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Sample records for plastics chemistry vol

  1. Radioanalytical chemistry. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toelgyessy, J.; Kyrs, M.

    1989-01-01

    This volume of the monograph covers the following topics: activation analysis, non-activation interaction analysis (elastic scattering of charged particles, absorption and backscattering of beta radiation and photons, radionuclide X-ray fluorescence analysis, thermalization, scattering and absorption of neutrons, use of ionization caused by nuclear radiation, use of ionization by alpha or beta radiation for the measurement of pressure, density and flow rate of gases), and automation in radioanalytical chemistry. (P.A.)

  2. Radiation chemistry of plastic crystals. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klingen, T.J.

    1979-01-01

    The primary purpose of this report is to summarize the research done under this contract over the past twelve years. Since it is manifestly impossible to provide all the details involved in this work in this report only the primary results of these studies are discussed. The detailed radiolytic mechanisms and kinetics, as well as other detailed information on the systems studied have previously been reported in the annual reports, ORO-3781-1 through 14 and in the journal articles listed in the Contract Publications section of this report. The initial purpose of this work was to study the gamma-ray induced polymerization of organo-substituted carboranes in the solid state. With time this purpose changed to understanding in detail the effects plastic crystallinity had on the overall radiolysis of materials in this type of mesomorphic state. This work included the effects of phase, charge transfer, organic substituent and the ability of the carboranes to act as electron scavengers. For clarity of presentation, the work in the various areas which was performed under this contract is reported in four separate sections: plastic crystallinity, radiation chemistry, electrooptical properties, and thermal oligomerization

  3. Combinatorial chemistry approach to development of molecular plastic solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Godovsky, Dmitri; Inganäs, Olle; Brabec, Christoph J.; Sariciftci, N. Serdar; Hummelen, Jan C.; Janssen, Rene A.J.; Prato, M.; Maggini, M.; Segura, Jose; Martin, Nazario

    1999-01-01

    We used a combinatorial chemistry approach to develop the molecular plastic solar cells based on soluble fullerene derivatives or solubilized TCNQ molecules in combination with conjugated polymers. Profiles, formed by the diffusion of low molecular weight component in the spin-cast polymer host were

  4. Plastic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong Gi Hyeon

    1987-04-01

    This book deals with plastic, which includes introduction for plastic, chemistry of high polymers, polymerization, speciality and structure of a high molecule property of plastic, molding, thermosetting plastic, such as polyethylene, polyether, polyamide and polyvinyl acetyl, thermal plastic like phenolic resins, xylene resins, melamine resin, epoxy resin, alkyd resin and poly urethan resin, new plastic like ionomer and PPS resin, synthetic laminated tape and synthetic wood, mixed materials in plastic, reprocessing of waste plastic, polymer blend, test method for plastic materials and auxiliary materials of plastic.

  5. South African Journal of Chemistry - Vol 56 (2003)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Chemistry. ... Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of new Thiazole-2(3H)-thiones containing 1, 1, 3-trisubstituted Cyclobutane · EMAIL ... Part 12.1 Fragmentation Patterns in the Electron-impact Mass Spectra of 2-(N, ...

  6. Conflicts in Chemistry: The Case of Plastics, a Role-Playing Game for High School Chemistry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Deborah H.

    2014-01-01

    Conflicts in Chemistry: The Case of Plastics, an innovative role-playing activity for high school students, was developed by the Chemical Heritage Foundation to promote increased public understanding of chemistry. The pilot program included three high school teachers and their students at three different schools and documented implementation and…

  7. Chemistry with Inexpensive Materials: Spray Bottles and Plastic Bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoltewicz, Susan

    1993-01-01

    Presents eight chemistry activities that are interesting and involve simple, easily available materials. Topics include mystery writing, valentine hearts, flame tests, evaporation race, buoyancy versus mass, determination of relative masses of gases, mole sample container, and cold and hot packs. (DDR)

  8. Radiation chemistry of plastic crystals. Annual progress report, November 1, 1976--October 31, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klingen, T.J.

    1977-01-01

    The overall purpose of this investigation is the understanding of the role that mesomorphism plays in the radiation chemistry of plastic crystals. In approaching this problem, the first step is to obtain data on the basic radiation chemistry of the most ordered solid state--the crystalline state. Thus, the results reported here are concerned with determination of the radiolysis of three plastic crystals in their highest ordered state. In addition to these studies, investigation of the optical properties and the positron life time properties of these materials in their plastic crystalline state was undertaken. The primary purpose of these studies during the current reporting period was the determination of the feasibility of these techniques to provide useful information to the overall project goal

  9. Possible Role of Green Chemistry in Addressing Environmenal Plastic Debris: Scientific, Economic and Policy Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayha, K. M.

    2016-02-01

    Plastics have revolutionized modern life, replacing other raw materials in a vast array of products, due to their ease in molding and shaping, as well as superior recalcitrance to wearing and aging. However, this functional benefit makes plastic one of the most problematic pollutants, since they accumulate as environmental debris for decades and possibly for centuries. Rightfully so, programs addressing plastic debris typically involve efforts to reduce consumption, reuse plastic products and recycle them when usefulness is complete. However, some of these options can be problematic for certain applications, as well as in countries that lack efficient municipal solid waste or recycling facilities. The principles of Green Chemistry were developed to help scientists design chemical products that reduce or eliminate the use or generation of hazardous substances. These principles have also been applied to developing sustainable or greener polymers for use in consumer plastics. For instance, the EPA's Green Chemistry Program awards the Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge Awards each year, with a large percentage of awards having gone to developments in greener polymers. Many of these advancements involve the development of sustainable bio-based, more degradable or more recyclable polymers that deliver significant environmental benefits. This presentation is meant to address what role the development of truly greener polymers might have in addressing environmental plastic debris in parallel with efforts to reduce, reuse and recycle. The intention is to evaluate the issues posed by traditional polymer types, address the ultimate goals of alternative polymer development and evaluate research on current alternative polymer technologies, in order to objectively assess their usefulness in addressing environmental plastic debris accumulation. In addition, the scientific, policy and market issues that may be impeding accurate development, evaluation and implementation of

  10. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.3). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2013, No.4--Nuclear chemistry and radiation chemistry sub-volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-05-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 3) includes 24 articles which are communicated on the third national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally. This is the fourth one, the content is about Nuclear chemistry and radiation chemistry sub-volume

  11. Research on condensed matter and atomic physics using major experimental facilities and devices: Physics, chemistry, biology. Reports on results. Vol. 2. 3. Solid state physics and materials science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report in three volumes substantiates the contents of the programme survey published in September 1989. The progress reports cover the following research areas: Vol. I, (1). Atomic and molecular physics - free atoms, molecules, macromolecules, clusters, matrix-isolated atoms and molecules. (2) Physics and chemistry of surfaces and interfaces - epitaxy, surface structure, adsorption, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties, thin films, synthetic layer structure. Vol. II, (3). Solid-state physics, and materials science -structural research, lattice dynamics, magnetic structure and dynamics, electronic states; load; spin and pulse density fluctuations; diffusion and internal motion, defects, unordered systems and liquids. Vol. III, (4). Chemistry - bonding and structure, kinetics and reaction mechanisms, polymer research, analysis and synthesis. (5). Biology, - structure and dynamics of biological macromolecules, membrane and cell biology. (6) Development of methods and instruments - neutron sources, synchrotron sources, special accelerators, research with interlinked systems and devices. (orig.) [de

  12. Effects of wood fiber surface chemistry on strength of wood–plastic composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Migneault, Sébastien, E-mail: sebastien.migneault@uqat.ca [University of Quebec in Abitibi-Temiscamingue (UQAT), 445 boulevard de l’Université, Rouyn-Noranda, Québec J9X 5E4 (Canada); Koubaa, Ahmed, E-mail: ahmed.koubaa@uqat.ca [UQAT (Canada); Perré, Patrick, E-mail: patrick.perre@ecp.fr [École centrale de Paris, Grande Voie des Vignes, F-92 295 Chatenay-Malabry Cedex (France); Riedl, Bernard, E-mail: Bernard.Riedl@sbf.ulaval.ca [Université Laval, 2425 rue de la Terrasse, Québec City, Québec G1V 0A6 (Canada)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses showed variations of surface chemical characteristics according to fiber origin. • Surface chemical characteristics of fibers could partly explain the differences in mechanical properties of the wood–plastic composites. • Fibers with carbohydrate rich surface led to stronger wood–plastic composites because the coupling between the matrix and fibers using coupling agent is achieved with polar sites mostly available on carbohydrates. • Conversely, lignin or extractives rich surface do not have oxidized functions for the esterification reaction with coupling agent and thus led to wood–plastic composites with lower mechanical properties. • Other factors such as mechanical interlocking and fiber morphology interfere with the effects of fiber surface chemistry. - Abstract: Because wood–plastic composites (WPC) strength relies on fiber-matrix interaction at fiber surface, it is likely that fiber surface chemistry plays an important role in WPC strength development. The objective of the present study is to investigate the relationships between fiber surface chemical characteristics and WPC mechanical properties. Different fibers were selected and characterized for surface chemical characteristics using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). WPC samples were manufactured at 40% fiber content and with six different fibers. High density polyethylene was used as matrix and maleated polyethylene (MAPE) was used as compatibility agent. WPC samples were tested for mechanical properties and fiber-matrix interface was observed with scanning electron microscope. It was found WPC strength decreases as the amount of unoxidized carbon (assigned to lignin and extractives) measured with XPS on fiber surface increases. In the opposite case, WPC strength increases with increasing level of oxidized carbon (assigned to carbohydrates) on fiber surface. The same

  13. Effects of wood fiber surface chemistry on strength of wood–plastic composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migneault, Sébastien; Koubaa, Ahmed; Perré, Patrick; Riedl, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses showed variations of surface chemical characteristics according to fiber origin. • Surface chemical characteristics of fibers could partly explain the differences in mechanical properties of the wood–plastic composites. • Fibers with carbohydrate rich surface led to stronger wood–plastic composites because the coupling between the matrix and fibers using coupling agent is achieved with polar sites mostly available on carbohydrates. • Conversely, lignin or extractives rich surface do not have oxidized functions for the esterification reaction with coupling agent and thus led to wood–plastic composites with lower mechanical properties. • Other factors such as mechanical interlocking and fiber morphology interfere with the effects of fiber surface chemistry. - Abstract: Because wood–plastic composites (WPC) strength relies on fiber-matrix interaction at fiber surface, it is likely that fiber surface chemistry plays an important role in WPC strength development. The objective of the present study is to investigate the relationships between fiber surface chemical characteristics and WPC mechanical properties. Different fibers were selected and characterized for surface chemical characteristics using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). WPC samples were manufactured at 40% fiber content and with six different fibers. High density polyethylene was used as matrix and maleated polyethylene (MAPE) was used as compatibility agent. WPC samples were tested for mechanical properties and fiber-matrix interface was observed with scanning electron microscope. It was found WPC strength decreases as the amount of unoxidized carbon (assigned to lignin and extractives) measured with XPS on fiber surface increases. In the opposite case, WPC strength increases with increasing level of oxidized carbon (assigned to carbohydrates) on fiber surface. The same

  14. Research on condensed matter and atomic physics, using major experimental facilities and devices: Physics, chemistry, biology. Reports on results. Vol. 1. 1. Atomic and molecular physics. 2. Physics and chemistry of surfaces and interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report in three volumes substantiates the contents of the programme survey published in September 1989. The progress reports cover the following research areas: Vol. I, (1). Atomic and molecular physics - free atoms, molecules, macromolecules, clusters, matrix-isolated atoms and molecules. (2) Physics and chemistry of surfaces and interfaces - epitaxy, surface structure, adsorption, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties, thin films, synthetic layer structure. Vol. II, (3). Solid-state physics, and materials science -structural research, lattice dynamics, magnetic structure and dynamics, electronic states; load; spin and pulse density fluctuations; diffusion and internal motion, defects, unordered systems and liquids. Vol. III, (4). Chemistry - bonding and structure, kinetics and reaction mechanisms, polymer research, analysis and synthesis. (5). Biology, - structure and dynamics of biological macromolecules, membrane and cell biology. (6) Development of methods and instruments - neutron sources, synchrotron sources, special accelerators, research with interlinked systems and devices. (orig.) [de

  15. Research on condensed matter and atomic physics using major experimental facilities and devices: Physics, chemistry, biology. Reports on results. Vol. 3. 4. Chemistry. 5. Biology. 6. Development of methods and instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report in three volumes substantiates the contents of the programme survey published in September 1989. The progress reports cover the following research areas: Vol. I, (1). Atomic and molecular physics - free atoms, molecules, macromolecules, clusters, matrix-isolated atoms and molecules. (2) Physics and chemistry of surfaces and interfaces - epitaxy, surface structure, adsorption, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties, thin films, synthetic layer structure. Vol. II, (3). Solid-state physics, and materials science -structural research, lattice dynamics, magnetic structure and dynamics, electronic states; load; spin and pulse density fluctuations; diffusion and internal motion, defects, unordered systems and liquids. Vol. III, (4). Chemistry - bonding and structure, kinetics and reaction mechanisms, polymer research, analysis and synthesis. (5). Biology, - structure and dynamics of biological macromolecules, membrane and cell biology. (6) Development of methods and instruments - neutron sources, synchrotron sources, special accelerators, research with interlinked systems and devices. (orig.) [de

  16. An Example of Learning about Plastics and Their Evaluation as a Contribution to Education for Sustainable Development in Secondary School Chemistry Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmeister, Mareike; Eilks, Ingo

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the development and evaluation of a secondary school lesson plan for chemistry education on the topic Education for Sustainable Development (ESD). The lessons focus both on the chemistry of plastics and on learning about the societal evaluation of competing, chemistry-based industrial products. A specific teaching method was…

  17. Filling a Plastic Bag with Carbon Dioxide: A Student-Designed Guided-Inquiry Lab for Advanced Placement and College Chemistry Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanni, Laura M.

    2014-01-01

    A guided-inquiry lab, suitable for first-year general chemistry or high school advanced placement chemistry, is presented that uses only inexpensive, store-bought materials. The reaction of sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) with aqueous acetic acid (vinegar), under the constraint of the challenge to completely fill a sealable plastic bag with the…

  18. Radiation chemistry of plastic crystals. Annual progress report, November 1, 1975--October 31, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klingen, T.J.

    1976-01-01

    Results of research on synthesis and plastic crystallinity of adamantane derivatives are presented. Results of electo-optical studies are included along with results of 1-phenyl-o-carborane radiolysis, co-polymerization of o-carborane, and 1-vinyl-o-carborane

  19. A Designer Fluid for Aluminum Phase Change Devices, Vol. 1 of 3: General Inorganic Aqueous Solution (IAS) Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-17

    out in wicked phase change heat transfer devices. Wen [18] used nanoparticle suspensions to successfully increase the boiling heat transfer...Aqueous Solution of an Anionic Surfactant,” Journal of Heat Transfer 122, No. 4: 708. [18] Wen , D. and Ding, Y., 2005, “Experimental Investigation...Li, Y., 1974, “Diffusion of Ions in Sea Water and in Deep -Sea Sediments,” Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 88, pp. 703-714. [36] Negishi, K

  20. Student Scientific Conference, 2008. Collection of contributions. Vol. 2 - Sections of geography, geology, environment, chemistry and didactics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-04-01

    The conference included the following sections: (i) Biology (114 contributions); (ii) Geography (37 contributions); (iii) Geology (24 contributions); (iv) Environment (16 contributions); (v) Chemistry (11 contributions); (vi) Didactics (8 contributions). Contributions relevant to INIS interest have been inputted to INIS.

  1. Structural Analysis of Shipping Casks, Vol. 9. Energy Absorption Capabilities of Plastically Deformed Struts Under Specified Impact Loading Conditions (Thesis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, F.C.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the energy absorption characteristics of plastically deformed inclined struts under impact loading. This information is needed to provide a usable method by which designers and analysts of shipping casks for radioactive or fissile materials can determine the energy absorption capabilities of external longitudinal fins on cylindrical casks under specified impact conditions. A survey of technical literature related to experimental determination of the dynamic plastic behavior of struts revealed no information directly applicable to the immediate problem, especially in the impact velocity ranges desired, and an experimental program was conducted to obtain the needed data. Mild-steel struts with rectangular cross sections were impacted by free-falling weights dropped from known heights. These struts or fin specimens were inclined at five different angles to simulate different angles of impact that fins on a shipping cask could experience under certain accident conditions. The resisting force of the deforming strut was measured and recorded as a function of time by using load cells instrumented with resistance strain gage bridges, signal conditioning equipment, an oscilloscope, and a Polaroid camera. The acceleration of the impacting weight was measured and recorded as a function of time during the latter portion of the testing program by using an accelerometer attached to the drop hammer, appropriate signal conditioning equipment, the oscilloscope, and the camera. A digital computer program was prepared to numerically integrate the force-time and acceleration-time data recorded during the tests to obtain deformation-time data. The force-displacement relationships were then integrated to obtain values of absorbed energy with respect to deformation or time. The results for various fin specimen geometries and impact angles are presented graphically, and these curves may be used to compute the energy absorption capacity of

  2. Processes in petroleum chemistry. Technical and economical characteristics Vol. 1. Synthesis gas and derivatives. Main hydrocarbon intermediaries (2 ed. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauvel, A.; Lefebvre, G.; Castex, L.

    1985-01-01

    The aim of this book is to give rudiments for a preliminary study to outline petrochemical operation and cost estimation. Basic operations are examined: Steam reforming or partial oxidation, steam or thermal cracking and catalytic reforming. The main topics examined include: hydrogen purification, hydrogen fabrication from hydrocarbons, carbonaceous materials or water, production of carbon monoxide, ammoniac synthesis methanol synthesis from synthesis gas, preparation of formol, urea, acetylene and monomers for the preparation of plastics.

  3. The Hugoniot and chemistry of ablator plastic below 100 GPa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akin, M. C., E-mail: akin1@llnl.gov; Fratanduono, D. E.; Chau, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2016-01-28

    The equation of state of glow discharge polymer (GDP) was measured to high precision using the two-stage light gas gun at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory at pressures up to 70 GPa. Both absolute measurements and impedance matching techniques were used to determine the principal and secondary Hugoniots. GDP likely reacts at about 30 GPa, demonstrated by specific emission at 450 nm coupled with changes to the Hugoniot and reshock points. As a result of these reactions, the shock pressure in GDP evolves in time, leading to a possible decrease in pressure as compression increases, or negative compressibility, and causing complex pressure profiles within the plastic. Velocity wave profile variation was observed as a function of position on each shot, suggesting some internal variation of GDP may be present, which would be consistent with previous observations. The complex temporal and possibly structural evolution of GDP under shock compression suggests that calculations of compression and pressure based upon bulk or mean measurements may lead to artificially low pressures and high compressions. Evidence for this includes a large shift in calculating reshock pressures based on the reflected Hugoniot. These changes also suggest other degradation mechanisms for inertial confinement fusion implosions.

  4. Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferris, L.M.

    1975-01-01

    The chemical research and development efforts related to the design and ultimate operation of molten-salt breeder reactor systems are concentrated on fuel- and coolant-salt chemistry, including the development of analytical methods for use in these systems. The chemistry of tellurium in fuel salt is being studied to help elucidate the role of this element in the intergranular cracking of Hastelloy N. Studies were continued of the effect of oxygen-containing species on the equilibrium between dissolved UF 3 and dissolved UF 4 , and, in some cases, between the dissolved uranium fluorides and graphite, and the UC 2 . Several aspects of coolant-salt chemistry are under investigation. Hydroxy and oxy compounds that could be formed in molten NaBF 4 are being synthesized and characterized. Studies of the chemistry of chromium (III) compounds in fluoroborate melts were continued as part of a systematic investigation of the corrosion of structural alloys by coolant salt. An in-line voltammetric method for determining U 4+ /U 3+ ratios in fuel salt was tested in a forced-convection loop over a six-month period. (LK)

  5. Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferris, L.M.

    1976-01-01

    Research progress is reported in programs on fuel-salt chemistry, properties of compounds in the Li--Te system, Te spectroscopy UF 4 --H equilibria, porous electrode studies of molten salts, fuel salt-coolant salt reactions, thermodynamic properties of transition-metal fluorides, and properties of sodium fluoroborate. Developmental work on analytical methods is summarized including in-line analysis of molten MSBR fuel, analysis of coolant-salts for tritium, analysis of molten LiF--BeF 2 --ThF 4 for Fe and analysis of LiF--BeF--ThF 4 for Te

  6. Inorganic chemistry. Vol. 2. Subgroup elements, lanthanoids, actinoids, transactinoids. 103. ed.; Anorganische Chemie. Bd. 2. Nebengruppenelemente, Lanthanoide, Actinoide, Transactinoide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holleman, Arnold Frederik; Wiberg, Egon; Wiberg, Nils

    2017-06-01

    For decades, the ''Holleman/Wiberg '' has offered a comprehensive knowledge of inorganic and organometallic chemistry. With the 103rd edition, a new work has been created, which has been designed for the comprehensive preparation of the examination and as a reference book. This second volume comprises the parts C (''subgroups of the periodic system'', the ''d-block elements'') that of the outer transition elements (expansion of the second outermost electron shells) and in the part D (''lanthanides and actinoids''; f-block elements) of the inner transition elements (expansion of the third outermost electron shells). [German] Das ''Holleman/Wiberg'' bietet seit Jahrzehnten ein umfassendes Stoffwissen der anorganischen und metallorganischen Chemie. Mit der 103. Auflage ist nach umfangreicher Umgestaltung der Vorauflage ein neues Werk entstanden, das zur umfassenden Pruefungsvorbereitung und als Nachschlagewerk bestimmt ist. Dieser 2. Band fasst die Teile C (''Nebengruppen des Periodensystems''; ''d-Block-Elemente'') die der aeusseren Uebergangselemente (Ausbau der zweitaeussersten Elektronenschalen) und im Teil D (''Lanthanoide und Actinoide''; ''f-Block-Elemente) die der inneren Uebergangselemente (Ausbau der drittaeussersten Elektronenschalen) zusammen.

  7. Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferris, L.M.

    1975-01-01

    Research and development activities dealing with the chemical problems related to design and ultimate operation of molten-salt reactor systems are described. An experimental test stand was constructed to expose metallurgical test specimens to Te 2 vapor at defined temperatures and deposition rates. To better define the chemistry of fluoroborate coolant, several aspects are being investigated. The behavior of hydroxy and oxy compounds in molten NaBF 4 is being investigated to define reactions and compounds that may be involved in corrosion and/or could be involved in methods for trapping tritium. Two corrosion products of Hastelloy N, Na 3 CrF 6 and Na 5 Cr 3 F 14 , were identified from fluoroborate systems. The evaluation of fluoroborate and alternate coolants continued. Research on the behavior of hydrogen and its isotopes is summarized. The solubilities of hydrogen, deuterium, and helium in Li 2 BeF 4 are very low. The sorption of tritium on graphite was found to be significant (a few milligrams of tritium per kilogram of graphite), possibly providing a means of sequestering a portion of the tritium produced. Development of analytical methods continued with emphasis on voltammetric and spectrophotometric techniques for the in-line analysis of corrosion products such as Fe 2+ and Cr 3+ and the determination of the U 3+ /U 4+ ratio in MSBR fuel salt. Similar studies were conducted with the NaBF 4 --NaF coolant salt. Information developed during the previous operation of the CSTF has been assessed and used to formulate plans for evaluation of in-line analytical methods in future CSTF operations. Electroanalytical and spectrophotometric research suggests that an electroactive protonic species is present in molten NaBF 4 --NaF, and that this species rapidly equilibrates with a volatile proton-containing species. Data obtained from the CSTF indicated that tritium was concentrated in the volatile species. (JGB)

  8. Electrostatics in Chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Electrostatics in Chemistry. 3. Molecular Electrostatic Potential: Visualization and Topography. Shridhar R Gadre and Pravin K Bhadane. 1 1. Basic Principles, Resona- nce, Vol.4, No.2, 11-19, 1999. 2. Electrostatic Potentials of. Atoms, Ions and Molecules,. Resonance, Vol.4, No.5, 40-51,. 1999. Topographical features of the ...

  9. 12-EEASA-Vol 22.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jenny

    2006-02-22

    Feb 22, 2006 ... Southern African Journal of Environmental Education, Vol. .... To this end, a planning conference on environmental .... mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, geography, agriculture, home economics and human and.

  10. Characterization of the surface physico-chemistry of plasticized PVC used in blood bag and infusion tubing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Salloum, H; Saunier, J; Dazzi, A; Vigneron, J; Etcheberry, A; Marlière, C; Aymes-Chodur, C; Herry, J M; Bernard, M; Jubeli, E; Yagoubi, N

    2017-06-01

    Commercial infusion tubing and blood storage devices (tubing, blood and platelets bags) made of plasticized PVC were analyzed by spectroscopic, chromatographic and microscopic techniques in order to identify and quantify the additives added to the polymer (lubricants, thermal stabilizers, plasticizers) and to put into evidence their blooming onto the surface of the devices. For all the samples, deposits were observed on the surface but with different kinds of morphologies. Ethylene bis amide lubricant and metallic stearate stabilizers were implicated in the formation of these layers. In contact with aqueous media, these insoluble deposits were damaged, suggesting a possible particulate contamination of the infused solutions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Vol draadwerk

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    Die motto van Marius Crous se derde bundel,. Vol draadwerk (2012) is ontleen aan die vader van die psigoanalise, Sigmund Freud, wat lui: “Everywhere I go I find a poet has been there before me.” Vol draadwerk verskyn ses jaar ná sy vorige bundel, Aan 'n beentjie sit en kluif. (2006). Vir sy bundel, Brief uit die kolonies ...

  12. Student Scientific Conference, 2008. Collection of contributions. Vol. 2 - Sections of geography, geology, environment, chemistry and didactics; Studentska vedecka konferencia, 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-04-15

    The conference included the following sections: (i) Biology (114 contributions); (ii) Geography (37 contributions); (iii) Geology (24 contributions); (iv) Environment (16 contributions); (v) Chemistry (11 contributions); (vi) Didactics (8 contributions). Contributions relevant to INIS interest have been inputted to INIS.

  13. 51. Meeting of the Chemical Societies: Almanac of Contributions, Vol. Program, 1, 2, 3, 4 Molecular Models (Workshop)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uher, M.; Benes, P.; Carsky, J.; Ctrnactova, H.; Fecenko, J.; Fellner, P.; Hodul, P.; Koprda, V.; Kratochvil, B.; Krkoska, P.; Kuruc, J.; Lehotay, J.; Matousek, J.; Milichovsky, P.; Omastova, M.; Petrus, L. jr.; Petrus, L. sr.; Schwendt, P.; Silny, P.; Sevcik, P.; Toma, S.; Uherova, R.; Zachar, P.

    1999-09-01

    The publication has been set up as a abstracts of the meeting dealing with different chemical problems. The book (Vol. 1) consists of the sections: All-plenary lectures (9 papers); (D) History of the chemistry (14); (K) Didactics of chemistry (32); The book (Vol. 2) consists of the sections: (A) Analytical chemistry (48); (B) Inorganic chemistry (75); (C) Physical chemistry (27); (F) Nuclear chemistry and radioecology (12); (L) Environmental chemistry and toxicology (33); (M) Agricultural chemistry (20). The book (Vol. 3) consists of the sections: (E) Wood, pulp, paper (15); (G) Macromolecular chemistry (42); (H) Organic chemistry, bio-organic chemistry and pharmaceutical chemistry (96); (I) Food chemistry and biochemistry (34); (J) Textile, fibres and foil materials (9). The book (Vol. 4) consists of the workshop Molecular models (3 papers)

  14. 49. Meeting of the Chemical Societies: Proceedings of the contributions. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uher, M.; Benes, P.; Carsky, J.; Chodak, I.; Kuruc, J.; Romancik, V.; Stasko, A. Slovak Technical Univ., Bratislava

    1995-09-01

    The publication has been set up as a abstracts of the meeting dealing with chemical problems. The book (Vol. 2) consists of the sections: (C) Physical chemistry; (D) History of the chemistry; (E) Food chemistry and technology; (D) Environmental chemistry; (E) Nuclear chemistry and radioecology; (H) Synthetic polymers

  15. 49. Meeting of the Chemical Societies: Proceedings of the contributions. Vol. 2; 49. Zjazd chemickych spolocnosti: Zbornik prispevkov, 2. diel.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uher, M [Slovak Technical Univ., Bratislava (Slovakia). Dept. of Organic Chemistry; Hlouskova, Z [Ceska Chemicka Spolecnost, Prague (Czech Republic); Benes, P [Czech Technical University, Prague (Czech Republic). Dept. Nuclear. Chemistry; Carsky, J [Comenius Univ., Bratislava (Slovakia). Inst. of Medicinal Chemistry, Biochemistry and Clinical Biochemistry; Chodak, I [Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava (Slovakia). Polymer Inst.; Kuruc, J [Comenius Univ., Bratislava (Slovakia). Dept. of Nuclear Chemistry; Romancik, V [Ministry of Environment of the Slovak Republic, Bratislava (Slovakia); [Stasko, A. Slovak Technical Univ., Bratislava (Slovakia). Dept. of Physical Chemistry

    1996-12-31

    The publication has been set up as a abstracts of the meeting dealing with chemical problems. The book (Vol. 2) consists of the sections: (C) Physical chemistry; (D) History of the chemistry; (E) Food chemistry and technology; (D) Environmental chemistry; (E) Nuclear chemistry and radioecology; (H) Synthetic polymers.

  16. 51. Meeting of the Chemical Societies: Almanac of Contributions, Vol. Program, 1, 2, 3, 4 Molecular Models (Workshop); 51. Zjazd chemickych spolocnosti: Zbornik prispevkov, Diel: Program, 1, 2, 3, 4 Molekulove modely (Workshop)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uher, M [ed.; Dept. of Org. Chem., Slovak Techn. Univ., Bratislava (Slovakia); Benes, P [ed.; Dept. Nucl. Chem., Czech Techn. Univ., Prague (Czech Republic); Carsky, J [ed.; Inst. of Med. Chem., Biochem. and Clin. Biochem., Comenius Univ., Bratislava (Slovakia); Ctrnactova, H [ed.; Dept. of Educat. and Didactics of Chem., Charles Univ., Prague (Czech Republic); Fecenko, J [ed.; Dept. of Agricult. Chem. and Susten. of Veget., Slovak Agricult. Univ., Nitra (Slovakia); Fellner, P [ed.; Dept. of Inorg. Chem., Slovak Techn. Univ., Bratislava (Slovakia); Hodul, P [ed.; Dept. of Fibres and Textile, Slovak Techn. Univ., Bratislava (Slovakia); Koprda, V [ed.; Dept. of Envir., Slovak Techn. Univ., Bratislava (Slovakia); Kratochvil, B [ed.; Inst. of. Solid State Chem., Chem. Univ., Prague (Czech Republic); Krkoska, P [ed.; Dept. of Chem. Technol. of Wood, Pulp and Paper, Slovak Techn. Univ., Bratislava (Slovakia); Kuruc, J [ed.; Dept. of Nucl. Chem., Comenius Univ., Bratislava (Slovakia); Lehotay, J [ed.; Dept. of Anal. Chem., Slovak Techn. Univ., Bratislava (Slovakia); Matousek, J [ed.; Inst. of Chem. and Technol. of the Envir., Techn. Univ, Brno (Czech Republic); Milichovsky, P [ed.; Dept. of Chem. Techn. of Wood, Pulp and Paper, Univ. Pardubice, Pardubice (Czech Republic); Omastova, M [ed.; Inst. of Polym., SAS, Bratislava (Slovakia); Petrus, L jr; Petrus, L sr [eds.; Inst. of Chem., SAS, Bratislava (Slovakia); Salisova, M [ed.; Dept. of Org. Chem., Comenius Univ., Bratislava (Slovakia); Schwendt, P [ed.; Dept. of Inorg. Chem., Comenius Univ., Bratislava (Slovakia); Silny, P; Sevcik, P; Toma, S [eds.; Comenius Univ., Bratislava (Slovakia); Uherova, R [ed.; Slovak Techn. Univ., Bratislava (Slovakia); Vanek, L [ed.; Charles Univ., Prague (Czech Republic); Zachar, P [ed.; Chem. Univ., Prague (Czech Republic)

    1999-09-01

    The publication has been set up as a abstracts of the meeting dealing with different chemical problems. The book (Vol. 1) consists of the sections: All-plenary lectures (9 papers); (D) History of the chemistry (14); (K) Didactics of chemistry (32); The book (Vol. 2) consists of the sections: (A) Analytical chemistry (48); (B) Inorganic chemistry (75); (C) Physical chemistry (27); (F) Nuclear chemistry and radioecology (12); (L) Environmental chemistry and toxicology (33); (M) Agricultural chemistry (20). The book (Vol. 3) consists of the sections: (E) Wood, pulp, paper (15); (G) Macromolecular chemistry (42); (H) Organic chemistry, bio-organic chemistry and pharmaceutical chemistry (96); (I) Food chemistry and biochemistry (34); (J) Textile, fibres and foil materials (9). The book (Vol. 4) consists of the workshop Molecular models (3 papers)

  17. Plastic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Plastic Surgery KidsHealth / For Teens / Plastic Surgery What's in ... her forehead lightened with a laser? What Is Plastic Surgery? Just because the name includes the word " ...

  18. Plasticity theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lubliner, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    The aim of Plasticity Theory is to provide a comprehensive introduction to the contemporary state of knowledge in basic plasticity theory and to its applications. It treats several areas not commonly found between the covers of a single book: the physics of plasticity, constitutive theory, dynamic plasticity, large-deformation plasticity, and numerical methods, in addition to a representative survey of problems treated by classical methods, such as elastic-plastic problems, plane plastic flow, and limit analysis; the problem discussed come from areas of interest to mechanical, structural, and

  19. Meeting of the Chemical Societies: Almanac of the contributions of the fifty-first meeting of the chemical societies. Vol. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uher, M.; Benes, P.; Carsky, J.; Ctrnactova, H.; Fecenko, J.; Fellner, P.; Hodul, P.; Koprda, V.; Kratochvil, B.; Krkoska, P.; Kuruc, J.; Lehotay, J.; Matousek, J.; Milichovsky, P.; Omastova, M.; Petrus, L. jr.; Petrus, L. sr.; Schwendt, P.; Silny, P.; Sevcik, P.; Toma, S.; Uherova, R.; Zachar, P.

    1999-09-01

    The publication has been set up as an abstracts of the meeting dealing with different chemical problems. The book (Vol. 3) consists of the sections: (E) Wood, pulp, paper (15 papers); (G) Macromolecular chemistry (42 papers); (H) Organic chemistry, bio-organic chemistry and pharmaceutical chemistry (96 Papers); (I) Food chemistry and biochemistry; (J) Textile, fibres and foil materials

  20. South African Journal of Chemistry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The journal publishes short communications, full research papers and review articles in all branches of chemistry. Other websites associated with this journal: http://www.journals.co.za/sajchem/. Vol 71 (2018). DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. Table of Contents.

  1. 21 CFR 178.2650 - Organotin stabilizers in vinyl chloride plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... extraction tests shall cover at least three equilibrium periodic determinations, as follows: (i) The exposure... Furnace,” Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 49, p. 1090-1093 (1977), which is incorporated by reference. Copies...,” Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 49, pp. 1090-1093 (1977), which is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5...

  2. Proceedings of the Seventh Conference of Nuclear Sciences and Applications. Vol.1,2,3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, H.F.

    2000-01-01

    The publication has been set up as a textbook for nuclear sciences and applications vol.1: (1) radiochemistry; (2) radiation chemistry; (3) isotope production; (4) waste management; vol.2: (1) nuclear and reactor; (2) physics; (3) plasma physics; (4) instrumentation and devices; (5) trace and ultra trace analysis; (6) environmental; vol.3: (1) radiation protection; (2) radiation health hazards; (3) nuclear safety; (4) biology; (5) agriculture

  3. Proceedings of the Seventh Conference of Nuclear Sciences and Applications. Vol.1,2,3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aly, H F [ed.

    2000-07-01

    The publication has been set up as a textbook for nuclear sciences and applications vol.1: (1) radiochemistry; (2) radiation chemistry; (3) isotope production; (4) waste management; vol.2: (1) nuclear and reactor; (2) physics; (3) plasma physics; (4) instrumentation and devices; (5) trace and ultra trace analysis; (6) environmental; vol.3: (1) radiation protection; (2) radiation health hazards; (3) nuclear safety; (4) biology; (5) agriculture.

  4. Radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, F.; Rodgers, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    The contents of this book include: Interaction of ionizing radiation with matter; Primary products in radiation chemistry; Theoretical aspects of radiation chemistry; Theories of the solvated electron; The radiation chemistry of gases; Radiation chemistry of colloidal aggregates; Radiation chemistry of the alkali halides; Radiation chemistry of polymers; Radiation chemistry of biopolymers; Radiation processing and sterilization; and Compound index

  5. Nigerian Journal of Chemical Research 29 Vol. 15, 2010 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hp

    Nigerian Journal of Chemical Research. 29. Vol. 15, 2010. Antibacterial & Antifungal Studies On Some Coordination Compound Of Metals. With Ampicillin. Pranay Guru. Department of Engineering Chemistry, People's College of Research & Technology, Bhopal. (M. P.) India, email:pranayguru@rediffmail.com. ABSTRACT.

  6. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2005 Small Business Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2005 award winner, Metabolix, used biotechnology to develop microorganisms that produce polyhydroxyalkanoates: natural, biodegradable plastics with a range of environmental benefits.

  7. Bad chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Petsko, Gregory A

    2004-01-01

    General chemistry courses haven't changed significantly in forty years. Because most basic chemistry students are premedical students, medical schools have enormous influence and could help us start all over again to create undergraduate chemistry education that works.

  8. Plastics chemistry. Different types of plastics chemical aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdu, J.

    2002-01-01

    In this work are studied the different types of aging; they are classified according to the external effects at which they are submitted to: high temperature for a thermal aging; UV or ionizing radiations for the photochemical or radiochemical aging; hydrolysis, oxidation, ozonolysis or mechanical stress for the chemical aging; living organisms for the biochemical aging. (O.M.)

  9. Plastic dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Shiro; Matsuda, Kohji.

    1988-01-01

    The report outlines major features and applications of plastic dosimeters. Some plastic dosimeters, including the CTA and PVC types, detect the response of the plastic material itself to radiations while others, such as pigment-added plastic dosimeters, contain additives as radiation detecting material. Most of these dosimeters make use of color centers produced in the dosimeter by radiations. The PMMA dosimeter is widely used in the field of radiation sterilization of food, feed and medical apparatus. The blue cellophane dosimeter is easy to handle if calibrated appropriately. The rad-color dosimeter serves to determine whether products have been irradiated appropriately. The CTA dosimeter has better damp proofing properties than the blue cellophane type. The pigment-added plastic dosimeter consists of a resin such as nylon, CTA or PVC that contains a dye. Some other plastic dosimeters are also described briefly. Though having many advantages, these plastic dosimeter have disadvantages as well. Some of their major disadvantages, including fading as well as large dependence on dose, temperature, humidity and anviroment, are discussed. (Nogami, K.)

  10. PLASTIC SURGERY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Sefako Makgatho Health Science University, ... We report on a pilot study on the use of a circumareolar excision and the use of .... and 1 gynecomastia patient) requested reduction in NAC size.

  11. Vol 41 No 2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    3 Centre for Primary Care Research. Medical Journal of Zambia, Vol. 41, No. 2: 59 - 64 (2014) ... pollutants by inhaling second-hand tobacco smoke are at risk of adverse health ..... To put the measured PM levels into perspective, a. 2.5. 5.

  12. Plastic Fishes

    CERN Multimedia

    Trettnak, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    In terms of weight, the plastic pollution in the world’s oceans is estimated to be around 300,000 tonnes. This plastic comes from both land-based and ocean-based sources. A lecture at CERN by chemist Wolfgang Trettnak addressed this issue and highlighted the role of art in raising people’s awareness. The slideshow below gives you a taste of the artworks by Wolfgang Trettnak and Margarita Cimadevila.

  13. Complex chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bong Gon; Kim, Jae Sang; Kim, Jin Eun; Lee, Boo Yeon

    2006-06-01

    This book introduces complex chemistry with ten chapters, which include development of complex chemistry on history coordination theory and Warner's coordination theory and new development of complex chemistry, nomenclature on complex with conception and define, chemical formula on coordination compound, symbol of stereochemistry, stereo structure and isomerism, electron structure and bond theory on complex, structure of complex like NMR and XAFS, balance and reaction on solution, an organo-metallic chemistry, biology inorganic chemistry, material chemistry of complex, design of complex and calculation chemistry.

  14. Industrial applications of radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puig, Jean Rene

    1959-01-01

    The status of industrial applications of radiation chemistry as it stands 6 months after the second Geneva international conference is described. The main features of the interaction of ionizing radiations with matter are briefly stated and a review is made of the best studied and the more promising systems of radiation chemistry. The fields of organics, plastics, heterogeneous catalysis are emphasized. Economies of radiation production and utilization are discussed. Reprint of a paper published in Industries atomiques - no. 5-6, 1959

  15. Mathematical Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Trinajstić, Nenad; Gutman, Ivan

    2002-01-01

    A brief description is given of the historical development of mathematics and chemistry. A path leading to the meeting of these two sciences is described. An attempt is made to define mathematical chemistry, and journals containing the term mathematical chemistry in their titles are noted. In conclusion, the statement is made that although chemistry is an experimental science aimed at preparing new compounds and materials, mathematics is very useful in chemistry, among other things, to produc...

  16. Increasing the Signal to Noise Ratio in a Chemistry Laboratory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increasing the Signal to Noise Ratio in a Chemistry Laboratory - Improving a Practical for Academic Development Students. ... Analysis of data collected in 2001 shows that the changes made a significant impact on the effectiveness of the laboratory session. South African Journal of Chemistry Vol.56 2003: 47-53 ...

  17. GREEN PLASTIC: A NEW PLASTIC FOR PACKAGING

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. Pankaj Kumar*, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    This paper gives a brief idea about a new type of plastic called as bio-plastic or green plastic. Plastic is used as a packaging material for various products, but this plastic is made up of non renewable raw materials. There are various disadvantages of using conventional plastic like littering, CO2 production, non-degradable in nature etc. To overcome these problems a new type of plastic is discovered called bio-plastic or green plastic. Bio-plastic is made from renewable resources and also...

  18. Plastic condoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-01-01

    Only simple equipment, simple technology and low initial capital investment are needed in their manufacture. The condoms can be made by people who were previously unskilled or only semi-skilled workers. Plastic condoms differ from those made of latex rubber in that the nature of the plastic film allows unlimited shelf-life. Also, the plastic has a higher degree of lubricity than latex rubber; if there is a demand for extra lubrication in a particular market, this can be provided. Because the plastic is inert, these condoms need not be packaged in hermetically sealed containers. All these attributes make it possible to put these condoms on the distributors' shelves in developing countries competitively with rubber condoms. The shape of the plastic condom is based on that of the lamb caecum, which has long been used as luxury-type condom. The plastic condom is made from plastic film (ethylene ethyl acrilate) of 0.001 inch (0.0254 mm.) thickness. In addition, a rubber ring is provided and sealed into the base of the condom for retention during coitus. The advantage of the plastic condom design and the equipment on which it is made is that production can be carried out either in labour-intensive economy or with varying degrees of mechanization and automation. The uniform, finished condom if made using previously untrained workers. Training of workers can be done in a matter of hours on the two machines which are needed to produce and test the condoms. The plastic film is provided on a double wound roll, and condom blanks are prepared by means of a heat-sealing die on the stamping machine. The rubber rings are united to the condom blanks on an assembly machine, which consists of a mandrel and heat-sealing equipment to seal the rubber ring to the base of the condom. Built into the assembly machine is a simple air-testing apparatus that can detect the smallest pinhole flaw in a condom. The manufacturing process is completed by unravelling the condom from the assembly

  19. Chemistry Notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Described are eight chemistry experiments and demonstrations applicable to introductory chemistry courses. Activities include: measure of lattice enthalpy, Le Chatelier's principle, decarboxylation of soap, use of pocket calculators in pH measurement, and making nylon. (SL)

  20. Chemistry Dashboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Chemistry Dashboard is part of a suite of dashboards developed by EPA to help evaluate the safety of chemicals. The Chemistry Dashboard provides access to a variety of information on over 700,000 chemicals currently in use.

  1. Meeting of the Chemical Societies: Almanac of the contributions of the fifty-third meeting of the chemical societies, Vol. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toelgyessy, J.

    2001-09-01

    The publication has been set up as the abstracts of the meeting dealing with different chemical problems. The book (Vol. 3) consists of the sections: (F) Chemistry of polymers, organic materials, textile, fibres, foil materials (63 papers); (I) Organic and pharmaceutical chemistry (59 papers); (J) Food chemistry and biotechnology (26 papers); (M) Environment, Toxicology (51 papers)

  2. Magical Engineering Plastic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Gwang Ung

    1988-01-15

    This book introduces engineering plastic about advantage of engineering plastic, plastic material from processing method, plastic shock, plastic until now, background of making of engineering plastic, wonderful engineering plastic science such as a high molecule and molecule, classification of high molecule, difference between metal and high molecule, heat and high molecule materials, and property of surface, engineering plastic of dream like from linseed oil to aramid, small dictionary of engineering plastic.

  3. Magical Engineering Plastic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gwang Ung

    1988-01-01

    This book introduces engineering plastic about advantage of engineering plastic, plastic material from processing method, plastic shock, plastic until now, background of making of engineering plastic, wonderful engineering plastic science such as a high molecule and molecule, classification of high molecule, difference between metal and high molecule, heat and high molecule materials, and property of surface, engineering plastic of dream like from linseed oil to aramid, small dictionary of engineering plastic.

  4. Combinatorial chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, John

    1994-01-01

    An overview of combinatorial chemistry is presented. Combinatorial chemistry, sometimes referred to as `irrational drug design,' involves the generation of molecular diversity. The resulting chemical library is then screened for biologically active compounds.......An overview of combinatorial chemistry is presented. Combinatorial chemistry, sometimes referred to as `irrational drug design,' involves the generation of molecular diversity. The resulting chemical library is then screened for biologically active compounds....

  5. Aquatic Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Yeun; Kim, Oh Sik; Kim, Chang Guk; Park, Cheong Gil; Lee, Gwi Hyeon; Lee, Cheol Hui

    1987-07-01

    This book deals aquatic chemistry, which treats water and environment, chemical kinetics, chemical balance like dynamical characteristic, and thermodynamics, acid-base chemistry such as summary, definition, kinetics, and PH design for mixture of acid-base chemistry, complex chemistry with definition, and kinetics, precipitation and dissolution on summary, kinetics of precipitation and dissolution, and balance design oxidation and resolution with summary, balance of oxidation and resolution.

  6. Positronium chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Green, James

    1964-01-01

    Positronium Chemistry focuses on the methodologies, reactions, processes, and transformations involved in positronium chemistry. The publication first offers information on positrons and positronium and experimental methods, including mesonic atoms, angular correlation measurements, annihilation spectra, and statistical errors in delayed coincidence measurements. The text then ponders on positrons in gases and solids. The manuscript takes a look at the theoretical chemistry of positronium and positronium chemistry in gases. Topics include quenching, annihilation spectrum, delayed coincidence

  7. Mixed plastics recycling technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hegberg, Bruce

    1995-01-01

    Presents an overview of mixed plastics recycling technology. In addition, it characterizes mixed plastics wastes and describes collection methods, costs, and markets for reprocessed plastics products.

  8. Pervasive plastic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-05-01

    Human manipulation of hydrocarbons — as fuel and raw materials for modern society — has changed our world and the indelible imprint we will leave in the rock record. Plastics alone have permeated our lives and every corner of our planet.

  9. Plastic fish

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    In terms of weight, the plastic pollution in the world’s oceans is estimated to be around 300,000 tonnes. This plastic comes from both land-based and ocean-based sources. A lecture at CERN by chemist Wolfgang Trettnak addressed this issue and highlighted the role of art in raising people’s awareness.   Artwork by Wolfgang Trettnak. Packaging materials, consumer goods (shoes, kids’ toys, etc.), leftovers from fishing and aquaculture activities… our oceans and beaches are full of plastic litter. Most of the debris from beaches is plastic bottles. “PET bottles have high durability and stability,” explains Wolfgang Trettnak, a chemist by education and artist from Austria, who gave a lecture on this topic organised by the Staff Association at CERN on 26 May. “PET degrades very slowly and the estimated lifetime of a bottle is 450 years.” In addition to the beach litter accumulated from human use, rivers bring several ki...

  10. Plastic deformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sitter, de L.U.

    1937-01-01

    § 1. Plastic deformation of solid matter under high confining pressures has been insufficiently studied. Jeffreys 1) devotes a few paragraphs to deformation of solid matter as a preface to his chapter on the isostasy problem. He distinguishes two properties of solid matter with regard to its

  11. Forensic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Suzanne

    2009-07-01

    Forensic chemistry is unique among chemical sciences in that its research, practice, and presentation must meet the needs of both the scientific and the legal communities. As such, forensic chemistry research is applied and derivative by nature and design, and it emphasizes metrology (the science of measurement) and validation. Forensic chemistry has moved away from its analytical roots and is incorporating a broader spectrum of chemical sciences. Existing forensic practices are being revisited as the purview of forensic chemistry extends outward from drug analysis and toxicology into such diverse areas as combustion chemistry, materials science, and pattern evidence.

  12. plastic waste recycling

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Ahmed

    incinerators is increasing around the world. Discarded plastic products ... Agency (EPA) estimated that the amount of plastics throw away is. 50 % greater in the ... The waste plastics were identified using the Society of the Plastic. Industry (SPI) ...

  13. Nigerian Journal of Plastic Surgery - Vol 5, No 1 (2009)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pharyngeal reconstruction after total laryngectomy: options in a developing country. ... Vulval defect after pelvic trauma and its repair with reverse TRAM flap: report ... Management of an oro-facial soft tissue defect: a case report · EMAIL FULL ...

  14. Nigerian Journal of Plastic Surgery - Vol 4, No 2 (2008)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A psychological morbidity study of patients with major burns seen at a teaching hospital in Lagos, Nigeria · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. AO Coker, IO Fadeyibi, OB Olugbile, OG Sanni, MP Zachariah, SA Ademiluyi, 31-35. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/njpsur.v4i2.

  15. Plastics in Pharmacy and Medicine | McCarthy | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Medical Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 45, No 1 (1971) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Plastics in Pharmacy and Medicine. TJ McCarthy. Abstract.

  16. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2016 Designing Greener Chemicals and Specific Environmental Benefit: Climate Change Awards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2016 award winner, Newlight Technologies, developed a net carbon negative plastic made from methane-based GHG. It is cheaper than petroleum-based plastic; used to make cell phone cases, furniture, and other products.

  17. Organic chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-08-01

    This book with sixteen chapter explains organic chemistry on linkage isomerism such as alkane, cycloalkane, alkene, aromatic compounds, stereo selective isomerization, aromatic compounds, stereo selective isomerization, organic compounds, stereo selective isomerization, organic halogen compound, alcohol, ether, aldehyde and ketone, carboxylic acid, dicarboxylic acid, fat and detergent, amino, carbohydrate, amino acid and protein, nucleotide and nucleic acid and spectroscopy, a polymer and medical chemistry. Each chapter has introduction structure and characteristic and using of organic chemistry.

  18. Radiation chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1973-07-01

    Research progress is reported on radiation chemistry of heavy elements that includes the following topics: radiation chemistry of plutonium in nitric acid solutions (spectrophotometric analysis and gamma radiolysis of Pu(IV) and Pu(VI) in nitric acid solution); EPR studies of intermediates formed in radiolytic reactions with aqueous medium; two-phase radiolysis and its effect on the distribution coefficient of plutonium; and radiation chemistry of nitric acid. (DHM)

  19. Technetium chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, C.; Bryan, J.; Cotton, F.; Ott, K.; Kubas, G.; Haefner, S.; Barrera, J.; Hall, K.; Burrell, A.

    1996-01-01

    Technetium chemistry is a young and developing field. Despite the limited knowledge of its chemistry, technetium is the workhorse for nuclear medicine. Technetium is also a significant environmental concern because it is formed as a byproduct of nuclear weapons production and fission-power generators. Development of new technetium radio-pharmaceuticals and effective environmental control depends strongly upon knowledge of basic technetium chemistry. The authors performed research into the basic coordination and organometallic chemistry of technetium and used this knowledge to address nuclear medicine and environmental applications. This is the final report of a three-year Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)

  20. Chemistry Technology

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Chemistry technology experts at NCATS engage in a variety of innovative translational research activities, including:Design of bioactive small molecules.Development...

  1. Current organic chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    Provides in depth reviews on current progress in the fields of asymmetric synthesis, organometallic chemistry, bioorganic chemistry, heterocyclic chemistry, natural product chemistry, and analytical...

  2. Nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertes, A.; Kiss, I.

    1987-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the application of nuclear science in modern chemistry. The first group of chapters discuss the basic phenomena and concepts of nuclear physics with emphasis on their relation to chemical problems, including the main properties and the composition of atomic nuclei, nuclear reactions, radioactive decay and interactions of radiation with matter. These chapters provide the basis for understanding the following chapters which encompass the wide scope of nuclear chemistry. The methods of the investigation of chemical structure based on the interaction of nuclear radiation with matter including positronium chemistry and other exotic atoms is elaborated in particular detail. Separate chapters are devoted to the use of radioactive tracers, the chemical consequences of nuclear processes (i.e. hot atom chemistry), radiation chemistry, isotope effects and their applications, and the operation of nuclear reactors

  3. Nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertes, A.; Kiss, I.

    1987-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the application of nuclear science in modern chemistry. The first group of chapters discuss the basic phenomena and concepts of nuclear physics with emphasis on their relation to chemical problems, including the main properties and the composition of atomic nuclei, nuclear reactions, radioactive decay and interactions of radiation with matter. These chapters provide the basis for understanding the following chapters which encompass the wide scope of nuclear chemistry. The methods of the investigation of chemical structure based on the interaction of nuclear radiation with matter including positronium chemistry and other exotic atoms is elaborated in particular detail. Separate chapters are devoted to the use of radioactive tracers, the chemical consequences of nuclear processes (i.e. hot atom chemistry), radiation chemistry, isotope effects and their applications, and the operation of nuclear reactors. (Auth.)

  4. Vol 12, No 1 (2014)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The) - Vol 12, No 1 (2014) ... The effect of serum angiotensin II and angiotensin II type 1 receptor gene ... with diabetic ketoacidosis · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  5. Zede Journal - Vol 29 (2012)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Archives > Vol 29 (2012) ... Leakage aware hardware and stochastic power scheduling for smart mobile devices ... Energy efficient topology for Wireless Mesh Networks · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  6. Plastic scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreeshchev, E.A.; Kilin, S.F.; Kavyrzina, K.A.

    1978-01-01

    A plastic scintillator for ionizing radiation detectors with high time resolution is suggested. To decrease the scintillation pulse width and to maintain a high light yield, the 4 1 , 4 5 -dibromo-2 1 , 2 5 , 5 1 , 5 5 -tetramethyl-n-quinquiphenyl (Br 2 Me 4 Ph) in combination with n-terphenyl (Ph 3 ) or 2, 5-diphenyloxadiazol-1, 3, 4 (PPD) is used as a luminescent addition. Taking into consideration the results of a special study, it is shown, that the following ratio of ingradients is the optimum one: 3-4 mass% Ph 3 or 4-7 mas% PPD + 2-5 mass% Br 2 Me 4 Ph + + polymeric base. The suggested scintillator on the basis of polystyrene has the light yield of 0.23-0.26 arbitrary units and the scintillation pulse duration at half-height is 0.74-0.84 ns

  7. Quantum chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Lowe, John P

    1993-01-01

    Praised for its appealing writing style and clear pedagogy, Lowe's Quantum Chemistry is now available in its Second Edition as a text for senior undergraduate- and graduate-level chemistry students. The book assumes little mathematical or physical sophistication and emphasizes an understanding of the techniques and results of quantum chemistry, thus enabling students to comprehend much of the current chemical literature in which quantum chemical methods or concepts are used as tools. The book begins with a six-chapter introduction of standard one-dimensional systems, the hydrogen atom,

  8. South African Journal of Chemistry - Vol 54 (2001)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of Phthalate Esters in the Aquatic Environment · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT ... Chemical Speciation of Chromium in Various Matrices in South African Terrestrial Water Using an Optimised Adsorptive Stripping Voltammetric Procedure · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL ...

  9. South African Journal of Chemistry - Vol 55 (2002)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On-line Determination of Hydrochloric Acid in Process Effluent Streams by Potentiometric Sequential Injection Acid-Base Titration · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. JF Van Staden, MG Mashamba, RI Stefan ...

  10. South African Journal of Chemistry - Vol 66 (2013)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An Electrochemical Investigation of Methanol Oxidation on Nickel Hydroxide ... Adsorption of Dyes Using Different Types of Sand: A Review · EMAIL FREE FULL ... methyl sulphate + Nitromethane + Methanol or Ethanol or 1-Propanol) at T ...

  11. South African Journal of Chemistry - Vol 71 (2018)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance of Mn-modified bentonite clay for the removal of fluoride from aqueous solution · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Rabelani Mudzielwana, Mugera W. Gitari, Segun A. Akinyemi, Titus A.M. Msagati, 15-23 ...

  12. South African Journal of Chemistry - Vol 65 (2012)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Synthesis of Nitrogen-Doped Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Using an ... Effects of Deposited Metallic Silver on Nano-ZnO for the Environmental Purification ... B Ananda Kumar, S Raju, K Bharath Kumar Naik, G Nageswara Rao, 184-190 ...

  13. South African Journal of Chemistry - Vol 71 (2018)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synthesis, characterization and biocompatibility of a multifunctional gold nanoparticle system for the delivery of single-stranded RNA to lymphocytes · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Raveen Parboosing, Thavendran Govender, Glenn E.M. Maguire, ...

  14. South African Journal of Chemistry - Vol 60 (2007)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Synthesis of 5-, 6-, 7- and 8-Membered Oxygen-containing Benzo-fused Rings using Alkene Isomerization and Ring-closing Metathesis Reactions · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. R Pathak, J Panayides, TD Jeftic, CB de Koning, WAL van Otterlo ...

  15. South African Journal of Chemistry - Vol 62 (2009)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Excess Molar Volumes and Partial Molar Volumes of Binary Systems (Ionic Liquid + Methanol or Ethanol or 1-Propanol) at T = (298.15, 303.15 and 313.15) K · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. PN Sibiya, N Deenadayalu, 20-25 ...

  16. South African Journal of Chemistry - Vol 57 (2004)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study on Colour Reaction of Vanadium(V) with ... Quantification of Sugars in Soft Drinks and Fruit Juices by Density, Refractometry, Infrared Spectroscopy ... Kinetic Aspects of the Direct Electrochemical Oxidation of p-Xylene in Methanol using ...

  17. South African Journal of Chemistry - Vol 68 (2015)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Rapid and Sensitive LC-MS/MS Method for the Determination of Multi-class ... Emission Spectrometry · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT ... Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometric Method Development and Validation for Determination of .... Current Issue Atom logo

  18. South African Journal of Chemistry - Vol 64 (2011)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Mo, and W) as Models · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT ... Galvanostatic Electrodeposition of Ni-Co Alloys in DMSO under a Magnetic Field ... Computer Simulation Studies of Trishomocubane Heptapeptide of the Type ... and Triarylmethane from Benzylic Alcohols Using P2O5/Al2O3 or P2O5/SiO2 at ...

  19. South African Journal of Chemistry - Vol 63 (2010)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synthesis & Characterization of New bis-Symmetrical Adipoyl, Terepthaloyl, Chiral ... A DFT and NBO Analysis of the Bonding in Titanocenyl Complexes ... Novel 2-Mercaptobenzothiazoles Carrying 1,3,4-Oxadiazole, 1,3,4-Thiadiazole and 1,2 ...

  20. Toxicological Threats of Plastic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plastics pose both physical (e.g., entanglement, gastrointestinal blockage, reef destruction) and chemical threats (e.g., bioaccumulation of the chemical ingredients of plastic or toxic chemicals sorbed to plastics) to wildlife and the marine ecosystem.

  1. Materials Chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Fahlman, Bradley D

    2011-01-01

    The 2nd edition of Materials Chemistry builds on the strengths that were recognized by a 2008 Textbook Excellence Award from the Text and Academic Authors Association (TAA). Materials Chemistry addresses inorganic-, organic-, and nano-based materials from a structure vs. property treatment, providing a suitable breadth and depth coverage of the rapidly evolving materials field. The 2nd edition continues to offer innovative coverage and practical perspective throughout. After briefly defining materials chemistry and its history, seven chapters discuss solid-state chemistry, metals, semiconducting materials, organic "soft" materials, nanomaterials, and materials characterization. All chapters have been thoroughly updated and expanded with, for example, new sections on ‘soft lithographic’ patterning, ‘click chemistry’ polymerization, nanotoxicity, graphene, as well as many biomaterials applications. The polymer and ‘soft’ materials chapter represents the largest expansion for the 2nd edition. Each ch...

  2. Analytical chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jae Seong

    1993-02-15

    This book is comprised of nineteen chapters, which describes introduction of analytical chemistry, experimental error and statistics, chemistry equilibrium and solubility, gravimetric analysis with mechanism of precipitation, range and calculation of the result, volume analysis on general principle, sedimentation method on types and titration curve, acid base balance, acid base titration curve, complex and firing reaction, introduction of chemical electro analysis, acid-base titration curve, electrode and potentiometry, electrolysis and conductometry, voltammetry and polarographic spectrophotometry, atomic spectrometry, solvent extraction, chromatograph and experiments.

  3. Analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jae Seong

    1993-02-01

    This book is comprised of nineteen chapters, which describes introduction of analytical chemistry, experimental error and statistics, chemistry equilibrium and solubility, gravimetric analysis with mechanism of precipitation, range and calculation of the result, volume analysis on general principle, sedimentation method on types and titration curve, acid base balance, acid base titration curve, complex and firing reaction, introduction of chemical electro analysis, acid-base titration curve, electrode and potentiometry, electrolysis and conductometry, voltammetry and polarographic spectrophotometry, atomic spectrometry, solvent extraction, chromatograph and experiments.

  4. Analytical chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, Myeong Hu; Lee, Hu Jun; Kim, Ha Seok

    1989-02-15

    This book give explanations on analytical chemistry with ten chapters, which deal with development of analytical chemistry, the theory of error with definition and classification, sample and treatment gravimetry on general process of gravimetry in aqueous solution and non-aqueous solution, precipitation titration about precipitation reaction and types, complexometry with summary and complex compound, oxidation-reduction equilibrium on electrode potential and potentiometric titration, solvent extraction and chromatograph and experiment with basic operation for chemical experiment.

  5. Analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Myeong Hu; Lee, Hu Jun; Kim, Ha Seok

    1989-02-01

    This book give explanations on analytical chemistry with ten chapters, which deal with development of analytical chemistry, the theory of error with definition and classification, sample and treatment gravimetry on general process of gravimetry in aqueous solution and non-aqueous solution, precipitation titration about precipitation reaction and types, complexometry with summary and complex compound, oxidation-reduction equilibrium on electrode potential and potentiometric titration, solvent extraction and chromatograph and experiment with basic operation for chemical experiment.

  6. Green Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collison, Melanie

    2011-05-15

    Green chemistry is the science of chemistry used in a way that will not use or create hazardous substances. Dr. Rui Resendes is working in this field at GreenCentre Canada, an offshoot of PARTEQ Innovations in Kingston, Ontario. GreenCentre's preliminary findings suggest their licensed product {sup S}witchable Solutions{sup ,} featuring 3 classes of solvents and a surfactant, may be useful in bitumen oil sands extraction.

  7. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2012 Academic Award (Waymouth and Hedrick)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2012 award winners, Professor Robert M. Waymouth and Dr. James L. Hedrick, developed a broad class of highly active, environmentally benign, metal-free catalysts for synthesizing plastics.

  8. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2002 Greener Reaction Conditions Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2002 award winner, Cargill Dow, developed the NatureWorks process to make biobased, compostable, and recyclable polylactic acid polymers for fibers and plastic packaging.

  9. Physical chemistry and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunning, T.H. Jr.; Garrett, B.C.; Kolb, C.E. Jr.; Shaw, R.W.; Choppin, G.R.; Wagner, A.F.

    1994-08-01

    From the ozone hole and the greenhouse effect to plastics recycling and hazardous waste disposal, society faces a number of issues, the solutions to which require an unprecedented understanding of the properties of molecules. We are coming to realize that the environment is a coupled set of chemical systems, its dynamics determining the welfare of the biosphere and of humans in particular. These chemical systems are governed by fundamental molecular interactions, and they present chemists with an unparalleled challenge. The application of current concepts of molecular behavior and of up-to-date experimental and computational techniques can provide us with insights into the environment that are needed to mitigate past damage, to anticipate the impact of current human activity, and to avoid future insults to the environment. Environmental chemistry encompasses a number of separate, yet interlocking, areas of research. In all of these areas progress is limited by an inadequate understanding of the underlying chemical processes involved. Participation of all chemical approaches -- experimental, theoretical and computational -- and of all disciplines of chemistry -- organic, inorganic, physical, analytical and biochemistry -- will be required to provide the necessary fundamental understanding. The Symposium on ''Physical Chemistry and the Environment'' was designed to bring the many exciting and challenging physical chemistry problems involved in environmental chemistry to the attention of a larger segment of the physical chemistry community

  10. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.1). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2009, No.4--nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-11-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 1) includes 889 articles which are communicated on the first national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally.This is the fourth one, the content is about nuclear materials, isotope separation, nuclear chemistry and radiological chemistry.

  11. Recycling of Plastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2011-01-01

    Plastic is produced from fossil oil. Plastic is used for many different products. Some plastic products like, for example, wrapping foil, bags and disposable containers for food and beverage have very short lifetimes and thus constitute a major fraction of most waste. Other plastic products like...

  12. STECH VOL5 (1) FEBRUARY, 2016

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Copyright 1AARR 2012-2016: www.afrrevjo.net

    STECH VOL 5 (1) FEBRUARY, 2016. Vol. 5 (1), S/No11, February, 2016: 1-13 ..... Knowledge produce is an act of discovery which involves exploring, analyzing .... Architectural Research, Elsevier: Higher Education Press Limited Company.

  13. General chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Yeong Sik; Lee, Dong Seop; Ryu, Haung Ryong; Jang, Cheol Hyeon; Choi, Bong Jong; Choi, Sang Won

    1993-07-01

    The book concentrates on the latest general chemistry, which is divided int twenty-three chapters. It deals with basic conception and stoichiometry, nature of gas, structure of atoms, quantum mechanics, symbol and structure of an electron of ion and molecule, chemical thermodynamics, nature of solid, change of state and liquid, properties of solution, chemical equilibrium, solution and acid-base, equilibrium of aqueous solution, electrochemistry, chemical reaction speed, molecule spectroscopy, hydrogen, oxygen and water, metallic atom; 1A, IIA, IIIA, carbon and atom IVA, nonmetal atom and an inert gas, transition metals, lanthanons, and actinoids, nuclear properties and radioactivity, biochemistry and environment chemistry.

  14. Radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swallow, A.J.

    1983-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: introduction (defines scope of article as dealing with the chemistry of reactive species, (e.g. excess electrons, excited states, free radicals and inorganic ions in unusual valency states) as studied using radiation with radiation chemistry in its traditional sense and with biological and industrial applications); gases; water and simple inorganic systems; aqueous metallo-organic compounds and metalloproteins; small organic molecules in aqueous solution; microheterogeneous systems; non-aqueous liquids and solutions; solids; biological macromolecules; synthetic polymers. (U.K.)

  15. Indoor Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weschler, Charles J.; Carslaw, Nicola

    2018-01-01

    This review aims to encapsulate the importance, ubiquity, and complexity of indoor chemistry. We discuss the many sources of indoor air pollutants and summarize their chemical reactions in the air and on surfaces. We also summarize some of the known impacts of human occupants, who act as sources...... and sinks of indoor chemicals, and whose activities (e.g., cooking, cleaning, smoking) can lead to extremely high pollutant concentrations. As we begin to use increasingly sensitive and selective instrumentation indoors, we are learning more about chemistry in this relatively understudied environment....

  16. Handbook of heterocyclic chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katritzky, Alan R

    2010-01-01

    ... Heterocyclic Chemistry I (1984) Comprehensive Heterocyclic Chemistry II (1996) Comprehensive Heterocyclic Chemistry III (2008) Comprehensive Organic Functional Group Transformations I (1995) Compreh...

  17. Alpha spectrometry without chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, A.S.; Heaton, B.

    1983-01-01

    A gridded cylindrical pulse ionization chamber is considered for the simultaneous analysis of natural alpha emitters. Solid sources of up to 0.3 g are deposited after wet grinding as a thin layer on 1.1 m 2 of aluminized plastic film, which acts as the cathode. No chemistry is involved, and thus there is little chance of nuclide fractionation. With a ''weightless'' source the resolution is about 55 keV; 110 keV has been easily achieved at 4.2 MeV with real sources. We conclude that significant information about isotope activities in the natural series is available with only a fraction of the work involved in conventional techniques. (author)

  18. Reinventing Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Whitesides, George McClelland

    2015-01-01

    Chemistry is in a period of change, from an era focused on molecules and reactions, to one in which manipulations of systems of molecules and reactions will be essential parts of controlling larger systems. This Essay traces paths from the past to possible futures.

  19. Chemistry Notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Short articles on the kinetics of the hydrogen peroxide-iodide ion reaction, simulation of fluidization catalysis, the use of Newman projection diagrams to represent steric relationships in organic chemistry, the use of synthetic substrates for proteolytic enzyme reactions, and two simple clock reactions"--hydrolysis of halogenoalkanes and…

  20. Information manager-2011-Vol 11

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Library _info_Sc_ 1

    The Information Manager Vol. ... extent while carrying out their duties on a daily basis. ... It concluded by admonishing librarians to brace up and keep pace ... Proper training should be given to .... used to information and communication technologies .... proficiency Skills .... analysis of the workplace and implementation of.

  1. Chemistry and physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broerse, J.J.; Barendsen, G.W.; Kal, H.B.; Kogel, A.J. van der

    1983-01-01

    This book contains the extended abstracts of the contributions of the poster workshop sessions on chemistry and physics of the 7th international congress of radiation research. They cover the following main topics: primary processes in radiation physics and chemistry, general chemistry in radiation chemistry, DNA and model systems in radiation chemistry, molecules of biological interest in radiation chemistry, techniques in radiation chemistry, hot atom chemistry. refs.; figs.; tabs

  2. Fine chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laszlo, P.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the Fine Chemistry laboratory (Polytechnic School, France) is presented. The research programs are centered on the renewal of the organic chemistry most important reactions and on the invention of new, highly efficient and highly selective reactions, by applying low cost reagents and solvents. An important research domain concerns the study and fabrication of new catalysts. They are obtained by means of the reactive sputtering of the metals and metal oxydes thin films. The Monte Carlo simulations of the long-range electrostatic interaction in a clay and the obtention of acrylamides from anhydrous or acrylic ester are summarized. Moreover, the results obtained in the field of catalysis are also given. The published papers and the congress communications are included [fr

  3. Radioanalytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The bibliography of Hungarian literature in the field of radioanalytical chemistry covers the four-year period 1976-1979. The list of papers contains 290 references in the alphabetical order of the first authors. The majority of the titles belongs to neutron activation analysis, labelling, separation and determination of radioactive isotopes. Other important fields like radioimmunoassay, environmental protection etc. are covered as well. (Sz.J.)

  4. Analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The division for Analytical Chemistry continued to try and develope an accurate method for the separation of trace amounts from mixtures which, contain various other elements. Ion exchange chromatography is of special importance in this regard. New separation techniques were tried on certain trace amounts in South African standard rock materials and special ceramics. Methods were also tested for the separation of carrier-free radioisotopes from irradiated cyclotron discs

  5. Industrial chemistry engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This book on industrial chemistry engineering is divided in two parts. The first part deals with industrial chemistry, inorganic industrial chemistry, organic industrial chemistry, analytical chemistry and practical questions. The last parts explain the chemical industry, a unit parts and thermodynamics in chemical industry and reference. It reveals the test subjects for the industrial chemistry engineering with a written examination and practical skill.

  6. Computational chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, J. O.

    1987-01-01

    With the advent of supercomputers, modern computational chemistry algorithms and codes, a powerful tool was created to help fill NASA's continuing need for information on the properties of matter in hostile or unusual environments. Computational resources provided under the National Aerodynamics Simulator (NAS) program were a cornerstone for recent advancements in this field. Properties of gases, materials, and their interactions can be determined from solutions of the governing equations. In the case of gases, for example, radiative transition probabilites per particle, bond-dissociation energies, and rates of simple chemical reactions can be determined computationally as reliably as from experiment. The data are proving to be quite valuable in providing inputs to real-gas flow simulation codes used to compute aerothermodynamic loads on NASA's aeroassist orbital transfer vehicles and a host of problems related to the National Aerospace Plane Program. Although more approximate, similar solutions can be obtained for ensembles of atoms simulating small particles of materials with and without the presence of gases. Computational chemistry has application in studying catalysis, properties of polymers, all of interest to various NASA missions, including those previously mentioned. In addition to discussing these applications of computational chemistry within NASA, the governing equations and the need for supercomputers for their solution is outlined.

  7. Green chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, John C.; Cannon, Amy S.; Dye, Kevin M.

    2004-01-01

    A grand challenge facing government, industry, and academia in the relationship of our technological society to the environment is reinventing the use of materials. To address this challenge, collaboration from an interdisciplinary group of stakeholders will be necessary. Traditionally, the approach to risk management of materials and chemicals has been through inerventions intended to reduce exposure to materials that are hazardous to health and the environment. In 1990, the Pollution Prevention Act encouraged a new tact-elimination of hazards at the source. An emerging approach to this grand challenge seeks to embed the diverse set of environmental perspectives and interests in the everyday practice of the people most responsible for using and creating new materials--chemists. The approach, which has come to be known as Green Chemistry, intends to eliminate intrinsic hazard itself, rather than focusing on reducing risk by minimizing exposure. This chapter addresses the representation of downstream environmental stakeholder interests in the upstream everyday practice that is reinventing chemistry and its material inputs, products, and waste as described in the '12 Principles of Green Chemistry'

  8. Use of macroporous plastics in extraction chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, T.; Farac, A.B.

    1978-01-01

    Possibilities are analysed which the use of porous plastics (polyvinyl chloride, siloxane rubber, polyurethane, polystyrene and etc.) as carriers presents in extraction chromatography. Short characteristics of chemical and physical properties of macroporous carriers is given. The importance of correct chromatographic column packing is noted to obtain columns with good hydrodynamic characteristics and operational properties. Examples of using columns with macroporous carriers in radiochemistry and inorganic chemistry for element separation are given

  9. Wood-plastic combination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaudy, R.

    1978-02-01

    A review on wood-plastic combinations is given including the production (wood and plastic component, radiation hardening, curing), the obtained properties, present applications and prospects for the future of these materials. (author)

  10. DESIGNERS’ KNOWLEDGE IN PLASTICS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Kaare

    2013-01-01

    The Industrial designers’ knowledge in plastics materials and manufacturing principles of polymer products is very important for the innovative strength of the industry, according to a group of Danish plastics manufacturers, design students and practicing industrial designers. These three groups ...

  11. Theoretical chemistry periodicities in chemistry and biology

    CERN Document Server

    Eyring, Henry

    1978-01-01

    Theoretical Chemistry: Periodicities in Chemistry and Biology, Volume 4 covers the aspects of theoretical chemistry. The book discusses the stably rotating patterns of reaction and diffusion; the chemistry of inorganic systems exhibiting nonmonotonic behavior; and population cycles. The text also describes the mathematical modeling of excitable media in neurobiology and chemistry; oscillating enzyme reactions; and oscillatory properties and excitability of the heart cell membrane. Selected topics from the theory of physico-chemical instabilities are also encompassed. Chemists, mechanical engin

  12. Solution chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1973-07-01

    Research progress is reported on studies in heavy element chemistry. Topics considered are: synergistic complexes of plutonyl ion; water uptake in synergistic systems; formation constants of some uranyl BETA -diketone complexes; thermodynamic acid dissociation constants of BETA -diketones; thermodynamic formation constants of uranyl BETA -diketonates; thiocyanate complexes of some trivalent lanthanides and actinides; stability constants of actinide complexes using dinonyl naphthalenesulfonic acid extraction; TBP extraction of actinides; stability constants of complexes of Pu(III) with 5- sulfosalicycllc acid; and solvent extraction behavior of Pu( VII). (DHM)

  13. Interstellar chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemperer, William

    2006-08-15

    In the past half century, radioastronomy has changed our perception and understanding of the universe. In this issue of PNAS, the molecular chemistry directly observed within the galaxy is discussed. For the most part, the description of the molecular transformations requires specific kinetic schemes rather than chemical thermodynamics. Ionization of the very abundant molecular hydrogen and atomic helium followed by their secondary reactions is discussed. The rich variety of organic species observed is a challenge for complete understanding. The role and nature of reactions involving grain surfaces as well as new spectroscopic observations of interstellar and circumstellar regions are topics presented in this special feature.

  14. Plastic value chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baxter, John; Wahlstrom, Margareta; Zu Castell-Rüdenhausen, Malin

    2014-01-01

    Optimizing plastic value chains is regarded as an important measure in order to increase recycling of plastics in an efficient way. This can also lead to improved awareness of the hazardous substances contained in plastic waste, and how to avoid that these substances are recycled. As an example......, plastics from WEEE is chosen as a Nordic case study. The project aims to propose a number of improvements for this value chain together with representatives from Nordic stakeholders. Based on the experiences made, a guide for other plastic value chains shall be developed....

  15. Biodegradability of Plastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Tokiwa

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Plastic is a broad name given to different polymers with high molecular weight, which can be degraded by various processes. However, considering their abundance in the environment and their specificity in attacking plastics, biodegradation of plastics by microorganisms and enzymes seems to be the most effective process. When plastics are used as substrates for microorganisms, evaluation of their biodegradability should not only be based on their chemical structure, but also on their physical properties (melting point, glass transition temperature, crystallinity, storage modulus etc.. In this review, microbial and enzymatic biodegradation of plastics and some factors that affect their biodegradability are discussed.

  16. Biodegradability of plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokiwa, Yutaka; Calabia, Buenaventurada P; Ugwu, Charles U; Aiba, Seiichi

    2009-08-26

    Plastic is a broad name given to different polymers with high molecular weight, which can be degraded by various processes. However, considering their abundance in the environment and their specificity in attacking plastics, biodegradation of plastics by microorganisms and enzymes seems to be the most effective process. When plastics are used as substrates for microorganisms, evaluation of their biodegradability should not only be based on their chemical structure, but also on their physical properties (melting point, glass transition temperature, crystallinity, storage modulus etc.). In this review, microbial and enzymatic biodegradation of plastics and some factors that affect their biodegradability are discussed.

  17. Radiation chemistry and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1968-01-01

    In recent years considerable progress has been made in understanding the fundamental chemical reactions that occur when materials are irradiated. This has followed from the development of new techniques for studying these reactions. The International Atomic Energy Agency held a Panel on Radiation Chemistry in Vienna on 17-21 April 1967, to review the current status of various sources, new techniques in radiation chemistry, and their applications. The main sources mentioned by the Panel were isotope sources, electron accelerators, and chemonuclear reactors. Among the basic techniques discussed were pulsed radiolysis, flash photolysis, fast ESR methods, irradiation at liquid helium temperatures, electric discharge methods and far ultra-violet methods. Interesting industrial applications were discussed, such as the development of wood-plastic combinations, and a paper was given on the curing of paints and thin films Refs, figs and tabs

  18. Challenges in plastics recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Jakobsen, L. G.; Eriksen, Marie Kampmann

    2015-01-01

    Recycling of waste plastics still remains a challenging area in the waste management sector. The current and potential goals proposed on EU or regional levels are difficult to achieve, and even to partially fullfil them the improvements in collection and sorting should be considerable. A study...... was undertaken to investigate the factors affecting quality in plastics recycling. The preliminary results showed factors primarily influencing quality of plastics recycling to be polymer cross contamination, presence of additives, non-polymer impurities, and polymer degradation. Deprivation of plastics quality......, with respect to recycling, has been shown to happen throughout the plastics value chain, but steps where improvements may happen have been preliminary identified. Example of Cr in plastic samples analysed showed potential spreading and accumulation of chemicals ending up in the waste plastics. In order...

  19. Radiation chemistry and bioradical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferradini, C.

    1991-01-01

    Oxygen metabolism results, at the cellular level, in the formation of superoxyde radical O 2 - · and probably also of hydroxyl radical OH·. Other radical species can be produced from exogenous or endogenous molecules and nearly all of them have the possibility to react with oxygen giving peroxyradicals. Some of these transients play a role in various biological processes such as phagocytosis, inflammation or ischemy although the mechanisms invoked are poorly understood. Radiation chemistry is an invaluable tool for obtaining a quantitative view of these mechanisms. A description is given of this interaction [fr

  20. Fundamentals of nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majer, K.

    1982-01-01

    The textbook is a Czech-to-German translation of the second revised edition and covers the subject under the headings: general nuclear chemistry, methods of nuclear chemistry, preparative nuclear chemistry, analytical nuclear chemistry, and applied chemistry. The book is especially directed to students

  1. Cyclodextrin chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.Z.; Chuaqui, C.A.

    1990-05-01

    The chemistry of cyclodextrins was studied. This study included synthesising some cyclodextrin derivatives, preparing selected inclusion complexes with cyclodextrin and investigating the effects of gamma irradiation on cyclodextrins and certain linear oligosaccharides. This report presents a brief review of the structure and properties of cyclodextrins, the synthesis of cyclodextrin derivatives, their complexation and applications. This is followed by a description of the synthesis of some cyclodextrin derivatives and the preparation of inclusion complexes of cyclodextrin with some organic compounds. Finally, the effects of gamma irradiation on cyclodextrins, some of their derivatives and certain structurally related carbohydrates are discussed. The gamma irradiation studies were carried out for two reasons: to study the effects of gamma irradiation on cyclodextrins and their derivatives; and to investigate selectivity during the gamma irradiation of cyclodextrin derivatives

  2. Astronomical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemperer, William

    2011-01-01

    The discovery of polar polyatomic molecules in higher-density regions of the interstellar medium by means of their rotational emission detected by radioastronomy has changed our conception of the universe from essentially atomic to highly molecular. We discuss models for molecule formation, emphasizing the general lack of thermodynamic equilibrium. Detailed chemical kinetics is needed to understand molecule formation as well as destruction. Ion molecule reactions appear to be an important class for the generally low temperatures of the interstellar medium. The need for the intrinsically high-quality factor of rotational transitions to definitively pin down molecular emitters has been well established by radioastronomy. The observation of abundant molecular ions both positive and, as recently observed, negative provides benchmarks for chemical kinetic schemes. Of considerable importance in guiding our understanding of astronomical chemistry is the fact that the larger molecules (with more than five atoms) are all organic.

  3. Reburning chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilpin, P.; Hupa, M.; Glarborg, P.

    1992-01-01

    No reduction chemistry in natural gas (methane) reburning was studied using detailed kinetic modeling. A reaction set including 225 reversible elementary gas-phase reactions and 48 chemical species was applied to an ideal plug flow reactor, and the most important reactions leading to NO reduction were identified and quantified for a number of conditions relevant for natural gas reburning. In addition, the influence of different process parameters on the NO reduction was investigated in the reburn zone and burn-out zone, respectively. Further, comparison of the calculations to available laboratory-scale data on reburning is made. In this paper, the impact of various fluid dynamic, mixing, and chemical effects---not accounted for in the calculations---on the NO reduction and the optimum reburning conditions predicted is discussed

  4. Combustion chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, N.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This research is concerned with the development and use of sensitivity analysis tools to probe the response of dependent variables to model input variables. Sensitivity analysis is important at all levels of combustion modeling. This group`s research continues to be focused on elucidating the interrelationship between features in the underlying potential energy surface (obtained from ab initio quantum chemistry calculations) and their responses in the quantum dynamics, e.g., reactive transition probabilities, cross sections, and thermal rate coefficients. The goals of this research are: (i) to provide feedback information to quantum chemists in their potential surface refinement efforts, and (ii) to gain a better understanding of how various regions in the potential influence the dynamics. These investigations are carried out with the methodology of quantum functional sensitivity analysis (QFSA).

  5. Handbook of Plastic Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul

    The purpose of this document is to summarize the information about the laser welding of plastic. Laser welding is a matured process nevertheless laser welding of micro dimensional plastic parts is still a big challenge. This report collects the latest information about the laser welding of plastic...... materials and provides an extensive knowhow on the industrial plastic welding process. The objectives of the report include: - Provide the general knowhow of laser welding for the beginners - Summarize the state-of-the-art information on the laser welding of plastics - Find the technological limits in terms...... of design, materials and process - Find the best technology, process and machines adaptive to Sonion’s components - Provide the skills to Sonion’s Design Engineers for successful design of the of the plastic components suitable for the laser welding The ultimate goal of this report is to serve...

  6. Our plastic age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Richard C; Swan, Shanna H; Moore, Charles J; vom Saal, Frederick S

    2009-07-27

    Within the last few decades, plastics have revolutionized our daily lives. Globally we use in excess of 260 million tonnes of plastic per annum, accounting for approximately 8 per cent of world oil production. In this Theme Issue of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, we describe current and future trends in usage, together with the many benefits that plastics bring to society. At the same time, we examine the environmental consequences resulting from the accumulation of waste plastic, the effects of plastic debris on wildlife and concerns for human health that arise from the production, usage and disposal of plastics. Finally, we consider some possible solutions to these problems together with the research and policy priorities necessary for their implementation.

  7. Our plastic age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Richard C.; Swan, Shanna H.; Moore, Charles J.; vom Saal, Frederick S.

    2009-01-01

    Within the last few decades, plastics have revolutionized our daily lives. Globally we use in excess of 260 million tonnes of plastic per annum, accounting for approximately 8 per cent of world oil production. In this Theme Issue of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, we describe current and future trends in usage, together with the many benefits that plastics bring to society. At the same time, we examine the environmental consequences resulting from the accumulation of waste plastic, the effects of plastic debris on wildlife and concerns for human health that arise from the production, usage and disposal of plastics. Finally, we consider some possible solutions to these problems together with the research and policy priorities necessary for their implementation. PMID:19528049

  8. Why Teach Environmental Chemistry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Marjorie H.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the importance of teaching environmental chemistry in secondary school science classes, and outlines five examples of environmental chemistry problems that focus on major concepts of chemistry and have critical implications for human survival and well-being. (JR)

  9. Plastic Pollution from Ships

    OpenAIRE

    Čulin, Jelena; Bielić, Toni

    2016-01-01

    The environmental impact of shipping on marine environment includes discharge of garbage. Plastic litter is of particular concern due to abundance, resistance to degradation and detrimental effect on marine biota. According to recently published studies, a further research is required to assess human health risk. Monitoring data indicate that despite banning plastic disposal at sea, shipping is still a source of plastic pollution. Some of the measures to combat the problem are discussed.

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE-PLASTIC

    OpenAIRE

    Sunita Shakle

    2017-01-01

    Polythene is the most common plastic, the annual global production is approximately 60 million tones, and its primary use is in packing. Plastic bags pollute soil and waters and kill thousands of marine generalize plastic bags are not biodegradable they clog water ways, spoil the land scape and end up in landfills. Where they may take 1000 year or more to break down into ever smaller particals that continue to pollution the soil and water.

  11. Our plastic age

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Richard C.; Swan, Shanna H.; Moore, Charles J.; vom Saal, Frederick S.

    2009-01-01

    Within the last few decades, plastics have revolutionized our daily lives. Globally we use in excess of 260 million tonnes of plastic per annum, accounting for approximately 8 per cent of world oil production. In this Theme Issue of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, we describe current and future trends in usage, together with the many benefits that plastics bring to society. At the same time, we examine the environmental consequences resulting from the accumulation of waste pl...

  12. Rhodium. Suppl. Vol. B1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, W.P.; Jehn, H.; McCleverty, J.A.; Raub, C.J.; Robinson, S.D.

    1982-01-01

    The present rhodium vol. B1 is concerned largely with linary compounds and coordination complexes of this important metal, which is used either alone or in alloy form for fabrication of other materials or for heterogeneous catalysis. In first two chapters are devoted for hydrides, oxides, ternary and quaternary oxorhodates. Third chapter is on different type of complexes with nitrogen. From chapter four to seven is on halogen complexes with this metal. Next chapters are on sulphides, sulphoxide and sulphito complexes, sulphates and sulphato complexes, selenides and tellurides, borides, borane complexes, carbides, carbonato, cyno, fulminato and thiocyanato complexes. Finally, silicide, phosphides, phosphito and arsenides are treated over here. (AB)

  13. Environmental chemistry. Seventh edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manahan, S.E. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

    1999-11-01

    This book presents a basic understanding of environmental chemistry and its applications. In addition to providing updated materials in this field, the book emphasizes the major concepts essential to the practice of environmental chemistry. Topics of discussion include the following: toxicological chemistry; toxicological chemistry of chemical substances; chemical analysis of water and wastewater; chemical analysis of wastes and solids; air and gas analysis; chemical analysis of biological materials and xenobiotics; fundamentals of chemistry; and fundamentals of organic chemistry.

  14. Plasticity: modeling & computation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Borja, Ronaldo Israel

    2013-01-01

    .... "Plasticity Modeling & Computation" is a textbook written specifically for students who want to learn the theoretical, mathematical, and computational aspects of inelastic deformation in solids...

  15. Synaptic Plasticity and Nociception

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChenJianguo

    2004-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity is one of the fields that progresses rapidly and has a lot of success in neuroscience. The two major types of synaptie plasticity: long-term potentiation ( LTP and long-term depression (LTD are thought to be the cellular mochanisms of learning and memory. Recently, accumulating evidence suggests that, besides serving as a cellular model for learning and memory, the synaptic plasticity involves in other physiological or pathophysiological processes, such as the perception of pain and the regulation of cardiovascular system. This minireview will focus on the relationship between synaptic plasticity and nociception.

  16. Plastics and health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halden, Rolf U

    2010-01-01

    By 2010, the worldwide annual production of plastics will surpass 300 million tons. Plastics are indispensable materials in modern society, and many products manufactured from plastics are a boon to public health (e.g., disposable syringes, intravenous bags). However, plastics also pose health risks. Of principal concern are endocrine-disrupting properties, as triggered for example by bisphenol A and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). Opinions on the safety of plastics vary widely, and despite more than five decades of research, scientific consensus on product safety is still elusive. This literature review summarizes information from more than 120 peer-reviewed publications on health effects of plastics and plasticizers in lab animals and humans. It examines problematic exposures of susceptible populations and also briefly summarizes adverse environmental impacts from plastic pollution. Ongoing efforts to steer human society toward resource conservation and sustainable consumption are discussed, including the concept of the 5 Rs--i.e., reduce, reuse, recycle, rethink, restrain--for minimizing pre- and postnatal exposures to potentially harmful components of plastics.

  17. USSR Report Chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1986-01-01

    Contents: Adsorption, Chemistry,Alkaloids, Analytical Chemistry, Catalysis,Chemical Industry,,Coal Gasification, Combustion, Electrochemistry,Explosives and Explosions, Fertilizers, Free Radicals, Inorganic...

  18. Modern plastic solar cells : materials, mechanisms and modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chiechi, Ryan C.; Havenith, Remco W.A.; Hummelen, Jan C.; Koster, L. Jan Anton; Loi, Maria A.

    2013-01-01

    We provide a short review of modern 'plastic' solar cells, a broad topic that spans materials science, physics, and chemistry. The aim of this review is to provide a primer for non-experts or researchers in related fields who are curious about this rapidly growing field of interdisciplinary

  19. Joyo progress report, vol. 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Following Joyo Reactor Technology Progress Reports (Vol. 1 to Vol. 7), the name was changed to Joyo Progress Report from this volume, and the activities concerning the fast breeder experimental reactor Joyo as a whole are to be reported as quarterly report. In the fast breeder experimental reactor Joyo, the change to the core for irradiation (MK-2) from the core for breeding (MK-1) was carried out since January, 1982, in order to utilize the reactor as an irradiation facility for the development of fuel and materials. The main work was the construction of the core for irradiation by exchanging 290 fuel elements, and the exchange of upper and lower guide pipes for control rods, the reconstruction of the driving mechanism, the installation of standby neutron detector system, the acceptance and inspection of new fuel, and the transfer of spent fuel between pools were carried out. As scheduled, the core for irradiation attained the initial criticality on November 22, and the works of constructing the core were completed on December 23, 1982. Thereafter, the 100 MW performance test was begun. Various experience and valuable data were obtained in the regular inspection and the maintenance and repair works carried out at the same time, regarding the operation and maintenance of the Joyo facilities. (Kako, I.)

  20. Water chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Baston, V.F.

    1986-01-01

    Prior to the accident, the coolants in the primary and secondary systems were within normal chemistry specifications for an operating pressurized water reactor with once-through steam generators. During and immediately after the accident, additional boric acid and sodium hydroxide were added to the primary coolant for control of criticality and radioiodine solubility. A primary to secondary leak developed contaminating the water in one steam generator. For about 5 years after the accident, the primary coolant was maintained at 3800 +. 100 ppm boron and 1000 +. 100 ppm sodium concentrations. Dissolved oxygen was maintained 7.5, corrosion caused by increased dissolved oxygen levels (up to 8 ppm) and higher chloride ion content (up to 5 ppm) is minimized. Chemical control of dissolved oxygen was discontinued and the coolant was processed. Prior to removal of the reactor vessel head, the boron concentration in the coolant was increased to ≅ 5000 ppm to support future defueling operations. Decontamination of the accident generated water is described in terms of contaminated water management. In addition, the decontamination and chemical lay-up conditions for the secondary system are presented along with an overview of chemical management at TMI-2

  1. Migration chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsen, L.

    1992-05-01

    Migration chemistry, the influence of chemical -, biochemical - and physico-chemical reactions on the migration behaviour of pollutants in the environment, is an interplay between the actual natur of the pollutant and the characteristics of the environment, such as pH, redox conditions and organic matter content. The wide selection of possible pollutants in combination with varying geological media, as well as the operation of different chemical -, biochemical - and physico-chemical reactions compleactes the prediction of the influence of these processes on the mobility of pollutants. The report summarizes a wide range of potential pollutants in the terrestrial environment as well as a variety of chemical -, biochemical - and physico-chemical reactions, which can be expected to influence the migration behaviour, comprising diffusion, dispersion, convection, sorption/desorption, precipitation/dissolution, transformations/degradations, biochemical reactions and complex formation. The latter comprises the complexation of metal ions as well as non-polar organics to naturally occurring organic macromolecules. The influence of the single types of processes on the migration process is elucidated based on theoretical studies. The influence of chemical -, biochemical - and physico-chemical reactions on the migration behaviour is unambiguous, as the processes apparently control the transport of pollutants in the terrestrial environment. As the simple, conventional K D concept breaks down, it is suggested that the migration process should be described in terms of the alternative concepts chemical dispersion, average-elution-time and effective retention. (AB) (134 refs.)

  2. Basic radiation physics and chemistry of composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przybytniak, G.; Zagorski, Z.P.

    2006-01-01

    Composites are increasingly more important in the applied and fundamental polymer science, and the participation of radiation processing of these systems increase. In presented paper the newest achievements of radiation physics and chemistry of composites are reviewed. It is stressed, that although main experimental effort is directed towards the development of composites as such, and investigation of their specific properties, mechanical, physicochemical and physical, the radiation processing will enter the field on the wider scale, especially as concerns specialized plastics

  3. Kurumsal Sosyal Sorumluluk Kapsamında Çevre Açıklamaları İle Firma Özellikleri Arasındaki İlişki: Kimya, Petrol, Kauçuk ve Plastik Ürünler Sektöründe Bir Uygulama - Relation Between Company Features And Environmental Statement Within Corporate Social Responsibility: An Application In Chemistry, Petroleum, Rubber And Plastics Products Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şule YILDIZ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to determine the relation between company features and environmental statement amounts in the annual activity reports of companies. To this end, activity reports of 19 companies making business in chemistry, petroleum, rubber and plastic products industry in Borsa Istanbul were inspected with content analysis method for 2008 - 2014. The company features inspected within the research are size, equity profitability, active profitability, debt levels, stock market listing date and date of foundation of companies. In the research, the relation between environmental statement level and related company features were analyzed with panel regression model. According to the results of research, the environmental statement level has positive relation with date of foundation and debt level and it has negative relation with size and stock market listing and it is statistically meaningful. However, no statistically meaningful relation was found between equity profitability and asset profitability and the environmental statement level.

  4. a study of the physico-chemistry and mineralogy of agbaja clay for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBI

    characterized for particle size distribution, plasticity index, chemical ... m = mass of sample after ignition (g). pH determination. .... the clay must have been of a secondary origin formed from .... The Chemistry and Physics of. Clay and Allied ...

  5. Electron tunneling in chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamaraev, K.I.; Khajrutdinov, R.F.; Zhdanov, V.P.; Molin, Yu.N.

    1985-01-01

    Results of experimental and theoretical investigations are outlined systematically on electron tunnelling in chemical reactions. Mechanism of electron transport to great distances is shown to be characteristic to chemical compounds of a wide range. The function of tunnel reactions is discussed for various fields of chemistry, including radiation chemistry, electrochemistry, chemistry of solids, chemistry of surface and catalysis

  6. Green chemistry: A tool in Pharmaceutical Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Smita Talaviya; Falguni Majumdar

    2012-01-01

    Green chemistry expresses an area of research developing from scientific discoveries about pollution awareness and it utilizes a set of principles that reduces or eliminates the use or generation of hazardous substances in all steps of particular synthesis or process. Chemists and medicinal scientists can greatly reduce the risk to human health and the environment by following all the valuable principles of green chemistry. The most simple and direct way to apply green chemistry in pharmaceut...

  7. From hot atom chemistry to epithermal chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roessler, K.

    2004-01-01

    The rise and fall of hot atom chemistry (HAC) over the years from 1934 to 2004 is reviewed. Several applications are discussed, in particular to astrophysics and the interaction of energetic ions and atoms in space. Epithermal chemistry (ETC) is proposed to substitute the old name, since it better fits the energy range as well as the non-thermal and non-equilibrium character of the reactions. ETC also avoids the strong connexion of HAC to nuclear chemistry and stands for the opening of the field to physical chemistry and astrophysics. (orig.)

  8. samaru-main-vol 11 2011

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Library _info_Sc_ 1

    2004-07-11

    Jul 11, 2004 ... Samaru Journal of Information Studies Vol. 11 (1 & 2)2011 ... It is therefore paramount that the library ... source of primary and up to date information, both students and ... entertainment, arts, fashion, law, economy, medicine,.

  9. AJESMS_ Vol 8 2010 August 15 2011

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Mereku

    2010-08-15

    Aug 15, 2010 ... African Journal of Educational Studies in Mathematics and Sciences Vol. 8, 2010 ... environs, a mining area in Wassa West District of Ghana .... This finding is based on autopsy data and on reports showing that blood levels in.

  10. NJB VOL.34 Original Lower.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    important sources of renewable biological ... The plantain (Musa paradisiaca) and banana chemicals (Nowak et ... fermentable sugars available for bio-ethanol ..... peels. Afr. J. Biochem. Res. 9(9): 104 - 109. 70. Osho et al./ Nig. J. Biotech. Vol.

  11. Stem cell plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmipathy, Uma; Verfaillie, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    The central dogma in stem cell biology has been that cells isolated from a particular tissue can renew and differentiate into lineages of the tissue it resides in. Several studies have challenged this idea by demonstrating that tissue specific cell have considerable plasticity and can cross-lineage restriction boundary and give rise to cell types of other lineages. However, the lack of a clear definition for plasticity has led to confusion with several reports failing to demonstrate that a single cell can indeed differentiate into multiple lineages at significant levels. Further, differences between results obtained in different labs has cast doubt on some results and several studies still await independent confirmation. In this review, we critically evaluate studies that report stem cell plasticity using three rigid criteria to define stem cell plasticity; differentiation of a single cell into multiple cell lineages, functionality of differentiated cells in vitro and in vivo, robust and persistent engraft of transplanted cells.

  12. Plastics and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avenas, P.

    1996-01-01

    Synthetic organic polymers, such as plastics, PVC, polyamides etc are considered less ecological than natural materials such as wood. Other artificial materials such as metals, glass or biodegradable plastics have also a better image than petroleum products. This short paper demonstrates that the manufacturing or the transport of every material uses energy and that the complete energy balance sheet of a plastic bottle, for instance, is more favourable than the one of a glass bottle. Plastic materials are also easily valorized and recycled and part of the energy spent during manufacturing can be recovered during incineration for district heating. During the life-cycle of such a synthetic material, the same petroleum quantity can be used twice which leads to less negative effects on the environment. Finally, the paper focusses on the problem of biodegradable materials which are not degradable when buried under several meters of wastes and which are a nuisance to recycling. (J.S.)

  13. Plastics: Friend or foe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O P Gupta

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastics has been playing a very significant role in our life. Being light weight, inexpensive and heving good insulating properties it is being used in all aspects of life, from clothes to contact lenses and from mobile phones to automobiles as well as in medical equipments, However it is not biodegradable, and while degrading to fragments it gets converted in to microplastics and nanoplastics The plastic waste is being recognized as an environmental hazard, since these micr- and nanoplastics find way from landfills to water and foods, It is said that we are not only using, but we are eating, drinking and even braething the plastics. These microplastics in body release certain hazardous chemicals and found to be disrupting functions of certain endocrine organs. Whether the rising prevalence of Diabetes, thyroid disorders or infirtility etc., are realated to the plastics?

  14. Recycling of plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminsky, W; Menzel, J; Sinn, H

    1976-01-01

    Considering the shortage of raw materials and environmental pollution, the recycling of plastic waste is a very important topic. Pilot plants for research in Funabashi Japan, Franklin (Ohio) U.S.A., and the R 80-process of Krauss Maffei, W. Germany, have demonstrated the possibility of reclaiming plastics from refuse. Old tires and waste from the plastic producing and manufacturing industries are readily available. The pyrolysis of plastic yields gaseous and liquid products, and the exploitation of this cracking reaction has been demonstrated by pilot plants in Japan and Great Britain. Further laboratory scale experiments are taking place in W. Germany. In continuous fluidized beds and in molten salts, polyethylene, polypropylene, polyvinylchloride, polystyrene and rubber are pyrolysed and better than 98 percent conversion is obtained. Up to 40 percent of the feed can be obtained as aromatic compounds, and a pilot plant is under construction. As a first step PVC-containing material can be almost quantitatively dehydrochlorinated.

  15. A Plastic Menagerie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Mary Jane

    2010-01-01

    Bobble heads had become quite popular, depicting all sorts of sports figures, animals, and even presidents. In this article, the author describes how her fourth graders made bobble head sculptures out of empty plastic drink bottles. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  16. Art and Plastic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Julio Wilson; Metka, Susanne

    2016-04-01

    The roots of science and art of plastic surgery are very antique. Anatomy, drawing, painting, and sculpting have been very important to the surgery and medicine development over the centuries. Artistic skills besides shape, volume, and lines perception can be a practical aid to the plastic surgeons' daily work. An overview about the interactions between art and plastic surgery is presented, with a few applications to rhinoplasty, cleft lip, and other reconstructive plastic surgeries. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266.

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF PLASTIC SURGERY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pećanac, Marija Đ

    2015-01-01

    Plastic surgery is a medical specialty dealing with corrections of defects, improvements in appearance and restoration of lost function. Ancient times. The first recorded account of reconstructive plastic surgery was found in ancient Indian Sanskrit texts, which described reconstructive surgeries of the nose and ears. In ancient Greece and Rome, many medicine men performed simple plastic cosmetic surgeries to repair damaged parts of the body caused by war mutilation, punishment or humiliation. In the Middle Ages, the development of all medical braches, including plastic surgery was hindered. New age. The interest in surgical reconstruction of mutilated body parts was renewed in the XVIII century by a great number of enthusiastic and charismatic surgeons, who mastered surgical disciplines and became true artists that created new forms. Modern era. In the XX century, plastic surgery developed as a modern branch in medicine including many types of reconstructive surgery, hand, head and neck surgery, microsurgery and replantation, treatment of burns and their sequelae, and esthetic surgery. Contemporary and future plastic surgery will continue to evolve and improve with regenerative medicine and tissue engineering resulting in a lot of benefits to be gained by patients in reconstruction after body trauma, oncology amputation, and for congenital disfigurement and dysfunction.

  18. Recycling of packing plastics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gintenreiter-Koegl, S.

    2001-05-01

    The ordinance on the avoidance of packaging waste was a serious intervention in the public and private waste management in Austria. Above all the high expenses for an overall packaging waste collection and the recycling of packaging plastics were criticized. The landfill ordinance comes into force in 2004 and this means another major change in the Austrian waste management system. In the course of this change the overall collection and the recycling and recovery of waste streams, especially of the high caloric plastics waste, have to be discussed again. The goal of this work was on the one hand to develop and adapt the hydrocracking process for the recovery of mixed plastics waste and to show a possible application in Austria. On the other hand the work shows the technical, ecological and economical conditions for packaging plastics recycling and recovery in order to find optimum applications for the processes and to examine their contribution to a sustainable development. A hydrocracking test plant for the processing of mixed plastic wastes was built and had been running for about three years. The tests were carried out successfully and the suitability of the technology for the recovery of packaging plastics could be shown. Results show at least a 35 % yield of fuel. The hydrocracking technology is quite common in the oil industries and therefore an integration on a refinery site is suggested. (author)

  19. The latest general chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Geun Bae; Choi, Se Yeong; Kim, Chin Yeong; Yoon, Gil Jung; Lee, Eun Seok; Seo, Moon Gyu

    1995-02-01

    This book deals with the latest general chemistry, which is comprised of twenty-three chapters, the contents of this book are introduction, theory of atoms and molecule, chemical formula and a chemical reaction formula, structure of atoms, nature of atoms and the periodic table, structure of molecule and spectrum, gas, solution, solid, chemical combination, chemical reaction speed, chemical equilibrium, thermal chemistry, oxidation-reduction, electrochemistry, acid-base, complex, aquatic chemistry, air chemistry, nuclear chemistry, metal and nonmetal, organic chemistry and biochemistry. It has exercise in the end of each chapter.

  20. Constitutional dynamic chemistry: bridge from supramolecular chemistry to adaptive chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehn, Jean-Marie

    2012-01-01

    Supramolecular chemistry aims at implementing highly complex chemical systems from molecular components held together by non-covalent intermolecular forces and effecting molecular recognition, catalysis and transport processes. A further step consists in the investigation of chemical systems undergoing self-organization, i.e. systems capable of spontaneously generating well-defined functional supramolecular architectures by self-assembly from their components, thus behaving as programmed chemical systems. Supramolecular chemistry is intrinsically a dynamic chemistry in view of the lability of the interactions connecting the molecular components of a supramolecular entity and the resulting ability of supramolecular species to exchange their constituents. The same holds for molecular chemistry when the molecular entity contains covalent bonds that may form and break reversibility, so as to allow a continuous change in constitution by reorganization and exchange of building blocks. These features define a Constitutional Dynamic Chemistry (CDC) on both the molecular and supramolecular levels.CDC introduces a paradigm shift with respect to constitutionally static chemistry. The latter relies on design for the generation of a target entity, whereas CDC takes advantage of dynamic diversity to allow variation and selection. The implementation of selection in chemistry introduces a fundamental change in outlook. Whereas self-organization by design strives to achieve full control over the output molecular or supramolecular entity by explicit programming, self-organization with selection operates on dynamic constitutional diversity in response to either internal or external factors to achieve adaptation.The merging of the features: -information and programmability, -dynamics and reversibility, -constitution and structural diversity, points to the emergence of adaptive and evolutive chemistry, towards a chemistry of complex matter.

  1. Fines Classification Based on Sensitivity to Pore-Fluid Chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Jang, Junbong; Santamarina, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The 75-μm particle size is used to discriminate between fine and coarse grains. Further analysis of fine grains is typically based on the plasticity chart. Whereas pore-fluid-chemistry-dependent soil response is a salient and distinguishing

  2. A Conservative Formulation for Plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    concepts that apply to a broad class of macroscopic models: plastic deformation and plastic flow rule. CONSERVATIVE PLASTICITY 469 3a. Plastic Defrrnation...temperature. We illustrate these concepts with a model that has been used to describe high strain-rate plastic flow in metals [11, 31, 32]. In the case...JOURDREN, AND P. VEYSSEYRE. Un Modele ttyperelastique- Plastique Euldrien Applicable aux Grandes Dtformations: Que/ques R~sultats 1-D. preprint, 1991. 2. P

  3. Advanced Chemistry Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description/History: Chemistry laboratoryThe Advanced Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) is a unique facility designed for working with the most super toxic compounds known...

  4. Electrostatics in Chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    fundamental concepts of electrostatics as applied to atoms and molecules. The electric ... chemistry, the chemistry of the covalent bond, deals with the structures ..... the position of an asteroid named Ceres ... World Scientific. Singapore, 1992.

  5. Clusters in Nuclei. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Following the pioneering discovery of alpha clustering and of molecular resonances, the field of nuclear clustering is today one of those domains of heavy-ion nuclear physics that faces the greatest challenges, yet also contains the greatest opportunities. After many summer schools and workshops, in particular over the last decade, the community of nuclear molecular physicists has decided to collaborate in producing a comprehensive collection of lectures and tutorial reviews covering the field. This second volume follows the successful Lect. Notes Phys. 818 (Vol.1), and comprises six extensive lectures covering the following topics: - Microscopic cluster models - Neutron halo and break-up reactions - Break-up reaction models for two- and three-cluster projectiles - Clustering effects within the di-nuclear model - Nuclear alpha-particle condensates - Clusters in nuclei: experimental perspectives By promoting new ideas and developments while retaining a pedagogical style of presentation throughout, these lectures will serve as both a reference and an advanced teaching manual for future courses and schools in the fields of nuclear physics and nuclear astrophysics. (orig.)

  6. Clusters in Nuclei. Vol. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, Christian (ed.) [Strasbourg Univ. (France). Inst. Pluridiciplinaire Hubert Curien

    2012-07-01

    Following the pioneering discovery of alpha clustering and of molecular resonances, the field of nuclear clustering is today one of those domains of heavy-ion nuclear physics that faces the greatest challenges, yet also contains the greatest opportunities. After many summer schools and workshops, in particular over the last decade, the community of nuclear molecular physicists has decided to collaborate in producing a comprehensive collection of lectures and tutorial reviews covering the field. This second volume follows the successful Lect. Notes Phys. 818 (Vol.1), and comprises six extensive lectures covering the following topics: - Microscopic cluster models - Neutron halo and break-up reactions - Break-up reaction models for two- and three-cluster projectiles - Clustering effects within the di-nuclear model - Nuclear alpha-particle condensates - Clusters in nuclei: experimental perspectives By promoting new ideas and developments while retaining a pedagogical style of presentation throughout, these lectures will serve as both a reference and an advanced teaching manual for future courses and schools in the fields of nuclear physics and nuclear astrophysics. (orig.)

  7. Preparative radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drawe, H.

    1978-01-01

    Preparative synthesis of compounds with the aid of radiation chemistry is increasingly used in laboratories as well as on a technical scale. A large number of new compounds has been produced with the methods of radiation chemistry. With the increasing number of available radiation sources, also the number of synthesis metods in radiation chemistry has increased. This paper can only briefly mention the many possible ways of synthesis in radiation chemistry. (orig./HK) [de

  8. USSR Report Chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1986-01-01

    THIS REPORT CONTAINS FOREIGN MEDIA INFORMATION FROM THE USSR CONCERNING Adsorption, Alkaloids, ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY, CATALYSIS, ELECTROCHEMISTRY, Fertilizers, INORGANIC COMPOUNDS, ORGANOPHOSPHOROUS...

  9. Frontiers in Gold Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed A. Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Basic chemistry of gold tells us that it can bond to sulfur, phosphorous, nitrogen, and oxygen donor ligands. The Frontiers in Gold Chemistry Special Issue covers gold complexes bonded to the different donors and their fascinating applications. This issue covers both basic chemistry studies of gold complexes and their contemporary applications in medicine, materials chemistry, and optical sensors. There is a strong belief that aurophilicity plays a major role in the unending applications of g...

  10. Organic chemistry experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mun, Seok Sik

    2005-02-01

    This book deals with organic chemistry experiments, it is divided five chapters, which have introduction, the way to write the experiment report and safety in the laboratory, basic experiment technic like recrystallization and extraction, a lot of organic chemistry experiments such as fischer esterification, ester hydrolysis, electrophilic aromatic substitution, aldol reaction, benzoin condensation, wittig reaction grignard reaction, epoxidation reaction and selective reduction. The last chapter introduces chemistry site on the internet and way to find out reference on chemistry.

  11. Analytical chemistry instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laing, W.R.

    1986-01-01

    In nine sections, 48 chapters cover 1) analytical chemistry and the environment 2) environmental radiochemistry 3) automated instrumentation 4) advances in analytical mass spectrometry 5) fourier transform spectroscopy 6) analytical chemistry of plutonium 7) nuclear analytical chemistry 8) chemometrics and 9) nuclear fuel technology

  12. Fundamentals of nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majer, V.

    1982-01-01

    The author of the book has had 25 years of experience at the Nuclear Chemistry of Prague Technical University. In consequence, the book is intended as a basic textbook for students of this field. Its main objectives are an easily understandable presentation of the complex subject and in spite of the uncertainty which still characterizes the definition and subjects of nuclear chemistry - a systematic classification and logical structure. Contents: 1. Introduction (history and definition); 2. General nuclear chemistry (physical fundamentals, hot atom chemistry, interaction of nuclear radiation with matter, radioactive elements, isotope effects, isotope exchange, chemistry of radioactive trace elements); 3. Methods of nuclear chemistry of nuclear chemistry (radiochemical methods, activation, separation and enrichment chemistry); 4. Preparative nuclear chemistry (isotope production, labelled compounds); 5. Analytival nuclear chemistry; 6. Applied nuclear chemistry (isotope applications in general physical and analytical chemistry). The book is supplemented by an annex with tables, a name catalogue and a subject index which will facilitate access to important information. (RB) [de

  13. The plasticity of clays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Group, F.F.

    1905-01-01

    (1) Sand injures plasticity little at first because the grains are suspended in a plastic mass. It is only when grains are abundant enough to come in contact with their neighbors, that the effect becomes serious, and then both strength and amount of possible flow are injured. (2) Certain rare organic colloids increase the plasticity by rendering the water viscous. (3) Fineness also tends to increase plasticity. (4) Plane surfaces (plates) increase the amount of possible flow. They also give a chance for lubrication by thinner films, thus increasing the friction of film, and the strength of the whole mass. The action of plates is thus twofold ; but fineness may be carried to such an extent as to break up plate-like grains into angular fragments. The beneficial effects of plates are also decreased by the fact that each is so closely surrounded by others in the mass. (5) Molecular attraction is twofold in increasing plasticity. As the attraction increases, the coherence and strength of the mass increase, and the amount of possible deformation before crumbling also increases. Fineness increases this action by requiring more water. Colloids and crystalloids in solution may also increase the attraction. It is thus seen to be more active than any other single factor.

  14. Plastics control paraffin buildup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1965-06-01

    Paraffin buildup in producing oil wells has been virtually eliminated by the use of plastic-coated sucker rods. The payout of the plasticing process is generally reached in less than a year, and the paraffin buildup may be inhibited for 10 yr or longer. Most of the plants applying plastic coatings to sucker rods are now fully automated, though a few still offer the hand-sprayed coating that some operators prefer. The several steps involved are described. The ideal plastic for the job is resistant to chemicals at high and low temperatures, flexible, has good adhesion, abrasion resistance, impact resistance, and a smooth glossy finish. The phenol aldehyde and epoxy resins presently offered by the industry fulfill these specifications very well; the multicoating and multibaking techniques improve their performance. Due to wide variations in the severity of the paraffin problem from one oil field to another, there is no general rule to estimate the possible savings from using plastic-coated sucker rods. The process, however, does appear to do a remarkable job in controlling paraffin buildup wherever it is a problem in producing oil by pump.

  15. American Association for Clinical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find the answer to your question IN CLINICAL CHEMISTRY Hs-cTnI as a Gatekeeper for Further Cardiac ... Online Harmonization.net Commission on Accreditation in Clinical Chemistry American Board of Clinical Chemistry Clinical Chemistry Trainee ...

  16. Influência do sistema de produção e do armazenamento refrigerado nas características físico-químicas e no desenvolvimento de compostos voláteis em morangos Influence of planting system and cold storage on the physical-chemistries characteristicsand volatile compounds development in strawberries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Maria Machado de Ávila

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Durante o armazenamento, pode ocorrer a perda de compostos voláteis responsáveis pelo aroma e o aumento de compostos indesejáveis, o que ocasiona a perda de qualidade do morango, reduzindo a vida de prateleira e levando à rejeição do produto pelos consumidores. Neste trabalho, foi avaliada a influência do sistema de produção (convencional e orgânico e do período de armazenamento (0, 2, 5, 8 dias nas características físicas e químicas (CFQ e nos compostos voláteis (CV de morango das cultivares 'Camarosa' e 'Camino Real', utilizando morangos de pomar comercial da região de Pelotas/RS. Os frutos foram colhidos em estádio de maturação comercial e com boa aparência. O planejamento experimental foi casualizado, em triplicata de 15 frutos. Os morangos foram armazenados a T de 1°C, com 90-95% umidade relativa (UR. Foram avaliadas a perda de massa, a coloração instrumental [L*, a*, b* e ângulo hue (H] , a firmeza, os sólidos solúveis (SS, a acidez titulável (AT, a relação SS/AT, pH e os teores de CV. Os resultados foram submetidos à análise de variância e as diferenças significativas determinadas pelo teste de Tukey (PDuring the storage a loss of volatile compounds responsible for the aroma and an increase of undesirable compounds can occur leading to a decrease in the strawberry quality, a reduction of the shelf life and product rejection by the consumers. In the present work the influence of the planting system (conventional and organic and the storage period (0, 2, 5 and 8 days upon physical and chemical characteristics (FCC as well as on strawberry volatile compounds (VC in the cultivars 'Camarosa' and 'Camino Real' were evaluated using strawberries from a commercial orchard from Pelotas/RS. The fruits were harvested in a stage of commercial maturation and sound appearance. The experimental planning was randomized, in triplicate of fifteen fruits. The strawberries were stored at 1°C and 90-95% of relative humidity

  17. Effects of Toxic Leachate from Commercial Plastics on Larval Survival and Settlement of the Barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Heng-Xiang; Getzinger, Gordon J; Ferguson, P Lee; Orihuela, Beatriz; Zhu, Mei; Rittschof, Daniel

    2016-01-19

    Plastic pollution represents a major and growing global problem. It is well-known that plastics are a source of chemical contaminants to the aquatic environment and provide novel habitats for marine organisms. The present study quantified the impacts of plastic leachates from the seven categories of recyclable plastics on larval survival and settlement of barnacle Amphibalanus (=Balanus) amphitrite. Leachates from plastics significantly increased barnacle nauplii mortality at the highest tested concentrations (0.10 and 0.50 m(2)/L). Hydrophobicity (measured as surface energy) was positively correlated with mortality indicating that plastic surface chemistry may be an important factor in the effects of plastics on sessile organisms. Plastic leachates significantly inhibited barnacle cyprids settlement on glass at all tested concentrations. Settlement on plastic surfaces was significantly inhibited after 24 and 48 h, but settlement was not significantly inhibited compared to the controls for some plastics after 72-96 h. In 24 h exposure to seawater, we found larval toxicity and inhibition of settlement with all seven categories of recyclable commercial plastics. Chemical analysis revealed a complex mixture of substances released in plastic leachates. Leaching of toxic compounds from all plastics should be considered when assessing the risks of plastic pollution.

  18. The New Color of Chemistry: Green Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhal GERÇEK

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Green chemistry which is the new application of chemistry rules provides solutions to problems that mankind is faced with climate changes, sustainable agriculture, energy, toxics, depletion of natural sources e.g. designing new chemicals and processes that production and utilization of hazardous matters. So, it is the indispensible tool for sustainable development. Current and future chemists should consider the human health and ecological issues in their professional life. In order to provide a solution for this requirement, green chemistry rules and under standings should be primarily taken in the university curriculum and at all educational levels.

  19. Surface chemistry essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Birdi, K S

    2013-01-01

    Surface chemistry plays an important role in everyday life, as the basis for many phenomena as well as technological applications. Common examples range from soap bubbles, foam, and raindrops to cosmetics, paint, adhesives, and pharmaceuticals. Additional areas that rely on surface chemistry include modern nanotechnology, medical diagnostics, and drug delivery. There is extensive literature on this subject, but most chemistry books only devote one or two chapters to it. Surface Chemistry Essentials fills a need for a reference that brings together the fundamental aspects of surface chemistry w

  20. Fundamentals of reactor chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akatsu, Eiko

    1981-12-01

    In the Nuclear Engineering School of JAERI, many courses are presented for the people working in and around the nuclear reactors. The curricula of the courses contain also the subject material of chemistry. With reference to the foreign curricula, a plan of educational subject material of chemistry in the Nuclear Engineering School of JAERI was considered, and the fundamental part of reactor chemistry was reviewed in this report. Since the students of the Nuclear Engineering School are not chemists, the knowledge necessary in and around the nuclear reactors was emphasized in order to familiarize the students with the reactor chemistry. The teaching experience of the fundamentals of reactor chemistry is also given. (author)

  1. Psychedelics Promote Structural and Functional Neural Plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvin Ly

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Atrophy of neurons in the prefrontal cortex (PFC plays a key role in the pathophysiology of depression and related disorders. The ability to promote both structural and functional plasticity in the PFC has been hypothesized to underlie the fast-acting antidepressant properties of the dissociative anesthetic ketamine. Here, we report that, like ketamine, serotonergic psychedelics are capable of robustly increasing neuritogenesis and/or spinogenesis both in vitro and in vivo. These changes in neuronal structure are accompanied by increased synapse number and function, as measured by fluorescence microscopy and electrophysiology. The structural changes induced by psychedelics appear to result from stimulation of the TrkB, mTOR, and 5-HT2A signaling pathways and could possibly explain the clinical effectiveness of these compounds. Our results underscore the therapeutic potential of psychedelics and, importantly, identify several lead scaffolds for medicinal chemistry efforts focused on developing plasticity-promoting compounds as safe, effective, and fast-acting treatments for depression and related disorders. : Ly et al. demonstrate that psychedelic compounds such as LSD, DMT, and DOI increase dendritic arbor complexity, promote dendritic spine growth, and stimulate synapse formation. These cellular effects are similar to those produced by the fast-acting antidepressant ketamine and highlight the potential of psychedelics for treating depression and related disorders. Keywords: neural plasticity, psychedelic, spinogenesis, synaptogenesis, depression, LSD, DMT, ketamine, noribogaine, MDMA

  2. Investigation into Plastic Cards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neringa Stašelytė

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the strength of laminating plastic cards at different lamination temperatures. For investigation purposes, two types of plastic substrate and films have been used. Laminate strength has been tested (CMYK to establish the impact of colours on the strength of laminate. The paper compares inks supplied by two different producers. The colour characteristics of CIE L*a*b* space before and after the lamination process have been found. According to lamination strength and characteristics of the colours, the most suitable inks, temperature and films have been chosen.

  3. Joining by plastic deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mori, Ken-ichiro; Bay, Niels; Fratini, Livan

    2013-01-01

    As the scale and complexity of products such as aircraft and cars increase, demand for new functional processes to join mechanical parts grows. The use of plastic deformation for joining parts potentially offers improved accuracy, reliability and environmental safety as well as creating opportuni......As the scale and complexity of products such as aircraft and cars increase, demand for new functional processes to join mechanical parts grows. The use of plastic deformation for joining parts potentially offers improved accuracy, reliability and environmental safety as well as creating...

  4. Elastic plastic fracture mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, L.A.

    1978-07-01

    The application of linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) to crack stability in brittle structures is now well understood and widely applied. However, in many structural materials, crack propagation is accompanied by considerable crack-tip plasticity which invalidates the use of LEFM. Thus, present day research in fracture mechanics is aimed at developing parameters for predicting crack propagation under elastic-plastic conditions. These include critical crack-opening-displacement methods, the J integral and R-curve techniques. This report provides an introduction to these concepts and gives some examples of their applications. (author)

  5. Annual report 1985 Chemistry Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funck, J.; Larsen, E.; Nielsen, O.J.

    1986-03-01

    This report contains a brief survey of the main activities in the Chemistry Department. All particles and reports published and lectures given in 1985 are presented. The facilities and equipment are mentioned briefly. The activities are divided into the following groups: radioisotope chemistry, analytical- and organic chemistry, environmental chemistry, polymer chemistry, geochemistry and waste disposal, radical chemistry, positron annihilation, mineral processing, and general. (author)

  6. Annual report 1984 Chemistry Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funck, J.; Larsen, E.; Nielsen, O.J.

    1985-03-01

    This report contains a brief survey of the main activities in the Chemistry Department. All articles and reports published and lectures given in 1984 are presented. The facilities and equipment are mentioned briefly. The activities are divided into the following groups: radioisotope chemistry, analytical- and organic chemistry , environmental chemistry, polymer chemistry, geochemistry and waste disposal, radical chemistry, positron annihilation, mineral processing, and general. (author)

  7. Fundamentals of nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matel, L.; Dulanska, S.

    2013-01-01

    This text-book is an introductory text in nuclear chemistry and radiochemistry, aimed on university undergraduate students in chemistry and related disciplines (physics, nuclear engineering). It covers the key aspects of modern nuclear chemistry. The text begins with basic theories in contemporary physics. It relates nuclear phenomena to key divisions of chemistry such as atomic structure, spectroscopy, equilibria and kinetics. It also gives an introduction to sources of ionizing radiation, detection of ionizing radiation, nuclear power industry and accident on nuclear installations as well as basic knowledge's of radiobiology. This book is essential reading for those taking a first course in nuclear chemistry and is a useful companion to other volumes in physical and analytical chemistry. It will also be of use to those new to working in nuclear chemistry or radiochemistry.

  8. Crisis Communication (Handbooks of Communication Science Vol. 23)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Winni

    Vol. 23 - The Handbook of Communication Science General editors: Peter J. Schultz and Paul Cobley......Vol. 23 - The Handbook of Communication Science General editors: Peter J. Schultz and Paul Cobley...

  9. Nuclear chemistry in the traditional chemistry program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleppinger, E.W.

    1993-01-01

    The traditional undergraduate program for chemistry majors, especially at institutions devoted solely to undergraduate education, has limited space for 'special topics' courses in areas such as nuclear and radiochemistry. A scheme is proposed whereby the basic topics covered in an introductury radiochemistry course are touched upon, and in some cases covered in detail, at some time during the four-year sequence of courses taken by a chemistry major. (author) 6 refs.; 7 tabs

  10. The New Color of Chemistry: Green Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Zuhal GERÇEK

    2012-01-01

    Green chemistry which is the new application of chemistry rules provides solutions to problems that mankind is faced with climate changes, sustainable agriculture, energy, toxics, depletion of natural sources e.g. designing new chemicals and processes that production and utilization of hazardous matters. So, it is the indispensible tool for sustainable development. Current and future chemists should consider the human health and ecological issues in their professional life. In order to provid...

  11. Plastic flashtube chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frisken, W.R.

    1977-01-01

    A brief discussion is given of the use and operation of plastic flashtube chambers. Gas leaks, electric pulsing, the glow discharge, and readout methods are considered. Three distinct problems with high rate applications deal with resolving time, dead time, and polarization/neutralization of the chamber

  12. Plastic Surgery: Tackling Misconceptions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    will succeed. First impressions tend to last, and if young people's first impression of plastic surgeons is that they spend much of their time doing cosmetic surgery then this is a first impression that might be long ... Res 2014;4 Suppl S3:169‑70. Access this article online. Quick Response Code: Website: www.amhsr.org. DOI:.

  13. Biobased Plastics 2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolck, C.H.; Ravenstijn, J.; Molenveld, K.; Harmsen, P.F.H.

    2011-01-01

    Dit boek geeft inzicht in de huidige op de markt verkrijgbare biobased plastics en de te verwachten ontwikkelingen. Er wordt gekeken naar zowel thermoplastische als thermohardende materialen. Het boek biedt inzicht in de productie, verwerking en eigenschappen van de verschillende types. Daarnaast

  14. New plastic recycling technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greater than 60% of the total plastic content of municipal solid waste is comprised of polyolefins (high-density, low-density, and linear polyethylene and polypropylene. Polyethylene (PE) is the largest-volume component but presents a challenge due to the absence of low-energy de...

  15. Reliability of Plastic Slabs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    1989-01-01

    In the paper it is shown how upper and lower bounds for the reliability of plastic slabs can be determined. For the fundamental case it is shown that optimal bounds of a deterministic and a stochastic analysis are obtained on the basis of the same failure mechanisms and the same stress fields....

  16. Individual differences in behavioural plasticities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamps, Judy A

    2016-05-01

    Interest in individual differences in animal behavioural plasticities has surged in recent years, but research in this area has been hampered by semantic confusion as different investigators use the same terms (e.g. plasticity, flexibility, responsiveness) to refer to different phenomena. The first goal of this review is to suggest a framework for categorizing the many different types of behavioural plasticities, describe examples of each, and indicate why using reversibility as a criterion for categorizing behavioural plasticities is problematic. This framework is then used to address a number of timely questions about individual differences in behavioural plasticities. One set of questions concerns the experimental designs that can be used to study individual differences in various types of behavioural plasticities. Although within-individual designs are the default option for empirical studies of many types of behavioural plasticities, in some situations (e.g. when experience at an early age affects the behaviour expressed at subsequent ages), 'replicate individual' designs can provide useful insights into individual differences in behavioural plasticities. To date, researchers using within-individual and replicate individual designs have documented individual differences in all of the major categories of behavioural plasticities described herein. Another important question is whether and how different types of behavioural plasticities are related to one another. Currently there is empirical evidence that many behavioural plasticities [e.g. contextual plasticity, learning rates, IIV (intra-individual variability), endogenous plasticities, ontogenetic plasticities) can themselves vary as a function of experiences earlier in life, that is, many types of behavioural plasticity are themselves developmentally plastic. These findings support the assumption that differences among individuals in prior experiences may contribute to individual differences in behavioural

  17. Physico-chemical modifications of plastics by ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouif, S.

    2002-01-01

    The industrial use of ionizing radiations (beta and gamma), initially for the sterilization of medico-surgical instruments and for the preservation of food products, has led to the development of the chemistry of polymers under radiations. Ionizing radiations can initiate chemical reactions (chain cutting, poly-additions, polymerization etc..) thanks to the formation of free radicals. The main applications concerns the degradation of plastics, the reticulation of plastics and of woods impregnated with resin, and the grafting of polymers. The processing of plastic materials was initially performed with low energy electron accelerators (0.1 to 3 MeV), allowing only surface treatments, while recent high energy accelerators (10 MeV) and gamma facilities allow the treatment in depth of materials (from few cm to 1 m). This article describes the industrial treatments performed with such high energy facilities: 1 - action of ionizing radiations on plastic materials: different types of ionizing radiations, action of beta and gamma radiations, chemical changes induced by beta and gamma radiations; 2 - reticulation of plastic materials submitted to beta and gamma radiations: radio-'reticulable' polymers and reticulation co-agents, modification of the properties of reticulated plastic materials under beta and gamma radiations; 3 - industrial aspects of reticulation under beta and gamma radiation: industrial irradiation facilities, dosimetry and radio-reticulation control, applications; 4 - conclusion. (J.S.)

  18. An efficient method of material recycling of municipal plastic waste

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fortelný, Ivan; Michálková, Danuše; Kruliš, Zdeněk

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 85, č. 9 (2004), s. 975-979 ISSN 0141-3910. [IUPAC Microsymposium on Degradation, Stabilisation and Recycling of Polymers /42./. Prague, 14.07.2003-17.07.2003] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IBS4050008 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913 Keywords : recycling * municipal plastic waste * compatibilisation Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.685, year: 2004

  19. Antiparallel Dynamic Covalent Chemistries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matysiak, Bartosz M; Nowak, Piotr; Cvrtila, Ivica; Pappas, Charalampos G; Liu, Bin; Komáromy, Dávid; Otto, Sijbren

    2017-05-17

    The ability to design reaction networks with high, but addressable complexity is a necessary prerequisite to make advanced functional chemical systems. Dynamic combinatorial chemistry has proven to be a useful tool in achieving complexity, however with some limitations in controlling it. Herein we introduce the concept of antiparallel chemistries, in which the same functional group can be channeled into one of two reversible chemistries depending on a controllable parameter. Such systems allow both for achieving complexity, by combinatorial chemistry, and addressing it, by switching from one chemistry to another by controlling an external parameter. In our design the two antiparallel chemistries are thiol-disulfide exchange and thio-Michael addition, sharing the thiol as the common building block. By means of oxidation and reduction the system can be reversibly switched from predominantly thio-Michael chemistry to predominantly disulfide chemistry, as well as to any intermediate state. Both chemistries operate in water, at room temperature, and at mildly basic pH, which makes them a suitable platform for further development of systems chemistry.

  20. Dynamics of structures '89. Vol. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The proceedings, comprising 3 volumes published by the Plzen Centre of the Czechoslovak Society for Science and Technology (Vol. 1 and 2) and by Skoda Works in Plzen (Vol. 3), contain 107 papers, out of which 8 fall within the INIS Subject Scope; these deal with problems related to the earthquake resistance of nuclear power plants. Attention is paid to the evaluation of seismic characteristics of nuclear power plant equipment, to the equipment testing and to calculations of its dynamic characteristics under simulated seismic stress. (Z.M.)

  1. Chain Gang-The Chemistry of Polymers (edited by Mickey Sarquis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collard, David M.

    1999-01-01

    Science in Our World, Vol. 5. Mickey Sarquis, series editor. Terrific Science Press: Middletown, OH, 1995. xiv + 149 pp. ISBN 1-883822-13-0. Spiral-bound, $13.95. Our familiarity with plastics makes polymers ideal examples of chemicals for discussion in K-12 science classes. Most importantly, polymers can be used as examples of chemicals that are safe to handle and of obvious use to society. The structures of polymers are easily represented by a number of models. These simple models go a long way in explaining the familiar physical properties of plastics. However, the introduction of polymers in the classroom relies on the availability of teaching material, experiments, and demonstrations that illustrate concepts in the current science curriculum. Chain Gang-The Chemistry of Polymers, one of the Science in Our World series published by the Center for Chemical Education at Miami University-Middletown (Ohio), will serve as a great resource for teachers interested in providing their students with a series of activities that can be related to their everyday experiences with these ubiquitous chemicals. After a brief introduction to some basic concepts, the book presents a series of 23 experiments. The collection of experiments presented here spans illustrations of chemistry, physical properties, analysis, and processing. Each experiment is recommended as either a hands-on activity or demonstration for various grade levels. A guide for the teacher suggests how the experiment can be used to illustrate topics in the science curriculum. The materials required for each activity are listed in detail, with quantities and sources (all materials are available from Flinn Scientific or hardware stores). There are detailed instructions for preparation of each experiment and how to introduce the experiment to students, and step-by-step instructions for activity. Very importantly, safety and disposal issues are clearly presented. Suggestions for cross-curriculum integration are also

  2. Plasticity characteristic obtained by indentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mil'man, Yu.V.; Chugunova, S.I.; Goncharova, I.V.

    2011-01-01

    Methods for determination plasticity characteristic δH in the measurement of hardness and nanohardness are considered. Parameter δH characterizes the plasticity of a material by the part of plastic deformation in the total elastic-plastic deformation. The value of δH is defined for metals with different types of crystal lattice, covalent and partially covalent crystals, intermetallics, metallic glasses and quasicrystals. It is discussed the dependence of the plasticity characteristic δH on structural factors and temperature. Parameter δH allows to analyze and compare the plasticity of materials which are brittle at standard mechanical tests. The combination of hardness H, as the strength characteristic, and the plasticity characteristic δH makes possible the better characterization of mechanical behavior of materials than only the hardness H. The examples of plasticity characteristic δH application are represented.

  3. Plastic pollutants in water environment

    OpenAIRE

    Mrowiec Bożena

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, wide applications of plastics result in plastic waste being present in the water environment in a wide variety of sizes. Plastic wastes are in water mainly as microplastics (the size range of 1 nm to < 5 mm). Microplastics have been recognized as an emerging threat, as well as ecotoxicological and ecological risk for water ecosystems. In this review are presented some of the physicochemical properties of plastic materials that determine their toxic effect on the aquatic environment....

  4. USSR Report, Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-10

    acid anhydride with esters of phosphorous acid , which demonstrated that, in reactions of dialkyl phosphites with the anhydride, the... PHOSPHOROUS ACID ESTERS WITH HEPTAFLUOROBUTYRIC ACID ANHYDRIDE. PART 3. DONOR-ACCEPTOR INTERACTIONS Leningrad: ZHURNAL OBSHCHEY KHIMII in Russian Vol 56, No...Reaction of Thioesters and Amidothioesters of Phosphorous Acid With Poly Halogenated Methane Derivatives and Alkyl Halides (0. G. Sinyashin, Sh.

  5. Premixed flame chemistry of a gasoline primary reference fuel surrogate

    KAUST Repository

    Selim, Hatem

    2017-03-10

    Investigating the combustion chemistry of gasoline surrogate fuels promises to improve detailed reaction mechanisms used for simulating their combustion. In this work, the combustion chemistry of one of the simplest, but most frequently used gasoline surrogates – primary reference fuel 84 (PRF 84, 84 vol% iso-octane and 16 vol% n-heptane), has been examined in a stoichiometric premixed laminar flame. Time-of-flight mass spectrometry coupled with a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) synchrotron light source for species photoionization was used. Reactants, major end-products, stable intermediates, free radicals, and isomeric species were detected and quantified. Numerical simulations were conducted using a detailed chemical kinetic model with the most recently available high temperature sub-mechanisms for iso-octane and heptane, built on the top of an updated pentane isomers model and AramcoMech 2.0 (C0C4) base chemistry. A detailed interpretation of the major differences between the mechanistic pathways of both fuel components is given. A comparison between the experimental and numerical results is depicted and rate of production and sensitivity analyses are shown for the species with considerable disagreement between the experimental and numerical findings.

  6. Atmospheric chemistry and climate

    OpenAIRE

    Satheesh, SK

    2012-01-01

    Atmospheric chemistry is a branch of atmospheric science where major focus is the composition of the Earth's atmosphere. Knowledge of atmospheric composition is essential due to its interaction with (solar and terrestrial) radiation and interactions of atmospheric species (gaseous and particulate matter) with living organisms. Since atmospheric chemistry covers a vast range of topics, in this article the focus is on the chemistry of atmospheric aerosols with special emphasis on the Indian reg...

  7. Polymer chemistry (revised edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Mum

    1987-02-01

    This book deals with polymer chemistry, which is divided into fourteen chapters. The contents of this book are development of polymer chemistry, conception of polymer, measurement of polymer chemistry, conception of polymer, measurement of polymer, molecule structure of polymer, thermal prosperities of solid polymer, basic theory of polymerization, radical polymerization, ion polymerization, radical polymerization, copolymerization, polymerization by step-reaction, polymer reaction, crown polymer and inorganic polymer on classification and process of creation such as polymeric sulfur and carbon fiber.

  8. Chemistry of the elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwood, N.N.; Earnshaw, A.

    1984-01-01

    This textbook presents an account of the chemistry of the elements for both undergraduate and postgraduate students. It covers not only the 'inorganic' chemistry of the elements, but also analytical, theoretical, industrial, organometallic;, bio-inorganic and other areas of chemistry which apply. The following elements of special nuclear interest are included: Rb, Cs, Fr, Sr, Ba, Ra, Po, At, Rn, Sc, Y, Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, Mo, Tc, Ru, the Lanthanide Elements, the Actinide Elements. (U.K.)

  9. From trace chemistry to single atom chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adloff, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    Hot atom chemistry in the vast majority of experimental works deals with the trace amount of radioactive matters. Accordingly, the concept of trace chemistry is at the heart of hot atom chemistry. Some aspects of the chemistry at trace scale and at subtrace scale are presented together with the related problems of speciation and the complication which may arise due to the formation of radio colloids. The examples of 127 I(n,γ) 128 I and 132 Te (β - ) 132 I are shown, and the method based on radioactivity was used. The procedure of separating the elements in pitchblende is shown as the example of the chemistry of traces. 13 27 Al+ 2 4 He→ 0 1 n+ 15 30 P and 15 30 P→ 14 30 Si+e + +V are shown, and how to recognize the presence of radioactive colloids is explained. The formation of radiocolloids is by the sorption of a trace radioelement on pre-existing colloidal impurity or the self-condensation of monomeric species. The temporal parameters of the nature of reactions at trace concentration are listed. The examples of Class A and Class B reactions are shown. The kinetics of reactions at trace level, radon concentration, anthropogenic Pu and natural Pu in environment, the behavior of Pu atoms and so on are described. (K.I.)

  10. Advances in quantum chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Sabin, John R

    2013-01-01

    Advances in Quantum Chemistry presents surveys of current topics in this rapidly developing field that has emerged at the cross section of the historically established areas of mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology. It features detailed reviews written by leading international researchers. This volume focuses on the theory of heavy ion physics in medicine.Advances in Quantum Chemistry presents surveys of current topics in this rapidly developing field that has emerged at the cross section of the historically established areas of mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology. It features

  11. Canopy Chemistry (OTTER)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Canopy characteristics: leaf chemistry, specific leaf area, LAI, PAR, IPAR, NPP, standing biomass--see also: Meteorology (OTTER) for associated...

  12. USSR Report, Chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1986-01-01

    This USSR Report on Chemistry contains articles on Aerosols, Adsorption, Biochemistry, Catalysis, Chemical Industry, Coal Gasification, Electrochemistry, Explosives and Explosions, Fertilizers, Food...

  13. Elements of environmental chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hites, R. A; Raff, Jonathan D

    2012-01-01

    ... more. Extensively revised, updated, and expanded, this second edition includes new chapters on atmospheric chemistry, climate change, and polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins, and brominated flame retardants...

  14. Green Chemistry Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolopajlo, Larry

    2017-02-01

    This chapter attempts to show how the practice of chemistry teaching and learning is enriched by the incorporation of green chemistry (GC) into lectures and labs. To support this viewpoint, evidence from a wide range of published papers serve as a cogent argument that GC attracts and engages both science and nonscience students, enhances chemistry content knowledge, and improves the image of the field, while preparing the world for a sustainable future. Published pedagogy associated with green and sustainable chemistry is critically reviewed and discussed.

  15. DOE fundamentals handbook: Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors in providing operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of chemistry. This volume contains the following modules: reactor water chemistry (effects of radiation on water chemistry, chemistry parameters), principles of water treatment (purpose; treatment processes [ion exchange]; dissolved gases, suspended solids, and pH control; water purity), and hazards of chemicals and gases (corrosives [acids, alkalies], toxic compounds, compressed gases, flammable/combustible liquids)

  16. Uranium. Suppl. Vol. C7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keim, R.; Keller, C.

    1982-01-01

    In this supplement volume C7 the nitrogen compounds of uranium-anides, imides, nitrides, nitrites, nitrates are dealt with. Whereas amides, imides and nitrates have only been of scientific interest up to now, uranium nitride and uranylnitrate are of great technological importance. Therefore the description of the chemical and physical characteristics of UN as a potential fuel for future reactors already comprises about 1/4 of this volume. Also the description of uranyl nitrate - as one of the most important commercial forms of uranium and because of its importance in the chemistry of nuclear fuel element reprocessing - comprises many pages. This is supplemented by further uranium nitrides, ternary and polynary nitrides, oxide nitrides, double nitrides of the various valence steps as well as nitrate complexes and ternary and quarternary systems containing uranyl nitrate. The radiation behaviour of UN, and its distribution (liquid/liquid, liquid solid) as well as the complex formation of the uranyl ion with nitrate are described in other volumes of the uranium series. (RB) [de

  17. Introduction to Computational Plasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, P

    2006-01-01

    The focus of the book on computational plasticity embodies techniques of relevance not only to academic researchers, but also of interest to industrialists engaged in the production of components using bulk or sheet forming processes. Of particular interest is the guidance on how to create modules for use with the commercial system Abaqus for specific types of material behaviour. The book is in two parts, the first of which contains six chapters, starting with microplasticity, but predominantly on continuum plasticity. The first chapter on microplasticty gives a brief description of the grain structure of metals and the existence of slip systems within the grains. This provides an introduction to the concept of incompressibility during plastic deformation, the nature of plastic yield and the importance of the critically resolved shear stress on the slip planes (Schmid's law). Some knowledge of the notation commonly used to describe slip systems is assumed, which will be familiar to students of metallurgy, but anyone with a more general engineering background may need to undertake additional reading to understand the various descriptions. Chapter two introduces one of several yield criteria, that normally attributed to von Mises (though historians of mechanics might argue over who was first to develop the theory of yielding associated with strain energy density), and its two or three-dimensional representation as a yield surface. The expansion of the yield surface during plastic deformation, its translation due to kinematic hardening and the Bauschinger effect in reversed loading are described with a direct link to the material stress-strain curve. The assumption, that the increment of strain is normal to the yield surface, the normality principle, is introduced. Uniaxial loading of an elastic-plastic material is used as an example in which to develop expressions to describe increments in stress and strain. The full presentation of numerous expressions, tensors and

  18. AJESMS_ Vol 8 2010 August 15 2011

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Mereku

    2010-08-15

    Aug 15, 2010 ... African Journal of Educational Studies in Mathematics and Sciences Vol. ... girls from two Senior High Schools in Accra, the capital of Ghana in West Africa. .... On the face of it, the Brazilian and Swedish children might seem to have the ... The two profile dimensions that have been specified for teaching, ...

  19. Water SA - Vol 30, No 3 (2004)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Application of a residential end-use model for estimating cold and hot water demand ... of multistage filtration using different filter media against conventional water ... (Germs et al., 2004), published in the April 2004 (Vol 30 No 2) issue of Water ...

  20. Plasticity modeling & computation

    CERN Document Server

    Borja, Ronaldo I

    2013-01-01

    There have been many excellent books written on the subject of plastic deformation in solids, but rarely can one find a textbook on this subject. “Plasticity Modeling & Computation” is a textbook written specifically for students who want to learn the theoretical, mathematical, and computational aspects of inelastic deformation in solids. It adopts a simple narrative style that is not mathematically overbearing, and has been written to emulate a professor giving a lecture on this subject inside a classroom. Each section is written to provide a balance between the relevant equations and the explanations behind them. Where relevant, sections end with one or more exercises designed to reinforce the understanding of the “lecture.” Color figures enhance the presentation and make the book very pleasant to read. For professors planning to use this textbook for their classes, the contents are sufficient for Parts A and B that can be taught in sequence over a period of two semesters or quarters.

  1. Sub-nanosecond plastic scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, P.B.; Caldwell, S.E.; Hocker, L.P.; Crandall, D.G.; Zagarino, P.A.; Cheng, J.; Tirsell, G.; Hurlbut, C.R.

    1977-01-01

    Quenched plastic scintillators have been developed that yield much faster short decay components and greatly reduced long decay components compared to conventional plastic scintillators. The plastics are produced through the addition of selected quench agents to NE111 plastic scintillator that result in reduced total light output. Eight different agents have been studied. Benzophenone and piperidine are two of the most effective quench agents. Data are presented both for short and long decay components. The plastics are expected to make significant contributions in areas of plasma diagnostics

  2. Sub-nanosecond plastic scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, P.B.; Caldwell, S.E.; Hocker, L.P.; Crandall, D.G.; Zagarino, P.A.; Cheng, J.; Tirsell, G.; Hurlbut, C.R.

    1976-01-01

    Quenched plastic scintillators have been developed that yield much faster short decay components and greatly reduced long decay components compared to conventional plastic scintillators. The plastics are produced through the addition of selected quench agents to NE111 plastic scintillator that result in reduced total light output. Eight different agents have been studied. Benzophenone and piperidine are two of the most effective quench agents. Data are presented both for short and long decay components. The plastics are expected to make significant contributions in areas of plasma diagnostics

  3. Compensatory plasticity: time matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latifa eLazzouni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Plasticity in the human and animal brain is the rule, the base for development, and the way to deal effectively with the environment for making the most efficient use of all the senses. When the brain is deprived of one sensory modality, plasticity becomes compensatory: the exception that invalidates the general loss hypothesis giving the opportunity of effective change. Sensory deprivation comes with massive alterations in brain structure and function, behavioural outcomes, and neural interactions. Blind individuals do as good as the sighted and even more, show superior abilities in auditory, tactile and olfactory processing. This behavioural enhancement is accompanied with changes in occipital cortex function, where visual areas at different levels become responsive to non-visual information. The intact senses are in general used more efficiently in the blind but are also used more exclusively. New findings are disentangling these two aspects of compensatory plasticity. What is due to visual deprivation and what is dependent on the extended use of spared modalities? The latter seems to contribute highly to compensatory changes in the congenitally blind. Short term deprivation through the use of blindfolds shows that cortical excitability of the visual cortex is likely to show rapid modulatory changes after few minutes of light deprivation and therefore changes are possible in adulthood. However, reorganization remains more pronounced in the congenitally blind. Cortico-cortical pathways between visual areas and the areas of preserved sensory modalities are inhibited in the presence of vision, but are unmasked after loss of vision or blindfolding as a mechanism likely to drive cross-modal information to the deafferented visual cortex. Plasticity in the blind is also accompanied with neurochemical and morphological changes; both intrinsic connectivity and functional coupling at rest are altered but are likewise dependent on different sensory

  4. Mesocycles in conserving plastics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shashoua, Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    driven by the need to balance the requirements for reversibility in conservation practices with the artist’s intent and significance. Developments within each of the three mesocycles from the 1990s to date are discussed in this article. Environmental science and toxicology of waste plastics offer a novel...... source of information about real time degradation in terrestrial and marine microenvironments that seems likely to contribute to the conservation of similar materials in contemporary artworks....

  5. Plastic footwear for leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antia, N H

    1990-03-01

    The anaesthetic foot in leprosy poses the most major problem in the rehabilitation of its patients. Various attempts have been made to produce protective footwear such as the microcellular rubber-car-tyre sandals. Unfortunately these attempts have had little success on a large scale because of the inability to produce them in large numbers and the stigma attached to such unusual footwear. While such footwear may be superior to the 'tennis' shoe in protecting the foot from injury by the penetration of sharp objects, it fails to distribute the weight-bearing forces which is the major cause of plantar damage and ulceration in the anaesthetic foot. This can be achieved by providing rigidity to the sole, as demonstrated by the healing of ulcers in plaster of paris casts or the rigid wooden clog. A new type of moulded plastic footwear has been evolved in conjunction with the plastic footwear industry which provides footwear that can be mass produced at a low price and which overcomes the stigma of leprosy. Controlled rigidity is provided by the incorporation of a spring steel shank between the sponge insole and the hard wearing plastic sole. Trials have demonstrated both the acceptability of the footwear and its protective effects as well as its hard wearing properties.

  6. Plastic waste disposal apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kito, S

    1972-05-01

    A test plant plastic incinerator was constructed by the Takuma Boiler Manufacturing Co. for Sekisui Chemical Industries, and the use of a continuous feed spreader was found to be most effective for prevention of black smoke, and the use of a venturi scrubber proved to be effective for elimination of hydrogen chloride gas. The incinerator was designed for combustion of polyvinyl chloride exclusively, but it is also applicable for combustion of other plastics. When burning polyethylene, polypropylene, or polystyrene, (those plastics which do not produce toxic gases), the incinerator requires no scrubber for the combustion gas. The system may or may not have a pretreatment apparatus. For an incinerator with a pretreatment system, the flow chart comprises a pit, a supply crane, a vibration feeder, a metal eliminator, a rotation shredder, a continuous screw feeder with a quantitative supply hopper, a pretreatment chamber (300 C dry distillation), a quantitative supply hopper, and the incinerator. The incinerator is a flat non-grid type combustion chamber with an oil burner and many air nozzles. From the incinerator, ashes are sent by an ash conveyor to an ash bunker. The combustion gas goes to the boiler, and the water supplied the boiler water pump creates steam. The heat from the gas is sent back to the pretreatment system through a heat exchanger. The gas then goes to a venturi scrubber and goes out from a stack.

  7. New perspectives in plastic biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivan, Alex

    2011-06-01

    During the past 50 years new plastic materials, in various applications, have gradually replaced the traditional metal, wood, leather materials. Ironically, the most preferred property of plastics--durability--exerts also the major environmental threat. Recycling has practically failed to provide a safe solution for disposal of plastic waste (only 5% out of 1 trillion plastic bags, annually produced in the US alone, are being recycled). Since the most utilized plastic is polyethylene (PE; ca. 140 million tons/year), any reduction in the accumulation of PE waste alone would have a major impact on the overall reduction of the plastic waste in the environment. Since PE is considered to be practically inert, efforts were made to isolate unique microorganisms capable of utilizing synthetic polymers. Recent data showed that biodegradation of plastic waste with selected microbial strains became a viable solution. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Performance of molded plastic scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gen, N.S.; Leman, V.E.; Solomonov, V.M.

    1989-01-01

    The performance of molded plastic scintillators is studied. The plastic scintillators studied were formed by transfer molding and intrusion from a scintillation composition consisting of polystyrene and a standard system of luminescent additives: 2 mass % of paraterphenyl + 0.06 mass % 1,4-di-/2-[5-phenyloxazoyly]/benzene and a plasticizer. The combined effect of mechanical load and temperature was studied. The effect of radiation on molded plastic scintillators was studied using gamma radiation from a 60 Co source. The studies show that the main operating characteristics of molded plastic scintillators are on a par with those of polymerized plastic scintillators. At the same time, molded plastic scintillators are superior in thermal stability at temperatures below the glass transition temperature and with respect to their working temperature range

  9. Annual report 1989 Chemistry Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funck, J.; Neve Larsen, Aa.; Larsen, E.; Nielsen, O.J.

    1990-03-01

    This report contains a brief survey of the main activities in the Chemistry Department. The names and abstracts of all articles and reports published and lectures given in 1989 are presented. The facilities and equipment are mentioned briefly. The activities are divided into the following groups: radioisotope chemistry, analytical- and organic chemistry, environmental chemistry, polymer chemistry, chemical reactivity, mineral processing, and general. (author)

  10. Annual report 1988 Chemistry Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funck, J.; Neve Larsen, Aa.; Larsen, E.; Nielsen, O.J.

    1989-05-01

    This report contains a brief survey of the main activities in the Chemistry Department. The names and abstracts of all articles and reports published and lectures given in 1988 are presented. The facilities and equipment are mentioned briefly. The activities are divided into the following groups: radioisotope chemistry, analytical- and organic chemistry, environmental chemistry, polymer chemistry, chemical reactivity, mineral processing, and general. (author)

  11. Annual report 1986 chemistry department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funck, J.; Larsen, E.; Nielsen, O.J.

    1987-03-01

    This report contains a brief survey of the main activities in the Chemistry Department. All articles and reports published and lectures given in 1986 are presented. The facilities and equipment are mentioned briefly. The activities are divided into the following groups: radioisotope chemistry, analytical- and organic chemistry, environmental chemistry, polymer chemistry, radical chemistral, mineral processing, and general. (author)

  12. Titanocene sulfide chemistry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horáček, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 314, MAY 2016 (2016), s. 83-102 ISSN 0010-8545 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP207/12/2368 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : titanocene sulfide chemistry * photolysis * titanocene hydrosulfides Ti-(SH)n Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 13.324, year: 2016

  13. A green chemistry approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    One-pot synthesis of quinaldine derivatives by using microwave irradiation without any solvent – A green chemistry approach. JAVAD SAFARI*, SAYED HOSSEIN BANITABA and SEPEHR SADEGH SAMIEI. Department of Chemistry, The Faculty of sciences, University of Kashan, Kashan,. P.O. Box 87317-51167, I.R. Iran.

  14. Chemistry in Microfluidic Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Matthew C.; Sweeney, Christina M.; Odom, Teri W.

    2011-01-01

    General chemistry introduces principles such as acid-base chemistry, mixing, and precipitation that are usually demonstrated in bulk solutions. In this laboratory experiment, we describe how chemical reactions can be performed in a microfluidic channel to show advanced concepts such as laminar fluid flow and controlled precipitation. Three sets of…

  15. Chemistry of americium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, W.W.

    1976-01-01

    Essential features of the descriptive chemistry of americium are reviewed. Chapter titles are: discovery, atomic and nuclear properties, collateral reading, production and uses, chemistry in aqueous solution, metal, alloys, and compounds, and, recovery, separation, purification. Author and subject indexes are included. (JCB)

  16. Movies in Chemistry Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekdag, Bulent; Le Marechal, Jean-Francois

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews numerous studies on chemistry movies. Movies, or moving pictures, are important elements of multimedia and signify a privileged or motivating means of presenting knowledge. Studies on chemistry movies show that the first movie productions in this field were devoted to university lectures or documentaries. Shorter movies were…

  17. WATER CHEMISTRY ASSESSMENT METHODS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This section summarizes and evaluates the surfce water column chemistry assessment methods for USEPA/EMAP-SW, USGS-NAQA, USEPA-RBP, Oho EPA, and MDNR-MBSS. The basic objective of surface water column chemistry assessment is to characterize surface water quality by measuring a sui...

  18. The Breath of Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josephsen, Jens

    The present preliminary text is a short thematic presentation in biological inorganic chemistry meant to illustrate general and inorganic (especially coordination) chemistry in biochemistry. The emphasis is on molecular models to explain features of the complicated mechanisms essential to breathing...

  19. Exercises in Computational Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spanget-Larsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    A selection of HyperChem© PC-exercises in computational chemistry. Answers to most questions are appended (Roskilde University 2014-16).......A selection of HyperChem© PC-exercises in computational chemistry. Answers to most questions are appended (Roskilde University 2014-16)....

  20. Chemistry and Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigston, David L.

    1970-01-01

    Discusses the relationship between chemisty and biology in the science curriculum. Points out the differences in perception of the disciplines, which the physical scientists favoring reductionism. Suggests that biology departments offer a special course for chemistry students, just as the chemistry departments have done for biology students.…

  1. Transuranic Computational Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltsoyannis, Nikolas

    2018-02-26

    Recent developments in the chemistry of the transuranic elements are surveyed, with particular emphasis on computational contributions. Examples are drawn from molecular coordination and organometallic chemistry, and from the study of extended solid systems. The role of the metal valence orbitals in covalent bonding is a particular focus, especially the consequences of the stabilization of the 5f orbitals as the actinide series is traversed. The fledgling chemistry of transuranic elements in the +II oxidation state is highlighted. Throughout, the symbiotic interplay of experimental and computational studies is emphasized; the extraordinary challenges of experimental transuranic chemistry afford computational chemistry a particularly valuable role at the frontier of the periodic table. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Third Chemistry Conference on Recent Trends in Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeed, M.M.; Wheed, S.

    2011-01-01

    The third chemistry conference 2011 on recent trends in chemistry was held from October 17-19, 2001 at Islamabad, Pakistan. More than 65 papers and oral presentation. The scope of the conference was wide open and provides and opportunity for participation of broad spectrum of chemists. This forum provided a platform for the dissemination of the latest research followed by discussion pertaining to new trends in chemistry. This con fence covered different aspects of subjects including analytical chemistry, environmental chemistry, polymer chemistry, industrial chemistry, biochemistry and nano chemistry etc. (A.B.)

  3. Korean Kimchi Chemistry: A Multicultural Chemistry Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murfin, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Connecting science with different cultures is one way to interest students in science, to relate science to their lives, and at the same time to broaden their horizons in a variety of ways. In the lesson described here, students make kimchi, a delicious and popular Korean dish that can be used to explore many important chemistry concepts,…

  4. Chemistry and Nanoscience Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemistry and Nanoscience Center at NREL investigates materials and processes for converting renewable and new technologies. NREL's primary research in the chemistry and nanoscience center includes the Electrochemical Engineering and Materials Chemistry Providing a knowledge base in materials science covering

  5. System approach to chemistry course

    OpenAIRE

    Lorina E. Kruglova; Valentina G. Derendyaeva

    2010-01-01

    The article considers the raise of chemistry profile for engineers and constructors training, discloses the system approach to chemistry course and singles out the most important modules from the course of general chemistry for construction industry.

  6. Plastics in the Marine Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Kara Lavender

    2017-01-03

    Plastics contamination in the marine environment was first reported nearly 50 years ago, less than two decades after the rise of commercial plastics production, when less than 50 million metric tons were produced per year. In 2014, global plastics production surpassed 300 million metric tons per year. Plastic debris has been detected worldwide in all major marine habitats, in sizes from microns to meters. In response, concerns about risks to marine wildlife upon exposure to the varied forms of plastic debris have increased, stimulating new research into the extent and consequences of plastics contamination in the marine environment. Here, I present a framework to evaluate the current understanding of the sources, distribution, fate, and impacts of marine plastics. Despite remaining knowledge gaps in mass budgeting and challenges in investigating ecological impacts, the increasing evidence of the ubiquity of plastics contamination in the marine environment, the continued rapid growth in plastics production, and the evidence-albeit limited-of demonstrated impacts to marine wildlife support immediate implementation of source-reducing measures to decrease the potential risks of plastics in the marine ecosystem.

  7. Plastics in the Marine Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Kara Lavender

    2017-01-01

    Plastics contamination in the marine environment was first reported nearly 50 years ago, less than two decades after the rise of commercial plastics production, when less than 50 million metric tons were produced per year. In 2014, global plastics production surpassed 300 million metric tons per year. Plastic debris has been detected worldwide in all major marine habitats, in sizes from microns to meters. In response, concerns about risks to marine wildlife upon exposure to the varied forms of plastic debris have increased, stimulating new research into the extent and consequences of plastics contamination in the marine environment. Here, I present a framework to evaluate the current understanding of the sources, distribution, fate, and impacts of marine plastics. Despite remaining knowledge gaps in mass budgeting and challenges in investigating ecological impacts, the increasing evidence of the ubiquity of plastics contamination in the marine environment, the continued rapid growth in plastics production, and the evidence—albeit limited—of demonstrated impacts to marine wildlife support immediate implementation of source-reducing measures to decrease the potential risks of plastics in the marine ecosystem.

  8. Abiotic degradation of plastic films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ángeles-López, Y. G.; Gutiérrez-Mayen, A. M.; Velasco-Pérez, M.; Beltrán-Villavicencio, M.; Vázquez-Morillas, A.; Cano-Blanco, M.

    2017-01-01

    Degradable plastics have been promoted as an option to mitigate the environmental impacts of plastic waste. However, there is no certainty about its degradability under different environmental conditions. The effect of accelerated weathering (AW), natural weathering (NW) and thermal oxidation (TO) on different plastics (high density polyethylene, HDPE; oxodegradable high density polyethylene, HDPE-oxo; compostable plastic, Ecovio ® metalized polypropylene, PP; and oxodegradable metalized polypropylene, PP-oxo) was studied. Plastics films were exposed to AW per 110 hours; to NW per 90 days; and to TO per 30 days. Plastic films exposed to AW and NW showed a general loss on mechanical properties. The highest reduction in elongation at break on AW occurred to HDPE-oxo (from 400.4% to 20.9%) and was higher than 90% for HDPE, HDPE-oxo, Ecovio ® and PP-oxo in NW. No substantial evidence of degradation was found on plastics exposed to TO. Oxo-plastics showed higher degradation rates than their conventional counterparts, and the compostable plastic was resistant to degradation in the studied abiotic conditions. This study shows that degradation of plastics in real life conditions will vary depending in both, their composition and the environment.

  9. Annual report 1987 Chemistry Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funck, J.; Larsen, E.; Nielsen, O.J.

    1988-04-01

    This report contains a brief survey of the main activities in the Chemistry Department. The names and abstracts of all articles and reports published and lectures given in 1987 are presented. The facilities and equipment are mentioned briefly. The activities are divided into the following groups: radioisotope chemistry, analytical- and organic chemistry, environmental chemistry, polymer chemistry, radical chemistry, mineral processing, and general. 13 ills., (author)

  10. Annual report 1982 chemistry department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, E.; Nielsen, O.J.

    1983-04-01

    The work going on in the Risoe National Laboratory, Chemistry Department is briefly surveyed by a presentation of all articles and reports published in 1982. The facilities and equipment are barely mentioned. The papers are divided into eight activities: 1. neutron activation analysis 2. analytical- and organic chemistry 3. environmental chemistry 4. polymer chemistry 5. geochemistry 6. radical chemistry 7. poitron annihilation 8. uranium process chemistry. (author)

  11. Nuclear- and radiochemistry. Vol. 2. Modern applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesch, Frank

    2016-01-01

    This work is conceived to meet the demand of state-of-the-art literature to teach the fundamentals as well as the modern applications of nuclear chemistry. The work will consist of two volumes: the first one covering the basics of nuclear chemistry such as the relevant parameters of instable atomic nuclei, the various modi of radioactive transmutations, the corresponding types of radiation including their detection and dosimetry, and finally the mechanisms of nuclear reactions. The second volume addresses relevant fields of nuclear chemistry, such as the chemistry of radioactive elements, application of radioactive nuclei in life sciences, nuclear energy, waste managements and environmental aspects, radiochemical separations, radioanalytical and spectroscopic methods, etc. Here, leading experts will contribute up-to-date knowledge on the most important application of nuclear chemistry.

  12. Direct liquefaction of plastics and coprocessing of coal with plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, G.P.; Feng, Z.; Mahajan, V. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The objectives of this work were to optimize reaction conditions for the direct liquefaction of waste plastics and the coprocessing of coal with waste plastics. In previous work, the direct liquefaction of medium and high density polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PPE), poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), and a mixed plastic waste, and the coliquefaction of these plastics with coals of three different ranks was studied. The results established that a solid acid catalyst (HZSM-5 zeolite) was highly active for the liquefaction of the plastics alone, typically giving oil yields of 80-95% and total conversions of 90-100% at temperatures of 430-450 {degrees}C. In the coliquefaction experiments, 50:50 mixtures of plastic and coal were used with a tetralin solvent (tetralin:solid = 3:2). Using approximately 1% of the HZSM-5 catalyst and a nanoscale iron catalyst, oil yields of 50-70% and total conversion of 80-90% were typical. In the current year, further investigations were conducted of the liquefaction of PE, PPE, and a commingled waste plastic obtained from the American Plastics Council (APC), and the coprocessing of PE, PPE and the APC plastic with Black Thunder subbituminous coal. Several different catalysts were used in these studies.

  13. MATERNAL-FETAL TOLERANCE AS A MANIFESTATION OF REGULATORY CONTINUUM AND PLASTICITY OF THEIR IMMUNE SYSTEMS (in memory of I.P. Ashmarin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. P. Kharchenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Relations of immune tolerance between mother and fetus are considered in view of a common regulatory continuum which is formed under the influence of a growing fetus. To explain such an immune tolerance, a notion of immune system plasticity is introduced, as an analogue to the nervous system plasticity, which develops in response to a continuum of changes occurring in fetal and maternal organisms during the nine months of pregnancy. The immune system plasticity in females is supposed to be among possible factors causing collisions upon conception and in the course of pregnancy. (Med. Immunol., 2011, vol. 13, N 2-3, pp 121-132

  14. Plastics pipe couplings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glover, J.B.

    1980-07-01

    A method is described of making a pipe coupling of the type comprising a plastics socket and a resilient annular sealing member secured in the mouth thereof, in which the material of at least one component of the coupling is subjected to irradiation with high energy radiation whereby the material is caused to undergo cross-linking. As examples, the coupling may comprise a polyethylene or plasticised PVC socket the material of which is subjected to irradiation, and the sealing member may be moulded from a thermoplastic elastomer which is subjected to irradiation. (U.K.)

  15. Psychedelics Promote Structural and Functional Neural Plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Calvin; Greb, Alexandra C; Cameron, Lindsay P; Wong, Jonathan M; Barragan, Eden V; Wilson, Paige C; Burbach, Kyle F; Soltanzadeh Zarandi, Sina; Sood, Alexander; Paddy, Michael R; Duim, Whitney C; Dennis, Megan Y; McAllister, A Kimberley; Ori-McKenney, Kassandra M; Gray, John A; Olson, David E

    2018-06-12

    Atrophy of neurons in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays a key role in the pathophysiology of depression and related disorders. The ability to promote both structural and functional plasticity in the PFC has been hypothesized to underlie the fast-acting antidepressant properties of the dissociative anesthetic ketamine. Here, we report that, like ketamine, serotonergic psychedelics are capable of robustly increasing neuritogenesis and/or spinogenesis both in vitro and in vivo. These changes in neuronal structure are accompanied by increased synapse number and function, as measured by fluorescence microscopy and electrophysiology. The structural changes induced by psychedelics appear to result from stimulation of the TrkB, mTOR, and 5-HT2A signaling pathways and could possibly explain the clinical effectiveness of these compounds. Our results underscore the therapeutic potential of psychedelics and, importantly, identify several lead scaffolds for medicinal chemistry efforts focused on developing plasticity-promoting compounds as safe, effective, and fast-acting treatments for depression and related disorders. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Annual Report 1984. Chemistry Department

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funck, Jytte; Nielsen, Ole John

    This report contains a brief survey of the main activities in the Chemistry Department. All articles and reports published and lectures given in 1984 are presented. The facilities and equipment are mentioned briefly. The activities are divided into the following groups: radioisotope chemistry, an......, analytical- and organic chemistry, environmental chemistry, polymer chemistry, geochemistry and waste disposal, radical chemistry, positron annihilation, mineral processing, and general.......This report contains a brief survey of the main activities in the Chemistry Department. All articles and reports published and lectures given in 1984 are presented. The facilities and equipment are mentioned briefly. The activities are divided into the following groups: radioisotope chemistry...

  17. Moderator Chemistry Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewitt, L.V.; Gibbs, A.; Lambert, D.P.; Bohrer, S.R.; Fanning, R.L.; Houston, M.W.; Stinson, S.L.; Deible, R.W.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I.

    1990-11-01

    Over the past fifteen months, the Systems Chemistry Group of the Reactor Engineering Department has undertaken a comprehensive study of the Department's moderator chemistry program at Savannah River Site (SRS). An internal review was developed to formalize and document this program. Objectives were as outlined in a mission statement and action plan. In addition to the mission statement and action plan, nine separate task reports have been issued during the course of this study. Each of these task reports is included in this document as a chapter. This document is an organized compilation of the individual reports issued by the Systems Chemistry Group in assessment of SRS moderator chemistry to determine if there were significant gaps in the program as ft existed in October, 1989. While these reviews found no significant gaps in that mode of operation, or any items that adversely affected safety, items were identified that could be improved. Many of the items have already been dear with or are in the process of completion under this Moderator Chemistry Program and other Reactor Restart programs. A complete list of the items of improvement found under this assessment is found in Chapter 9, along with a proposed time table for correcting remaining items that can be improved for the chemistry program of SRS reactors. An additional external review of the moderator chemistry processes, recommendations, and responses to/from the Reactor Corrosion Mitigation Committee is included as Appendix to this compilation

  18. Chemistry of Technetium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omori, Takashi

    2001-01-01

    Since the late 1970's the coordination chemistry of technetium has been developed remarkably. The background of the development is obviously related to the use of technetium radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis in nuclear medicine. Much attention has also been denoted to the chemical behavior of environmental 99 Tc released from reprocessing plants. This review covers the several aspects of technetium chemistry, including production of radioisotopes, analytical chemistry and coordination chemistry. In the analytical chemistry, separation of technetium, emphasizing chromatography and solvent extraction, is described together with spectrophotometric determination of technetium. In the coordination chemistry of technetium, a characteristic feature of the chemistry of Tc(V) complexes is referred from the view point of the formation of a wide variety of highly stable complexes containing the Tc=O or Tc≡N bond. Kinetic studies of the preparation of Tc(III) complexes using hexakis (thiourea) technetium(III) ion as a starting material are summarized, together with the base hydrolysis reactions of Tc(III), Tc(IV) and Tc(V) complexes. (author)

  19. Cell plasticity and heterogeneity in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjanovic, Nemanja D; Weinberg, Robert A; Chaffer, Christine L

    2013-01-01

    Heterogeneity within a given cancer arises from diverse cell types recruited to the tumor and from genetic and/or epigenetic differences amongst the cancer cells themselves. These factors conspire to create a disease with various phenotypes. There are 2 established models of cancer development and progression to metastatic disease. These are the clonal evolution and cancer stem cell models. The clonal evolution theory suggests that successive mutations accumulating in a given cell generate clonal outgrowths that thrive in response to microenvironmental selection pressures, dictating the phenotype of the tumor. The alternative cancer stem cell (CSC) model suggests that cancer cells with similar genetic backgrounds can be hierarchically organized according to their tumorigenic potential. Accordingly, CSCs reside at the apex of the hierarchy and are thought to possess the majority of a cancer's tumor-initiating and metastatic ability. A defining feature of this model is its apparent unidirectional nature, whereby CSCs undergo symmetric division to replenish the CSC pool and irreversible asymmetric division to generate daughter cells (non-CSCs) with low tumorigenic potential. However, evolving evidence supports a new model of tumorigenicity, in which considerable plasticity exists between the non-CSC and CSC compartments, such that non-CSCs can reacquire a CSC phenotype. These findings suggest that some tumors may adhere to a plastic CSC model, in which bidirectional conversions are common and essential components of tumorigenicity. Accumulating evidence surrounding the plasticity of cancer cells, in particular, suggests that aggressive CSCs can be created de novo within a tumor. Given the current focus on therapeutic targeting of CSCs, we discuss the implications of non-CSC-to-CSC conversions on the development of future therapies. © 2012 American Association for Clinical Chemistry

  20. Plastic pollutants in water environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrowiec Bożena

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, wide applications of plastics result in plastic waste being present in the water environment in a wide variety of sizes. Plastic wastes are in water mainly as microplastics (the size range of 1 nm to < 5 mm. Microplastics have been recognized as an emerging threat, as well as ecotoxicological and ecological risk for water ecosystems. In this review are presented some of the physicochemical properties of plastic materials that determine their toxic effect on the aquatic environment. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs are mentioned as one of main sources of microplastics introduced into fresh water, and rivers are the pathways for the transportation of the pollutants to seas and oceans. But, effluents from tertiary wastewater treatment facilities can contain only minimally microplastic loads. The issue of discharge reduction of plastic pollutants into water environment needs activities in the scope of efficient wastewater treatment, waste disposal, recycling of plastic materials, education and public involvement.

  1. Chemistry in water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermansson, H.P.; Norring, K.

    1994-01-01

    The international conference Chemistry in Water Reactors was arranged in Nice 24-27/04/1994 by the French Nuclear Energy Society. Examples of technical program areas were primary chemistry, operational experience, fundamental studies and new technology. Furthermore there were sessions about radiation field build-up, hydrogen chemistry, electro-chemistry, condensate polishing, decontamination and chemical cleaning. The conference gave the impression that there are some areas that are going to be more important than others during the next few years to come. Cladding integrity: Professor Ishigure from Japan emphasized that cladding integrity is a subject of great concern, especially with respect to waterside corrosion, deposition and release of crud. Chemistry control: The control of the iron/nickel concentration quotient seems to be not as important as previously considered. The future operation of a nuclear power plant is going to require a better control of the water chemistry than achievable today. One example of this is solubility control via regulation in BWR. Trends in USA: means an increasing use of hydrogen, minimization of SCC/IASCC, minimization of radiation fields by thorough chemistry control, guarding fuel integrity by minimization of cladding corrosion and minimization of flow assisted corrosion. Stellite replacement: The search for replacement materials will continue. Secondary side crevice chemistry: Modeling and practical studies are required to increase knowledge about the crevice chemistry and how it develops under plant operation conditions. Inhibitors: Inhibitors for IGSCC and IGA as well for the primary- (zinc) as for the secondary side (Ti) should be studied. The effects and mode of operation of the inhibitors should be documented. Chemical cleaning: of heat transfer surfaces will be an important subject. Prophylactic cleaning at regular intervals could be one mode of operation

  2. Z Physics at LEP 1. Vol. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altarelli, G.; Kleiss, R.; Verzegnassi, C.

    1989-01-01

    The contents of this final report from the Workshop on Z Physics at LEP can be divided into two parts. The first part, comprising Vols. 1 and 2, is a relatively concise but fairly complete handbook on the physics of e + e - annihilation near the Z peak (with normal LEP luminosity and unpolarized beams, appropriate for the first phase of LEP operation). The second part (Vol. 3) is devoted to a review of the existing Monte Carlo event generators for LEP physics. A special effort has been made to co-ordinate the different parts of this report, with the aim of achieving a systematic and balanced review of the subject, rather than having simply a collection of separate contributions. (orig.)

  3. Z physics at LEP 1. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altarelli, G.; Kleiss, R.; Verzegnassi, C.

    1989-01-01

    The contents of this final report from the Workshop on Z Physics at LEP can be divided into two parts. The first part, comprising Vols. 1 and 2, is a relatively concise but fairly complete handbook on the physics of e + e - annihilation near the Z peak (with normal LEP luminosity and unpolarized beams, appropriate for the first phase of LEP operation). The second part (Vol. 3) is devoted to a review of the existing Monte Carlo event generators for LEP physics. A special effort has been made to co-ordinate the different parts of this report, with the aim of achieving a systematic and balanced review of the subject, rather than having simply a collection of separate contributions. (orig.)

  4. Mathematics for physical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Mortimer, Robert G

    2013-01-01

    Mathematics for Physical Chemistry is the ideal supplementary text for practicing chemists and students who want to sharpen their mathematics skills while enrolled in general through physical chemistry courses. This book specifically emphasizes the use of mathematics in the context of physical chemistry, as opposed to being simply a mathematics text. This 4e includes new exercises in each chapter that provide practice in a technique immediately after discussion or example and encourage self-study. The early chapters are constructed around a sequence of mathematical topics, wit

  5. Gas phase ion chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Bowers, Michael T

    1979-01-01

    Gas Phase Ion Chemistry, Volume 1 covers papers on the advances of gas phase ion chemistry. The book discusses the advances in flow tubes and the measurement of ion-molecule rate coefficients and product distributions; the ion chemistry of the earth's atmosphere; and the classical ion-molecule collision theory. The text also describes statistical methods in reaction dynamics; the state selection by photoion-photoelectron coincidence; and the effects of temperature and pressure in the kinetics of ion-molecule reactions. The energy distribution in the unimolecular decomposition of ions, as well

  6. Spatially Resolved Artificial Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fellermann, Harold

    2009-01-01

    Although spatial structures can play a crucial role in chemical systems and can drastically alter the outcome of reactions, the traditional framework of artificial chemistry is a well-stirred tank reactor with no spatial representation in mind. Advanced method development in physical chemistry has...... made a class of models accessible to the realms of artificial chemistry that represent reacting molecules in a coarse-grained fashion in continuous space. This chapter introduces the mathematical models of Brownian dynamics (BD) and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) for molecular motion and reaction...

  7. Experiments in physical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, J M; Denaro, A R

    1968-01-01

    Experiments in Physical Chemistry, Second Edition provides a compilation of experiments concerning physical chemistry. This book illustrates the link between the theory and practice of physical chemistry. Organized into three parts, this edition begins with an overview of those experiments that generally have a simple theoretical background. Part II contains experiments that are associated with more advanced theory or more developed techniques, or which require a greater degree of experimental skill. Part III consists of experiments that are in the nature of investigations wherein these invest

  8. Computational quantum chemistry website

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This report contains the contents of a web page related to research on the development of quantum chemistry methods for computational thermochemistry and the application of quantum chemistry methods to problems in material chemistry and chemical sciences. Research programs highlighted include: Gaussian-2 theory; Density functional theory; Molecular sieve materials; Diamond thin-film growth from buckyball precursors; Electronic structure calculations on lithium polymer electrolytes; Long-distance electronic coupling in donor/acceptor molecules; and Computational studies of NOx reactions in radioactive waste storage

  9. Spatially Resolved Artificial Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fellermann, Harold

    2009-01-01

    made a class of models accessible to the realms of artificial chemistry that represent reacting molecules in a coarse-grained fashion in continuous space. This chapter introduces the mathematical models of Brownian dynamics (BD) and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) for molecular motion and reaction......Although spatial structures can play a crucial role in chemical systems and can drastically alter the outcome of reactions, the traditional framework of artificial chemistry is a well-stirred tank reactor with no spatial representation in mind. Advanced method development in physical chemistry has...

  10. DOE fundamentals handbook: Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Chemistry Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors in providing operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of chemistry. The handbook includes information on the atomic structure of matter; chemical bonding; chemical equations; chemical interactions involved with corrosion processes; water chemistry control, including the principles of water treatment; the hazards of chemicals and gases, and basic gaseous diffusion processes. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding the chemical properties of materials and the way these properties can impose limitations on the operation of equipment and systems

  11. Plastic food packaging and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raika Durusoy

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Plastics have a wide usage in our daily lives. One of their uses is for food packaging and food containers. The aim of this review is to introduce different types of chemicals that can leach from food packaging plastics into foods and cause human exposure and to mention their effects on health. The types of plastics were reviewed under the 13 headings in Turkish Codex Alimentarius and plastics recycling symbols were provided to enable the recognition of the type of plastic when applicable. Chemicals used during the production and that can cause health risks are investigated under the heading of the relevant type of plastic. The most important chemicals from plastic food packaging that can cause toxicity are styrene, 1,3-butadiene, melamine, formaldehyde, acrylamide, di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, di-2-ethylhexyl adipate, vinyl chloride and bisphenol A. These chemicals have endocrine disrupting, carcinogenic and/or development disrupting effects. These chemicals may leach into foods depending on the chemical properties of the plastic or food, temperature during packaging, processing and storage, exposure to UV and duration of storage. Contact with fatty/oily or acidic foods, heating of the food inside the container, or drinking hot drinks from plastic cups, use of old and scratched plastics and some detergents increase the risk of leaching. The use of plastic containers and packaging for food and beveradges should be avoided whenever possible and when necessary, less harmful types of plastic should be preferred. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(1.000: 87-96

  12. Fines Classification Based on Sensitivity to Pore-Fluid Chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Jang, Junbong

    2015-12-28

    The 75-μm particle size is used to discriminate between fine and coarse grains. Further analysis of fine grains is typically based on the plasticity chart. Whereas pore-fluid-chemistry-dependent soil response is a salient and distinguishing characteristic of fine grains, pore-fluid chemistry is not addressed in current classification systems. Liquid limits obtained with electrically contrasting pore fluids (deionized water, 2-M NaCl brine, and kerosene) are combined to define the soil "electrical sensitivity." Liquid limit and electrical sensitivity can be effectively used to classify fine grains according to their fluid-soil response into no-, low-, intermediate-, or high-plasticity fine grains of low, intermediate, or high electrical sensitivity. The proposed methodology benefits from the accumulated experience with liquid limit in the field and addresses the needs of a broader range of geotechnical engineering problems. © ASCE.

  13. Fines classification based on sensitivity to pore-fluid chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Junbong; Santamarina, J. Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The 75-μm particle size is used to discriminate between fine and coarse grains. Further analysis of fine grains is typically based on the plasticity chart. Whereas pore-fluid-chemistry-dependent soil response is a salient and distinguishing characteristic of fine grains, pore-fluid chemistry is not addressed in current classification systems. Liquid limits obtained with electrically contrasting pore fluids (deionized water, 2-M NaCl brine, and kerosene) are combined to define the soil “electrical sensitivity.” Liquid limit and electrical sensitivity can be effectively used to classify fine grains according to their fluid-soil response into no-, low-, intermediate-, or high-plasticity fine grains of low, intermediate, or high electrical sensitivity. The proposed methodology benefits from the accumulated experience with liquid limit in the field and addresses the needs of a broader range of geotechnical engineering problems.

  14. NJB VOL.34 Original Lower.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rhizosphere heterotrophic population, nitrogen fixing bacteria and enzyme activity of an ... decomposition to reduce its organic strength and degrade its toxic fractions. It was then .... POME samples were collected in clean plastic reduction of 2 ...

  15. Journal of Environmental Extension - Vol 11 (2013)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Concentration reduction of selected pollutants in fish culture effluents using plastic straws and palm kernel shells. EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. AA Olusegun, OS Temitayo, 32-37 ...

  16. New polyvinylchloride plasticizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAZITOVA Aliya Karamovna

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the main large-capacity polymers of modern chemical industry is polyvinylchloride (PVC. Polyvinylchloride is characterized by many useful engineering properties – chemical firmness in different environments, good electric properties, etc. It explains immensely various use of materials on the basis of PVC in different engineering industries. It is cable, building, light industries, mechanical engineering and automotive industry where PVC is widely applied. One of the reasons why PVC production is dramatically growing is that there is no yet other polymer which could be subjected to such various modifying as it is done with PVC. However under normal temperature this polymer is fragile and isn't elastic that limits the field of its application. Rapid growth of production of polyvinylchloride is explained by its ability to modify properties, due to introduction of special additives when processing. Introduction of plasticizers – mostlly esters of organic and inorganic acids – into PVC allows significant changing properties of polymer. Plasticizers facilitate process of receiving polymeric composition, increase flexibility and elasticity of the final polymeric product due to internal modification of polymeric molecule.

  17. DNA functionalization by dynamic chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Kanlidere

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic combinatorial chemistry (DCC is an attractive method to efficiently generate libraries of molecules from simpler building blocks by reversible reactions under thermodynamic control. Here we focus on the chemical modification of DNA oligonucleotides with acyclic diol linkers and demonstrate their potential for the deoxyribonucleic acid functionalization and generation of libraries of reversibly interconverting building blocks. The syntheses of phosphoramidite building blocks derived from D-threoninol are presented in two variants with protected amino or thiol groups. The threoninol building blocks were successfully incorporated via automated solid-phase synthesis into 13mer oligonucleotides. The amino group containing phosphoramidite was used together with complementary single-strand DNA templates that influenced the Watson–Crick base-pairing equilibrium in the mixture with a set of aldehyde modified nucleobases. A significant fraction of all possible base-pair mismatches was obtained, whereas, the highest selectivity (over 80% was found for the guanine aldehyde templated by the complementary cytosine containing DNA. The elevated occurrence of mismatches can be explained by increased backbone plasticity derived from the linear threoninol building block as a cyclic deoxyribose analogue.

  18. Large hadron collider workshop. Proceedings. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarlskog, G.; Rein, D.

    1990-01-01

    The aim of the LHC workshop at Aachen was to discuss the 'discovery potential' of a high-luminosity hadron collider (the Large Hadron Collider) and to define the requirements of the detectors. Of central interest was whether a Higgs particle with mass below 1 TeV could be seen using detectors potentially available within a few years from now. Other topics included supersymmetry, heavy quarks, excited gauge bosons, and exotica in proton-proton collisions, as well as physics to be observed in electron-proton and heavy-ion collisions. A large part of the workshop was devoted to the discussion of instrumental and detector concepts, including simulation, signal processing, data acquisition, tracking, calorimetry, lepton identification and radiation hardness. The workshop began with parallel sessions of working groups on physics and instrumentation and continued, in the second half, with plenary talks giving overviews of the LHC project and the SSC, RHIC, and HERA programmes, summaries of the working groups, presentations from industry, and conclusions. Vol.1 of these proceedings contains the papers presented at the plenary sessions, Vol.2 the individual contributions to the physics sessions, and Vol.3 those to the instrumentation sessions. (orig.)

  19. Large hadron collider workshop. Proceedings. Vol. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarlskog, G.; Rein, D.

    1990-01-01

    The aim of the LHC workshop at Aachen was to discuss the 'discovery potential' of a high-luminosity hadron collider (the Large Hadron Collider) and to define the requirements of the detectors. Of central interest was whether a Higgs particle with mass below 1 TeV could be seen using detectors potentially available within a few years from now. Other topics included supersymmetry, heavy quarks, excited gauge bosons, and exotica in proton-proton collisions, as well as physics to be observed in electron-proton and heavy-ion collisions. A large part of the workshop was devoted to the discussion of instrumental and detector concepts, including simulation, signal processing, data acquisition, tracking, calorimetry, lepton identification and radiation hardness. The workshop began with parallel sessions of working groups on physics and instrumentaiton and continued, in the second half, with plenary talks giving overviews of the LHC project and the SSC, RHIC, and HERA programmes, summaries of the working groups, presentations from industry, and conclusions. Vol. 1 of these proceedings contains the papers presented at the plenary sessions, Vol. 2 the individual contributions to the physics sessions, and Vol. 3 those to the instrumentation sessions. (orig.)

  20. Large hadron collider workshop. Proceedings. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarlskog, G.; Rein, D.

    1990-01-01

    The aim of the LCH workshop at Aachen was to discuss the 'discovery potential' of a high-luminosity hadron collider (the Large Hadron Collider) and to define the requirements of the detectors. Of central interest was whether a Higgs particle with mass below 1 TeV could be seen using detectors potentially available within a few years from now. Other topics included supersymmetry, heavy quarks, excited gauge bosons, and exotica in proton-proton collisions, as well as physics to be observed in electron-proton and heavy-ion collisions. A large part of the workshop was devoted to the discussion of instrumental and detector concepts, including simulation, signal processing, data acquisition, tracking, calorimetry, lepton identification and radiation hardness. The workshop began with parallel sessions of working groups on physics and instrumentation and continued, in the second half, with plenary talks giving overviews of the LHC project and the SSC, RHIC, and HERA programmes, summaries of the working groups, presentations from industry, and conclusions. Vol. 1 of these proceedings contains the papers presented at the plenary sessions, Vol. 2 the individual contributions to the physics sessions, and Vol. 3 those to the instrumentation sessions. (orig.)

  1. Non-thermally activated chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiller, W.

    1987-01-01

    The subject is covered under the following headings: state-of-the art of non-thermally activated chemical processes; basic phenomena in non-thermal chemistry including mechanochemistry, photochemistry, laser chemistry, electrochemistry, photo-electro chemistry, high-field chemistry, magneto chemistry, plasma chemistry, radiation chemistry, hot-atom chemistry, and positronium and muonium chemistry; elementary processes in non-thermal chemistry including nuclear chemistry, interactions of electromagnetic radiations, electrons and heavy particles with matter, ionic elementary processes, elementary processes with excited species, radicalic elementary processes, and energy-induced elementary processes on surfaces and interfaces; and comparative considerations. An appendix with historical data and a subject index is given. 44 figs., 41 tabs., and 544 refs

  2. Americium behaviour in plastic vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legarda, F.; Herranz, M.; Idoeta, R.; Abelairas, A.

    2010-01-01

    The adsorption of 241 Am dissolved in water in different plastic storage vessels was determined. Three different plastics were investigated with natural and distilled waters and the retention of 241 Am by these plastics was studied. The same was done by varying vessel agitation time, vessel agitation speed, surface/volume ratio of water in the vessels and water pH. Adsorptions were measured to be between 0% and 70%. The adsorption of 241 Am is minimized with no water agitation, with PET or PVC plastics, and by water acidification.

  3. Americium behaviour in plastic vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legarda, F.; Herranz, M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Idoeta, R., E-mail: raquel.idoeta@ehu.e [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Abelairas, A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    The adsorption of {sup 241}Am dissolved in water in different plastic storage vessels was determined. Three different plastics were investigated with natural and distilled waters and the retention of {sup 241}Am by these plastics was studied. The same was done by varying vessel agitation time, vessel agitation speed, surface/volume ratio of water in the vessels and water pH. Adsorptions were measured to be between 0% and 70%. The adsorption of {sup 241}Am is minimized with no water agitation, with PET or PVC plastics, and by water acidification.

  4. Americium behaviour in plastic vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legarda, F; Herranz, M; Idoeta, R; Abelairas, A

    2010-01-01

    The adsorption of (241)Am dissolved in water in different plastic storage vessels was determined. Three different plastics were investigated with natural and distilled waters and the retention of (241)Am by these plastics was studied. The same was done by varying vessel agitation time, vessel agitation speed, surface/volume ratio of water in the vessels and water pH. Adsorptions were measured to be between 0% and 70%. The adsorption of (241)Am is minimized with no water agitation, with PET or PVC plastics, and by water acidification. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Radionuclides in analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tousset, J.

    1984-01-01

    Applications of radionuclides in analytical chemistry are reviewed in this article: tracers, radioactive sources and activation analysis. Examples are given in all these fields and it is concluded that these methods should be used more widely [fr

  6. Electrostatics in Chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 7. Electrostatics in Chemistry - Molecular Electrostatic Potential: Visualization and Topography. Shridhar R Gadre Pravin K Bhadane. Series Article Volume 4 Issue 7 July 1999 pp 14-23 ...

  7. Organic Chemistry Masterclasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of Science Education that is published monthly by the Academy since January 1996. ...... Modern chemistry is also emerging from molecules derived from the .... photochemical reactions, the traditional correlation diagram approach is more ...

  8. Alcohol combustion chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani; Oß wald, Patrick; Hansen, Nils; Kohse-Hö inghaus, Katharina

    2014-01-01

    . While biofuel production and its use (especially ethanol and biodiesel) in internal combustion engines have been the focus of several recent reviews, a dedicated overview and summary of research on alcohol combustion chemistry is still lacking. Besides

  9. General Chemistry for Engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kybett, B. D.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the relationship between molecular structure, intermolecular forces, and tensile strengths of a polymer and suggests that this is a logical way to introduce polymers into a general chemistry course. (Author/JN)

  10. WHAT MAKES CHEMISTRY DIFFICULT?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IICBA01

    School of Natural and Computational Science Dire Dawa University, Ethiopia,. 2 ... lack of teaching aids and the difficulty of the language of chemistry. ... lab every other week consisting of concept pretests on the web, hand-written homework, ...

  11. Indicators: Soil Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chemical makeup of the soil can provide information on wetland condition, wetland water quality and services being provided by the wetland ecosystem. Analyzing soil chemistry reveals if the soil is contaminated with a toxic chemical or heavy metal.

  12. Applications of supramolecular chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Hans-Jörg

    2012-01-01

    ""The time is ripe for the present volume, which gathers thorough presentations of the numerous actually realized or potentially accessible applications of supramolecular chemistry by a number of the leading figures in the field. The variety of topics covered is witness to the diversity of the approaches and the areas of implementation…a broad and timely panorama of the field assembling an eminent roster of contributors.""-Jean-Marie Lehn, 1987 Noble Prize Winner in Chemistry

  13. Gas phase ion chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Bowers, Michael T

    1979-01-01

    Gas Phase Ion Chemistry, Volume 2 covers the advances in gas phase ion chemistry. The book discusses the stabilities of positive ions from equilibrium gas-phase basicity measurements; the experimental methods used to determine molecular electron affinities, specifically photoelectron spectroscopy, photodetachment spectroscopy, charge transfer, and collisional ionization; and the gas-phase acidity scale. The text also describes the basis of the technique of chemical ionization mass spectrometry; the energetics and mechanisms of unimolecular reactions of positive ions; and the photodissociation

  14. Reference Sources in Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Sthapit, Dilip Man

    1995-01-01

    Information plays an important role in the development of every field. Therefore a brief knowledge regarding information sources is necessary to function in any field. There are many information sources about scientific and technical subjects. In this context there are many reference sources in Chemistry too. Chemistry is one important part of the science which deals with the study of the composition of substances and the chemical changes that they undergo. The purpose of this report is...

  15. Quantitative analysis chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Wansuk; Lee, Choongyoung; Jun, Kwangsik; Hwang, Taeksung

    1995-02-01

    This book is about quantitative analysis chemistry. It is divided into ten chapters, which deal with the basic conception of material with the meaning of analysis chemistry and SI units, chemical equilibrium, basic preparation for quantitative analysis, introduction of volumetric analysis, acid-base titration of outline and experiment examples, chelate titration, oxidation-reduction titration with introduction, titration curve, and diazotization titration, precipitation titration, electrometric titration and quantitative analysis.

  16. Chemistry and nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Wet, W.J.

    1977-01-01

    The underlying principles of nuclear sciece and technology as based on the two basic phenomena, namely, radioactivity and nuclear reactions, with their relatively large associated energy changes, are outlined. The most important contributions by chemists in the overall historical development are mentioned and the strong position chemistry has attained in these fields is indicated. It is concluded that chemistry as well as many other scientific discplines (apart from general benefits) have largely benefitted from these nuclear developments [af

  17. EPA Environmental Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Chemistry Laboratory (ECL) is a national program laboratory specializing in residue chemistry analysis under the jurisdiction of the EPA's Office of Pesticide Programs in Washington, D.C. At Stennis Space Center, the laboratory's work supports many federal anti-pollution laws. The laboratory analyzes environmental and human samples to determine the presence and amount of agricultural chemicals and related substances. Pictured, ECL chemists analyze environmental and human samples for the presence of pesticides and other pollutants.

  18. Fundamentals of quantum chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    House, J E

    2004-01-01

    An introduction to the principles of quantum mechanics needed in physical chemistry. Mathematical tools are presented and developed as needed and only basic calculus, chemistry, and physics is assumed. Applications include atomic and molecular structure, spectroscopy, alpha decay, tunneling, and superconductivity. New edition includes sections on perturbation theory, orbital symmetry of diatomic molecules, the Huckel MO method and Woodward/Hoffman rules as well as a new chapter on SCF and Hartree-Fock methods. * This revised text clearly presents basic q

  19. Tropical Soil Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borggaard, Ole K.

    and environmental protection. Tropical Soil Chemistry by Ole K. Borggaard provides an overview of the composition, occurrence, properties, processes, formation, and environmental vulnerability of various tropical soil types (using American Soil Taxonomy for classification). The processes and the external factors...... soil chemical issues are also presented to assess when, why, and how tropical soils differ from soils in other regions. This knowledge can help agricultural specialists in the tropics establish sustainable crop production. Readers are assumed to be familiar with basic chemistry, physics...

  20. Plastics recycling: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopewell, Jefferson; Dvorak, Robert; Kosior, Edward

    2009-07-27

    Plastics are inexpensive, lightweight and durable materials, which can readily be moulded into a variety of products that find use in a wide range of applications. As a consequence, the production of plastics has increased markedly over the last 60 years. However, current levels of their usage and disposal generate several environmental problems. Around 4 per cent of world oil and gas production, a non-renewable resource, is used as feedstock for plastics and a further 3-4% is expended to provide energy for their manufacture. A major portion of plastic produced each year is used to make disposable items of packaging or other short-lived products that are discarded within a year of manufacture. These two observations alone indicate that our current use of plastics is not sustainable. In addition, because of the durability of the polymers involved, substantial quantities of discarded end-of-life plastics are accumulating as debris in landfills and in natural habitats worldwide. Recycling is one of the most important actions currently available to reduce these impacts and represents one of the most dynamic areas in the plastics industry today. Recycling provides opportunities to reduce oil usage, carbon dioxide emissions and the quantities of waste requiring disposal. Here, we briefly set recycling into context against other waste-reduction strategies, namely reduction in material use through downgauging or product reuse, the use of alternative biodegradable materials and energy recovery as fuel. While plastics have been recycled since the 1970s, the quantities that are recycled vary geographically, according to plastic type and application. Recycling of packaging materials has seen rapid expansion over the last decades in a number of countries. Advances in technologies and systems for the collection, sorting and reprocessing of recyclable plastics are creating new opportunities for recycling, and with the combined actions of the public, industry and governments it

  1. Plastics recycling: challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopewell, Jefferson; Dvorak, Robert; Kosior, Edward

    2009-01-01

    Plastics are inexpensive, lightweight and durable materials, which can readily be moulded into a variety of products that find use in a wide range of applications. As a consequence, the production of plastics has increased markedly over the last 60 years. However, current levels of their usage and disposal generate several environmental problems. Around 4 per cent of world oil and gas production, a non-renewable resource, is used as feedstock for plastics and a further 3–4% is expended to provide energy for their manufacture. A major portion of plastic produced each year is used to make disposable items of packaging or other short-lived products that are discarded within a year of manufacture. These two observations alone indicate that our current use of plastics is not sustainable. In addition, because of the durability of the polymers involved, substantial quantities of discarded end-of-life plastics are accumulating as debris in landfills and in natural habitats worldwide. Recycling is one of the most important actions currently available to reduce these impacts and represents one of the most dynamic areas in the plastics industry today. Recycling provides opportunities to reduce oil usage, carbon dioxide emissions and the quantities of waste requiring disposal. Here, we briefly set recycling into context against other waste-reduction strategies, namely reduction in material use through downgauging or product reuse, the use of alternative biodegradable materials and energy recovery as fuel. While plastics have been recycled since the 1970s, the quantities that are recycled vary geographically, according to plastic type and application. Recycling of packaging materials has seen rapid expansion over the last decades in a number of countries. Advances in technologies and systems for the collection, sorting and reprocessing of recyclable plastics are creating new opportunities for recycling, and with the combined actions of the public, industry and governments it

  2. Sustainable reverse logistics for household plastic waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bing, X.

    2014-01-01

    Summary of the thesis titled “Sustainable Reverse Logistics for Household Plastic Waste”

    PhD Candidate: Xiaoyun Bing

    Recycled plastic can be used in the manufacturing of plastic products to reduce the use of virgin plastics material. The cost of recycled plastics is usually lower

  3. African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology - Vol 5, No ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology - Vol 5, No 1 (2004) ... ASYMPTOMATIC SIGNIFICANT BACTERIURIA AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN IN ... TO PARASITISM AND THE IMPLICATION ON TREATMENT APPROACH ...

  4. Henry Taube and Coordination Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    dropdown arrow Site Map A-Z Index Menu Synopsis Henry Taube and Coordination Chemistry Resources with Professor of Chemistry, Emeritus, at Stanford University, received the 1983 Nobel Prize in Chemistry " there from 1940-41. "I became deeply interested in chemistry soon after I came to Berkeley,"

  5. Vol 39 2011 Art 2.pub

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2613611

    plants, which gives these fibres properties found in none of the other cellulosic fibres. ... student in textile technology (textile chemistry) at the. SSM College of ... on fabric design and inoculum size (Hatch, 1993:168; Neely &. Maley, 2000).

  6. African Zoology - Vol 46, No 2 (2011)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bee food: the chemistry and nutritional value of nectar, pollen and mixtures of the two ... Field evidence for colony size and aseasonality of breeding and in Ansell's ... geographically different regions in Africa: Implication for ecologically-based ...

  7. Plastics for corrosion inhibition

    CERN Document Server

    Goldade, Victor A; Makarevich, Anna V; Kestelman, Vladimir N

    2005-01-01

    The development of polymer composites containing inhibitors of metal corrosion is an important endeavour in modern materials science and technology. Corrosion inhibitors can be located in a polymer matrix in the solid, liquid or gaseous phase. This book details the thermodynamic principles for selecting these components, their compatibility and their effectiveness. The various mechanisms of metal protection – barrier, inhibiting and electromechanical – are considered, as are the conflicting requirements placed on the structure of the combined material. Two main classes of inhibited materials (structural and films/coatings) are described in detail. Examples are given of structural plastics used in friction units subjected to mechano-chemical wear and of polymer films/coatings for protecting metal objects against corrosion.

  8. Experimental design in chemistry: A tutorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leardi, Riccardo

    2009-10-12

    In this tutorial the main concepts and applications of experimental design in chemistry will be explained. Unfortunately, nowadays experimental design is not as known and applied as it should be, and many papers can be found in which the "optimization" of a procedure is performed one variable at a time. Goal of this paper is to show the real advantages in terms of reduced experimental effort and of increased quality of information that can be obtained if this approach is followed. To do that, three real examples will be shown. Rather than on the mathematical aspects, this paper will focus on the mental attitude required by experimental design. The readers being interested to deepen their knowledge of the mathematical and algorithmical part can find very good books and tutorials in the references [G.E.P. Box, W.G. Hunter, J.S. Hunter, Statistics for Experimenters: An Introduction to Design, Data Analysis, and Model Building, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1978; R. Brereton, Chemometrics: Data Analysis for the Laboratory and Chemical Plant, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1978; R. Carlson, J.E. Carlson, Design and Optimization in Organic Synthesis: Second Revised and Enlarged Edition, in: Data Handling in Science and Technology, vol. 24, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2005; J.A. Cornell, Experiments with Mixtures: Designs, Models and the Analysis of Mixture Data, in: Series in Probability and Statistics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1991; R.E. Bruns, I.S. Scarminio, B. de Barros Neto, Statistical Design-Chemometrics, in: Data Handling in Science and Technology, vol. 25, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2006; D.C. Montgomery, Design and Analysis of Experiments, 7th edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2009; T. Lundstedt, E. Seifert, L. Abramo, B. Thelin, A. Nyström, J. Pettersen, R. Bergman, Chemolab 42 (1998) 3; Y. Vander Heyden, LC-GC Europe 19 (9) (2006) 469].

  9. Nigerian Journal of Plastic Surgery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Nigerian Journal of Plastic Surgery has its objectives in publishing original articles about developments in all areas related to plastic and reconstructive surgery as well as to trauma surgery. It also serves as a means of providing a forum for correspondence, information and discussion. It also accepts review articles that ...

  10. Architecture of European Plastic Surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicolai, J. -P. A.; Banic, A.; Molea, G.; Mazzola, R.; Poell, J. G.

    2006-01-01

    The architecture of European Plastic Surgery was published in 1996 [Nicolai JPA, Scuderi N. Plastic surgical Europe in an organogram. Eur J Plast Surg 1996; 19: 253-6.] It is the objective of this paper to update information of that article. Continuing medical education (CME), science, training,

  11. Industrial applications of radiation chemistry; Perspectives industrielles de la chimie sous rayonnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puig, Jean Rene [Commissariat a l' energie atomique et aux energies alternatives - CEA, Service de chimie-physique, CEN de Saclay (France)

    1959-07-01

    The status of industrial applications of radiation chemistry as it stands 6 months after the second Geneva international conference is described. The main features of the interaction of ionizing radiations with matter are briefly stated and a review is made of the best studied and the more promising systems of radiation chemistry. The fields of organics, plastics, heterogeneous catalysis are emphasized. Economies of radiation production and utilization are discussed. Reprint of a paper published in Industries atomiques - no. 5-6, 1959.

  12. Imaging brain plasticity after trauma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhifeng Kou; Armin Iraji

    2014-01-01

    The brain is highly plastic after stroke or epilepsy;however, there is a paucity of brain plasticity investigation after traumatic brain injury (TBI). This mini review summarizes the most recent evidence of brain plasticity in human TBI patients from the perspective of advanced magnetic resonance imaging. Similar to other forms of acquired brain injury, TBI patients also demonstrat-ed both structural reorganization as well as functional compensation by the recruitment of other brain regions. However, the large scale brain network alterations after TBI are still unknown, and the ifeld is still short of proper means on how to guide the choice of TBI rehabilitation or treat-ment plan to promote brain plasticity. The authors also point out the new direction of brain plas-ticity investigation.

  13. Size effects in crystal plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Ulrik

    2007-01-01

    Numerical analyses of plasticity size effects have been carried out for different problems using a developed strain gradient crystal plasticiy theory. The theory employs higher order stresses as work conjugates to slip gradients and uses higher order boundary conditions. Problems on localization...... of plastic flow in a single crystal, grain boundary effects in a bicrystal, and grain size effects in a polycrystal are studied. Single crystals containing micro-scale voids have also been analyzed at different loading conditions with focus on the stress and deformation fields around the voids, on void...... growth and interaction between neighboring voids, and on a comparison between the developed strain gradient crystal plasticity theory and a discrete dislocation plasticity theory. Furthermore, voids and rigid inclusions in isotropic materials have been studied using a strain gradient plasticity theory...

  14. Computational strain gradient crystal plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Kysar, Jeffrey W.

    2014-01-01

    A numerical method for viscous strain gradient crystal plasticity theory is presented, which incorporates both energetic and dissipative gradient effects. The underlying minimum principles are discussed as well as convergence properties of the proposed finite element procedure. Three problems...... of plane crystal plasticity are studied: pure shear of a single crystal between rigid platens as well as plastic deformation around cylindrical voids in hexagonal close packed and face centered cubic crystals. Effective in-plane constitutive slip parameters for plane strain deformation of specifically...... oriented face centered cubic crystals are developed in terms of the crystallographic slip parameters. The effect on geometrically necessary dislocation structures introduced by plastic deformation is investigated as a function of the ratio of void radius to plasticity length scale....

  15. Grain Interactions in Crystal Plasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, K.P.; Curtin, W.A.

    2005-01-01

    The plastic response of a sheet metal is governed by the collective response of the underlying grains. Intragranular plasticity depends on intrinsic variables such as crystallographic orientation and on extrinsic variables such as grain interactions; however, the role of the latter is not well understood. A finite element crystal plasticity formulation is used to investigate the importance of grain interactions on intragranular plastic deformation in initially untextured polycrystalline aggregates. A statistical analysis reveals that grain interactions are of equal (or more) importance for determining the average intragranular deviations from the applied strain as compared to the orientation of the grain itself. Furthermore, the influence of the surrounding grains is found to extend past nearest neighbor interactions. It is concluded that the stochastic nature of the mesoscale environment must be considered for a proper understanding of the plastic response of sheet metals at the grain-scale

  16. AECL research programs in chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crocker, I.H.; Eastwood, T.A.; Smith, D.R.; Stewart, R.B.; Tomlinson, M.; Torgerson, D.F.

    1980-09-01

    Fundamental or underlying research in chemistry is being done in AECL laboratories to further the understanding of processes involved in current nuclear energy systems and maintain an awareness of progress at the frontiers of chemical research so that new advances can be turned to advantage in future AECL endeavours. The report introduces the current research topics and describes them briefly under the following headings: radiation chemistry, isotope separation, high temperature solution chemistry, fuel reprocessing chemistry, and analytical chemistry. (auth)

  17. Annual report 1983 Chemistry Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funck, J.; Larsen, E.; Nielsen, O.J.

    1984-05-01

    This report contains a brief survey of the main activities in the Chemistry Department. All articles and reports published and lectures given in 1983 are presented. The facilities and equipment are barely mentioned. The activities are divided into nine groups: 1. radioisotope chemistry 2. analytical- and organic chemistry 3. environmental chemistry 4. polymer chemistry 5. geochemistry and waste disposal 6. radical chemstry 7. positron annihilation 8. mineral processing 9. general. (author)

  18. Nano-Ceramic Coated Plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Junghyun

    2013-01-01

    Plastic products, due to their durability, safety, and low manufacturing cost, are now rapidly replacing cookware items traditionally made of glass and ceramics. Despite this trend, some still prefer relatively expensive and more fragile ceramic/glassware because plastics can deteriorate over time after exposure to foods, which can generate odors, bad appearance, and/or color change. Nano-ceramic coatings can eliminate these drawbacks while still retaining the advantages of the plastic, since the coating only alters the surface of the plastic. The surface coating adds functionality to the plastics such as self-cleaning and disinfectant capabilities that result from a photocatalytic effect of certain ceramic systems. These ceramic coatings can also provide non-stick surfaces and higher temperature capabilities for the base plastics without resorting to ceramic or glass materials. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) are the candidates for a nano-ceramic coating to deposit on the plastics or plastic films used in cookware and kitchenware. Both are wide-bandgap semiconductors (3.0 to 3.2 eV for TiO2 and 3.2 to 3.3 eV for ZnO), so they exhibit a photocatalytic property under ultraviolet (UV) light. This will lead to decomposition of organic compounds. Decomposed products can be easily washed off by water, so the use of detergents will be minimal. High-crystalline film with large surface area for the reaction is essential to guarantee good photocatalytic performance of these oxides. Low-temperature processing (nano-ceramic coatings (TiO2, ZnO) on plastic materials (silicone, Teflon, PET, etc.) that can possess both photocatalytic oxide properties and flexible plastic properties. Processing cost is low and it does not require any expensive equipment investment. Processing can be scalable to current manufacturing infrastructure.

  19. Physico-chemical properties of excavated plastic from landfill mining and current recycling routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canopoli, L; Fidalgo, B; Coulon, F; Wagland, S T

    2018-06-01

    In Europe over 5.25 billion tonnes of waste has been landfilled between 1995 and 2015. Among this large amount of waste, plastic represents typically 5-25 wt% which is significant and has the potential to be recycled and reintroduced into the circular economy. To date there is still however little information available of the opportunities and challenges in recovering plastics from landfill sites. In this review, the impacts of landfill chemistry on the degradation and/or contamination of excavated plastic waste are analysed. The feasibility of using excavated plastic waste as feedstock for upcycling to valuable chemicals or liquid fuels through thermochemical conversion is also critically discussed. The limited degradation that is experienced by many plastics in landfills (>20 years) which guarantee that large amount is still available is largely due to thermooxidative degradation and the anaerobic conditions. However, excavated plastic waste cannot be conventionally recycled due to high level of ash, impurities and heavy metals. Recent studies demonstrated that pyrolysis offers a cost effective alternative option to conventional recycling. The produced pyrolysis oil is expected to have similar characteristics to petroleum diesel oil. The production of valuable product from excavated plastic waste will also increase the feasibility of enhanced landfill mining projects. However, further studies are needed to investigate the uncertainties about the contamination level and degradation of excavated plastic waste and address their viability for being processed through pyrolysis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. ORGANOSILICON CHEMISTRY I: CYCLOPROPANATION BY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 20, No 1 (2006) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  1. Plasticity and beyond microstructures, crystal-plasticity and phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Hackl, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    The book presents the latest findings in experimental plasticity, crystal plasticity, phase transitions, advanced mathematical modeling of finite plasticity and multi-scale modeling. The associated algorithmic treatment is mainly based on finite element formulations for standard (local approach) as well as for non-standard (non-local approach) continua and for pure macroscopic as well as for directly coupled two-scale boundary value problems. Applications in the area of material design/processing are covered, ranging from grain boundary effects in polycrystals and phase transitions to deep-drawing of multiphase steels by directly taking into account random microstructures.

  2. Chemistry and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernier, Jean-Claude; Brasseur, Guy; Brechet, Yves; Candel, Sebastien; Cazenave, Anny; Courtillot, Vincent; Fontecave, Marc; Garnier, Emmanuel; Goebel, Philippe; Legrand, Jack; Legrand, Michel; Le Treut, Herve; Mauberger, Pascal; Dinh-Audouin, Minh-Thu; Olivier, Daniele; Rigny, Paul; Bigot, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    In its first part, this collective publication addresses the decennial and centuries-old variations of climate: perspectives and implications of climate change for the 21. century, questions remaining about the understanding of climate change from its sources to its modelling, extreme climate variations and societies during the last millennium. The contributions of the second part outline how chemistry is a tool to study climate change: ice chemistry as an archive of our past environment, observations and predictions on sea level rise, relationship between atmosphere chemistry and climate. The third set of contributions discusses the transformation of the energy system for a cleaner atmosphere and the management of the climate risk: the chemical processing of CO_2, actions of chemical companies to support the struggle against climate change, relationship between barrel price and renewable energies, relationship between grid complexity and green energy. The last part outlines the role chemistry can have to be able to do without fossil fuels: chemistry in front of challenges of transformation of the energy system, the use of micro-algae, the use of hydrogen as a vector of energy transition

  3. Technetium Chemistry in HLW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, Nancy J.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Xia Yuanxian

    2005-01-01

    Tc contamination is found within the DOE complex at those sites whose mission involved extraction of plutonium from irradiated uranium fuel or isotopic enrichment of uranium. At the Hanford Site, chemical separations and extraction processes generated large amounts of high level and transuranic wastes that are currently stored in underground tanks. The waste from these extraction processes is currently stored in underground High Level Waste (HLW) tanks. However, the chemistry of the HLW in any given tank is greatly complicated by repeated efforts to reduce volume and recover isotopes. These processes ultimately resulted in mixing of waste streams from different processes. As a result, the chemistry and the fate of Tc in HLW tanks are not well understood. This lack of understanding has been made evident in the failed efforts to leach Tc from sludge and to remove Tc from supernatants prior to immobilization. Although recent interest in Tc chemistry has shifted from pretreatment chemistry to waste residuals, both needs are served by a fundamental understanding of Tc chemistry

  4. International policies to reduce plastic marine pollution from single-use plastics (plastic bags and microbeads): A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xanthos, Dirk; Walker, Tony R

    2017-05-15

    Marine plastic pollution has been a growing concern for decades. Single-use plastics (plastic bags and microbeads) are a significant source of this pollution. Although research outlining environmental, social, and economic impacts of marine plastic pollution is growing, few studies have examined policy and legislative tools to reduce plastic pollution, particularly single-use plastics (plastic bags and microbeads). This paper reviews current international market-based strategies and policies to reduce plastic bags and microbeads. While policies to reduce microbeads began in 2014, interventions for plastic bags began much earlier in 1991. However, few studies have documented or measured the effectiveness of these reduction strategies. Recommendations to further reduce single-use plastic marine pollution include: (i) research to evaluate effectiveness of bans and levies to ensure policies are having positive impacts on marine environments; and (ii) education and outreach to reduce consumption of plastic bags and microbeads at source. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Water Vapor Permeation in Plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Paul E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kouzes, Richard T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Polyvinyl toluene (PVT) and polystyrene (PS) (referred to as “plastic scintillator”) are used for gamma ray detectors. A significant decrease in radiation detection performance has been observed in some PVT-based gamma-ray detectors in systems in outdoor environments as they age. Recent studies have revealed that plastic scintillator can undergo an environmentally related material degradation that adversely affects gamma ray detection performance under certain conditions and histories. A significant decrease in sensitivity has been seen in some gamma-ray detectors in some systems as they age. The degradation of sensitivity of plastic scintillator over time is due to a variety of factors, and the term “aging” is used to encompass all factors. Some plastic scintillator samples show no aging effects (no significant change in sensitivity over more than 10 years), while others show severe aging (significant change in sensitivity in less than 5 years). Aging effects arise from weather (variations in heat and humidity), chemical exposure, mechanical stress, light exposure, and loss of volatile components. The damage produced by these various causes can be cumulative, causing observable damage to increase over time. Damage may be reversible up to some point, but becomes permanent under some conditions. The objective of this report is to document the phenomenon of permeability of plastic scintillator to water vapor and to derive the relationship between time, temperature, humidity and degree of water penetration in plastic. Several conclusions are documented about the properties of water permeability of plastic scintillator.

  6. Extruding plastic scintillator at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pla-Dalmau, Anna; Bross, Alain D.; Rykalin, Viktor V.

    2003-01-01

    An understanding of the costs involved in the production of plastic scintillators and the development of a less expensive material have become necessary with the prospects of building very large plastic scintillation detectors. Several factors contribute to the high cost of plastic scintillating sheets, but the principal reason is the labor-intensive nature of the manufacturing process. In order to significantly lower the costs, the current casting procedures had to be abandoned. Since polystyrene is widely used in the consumer industry, the logical path was to investigate the extrusion of commercial-grade polystyrene pellets with dopants to yield high quality plastic scintillator. This concept was tested and high quality extruded plastic scintillator was produced. The D0 and MINOS experiments are already using extruded scintillator strips in their detectors. An extrusion line has recently been installed at Fermilab in collaboration with NICADD (Northern Illinois Center for Accelerator and Detector Development). This new facility will serve to further develop and improve extruded plastic scintillator. This paper will discuss the characteristics of extruded plastic scintillator and its raw materials, the different manufacturing techniques and the current R andD program at Fermilab

  7. Space Plastic Recycling System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Techshot's proposed Space Plastic Recycler (SPR) is an automated closed loop plastic recycling system that allows the automated conversion of disposable ISS...

  8. Chemistry of plutonium revealed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connick, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    In 1941 one goal of the Manhattan Project was to unravel the chemistry of the synthetic element plutonium as rapidly as possible. In this paper the work carried out at Berkeley from the spring of 1942 to the summer of 1945 is described briefly. The aqueous chemistry of plutonium is quite remarkable. Important insights were obtained from tracer experiments, but the full complexity was not revealed until macroscopic amounts (milligrams) became available. Because processes for separation from fission products were based on aqueous solutions, such solution chemistry was emphasized, particularly precipitation and oxidation-reduction behavior. The latter turned out to be unusually intricate when it was discovered that two more oxidation states existed in aqueous solution than had previously been suspected. Further, an equilibrium was rapidly established among the four aqueous oxidation states, while at the same time any three were not in equilibrium. These and other observations made while doing a crash study of a previously unknown element are reported

  9. Introduction to nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lieser, K.H.

    1980-01-01

    The study in this book begins with the periodic system of elements (chapter 1). The physical fundamentals necessary to understand nuclear chemistry are dealt with in chapter 2. Chapter 3 and 4 treat the influence of the mass number on the chemical behaviour (isotope effect) and the isotope separation methods thus based on this effect. A main topic is studied in chapter 5, the laws of radioactive decay, a second main topic is dealt with in chapter 8, nuclear reactions. The chemical effects of nuclear reactions are treated on their own chapter 9. Radiochemical reactions which are partly closely linked to the latter are only briefly discussed in chapter 10. The following chapters discuss the various application fields of nuclear chemistry. The large apparatus indispensable for nuclear chemistry is dealt with in a special chapter (chapter 12). Chapter 15 summarizes the manifold applications. (orig.) [de

  10. Fluorine in medicinal chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swallow, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Since its first use in the steroid field in the late 1950s, the use of fluorine in medicinal chemistry has become commonplace, with the small electronegative fluorine atom being a key part of the medicinal chemist's repertoire of substitutions used to modulate all aspects of molecular properties including potency, physical chemistry and pharmacokinetics. This review will highlight the special nature of fluorine, drawing from a survey of marketed fluorinated pharmaceuticals and the medicinal chemistry literature, to illustrate key concepts exploited by medicinal chemists in their attempts to optimize drug molecules. Some of the potential pitfalls in the use of fluorine will also be highlighted. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Reaction chemistry of cerium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    It is truly ironic that a synthetic organic chemist likely has far greater knowledge of the reaction chemistry of cerium(IV) than an inorganic colleague. Cerium(IV) reagents have long since been employed as oxidants in effecting a wide variety of organic transformations. Conversely, prior to the late 1980s, the number of well characterized cerium(IV) complexes did not extend past a handful of known species. Though in many other areas, interest in the molecular chemistry of the 4f-elements has undergone an explosive growth over the last twenty years, the chemistry of cerium(IV) has for the most part been overlooked. This report describes reactions of cerium complexes and structure.

  12. Ammonia chemistry at SMART

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, J. W.; Seong, G. W.; Lee, E. H.; Kim, W. C.; Choi, B. S.; Kim, J. P.; Lee, D. J.

    1999-01-01

    Ammonia is used as the pH control agent of primary water at SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor). Some of this ammonia is decomposed to hydrogen and nitrogen by radiation in the reactor core. The produced hydrogen gas is used for the removal of dissolved oxygen in the coolant. Some of nitrogen gas in pressurizer is dissolved into the primary water. Because ammonia, hydrogen and nitrogen which is produced by ammonia radiolysis are exist in the coolant at SMART, ammonia chemistry at SMART is different with lithium-boron chemistry at commercial PWR. In this study, the pH characteristics of ammonia and the solubility characteristics of hydrogen and nytrogen were analyzed for the management of primary water chemistry at SMART

  13. Mathematics for physical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Mortimer, Robert G

    2005-01-01

    Mathematics for Physical Chemistry, Third Edition, is the ideal text for students and physical chemists who want to sharpen their mathematics skills. It can help prepare the reader for an undergraduate course, serve as a supplementary text for use during a course, or serve as a reference for graduate students and practicing chemists. The text concentrates on applications instead of theory, and, although the emphasis is on physical chemistry, it can also be useful in general chemistry courses. The Third Edition includes new exercises in each chapter that provide practice in a technique immediately after discussion or example and encourage self-study. The first ten chapters are constructed around a sequence of mathematical topics, with a gradual progression into more advanced material. The final chapter discusses mathematical topics needed in the analysis of experimental data.* Numerous examples and problems interspersed throughout the presentations * Each extensive chapter contains a preview, objectives, and ...

  14. Introductory quantum chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, A.K.

    1974-01-01

    This book on quantum chemistry is primarily intended for university students at the senior undergraduate level. It serves as an aid to the basic understanding of the important concepts of quantum mechanics introduced in the field of chemistry. Various chapters of the book are devoted to the following : (i) Waves and quanta, (ii) Operator concept in quantum chemistry, (iii) Wave mechanics of some simple systems, (iv) Perturbation theory, (v) Many-electron atoms and angular momenta (vi) Molecular orbital theory and its application to the electronic structure of diatomic molecules, (vii) Chemical bonding in polyatomic molecules and (viii) Chemical applications of Hellmann-Feynman theorem. At the end of each chapter, a set of problems is given and the answers to these problems are given at the end of the book. (A.K.)

  15. Research in radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silverman, J.

    1974-01-01

    In the survey the author discusses phenomena which are unique to radiation chemistry, as well as those in which radiation chemistry research plays a principal role. Works in this field such as spur phenomena and effects of scavengers in the radiolysis of water and liquid alkane, intraspur effects in styrene and polymerization of styrene at high dose rates are presented. The problem of the missing hydrogen atoms in irradiated alkanes needs answer and sensitization of crosslinking reactions may involve some unique aspects of radiation chemistry. Pairwise trapping of radicals in irradiated n-hydrocarbons have been observed in ESP-spectra. A well defined spectrum of radical pairs when the crystals of n-eicosane is irradiated and observed at 77 deg K. The nature of the spectrum, its changes with temperature and the effect of LET is discussed in the paper. (M.S.)

  16. International Journal of Humanistic Studies - Vol 3 (2004)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Humanistic Studies - Vol 3 (2004). Journal Home > Archives > Vol 3 (2004). Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...

  17. Errata Resonance, Vol.20, No.12, 2015. Rajaram Nityananda, Sun ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Resonance, Vol.20, No.12, 2015. Rajaram Nityananda, Sun, Sky and Clouds: Where Light and Matter Meet. Page 1121: The correct Figure 5 is reproduced below: Resonance, Vol.20, No.11, 2015. Anil Kumar, Felix Bloch (1905–1983). Page 956: Para 1, Line 5, 'also from Zürich' should be read as 'from nearby Bern'.

  18. Continuing Medical Education - Vol 27, No 1 (2009)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Continuing Medical Education - Vol 27, No 1 (2009). Journal Home > Archives > Vol 27, No 1 (2009). Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Addiction treatment · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. R Meyer ...

  19. Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences - Vol 28, No 2 (2018)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences - Vol 28, No 2 (2018). Journal Home > Archives > Vol 28, No 2 (2018). Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Prevalence of opportunistic intestinal parasites and associated factors among HIV patients while receiving ART at Arba Minch Hospital in southern Ethiopia: a ...

  20. Economic and Policy Review - Vol 13, No 3 (2007)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economic and Policy Review - Vol 13, No 3 (2007). Journal Home > Archives > Vol 13, No 3 ... Snagging the wheel of progress: Corruption, New anti-corruption drive and Nigeria\\'s quest for development. S B Kura ... Book Review: challenges of African growth opportunities, constraints and strategic directions. S I Owualah ...

  1. Chemistry of Materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Polymer electronics or plastic electronics has, in fact, become an important .... Zeolites have channels where only molecules of a particular size (and shape) can get in. Solids with micro-, nano- and meso-pores have been made in the last two.

  2. Durability of wood plastic composites manufactured from recycled plastic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Turku

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of accelerated weathering, xenon-arc light and freeze-thaw cycling on wood plastic composites extruded from a recycled plastic was studied. The results showed that, in general, weathering had a stronger impact on samples made from plastic waste compared to a sample made from virgin material. After weathering, the mechanical properties, tensile and flexural, were reduced by 2–30%, depending on the plastic source. Wettability of the samples was shown to play a significant role in their stability. Chemical analysis with infrared spectroscopy and surface observation with a scan electron microscope confirmed the mechanical test results. Incorporation of carbon black retained the properties during weathering, reducing the wettability of the sample, diminishing the change of mechanical properties, and improving color stability. Keywords: Environmental science, Mechanical engineering, Materials science

  3. Phenotypic plasticity, costs of phenotypes, and costs of plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callahan, Hilary S; Maughan, Heather; Steiner, Uli

    2008-01-01

    Why are some traits constitutive and others inducible? The term costs often appears in work addressing this issue but may be ambiguously defined. This review distinguishes two conceptually distinct types of costs: phenotypic costs and plasticity costs. Phenotypic costs are assessed from patterns...... of covariation, typically between a focal trait and a separate trait relevant to fitness. Plasticity costs, separable from phenotypic costs, are gauged by comparing the fitness of genotypes with equivalent phenotypes within two environments but differing in plasticity and fitness. Subtleties associated with both...... types of costs are illustrated by a body of work addressing predator-induced plasticity. Such subtleties, and potential interplay between the two types of costs, have also been addressed, often in studies involving genetic model organisms. In some instances, investigators have pinpointed the mechanistic...

  4. Regioregular narrow-bandgap-conjugated polymers for plastic electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Lei; Huang, Fei; Bazan, Guillermo C.

    2017-03-01

    Progress in the molecular design and processing protocols of semiconducting polymers has opened significant opportunities for the fabrication of low-cost plastic electronic devices. Recent studies indicate that field-effect transistors and organic solar cells fabricated using narrow-bandgap regioregular polymers with translational symmetries in the direction of the backbone vector often outperform those containing analogous regiorandom polymers. This review addresses the cutting edge of regioregularity chemistry, in particular how to control the spatial distribution in the molecular structures and how this order translates to more ordered bulk morphologies. The effect of regioregularity on charge transport and photovoltaic properties is also outlined.

  5. Developmental plasticity: Friend or foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, Karin B

    2017-01-01

    Developmental plasticity - the concept that adaptation to changing and unfavorable environmental conditions are possible but may come at the price of compromised health potentials - has evolutionary grounding as it facilitates survival but dissents with fundamental evolutionary principles in that it may advance the lesser fit. It is an important cornerstone of the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD). Unlike evolutionary adaptation developmental plasticity may be short-lived and restricted to one or few generations and inheritance is uncertain. Potential mechanisms include epigenetic modifications adopted in utero which may not transmit to the next generation; future insights may allow adjustments of the outcomes of developmental plasticity.

  6. Radiation damage in plastic scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majewski, S.

    1990-01-01

    Results of radiation damage studies in plastic scintillators are reviewed and critically analyzed from the point of view of applications of plastic scintillators in calorimetric detectors for the SSC. Damage to transmission and to fluorescent yield in different conditions is discussed. New directions in R ampersand D are outlined. Several examples are given of the most recent data on the new scintillating materials made with old and new plastics and fluors, which are exhibiting significantly improved radiation resistance. With a present rate of a vigorous R D programme, the survival limits in the vicinity of 100 MRad seem to be feasible within a couple of years

  7. Plastics recycling: challenges and opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Hopewell, Jefferson; Dvorak, Robert; Kosior, Edward

    2009-01-01

    Plastics are inexpensive, lightweight and durable materials, which can readily be moulded into a variety of products that find use in a wide range of applications. As a consequence, the production of plastics has increased markedly over the last 60 years. However, current levels of their usage and disposal generate several environmental problems. Around 4 per cent of world oil and gas production, a non-renewable resource, is used as feedstock for plastics and a further 3–4% is expended to pro...

  8. Recycling of Reinforced Plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, R. D.; Collins, Andrew; Cooper, Duncan; Wingfield-Digby, Mark; Watts-Farmer, Archibald; Laurence, Anna; Patel, Kayur; Stevens, Mark; Watkins, Rhodri

    2014-02-01

    This work has shown is that it is possible to recycle continuous and short fibre reinforced thermosetting resins while keeping almost the whole of the original material, both fibres and matrix, within the recyclate. By splitting, crushing hot or cold, and hot forming, it is possible to create a recyclable material, which we designate a Remat, which can then be used to remanufacture other shapes, examples of plates and tubes being demonstrated. Not only can remanufacturing be done, but it has been shown that over 50 % of the original mechanical properties, such as the E modulus, tensile strength, and interlaminar shear strength, can be retained. Four different forms of composite were investigated, a random mat Glass Fibre Reinforced Plastic (GFRP) bathroom component and boat hull, woven glass and carbon fibre cloth impregnated with an epoxy resin, and unidirectional carbon fibre pre-preg. One of the main factors found to affect composite recyclability was the type of resin matrix used in the composite. Thermoset resins tested were shown to have a temperature range around the Glass Transition Temperature (Tg) where they exhibit ductile behaviour, hence aiding reforming of the material. The high-grade carbon fibre prepreg was found to be less easy to recycle than the woven of random fibre laminates. One method of remanufacturing was by heating the Remat to above its glass transition temperature, bending it to shape, and then cooling it. However, unless precautions are taken, the geometric form may revert. This does not happen with the crushed material.

  9. Wood plastic combination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunanan, S.A.; Bonoan, L.S.; Verceluz, F.P.; Azucena, E.A.

    1976-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to improve the physical and mechaniproperties of local inferior quality wood species by radiation-induced graft polymerization with plastic monomers. The process involves the following: 1) Preparation of sample; 2) Impregnation of sample with the monomers; 3) Irradiation of the impregnated sample with the use of 20,000 curie Co-60 as gamma-source; 4) Drying of irradiated sample to remove the unpolymerized monomer. Experimentation on different wood species were undertaken and the results given. From the results obtained, it can be concluded that the monomers systems MMA, MMA-USP, and styrene-USP are suitable for graft polymerization with the wood species almon, apitong, bagtikan, mayapis, red lauan, and tanguile. This is shown by their maximum conversion value which range from 86% to 96% with the optimum dose range of 1 to 2 Mrads. However, in the application of WPC process, properties that are required in a given wood product must be considered, thus aid in the selection of the monomer system to be used with a particular wood species. Some promising applications of WPC is in the manufacture of picker sticks, shuttles, and bobbins for the textile industry. However, there is a need for a pilot plant scale study so that an economic assessment of the commercial feasibility of this process can be made

  10. Helene: A Plastic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umurhan, O. M.; Moore, J. M.; Howard, A. D.; Schenk, P.; White, O. L.

    2014-12-01

    Helene, the Saturnian L4 Trojan satellite co-orbiting Dionne and sitting within the E-ring, possesses an unusual morphology characteristic of broad km-scale basins and depressions and a generally smooth surface patterned with streaks and grooves which are indicative of non-typical mass transport. Elevation angles do not appear to exceed 10o at most. The nature and origin of the surface materials forming these grooved patterns is unknown. Given the low surface gravity (plastic-like flow like a Bingham fluid, we setup and test a number of likely scenarios to explain the observations. The numerical results qualitatively indicate that treating the mass-wasting materials as a Bingham material reproduces many of the qualitative features observed. We also find that in those simulations in which accretion is concomitant with Bingham mass-wasting, the long time-evolution of the surface flow shows intermittency in the total surface activity (defined as total surface integral of the absolute magnitude of the mass-flux). Detailed analyses identify the locations where this activity is most pronounced and we will discuss these and its implications in further detail.

  11. Chemistry for environmental scientists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, Detlev [Brandenburgische Technische Univ., Berlin (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Luftchemie und Luftreinhaltung

    2015-07-01

    Non-chemists in environmental sciences and engineering (e.g. physicists, biologists, ecologists, geographers, soil scientists, hydrologists, meteorologists, economists, engineers) need chemical basic knowledge for understanding chemical processes in the environment. This book focuses on general and fundamental chemistry (including required physics) such as properties and bonding of matter, chemical kinetics and mechanisms, phase and chemical equilibrium, the basic features of air (gases), water (liquids) and soil (solids) and the most important substances and their reactions in the environment. Selected key environmental chemical processes are shortly characterised in the light of multi-component and multiphase chemistry. This book is also useful for chemists who are beginning work on environmental issues.

  12. Progress in physical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Hempelmann, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    Progress in Physical Chemistry is a collection of recent ""Review Articles"" published in the ""Zeitschrift für Physikalische Chemie"". The second volume of Progress in Physical Chemistry is a collection of thematically closely related minireview articles written by the members of the Collaborative Research Centre (SFB) 277 of the German Research Foundation (DFG). These articles are based on twelve years of intense coordinated research efforts. Central topics are the synthesis and the characterization of interface-dominated, i.e. nanostructured materials, mainly in the solid state but also as

  13. Inorganic chemistry and medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadler, P.J.; Guo, Z.

    1999-01-01

    Inorganic chemistry is beginning to have a major impact on medicine. Not only does it offer the prospect of the discovery of truly novel drugs and diagnostic agents, but it promises to make a major contribution to our understanding of the mechanism of action of organic drugs too. Most of this article is concerned with recent developments in medicinal coordination chemistry. The role of metal organic compounds of platinum, titanium, ruthenium, gallium, bismuth, gold, gadolinium, technetium, silver, cobalt in the treatment or diagnosis of common diseases are briefly are examined

  14. Frontiers in nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sood, D.D.; Reddy, A.V.R.; Pujari, P.K.

    1996-01-01

    This book contains articles on the landmarks in nuclear and radiochemistry which takes through scientific history spanning over five decades from the times of Roentgen to the middle of this century. Articles on nuclear fission and back end of the nuclear fuel cycle give an insight into the current status of this subject. Reviews on frontier areas like lanthanides, actinides, muonium chemistry, accelerator based nuclear chemistry, fast radiochemical separations and nuclear medicine bring out the multidisciplinary nature of nuclear sciences. This book also includes an article on environmental radiochemistry and safety. Chapters relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  15. Nuclear chemistry 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macasek, F.

    2009-01-01

    This text-book (electronic book - multi-media CD-ROM) constitutes a course-book - author's collection of lectures. It consists of 9 lectures in which the reader acquaints with the basis of nuclear chemistry and radiochemistry: History of nucleus; Atomic nuclei; Radioactivity; Nuclear reactions and nucleogenesis; Isotopism; Ionizing radiation; Radiation measurement; Nuclear energetics; Isotopic indicators. This course-book may be interesting for students, post-graduate students of chemistry, biology, physics, medicine a s well as for teachers, scientific workers and physicians. (author)

  16. Spins in chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    McWeeny, Roy

    2004-01-01

    Originally delivered as a series of lectures, this volume systematically traces the evolution of the ""spin"" concept from its role in quantum mechanics to its assimilation into the field of chemistry. Author Roy McWeeny presents an in-depth illustration of the deductive methods of quantum theory and their application to spins in chemistry, following the path from the earliest concepts to the sophisticated physical methods employed in the investigation of molecular structure and properties. Starting with the origin and development of the spin concept, the text advances to an examination of sp

  17. Chemistry for environmental scientists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, Detlev

    2015-01-01

    Non-chemists in environmental sciences and engineering (e.g. physicists, biologists, ecologists, geographers, soil scientists, hydrologists, meteorologists, economists, engineers) need chemical basic knowledge for understanding chemical processes in the environment. This book focuses on general and fundamental chemistry (including required physics) such as properties and bonding of matter, chemical kinetics and mechanisms, phase and chemical equilibrium, the basic features of air (gases), water (liquids) and soil (solids) and the most important substances and their reactions in the environment. Selected key environmental chemical processes are shortly characterised in the light of multi-component and multiphase chemistry. This book is also useful for chemists who are beginning work on environmental issues.

  18. The chemistry of silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Rochow, E G; Emeléus, H J; Nyholm, Ronald

    1975-01-01

    Pergamon Texts in Organic Chemistry, Volume 9: The Chemistry of Silicon presents information essential in understanding the chemical properties of silicon. The book first covers the fundamental aspects of silicon, such as its nuclear, physical, and chemical properties. The text also details the history of silicon, its occurrence and distribution, and applications. Next, the selection enumerates the compounds and complexes of silicon, along with organosilicon compounds. The text will be of great interest to chemists and chemical engineers. Other researchers working on research study involving s

  19. Solvent effects in chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Buncel, Erwin

    2015-01-01

    This book introduces the concepts, theory and experimental knowledge concerning solvent effects on the rate and equilibrium of chemical reactions of all kinds.  It begins with basic thermodynamics and kinetics, building on this foundation to demonstrate how a more detailed understanding of these effects may be used to aid in determination of reaction mechanisms, and to aid in planning syntheses. Consideration is given to theoretical calculations (quantum chemistry, molecular dynamics, etc.), to statistical methods (chemometrics), and to modern day concerns such as ""green"" chemistry, where ut

  20. Chemistry WebBook

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 69 NIST Chemistry WebBook (Web, free access)   The NIST Chemistry WebBook contains: Thermochemical data for over 7000 organic and small inorganic compounds; thermochemistry data for over 8000 reactions; IR spectra for over 16,000 compounds; mass spectra for over 33,000 compounds; UV/Vis spectra for over 1600 compounds; electronic and vibrational spectra for over 5000 compounds; constants of diatomic molecules(spectroscopic data) for over 600 compounds; ion energetics data for over 16,000 compounds; thermophysical property data for 74 fluids.

  1. Dynamic Combinatorial Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisbjerg, Micke

    This thesis is divided into seven chapters, which can all be read individually. The first chapter, however, contains a general introduction to the chemistry used in the remaining six chapters, and it is therefore recommended to read chapter one before reading the other chapters. Chapter 1...... is a general introductory chapter for the whole thesis. The history and concepts of dynamic combinatorial chemistry are described, as are some of the new and intriguing results recently obtained. Finally, the properties of a broad range of hexameric macrocycles are described in detail. Chapter 2 gives...

  2. Cross sections for atomic processes, vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takayanagi, Kazuo; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Otani, Shunsuke

    1977-09-01

    This data collection book contains the data on all processes involving hydrogen and helium isotopes, their ions, electrons and photons, collected systematically and comprehensively, and is compiled subsequently to Vol. 1 as one of the works of the data collection study group in the Institute of Plasma Physics, Nagoya University, Japan. The items of the contents will include energy level, multiplicately excited state, radiation process, electron collision, ionic collision, recombination, collision of neutral atoms, colliding process involving molecules, and other processes. However, the first edition this time contains energy level, radiation process, electron collision and ionic collision, and the data on remaining items are now under collection. Though some criticisms have been heard about Vol. 1, the authors consider that such comprehensive collection based on systematic classification is the foundation of making a generalized data bank expected to become necessary in future. Thus the data collection book includes all relevant processes, and records the experimental data and theoretically calculated results in principle without modification by selecting them systematically. This year, investigation on data evaluation is taken up also as one of the tasks of the study group. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  3. Physics at LEP2. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altarelli, G.; Sjoestrand, T.; Zwirner, F.

    1995-01-01

    This is final report of the Workshop on Physics at LEP2, held at CERN during 1995. The first part of vol. 1 is devoted to aspects of machine physics of particular relevance to experiments, including the energy, luminosity and interaction regions, as well as the measurement of beam energy. The second part of vol. 1 is a relatively concise, but fairly complete, handbook on the physics of e + e - annihilation above the WW threshold and up to √s∼200 GeV. It contains discussions on WW cross-sections and distributions, W mass determination, Standard Model processes, QCD and gamma-gamma physics, as well as aspects of discovery physics, such as Higgs, new particle searches, triple gauge boson couplings and Z'. The second volume contains a review of the existing Monte Carlo generators for LEP2 physics. These include generators for WW physics, QCD and gamma-gamma processes, Bhabha scattering and discovery physics. A special effort was made to co-ordinate the different parts, with a view to achieving a systematic and balanced review of the subject, rather than just publishing a collection of separate contributions. (orig.)

  4. Physics at LEP2. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altarelli, G.; Sjoestrand, T.; Zwirner, F.

    1996-01-01

    This is the final report of the Workshop on Physics at LEP2, held at CERN during 1995. The first part of vol. 1 is devoted to aspects of machine physics of particular relevance to experiments, including the energy, luminosity and interaction regions, as well as the measurement of beam energy. The second part of vol. 1 is a relatively concise, but fairly complete, handbook on the physics of e + e - annihilation above the WW threshold and up to √s∼200 GeV. It contains discussions on WW cross-sections and distributions, W mass determination, Standard Model processes, QCD and gamma-gamma physics, as well as aspects of discovery physics, such as Higgs, new particle searches, triple gauge boson couplings and Z'. The second volume contains a review of the existing Monte Carlo generators for LEP2 physics. These include generators for WW physics, QCD and gamma-gamma processes, Bhabha scattering and discovery physics. A special effort was made to co-ordinate the different parts, with a view to achieving a systematic and balanced review of the subject, rather than just publishing a collection of separate contributions. (orig.)

  5. Physics at LEP2. Vol. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altarelli, G [ed.; Sjoestrand, T [ed.; Zwirner, F [ed.

    1995-02-19

    This is final report of the Workshop on Physics at LEP2, held at CERN during 1995. The first part of vol. 1 is devoted to aspects of machine physics of particular relevance to experiments, including the energy, luminosity and interaction regions, as well as the measurement of beam energy. The second part of vol. 1 is a relatively concise, but fairly complete, handbook on the physics of e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation above the WW threshold and up to {radical}s{approx}200 GeV. It contains discussions on WW cross-sections and distributions, W mass determination, Standard Model processes, QCD and gamma-gamma physics, as well as aspects of discovery physics, such as Higgs, new particle searches, triple gauge boson couplings and Z`. The second volume contains a review of the existing Monte Carlo generators for LEP2 physics. These include generators for WW physics, QCD and gamma-gamma processes, Bhabha scattering and discovery physics. A special effort was made to co-ordinate the different parts, with a view to achieving a systematic and balanced review of the subject, rather than just publishing a collection of separate contributions. (orig.).

  6. Water SA - Vol 36, No 1 (2010)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water SA. ... Phthalate ester plasticizers in freshwater systems of Venda, South Africa and potential health effects · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. O.S Fatoki, M Bornman, L Ravandhalala, L Chimuka, B Genthe, A Adeniyi.

  7. Analytical Chemistry as Methodology in Modern Pure and Applied Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Honjo, Takaharu

    2001-01-01

    Analytical chemistry is an indispensable methodology in pure and applied chemistry, which is often compared to a foundation stone of architecture. In the home page of jsac, it is said that analytical chemistry is a learning of basic science, which treats the development of method in order to get usefull chemical information of materials by means of detection, separation, and characterization. Analytical chemistry has recently developed into analytical sciences, which treats not only analysis ...

  8. Energy recovery from plastic wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baur, A; Atzger, J

    1983-07-01

    The conversion of plastic wastes to energy is suggested as a practicable and advantageous alternative to recycling. A two-stage pilot gasification plant for the pyrolysis of wastes is described and the utilization of the resulting fuel gas discussed.

  9. Plasticity and creep of metals

    CERN Document Server

    Rusinko, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Here is a systematic presentation of the postulates, theorems and principles of mathematical theories of plasticity and creep in metals, and their applications. Special attention is paid to analysis of the advantages and shortcomings of the classical theories.

  10. Neuromodulation, development and synaptic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foehring, R C; Lorenzon, N M

    1999-03-01

    We discuss parallels in the mechanisms underlying use-dependent synaptic plasticity during development and long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) in neocortical synapses. Neuromodulators, such as norepinephrine, serotonin, and acetylcholine have also been implicated in regulating both developmental plasticity and LTP/LTD. There are many potential levels of interaction between neuromodulators and plasticity. Ion channels are substrates for modulation in many cell types. We discuss examples of modulation of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels and Ca(2+)-dependent K+ channels and the consequences for neocortical pyramidal cell firing behaviour. At the time when developmental plasticity is most evident in rat cortex, the substrate for modulation is changing as the densities and relative proportions of various ion channels types are altered during ontogeny. We discuss examples of changes in K+ and Ca2+ channels and the consequence for modulation of neuronal activity.

  11. WEATHERABILITY OF ENHANCED DEGRADABLE PLASTICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The main objective of this study was to assess the performance and the asociated variability of several selected enhanced degradable plastic materials under a variety of different exposure conditions. Other objectives were to identify the major products formed during degradation ...

  12. Chemistry is Evergreen

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    2008 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Swagata Dasgupta. Swagata Dasgupta is an ... would get excited. The GFP would then emit green light. (509 nm) and return to the ground state. com ponents required. T hese include a photoprotein,ae- quorin (F igure 2) w hich em its .... a chemical reaction which originates in an organism.

  13. Molten salt reactors: chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This work is a critical analysis of the 1000 MW MSBR project. Behavior of rare gases in the primary coolant circuit, their extraction from helium. Coating of graphite by molybdenum, chemistry of protactinium and niobium produced in the molten salt, continuous reprocessing of the fuel salt and use of stainless steel instead of hastelloy are reviewed [fr

  14. Antiparallel Dynamic Covalent Chemistries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matysiak, Bartosz M.; Nowak, Piotr; Cvrtila, Ivica; Pappas, Charalampos G.; Liu, Bin; Komaromy, David; Otto, Sijbren

    2017-01-01

    The ability to design reaction networks with high, but addressable complexity is a necessary prerequisite to make advanced functional chemical systems. Dynamic combinatorial chemistry has, proven to be a useful tool in achieving complexity, however with some limitations in controlling it. Herein we

  15. Colour chemistry in water

    OpenAIRE

    Cardona, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) levels have increased dramatically in the last few decades. Famous for causing global warming, CO2 is also resulting in the acidification of seas and oceans. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/colour-chemistry-in-water/

  16. Chemistry and Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittoria Barbarulo, Maria

    2014-05-01

    Chemistry is the central science, as it touches every aspect of the society we live in and it is intertwined with many aspects of our culture; in particular, the strong link between Chemistry and Archaeology and Art History is being explored, offering a penetrating insight into an area of growing interest from an educational point of view. A series of vital and vibrant examples (i.e., ancient bronzes composition, colour changes due to natural pigment decomposition, marble degradation) has been proposed, on one hand, to improve student understanding of the relationship between cultural and scientific issues arising from the examination, the conservation, and the maintenance of cultural Heritage, on the other, to illustrate the role of the underlying Chemistry. In some case studies, a survey of the most relevant atmospheric factors, which are involved in the deterioration mechanisms, has also been presented to the students. First-hand laboratory experiences have been providing an invaluable means of discovering the full and varied world of Chemistry. Furthermore, the promotion of an interdisciplinary investigation of a famous painting or fresco, involving the study of its nature and significance, the definition of its historical context, any related literature, the chemical knowledge of the materials used, may be an excellent occasion to experiment the Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL). The aim of this approach is to convey the important message that everyone has the responsibility to care for and preserve Heritage for the benefit of present and future generations.

  17. News: Green Chemistry & Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of 21 articles focused on different features of green chemistry in a recent issue of Chemical Reviews. Topics extended over a wide range to include the design of sustainable synthetic processes to biocatalysis. A selection of perspectives follows as part of this colu

  18. Electrostatics in Chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 2. Electrostatics in Chemistry - Basic Principles. Shridhar R Gadre Pravin K Bhadane. Series Article Volume 4 Issue 2 February 1999 pp 8-19. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  19. Chemistry and Popperism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akeroyd, F. Michael

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the relationship of Karl Popper's theories to chemistry, examining scientific statements and verisimilitude (which indicates that newer theories should have a higher degree of truth content compared with older theories). Also provides examples illustrating the use of Agassi's criteria for assessing currently fashionable theories. (JN)

  20. The Lens of Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalos, Mariam

    2013-01-01

    Chemistry possesses a distinctive theoretical lens--a distinctive set of theoretical concerns regarding the dynamics and transformations of a perplexing variety of organic and nonorganic substances--to which it must be faithful. Even if it is true that chemical facts bear a special (reductive) relationship to physical facts, nonetheless it will…

  1. Chemistry Cook-Off

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    For this activity, high school chemistry students compete in a cooking contest. They must determine the chemical and physical changes that occur in the food they prepare, present their recipe as a step-by-step procedure similar to a lab procedure, identify chemicals in the food, and present all measurements in both metric and English units. The…

  2. Evaluating Environmental Chemistry Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hites, Ronald A.

    2001-01-01

    A director of the Indiana University Center for Environmental Science Research reviews textbooks on environmental chemistry. Highlights clear writing, intellectual depth, presence of problem sets covering both the qualitative and quantitative aspects of the material, and full coverage of the topics of concern. Discusses the director's own approach…

  3. Nuclear Chemistry, exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savio, E.; Saucedo, E.

    2002-01-01

    Those exercises have as objective to introduce the student in the basic concepts of nuclear chemistry: a) way of decline b) balances of mass used in nuclear reactions c) how to calculate activities, activity concentrations and specific activity d) radiotracers use in biomedical sciences pharmaceutical

  4. The chemistry of glycerin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimsanov, B.Kh.; Karimov, M.B.; Khuseynov, K.

    1998-01-01

    This book dedicated to chemistry of polyatomic alcohols, in particular, to glycerin and its numerous derivatives. These compounds are very widespread in the natural objects and carry out several functions in alive organism. Big part of these matters are arrange in industry production of base organic synthesis

  5. The Chemistry of Griseofulvin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Asger Bjørn; Rønnest, Mads Holger; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

    2014-01-01

    Specific synthetic routes are presented in schemes to illustrate the chemistry, and the analogs are presented in a table format to give an accessible overview of the structures. Several patents have been published regarding the properties of griseofulvin and its derivatives including synthesis...

  6. Plasma processing and chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schram, D.C.; Mullen, van der J.J.A.M.; Sanden, van de M.C.M.

    1994-01-01

    The growing field of applications of plasma as deposition, etching, surface modification and chemical conversion has stimulated a renewed interest in plasma science in the atomic physical chemistry regime. The necessity to optimize the various plasma processing techniques in terms of rates, and

  7. Supramolecular systems chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mattia, Elio; Otto, Sijbren

    The field of supramolecular chemistry focuses on the non-covalent interactions between molecules that give rise to molecular recognition and self-assembly processes. Since most non-covalent interactions are relatively weak and form and break without significant activation barriers, many

  8. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The Analytical Chemistry and Material Development Group maintains a capability in chemical analysis, materials R&D failure analysis and contamination control. The uniquely qualified staff and facility support the needs of flight projects, science instrument development and various technical tasks, as well as Cal Tech.

  9. Dynamic combinatorial chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otto, Sijbren; Furlan, Ricardo L.E.; Sanders, Jeremy K.M.

    2002-01-01

    A combinatorial library that responds to its target by increasing the concentration of strong binders at the expense of weak binders sounds ideal. Dynamic combinatorial chemistry has the potential to achieve exactly this. In this review, we will highlight the unique features that distinguish dynamic

  10. Computational materials science: Nanoscale plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel; Schiøtz, Jakob

    2002-01-01

    How does plastic deformation of polycrystalline materials with grain sizes less than 100 nm look at the atomic scale? A large-scale molecular dynamics simulation of nanocrystalline alluminium reveals some surprising behaviour.......How does plastic deformation of polycrystalline materials with grain sizes less than 100 nm look at the atomic scale? A large-scale molecular dynamics simulation of nanocrystalline alluminium reveals some surprising behaviour....

  11. Biocide Usage in Plastic Products

    OpenAIRE

    Kavak, Nergizhan; Çakır, Ayşegül; Koltuk, Fatmagül; Uzun, Utku

    2015-01-01

    People’s demand of improving their life quality caused to the term of hygiene become popular and increased the tendency to use more reliable and healthy products. This tendency makes the continuous developments in the properties of the materials used in manufactured goods compulsory. It is possible to create anti-bacterial plastic products by adding biocidal additives to plastic materials which have a wide-range of application in the areas such as health (medicine), food and many other indust...

  12. Is Chemistry Attractive for Pupils? Czech Pupils' Perception of Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiatko, Milan

    2015-01-01

    Chemistry is an important subject due to understanding the composition and structure of the things around us. The main aim of the study was to find out the perception of chemistry by lower secondary school pupils. The partial aims were to find out the influence of gender, year of study and favorite subject on the perception of chemistry. The…

  13. Interhemispheric plasticity in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortobágyi, Tibor; Richardson, Sarah Pirio; Lomarev, Mikhael; Shamim, Ejaz; Meunier, Sabine; Russman, Heike; Dang, Nguyet; Hallett, Mark

    2011-07-01

    Chronic unimanual motor practice increases the motor output not only in the trained but also in the nonexercised homologous muscle in the opposite limb. We examined the hypothesis that adaptations in motor cortical excitability of the nontrained primary motor cortex (iM1) and in interhemispheric inhibition from the trained to the nontrained M1 mediate this interlimb cross education. Healthy, young volunteers (n=12) performed 1000 submaximal voluntary contractions (MVC) of the right first dorsal interosseus (FDI) at 80% MVC during 20 sessions. Trained FDI's MVC increased 49.9%, and the untrained FDI's MVC increased 28.1%. Although corticospinal excitability in iM1, measured with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) before and after every fifth session, increased 6% at rest, these changes, as those in intracortical inhibition and facilitation, did not correlate with cross education. When weak and strong TMS of iM1 were delivered on a background of a weak and strong muscle contraction, respectively, of the right FDI, excitability of iM1 increased dramatically after 20 sessions. Interhemispheric inhibition decreased 8.9% acutely within sessions and 30.9% chronically during 20 sessions and these chronic reductions progressively became more strongly associated with cross education. There were no changes in force or TMS measures in the trained group's left abductor minimi digiti and there were no changes in the nonexercising control group (n=8). The findings provide the first evidence for plasticity of interhemispheric connections to mediate cross education produced by a simple motor task.

  14. Radiation chemistry in nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsumura, Yosuke

    2006-01-01

    The importance of radiation chemistry in the field of nuclear technology including reactor chemistry, spent fuel reprocessing and radioactive high level waste repository, is summarized and, in parallel, our research activity will be briefly presented. (author)

  15. From Matter to Life: Chemistry?!

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    chemistry came along at milder temperatures; particles formed atoms; these ... Chemistry is the science of matter and of its transformations, and life is its highest ..... information. The progression from elementary particles to the nucleus, the.

  16. ARE PLASTIC GROCERY BAGS SACKING THE ENVIRONMENT?

    OpenAIRE

    Mangal Gogte

    2009-01-01

    This paper is oriented on analysis impacts of plastic bags on environment. In this paper is analyzed did plastic bags are so harmful, and what are the main ingredients of it. One part of this paper is oriented on effects of plastic bags and management of their usage. There is also made comparative analysis between impacts of plastic and paper bags on environment.

  17. Experiments with elasto-plastic oscillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randrup-thomsen, Søren; Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager

    1996-01-01

    Plastic displacements of a Gaussian white noise excited three degrees of freedom non-ideal elasto-plastic oscillator are measured in laboratory experiments and the plastic displacements are compared to computer simulated results for the corresponding ideal elasto-plastic oscillator. The comparative...

  18. Experiments with elasto-plastic oscillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randrup-Thomsen, S.; Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager

    1999-01-01

    Plastic displacements of a Gaussian white noise excited three degrees of freedom non-ideal elasto-plastic oscillator are measured in laboratory experiments and the plastic displacements are compared to computer simulated results for the corresponding ideal elasto-plastic oscillator. The comparative...

  19. Conference 'Chemistry of hydrides' Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    This collection of thesis of conference of Chemistry hydrides presents the results of investigations concerning of base questions of chemistry of nonorganic hydrides, including synthesis questions, studying of physical and chemical properties, thermodynamics, analytical chemistry, investigation of structure, equilibriums in the systems of metal-hydrogen, behaviour of nonorganic hydrides in non-water mediums and applying investigations in the chemistry area and technology of nonorganic hydrides

  20. Mathematical problems for chemistry students

    CERN Document Server

    Pota, Gyorgy

    2011-01-01

    Mathematical Problems for Chemistry Students has been compiled and written (a) to help chemistrystudents in their mathematical studies by providing them with mathematical problems really occurring in chemistry (b) to help practising chemists to activate their applied mathematical skills and (c) to introduce students and specialistsof the chemistry-related fields (physicists, mathematicians, biologists, etc.) intothe world of the chemical applications.Some problems of the collection are mathematical reformulations of those in the standard textbooks of chemistry, others we

  1. STECH VOL5 (1) FEBRUARY, 2016

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Copyright 1AARR 2012-2016: www.afrrevjo.net

    2016-02-11

    Feb 11, 2016 ... Chemistry Educators through Science Education: A Path to. Women ... research questions and two hypotheses guided the study. ... and development depends on the training received by the human resources to put the ... education, mathematics education, basic science education, computer science.

  2. AJESMS_ Vol 8 2010 August 15 2011

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Mereku

    2010-08-15

    Aug 15, 2010 ... Undergraduate pre-service chemistry teachers' conceptions ... students' inabilities to make correct inferences or write and balance equations ... treatment period showed that the intervention worked positively to increase pre-service .... QA practical work , knowledge of topics such as acids and bases, salts, ...

  3. Water SA - Vol 31, No 2 (2005)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of Iron Duke Pyrite Mine on water chemistry and aquatic life – Mazowe Valley, Zimbabwe · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT ... Diatoms as indicators of water quality in the Jukskei-Crocodile river system in 1956 and 1957, a re-analysis of diatom count data generated by BJ Cholnoky · EMAIL FREE ...

  4. Plastics, the environment and human health: current consensus and future trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Richard C.; Moore, Charles J.; vom Saal, Frederick S.; Swan, Shanna H.

    2009-01-01

    Plastics have transformed everyday life; usage is increasing and annual production is likely to exceed 300 million tonnes by 2010. In this concluding paper to the Theme Issue on Plastics, the Environment and Human Health, we synthesize current understanding of the benefits and concerns surrounding the use of plastics and look to future priorities, challenges and opportunities. It is evident that plastics bring many societal benefits and offer future technological and medical advances. However, concerns about usage and disposal are diverse and include accumulation of waste in landfills and in natural habitats, physical problems for wildlife resulting from ingestion or entanglement in plastic, the leaching of chemicals from plastic products and the potential for plastics to transfer chemicals to wildlife and humans. However, perhaps the most important overriding concern, which is implicit throughout this volume, is that our current usage is not sustainable. Around 4 per cent of world oil production is used as a feedstock to make plastics and a similar amount is used as energy in the process. Yet over a third of current production is used to make items of packaging, which are then rapidly discarded. Given our declining reserves of fossil fuels, and finite capacity for disposal of waste to landfill, this linear use of hydrocarbons, via packaging and other short-lived applications of plastic, is simply not sustainable. There are solutions, including material reduction, design for end-of-life recyclability, increased recycling capacity, development of bio-based feedstocks, strategies to reduce littering, the application of green chemistry life-cycle analyses and revised risk assessment approaches. Such measures will be most effective through the combined actions of the public, industry, scientists and policymakers. There is some urgency, as the quantity of plastics produced in the first 10 years of the current century is likely to approach the quantity produced in the

  5. Plastics, the environment and human health: current consensus and future trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Richard C; Moore, Charles J; vom Saal, Frederick S; Swan, Shanna H

    2009-07-27

    Plastics have transformed everyday life; usage is increasing and annual production is likely to exceed 300 million tonnes by 2010. In this concluding paper to the Theme Issue on Plastics, the Environment and Human Health, we synthesize current understanding of the benefits and concerns surrounding the use of plastics and look to future priorities, challenges and opportunities. It is evident that plastics bring many societal benefits and offer future technological and medical advances. However, concerns about usage and disposal are diverse and include accumulation of waste in landfills and in natural habitats, physical problems for wildlife resulting from ingestion or entanglement in plastic, the leaching of chemicals from plastic products and the potential for plastics to transfer chemicals to wildlife and humans. However, perhaps the most important overriding concern, which is implicit throughout this volume, is that our current usage is not sustainable. Around 4 per cent of world oil production is used as a feedstock to make plastics and a similar amount is used as energy in the process. Yet over a third of current production is used to make items of packaging, which are then rapidly discarded. Given our declining reserves of fossil fuels, and finite capacity for disposal of waste to landfill, this linear use of hydrocarbons, via packaging and other short-lived applications of plastic, is simply not sustainable. There are solutions, including material reduction, design for end-of-life recyclability, increased recycling capacity, development of bio-based feedstocks, strategies to reduce littering, the application of green chemistry life-cycle analyses and revised risk assessment approaches. Such measures will be most effective through the combined actions of the public, industry, scientists and policymakers. There is some urgency, as the quantity of plastics produced in the first 10 years of the current century is likely to approach the quantity produced in the

  6. Aqueous Solution Chemistry of Plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, David L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-01-28

    Things I have learned working with plutonium: Chemistry of plutonium is complex; Redox equilibria make Pu solution chemistry particularly challenging in the absence of complexing ligands; Understanding this behavior is key to successful Pu chemistry experiments; There is no suitable chemical analog for plutonium.

  7. Annual report 1985 Chemistry Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This annual report describes the activities carried out in 1985 by the Chemistry Department in the following fields: Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry, Physicochemistry (Interphases, Surfaces), General Chemical Analysis, Active Materials Analysis, X Ray Fluorescence Analysis, Mass Spectroscopy (Isotopic Analysis, Instrumentation) and Optical Spectroscopy. A list of publications is enclosed. (M.E.L.) [es

  8. HMI scientific report - chemistry 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Results of the R and D activities of the Radiation Chemistry Department, Hahn-Meitner-Institut, are reported, primarily dealing with the following subjects: Interface processes and energy conversion, high-energy photochemistry and radiation chemistry as well as trace elements chemistry. A list of publications and lectures is added and gives a view on results obtained in research and development. (EF) [de

  9. Division of Analytical Chemistry, 1998

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elo Harald

    1999-01-01

    The article recounts the 1998 activities of the Division of Analytical Chemistry (DAC- formerly the Working Party on Analytical Chemistry, WPAC), which body is a division of the Federation of European Chemical Societies (FECS). Elo Harald Hansen is the Danish delegate, representing The Danish...... Chemical Society/The Society for Analytical Chemistry....

  10. USSR Report, Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-11

    of uses for energy of the atom. Radioactive substances are broadly utilized in the diagnosing and treatment of illnesses, for example. These...economy. The discovered phenomenon will be applied in research, in work with radioactive catalysts, at nuclear power stations, and when diagnosing some...possible to make gigantic light-weight ceilings for stadiums and circuses out of four millimeter sheets with plastic reinforcement. In order always

  11. Gammastic: towards a pseudo-gamma spectrometry in plastic scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamel, Matthieu; Dehe-Pittance, Chrystele; Coulon, Romain; Carrel, Frederick; Pillot, Philippe; Barat, Eric; Dautremer, Thomas; Montagu, Thierry; Normand, Stephane

    2013-06-01

    War against CBRN-E threats needs to continuously develop sensors with improved detection efficiency. More particularly, this topic concerns the NR controls for homeland security. A first analysis requires indeed a fast gamma spectrometry so as to detect potential special nuclear materials (SNM). To this aim, plastic scintillators could represent the best alternative for the production of large-scale, low-cost radiation portal monitors to be deployed on boarders, tolls, etc. Although they are known to be highly sensitive to gamma rays, due to their poor resolution, information relative to the nature of the SNM is tricky. Thus, only the Compton edge is obtained after interaction, and no information of the photoelectric peak is observed. This project concerns new developments on a possible pseudo-gamma spectrometry performed with plastic scintillators. This project is articulated on a combination of two developments: - The design of new materials most suitable for recovering the photoelectric peak after gamma interaction with the scintillator. This work concerns mainly plastic scintillators loading with heavy elements, such as lead or bismuth. - The analysis of the resulting signal with smart algorithms. This work is thus a pluri-disciplinary work performed at CEA LIST and embeds 4 main disciplines: MCNPX simulations (simulated spectra), chemistry of materials (preparation of various plastic scintillators with different properties), instrumentation (lab experiments) and smart algorithms. Really impressive results were obtained with the unfolding of simulated spectra at various energies (from 241 Am to 60 Co) and an innovative approach was proposed to counter-balance the quenching effect of luminescence by heavy elements in plastic scintillators. (authors)

  12. Microbial colonization and degradation of polyethylene and biodegradable plastic bags in temperate fine-grained organic-rich marine sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauendorf, Alice; Krause, Stefan; Bigalke, Nikolaus K; Gorb, Elena V; Gorb, Stanislav N; Haeckel, Matthias; Wahl, Martin; Treude, Tina

    2016-02-15

    To date, the longevity of plastic litter at the sea floor is poorly constrained. The present study compares colonization and biodegradation of plastic bags by aerobic and anaerobic benthic microbes in temperate fine-grained organic-rich marine sediments. Samples of polyethylene and biodegradable plastic carrier bags were incubated in natural oxic and anoxic sediments from Eckernförde Bay (Western Baltic Sea) for 98 days. Analyses included (1) microbial colonization rates on the bags, (2) examination of the surface structure, wettability, and chemistry, and (3) mass loss of the samples during incubation. On average, biodegradable plastic bags were colonized five times higher by aerobic and eight times higher by anaerobic microbes than polyethylene bags. Both types of bags showed no sign of biodegradation during this study. Therefore, marine sediment in temperate coastal zones may represent a long-term sink for plastic litter and also supposedly compostable material. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Scientific Information Analysis of Chemistry Dissertations Using Thesaurus of Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taghi Rajabi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available : Concept maps of chemistry can be obtained from thesaurus of chemistry. Analysis of information in the field of chemistry is done at graduate level, based on comparing and analyzing chemistry dissertations by using these maps. Therefore, the use of thesaurus for analyzing scientific information is recommended. Major advantage of using this method, is that it is possible to obtain a detailed map of all academic researches across all branches of science. The researches analysis results in chemical science can play a key role in developing strategic research policies, educational programming, linking universities to industries and postgraduate educational programming. This paper will first introduce the concept maps of chemistry. Then, emerging patterns from the concept maps of chemistry will be used to analyze the trend in the academic dissertations in chemistry, using the data collected and stored in our database at Iranian Research Institute for Information Science and Technology (IranDoc over the past 10 years (1998-2009.

  14. Plastic zonder olie : lesmodule voor nieuwe scheikunde

    OpenAIRE

    Langejan, B.; Klein Douwel, C.; Horst, ter, J.J.; Tijdink, K.; Marle, van, N.; Klaasen, P.; Coolen, R.; Assenbergh, van, P.; Sijbers, J.P.J.; Mast, A.

    2013-01-01

    Lesmodule voor nieuwe scheikunde voor leerlingen uit 5 en 6 vwo. Bioplastics worden gemaakt uit natuurlijke grondstoffen. Als ze de synthetische plastics vervangen kan de voorraad aardolie ontzien worden. Omdat veel bioplastics afbreekbaar zijn, kan ook de berg plastic afval krimpen. Maar zijn bioplastics in staat om ons de reguliere plastics te doen vergeten? Hoe maken we bioplastics met dezelfde veelzijdige eigenschappen als plastic? Waar komen de uiteenlopende eigenschappen van plastics ei...

  15. Elimination of Plastic Polymers in Natural Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Ramirez-Ekner, Sofia; Bidstrup, Marie Juliane Svea; Brusen, Nicklas Hald; Rugaard-Morgan, Zsa-Zsa Sophie Oona Ophelia

    2017-01-01

    Plastic production and consumption continues to rise and subsequently plastic waste continues to accumulates in natural environments, causing harm to ecosystems.The aim of this paper was to come up with a way to utilize organisms, that have been identified to produce plastic degrading enzymes, as a waste disposal technology. This review includes accounts of plastic production rates, the occurrence of plastic in natural environments and the current waste management systems to create an underst...

  16. Physical Chemistry '98: Fourth International Conference on Fundamental and Applied Aspects of Physical Chemistry - Papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribnikar, S.; Anic, S.

    1998-01-01

    The proceedings has following chapters: Plenary lectures; Chemical Thermodynamics; Spectroscopy, Molecular Structures, Physical Chemistry of Plasma; Kinetics, Catalysis, Nonlinear Dynamics; Electrochemistry; Biophysical Chemistry, Photochemistry, Radiation Chemistry; Radiochemistry, Nuclear Chemistry; Solid State Physical Chemistry, Material Science; Macromolecular Physical Chemistry; Environmental Protection; Phase Boundaries; Complex Compounds; General Physical Chemistry. A separated abstract was prepared for each of the 20 papers selected from the three chapters: Biophysical Chemistry, Photochemistry, Radiation Chemistry; Radiochemistry, Nuclear Chemistry. and Environmental Protection. Refs and figs

  17. A background to risk analysis. Vol. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    This 4-volumes report gives a background of ideas, principles, and examples which might be of use in developing practical methods for risk analysis. Some of the risk analysis techniques described are somewhat experimental. The report is written in an introductory style, but where some point needs further justification or evaluation, this is given in the form of a chapter appendix. In this way, it is hoped that the report can serve two purposes, - as a basis for starting risk analysis work and as a basis for discussing effectiveness of risk analysis procedures. The report should be seen as a preliminary stage, prior to a program of industrial trials of risk analysis methods. Vol. 4 treats human error in plant operation. (BP)

  18. A background to risk analysis. Vol. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    This 4-volumes report gives a background of ideas, principles, and examples which might be of use in developing practical methods for risk analysis. Some of the risk analysis techniques described are somewhat experimental. The report is written in an introductory style, but where some point needs further justifi- cation or evaluation, this is given in the form of a chapter appenix. In this way, it is hoped that the report can serve two purposes, - as a basis for starting risk analysis work and as a basis for discussing effectiveness of risk analysis procedures. The report should be seen as a preliminary stage, prior to a program of industrial trials of risk analysis methods. Vol. 3 contains chapters on quantification of risk, failure and accident probability, risk analysis and design, and examles of risk analysis for process plant. (BP)

  19. A background to risk analysis. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    This 4-volumes report gives a background of ideas, principles and examples which might be of use in developing practical methods for risk analysis. Some of the risk analysis techniques described are somewhat experimental. The report is written in an introductory style, but where some point needs further justification or evaluation, this is given in the form of a chapter appendix. In this way, it is hoped that the report can serve two purposes, - as a basis for starting risk analysis work and as a basis for discussing effectiveness of risk analysis procedures. The report should be seen as a preliminary stage, prior to a program of industrial trials of risk analysis methods. Vol. 2 treats generic methods of qualitative failure analysis. (BP)

  20. A background risk analysis. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    This 4-volumes report gives a background of ideas, principles, and examples which might be of use in developing practical methods for risk analysis. Some of the risk analysis techniques, described are somewhat experimental. The report is written in an introductory style, but where some point needs further justification or evaluation, this is given in the form of a chapter appendix. In this way, it is hoped that the report can serve two purposes, - as a basis for starting risk analysis work and as a basis for discussing effectiveness of risk analysis procedures. The report should be seen as a preliminary stage, prior to a program of industrial trials of risk analysis methods. Vol. 1 contains a short history of risk analysis, and chapters on risk, failures, errors and accidents, and general procedures for risk analysis. (BP)

  1. Structural Chemistry of Human RNA Methyltransferases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schapira, Matthieu

    2016-03-18

    RNA methyltransferases (RNMTs) play important roles in RNA stability, splicing, and epigenetic mechanisms. They constitute a promising target class that is underexplored by the medicinal chemistry community. Information of relevance to drug design can be extracted from the rich structural coverage of human RNMTs. In this work, the structural chemistry of this protein family is analyzed in depth. Unlike most methyltransferases, RNMTs generally feature a substrate-binding site that is largely open on the cofactor-binding pocket, favoring the design of bisubstrate inhibitors. Substrate purine or pyrimidines are often sandwiched between hydrophobic walls that can accommodate planar ring systems. When the substrate base is laying on a shallow surface, a 5' flanking base is sometimes anchored in a druggable cavity. The cofactor-binding site is structurally more diverse than in protein methyltransferases and more druggable in SPOUT than in Rossman-fold enzymes. Finally, conformational plasticity observed both at the substrate and cofactor binding sites may be a challenge for structure-based drug design. The landscape drawn here may inform ongoing efforts toward the discovery of the first human RNMT inhibitors.

  2. Advances in boundary elements. Vol. 1-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brebbia, C.A.; Connor, J.J.

    1989-01-01

    This book contains some of the edited papers presented at the 11th Boundary Element Conference, held in Cambridge, Massachusetts, during August 1989. The papers are arranged in three different books comprising the following topics: Vol. 1: Computations and Fundamentals - comprises sections on fundamentals, adaptive techniques, error and convergence, numerical methods and computational aspects. (283 p.). Vol. 2: Field and fluid flow solutions - includes the following topics: potential problems, thermal studies, electrical and electromagnetic problems, wave propagation, acoustics and fluid flow. (484 p.). Vol. 3: Stress analysis - deals with advances in linear problems, nonlinear problems, fracture mechanics, contact mechanics, optimization, geomechanics, plates and shells, vibrations and industrial applications. (450 p). (orig./HP)

  3. Avalanches and plastic flow in crystal plasticity: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanikolaou, Stefanos; Cui, Yinan; Ghoniem, Nasr

    2018-01-01

    Crystal plasticity is mediated through dislocations, which form knotted configurations in a complex energy landscape. Once they disentangle and move, they may also be impeded by permanent obstacles with finite energy barriers or frustrating long-range interactions. The outcome of such complexity is the emergence of dislocation avalanches as the basic mechanism of plastic flow in solids at the nanoscale. While the deformation behavior of bulk materials appears smooth, a predictive model should clearly be based upon the character of these dislocation avalanches and their associated strain bursts. We provide here a comprehensive overview of experimental observations, theoretical models and computational approaches that have been developed to unravel the multiple aspects of dislocation avalanche physics and the phenomena leading to strain bursts in crystal plasticity.

  4. High temperature water chemistry monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaltonen, P.

    1992-01-01

    Almost all corrosion phenomena in nuclear power plants can be prevented or at least damped by water chemistry control or by the change of water chemistry control or by the change of water chemistry. Successful water chemistry control needs regular and continuous monitoring of such water chemistry parameters like dissolved oxygen content, pH, conductivity and impurity contents. Conventionally the monitoring is carried out at low pressures and temperatures, which method, however, has some shortcomings. Recently electrodes have been developed which enables the direct monitoring at operating pressures and temperatures. (author). 2 refs, 5 figs

  5. Survey of PWR water chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorman, J.

    1989-02-01

    This report surveys available information regarding primary and secondary water chemistries of pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and the impact of these water chemistries on reactor operation. The emphasis of the document is on aspects of water chemistry that affect the integrity of the primary pressure boundary and the radiation dose associated with maintenance and operation. The report provides an historical overview of the development of primary and secondary water chemistries, and describes practices currently being followed. Current problems and areas of research associated with water chemistry are described. Recommendations for further research are included. 183 refs., 9 figs., 19 tabs

  6. Bubble and foam chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Pugh, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    This indispensable guide will equip the reader with a thorough understanding of the field of foaming chemistry. Assuming only basic theoretical background knowledge, the book provides a straightforward introduction to the principles and properties of foams and foaming surfactants. It discusses the key ideas that underpin why foaming occurs, how it can be avoided and how different degrees of antifoaming can be achieved, and covers the latest test methods, including laboratory and industrial developed techniques. Detailing a variety of different kinds of foams, from wet detergents and food foams, to polymeric, material and metal foams, it connects theory to real-world applications and recent developments in foam research. Combining academic and industrial viewpoints, this book is the definitive stand-alone resource for researchers, students and industrialists working on foam technology, colloidal systems in the field of chemical engineering, fluid mechanics, physical chemistry, and applied physics.

  7. Carbohydrates in Supramolecular Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbianco, Martina; Bharate, Priya; Varela-Aramburu, Silvia; Seeberger, Peter H

    2016-02-24

    Carbohydrates are involved in a variety of biological processes. The ability of sugars to form a large number of hydrogen bonds has made them important components for supramolecular chemistry. We discuss recent advances in the use of carbohydrates in supramolecular chemistry and reveal that carbohydrates are useful building blocks for the stabilization of complex architectures. Systems are presented according to the scaffold that supports the glyco-conjugate: organic macrocycles, dendrimers, nanomaterials, and polymers are considered. Glyco-conjugates can form host-guest complexes, and can self-assemble by using carbohydrate-carbohydrate interactions and other weak interactions such as π-π interactions. Finally, complex supramolecular architectures based on carbohydrate-protein interactions are discussed.

  8. Nuclear analytical chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brune, D.; Forkman, B.; Persson, B.

    1984-01-01

    This book covers the general theories and techniques of nuclear chemical analysis, directed at applications in analytical chemistry, nuclear medicine, radiophysics, agriculture, environmental sciences, geological exploration, industrial process control, etc. The main principles of nuclear physics and nuclear detection on which the analysis is based are briefly outlined. An attempt is made to emphasise the fundamentals of activation analysis, detection and activation methods, as well as their applications. The book provides guidance in analytical chemistry, agriculture, environmental and biomedical sciences, etc. The contents include: the nuclear periodic system; nuclear decay; nuclear reactions; nuclear radiation sources; interaction of radiation with matter; principles of radiation detectors; nuclear electronics; statistical methods and spectral analysis; methods of radiation detection; neutron activation analysis; charged particle activation analysis; photon activation analysis; sample preparation and chemical separation; nuclear chemical analysis in biological and medical research; the use of nuclear chemical analysis in the field of criminology; nuclear chemical analysis in environmental sciences, geology and mineral exploration; and radiation protection.

  9. Quo vadis, analytical chemistry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcárcel, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an open, personal, fresh approach to the future of Analytical Chemistry in the context of the deep changes Science and Technology are anticipated to experience. Its main aim is to challenge young analytical chemists because the future of our scientific discipline is in their hands. A description of not completely accurate overall conceptions of our discipline, both past and present, to be avoided is followed by a flexible, integral definition of Analytical Chemistry and its cornerstones (viz., aims and objectives, quality trade-offs, the third basic analytical reference, the information hierarchy, social responsibility, independent research, transfer of knowledge and technology, interfaces to other scientific-technical disciplines, and well-oriented education). Obsolete paradigms, and more accurate general and specific that can be expected to provide the framework for our discipline in the coming years are described. Finally, the three possible responses of analytical chemists to the proposed changes in our discipline are discussed.

  10. Medicinal chemistry for 2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyanarayanajois, Seetharama D; Hill, Ronald A

    2011-01-01

    Rapid advances in our collective understanding of biomolecular structure and, in concert, of biochemical systems, coupled with developments in computational methods, have massively impacted the field of medicinal chemistry over the past two decades, with even greater changes appearing on the horizon. In this perspective, we endeavor to profile some of the most prominent determinants of change and speculate as to further evolution that may consequently occur during the next decade. The five main angles to be addressed are: protein–protein interactions; peptides and peptidomimetics; molecular diversity and pharmacological space; molecular pharmacodynamics (significance, potential and challenges); and early-stage clinical efficacy and safety. We then consider, in light of these, the future of medicinal chemistry and the educational preparation that will be required for future medicinal chemists. PMID:22004084

  11. Nuclear analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brune, D.; Forkman, B.; Persson, B.

    1984-01-01

    This book covers the general theories and techniques of nuclear chemical analysis, directed at applications in analytical chemistry, nuclear medicine, radiophysics, agriculture, environmental sciences, geological exploration, industrial process control, etc. The main principles of nuclear physics and nuclear detection on which the analysis is based are briefly outlined. An attempt is made to emphasise the fundamentals of activation analysis, detection and activation methods, as well as their applications. The book provides guidance in analytical chemistry, agriculture, environmental and biomedical sciences, etc. The contents include: the nuclear periodic system; nuclear decay; nuclear reactions; nuclear radiation sources; interaction of radiation with matter; principles of radiation detectors; nuclear electronics; statistical methods and spectral analysis; methods of radiation detection; neutron activation analysis; charged particle activation analysis; photon activation analysis; sample preparation and chemical separation; nuclear chemical analysis in biological and medical research; the use of nuclear chemical analysis in the field of criminology; nuclear chemical analysis in environmental sciences, geology and mineral exploration; and radiation protection

  12. Chemistry in protoplanetary disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, D. A.

    2012-01-01

    In this lecture I discuss recent progress in the understanding of the chemical evolution of protoplanetary disks that resemble our Solar system during the first ten million years. At the verge of planet formation, strong variations of temperature, density, and radiation intensities in these disks lead to a layered chemical structure. In hot, dilute and heavily irradiated atmosphere only simple radicals, atoms, and atomic ions can survive, formed and destroyed by gas-phase processes. Beneath the atmosphere a partly UV-shielded, warm molecular layer is located, where high-energy radiation drives rich chemistry, both in the gas phase and on dust surfaces. In a cold, dense, dark disk midplane many molecules are frozen out, forming thick icy mantles where surface chemistry is active and where complex (organic) species are synthesized.

  13. Uranium chemistry research unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The initial field of research of this Unit, established in 1973, was the basic co-ordination chemistry of uranium, thorium, copper, cobalt and nickel. Subsequently the interest of the Unit extended to extractive metallurgy relating to these metals. Under the term 'co-ordination chemistry' is understood the interaction of the central transition metal ion with surrounding atoms in its immediate vicinity (within bonding distance) and the influence they have on each other - for example, structural studies for determining the number and arrangement of co-ordinated atoms and spectrophotometric studies to establish how the f electron energy levels of uranium are influenced by the environment. New types of uranium compounds have been synthesized and studied, and the behaviour of uranium ions in non-aqueous systems has also received attention. This work can be applied to the development and study of extractants and new extractive processes for uranium

  14. Organic Chemistry in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnley, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Astronomical observations, theoretical modeling, laboratory simulation and analysis of extraterrestrial material have enhanced our knowledge of the inventory of organic matter in the interstellar medium (ISM) and on small bodies such as comets and asteroids (Ehrenfreund & Charnley 2000). Comets, asteroids and their fragments, meteorites and interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), contributed significant amounts of extraterrestrial organic matter to the young Earth. This material degraded and reacted in a terrestrial prebiotic chemistry to form organic structures that may have served as building blocks for life on the early Earth. In this talk I will summarize our current understanding of the organic composition and chemistry of interstellar clouds. Molecules of astrobiological relevance include the building blocks of our genetic material: nucleic acids, composed of subunits such as N-heterocycles (purines and pyrimidines), sugars and amino acids. Signatures indicative of inheritance of pristine and modified interstellar material in comets and meteorites will also be discussed.

  15. Atmosphere physics and chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delmas, R.; Megie, G.; Peuch, V.H.

    2005-10-01

    Since the 1970's, the awareness about the atmospheric pollution threat has led to a spectacular development of the researches on the complex interactions between the chemical composition of the atmosphere and the climate. This book makes a synthesis of the state-of-the-art in this very active domain of research. Content: introduction, atmosphere dynamics and transport, matter-radiation interaction and radiant transfer, physico-chemical processes, atmospheric aerosol and heterogenous chemistry, anthropic and natural emissions and deposition, stratospheric chemical system, tropospheric chemical system, polluted boundary layer, paleo-environments and ice archives, role of atmospheric chemistry in global changes, measurement principles and instruments, numerical modeling, experimental strategy, regulation and management of the atmospheric environment, index. (J.S.)

  16. Actinide separative chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boullis, B.

    2004-01-01

    Actinide separative chemistry has focused very heavy work during the last decades. The main was nuclear spent fuel reprocessing: solvent extraction processes appeared quickly a suitable, an efficient way to recover major actinides (uranium and plutonium), and an extensive research, concerning both process chemistry and chemical engineering technologies, allowed the industrial development in this field. We can observe for about half a century a succession of Purex plants which, if based on the same initial discovery (i.e. the outstanding properties of a molecule, the famous TBP), present huge improvements at each step, for a large part due to an increased mastery of the mechanisms involved. And actinide separation should still focus R and D in the near future: there is a real, an important need for this, even if reprocessing may appear as a mature industry. We can present three main reasons for this. First, actinide recycling appear as a key-issue for future nuclear fuel cycles, both for waste management optimization and for conservation of natural resource; and the need concerns not only major actinide but also so-called minor ones, thus enlarging the scope of the investigation. Second, extraction processes are not well mastered at microscopic scale: there is a real, great lack in fundamental knowledge, useful or even necessary for process optimization (for instance, how to design the best extracting molecule, taken into account the several notifications and constraints, from selectivity to radiolytic resistivity?); and such a need for a real optimization is to be more accurate with the search of always cheaper, cleaner processes. And then, there is room too for exploratory research, on new concepts-perhaps for processing quite new fuels- which could appear attractive and justify further developments to be properly assessed: pyro-processes first, but also others, like chemistry in 'extreme' or 'unusual' conditions (supercritical solvents, sono-chemistry, could be

  17. New electronics stuff chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byeon, Su Il

    2003-04-01

    The first part of this book is about equilibrium electrochemistry on electric thermo dynamic equilibrium state of electrochemistry, crystal defect of solid, thermodynamics on defect electron and election in semiconductor, Gawani potential, volta potential and equilibrium potential and thermodynamics application in Gawani battery. The second part deals with dynamic electrochemistry electrode reaction kinetics and corrosion potential in normal state, diffusion and transport of ion and electron and current impedance spectroscopy. It also mentions industrial electrochemistry and laboratory works in electronics chemistry course.

  18. Chemistry of silybin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Biedermann, David; Vavříková, Eva; Cvak, L.; Křen, Vladimír

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 9 (2014), s. 1138-1157 ISSN 0265-0568 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP301/11/0662; GA MŠk LH13097; GA MŠk(CZ) LD14096; GA MŠk(CZ) LD13042 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : silybin * Silybum marianum * separation Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 10.107, year: 2014

  19. Analytic chemistry of molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, G.A.

    1983-01-01

    Electrochemical, colorimetric, gravimetric, spectroscopic, and radiochemical methods for the determination of molybdenum are summarized in this book. Some laboratory procedures are described in detail while literature citations are given for others. The reader is also referred to older comprehensive reviews of the analytical chemistry of molybdenum. Contents, abridged: Gravimetric methods. Titrimetric methods. Colorimetric methods. X-ray fluorescence. Voltammetry. Catalytic methods. Molybdenum in non-ferrous alloys. Molydbenum compounds

  20. Research in Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    1957-12-31

    Thermometric Studies...................... .. C-16 JANAF-Panel on Analytical Chemistry of Solid Propellants. . ............. C-16 Chelation Studies... aluminum oxide (basic) has been routinely used in a slurry technique as a scavenger for boron trifluoride. When used in eamounts su1ficient to completely...due to accidental ignition of the reaction mixture and to difficulties in removal of aluminum and lithium ethylates which are formed in the

  1. Radioanalytical chemistry in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heydorn, K.; Levi, H.

    1979-12-01

    Publications from Denmark in the field of radioanalytical chemistry are presented in 2 groups, one involving neutron activation and similar techniques, and one for other radioanalytical work. Altogether 258 references including books are given for the period 1936-1977, and the overall doubling time is 5.2 years. A significant deviation from a purely exponential growth was caused by the Second World War. (author)

  2. Bibliographies on radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, M.Z.; Ross, A.B.

    1986-01-01

    The one-electron oxidation and reduction of metal ions and complexes can yield species in unusual oxidation states, and ligand-radicals coordinated to the central metal. These often unstable species can be mechanistically important intermediates in thermal, photochemical, and electrochemical reactions involving metal-containing substances. Their generation via radiolysis provides an alternate means of characterizing them using kinetic and spectroscopic techniques. We hope these bibliographies on the radiation chemistry of metal ions and complexes, presented according to periodic groups, will prove useful to researchers in metallo-redox chemistry. These bibliographies contain only primary literature sources; reviews are not included. However, a list of general review articles on the radiation chemistry of metal ions and complexes is presented here in the first section which covers cobalt, rhodium and iridium, Group 9 in the new IUPAC notation. Additional parts of the bibliography are planned, covering other periodic groups. Part A of the bibliography was prepared by a search of the Radiation Chemistry Data Center Bibliographic Data Base (RCDCbib) through January 1986 for papers on rhodium, iridium and cobalt compounds, and radiolysis (both continuous and pulsed). Papers in which the use of metal compounds was incidental to the primary objective of the study were excluded. Excluded also were publications in unrefereed and obscure sources such as meeting proceedings, internal reports, dissertations, and patents. The majority of the studies in the resultant compilation deal with experiments performed on solutions, mainly aqueous, although a substantial fraction is devoted to solid-state esr measurements. The references are listed in separate sections for each of the metals, and are presented in approximate chronological order. (author)

  3. Food chemistry. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baltes, W.

    1989-01-01

    This second edition of the textbook deals with all essential aspects of food chemistry. The revision improved in particular the chapters on food preservation, including irradiation of food, food additives, and pollutants and residues, including radionuclides. The chapter on the German legal regime for foodstuffs has been updated to cover the recent amendments of the law, and the information on processes applied in food technology has been largely enhanced. (VHE) With 153 figs., 78 tabs [de

  4. Quantum mechanics in chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Schatz, George C

    2002-01-01

    Intended for graduate and advanced undergraduate students, this text explores quantum mechanical techniques from the viewpoint of chemistry and materials science. Dynamics, symmetry, and formalism are emphasized. An initial review of basic concepts from introductory quantum mechanics is followed by chapters examining symmetry, rotations, and angular momentum addition. Chapter 4 introduces the basic formalism of time-dependent quantum mechanics, emphasizing time-dependent perturbation theory and Fermi's golden rule. Chapter 5 sees this formalism applied to the interaction of radiation and matt

  5. Liquid phase solvent bonding of plastic microfluidic devices assisted by retention grooves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Alwin M D; Sadri, Amir; Young, Edmond W K

    2015-01-01

    We report a novel method for achieving consistent liquid phase solvent bonding of plastic microfluidic devices via the use of retention grooves at the bonding interface. The grooves are patterned during the regular microfabrication process, and can be placed at the periphery of a device, or surrounding microfluidic features with open ports, where they effectively mitigate solvent evaporation, and thus substantially reduce poor bond coverage. This method is broadly applicable to a variety of plastics and solvents, and produces devices with high bond quality (i.e., coverage, strength, and microfeature fidelity) that are suitable for studies in physics, chemistry, and cell biology at the microscale.

  6. Physico-chemical properties of excavated plastic from landfill mining and current recycling routes

    OpenAIRE

    Canopoli, Luisa; Fidalgo, Beatriz; Coulon, Frederic; Wagland, Stuart T.

    2018-01-01

    In Europe over 5.25 billion tonnes of waste has been landfilled between 1995 and 2015. Among this large amount of waste, plastic represents typically 5–25 wt% which is significant and has the potential to be recycled and reintroduced into the circular economy. To date there is still however little information available of the opportunities and challenges in recovering plastics from landfill sites. In this review, the impacts of landfill chemistry on the degradation and/or contamination of exc...

  7. Plasticity characteristic obtained by indentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milman, Yu V

    2008-01-01

    A dimensionless parameter δ H = ε p /ε t (where ε p and ε t are the average values of plastic and total deformation of material on the contact area indenter-specimen) may be used as the plasticity characteristic of materials, which made it possible to characterize the plasticity of materials that are brittle in standard mechanical tests. δ H may be calculated from the values of microhardness HM, Young's modulus E and Poisson's ratio ν. In instrumented indentation the plasticity characteristic δ A = A p /A t (A p and A t are the work of plastic and total deformation during indentation) may be calculated. δ A ∼ δ H for materials with δ H > 0.5, i.e. for all metals and the majority of ceramic materials. In this case, the theoretical equation δ A ∼ δ H = 1-10.2 · (1 - ν - 2ν 2 )(HM/E) is satisfied in experiments with the Berkovich indenter. The influence of the temperature and structural parameters (dislocation density and grain size including nanostructured materials) on δ H is discussed

  8. Mechanisms of GABAergic Homeostatic Plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wenner

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Homeostatic plasticity ensures that appropriate levels of activity are maintained through compensatory adjustments in synaptic strength and cellular excitability. For instance, excitatory glutamatergic synapses are strengthened following activity blockade and weakened following increases in spiking activity. This form of plasticity has been described in a wide array of networks at several different stages of development, but most work and reviews have focussed on the excitatory inputs of excitatory neurons. Here we review homeostatic plasticity of GABAergic neurons and their synaptic connections. We propose a simplistic model for homeostatic plasticity of GABAergic components of the circuitry (GABAergic synapses onto excitatory neurons, excitatory connections onto GABAergic neurons, cellular excitability of GABAergic neurons: following chronic activity blockade there is a weakening of GABAergic inhibition, and following chronic increases in network activity there is a strengthening of GABAergic inhibition. Previous work on GABAergic homeostatic plasticity supports certain aspects of the model, but it is clear that the model cannot fully account for some results which do not appear to fit any simplistic rule. We consider potential reasons for these discrepancies.

  9. Neurogenomic mechanisms of social plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Sara D; Teles, Magda C; Oliveira, Rui F

    2015-01-01

    Group-living animals must adjust the expression of their social behaviour to changes in their social environment and to transitions between life-history stages, and this social plasticity can be seen as an adaptive trait that can be under positive selection when changes in the environment outpace the rate of genetic evolutionary change. Here, we propose a conceptual framework for understanding the neuromolecular mechanisms of social plasticity. According to this framework, social plasticity is achieved by rewiring or by biochemically switching nodes of a neural network underlying social behaviour in response to perceived social information. Therefore, at the molecular level, it depends on the social regulation of gene expression, so that different genomic and epigenetic states of this brain network correspond to different behavioural states, and the switches between states are orchestrated by signalling pathways that interface the social environment and the genotype. Different types of social plasticity can be recognized based on the observed patterns of inter- versus intra-individual occurrence, time scale and reversibility. It is proposed that these different types of social plasticity rely on different proximate mechanisms at the physiological, neural and genomic level. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Smartphones and the plastic surgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hadithy, Nada; Ghosh, Sudip

    2013-06-01

    Surgical trainees are facing limited training opportunities since the introduction of the European Working Time Directive. Smartphone sales are increasing and have usurped computer sales for the first time. In this context, smartphones are an important portable reference and educational tool, already in the possession of the majority of surgeons in training. Technology in the palm of our hands has led to a revolution of accessible information for the plastic surgery trainee and surgeon. This article reviews the uses of smartphones and applications for plastic surgeons in education, telemedicine and global health. A comprehensive guide to existing and upcoming learning materials and clinical tools for the plastic surgeon is included. E-books, podcasts, educational videos, guidelines, work-based assessment tools and online logbooks are presented. In the limited resource setting of modern clinical practice, savvy plastic surgeons can select technological tools to democratise access to education and best clinical care. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Towards "Bildung"-Oriented Chemistry Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöström, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    This paper concerns "Bildung"-oriented chemistry education, based on a reflective and critical discourse of chemistry. It is contrasted with the dominant type of chemistry education, based on the mainstream discourse of chemistry. "Bildung"-oriented chemistry education includes not only content knowledge in chemistry, but also…

  12. Uranium chemistry: significant advances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzanti, M.

    2011-01-01

    The author reviews recent progress in uranium chemistry achieved in CEA laboratories. Like its neighbors in the Mendeleev chart uranium undergoes hydrolysis, oxidation and disproportionation reactions which make the chemistry of these species in water highly complex. The study of the chemistry of uranium in an anhydrous medium has led to correlate the structural and electronic differences observed in the interaction of uranium(III) and the lanthanides(III) with nitrogen or sulfur molecules and the effectiveness of these molecules in An(III)/Ln(III) separation via liquid-liquid extraction. Recent work on the redox reactivity of trivalent uranium U(III) in an organic medium with molecules such as water or an azide ion (N 3 - ) in stoichiometric quantities, led to extremely interesting uranium aggregates particular those involved in actinide migration in the environment or in aggregation problems in the fuel processing cycle. Another significant advance was the discovery of a compound containing the uranyl ion with a degree of oxidation (V) UO 2 + , obtained by oxidation of uranium(III). Recently chemists have succeeded in blocking the disproportionation reaction of uranyl(V) and in stabilizing polymetallic complexes of uranyl(V), opening the way to to a systematic study of the reactivity and the electronic and magnetic properties of uranyl(V) compounds. (A.C.)

  13. BWR chromium chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baston, V.F.; Indig, M.E.; Skarpelos, J.M.

    1992-10-01

    This report addresses the concern about higher total specific conductivity in the reactor recirculation loop water due to the chromate ion. This concern is particularly high at plants where all other ionic species have been reduced through careful attention to makeup and condensate polisher operations. An EPRI Chromate Workshop was held in November 1990 to consider the issues raised by observed levels of chromate ion (generally 5 to 50 ppB). While BWRs on normal water chemistry were the only ones observing chromate, even plants on hydrogen water chemistry (HWC) observe sharp spikes of conductivity due to chromate whenever the hydrogen supply was interrupted after a reasonably long HWC operational period. The consensus of the workshop attendees was that chromate was not a concern as an agent causing pipe cracking compared to the more common species such as chloride and sulfate. However, the data are somewhat ambiguous for levels of chromate above 50 ppB. Adjustments to the weighing factors for the various ionic species in the industry chemistry performance index are suggested to allow for the known relative higher aggressiveness of other species relative to that of chromate

  14. Chemistry between the stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroto, H.W.

    1986-01-01

    During the past 15 years the techniques used by chemists to determine accurate molecular structures have combined with those of radio astronomers to probe the space between the stars. Together they paint a new picture of interstellar space, a picture which shows that vast clouds of gas and dust are continually collapsing to form stars and planets and that the main constituents of these clouds are molecules, some of which are quite complex organic species. It is now known that many of the organic building blocks, useful in the evolution of biologically significant macromolecules, existed long before the Earth was formed. These findings present a challenge to previous widely-accepted theories that such molecules were first generated in the Earth's primaeval atmosphere. In this paper certain aspects of these discoveries are considered with particular emphasis on the contributions made by techniques of use in general chemistry. After a brief astronomical introduction to the Interstellar Medium (ISM) the interaction between chemistry and radioastronomy is discussed. This is followed by details of some exciting, new and quite unexpected advances in our understanding of carbon chemistry, discovered during experiments aimed at understanding some of the more perplexing radioastronomy results. Finally an overview is given of the present knowledge of the molecular composition of the ISM and the resulting implications in so far as the origins of life are concerned. (author)

  15. Chemistry and cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, John H

    2006-01-01

    The simplest elements, hydrogen and helium, offer a remarkably rich chemistry, which has controlled crucial features of the early evolution of the universe. Theoretical models of the origin of structure (stars, galaxies, clusters of galaxies, etc.) now incorporate this chemistry in some detail. In addition to the origin of structure, cosmologists are concerned with observational tests of competing world models. Primordial chemistry may give rise to some of the earliest departures from thermodynamic equilibrium in the universe. These effects may be observable as broad-band spectroscopic distortions of the cosmic background radiation, which otherwise exhibits a nearly perfect blackbody spectrum. The chemical history of the expanding universe is followed through a detailed calculation of the evolution of the abundances of H, H+, H-, H2, H2+, H3+, and other minor species. It is shown that continuous absorption by the small concentration of H- can produce a distortion in the cosmic background spectrum with a maximum at a frequency near nu/c = 9 cm-1 (wavelength 1.1 mm). The predicted effect lies only a factor of 5 below current limits. Its detection would provide an important test of our understanding of the recombination epoch of the universe.

  16. Chemistry of superheavy elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaedel, M.

    2012-01-01

    The chemistry of superheavy elements - or transactinides from their position in the Periodic Table - is summarized. After giving an overview over historical developments, nuclear aspects about synthesis of neutron-rich isotopes of these elements, produced in hot-fusion reactions, and their nuclear decay properties are briefly mentioned. Specific requirements to cope with the one-atom-at-a-time situation in automated chemical separations and recent developments in aqueous-phase and gas-phase chemistry are presented. Exciting, current developments, first applications, and future prospects of chemical separations behind physical recoil separators ('pre-separator') are discussed in detail. The status of our current knowledge about the chemistry of rutherfordium (Rf, element 104), dubnium (Db, element 105), seaborgium (Sg, element 106), bohrium (Bh, element 107), hassium (Hs, element 108), copernicium (Cn, element 112), and element 114 is discussed from an experimental point of view. Recent results are emphasized and compared with empirical extrapolations and with fully-relativistic theoretical calculations, especially also under the aspect of the architecture of the Periodic Table. (orig.)

  17. Chemistry between the stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroto, H W

    1986-01-01

    During the past 15 years the techniques used by chemists to determine accurate molecular structures have combined with those of radio astronomers to probe the space between the stars. Together they paint a new picture of interstellar space, a picture which shows that vast clouds of gas and dust are continually collapsing to form stars and planets and that the main constituents of these clouds are molecules, some of which are quite complex organic species. It is now known that many of the organic building blocks, useful in the evolution of biologically significant macromolecules, existed long before the Earth was formed. These findings present a challenge to previous widely-accepted theories that such molecules were first generated in the Earth's primaeval atmosphere. In this paper certain aspects of these discoveries are considered with particular emphasis on the contributions made by techniques of use in general chemistry. After a brief astronomical introduction to the Interstellar Medium (ISM) the interaction between chemistry and radioastronomy is discussed. This is followed by details of some exciting, new and quite unexpected advances in our understanding of carbon chemistry, discovered during experiments aimed at understanding some of the more perplexing radioastronomy results. Finally an overview is given of the present knowledge of the molecular composition of the ISM and the resulting implications in so far as the origins of life are concerned.

  18. Aqueous chemistry of transactinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaedel, M.

    2001-01-01

    The aqueous chemistry of the first three transactinide elements is briefly reviewed with special emphasis given to recent experimental results. Short introductory remarks are discussing the atom-at-a-time situation of transactinide chemistry as a result of low production cross-sections and short half-lives. In general, on-line experimental techniques and, more specifically, the automated rapid chemistry apparatus, ARCA, are presented. Present and future developments of experimental techniques and resulting perspectives are outlined at the end. The central part is mainly focussing on hydrolysis and complex formation aspects of the superheavy group 4, 5, and 6 transition metals with F - and Cl - anions. Experimental results are compared with the behaviour of lighter homologous elements and with relativistic calculations. It will be shown that the chemical behaviour of the first superheavy elements is already strongly influenced by relativistic effects. While it is justified to place rutherfordium, dubnium and seaborgium in the Periodic Table of the Elements into group 4, 5 and 6, respectively, it is no more possible to deduce from this position in detail the chemical properties of these transactinide or superheavy elements. (orig.)

  19. Future in actinoids coordination chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitazawa, Takafumi

    2006-01-01

    Actinoids coordination chemistry is concerned with spent nuclear fuel reprocessing, specifically with solid-state chemistry of nuclear fuels, separation process with radioactive substances, and geological disposal of high-level radioactive substances. In the 21st century, accumulation of minor actinides, Np, Am, Cm, and others will be realized according with the present program of nuclear energy development. The present article briefly introduces general properties of actinide elements, followed by their coordination chemistry compared with rare earths coordination chemistry. Special facility needed to treat actinoids as well as their chemistry is briefly explained, together with the specific experimental apparatus such as X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS) and time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectrometry (TRLFS) with synchrotron radiation facilities. The effect of coordination with actinoids in the environment chemistry is important in underground disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. For theoretical analysis of the results with actinoids chemistry, relativistic calculation is needed. (S. Ohno)

  20. Microstructure Evolution and Mechanical Behavior of a Hot-Rolled High-Manganese Dual-Phase Transformation-Induced Plasticity/Twinning-Induced Plasticity Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Liming; Shan, Mokun; Zhang, Daoda; Wang, Huanrong; Wang, Wei; Shan, Aidang

    2017-05-01

    The microstructures and deformation behavior were studied in a high-temperature annealed high-manganese dual-phase (28 vol pct δ-ferrite and 72 vol pct γ-austenite) transformation-induced plasticity/twinning-induced plasticity (TRIP/TWIP) steel. The results showed that the steel exhibits a special Lüders-like yielding phenomenon at room temperature (RT) and 348 K (75 °C), while it shows continuous yielding at 423 K, 573 K and 673 K (150 °C, 300 °C and 400 °C) deformation. A significant TRIP effect takes place during Lüders-like deformation at RT and 348 K (75 °C) temperatures. Semiquantitative analysis of the TRIP effect on the Lüders-like yield phenomenon proves that a softening effect of the strain energy consumption of strain-induced transformation is mainly responsible for this Lüders-like phenomenon. The TWIP mechanism dominates the 423 K (150 °C) deformation process, while the dislocation glide controls the plasticity at 573 K (300 °C) deformation. The delta-ferrite, as a hard phase in annealed dual-phase steel, greatly affects the mechanical stability of austenite due to the heterogeneous strain distribution between the two phases during deformation. A delta-ferrite-aided TRIP effect, i.e., martensite transformation induced by localized strain concentration of the hard delta-ferrite, is proposed to explain this kind of Lüders-like phenomenon. Moreover, the tensile curve at RT exhibits an upward curved behavior in the middle deformation stage, which is principally attributed to the deformation twinning of austenite retained after Lüders-like deformation. The combination of the TRIP effect during Lüders-like deformation and the subsequent TWIP effect greatly enhances the ductility in this annealed high-manganese dual-phase TRIP/TWIP steel.

  1. JAERI TIARA annual report vol. 1 (1992)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishigaki, Isao; Nashiyama, Isamu; Naramoto, Hiroshi; Omichi, Hideki; Tanaka, Ryuichi; Watanabe, Hiromasa; Watanabe, Hiroshi

    1993-03-01

    This annual report describes research activities which have been performed with the JAERI TIARA (Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application) facilities from April 1, 1991 to March 31, 1992, and also gives an outline of the ion accelerators and surrounding apparatus which have been constructed and prepared for various experiments. As well as an outline of the characteristics of AVF cyclotron, 3 MV tandem electrostatic accelerator and other ones, included are 25 summary reports on preparation of experimental apparatus and on the preliminary results of experimental studies using the 3 MV tandem accelerator in the different research fields of beam technology, materials for space environment and nuclear fusion reactor, organic and inorganic functional materials, biology, medicine, radiation chemistry, radioisotope production and nuclear chemistry. Lists of publication, staff of TIARA and cooperated researchers are also given. (author)

  2. Exercise and plasticize the brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mala, Hana; Wilms, Inge

    Neuroscientific studies continue to shed light on brain’s plasticity and its innate mechanisms to recover. The recovery process includes re-wiring of the existing circuitry, establishment of new connections, and recruitment of peri-lesional and homologous areas in the opposite hemisphere....... The plasticity of the brain can be stimulated and enhanced through training, which serves as a fundamental element of neurorehabilitative strategies. For instance, intensive cognitive and physical training promote the activation of processes that may help the brain to adapt to new conditions and needs. However...... neurorehabilitation is to understand and define how to stimulate the injured brain to elicit the desired adaptation. Research focuses on uncovering specific elements relevant for training planning and execution in order to create an environment that stimulates and maximizes the exploitation of the brain’s plastic...

  3. Surface properties of beached plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotopoulou, Kalliopi N; Karapanagioti, Hrissi K

    2015-07-01

    Studying plastic characteristics in the marine environment is important to better understand interaction between plastics and the environment. In the present study, high-density polyethylene (HDPE), polyethylene terephalate (PET), and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) samples were collected from the coastal environment in order to study their surface properties. Surface properties such as surface functional groups, surface topography, point of zero charge, and color change are important factors that change during degradation. Eroded HDPE demonstrated an altered surface topography and color and new functional groups. Eroded PET surface was uneven, yellow, and occasionally, colonized by microbes. A decrease in Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) peaks was observed for eroded PET suggesting that degradation had occurred. For eroded PVC, its surface became more lamellar and a new FTIR peak was observed. These surface properties were obtained due to degradation and could be used to explain the interaction between plastics, microbes, and pollutants.

  4. The Prism Plastic Calorimeter (PPC)

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This proposal supports two goals: \\\\ \\\\ First goal:~~Demonstrate that current, widely used plastic technologies allow to design Prism Plastic Calorimeter~(PPC) towers with a new ``liquid crystal'' type plastic called Vectra. It will be shown that this technique meets the requirements for a LHC calorimeter with warm liquids: safety, hermeticity, hadronic compensation, resolution and time response. \\\\ \\\\ Second goal:~~Describe how one can design a warm liquid calorimeter integrated into a LHC detector and to list the advantages of the PPC: low price, minimum of mechanical structures, minimum of dead space, easiness of mechanical assembly, accessibility to the electronics, possibility to recirculate the liquid. The absorber and the electronic being outside of the liquid and easily accessible, one has maximum flexibility to define them. \\\\ \\\\ The R&D program, we define here aims at showing the feasibility of these new ideas by building nine towers of twenty gaps and exposing them to electron and hadron beams.

  5. Plastic solidification of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriyama, Noboru

    1981-01-01

    Over 20 years have elapsed after the start of nuclear power development, and the nuclear power generation in Japan now exceeds the level of 10,000 MW. In order to meet the energy demands, the problem of the treatment and disposal of radioactive wastes produced in nuclear power stations must be solved. The purpose of the plastic solidification of such wastes is to immobilize the contained radionuclides, same as other solidification methods, to provide the first barrier against their move into the environment. The following matters are described: the nuclear power generation in Japan, the radioactive wastes from LWR plants, the position of plastic solidification, the status of plastic solidification in overseas countries and in Japan, the solidification process for radioactive wastes with polyethylene, and the properties of solidified products, and the leachability of radionuclides in asphalt solids. (J.P.N.)

  6. Afican Health Sciences Vol 10 No 4.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    African Health Sciences Vol 10 No 4 December 2010. 353. Effect of ... Key words: Rumex steudelii, Antifertility, Folliculogenesis, Endometrium, uterus, ovary, ovarian follicles, corpus luteum,. Rats. ..... first cycle in intrauterine growth-related and.

  7. African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology - Vol 5, No ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology - Vol 5, No 3 (2004) ... In Peripheral Leukocyte And Body Fluids Of Onchocerciasis Patients Treated With ... A Study Of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria In Pregnancy In Ile - Ife, Southwestern ...

  8. Southern African Journal of Environmental Education - Vol 8 (1988)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern African Journal of Environmental Education - Vol 8 (1988) ... An interaction of archaeology with school history in a museum education context ... The child in the outdoor classroom · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  9. Gender and Behaviour - Vol 5, No 2 (2007)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender and Behaviour. ... Gender and Behaviour - Vol 5, No 2 (2007) ... Home Type, Age and Gender on The Antisocial Behaviour of Secondary School Students. ... Gender-Wise Comparison on Emotional Intelligence and Marital Satisfaction.

  10. International Journal of Development and Policy Studies - Vol 2, No ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Development and Policy Studies - Vol 2, No 1 (2006) .... Locating oppressive use of language: a study of linguistic violence on nigerian ... trafficking - poverty link based on urban development and planning process ...

  11. Pan African Medical Journal - Vol 16, No 1 (2014)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pan African Medical Journal - Vol 16, No 1 (2014) .... Cancer incidence in Morocco: report from Casablanca registry 2005-2007 · EMAIL FREE FULL .... Maladie de Leo-Buerger faisant suite à une intoxication au cannabis · EMAIL FREE FULL ...

  12. International Journal of Health Research - Vol 2, No 4 (2009)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Health Research - Vol 2, No 4 (2009) ... Psychosocial characteristics of patients admitted to a drug rehabilitation unit in Nigeria · EMAIL ... Hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of fruit pulp of limonia acidissima linn ...

  13. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 14, No 18 (2015)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 14, No 18 (2015). Journal Home ... Isolation of microalgae species from arid environments and evaluation of their potentials for biodiesel production · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  14. Wind tunnel evaluation of Hi-Vol TSP effectiveness data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Wind tunnel evaluation of EPA's Hi-Vol TSP sampler for sampling effectiveness with regards to aerodynamic particle diameter (5 to 35 microns), wind speed (2, 8, 24...

  15. African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences - Vol 21 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences - Vol 21, No 3 (2015) ... Factors Influencing the Health of Men in Polygynous Relationship · EMAIL FULL ... Views of HIV Positive Pregnant Women on Accessibility of the Prevention of ...

  16. Studies in Gender and Development in Africa - Vol 2 (2008)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies in Gender and Development in Africa - Vol 2 (2008) ... I don't love my husband” Advice Columns as Teaching Resource for Gender and Sexuality: Experiences from the University of Cape Coast, Ghana ... Current Issue Atom logo

  17. African Journal of Chemical Education - Vol 7, No 1 (2017)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Chemical Education - Vol 7, No 1 (2017). Journal Home ... Hybridization and molecular geometry: A number game · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD ... AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO ...

  18. African Research Review - Vol 4, No 4 (2010)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Research Review - Vol 4, No 4 (2010) .... Educational Policy and Technological Development in Africa: An X-Ray of Problems and Solutions in the .... Tradition and Art Appreciation: A Boost to Cultural Tourism in Nigeria · EMAIL FREE ...

  19. South African Journal of Higher Education - Vol 19 (2005)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Higher Education - Vol 19 (2005) ... The 'idea of engagement' and 'the African University in the 21st Century': Some ... The challenges of knowledge production by researchers in Public Administration, a South African ...

  20. African Health Sciences - Vol 13, No 2 (2013)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Health Sciences. ... African Health Sciences - Vol 13, No 2 (2013) ... S Musisi, D Akena, E Nakimuli-Mpungu, C Abbo, J Okello, 205-218 .... Alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking pattern among brothelbased female sex workers in ...