, cutting length accuracy, and the comfort of the operators of the two groups were compared. RESULTS It needed the mean time of 7 min to cut 100 paper-plastic packaging bags before the improvement, and 4 min after the improvement; the qualified rate of the cutting length accuracy was 94. 0% before the improvement and 99. 8% after the improvement ; the comfort of the staff was 19. 8% before the improvement and 100. 0% after the improvement, the differences were statistically significant (P<0. 01). CONCLUSION The modified plastic bag cutting sealing workstation can significantly shorten the working time and improve the cutting length accuracy, while increasing the staff's comfort, and improving the work efficiency significantly.

  4. Fundamentals of cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J G; Patel, Y

    2016-06-06

    The process of cutting is analysed in fracture mechanics terms with a view to quantifying the various parameters involved. The model used is that of orthogonal cutting with a wedge removing a layer of material or chip. The behaviour of the chip is governed by its thickness and for large radii of curvature the chip is elastic and smooth cutting occurs. For smaller thicknesses, there is a transition, first to plastic bending and then to plastic shear for small thicknesses and smooth chips are formed. The governing parameters are tool geometry, which is principally the wedge angle, and the material properties of elastic modulus, yield stress and fracture toughness. Friction can also be important. It is demonstrated that the cutting process may be quantified via these parameters, which could be useful in the study of cutting in biology.

  5. Research on the low speed stability control technology of fly-cutting machine for KDP crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dongsheng; Ji, Fang; Chen, Hua

    2014-08-01

    In the paper, The problem about stability in low speed of the air bearing stage driven by a linear motor was investigated to satisfy the ultra-precision fly-cutting of KDP crystals. First of all, the modal of the servo system with the permanent magnet synchronous linear motor was analyzed. In the system of the low speed linear motor driver, the main interferences came from cutting force f Load , the friction of chain and cable f n , the ripple thrust f ripp , and motor friction f fric . Secondly, the factors about low speed stability were analyzed: the key to improve the system's stability is to control the interference forces; Another important issue is to develop an advanced control strategy. Thirdly, some optimization experiments about low speed stability were developed as follows: the influence of feedback element, the influence of Power converter, speed optimization of damping feed-forward control, speed optimization of Spindle vibration, speed optimization based on disturbance observer. Finally the experimental results: the lowest speed of the stage can reach 0.2 mm/min; the error of the speed is less than 0.06mm/min when running between 1mm/min and 10 mm/min. The cutting experiment of KDP with the size of 330mm × 330mm × 10mm, was proceeded on the Fly-cutting machine by the feeding velocity of 1mm/min. The results about the surface roughness show that the value of Rq is 3.3nm and the value of Ra is 2.6nm.

  6. Melt Flow and Energy Limitation of Laser Cutting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Hudeček

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Laser technology is a convertible technology for plenty of parts in most materials. Laser material processing for industrial manufacturing applications is today a widespread procedure for welding, cutting, marking and micro machining of metal and plastic parts and components. Involvement and support this huge mass-production industry of laser cutting, new technology and dry-process using lasers were and are being actively developed. Fundamentally, industrial laser cutting or other applications on industry should satisfy the four key practical application issues including “Quality or Performance”, “Throughput or Speed”, “Cost or Total Ownership Cost”, and “Reliability”. Laser requires for examples several complicated physical factors to be resolved including die strength to be enable good wire-bonding and survival of severe cycling test, clean cutting wall surface, good cutting of direct attach film, and proper speed of cutting for achieving economy of throughput. Some example of maximum cutting rate, wherewith is normally limited laser energy, cutting speed is depend on type laser, different of cutting with one laser beam and beam pattern and applied laser power/material thickness will be introduced in this paper.

  7. Institute a modest carbon tax to reduce carbon emissions, finance clean energy technology development, cut taxes, and reduce the deficit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muro, Mark; Rothwell, Jonathan

    2012-11-15

    The nation should institute a modest carbon tax in order to help clean up the economy and stabilize the nation’s finances. Specifically, Congress and the president should implement a $20 per ton, steadily increasing carbon excise fee that would discourage carbon dioxide emissions while shifting taxation onto pollution, financing energy efficiency (EE) and clean technology development, and providing opportunities to cut taxes or reduce the deficit. The net effect of these policies would be to curb harmful carbon emissions, improve the nation’s balance sheet, and stimulate job-creation and economic renewal.

  8. Fracture mechanics analysis on Smart-Cut(R) technology. Part 1: Effects of stiffening wafer and defect interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Gu; Hongyuan Liu; YiuWing Mai; Xi Qiao Feng; Shou Wen Yu

    2009-01-01

    In the present paper, continuum fracture mecha-nics is used to analyze the Smart-Cut process, a recently established ion cut technology which enables highly efficient fabrication of various silicon-on-insulator (SO1) wafers of high uniformity in thickness. Using integral transform and Cauchy singular integral equation methods, the mode-Ⅰ and mode-II stress intensity factors, energy release rate, and crack opening displacements are derived in order to examine seve-ral important fracture mechanisms involved in the Smart-Cut process. The effects of defect interaction and stiffening wafer on defect growth are investigated. The numerical results indi-cate that a stiffener/handle wafer can effectively prevent the donor wafer from blistering and exfoliation, but it slows down the defect growth by decreasing the magnitudes of SIF's. Defect interaction also plays an important role in the splitting process of SOI wafers, but its contribution depends strongly on the size, interval and internal pressure of defects. Finally, an analytical formula is derived to estimate the implantation dose required for splitting a SOI wafer.

  9. USE OF TECHNOLOGIES OF PLASTIC AND RECONSTRUCTIVE MICROSURGERY IN TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH WRIST PATHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Kutyanov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We have analyzed the results of treatment of 44 patients with injuries and tumors of wrist. The main aims of microsurgical interventions in such patients were replacement of bone defects (40,9%, replacement of skin defects (25,0%, and also elimination of contractures of wrist joint and fingers (20,5%. At the same time high frequency of use of bony flaps was caused mostly not by the need in replacement of defects of bones, but by the need in stabilization of wrist joint aiming to create the conditions for normal function of fingers. It has been stated that the use of technologies of plastic and reconstructive microsurgery in patients with wrist pathology is not the main factor determing the good result of treatment. The good result of treatment is mainly determined by the condition of fingers, not only appropriate surgical treatment but also adequate rehabilitation helps them achieve their necessary function.

  10. Survey of technology for decommissioning of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. 8. Remote handling and cutting techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Ryuichiro; Ishijima, Noboru [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1999-03-01

    In nuclear fuel cycle facility decommissioning and refurbishment, the remote handling techniques such as dismantling, waste handling and decontamination are needed to reduce personnel radiation exposure. The survey research for the status of R and D activities on remote handling tools suitable for nuclear facilities in the world and domestic existing commercial cutting tools applicable to decommissioning of the facilities was conducted. In addition, the drive mechanism, sensing element and control system applicable to the remote handling devices were also surveyed. This report presents brief surveyed summaries. (H. Itami)

  11. HYDRO-ABRASIVE JET CLEANING TECHNOLOGY OF STEEL SHEETS DESIGNED FOR LASER CUTTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kachanov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigations executed by the BNTU “Shipbuilding and hydraulics” department have shown that rather efficient implementation of the requirements to the metal sheet surface designed for laser cutting can be achieved by using hydro-abrasive jet cleaning while applying water pump equipment with the range of pressure – 20–40 MPa. Type of working fluid plays a significant role for obtaining surface of the required quality. The conducted experiments have demonstrated that the efficient solution of the assigned problems can be ensured by using a working fluid containing bentonite clay, surface-active agent polyacrylamide, soda ash and the rest water.

  12. Fracture mechanics analysis on Smart-Cut technology. Part 2: Effect of bonding flaws

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Gu; Hongyuan Liu; Yiu-Wing Mai; Xi Qiao Feng; Shou Wen Yu

    2009-01-01

    In Part 2 of the paper on the Smart-Cut process,the effects of bonding flaws characterized by the size and internal pressure before and after splitting are studied by using fracture mechanics models. It is found that the bonding flaws with large size are prone to cause severe deviation of defect growth, leading to a non-transferred area of thin layer when splitting. In a practical Smart-Cut process where the internal pressure of bonding flaws is very small,large interfacial defects always promote defect growth in the splitting process. Meanwhile, increasing the internal pressure of the bonding flaws decreases the defect growth and its deviation before splitting. The mechanism of relaxation of stiffener constraint is proposed to clarify the effect of bonding flaws. Moreover, the progress of the splitting process is analyzed when bonding flaws are present. After splitting,those bonding flaws with large size and high internal pressure are vulnerable for the blistering of the thin film during high-temperature annealing.

  13. The Development Mechanism and the Technical Characteristics of the Modern Cutting Technology%现代切削技术的发展机制及技术特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵炳桢

    2006-01-01

    The development mechanism and mode and the new technical characteristics of the modern cutting technology are studied and analyzed. It is presented that to speed up the development of cutting technology and fully use the good-quality technical resource of cutting tool have the significant meaning for construction of powerful manufacturing industry of China.

  14. Short Cuts and Extended Techniques: Rethinking Relations between Technology and Educational Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thumlert, Kurt; de Castell, Suzanne; Jenson, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Building upon a recent call to renew actor-network theory (ANT) for educational research, this article reconsiders relations between technology and educational theory. Taking cues from actor-network theorists, this discussion considers the technologically-mediated networks in which learning actors are situated, acted upon, and acting, and traces…

  15. Laser Cutting, Development Trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove

    1999-01-01

    In this paper a short review of the development trends in laser cutting will be given.The technology, which is the fastest expanding industrial production technology will develop in both its core market segment: Flat bed cutting of sheet metal, as it will expand in heavy industry and in cutting o...... of 3-dimensional shapes.The CO2-laser will also in the near future be the dominating laser source in the market, although the new developments in ND-YAG-lasers opens for new possibilities for this laser type.......In this paper a short review of the development trends in laser cutting will be given.The technology, which is the fastest expanding industrial production technology will develop in both its core market segment: Flat bed cutting of sheet metal, as it will expand in heavy industry and in cutting...

  16. On the Cutting Edge: Movements and Institutional Examples of Technological Disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Marjorie Roth; Price, Todd Alan

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes technological disruptions in higher education that pose challenges and offer opportunities to college and university students, faculty, and administrators. It provides examples of innovative responses being explored by 2-year and 4-year higher education institutions.

  17. Shared Investment by NIS and National Labs Develops Cutting-Edge Safeguards Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anheier, Norman C.; Williams, Laura S.

    2012-04-01

    This article, regarding a new technology for detecting undeclared enrichment at gas centrifuge enrichment plants, was written for the DOE/NNSA NA-24 Highlights, a newsletter intended for public release.

  18. Putting agricultural equipment and digital technologies at the cutting edge of agroecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bellon Maurel Véronique

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The agro-ecological transition is an ambitious challenge. It can be met by implementing the fundamentals of agroecology (use of biodiversity, integration of agriculture in landscapes, closure of flow loops in the context of a broad and renewed offer of technologies: agro-equipment, biotechnology, digital technologies… This article explores the role that agro-equipment and digital services can play in this transition. These technologies contribute through various levers to the agro-ecological transition: by improving farming efficiency (more service rendered for the same environmental impact, by precision farming (adaptation of the operations to the needs of the plant or the animal based on a monitoring–diagnosis–recommendation cycle and by the development of specialized machinery helping the farmer to achieve “flow loop-closing” (at the plot level, by maintaining the soil quality, or at the farm level, with the recycling of organic effluents or to take advantage of biodiversity (e.g., with agro-equipment adapted to mixed crops. The technological bricks that are requested and for which advances are expected are: sensors (to measure plant or animal needs and associated digital technologies (information transfer, data processing, precision technologies for input application, robotics, specialized machines to manage soil cover and weeds, or for agroforestry. The brakes and engines for innovation in agro-equipment are studied. The brakes are the generally small structure of the farm manufacturing companies, the deficit of the demand from farmers and the complexity − either real or perceived − of these equipments. To encourage innovation, several levers are to be used: involving users in the design of agro-equipments, creating financial incentives for innovative equipment purchase, and training end-users, prescribers and dealers to the high potential of these new technologies. In conclusion, putting agro-equipment and digital technology

  19. Cutting-edge technology for public health workforce training in comparative effectiveness research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-Miranda, Abraham A; Nash, Michelle C; Salemi, Jason L; Mbah, Alfred K; Salihu, Hamisu M

    2013-06-01

    A critical mass of public health practitioners with expertise in analytic techniques and best practices in comparative effectiveness research is needed to fuel informed decisions and improve the quality of health care. The purpose of this case study is to describe the development and formative evaluation of a technology-enhanced comparative effectiveness research learning curriculum and to assess its potential utility to improve core comparative effectiveness research competencies among the public health workforce. Selected public health experts formed a multidisciplinary research collaborative and participated in the development and evaluation of a blended 15-week comprehensive e-comparative effectiveness research training program, which incorporated an array of health informatics technologies. Results indicate that research-based organizations can use a systematic, flexible, and rapid means of instructing their workforce using technology-enhanced authoring tools, learning management systems, survey research software, online communities of practice, and mobile communication for effective and creative comparative effectiveness research training of the public health workforce.

  20. INFLUENCE OF SELECTED PINION CUTTING TECHNOLOGICAL PARAMETERS ON KINEMATIC QUALITY OF SPIRAL BEVEL GEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadwiga PISULA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article evaluated the effect of selected process parameters on the accuracy of kinematic spiral bevel gear pair. The changes of technological parameters were analyzed using a proprietary, non-commercial support system for design bevel gears. The effect of the parameter changes were observed in the motion graph of the gear and pinion mesh with ratio 4:99. It has been shown that the modifications of technological parameters can produce a small positive effect on fluency of motion, but predominantly have a negative impact on the accuracy of kinematic.

  1. Technological thermal stresses in the shrink fitting of cylindrical bodies with consideration of plastic flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dats, E. P.; Tkacheva, A. V.

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a solution of a sequence of one-dimensional boundary-value problems of thermal stresses defining the elastic-plastic deformation processes used in the shrink fitting of cylindrical bodies. The initiation and development of plastic flow in the materials of the assembly elements are studied taking into account the temperature dependence of the yield stress of these materials. During temperature equalization, the flow can slow down, followed by unloading and formation of a residual stress field providing tension. The conditions of formation and motion of the boundaries of the elastic and plastic states in plastic flow and during unloading are determined.

  2. Cutting through the Hype: Evaluating the Innovative Potential of New Educational Technologies through Business Model Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalman, Yoram M.

    2016-01-01

    In an era when novel educational technologies are constantly introduced to the marketplace, often accompanied by hyperbolic claims that these ground-breaking innovations will transform the educational landscape, decision makers in educational institutions need a methodological approach for examining the innovative potential of new educational…

  3. Aura of technology and the cutting edge: a history of lasers in neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Robert W; Spetzler, Robert F; Preul, Mark C

    2009-09-01

    In this historical review the authors examine the important developments that have led to the availability of laser energy to neurosurgeons as a unique and sometimes invaluable tool. They review the physical science behind the function of lasers, as well as how and when various lasers based on different lasing mediums were discovered. They also follow the close association between advances in laser technology and their application in biomedicine, from early laboratory experiments to the first clinical experiences. Because opinions on the appropriate role of lasers in neurosurgery vary widely, the historical basis for some of these views is explored. Initial enthusiasm for a technology that appears to have innate advantages for safe resections has often given way to the strict limitations and demands of the neurosurgical operating theater. However, numerous creative solutions to improve laser delivery, power, safety, and ergonomics demonstrate the important role that technological advances in related scientific fields continue to offer neurosurgery. Benefiting from the most recent developments in materials science, current CO(2) laser delivery systems provide a useful addition to the neurosurgical armamentarium when applied in the correct circumstances and reflect the important historical advances that come about from the interplay between neurosurgery and technology.

  4. Cutting through the Hype: Evaluating the Innovative Potential of New Educational Technologies through Business Model Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalman, Yoram M.

    2016-01-01

    In an era when novel educational technologies are constantly introduced to the marketplace, often accompanied by hyperbolic claims that these ground-breaking innovations will transform the educational landscape, decision makers in educational institutions need a methodological approach for examining the innovative potential of new educational…

  5. Micro Cutting Tools and Micro Drilling Technology%微细刀具与微钻削关键技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秋玥; 贾晓鸣; 张好强

    2014-01-01

    微小孔加工在小型化、集成化的制造领域得到越来越广泛的应用,人们对微小孔加工尤其是微钻削加工技术的研究逐步深入。对微钻削加工技术及微细刀具进行了综合的介绍,分别从微细钻削刀具、微钻削理论、切屑分析、刀具磨损等方面进行了论述,提出微钻削与常规尺度钻削的差异,并对微钻削技术的发展前景进行展望。%The machining of micro holes is widely used in miniature and integrated manufacturing fields. The machi-ning technology of micro holes especially micro drilling was studied deeply. The technology of micro drilling and mi-cro cutting tools is introduced. The micro drilling tool,micro drilling theory,chip analysis and tool wear,etc is dis-cussed respectively. The difference between micro drilling and conventional drilling is put forward. The development of micro drilling technology is prospected.

  6. Joining technology for parts for plastic and thin sheet metal parts; Fuegetechniken fuer Bauteile aus Kunststoff und duennwandigem Metall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlers-Hestermann, G. [BOELLHOFF, Bielefeld (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    With the ongoing application of new materials (Al, Mg, Plastic) as an alternative to steel in light-weight body in white construction it is necessary to develop and use other joining and fixing technologies than spot welding, bolt-and nut-welding. These new technologies for example are mechanical joining technology as clinching and self-pierce-riveting, blind-riveting and special elements to fix other parts as blind-rivets and self-piercing nuts and bolts. These products are mainly used for metal materials and mixed structures. To fix other parts to plastic-parts direct-screwing or the after-moulding-technology with metal or plastic inserts is used. (orig.) [German] Mit der verstaerkten Anwendung von weiteren Werkstoffen (Al, Mg, Kunststoffe) als Stahl im Automobilbau ist die Notwendigkeit erwachsen, alternative Fuege- und Befestigungstechniken zum Punktschweissen, Bolzen- und Mutternschweissen zu entwickeln. Hierzu gehoeren die mechanischen Fuegetechniken wie Stanznieten, Clinchen, Blindnieten sowie die sogenannten Funktionselemente zum Befestigen von Anbauteilen, wie Blind- und Stanznietmuttern und -bolzen. Diese Verfahren werden ueberwiegend fuer metallische Werkstoffe oder bei Mischbauweise angewandt. Fuer die Befestigung an Kunststoffbauteilen wird die Direktverschraubung oder die after-moulding-technik (AMTEC {sup registered}) verwendet. (orig.)

  7. Cutting the Umbilical: New Technological Perspectives in Benthic Deep-Sea Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Brandt

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Many countries are very active in marine research and operate their own research fleets. In this decade, a number of research vessels have been renewed and equipped with the most modern navigation systems and tools. However, much of the research gear used for biological sampling, especially in the deep-sea, is outdated and dependent on wired operations. The deployment of gear can be very time consuming and, thus, expensive. The present paper reviews wire-dependent, as well as autonomous research gear for biological sampling at the deep seafloor. We describe the requirements that new gear could fulfil, including the improvement of spatial and temporal sampling resolution, increased autonomy, more efficient sample conservation methodologies for morphological and molecular studies and the potential for extensive in situ real-time studies. We present applicable technologies from robotics research, which could be used to develop novel autonomous marine research gear, which may be deployed independently and/or simultaneously with traditional wired equipment. A variety of technological advancements make such ventures feasible and timely. In proportion to the running costs of modern research vessels, the development of such autonomous devices might be already paid off after a discrete number of pioneer expeditions.

  8. The Current Status of Electric Spark Line Cutting Technology in China%国内电火花线切割技术研发的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胥宏; 张世凭; 连帅梅

    2013-01-01

      从快走丝电火花切割和慢走丝电火花切割两方面概述了国内电火花线切割技术的发展及应用现状。介绍了电火花线切割机床的加工原理、加工特点、加工范围及应用领域;并从主机制造技术、脉冲电源技术、控制技术以及加工工艺技术4个方面探讨双向快走丝电火花线切割技术的发展现状。%This article summarized the development and application of high speed WEDM wire cutting and Slow-feeding WEDM outlined electric spark line cutting technology in China in two aspects, described the processing principle of electric spark linear cutting machine tool, the processing characteristic and the processing range and application field;and discussed the current development status of two-way fast wire EDM wire cutting from four aspects of host machine manufacturing technology, pulsed power supply technology, control technology and processing technology .

  9. Recombinant yeast technology at the cutting edge: robust tools for both designed catalysts and new biologicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovar, Karin; Looser, Verena; Hyka, Petr; Merseburger, Tobias; Meier, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Health and safety concerns, enhanced quality criteria, and environmental sustainability, have prompted investigations into production using recombinant yeasts as a feasible alternative for isolation of proteins from natural animal or plant sources, as well as for processes utilising either mammalian cell cultures or bacterial systems. An overview of recent research papers and review articles provides readers with a comprehensive insight into the field of next-generation yeast expression systems. Major breakthroughs in recombinant yeast technology linked to Pichia pastoris are (i) the public availability of tools to generate proteins with tailored and highly homogenous N-glycan structures, similar to the forms assembled in humans, (ii) the recent accomplishment of the annotation of its genome sequence, and finally, (iii) the presence of the first few (non-glycosylated) therapeutic proteins in Pichia on the market. The P. pastoris expression platform is now well developed, as proven by multiple products used in human and veterinary medicine and in industry (e.g., enzymes for chemical synthesis and for the modification/synthesis of pharmaceuticals, drug target proteins used for structural analysis or for high throughput screening, proteins for diagnostics, proteinous biomaterials, vaccines, and therapeutic proteins). Nevertheless, the complexity of protein analysis (monitoring) continues to restrict process development for recombinant products. Drawing on combined expertise in molecular biology and process technology, the Institute of Biotechnology (IBT) at the Zurich University of Applied Science (ZHAW) and its international partners have developed solutions which (i) fully eliminate (or partially reduce) the use of methanol, which is undesirable in high-cell-density and high-productivity processes, (ii) match both strain construction and process design with the target protein characteristics to the benefit of the cells' physiological shape, and (iii) allow multi

  10. Use of precision agriculture technology to investigate spatial variability in nitrogen yields in cut grassland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, J S; Wang, K; Jordan, C; Higgins, A

    2001-01-01

    Spatial variability in N uptake and utilisation by swards within uniformly managed field units could be responsible for a significant proportion of the NH3, N2O, NO3- and NOx (NO and NO2) 'pollutants' generated by agriculture and released to the environment. An investigation was commenced, therefore, to quantify, map and explain the spatial variability in sward N yield in a 'large' silage field and to assess the potential for managing this variability using some of the latest precision agriculture technology. Sward dry matter (DM) and N yields were predicted from the results of plant tissue analyses using mathematical models. Sward N yields were found to vary greatly across the field seemingly because of differences in net soil N mineralisation, but the pattern of variability appeared to remain constant with time. Conventional soil analysis of a range of soil chemical and physical properties, however, failed to explain this variability. It was concluded that the N-yield distribution map might be used in place of soil analysis as the basis for varying the rates of N application to different parts of the field with the twin objectives of maximising fertiliser use efficiency and minimising N emissions to air and water.

  11. Blowout win : advances in BOP technology cut waste and make work safer for drilling crews

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budd, G.

    2008-03-15

    With the advent of programmable logic controllers (PLCs), there has been significant improvement in the way that blowout prevention (BOP) equipment can be controlled and operated. The accumulator, which provides the energy to operate the BOP, usually includes compressed gas bottles, regulator valves, pumps, a hydraulic reservoir, a manifold, and control valves. PLCs have made the accumulator easier to operate since they have eliminated much of the cable that spans from the control panel to the rig control shack. The control unit currently consists of some computer chips and a printed circuit instead of miles of wires and cables. In addition to providing efficient BOP control, PLCs have enabled rig managers to readily identify and fix problems. Some manufacturers have included remote troubleshooting capability for the accumulator. Advances in BOP technology and controls have been driven by the challenges of drilling in harsh offshore environments. However, some operators in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin continue to use BOP systems that have been around for decades because of their reputation for reliability and low-maintenance requirements. 1 fig.

  12. Development of Wood-Plastic Composite at Dedan Kimathi University of Technology, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madaraka F. Mwema

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Disposal of plastics and other solid wastes has been a major problem in Kenya. Most of these wastes can be recycled through various ways and methods to produce new products. Plastics can be combined with sawdust to develop composite materials for applications such as in building. In this project, a wood-plastic composite (WPC was developed from sawdust and plastic solid wastes. The composite bore the advantages of both wood and plastics which can be applied in various sectors including interior design work and in automotive among others, thereby curbing the problem of garbage accumulation in the environment. The project provides eco-friendly solutions by making best use of the available resources (wood and plastic resins thus, finding sustainable solutions to the problem of limited waste dumping sites and deforestation in the country. The composites were made from PP and HDPE thermoplastics and mahogany sawdust obtained from our wood workshop in Dedan Kimathi University. From the tests carried out and results obtained, it was found that, the composite has more advantages than the individual constituent materials. Water absorption test revealed that all the samples took up water though not as much pronounced as for plain sawdust. Additionally, the rate of water reduction was found to be excellent. They took less time to release the absorbed water to the environment meaning that they can be applied in humid or wet environ. The composite samples were easy to machine since they were easily shaped using a handsaw.

  13. Determination of cut front position in laser cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, M.; Thombansen, U.

    2016-07-01

    Laser cutting has a huge importance to manufacturing industry. Laser cutting machines operate with fixed technological parameters and this does not guarantee the best productivity. The adjustment of the cutting parameters during operation can improve the machine performance. Based on a coaxial measuring device it is possible to identify the cut front position during the cutting process. This paper describes the data analysis approach used to determine the cut front position for different feed rates. The cut front position was determined with good resolution, but improvements are needed to make the whole process more stable.

  14. Research of Laser Cutting Technology for Leaf-shaped Holes%激光切割加工叶型孔工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋一凡; 丁殿强

    2015-01-01

    以激光切割技术加工航天涡扇发动机内外壳体叶型孔为背景,通过对补偿方式、拐角烧伤、锥度控制以及切口质量等工艺问题设计实验,得到较优的工艺方法及工艺参数,利用此工艺实现了叶型孔尺寸精度和切口质量的双重控制,且叶型孔的加工成功率高,在后续与叶型钎焊工序中焊接质量好。%Laser cutting technology is widely employed to process the leaf-shaped holes on the internal and external shells of aerospace turbofan engines. In this work, the compensation method, the burn of corner, the control of conical degree and the cutting quality are taken into consideration to design the experiments and the optimum processing methods and parameters are obtained for this laser cutting technology. Both the dimensional precision and the cutting quality of the leaf-shaped holes are achieved by the optimized technology and a high processing rate is achieved as well. Furthermore, excellent welding quality was kept during the subsequent leaf-shaped soldering and welding.

  15. The German way to an energy efficient future. Process and cross cutting technology improvements for CO{sub 2} reductions and a competitive economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radgen, P.

    1999-07-01

    The aim of the paper is to show how Germany tries to improve the energy efficiency of the economy and reduce carbon dioxide emissions without affecting the competitiveness of the industry. Between 1990 to 1995 Germany has reduced its CO{sub 2} emission from 1029 to 933 million tonnes, which is equivalent to an emission reduction of 9%. To analyse and compare different options to reach the emission reduction target, multiple tools have been developed and can be used to help in setting policy priorities. The IKARUS model and database together with the use of energy efficiency indicators helps to keep the development of energy consumption and emission reduction on track to the reduction target. Voluntary agreements between industry and government had been worked out, to limit the emissions in the energy intensive sectors of the German industry. Results from the monitoring of this efforts will be presented together with a short evaluation of the factors influencing the improvements in energy efficiency. As energy related emissions can be reduced significantly by closing energy and material flows, the effect of recycling of energy intensive materials such as steel, glass, plastics, and paper is discussed. The possible role of renewables as energy carrier and feedstock is evaluated for the production of surfactants. If more oleochemical surfactants could be applied, this will help to reduce the CO{sub 2} emissions from the use of fossil fuels as feedstock. The efficiency improvement by cross cutting technologies will be discussed for furnaces, compressed air systems and electric motors. Most of these improvement potentials are economic at present energy prices, but some barriers for their application has to be overcome. One way to help decision makers in industry is the use of energy benchmarking. Benchmarking helps to analyse the energy efficiency of the own company in comparison to the competitors and to set appropriate targets and to prepare a road map of measures to

  16. Filmes plásticos e ácido ascórbico na qualidade de araticum minimamente processado Plastic packaging film and ascorbic acid treatment on the quality of fresh cut araticum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Soares Soares Júnior

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos do ácido ascórbico e do tipo de filme plástico como embalagem na qualidade do araticum minimamente processado e mantido sob refrigeração. O ácido ascórbico não evitou o escurecimento do araticum minimamente processado. Independentemente do tipo de embalagem, a acidez titulável aumentou com o tempo. A embalagem de policloreto de vinila ou polietileno de baixa densidade promoveu uma significativa perda de massa se comparada com a a laminada a vácuo. A embalagem laminada a vácuo propiciou vida-de-prateleira mais longa ao produto, o qual permaneceu com aparência adequada e qualidade comercial até o sétimo dia do armazenamento. A vida-de-prateleira dos demais tratamentos alcançou somente três dias.This study was aimed at evaluating the effect of ascorbic acid and type of plastic packaging film on the quality of refrigerated fresh cut araticum. Ascorbic acid did not prevent fresh cut araticum from darkening. Regardless of the type of plastic packaging, the fruit titrable acidity increased with time. Packing with polyvynil chloride or with low density polyethylene promoted a significant mass loss compared to laminate vacuum packaging. Laminate vacuum packaging increased the shelf life of the product up 7 days, maintaining its commercial quality and appearance. The shelf life of the other treatments reached 3 days only.

  17. Exercise in Experimental Plastics Technology: Hot Embossing of Polymers with surface microstructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Torbjörn Gerhard; Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz

    2004-01-01

    such as relatively low cost for embossing tools, simple operation and high replication accuracy for small features. Two different plastic materials will be used to replicate surface microstructures by hot embossing. The hot embossing will be done in a hydraulic press where it is easy to control temperature...

  18. Learning to see again: biological constraints on cortical plasticity and the implications for sight restoration technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyeler, Michael; Rokem, Ariel; Boynton, Geoffrey M.; Fine, Ione

    2017-10-01

    The ‘bionic eye’—so long a dream of the future—is finally becoming a reality with retinal prostheses available to patients in both the US and Europe. However, clinical experience with these implants has made it apparent that the visual information provided by these devices differs substantially from normal sight. Consequently, the ability of patients to learn to make use of this abnormal retinal input plays a critical role in whether or not some functional vision is successfully regained. The goal of the present review is to summarize the vast basic science literature on developmental and adult cortical plasticity with an emphasis on how this literature might relate to the field of prosthetic vision. We begin with describing the distortion and information loss likely to be experienced by visual prosthesis users. We then define cortical plasticity and perceptual learning, and describe what is known, and what is unknown, about visual plasticity across the hierarchy of brain regions involved in visual processing, and across different stages of life. We close by discussing what is known about brain plasticity in sight restoration patients and discuss biological mechanisms that might eventually be harnessed to improve visual learning in these patients.

  19. Application of Laser Technology in Cutting Cable Insulating Materials%激光在电缆绝缘材料切割中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡斌; 王忠峰; 徐婕

    2013-01-01

    The principle and characteristics of laser in cutting cable insulating materials are introduced. And comparison is done between laser cutting and traditional cutting and striping process for cable insulating materials. Taking the production of Z71 cable assembly as example, by using laser cutting technology, not only the qualification rate and work efficiency are increased, the producing cost is reduced, but also the hidden troubles of the damage of inner and outer conductor during cutting cable insulating materials are eliminated thoroughly. Thus the quality of cable assembly is improved fully.%介绍了激光切割电缆绝缘材料的工作原理和特点,并与传统的电缆绝缘材料切剥工艺进行了对比.以Z71电缆组件生产为例,采用激光切割技术后,不但提高了电缆组件的合格率和工作效率,降低了生产成本,还彻底消除了电缆绝缘材料切割时对内外导体的损伤隐患,全面提高了电缆组件的质量.

  20. Application of Laser Cutting Technology in Machining%激光切割工艺在机械加工中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐忠军; 李晓明; 王涛

    2014-01-01

    As a new processing technology of the information age, laser processing plays an increasingly important role in improving product quality, labor productivity, and reducing material consumption. This paper expounds the principle and classification of laser cut-ting, makes comparisons between laser cutting process and traditional cutting, and analyzes the application trend of laser cutting process-ing technique and its future development.%激光加工作为信息时代的新型加工工艺,在提高产品质量、提高劳动生产率、减少材料消耗等方面具有越来越重要的作用。阐述激光切割的原理与分类,对比激光切割工艺与传统切割工艺的不同,分析激光切割加工工艺的应用情况及发展趋势。

  1. Journal of CHINA PLASTICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Journal of CHINA PLASTICS was authorized and approved by The State Committee of Science and Technology of China and The Bureau of News Press of China, and published by The China Plastics Processing Industry Association,Beijing Technology and Business University and The Institute of Plastics Processing and Application of Light Industry, distributed worldwide. Since its birth in 1987, CHINA PLASTICS has become a leading magazine in plastics industry in China, a national Chinese core journal and journal of Chinese scientific and technological article statistics. It is covered by CA.

  2. Machinery Cutting Technology of Ceramic Parts%陶瓷零件的机械切削加工

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王强; 谢帆

    2013-01-01

    用数据包络分析法评价陶瓷的可加工性,构造数学规划模型,求出决策单元的最优解.结合陶瓷材料的机械加工难点,探讨了陶瓷车削、磨削、钻削等机械切削加工工艺的技术要点.通过切削正交试验,得到刀具的前角、后角、主偏角、副偏角、刃倾角、刀尖圆弧半径及切削速度、吃刀深度、进给量的参考值,优化加工工艺参数,达到较好的加工效果.%The machinability of ceramics is evaluated by data envelopment analysis, and mathematical programming model is constructed, then the optimal solution of decision-making unit is found. These reference values of the tool rake angle, clearance angle, tool cutting edge angle, minor cutting edge angle, tool cutting edge inclination angle, tip ARC radius and cutting speed, back engagement and the range of feeds are obtained through orthogonal cutting test, whose processing parameters are optimized, then better processing results are achieved. Considering the problem of machining of ceramic materials, the techniques of mechanical cutting process, ceramic turning, grinding, drilling, are discussed.

  3. 切削参数智能生成技术研究%Research of Cutting Parameter Intelligence Generation Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡贤金

    2012-01-01

    为提高先进制造装备的应用水平,在已有切削数据基础上如何自动生成更多的切削参数是一个重要但难以获得满意解决方案的课题.本文提出一种以基本切削数据库为基础综合利用多种人工智能技术,通过学习修正、记忆、实时生成对实际加工环境具有广泛适应能力的最佳切削参数的新方法.以回归分析和BP神经网络为例进行了阐述,并给出了具体实例.%It is an important issue that automatically generating more cutting parameters for improving operating level of the advanced manufacturing equipment. A new method, which is used to generate optimum cutting parameter to adapt the concret cutting environment, is presented. The principle of this method is comprehensive utilization multiple artificial intelligent technique based on the basic cutting database to select cutter and yield the cutting parameter, according to the machining status, if necessary, it can regenerate the new optimum parameter adapting the technical requirements through learning, correction and memory. It devotes regression analysis and back propagation neural networks to the subject, and gives instantiations.

  4. 高炉喷吹废塑料的先进技术%Establishment of Advanced Recycling Technology for Waste Plastics in Blast Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王颖

    2012-01-01

    废塑料循环利用技术对于全球环境保护和社会发展都是一个非常重要的课题。JFE制钢公司为了将废塑料作为高炉的还原剂,通过热模燃烧实验;研究了废塑料的燃烧气化率。经过研究,为了改善粗粒废塑料的燃烧性,开发了同时喷吹煤粉或/和天然气的技术,为了提高废塑料的燃烧和气化率及炉内透气性,JFE开发出将废塑料与碳酸钙(CaC03)复合造粒技术。另外,JFE还研究了废塑料精细粉碎技术。此技术已经应用在实际生产中。%The establishment of technology for recycling waste plastics is a highly important issue for global environmental conservation and the society. JFE Steel has pursued the effective use of waste plastics as a reducing agent for injection into blast furnaces, and conducted hot model experiments to study the combustion and gasification behaviour of waste plastics. On the basis of this basic investigation, advanced technologies that can further improve the combustion and gasification efficiency of waste plastics even with low strength has been developed; i.e. in order to improve combustibility of fine waste plastics, technology for simultaneous injection of such plastics with pulverized coal and/or natural gas has been developed. For improved the strength of plastics, technology for combined agglomeration of waste plastics with CaC03 has been developed. In addition, technology for fine crushing of waste plastics has been studied on the basis of new ideas, and this technology has been applied in actual plant operation. These technologies have been successfully applied in actual blast furnaces, contributing to lowering the reducing agent rate.

  5. DEVELOPMENTAND FIRST TESTS OF AN AUTOMATIC SYSTEM FOR COMMERCIAL VINE CUTTING TRANSPLANTERS BASED ON DGPS-RTK TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Mazzetto

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is the proposal of an innovative system for commercial transplanter to allow the automatic point-laying location of each vine cutting, without any kind of field preliminary squaring. A DGPS-RTK system is able to calculate the vine cutting location according to the project values; the transplant operation, carried out by electro-hydraulic and electro-mechanical components, is completely automated. The goal is to increase the work rate of the transplanting equipment and reduce the necessary skilled labour, without losing the accuracy of the vineyard planting.

  6. Research cooperation project on the development of easy injection molding control technology for engineering plastics; Engineering plastic no seikei joken kan`i settei gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku jigyo seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    In order to enhance the industries which supply assembly parts to Japan`s assembly industries in Thailand, research cooperation project on the plastic parts production technology has started. For the research cooperation, the mold design is effectively conducted using simulation technique of CAE (computer aided engineering), and an international easy injection molding control system is made using the molding support software for injection molding machines. In FY 1996, actual situations of plastic parts and assembly industries in Thailand have been investigated through the cooperation with the counterpart of Thailand. Demand and supply of engineering plastics, receive and inspection of parts, and current circumstances of molding processing makers in Thailand have been grasped. Based on the results of this investigation, proposal of basic plan, time schedule, and delivery plan of molding machines and testing equipment have been discussed, to make the basic plan. 18 refs., 4 figs., 23 tabs.

  7. Theoretical Analysis and Experimental Study on the Coating Removal from Passenger-Vehicle Plastics for Recycling by Using Water Jet Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongshen; Chen, Ming

    2015-11-01

    The recovery and utilization of automotive plastics are a global concern because of the increasing number of end-of-life vehicles. In-depth studies on technologies for the removal of coatings from automotive plastics can contribute to the high value-added levels of the recycling and utilization of automotive plastic. The liquid waste generated by removing chemical paint by using traditional methods is difficult to handle and readily produces secondary pollution. Therefore, new, clean, and highly efficient techniques of paint removal must be developed. In this article, a method of coating removal from passenger-vehicle plastics was generated based on high-pressure water jet technology to facilitate the recycling of these plastics. The established technology was theoretically analyzed, numerically simulated, and experimentally studied. The high-pressure water jet equipment for the removal of automotive-plastic coatings was constructed through research and testing, and the detailed experiments on coating removal rate were performed by using this equipment. The results showed that high-pressure water jet technology can effectively remove coatings on the surfaces of passenger-vehicle plastics. The research also revealed that the coating removal rate increased as jet pressure ( P) increased and then decreased when jet moving speed ( Vn) increased. The rate decreased as the distance from nozzle to work piece ( S nw ) and the nozzle angle ( Φ) increased. The mathematical model for the rate of removal of coatings from bumper surfaces by water jet was derived based on the experiment data and can effectively predict coating removal rate under different operating conditions.

  8. Environmental friendly crush-magnetic separation technology for recycling metal-plated plastics from end-of-life vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Mianqiang; Li, Jia; Xu, Zhenming

    2012-03-06

    Metal-plated plastics (MPP), which are important from the standpoint of aesthetics or even performance, are increasingly employed in a wide variety of situations in the automotive industry. Serious environmental problems will be caused if they are not treated appropriately. Therefore, recycling of MPP is an important subject not only for resource recycling but also for environmental protection. This work represents a novel attempt to deal with the MPP. A self-designed hammer crusher was used to liberate coatings from the plastic substrate. The size distribution of particles was analyzed and described by the Rosin-Rammler function model. The optimum retaining time of materials in the crusher is 3 min. By this time, the liberation rate of the materials can reach 87.3%. When the density of the suspension is 31,250 g/m(3), the performance of liberation is the best. Two-step magnetic separation was adopted to avoid excessive crushing and to guarantee the quality of products. Concerning both the separation efficiency and grade of products, the optimum rotational speed of the magnetic separator is 50-70 rpm. On the basis of the above studies about the liberating and separating behavior of the materials, a continuous recycling system (the technology of crush-magnetic separation) is developed. This recycling system provides a feasible method for recycling MPP efficiently, economically, and environmentally.

  9. Plastic condoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-01-01

    Only simple equipment, simple technology and low initial capital investment are needed in their manufacture. The condoms can be made by people who were previously unskilled or only semi-skilled workers. Plastic condoms differ from those made of latex rubber in that the nature of the plastic film allows unlimited shelf-life. Also, the plastic has a higher degree of lubricity than latex rubber; if there is a demand for extra lubrication in a particular market, this can be provided. Because the plastic is inert, these condoms need not be packaged in hermetically sealed containers. All these attributes make it possible to put these condoms on the distributors' shelves in developing countries competitively with rubber condoms. The shape of the plastic condom is based on that of the lamb caecum, which has long been used as luxury-type condom. The plastic condom is made from plastic film (ethylene ethyl acrilate) of 0.001 inch (0.0254 mm.) thickness. In addition, a rubber ring is provided and sealed into the base of the condom for retention during coitus. The advantage of the plastic condom design and the equipment on which it is made is that production can be carried out either in labour-intensive economy or with varying degrees of mechanization and automation. The uniform, finished condom if made using previously untrained workers. Training of workers can be done in a matter of hours on the two machines which are needed to produce and test the condoms. The plastic film is provided on a double wound roll, and condom blanks are prepared by means of a heat-sealing die on the stamping machine. The rubber rings are united to the condom blanks on an assembly machine, which consists of a mandrel and heat-sealing equipment to seal the rubber ring to the base of the condom. Built into the assembly machine is a simple air-testing apparatus that can detect the smallest pinhole flaw in a condom. The manufacturing process is completed by unravelling the condom from the assembly

  10. Sorting Plastic Waste in Hydrocyclone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernestas Šutinys

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The article presents material about sorting plastic waste in hydrocyclone. The tests on sorting plastic waste were carried out. Also, the findings received from the performed experiment on the technology of sorting plastic waste are interpreted applying an experimental model of the equipment used for sorting plastics of different density.Article in Lithuanian

  11. Kitchen Practices Used in Handling Broiler Chickens and Survival of Campylobacter spp. on Cutting Surfaces in Kampala, Uganda

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Irene Wanyenya; Charles Muyanja; George William Nasinyama

    2004-01-01

    .... The survival of Campylobacter spp. on kitchen cutting surfaces was determined by inoculating approximately 106 CFU of Campylobacter jejuni onto sterile plastic, wooden, and metal cutting boards...

  12. Cutting assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racki, Daniel J.; Swenson, Clark E.; Bencloski, William A.; Wineman, Arthur L.

    1984-01-01

    A cutting apparatus includes a support table mounted for movement toward and away from a workpiece and carrying a mirror which directs a cutting laser beam onto the workpiece. A carrier is rotatably and pivotally mounted on the support table between the mirror and workpiece and supports a conduit discharging gas toward the point of impingement of the laser beam on the workpiece. Means are provided for rotating the carrier relative to the support table to place the gas discharging conduit in the proper positions for cuts made in different directions on the workpiece.

  13. Bone cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraud, J Y; Villemin, S; Darmana, R; Cahuzac, J P; Autefage, A; Morucci, J P

    1991-02-01

    Bone cutting has always been a problem for surgeons because bone is a hard living material, and many osteotomes are still very crude tools. Technical improvement of these surgical tools has first been their motorization. Studies of the bone cutting process have indicated better features for conventional tools. Several non-conventional osteotomes, particularly ultrasonic osteotomes are described. Some studies on the possible use of lasers for bone cutting are also reported. Use of a pressurised water jet is also briefly examined. Despite their advantages, non-conventional tools still require improvement if they are to be used by surgeons.

  14. The Research of Technological Parameters Influence on the Process of Nitinol fabrication and Plastic Deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćubela, D.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium and nickel alloy, with 48 - 55 at. % Ni (rest Ti, named Nitinol has property of thermal and mechanical memory and its properties and application depends strongly on a fabrication processes. Nitinol was produced in semi-industrial conditions. Testing results of the quality of the obtained alloy are related to technological parameters of the production and processing. The aim of this work is to give an answer to the question which technological parameters are most influential and possible for the quality control what kind of corrections regarding literature instructions are needed for successful production of Nitinol for given conditions.

  15. Long Progression and Cover Type on Cross-measure Cutting Coal Technology%长距离递进掩护式石门揭煤技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂政

    2012-01-01

    基于FLAC数值模拟软件对石门揭煤过程中距离煤层不同位置处工作面前面的应力分析结果,确定出掘进工作面前方应力集中范围,由此确定出距离煤层不同位置时应采取的防突措施,以海孜煤矿Ⅲ1采区石门揭煤为背景,对长距离石门揭煤技术进行了研究。%According to the stress analysis results in front of the the coal face about different location from coal seam during the process of cross-measure cutting coal by using FLAC numerical simulation software.The paper determined the range of stress concentration in front of drivage face,determined the different outburst prevention measures which should be taken.And then take the cross-measure cutting coal in Ⅲ1 Haizi coal mine as the background,this paper studied the cross-measure cutting coal technology.

  16. Plastic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Plastic Surgery KidsHealth > For Teens > Plastic Surgery Print A A ... forehead lightened with a laser? What Is Plastic Surgery? Just because the name includes the word "plastic" ...

  17. Investigation on an innovative technology for wet separation of plastic wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, Emanuela; Moroni, Monica; La Marca, Floriana; Fulco, Simone; Pinzi, Valentina

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents an original device for the separation of plastic polymers from mixtures. Due to the combination of a characteristic flow pattern developing within the apparatus and density, shape and size differences among two or more polymers, this device allows their separation into two products, one collected within the instrument and the other one expelled through its outlet ducts. Experimental tests have been conducted to investigate the effectiveness of the apparatus, using two geometric arrangements, nine hydraulic configurations and three selections of polymers at three stages of a material life cycle. Tests with samples composed of a single typology of polymer have been used to understand the interaction between the particles and the carrying fluid within the apparatus in different hydraulic configurations and geometric arrangements. Multi-material tests are essential to simulate the real conditions in an industrial recycling plant. The separation results have been evaluated in terms of grade and recovery of a useful material. Under the proper hydraulic configurations, the experimentation showed that it is possible to produce an almost pure concentrate of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) from a mixture of 85% PET and 15% Polycarbonate (PC) (concentrate grade and recovery equal to 99.5% and 95.1%) and a mixture of 85% PET and 15% Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) (concentrate grade and recovery equal to 97.9% and 100.0%). It is further demonstrated that almost pure concentrates of PVC and PC can be produced from a mixture of 85% PVC and 15% PC (PVC grade and recovery equal to 99.9% and 99.7%) and a mixture of 85% PC and 15% PVC (PC grade and recovery equal to 99.0% and 99.5%). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. NREL's Energy-Saving Technology for Air Conditioning Cuts Peak Power Loads Without Using Harmful Refrigerants (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-07-01

    This fact sheet describes how the DEVAP air conditioner was invented, explains how the technology works, and why it won an R&D 100 Award. Desiccant-enhanced evaporative (DEVAP) air-conditioning will provide superior comfort for commercial buildings in any climate at a small fraction of the electricity costs of conventional air-conditioning equipment, releasing far less carbon dioxide and cutting costly peak electrical demand by an estimated 80%. Air conditioning currently consumes about 15% of the electricity generated in the United States and is a major contributor to peak electrical demand on hot summer days, which can lead to escalating power costs, brownouts, and rolling blackouts. DEVAP employs an innovative combination of air-cooling technologies to reduce energy use by up to 81%. DEVAP also shifts most of the energy needs to thermal energy sources, reducing annual electricity use by up to 90%. In doing so, DEVAP is estimated to cut peak electrical demand by nearly 80% in all climates. Widespread use of this cooling cycle would dramatically cut peak electrical loads throughout the country, saving billions of dollars in investments and operating costs for our nation's electrical utilities. Water is already used as a refrigerant in evaporative coolers, a common and widely used energy-saving technology for arid regions. The technology cools incoming hot, dry air by evaporating water into it. The energy absorbed by the water as it evaporates, known as the latent heat of vaporization, cools the air while humidifying it. However, evaporative coolers only function when the air is dry, and they deliver humid air that can lower the comfort level for building occupants. And even many dry climates like Phoenix, Arizona, have a humid season when evaporative cooling won't work well. DEVAP extends the applicability of evaporative cooling by first using a liquid desiccant-a water-absorbing material-to dry the air. The dry air is then passed to an indirect

  19. Cross Cutting Relative Navigation Technologies for Improved Landing Accuracy and Vehicle-to-Vehicle Rendezvous and Docking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, K. L.; Masciarelli, J.; Rohrschneider, R. R.

    2012-06-01

    This presentation addresses recent development and test progress, as well as future technology advancement plans for precision landing and Autonomous Rendezvous, Proximity Operations and Docking (ARPOD).

  20. Large core plastic planar optical splitter fabricated by 3D printing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajzler, Václav; Kulha, Pavel; Knietel, Marian; Enser, Herbert

    2017-10-01

    We report on the design, fabrication and optical properties of large core multimode optical polymer splitter fabricated using fill up core polymer in substrate that was made by 3D printing technology. The splitter was designed by the beam propagation method intended for assembling large core waveguide fibers with 735 μm diameter. Waveguide core layers were made of optically clear liquid adhesive, and Veroclear polymer was used as substrate and cover layers. Measurement of optical losses proved that the insertion optical loss was lower than 6.8 dB in the visible spectrum.

  1. USE OF TECHNOLOGIES OF PLASTIC AND RECONSTRUCTIVE MICROSURGERY IN TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH PATHOLOGY OF KNEE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Rodomanova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the results of surgical treatment of 63 patients with knee-joint pathology who were treated in Vreden’s Scientific-research Institute of traumatology and orthopaedics (Saint-Petersburg, Russia within the period from 2000 to 2011. All the patients had pedicled flap transfer or free tissue transfer. 53 patients (84,1% had additionally various orthopedic operations on the knee joint: 42 patients had primary or revision total knee arthroplasty, 6 patients had resections of bony tumors and total knee arthroplasty, 4 - knee arthrodesis, 1 - open reduction and internal fixation of patella. The results of treatment were estimated according to WOMAC knee score. 4 patients had total necrosis of flap what demanded repeated reconstructive microsurgical operation. 6 patients had knee arthroplasty surgical site infection, 1 patient had recidive of osteoblastic sarcoma and he was made leg amputation. 65,7% of patients had good results according to WOMAC knee score, 28,6% patients had satisfactory results. Microsurgical operations in patients with pathology of knee-joint mainly aim to correct various pathological changes of tissues located in this particular area. In cases of scarry deformations and defects of tissues located in the area of knee-joint microsurgical technologies increase the opportunities for fulfilling total knee arthroplasty and improve its results as well as results of other orthopedical operations. At the same time microsurgical technologies may be used as preparative operations, single-step maneuvers and operations fulfilled in case of development of local infectious complications.

  2. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Evren Ozbayoglu; Lei Zhou

    2002-07-30

    This is the fourth quarterly progress report for Year-3 of the ACTS Project. It includes a review of progress made in: (1) Flow Loop construction and development and (2) research tasks during the period of time between April 1, 2002 and June 30, 2002. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks: (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility (Task 3: Addition of a Cuttings Injection/Separation System), (b) Research project (Task 6): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)''; (c) Research project (Task 9b): ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions''; (d) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions''; (e) Research on three instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), Foam texture while transporting cuttings. (Task 12), and Viscosity of Foam under EPET (Task 9b); (f) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop. Progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S); (g) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members.

  3. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Crystal Redden; Aimee Washington

    2003-01-30

    This is the second quarterly progress report for Year-4 of the ACTS Project. It includes a review of progress made in: (1) Flow Loop construction and development and (2) research tasks during the period of time between October 1, 2002 and December 30, 2002. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks. (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility Task 3: Addition of a Cuttings Injection/Separation System, Task 4: Addition of a Pipe Rotation System. (b) New research project (Task 9b): ''Development of a Foam Generator/Viscometer for Elevated Pressure and Elevated Temperature (EPET) Conditions''. (d) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions''. (e) Research on three instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), Foam texture while transporting cuttings. (Task 12), and Viscosity of Foam under EPET (Task 9b). (f) New Research project (Task 13): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions''. (g) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop. Progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S). (h) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members.

  4. Novel technology of electroless Ni-W-P on plastics and its interface behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Tian-xu; HU Yong-jun; MENG Ji-long

    2004-01-01

    The electroless Ni-W-P coatings on polyoxymethylene(POM) were prepared. The POM was pretreated by hot spraying Al powder on it. Before the electroless Ni-W-P deposition, the POM with Al coating was flash plated in alkaline bath. The mechanism of Ni-W-P deposition was studied and the technology was optimized. The XRD analysis shows that the "as-deposited" Ni-W-P plating has mixed crystalline structure. The hardness value of deposits is more than HV700. The abrasion resistance of deposits is six times more than that of POM. Bending test was used to determine the cohesion between the deposits and the substrates. SEM was used to study the behavior of surface abrasion and interface bonding condition. The reason for the excellent cohesion was interpreted.

  5. Development of Regeneration Technology and Recycling Technology of Appliances Plastics%家电塑料再生技术和再生利用技术的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄军左; 刘熠纯

    2011-01-01

    家电塑料的再生利用技术与一般塑料再生利用技术并无本质上的区别,其特点在于回收家电塑料需要进行拆卸、分类等前处理.因此,家电再生利用技术是家电塑料回收技术的重要组成部分.本文介绍了当前一些先进的科学研究与回收再生手段,阐述了废旧家电再生技术和再生利用技术.%Recycling technology of appliances plastics and it of general there is no essential difference, Its characteristics is the need of pre - treatment of disassembly and dlassification etc. For plastic appliance recycling. Therefore, the recycling technology of appliances plastics is an important part for recovery technology of appliances plastics. This article describes some of the advanced scientific research and the current recycling methods, described regeneration technology and recycling technology of the waste home appliances.

  6. Cutting Cosmos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Henrik Hvenegaard

    The foundation for this book is an ethnographic study of masculinity in a Bugkalot village in northern Philippines. While offering new research on the Bugkalot, widely known as the Ilongot, more than 30 years after the last important works were written on this famous hill-people, Cutting Cosmos...... into egalitarian relations. Cutting Cosmos shows how these seemingly opposed characteristics of male life - the egalitarianism and the assertive ideals - are interwoven. Acts of dominance are presented as acts of transgression that are persistently ritualized, contained and isolated as spectacular events within...

  7. Study on Solder Joint Reliability of Plastic Ball Grid Array Component Based on SMT Products Virtual Assembly Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Chunyue; WU Zhaohua; ZHOU Dejian

    2006-01-01

    Based on surface mount products virtual assembly technology, the solder joint reliability of plastic ball grid array (PBGA) was studied. Four process parameters, including the upper pad diameter,the stencil thickness, the chip weight on a single solder joint and the lower pad diameter were chose as four control factors. By using an L25(56) orthogonal array the PBGA solder joints which have 25 different process parameters' levels combinations were designed. The numerical models of all the 25 PBGA solder joints were developed and the finite element analysis models were setup. The stress and strain distribution within the PBGA solder joints under thermal cycles were studied by finite element analysis, and the thermal fatigue life of PBGA solder joint was calculated using Coffin-Manson equation. Based on the calculated thermal fatigue life results, the range analysis was performed. The results of study show that that the impact sequence of the four factors from high to low on the fatigue life of PBGA solder joints are the stencil thickness,the upper pad diameter, the lower pad diameter and the chip weight on a single solder joint; the best level combination ofprocess parameters that results in the longest fatigue life is the lower pad diameter of 0.6 mm, the stencil thickness of 0.175 mm, the chip weight on asingle solder joint of 28×10-5 N and the upper pad diameter of 0.5 mm.

  8. Research of Infrared Preheating Vibration Friction Welding Technology for Plastic%塑料红外预加热振动摩擦焊接技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘勇; 李朝晖; 朱彩萍

    2012-01-01

    比较了红外预加热振动摩擦焊接技术即清洁摩擦焊接技术(CVT)相对于传统塑料焊接技术的优势,论述了CVT的原理,并对CVT的可行性和实际应用进行了分析.结果表明,CVT可大幅改善塑料焊接件的外观质量,减少焊接过程中的颗粒排放并提高其焊接强度,是一种清洁高效的新型塑料焊接技术.%Advantages of infrared preheating vibration friction welding technology which also was known as clean vibration friction welding technology ( CVT) were compared with traditional plastic welding technologies, and the theory of CVT was expounded, then the feasibility and practical application of CVT were analyzed. The results showed that CVT could improve the appearance quality of plastic welding parts substantially, decrease the participate emission during the welding process and increase the welding strength. It indicated that CVT was a new kind of plastic welding technology with clean and high efficiency.

  9. Influence of the Magnetic High-speed Steel Cutting Tool on Cutting Capability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The high-speed steel cutting tool has advantaged i n modern cutting tool for its preferable synthetical performance, especially, in a pplication of complicated cutting tools. Therefore, the study of the high-speed steel cutting tools that occupied half of cutting tools has become an importa nt way of studying on modern cutting technology. The cutting performance of hi gh speed-steel cutting tools will be improved by magnetization treating method. Microstructure of high-speed steel will be changed as a ...

  10. Cutting forces in orthogonal cutting of unidirectional GFRP composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caprino, G.; Nele, L. [Univ. of Naples Federico II (Italy). Dept. of Materials and Production Engineering

    1996-07-01

    The results of orthogonal cutting tests carried out on unidirectional glass fiber reinforced plastic composites, using HSS tools, are presented and discussed. During the tests, performed on a milling machine at very low cutting speed to avoid thermal effects, the cutting speed was held constant and parallel to the fiber direction. Three parameters, namely the tool rake angle {alpha}, the tool relief angle {gamma}, and the depth of cut t, were varied. According to the experimental results, the horizontal force per unit width, F{sub hu}, undergoes a dramatic decrease, never verified for metals, with increasing {alpha}. Besides, F{sub hu} is only negligibly affected by the relief angle, and linearly increases with t. Similarly to metals, an effect of the depth of cut on the specific energy (size effect) is found also for composites. However, the presented results indicate that the size effect can be analytically modeled in a simple way in the case of composites. The vertical force per unit width, F{sub vu}, exhibits a marked reduction when the relief angle is increased. F{sub vu} is also very sensitive to the rake angle: the lower {alpha}, the higher is F{sub vu}. It is shown that this behavior probably reflects a strong influence of the rake angle on the forces developing at the flank. A linear dependence of the vertical force on the depth of cut is also demonstrated. Finally, the experimental data are utilized to obtain empirical formulae, allowing an approximate evaluation of cutting forces.

  11. 天然林采伐迹地不炼山造林技术%Non-burning afforestation technology in cutting-blank of natural forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓建滨

    2012-01-01

    The afforestation practices of non-burning and cleaning out mix plants were carried out in cutting-blank of natural forest by using the conventional praetiee as control. The results showed that the non-burning afforestation had significant eco- nomic, ecological and social benefits and was simple, practical and easy to be mastered by producers. So this technology could be popularized in the cutting-blanks of natural eoniferous-broadleaf forest, and the controlled-burning afforestation practice should be forbidden.%在天然林林分采伐迹地采用不炼山清杂办法清理迹地进行造林生产,并与常规的炼山造林进行比较,结果表明:不炼山造林不仅具有明显的经济效益、生态效益和社会效益,而且在技术上简单实用,林业生产者容易掌握。建议在永安市内天然针阔叶混交林采伐迹地推广不炼山造林技术,并杜绝炼山造林。

  12. New technology for scale squeeze treatments on high water cut wells on Statoil Heidrun and Norne fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Michael; Heath, Steve; Selle, Olav M.; Haavind, Frode; Springer, Martin; Auflem, Inge H.; Clark, Graham; Strachan, Catherine; Oedegaard, Bent

    2006-03-15

    The Heidrun and Norne fields are located in the Haltenbanken area offshore Mid-Norway. The reservoir temperatures are 85 deg-88 deg C and 98 deg C respectively, and the reservoir pressure is close to hydrostatic pressure of approx. 250Bar for both fields. Seawater injection is utilised on both Heidrun and Norne to maintain reservoir support and with Ba levels averaging 80-90ppm and 200-300ppm in the Norne and Heidrun formation brines, moderate to harsh barium sulphate scale challenges have been identified. The barium sulphate scale challenge has been routinely controlled by the use of aqueous based scale squeeze treatments. However, on high water cut and low reservoir pressure wells, lifting problems have been encountered post squeeze treatments. Hybrid treatments with diesel pre-flush and over flush have been slow in returning the wells to full production post squeeze treatment. The challenge was therefore to develop a low-density scale inhibitor (less than 0.94) that will aid well re-start post squeeze treatment. This product would also need to be environmentally friendly, compatible with produced fluids and non-emulsifying, be effectively retained and released, and provide a good level of inhibition against barium sulphate scale. This paper will highlight the details of the laboratory development of the low-density scale inhibitor and, in addition, will present details of the deployment of the low density product in wells with lifting problems on Heidrun and Norne. (Author) (tk)

  13. 2010 Mississippi Curriculum Framework: Postsecondary Meat Merchandising Technology. (Program CIP: 12.0506 - Meat Cutting/Meat Cutter)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Roger; Currie, Lamar; Clayton, Sheila

    2010-01-01

    As the world economy continues to evolve, businesses and industries must adopt new practices and processes in order to survive. Quality and cost control, work teams and participatory management, and an infusion of technology are transforming the way people work and do business. Employees are now expected to read, write, and communicate…

  14. 2007 Mississippi Curriculum Framework: Postsecondary Meat Merchandising Technology (Program CIP: 12.0506 - Meat Cutting/Meat Cutter)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Roger; Currie, Lamar; Clayton, Sheila

    2007-01-01

    As the world economy continues to evolve, businesses and industries must adopt new practices and processes in order to survive. Quality and cost control, work teams and participatory management, and an infusion of technology are transforming the way people work and do business. Employees are now expected to read, write, and communicate…

  15. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mark Pickell; Len Volk, Mike Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Crystal Redden; Aimee Washington

    2002-10-30

    This is the first quarterly progress report for Year-4 of the ACTS Project. It includes a review of progress made in: (1) Flow Loop construction and development and (2) research tasks during the period of time between July 1, 2002 and Sept. 30, 2002. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks: (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility Task 3: Addition of a Cuttings Injection/Separation System, Task 4: Addition of a Pipe Rotation System, (b) New Research project (Task 9b): ''Development of a Foam Generator/Viscometer for Elevated Pressure and Elevated Temperature (EPET) Conditions'', (d) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (e) Research on three instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), Foam texture while transporting cuttings (Task 12), Viscosity of Foam under EPET (Task 9b). (f) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop. Progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S). (g) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members.

  16. Effects of Plastic Box Modified Atmosphere Storage on the Antioxidant System of Fresh-cut Fuji Apple%箱式气调贮藏对鲜切富士苹果抗氧化系统的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜爱丽; 胡文忠; 代喆; 田密霞; 刘程惠

    2011-01-01

    以富士苹果为试材,研究了鲜切富士苹果在5℃的5%O2+5%CO:或5%02+10%CO2箱式气调贮藏条件下抗氧化系统的变化情况。每3d测定1次酶促防御系统的酶活性和非酶促防御系统的抗氧化物质的含量,并测定呼吸速率、腐烂率和褐交情况。结果表明:与对照相比,2种CO2浓度的箱武气调贮藏条件均可启动酶促防御系统,使过氧化物酶(POD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)和超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)的活性得到提高,同时也加速了非酶促防御系统抗氧化物质的消耗,降低了总酚和Vc含量以及贮藏中后期的还原型谷胱甘肽(GSH)含量。2种浓度的CO2处理可有效减慢呼吸速率,抑制腐烂的发生并有效降低褐变程度,其中5%0:+5%CO2更有利于鲜切富士苹果褐交的控制,而5%0,+10%CO2更有利于抑制腐烂。%In order to determine the effects of plastic box modified atmosphere storage on the antioxidant system of fresh-cut Fuji apple, the condition of 5% 02 +5% C02 and 5% 02 + 10% CO= atmosphere at 5℃ were established in this experiment. Meanwhile, the activity of enzymatic defense system, the concentration of non - enzyme antioxidants as well as respiration rate, rot rate and browning degree were measured every 3 d. The results indicated that two kinds of plastic box modified atmosphere with high CO2 were all able to start the enzymatic defense system. There- fore, not only the peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were increased, but the consumption of antioxidant in non-enzymatic defense system were also accelerate. The total phenolics, Vc and reduced glutathione (GSH) content were decreased. Moreover, 5 % 02 + 5 % CO2 and 5 % 02 +10 % C02 effectively slowed down the respiration rate, inhibited the occurrence of decay and reduced the degree of browning. Apples stored with 5 % 02 +5 % CO2 was better in

  17. Laser Cutting of Leather: Tool for Industry or Designers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanov, Alexander; Manninen, Matti; Pärnänen, Inni; Hirvimäki, Marika; Salminen, Antti

    Currently technologies which are applied for leather cutting include slitting knifes, die press techniques and manual cutting. Use of laser technology has grown significantly during recent years due to number of advantages over conventional cutting methods; flexibility, high production speed, possibility to cut complex geometries, easier cutting of customized parts, and less leftovers of leather makes laser cutting more and more economically attractive to apply for leather cutting. Laser technology provides advantages in cutting complex geometries, stable cutting quality and possibility to utilize leather material in economically best way. Constant quality is important in industrial processes and laser technology fulfills this requirement: properly chosen laser cutting parameters provides identical cuts. Additionally, laser technology is very flexible in terms of geometries: complex geometries, individual designs, prototypes and small scale products can be manufactured by laser cutting. Variety of products, which needed to be cut in small volumes, is also the application where laser cutting can be more beneficial due to possibility to change production from one product to another only by changing geometry without a need to change cutting tool. Disadvantages of laser processing include high initial investment costs and some running costs due to maintenance and required gas supply for the laser. Higher level of operator's expertise is required due to more complicated machinery in case of laser cutting. This study investigates advantages and disadvantages of laser cutting in different areas of application and provides comparison between laser cutting and mechanical cutting of leather.

  18. Wear resistance of thick diamond like carbon coatings against polymeric materials used in single screw plasticizing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitzenbacher, G.; Liu, K.; Forsich, C.; Heim, D.

    2015-05-01

    Wear on the screw and barrel surface accompany polymer single screw plasticizing technology from the beginning. In general, wear on screws can be reduced by using nitrided steel surfaces, fused armour alloys on the screw flights and coatings. However, DLC-coatings (Diamond Like Carbon) comprise a number of interesting properties such as a high hardness, a low coefficient of friction and an excellent corrosion resistance due to their amorphous structure. The wear resistance of about 50 µm thick DLC-coatings against polyamide 6.6, polybutylene terephthalate and polypropylene is investigated in this paper. The tribology in the solids conveying zone of a single screw extruder until the beginning of melting is evaluated using a pin on disc tribometer and a so called screw tribometer. The polymeric pins are pressed against coated metal samples using the pin on disc tribometer and the tests are carried out at a defined normal force and sliding velocity. The screw tribometer is used to perform tribological experiments between polymer pellets and rotating coated metal shafts simulating the extruder screw. Long term experiments were performed to evaluate the wear resistance of the DLC-coating. A reduction of the coefficient of friction can be observed after a frictional distance of about 20 kilometers using glass fibre reinforced polymeric materials. This reduction is independent on the polymer and accompanied by a black layer on the wear surface of the polymeric pins. The DLC-coated metal samples show an up to 16 µm deep wear track after the 100 kilometer test period against the glass fiber filled materials only.

  19. 分层实体制造技术中激光切割路径的优化%Optimization of Laser Cutting Paths in Laminated Object Manufacturing Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘斌; 阮锋; 黄树槐

    2001-01-01

    The laser cutting paths and cutting speed usually influence the cutting time of each layer in the laminated object manufacturing technology. If the cutting speed is not changed, the optimization of laser cutting paths will directly influence the cutting time of each layer. So, the method of optimization of laser cutting paths is discussed in detail in this paper. It will reduce some needless moving paths and shorten the displacement in order to improve the efficient of manufacturing.%在分层实体制造中,激光切割路径和切割速度影响每层的切割加工时间.在切割速度一定的情况下,激光切割路径的优化与否将直接影响每层的切割加工时间.本文对激光切割路径进行优化的方法,可以减少一些不必要的移动路径和缩短空行程位移,从而达到提高加工效率的目的

  20. Plastics recycling: challenges and opportunities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jefferson Hopewell; Robert Dvorak; Edward Kosior

    2009-01-01

    .... Advances in technologies and systems for the collection, sorting and reprocessing of recyclable plastics are creating new opportunities for recycling, and with the combined actions of the public...

  1. Research on Mechanization Technology of Plastic Film Mulching%地膜覆盖机械化技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙杰

    2016-01-01

    介绍地膜覆盖机的分类、结构组成及性能,分别论述各类地膜覆盖机械的工作原理及特点,阐述地膜覆盖机的使用、调试、维护要点,为地膜覆盖机械的选用及维护提供技术借鉴。%In this paper, it introduced the classification, structural composition and performance of plastic mulching machine, dis-cussed separately the working principle of every kind of plastic mulching machine, expounded the main points of application, debugging and maintaining of plastic mulching machine, providing technical references for the selection and maintaining of plastic mulching ma-chine.

  2. Key Technology Study of Laser Texturing Machine of Plastic Mould%塑料模具激光蚀纹机的关键技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周泳全; 吴忆锋; 赵盛宇; 肖永山; 周逸

    2011-01-01

    在塑料模具蚀纹加工中,传统的化学蚀刻方法存在污染大、加工周期长的缺点.基于最新的3D动态振镜扫描技术,对模具激光蚀刻原理进行了分析和探讨;对模具激光蚀刻工艺参数进行了优化;并设计了塑料产品常见的蚀纹图案.经过对模具激光蚀纹机的光学系统、机械系统、电气系统及软件系统等整体方案的设计及丁艺实验,证明模具激光蚀刻技术能满足了塑料模具加工企业的蚀纹和环保节能需求,同时为激光加工技术在塑料模具行业的广泛应用奠定基础.%Traditional chemical texturing method caused serious pollution and long process time in plastic mould texturing process. Based on the newest 3D dynamic vibrating mirror scan technology, the principle of laser-texturing of mould was analyzed and studied. The laser texturing parameter had been optimized, and the common texture figure of plastic product was designed. The design and process experiments of optic system, mechanical system, electrical system as well as software system proved that laser-texturing technology could met the need of plastic mould processing companies for mould texture and anti-pollution, and pushed the application of laser technology in plastic mould industry as well.

  3. Cutting-edge CMP modeling for front-end-of-line (FEOL) and full stack hotspot detection for advanced technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katakamsetty, Ushasree; Chee, Jiansheng Jansen; Li, Yongfu; Hui, Chiu Wing; Huang, Yaodong; de la Garza, Ernesto Gene

    2017-03-01

    As process technology scales down, the number of Chemical Mechanical Polishing (CMP) processes and steps used in chip manufacturing are increasing exponentially. Shrinking process margins increase the risk of excessive metal or oxide thickness or topography variations, causing potential yield problems such as dishing, erosion, resist lifting or printability issues. Present DFM CMP modeling and applications mainly focus on the hotspot detection and fixing methodology for the Back-End-Of-Line (BEOL) layers [1]. Today, the present methodology is no longer sufficient to eliminate all the CMP related manufacturing defects. There is a strong demand for STI, poly and contact silicon calibrated CMP models to predict and fix the related CMP hotspots. Shallow Trench Isolation (STI) and Poly CMP planarity is very critical in advanced technologies with Diffusion layer FIN structures and Replacement Metal Gate Process flow [2]. Gate uniformity after CMP will improve device performance, reduce CMP defects and increases the yield. Contact (Tungsten) CMP polishing is another important step that defines contact planarity, which will influence metal layer CMP planarization [3]. This paper will discuss design dependent CMP variations for STI, Poly and Contact CMP steps and showcase the importance of FEOL CMP modeling. We present the methodology for Silicon calibrated STI CMP, Poly and Contact CMP models and the applications of FEOL CMP models in CMP dishing and erosion hotspot analysis. We also present FEOL plus BEOL multi stack CMP simulations applications and provide design guidelines to fix CMP hotspots.

  4. Cutting through the confusion in high performance liquid chromatographic column technology%非线性电泳

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈义

    2011-01-01

    Column packings continue to evolve as the needs of users for high efficiency, high resolution and highly sensitive high performance liquid chromatographic ( HPLC ) analysis drive further developments. In comparing and contrasting modern HPLC columns technologies, diameters of column packings and particle materials are covered. Some products and applications of modern HPLC columns are provided. Future directions in packing developments are predicted in this introductory article.%@@ 电泳大家当已耳熟能详了,它发现于18世纪初期,有悠久的历史.电泳因Tiselius而进入分离领域,为蛋白质科学的建立和发展立下了汗马功劳.其贡献至今不息,一直是生物学家的掌中宝.

  5. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Barkim Demirdal; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Paco Vieira; Lei Zhou

    2000-01-30

    This is the second quarterly progress report for Year 2 of the ACTS project. It includes a review of progress made in Flow Loop development and research during the period of time between Oct 1, 2000 and December 31, 2000. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks: (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility (Task 2: Addition of a foam generation and breaker system), (b) Research project (Task 6): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (c) Research project (Task 7): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Muds Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (d) Research project (Task 8): ''Study of Flow of Synthetic Drilling Fluids Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (e) Research project (Task 9): ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (f) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (g) Research on instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), and Foam properties while transporting cuttings. (Task 12), (h) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop. Progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S). (i) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members. The tasks Completed During This Quarter are Task 7 and Task 8.

  6. Plasticity theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lubliner, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    The aim of Plasticity Theory is to provide a comprehensive introduction to the contemporary state of knowledge in basic plasticity theory and to its applications. It treats several areas not commonly found between the covers of a single book: the physics of plasticity, constitutive theory, dynamic plasticity, large-deformation plasticity, and numerical methods, in addition to a representative survey of problems treated by classical methods, such as elastic-plastic problems, plane plastic flow, and limit analysis; the problem discussed come from areas of interest to mechanical, structural, and

  7. On the application of plastic concrete cut-off wall in Huashan Reservoir Risk Removal Reinforcement Project%浅谈塑性混凝土防渗墙在花山水库除险加固工程中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    劳正绍; 梁水新; 陆家辉

    2016-01-01

    Plastic concrete cut-off wall is a plastic wall structure with certain compressive strength and impermeability capacity,and lower modulus of elasticity,which can be controlled artificially for curbing leakage,piping,etc.Plastic concrete cut-off wall not only can cut off seepage flow of the dam (soil)body and lower seepage slope in the dam (soil) body,but also can withstand certain vertical and horizontal load.It can adapt to the surrounding dam (soil ) body deformation and foundation deformation,thereby greatly reducing stress in the wall,avoiding wall cracking,saving cement and reducing the cost of the engineering seepage control with remarkable effect.%塑性混凝土防渗墙是一种塑性墙体结构,具有一定的抗压强度和抗渗能力,有较低的弹性模量,并可人为地控制,抑制渗漏、管涌等。塑性混凝土防渗墙不仅能有效截断坝(土)体的渗透水流和降低坝(土)体中渗透坡降,还能承受一定的垂直和水平荷载,能适应周围坝(土)体变形、地基变形,大大减小墙体内应力,避免墙体开裂,且可节约水泥,降低工程防渗造价,效果显著。

  8. Quality Analysis of Cutting Steel Using Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav Markovič

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the quality dependence of the edge surface of steel C45 LST EN 10083-1 obtained cutting the material using laser on different cutting regimes and variations in the thickness of trial steel. The paper presents the influence of the main modes of laser cutting equipment Trulaser 3030, including cutting speed, pressure, angle and the thickness of the surface on the quality characteristics of the sample. The quality of the edge after laser cutting is the most important indicator influencing such technological spread in industry worldwide. Laser cutting is the most popular method of material cutting. Therefore, the article focuses on cutting equipment, cutting defects and methods of analysis. Research on microstructure, roughness and micro-toughness has been performed with reference to edge samples. At the end of the publication, conclusions are drawn.Article in Lithuanian

  9. Quality Analysis of Cutting Steel Using Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav Markovič

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the quality dependence of the edge surface of steel C45 LST EN 10083-1 obtained cutting the material using laser on different cutting regimes and variations in the thickness of trial steel. The paper presents the influence of the main modes of laser cutting equipment Trulaser 3030, including cutting speed, pressure, angle and the thickness of the surface on the quality characteristics of the sample. The quality of the edge after laser cutting is the most important indicator influencing such technological spread in industry worldwide. Laser cutting is the most popular method of material cutting. Therefore, the article focuses on cutting equipment, cutting defects and methods of analysis. Research on microstructure, roughness and micro-toughness has been performed with reference to edge samples. At the end of the publication, conclusions are drawn.Article in Lithuanian

  10. Nitrogen removal from coal gasification wastewater by activated carbon technologies combined with short-cut nitrogen removal process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qian; Han, Hongjun; Hou, Baolin; Zhuang, Haifeng; Jia, Shengyong; Fang, Fang

    2014-11-01

    A system combining granular activated carbon and powdered activated carbon technologies along with shortcut biological nitrogen removal (GAC-PACT-SBNR) was developed to enhance total nitrogen (TN) removal for anaerobically treated coal gasification wastewater with less need for external carbon resources. The TN removal efficiency in SBNR was significantly improved by introducing the effluent from the GAC process into SBNR during the anoxic stage, with removal percentage increasing from 43.8%-49.6% to 68.8%-75.8%. However, the TN removal rate decreased with the progressive deterioration of GAC adsorption. After adding activated sludge to the GAC compartment, the granular carbon had a longer service-life and the demand for external carbon resources became lower. Eventually, the TN removal rate in SBNR was almost constant at approx. 43.3%, as compared to approx. 20.0% before seeding with sludge. In addition, the production of some alkalinity during the denitrification resulted in a net savings in alkalinity requirements for the nitrification reaction and refractory chemical oxygen demand (COD) degradation by autotrophic bacteria in SBNR under oxic conditions. PACT showed excellent resilience to increasing organic loadings. The microbial community analysis revealed that the PACT had a greater variety of bacterial taxons and the dominant species associated with the three compartments were in good agreement with the removal of typical pollutants. The study demonstrated that pre-adsorption by the GAC-sludge process could be a technically and economically feasible method to enhance TN removal in coal gasification wastewater (CGW).

  11. Application of Cutting-Edge 3D Seismic Attribute Technology to the Assessment of Geological Reservoirs for CO2 Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher Liner; Jianjun Zeng; Po Geng Heather King Jintan Li; Jennifer Califf; John Seales

    2010-03-31

    The goals of this project were to develop innovative 3D seismic attribute technologies and workflows to assess the structural integrity and heterogeneity of subsurface reservoirs with potential for CO{sub 2} sequestration. Our specific objectives were to apply advanced seismic attributes to aide in quantifying reservoir properies and lateral continuity of CO{sub 2} sequestration targets. Our study area is the Dickman field in Ness County, Kansas, a type locality for the geology that will be encountered for CO{sub 2} sequestration projects from northern Oklahoma across the U.S. midcontent to Indiana and beyond. Since its discovery in 1962, the Dickman Field has produced about 1.7 million barrels of oil from porous Mississippian carbonates with a small structural closure at about 4400 ft drilling depth. Project data includes 3.3 square miles of 3D seismic data, 142 wells, with log, some core, and oil/water production data available. Only two wells penetrate the deep saline aquifer. Geological and seismic data were integrated to create a geological property model and a flow simulation grid. We systematically tested over a dozen seismic attributes, finding that curvature, SPICE, and ANT were particularly useful for mapping discontinuities in the data that likely indicated fracture trends. Our simulation results in the deep saline aquifer indicate two effective ways of reducing free CO{sub 2}: (a) injecting CO{sub 2} with brine water, and (b) horizontal well injection. A tuned combination of these methods can reduce the amount of free CO{sub 2} in the aquifer from over 50% to less than 10%.

  12. High-throughput next-generation sequencing technologies foster new cutting-edge computing techniques in bioinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mary Qu; Athey, Brian D; Arabnia, Hamid R; Sung, Andrew H; Liu, Qingzhong; Yang, Jack Y; Mao, Jinghe; Deng, Youping

    2009-07-07

    The advent of high-throughput next generation sequencing technologies have fostered enormous potential applications of supercomputing techniques in genome sequencing, epi-genetics, metagenomics, personalized medicine, discovery of non-coding RNAs and protein-binding sites. To this end, the 2008 International Conference on Bioinformatics and Computational Biology (Biocomp) - 2008 World Congress on Computer Science, Computer Engineering and Applied Computing (Worldcomp) was designed to promote synergistic inter/multidisciplinary research and education in response to the current research trends and advances. The conference attracted more than two thousand scientists, medical doctors, engineers, professors and students gathered at Las Vegas, Nevada, USA during July 14-17 and received great success. Supported by International Society of Intelligent Biological Medicine (ISIBM), International Journal of Computational Biology and Drug Design (IJCBDD), International Journal of Functional Informatics and Personalized Medicine (IJFIPM) and the leading research laboratories from Harvard, M.I.T., Purdue, UIUC, UCLA, Georgia Tech, UT Austin, U. of Minnesota, U. of Iowa etc, the conference received thousands of research papers. Each submitted paper was reviewed by at least three reviewers and accepted papers were required to satisfy reviewers' comments. Finally, the review board and the committee decided to select only 19 high-quality research papers for inclusion in this supplement to BMC Genomics based on the peer reviews only. The conference committee was very grateful for the Plenary Keynote Lectures given by: Dr. Brian D. Athey (University of Michigan Medical School), Dr. Vladimir N. Uversky (Indiana University School of Medicine), Dr. David A. Patterson (Member of United States National Academy of Sciences and National Academy of Engineering, University of California at Berkeley) and Anousheh Ansari (Prodea Systems, Space Ambassador). The theme of the conference to promote

  13. Application of plastic trash sorting technology in separating waste plastic mulch films from impurities%塑料垃圾分选技术在废旧地膜与杂质分离中的应用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石鑫; 牛长河; 乔园园; 张海春; 王学农

    2016-01-01

    Plastic film mulching technique has been using widely in China because of it’s notable features such as raising temperature,inhibiting weed growth,promoting crop maturity and increasing production. A large number of used plastic mulch films which have not be recycled and accumulated in the soil year after year and results serious waste plastic mulch film pollution. Recycled waste plastic mulch films twined each other with other impurities and makes the mulch film utilization becomes difficult. Some recycled waste plastic mulch films has been stacked or burned on field ridge freely which leads secondary pollution.Thus, the waste plastic mulch film pollution problems should be cracked from it’s beginning.Agricultural waste plastic mulch film and impurities separation technology is key links during mechanized mulch films recycling and reusing. Waste plastic mulch film as a valuable renewable resource and be important part of plastic production which comes from waste plastic mulch film by separation process. Effective recycling and reusing of waste plastic mulch film can improve economic benefits and even what’s more is that it can decrease the secondary pollution probability which caused by improper waste plastic mulch film handling. Some documents shows that the thickness of plastic mulch film used in foreign countries is generally above 0.12mm which keep the tensile strength of plastic mulch film be good enough and promote the rolling recycling machine development.Waste plastic mulch film is clean and complete which recycled by rolling recycling machine and it can be reused directly.At present, there is no relevant report about technology and equipment for waste plastic mulch film separation at abroad.The thickness of the plastic mulch film used generally in China between 0.004-0.008mm which leads the tensile strength not good enough after harvesting season and can not be recycled by rolling way. The only way which can recycling waste plastic mulch film by

  14. 技术创新助推新型陶瓷刀具在机加工中的应用优势凸显%Technology Innovation Boost New Types of Ceramic Cutting Tool in Machining Application Advantages Highlighted

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨忠敏

    2014-01-01

    随着新技术革命的发展,要求不断提高切削加工生产率和降低生产成本,特别是数控机床的发展,要求开发比硬质合金刀具切速更高、更耐磨的新型刀具。针对新型陶瓷切削刀具的应用前景广阔,分析了切削刀具材料的种类及其特点,研究了新型陶瓷切削刀具的性能突显,介绍了新型陶瓷切削刀具运用实例,提出了陶瓷切削刀具材料的研发应用方向。%With the development of new technology revolution ,requirements to improve machi‐ning productivity and reduce production cost ,especially the development of CNC machine tools ,to develop higher than cemented carbide cutting speed ,more new tool wear .Application prospect of the new ceramic cutting tool .Analyzes the types and characteristics of the cutting tool materials ,studies the performance of the new type of ceramic cutting tools highlight ,this paper introduces the new type of ceramic cutting tools using instance ,put forward the direction of development and application of ceramic cutting tool materials .

  15. 大厚度材料磨料水射流切割工艺及关键技术%Abrasive Water Jet Cutting Process and Key Technology of Big-thickness Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李连荣; 王晓燕; 许栋刚

    2012-01-01

    water-jet cutting process with its unique cold and soft processing characteristics, and more unique advantages compared to other cutting process according to all kinds of thermal and hard brittle materials has good prospects for future development. But because of its own flexible jet characteristics, especially in cutting big thickness materials, it exists the quality insufficient obvious such as slope, corrugated, cross section lag, cut back sewing. That becomes the marketing bottlenecks restricted technology. In this paper, from the abrasive water jet cutting process principle mechanism and technology advantages, based on the points out its defects and cutting process effect factors affecting process, the specific key technology was proposed. It has positive practical significance to expand the application fields.%磨料水射流切割工艺以其独特的“冷、软”加工特性,与其他切割工艺相比,对各类热敏、硬脆等难加工材料的切割更有独特优势,具有良好的发展前景.但因射流自身的“柔性”特征,尤其在切割大厚度材料时存在断面明显坡度、波纹、滞后、切缝、回击等质量不足,成为制约该技术应用市场推广的瓶颈.本文从磨料水射流切割工艺原理和工艺优势出发,在指出其工艺缺陷和切割效果工艺影响因素的基础上,提出针对性的关键技术,对拓展该技术的应用领域具有积极的现实意义.

  16. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Barkim Demirdal; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Paco Vieira

    2000-10-30

    This is the first quarterly progress report for Year 2 of the ACTS project. It includes a review of progress made in Flow Loop development and research during the period of time between July 14, 2000 and September 30, 2000. This report presents information on the following specific tasks: (a) Progress in Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility design and development (Task 2), (b) Progress on research project (Task 8): ''Study of Flow of Synthetic Drilling Fluids Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (c) Progress on research project (Task 6): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (d) Progress on research project (Task 7): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Muds Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (e) Progress on research project (Task 9): ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (f) Initiate research on project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (g) Progress on instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution (Tasks 11), and Foam properties (Task 12), (h) Initiate a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. Since the previous Task 1 has been completed, we will now designate this new task as: (Task 1S). (i) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members.

  17. 鲜切雪莲果防褐绿变工艺研究%The Anti-green and Browning Technology for Fresh-cut Yacon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡文韬; 夏延斌; 张音

    2011-01-01

    以雪莲果为试材,研究鲜切雪莲果防褐绿变的工艺.实验中比较了不同护色处理方法的护色效果,采用正交实验筛选出鲜切雪莲果的最佳组合护色条件,雪莲果最优组合防褐绿变的工艺为0.1%CaCl2,0.15%柠檬酸,浸泡30min,在.21℃下冻藏7d,未见褐变和绿变.%Yacon was as experimental material to study the anti-enzymatic browning and greening process. By comparing the different treatment effect of the color-protecting methods, the best color-protecting combination technology of fresh-cut Yacon was determined by orthogonal experiments as: 0.1% calcium chloride, 0.15% citric acid, and soaked time 30 min. The color is little changed at -21℃ in 7 days.

  18. Involving Minority High School Students in Cutting Edge Research through C-DEBI, an NSF-National Science and Technology Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, E.; Edwards, K. J.

    2012-12-01

    The Center for Dark Energy Biosphere Investigations (C-DEBI) was established as a National Science and Technology Center (NTC) funded by NSF in 2009. Its mission is to explore life beneath the seafloor and make transformative discoveries that advance science, benefit society, and inspire people of all ages and origins. Thanks to the multi-institutional character of C-DEBI, the Center has not only started a collaborative framework for experimental and exploratory research, but also targets education programs at the K-12, undergraduate, graduate and postdoctoral levels involving biogeochemists, microbiologists, geochemists and geologists. An example for this is the introduction of deep biosphere research into the K-12 classroom. In this context, C-DEBI has collaborated with teachers from the Animo Leadership High School in Inglewood, which is ranked 27th within California and has a total minority enrollment of 99%, to adapt Marine Biology classes and introduce latest Deep Biosphere Science discoveries. Three high school students participated in a pilot project over 6 months to gain hands-on experience in an ongoing study in a Marine Microbiology laboratory at University of Southern California. Graduate and postdoctoral students from the Departments of Biological and Earth Sciences supervised theory, praxis and project design, which was aimed at culturing strains of Marinobacter, one of the most ubiquitous marine microbial genera, and preparing extracted DNA for sequencing using the latest Ion Torrent Technology. Students learned about the interdisciplinary global context of the study and gained experience in laboratory procedures, including basic aseptical techniques, molecular biology methods, and cutting-edge sequencing Technology, as well as problem-solving and creative thinking in project preparation and conduction. This hands-on training included discussions about the 'Whys' and 'Hows' in today's research with respect to their specific project, but also from a

  19. Plastic Jellyfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Christine

    2000-01-01

    Presents an environmental science activity designed to enhance students' awareness of the hazards of plastic waste for wildlife in aquatic environments. Discusses how students can take steps to reduce the effects of plastic waste. (WRM)

  20. Analysis of New Cutting and Welding Technology Application in Boiler Industry%新型焊割技术在锅炉行业的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张羽; 姜永晔; 徐展

    2016-01-01

    为了解决目前锅炉焊接操作中存在效率较低、手法和技术较难掌握这一问题,采用STT (surface tension transfer,表面张力熔滴过渡)焊机完成了产品的初步焊接试验。试验结果表明, STT焊机的焊接速度是TIG焊的数倍,且基本不产生熔渣和飞溅,焊接时和焊接后的清理容易、费用低,对焊工技术和经验要求较低,技法容易掌握。另外,为了提高锅炉不锈钢曲面上开孔的工作效率并保证表面质量,采用精细等离子技术进行了产品封头的曲面开孔,在实际操作中解决了精确度控制和挂渣问题,为后续焊接工序减少打磨时间提供了质量保证。%In order to solve some problems in boiler welding operation, such as low efficiency, welding method, and welding technology is more difficult to master, the preliminary welding test was carried out by using STT (surface tension transfer) welder. The test result indicated that the welding speed of STT welder is several times of TIG welder, basically do not produce slag and splash, and the cleaning in welding and after welding is easy, low cost, low requirements for welding technology and experience, easy to grasp. In addition, in order to increase drilling efficiency on boiler stainless steel surface and guarantee surface quality, it adopted fine plasma cutting technology to drill on welded joint surface, this method solved accuracy control and adhering slag, which provided quality assurance for reducing polishing time in follow-up welding process.

  1. Under-water cutting explosive equipment technology of pre-mixed abrasive water%前混合磨料水射流水下排除爆炸物装置技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敬涛; 张沙

    2011-01-01

    为了解决常用切割技术不适宜在水下作业的难题,从工程应用出发,运用数学建模分析、软件模拟仿真等方法,对前混合磨料水射流系统的水下切割技术进行了相关研究和仿真.研究表明,在预设加紧力200N的条件下,设计的装置可以搭载喷枪进行水射流水下排爆作业,水射流过程具有高能、冷态、点割、非接触等特点,可以对各种材料进行任意切割,尤其适合切割各种压敏、热敏材料以及在易燃易爆场合进行切割作业,为下一步实验奠定了理论基础.%To solve the problem that the frequently used cut technology is not suitable for underwater projects, underwater cut technology based on pre-mined abrasive water jet system was researched and emulated by mathematical modeling analysis and software simulation according to project application. Research shows that under the condition of 200N force, the designed device can carry the nozzle to exclude the explosion under water and the cut process has the features of highenergy, cold conditions, point cut and non-contact etc. The water jet cut can cut various materials, especially press sensitive and hot sensitive materials, and work on the inflammable and explosive occasion. The research has established theoretical foundation for next experiments.

  2. 废塑料基复合材料粉体法综合回收技术%Comprehensive Recovery Technology of Waste Plastic Matrix Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽

    2014-01-01

    The relevant technologies for recycling waste plastic matrix composites at home and abroad were introduced. According to the characteristics of waste plastic matrix composites, mechanical crushing, dissociation (large breaking, breaking, crushing dissociation), high-voltage electrostatic separation methods were used for recycling composite materials. The purity of recovered metal (such as aluminum) was more than 99%,metal (aluminum) recovery was more than 99%,too.The purity of recycled plastic was more than 96%. These data were close to or above the level of similar foreign technology. The recycling process did not use any chemicals and water, did not discharge any pollutants.%介绍了国内外对废塑料基复合材料回收技术的相关现状,根据废塑料基复合材料的特点采用机械粉碎、解离(大型破碎、中碎、粉碎解离)、高压静电分选的方法回收废塑料复合材料,回收金属(铝等)的纯度达99%以上;金属(铝等)回收率达99%以上;回收塑料的纯度达96%以上,接近甚至超过国外同类技术的水平。在回收过程中不使用任何化工原料,不使用水,不排放任何污染物。

  3. 250 MP a超高压磨料射流井下内切割技术∗%Downhole Inner Cutting Technology Based on 250 MPa Ultra High Pressure Abrasive Water Jet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马认琦; 李刚; 王超; 鞠少栋; 刘占鏖; 徐鸿飞

    2015-01-01

    The decommission of offshore oil and gas production facilities is in demand of high efficient, safe and environmentally friendly cutting technology and equipment�High pressure abrasive water jet cutting technology have obvious advantages on offshore well abandonment�The status of the application and development of domestic and foreign abrasive water jet cutting technology in offshore oil and gas production facilities decommission are de⁃scribed�Comparative analyses are conducted on the domestic and foreign downhole abrasive water jet cutting equip⁃ment and performance parameters�The core technologies and equipment of the existing domestic low pressure and 250 MPa ultra⁃high pressure abrasive water jet downhole inner cutting technology are introduced�Field application results showed that the low⁃pressure and 250 MPa ultra⁃high pressure abrasive water jet inner cutting technology and equipment could meet the operation requirements.%海上油气生产设施弃置需要配置高效、安全环保的切割处理技术及设备,高压磨料射流井下切割技术用于海上弃井作业优势明显。阐述了国内外磨料射流切割技术在海洋油气生产设施弃置领域的应用与发展现状,对比分析了国内外磨料射流井下切割设备及其性能参数,介绍了国内现有低压与250 MP a超高压磨料射流井下内切割核心技术及配套设备。现场应用结果表明,低压与超高压250 MP a磨料射流井下内切割技术及设备满足作业要求。

  4. Effects of Hypobaric Cold Storage Technology on Preservation of Fresh-cut Fruits and Vegetables%减压冷藏技术对鲜切果蔬保鲜效果的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡欣; 张长峰; 郑先章

    2012-01-01

    以花王菜等6种蔬菜和苹果为试材,研究减压冷藏技术对鲜切果蔬的保鲜效果.结果表明,减压冷藏处理技术是可应用于鲜切果蔬保鲜的新技术.将果蔬原材料经减压冷藏处理(压力范围为600~3 200 Pa),再清洗切割加工成鲜切产品,可比普通冷藏有效减缓山药、土豆和苹果等鲜切产品的褐变;明显减少鲜切花王菜、鸡毛菜和空心菜的萎蔫、黄叶与腐烂,保持鲜切绿叶菜的新鲜品质;切割前的减压冷藏结合真空预冷,可大大减轻鲜切西兰花的黄化、萎蔫、花粒变大、脱落及切面的褐变与腐烂,显著延长鲜切果蔬的冷藏货架期及冷链断链保鲜期.%The experiments used 6 kinds of vegetables and apple as material to research the preservation effects by using hypobaric cold storage technology. The results indicated that, the hypobaric cold storage treatment technology was an advanced new technology of preservation and process for fresh-cut vegetables and fruits. The raw materials of fruits and vegetables were treated by hypobaric cold storage, pressure 600-3 200 Pa, followed washing and cutting to fresh-cut products. Compared with normal cold storage, the hypobaric cold storage treatment technology could retard the brown degree of cut face of yam, potato and apple, decrease the wilting, yellow leaf and rotting of Huawang vegetable, Jimao vegetable and swamp cabbage, also kept their good fresh quality. Hypobaric cold storage before cutting combined with vaccum pre -cooling treatment could greatly readuce the yellow changed, wilting, flower grain growing and dropping, brown degree of cut face and rotting of broccoli, and prolong the shelf life of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables and preservation period of cold chain scission.

  5. 残膜回收机械化技术在和静县的示范推广应用%Demonstration and application of plastic film recovery mechanization technology in Hejing County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冉亚平

    2013-01-01

      残膜对农业生产和生态环境造成了严重的污染,实施机械化回收残膜技术,减少“白色污染”,提出了残膜回收机在作业中存在的问题及措施建议。%  Plastic film for agricultural production and ecological environment caused serious pollution, the implemen-tation of mechanized recycling plastic film technology to reduce "white pollution", plastic film recycling machine existing problems in the job and measures recommended.

  6. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ergun Kuru; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Len Volk; Mark Pickell; Evren Ozbayoglu; Barkim Demirdal; Paco Vieira; Affonso Lourenco

    1999-10-15

    This report includes a review of the progress made in ACTF Flow Loop development and research during 90 days pre-award period (May 15-July 14, 1999) and the following three months after the project approval date (July15-October 15, 1999) The report presents information on the following specific subjects; (a) Progress in Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility design and development, (b) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Flow of Synthetic Drilling Fluids Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (c) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (d) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Muds Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (e) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (f) Progress report on the instrumentation tasks (Tasks 11 and 12) (g) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with oil and service company members.

  7. 模具制造中的高速切削技术分析%Mold Manufacturing Technology of High-Speed Cutting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓艳

    2012-01-01

    With the rapid development of high-tech, high requirements made on the mold manufacturing industry, the traditional mold usually first milling and then hardened, and then follow-up of EDM and polishing, manufacturing process complexity, process efficiency is low, higher energy consumption, pollution, large; high-speed cutting technology in the mold manufacturing industry, can be obtained directly through the high speed hard machining precision and surface quality, manufacturing process is simple, machining efficiency is higher, less energy consumption, less polluting with good economic benefits, it fits to wide applied in mold making.%随着国家高新技术产业的快速发展,对模具制造业也提出较高要求,传统的模具制造通常采用先铣削再淬硬,然后电火花加工及后续抛磨,制造工艺复杂、加工效率低、能源消耗高、污染较大。高速切削技术应用在模具制造业中,可以直接通过高速硬切削获得较高的精度及表面质量,高速切削技术制造工艺过程简单、加工效率较高、能源消耗少、污染较小且具有良好的经济效益,因此,适宜在模具加工中广泛推广应用。

  8. Molding development of Chinese dress and its cutting technology%近代旗袍的造型变革以及裁剪技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈研; 张竞琼; 李向军

    2012-01-01

    Based on the research into various kinds of Chinese dress collected and kept in the Folk Costume Exhibition and Learning Hall of Jiangnan University and Shanghai Yifengtang Museum, this article introduces Chinese dress in terms of the molding development, innovation in cutting technology, decoration process from "complexity to simplicity", molding construction from "square shoulder connected with sleeves to sloping shoulder connected with sleeves ", and from "without dart to with dart". It points out that the modern Chinese dress is a classical work combining the Chinese style with the western one, successfully completing the transformation from Chinese traditional "plane molding" to western "stereo molding" and ending the period of "adapting person to dress" and opening the new era of " adapting dress to person".%通过对江南大学民间服饰传习馆与上海艺风堂博物馆馆藏传世旗袍的研究与分析,从早期旗袍的造型演变、近代旗袍的造型变革及裁剪技术的改良为切入点,描述由繁到简的装饰工艺,论述了由平肩连袖到斜肩接袖、由无省到有省的造型结构,指出近代旗袍是融合中西的经典之作.它成功地完成了从中式传统平面造型向西式立体造型完美蜕变的同时,终结了“人适应衣”的时代,开创了“衣适应人”的新时代.

  9. Model Test on Concrete Cutting Directly by Shield and Pile Foundation Cutting Technology%盾构切削混凝土模拟试验和切削桩基施工技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅德明

    2014-01-01

    Underground obstacles,such as concrete piles,soil retaining structures,pipes and trenches and underground structures,are often encountered during shield boring in the construction of urban rail transit works.These pile founda-tions are normally underpinned,dismantled or manually cut.However,these conventional treatment methods have such disadvantages as high cost,long construction period and severe influence on the surrounding traffics.A400 mm model shield is used to cut blind concrete,glass fiber concrete and reinforced concrete,so as to study the feasibility of pile foundation cutting directly by shields,to make analysis on the modification of cutter heads and to obtain shield boring control parameters.Furthermore,the experience of the pile foundation cutting directly by shields in the construction of No.7 line and No.10 line of Shanghai rail transit works is described.Conclusions drawn are as follows:1 )It is feasi-ble to cut reinforced concrete directly by shields;2)Before shield launching,the cutter head should be modified,and a number of advance cutting tools and shell tools should be installed on the cutter head;3 )During the cutting of the pile foundations directly by shield,the shield should advance slowly (with less than 10 mm/min advance speed),and the earth pressure,thrust and cutter head torque set should be stable;4)During the cutting of the pile foundations directly by shield,lubricating and friction-reducing materials should be added into the excavation chamber so as to prevent the screw conveyor from being jammed by concrete blocks.After the shield passes the obstacle point,secondary grouting should be made to fill the annulus space behind the segment lining on basis of the monitoring results so as to control the settlement of the ground surface and the nearby buildings;5 )Cutting pile foundations directly by shield has advantages, including low cost,high safety and small environmental influence.%城市轨道交通盾构施工中经常遇到穿

  10. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ergun Kuru; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Barkim Demirdal; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Paco Vieira; Neelima Godugu

    2000-07-30

    ACTS flow loop is now operational under elevated pressure and temperature. Currently, experiments with synthetic based drilling fluids under pressure and temperature are being conducted. Based on the analysis of Fann 70 data, empirical correlations defining the shear stress as a function of temperature, pressure and the shear rate have been developed for Petrobras synthetic drilling fluids. PVT equipment has been modified for testing Synthetic oil base drilling fluids. PVT tests with Petrobras Synthetic base mud have been conducted and results are being analyzed Foam flow experiments have been conducted and the analysis of the data has been carried out to characterize the rheology of the foam. Comparison of pressure loss prediction from the available foam hydraulic models and the test results has been made. Cuttings transport experiments in horizontal annulus section have been conducted using air, water and cuttings. Currently, cuttings transport tests in inclined test section are being conducted. Foam PVT analysis tests have been conducted. Foam stability experiments have also been conducted. Effects of salt and oil concentration on the foam stability have been investigated. Design of ACTS flow loop modification for foam and aerated mud flow has been completed. A flow loop operation procedure for conducting foam flow experiments under EPET conditions has been prepared Design of the lab-scale flow loop for dynamic foam characterization and cuttings monitoring instrumentation tests has been completed. The construction of the test loop is underway. As part of the technology transport efforts, Advisory Board Meeting with ACTS-JIP industry members has been organized on May 13, 2000.

  11. 激光切割技术在冲压行业中的应用和发展趋势%Application and Development Trent of Laser Cutting Technology in Stamping Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡俊舟; 鲜光斌; 许小宝; 罗琳

    2012-01-01

    介绍了激光切割技术在冲压行业中的应用和发展趋势。激光切割技术的不断发展和应用,可能能替代部分修边冲孔模具和落料模具,生产效率高,能适用各种各样的车型,有利于降低整车开发过程中的成本。%Introduced application and development trent of laser cutting technology in stamping industry. Laser cutting technology development and application could replace part of trimming and punching die and blanking die, the production efficiency is high, can be applied to various kinds of vehicles, reduce the vehicle development process cost.

  12. Study on Technological Parameters of YAG Laser Cutting Cold Rolled Steel Sheets%YAG激光切割冷轧钢板的工艺参数研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关雷; 史子木; 舒胜威

    2014-01-01

    实验使用YAG脉冲激光切割机切割Q235薄冷轧钢板。基于激光切割理论,采用正交试验对激光切割工艺参数进行优化。以切口宽度和切口的表面粗糙度为衡量标准,通过对比得出切割0.7 mm、1.0 mm、1.5 mm厚的Q235冷轧钢板的最优切割参数。%Q235 cold rolled steel sheets are cut by YAG pulse laser in this experiment. We optimize the process of laser cutting with orthogonal test depend upon the theory of laser cutting. Summarizing optimal cutting quality and the best process parameters of cutting 0.7, 1.0, 1.5 mm cold rolled steel sheet should be reached by measuring the joint-cutting width and comparison the surface roughness of incision.

  13. Hydraulic Cutting Technology of Sand Control Screen in Open-hole Horizontal Well%水平井裸眼段防砂管柱水力内切割技术探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李贵川; 章桂庭; 寇联星; 胡东锋

    2011-01-01

    打捞水平井裸眼段内砂卡的防砂筛管是十分复杂的作业,打捞钻具摩阻大,扭矩传递困难,需要改进和优化切割、套铣、倒扣等常规打捞技术,其中水力内切割防砂筛管是实现分段打捞的关键工艺.在分析常规水力内切割缺点的基础上,优化为水力与机械联合双控内切割工艺,并对刀片优选设计给出了理论计算公式,极大提高了水平井防砂筛管水力内切割作业一次成功率,具有现场指导意义.%It' s a very complex operation to let stuck sand control screens to be free and pull them out of open-hole horizontal well. Large friction,difficult torque transmission, which forced conventional fishing technology, such as jarring, back-off, cutting or milling, needs to be improved and optimized. Hydraulic cutting sand control screen is the key process to remove the section screen. Based on the analysis of conventional cutting defects,through combining hydraulic and mechanical method,dual control cutting process was well performed, and a set of theoretical formula for blade-length design was recommended. Hydraulic cutting sand screens in open-hole horizontal well,whose probability of cutting success was improved greatly,with strong on-site guidance.

  14. 激光模切加工新技术的实验研究%Experimental Study on New Technology of Laser Die-Cutting Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许宝忠; 刘铁根; 王萌; 李梅; 张国顺

    2011-01-01

    To improve the die-cutting process of the traditional packaging carton, experiments of laser die-cutting have been done. Details of the working principle of laser die-cutting were introdued, and scanning precision of the focusing was analyzed. A laser die-cutting system with galvanometer, radio frequency CO2 laser, hurrySCAN14 scan head, RTC3 card and so on is built, and laser die-cutting has been done with this system. Compared with traditional mechanical cutting, laser die-cutting has lots of advantages, such as convenience, agility, short production cycle and higher efficiency especially in the packaging of small quantities samples.%为了改进传统包装纸盒模切工艺,进行了激光模切的实验研究.详细介绍了激光模切的工作原理,对振镜扫描方式的聚焦误差进行了分析,在采用射频CO2激光器、hurrySCAN14扫描头和RTC3通用激光控制卡等构建的数控激光模切系统上,进行了激光模切技术的研究.与传统机械模切相比,激光模切在小批量样品的生产中具有方便、灵活、生产周期短和效率高等独特的优点.

  15. Elastic-plastic finite element simulation for diamond turning process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Using general commercial software, a coupled thermo-mechanieal plane strain larger deformation orthogonal cutting model is developed on the basis of updated Lagrangian formulation in this paper. The workpiece is oxygen free high conductivity copper ( OFHC copper), its flow stress is considered as a function of strain, strain rate and temperature to reflect its realistic changes in physical properties. In order to take into account the cutting edge radius effects of the single crystal diamond tool, rezoning technology is introduced into this simulation model. Diamond turning process is simulated from the initial stage to the steady stage of chip formation, and the distribution of temperature, equivalent stress, residual stress, strain rate and shear angle are obtained. The simulated principal force is compared with published experiment data and they are found to be in good agreement with each other, but poor for thrust force due to no consideration of elastic recovery for machined surface in the elastic-plastic material model.

  16. Cutting Craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 12 November 2003The rims of two old and degraded impact craters are intersected by a graben in this THEMIS image taken near Mangala Fossa. Yardangs and low-albedo wind streaks are observed at the top of the image as well as interesting small grooves on the crater floor. The origin of these enigmatic grooves may be the result of mud or lava and volatile interactions. Variable surface textures observed in the bottom crater floor are the result of different aged lava flows.Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -15.2, Longitude 219.2 East (140.8 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  17. Bio-plastic (poly-hydroxy-alkanoate) production from municipal sewage sludge in the Netherlands: a technology push or a demand driven process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluemink, E D; van Nieuwenhuijzen, A F; Wypkema, E; Uijterlinde, C A

    Valorisation of components from municipal 'waste' water and sewage sludge gets more and more attention in order to come to a circular economy by developing an efficient 'waste' to value concept. On behalf of the transition team 'Grondstoffenfabriek' ('Resource factory') a preliminary research was performed for all the Dutch water boards to assess the technical and economical feasibility of poly-hydroxy-alkanoate (PHA)-production from sewage sludge, a valuable product to produce bio-plastics. This study reveals that the production of bio-plastics from sewage sludge is feasible based on technical aspects, but not yet economically interesting, even though the selling price is relatively close to the actual PHA market price. (Selling price is in this particular case the indicative cost effective selling price. The cost effective selling price covers only the total production costs of the product.) Future process optimization (maximizing the volatile fatty acids production, PHA storage capacity, etc.) and market developments are needed and will result in cost reductions of the various sub-processes. PHA-production from sewage sludge at this stage is just a technology; every further research is needed to incorporate the backward integration approach, taking into account the market demand including associated product quality aspects.

  18. Cutting Under Pressure Technology for the Tubing String with Dual Packer in Gas Well%带压切割气井双封分压管柱工艺技术∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢涛; 杨红斌; 徐迎新

    2015-01-01

    复杂多个大直径工具管柱、腐蚀管柱和带喷砂器的管柱带压起钻工艺尚无有效方法,为此,研发了带压切割气井双封分压管柱工艺技术。该工艺技术采用专门的带压切割装置,利用切割刀具在装置内逐段切割,带压起出切割掉的油管,下带压密封捞矛打捞切割掉的油管鱼头,逐级起出复杂管柱。现场试验结果表明,气井带压切割工艺可以实现ø73�0 mm N80油管双封分压管柱的带压切割;对于腐蚀穿孔和双封分压以上复杂管柱可以采取装置内分段切割、密封打捞及分级起出的技术方案。%There is still no effective method of tripping out complex multiple large diameter tool string, corro⁃sion string and string with sandblast under pressure, to address the issue, a technology of cutting dual packer iso⁃lation string in gas well has been developed�A special device capable of cutting string under pressure is used to cut the string by cutter�After tripping out the cut tubing string section, run fishing spear for snubbing operation to fish the tubing string in well, thus, tripping out the complex string piece by piece�Field tests show that the cutting un⁃der pressure technology for gas well is fully capable of cutting the ø73�0 mm N80 tubing string with dual packer un⁃der pressure�For corrosion perforation and the complex string upper dual packer, cutting into piece, fishing with sealing and tripping out piece by piece could be a solution.

  19. The Investigation of Tool Selection in High-speed Cutting Technology%高速切削技术中刀具选用问题探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳杰

    2012-01-01

    高速切削技术是20世纪90年代迅速走向实际应用的先进加工技术,高速切削刀具的选用是实现高速切削加工的关键技术之一。生产实践证明,高速切削刀具必须具备可靠的安全性和高的耐用度。文章从刀具材料、刀具结构、刀杆结构、刀具动平衡几个方面介绍了高速切削技术中刀具的选用。%High-speed cutting is a advanced processing technique that sprang into application during tile 1990s, and high-speed cutting tool technique is one of the key techniques to guarantee it. As is proved in practice, high-speed cutting tool must possess reliable security and durabihty. This paper deals with selection of cutting tool in respect of the material and structure of cutting tool, structure of handle, and dynamic equilibrium.

  20. New Life for Old Plastics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Recycling joint venture utilizes innovative technology to reuse plastics Recycling,despite its green connotations,can be a messy business.In China,more than 400,000 companies are engaged in plastic recycling,but 70 percent of them are family enterprises,

  1. Multibeam fiber laser cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove; Hansen, Klaus Schütt; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    2009-01-01

    The appearance of the high power high brilliance fiber laser has opened for new possibilities in laser materials processing. In laser cutting this laser has demonstrated high cutting performance compared to the dominating Cutting laser, the CO2 laser. However, quality problems in fiber-laser...... cutting have until now limited its application to metal cutting. In this paper the first results of proof-of-principle Studies applying a new approach (patent pending) for laser cutting with high brightness and short wavelength lasers will be presented. In the approach, multibeam patterns are applied...... to control the melt flow out of the cut kerf resulting in improved cut quality in metal cutting. The beam patterns in this study are created by splitting up beams from two single mode fiber lasers and combining these beams into a pattern in the cut kerf. The results are obtained with a total of 550 W...

  2. Multibeam Fibre Laser Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove

    The appearance of the high power high brilliance fibre laser has opened for new possibilities in laser materials processing. In laser cutting this laser has demonstrated high cutting performance compared to the dominating cutting laser, the CO2-laser. However, quality problems in fibre-laser...... cutting have until now limited its application in metal cutting. In this paper the first results of proof-of-principle studies applying a new approach (patent pending) for laser cutting with high brightness short wavelength lasers will be presented. In the approach, multi beam patterns are applied...... to control the melt flow out of the cut kerf resulting in improved cut quality in metal cutting. The beam patterns in this study are created by splitting up beams from 2 single mode fibre lasers and combining these beams into a pattern in the cut kerf. The results are obtained with a total of 550 W of single...

  3. A chip embedding solution based on low-cost plastic materials as enabling technology for smart labels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cauwe, M.; Vandecasteele, B.; Baets, J. de; Brand, J. van den; Kusters, R.H.L.; Sridhar, A.

    2012-01-01

    Expanding the current smart packaging solutions to individual products requires improvement for several of the following properties: cost, thickness, weight, flexibility, conformability, transparency, and even stretchability. This paper focusses on an embedding technology that targets the first four

  4. A chip embedding solution based on low-cost plastic materials as enabling technology for smart labels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cauwe, M.; Vandecasteele, B.; Baets, J. de; Brand, J. van den; Kusters, R.H.L.; Sridhar, A.

    2012-01-01

    Expanding the current smart packaging solutions to individual products requires improvement for several of the following properties: cost, thickness, weight, flexibility, conformability, transparency, and even stretchability. This paper focusses on an embedding technology that targets the first four

  5. Performance Enhancement of Abrasive Waterjet Cutting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vu Ngoc Pi

    2008-01-01

    Abrasive Waterjet (AWJ) Machining is a recent non-traditional machining process. This technology is widely used in industry for cutting difficult-to-machine-materials, milling slots, polishing hard materials etc. AWJ machining has many advantages, e.g. it can cut net-shape parts, no heat is generate

  6. Performance Enhancement of Abrasive Waterjet Cutting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vu Ngoc Pi

    2008-01-01

    Abrasive Waterjet (AWJ) Machining is a recent non-traditional machining process. This technology is widely used in industry for cutting difficult-to-machine-materials, milling slots, polishing hard materials etc. AWJ machining has many advantages, e.g. it can cut net-shape parts, no heat is

  7. Performance Enhancement of Abrasive Waterjet Cutting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vu Ngoc Pi

    2008-01-01

    Abrasive Waterjet (AWJ) Machining is a recent non-traditional machining process. This technology is widely used in industry for cutting difficult-to-machine-materials, milling slots, polishing hard materials etc. AWJ machining has many advantages, e.g. it can cut net-shape parts, no heat is generate

  8. 水射流钻割技术在防突方面的应用与研究%Research and Application of Water Jet Drilling Cutting Technology in Outburst Prevention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武文庆

    2014-01-01

    本文提出采用射流钻割一体化防突技术对高瓦斯矿井煤层进行卸压增透措施,并在某矿2120风巷碛头采用割缝钻孔与普通钻孔进行工业性实验,并利用G10模式煤气表对孔内瓦斯进行对比研究,证明水射流钻割割缝技术确实能明显的起到卸压增透效果,从而有效的预防煤层的突出事故。%In this paper,the jet drilling-cutting integration outburst prevention technology for pressure relief and permeability increasing measures in high gas coal mine,and in some mine 2120 wind tunnel moraine head adopts cutting drilling and drilling for industrial experiment,and using the G10 model of gas meter to make a comparative study of the hole of gas,water jet drilling cutting slotting technology can indeed obviously win the pressure relief and permeability increase effect,thus effectively preventing outburst in coal seam.

  9. Research Progress and Application of Superhard Nano-Micron PVD Coating Technology in the Cutting Manufacturing Area%超硬纳微米PVD涂层技术在刀具领域的应用及研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张而耕; 朱州; 张体波

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT:The paper introduced the principle, characteristics, and advantages and disadvantages of three methods of vacuum evaporation, sputtering and ion plating in physical vapor deposition ( PVD) technology, and introduced the PVD coating technology that is widely used in cutting tools by four categories of binary, multiple coatings, multilayer coatings and nano multilayer composite coating. Based on a large amount of literature, combined with the author's experience in the research and application of PVD tech-nology for many years, the paper reviewed the research progress of superhard nano-micron PVD coating technology in the field of application of cutting tool from the most important perspective of improving the cutting tool life, and further discussed the multiple coating, multilayer coating and nanometer coating in details. Cutting tool surface with application of physical vapor deposition coa-ting technology enabled the tool to obtain excellent overall performance, which significantly improved the life of cutting tools, re-duced production costs, and increased the machining efficiency substantially. Finally, the paper forecasted the wide application of physical vapor deposition coating technology in composite superhard cutting ( including milling of mold steel, hardened steel whose hardness over HRC55 ) , cutting hard processing materials ( including high-temperature alloys, titanium alloy, stainless steel, etc. ) , machining and processing composite materials of graphite and carbon fiber, etc. and high-speedily machining non-ferrous metals ( including aluminum, copper alloys, nickel, etc. ) in the future.%介绍了物理气相沉积( PVD)技术的原理、特点和真空蒸镀、溅射镀和离子镀之间的优缺点,从二元涂层、多元涂层、多层涂层和纳米多层复合涂层等4种类别上介绍了PVD涂层技术在切削刀具上的广泛应用。在查阅和整理大量文献资料的基础上,也结合笔者多年从事PVD技术的

  10. American Society of Plastic Surgeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PRS PRS GO PSN PSEN GRAFT Contact Us Cosmetic Surgery New procedures and advanced technologies offer plastic surgery ... David Berman MD 14 Pidgeon Hill Drive Berman Cosmetic Surgery & S... Sterling, VA 20165 Website Franklin Richards MD Suite ...

  11. Technology on CO2 Laser Cutting of LTCC Substrate%CO2激光切割LTCC基板工艺技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王运龙; 宋夏; 邱颖霞; 王志勤

    2016-01-01

    针对LTCC基板进行CO2激光切割实验研究。分析激光功率、激光频率、切割速度及辅助气体压力等参数对切割宽度、深度及飞溅物的影响。阐述了LTCC中金属导体对切割的阻碍作用以及CO2激光的热效应对LTCC表层导体形貌及附着力的影响。%The cutting experiments for LTCC substrate are studied using CO2 laser. The effects of laser energy, repeat frequency, cutting speed and assistant gas pressure on the cutting width, depth and splatter are analyzed. Moreover, the block effect of LTCC electronic conductor in cutting process is expatiated, and the effects of CO2 laser heating on the morphology and adhesive force of LTCC electronic conductor are discussed.

  12. Effects of pulsed light treatments and pectin edible coatings on the quality of fresh-cut apples: a hurdle technology approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, María R; Álvarez, María V; Martín-Belloso, Olga; Soliva-Fortuny, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Pulsed light (PL) treatments stand as an alternative for the shelf-life extension of fresh-cut products. The antimicrobial effects of PL are well known; however, its influence on quality attributes needs to be assessed. This study was aimed at evaluating the application of PL treatments in combination with pectin-based edible coatings enriched with dietary fiber for the preservation of fresh-cut apples. Dipping of fresh-cut apples in ascorbic acid/calcium chloride solution prior to pectin coating and PL treatments was effective to minimize browning and softening of apple surfaces. Incorporation of fiber in the pectin coating did not cause any change in microbial loads and sensory acceptability of apple cubes. Pectin-coated PL-treated apple pieces exhibited significantly higher antioxidant activity values than fresh and PL control samples. At the end of storage, the combination of both treatments resulted in an almost 2 log CFU g(-1) reduction of microbial counts. Sensory attribute scores did not fall below the rejection limit throughout 14 days, although the presence of off-odors limited the acceptability of the pectin-coated samples. The results demonstrate that PL treatments applied to pectin-coated fresh-cut apples may be used to maintain quality attributes, thus conferring prebiotic potential and extending the shelf-life of the product. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Research and application of fixed cutting angle threading technology%定起点车螺纹工艺研究及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜源; 张阳; 常文涛; 李全会

    2013-01-01

      一种实现液压支架立柱螺纹定角度车削工艺,该工艺利用数控车螺纹时工件圆周上起刀点相对于主轴卡盘角度位置固定及可调原理,从而实现立柱上特征点(如上下腔接头)与螺纹起刀点位置角度相对固定,并最终得到在外导向套组装预紧后外导向套上腔接头与缸体特征点(如下腔接头)相对位置角度满足图纸设计要求。%This turning process cuts the hydraulic support column at a relatively fixed angle from feature points ,such as upper and lower chamber joints, against thread start-cutting point, by use of a mechanism that exist a fixed and adjustable angle of the start-cutting points at the Circumference of working pieces against the thread cutting-start point. The result is that, after the outer bush assembly pre-tightening, the relative position angle of outer bush upper chamber against cylinder feature points (such as the lower chamber joint) meets the design require-ments.

  14. CO2 laser cutting

    CERN Document Server

    Powell, John

    1998-01-01

    The laser has given manufacturing industry a new tool. When the laser beam is focused it can generate one of the world's most intense energy sources, more intense than flames and arcs, though similar to an electron beam. In fact the intensity is such that it can vaporise most known materials. The laser material processing industry has been growing swiftly as the quality, speed and new manufacturing possibilities become better understood. In the fore of these new technologies is the process of laser cutting. Laser cutting leads because it is a direct process substitu­ tion and the laser can usually do the job with greater flexibility, speed and quality than its competitors. However, to achieve these high speeds with high quality con­ siderable know how and experience is required. This information is usually carefully guarded by the businesses concerned and has to be gained by hard experience and technical understanding. Yet in this book John Powell explains in lucid and almost non­ technical language many o...

  15. Machining Challenges: Macro to Micro Cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shunmugam, M. S.

    2016-04-01

    Metal cutting is an important machining operation in the manufacture of almost all engineering components. Cutting technology has undergone several changes with the development of machine tools and cutting tools to meet challenges posed by newer materials, complex shapes, product miniaturization and competitive environments. In this paper, challenges in macro and micro cutting are brought out. Conventional and micro end-milling are included as illustrative examples and details are presented along with discussion. Lengthy equations are avoided to the extent possible, as the emphasis is on the basic concepts.

  16. Cutting state identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, B.S.; Minis, I.; Rokni, M. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)] [and others

    1997-12-31

    Cutting states associated with the orthogonal cutting of stiff cylinders are identified through an analysis of the singular values of a Toeplitz matrix of third order cumulants of acceleration measurements. The ratio of the two pairs of largest singular values is shown to differentiate between light cutting, medium cutting, pre-chatter and chatter states. Sequences of cutting experiments were performed in which either depth of cut or turning frequency was varied. Two sequences of experiments with variable turning frequency and five with variable depth of cut, 42 cutting experiments in all, provided a database for the calculation of third order cumulants. Ratios of singular values of cumulant matrices find application in the analysis of control of orthogonal cutting.

  17. New opportunities for cutting with lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Thomas; Mairhörmann, Dieter

    2004-01-01

    Laser microcutting is a leading technology for the manufacture of surgical instruments and medical implants. This article assesses its capabilities for stents and surgical-needle manufacture and for other tube-cutting applications that require microscaled designs.

  18. Simulation of Laser Cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Wolfgang; Nießen, Markus; Eppelt, Urs; Kowalick, Kerstin

    Laser cutting is a thermal separation process widely used in shaping and contour cutting applications. There are, however, gaps in understanding the dynamics of the process, especially issues related to cut quality. This work describes the advances in fundamental physical modelling and process monitoring of laser cutting, as well as time varying processes such as contour cutting. Diagnosis of ripple and dross formation is advanced to observe the melt flow and its separation simultaneously as well as the spatial shape of the cut kerf.

  19. 纤维素膜降解性能及其在切分蔬菜保鲜中的应用研究%Application of Biodegradable Plastic Packaging Film on Preservation of Fresh-cut Vegetables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡云峰; 杨秋月; 宋慧颖; 郭红莲

    2012-01-01

    The degradation of cellulose membrane, and the application of cellulose membrane in fresh vegetables are mainly investigated through studying its permeability, moisture permeability, and preservation. The results show that: 1 ) Different microbial has different degradation rate to cellulose membranes; 2 ) Cellulose packaging film's degradation performance is the best that it can be depredated fully after three days by inoculating Penicillium; 3 ) Cellulose packaging film's permeability is better than plastic film, resulting in the poor effects of green color and anti- browning when preserving fresh vegetables; 4 ) Cellulose membrane has so strong water vapor permeability that it's water retention is worse than the plastic packaging film.%主要研究了纤维素膜的降解性能,并通过其透气性、透湿性和保鲜效果三方面的实验来研究纤维素膜在蔬菜保鲜中的应用.结果表明:1)不同微生物对纤维素膜的降解速度有很大差异;2)纤维素保鲜包装膜降解性能好,采用接种青霉的方法,3天后膜达到全部降解;3)纤维素保鲜包装膜的透气性能优于塑料膜,导致保鲜蔬菜时护绿和防褐变效果差;4)纤维素保鲜包装膜的透湿性能较强,对包装的蔬菜保水性较塑料包装膜差.

  20. Plastic bronchitis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Singhi, Anil Kumar; Vinoth, Bharathi; Kuruvilla, Sarah; Sivakumar, Kothandam

    2015-01-01

    Plastic bronchitis, a rare but serious clinical condition, commonly seen after Fontan surgeries in children, may be a manifestation of suboptimal adaptation to the cavopulmonary circulation with unfavorable hemodynamics...

  1. Plastic Fishes

    CERN Multimedia

    Trettnak, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    In terms of weight, the plastic pollution in the world’s oceans is estimated to be around 300,000 tonnes. This plastic comes from both land-based and ocean-based sources. A lecture at CERN by chemist Wolfgang Trettnak addressed this issue and highlighted the role of art in raising people’s awareness. The slideshow below gives you a taste of the artworks by Wolfgang Trettnak and Margarita Cimadevila.

  2. Plastic Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    履之

    1994-01-01

    Already ubiquitous in homes and cars, plastic is now appearing inbridges. An academic-industrial consortium based at the University ofCalifornia in San Diego is launching a three-year research program aimed atdeveloping the world’s first plastic highway bridge, a 450-foot span madeentirely from glass-,carbon,and polymer-fiber-reinforced composite mate-rials, the stuff of military aircraft. It will cross Interstate 5 to connect thetwo sides of the school’s campus.

  3. 磨料射流切割套管技术研究及在海上弃井中的应用%Casing Cutting Technology through Abrasive Water Jet and Its Applications in Offshore Abandoned Wells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建兵; 王超; 刘贵远; 刘作鹏; 罗甲全

    2013-01-01

    In order to efficiently and safely cut casing and structural poles below mudline in offshore wells ,abrasive water jet (AWJ) casing cutting technology has been developed to cut abandoned offshore fa-cilities .Based on technical advancement of AWJ cutting through multiple casing strings ,hydraulic motor driven and self-rotating water jet cutting device were developed for field applications .Parameters such as jet size ,pump pressure ,rotation speed ,abrasive material types ,etc .were optimized through systematic labora-tory tests and abrasive water jet cutting technique was formed .Full scale surface and downhole tests in the offshore Well CFD1 6 1 showed that this AWJ cutting device could cut through 4 cemented casing strings (sizes :φ244.5 ,φ339.7 ,φ508.0 and φ762.0 mm ) in less than 6 hours ,w hich met field application require-ments .In addition ,the system is compatible with engineering support vessel instead of mobile offshore drilling units so as to further reduce its cost .Its practical application shows the AWJ device with advanta-ges as strong cutting capability ,high cutting efficiency and environmental friendliness ,would provide a new offshore technical solution to abandonment of offshore oilfield facilities and structures in China .%为安全有效地从泥线以下切割海上废弃井套管和管桩,研究开发了磨料射流切割技术。基于高能磨料射流从套管串内部一次冲蚀切割多层管材的技术思路,设计了液压马达驱动式和水力自旋式切割装置,经过室内试验优化喷嘴、泵压、转速和磨料类型等参数,形成了配套的磨料射流切割多层套管工艺。地面综合切割试验及在曹妃甸161井的现场应用表明,该切割装置约在6 h内即可割断4层(φ244.5~φ762.0 mm)被水泥固为一体的套管,满足现场应用的要求,而且可利用工程船作业,能节省海洋钻机作业费用。实践证明,磨料射流切割技术具有切割能力

  4. Extensions of cutting problems: setups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Henn

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Even though the body of literature in the area of cutting and packing is growing rapidly, research seems to focus on standard problems in the first place, while practical aspects are less frequently dealt with. This is particularly true for setup processes which arise in industrial cutting processes whenever a new cutting pattern is started (i.e. a pattern is different from its predecessor and the cutting equipment has to be prepared in order to meet the technological requirements of the new pattern. Setups involve the consumption of resources and the loss of production time capacity. Therefore, consequences of this kind must explicitly be taken into account for the planning and control of industrial cutting processes. This results in extensions to traditional models which will be reviewed here. We show how setups can be represented in such models, and we report on the algorithms which have been suggested for the determination of solutions of the respective models. We discuss the value of these approaches and finally point out potential directions of future research.

  5. Paraffin tissue microarrays constructed with a cutting board and cutting board arrayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Ulrich Felix

    2010-05-01

    Paraffin tissue microarrays (PTMAs) are blocks of paraffin containing up to 1300 paraffin tissue core biopsies (PTCBs). Normally, these PTCBs are punched from routine paraffin tissue blocks, which contain tissues of differing thicknesses. Therefore, the PTCBs are of different lengths. In consequence, the sections of the deeper portions of the PTMA do not contain all of the desired PTCBs. To overcome this drawback, cutting boards were constructed from panels of plastic with a thickness of 4 mm. Holes were drilled into the plastic and filled completely with at least one PTCB per hole. After being trimmed to a uniform length of 4 mm, these PTCBs were pushed from the cutting board into corresponding holes in a recipient block by means of a plate with steel pins. Up to 1000 sections per PTMA were cut without any significant loss of PTCBs, thereby increasing the efficacy of the PTMA technique.

  6. Achievement report for fiscal 1998 on the research cooperation project for a technology to facilitate setting forming conditions for engineering plastics; 1998 nendo engineering plastic no seikei joken kan'i settei gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku jigyo seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This project is intended to support plastics manufacturing being the important supporting industry in Thailand for manufacture of household electric appliances and automobiles, particularly the manufacture of engineering plastics having excellent heat and impact resistance. In order to achieve the target, a supporting system is being developed to allow injection molding of engineering plastics to be performed easily. The project aims particularly at developing a system that suits climate conditions in Thailand, properties of plastic materials procurable in Thailand, and skills of Thai engineers. The current fiscal year has carried out the following activities: evaluating materials required for the research and development, deciding the specifications for and ordering product evaluating and testing facilities, molds and mold cooling and heating adjustment devices, and an injection molding CAE system; these items were introduced and installed in Thailand; engineers were sent from Japan to perform technical guidance on operation, maintenance and management of the material and product evaluating and testing facilities, as well as joint researches; and Thai researchers were received to execute training on product evaluating and testing technologies, forming and processing technologies, and CAE utilizing technologies. (NEDO)

  7. Soft Cutting Propagation Technology of Ulmus pumila ‘Zhonghuajinye’%中华金叶榆嫩枝扦插繁殖技术1)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐笑玥; 佟兆庆; 闫文涛; 陆秀君; 李常猛

    2016-01-01

    以中华金叶榆( Ulmus pumila‘Jinye’)为试材,剪取当年生枝条中上部做插穗,每个插穗保留2片叶子,用ABT 1000 mg· L-1溶液处理插穗10 s,分别扦插在河沙、珍珠岩、蛭石、草炭、V(珍珠岩)∶V(蛭石)=1∶1、V (珍珠岩)∶V(蛭石)=3∶1、V(珍珠岩)∶V(草炭)=1∶1、V(珍珠岩)∶V(草炭)=3∶1,8种基质上,探究不同扦插基质对插穗生根的影响;采用3因素3水平正交试验设计,即选用ABT、IBA、NAA 3种生根促进剂,每种生根促进剂设计500、1000、1500 mg· L-13个质量浓度梯度,处理时间为10、30、60 s,扦插在V(珍珠岩)∶V(蛭石)=1∶1的基质中,筛选金叶榆嫩枝扦插最佳生根促进剂及处理时间。结果表明:蛭石为最佳基质,插穗生根率为89.17%,平均根数为10条,平均根长为12.92 cm,最长根长为38.5 cm。正交试验结果表明:用质量浓度为500 mg· L-1的IBA生根促进剂处理30 s得到的生根效果较好,生根率为82.22%,平均根长为21.12 cm,平均根数为17条。通过spss软件中的多重比较法分析推测得出,采用1500 mg· L-1 IBA生根促进剂处理插穗基部30 s,得到的金叶榆插穗生根率将会更高。%With Ulm us pumila‘Zhonghuajinye ’ , and one-year branches of the upper part as stem cuttings , each stem cutting retained two leaves .In order to test the influence of different substrates on cutting , stem cuttings were treated with ABT of 1 000 mg· L-1 solution for 10 s and inserted into eight soil substrates including river sand , perlite, vermiculite, peat, per-lite∶vermiculite=1∶1, perlite ∶vermiculite=3∶1, perlite ∶peat=1∶1, and perlite ∶peat=3∶1 ( V/V) , respective-ly.With the purpose of screening the best reagent concentration and the best treatment time for U.pumila‘Zhonghuajinye’ cutting, the experiment was conducted using three

  8. WE(EE) Demand - Recycled Plastic

    OpenAIRE

    Førby, Marie; Pedersen, Jakob; Borgen, Nanna; Hansen, Rasmus Nør

    2015-01-01

    Plastic management – from production to waste – has massive negative effects on the environment of which one of the main problems are the CO2 released from the fossil fuels. The focus of this paper lies on the possibilities of increasing demand for recycled plastics from electric and electronic equipment (WEEE-plastic) through modifications in the Danish waste systems. Due to the chemical build of plastic, it is not possible to reprocess it with mechanical recycle technologies while keeping t...

  9. GREEN PLASTIC: A NEW PLASTIC FOR PACKAGING

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. Pankaj Kumar*, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    This paper gives a brief idea about a new type of plastic called as bio-plastic or green plastic. Plastic is used as a packaging material for various products, but this plastic is made up of non renewable raw materials. There are various disadvantages of using conventional plastic like littering, CO2 production, non-degradable in nature etc. To overcome these problems a new type of plastic is discovered called bio-plastic or green plastic. Bio-plastic is made from renewable resources and also...

  10. 石门揭穿严重突出危险煤层防突技术研究%Study on Outburst Prevention Technology in Opening Seam with Serious Dangerous Outburst of Cross-cut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宗福; 周声才; 龙建明; 李文树; 陈久福; 张赛

    2011-01-01

    为了解决由于松藻矿区地质条件复杂,煤层透气性系数低,地质构造带揭煤地点的地应力、构造应力、瓦斯压力大而导致揭煤时突出危险性增加,揭煤周期长的问题,提出采用超前探测、预测预报、高压水力割缝增透、底板瓦斯巷超前预抽、环形金属骨架钻孔注浆、锚网锚索喷浆加强支护、渐近式的综合石门揭煤技术,并在渝阳煤矿进行了应用。结果表明:采用综合石门揭煤技术瓦斯平均抽采浓度比未割缝钻孔平均抽采浓度提高59%,高压水力割缝后单孔平均抽采纯量增大2.92倍,揭煤时间缩短了17 d。%In order to solve the outburst danger increased and the long seam opening period during the seam opening occurred by the high ground stress,high structure stress and high gas pressure at the seam opening location of the geological structure zone,the lower seam permeability coefficient and the complicated geological conditions of the Songzao Mining Area,the application of the pilot exploration,the prediction and pre-warning,the high pressurized hydraulic slot cutting for the permeability improvement,the pilot gas pre-drainage from the floor of the gateway,the ring metal support frame,the bolt-steel mesh-anchor-shotcreting reinforced support and the asymptotic type comprehensive cross-cut seam opening technology were provided and applied to Yuyang Mine.The results showed that with the application of the comprehensive cross-cut seam opening technology,the gas average drainage density was improved by 59% than the average drainage density with no slot cutting boreholes.After the high pressurized hydraulic slot cutting,the average drainage pure quantity per borehole was improved by 2.92 times and the seam opening time was reduced by 17 days.

  11. Laser cutting preparation technology of solid wood parquet laminate flooring%拼花实木复合地板激光切割制备工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵洪刚; 乐磊; 刘明利; 吴俊华; 刘彦龙

    2016-01-01

    This study adopted orthogonal experiment to confirm the optimum technological parameters of laser cutting of solid wood parquet laminate flooring. We took tree species, focal distance, cutting speed, light intensity and cutting angle as design factors of the scheme and seam width, seam depth and ablation degree as evaluation indexes, the stereomicroscope was used to test the result. The result showed that influencing factors on the seam width from strong to weak followed the order of focal distance > cutting angle > cutting speed > tree species > light intensity, and the optimum conditions were A4 B4 C5 D1 E1 , in which focal distance had a great effect on seam width. The factors influencing ablation degree were ranked from high to low as focal distance > cutting speed > cutting angle > tree species > light intensity, and the optimum conditions were A1 B1 C2 D5 E4 , in which focal distance had a great influence on ablation degree. The factors impacting seam depth were ranked from strong to weak as cutting speed >tree species > focal distance > light intensity > cutting angle, and the optimum conditions were A5 B4 C1 D5 E5 . Because of interaction of various factors, there was no remarkable influencing factor to seam depth. Laser cutting parameters of oak face veneer were:focal distance 6. 0 mm, cutting speed 30 mm/s, and light intensity 75-80 cd. Laser cutting parameters of Fraxinus mandschurica face veneer were focal distance 6. 0-7. 5 mm, cutting speed 30-40 mm/s, and light intensity 40-60 cd. Reasonable use of cutting parameters may acquire good cutting quality, reduce or have no need of subsequent processing crafts so as to fulfill the demands of parquet flooring such as covering ablation degree and handling the gaps.%为确定激光切割拼花实木复合地板的优化工艺参数,采用正交试验法,以树种、焦距、切割速度、光强和切割角度为因素设计试验方案,以缝宽、缝深、烧蚀程度为评价指

  12. Application of Plastic-wood Composite Technology in Domestic Waste Resource%塑木再生技术在生活垃圾资源化中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦彩嫩; 牛红义

    2011-01-01

    探讨塑木再生技术在生活垃圾中废塑料、纸类、木质类成分资源化应用的可行性,分析其应用中的关键技术,并对广州市应用塑木再生技术回收处理生活垃圾中废塑料、纸类及木质类成分提出建议与对策.%Application feasibility and its key technologies for using plastic --wood composite technology to recycle waste plastic, paper and wood in domestic waste were analyzed. Suggestions and countermeasures of the application of the technology in Guangzhou were put forward.

  13. Demonstrating diamond wire cutting of the TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rule, K.; Perry, E.; Larson, S.; Viola, M. [and others

    2000-02-24

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) ceased operation in April 1997 and decommissioning commenced in October 1999. The deuterium-tritium fusion experiments resulted in contaminating the vacuum vessel with tritium and activating the materials with 14 Mev neutrons. The total tritium content within the vessel is in excess of 7,000 Curies while dose rates approach 50 mRem/hr. These radiological hazards along with the size of the Tokamak (100 cubic meters) present a unique and challenging task for dismantling. Plasma arc cutting is the current baseline technology for the dismantlement of fission reactors. This technology is typically used because of its faster cutting times. Alternatively, an innovative approach for dismantlement of the TFTR is the use of diamond wire cutting technology. Recent improvements in diamond wire technology have allowed the cutting of carbon steel components such as pipe, plate, and tube bundles in heat exchangers. Some expected benefits of this technology include: significantly reduction in airborne contaminates, reduced personnel exposure, a reduced risk of spread of tritium contamination, and reduced overall costs as compared to using plasma arc cutting. This paper will provide detailed results of the diamond wire cutting demonstration that was completed in September of 1999, on a mock-up of this complex reactor. The results will identify cost, safety, industrial and engineering parameters, and the related performance of each situation.

  14. Characterisation of debris from laser and mechanical cutting of bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmanis, Nikolaos; McGuinness, Garrett B; McGeough, Joseph A

    2014-07-01

    Laser cutting of bones has been proposed as a technology in orthopaedic surgery. In this short study, the laser-bone interaction was examined using a pulsed erbium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet laser and compared to a conventional cutting technique. Microscopic analysis revealed the nature of waste debris and showed higher proportions of finer particles for conventional sagittal sawing compared to laser cutting.

  15. An Experimental Study of the Cutting Forces in Metal Turning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltan Iosif Korka

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Cutting forces are classified among the most important technological parameters in machining process. Cutting forces are the background for the evaluation of the necessary machining power, as well as for dimensioning of the tools. Cutting forces are also having a major influence on the deformation of the work piece machined, its dimensional accuracy, and machining system stability.

  16. Printing Technologies and Environmentally-friendly Measures of Plastic Flexible Packaging Film%塑料软包装薄膜的印刷技术及环保措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄树贵; 龚伟兵

    2011-01-01

    The printing and compounding technologies of plastic flexible packaging film were introduced.The environmentally-friendly measures in plastic flexible packaging film were expounded from the aspects of printing ink, raw material, waste material treatment, etc. The development direction of the plastic flexible packaging film was also predicted.%介绍了塑料软包装薄膜的印刷和复合工艺,从油墨、塑料原料及废弃物处理等方面阐述了塑料软包装薄膜印刷工业中采取的环保措施,并指出了塑料软包装薄质印刷工业的发展方向.

  17. Device for cutting protrusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bzorgi, Fariborz M.

    2011-07-05

    An apparatus for clipping a protrusion of material is provided. The protrusion may, for example, be a bolt head, a nut, a rivet, a weld bead, or a temporary assembly alignment tab protruding from a substrate surface of assembled components. The apparatus typically includes a cleaver having a cleaving edge and a cutting blade having a cutting edge. Generally, a mounting structure configured to confine the cleaver and the cutting blade and permit a range of relative movement between the cleaving edge and the cutting edge is provided. Also typically included is a power device coupled to the cutting blade. The power device is configured to move the cutting edge toward the cleaving edge. In some embodiments the power device is activated by a momentary switch. A retraction device is also generally provided, where the retraction device is configured to move the cutting edge away from the cleaving edge.

  18. Design Features of Hardening Turners with Outstripping Plastic Deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Yaroslavtsev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficiency of the cutting method with outstripping plastic deformation (OPD in lathe works is defined in many respects by design features of the add-on devices for mechanical hardening of a cut-off layer material in the course of cutting. Applied on lathes, deforming OPD devices can have differing dimensions, placement on the lathe, drive type (manual, electric, hydraulic, pneumatic, pneumohydraulic, electromagnetic, and autonomy degree towards the metalcutting equipment and industrial equipment.At the same time there are a number of inherent design features of work-hardening devices the modernized lathes with OPD use for machining. Now the OPD standard devices implement two principle construction options: loading device is placed on the machine or on the OPD slide support separate of the tool, or it is structurally aligned with the cutting tool. In the latter case the OPD device for turning is called a tool mandrel, which is mounted in a tool post of the machine or, at large dimensions, such a mandrel is mounted on the machine instead of the tool mandrel.When designing the OPD devices, is important to take into consideration production requirements and recommendations for the technological equipment, developed in the course of creation, working off and introduction of such installations for mechanical hardening of material. In compliance with it, OPD devices, their placement on the machine, and working displacements shouldn't limit technological capabilities of the applied metal-cutting equipment. OPD stresses have to be smoothly regulated, with maximum loads being limited to admissible values for the machine model to be modernized. It is necessary to ensure synchronized longitudinal and cross displacements of the cutting tool and OPD hardener with respect to the axis of billet rotation to enable regulation and readjustment of the hardener and tool placement. It ought to foresee the increased mobile components rigidity and manufacturing

  19. Plastic Bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Bruce K

    2016-09-01

    Plastic bronchitis is an uncommon and probably underrecognized disorder, diagnosed by the expectoration or bronchoscopic removal of firm, cohesive, branching casts. It should not be confused with purulent mucous plugging of the airway as seen in patients with cystic fibrosis or bronchiectasis. Few medications have been shown to be effective and some are now recognized as potentially harmful. Current research directions in plastic bronchitis research include understanding the genetics of lymphatic development and maldevelopment, determining how abnormal lymphatic malformations contribute to cast formation, and developing new treatments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Application Effect of Tender Branch Cutting Technology of Juglans Linn in Bijie City%核桃属树木嫩枝扦插技术在毕节市的应用效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗永猛; 李永荷; 杨先义; 余刚国

    2015-01-01

    Through introducing the tender branch cutting technology of Juglans Linn which developed by Forestry Research Institute of Chinese Academy of Forestry Sciences,by dopting the moisturize and calescence measures of intelligent greenhouse,the tender branches cutting of good Juglans Linn tender branches individual selected in recent years were propagated.The survival rate was promoted from 11.3% to 84.0%,so the technology showed significance in keeping good characters of Juglans Linn and forming good clonal varieties in Bijie City.%通过引进中国林业科学研究:林业研究所研究成功的“核桃属树木嫩枝扦插繁殖方法”,使用智能温棚等增温保湿措施,对毕节市近年鉴选出的核桃优良单株进行嫩枝扦插扩繁,使扦插成活率由11.3%提高至84.0%,对保持毕节市优良核桃品种的优良性状、形成一批优良无性系品种具有重要意义。

  1. Applying minimally invasive plastic technology in treating facial grinding contusion%微创整形技术在面部碾挫伤中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马莉; 程维峰; 周建玺

    2013-01-01

    目的:回顾性分析面部碾挫伤患者采用微创整形技术缝合的临床效果.方法:2006年4月-2009年9月共治疗28例患者,伤口均在面部,采用精细的原位再生清创术和综合性的整形缝合技术.结果:均达到Ⅰ期愈合,恢复快,创伤小,外观自然,瘢痕不明显,无明显组织牵拉,患者对外形满意.结论:在面部碾挫伤中,综合运用微创整形技术,可以明显减轻患者的创伤,促进愈合,避免术后瘢痕及畸形的发生,是处理面部急诊外伤的好方法.%Objective Retrospectively analyze the clinical treat effect of minimally invasive orthopedic technology suture in facial grinding contusion patients. Methods From April 2006 to September 2009, 28 patients with facial wounds were treated with the fine debridement of situ regeneration and comprehensive orthopedic suture techniques. Results All patients were healed with little trauma and recoveried fastly were satisfied of physical appearance with no obvious scar and tissue retraction. Conclusion In the facial grinding contusion patients, comprehensive use of minimally invasive plastic technology can significantly reduce the trauma, promote healing and prevent postoperative scar or deformity.

  2. COMPOSITES FROM RECYCLED WOOD AND PLASTICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ultimate goal of this research was to develop technology to convert recycled wood fiber and plastics into durable products that are recyclable and otherwise environmentally friendly. Two processing technologies were used to prepare wood-plastic composites: air-laying and melt...

  3. Multi-objective optimization of cutting parameters in turning using grey relational analysis

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This study presents optimization of performance characteristics in unidirectional glass fiber reinforced plastic composites using Taguchi method and Grey relational analysis. Performance characteristics such as surface roughness and material removal rate are optimized during rough cutting operation. Process parameters including tool nose radius, tool rake angle, feed rate, cutting speed, cutting environment and depth of cut are investigated using mixed L18 orthogonal array. Grey relation anal...

  4. Laser cutting - from 200 Watt to 12 Kilowatt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    2004-01-01

    Laser cutting is the most widespread industrial application of high power lasers. The development of this process was initiated around 1970, when scientists at TWI first demonstrated laser cutting with coaxial gas assistance. 10 years later, the polarisation problem was solved and the technology...... got its breakthrough. Since then some 30,000 laser cutting systems have been installed worldwide, making the laser an important cutting tool in modern industry....

  5. Laser cutting - from 200 Watt to 12 Kilowatt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    2004-01-01

    Laser cutting is the most widespread industrial application of high power lasers. The development of this process was initiated around 1970, when scientists at TWI first demonstrated laser cutting with coaxial gas assistance. 10 years later, the polarisation problem was solved and the technology...... got its breakthrough. Since then some 30,000 laser cutting systems have been installed worldwide, making the laser an important cutting tool in modern industry....

  6. Application of preservation technologies in fresh-cut fruits and vegetables%应用于鲜切果蔬中的保鲜技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪懿芳; 胡文忠; 姜爱丽

    2015-01-01

    Fresh-cut fruits and vegetables are increasingly favored by consumers, their sales increased by their convenience, rich nutrition and great freshness characteristics. Fresh-cut fruits and vegetables are also known as cut fruits and vegetables, semi processed fruits and vegetables, fruits and vegetables such as conditioning, usually refer to change vegetables, fruit, and physical shape, but still continue in its state of fresh fruit products or produce mixed products. The production process generally goes through cleaning, grading, trimming, segmentation, washing, drying, packaging, storage and distribution, available to consumers directly edible or by restaurants cooking. Preservation technologies in fresh-cut fruits and vegetables significantly affect sensory aspects such as color, smell, texture, flavor, and tissue. This paper summarized the preservation technologies of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables, such as physical, chemical, biological and combinatorial preservation technologies for fresh-cut fruits and vegetables, which would provide the further understanding of current problems and guidance of future research directions, and prospect for future developments presented.%鲜切果蔬因其方便、健康、新鲜等特点日益受到人们的青睐,销售量逐年增加。鲜切果蔬又称为切割果蔬、半加工果蔬、调理果蔬等,通常是指改变了蔬菜、水果物理形状、但仍然保持其新鲜状态的果蔬制品或果蔬混合产品。其生产过程一般要经过清洗、分级、修整、切分、洗涤、干燥、包装、贮存、配送等工序,可供消费者直接食用或餐饮业使用。鲜切果蔬保鲜技术对果蔬的色泽、气味、质地、营养成分、组织状态等感官方面得以最大的保留,减少果蔬因经过清洗、去皮、等机械处理过程导致的品质改变。本论文主要对现阶段鲜切果蔬的保鲜技术研究进展进行综述,其主要技术包括物理、化学和综

  7. Plastic fish

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    In terms of weight, the plastic pollution in the world’s oceans is estimated to be around 300,000 tonnes. This plastic comes from both land-based and ocean-based sources. A lecture at CERN by chemist Wolfgang Trettnak addressed this issue and highlighted the role of art in raising people’s awareness.   Artwork by Wolfgang Trettnak. Packaging materials, consumer goods (shoes, kids’ toys, etc.), leftovers from fishing and aquaculture activities… our oceans and beaches are full of plastic litter. Most of the debris from beaches is plastic bottles. “PET bottles have high durability and stability,” explains Wolfgang Trettnak, a chemist by education and artist from Austria, who gave a lecture on this topic organised by the Staff Association at CERN on 26 May. “PET degrades very slowly and the estimated lifetime of a bottle is 450 years.” In addition to the beach litter accumulated from human use, rivers bring several ki...

  8. Plastic zonnecellen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roggen, Marjolein

    1998-01-01

    De zonnecel van de toekomst is in de maak. Onderzoekers van uiteenlopend pluimage werken eendrachtig aan een plastic zonnecel. De basis is technisch gelegd met een optimale, door invallend licht veroorzaakte, vorming van ladingdragers binnen een composiet van polymeren en buckyballs. Nu is het zaak

  9. Application of the mechanical cutting technology for coiled tubing in Yong 25-11 well%连续油管机械切割技术在永25-11井的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海明; 叶红; 田明; 吴国洲; 肖宝军

    2014-01-01

    The methods,such as back-off on neutral point and explosive cutting,are commonly used to deal withФ73 mm stuck tubing inФ139.7 mm casing.The back-off technique has disadvantages of low efficiency,high labor intensity, and high workover cost.The explosive cutting,being easily affected by downhole deviation,and the dirt and scale adhere to tubing inwall,and the cutter tool can not run into the predetermined position,the effective cutting can not be implemented. To solve the problems,it was carried out the improvement of cutting technology of general mechanical internal cutter.By applying coiled tubing to transmit general machinery cutter tools,using hydraulic motor as power tools,the stuck tubing was successfully cut in Yong25-11 well,which can provide a new way for processing the stuck tubing.%处理139.7 mm套管内遇卡Ф73 mm油管的常用方法有中和点倒扣法和爆炸切割法,倒扣解卡方式效率低、劳动强度大、修井费用高;而爆炸切割法易受到井斜及油管内壁脏物、油污影响,切割弹往往下不到预定位置,无法实现有效切割。为解决现有工艺问题,对普通机械内割刀切割技术进行研究,改进传统机械内割刀切割技术,应用连续油管传输普通机械内割刀工具,采用液压马达作为动力工具,现场应用,成功切割永25-11井遇卡油管,为处理遇卡油管积累经验,提供新思路。

  10. Biodegradable PLA (polylactic acid) hinged trays keep quality of fresh-cut and cooked spinach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botondi, Rinaldo; Bartoloni, Serena; Baccelloni, Simone; Mencarelli, Fabio

    2015-09-01

    This work examines the effects of packaging using two different polymeric trays with hinged lids, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polylactic acid (PLA), on fresh-cut and cooked spinach (Spinacia oleracea). Samples were stored in a cold room for 16 days at 4 °C. Chemical (total pigments, total polyphenols, ascorbic acid, antioxidant activity), physical (water activity), technological (colour evaluation), sensorial (aroma, visual appearance and water accumulation) and microbial (total aerobic mesophilic and psychrotrophic counts) parameters were tested. Both polymeric trays maintained the overall quality of fresh spinach for 6 days but spinach stored in PLA trays maintained its flavour longer. A significant increase in total polyphenols, antiradical activity, total carotenoids as well as a decrease in ascorbic acid in fresh spinach was observed in the first 3 days of storage in both samples. Unfortunately, the PLA package accumulated condensed water. The total microbial load of fresh-cut spinach reached about 6.3-7.3 log CFU g(-1) within 8 days. Cooked spinach packed in PLA and PET polymeric hinged trays showed the same behaviour as fresh spinach in terms of quality and shelf life. In conclusion, PLA plastic hinged trays can be used for packaging fresh-cut and cooked cut spinach, but the problem of condensed water must be solved.

  11. Graphs of Plural Cuts

    CERN Document Server

    Dosen, K

    2011-01-01

    Plural (or multiple-conclusion) cuts are inferences made by applying a structural rule introduced by Gentzen for his sequent formulation of classical logic. As singular (single-conclusion) cuts yield trees, which underlie ordinary natural deduction derivations, so plural cuts yield graphs of a more complicated kind, related to trees, which this paper defines. Besides the inductive definition of these oriented graphs, which is based on sequent systems, a non-inductive, graph-theoretical, combinatorial, definition is given, and to reach that other definition is the main goal of the paper. As trees underlie multicategories, so the graphs of plural cuts underlie polycategories. The graphs of plural cuts are interesting in particular when the plural cuts are appropriate for sequent systems without the structural rule of permutation, and the main body of the paper deals with that matter. It gives a combinatorial characterization of the planarity of the graphs involved.

  12. Plastics recycling: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopewell, Jefferson; Dvorak, Robert; Kosior, Edward

    2009-07-27

    Plastics are inexpensive, lightweight and durable materials, which can readily be moulded into a variety of products that find use in a wide range of applications. As a consequence, the production of plastics has increased markedly over the last 60 years. However, current levels of their usage and disposal generate several environmental problems. Around 4 per cent of world oil and gas production, a non-renewable resource, is used as feedstock for plastics and a further 3-4% is expended to provide energy for their manufacture. A major portion of plastic produced each year is used to make disposable items of packaging or other short-lived products that are discarded within a year of manufacture. These two observations alone indicate that our current use of plastics is not sustainable. In addition, because of the durability of the polymers involved, substantial quantities of discarded end-of-life plastics are accumulating as debris in landfills and in natural habitats worldwide. Recycling is one of the most important actions currently available to reduce these impacts and represents one of the most dynamic areas in the plastics industry today. Recycling provides opportunities to reduce oil usage, carbon dioxide emissions and the quantities of waste requiring disposal. Here, we briefly set recycling into context against other waste-reduction strategies, namely reduction in material use through downgauging or product reuse, the use of alternative biodegradable materials and energy recovery as fuel. While plastics have been recycled since the 1970s, the quantities that are recycled vary geographically, according to plastic type and application. Recycling of packaging materials has seen rapid expansion over the last decades in a number of countries. Advances in technologies and systems for the collection, sorting and reprocessing of recyclable plastics are creating new opportunities for recycling, and with the combined actions of the public, industry and governments it

  13. Plastics recycling: challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopewell, Jefferson; Dvorak, Robert; Kosior, Edward

    2009-01-01

    Plastics are inexpensive, lightweight and durable materials, which can readily be moulded into a variety of products that find use in a wide range of applications. As a consequence, the production of plastics has increased markedly over the last 60 years. However, current levels of their usage and disposal generate several environmental problems. Around 4 per cent of world oil and gas production, a non-renewable resource, is used as feedstock for plastics and a further 3–4% is expended to provide energy for their manufacture. A major portion of plastic produced each year is used to make disposable items of packaging or other short-lived products that are discarded within a year of manufacture. These two observations alone indicate that our current use of plastics is not sustainable. In addition, because of the durability of the polymers involved, substantial quantities of discarded end-of-life plastics are accumulating as debris in landfills and in natural habitats worldwide. Recycling is one of the most important actions currently available to reduce these impacts and represents one of the most dynamic areas in the plastics industry today. Recycling provides opportunities to reduce oil usage, carbon dioxide emissions and the quantities of waste requiring disposal. Here, we briefly set recycling into context against other waste-reduction strategies, namely reduction in material use through downgauging or product reuse, the use of alternative biodegradable materials and energy recovery as fuel. While plastics have been recycled since the 1970s, the quantities that are recycled vary geographically, according to plastic type and application. Recycling of packaging materials has seen rapid expansion over the last decades in a number of countries. Advances in technologies and systems for the collection, sorting and reprocessing of recyclable plastics are creating new opportunities for recycling, and with the combined actions of the public, industry and governments it

  14. 食品中“塑化剂”检测技术与应对策略%Plasticizer in food and its detection technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵静; 徐方旭; 孟实; 王秉玉; 王晶晶; 冯叙桥

    2013-01-01

    Food safety incidents occur with high frequency in various places.Following the ' plasticizer incident' that happened in Taiwan in 2011,the level of plasticizer in white wine was reported to be above the limit of safety standard in one of the famous brands.These incidents have brought great public attention and caused significant concerns on the safety of plasticizer in food products.The definition and varieties of plasticizer,the possible types of plasticizer existing in food material,the detection methods of plasticizer,the migration of phthalate esters in plastic food packaging,the possible reasons for plasticizer being brought into food products and the ways for preventing plasticizer were reviewed.It could be a useful reference for research on food safety regarding plasticizer.%食品安全事件时有发生,在2011年台湾地区出现“起云剂”(即塑化剂)事件后,前不久媒体又曝出我国某著名白酒品牌产品中“塑化剂”超标事件,从而引发了人们对“塑化剂”进一步的关注及思考.文中对塑化剂的定义及种类、食品中可能含有的主要塑化剂种类、食品中塑化剂的检测方法、邻苯二甲酸酯类物质在食品包装材料中迁移的研究以及引起食品塑化剂超标的原因及对策做了系统介绍,为相关科研人员的进一步研究提供参考.

  15. PLASMA GASIFICATION OF WASTE PLASTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Mączka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the process of obtaining liquid fuels and fuel gas in the process of plasma processing of organic materials, including waste plastics. The concept of plasma pyrolysis of plastics was presented and on its basis a prototype installation was developed. The article describes a general rule of operating the installation and its elements in the process and basic operation parameters determined during its start-up. Initial results of processing plastics and the directions further investigations are also discussed. The effect of the research is to be the design of effective technology of obtaining fuels from gasification/pyrolysis of organic waste and biomass.

  16. Researches on evaluation of smooth entrance in cutting using electrical current. A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diţu Valentin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available At metal drilling, at the beginning of the process, the cutting tool in the chisel edge zone, frictions and plastically deforms the material, and then enters in cutting. If the drill is entered smoothly in cutting with a special device, its life is increased. The paper presents how the electrical current at cutting is used for the evaluation of smooth entrance in cutting in comparison with classical cutting. These are demonstrated for 41MoC11 steel drilled with a set of 30 tools having 8 mm diameter.

  17. Researches on evaluation of smooth entrance in cutting using electrical current. A case study

    OpenAIRE

    Diţu Valentin; Oancea Gheorghe; Daicu Raluca

    2017-01-01

    At metal drilling, at the beginning of the process, the cutting tool in the chisel edge zone, frictions and plastically deforms the material, and then enters in cutting. If the drill is entered smoothly in cutting with a special device, its life is increased. The paper presents how the electrical current at cutting is used for the evaluation of smooth entrance in cutting in comparison with classical cutting. These are demonstrated for 41MoC11 steel drilled with a set of 30 tools having 8 mm d...

  18. Cutting characteristics of dental diamond burs made with CVD technology Características de corte de pontas odontológicas diamantadas obtidas pela tecnologia CVD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Monti Lima

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the cutting ability of chemical vapor deposition (CVD diamond burs coupled to an ultrasonic dental unit handpiece for minimally invasive cavity preparation. One standard cavity was prepared on the mesial and distal surfaces of 40 extracted human third molars either with cylindrical or with spherical CVD burs. The cutting ability was compared regarding type of substrate (enamel and dentin and direction of handpiece motion. The morphological characteristics, width and depth of the cavities were analyzed and measured using scanning electron micrographs. Statistical analysis using the Kruskal-Wallis test (p O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a habilidade de corte das pontas de diamante obtidas pelo processo de deposição química a vapor (CVD associadas ao aparelho de ultra-som no preparo cavitário minimamente invasivo. Uma cavidade padronizada foi preparada nas faces mesial e distal de 40 terceiros molares, utilizando-se pontas de diamante CVD cilíndrica e esférica. A habilidade de corte foi comparada quanto ao tipo de substrato (esmalte e dentina e quanto à direção do movimento realizado com a ponta. As características morfológicas, a largura e profundidade das cavidades foram analisadas e medidas em microscopia eletrônica de varredura. A análise estatística pelo teste de Kruskal-Wallis (p < 0,05 revelou que a largura e profundidade das cavidades foram significativamente maiores em dentina. Cavidades mais largas foram obtidas quando se utilizou a ponta de diamante CVD cilíndrica, e mais profundas quando a ponta esférica foi empregada. A direção do movimento da ponta não influenciou o tamanho das cavidades, sendo os cortes produzidos pelas pontas de diamante CVD precisos e conservadores.

  19. The effect of cutting conditions on power inputs when machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrushin, S. I.; Gruby, S. V.; Nosirsoda, Sh C.

    2016-08-01

    Any technological process involving modification of material properties or product form necessitates consumption of a certain power amount. When developing new technologies one should take into account the benefits of their implementation vs. arising power inputs. It is revealed that procedures of edge cutting machining are the most energy-efficient amongst the present day forming procedures such as physical and technical methods including electrochemical, electroerosion, ultrasound, and laser processing, rapid prototyping technologies etc, such as physical and technical methods including electrochemical, electroerosion, ultrasound, and laser processing, rapid prototyping technologies etc. An expanded formula for calculation of power inputs is deduced, which takes into consideration the mode of cutting together with the tip radius, the form of the replaceable multifaceted insert and its wear. Having taken as an example cutting of graphite iron by the assembled cutting tools with replaceable multifaceted inserts the authors point at better power efficiency of high feeding cutting in comparison with high-speed cutting.

  20. Ultrasonic Cutting of Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Yvonne; Zahn, Susann; Rohm, Harald

    In the field of food engineering, cutting is usually classified as a mechanical unit operation dealing with size reduction by applying external forces on a bulk product. Ultrasonic cutting is realized by superpositioning the macroscopic feed motion of the cutting device or of the product with a microscopic vibration of the cutting tool. The excited tool interacts with the product and generates a number of effects. Primary energy concentration in the separation zone and the modification of contact friction along the tool flanks arise from the cyclic loading and are responsible for benefits such as reduced cutting force, smooth cut surface, and reduced product deformation. Secondary effects such as absorption and cavitation originate from the propagation of the sound field in the product and are closely related to chemical and physical properties of the material to be cut. This chapter analyzes interactions between food products and ultrasonic cutting tools and relates these interactions with physical and chemical product properties as well as with processing parameters like cutting velocity, ultrasonic amplitude and frequency, and tool design.

  1. Plastic Surgery Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PSN PSEN GRAFT Contact Us News Plastic Surgery Statistics Plastic surgery procedural statistics from the American Society of Plastic Surgeons. Statistics by Year Print 2016 Plastic Surgery Statistics 2015 ...

  2. 基于非负矩阵分解的切削加工工艺参数选择%Selection of Technological Parameters of Cutting Process Based on Non-negative Matrix Factorization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾伟

    2016-01-01

    数控机床的切削加工工艺参数选择对零件加工有着重要影响,针对现有工艺参数选择方法的不足之处,提出了一种基于非负矩阵分解的工艺参数选择方法,在矩阵分解中使用贝叶斯准则和Gibbs采样计算后验概率分布,实例分析表明该方法能克服现有方法的不足,实现了对工艺参数的优化选择。%The selection of technological parameters of cutting process in numerical control machine has important influence on the components processing. Some faults of the existing methods of selection of technological parameters are pointed out. A method of selection of technological parameters based on non-negative matrix factorization is proposed. The method calcul-ates the posterior probability distribution by using Bayesian criteria and Gibbs sampling. An example shows that the new meth-od can overcome the shortcomings of the existing methods and realize the optimization of technological parameters.

  3. 广东地区铁皮石斛茎段扦插繁殖技术研究初报%Compound Cutting Propagation Technology of Dendrobium officinale in Guangdong Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵贵林; 郑平; 卢运明; 陈肖英; 钟妙娥; 金英子; 赵杨敏

    2013-01-01

    为解决铁皮石斛常规扦插繁殖存在的整齐度差、成苗量偏少的生产问题,本单位自2009年起开展铁皮石斛药剂浸泡结合暗处理的复合技术研究。通过几年的努力,总结出适合广东地区生产应用的复合扦插繁殖技术;铁皮石斛茎段萌芽率由原来的20%~30%提高到60%以上,基本解决了常规扦插繁殖存在的问题;短期内批量生产出生长整齐、适合生产栽种的优质种苗。表明该技术具有良好的应用前景。%In order to solve production problem on the conventional cutting propagation of Dendrobium offic inale existing uniformity difference and less seedling amount, since 2009 research work on reagent immersion combined with dark treatment in Dendrobium officinale was launched out. Through effort of a few years, summed up the compound cutting propagation technique for production of composite application in Guangdong area, Dendrobium officinale stem sprout rate increases from 20%~30% to more than 60%, basically solved the problems of conventional cutting propagation, the short term production was born long neat, suitable for the production of high quality seedling planting. The technology has a good application prospect.

  4. Study on Electrical Discharge Machining Technology of Polycrystalline Cubic Boron Nitride Cutting Tool%聚晶立方氮化硼刀具刃口放电加工工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾云海; 李建钢; 朱立新; 宋英杰

    2012-01-01

    通过调整电火花加工的主要放电参数(脉冲宽度和加工电流),对聚晶立方氮化硼(PCBN)样刀进行放电加工,进而对样刀刃口表面进行X射线衍射分析,并在扫描电子显微镜下观察其表层结构及能谱分析.通过对加工后样刀表面变质层主要成分及产生原因的分析,总结了脉冲宽度和加工电流对样刀表面变质层厚度、刃口表面粗糙度影响的关系曲线,为制定精密快速放电加工PCBN刀具的工艺提供了重要依据.%The samples of polycrystalline cubic boron nitride(PCBN) cutting tool were machined by adjusting the main parameters of electrical discharge machining (EDM). After the machining, the phases were analyzed by X-ray diffraction analyzer and the surface layer microstructure was observed by scanning electronic microscope. The fundamental component of machined PCBN cutting tool affected layer was obtained and the reason of begetting affected layer was analyzed. The relationship curves between pulse width, working electric current and depth affected layer, blade surface roughness were summarized. The results showed that to adjust electrical discharge machining parameters, such as decreasing pulse width or machining electric currents, can reduce the depth of affect layer and improve blade surface roughness. These researches provide valuable test reference for drawing up electrical discharge machining technology of PCBN cutting tool.

  5. 废旧塑料在复合材料领域中回用技术的研究进展%Research Advances in the Recycling Technologies of Waste Plastics in Composites Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张效林; 王汝敏; 王志彤; 冯冰; 付钰

    2011-01-01

    介绍了国内外废旧塑料现状以及废旧塑料在复合材料领域利用新进展,综述了废旧塑料在植物纤维/废旧塑料复合材料、废纸/废塑料复合材料、木塑复合发泡材料、可生物降解塑料复合材料及其他复合材料领域的再利用技术新进展,并分析了废旧塑料在复合材料领域回收再利用技术的发展趋势,提出应进一步探讨不同种类废旧塑料对复合材料力学性能及植物纤维/废旧塑料界面相容性的影响.%The present research status and category of printing and packaging waste plastic are introduced,and research advances in the recycling technology of different kind of waste plastic in composite material field such as plant fibre/recycled thermoplastic composites, wastepaper/thermoplastic polymer composites, wood-plastic foaming composites, eco-friendly biodegradable composites and other composites are discussed. Development trend of the recycling technology of waste plastic in composite material field is pointed out. And further more, research area such as the effect of different waste plastics on the composites interface compatibility is proposed.

  6. Automotive crankshaft" axis linkage cut point tracking" servo grinding and its key technology%汽车曲轴的"三轴联动切点跟踪"随动磨床及其关键技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄兴红; 潘旭华; 吴兴; 黄文广

    2011-01-01

    在分析两轴联动切点跟踪曲轴随动磨削方法的技术缺陷基础上,系统地介绍了"三轴联动切点跟踪"磨削原理,给出了"三轴联动切点跟踪"曲轴随动磨削运动模型,概括了该原理在曲轴连杆颈和主轴颈磨削中的技术优势.并且通过高精度液体静压导轨、高刚性直线驱动技术和在线测量与误差补偿等关键技术的综合运用,成功地解决了超精密磨削加工中各运动部件动态性能及其对加工精度的影响,攻克了用普通刚玉砂轮高效率、高精度磨削曲轴主轴颈和连杆颈的技术难题.%Based on the analysis of two-axis servo cut point trackina crankshaft grinding method on the basis of technical defects, systematic introduction to the "axis linkage cut point tracking" grinding principle,gives the "cut point tracking axis linkage" with the crankshaft activity grinding motion model, summarizes the principles of the neck and the connecting rod in the crankshaft main journal grinding technology advantage. And by high-precision hydrostatic guideway, high rigidity straight line drive technology and online measurement and error compensation of the integrated use of key technologies, successfully resolves the ultra-precision grinding dynamic performance of the various moving parts and its impact on the machining accuracy, to capture a corundum wheel with ordinary high-effieiency, high precision grinding of the crankshaft main journal and connecting rod neck of technical problems.

  7. Plastic bronchitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Singhi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastic bronchitis, a rare but serious clinical condition, commonly seen after Fontan surgeries in children, may be a manifestation of suboptimal adaptation to the cavopulmonary circulation with unfavorable hemodynamics. They are ominous with poor prognosis. Sometimes, infection or airway reactivity may provoke cast bronchitis as a two-step insult on a vulnerable vascular bed. In such instances, aggressive management leads to longer survival. This report of cast bronchitis discusses its current understanding.

  8. Fiscal 1997 report on the results of the cooperative research project under consignment from NEDO on technology for simply setting-up of the molding conditions of engineering plastics; 1997 nendo Shin Energy Sangyo Gijutsu Sogo Kaihatsu Kiko itaku (Engineering plastic no seikei joken kan`i settei gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku jigyo seika hokokusho)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    A cooperative research project was carried out between Japan and Thailand with the aim of developing a system which can simply set up molding conditions using as elements the technology on mold design and injection molding in plastic parts production and the experiment/evaluation technology for making sure of the quality of molded products. In fiscal 1997, based on the basic plan worked out in the previous fiscal year, molding equipment, auxiliary equipment, mold, experimental equipment, injection molding CEA system, etc. were installed at Thailand`s BSID (Bureau of Supporting Industries Development). Supported by equipment manufacturers, the technical guidance was given for operation/maintenance/control of all equipment. At the same time, researchers were sent from Japan, and the joint research was started. Japan received three researchers from BSID for training of molding technology, injection molding CEA program use technology, and experimental evaluation technology. The engineering plastics used for study are polyacetal, polyamide and polycarbonate. 17 refs., 68 figs., 14 tabs.

  9. The contour method cutting assumption: error minimization and correction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prime, Michael B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kastengren, Alan L [ANL

    2010-01-01

    The recently developed contour method can measure 2-D, cross-sectional residual-stress map. A part is cut in two using a precise and low-stress cutting technique such as electric discharge machining. The contours of the new surfaces created by the cut, which will not be flat if residual stresses are relaxed by the cutting, are then measured and used to calculate the original residual stresses. The precise nature of the assumption about the cut is presented theoretically and is evaluated experimentally. Simply assuming a flat cut is overly restrictive and misleading. The critical assumption is that the width of the cut, when measured in the original, undeformed configuration of the body is constant. Stresses at the cut tip during cutting cause the material to deform, which causes errors. The effect of such cutting errors on the measured stresses is presented. The important parameters are quantified. Experimental procedures for minimizing these errors are presented. An iterative finite element procedure to correct for the errors is also presented. The correction procedure is demonstrated on experimental data from a steel beam that was plastically bent to put in a known profile of residual stresses.

  10. Saving Seal Cutting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    On April 20, the graduation ceremony of China’s seal-cutting art postgraduates and visiting experts from the Institute of Seal Cutting Art under the China Art Academy was held in Beijing. On the same day, the exhibition of the works of the teachers and graduates of the institute was also held.

  11. Cutting Class Harms Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lewis A., III

    2012-01-01

    An accessible business school population of undergraduate students was investigated in three independent, but related studies to determine effects on grades due to cutting class and failing to take advantage of optional reviews and study quizzes. It was hypothesized that cutting classes harms exam scores, attending preexam reviews helps exam…

  12. The Cutting-Edge of Science and Technology Culture and Ethics:A summary of the 12 th National Science and Technology Culture and Social Modernization Symposium%科技文化与科技伦理前沿探究--第十二届全国科技文化与社会现代化学术研讨会综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏劲

    2016-01-01

    第十二届全国科技文化与社会现代化学术研讨会围绕“科技文化与科技伦理”这一主题,考察科技文化在中国的形成及其嬗变;审视高技术前沿的伦理问题;评介国外的技术伦理前沿理论;分析科技文化与其他文化的关系;探讨生态科技文化及其生态文明建设的路径;思考大数据时代我国科技传播文化面临的挑战与对策;提出“两种技术哲学”融合的可能性及进路。%The goal of the 12 th national science and technology culture and social modernization symposium,around the theme of science and technology culture and ethics,is to observe the forming and evolution of science and technolo-gy culture,to examine the ethical issues of cutting-edge high-tech,to appraise the theories of cutting-edge tech-nology ethics from abroad,to analyze the relations between science and technology culture and other cultures,to dis-cuss ecological science and technology culture and its path of structuring it,to ponder the challenges and solutions that our nation is facing in the age of big-data,and to produce the possible approaches and the future direction for the merge of the two philosophies of technology,engineering philosophy of Technology and humanistic philosophy of Technology.

  13. Research on High Pressure Abrasive Water Jet Nozzle,an Offshore Clean Cutting Core Technology%海上清洁切割核心技术--高压磨料射流切割喷嘴研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马认琦; 鞠少栋; 王超

    2016-01-01

    In order to realize the safety and high efficiency of cutting and recovery operations for abandoned offshore pro-duction facilities to guarantee the implementation of Maritime Silk Road Strategy and the expansion of CNOOC’s offshore clean and environmental friendly cutting technical services, a high pressure abrasive water jet cutting nozzle was designed and optimized through theoretical research and experimental tests, which can be used for available abrasive water jet tech-nology. Its key techniques include abrasive acceleration in the nozzle, optimization of nozzle structure, design of inner flow path, material and sintering process selection. The nanometer anti-abrasive nozzles were developed and field cutting opera-tions have been completed. This achievement has improved the operating efficiency and service level for abandoned CNOOC offshore production facilities.%为实现海上废弃结构物的安全高效切割回收,保障海上丝绸之路战略构想的顺利实施,同时做大做强中海油海上清洁环保切割技术服务产业,针对公司现有的磨料射流切割技术,通过理论研究与试验测试的方法,设计并自主研制高压磨料射流切割喷嘴,重点解决了喷嘴内部磨料加速受力研究、喷嘴结构型式优选及内部流道设计、喷嘴选材及烧结工艺优选等关键技术。最终,研发出高性能纳米级耐磨喷嘴并成功完成了现场切割应用,该成果显著提高了中海油海上结构物弃置作业效率和整体技术服务水平。

  14. Plastics Pollution Control Technology Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    recycling program has generated $1 million as well as avoided significant landfill costs. The money collected is going to the base welfare and...Barbara Britten American Cetacean Society 1300 South Arlington Ridge Road #614 Arlington, Virginia 22202 703-920-0076 Fax: 703-271-8204 Madelyn

  15. 机器人在塑料制造自动化中的发展及技术研究分析%Robots in the plastic manufacturing automation development and technological research and analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦娟娟

    2013-01-01

    文章就塑料制造加工中自动化技术的发展状况进行了分析,并就塑料加工制造机器人的未来发展方向进行了探究,分析了机器人在塑料制造自动化中的技术关键点,对塑料制造机器人的主要技术参数进行了剖析,为企业机器人的选用提供参考依据。%Article on plastic manufacturing and processing in the development of automation technology were analyzed and discussed plastics manufacturing robots to explore future directions were analyzed in the plastic manufacturing au-tomation robots in key technical points, the plastic manufacturing robot main technical parameters were analyzed in the selection of robots for the enterprise to provide a reference.

  16. Influence of cutting parameters on surface characteristics of cut section in cutting of Inconel 718 sheet using CW Nd:YAG laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong-Gyu AHN; Kyung-Won BYUN

    2009-01-01

    Recently, laser cutting technologies begin to use for manufacturing mechanical parts of lnconel super-alloy sheet due to difficulties of machining of the Inconel material as a results of its extremely tough nature. The objective of this work is to investigate the influence of cutting parameters on surface characteristics of the cut section in the cutting of Inconel 718 super-alloy sheet using CW Nd:YAG laser through laser cutting experiments. Normal cutting experiments were performed using a laser cutting system with six-axis controlled automatic robot and auto-tracking system of the focal distance. From the results of the experiments, the effects of the cutting parameters on the surface roughness, the striation formation and the microstructure of the cut section were examined. In addition, an optimal cutting condition, at which the surface roughness is minimized and both the delayed cutting phenomenon and the micro-cracking are not initiated, is estimated to improve both the part quality and the cutting efficiency.

  17. Applied Research on High-Pressure Water Jet Cutting Technology in Anti-Terrorist%高压水射流切割技术在反恐中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙义柯; 龚烈航; 罗晓凯

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the main principle of high-pressure water jet cutting technology is described with focusing on appli-cation of the high-pressure abrasive water jet in counter-terrorism operations. A pre-mixed abrasive high pressure water jet device that is applicative in the counter-terrorism operations is researched and designed so as to provide a kind of protection for the counter-terrorism operations.%介绍了高压水射流切割技术的主要原理,重点介绍了磨料高压水射流在反恐行动中的应用,并研究设计了一种在反恐行动中适用的前混合磨料高压水射流装置,为反恐行动的顺利进行提供一种行动上的保障.

  18. Research on Identification and Sorting Technology for Plastics in Discarded Household Appliance%废旧家电异性塑料的自动识别与分拣技术的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨懿; 于随然

    2011-01-01

    In China,the number of discarded household appliance is growing rapidly every year,but due to lack of advanced technology, a large portion of plastics used in these appliances are not recycled. This paper introduces some usual methods of identifying and sorting plastics,which are used both at home and abroad. The authors compare the advantages and disadvantages of each method, propose the solution of sorting plastics,which the near-infrared technology is used in and forecast the future of the technology advancement of plastic identifying and sorting. This paper gives an important reference to China's household appliance recycling industry.%针对我国废旧家电报废量与日俱增、先进的塑料识别分拣技术欠缺的现实,参考国内外技术资料,综述废旧家电塑料的识别和分拣技术特点及其优劣对比.介绍、分析并总结了国内外先进塑料分拣装置的原理和应用.提出在我国利用近红外技术实现家电塑料分拣的改进方案,展望了家电塑料识别分拣技术的发展方向,为我国废旧家电的塑料回收利用产业提供参考.

  19. Institute of Plastics Processing and Application of Light Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Institute of Plastics Processing and processing center sponsored by UNDP. University. Application of Light Industry was Since 1999, it has been attached set up in 1983, based on the plastics to Beijing Technology and Business

  20. Experimental model in hamster (Mesocricetus auratus to study heterologous graft of scars and cutaneous diseases in plastic surgery Modelo experimental no hamster (Mesocricetus auratus para estudo de transplantes heterólogos de cicatrizes e doenças cutâneas em cirurgia plástica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Hochman

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Syrian golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus has in its cheek pouches sub-epithelium an "Immunologically Privileged Site" which allows the integration of homo- and heterologous graft. This paper describes some anatomical and histological characteristics of that site, as well as analyzes aspects related with its immune properties. It also focuses the advantages of this experimental model over other models which are natural or induced carriers of immunodeficiency. Based on both these advantages and literature, this study aims to establish this model, through the performance of heterologous graft, as another option for the investigation of scar disturbances, as keloids and other diseases which may interest Plastic Surgery, as benign cutaneous lesions, and malignant neoplasias such as skin carcinomas and melanomas. The work also addresses perspectives for using this model, which still is a source scarcely known by Brazilian medical class.O hamster sírio dourado (Mesocricetus auratus possui no subepitélio de suas bolsas jugais um "Local de Privilégio Imunológico", permitindo a integração de homo e heteroenxertos. Este artigo descreve as características anatômicas e histológicas desse local, assim como os aspectos relativos as suas propriedades imunológicas. Cita, também, as vantagens desse modelo experimental sobre outros modelos portadores, naturais ou induzidos, de imunodeficiência. Com base nessas vantagens, e também baseado na literatura, tem o intuito de estabelecer esse modelo, mediante a realização de heteroenxertos, como uma outra opção para investigar distúrbios cicatriciais, como o quelóide, e doenças de interesse em Cirurgia Plástica, como lesões cutâneas benignas e neoplasias malignas como carcinomas e melanoma cutâneo. Tece, ainda, considerações sobre perspectivas de aplicações desse modelo, ainda bastante desconhecido entre a classe médica brasileira.

  1. Exceptional plasticity of silicon nanobridges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishida, Tadashi; Sato, Takaaki; Toshiyoshi, Hiroshi; Collard, Dominique; Fujita, Hiroyuki [University of Tokyo, Institute of Industrial Science, 4-6-1 Komaba Meguro, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Cleri, Fabrizio [Institut d' Electronique Microelectronique et Nanotechnologie (CNRS UMR 8520), Universite de Lille I, Avenue Poincare BP60069 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Kakushima, Kuniyuki [Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259, Nagatsuda, Midori, Yokohama, Kanagawa 226-8502 (Japan); Mita, Makoto [Department of Spacecraft Engineering, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1, Yoshinodai, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-8510 (Japan); Miyata, Masaki; Itamura, Noriaki; Sasaki, Naruo [Department of Materials and Life Sciences, Seikei University, 3-3-1, Kitamachi, Kichijoji, Musashino, Tokyo 180-8633 (Japan); Endo, Junji, E-mail: tadashii@iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp [FK Optical laboratory, 1-13-4 Nakano Niiza Saitama, 352-0005 (Japan)

    2011-09-02

    The plasticity of covalently bonded materials is a subject at the forefront of materials science, bearing on a wide range of technological and fundamental aspects. However, covalent materials fracture in a brittle manner when the deformation exceeds just a few per cent. It is predicted that a macroscopically brittle material like silicon can show nanoscale plasticity. Here we report the exceptional plasticity observed in silicon nanocontacts ('nanobridges') at room temperature using a special experimental setup combining a transmission electron microscope and a microelectromechanical system. When accounting for surface diffusion, we succeeded in elongating the nanocontact into a wire-like structure, with a fivefold increase in volume, up to more than twenty times the original length. Such a large plasticity was caused by the stress-assisted diffusion and the sliding of the intergranular, amorphous-like material among the nanocrystals.

  2. Online Cake Cutting

    CERN Document Server

    Walsh, Toby

    2010-01-01

    We propose an online form of the cake cutting problem. This models situations where players arrive and depart during the process of dividing a resource. We show that well known fair division procedures like cut-and-choose and the Dubins-Spanier moving knife procedure can be adapted to apply to such online problems. We propose some desirable properties that online cake cutting procedures might possess like online forms of proportionality and envy-freeness, and identify which properties are in fact possessed by the different online cake procedures.

  3. Experimental testing of exchangeable cutting inserts cutting ability

    OpenAIRE

    Čep, Robert; Janásek, Adam; Čepová Lenka; Petrů, Jana; Ivo HLAVATÝ; Car, Zlatan; Hatala, Michal

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with experimental testing of the cutting ability of exchangeable cutting inserts. Eleven types of exchangeable cutting inserts from five different manufacturers were tested. The tested cutting inserts were of the same shape and were different especially in material and coating types. The main aim was both to select a suitable test for determination of the cutting ability of exchangeable cutting inserts and to design such testing procedure that could make it possible...

  4. Influence of cutting parameters on the depth of subsurface deformed layer in nano-cutting process of single crystal copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Quanlong; Bai, Qingshun; Chen, Jiaxuan; Su, Hao; Wang, Zhiguo; Xie, Wenkun

    2015-12-01

    Large-scale molecular dynamics simulation is performed to study the nano-cutting process of single crystal copper realized by single-point diamond cutting tool in this paper. The centro-symmetry parameter is adopted to characterize the subsurface deformed layers and the distribution and evolution of the subsurface defect structures. Three-dimensional visualization and measurement technology are used to measure the depth of the subsurface deformed layers. The influence of cutting speed, cutting depth, cutting direction, and crystallographic orientation on the depth of subsurface deformed layers is systematically investigated. The results show that a lot of defect structures are formed in the subsurface of workpiece during nano-cutting process, for instance, stair-rod dislocations, stacking fault tetrahedron, atomic clusters, vacancy defects, point defects. In the process of nano-cutting, the depth of subsurface deformed layers increases with the cutting distance at the beginning, then decreases at stable cutting process, and basically remains unchanged when the cutting distance reaches up to 24 nm. The depth of subsurface deformed layers decreases with the increase in cutting speed between 50 and 300 m/s. The depth of subsurface deformed layer increases with cutting depth, proportionally, and basically remains unchanged when the cutting depth reaches over 6 nm.

  5. Plastic Recycling Experiments in Materials Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping; Waskom, Tommy L.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this project was to introduce a series of plastic recycling experiments to students in materials-related courses such as materials science, material technology and materials testing. With the plastic recycling experiments, students not only can learn the fundamentals of plastic processing and properties as in conventional materials courses, but also can be exposed to the issue of materials life cycle and the impact on society and environment.

  6. Analysis and Research of Scientific and Technological Innovation on the Green Technology and Its Application Technology of the Multi-Layer Co-Extrusion Blow Plastic Molding Machine%多层共挤中空塑料成型机绿色技术的科技创新及其应用技术的分析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张友根; 冯刚; 张朝阁; 齐继宝

    2013-01-01

    Put out the science technology system and green design principles of the multi-layer coextruded blow plastic molding machine green technology.Research the scientific and technological innovation and its development main points on the green technology that the mold,plastics extrusion,clamping mechanism,power driven,heat system,blow,control components and systems of the co-extrusion of multilayer co-extruded blow plastic molding machine in to improve energy efficiency,reduce resource consumption,energy saving and processing,cleaner production,energy and material back regeneration applications.Analysis of the points of the research and development of green technology and scientific development of intelligent multi-layer co-extruded blow molding machine.Brief introduction of the green molding technology progress on Achieve extrusion blow molded containers "reality needs" and "potential demand" resourcesaving and improved barrier properties and environmental of the multi-layer co-extruded blow plastic molding machine.Studied the multi-layer co-extrusion plastic blow molding machines of green technology science and technology innovation promote the greening of hollow container processing technology progress.%提出了多层共挤中空塑料成型机绿色技术的科学技术体系和绿色设计原则,研究了多层共挤中空塑料成型机的共挤机头、塑化挤出、合模机构、动力驱动、加热、吹塑、控制等部件及系统在提高能源利用率、减少资源消耗、节能加工、清洁生产、能量和回料再生应用等方面的绿色技术的科技创新及研发要点,论述了智能化实现多层共挤中空成型机的绿色技术科学化发展的研发要点,浅述了多层共挤中空塑料成型机实现挤出中空成型容器“现实需求”和“潜在需求”实现资源节约型、提高阻隔性和环保性等绿色成型加工技术化的进展,研究了多层共挤塑料中空成型机绿色技术的科技创新推

  7. Testing Of Choiced Ceramics Cutting Tools At Irregular Interrupted Cut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyncl, Ladislav; Malotová, Šárka; Nováček, Pavel; Nicielnik, Henryk; Šoková, Dagmar; Hemžský, Pavel; Pitela, David; Holubjak, Jozef

    2015-12-01

    This article discusses the test of removable ceramic cutting inserts during machining irregular interrupted cut. Tests were performed on a lathe, with the preparation which simulated us the interrupted cut. By changing the number of plates mounted in a preparation it simulate us a regular or irregular interrupted cut. When with four plates it was regular interrupted cut, the remaining three variants were already irregular cut. It was examined whether it will have the irregular interrupted cutting effect on the insert and possibly how it will change life of inserts during irregular interrupted cut (variable delay between shocks).

  8. 废旧混合塑料识别分离与清洗技术研究进展%Development of identification separation and cleaning technologies for mixed waste plastics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张毅民; 刘红莎; 朱艳芳; 胡彪; 汤桂兰

    2013-01-01

      针对废旧混合塑料工业化回收循环利用过程中分类识别和高效清洗两大关键技术难题,本文主要综述了系列可工业用废旧混合塑料分类识别方法;讨论了浮沉分离、浮选分离、电选分离、近红外光谱精准识别技术在废旧塑料识别中的应用;介绍了清洗工艺除污提高分离效果的重要性和清洗剂主要成分——碱性物质、助剂和表面活性剂以及其作用;并提出了将超声波清洗以及浮沉分离、浮选分离、近红外光谱识别分离用于废旧塑料精准识别与分离的集成技术工艺路线。由于国内近红外光谱识别技术与超声波清洗技术相对落后,指出研究此两项技术、设备并将两者结合应用于废旧塑料回收是今后的发展方向。%This review summarized a series of methods of two key technologies of separation identification and efficient cleaning of mixed waste plastics for industrialized recycling and utilization. Applications of sink-float separation,flotation separation,electrostatic separation and near infrared spectra accurate identification technology in waste plastics identification were discussed. This paper also introduced the importance of cleaning process and the main ingredients of plastic cleaner including alkaline compounds,additive agent,surfactant and their effects. The technological process which integrates ultrasonic cleaning technology and sink-float separation , flotation separation , and near-infrared spectra accurate identification technology has advantages to identify and sort waste plastics and has the potentials to solve the problems in ultrasonic cleaning and near-infrared spectra identification. Therefore, the integrated technology could be the prospective focus of future research.

  9. Short-cut math

    CERN Document Server

    Kelly, Gerard W

    1984-01-01

    Clear, concise compendium of about 150 time-saving math short-cuts features faster, easier ways to add, subtract, multiply, and divide. Each problem includes an explanation of the method. No special math ability needed.

  10. Cutting Cakes Correctly

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, Theodore P

    2008-01-01

    Without additional hypotheses, Proposition 7.1 in Brams and Taylor's book "Fair Division" (Cambridge University Press, 1996) is false, as are several related Pareto-optimality theorems of Brams, Jones and Klamler in their 2006 cake-cutting paper.

  11. Rooting of hardwood cuttings of Roxo de Valinhos fig (Ficus carica L. with different propagation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar Antônio Nava

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the substrate, cuttings collection time, the position and the cutting depth, and the propagation environment on rooting of 'Purple Valinhos' fig tree cuttings in Southwestern Paraná, Brazil. Two experiments were carried out at UTFPR, Câmpus Dois Vizinhos, with hardwoods cuttings from Roxo de Valinhos fig tree. The first experiment used a randomized block design, in 3 x 3 x 2 factorial (substrate x environment x collection time, with four replications of 10 cuttings per plot. The cuttings were collected in the first fifteen days of July and August. The substrates were sand, soil and the mixture of these [1:1 (v / v]. The environments used were open sky, tunnel with plastic cover and tunnel with half-shade black net cover. The second experiment used a randomized block design, 2 x 2 x 3 factorial (shoot cutting position x soil cover x shoot cutting depth, with four replications of 12 cuttings per plot. In the factor position, the vertically (0 º inclination and inclined (45 º inclination shoot cuttings were evaluated. Soil cover was tested with mulching plastic cover or not. The tested depths were 1/3, 1/2 and 2/3 in relation to the total length of the shoot cutting. In both experiments, the following were analyzed: rooting and mortality indices, number of leaves and primary shoots, length of the three largest roots per cutting. It was conclude that, the protected environment with plastic cover on sand as substrate must recommended for the rooting of fig estaca, collecting them in the first half of July. The inclination position and cutting depth of the estaca and the substrate coverage with plastic mulching did not influence the results.

  12. Laser cutting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Thomas J

    2015-03-03

    A workpiece cutting apparatus includes a laser source, a first suction system, and a first finger configured to guide a workpiece as it moves past the laser source. The first finger includes a first end provided adjacent a point where a laser from the laser source cuts the workpiece, and the first end of the first finger includes an aperture in fluid communication with the first suction system.

  13. Report on the Conference on Transposition and Genome Engineering 2015 (TGE 2015): advancing cutting-edge genomics technology in the ancient city of Nara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woltjen, Knut; Yamamoto, Takashi; Kokubu, Chikara; Takeda, Junji

    2016-05-01

    From November 17 to 20 in 2015, the Conference on Transposition and Genome Engineering 2015 (TGE 2015) was held at Nara Kasugano International Forum-IRAKA-in Nara, Japan, located at the center of Nara Park. All of the presentations were carried out at Nohgaku hall in Nara Kasugano International Forum-IRAKA. Participation totaled 148 persons (30 international, 118 domestic), who were able to engage in lively scientific discussions over the 4-day period. The guest speaker list consisted of many top-notch international researchers, an achievement for which the conference received praise from the attendees. There were 36 oral presentations including the keynote lecture (22 presentations from guest speakers, complemented with 14 selected from abstract submissions). Additionally, there were 46 poster presentations. The conference uniquely combined research mainly from two different genomics approaches: (i) transposon technology allowing random genomic integration followed by gene discovery-related phenotypes and (ii) genome editing technology with designer nuclease allowing precise modification of a gene-of-interest.

  14. Effect of Moisture Content of Paper Material on Laser Cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanov, Alexander; Saukkonen, Esa; Piili, Heidi; Salminen, Antti

    Laser technology has been used in industrial processes for several decades. The most advanced development and implementation took place in laser welding and cutting of metals in automotive and ship building industries. However, there is high potential to apply laser processing to other materials in various industrial fields. One of these potential fields could be paper industry to fulfill the demand for high quality, fast and reliable cutting technology. Difficulties in industrial application of laser cutting for paper industry are associated to lack of basic information, awareness of technology and its application possibilities. Nowadays possibilities of using laser cutting for paper materials are widened and high automation level of equipment has made this technology more interesting for manufacturing processes. Promising area of laser cutting application at paper making machines is longitudinal cutting of paper web (edge trimming). There are few locations at a paper making machine where edge trimming is usually done: wet press section, calender or rewinder. Paper web is characterized with different moisture content at different points of the paper making machine. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of moisture content of paper material on laser cutting parameters. Effect of moisture content on cellulose fibers, laser absorption and energy needed for cutting is described as well. Laser cutting tests were carried out using CO2 laser.

  15. Microelectronics plastic molded packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.R. [Ktech Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Palmer, D.W.; Peterson, D.W. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1997-02-01

    The use of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) microelectronics for nuclear weapon applications will soon be reality rather than hearsay. The use of COTS for new technologies for uniquely military applications is being driven by the so-called Perry Initiative that requires the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) to accept and utilize commercial standards for procurement of military systems. Based on this philosophy, coupled with several practical considerations, new weapons systems as well as future upgrades will contain plastic encapsulated microelectronics. However, a conservative Department of Energy (DOE) approach requires lifetime predictive models. Thus, the focus of the current project is on accelerated testing to advance current aging models as well as on the development of the methodology to be used during WR qualification of plastic encapsulated microelectronics. An additional focal point involves achieving awareness of commercial capabilities, materials, and processes. One of the major outcomes of the project has been the definition of proper techniques for handling and evaluation of modern surface mount parts which might be used in future systems. This program is also raising the familiarity level of plastic within the weapons complex, allowing subsystem design rules accommodating COTS to evolve. A two year program plan is presented along with test results and commercial interactions during this first year.

  16. Internet of Things Part VI:IOT Cutting-edge Technologies and National Projects%物联网概述第6篇:物联网的前沿技术与国家工程建设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何立民

    2012-01-01

    The era of IOT/Cloud Computing is the time of unmanned universal service.Cutting-edge technologies of IOT include intelligent and universal RFID,smart phone interaction,software integration of expert system and smart grid technology.National projects in time of IOT include building of standard spatial and temporal parameters,electronic securities,infrastructure works and IOT hospitals.%物联网/云计算时代是一个无人化的普适服务时代。物联网的前沿技术,有RFID的智能化与普适化、智能手机的归一化交互、专家系统的软件集成、智能电网的物联技术等等。物联网时代的国家工程建设,有标准时空参数的国家工程建设、有效证券电子化的国家工程建设、重大的民生公共工程建设与物联网医院的示范工程建设等。

  17. Metrology Influence on the Cutting Modelisation

    CERN Document Server

    Cahuc, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    High speed machining has been improved thanks to considerable advancement on the tools (optimum geometry, harder materials), on machined materials (increased workability and machining capacity for harder workpieces) and finally on the machines (higher accuracy and power at the high speeds, performances of the numerical control system). However at such loading velocities, the cutting process generates high strain and high-speed strain which cause complex, various and irreversible phenomena in plasticity. These phenomena are comprehended through the complete measurement of the mechanical actions using a six-component dynamometer and flux and temperatures measurements at the tip of the cutting tool. Balanced energy assessments are the starting points of our reflection on the machining modelling. The modelling of these phenomena and the material behaviour under this type of loading requires a suitable theoretical approach. The main points of the strain gradient theory are developed. A theoretical behaviour law ad...

  18. Overcoming maladaptive plasticity through plastic compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R.J. MORRIS, Sean M. ROGERS

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Most species evolve within fluctuating environments, and have developed adaptations to meet the challenges posed by environmental heterogeneity. One such adaptation is phenotypic plasticity, or the ability of a single genotype to produce multiple environmentally-induced phenotypes. Yet, not all plasticity is adaptive. Despite the renewed interest in adaptive phenotypic plasticity and its consequences for evolution, much less is known about maladaptive plasticity. However, maladaptive plasticity is likely an important driver of phenotypic similarity among populations living in different environments. This paper traces four strategies for overcoming maladaptive plasticity that result in phenotypic similarity, two of which involve genetic changes (standing genetic variation, genetic compensation and two of which do not (standing epigenetic variation, plastic compensation. Plastic compensation is defined as adaptive plasticity overcoming maladaptive plasticity. In particular, plastic compensation may increase the likelihood of genetic compensation by facilitating population persistence. We provide key terms to disentangle these aspects of phenotypic plasticity and introduce examples to reinforce the potential importance of plastic compensation for understanding evolutionary change [Current Zoology 59 (4: 526–536, 2013].

  19. Overcoming maladaptive plasticity through plastic compensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matthew R.J.MORRIS; Sean M.ROGERS

    2013-01-01

    Most species evolve within fluctuating environments,and have developed adaptations to meet the challenges posed by environmental heterogeneity.One such adaptation is phenotypic plasticity,or the ability of a single genotype to produce multiple environmentally-induced phenotypes.Yet,not all plasticity is adaptive.Despite the renewed interest in adaptive phenotypic plasticity and its consequences for evolution,much less is known about maladaptive plasticity.However,maladaptive plasticity is likely an important driver of phenotypic similarity among populations living in different environments.This paper traces four strategies for overcoming maladaptive plasticity that result in phenotypic similarity,two of which involve genetic changes (standing genetic variation,genetic compensation) and two of which do not (standing epigenetic variation,plastic compensation).Plastic compensation is defined as adaptive plasticity overcoming maladaptive plasticity.In particular,plastic compensation may increase the likelihood of genetic compensation by facilitating population persistence.We provide key terms to disentangle these aspects of phenotypic plasticity and introduce examples to reinforce the potential importance of plastic compensation for understanding evolutionary change.

  20. Basics of cutting and abrasive processes

    CERN Document Server

    Toenshoff, Hans Kurt

    2013-01-01

    Manufacturing is the basic industrial activity generating real value. Cutting and abrasive technologies are the backbone of precision production in machine, automotive and aircraft building as well as of production of consumer goods. We present the knowledge of modern manufacturing in these technologies on the basis of scientific research. The theory of cutting and abrasive processes and the knowledge about their application in industrial practice are a prerequisite for the studies of manufacturing science and an important part of the curriculum of the master study in German mechanical engineering. The basis of this book is our lecture “Basics of cutting and abrasive processes” (4 semester hours/3 credit hours) at the Leibniz University Hannover, which we offer to the diploma and master students specializing in manufacturing science.

  1. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mengjiao Yu; Ramadan Ahmed; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Aimee Washington; Crystal Redden

    2003-09-30

    The Quarter began with installing the new drill pipe, hooking up the new hydraulic power unit, completing the pipe rotation system (Task 4 has been completed), and making the SWACO choke operational. Detailed design and procurement work is proceeding on a system to elevate the drill-string section. The prototype Foam Generator Cell has been completed by Temco and delivered. Work is currently underway to calibrate the system. Literature review and preliminary model development for cuttings transportation with polymer foam under EPET conditions are in progress. Preparations for preliminary cuttings transport experiments with polymer foam have been completed. Two nuclear densitometers were re-calibrated. Drill pipe rotation system was tested up to 250 RPM. Water flow tests were conducted while rotating the drill pipe up to 100 RPM. The accuracy of weight measurements for cuttings in the annulus was evaluated. Additional modifications of the cuttings collection system are being considered in order to obtain the desired accurate measurement of cuttings weight in the annular test section. Cutting transport experiments with aerated fluids are being conducted at EPET, and analyses of the collected data are in progress. The printed circuit board is functioning with acceptable noise level to measure cuttings concentration at static condition using ultrasonic method. We were able to conduct several tests using a standard low pass filter to eliminate high frequency noise. We tested to verify that we can distinguish between different depths of sand in a static bed of sand. We tested with water, air and a mix of the two mediums. Major modifications to the DTF have almost been completed. A stop-flow cell is being designed for the DTF, the ACTF and Foam Generator/Viscometer which will allow us to capture bubble images without the need for ultra fast shutter speeds or microsecond flash system.

  2. Container size and growing media affects water use efficiency in a Gerbera jamesonii cut flower crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libertad Mascarini

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Two containers (4 and 8 L plastic pots and three growing media mixture types (0/100, 25/75 and 50/50 % of peat/perlite were used, with the aim of determining the optimum combination for gerbera cut flower crop, considering both commercial productivity (yield and quality of cut flowers and environmental impact, (water and fertilizer use efficiency. The best combination in the first year of production was 8 L and 0/100, followed of 4 and 8 L with the 25/75, with a yield of 53.4, 30.5 and 29.7 flowers m-2 respectively. The yield of the rest of the treatments were similar, around 20 flowers m-2. Commercial cut flower quality was aceptable in all treatments. Considering the efficiency measured as the ratio water used per flower harvested, 8L 0/100 was clearly superior with a value of 1.23 L/flower, the rest of the treatments were between 2.17 y 4.14 L/flower, keeping relation as much with container size like with growing media mixture. The importance of these results is the simultaneous consideration of many factors which affect both comercial profitability and development of sustainable technology for intensive crops.

  3. Improved cutting performance in high power laser cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove

    2003-01-01

    Recent results in high power laser cutting especially with focus on cutting of mild grade steel types for shipbuilding are described.......Recent results in high power laser cutting especially with focus on cutting of mild grade steel types for shipbuilding are described....

  4. Improved cutting performance in high power laser cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove

    2003-01-01

    Recent results in high power laser cutting especially with focus on cutting of mild grade steel types for shipbuilding are described.......Recent results in high power laser cutting especially with focus on cutting of mild grade steel types for shipbuilding are described....

  5. 塑料功能母料制备工艺及性能研究%Research on Preparation Technology and Performance of Master Batch of Plastic Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    和涛

    2012-01-01

    Aiming at existing problems using plastic master batch processing enterprises, through design of the optimum conditions of the parent material, the preparation of plastic functional master batch, and comparison with existing master batch, the author measured the density of the master batch, melt flow rate, ash, volatile matter and other properties, and examined the parent material of the heat. Finally, the author analyzed the material through infrared rays, and summed up the optimal formula for plastic master batch as well as compared several existing plastic functional master batch. The experimental results had high practical value.%针对塑料加工企业在使用塑料母料的过程中存在的问题,通过设计母料的最佳工艺条件,制备塑料功能母料,与现有的各类母料进行比较,分别测定母料的密度、熔体流动速率、灰分、挥发分等性能,考察母料的热学情况,对材料进行红外分析,总结出塑料母料的最佳工艺配方。同时比较了几种现有的塑料功能母料,实验结果具有很高的实用价值。

  6. 重轨热锯机变速技术应用%Application of Transmission Technology for Hot Sawing Machine during Cutting Heavy Rail

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍建; 尹燕鹏; 苏德帅; 赵丽娥

    2016-01-01

    The software and hardware configurations for the hot sawing machine with variable speed function in Heavy Section Mill of Angang Steel Co., Ltd. for meeting requirements for product diversification were introduced. Particularly specific design ideas for all kinds of variable speed outlines and their corresponding advantages and disadvantages as well as the implemented final solution were explained so that transmission function of hot sawing machine was realized. The concrete design ideas of various transmission schemes and their advantages and disadvantages as well as the scheme implemented in the end were introduced. The principle of variable speed technology which can be available was discussed in detail by introducing the programming of PLC internal programs and the installation of SIEMENS digital controllers.%介绍了鞍钢股份有限公司大型厂热锯机为满足产品多样化需要,实现热锯机变速功能的软硬件配置情况,着重介绍了各种变速方案具体设计思想及优缺点以及最终实施的方案。通过介绍PLC内程序的编写和SIEMENS数控器的设置,详细阐述了变速技术的实现原理。

  7. Operation and maintenance cost-cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollingshead, T.W.

    1996-12-31

    This presentation by Timothy W. Hollingshead, Technical Services Manager, Pacific Gas and Electric, is about cutting costs in the Operation and Maintenance phase of geothermal energy production. The necessity of cost control, keeping workers well-trained and avoiding OSHA fines, taking advantages of new technologies, and establishing predictive maintenance programs are some of the issues discussed in this article.

  8. Smartphones and the plastic surgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hadithy, Nada; Ghosh, Sudip

    2013-06-01

    Surgical trainees are facing limited training opportunities since the introduction of the European Working Time Directive. Smartphone sales are increasing and have usurped computer sales for the first time. In this context, smartphones are an important portable reference and educational tool, already in the possession of the majority of surgeons in training. Technology in the palm of our hands has led to a revolution of accessible information for the plastic surgery trainee and surgeon. This article reviews the uses of smartphones and applications for plastic surgeons in education, telemedicine and global health. A comprehensive guide to existing and upcoming learning materials and clinical tools for the plastic surgeon is included. E-books, podcasts, educational videos, guidelines, work-based assessment tools and online logbooks are presented. In the limited resource setting of modern clinical practice, savvy plastic surgeons can select technological tools to democratise access to education and best clinical care. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Recycling of Plastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2011-01-01

    Plastic is produced from fossil oil. Plastic is used for many different products. Some plastic products like, for example, wrapping foil, bags and disposable containers for food and beverage have very short lifetimes and thus constitute a major fraction of most waste. Other plastic products like......, good strength and long durability. Recycling of plastic waste from production is well-established, while recycling of postconsumer plastic waste still is in its infancy. This chapter describes briefly how plastic is produced and how waste plastic is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements...

  10. 废旧无菌复合包装材料铝塑分离技术研究进展%Research Progress of Separation Technology of Aluminum-plastic in Aseptic Composite Packaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张素风; 梅星贤; 张璐璐

    2012-01-01

    The amount of waste aluminum-plastic composite packaging, which contains a large number of high quality fibers and aluminumplastic materials increases year by year. In the present paper, separation technologies of aluminum-plastic composites in the world were reviewed. The principle and processes of various separation approaches, such as separation with solvent, electrical separation and Argon electrolysis were analyzed and compared. Finally the existing problem of efficient separation and recycling as well as future research directions of aluminum-plastic composite were discussed.%文章综述了国内外铝塑分离技术的研究进展,分析和比较了溶剂法、高压静电分离、氩气电解等技术的基本原理和工艺过程等特点;指出铝塑高效分离再利用存在的问题及铝塑分离技术的未来研究方向.

  11. 复合抗静电阻燃ABS 、聚丙烯、聚乙烯的研制%Preparation of anti-static and fire retardant technology forABS plastic,polypropylene and polyethylene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李申; 杨书申; 汪敏

    2001-01-01

    讨论了塑料的抗静电阻燃机理.详细介绍了复合抗静电阻燃ABS塑料、聚丙烯、聚乙烯材料的研制工艺及配方;给出了复合抗静电阻燃ABS塑料、聚丙烯、聚乙烯材料的抗静电、阻燃性能测试数据.结果表明:所研制的聚乙烯、聚丙烯、ABS塑料具有优良的抗静电阻燃效果.%The fire retardant and anti-static mechanism of plastic isdiscussed in this paper.The manufacturing technology and construction of the anti-siatic and fire retardant ABS plastic,polypropylene and polyethylene were provided on detail.The anti-static and fire retardant test data of the anti-static and fire retardant ABS plastic,polypropylene and polyethylene were given.The result shows that the anti-static and fire retardant property of these material was good.

  12. Dealing with Cuts (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Cellulitis First Aid: Cuts Staph Infections Bites and Scratches First Aid: Falls First Aid: ... Out Cuts, Scratches, and Abrasions What's a Scab? Cellulitis Cuts, Scratches, and Scrapes Staph Infections Dealing With Cuts and Wounds Contact Us Print ...

  13. Theoretical Models for Orthogonal Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo

    This review of simple models for orthogonal cutting was extracted from: “L. De Chiffre: Metal Cutting Mechanics and Applications, D.Sc. Thesis, Technical University of Denmark, 1990.”......This review of simple models for orthogonal cutting was extracted from: “L. De Chiffre: Metal Cutting Mechanics and Applications, D.Sc. Thesis, Technical University of Denmark, 1990.”...

  14. Theoretical Models for Orthogonal Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo

    This review of simple models for orthogonal cutting was extracted from: “L. De Chiffre: Metal Cutting Mechanics and Applications, D.Sc. Thesis, Technical University of Denmark, 1990.”......This review of simple models for orthogonal cutting was extracted from: “L. De Chiffre: Metal Cutting Mechanics and Applications, D.Sc. Thesis, Technical University of Denmark, 1990.”...

  15. The perfect cut

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scozzafava, G.; Mueller Loose, Simone; Corsi, A.

    (organic, standard, GMO free). The cross-price elasticity provides insights to which degree different cuts compete against each other from a consumer perspective and how price premiums can be achieved by producers and marketers with certification and labeling strategies. The paper will also provide...... other from the consumer perspective dependent on price, intrinsic and extrinsic product characteristics as well as intended usage. So far, there is limited knowledge about optimal marketing and pricing of meat cuts simultaneously offered at the retail shelf. Results from an online choice experiment...

  16. A review of plastic waste biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ying; Yanful, Ernest K; Bassi, Amarjeet S

    2005-01-01

    With more and more plastics being employed in human lives and increasing pressure being placed on capacities available for plastic waste disposal, the need for biodegradable plastics and biodegradation of plastic wastes has assumed increasing importance in the last few years. This review looks at the technological advancement made in the development of more easily biodegradable plastics and the biodegradation of conventional plastics by microorganisms. Additives, such as pro-oxidants and starch, are applied in synthetic materials to modify and make plastics biodegradable. Recent research has shown that thermoplastics derived from polyolefins, traditionally considered resistant to biodegradation in ambient environment, are biodegraded following photo-degradation and chemical degradation. Thermoset plastics, such as aliphatic polyester and polyester polyurethane, are easily attacked by microorganisms directly because of the potential hydrolytic cleavage of ester or urethane bonds in their structures. Some microorganisms have been isolated to utilize polyurethane as a sole source of carbon and nitrogen source. Aliphatic-aromatic copolyesters have active commercial applications because of their good mechanical properties and biodegradability. Reviewing published and ongoing studies on plastic biodegradation, this paper attempts to make conclusions on potentially viable methods to reduce impacts of plastic waste on the environment.

  17. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan Miska; Troy Reed; Ergun Kuru

    2004-09-30

    The Advanced Cuttings Transport Study (ACTS) was a 5-year JIP project undertaken at the University of Tulsa (TU). The project was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and JIP member companies. The objectives of the project were: (1) to develop and construct a new research facility that would allow three-phase (gas, liquid and cuttings) flow experiments under ambient and EPET (elevated pressure and temperature) conditions, and at different angle of inclinations and drill pipe rotation speeds; (2) to conduct experiments and develop a data base for the industry and academia; and (3) to develop mechanistic models for optimization of drilling hydraulics and cuttings transport. This project consisted of research studies, flow loop construction and instrumentation development. Following a one-year period for basic flow loop construction, a proposal was submitted by TU to the DOE for a five-year project that was organized in such a manner as to provide a logical progression of research experiments as well as additions to the basic flow loop. The flow loop additions and improvements included: (1) elevated temperature capability; (2) two-phase (gas and liquid, foam etc.) capability; (3) cuttings injection and removal system; (4) drill pipe rotation system; and (5) drilling section elevation system. In parallel with the flow loop construction, hydraulics and cuttings transport studies were preformed using drilling foams and aerated muds. In addition, hydraulics and rheology of synthetic drilling fluids were investigated. The studies were performed under ambient and EPET conditions. The effects of temperature and pressure on the hydraulics and cuttings transport were investigated. Mechanistic models were developed to predict frictional pressure loss and cuttings transport in horizontal and near-horizontal configurations. Model predictions were compared with the measured data. Predominantly, model predictions show satisfactory agreements with the measured data. As a

  18. The development and change of Chinese paper-cutting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵海若

    2015-01-01

    Art comes from life and reflects life. Chinese paper-cutting is an important art in Chinese folk culture. Due to the impact of commodity economy, modern technology and change of ideology, our living conditions, lifestyles and folk customs have been changed a lot. Accordingly, the Chinese paper-cutting art has also been changed dramatically.

  19. 塑料注塑成型技术新进展%New Development of the Technology of Injection Molding of Plastic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李跃文

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the principle, application, characteristics and new development of gas-assisted injection molding technology, water-assisted injection molding technology, precision injection molding technology, micro-injection molding technology, microcellular injection molding technology, libration injection molding technology, in-mold decoration injection molding technology, co-injection molding technology and injection molding CAE technology were introduced.%介绍了气辅注塑、水辅注塑、精密注塑、微注塑、微孔注塑、振动注塑、模内装饰注塑、共注塑和注塑CAE等技术的原理、特点、应用和新进展.

  20. "Kid Cuts" by Broderbund.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ron

    1994-01-01

    Describes "Kid Cuts," an arts and crafts computer software program for students in prekindergarten through sixth grade that provides 22 activities in 6 curriculum areas. An example is given of an activity for kindergarten and first graders related to counting that includes library media skills objectives and mathematics objectives. (LRW)

  1. Cutting Cakes Carefully

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Theodore P.; Morrison, Kent E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper surveys the fascinating mathematics of fair division, and provides a suite of examples using basic ideas from algebra, calculus, and probability which can be used to examine and test new and sometimes complex mathematical theories and claims involving fair division. Conversely, the classical cut-and-choose and moving-knife algorithms…

  2. Simultaneous Cake Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balkanski, Eric; Branzei, Simina; Kurokawa, David;

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the simultaneous model for cake cutting (the fair allocation of a divisible good), in which agents simultaneously send messages containing a sketch of their preferences over the cake. We show that this model enables the computation of divisions that satisfy proportionality — a popular...

  3. Cutting Cakes Carefully

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Theodore P.; Morrison, Kent E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper surveys the fascinating mathematics of fair division, and provides a suite of examples using basic ideas from algebra, calculus, and probability which can be used to examine and test new and sometimes complex mathematical theories and claims involving fair division. Conversely, the classical cut-and-choose and moving-knife algorithms…

  4. Kids Who Cut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coy, Doris Rhea; Simpson, Chris

    2002-01-01

    Regardless of whether it is cutting, burning or some other form of self-harm, self-injury is a serious problem requiring serious solutions. This article reviews the various types of self-harm, descriptions of self-mutilators, common myths about self-mutilation, and effective treatment methods. (GCP)

  5. 超临界 CO2萃取废弃油基钻屑的实验研究%Experimental study on waste oil-based drilling cuttings by utilizing supercritical carbon dioxide extraction technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李赵; 杜国勇; 朱盟翔; 杨露; 涂雯雯

    2016-01-01

    In this paper ,supercritical carbon dioxide was used as an extracting agent to recovery the oil from the oil‐based drilling cuttings .By setting the residual oil contents as the main evaluation index , the effect of several factors including extracting pressure , extracting temperature , and extracting time were investigated .The results showed that the residual oil content was 0 .748% when the extracting pressure was 25 MPa ,the extracting temperature was 50 ℃ ,and the extracting time was 100 min .This extraction technology shows a favorable treatment efficiency .%采用超临界CO2为萃取剂,以萃取后油基钻屑的残油率为主要评价指标,研究了不同萃取条件(萃取压力、萃取温度、萃取时间)对废弃油基钻屑萃取的影响。实验结果表明,当萃取温度为50℃、萃取时间为100 m in、萃取压力为25 M Pa时,残油率为0.748%,此萃取工艺展现出了良好的处理效果。

  6. Based on the Cutting-edge of Energy Technology to Construct a Creative Experimental Teaching System%立足能源科技前沿 构建实验教学创新体系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方惠英; 邱利民; 陈炯; 胡亚才; 俞自涛

    2011-01-01

    In education practice, the experimental teaching is an import approach to cultivate the creative talents with qualified knowledge and skills. In order to improve the practice ability and innovated spirit for the undergraduate students, the energy and power engineering experimental teaching center of Zhejiang University based on the cutting-edge of energy technology, dedicate all its effort insistently to enrich and modify a new experimental course system leading to inspire the exploration and creation of students. Moreover, a methodology including a series of education disciplines are also presented to support a sustainable development in this academic training.%实验教学是培养高素质创新人才的重要途径。浙江大学能源与动力实验教学中心以培养学生的实践能力和创新精神为中心,立足能源科技前沿,不断丰富和完善开放性创新实验教学课程新体系的内涵,并对今后的持续发展提出了具体思路。

  7. Comparison of advanced cutting techniques on hardox 500 steel material and the effect of structural properties of the material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Dahil

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of this study is to determine the most advantageous cutting method for a better competition chance. By presenting high hardness, high strength and superior toughness Hardox 500 steel. This sample was cut by plasma, laser, wire erosion and abrasive water jet (AWJ methods from advanced cutting technologies. By taking micro structure photos of surface of the sample cut by different cutting methods, effects of different cutting methods on metallurgical structure of material were compared.

  8. 基于虚拟样机技术的电动切卡机创新设计及仿真优化%Innovation design and simulation optimizing of electric card-cut machine based on virtual prototyping technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾相武; 胡树根

    2012-01-01

    Aiming at realizing the optimal design of the electric card-cut machine,firstly,the method of innovation design was applied in function principle solution of mechatrnnics product, the function scheme was obtained. Then Pro/E and AMAMS software were used for three dimensional modeling, the virtual prototyping technology was used to do the analysis of kinematics and dynamics, the parameter optimization of design scheme was done, and the optimization result was obtained, the design objective was realized. The research results show that the method combined with innovation design and virtual prototyping technology is very effective for product optimization design.%为了实现电动切卡机产品的优化设计,首先运用机电产品创新设计的方法,对该产品进行了功能原理求解,获得了功能方案,然后利用Pro/E和ADAMS软件对该方案进行了三维建模,最后应用虚拟样机技术进行了运动学和动力学仿真分析,并对该设计方案进行了参数优化,获得了最优结果,实现了设计目标.研究结果表明:运用创新设计方法和虚拟样机技术相结合的方案进行产品的优化设计是非常有效的.

  9. Numerical Control Technology in Plastic Packaging Container Mould Processing Applications%数控技术在塑料包装容器模具加工中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈立

    2012-01-01

    本文简述了在塑料包装容器生产中所用模具的常见加工方法,介绍了高速加工、多轴加工等数控技术特点,阐述了充分利用数控加工技术的优越性,进而提高模具的加工效率和质量,缩短制造周期.%This paper briefly in plastic packaging containers used in the production of the common mould processing method,this paper presents a high speed processing,the multiaxial processing characteristics of numerical control technology,this paper expounds the full use of the advantages of nc machining technology,and improve the mould processing efficiency and quality,shorten the manufacturing cycle.

  10. 回收醇净化工艺技术在增塑剂酯化工段中的应用%Purification Technology of Recycled Alcohol in the Plasticizer Esterification Section

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周江云; 张磊

    2012-01-01

    Through discussion on the "back flush", extension the reaction time and the impact on product quality which occurred in the process of production of plasticizer, this paper studies the purification technology of recycled alcohol in the plasticizer esterification Section. The application of this technology improves output and production efficiency significantly, but also reduces the consumption of raw materials, product quality be improved and stable.%针对增塑剂生产中回收醇使用时出现的酯化反应“冲料”、延长酯化时间、影响产品质量等现象。研究了回收醇净化工艺技术在增塑剂酯化工段中的应用。该项技术的应用,明显提高了生产产量及生产效率,还降低了原料消耗,产品质量不仅得到提高还能保持稳定。

  11. Catalytic plastics cracking for recovery of gasoline-range hydrocarbons from municipal plastic wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buekens, A.G.; Huang, H. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Industrial Chemistry - CHIS 2, Free University of Brussels, Pleinlaan 2, Brussels 1050 (Belgium)

    1998-08-01

    This paper reviews recent developments in plastics cracking, a process developed to recycle plastic wastes into useful petrochemical materials. Under thermal cracking conditions, plastic wastes can be decomposed into three fractions: gas, liquid and solid residue. The liquid products are usually composed of higher boiling point hydrocarbons. By adopting customary fluid cracking catalysts and reforming catalysts, more aromatics and naphthenes in the C{sub 6}-C{sub 8} range can be produced, which are valuable gasoline-range hydrocarbons. More tests are, however, needed to verify the pyrolysis process in a pilot scale particularly for treatment of mixtures of bulk plastics. Plastics cracking is only an elementary conversion technology; its application has to be combined with other technologies such as municipal solid waste collection, classification and pretreatment at the front end, as well as hydrocarbon distillation and purification at the back end. Social, environmental and economic factors are also important in industrial implementation of the technology

  12. The Prism Plastic Calorimeter (PPC)

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This proposal supports two goals: \\\\ \\\\ First goal:~~Demonstrate that current, widely used plastic technologies allow to design Prism Plastic Calorimeter~(PPC) towers with a new ``liquid crystal'' type plastic called Vectra. It will be shown that this technique meets the requirements for a LHC calorimeter with warm liquids: safety, hermeticity, hadronic compensation, resolution and time response. \\\\ \\\\ Second goal:~~Describe how one can design a warm liquid calorimeter integrated into a LHC detector and to list the advantages of the PPC: low price, minimum of mechanical structures, minimum of dead space, easiness of mechanical assembly, accessibility to the electronics, possibility to recirculate the liquid. The absorber and the electronic being outside of the liquid and easily accessible, one has maximum flexibility to define them. \\\\ \\\\ The R&D program, we define here aims at showing the feasibility of these new ideas by building nine towers of twenty gaps and exposing them to electron and hadron beams.

  13. Automatic magnetic flux measurement of micro plastic-magnetic rotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingdong; Lin, Mingxing; Song, Aiwei

    2015-07-01

    Micro plastic-magnetic rotors of various sizes and shapes are widely used in industry, their magnetic flux measurement is one of the most important links in the production process, and therefore some technologies should be adopted to improve the measurement precision and efficiency. In this paper, the automatic measurement principle of micro plastic-magnetic rotors is proposed and the integration time constant and the integrator drift’s suppression and compensation in the measurement circuit are analyzed. Two other factors influencing the measurement precision are also analyzed, including the relative angles between the rotor magnetic poles and the measurement coil, and the starting point of the rotors in the coil where the measurement begins. An instrument is designed to measure the magnetic flux of the rotors. Measurement results show that the measurement error is within  ±1%, which meets the basic requirements in industry application, and the measurement efficiency is increased by 10 times, which can cut down labor cost and management cost when compared with manual measurement.

  14. Ceramic susceptor for induction bonding of metals, ceramics, and plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Robert L.; Buckley, John D.

    1991-01-01

    A thin (.005) flexible ceramic susceptor (carbon) was discovered. It was developed to join ceramics, plastics, metals, and combinations of these materials using a unique induction heating process. Bonding times for laboratory specimens comparing state of the art technology to induction bonding were cut by a factor of 10 to 100 times. This novel type of carbon susceptor allows for applying heat directly and only to the bondline without heating the entire structure, supports, and fixtures of a bonding assembly. The ceramic (carbon film) susceptor produces molten adhesive or matrix material at the bond interface. This molten material flows through the perforated susceptor producing a fusion between the two parts to be joined, which in many instances has proven to be stronger than the parent material. Bonding can be accomplished in 2 minutes on areas submitted to the inductive heating. Because a carbon susceptor is used in bonding carbon fiber reinforced plastics and ceramics, there is no radar signature or return making it an ideal process for joining advanced aerospace composite structures.

  15. Introduction: contexts and concepts of adaptability and plasticity in 20th-century plant science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranski, Marci; Peirson, B R Erick

    2015-04-01

    Nowhere is the problem of understanding the complex linkages between organisms and their environments more apparent than in the science of plants. Today, efforts by scientists to predict and manage the biological consequences of shifting global and regional climates depend on understanding how organisms respond morphologically, physiologically, and behaviorally to changes in their environments. Investigating organismal "adaptability" (or "plasticity") is rarely straightforward, prompting controversy and discourse among and between ecologists and agricultural scientists. Concepts like agro-climatic adaptation, phenotypic plasticity, and genotype-environment interaction (GxE) are key to those debates, and their complex histories have imbued them with assumptions and meanings that are consequential but often opaque. This special section explores the diverse ways in which organismal adaptability has been conceptualized and investigated in the second half of the 20th century, and the multifarious political, economic, environmental, and intellectual contexts in which those conceptions have emerged and evolved. The papers in this section bring together perspectives from the histories of agriculture, population ecology, evolutionary theory, and plant physiology, cutting across Asian, North American, and British contexts. As a whole, this section highlights not only the diversity of meanings of "adaptability" and "plasticity," but also the complex linkages between those meanings, the scientific practices and technologies in which they are embedded, and the ends toward which those practices and technologies are employed.

  16. Technology of Truss Anchor Composite Support in Thick Coal Seam Super Large-Section Open-off Cut%桁架锚索复合支护技术在特大断面厚煤层切巷的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高星照

    2015-01-01

    This paper as the research object of the surrounding rock control of the open-off cut at the mine in Shanxi, it analyzed the control mechanism of truss anchor composite combined technology by classiifed surrounding rock stability of 412 open-off cut in a mine, and truss anchor composite combined technology key parameters were determined by FLAC3D numerical analysis, truss anchor combined technology was proposed in thick coal super large-section open-off cut. Engineering practice indicated that the open-off cut could realize self-stabled 24days after caving open-off cut, and the sidewall convergence was 93mm, and the maximum displacement of lfoor rock was 143mm, and the total roof separation was 9mm. So the combined truss and bolt technology had performed well in controlling the deformation of surrounding rock.%该文以山西某矿412特大断面切巷围岩控制为研究对象,分析了预应力桁架锚索控制机理,并运用FLAC3D模拟确定桁架锚索复合支护的关键参数,提出了特大断面厚煤层切巷的桁架锚索复合支护技术;实践表明,切巷自掘出后22d实现自稳,两帮移近量最大为90mm,顶板下沉量最大为142mm,顶板离层仅为8mm,围岩变形控制良好。

  17. Fifty Years of Innovation in Plastic Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard M Kwasnicki

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundInnovation has molded the current landscape of plastic surgery. However, documentation of this process only exists scattered throughout the literature as individual articles. The few attempts made to profile innovation in plastic surgery have been narrative, and therefore qualitative and inherently biased. Through the implementation of a novel innovation metric, this work aims to identify and characterise the most prevalent innovations in plastic surgery over the last 50 years.MethodsPatents and publications related to plastic surgery (1960 to 2010 were retrieved from patent and MEDLINE databases, respectively. The most active patent codes were identified and grouped into technology areas, which were subsequently plotted graphically against publication data. Expert-derived technologies outside of the top performing patents areas were additionally explored.ResultsBetween 1960 and 2010, 4,651 patents and 43,118 publications related to plastic surgery were identified. The most active patent codes were grouped under reconstructive prostheses, implants, instruments, non-invasive techniques, and tissue engineering. Of these areas and other expert-derived technologies, those currently undergoing growth include surgical instruments, implants, non-invasive practices, transplantation and breast surgery. Innovations related to microvascular surgery, liposuction, tissue engineering, lasers and prostheses have all plateaued.ConclusionsThe application of a novel metric for evaluating innovation quantitatively outlines the natural history of technologies fundamental to the evolution of plastic surgery. Analysis of current innovation trends provides some insight into which technology domains are the most active.

  18. Rapid Classification of Common Plastics Based on Near-Infrared Spectral Technology%基于近红外光谱技术的常见塑料快速分类方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭慧玲; 邓文怡; 李晓英

    2012-01-01

    对废弃塑料进行回收再生利用具有重要的意义,首要的问题是对塑料进行鉴别分类。本文主要对塑料快速分类方法做了深入的研究。设计并搭建了采集数据的实验系统,编写了处理数据的处理软件。分别采用了全局相关分析、特征相关分析、欧氏距离和k_means聚类分析对数据进行了处理。对常见PE,PET,PP,PVC等塑料进行快速分类鉴别。其中k_means聚类分析法对89个未知样品的预测结果准确率为92.1%,说明近红外光谱结合k_means聚类法进行常见塑料种类鉴别在技术上是可行的。另外提出采用多模式共识可以进一步提高分类的准确率和可靠性。%Recycling of waste plastics is of great significance and the primary problem is the identification and classification of plastics.An in-depth research on rapid classification of plastics has been made.The experimental system of data collection were designed and set up,the software of data processing was written,then data were processed by using global correlation analysis,characteristics related correlation analysis,Euclidean distance analysis and k_means cluster analysis.The common waste plastics such as PE,PET,PP,and PVC were identified and classified Rapidly.The accuracy rate is 92.1% on the predicted results to 89 unknown samples using k_means cluster analysis method.It is indicated that using the near-infrared spectral technology combined with k_means cluster analysis method to identify common plastic types are technically feasible.In addition,it is proposed that adopting consensus of multi-mode can further improve the classification accuracy and reliability.

  19. Managing plastic waste in East Africa: Niche innovations in plastic production and solid waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ombis, L.O.; Vliet, van B.J.M.; Mol, A.P.J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper assesses the uptake of environmental innovation practices to cope with plastic waste in Kenyan urban centres at the interface of solid waste management and plastic production systems. The Multi Level Perspective on Technological Transitions is used to evaluate 7 innovation pathways of pla

  20. Managing plastic waste in East Africa: Niche innovations in plastic production and solid waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ombis, L.O.; Vliet, van B.J.M.; Mol, A.P.J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper assesses the uptake of environmental innovation practices to cope with plastic waste in Kenyan urban centres at the interface of solid waste management and plastic production systems. The Multi Level Perspective on Technological Transitions is used to evaluate 7 innovation pathways of

  1. Manipulation and cutting of carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Nanomanipulation plays an important role in nanofabrication, it is also a technology necessary in exploring the secrets of nanoworld, and it thus beco mesa start point to research future nanomachine. In this study, manipulation and cutting of carbon nanotubes have been conducted in order to examine whether we can move a nanocomponent from one site to another by using the tip of atomic fo rce microscope (AFM). The technique may also be valuable for providing the const ructive materials of nanofabrication. While exploring the method for manipulatin g and cutting of nanotubes, some new phenomena have been observed during the process. Results show that carbon nanotubes present a feature of deformation combin ing bending and distortion when subjected to large mechanical forces exerted by the tip of AFM. In special cases, long carbon nanotubes can be cut into two part s, by which we can remove the part where crystal lattice is flawed, and therefor e a perfect nanocomponent can be obtained.

  2. Laser Cutting of Materials of Various Thicknesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Grepl

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thise paper deals with the application of laser technology and optimizing the parameters for cutting nickel alloy. The theoretical part of the paper describes various types of lasers, their principles and usage. The experimental part focuses on optimizing the section parameteres of Haynes 718 alloy using a CO2 gas laser. This alloy is employed in the production of components for the aircraft industry. The experiment was performed on the Wibro Delta laser system designed for sizable parts. The actual section is measured with respect to its quality and any accompanying side effects that occur during the process. In this case, laser output and cutting speed were the parameters with most influence on the final cut. The summary explains the results achieved in a metallographic laboratory.

  3. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Crystal Redden; Aimee Washington

    2003-04-30

    Experiments on the flow loop are continuing. Improvements to the software for data acquisition are being made as additional experience with three-phase flow is gained. Modifications are being made to the Cuttings Injection System in order to improve control and the precision of cuttings injection. The design details for a drill-pipe Rotation System have been completed. A US Patent was filed on October 28, 2002 for a new design for an instrument that can generate a variety of foams under elevated pressures and temperatures and then transfer the test foam to a viscometer for measurements of viscosity. Theoretical analyses of cuttings transport phenomena based on a layered model is under development. Calibrations of two nuclear densitometers have been completed. Baseline tests have been run to determine wall roughness in the 4 different tests sections (i.e. 2-in, 3-in, 4-in pipes and 5.76-in by 3.5-in annulus) of the flow loop. Tests have also been conducted with aerated fluids at EPET conditions. Preliminary experiments on the two candidate aqueous foam formulations were conducted which included rheological tests of the base fluid and foam stability reports. These were conducted after acceptance of the proposal on the Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under Elevated Pressure and Elevated Temperature Conditions. Preparation of a test matrix for cuttings-transport experiments with foam in the ACTF is also under way. A controller for instrumentation to measure cuttings concentration and distribution has been designed that can control four transceivers at a time. A prototype of the control circuit board was built and tested. Tests showed that there was a problem with radiated noise. AN improved circuit board was designed and sent to an external expert to verify the new design. The new board is being fabricated and will first be tested with static water and gravel in an annulus at elevated temperatures. A series of viscometer tests to measure foam properties have

  4. Finite element simulation of conventional and prestressed cutting of Ti6Al4V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ruitao; Tang, Xinzi; Tan, Yuanqiang; Liu, Xiongwei

    2013-05-01

    Titanium alloys are known as difficult-to-machine materials, chip morphology plays a predominant role in determining machinability and tool wear during the machining of titanium alloys. Based on the finite element analysis and experimental validation, the cutting processes in conventional cutting and prestressed cutting of titanium alloy ring parts were explored respectively. The Johnson-Cook model expressed by equivalent plastic strain flow stress is utilized to describe the constitutive properties. A ductile fracture criterion based on the strain energy is applied to model the crack initiation and evolution during the chip segmentation. Cutting force as well as distributions of stress, temperature and equivalent plastic strain along cutting time were numerically compared. The results indicate that in conventional cutting and prestressed cutting, chips show the similar characteristic of continuous and regular serrated shape. Initial stress distribution of workpiece was changed by prestress, which correspondingly leads to the alteration of stress distribution in the subsurface layer. Prestress hardly influences the distributions of temperature and equivalent plastic strain on workpiece. The cutting force curves share the same average amplitude and analogous undulating rhythm.

  5. Cutting Efficiency of Instruments with Different Movements: a Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Tocci

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cutting efficiency of two new reciprocating instruments, Twisted File Adaptive and WaveOne Primary. Material and Methods: 10 new Twisted File Adaptive (TF Adaptive (SybronEndo, Glendora, CA, USA and 10 new WaveOne Primary files (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland were activated using a torque-controlled motor, respectively TFA motor (SybronEndo, Glendora, CA, USA and Silver motor (VDW, Munich, Germany. The device used for the cutting test consisted on a mainframe to which a mobile plastic support for the hand-piece is connected and a stainless-steel block containing a Plexiglas block against which the cutting efficiency of the instruments was tested. The length of the block cut in 1 minute was measured in a computerized program with a precision of 0.1 mm. Mean and standard deviations of each group were calculated and data were statistically analyzed with one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni t test (P < 0.05. Results: TF Adaptive displayed significantly greater maximum penetration depth than WaveOne Primary (P < 0.05. In fact, TF Adaptive instruments (Group 1 cut the Plexiglas block to a mean depth of 8.7 (SD 0.5 mm, while WaveOne Primary instruments cut the Plexiglas block to a mean depth of 6.4 (SD 0.3 mm. Conclusions: Twisted File Adaptive instruments demonstrated statistically higher cutting efficiency than WaveOne instruments.

  6. Cutting Technology Costs with Refurbished Computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessoff, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Many district administrators are finding that they can save money on computers by buying preowned ones instead of new ones. The practice has other benefits as well: It allows districts to give more computers to more students who need them, and it also promotes good environmental practices by keeping the machines out of landfills, where they…

  7. Cutting Edge RFID Technologies for NASA Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Patrick W.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews the use of Radio-frequency identification (RFID) for NASA applications. Some of the uses reviewed are: inventory management in space; potential RFID uses in a remote human outpost; Ultra-Wideband RFID for tracking; Passive, wireless sensors in NASA applications such as Micrometeoroid impact detection and Sensor measurements in environmental facilities; E-textiles for wireless and RFID.

  8. The Cutting Edge of Affinity Electrophoresis Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiji Kinoshita

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Affinity electrophoresis is an important technique that is widely used to separate and analyze biomolecules in the fields of biology and medicine. Both quantitative and qualitative information can be gained through affinity electrophoresis. Affinity electrophoresis can be applied through a variety of strategies, such as mobility shift electrophoresis, charge shift electrophoresis or capillary affinity electrophoresis. These strategies are based on changes in the electrophoretic patterns of biological macromolecules that result from interactions or complex-formation processes that induce changes in the size or total charge of the molecules. Nucleic acid fragments can be characterized through their affinity to other molecules, for example transcriptional factor proteins. Hydrophobic membrane proteins can be identified by means of a shift in the mobility induced by a charged detergent. The various strategies have also been used in the estimation of association/disassociation constants. Some of these strategies have similarities to affinity chromatography, in that they use a probe or ligand immobilized on a supported matrix for electrophoresis. Such methods have recently contributed to profiling of major posttranslational modifications of proteins, such as glycosylation or phosphorylation. Here, we describe advances in analytical techniques involving affinity electrophoresis that have appeared during the last five years.

  9. The Cutting Edge of Affinity Electrophoresis Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Eiji; Kinoshita-Kikuta, Emiko; Koike, Tohru

    2015-01-01

    Affinity electrophoresis is an important technique that is widely used to separate and analyze biomolecules in the fields of biology and medicine. Both quantitative and qualitative information can be gained through affinity electrophoresis. Affinity electrophoresis can be applied through a variety of strategies, such as mobility shift electrophoresis, charge shift electrophoresis or capillary affinity electrophoresis. These strategies are based on changes in the electrophoretic patterns of biological macromolecules that result from interactions or complex-formation processes that induce changes in the size or total charge of the molecules. Nucleic acid fragments can be characterized through their affinity to other molecules, for example transcriptional factor proteins. Hydrophobic membrane proteins can be identified by means of a shift in the mobility induced by a charged detergent. The various strategies have also been used in the estimation of association/disassociation constants. Some of these strategies have similarities to affinity chromatography, in that they use a probe or ligand immobilized on a supported matrix for electrophoresis. Such methods have recently contributed to profiling of major posttranslational modifications of proteins, such as glycosylation or phosphorylation. Here, we describe advances in analytical techniques involving affinity electrophoresis that have appeared during the last five years.

  10. Cutting forces during turning with variable depth of cut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sadílek

    2016-03-01

    The proposed research for the paper is an experimental work – measuring cutting forces and monitoring of the tool wear on the cutting edge. It compares the turning where standard roughing cycle is used and the turning where the proposed roughing cycle with variable depth of cut is applied.

  11. Carbon nanotube reinforced metal binder for diamond cutting tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidorenko, Daria; Mishnaevsky, Leon; Levashov, Evgeny

    2015-01-01

    of grain size of the structural constituents of the binder, what in turn leads to the improved simultaneously hardness, Young modulus, plastic extension, bending strength and performances of the metallic binders. Comparing service properties of diamond end-cutting drill bits with and without MWCNT one......The potential of carbon nanotube reinforcement of metallic binders for the improvement of quality and efficiency of diamond cutting wheels is studied. The effect of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) reinforcement on the mechanical properties i.e. hardness, Young modulus, strength and deformation...

  12. Cutting Out Continuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick; Hutton, Graham

    2016-01-01

    In the field of program transformation, one often transforms programs into continuation-passing style to make their flow of control explicit, and then immediately removes the resulting continuations using defunctionalisation to make the programs first-order. In this article, we show how these two...... transformations can be fused together into a single transformation step that cuts out the need to first introduce and then eliminate continuations. Our approach is calculational, uses standard equational reasoning techniques, and is widely applicable....

  13. Manual bamboo cutting tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Mariana Pereira; Correia, Walter Franklin Marques; da Costa Campos, Fabio Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the development of a cutting tool guide, specifically for the harvest of bamboo. The development was made based on precepts of eco-design and ergonomics, for prioritizing the physical health of the operator and the maintenance of the environment, as well as meet specific requirements of bamboo. The main goal is to spread the use of bamboo as construction material, handicrafts, among others, from a handy, easy assembly and material available tool.

  14. Making the cut

    OpenAIRE

    Millard, Chris

    2013-01-01

    ‘Deliberate self-harm’, ‘self-mutilation’ and ‘self-injury’ are just some of the terms used to describe one of the most prominent issues in British mental health policy in recent years. This article demonstrates that contemporary literature on ‘self-harm’ produces this phenomenon (to varying extents) around two key characteristics. First, this behaviour is predominantly performed by those identified as female. Second, this behaviour primarily involves cutting the skin. These constitutive char...

  15. Soluble oil cutting fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawlinson, A.P.; White, J.

    1987-06-23

    A soluble oil, suitable when diluted with water, for use as a cutting fluid comprises an alkali or alkaline-earth metal alkyl benzene sulphonate, a fatty acid diethanolamide, a mixed alkanolamine borate, a polyisobutenesuccinimide and a major proportion of mineral oil. The soluble oil is relatively stable without the need for a conventional coupling agent and some soluble oil emulsions are bio-static even though conventional biocides are not included.

  16. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Crystal Redden; Aimee Washington

    2003-07-30

    This Quarter has been divided between running experiments and the installation of the drill-pipe rotation system. In addition, valves and piping were relocated, and three viewports were installed. Detailed design work is proceeding on a system to elevate the drill-string section. Design of the first prototype version of a Foam Generator has been finalized, and fabrication is underway. This will be used to determine the relationship between surface roughness and ''slip'' of foams at solid boundaries. Additional cups and rotors are being machined with different surface roughness. Some experiments on cuttings transport with aerated fluids have been conducted at EPET. Theoretical modeling of cuttings transport with aerated fluids is proceeding. The development of theoretical models to predict frictional pressure losses of flowing foam is in progress. The new board design for instrumentation to measure cuttings concentration is now functioning with an acceptable noise level. The ultrasonic sensors are stable up to 190 F. Static tests with sand in an annulus indicate that the system is able to distinguish between different sand concentrations. Viscometer tests with foam, generated by the Dynamic Test Facility (DTF), are continuing.

  17. Recycling of Plastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2011-01-01

    Plastic is produced from fossil oil. Plastic is used for many different products. Some plastic products like, for example, wrapping foil, bags and disposable containers for food and beverage have very short lifetimes and thus constitute a major fraction of most waste. Other plastic products like......, for example, gutters, window frames, car parts and transportation boxes have long lifetimes and thus appear as waste only many years after they have been introduced on the market. Plastic is constantly being used for new products because of its attractive material properties: relatively cheap, easy to form......, good strength and long durability. Recycling of plastic waste from production is well-established, while recycling of postconsumer plastic waste still is in its infancy. This chapter describes briefly how plastic is produced and how waste plastic is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements...

  18. Analyses of Effects of Cutting Parameters on Cutting Edge Temperature Using Inverse Heat Conduction Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Ribeiro dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During machining energy is transformed into heat due to plastic deformation of the workpiece surface and friction between tool and workpiece. High temperatures are generated in the region of the cutting edge, which have a very important influence on wear rate of the cutting tool and on tool life. This work proposes the estimation of heat flux at the chip-tool interface using inverse techniques. Factors which influence the temperature distribution at the AISI M32C high speed steel tool rake face during machining of a ABNT 12L14 steel workpiece were also investigated. The temperature distribution was predicted using finite volume elements. A transient 3D numerical code using irregular and nonstaggered mesh was developed to solve the nonlinear heat diffusion equation. To validate the software, experimental tests were made. The inverse problem was solved using the function specification method. Heat fluxes at the tool-workpiece interface were estimated using inverse problems techniques and experimental temperatures. Tests were performed to study the effect of cutting parameters on cutting edge temperature. The results were compared with those of the tool-work thermocouple technique and a fair agreement was obtained.

  19. Performance Testing of Cutting Fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belluco, Walter

    within the whole range of operations, materials, cutting fluids, operating conditions, etc. Cutting fluid performance was evaluated in turning, drilling, reaming and tapping, and with respect to tool life, cutting forces, chip formation and product quality (dimensional accuracy and surface integrity......). A number of different work materials were considered, with emphasis on austenitic stainless steel. Cutting fluids from two main groups were investigated, water miscible (reviewed from previous work) and straight oils. Results show that correlation of cutting fluid performance in different operations exists...... within the same group of cutting fluids, for stainless steel. A possible rationalisation of cutting fluid performance tests is suggested. In order to select a set of basic tests and optimise them for use as general and standardised testing methods, an original approach to the evaluation of cutting force...

  20. Performance Testing of Cutting Fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belluco, Walter

    The importance of cutting fluid performance testing has increased with documentation requirements of new cutting fluid formulations based on more sustainable products, as well as cutting with minimum quantity of lubrication and dry cutting. Two sub-problems have to be solved: i) which machining...... tests feature repeatability, reproducibility and sensitivity to cutting fluids, and ii) to what extent results of one test ensure relevance to a wider set of machining situations. The present work is aimed at assessing the range of validity of the different testing methods, investigating correlation...... within the whole range of operations, materials, cutting fluids, operating conditions, etc. Cutting fluid performance was evaluated in turning, drilling, reaming and tapping, and with respect to tool life, cutting forces, chip formation and product quality (dimensional accuracy and surface integrity...

  1. PATTERN OF ROOTING AND GROWTH OF CUTTINGS OF SOME SPECIES OF INSECTICIDAL AND MEDICINAL IMPORTANCE AS AFFECTED BY GROWTH PROMOTING SUBSTANCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obi, E.A

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to examine the effects of promoting substances on bud retention, rooting and plantlets survival of rooted cuttings on selected tree species using growth promoting substances. Stem cuttings were treated with rooting-promoting substances, planted in plastic pots filled with top soil and arranged using a completely randomized design (CRD in a screen house. Stem cuttings of pepper fruit, guava, bush mango and cashew were obtained from the Teaching and Research Farm, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria. The experiments were conducted in 2010. The effects of growth promoting substances namely indole-3-butyric acid (IBA, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA and 1-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA applied 50 µM concentration and coconut water (50% dilution were evaluated on adventitious root formation, shoot growth (bud retention and survival of plantlets of hard- to semi-hardwood cuttings of tested tree species. The effects of growth promoting substances were significant on emergence of plantlets (rooting, growth and survival of plantlets. Number of sprouts (plantlets produced were highest in guava and pepper fruit followed by bush mango and cashew. The cuttings from guava and pepper fruit treated with coconut water and NAA promoted the survival of plantlets. Coconut water and NAA were found better than IBA and IAA in terms of bud retention and rooting, leaf development and survival of plantlets. In most of the tested species, wilting of leaves commenced 6 weeks after planting (WAP and attained 100% mortality thereafter except for pepper fruit cuttings dipped in coconut water. The treatments modified the rooting response among species by promoting percentages of rooting, reduction in bud abscission and plantlet survival. The results affirmed the possibility of propagating plantlets from stem cuttings of the tested species using growth promoting substances.

  2. Plastics for corrosion inhibition

    CERN Document Server

    Goldade, Victor A; Makarevich, Anna V; Kestelman, Vladimir N

    2005-01-01

    The development of polymer composites containing inhibitors of metal corrosion is an important endeavour in modern materials science and technology. Corrosion inhibitors can be located in a polymer matrix in the solid, liquid or gaseous phase. This book details the thermodynamic principles for selecting these components, their compatibility and their effectiveness. The various mechanisms of metal protection – barrier, inhibiting and electromechanical – are considered, as are the conflicting requirements placed on the structure of the combined material. Two main classes of inhibited materials (structural and films/coatings) are described in detail. Examples are given of structural plastics used in friction units subjected to mechano-chemical wear and of polymer films/coatings for protecting metal objects against corrosion.

  3. Large Chip Production Mechanism under the Extreme Load Cutting Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xianli; HE Genghuang; YAN Fugang; CHENG Yaonan; LIU Li

    2015-01-01

    There has existed a great deal of theory researches in term of chip production and chip breaking characteristics under conventional cutting and high speed cutting conditions, however, there isn’t sufficient research on chip formation mechanism as well as its influence on cutting state regarding large workpieces under extreme load cutting. This paper presents a model of large saw-tooth chip through applying finite element simulation method, which gives a profound analysis about the characteristics of the extreme load cutting as well as morphology and removal of the large chip. In the meantime, a calculation formula that gives a quantitative description of the saw-tooth level regarding the large chip is established on the basis of cutting experiments on high temperature and high strength steel 2.25Cr-1Mo-0.25V. The cutting experiments are carried out by using the scanning electron microscope and super depth of field electron microscope to measure and calculate the large chip produced under different cutting parameters, which can verify the validity of the established model. The calculating results show that the large saw-toothed chip is produced under the squeezing action between workpiece and cutting tools. In the meanwhile, the chip develops a hardened layer where contacts the cutting tool and the saw-tooth of the chip tend to form in transverse direction. This research creates the theoretical model for large chip and performs the cutting experiments under the extreme load cutting condition, as well as analyzes the production mechanism of the large chip in the macro and micro conditions. Therefore, the proposed research could provide theoretical guidance and technical support in improving productivity and cutting technology research.

  4. Transferring Cut-off Values between Assays for Cerebrospinal Fluid Alzheimer's Disease Biomarkers

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia Barrado, Leandro; Coart, Els; Vanderstichele, Hugo M. J.; Burzykowski, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Current technologies quantifying cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers to identify subjects with Alzheimer's disease pathology report different concentrations in function of technology and suffer from between-laboratory variability. Hence, lab- and technology-specific cut-off values are required. It is common practice to establish cut-off values on small datasets and, in the absence of well-characterized samples, to transfer the cut-offs to another assay format using 'side-by-side' testing of sample...

  5. 77 FR 54930 - Carlyle Plastics and Resins, Formerly Known as Fortis Plastics, A Subsidiary of Plastics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... Employment and Training Administration Carlyle Plastics and Resins, Formerly Known as Fortis Plastics, A... plastic parts. New information shows that Fortis Plastics is now called Carlyle Plastics and Resins. In... of Carlyle Plastics and Resins, formerly known as Fortis Plastics, a subsidiary of...

  6. Application of Fluidized-pellet-bed Bioreactor as a Short-cut Distributed Wastewater Treatment Technology%生物造粒流化床分散式污水处理技术的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦亮; 王晓昌; 宋雅琼; 金鹏康

    2013-01-01

    在集中式污水处理技术的使用受到限制的地区,生物造粒流化床作为一种短流程分散式污水处理技术得到了应用.经过对中试生物造粒流化床出水水质的长期监测,结果显示其出水水质良好,对SS、COD、TP、NH3-N、TN的平均去除率分别达到了86%、89%、88%、63%、44%.生物造粒流化床在绿地世纪城居住小区和陕鼓动力股份有限公司被成功应用于处理生活污水和生产废水,后续工艺的再生水可用于补充景观湖水、浇洒道路和草坪,其总运行成本分别为0.89和1.01元/m3.%As a short-cut distributed technology for wastewater treatment, the fluidized-pellet-bed (FPB) bioreactor finds application in some areas where the usage of centralized wastewater treatment technology is restricted. The results of long-term monitoring of effluent quality of a pilot-scale FPB bioreactor showed that the effluent quality was good. The average removal rates of SS, COD, TP, NH3 -N and TN were 86% , 89% , 88% , 63% and 44% , respectively. The FPB bioreactor was successfully applied in the Lyudi residential community and the Shaangu Power Co. Ltd. for domestic and industrial wastewater treatment. The post-FPB bioreactor effluent could be used for landscape water supplement, road watering and gardening. The whole operation costs for Lyudi and Shaangu were 0. 89 yuan/m3 and 1. 01 yuan/m3, respectively.

  7. 基于热裂法的液晶玻璃基板激光切割技术研究%Research of the technology of laser cutting LCD glass substrates based on thermal cracking method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪旭煌; 姚建华; 周国斌; 楼程华; 杨渊思

    2011-01-01

    为了实现液晶玻璃基板的可控断裂切割,提出了一种液晶玻璃基板激光切割的新方法.采用Nd:YAG激光在液晶玻璃基板上预置初始裂纹,用CO2激光作为热源对其进行加热,并用Ar气进行冷却.分析了激光光斑尺寸和液晶玻璃基板厚度对切割的影响,并与传统机械切割进行了对比.用扫描电子显微镜检测了激光切割后切割表面及断面形貌.结果表明,运用机械切割,其基体内存在大量的微裂纹,而基于热裂法的液晶玻璃基板激光切割表面光滑平直、无毛刺、基体内无微裂纹存在,切割断面影响区小于20μm,优越性明显高于机械切割.%In order to cut liquid crystal display (LCD) glass substrates with controlled crack, a new method was put forward.Firstly, an initial crack was prepared on the surface of LCD substrates with Nd: YAG laser.Then, the substrate was heated up with CO2 laser and cooled with Ar gas.The effect of laser spot size and the thickness of LCD glass substrates on laser cutting quality was analyzed.The surface and performance of the cutting face after laser treatment was tested by means of scanning electronic microscope (SEM).The cutting quality was compared with the traditional mechanical cutting quality.The results show that there are lots of micro cracks in the substrates cut with traditional mechanical method, however, the laser cutting surface based on thermal cracking method is smooth and flat, no micro cracks exists, and the cutting section-affecting zone is less than 20μm.It is better to cut LCD glass substrates with thermal crack laser cutting method than mechanical cutting method.

  8. Our plastic age

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Richard C. Thompson; Shanna H. Swan; Charles J. Moore; Frederick S. vom Saal

    2009-01-01

    Within the last few decades, plastics have revolutionized our daily lives. Globally we use in excess of 260 million tonnes of plastic per annum, accounting for approximately 8 per cent of world oil production...

  9. Weinig plastic in vissenmaag

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foekema, E.M.

    2012-01-01

    Waar de magen van sommige zeevogels vol plastic zitten, lijken vissen in de Noordzee nauwelijks last te hebben van kunststofafval. Onderzoekers die plastic resten zochten in vissenmagen vonden ze in elk geval nauwelijks.

  10. Ear Plastic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ENTCareers Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Plastic Surgery Ear Plastic Surgery Patient Health Information ... they may improve appearance and self-confidence. Can Ear Deformities Be Corrected? Formation of the ear during ...

  11. Cutting tool materials for high speed machining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhanqiang; AI Xing

    2005-01-01

    High speed machining (HSM) is one of the emerging cutting processes, which is machining at a speed significantlyhigher than the speed commonly in use on the shop floor. In the last twenty years, high speed machining has received great attentions as a technological solution for high productivity in manufacturing. This article reviews the developments of tool materials in high speed machining operations, and the properties, applications and prospective developments of tool materials in HSM are also presented.

  12. Cutting the Cord-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This animation shows the view from the rear hazard avoidance cameras on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit as the rover turns 45 degrees clockwise. This maneuver is the first step in a 3-point turn that will rotate the rover 115 degrees to face west. The rover must make this turn before rolling off the lander because airbags are blocking it from exiting from the front lander petal. Before this crucial turn took place, engineers instructed the rover to cut the final cord linking it to the lander. The turn took around 30 minutes to complete.

  13. Cutting the Cord

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This animation shows the view from the front hazard avoidance cameras on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit as the rover turns 45 degrees clockwise. This maneuver is the first step in a 3-point turn that will rotate the rover 115 degrees to face west. The rover must make this turn before rolling off the lander because airbags are blocking it from exiting off the front lander petal. Before this crucial turn could take place, engineers instructed the rover to cut the final cord linking it to the lander. The turn took around 30 minutes to complete.

  14. Drilling cost-cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capuano, L.E. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    This presentation by Louis E. Capuano, Jr., President, ThermaSource, Inc., discusses cost-cutting in the drilling phase of geothermal energy exploration and production. All aspects of a geothermal project including the drilling must be streamlined to make it viable and commercial. If production could be maximized from each well, there would be a reduction in drilling costs. This could be achieved in several ways, including big hole and multi-hole completion, directional drilling, better knowledge of the resource and where to penetrate, etc.

  15. Biodegradability of Plastics

    OpenAIRE

    Yutaka Tokiwa; Calabia, Buenaventurada P.; Charles U. Ugwu; Seiichi Aiba

    2009-01-01

    Plastic is a broad name given to different polymers with high molecular weight, which can be degraded by various processes. However, considering their abundance in the environment and their specificity in attacking plastics, biodegradation of plastics by microorganisms and enzymes seems to be the most effective process. When plastics are used as substrates for microorganisms, evaluation of their biodegradability should not only be based on their chemical structure, but also on their physical ...

  16. HEPHAISTOS - energy efficiency and innovation by microwave technology for the industrial production of polymers and reinforced plastics; HEPHAISTOS - Energieeffizienz und Innovation durch Mikrowellentechnik fuer die industrielle Produktion von polymeren Verbundwerkstoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feher, L.; Stanculovic, S.; Akhtar, J.; Nuss, V.; Seitz, T.; Zoeller, C.; Layer, S.; Dittrich, J. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Hochleistungsimpuls- und Mikrowellentechnik

    2007-07-01

    High mobility and resources consumption today characterize a global, export-oriented economy. Increasing scarcity of resources and energy, however, will influence the cost structure of products, services, locations, and mobility. Provident, innovative developments give rise to new, resources-efficient production processes, systems, and materials. For some years now, innovative approaches have been pursued by to opening up energy-efficient applications with microwaves by technology transfer to industry. By this work, an innovative modular microwave system line HEPHAISTOS with very homogeneous field distributions has been developed. Several industrial installations have been realized and taken into service at the new HEPHAISTOS-Experimental Centre (HEC) to develop highly efficient sophisticated processes actually targeted at avionic CFRP (Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastics) structures. (orig.)

  17. Improved performance of linear coal cutting compared with rotary cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roepke, W.W.; Hanson, B.D.; Olson, R.C.; Wingquist, C.F.; Myren, T.A.

    1995-09-01

    The linear cutting system, developed by the US Bureau of Mines uses geometric principles developed by Cardan to produce a nearly constant cut depth. The new system has been extensively tested in a synthetic material under laboratory conditions to verify mechanical capability and to identify operational characteristics. Comparison between 15-rpm linear cutting and 50-rpm rotary cutting systems show significant improvement in respirable dust entrainment, product size distribution, and energy usage. Respirable dust is reduced by as much as 90%. Recovered product showed a 67% reduction in {minus}0.32-cm ({minus}1/8-in) material and a 200% increase in +5.08 cm (+ 2 in) materials. Average power was reduced by 66% for the linear cutting. Because the bit cutting paths differ between linear and rotary cutting, it was necessary to compare the two at the same cut depths and bit types. These comparisons show that low revolution per minute rotary cutting entrains about the same amount of respirable dust as the linear cutting system, but the average shaft torque may be 55 to 130% greater for the rotary system.

  18. Functional nanostructures on injection molded plastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Alicia Charlotte; Søgaard, Emil; Andersen, Nis Korsgaard

    Nanotechnology can be used to make inexpensive plastic parts with functional surfaces. The plastic parts can be molded using a standard injection molding process. The nanostructures are directly transferred from the surface of the molding tool to the surface of the molded plastic part during...... the molding process. The main advantage with this method is that surface treatments and chemical additives are avoided, which minimizes health risks and simplifies recycling. Another advantage is that the unique technology enables nanostructuring of free form molded parts. The functional surfaces can have...

  19. Making environmental sensors on plastic foil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danick Briand

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available With the emergence of the printed electronics industry, the development of sensing technologies on non conventional substrates such as plastic foils is on-going. In this article, we review the work performed and the trends in the development of environmental sensors on plastic and flexible foils. Our main focus is on the integration of temperature, humidity, and gas sensors on plastic substrates targeting low-power operation for wireless applications. Some perspectives in this dynamic field are also provided showing the potential for the realization of several types of transducers on substrates of different natures and their combination with other components to realize smart systems.

  20. Plasticity in Ultra Fine Grained Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koslowski, Marisol [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Understanding the mechanisms of deformation of nanocrystalline (nc) materials is critical to the design of micro and nano devices and to develop materials with superior fracture strength and wear resistance for applications in new energy technologies. In this project we focused on understanding the following plastic deformation processes described in detail in the following sections: 1. Plastic strain recovery (Section 1). 2. Effect of microstructural variability on the yield stress of nc metals (Section 2). 3. The role of partial and extended full dislocations in plastic deformation of nc metals (Section 3).

  1. A framework for cut-over management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Nageldinger

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide a governance structure for IT-related projects in order to assure a safeguarded and timely transition to a productive environment. This transitioning, which rarely exceeds a weekend, is colloquially called ‘cut-over’, ‘rollout’ or ‘deployment’. The governance structure is defined in accordance with a set of project-specific deliverables for a cascade-type procedural project-management model, which is integrated within an Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL-orientated service organization. This integration is illustrated by the use of a semi-agile release model. Due to the release model selected, which is particularly characterized by its bundling of projects for a release-specific rollout (as it is referred to in the project documentation, a new definition and interpretation of deployment from a generic ITIL perspective is required. The facilitated release model requires a distinction between a project-specific cut-over and a release-specific rollout. This separation gives rise to two types of go-live scenarios: one for each participating project and one for each release. Additionally, an interplay between cut-over planning for a project and rollout planning for a release becomes apparent. Projects should already incorporate cut-over related deliverables in the initial planning phase. Even though consulting methodologies such as ASAP (Accelerated SAP, recommend scattered, project-specific deliverables useful for cut-over planning, this publication offers an integrated approach on how to prepare systematically for a project-specific cut-over with all required deliverables. The framework provided maps out ITIL’s release and deployment process by means of IT projects; furthermore it allows IT projects to interface easily with the ITIL change-management process.

  2. Chemical Recycle of Plastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Fatima

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Various chemical processes currently prevalent in the chemical industry for plastics recycling have been discussed. Possible future scenarios in chemical recycling have also been discussed. Also analyzed are the effects on the environment, the risks, costs and benefits of PVC recycling. Also listed are the various types of plastics and which plastics are safe to use and which not after rcycle

  3. Plastic value chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baxter, John; Wahlstrom, Margareta; Zu Castell-Rüdenhausen, Malin

    2014-01-01

    Optimizing plastic value chains is regarded as an important measure in order to increase recycling of plastics in an efficient way. This can also lead to improved awareness of the hazardous substances contained in plastic waste, and how to avoid that these substances are recycled. As an example...

  4. Use of Cutting-Edge Horizontal and Underbalanced Drilling Technologies and Subsurface Seismic Techniques to Explore, Drill and Produce Reservoired Oil and Gas from the Fractured Monterey Below 10,000 ft in the Santa Maria Basin of California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Witter; Robert Knoll; William Rehm; Thomas Williams

    2005-09-29

    This project was undertaken to demonstrate that oil and gas can be drilled and produced safely and economically from a fractured Monterey reservoir in the Santa Maria Basin of California by employing horizontal wellbores and underbalanced drilling technologies. Two vertical wells were previously drilled in this area with heavy mud and conventional completions; neither was commercially productive. A new well was drilled by the project team in 2004 with the objective of accessing an extended length of oil-bearing, high-resistivity Monterey shale via a horizontal wellbore, while implementing managed-pressure drilling (MPD) techniques to avoid formation damage. Initial project meetings were conducted in October 2003. The team confirmed that the demonstration well would be completed open-hole to minimize productivity impairment. Following an overview of the geologic setting and local field experience, critical aspects of the application were identified. At the pre-spud meeting in January 2004, the final well design was confirmed and the well programming/service company requirements assigned. Various design elements were reduced in scope due to significant budgetary constraints. Major alterations to the original plan included: (1) a VSP seismic survey was delayed to a later phase; (2) a new (larger) surface hole would be drilled rather than re-enter an existing well; (3) a 7-in. liner would be placed into the top of the Monterey target as quickly as possible to avoid problems with hole stability; (4) evaluation activities were reduced in scope; (5) geosteering observations for fracture access would be deduced from penetration rate, cuttings description and hydrocarbon in-flow; and (6) rather than use nitrogen, a novel air-injection MPD system was to be implemented. Drilling operations, delayed from the original schedule by capital constraints and lack of rig availability, were conducted from September 12 to November 11, 2004. The vertical and upper curved sections were

  5. Use of Cutting-Edge Horizontal and Underbalanced Drilling Technologies and Subsurface Seismic Techniques to Explore, Drill and Produce Reservoired Oil and Gas from the Fractured Monterey Below 10,000 ft in the Santa Maria Basin of California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Witter; Robert Knoll; William Rehm; Thomas Williams

    2006-06-30

    This project was undertaken to demonstrate that oil and gas can be drilled and produced safely and economically from a fractured Monterey reservoir in the Santa Maria Basin of California by employing horizontal wellbores and underbalanced drilling technologies. Two vertical wells were previously drilled in this area with heavy mud and conventional completions; neither was commercially productive. A new well was drilled by the project team in 2004 with the objective of accessing an extended length of oil-bearing, high-resistivity Monterey shale via a horizontal wellbore, while implementing managed-pressure drilling (MPD) techniques to avoid formation damage. Initial project meetings were conducted in October 2003. The team confirmed that the demonstration well would be completed open-hole to minimize productivity impairment. Following an overview of the geologic setting and local field experience, critical aspects of the application were identified. At the pre-spud meeting in January 2004, the final well design was confirmed and the well programming/service company requirements assigned. Various design elements were reduced in scope due to significant budgetary constraints. Major alterations to the original plan included: (1) a VSP seismic survey was delayed to a later phase; (2) a new (larger) surface hole would be drilled rather than re-enter an existing well; (3) a 7-in. liner would be placed into the top of the Monterey target as quickly as possible to avoid problems with hole stability; (4) evaluation activities were reduced in scope; (5) geosteering observations for fracture access would be deduced from penetration rate, cuttings description and hydrocarbon in-flow; and (6) rather than use nitrogen, a novel air-injection MPD system was to be implemented. Drilling operations, delayed from the original schedule by capital constraints and lack of rig availability, were conducted from September 12 to November 11, 2004. The vertical and upper curved sections were

  6. Use of Cutting-Edge Horizontal and Underbalanced Drilling Technologies and Subsurface Seismic Techniques to Explore, Drill and Produce Reservoired Oil and Gas from the Fractured Monterey Below 10,000 ft in the Santa Maria Basin of California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Witter; Robert Knoll; William Rehm; Thomas Williams

    2005-09-29

    This project was undertaken to demonstrate that oil and gas can be drilled and produced safely and economically from a fractured Monterey reservoir in the Santa Maria Basin of California by employing horizontal wellbores and underbalanced drilling technologies. Two vertical wells were previously drilled in this area with heavy mud and conventional completions; neither was commercially productive. A new well was drilled by the project team in 2004 with the objective of accessing an extended length of oil-bearing, high-resistivity Monterey shale via a horizontal wellbore, while implementing managed-pressure drilling (MPD) techniques to avoid formation damage. Initial project meetings were conducted in October 2003. The team confirmed that the demonstration well would be completed open-hole to minimize productivity impairment. Following an overview of the geologic setting and local field experience, critical aspects of the application were identified. At the pre-spud meeting in January 2004, the final well design was confirmed and the well programming/service company requirements assigned. Various design elements were reduced in scope due to significant budgetary constraints. Major alterations to the original plan included: (1) a VSP seismic survey was delayed to a later phase; (2) a new (larger) surface hole would be drilled rather than re-enter an existing well; (3) a 7-in. liner would be placed into the top of the Monterey target as quickly as possible to avoid problems with hole stability; (4) evaluation activities were reduced in scope; (5) geosteering observations for fracture access would be deduced from penetration rate, cuttings description and hydrocarbon in-flow; and (6) rather than use nitrogen, a novel air-injection MPD system was to be implemented. Drilling operations, delayed from the original schedule by capital constraints and lack of rig availability, were conducted from September 12 to November 11, 2004. The vertical and upper curved sections were

  7. USE OF CUTTING-EDGE HORIZONTAL AND UNDERBALANCED DRILLING TECHNOLOGIES AND SUBSURFACE SEISMIC TECHNIQUES TO EXPLORE, DRILL AND PRODUCE RESERVOIRED OIL AND GAS FROM THE FRACTURED MONTEREY BELOW 10,000 FT IN THE SANTA MARIA BASIN OF CALIFORNIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Witter; Robert Knoll; William Rehm; Thomas Williams

    2005-02-01

    This project was undertaken to demonstrate that oil and gas can be drilled and produced safely and economically from a fractured Monterey reservoir in the Santa Maria Basin of California by employing horizontal wellbores and underbalanced drilling technologies. Two vertical wells were previously drilled in this area by Temblor Petroleum with heavy mud and conventional completions; neither was commercially productive. A new well was drilled by the project team in 2004 with the objective of accessing an extended length of oil-bearing, high-resistivity Monterey shale via a horizontal wellbore, while implementing managed-pressure drilling (MPD) techniques to avoid formation damage. Initial project meetings were conducted in October 2003. The team confirmed that the demonstration well would be completed open-hole to minimize productivity impairment. Following an overview of the geologic setting and local field experience, critical aspects of the application were identified. At the pre-spud meeting in January 2004, the final well design was confirmed and the well programming/service company requirements assigned. Various design elements were reduced in scope due to significant budgetary constraints. Major alterations to the original plan included: (1) a VSP seismic survey was delayed to a later phase; (2) a new (larger) surface hole would be drilled rather than re-enter an existing well; (3) a 7-in. liner would be placed into the top of the Monterey target as quickly as possible to avoid problems with hole stability; (4) evaluation activities were reduced in scope; (5) geosteering observations for fracture access would be deduced from penetration rate, cuttings description and hydrocarbon in-flow; and (6) rather than use nitrogen, a novel air-injection MPD system was to be implemented. Drilling operations, delayed from the original schedule by capital constraints and lack of rig availability, were conducted from September 12 to November 11, 2004. The vertical and upper

  8. USE OF CUTTING-EDGE HORIZONTAL AND UNDERBALANCED DRILLING TECHNOLOGIES AND SUBSURFACE SEISMIC TECHNIQUES TO EXPLORE, DRILL AND PRODUCE RESERVOIRED OIL AND GAS FROM THE FRACTURED MONTEREY BELOW 10,000 FT IN THE SANTA MARIA BASIN OF CALIFORNIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Witter; Robert Knoll; William Rehm; Thomas Williams

    2005-02-01

    This project was undertaken to demonstrate that oil and gas can be drilled and produced safely and economically from a fractured Monterey reservoir in the Santa Maria Basin of California by employing horizontal wellbores and underbalanced drilling technologies. Two vertical wells were previously drilled in this area by Temblor Petroleum with heavy mud and conventional completions; neither was commercially productive. A new well was drilled by the project team in 2004 with the objective of accessing an extended length of oil-bearing, high-resistivity Monterey shale via a horizontal wellbore, while implementing managed-pressure drilling (MPD) techniques to avoid formation damage. Initial project meetings were conducted in October 2003. The team confirmed that the demonstration well would be completed open-hole to minimize productivity impairment. Following an overview of the geologic setting and local field experience, critical aspects of the application were identified. At the pre-spud meeting in January 2004, the final well design was confirmed and the well programming/service company requirements assigned. Various design elements were reduced in scope due to significant budgetary constraints. Major alterations to the original plan included: (1) a VSP seismic survey was delayed to a later phase; (2) a new (larger) surface hole would be drilled rather than re-enter an existing well; (3) a 7-in. liner would be placed into the top of the Monterey target as quickly as possible to avoid problems with hole stability; (4) evaluation activities were reduced in scope; (5) geosteering observations for fracture access would be deduced from penetration rate, cuttings description and hydrocarbon in-flow; and (6) rather than use nitrogen, a novel air-injection MPD system was to be implemented. Drilling operations, delayed from the original schedule by capital constraints and lack of rig availability, were conducted from September 12 to November 11, 2004. The vertical and upper

  9. 3D Printing: current use in facial plastic and reconstructive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Tsung-Yen; Dedhia, Raj; Cervenka, Brian; Tollefson, Travis T

    2017-08-01

    To review the use of three-dimensional (3D) printing in facial plastic and reconstructive surgery, with a focus on current uses in surgical training, surgical planning, clinical outcomes, and biomedical research. To evaluate the limitations and future implications of 3D printing in facial plastic and reconstructive surgery. Studies reviewed demonstrated 3D printing applications in surgical planning including accurate anatomic biomodels, surgical cutting guides in reconstruction, and patient-specific implants fabrication. 3D printing technology also offers access to well tolerated, reproducible, and high-fidelity/patient-specific models for surgical training. Emerging research in 3D biomaterial printing have led to the development of biocompatible scaffolds with potential for tissue regeneration in reconstruction cases involving significant tissue absence or loss. Major limitations of utilizing 3D printing technology include time and cost, which may be offset by decreased operating times and collaboration between departments to diffuse in-house printing costs SUMMARY: The current state of the literature shows promising results, but has not yet been validated by large studies or randomized controlled trials. Ultimately, further research and advancements in 3D printing technology should be supported as there is potential to improve resident training, patient care, and surgical outcomes.

  10. LASER CUTTING AS AN INNOVATIVE CREATIVITY TOOL IN TEXTILE DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Hatice Gurcum

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Innovative technologies have become the most widespread rapid and flexible technique of cutting, welding, printing and coloring in fashion and textile sectors in a very short time. Laser systems as the most common used innovative technology engrave, cut, form, print, shade appropriated formatted drawings and sketches as well as they provide reliable placements for the lay out plans and precision cutting and the production sector rapid and qualified. The practical applications and conveniences that innovative Technologies employ, influence design process, designers can design in a more creative, rapid, precise and effective manner. Although design is a context where technology is effective, the style, mood and the background of the designer is still important. Designers while making innovative studies should take the advantage of the developing technologies in experimental processes and should combine technological opportunities with aesthetics. Textile designer as in all other domains of design, should harmonise with the change and should define his/her style with the innovative Technologies in an innovative manner and renew him/herself all the time. This study aims to classify laser cutting technology applications available in textile and fashion sector as well as to present the laser technology as a means of process, product, material innovation and explains the contributions of laser systems to creativity.

  11. Biodegradability of plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokiwa, Yutaka; Calabia, Buenaventurada P; Ugwu, Charles U; Aiba, Seiichi

    2009-08-26

    Plastic is a broad name given to different polymers with high molecular weight, which can be degraded by various processes. However, considering their abundance in the environment and their specificity in attacking plastics, biodegradation of plastics by microorganisms and enzymes seems to be the most effective process. When plastics are used as substrates for microorganisms, evaluation of their biodegradability should not only be based on their chemical structure, but also on their physical properties (melting point, glass transition temperature, crystallinity, storage modulus etc.). In this review, microbial and enzymatic biodegradation of plastics and some factors that affect their biodegradability are discussed.

  12. Plastic value chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baxter, John; Wahlstrom, Margareta; Zu Castell-Rüdenhausen, Malin

    2014-01-01

    Optimizing plastic value chains is regarded as an important measure in order to increase recycling of plastics in an efficient way. This can also lead to improved awareness of the hazardous substances contained in plastic waste, and how to avoid that these substances are recycled. As an example......, plastics from WEEE is chosen as a Nordic case study. The project aims to propose a number of improvements for this value chain together with representatives from Nordic stakeholders. Based on the experiences made, a guide for other plastic value chains shall be developed....

  13. Biodegradability of Plastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Tokiwa

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Plastic is a broad name given to different polymers with high molecular weight, which can be degraded by various processes. However, considering their abundance in the environment and their specificity in attacking plastics, biodegradation of plastics by microorganisms and enzymes seems to be the most effective process. When plastics are used as substrates for microorganisms, evaluation of their biodegradability should not only be based on their chemical structure, but also on their physical properties (melting point, glass transition temperature, crystallinity, storage modulus etc.. In this review, microbial and enzymatic biodegradation of plastics and some factors that affect their biodegradability are discussed.

  14. Experimental investigation of cutting parameters influence on surface roughness and cutting forces in hard turning of X38CrMoV5-1 with CBN tool

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H Aouici; M A Yallese; A Belbah; M F Ameur; M Elbah

    2013-06-01

    This experimental investigation was conducted to determine the effects of cutting conditions on surface roughness and cutting forces in hard turning of X38CrMoV5-1. This steel was hardened at 50 HRC and machined with CBN tool. This is employed for the manufacture of helicopter rotor blades and forging dies. Combined effects of three cutting parameters, namely cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut, on the six performance outputs-surface roughness parameters and cutting force components, are explored by analysis of variance (ANOVA). Optimal cutting conditions for each performance level are established. The relationship between the variables and the technological parameters is determined through the response surface methodology (RSM), using a quadratic regression model. Results show how much surface roughness is mainly influenced by feed rate and cutting speed. The depth of cut exhibits maximum influence on cutting force components as compared to the feed rate and cutting speed.

  15. Challenges in plastics recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Jakobsen, L. G.; Eriksen, Marie Kampmann

    2015-01-01

    Recycling of waste plastics still remains a challenging area in the waste management sector. The current and potential goals proposed on EU or regional levels are difficult to achieve, and even to partially fullfil them the improvements in collection and sorting should be considerable. A study...... was undertaken to investigate the factors affecting quality in plastics recycling. The preliminary results showed factors primarily influencing quality of plastics recycling to be polymer cross contamination, presence of additives, non-polymer impurities, and polymer degradation. Deprivation of plastics quality......, with respect to recycling, has been shown to happen throughout the plastics value chain, but steps where improvements may happen have been preliminary identified. Example of Cr in plastic samples analysed showed potential spreading and accumulation of chemicals ending up in the waste plastics. In order...

  16. Glassy metallic plastics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports a class of bulk metallic glass including Ce-, LaCe-, CaLi-, Yb-, and Sr-based metallic glasses, which are regarded as glassy metallic plastics because they combine some unique properties of both plastics and metallic alloys. These glassy metallic plastics have very low glass transition temperature (Tg~25oC to 150oC) and low Young’s modulus (~20 GPa to 35 GPa). Similar to glassy plastics, these metallic plastics show excellent plastic-like deformability on macro-, micro- and even nano-scale in their supercooled liquid range and can be processed, such as elongated, compressed, bent, and imprinted at low temperatures, in hot water for instance. Under ambient conditions, they display such metallic properties as high thermal and electric conductivities and excellent mechanical properties and other unique properties. The metallic plastics have potential applications and are also a model system for studying issues in glass physics.

  17. Process of quantitative evaluation of validity of rock cutting model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Futó

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Most of complex technical systems, including the rock cutting process, are very difficult to describe mathematically due to limitedhuman recognition abilities depending on achieved state in natural sciences and technology. A confrontation between the conception(model and the real system often arises in the investigation ofrock cutting process. Identification represents determinationof the systembased on its input and output in specified system class in a manner to obtain the determined system equivalent to the exploredsystem. Incase of rock cutting, the qualities of the model derived from aconventional energy theory ofrock cutting are compared to thequalitiesof non-standard models obtained byscanning of the acoustic signal as an accompanying effect of the surroundings in the rock cuttingprocess by calculated characteristics ofthe acoustic signal. The paper focuses on optimization using the specific cutting energy andpossibility of optimization using the accompanying acoustic signal, namely by one of itscharacteristics, i.e. volume of totalsignal Mrepresenting the result of the system identification.

  18. Development of bore tools for pipe welding and cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oka, Kiyoshi; Ito, Akira; Takiguchi, Yuji [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-04-01

    In the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), in-vessel components replacement and maintenance requires that connected cooling pipes be cut and removed beforehand and that new components be installed to which cooling pipes must be rewelded. All welding must be inspected for soundness after completion. These tasks require a new task concept for ensuring shielded areas and access from narrow ports. Thus, it became necessary to develop autonomous locomotion welding and cutting tools for branch and main pipes to weld pipes by in-pipe access; a system was proposed that cut and welded branch and main pipes after passing inside pipe curves, and elemental technologies developed. This paper introduces current development in tools for welding and cutting branch pipes and other tools for welding and cutting the main pipe. (author)

  19. Medical devices; general and plastic surgery devices; classification of absorbable poly(hydroxybutyrate) surgical suture produced by recombinant DNA technology. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-03

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is classifying the absorbable poly(hydroxybutyrate) surgical suture produced by recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) technology into class II (special controls). The special control that will apply to the device is the guidance document entitled "Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Absorbable Poly(hydroxybutyrate) Surgical Suture Produced by Recombinant DNA Technology." The agency is classifying these devices into class II (special controls) in order to provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of these devices. Elsewhere in this issue of the Federal Register, FDA is announcing the availability of the guidance document that will serve as the special control for this device.

  20. FY 2000 report on the results of the regional consortium R and D project - Regional consortium field. Second year report. Development of the technology to combine plastic and metal using biodegradable natural polymer; 2000 nendo chiiki consortium kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo - chiiki consortium bun'ya. Seibunkaisei tennen plastic to kinzoku no fukugoka gijutsu no kaihatsu (dai 2 nendo) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The development was proceeded with of the electromagnetic wave shielding technology composed of plastic body, chitosan containing biodegradable coating and electroless metal plating layer. Key technologies are for formation of biodegradable electroless plating use coating using chitosan as chemical adsorption carrier of Pd and for separation of the body and the metal thin film by the environment-harmony method for recovery of the material. Studies were made in the following 5 fields: 1) method to produce low molecular chitin and chitosan; 2) application of biodegradable materials to electromagnetic wave shielding; 3) evaluation of physical properties and function of a new electromagnetic wave shielding system; 4) R and D of the degradation method of the new electromagnetic wave shielding system; 5) comprehensive investigational study. In FY 2000, in 1), conditions for production of chitosan degrading enzymes were determined, and also the scale of bio-reactor was increased up to 20L. Further, chitosan was so re-synthesized that it disperses to the electroless plating use primer. (NEDO)

  1. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi

    2004-01-31

    Final design of the mast was completed (Task 5). The mast is consisting of two welded plate girders, set next to each other, and spaced 14-inches apart. Fabrication of the boom will be completed in two parts solely for ease of transportation. The end pivot connection will be made through a single 2-inch diameter x 4 feet-8 inch long 316 SS bar. During installation, hard piping make-ups using Chiksan joints will connect the annular section and 4-inch return line to allow full movement of the mast from horizontal to vertical. Additionally, flexible hoses and piping will be installed to isolate both towers from piping loads and allow recycling operations respectively. Calibration of the prototype Foam Generator Cell has been completed and experiments are now being conducted. We were able to generate up to 95% quality foam. Work is currently underway to attach the Thermo-Haake RS300 viscometer and install a view port with a microscope to measure foam bubble size and bubble size distribution. Foam rheology tests (Task 13) were carried out to evaluate the rheological properties of the proposed foam formulation. After successful completion of the first foam test, two sets of rheological tests were conducted at different foam flow rates while keeping other parameters constant (100 psig, 70F, 80% quality). The results from these tests are generally in agreement with the previous foam tests done previously during Task 9. However, an unanticipated observation during these tests was that in both cases, the frictional pressure drop in 2 inch pipe was lower than that in the 3 inch and 4 inch pipes. We also conducted the first foam cuttings transport test during this quarter. Experiments on aerated fluids without cuttings have been completed in ACTF (Task 10). Gas and liquid were injected at different flow rates. Two different sets of experiments were carried out, where the only difference was the temperature. Another set of tests was performed, which covered a wide range of

  2. Vortex cutting in superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatz, A.; Vlasko-Vlasov, V. K.; Kwok, W. K.; Crabtree, G. W.

    2016-08-01

    Vortex cutting and reconnection is an intriguing and still-unsolved problem central to many areas of classical and quantum physics, including hydrodynamics, astrophysics, and superconductivity. Here, we describe a comprehensive investigation of the crossing of magnetic vortices in superconductors using time dependent Ginsburg-Landau modeling. Within a macroscopic volume, we simulate initial magnetization of an anisotropic high temperature superconductor followed by subsequent remagnetization with perpendicular magnetic fields, creating the crossing of the initial and newly generated vortices. The time resolved evolution of vortex lines as they approach each other, contort, locally conjoin, and detach, elucidates the fine details of the vortex-crossing scenario under practical situations with many interacting vortices in the presence of weak pinning. Our simulations also reveal left-handed helical vortex instabilities that accompany the remagnetization process and participate in the vortex crossing events.

  3. Optical Sensors Based on Plastic Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilro, Lúcia; Alberto, Nélia; Pinto, João L.; Nogueira, Rogério

    2012-01-01

    The recent advances of polymer technology allowed the introduction of plastic optical fiber in sensor design. The advantages of optical metrology with plastic optical fiber have attracted the attention of the scientific community, as they allow the development of low-cost or cost competitive systems compared with conventional technologies. In this paper, the current state of the art of plastic optical fiber technology will be reviewed, namely its main characteristics and sensing advantages. Several measurement techniques will be described, with a strong focus on interrogation approaches based on intensity variation in transmission and reflection. The potential applications involving structural health monitoring, medicine, environment and the biological and chemical area are also presented. PMID:23112707

  4. Optical Sensors Based on Plastic Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Nogueira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The recent advances of polymer technology allowed the introduction of plastic optical fiber in sensor design. The advantages of optical metrology with plastic optical fiber have attracted the attention of the scientific community, as they allow the development of low-cost or cost competitive systems compared with conventional technologies. In this paper, the current state of the art of plastic optical fiber technology will be reviewed, namely its main characteristics and sensing advantages. Several measurement techniques will be described, with a strong focus on interrogation approaches based on intensity variation in transmission and reflection. The potential applications involving structural health monitoring, medicine, environment and the biological and chemical area are also presented.

  5. Parameter Analysis of High Power Industry CO2 Laser Cutting Technology%高功率工业CO2激光切割工艺技术参数分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华建民; 匡余华

    2011-01-01

    通过试验的方法,揭示了激光功率、切割速度、辅助气体压强和板材厚度之间的关系,分析并探讨影响高功率CO2激光切割工艺技术参数因素,提高了激光切割质量提供指导。%This paper, through the experimental method, reveals the relationship of laser power, the cutting speed, auxiliary gas pres- sure and the plate thickness. It analyzes and studies the factors affecting technical cutting parameters of high power laser C02, which may provide guidance for increasing laser cutting quality.

  6. An Experimental Investigation on Utilization of Waste Plastic as a Modifier in Rigid Pavements for Improving Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Chandu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The percent study investigates the effective use of waste plastic as a modifier for cement concrete roads. Civilization produces waste products disposals issue of the waste products is a challenge. Solid waste management is the thrust area. The various waste materials, plastic waste and principle solid waste are of great concern these leads to disposal crisis and environmental pollution. On the other side, road traffic is increasing. The load bearing capacity of the roads are to be increased. Our present work is helping to take care of both these aspects. Plastic waste consists of carry bags cups and disposals. Plastic waste which is cleaned is cut into a size such that it passes through 2.3mm sieve using shredding machine. The aggregates mix is heated and the plastic is coated over aggregates and this coated stones can be used for road constructing. By this process a road of 1km length 3.375m width of single lane can consumes 10,00000 carry bags and road strength is increased and found no pot holes. Commonly soil, aggregates, sand, cement can be used in road construction. Natural materials being exhaustible in nature, its quantity is declining gradually. If our material can be utilized in highway construction, the pollution and disposal problems may be partly reduced. The use of the innovative technology will not only strengthen the road construction but also increase the road life as well as will help to improve the environment. In my research work I have done a thorough study on the methodology of using plastic waste coat over aggregates and presented various tests performed on aggregates.

  7. Laser Cutting of Different Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir ÇAVDAR

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper; in general potential developments and trends of a particular machining field by extensively evaluating present studies of laser beam machining have been discussed. As it is indicated below, technical literatures have been subsumed under five major headlines: Experimental studies, reviews, optimization researches of the cutting parameters, theoretical modelling studies of laser beam cutting and academic studies relating to laser cutting

  8. FY09-FY10 NITRD Budget Cross Cut

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Science and Technology Policy, Executive Office of the President — This data set represents a cross cut of 13 Federal agencies R&D budget in the area of networking and information technology for FY09 and FY10 brokendown by...

  9. Experimental Research Using of MQL in Metal Cutting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Globočki Lakić

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an effect of using of minimal quantity lubrication (MQL technique in turning operations is presented. Experimental research was performed on carbon steel C45E. Technological parameters: depth of cut, feed rate and cutting speed were adjusted to semi-machining and roughing. Higher values ​​of feed and cutting speed were used, than recommended from literature and different types of cooling and lubrication in turning conditions were applied. As a conventional procedure and technology, lubrication with flooding was applied. As special lubrication the MQL technique was used. During research, monitoring of the cutting force, chip shape, tool wear and surface roughness was performed. Relations between parameters, material machinability and economy of process were analyzed.

  10. Study on the cutting mechanism and the brittle ductile transition model of isotropic pyrolyric graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Minghai; Wang, Hujun; Liu, Zhonghai

    2011-05-01

    Isotropic pyrolyric graphite (IPG) is a new kind of brittle material, it can be used for sealing the aero-engine turbine shaft and the ethylene high-temperature equipment. It not only has the general advantages of ordinal carbonaceous materials such as high temperature resistance, lubrication and abrasion resistance, but also has the advantages of impermeability and machinability that carbon/carbon composite doesn't have. Therefore, it has broad prospects for development. Mechanism of brittle-ductile transition of IPG is the foundation of precision cutting while the plastic deformation of IPG is the essential and the most important mechanical behavior of precision cutting. Using the theory of strain gradient, the mechanism of this material removal during the precision cutting is analyzed. The critical cutting thickness of IPG is calculated for the first time. Furthermore, the cutting process parameters such as cutting depth, feed rate which corresponding to the scale of brittle-ductile transition deformation of IPG are calculated. In the end, based on the theory of micromechanics, the deformation behaviors of IPG such as brittle fracture, plastic deformation and mutual transformation process are all simulated under the Sih.G.C fracture criterion. The condition of the simulation is that the material under the pressure-shear loading conditions .The result shows that the best angle during the IPG precision cutting is -30°. The theoretical analysis and the simulation result are validated by precision cutting experiments.

  11. CALCULATION OF LASER CUTTING COSTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Nedic

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents description methods of metal cutting and calculation of treatment costs based on model that is developed on Faculty of mechanical engineering in Kragujevac. Based on systematization and analysis of large number of calculation models of cutting with unconventional methods, mathematical model is derived, which is used for creating a software for calculation costs of metal cutting. Software solution enables resolving the problem of calculating the cost of laser cutting, comparison' of costs made by other unconventional methods and provides documentation that consists of reports on estimated costs.

  12. Determination of Cd, Cr, Hg and Pb in plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with collision-reaction interface technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Mirian C; Nóbrega, Joaquim A; Cadore, Solange

    2011-06-15

    A procedure based on the use of a quadrupole inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer equipped with a collision-reaction interface (CRI) for control of spectral overlap interferences was developed for simultaneous determination of Cd, Cr, Hg, and Pb in plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). The injection of H(2) and He (80 and 60 mL min(-1), respectively) into the sampled plasma, colliding and reacting with potentially interfering polyatomic ions, allows interference-free determination of chromium via its isotopes (52)Cr and (53)Cr that are freed from overlap due to the occurrence of (40)Ar(12)C(+), (40)Ar(12)C(1)H(+), (36)S(16)O(+) or (1)H(36)S(16)O(+). Cadmium, Hg and Pb were directly determined via their isotopes (110)Cd, (111)Cd, (112)Cd, (199)Hg, (200)Hg, (201)Hg, (202)Hg, (206)Pb, (207)Pb, and (208)Pb, without using CRI. The CRI can be quickly activated or deactivated before each analyte measurement. Limits of detection for (52)Cr were 0.04 or 0.14 μg L(-1) with He or H(2) injected in CRI. Cadmium and Pb have LODs between 0.02 and 0.08 μg L(-1) and Hg had 0.93-0.98 μg L(-1), without using CRI. Analyte concentrations for samples varied from 16 to 43, 1 to 11, 4 to 12, and 5 to 13 mg kg(-1) for Cr, Cd, Hg and Pb, respectively.

  13. High-speed fiber laser cutting of thick stainless steel for dismantling tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jae Sung; Oh, Seong Yong; Park, Hyunmin; Chung, Chin-Man; Seon, Sangwoo; Kim, Taek-Soo; Lee, Lim; Choi, Byung-Seon; Moon, Jei-Kwon

    2017-09-01

    A high-speed fiber laser cutting technology of thick steels for dismantling tasks was achieved using a 6-kW fiber laser system. At first, a new cutting head for efficient cutting of thick steels was developed, which was composed by a collimator with a focal length of 160 mm and mirror-type focusing objects with a long focal length of 600 mm. The long focal length of the focusing object made it possible for the beam size to be small through the thick cutting material and the cutting efficiency was expected to increase compared with the short focal length. In addition, folding the beam facilitated the compact cutting head with a size of 160 mm (width) × 80 mm (height) × 640 mm (length) and a weight of 6.9 kg. In the cutting experiment, the laser beam was delivered to the cutting head by a 25-m long process fiber with a core diameter of 100 μm. The cutting performances were studied against the thicknesses of stainless steel plates. A maximum cutting speed of 72 mm/min was obtained for the 60-mm thick stainless steel plate cutting and the cut specimen showed an excellent kerf shape and a narrow kerf width. To the best of our knowledge, this cutting speed was higher than other previously reported results when cutting with a 6-kW laser power.

  14. 退役汽车塑料材料NIRS识别技术及设备研究*%Research on Near-infrared Spectrum Identiifcation Technology for Plastic Materials of End-of-life Vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洪申; 陈铭

    2013-01-01

    A near-infrared spectrum(NIRS) identification test system for plastic materials of end-of-life vehicle was developed based on NIRS identification technology for plastic materials which had some characteristics such as simple operation, good stability,high efficiency,no pollution,and low cost and so on. The hardwares of the system consist of NIRS spectrometer, integrating sphere,tungsten light source,fiber optic reflection probe,the test bench,etc. The software system is composed of the sample acquisition module,model building and calibration module,sample test module. The results show that the system recognizable rate is over 95%,which meet the requirements of the identification of automotive plastic and lays a good foundation for further development and application.%  基于近红外塑料识别技术具有操作简单、稳定性好、效率高、环保清洁、成本低等特点,开发了一套退役车用塑料近红外识别试验系统。该系统的硬件部分包括BTC261E阵列型近红外光谱仪、BIP2.0积分球、光纤探头、钨丝灯光源、测试台架等,软件部分包括样品采集单元、模型建立和校正单元、样品检测单元。系统的应用测试结果表明,车用塑料的识别准确率超过95%,满足车用塑料识别的要求,为进一步工业化开发和应用做好了铺垫,同时为开展退役汽车塑料的回收利用奠定了坚实的基础。

  15. Ion radiation damage in plastic detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balcazar, M

    2006-07-01

    Plastic detectors are widely used for particle identification, micro pore and nano pore technology, neutron, gamma, radon and electron dosimeters. For some applications, plastic detectors have unique advantages among electronic detectors as 4 solid angles for ion identification in nuclear and cosmic ray physics; low-cost for massive use in indoors radon and neutron dosimeters; wide dose-range response for gamma and electron dosimetry; easy to use detectors in active geological faults in prospecting geothermal energy etc. There is a grate diversity of plastic detectors, which further improves their use in a particular application. However, the comparison test between different kinds of plastics can be time consuming, being therefore necessary to have methods for rapidly assessing plastic detectors properties. This invited talk deals in the first part with overview applications in Mexico of plastic detectors mentioned in the first paragraph. In the second part presents a general experimental relationship between the diameter-grow of positive ions tracks in several plastics for light ions, that allow to compare their energy resolution and to predict the track diameter of isotopes beams, as well as to predict the uniformity of micro pores. The formation of Nano pores produced by {sup 238} U ions is also discussed. (Author)

  16. MODULATING EXCITATION THROUGH PLASTICITY AT INHIBITORY SYNAPSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivien eChevaleyre

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Learning is believed to depend on lasting changes in synaptic efficacy such as long-term potentiation and long-term depression. As a result, a profusion of studies has tried to elucidate the mechanisms underlying these forms of plasticity. Traditionally, experience-dependent changes at excitatory synapses were assumed to underlie learning and memory formation. However, with the relatively more recent investigation of inhibitory transmission, it had become evident that inhibitory synapses are not only plastic, but also provide an additional way to modulate excitatory transmission and the induction of plasticity at excitatory synapses.Thanks to recent technological advances, progress has been made in understanding synaptic transmission and plasticity from particular interneuron subtypes. In this review article, we will describe various forms of synaptic plasticity that have been ascribed to two fairly well characterized populations of interneurons in the hippocampus, those expressing cholecystokinin (CCK and parvalbumin (PV. We will discuss the resulting changes in the strength and plasticity of excitatory transmission that occur in the local circuit as a result of the modulation of inhibitory transmission. We will focus on the hippocampus because this region has a relatively well-understood circuitry, numerous forms of activity-dependent plasticity and a multitude of identified interneuron subclasses.

  17. Improving the circular economy via hydrothermal processing of highdensity waste plastics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas Helmer; Conti, Federica

    2017-01-01

    Rising environmental concerns on climate changes are causing an increasing attention on circular economies. The plastic economy, in particular, is in focus due to the accelerating consumption of plastics, mainly derived from virgin feedstock, combined with the lack of plastic recycling strategies....... This work presents a novel outlook on the potential of using supercritical hydrothermal processing of waste plastic fractions for tertiary recycling. The study investigates hydrothermal processing of nine different, high-density types of plastics into original resin monomers and other value-added chemical...... processing of high-density plastics is a prospective technology for increasing the circularity of the plastic economy....

  18. Plastic Pollution from Ships

    OpenAIRE

    Čulin, Jelena; Bielić, Toni

    2016-01-01

    The environmental impact of shipping on marine environment includes discharge of garbage. Plastic litter is of particular concern due to abundance, resistance to degradation and detrimental effect on marine biota. According to recently published studies, a further research is required to assess human health risk. Monitoring data indicate that despite banning plastic disposal at sea, shipping is still a source of plastic pollution. Some of the measures to combat the problem are discussed.

  19. Dominus for cut flower production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumigation with methyl bromide was the principal method of soilborne pest control in cut flower production. Many cut flower growers in Florida have ceased production, but those that remain are restricted in the fumigants that they are able to utilize due to proximity to potable water sources and oc...

  20. Will Intel Grow Through Cuts?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAN; STEINBOCK

    2006-01-01

    Short-term cuts, perhaps, but long-term growth in China may be inevitable T he world's largest chipmaker, Intel, is sending a ripple effect through its pool of labor globally, including in China, with the announcement of deep workforce cuts.

  1. Rimbaud Cut-Up Burroughs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Vasconcelos

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste ensaio é o de explorar a relação entre a poesia de Rimbaud e as experiências de William Burroughs com os cut-ups. A influência de Rimbaud sobre o trabalho de Burroughs se estende, contudo, para além dos cut-ups, envolvendo sua escrita ficcional.

  2. How plastic can phenotypic plasticity be? The branching coral Stylophora pistillata as a model system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Shaish

    Full Text Available Phenotypic plasticity enables multicellular organisms to adjust morphologies and various life history traits to variable environmental challenges. Here, we elucidate fixed and plastic architectural rules for colony astogeny in multiple types of colonial ramets, propagated by cutting from genets of the branching coral Stylophora pistillata from Eilat, the Red Sea. We examined 16 morphometric parameters on 136 one-year old S. pistillata colonies (of seven genotypes, originating from small fragments belonging, each, to one of three single-branch types (single tips, start-up, and advanced bifurcating tips or to structural preparative manipulations (representing a single or two growth axes. Experiments were guided by the rationale that in colonial forms, complexity of evolving phenotypic plasticity can be associated with a degree of structural modularity, where shapes are approached by erecting iterative growth patterns at different levels of coral-colony organization. Analyses revealed plastic morphometric characters at branch level, and predetermined morphometric traits at colony level (only single trait exhibited plasticity under extreme manipulation state. Therefore, under the experimental manipulations of this study, phenotypic plasticity in S. pistillata appears to be related to branch level of organization, whereas colony traits are controlled by predetermined genetic architectural rules. Each level of organization undergoes its own mode of astogeny. However, depending on the original ramet structure, the spherical 3-D colonial architecture in this species is orchestrated and assembled by both developmental trajectories at the branch level, and traits at the colony level of organization. In nature, branching colonial forms are often subjected to harsh environmental conditions that cause fragmentation of colony into ramets of different sizes and structures. Developmental traits that are plastic, responding to fragment structure and are not

  3. Use of plastic surgery technology during the amputation of diabetic foot%整形外科技术在糖尿病足截肢术中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍锦华; 韩悦; 茹战锋

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the superiority of using plastic surgery technology on the amputation of DF(diabetic foot).Methods Improve the routine amputation technique, using plastic surgery technology on the amputation of DF based on the amputation plane was determined rationally.①Aseptic operation strictly,no wound leaving,suturing by modest tension, design the flap rationally; ②Reduce tissue damage: nonuse tourniquet, less or not suturing the muscle of the stump; ③Put the drainage tube into the cavity of the stump for suction drainage to eliminate the dead spaces and prevent hematoma.et al.Results Among 11 patients undergoing amputation,6 received routine amputation technique,the other 5 were treated with modified technique.In the routine treatment group,1 complicated by sub skin-flap hematoma, 2 by infection which cured after the positive dressing.1 by skin flap necrosis and wound dehiscence,received the reoperation when conservative treatment failed.In the modified technique group, 4 wound healing well,1 with wound discharge , we put the drainage tube under the flap,wound dressing for 1 week,then the wound healed,fitted with prosthetic limbs smoothly.Conclusion Using plastic surgery technology on the amputation of DF is superior to routine technique,it will ensure the healing of the stump by first intention, shorten the time of hospitalization, reduce reoperation ,thus promote the patient's life quality.%目的:探讨应用整形外科技术行糖尿病足(diabetic foot,DF)截肢术的优越性.方法:改进传统截肢术,在合理确定截肢平面的前提下,应用整形外科基本原则实施截肢术:①严格无菌操作,无创面遗留,适度张力缝合,合理设计皮瓣;②减少组织损伤:不使用止血带,少缝扎肌肉断端;③于残端创腔留置负压引流管以消灭死腔,防止血肿.结果:6例常规截肢组1例发生皮瓣下血肿,2例发生局部感染,经局部换药引流后愈合;1例残端出现皮瓣

  4. Handbook of Plastic Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul

    The purpose of this document is to summarize the information about the laser welding of plastic. Laser welding is a matured process nevertheless laser welding of micro dimensional plastic parts is still a big challenge. This report collects the latest information about the laser welding of plasti...... as a knowledge handbook for laser welding of plastic components. This document should provide the information for all aspects of plastic laser welding and help the design engineers to take all critical issues into consideration from the very beginning of the design phase....

  5. Plastics and health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halden, Rolf U

    2010-01-01

    By 2010, the worldwide annual production of plastics will surpass 300 million tons. Plastics are indispensable materials in modern society, and many products manufactured from plastics are a boon to public health (e.g., disposable syringes, intravenous bags). However, plastics also pose health risks. Of principal concern are endocrine-disrupting properties, as triggered for example by bisphenol A and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). Opinions on the safety of plastics vary widely, and despite more than five decades of research, scientific consensus on product safety is still elusive. This literature review summarizes information from more than 120 peer-reviewed publications on health effects of plastics and plasticizers in lab animals and humans. It examines problematic exposures of susceptible populations and also briefly summarizes adverse environmental impacts from plastic pollution. Ongoing efforts to steer human society toward resource conservation and sustainable consumption are discussed, including the concept of the 5 Rs--i.e., reduce, reuse, recycle, rethink, restrain--for minimizing pre- and postnatal exposures to potentially harmful components of plastics.

  6. Synaptic Plasticity and Nociception

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChenJianguo

    2004-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity is one of the fields that progresses rapidly and has a lot of success in neuroscience. The two major types of synaptie plasticity: long-term potentiation ( LTP and long-term depression (LTD are thought to be the cellular mochanisms of learning and memory. Recently, accumulating evidence suggests that, besides serving as a cellular model for learning and memory, the synaptic plasticity involves in other physiological or pathophysiological processes, such as the perception of pain and the regulation of cardiovascular system. This minireview will focus on the relationship between synaptic plasticity and nociception.

  7. SOFTWARE TOOL FOR LASER CUTTING PROCESS CONTROL – SOLVING REAL INDUSTRIAL CASE STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Madić

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Laser cutting is one of the leading non-conventional machining technologies with a wide spectrum of application in modern industry. It order to exploit a number of advantages that this technology offers for contour cutting of materials, it is necessary to carefully select laser cutting conditions for each given workpiece material, thickness and desired cut qualities. In other words, there is a need for process control of laser cutting. After a comprehensive analysis of the main laser cutting parameters and process performance characteristics, the application of the developed software tool “BRUTOMIZER” for off-line control of CO2 laser cutting process of three different workpiece materials (mild steel, stainless steel and aluminum is illustrated. Advantages and abilities of the developed software tool are also illustrated.

  8. OPTIMAL CONTROL OF CNC CUTTING PROCESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The intelligent optimizing method of cutting parameters and the cutting stable districts searching method are set up. The cutting parameters of each cutting pass could be optimized automatically, the cutting chatter is predicted through setting up the dynamic cutting force AR(2) model on-line, the spindle rotation speed is adjusted according to the predicting results so as to ensure the cutting system work in stable district.

  9. Online Cake Cutting (published version)

    CERN Document Server

    Walsh, Toby

    2011-01-01

    We propose an online form of the cake cutting problem. This models situations where agents arrive and depart during the process of dividing a resource. We show that well known fair division procedures like cut-and-choose and the Dubins-Spanier moving knife procedure can be adapted to apply to such online problems. We propose some fairness properties that online cake cutting procedures can possess like online forms of proportionality and envy-freeness. We also consider the impact of collusion between agents. Finally, we study theoretically and empirically the competitive ratio of these online cake cutting procedures. Based on its resistance to collusion, and its good performance in practice, our results favour the online version of the cut-and-choose procedure over the online version of the moving knife procedure.

  10. 自体脂肪移植综合技术在面部轮廓整形中的应用%Application of autologous fat transplantation technology in facial plastic surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程立新; 朱慧茹; 周著祖

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study and analyze integrated autologous fat graft in facial contour plastic application effect and matters needing attention. Methods in our hospital in 2013 July to 2014 February were treated 68 cases of the implementation of facial plastic surgery patients as the research object, in plastic position, 14 cases of 9 cases, 19 cases of buccal filling amount of filling, nasolabial fold is filling, 14 cases, 8 cases of augmentation rhinoplasty, 4 cases of facial wrinkles apple muscle. This group of patients were treated with autologous fat transplantation technique, the patients were followed up, the effect of statistical operation. Results in this group, 68 patients were one-time molding, no patients with fat liquefaction, necrosis, infection, induration, embolism, 3 to 10 months follow-up of the patients, the follow-up results showed that operation position, soft texture, feel good, the satisfaction of patients reached 100%. Conclusion autologous fat transplantation application technology in facial plastic surgery can achieve the desired results, patient trauma, operation cost is low, operation is simple, the treatment is worthy of promotion and application in clinical.%目的:研究并分析自体脂肪移植综合技术在面部轮廓整形中的应用成效与注意事项。方法选择我院在2013年7月到2014年2月收治的68例实施面部轮廓整形患者为研究对象,在整形位置上,14例为面颊部充填、9例为额部充填、19例为鼻唇沟处充填、14例隆鼻、8例面部皱纹、4例苹果肌。本组患者均采用自体脂肪移植综合技术,术后对患者进行随访,统计手术效果。结果本组68例患者均一次性成型,无患者出现脂肪液化、坏死、感染、硬结、栓塞等并发症,对患者进行3到10个月的随访,随访结果显示,手术位置质地柔软,手感理想,患者满意度达到100%。结论将自体脂肪移植综合技术应用在面部轮廓整形中可

  11. Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on technology, on advances in such areas as aeronautics, electronics, physics, the space sciences, as well as computers and the attendant progress in medicine, robotics, and artificial intelligence. Describes educational resources for elementary and middle school students, including Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videotapes, books,…

  12. An 8b organic microprocessor on plastic foil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Myny, K.; Veenendaal, E. van; Gelinck, G.H.; Genoe, J.; Dehaene, W.; Heremans, P.

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a microprocessor made by organic thin-film transistors processed directly onto flexible plastic foil. This is a direct realization of a microprocessor by thin-film technology, i.e., without transfer, on plastic. It paves the way to equip mundane supports and objects with low-cost comput

  13. Investigation of formation mechanisms of chips in orthogonal cutting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma W.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates the formation mechanisms of chips in orthogonal cutting of mild steel and the transformation conditions between various morphology chips. It is supposed that the modeling material follows the Johnson-Cook constitutive model. In orthogonal cutting process, both the plastic flow and the instability behaviors of chip materials are caused by the plane strain loadings. Therefore, the general instability behaviors of materials in plane strain state are first analyzed with linear perturbation method and a universal instability criterion is established. Based on the analytical results, the formation mechanisms of chips and the transformation conditions between continuous and serrated chips are further studied by instability phase diagram method. The results show that the chip formation strongly depends on the intensity ratios between shear and normal stresses. The ratios of dissipative rates of plastic work done by compression and shear stresses govern the transformation from continuous to serrated chips. These results are verified by the numerical simulations on the orthogonal cutting process.

  14. Halos of Plastic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maya Reid

    2012-01-01

    The halos that span South Africa's coastline are anything but angelic. Fanning out around four major urban centers-Cape Town, Port Elizabeth, East London and Durban-they are made up of innumerable bits and pieces of plastic. As a form of pollution, their shelflife is unfathomable. Plastic is essentially chemically inactive. It's designed to never break down.

  15. Biodegradation of plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimao, M

    2001-06-01

    Widespread studies on the biodegradation of plastics have been carried out in order to overcome the environmental problems associated with synthetic plastic waste. Recent work has included studies of the distribution of synthetic polymer-degrading microorganisms in the environment, the isolation of new microorganisms for biodegradation, the discovery of new degradation enzymes, and the cloning of genes for synthetic polymer-degrading enzymes.

  16. 绿色塑料聚乳酸的关键技术研发与产业化应用%Key Technology R & D and Industrial Applications of Biodegradable Plastics Polylactic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈学思

    2015-01-01

    As a new bio-based green plastic, polylactic acid (PLA) can be widely used in various ifelds. It can provide strong material support to solve environmental pollution and oil dependence. For the current existence of key scientiifc and technical problems in polylactic acid industry, CAS Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry carry out innovative projects to promote development and application of key technologies of biological polylactic acid green plastic industrialization. It makes a breakthrough of a series of key technical problems on L-lactic acid, lactic acid oligomerization break, cracking, reifning and lactide ring-opening polymerization and makes a series of innovative achievements. It achieved the world's second large-scale production and application of PLA after the US and accelerate the polylactic acid as the leading biodegradable plastics industry development. This article reviews the importance of polylactic key technology development and industrialization projects and the good results which has achieved. It put forward some suggestions of polylactic acid for industrial development in China.%聚乳酸(PLA)作为一种新型生物基绿色塑料,能够广泛应用于多种领域,为解决环境污染和石油依赖等问题提供有力的材料支撑。中国科学院长春应用化学研究所针对当前聚乳酸产业化存在的关键科学和技术性难题,开展了生物基聚乳酸绿色塑料产业化关键技术的创新性研发及应用推广项目,从L-乳酸出发,突破了乳酸低聚、裂解、丙交酯精制和开环聚合等一系列关键技术问题,取得了一系列创新性成果,在世界上继美国Nature Works后第二个实现了PLA规模化生产和应用,加速推动了以聚乳酸为龙头的生物可降解塑料行业的发展。本文综述了聚乳酸关键技术研发与产业化项目的重要意义,已取得的阶段性成果,并针对聚乳酸产业化在我国的发展提出了许多对策建议。

  17. 吸砂船施工技术在钱塘江东江嘴切滩工程中的应用%Application of Construction Technology of Inhale Sand Ships in the Dongjiangzui Shoal Cutting Projectat Qiantang River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王泽斌; 徐昌栋

    2012-01-01

    东江嘴切滩是解决钱塘江闻家堰弯道防洪瓶颈问题的关键。采用传统技术切滩成本较高,土方弃置场地难解决,实际工程实施中利用东江嘴高滩下蕴藏有丰富黄砂的有利条件,采用吸砂船取砂切滩施工,不仅技术上可行,且施工工期短,节省工程投资。%Dongjiangzui shoal cutting project is the key part to solve the bottleneck problem of flood control at the Wenjiayan riverbend. The cost of traditional techniques for shoal cutting is too high and the ground for discarded earth is hard to find. During engineering implementation, we found that there is lots of sands down under the Dongjiangzui Shoal. Therefore, we take theadvantage of this fact to cut the shoal by using the inhale sand ship. This measure was not only technically feasible but alsofinancially feasible, and shortened the construction stage.

  18. DESIGNERS’ KNOWLEDGE IN PLASTICS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Kaare

    2013-01-01

    The Industrial designers’ knowledge in plastics materials and manufacturing principles of polymer products is very important for the innovative strength of the industry, according to a group of Danish plastics manufacturers, design students and practicing industrial designers. These three groups...... answered the first Danish national survey, PD13[1], investigating the importance of industrial designers’ knowledge in plastics and the collaboration between designers and the polymer industry. The plastics industry and the industrial designers collaborate well, but both groups frequently experience...... that the designers’ lack of knowledge concerning polymer materials and manufacturing methods can be problematic or annoying, and design students from most Danish design universities express the need for more contact with the industry and more competencies and tools to handle even simple topics when designing plastic...

  19. Consciousness and neural plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In contemporary consciousness studies the phenomenon of neural plasticity has received little attention despite the fact that neural plasticity is of still increased interest in neuroscience. We will, however, argue that neural plasticity could be of great importance to consciousness studies....... If consciousness is related to neural processes it seems, at least prima facie, that the ability of the neural structures to change should be reflected in a theory of this relationship "Neural plasticity" refers to the fact that the brain can change due to its own activity. The brain is not static but rather...... the relation between consciousness and brain functions. If consciousness is connected to specific brain structures (as a function or in identity) what happens to consciousness when those specific underlying structures change? It is therefore possible that the understanding and theories of neural plasticity can...

  20. Parameters Influence of CO2 Laser on Cutting Quality of Polymer Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Cep

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with evaluating of the resulting surface state of the three plastic materials and identification of suitable conditions for laser cutting with CO2 tube. As representative were chosen polypropylene, polymethylmethacrylate and polyamide. When cutting these types of materials it could melt eventually their re-sintering. A suitable combination of parameters is possible to achieve of sufficient quality of the cut. The samples were cut at different feed speed and laser power. Then they was compared on the basis of the measured roughness parameters Ra a Rz by using a portable touch roughness Hommel-Etamic W5 and dates was processed according to ČSN EN ISO 4287. Cutting of samples was realized at the Department of Machining, Assembly and Engineering Metrology, VŠB-TUO.

  1. "Paper Cut Lady" Ku Shulan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    WHEN the people in Xunyi County of Shaanxi Province talk about the traditional paper cut, they always speak of a "paper cut lady" Ku Shulan. Her works have been shown at the Xi’an Artists’ Gallery, Beijing China Art Gallery and Exhibition Hall of Central Academy of Fine Arts. Almost seventy years old, Ku Shulan is an ordinary country lady, and her artistic achievements were closely linked with her mother countryside. The traditional paper cut created and developed in Xunyi County, has a simple and bold style of Northern Shaanxi, and an exquisitely

  2. Cutting Silica Aerogel for Particle Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsou, P.; Brownlee, D. E.; Glesias, R.; Grigoropoulos, C. P.; Weschler, M.

    2005-01-01

    The detailed laboratory analyses of extraterrestrial particles have revolutionized our knowledge of planetary bodies in the last three decades. This knowledge of chemical composition, morphology, mineralogy, and isotopics of particles cannot be provided by remote sensing. In order to acquire these detail information in the laboratories, the samples need be intact, unmelted. Such intact capture of hypervelocity particles has been developed in 1996. Subsequently silica aerogel was introduced as the preferred medium for intact capturing of hypervelocity particles and later showed it to be particularly suitable for the space environment. STARDUST, the 4th NASA Discovery mission to capture samples from 81P/Wild 2 and contemporary interstellar dust, is the culmination of these new technologies. In early laboratory experiments of launching hypervelocity projectiles into aerogel, there was the need to cut aerogel to isolate or extract captured particles/tracks. This is especially challenging for space captures, since there will be many particles/tracks of wide ranging scales closely located, even collocated. It is critical to isolate and extract one particle without compromising its neighbors since the full significance of a particle is not known until it is extracted and analyzed. To date, three basic techniques have been explored: mechanical cutting, lasers cutting and ion beam milling. We report the current findings.

  3. 非共同就位道多根磨牙分裂式塑料桩核制作技术%Discussion on the Non Common Place Daoduogen Molar Split Type Plastic Post and Core Making Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴兴国

    2015-01-01

    随着根管治疗技术的成熟和临床应用的普及,使大部分病变龋坏,折裂的牙齿得以保留。为了使根管治疗的牙齿长久的保留并发挥其应有的功能,临床上对已做根管治疗的牙齿,必须进行桩核冠的修复。本文主要讨论非共同就位道多根磨牙分裂式塑料桩核的制作技术。%Along with the popularization of the mature technique of root canal treatment and clinical application, make the most of lesion of caries, fractured teeth preserved. In order to make the teeth root canal therapy long retain and give play to its due function, clinical on have teeth root canal therapy, the repair must be car ied out post core crown. This paper mainly discusses the non common place Daoduogen molar split type plastic post and core making technology.

  4. A Survey on Key Technologies for Carbon Fiber-reinforced Plastics with Applications to Automobile Lightening%面向汽车轻量化应用的碳纤维复合材料关键技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋燕利; 杨龙; 郭巍; 华林

    2016-01-01

    轻量化技术已成为汽车实现节能、减排的重要途径,碳纤维复合材料为汽车轻量化提供了重要材料基础。由于材料特性与制造工艺的特殊性与复杂性,采用碳纤维复合材料实现汽车轻量化时需要克服多项关键技术。结合汽车产品特点,从低成本碳纤维技术、材料-结构-性能一体化技术、高效成型技术、多材料连接技术、循环利用技术几个方面阐述了碳纤维复合材料在汽车轻量化应用中的关键技术,展望了未来汽车用碳纤维复合材料的发展趋势。%Lightweight has become an important way to achieve energy saving and emission reduction for auto-mobile and carbon fiber-reinforced plastics (CFRP)has provided a significant material foundation for automobile ligh-tening.Due to particularity and complexity of material properties and manufacturing processes,the application of CFRP to vehicle lightening still faces several crucial technological challenges.In this paper,the key technologies aimed at these issues,including low cost carbon fiber,structure-function integration,highly efficient molding,multi-mate-rial connection,and recycling,are analyzed and summarized combining with the automobile features.The future de-velopment prospect of CFRP for automobile application is also put forward.

  5. Forming technology for fine-ceramics in application of traditional ceramic forming. Mechanism of the plasticity of ceramic doughs; Tojiki no seikeiho wo riyoshita fineceramics no seikei gijutsu. Ceramics rendo no kasosei hatsugen kiko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, K.; Shibasaki, Y.; Sano, S.; Banno, T.; Hotta, Y. [National Industrial Research Institute of Nagoya,Nagoya (Japan); Kawai, H.; Ichikawa, Y.; ishida, H. [Inax Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    2000-05-30

    The relationships between plasticity and packing structure of doughs such as Hara-Gairome clay, Georgia kaolin, platy- and spherical alumina were investigated. The plasticity and packing structure were evaluated from measurements by the uni-axial testing method and porosimetry, respectively. The doughs showing good plasticity contained a large number of L-pore (large-sized pore) with the diameter of about several {mu}m. On the contrary, the doughs showing poor plasticity contained a large number of S-pore (small-sized pore) with the diameter of about 0.1 {mu}m, which is approximately equal to the distance between primary particles. Forming additives (methylcellulose, curdlan) much improved the plasticity, which is attributed to the increase in the number of L-pore. The results of the injection test supported the relation between the plasticity and the packing structure. The SEM observation revealed that the alumina-methylcellulose doughs consisted of agglomerates with the size of several tens {mu} m in diameter in a similar manner as the clay doughs, in which the size of L-pore roughly corresponds to that of the space among agglomerates. It is considered that the plasticity originates mainly from the deformation of the agglomerates and/or forming additive gels. When the buffer (agglomerates, gels, L-pore) size ranges from about ten to thousand {mu} m in diameter, the buffer works effectively. While, the buffer is not effective when the size is smaller or they are fractured into small pieces, resulting in a poor plasticity. In conclusion, the proposed mechanism of the plasticity is applicable not only to clay but also to fine-ceramic doughs, and useful to design a new-type of plasticizer and to control the plasticity of ceramic doughs in the forming process. (author)

  6. Production of Methane and Water from Crew Plastic Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Captain, Janine; Santiago, Eddie; Parrish, Clyde; Strayer, Richard F.; Garland, Jay L.

    2008-01-01

    Recycling is a technology that will be key to creating a self sustaining lunar outpost. The plastics used for food packaging provide a source of material that could be recycled to produce water and methane. The recycling of these plastics will require some additional resources that will affect the initial estimate of starting materials that will have to be transported from earth, mainly oxygen, energy and mass. These requirements will vary depending on the recycling conditions. The degredation products of these plastics will vary under different atmospheric conditions. An estimate of the the production rate of methane and water using typical ISRU processes along with the plastic recycling will be presented.

  7. Plastic compression technology and mold design of HDPE closures for beverage bottles%低磨损HDPE饮料瓶盖压塑成型模具设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗达; 梁文杰

    2013-01-01

    针对传统饮料瓶盖压塑成型模具中存在的内衬套与螺纹型芯采用滑动摩擦结构,摩擦表面容易拉毛、卡死,模具容易磨损等问题,将磨损小、运动阻力小的滚动摩擦技术应用到压塑成型模具中,开展了能否在内衬套与螺纹型芯之间加入一个滚动部件代替原来滑动摩擦的分析,建立了滑动摩擦、滚动摩擦与磨损速度之间的关系,提出了在内衬套与螺纹型芯之间加入一个钢球保持圈,将原来的滑动摩擦改为滚动摩擦的方法,以达到减少磨损、提高模具寿命的目的.在提高模具寿命、瓶盖质量上,对模具的结构、制造技术、经济效益等方面进行了评价.开展了新结构压塑成型模具的设计、制造工作,并在原制盖机上进行了长期试验.研究结果表明,该模具磨损非常小,瓶盖质量比以前更好;且与传统的压塑成型模具相比寿命可提高1倍以上.%Aiming that the sliding friction structure in the inner lining sleeve and the screw thread core of the traditional beverage bottle cap pressing forming mould caused the friction surfaces to nap,blocking,easy wear etc., the rolling friction technology with wear small, small movement resistance was applied to the compression molding mould. Whether a rolling member was inserted between the inner bushing and the screw thread core in place of the original sliding friction was discussed.The relationship between the sliding friction, rolling friction and the wear speed was established, a ball retainer ring was added between the inner bushing and the screw thread core. The original sliding friction was changed into the rolling friction, thereby reducing wear and improving the life of the mould. The mould structure, manufacturing technology, economic benefits etc. were evaluated on the mould life and the cap quality. New structure of compression molding mold was designed and manufactured, and the long term test was developed on the original

  8. Peculiar features of modeling of thermal processes of the cutting area in the SOLIDWORKS SIMULATION system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepchin Ya.A.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Management of thermo-physical process of cutting zone by changing certain parameters of the cutting regime, tool geometry or coolant using allows to achieve a higher level of handling performance. The forecasting of thermal processes during metal cutting is characterized by the multifactor of the model and the nonlinearity of the connection between the temperature field of the cutting zone and the processing parameters. Therefore realistic modeling of these processes with regard to the maximum number of influencing factors which will minimize the time and cost of experimental studies is very important. The research investigates the use of computer-aided design SolidWorks Simulation system to analyze the thermal processes occurring in the cutting zone during finishing turning of hardened circular steel cutting blade of superhard material. While modeling, the distribution of heat generated in cut (in the zone of plastic deformation of the workpiece and on the surfaces of friction of the cutting blade with chips and the treated surface is observed by four flows: to the tool, chips, workpiece and the environment. The limiting conditions for the existence of the developed model-geometric, physical and temporal limits are defined. Simulation is performed in steady and transient modes. Control of adequacy of simulation results is made. The conclusions of the analysis of opportunities of CAD SolidWorks Simulation System for research of thermal processes the cutting zone are drawn.

  9. Refrigerated cutting tools improve machining of superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, G. M.

    1971-01-01

    Freon-12 applied to tool cutting edge evaporates quickly, leaves no residue, and permits higher cutting rate than with conventional coolants. This technique increases cutting rate on Rene-41 threefold and improves finish of machined surface.

  10. EVALUATION OF RECYCLED PLASTIC LUMBER FOR MARINE APPLICATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report presents an evaluation of the recycled plastic materials (RPM) produced by California Recycling Company (CRC). This evaluation is performed under the Municipal Waste Innovative Technology Evaluation (MITE) Program of the U.S. EPA, Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory...

  11. EVALUATION OF RECYCLED PLASTIC LUMBER FOR MARINE APPLICATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report presents an evaluation of the recycled plastic materials (RPM) produced by California Recycling Company (CRC). This evaluation is performed under the Municipal Waste Innovative Technology Evaluation (MITE) Program of the U.S. EPA, Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory...

  12. Optimization of Cutting Variables in Machining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xueyan; Wu Zhenye; Zhou Guohua

    1996-01-01

    With the three criteria for cutting variables proposed by W. W. Gilbert and K.Hitomi, th is paper analyzes the reasonable selection of cutting variables, and further states the relations among maximum profit-oriented cutting speed,minimum cost-oriented cutting speed and maximum productivity-oriented cutting speed. It puts forward a mathematical model for the optimization of cutting variables in machining.

  13. Triboelectrostatic separation for granular plastic waste recycling: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guiqing; Li, Jia; Xu, Zhenming

    2013-03-01

    The world's plastic consumption has increased incredibly in recent decades, generating more and more plastic waste, which makes it a great public concern. Recycling is the best treatment for plastic waste since it cannot only reduce the waste but also reduce the consumption of oil for producing new virgin plastic. Mechanical recycling is recommended for plastic waste to avoid the loss of its virgin value. As a mechanical separation technology, triboelectrostatic separation utilizes the difference between surface properties of different materials to get them oppositely charged, deflected in the electric field and separately collected. It has advantages such as high efficiency, low cost, no concern of water disposal or secondary pollution and a relatively wide processing range of particle size especially suitable for the granular plastic waste. The process of triboelectrostatic separation for plastic waste is reviewed in this paper. Different devices have been developed and proven to be effective for separation of plastic waste. The influence factors are also discussed. It can be concluded that the triboelectrostatic separation of plastic waste is a promising technology. However, more research is required before it can be widely applied in industry.

  14. Realistic Virtual Cuts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Lasse Farnung

    Pigs and pig meat are major sources of income for Denmark. As one of the country's primary exports, it is no wonder that Denmark strives to maintain its competitive edge in the meat market. As part of an on-going effort to lower costs and maintain high standards, X-ray computed tomography (CT...... technology in the product prototyping process. In broad terms, the focus can be divided into two areas of focus: visualization and interaction. Visualizing volume data, obtained via CT-scanning, is a common area of research within other areas of research, e.g. for medical applications. The availability...... when concerned with product development. Product earnings projection, product specifications, and interactive training are just a few of the applicable areas. In this thesis we present an interaction method intended for the commercial development of meat product prototypes. The interaction method...

  15. Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional answer card reading method using OMR (Optical Mark Reader, most commonly, OMR special card special use, less versatile, high cost, aiming at the existing problems proposed a method based on pattern recognition of the answer card identification method. Using the method based on Line Segment Detector to detect the tilt of the image, the existence of tilt image rotation correction, and eventually achieve positioning and detection of answers to the answer sheet .Pattern recognition technology for automatic reading, high accuracy, detect faster

  16. ANALYSIS OF PARAMETERS AFFECTING THE QUALITY OF A CUTTING MACHINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iveta Onderová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The quality of cutting machines is affected by several factors that can be directly or indirectly influenced by manufacturers, technicians and users of machine tools. The most critical qualitative evaluation parameters of machine tools include accuracy and stability. Investigations of accuracy and repeatable positioning accuracy were essential for the research presented in this paper. The aim was to develop and experimentally verify the design of a methodology for cutting centers aimed at achieving the desired working precision. Before working on the topic described here, it was necessary to make several scientific analyses, which are summarized in this paper. We can build on the initial working hypothesis that by improving the technological parameters (e.g. by increasing the working speed of the machine, or by improving the precision of the positioning the quality of the cutting machine will also be improved. For the purposes of our study, several investigated parameters were set affecting positioning accuracy, such as rigidity, positioning speed, etc. First, the stiffness of the portal structure of the cutting machine was analyzed. FEM analysis was used to investigate several alternative structures of the cutting machine, and also an innovative solution for beam mounting. The second step was to integrate two types of drives into the design of the cutting machine. The first drive is a classic rack and pinion drive for cutting machines. To increase (improve the working speed of the machine, linear motors were designed as an alternative drive. The portal of the cutting machine was designed for a working speed of 260mmin−1 and acceleration of 25 m. s−2. The third step was based on the results of the analysis. In collaboration with Microstep, an experimental cutting machine in a portal version was produced using linear synchronous motors driving the portal on both sides, and with direct linear metering of its position. In the fourth step, an

  17. Evaluation of the hemostatic and coagulation effects of AUTO CUT and DRY CUT using a computer-controlled cutting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyrach, Mara N I; Tolba, Rene H; Voigtländer, Matthias; Neugebauer, Alexander; Enderle, Markus D

    2010-05-01

    To evaluate a newly developed computer-controlled cutting system for the generation of standardized resections and to systematically compare the hemostatic properties and tissue effect of 2 cutting modes, namely, AUTO CUT and DRY CUT used in urologic procedures. An isolated perfused kidney model was used to assess blood loss and coagulation depth after resection of tissue specimens of standardized geometry, size, and cutting velocity with a resection loop. Three different effect settings (E1, E3, and E6; 200 W) of the electrosurgical modes AUTO CUT and DRY CUT were compared. Blood loss was determined semiquantitatively by weighing a swab before and after placing it onto the resection area. The coagulation depth was estimated microscopically on cross sections. The computer-controlled cutting system creates resections of standardized geometry and size with a high reproducibility. An effect level-dependent increase in hemostasis and coagulation depth could be demonstrated with the cutting modes DRY CUT and AUTO CUT using this computer-controlled cutting system. The hemostatic effect with DRY CUT is significantly more pronounced than with AUTO CUT (E1, E3: P computer-controlled cutting system creating reproducible resections in combination with the isolated perfused kidney model offers the possibility to systematically investigate bleeding rate and coagulation depth. The stronger hemostatic properties of the DRY CUT mode are more favorable for urologic interventions requiring a higher hemostatic effect than the AUTO CUT mode. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Serbia: A new process for waste rubber and plastic recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozren Ocic

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to describe a new technological process for waste rubber and plastic recycling up to the commercial components in safe environmental friendly way. Researches and all relevant technical-technological data related to this process are checked at constructed pilot plant. The future construction of these units for waste rubber and plastic recycling will allow interested parties to achieve the environmental effectiveness and economic efficiency.

  19. 基于电力电子调压电路的直流不停电融冰技术%Study of DC Ice-melting Without Power Cut Technology Based on Power Electronic Voltage-regulating Circuits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋洁莹; 周飞; 拜润清; 蔡林海; 荆平

    2014-01-01

    Ice-coating of transmission lines every year in winter seriously affects reliable operation of power grids in China. Present electrical ice-melting methods all require power interruption, which brings negative effects to power grid. To address this issue, principles and feasibility of DC and AC ice-melting without power cut methods are analyzed, a new DC ice-melting without power cut method is proposed, and its circuit structure and capacity requirements are analyzed. At last, a model of the ice-melting device under PSCAD is built and its principles and functions are verified by simulation. The DC ice-melting without power cut device based on power electronic voltage-regulating circuits has high working efficiency and little influence upon regular power supplying.%我国冬季出现的输电线路覆冰的情况严重影响电力系统的可靠运行,现有的电力融冰均需停电进行,对系统影响较大。针对这个问题,分析交、直流不停电融冰的原理及可行性,提出一种新型的不停电直流融冰方法,对其电路结构和所需容量进行分析,并建立不停电融冰装置仿真模型,进行原理和功能验证。基于电力电子调压电路的不停电直流融冰装置具有融冰效率高且不影响线路供电的优点。

  20. A PROBLEM OF CUTTING OFF THE LAMINATED SEMIS TYPE PLATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Ciofu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A problem often coped on many domains such as wood manufacturing, glass, plastics and metallic platework industry, is the shaping or cutting off a big plate in many pieces. With this purpose there are algorithms of optimizing for positioning the parts following to be cut off from a row plate. From mathematical point of view, in positioning the parts on a raw plate the number of solutions increase four times evrey time a new part is added, and in case of finding the best solution for about few hundreds of pieces or parts would require years of processing on the most performant computers nowadays – for an analogy remember the famous story with the rice beads which the King had to pay to the master teaching him the chess: twice more for each square of the chessboard; for the total quantity assessment, King ascertained that the crops in his whole life wouldn’t have been enough.

  1. Mechanical property and cutting rate of microwave treated granite rock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lek Sikong

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of microwave treatment, especially at low power level on compressive strength and cutting rate of granite rock by using multimodal cavity. The power level and cooling rate of treated samples were found to have an effect on the compressive strength, and the cutting rate. This effect is due to the induction of the plastic zones and micro cracks in the rock matrix, especially at the grain boundaries induced by the thermal stresses of rock forming minerals which have the difference in dielectric properties after microwave heating for a certain exposure time together with the thermal-shock treatment after the heating. It was found that the strength of treated granite is less than 60% of the original after 30 minutes of exposure.The dry heated samples with a water quenching seem to be the most affected samples. They exhibit a significant decrease in compressive strength up to 70% and cutting rate up to 38% after 30-minute treatment at the power of 850W, and after 10-minute treatment at the power of 600W respectively. Prolonged treatment causes the relaxation of induced thermal stresses in the rock mass, leading to a slight increase in compressive strength, and a slight decrease in cutting rate. For dry samples, the cutting rate can be enhanced because of a decrease in hardness of rock mass dropped from 61.5 to 55.4 HRC afterthe 10-minute heating at 600W with thermal shock treatment.The absorbed water in the pores of rock mass also has an effect on a decrease in compressive strength. Because micro cracks developed by the water vapor generated by heat which escapes through open pores. However, it seems to have less effect on the cutting rate because it causes a slight decrease in the hardness.

  2. Application of Anchor Cable Technology in High Slope Design of Road Cutting%锚索技术在路堑高边坡设计中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈悦

    2012-01-01

    The design process of reinforced high slope of road cutting with prestressed anchor cable system is introduced through practical case,including judgment of slope stability,parameter selection,and calculation process and so on,providing references for application of prestressed anchor cable.%通过实例详细介绍了预应力锚索体系加固路堑高边坡的设计过程,包括边坡稳定性的判断、参数的选取、计算的过程等,为预应力锚索的应用提供借鉴。

  3. Numerical simulation of parallel hole cut blasting with uncharged holes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shijie Qu; Xiangbin Zheng; Lihua Fan; Ying Wang

    2008-01-01

    The cavity formation and propagation process of stress wave from parallel hole cut blasting was simulated with AN-SYS/LS-DYNA 3D nonlinear dynamic finite element software. The distribution of element plastic strain, node velocity, node time-acceleration history and the blasting cartridge volume ratio during the process were analyzed. It was found that the detonation of charged holes would cause the interaction of stress wave with the wall of uncharged holes. Initial rock cracking and displacement to neighboring uncharged holes become the main mechanism of cavity formation in early stage.

  4. DEHA-plasticized PVC for retail packaging of fresh meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens Højslev; Naamansen, Ebbe Tubæk

    1998-01-01

    A selection of frequently consumed meat products were packed in two commercial types of plasticized PVC film with declared plasticizer compositions of 11 and 21% di-(ethylhexyl)adipate (DEHA), respectively. The meat products were analysed for DEHA after packaging and storage until their "use by......" date. Pretreatment of the meat, including cutting, chopping, cooking and packaging, was performed according to normal practice in a Danish supermarket. All samples contained DEHA, in general the investigation showed that a high fat content in or at the surface of the meat and/or a high storage...

  5. Application of pipe-joint technology in Kaoshantun Reservoir dam concrete cut-off wall construction%接头管法在靠山屯水库大坝混凝土防渗墙施工中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金文

    2016-01-01

    本文以辽宁锦州义县靠山屯水库大坝混凝土防渗墙施工为例,针对接头施工质量难控制问题,对接头管法施工工艺中接头管下设、拔管时机控制与起拔力确定等关键技术进行了阐述分析,并结合工程实际,提出了混凝土防渗墙接头管施工常见问题及其解决措施,以期对此类地下连续墙施工有所借鉴。%In the paper,Liaoning Jinzhou Kaoshantun Reservoir dam concrete cut-off wall construction is adopted as an example.The key technologies of pipe-joint installation,pipe removal timing control,removal force datermination,etc. during pipe-joint technology construction process are described and analyzed aiming at difficult quality control in joint construction.Engineering practice is combined for proposing common problems and solutions in concrete cut-off wall pipe-joint construction,thereby providing reference for similar underground continuous wall construction.

  6. Informative document waste plastics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagelhout D; Sein AA; Duvoort GL

    1989-01-01

    This "Informative document waste plastics" forms part of a series of "informative documents waste materials". These documents are conducted by RIVM on the indstruction of the Directorate General for the Environment, Waste Materials Directorate, in behalf of the program of

  7. A Plastic Menagerie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Mary Jane

    2010-01-01

    Bobble heads had become quite popular, depicting all sorts of sports figures, animals, and even presidents. In this article, the author describes how her fourth graders made bobble head sculptures out of empty plastic drink bottles. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  8. Cortical plasticity and rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moucha, Raluca; Kilgard, Michael P

    2006-01-01

    The brain is constantly adapting to environmental and endogenous changes (including injury) that occur at every stage of life. The mechanisms that regulate neural plasticity have been refined over millions of years. Motivation and sensory experience directly shape the rewiring that makes learning and neurological recovery possible. Guiding neural reorganization in a manner that facilitates recovery of function is a primary goal of neurological rehabilitation. As the rules that govern neural plasticity become better understood, it will be possible to manipulate the sensory and motor experience of patients to induce specific forms of plasticity. This review summarizes our current knowledge regarding factors that regulate cortical plasticity, illustrates specific forms of reorganization induced by control of each factor, and suggests how to exploit these factors for clinical benefit.

  9. Mechanical plasticity of cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonakdar, Navid; Gerum, Richard; Kuhn, Michael; Spörrer, Marina; Lippert, Anna; Schneider, Werner; Aifantis, Katerina E.; Fabry, Ben

    2016-10-01

    Under mechanical loading, most living cells show a viscoelastic deformation that follows a power law in time. After removal of the mechanical load, the cell shape recovers only incompletely to its original undeformed configuration. Here, we show that incomplete shape recovery is due to an additive plastic deformation that displays the same power-law dynamics as the fully reversible viscoelastic deformation response. Moreover, the plastic deformation is a constant fraction of the total cell deformation and originates from bond ruptures within the cytoskeleton. A simple extension of the prevailing viscoelastic power-law response theory with a plastic element correctly predicts the cell behaviour under cyclic loading. Our findings show that plastic energy dissipation during cell deformation is tightly linked to elastic cytoskeletal stresses, which suggests the existence of an adaptive mechanism that protects the cell against mechanical damage.

  10. Targeting tumour Cell Plasticity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elizabeth D. WILLIAMS

    2009-01-01

    @@ Her research is focused on understanding the mechanisms of tumour progression and metastasis, particularly in uro-logical carcinomas (bladder and prostate). Tumour cell plasticity, including epithelial-mesenchymal transition, is a cen-tral theme in Dr Williams' work.

  11. 新型板栗脱壳机及其技术经济分析%New Machine of Cutting Chestnut's Shell off and Its Technologi es Economical Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑传祥

    2001-01-01

    Cutting chestnut's shell off is an important process in ch estnut producing.There are several me-thods of cutting chestnut's shell off .But t hese methods are not very suitable to Chinese market for some reasons.The paper compared structure and economic of those methods,and gave out a new method of cu tting chestnut's shell off .It has good economic and simple operation.%我国板栗也像其他农产品一样曾出现相对过剩 。解决过量板栗的出路在于开发各种各样的深加工新产品,而首先要解决的是板栗的脱壳去 红衣问题。目前脱壳设备国内外有多种,然而能大量适用于中国市场到目前为止还没有。本 文将对各种脱壳设备的结构、技术经济进行比较,并提供一种适用于我国国情的低价高效板 栗脱壳机。

  12. Thickness-Independent Ultrasonic Imaging Applied to Abrasive Cut-Off Wheels: An Advanced Aerospace Materials Characterization Method for the Abrasives Industry. A NASA Lewis Research Center Technology Transfer Case History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Don J.; Farmer, Donald A.

    1998-01-01

    Abrasive cut-off wheels are at times unintentionally manufactured with nonuniformity that is difficult to identify and sufficiently characterize without time-consuming, destructive examination. One particular nonuniformity is a density variation condition occurring around the wheel circumference or along the radius, or both. This density variation, depending on its severity, can cause wheel warpage and wheel vibration resulting in unacceptable performance and perhaps premature failure of the wheel. Conventional nondestructive evaluation methods such as ultrasonic c-scan imaging and film radiography are inaccurate in their attempts at characterizing the density variation because a superimposing thickness variation exists as well in the wheel. In this article, the single transducer thickness-independent ultrasonic imaging method, developed specifically to allow more accurate characterization of aerospace components, is shown to precisely characterize the extent of the density variation in a cut-off wheel having a superimposing thickness variation. The method thereby has potential as an effective quality control tool in the abrasives industry for the wheel manufacturer.

  13. Localization of plastic deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, J R

    1976-04-01

    The localization of plastic deformation into a shear band is discussed as an instability of plastic flow and a precursor to rupture. Experimental observations are reviewed, a general theoretical framework is presented, and specific calculations of critical conditions are carried out for a variety of material models. The interplay between features of inelastic constitutive description, especially deviations from normality and vertex-like yielding, and the onset of localization is emphasized.

  14. Cut Front Geometry Characterization in Cutting Applications of Brass with Abrasive Water Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkurt, Adnan

    2010-06-01

    Abrasive water jet (AWJ) cutting is an advanced manufacturing process for machining hard to cut materials. In this study, brass-353 samples of different thicknesses were cut by AWJ using different feed rates to identify the relationships between depth of cut (material thickness), feed rate, and deflection of cutting edge geometry. The effects of material thickness on the AWJ cut surface roughness were investigated and discussed. Deflection of cutting edge geometry in AWJ cutting process was assessed. Cutting edge geometry was characterized by analyzing the surface properties of cut samples.

  15. Research on fuzzy control technology of DC motor in height automatic adjusting system of CNC cutting machine%基于模糊控制技术的数控切割机自动调高器中直流电机控制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹爱成; 王群英

    2015-01-01

    电机控制技术是数控切割机自动调高器的关键技术之一。提出了基于模糊控制技术和 PWM控制技术的数控切割自动调高器的直流电机控制系统方案,设计了模糊控制器,实验结果表明:通过使用模糊控制技术和 PWM控制技术能明显提高自动调高器的控制精度和灵敏度。%Motor control technology is the key factor for height automatic adjusting system of CNC cutting ma-chine.In this paper,one DC motor control technologyis put forward based on the fuzzy control technology and PWMcontrol technology,and the fuzzy controller is designed as well.Experimental results show that the control accuracy and sensitivity of height automatic adjusting system will be improved by using the fuzzy control technolo-gy and PWMcontrol technology.

  16. Development of plastic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pećanac Marija Đ.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Plastic surgery is a medical specialty dealing with corrections of defects, improvements in appearance and restoration of lost function. Ancient Times. The first recorded account of reconstructive plastic surgery was found in ancient Indian Sanskrit texts, which described reconstructive surgeries of the nose and ears. In ancient Greece and Rome, many medicine men performed simple plastic cosmetic surgeries to repair damaged parts of the body caused by war mutilation, punishment or humiliation. In the Middle Ages, the development of all medical braches, including plastic surgery was hindered. New age. The interest in surgical reconstruction of mutilated body parts was renewed in the XVIII century by a great number of enthusiastic and charismatic surgeons, who mastered surgical disciplines and became true artists that created new forms. Modern Era. In the XX century, plastic surgery developed as a modern branch in medicine including many types of reconstructive surgery, hand, head and neck surgery, microsurgery and replantation, treatment of burns and their sequelae, and esthetic surgery. Contemporary and future plastic surgery will continue to evolve and improve with regenerative medicine and tissue engineering resulting in a lot of benefits to be gained by patients in reconstruction after body trauma, oncology amputation, and for congenital disfigurement and dysfunction.

  17. Innovation Study for Laser Cutting of Complex Geometries with Paper Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happonen, A.; Stepanov, A.; Piili, H.; Salminen, A.

    Even though technology for laser cutting of paper materials has existed for over 30 years, it seems that results of applications of this technology and possibilities of laser cutting systems are not easily available. The aim of this study was to analyze the feasibility of the complex geometry laser cutting of paper materials and to analyze the innovation challenges and potential of current laser cutting technologies offer. This research studied the potential and possible challenges in applying CO2 laser cutting technology for cutting of paper materials in current supply chains trying to fulfil the changing needs of customer in respect of shape, fast response during rapid delivery cycle. The study is focused on examining and analyzing the different possibilities of laser cutting of paper material in application area of complex low volume geometry cutting. The goal of this case was to analyze the feasibility of the laser cutting from technical, quality and implementation points of view and to discuss availability of new business opportunities. It was noticed that there are new business models still available within laser technology applications in complex geometry cutting. Application of laser technology, in business-to-consume markets, in synergy with Internet service platforms can widen the customer base and offer new value streams for technology and service companies. Because of this, existing markets and competition has to be identified, and appropriate new and innovative business model needs to be developed. And to be competitive in the markets, models like these need to include the earning logic and the stages from production to delivery as discussed in the paper.

  18. Cutting inlays with a laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaczyna, Irena; Grabczewski, Zbigniew

    1995-03-01

    To cut inlay from a stack of glued veneer a CO2 HEBAR-1A laser was used. For setting optimal working parameters of the set used in industrial production of inlay the following elements were defined: the shape and dimensions of the cutting fissure, the dependence between the width of the cutting fissure and the speed with which the laser beam moves and the total thickness of the stack of veneer sheets, the application of the laser for cutting various patterns. Computer aided designing and computer steering of the laser beam enables fast and precise production of large numbers of inlay elements not only from wood but also from other materials like glass, stone, metal, etc. Taking into consideration the high running cost of such a laser set and its very big production only few factories or even one factory in the given area could produce inlay ready for gluing. Further investigation should be carried out on this field particularly considering the lowering of costs not only in inlay production but generally where cutting of wood is concerned.

  19. Adição de agentes antiescurecimento, antimicrobiano e utilização de diferentes filmes plásticos, em mamão minimamente processado Adition of antibrowning and antimicrobes agents and utilization of different plastic films in fresh cut processing of papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Silva Lima

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O mamão é uma fruta climatérica largamente produzida no Brasil que pode ser submetida à aplicação dos procedimentos de processamento mínimo. Neste trabalho, conduziram-se experimentos nos quais foram avaliadas a ação do tipo de embalagem e a aplicação de produtos químicos na manutenção da qualidade físico-química e sensorial da fruta com o tempo de armazenamento. Observou-se que a melhor condução do processamento foi obtida quando se fazia a embalagem com filme de PVC e aplicação de sorbato de potássio (0,75%, p/v, pois não produziu perda da qualidade sensorial ao mamão processado.Papaya is a climateric fruit widely produced in Brazil and can easily be submitted to fresh cut processing. In this work, experiments were conducted to evaluate the action of the type of packing and the application of chemical products in the increase of the sensorial quality of fresh-cut papaya. It was observed that the best conduction of the processing was obtained using PVC film packing and potassium sorbate (0.75%, w/v, because it didn't produce the lost of the sensorial quality.

  20. Application of response surface methodology for determining cutting force model in turning hardened AISI H11 hot work tool steel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B Fnides; M A Yallese; T Mabrouki; J-F Rigal

    2011-02-01

    This experimental study is conducted to determine statistical models of cutting forces in hard turning of AISI H11 hot work tool steel (∼ 50 HRC). This steel is free from tungsten on Cr–Mo–V basis, insensitive to temperature changes and having a high wear resistance. It is employed for the manufacture of highly stressed diecasting moulds and inserts with high tool life expectancy, plastic moulds subject to high stress, helicopter rotor blades and forging dies. The workpiece is machined by a mixed ceramic tool (insert CC650 of chemical composition 70%Al23+30%TiC) under dry conditions. Based on 33 full factorial design, a total of 27 tests were carried out. The range of each parameter is set at three different levels, namely low, medium and high. Mathematical models were deduced by software Minitab (multiple linear regression and response surface methodology) in order to express the influence degree of the main cutting variables such as cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut on cutting force components. These models would be helpful in selecting cutting variables for optimization of hard cutting process. The results indicate that the depth of cut is the dominant factor affecting cutting force components. The feed rate influences tangential cutting force more than radial and axial forces. The cutting speed affects radial force more than tangential and axial forces.