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Sample records for plasticized sugar beet

  1. Ecological plasticity and stability of new sugar beet hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І. І. Коровко

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To аnalyze modern sugar beet hybrids in terms of plasticity and stability indices. To identify genotypes adapted to different soil and climatic zones on the territory of Ukraine with subsequent recommendations related to the production. Methods. Field study, laboratory testing, analy­tical procedure and statistical evaluation. Results. Features of productivity formation in new sugar beet hybrids in different soil and climatic zones of Ukraine has been studied with further recommendations for hybrids distribution in regions of sugar beet production. Response of genotype to environmental conditions change, degree of their impact on yield level, sugar content, sugar yield by hybrids evaluation in terms of ecological plasticity and stability indices was defined. According to calculations, such hybrids as ‘Novela’ (b = 1,15, ‘Protekta’ (b = 1,12, ‘Monsan’ (b = 1,09, ‘Proteus’ (b = 1,03 can be considered as highly adaptive for yield level, they require advanced agrotechnology, and only in case of observing all requirements they will produce maximum yield. ‘Proteus’ (b = 1,29, ‘Bizon’ (b = 1,26, ‘Si Belana’ (b = 1,20, ‘Protekta’ (b = 1,12 hybrids were highly adaptive for sugar content. Almost all hybrids showed high plasticity for sugar yield index, except ‘Monsan’ (b = 0,45, ‘Highland’ (b = 0,96, ‘Glorianna KWS’ (b = 0,96. Conclusions. According to the results of investigation, one can recommend producers to use ‘Proteus’ and ‘Protekta’ hybrids that revealed a positive res­ponse to improvement of growing conditions for all studied parameters. ‘Highland’ and ‘Glorianna KWS’ hybrids are advisable to grow on extensive background where at minimum cost they will form the maximum parameter values.

  2. Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Kagami, Hiroyo; Kurata, Masayuki; Matsuhira, Hiroaki; Taguchi, Kazunori; Mikami, Tetsuo; Tamagake, Hideto; Kubo, Tomohiko

    2014-01-01

    Creating transgenic plants is invaluable for the genetic analysis of sugar beet and will be increasingly important as sugar beet genomic technologies progress. A protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of sugar beet is described in this chapter. Our protocol is optimized for a sugar beet genotype that performs exceptionally well in tissue culture, including the steps of dedifferentiation, callus proliferation, and regeneration. Because of the infrequent occurrence of such a genotyp...

  3. Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagami, Hiroyo; Kurata, Masayuki; Matsuhira, Hiroaki; Taguchi, Kazunori; Mikami, Tetsuo; Tamagake, Hideto; Kubo, Tomohiko

    2015-01-01

    Creating transgenic plants is invaluable for the genetic analysis of sugar beet and will be increasingly important as sugar beet genomic technologies progress. A protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of sugar beet is described in this chapter. Our protocol is optimized for a sugar beet genotype that performs exceptionally well in tissue culture, including the steps of dedifferentiation, callus proliferation, and regeneration. Because of the infrequent occurrence of such a genotype in sugar beet populations, our protocol includes an in vitro propagation method for germplasm preservation. The starting materials for transgenic experiments are aseptic shoots grown from surface-sterilized seed balls. Callus is induced from leaf explants and subsequently infected with Agrobacterium. Plantlets are regenerated from transgenic callus and vernalized for flowering, if necessary. The efficiency of transformation was quite high; in our laboratory, the culture of only ten leaf explants, on average, generated one transgenic plant.

  4. Effect of Meloidogyne incognita parasitism on yield and sugar content of sugar beet in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) is typically grown as a summer crop for edible sugar production in the north-central and western US, but it could be incorporated as a winter crop into annual cropping systems in the southern US where the sugar would be used for biofuel and plastic production. Sugar beet ...

  5. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 Section 780.815 Labor Regulations... Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup... Quantities § 780.815 Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet...

  6. Impact of glyphosate-resistant sugar beet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishita, Don W

    2016-12-19

    Glyphosate-resistant (GR) sugar beet became commercially available to US sugar beet growers in 2008 and was rapidly adopted. Prior to the availability of GR sugar beet, growers would commonly make 3-5 herbicide applications. This often resulted in some crop injury, but was accepted to reduce the impact of weeds. In addition, non-GR sugar beet was cultivated 1-3 times and often followed by hand weeding. The introduction of GR sugar beet drastically reduced the complexity of weed management. Concerns about GR weeds in the United States also apply to sugar beet growers. Changes in weed management strategies will be required to keep this technology. Sugar beet is arguably one of the most suitable crops for GR technology because: (1) none of the herbicides registered for use in this crop was very effective without risking crop injury; (2) sugar beet cannot be grown in the same field year after year owing to disease concerns and thus requires a 3-4 year rotation; (3) pollen-mediated gene flow is negligible from the sugar beet crop because it is a biennial and harvested before it flowers; (4) the processing of harvested roots to extract the sucrose rapidly degrades the DNA in the extracted raw juice and subsequent refining so that no DNA is present in the finished sugar; (5) studies have shown that processed GR beet sugar is identical to non-GR beet sugar, as well as cane sugar. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435... For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar allotments. (a) The allotment for beet sugar will be 54.35... overall allotment quantity. (c) A sugar beet processor allocated a share of the beet sugar allotment...

  8. OMICS Technologies and Applications in Sugar Beet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongxue; Nan, Jingdong; Yu, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Sugar beet is a species of the Chenopodiaceae family. It is an important sugar crop that supplies approximately 35% of the sugar in the world. Sugar beet M14 line is a unique germplasm that contains genetic materials from Beta vulgaris L. and Beta corolliflora Zoss. And exhibits tolerance to salt stress. In this review, we have summarized OMICS technologies and applications in sugar beet including M14 for identification of novel genes, proteins related to biotic and abiotic stresses, apomixes and metabolites related to energy and food. An OMICS overview for the discovery of novel genes, proteins and metabolites in sugar beet has helped us understand the complex mechanisms underlying many processes such as apomixes, tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. The knowledge gained is valuable for improving the tolerance of sugar beet and other crops to biotic and abiotic stresses as well as for enhancing the yield of sugar beet for energy and food production. PMID:27446130

  9. 21 CFR 172.585 - Sugar beet extract flavor base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sugar beet extract flavor base. 172.585 Section 172... CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.585 Sugar beet extract flavor base. Sugar beet...) Sugar beet extract flavor base is the concentrated residue of soluble sugar beet extractives from...

  10. Plastid transformation in sugar beet: Beta vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marchis, Francesca; Bellucci, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Chloroplast biotechnology has assumed great importance in the past 20 years and, thanks to the numerous advantages as compared to conventional transgenic technologies, has been applied in an increasing number of plant species but still very much limited. Hence, it is of utmost importance to extend the range of species in which plastid transformation can be applied. Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is an important industrial crop of the temperate zone in which chloroplast DNA is not transmitted trough pollen. Transformation of the sugar beet genome is performed in several research laboratories; conversely sugar beet plastome genetic transformation is far away from being considered a routine technique. We describe here a method to obtain transplastomic sugar beet plants trough biolistic transformation. The availability of sugar beet transplastomic plants should avoid the risk of gene flow between these cultivated genetic modified sugar beet plants and the wild-type plants or relative wild species.

  11. Epidemiology of rhizomania disease of sugar beet.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuitert, G.

    1994-01-01

    Rhizomania disease of sugar beet is caused by beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV). The virus is transmitted by the soil-borne fungus Polymyxa betae. The disease can cause severe losses in sugar yield, depending on the level of infestation in the soil, the environmental conditions during the grow

  12. Global welfare effects of transgenic sugar beet

    OpenAIRE

    DILLEN Koen; Demont, Matty; Tollens, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Although the EU is still in a quasi moratorium stage concerning GM crops, doors for GM crops in the sugar industry seem to open. Herbicide tolerant sugar beet could mean a boost for the sugar beet sector. The ex ante impact assessment shows a created welfare of 15 billion during 1996-2014. The rule of thumb found in ex post impact studies of a sharing out between downstream and upstream sector of 2/3 versus 1/3 is seems to be applicable to this case as well. The sugar beet sector and consumer...

  13. Postharvest Rhizopus rot on sugar beet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhizopus species have been reported as a minor post-harvest rot on sugar beet, particularly under temperatures above 5 deg C. In 2010, Rhizopus was isolated from beets collected from Michigan storage piles in February at a low frequency. However, recent evidence from Michigan has found a high incide...

  14. Molecular breeding for resistance to rhizomania in sugar beets

    OpenAIRE

    Lennefors, Britt-Louise

    2006-01-01

    Rhizomania is one of the most destructive sugar beet diseases. It is caused by Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) vectored by the soilborne protoctist Polymyxa betae Keskin. The studies in this thesis evaluated natural and transgenic resistances to rhizomania in sugar beets. Also the genetic variability in the coat protein genes of BNYVV, Beet soil-borne virus, Beet virus Q and Beet soil-borne mosaic virus isolates was studied. Several natural sources of resistance to BNYVV are known, su...

  15. Root rot diseases of sugar beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobsen Barry J.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Root rot diseases of sugar beet caused by Rhizoctonia solani (AG 2-2 IIIB and AG 2-2 IV, R. crocorum, Aphanomyces cochlioides, Phoma betae, Macrophomina phaeseolina, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-betae, Pythium aphanidermatum Phytophthora drechsleri, Rhizopus stolonifer, R. arrhizus and Sclerotium rolfsii cause significant losses wherever sugar beets are grown. However, not all these soil-borne pathogens have been reported in all sugar beet production areas. Losses include reduced harvestable tonnage and reduced white sugar recovery. Many of these pathogens also cause post harvest losses in storage piles. Control for diseases caused by these pathogens include disease resistant cultivars, avoidance of stresses, cultural practices such as water management and the use of fungicides.

  16. СHIPS FROM SUGAR BEET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Priority social problem in the Russian Federation is to provide diverse populations rational healthy diet, taking into account their traditions and economic status. Solving this problem requires the development of processing industries of agriculture on the basis of the improvement of existing and creation of new energy-saving environmentally friendly technologies that can provide deep, if possible without waste, recycling of raw materials. Therefore, the aim of research was the development of technology for production of sugar beet chips. Technology is as follows: sugar beet supplied into the washing machine to remove dirt from its surface. Washed roots inspect on conveyor belts. Next pure sugar beets sent to steam-heat treatment for cleaning the skin. After the beets is subjected to cutting by combining this process with a treatment with an aqueous solution of citric acid. Then he sent for the drying process is completed upon reaching a product of moisture content of 4-5 %. Drying chips feature is that under the high temperature reaction proceeds melanoidins between proteins and sugars present in sugar beet. As a result, the product obtained has the following characteristics: gold-yellow color; absence of a characteristic odor of sugar beet; pleasant sour taste; humidity of 4-5%. Thus, the new technology is relevant, because now the chips are one of the most popular products, ready to eat. A beet chips are rich in dietary fiber (pectin, hemicellulose and cellulose - 4-5 % minerals - macroelements (potassium, sodium, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, trace elements (iron, zinc, copper, manganese - 0.5-0.6 %, and are the product of a functional food.

  17. Genetic transformation of the sugar beet plastome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marchis, Francesca; Wang, Yongxin; Stevanato, Piergiorgio; Arcioni, Sergio; Bellucci, Michele

    2009-02-01

    It is very important for the application of chloroplast engineering to extend the range of species in which this technology can be achieved. Here, we describe the development of a chloroplast transformation system for the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris, Sugar Beet Group) by biolistic bombardment of leaf petioles. Homoplasmic plastid-transformed plants of breeding line Z025 were obtained. Transformation was achieved using a vector that targets genes to the rrn16/rps12 intergenic region of the sugar beet plastome, employing the aadA gene as a selectable marker against spectinomycin and the gfp gene for visual screening of plastid transformants. gfp gene transcription and protein expression were shown in transplastomic plants. Detection of GFP in Comassie blue-stained gels suggested high GFP levels. Microscopy revealed GFP fluorescence within the chloroplasts. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of engineering the sugar beet chloroplast genome; this technology provides new opportunities for the genetic improvement of this crop and for social acceptance of genetically modified sugar beet plants.

  18. Fusarium stalk blight and rot in sugar beet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium stalk blight of sugar beet can cause reductions or complete loss of seed production. The causal agent is Fusarium oxysporum. In addition, Fusarium solani has been demonstrated to cause a rot of sugar beet seed stalk, and other species have been reported associated with sugar beet fruit, but...

  19. Pollen dispersal in sugar beet production fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmency, Henri; Klein, Etienne K; De Garanbé, Thierry Gestat; Gouyon, Pierre-Henri; Richard-Molard, Marc; Muchembled, Claude

    2009-04-01

    Pollen-mediated gene flow has important implications for biodiversity conservation and for breeders and farmers' activities. In sugar beet production fields, a few sugar beet bolters can produce pollen as well as be fertilized by wild and weed beet. Since the crop, the wild beets, and the weed beets are the same species and intercross freely, the question of pollen flow is an important issue to determine the potential dispersal of transgenes from field to field and to wild habitats. We report here an experiment to describe pollen dispersal from a small herbicide-resistant sugar beet source towards male sterile target plants located along radiating lines up to 1,200 m away. Individual dispersal functions were inferred from statistical analyses and compared. Pollen limitation, as expected in root-production fields, was confirmed at all the distances from the pollen source. The number of resistant seeds produced by bait plants best fitted a fat-tailed probability distribution curve of pollen grains (power-law) dependent on the distance from the pollen source. A literature survey confirmed that power-law function could fit in most cases. The b coefficient was lower than 2. The number of fertilized flowers by background (herbicide-susceptible) pollen grains was uniform across the whole field. Airborne pollen had a fertilization impact equivalent to that of one adjacent bolter. The individual dispersal function from different pollen sources can be integrated to provide the pollen cloud composition for a given target plant, thus allowing modeling of gene flow in a field, inter-fields in a small region, and also in seed-production area. Long-distance pollen flow is not negligible and could play an important role in rapid transgene dispersal from crop to wild and weed beets in the landscape. The removing of any bolting, herbicide-resistant sugar beet should be compulsory to prevent the occurrence of herbicide-resistant weed beet, thus preventing gene flow to wild

  20. Oxidative enzymatic gelation of sugar beet pectin for emulsion stabilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abang Zaidel, Dayang Norulfairuz; Meyer, Anne S.

    2013-01-01

    Pectin from sugar beet is derived from the sugar beet pulp residue which results when sugar beets are processed for sucrose extraction. The sugar beet pectin has poor gelationability by the classic divalentcation molecular mechanism because of a relatively high acetylation degree and short...... polygalacturonate backbone chain length. However, due to the feruloyl-substitutions on the side chains, the sugar beet pectic polysaccharides can be cross-linked via enzyme catalyzed oxidation. The enzyme kinetics and functionality of such oxidativelycross-linked sugar beet pectin, in relation to stabilizing...... emulsions has recently been investigated in model food emulsions. This paper reviews the pectin chemistry, enzymatic oxidative gelation mechanisms, interaction mechanisms of the sugar beet pectin with the emulsion droplets and explores how the gelation affects the rheology and stability of emulsion systems...

  1. PRODUCTION VALUES OF INVESTIGATED SUGAR BEET HYBRIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pospišil

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Production values of 43 experimental and recognized sugar beet hybrids were conducted on the Zagreb location in the period 2003-2005. The trials included hybrids from six breeding institutions that sell sugar beet seed in the Republic of Croatia. Research results have revealed significant differences in yields and root quality among inve- stigated sugar beet hybrids. However, the results of a large number of hybrids were equal in value; namely, the dif- ference between them was within the statistically allowable deviation. The hybrids KW 0148 HR and Buda in 2003, Sofarizo and Takt were distinguished by high sugar yields in 2004, whereas Merak, Impact and Europa in 2005. The highest root yields were recorded for hybrids Dioneta, Buda and KW 0148 HR in 2003, Sofarizo, Takt, HI 0191 and Dorotea in 2004, Impact and SES 2371 in 2005. The highest root sugar contents were determined in hybrids Zita and Evelina in 2003, Cyntia, Diamant and Belinda in 2004, and Merak, Belinda and Cyntia in 2005.

  2. BREAK-EVEN POINT IN SUGAR-BEET PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilija Nedić

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available World sugar consumption has been recording a steady growth in the past 70 years and, according to all relevant estimates, it will continue to grow also in the next decade, which puts sugar in the category of the most significant foods and commodities in the world. Of the total world sugar production, around 77% is derived from sugar cane and 23% from sugar beet. Brazil has been the world leader in sugar production for a long period of time, producing white sugar from sugar cane only, whereas the leader in the production of sugar derived from sugar beet is the EU-28. When the Republic of Croatia joined the EU, the Croatian sugar industry became part of the single European sugar market, so the break-even point was used in the research to determine the competitiveness level of the Croatian sugar beet production. Based on the expected selling price of sugar beet amounting to EUR 34 per ton of standard quality sugar beet, and using the break-even method, it was determined that the quantity required to cover total costs in sugar beet production in the Republic of Croatia amounts to 55.26 tons per hectare of payable sugar beet, standard quality, i.e. 8.84 tons of polarized sugar per hectare. As the average sugar beet production in the Republic of Croatia, expressed in the equivalent of polarized sugar, amounts to 7.8 tons per hectare, it is obvious that an average Croatian producer of sugar beet, without income from subsidies, operates at a loss.

  3. Discrimination of genetically modified sugar beets based on terahertz spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; Li, Zhi; Yin, Xianhua; Hu, Fangrong; Hu, Cong

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to apply terahertz (THz) spectroscopy combined with chemometrics techniques for discrimination of genetically modified (GM) and non-GM sugar beets. In this paper, the THz spectra of 84 sugar beet samples (36 GM sugar beets and 48 non-GM ones) were obtained by using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) system in the frequency range from 0.2 to 1.2 THz. Three chemometrics methods, principal component analysis (PCA), discriminant analysis (DA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS), were employed to classify sugar beet samples into two groups: genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and non-GMOs. The DPLS method yielded the best classification result, and the percentages of successful classification for GM and non-GM sugar beets were both 100%. Results of the present study demonstrate the usefulness of THz spectroscopy together with chemometrics methods as a powerful tool to distinguish GM and non-GM sugar beets.

  4. Brief History of Cercospora Leaf Spot of Sugar Beet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is most likely native to western and southern Asia and is believed to have arrived in Europe via the Mediterranean countries through Egypt. The cultivation of sugar beet as an alternate source of sugar is attributed Andreas Siegmund Marggraf in the 1740s. Subsequent pro...

  5. Biodiversity versus transgenic sugar beet : the one Euro question

    OpenAIRE

    Demont, M; Wesseler, J.; Tollens, E.

    2002-01-01

    The decision of whether to release transgenic crops in the EU is one subject to flexibility, uncertainty, and irreversibility. We analyse the case of herbicide tolerant sugar beet and reassess whether the 1998 de facto moratorium of the EU on transgenic crops for sugar beet was correct from a cost-benefit perspective using a real option approach. We show that the decision was correct, if households value possible annual irreversible costs of herbicide tolerant sugar beet with about 1 E or mor...

  6. The water footprint of sweeteners and bio-ethanol from sugar cane, sugar beet and maize

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbens-Leenes, Winnie; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2009-01-01

    Sugar cane and sugar beet are used for sugar for human consumption. In the US, maize is used, amongst others, for the sweetener High Fructose Maize Syrup (HFMS). Sugar cane, sugar beet and maize are also important for bio-ethanol production. The growth of crops requires water, a scarce resource. The

  7. The water footprint of sweeteners and bio-ethanol from sugar cane, sugar beet and maize

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbens-Leenes, P.W.; Hoekstra, A.Y.

    2009-01-01

    Sugar cane and sugar beet are used for sugar for human consumption. In the US, maize is used, amongst others, for the sweetener High Fructose Maize Syrup (HFMS). Sugar cane, sugar beet and maize are also important for bio-ethanol production. The growth of crops requires water, a scarce resource. The

  8. 75 FR 60715 - Domestic Sugar Program-FY 2010 and FY 2011 Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Commodity Credit Corporation Domestic Sugar Program--FY 2010 and FY 2011 Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing... 2010 (FY 2010) State sugar marketing allotments and company allocations to sugarcane and sugar beet processors. This applies to all domestic sugar marketed for human consumption in the United States from...

  9. [Molecular genetic investigation of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butorina, A K; Kornienko, A V

    2011-10-01

    Molecular genetic studies of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) are reviewed as a basis for the development of genomics of this species. The methods used to study structural and functional genomics are considered. The results and their application to increase the efficiency of sugar beet breeding are discussed.

  10. The ionic balance of the sugar-beet plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egmond, van F.

    1975-01-01

    The ionic balance of the sugar-beet plant was studied by measuring dry weight and chemical composition of every leaf, the crown and the root during the growing season.

    The sugar-beet plant has an almost neutral uptake. The nitrate and sulphate reduction determines the amount of carboxylates

  11. Root rot in sugar beet piles at harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar beet root rots are not only a concern because of reduced yields, but can also be associated with losses in storage. Our primary sugar beet root rot disease problem in the Amalgamated production area is Rhizoctonia root rot. However, this rot frequently only penetrates a short distance past t...

  12. Biodiversity versus transgenic sugar beet : the one Euro question

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demont, M.; Wesseler, J.; Tollens, E.

    2002-01-01

    The decision whether to release transgenic crops in the EU is one subject to flexibility, uncertainty and irreversibility. The case of herbicide tolerant sugar beet is analysed. Reassessed is whether the 1998 de facto moratorium of the EU on transgenic crops for sugar beet was correct from a cost-be

  13. Biodiversity versus transgenic sugar beet: the one euro question

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demont, M.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Tollens, E.

    2004-01-01

    The decision on whether to release transgenic crops in the EU is subject to irreversibility, uncertainty and flexibility. We analyse the case of herbicide-tolerant sugar beet and assess whether the EU's 1998 de facto moratorium on transgenic crops for sugar beet was correct from a cost-benefit persp

  14. The ionic balance of the sugar-beet plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egmond, van F.

    1975-01-01

    The ionic balance of the sugar-beet plant was studied by measuring dry weight and chemical composition of every leaf, the crown and the root during the growing season.The sugar-beet plant has an almost neutral uptake. The nitrate and sulphate reduction determines the amount of carboxylates in the pl

  15. Influence of selected Rhizoctonia solani isolates on sugar beet seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skonieczek Paweł

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available From 2008 to 2010 the levels of sugar beet seedlings infection caused by Rhizoctonia solani were compared in laboratory tests. Seven sugar beet lines were tested: H56, H66, S2, S3, S4, S5 and S6 as well as three control cultivars: Carlos, Esperanza and Janosik. Sugar beet lines with tolerance to rhizoctoniosis and cultivars without tolerance were infected artificially by R. solani isolates: R1, R28a and R28b. These isolates belong to the second anastomosis group (AG, which is usually highly pathogenic to beet roots. The aim of the experiment was to test whether the tolerance of sugar beet genotypes to R. solani AG 2 prevents both root rot, and damping-off of seedlings, induced by the pathogen. Sugar beet lines tolerant to brown root rot in laboratory tests were significantly less sensitive to infection of the seedlings by R. solani AG 2 isolates in comparison to control cultivars. Rhizoctonia solani AG 2 isolates demonstrated considerable differences in pathogenicity against seedlings of sugar beet lines and cultivars. The strongest infection of sugar beet seedlings occurred with the isolate R28b. The greatest tolerance to infection by AG 2 isolates was found for the S5 and S3 breeding lines.

  16. High risk pesticides in sugar beet protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šovljanski Radmila A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available According to traits of pesticides permitted to use in sugar beet (oral percutaneus and inhalation toxicity, toxicity to wildlife, bees and aquatic organisms, re-entry interval, maximum number of treatments, effects on reproduction do not present health risk in sugar production/technology. However, the danger exists for workers by chronic exposure during the application, especially from pesticide being potential endocrine disruptors (EDS (fentin acetate, benomyl, endosulfan, methomyl, methidathion. EDS can cause sterility or decreased fertility, impaired development, birth defects of the reproductive tract and metabolic disorders. Authors recommend limited application of EDS pesticides (to limit the number of treatments to only one during the vegetation, replacement with pesticides with low risk to humans game and fishes, as well as mandatory submission of re-entry data for registration.

  17. 76 FR 62339 - Domestic Sugar Program-2011-Crop Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and Company...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... Commodity Credit Corporation Domestic Sugar Program--2011-Crop Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing... Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) is issuing this notice to publish the fiscal year (FY) 2012 State sugar marketing allotments and company allocations to sugarcane and sugar beet processors, which apply to all...

  18. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... or sugar beet services, who are partially exempt from overtime pay requirements pursuant to section 7....18 Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are... cigar leaf tobacco, cotton, cottonseed, cotton ginning, sugar cane, sugar processing or sugar beets...

  19. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section 173.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills may be safely used in accordance with the following conditions: (a) They are...

  20. Beta vulgaris L. serine proteinase inhibitor gene expression correlates to insect pest resistance in sugar beet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Analyzing genes that can be used for improving sugar beet resistance to the sugar beet root maggot (SBRM, Tetanops myopaeformis Roder), one of the most destructive insect pests of sugar beet in North America, was a major goal in our investigation. We report on the expression patterns of a sugar beet...

  1. [Rapid determination of beet sugar content using near infrared spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Ren, Jian; Zheng, Xi-Qun; Zhao, Li-Ying; Li, Mao-Mao

    2014-10-01

    In order to classify and set different prices on basis of difference of beet sugar content in the acquisition process and promote the development of beet sugar industry healthily, a fast, nondestructive, accurate method to detect sugar content of beet was determined by applying near infrared spectroscopy technology. Eight hundred twenty samples from 28 representative varieties of beet were collected as calibration set and 70 samples were chosen as prediction set. Then near infrared spectra of calibration set samples were collected by scanning, effective information was extracted from NIR spectroscopy, and the original spectroscopy data was optimized by data preprocessing methods appropriately. Then partial least square(PLS)regression was used to establish beet sugar quantitative prediction mathematical model. The performances of the models were evaluated by the root mean square of cross-validation (RMSECV), the coefficient of determination (R2) of the calibration model and the standard error of prediction (SEP), and the predicted results of these models were compared. Results show that the established mathematical model by using first derivative (FD) and standard normal variate transformation (SNV) coupled with partial least squares has good predictive ability. The R2 of calibration models of sugar content of beet is 0.908 3, and the RMSECV is 0.376 7. Using this model to forecast the prediction set including 70 samples, the correlation coefficient is 0.921 4 between predicted values and measured values, and the standard error of prediction (SEP) is 0.439, without significant difference (p > 0.05) between predicted values and measured values. These results demonstrated that NIRS can take advantage of simple, rapid, nondestructive and environmental detection method and could be applied to predict beet sugar content. This model owned high accuracy and can meet the precision need of determination of beet sugar content. This detection method could be used to classify

  2. Enzymatic modification of pectic polysaccharides obtained from sugar beet pulp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveld, A.; Beldman, G.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2002-01-01

    Rhamnogalacturonans and arabinans, purified from an autoclave extract of sugar beet pulp, as well as an acid extracted beet pectin (ABP) were treated with enzymes in order to modify their physico-chemical properties. The enzymes used were arabinofuranosidase B (AF), endo-arabinanase plus arabinofura

  3. Whole Genome Sequencing of Sugar Beet and Transcriptional Profiling of Beet Curly Top Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genome of the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris) doubled haploid line (KDH13) has been sequenced using Illumina HiSeq2000 next generation sequencing platform. This line (PI663862) was released by USDA-ARS as a genetic stock resistant to beet curly top. Sequencing of a standard paired end...

  4. Structural confirmation of oligosaccharides newly isolated from sugar beet molasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abe Tatsuya

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sugar beet molasses is a viscous by-product of the processing of sugar beets into sugar. The molasses is known to contain sucrose and raffinose, a typical trisaccharide, with a well-established structure. Although sugar beet molasses contains various other oligosaccharides as well, the structures of those oligosaccharides have not been examined in detail. The purpose of this study was isolation and structural confirmation of these other oligosaccharides found in sugar beet molasses. Results Four oligosaccharides were newly isolated from sugar beet molasses using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and carbon-Celite column chromatography. Structural confirmation of the saccharides was provided by methylation analysis, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionaization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR measurements. Conclusion The following oligosaccharides were identified in sugar beet molasses: β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1- > 6-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2 1-α-D-glucopyranoside (named β-planteose, α-D-galactopyranosyl-(1- > 1-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2 1-α-D-glucopyranoside (named1-planteose, α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1- > 6-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 2-β-D-fructofuranoside (theanderose, and β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1- > 3-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 2-β-D-fructofuranoside (laminaribiofructose. 1-planteose and laminaribiofructose were isolated from natural sources for the first time.

  5. Detecting creeping thistle in sugar beet fields using vegetation indices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazmi, Syed Wajahat Ali Shah; Garcia Ruiz, Francisco Jose; Nielsen, Jon

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we address the problem of thistle detection in sugar beet fields under natural, outdoor conditions. In our experiments, we used a commercial color camera and extracted vegetation indices from the images. A total of 474 field images of sugar beet and thistles were collected....... Stepwise linear regression selected nine out of 14 features and offered the highest accuracy of 97%. The results of LDA and MD were fairly close, making them both equally preferable. Finally, the results were validated by annotating images containing both sugar beet and thistles using the trained...... classifiers. The validation experiments showed that sunlight followed by the size of the plant, which is related to its growth stage, are the two most important factors affecting the classification. In this study, the best results were achieved for images of young sugar beet (in the seventh week) under...

  6. Experimental sugar beet cultivars evaluated for rhizomania resistance and storability in Idaho, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhizomania caused by Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) and storage losses are serious sugar beet production problems. To identify sugar beet cultivars with resistance to BNYVV and evaluate storability, 32 commercial cultivars were screened by growing them in a sugar beet field infested with B...

  7. Investigation of the Insecticide Seed Dressing on the Sugar Beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasminka Igrc Barčić

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of three year trials with various sugar beet seed treatments on the most important sugar beet pests, wireworms, flea beetles, sugar beet weevil and aphids are presented. The task of the investigation was to establish whether or not the sugar beet seed should be treated with insecticides and when granulars should be applied. In threeyear investigations 6 trials on different localities were carried out. Gaucho 70WS, Montur 190 FS, Geocid ST 35, Carbofuran 500 FS and a combination of Geocid ST 35 and Geocid G-5 were applied. The results showed that the imidacloprid seed treatment was satisfactory efficient on wireworms ensuring 20-42% more plants than on untreated plots. The efficacy of all treatments on the flea beetles was sufficient: Gaucho 70 WS 63-70%, the combined carbofuran treatment 65-67%, Geocid ST 35 54-55% and Montur 190 FS 52-55%. Therefore on imidacloprid and carbofuran treated crops the foliar treatment against flea beetles is mostly unnecassary. Insecticides based on imidacloprid showed a very good efficacy on aphids until 64 days after the sowing time with a somewhat longer residual action than the standard carbofuran treatments. All investigated insecticides were not satisfactorily efficient against sugar beet weevil. The seed dressing with a systemic insecticide is a justified measure. But, if the attack of wirevorms is strong or if a positive sugar beet weevil forecast is present, granulars shoud be applied additionaly.

  8. Advances in development of transgenic resistance to beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) in sugar beet

    OpenAIRE

    Nagl Nevena; Atanasov Ivan; Rusanov Krasimir; Paunović Svetlana; Kovačev Lazar; Atanasov Atanas

    2005-01-01

    Fragments of viral cDNA containing the coat protein gene of beet necrotic yellow vein virus were cloned in plant transformation vector pCAMBIA3301M with the bar gene as selectable marker. Vector pC3301MCPL carrying coat protein gene with leader sequence, and pC3301MCPS with coat protein gene, were used in Agrobacterium - mediated transformation of sugar beet. The transformation method used was based on the fact that sugar beet develops axillary shoots in in vitro conditions, when placed on me...

  9. MICROFLORA OF BEET SUGAR PRODUCTION: PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Kulneva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Sugar beet is one of the strategic crops for food safety of Russia. The lack of specialized warehouse for harvest does not provide storage of roots for a long time. In the case of a thaw roots that have been defrosted unsuitable for processing. Beet and products of its processing is a good object for the development of microorganisms. Permanent microflora of sugar production are: Bacillus subtilis, Clostridium perfringes, Leuconostoc dextranicum, Torula alba, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Sarcina lutea and other kinds of microorganisms, leading to a problem processing of beet root and reduced quality of sugar. The most dangerous is the slimy bacteriosis is a bacterial disease beet caused by heterofermentative cocci of Leuconostoc (Leuconostoc mesenteroides, L. dextranicum. Product of the vital activity of microorganisms is dextran, which is synthesized from sucrose as a result of dextrany or mucous fermentation and leads to significant technological problems in processing of infected beet. Improving the efficiency of sugar production is connected with decrease in loss of quality of raw material preparation, storing and processing of sugar beet. At sugar plants use a variety of drugs that suppress the growth of pathogenic microflora, but there comes a rapid adaptation of microorganisms, therefore there is a need to implement new products to prevent damage to roots and improve the quality of produced sugar. To resolve this problem experimentally selected bactericidal drug, defined its rational concentration and conditions for the use in sugar beet production. The use of antibacterial drug in the process of extraction allows to increase the purity of diffusion juice 1.3 %, reduce the protein content in it (12.5 %; with the purity of the pure juice increases by 1.1 %, its color index is reduced by 44.7 %.

  10. Enzymatic gelation of sugar beet pectin in food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergsøe, Merete Norsker; Jensen, Mette; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    2000-01-01

    in standard gels. Protein reduced the hardness, stiffness and chewiness of the gels whereas there were some variation in the effect of protein on the adhesiveness of the gels. Sugar beet pectin in black currant juice formed a gel and a gelation also took place in milk. In luncheon meat a cohesive gel......Sugar beet pectin is a food ingredient with specific functional properties. It may form gels by an oxidative cross-linking of ferulic acid. In the present study, the gel forming properties of three oxidative enzymes were examined in different food relevant conditions. The enzymes chosen were two...... laccases and one peroxidase. The textural properties of the produced gels were measured on a texture analyser. The influence of sugar, salt and protein were analysed. Finally, the enzymatic gelation was studied in three food products with added sugar beet pectin. These were black currant juice, milk...

  11. Investigation of Copper Sorption by Sugar Beet Processing Lime Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the western United States, sugar beet processing for sugar recovery generates a lime-based waste product (~250,000 Mg yr-1) that has little liming value in the region’s calcareous soils. This area has recently experienced an increase in dairy production, with dairi...

  12. Investigation of Copper Sorption by Sugar Beet Processing Lime Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the western United States, sugar beet processing for sugar recovery generates a lime-based waste product (~250,000 Mg yr-1) that has little liming value in the region’s calcareous soils. This area has recently experienced an increase in dairy production, with dairi...

  13. High level fructan accumulation in a transgenic sugar beet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sévenier, R; Hall, R D; van der Meer, I M; Hakkert, H J; van Tunen, A J; Koops, A J

    1998-09-01

    We have transformed sugar beet into a crop that produces fructans. The gene encoding 1-sucrose:sucrose fructosyl transferase (1-SST), which was isolated from Helianthus tuberosus, was introduced into sugar beet. In H. tuberosus, 1-SST mediates the first steps in fructan synthesis through the conversion of sucrose (GF) into low molecular weight fructans GF2, GF3, and GF4. In the taproot of sugar beet transformed with the 1-sst gene, the stored sucrose is almost totally converted into low molecular weight fructans. In contrast, 1-sst expression in the leaves resulted in only low levels of fructans. Despite the storage carbohydrate having been altered, the expression of the 1-sst gene did not have any visible effect on phenotype and did not affect the growth rate of the taproot as observed under greenhouse conditions.

  14. Sugar Beet Performance Affected by Uniformity of N Fertigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Nouri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In common with the majority of crop species, in sugar beet nutrition nitrogen is an important element due to its role in sucrose utilization and plant growth. Application of precision agriculture, in order to apply the right amount of input at the right time in the right area, is appropriate to decrease chemical use and increase plant growth. Problem statement: More often farmers apply fertilizers with low efficiency, low uniformity and high price such as spinner spreader, boom spreader or application with planting machines simultaneously. Fertigation can reduce labor cost and may improve uniformity, effectiveness and timeliness of application. Approach: The main objective of this study was to determine spatial variability of sugar beet performance affected by urea fertigation as well as established a management strategy based on spatial variability of tubers and soil total N. This study was conducted in Fesaran village, Isfahan Province of Iran and limited to sugar beet (monogerm seed. Urea applied through sprinklers. Soil samples were taken to determine soil total N as well as sugar beet tubers samples to specify yield. Results of soil and crop analysis were used to produce spatial variability maps through GS+ and ArcGIS 9.2 software. Semivariogram results were used to perform an ordinary kriging to obtain interpolated values of selected variables from the sample points through and across the study area. Results: It was found that there was a low spatial variability of soil total N and yield which indicates that the soil has a homogenous total N as well as homogenous yield through and across the field. Yield variability map of sugar beet properties demonstrated that the higher yield was seen in the southern part of the study area where laterals were closer to pump. Conclusion: The results of urea fertigation through sprinklers showed pipeline layout and pump station position impact on variability of sugar beet properties.

  15. 40 CFR 409.10 - Applicability; description of the beet sugar processing subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the beet... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Beet Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.10 Applicability; description of the beet sugar processing subcategory....

  16. Structural and Financial Characteristics of U.S. Sugar Beet Farms. Agricultural Economic Report Number 584.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauson, Annette L.; Hoff, Frederic L.

    This report analyzes production and financial characteristics of sugar beet producers in seven regions. Section 1 examines the structural characteristics of U.S. sugar beet producers. Sugar beet production; land use, tenure, irrigation, and livestock enterprises are considered. Section 2 discusses production costs, including cost estimates,…

  17. 75 FR 29969 - Environmental Impact Statement; Determination of Nonregulated Status of Sugar Beet Genetically...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... Status of Sugar Beet Genetically Engineered for Tolerance to the Herbicide Glyphosate AGENCY: Animal and... nonregulated status for a Monsanto/KWS SAAT AG sugar beet line, designated as event H7-1. This notice... CFR part 340 for sugar beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris) designated as event H7-1, which has been...

  18. [Transposition of the maize transposable element dSpm in transgenic sugar beets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishchenko, E M; Komarnitskiĭ, I K; Kuchuk, N V

    2010-01-01

    Transgenic sugar beet plants carrying maize Spmn/dSpm transposable elements system have been constructed. Heterologous system of maize transposable elements Spm/dSpm was active in transgenic sugar beets that permits transposon-based gene tagging and obtaining of marker-free transgenic sugar beet.

  19. Ft. Collins Sugar Beet Germplasm Evaluated for Resistance to Rhizomania and Storability in Idaho, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar beet germplasm and commercial check cultivars were evaluated in a sprinkler-irrigated sugar beet field near Kimberly, ID where sugar beet was grown in 2009. The field trial relied on natural inoculum for rhizomania development. The seed was treated with clothianidin (2.1 oz a.i. per 100,000 ...

  20. Feruloyl oligosaccharides from cell walls of suspension-cultured spinach cells and sugar beet pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, T

    1994-06-01

    Cell walls of suspension-cultured spinach cells and sugar beet pulp were separately hydrolyzed with Driselase. A feruloyl arabinobiose was isolated from both spinach cells and sugar beet. Four feruloyl oligosaccharides were obtained from sugar beet. The four oligosaccharides were characterized by NMR spectroscopy, methylation analysis and FAB-MS.

  1. [Generation of sugar beet transgenic plants expressing bar gene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishutkina, Ia V; Kamionskaia, A M; Skriabin, K G

    2010-01-01

    The parameters of transformation using Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA 105 for 5 domestic sorts and lines of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. var. saccharifera (Alef) Krass) were optimized. The system of transgenic tissue selection based on resistance to phosphinothricin, allowing to avoid the appearing of chimeric shoots among initial transformants was developed. The transgenic plants of sugar beet sorts Ramonskaya single seed 47, L'govskaya single seed 52 and RMS 73, and LBO 17 and LBO 19 lines expressing the gene of phosphinothricin acetyl transferase bar have been obtained. The resistance of these sorts and lines to the effect of phosphinothricin in vitro has been shown.

  2. Enzymatic gelation of sugar beet pectin in food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergsøe, Merete Norsker; Jensen, Mette; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    2000-01-01

    Sugar beet pectin is a food ingredient with specific functional properties. It may form gels by an oxidative cross-linking of ferulic acid. In the present study, the gel forming properties of three oxidative enzymes were examined in different food relevant conditions. The enzymes chosen were two...... laccases and one peroxidase. The textural properties of the produced gels were measured on a texture analyser. The influence of sugar, salt and protein were analysed. Finally, the enzymatic gelation was studied in three food products with added sugar beet pectin. These were black currant juice, milk...... and chopped heat-treated meat emulsion. The addition of salt resulted in softer, less stiff and chewy, and less adhesive gels. Generally speaking, sugar addition increased the hardness but at high concentration the gels were very brittle. However, Young's modulus was lower in gels containing sugar than...

  3. Capture and use of solar radiation, water, and nitrogen by sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaggard, K W; Qi, A; Ober, E S

    2009-01-01

    Sugar beet is spring-sown for sugar production in most sugar beet-growing countries. It is grown as a vegetative crop and it accumulates yield (sugar) from very early in its growth cycle. As long as the sugar beet plants do not flower, the sugar accumulation period is indefinite and yield continues to increase. This paper reviews the success of the sugar beet crop in capturing and using solar radiation, water and mineral nitrogen resources. The prospects for improved resource capture and therefore increased sugar yield are also considered, particularly the potential to increase solar radiation interception in the future by sowing the crop in the autumn.

  4. Genetic value pollenizer lines of the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris var. altissima Doell.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. О. Яценко

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The features of sugar beet polygerm seed populations were studied. The ways of creation of combinationaluable pollenizers line –– component hybrid on sterile base were improve. The environment conditions had influenced on reaction of different types of genic interactions in specific sets of hybrids. The positive effects of interaction is a part of heterosis effects. It is proved that plasticity and stability effect depend on environment condition where genotype realization occurs.

  5. Oxidative enzymatic gelation of sugar beet pectin for emulsion stabilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abang Zaidel, Dayang Norulfairuz; Meyer, Anne S.

    2013-01-01

    emulsions has recently been investigated in model food emulsions. This paper reviews the pectin chemistry, enzymatic oxidative gelation mechanisms, interaction mechanisms of the sugar beet pectin with the emulsion droplets and explores how the gelation affects the rheology and stability of emulsion systems...

  6. Options of sugar beet pretreatment for hydrogen fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grabarczyk, R.; Urbaniec, K.; Koukios, E.; Bakker, R.R.C.; Vaccari, G.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen is expected to play a major role in covering the future energy demand. To make its future uses sustainable, hydrogen should be produced from renewable resources, for example by bacterial fermentation of biomass-derived feedstocks. Sugar beet is recognised as one of the most interesting raw

  7. Options of sugar beet pretreatment for hydrogen fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grabarczyk, R.; Urbaniec, K.; Koukios, E.; Bakker, R.R.C.; Vaccari, G.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen is expected to play a major role in covering the future energy demand. To make its future uses sustainable, hydrogen should be produced from renewable resources, for example by bacterial fermentation of biomass-derived feedstocks. Sugar beet is recognised as one of the most interesting raw

  8. Epigenomics and bolting tolerance in sugar beet genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébrard, Claire; Peterson, Daniel G.; Willems, Glenda; Delaunay, Alain; Jesson, Béline; Lefèbvre, Marc; Barnes, Steve; Maury, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    In sugar beet (Beta vulgaris altissima), bolting tolerance is an essential agronomic trait reflecting the bolting response of genotypes after vernalization. Genes involved in induction of sugar beet bolting have now been identified, and evidence suggests that epigenetic factors are involved in their control. Indeed, the time course and amplitude of DNA methylation variations in the shoot apical meristem have been shown to be critical in inducing sugar beet bolting, and a few functional targets of DNA methylation during vernalization have been identified. However, molecular mechanisms controlling bolting tolerance levels among genotypes are still poorly understood. Here, gene expression and DNA methylation profiles were compared in shoot apical meristems of three bolting-resistant and three bolting-sensitive genotypes after vernalization. Using Cot fractionation followed by 454 sequencing of the isolated low-copy DNA, 6231 contigs were obtained that were used along with public sugar beet DNA sequences to design custom Agilent microarrays for expression (56k) and methylation (244k) analyses. A total of 169 differentially expressed genes and 111 differentially methylated regions were identified between resistant and sensitive vernalized genotypes. Fourteen sequences were both differentially expressed and differentially methylated, with a negative correlation between their methylation and expression levels. Genes involved in cold perception, phytohormone signalling, and flowering induction were over-represented and collectively represent an integrative gene network from environmental perception to bolting induction. Altogether, the data suggest that the genotype-dependent control of DNA methylation and expression of an integrative gene network participate in bolting tolerance in sugar beet, opening up perspectives for crop improvement. PMID:26463996

  9. The origin and evolution of weed beets: consequences for the breeding and release of herbicide-resistant transgenic sugar beets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudry, P; Mörchen, M; Saumitou-Laprade, P; Vernet, P; Van Dijk, H

    1993-12-01

    Populations of weed beets have expanded into European sugar beet production areas since the 1970s, thereby forming a serious new weed problem for this crop. We sampled seeds in different French populations and studied mitochondrial DNA, chloroplast DNA and life-cycle variability. Given the maternal inheritance of the mitochondrial and chloroplastic genomes and the nuclear determinism of the annual habit, we were able to determine the maternal origin and evolution of these weed beet populations. Our study shows that they carry the dominant allele "B" for annual habit at high frequency. The main cytoplasmic DNA type found in northern weed beet populations is the cytoplasmic male-sterile type characteristic of sugar beets. We were able to determine that these populations arise from seeds originating from the accidental pollinations of cultivated beets by adventitious beets in the seed production area, which have been transported to the regions where sugar beets are cultivated. These seeds are supposedly the origin of the weed forms and a frequently disturbed cultivated environment has selected for annual habit and early flowering genotypes. We discuss the consequences of the weed beet populations for the breeding, seed production and release of herbicide-resistant transgenic sugar beets.

  10. Interaction of Rhizoctonia solani and Rhizopus stolonifer Causing Root Rot of Sugar Beet

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, growers in Michigan and other sugar beet production areas of the United States have reported increasing incidence of root rot with little or no crown or foliar symptoms in sugar beet with Rhizoctonia crown and root rot. In addition, Rhizoctonia-resistant beets have been reported wit...

  11. Advances in development of transgenic resistance to beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV in sugar beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagl Nevena

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Fragments of viral cDNA containing the coat protein gene of beet necrotic yellow vein virus were cloned in plant transformation vector pCAMBIA3301M with the bar gene as selectable marker. Vector pC3301MCPL carrying coat protein gene with leader sequence, and pC3301MCPS with coat protein gene, were used in Agrobacterium - mediated transformation of sugar beet. The transformation method used was based on the fact that sugar beet develops axillary shoots in in vitro conditions, when placed on media with citokinins. Since this ability is not genotype or ploidy dependant it is widely used for sugar beet vegetative multiplication. Sterile seedlings, with removed cotyledons and lower half of hypocotyl, were used as starting material. After transformation ex-plants were put on micropropagation medium with cephotaxime and phosphinotricyn (ppt, where axillary shoots started to develop. Since concentration of ppt was not selective enough, after two subcultivations it was increased twofold. Only one sample, transformed with pC3301MCPS preserved morphogenetic potential for micropropagatio, and it was tested for presence of COS fragment and bar gene bz PCR with soecific primers.

  12. Effect of genotype on sugar beet yield and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenadić N.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of a considerable number of both domestic and foreign sugar beet genotypes on root yield and quality was investigated. The data demonstrated the most favorable results of some genotypes for root yield and sugar content. Trials were conducted on rhizomania infested soil, thus tolerant genotypes were used. Susceptible cultivars represented the control. In the trial root yield was high and sugar content low. On average, in the genotypes tested, root yield varied from 73.98 to 93.30 t/ha and sugar content from 11.90 to 13.36%, depending on weather conditions. Root yield of the genotypes investigated varied from 30.61 to 112.64 t/ha and sugar content from 10.60 to 14.20%. The Swedish cultivar Dorotea (tolerant to both rhizomania and cercospora was the most yielding. The least yielding (susceptible to both rhizomania and cercospora was the domestic cultivar Dana.

  13. Review on sugar beet salt stress studies in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khayamim, S.; Noshad, H.; Jahadakbar, M. R.; Fotuhi, K.

    2017-07-01

    Increase of saline lands in most regions of the world and Iran, limit of production increase based on land enhancement and also threat of saline water and soils for crop production make related researches and production of salt tolerant variety to be more serious. There have been many researches about salt stress in Sugar Beet Seed Institute of Iran (SBSI) during several years. Accordingly, the new screening methods for stress tolerance to be continued based on these researches. Previous researches in SBSI were reviewed and results concluded to this study which is presented in this article in three categories including: Agronomy, Breeding and Biotechnology. In agronomy researches, suitable planting medium, EC, growth stage and traits for salinity tolerance screening were determined and agronomic technique such as planting date, planting method and suitable nutrition for sugar beet under salt stress were introduced. Sand was salinizied by saline treatments two times more than Perlit so large sized Perlit is suitable medium for saline studies. Sugar beet genotypes screening for salt tolerance and should be conducted at EC=20 in laboratory and EC= 16 dS/M in greenhouse. Although sugar beet seed germination has been known as more susceptible stage to salinity, it seems establishment is more susceptible than germination in which salinity will cause 70-80% decrease in plant establishment. Measurements of leaves Na, K and total carbohydrate at establishment stage would be useful for faster screening of genotypes, based on high and significant correlation of these traits at establishment with yield at harvest time. In breeding section, SBSI genotypes with drought tolerance background would be useful for salinity stress studies and finally there is a need for more research in the field of biotechnology in Iran.

  14. The capacity of sugar beet farms’ machinery and equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata BZOWSKA – BAKALARZ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The survey investigates into equipment of sugar beet farms of the Lublin region, Poland, with machinery – with reference to plantation size and yields. To assess the production potential of the farms, the authors determined the age structure of the machinery owned by the farmers and established the scale of investment in new equipment. The machinery most important for sugar beet production are pre-sowing and post-harvest tillage units, sprayers, seed drills, combine harvesters and self-unloading trailers. In most cases, the surveyed farmers own most of these machines, but they are often obsolete: 37% of them is in operation for more than 15 years. As for the machines dedicated solely to sugar beet growing (harvesters and seeders, their age structure is most unfavourable – 70% of them have been used for over 15 years. A trend towards increasing plantation sizes provides incentives for introducing innovation to cultivation methods. However, the scale of investment in new machinery is small, especially in the case of small and medium-sized farms that dominate in the region. The authors surveyed also the scale of using professional services in the field of tillage processes to determine changes in farming practices.

  15. Improving the economic performances of the beet-sugar industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prodanić Bojana B.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available General trend of free trade at the regional level as well as in the direction of European Union has motivated sugar factories located in Serbia to invest into technologies that are more efficient in order to make their products more competitive in the markets of Europe. Until 2005, the project of energy efficiency improvement in Serbian sugar factories was conducted in Crvenka and Žabalj. Now, they have energy consumption around 1 MJ/kg beet, in contrast to the previous consumption of 1.2 up to 1.5 MJ/kg beet. Further improvements are possible but investments would be high. A result of measurements taken during 2006, after the sugar factory "Donji Srem" - Pećinci was reconstructed showed that a considerable saving has been achieved. The first set of measurements showed that the energy consumption was 1.01 MJ/kg beet, which was 20% higher than intended, but at the same time energy savings were about 30% lower with respect to the values before the reconstruction.

  16. Enzyme catalyzed oxidative gelation of sugar beet pectin: Kinetics and rheology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abang Zaidel, Dayang Norulfairuz; Chronakis, Ioannis S.; Meyer, Anne S.

    2012-01-01

    Sugar beet pectin (SBP) is a marginally utilized co-processing product from sugar production from sugar beets. In this study, the kinetics of oxidative gelation of SBP, taking place via enzyme catalyzed cross-linking of ferulic acid moieties (FA), was studied using small angle oscillatory measure...

  17. Nucleic acid and protein elimination during the sugar manufacturing process of conventional and transgenic sugar beets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, J; Altenbuchner, J; Mattes, R

    1998-02-26

    The fate of cellular DNA during the standard purification steps of the sugar manufacturing process from conventional and transgenic sugar beets was determined. Indigenous nucleases of sugar beet cells were found to be active during the first extraction step (raw juice production) which was carried out at 70 degrees C. This and the consecutive steps of the manufacturing process were validated in terms of DNA degradation by competitive PCR of added external DNA. Each step of the process proved to be very efficient in the removal of nucleic acids. Taken together, the purification steps have the potential to reduce the amount of DNA by a factor of > 10(14), exceeding by far the total amount of DNA present in sugar beets. Furthermore, the gene products of the transgenes neomycin phosphotransferase and BNYVV (rhizomania virus) coat protein CP21 were shown to be removed during the purification steps, so that they could not be detected in the resulting white sugar. Thus, sugar obtained from conventional and transgenic beets is indistinguishable or substantially equivalent with respect to purity.

  18. The Effect of Ultrasonic Waves on Sugar Extraction and Mechanical Properties of Sugar Beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Hedayati

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sugar, which can be extracted from sugar cane and sugar beet, is one of the most important ingredients of food. Conducting more research to increase the extraction efficiency of sugar is necessary due to high production of sugar beet and its numerous processing units in northern Khorasan province. In this research, the effect of temperature, time and the frequency of ultrasonic waves on mechanical properties of sugar beet and its extraction rate of sugar in moisture content of 75% were studied. In this regard, an ultrasonic bath in laboratory scale was used. The studied parameters and their levels were frequency in three levels (zero, 25 and 45 KHz, temperature in three levels (25, 50 and 70 ° C and the imposed time of ultrasonic waves in three levels (10, 20 and 30 min. Samples were prepared using planned experiments and the results were compared with control sugar beet samples. A Saccharimeter was used to measure the concenteration of sugar in samples. Two different types of probe including semi-spherical end and the other one with sharpened edges were used to measure mechanical properties. The studied parameters of frequency, temperature and time showed significant effect on sugar extraction and their resulted effect in optimized levels revealed up to 56% increase in sugar extraction compared with control samples. The obtained values of elastic modulus and shear modulus showed a decreasing trend. The obtained values of total energy of rupture, the total energy of shear, the maximum force of rupture, and the yield point of rupture showed an increasing trend. The frequency had no significant effect on the yield point of rupture and shear force.

  19. Transgenic sugar beet tolerant to imidazolinone obtained by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishchenko, E M; Komarnitskii, I K; Kuchuk, N V

    2011-01-01

    Sugar beet is highly sensitive to imidazolinone herbicides thus rotational restrictions exist. In order to develop imidazolinone tolerant sugar beets als gene from Arabidopsis thaliana encoding acetolactate synthase with S653N mutation was used for genetic transformation. Transgenic sugar beet plants were obtained by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of aseptic seedlings using vacuum-infiltration. The efficiency of genetic transformation was 5.8%. RT-PCR analysis of obtained plants revealed accumulation of specific als transcript. The resistance to imidazolinone was proved for developed transgenic sugar beet plants in vitro and in greenhouse conditions after spraying with imazethapyr (Pursuit, BASF).

  20. Study of sugar beet viruses transmitted by Polymyxa betae in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rysanek Pavel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar beet viruses transmitted by Polymyxa betae are very widespread in the Czech Republic. Beet soil-borne virus (BSBV is present in almost all fields used for sugar beet growing, beet virus Q (BVQ is present in about 50% of fields but beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV is present in some limited regions only. It means that mixed infections of sugar beet by at least two viruses are quite common in the field. P. betae also occurs in almost all fields where sugar beet is now grown. Only two populations of P. betae not transmitting any virus were found. Cystosori of P. betae can harbour viruses without loosing infectivity for a very long time. We were able to detect these viruses in plants grown in soil stored dry for 12 years. BNYVV can cause serious yield losses under mideuropean conditions reaching up to 50% of sugar yield, whereas harmfulness BSBV and BVQ is questionable, because they also occur in fields with no problems concerning sugar beet growing. The host range of these viruses was studied. Both infect all types of beet (sugar fodder, red beet, mangold and spinach and usually are detectable in root system only. Other chenopodiaceous plants are infected only by some virus strains. These strains are also able to spread into above-ground parts of plants.

  1. Characterization of cell wall degrading enzymes from Chrysosporium lucknowense C1 and their use to degrade sugar beet pulp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kühnel, S.

    2011-01-01

    Key words: Pectin, arabinan, biorefinery, mode of action, branched arabinose oligomers, ferulic acid esterase, arabinohydrolase, pretreatment Sugar beet pulp is the cellulose and pectin-rich debris remaining after sugar extraction from sugar beets. In order to use sugar beet pulp for biorefinery

  2. Characterization of cell wall degrading enzymes from Chrysosporium lucknowense C1 and their use to degrade sugar beet pulp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kühnel, S.

    2011-01-01

    Key words: Pectin, arabinan, biorefinery, mode of action, branched arabinose oligomers, ferulic acid esterase, arabinohydrolase, pretreatment Sugar beet pulp is the cellulose and pectin-rich debris remaining after sugar extraction from sugar beets. In order to use sugar beet pulp for biorefinery pu

  3. ROOT YIELD AND QUALITY OF SUGAR BEET INVESTIGATED HYBRIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrija Kristek

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The research of the production values of 10 sugar beet hybrids was conducted at the location Dalj from 2009-2012. Hybrids included in the experiment are owned by four selection houses and represented in wide production. Weather conditions in the years of investigation differed greatly. One was an average, one with increased, and two with small amounts of rainfall in relation to long-term average. Monthly air temperatures during the vegetation were increased in all four years. Root yield and quality of sugar beet varied considerably depending on the year and the hybrid. The best hybrid on the average of the investigation, by the highest root, was Severina (86.66 t ha-1. Three more hybrids: Coyote, Boomerang and Predator are in the same range. There are no significant differences in this indicator. Hybrid Colonia KWS (15.40% had the highest content of sugar in the root and Asketa, Gazeta, Severina and Protecta with no significant differences. Hybrid Colonia KWS was known for the low content of AmN and Na. Sugar yield, significantly higher than other hybrids in the study, has been realized with hybrids Severina (11.05 t ha-1 and Colonia KWS (10.78 t ha-1.

  4. Differences between the rhizosphere microbiome of Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima - ancestor of all beet crops - and modern sugar beets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christin eZachow

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The structure and function of the plant microbiome is driven by plant species and prevailing environmental conditions. Effectuated by breeding efforts, modern crops diverge genetically and phenotypically from their wild relatives but little is known about consequences for the associated microbiota. Therefore, we studied bacterial rhizosphere communities associated with the wild beet B. vulgaris ssp. maritima grown in their natural habitat soil from coastal drift lines (CS and modern sugar beets (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris cultivated in CS and potting soil (PS under greenhouse conditions. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene fingerprints and pyrosequencing-based amplicon libraries revealed plant genotype- and soil-specific microbiomes. Wild beet plants harbor distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs and a more diverse bacterial community than the domesticated sugar beet plants. Although the rhizospheres of both plant genotypes were dominated by Proteobacteria and Planctomycetes, 47.4% of dominant OTUs were additionally detected in the wild beet rhizosphere. Analysis of the cultivable fraction confirmed these plant genotype-specific differences at functional level. The proportion of isolates displayed in vitro activity against phytopathogens was lower for wild beet (≤45.8% than for sugar beet (≤57.5%. Conversely, active isolates from the wild beet exhibited stronger ability to cope with abiotic stresses. From all samples, active isolates of Stenotrophomonas rhizophila were frequently identified. In addition, soil type-specific impacts on the composition of bacterial communities were found: Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Planctomycetes were only detected in plants cultivated in CS; whereas Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria dominated in PS. Overall, in comparison to modern sugar beets, wild beets were associated with taxonomically and functionally distinct microbiomes.

  5. Multiplex Reverse Transcription-PCR for Simultaneous Detection of Beet Necrotic Yellow Vein Virus, Beet Soilborne Virus, and Beet Virus Q and Their Vector Polymyxa betae KESKIN on Sugar Beet

    OpenAIRE

    Meunier, Alexandre; Schmit, Jean-François; Stas, Arnaud; Kutluk, Nazli; Bragard, Claude

    2003-01-01

    Three soilborne viruses transmitted by Polymyxa betae KESKIN in sugar beet have been described: Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV), the agent of rhizomania, Beet soilborne virus (BSBV), and Beet virus Q (BVQ). A multiplex reverse transcription-PCR technique was developed to simultaneously detect BNYVV, BSBV, and BVQ, together with their vector, P. betae. The detection threshold of the test was up to 128 times greater than that of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Systematic associati...

  6. Multiplex Reverse Transcription-PCR for Simultaneous Detection of Beet Necrotic Yellow Vein Virus, Beet Soilborne Virus, and Beet Virus Q and Their Vector Polymyxa betae KESKIN on Sugar Beet

    OpenAIRE

    Meunier, Alexandre; Schmit, Jean-François; Stas, Arnaud; Kutluk, Nazli; Bragard, Claude

    2003-01-01

    Three soilborne viruses transmitted by Polymyxa betae KESKIN in sugar beet have been described: Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV), the agent of rhizomania, Beet soilborne virus (BSBV), and Beet virus Q (BVQ). A multiplex reverse transcription-PCR technique was developed to simultaneously detect BNYVV, BSBV, and BVQ, together with their vector, P. betae. The detection threshold of the test was up to 128 times greater than that of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Systematic associati...

  7. Decolorization of sugar syrups using commercial and sugar beet pulp based activated carbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudoga, H L; Yucel, H; Kincal, N S

    2008-06-01

    Sugar syrup decolorization was studied using two commercial and eight beet pulp based activated carbons. In an attempt to relate decolorizing performances to other characteristics, surface areas, pore volumes, bulk densities and ash contents of the carbons in the powdered form; pH and electrical conductivities of their suspensions and their color adsorption properties from iodine and molasses solution were determined. The color removal capabilities of all carbons were measured at 1/100 (w/w) dosage, and isotherms were determined on better samples. The two commercial activated carbons showed different decolorization efficiencies; which could be related to their physical and chemical properties. The decolorization efficiency of beet pulp carbon prepared at 750 degrees C and activated for 5h using CO2 was much better than the others and close to the better one of the commercial activated carbons used. It is evident that beet pulp is an inexpensive potential precursor for activated carbons for use in sugar refining.

  8. Cloning of the coat protein gene from beet necrotic yellow vein virus and its expression in sugar beet hairy roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, U; Commandeur, U; Frank, R; Landsmann, J; Koenig, R; Burgermeister, W

    1991-06-01

    Expression of the beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) coat protein (CP) gene in transgenic sugar beet hairy roots was accomplished as a step towards CP-mediated virus resistance. A cDNA for the CP gene and its 5' terminal untranslated leader sequence was prepared from BNYVV RNA, using two oligodeoxynucleotides to prime the synthesis of both strands. Second-strand synthesis and amplification of the cDNA were done by Taq DNA polymerase chain reactions. Run-off transcripts of the cloned cDNA sequence were obtained and translated in vitro, yielding immunoreactive CP. A binary vector construction containing the CP gene under the control of the 35S promoter of cauliflower mosaic virus was prepared and used for Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation of sugar beet tissue. Stable integration and expression of the CP gene in sugar beet hairy roots was demonstrated by Southern, Northern, and Western blot analysis, respectively.

  9. Development of Beet Sugar Production in Ryazan Region in the Context of Ensuring Food Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansurov Ruslan Evgenyevich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the research on the current state of the beet sugar subcomplex of Ryazan region in the context of the need of improving its efficiency. The study let the author determine that currently the beet sugar subcomplex of Ryazan region does not ensure domestic demand in sand sugar. However, there are reserves of providing more efficient use of soil and climate capacity as well as the productivity potential of the region. When applying the technology of field beet piling, the period of sugar production at sugar factories may be extended up to 200 days. At this, up to 51 thousand tons of sand sugar can be produced. This amount will completely cover the annual demand for sugar in Ryazan region. In order to further study the feasibility of this approach, zoning was carried out and let allocate the zones of beet seeding. As a result, it was determined that a number of areas are far removed from the place of treatment, and in terms of transportation costs minimization the sugar beet cultivation in these areas is not rational. As an alternative, the author proposes to consider the possibility of building a new sugar factory in Ryazhsky district with the processing capacity of 1,000 tons of sugar beet per day. Taking this into account, the recommended acreage of sugar beet by districts and zones of raw material supply were obtained through corresponding calculations.

  10. Potential and real residues of pesticides in sugar beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šovljanski Radmila A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Crops and their products can be contaminated either by direct application of pesticides for the protection of insects, acarives, agents of plant diseases and/or weeds, i.e. as the result of growing them on the soil containing pesticide residues applied in previous years. For the protection of sugar beet in our country, 23 insectisides, 17 fungicides and 18 herbicides have been registered. The pre-harvest interval (PHI ranges from 14 to 42 days i.e. they are provided by the time of application (PTA whereas the pre-harvest interval for herbicides ranges from 30 to 91 days and is ensured by the application period. Based on the results from the literature and on their own studies, the authors are of the opinion that the residues of the applied pesticides in sugar beet protection in accordance with the principles of good agricultural practice will be significantly lower than the maximum tolerable ammounts and that at the level from 1/4 to 1/10 of MRL. IT is necessary to emphasize the necessity of MRL determination both in leaves and in sugar loaf.in case they are used as animal feed.

  11. Transgene escape in sugar beet production fields: data from six years farm scale monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmency, Henri; Vigouroux, Yves; Gestat De Garambé, Thierry; Richard-Molard, Marc; Muchembled, Claude

    2007-01-01

    Concerns have been raised in Europe about the efficiency, sustainability, and environmental impact of the first genetically modified crops. The committees and regulators in charge of approving procedures have encouraged a field trial approach for safety assessment studies under current agronomic conditions. We describe the gene flow from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) in a multi-year and multi-crop monitoring study on farmers' fields at two locations that has been carried out since 1995. We analyzed two sugar beet lines that have been genetically transformed for herbicide resistance. One sugar beet has resistance to glufosinate and the other to glyphosate. Large differences among lines, years and locations were observed. These differences provided a broad range of situations to estimate the risks. Sugar beet bolters produced the majority (86%) of the herbicide-resistant seeds harvested in the field. Direct pollen flow from sugar beet bolters to weed beets that were growing within the same field as well as in a neighboring field that was left fallow accounted for only 0.4% of the resistant seeds released over the years and locations. Descendants of the hybrids between the sugar beet and the weed beet produced the remaining 13.6% of resistant seeds. Herbicide-resistant seeds from the progeny of the weed beet were recorded up to 112 m away from the closest transgenic pollen donor. Indications were observed of non-randomness of the weed beet producing resistant progeny. We also analyzed pollen flow to male-sterile bait plants located within and outside of the sugar beet field. Herbicide-resistant pollen flow was recorded up to 277 m, and fitted with an inverse power regression. Using sugar beet varieties with no, or very low, sensitivity to bolting and destroying bolters are two necessary measures that could delay gene flow.

  12. The identification of allergen proteins in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris pollen causing occupational allergy in greenhouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blomqvist Anna

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During production of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris seeds in greenhouses, workers frequently develop allergic symptoms. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize possible allergens in sugar beet pollen. Methods Sera from individuals at a local sugar beet seed producing company, having positive SPT and specific IgE to sugar beet pollen extract, were used for immunoblotting. Proteins in sugar beet pollen extracts were separated by 1- and 2-dimensional electrophoresis, and IgE-reactive proteins analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Results A 14 kDa protein was identified as an allergen, since IgE-binding was inhibited by the well-characterized allergen Che a 2, profilin, from the related species Chenopodium album. The presence of 17 kDa and 14 kDa protein homologues to both the allergens Che a 1 and Che a 2 were detected in an extract from sugar beet pollen, and partial amino acid sequences were determined, using inclusion lists for tandem mass spectrometry based on homologous sequences. Conclusion Two occupational allergens were identified in sugar beet pollen showing sequence similarity with Chenopodium allergens. Sequence data were obtained by mass spectrometry (70 and 25%, respectively for Beta v 1 and Beta v 2, and can be used for cloning and recombinant expression of the allergens. As for treatment of Chenopodium pollinosis, immunotherapy with sugar beet pollen extracts may be feasible.

  13. Sugar beet waste and its component ferulic acid inhibits external mycelium of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medina, Almudena; Jakobsen, Iver; Egsgaard, Helge

    2011-01-01

    External arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) mycelium plays an important role in soil while interacting with a range of biotic and abiotic factors. One example is the soil organic amendment sugar beet waste. The fermented Aspergillus niger–sugar beet waste (ASB) increases growth and P uptake by the AM...

  14. Steam explosion and fermentation of sugar beets from Southern Florida and the Midwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar beets have recently gained interest for cultivation in southern Florida for their economic potential as cattle feed, a feedstock for ethanol production and their use to improve the quality of water via soil nutrient accumulation. Sugar beets grown in southern Florida, Minnesota and Nebraska we...

  15. Insect resistance to sugar beet pests mediated by a Beta vulgaris proteinase inhibitor transgene

    Science.gov (United States)

    We transformed sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) hairy roots and Nicotiana benthamiana plants with a Beta vulgaris root gene (BvSTI) that codes for a serine proteinase inhibitor. BvSTI is a root gene cloned from the F1016 breeding line that has moderate levels of resistance to the sugar beet root maggot ...

  16. A novel penicillium sp. causes rot in stored sugar beet roots in Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penicillium vulpinum along with a number of other fungi can lead to the rot of stored sugar beet roots. However, Penicillium isolates associated with necrotic lesions on roots from a recent sugar beet storage study were determined to be different from P. vulpinum and other recognized Penicillium sp...

  17. 100 years of selection of sugar beet at the Ivanivska research-selection station.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. С. Лейбович

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In given article the historical way of development of selection of sugar beet at the Ivanivska research-selection station is opened. For 100 years of selection work at station by scientific employees are created and introduced into manufacture over 20 grades of sugar beet.

  18. Soil dynamics of the origination of soil tare during sugar beet lifting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, G.D.; Koolen, A.J.

    2002-01-01

    High soil tare of sugar beet on wet clay soil after uprooting with share lifters is usually attributed to the fact that the soil becomes sticky due to mechanical impact during uprooting. Results of field experiments have shown good potential for obtaining low soil tare of sugar beet on wet clay soil

  19. Pectic substances from sugar beet pulp : structural features, enzymatic modification, and gel formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveld, A.

    1997-01-01

    Pectic substances are present in high proportions in sugar beet pulp. This by-product is therefore a potential raw material for the pectin industry. However, sugar beet pectin has poor physico-chemical properties compared with pectins from other sources. In order to improve these properties, pectins

  20. Rhizoctonia root rot resistance in experimental sugar beet cultivars in Twin Falls County, ID, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhizoctonia root rot continues to be a concerning problem in sugar beet production areas. To investigate resistance to this disease in 26 experimental sugar beet cultivars, field studies were conducted with three Rhizoctonia solani AG-2-2 IIIB strains. Based on means for the 26 cultivars, surface ...

  1. Rhizoctonia root rot resistance in commercial sugar beet cultivars in Twin Falls County, ID, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhizoctonia root rot continues to be a concerning problem in sugar beet production areas. To investigate resistance to this disease in 26 commercial sugar beet cultivars, field studies were conducted with three Rhizoctonia solani AG-2-2 IIIB strains. Based on means for the 26 cultivars, surface ro...

  2. First report of QoI resistance in Alternaria spp. infecting sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) in Michigan, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternaria leaf spot (ALS) of sugar beet is caused by Alternaria spp. in the A. alternata species complex. ALS is common wherever sugar beet is grown, but historically has been a minor issue for sugar beet production in the USA with damage usually not affecting crop yield significantly. Occurrence o...

  3. 77 FR 42693 - Monsanto Company and KWS SAAT AG; Determination of Nonregulated Status of Sugar Beet Genetically...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... Nonregulated Status of Sugar Beet Genetically Engineered for Tolerance to the Herbicide Glyphosate AGENCY... our determination that sugar beet genetically engineered for tolerance to the herbicide glyphosate... nonregulated status under 7 CFR part 340 of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris) designated as event H7-1...

  4. Feruloyl Oligosaccharides from Cell Walls of Suspension-Cultured Spinach Cells and Sugar Beet Pulp : STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF CELLS

    OpenAIRE

    Tadashi, Ishii; Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute

    1994-01-01

    Cell walls of suspension-cultured spinach cells and sugar beet pulp were separately hydrolyzed with Driselase. A feruloyl arabinobiose was isolated from both spinach cells and sugar beet. Four feruloyl oligosaccharides were obtained from sugar beet. The four oligosaccharides were characterized by NMR spectroscopy, methylation analysis and FAB-MS.

  5. Construction and characterization of a sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) fosmid library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Cornelia; Holtgräwe, Daniela; Schulz, Britta; Weisshaar, Bernd; Himmelbauer, Heinz

    2008-11-01

    A sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) fosmid library from the doubled haploid accession KWS2320 encompassing 115 200 independent clones was constructed and characterized. The average insert size of the fosmid library was determined by pulsed field gel electrophoresis to be 39 kbp on average, thus representing 5.9-fold coverage of the sugar beet genome (758 Mbp). PCR screening of plate pools with primer pairs against nine sugar beet genes supported the insert size estimation. BLAST searches with 2951 fosmid end-sequences originating from 1510 clones (1536 clones attempted) revealed little contamination with organellar DNA (2.1% chloroplast DNA, 0.3% mitochondrial DNA). The sugar beet fosmid library will be integrated in the presently ongoing efforts to determine the sequence of the sugar beet genome. Fosmids will be publicly available in the format of plate pools and individual clones.

  6. Prospects of utilization of sugar beet carbohydrates for biological hydrogen production in the EU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panagiotopoulos, J.A.; Koukios, E.G. [Bioresource Technology Unit, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Zografou Campus, Athens, GR-15700 (Greece); Bakker, R.R.; De Vrije, T.; Claassen, P.A.M. [Wageningen UR Agrotechnology and Food Innovations, P.O. Box 17, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Urbaniec, K. [CERED Centre of Excellence, Warsaw University of Technology, Jachowicza 2/4, 09-402 Plock (Poland)

    2010-12-15

    Hydrogen can be produced through dark anaerobic fermentation using carbohydrate-rich biomass, and through photofermentation using the organic acids produced from dark fermentation. Sugar beet is an ideal energy crop for fermentative production of hydrogen in the EU due to its environmental profile and its potential availability in the area. In this work, various aspects of cultivating sugar beet in the EU for biohydrogen were highlighted, with special focus on The Netherlands and Greece. Moreover, fermentation of sugar beet juice with Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus at sucrose concentration 10 g/l was performed, and was found comparable to the fermentation on pure sucrose except that the hydrogen production was 10% higher on sugar beet juice. A conservative estimate of the annual hydrogen potential in the EU was made (300x10{sup 6} kg hydrogen), considering the utilization of sugar beet pulp in hydrogen production.

  7. THE EFFECT OF NITROGEN INPUT ON POLARISED SUGAR PRODUCTION AND QUALITATIVE PARAMETERS OF SUGAR BEET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILAN MACÁK

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available During 1998-2002, the application of different forms and doses of nitrogen on quantitative (polarised sugar productionand qualitative parameters (digestion, molasses forming components - potassium, sodium and α-amino nitrogen content of sugar beet in vulnerable zones (Nitrate directive was studied. Calculated input of nitrogen ranged from 12 kg up to 240 kg N.ha-1. By increasing input of N from FYM application into the soil causes an increases of α- amino nitrogen content in root, which in consequence causes a decreases the sugar content (negative correlation r= -0.8659+. The application of straw instead FYM of analogues treatments caused significant decrease (straw versus FYM and highly significant decrease (straw plus N fertilizers versus FYM plus N fertilizers of α-amino nitrogen content in sugar beet root living the productive parameters unchanged. The content of α-amino nitrogen in root of sugar beet indicate an environmentally friendly management practices with causal relation to water protection from nitrate.

  8. Co-pyrolysis of lignite and sugar beet pulp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilgin, M.; Deveci Duranay, N.; Pehlivan, D. [Firat University, Chemical Engineering Department, 23279 Elazig (Turkey)

    2010-05-15

    Today, worldwide studies have been undertaken on the biomass usage and co-conversion of biomass and coal to seek out alternative fuels for supplying energy in an environmental friendly way. The objective of this work is to study co-pyrolysis of lignite and sugar beet pulp in 50/50 (wt./wt.) ratio of blend pellets, to elucidate their thermal behaviour under pyrolysis conditions and to assess major decomposition products in terms of their yields. A special chamber, which has enabled very fast heating rates, was used in the pyrolysis experiments carried at 600 C. The results were interpreted in the light of liquid, solid and gaseous yields, resulting from thermal decomposition, and kinetics of thermogravimetric analysis. Proximate volatile matter and ash contents of the blends were different compared to those found by using individual values. Sugar beet pulp decomposed faster within a relatively narrow temperature range than lignite and underwent a significant shrinkage during pyrolysis. It was found that the chars left behind after the flash pyrolysis of these pellets at 600 C have substantial amounts of volatile matter that would evolve upon further heating. (author)

  9. Evaluation of some natural products on sugar beet contamined with coliform bacteria group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogéria Maria Alves de Almeida

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The sugar beet crop has great importance because its ability on sugar production that can be extracted and crystallized. The use of wastewater in the irrigation has increased because this water has some nutrients sources. However the use of wastewater may cause some health problems due to the presence of coliform bacteria group. In this trial, the objective was to contribute for the sugar beet decontamination. Some products as lemon juice, NaClO and ascetic acid were used by sugar beet immersion during a little time. In conclusion, the lemon juice showed best results by reducing coliform bacteria group.

  10. A study on cations and color removal from thin sugar juice by modified sugar beet pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslanoglu, Hasan; Tumen, Fikret

    2012-06-01

    This article describes the use of citric acid modified sugar beet pulp as new ion-exchanger sorbent for the removal of metal cations and colorants from thin juice. The results of batch adsorption runs concerning the effects of contact time, material dosage, temperature and pH drop were presented and discussed. Experimental data on the removal of metal cations showed that the sorption process was rapid and reached equilibrium in 60 min. Modified material in acidic form caused to a significant pH drop in thin juice, which could result with sucrose inversion. Uptake of metal cations increased with temperature whereas that of color decreased. Neutralised type modified product gave more satisfying results. After six successive contacts, 49.7%, 37.5% and 43.7% removals for Ca-Mg, K and color, respectively, were obtained by using neutralised form of modified sugar beet pulp.

  11. Biological hydrogen production from sucrose and sugar beet by Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panagiotopoulos, John [National Technical Univ. of Athens (Greece); Wageningen UR Food and Biobased Research (Netherlands); Bakker, Robert; Vrieje, Truus de; Claassen, Pieternel [Wageningen UR Food and Biobased Research (Netherlands); Koukios, Emmanuel [National Technical Univ. of Athens (Greece)

    2010-07-01

    Hydrogen production needs to be based on renewable resources in order to be sustainable. Sugar beet is an ideal raw material for fermentative production of hydrogen in the EU and possibly in the USA due to its environmental profile and its potential availability in these areas. In this work, the fermentative production of hydrogen from sucrose of analytical grade and sugar beet extract by pure cultures of Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus was investigated, under uncontrolled and controlled conditions. In the first case, growth of pure cultures of C. saccharolyticus on sucrose derived from sugar beet was compared to growth of the microorganism on sucrose of analytical grade. The production of hydrogen and organic acids (acetate and lactate) from sugar beet was largely equal to or slightly higher than the production of the control. In the second case, fermentation of sugar beet extract at sucrose concentration 10 g/l was comparable to the fermentation on pure sucrose except that the hydrogen yield was slightly higher on sugar beet extract. In particular, hydrogen yields of 2.9 and 3.0 mol/mol hexose were determined in fermentations of sucrose and sugar beet extract, respectively, corresponding to 73% and 75% of the theoretical value of 4 mol hydrogen/mol hexose. Acetic acid was the main product and very low production of lactic acid was observed. (orig.)

  12. Sugar beet production in the European Union and their future trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Řezbová

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this paper is to analyze the yield (t/ha and the production costs of white (polarized sugar and sugar beet in the main European producer countries in order to identify main development trends. The partial objectives of this study are: to analyse the production costs (variable costs of sugar and sugar beet of the main European producers (France, Germany, Poland, United Kingdom, Czech Republic, to compare sugar beet yield of Tereos France and Tereos TTD a.s., to analyse sugar beet yield potential and their trends. The used methods are chain and basic indexes and regression analysis of time series/trend data - for predicting on next tree years. The main producers of sugar beet in the European Union (i.e. France, Germany, Poland, United Kingdom, and Czech Republic can not achieve goal of sugar yield 15t/ha while maintaining the amount of variable (direct costs at 15 EUR/tone of sugar beet in the business year 2015/2016. Pieces of knowledge introduced in this paper resulted from solution of an institutional research intention MSM 6046070906 „Economics of resources of Czech agriculture and their efficient use in frame of multifunctional agri-food systems“.

  13. Effect of Azotobacter croococcum on productive traits and microorganisms in sugar beet rhizosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzevski Janja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effects of three different inoculation methods with selected Azotobacter chroococcum strains on productive and technological traits of sugar beet, as well as on the total number of microorganisms and azotobacter in rhizosphere. The results of this two-year study showed that effectiveness of the tested inoculation methods in increasing root yield and sugar content varies greatly, depending on year and azotobacter strains. Effectiveness of inoculation methods was not largely impacted by year on granulated sugar. Achieved granulated sugar yield was significantly higher by using pre-sowing azotobacter application, than by using seed inoculation. A significantly increased number of microorganisms in sugar beet rhizosphere was determined, not only by using pre-sowing azotobacter application but also by using sugar beet seed inoculation. Pre-sowing azotobacter application and inter-row cultivation both caused an equal increase in the number of these bacteria in sugar beet rhizosphere (42.2% and 46.9%. Use of sugar beet seed inoculation caused an increase of 33.7% in the number of azotobacter. In order to achieve higher effectiveness in applying azotobacter on productive and technological traits of sugar beet, and considering determined interaction between a certain year, an inoculation method and a strain, it is necessary for future research to focus on determining efficiency of these strains when they are in a mixture.

  14. Feasibility of converting a sugar beet plant to fuel ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammaker, G S; Pfost, H B; David, M L; Marino, M L

    1981-04-01

    This study was performed to assess the feasibility of producing fuel ethanol from sugar beets. Sugar beets are a major agricultural crop in the area and the beet sugar industry is a major employer. There have been some indications that increasing competition from imported sugar and fructose sugar produced from corn may lead to lower average sugar prices than have prevailed in the past. Fuel ethanol might provide an attractive alternative market for beets and ethanol production would continue to provide an industrial base for labor. Ethanol production from beets would utilize much of the same field and plant equipment as is now used for sugar. It is logical to examine the modification of an existing sugar plant from producing sugar to ethanol. The decision was made to use Great Western Sugar Company's plant at Mitchell as the example plant. This plant was selected primarily on the basis of its independence from other plants and the availability of relatively nearby beet acreage. The potential feedstocks assessed included sugar beets, corn, hybrid beets, and potatoes. Markets were assessed for ethanol and fermentation by-products saleability. Investment and operating costs were determined for each prospective plant. Plants were evaluated using a discounted cash flow technique to obtain data on full production costs. Environmental, health, safety, and socio-economic aspects of potential facilities were examined. Three consulting engineering firms and 3 engineering-construction firms are considered capable of providing the desired turn-key engineering design and construction services. It was concluded that the project is technically feasible. (DMC)

  15. New findings on the biogas production from sugar beets; Neue Erkenntnisse zur Biogasproduktion aus Zuckerrueben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bormann, Hinnerk; Schlaefer, Ottmar; Sievers, Michael [CUTEC-Institut GmbH, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Trommler, Marcus; Postel, Jan [Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum (DBFZ) gemeinnuetzige GmbH, Leipzig (Germany); Felde, Andreas von; Harling, Hinrich; Rother, Beate [KWS Saat AG, Einbeck (Germany); Franke, Henning; Tkocz, Lisa [INPUT Ingenieure GmbH, Sehnde (Germany)

    2013-10-01

    Main purpose of the project is the process improvement to acquire the full potential of sugar beet based biomethane production. This covers the optimization of breeding and cultivation, as well as improvements of the overall logistic and production process. The project results show that breeding of regional adapted sugar beets can lead to higher yields in cultivation as well as technical enhancements within the biogas production chain can lower the production costs. Both approaches are part of an overall optimization of sugar beets for biomethane production. Project findings indicate a competitive position in comparison to biomethane based on different agricultural feedstock. (orig.)

  16. Effect of seed stimulation on germination and sugar beet yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prośba-Białczyk, U.; Szajsner, H.; Grzyś, E.; Demczuk, A.; Sacała, E.; Bąk, K.

    2013-03-01

    Germination and sugar beet yield after seed stimulation were investigated. The seeds came from the energ'hill technology and were subject to laser irradiation. The experiments were conducted in the laboratory and field conditions. Lengthening of germinal roots and hypocotyls was observed. A positive effect of the stimulation on the morphological features was observed for the Eh seeds and laser irradiation applied in a three-fold dose. The energ'hill seeds exhibited a significantly higher content of carotenoids in seedlings and an increase in the content of chlorophylls. Laser light irradiation favourably modified the ratio of chlorophyll a to b. The leaves and roots of plants developed from the energ'hill and irradiated seeds were characterized by higher dry matter content thanin non-stimulated seeds. Seed stimulation had a positive influence on yielding and the saccharose content.

  17. Distribution, host plants and natural enemies of sugar beet root aphid (Pemphigus fuscicornis In Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tóth Peter

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available During 2003-2004, field surveys were realized to observe the distribution of sugar beet aphid, Pemphigus fuscicornis (K o c h (Sternorrhyncha Pemphigidae in southwestern Slovakia. The research was carried out at 60 different localities with altitudes 112-220 m a. s. l. Sugar beet root aphid was recorded at 30 localities. The aphid was recorded in Slovakia for the first time, but its occurrence was predicted and symptoms and harmfulness overlooked by now. The presence of P. fuscicornis was investigated on roots of various plants from Chenopodiaceae. The most important host plants were various species of lambsquarters (above all Chenopodium album. Furthermore sugar beet (Beta vulgaris provar. altissima, red beet (B. vulgaris provar. conditiva and oraches (Atriplex spp act as host plants. Infestation of sugar beet by P. fuscicornis never exceeded 5% at single locality in Slovakia. Dry and warm weather create presumptions for strong harmfulness. In Slovakia, Chenopodium album is a very important indicator of sugar beet aphid presence allowing evaluation of control requirements. During the study, the larvae of Thaumatomyia glabra (Diptera: Chloropidae were detected as important natural enemies of sugar beet aphid. The species occurred at each location evaluated.

  18. Nuclear and cytoplasmic genetic diversity in weed beet and sugar beet accessions compared to wild relatives: new insights into the genetic relationships within the Beta vulgaris complex species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fénart, Stéphane; Arnaud, Jean-François; De Cauwer, Isabelle; Cuguen, Joël

    2008-05-01

    Hybridization between cultivated species and their wild relatives is now widely considered to be common. In the Beta vulgaris complex, the sugar beet seed multiplication areas have been the scene of inadvertent pollination of sugar beet seed bearers by wild ruderal pollen donors, generating a weedy form of beet which infests sugar beet fields in European countries. Up to now, investigations of evolutionary dynamics of genetic diversity within the B. vulgaris complex were addressed using few genetical markers and few accessions. In this study, we tackled this issue using a panel of complementary markers: five nuclear microsatellite loci, four mitochondrial minisatellite loci and one chloroplastic PCR-RFLP marker. We sampled 1,640 individuals that illustrate the actual distribution of inland ruderal beets of South Western France, weed beets and wild sea beets of northern France as well as the diversity of 35 contemporary European diploid cultivars. Nuclear genetic diversity in weed beets appeared to be as high as those of ruderal beets and sea beets, whereas the narrowness of cultivar accessions was confirmed. This genetic bottleneck in cultivars is even more important in the cytoplasmic genome as only one haplotype was found among all sugar beet cultivars. The large majority of weed beet populations also presented this unique cytoplasmic haplotype, as expected owing to their maternal cultivated origin. Nonetheless, various cytoplasmic haplotypes were found within three populations of weed beets, implying wild-to-weed seed flows. Finally, our findings gave new insights into the genetical relationships between the components of the B. vulgaris complex: (1) we found a very strong genetic divergence between wild sea beet and other relatives, which was unexpected given the recent evolutionary history and the full cross-compatibility of all taxa and (2) we definitely confirmed that the classification into cultivated, wild, ruderal and weed forms according to their

  19. Integrated Bioethanol Fermentation/Anaerobic Digestion for Valorization of Sugar Beet Pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Berlowska

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Large amounts of waste biomass are generated in sugar factories from the processing of sugar beets. After diffusion with hot water to draw the sugar from the beet pieces, a wet material remains called pulp. In this study, waste sugar beet pulp biomass was enzymatically depolymerized, and the obtained hydrolyzates were subjected to fermentation processes. Bioethanol, biomethane, and biohydrogen were produced directly from the substrate or in combined mode. Stillage, a distillery by-product, was used as a feedstock for anaerobic digestion. During biosynthesis of ethanol, most of the carbohydrates released from the sugar beet pulp were utilized by a co-culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ethanol Red, and Scheffersomyces stipitis LOCK0047 giving 12.6 g/L of ethanol. Stillage containing unfermented sugars (mainly arabinose, galactose and raffinose was found to be a good substrate for methane production (444 dm3 CH4/kg volatile solids (VS. Better results were achieved with this medium than with enzymatic saccharified biomass. Thermal pre-treatment and adjusting the pH of the inoculum resulted in higher hydrogen production. The largest (p < 0.05 hydrogen yield (252 dm3 H2/kg VS was achieved with sugar beet stillage (SBS. In contrast, without pre-treatment the same medium yielded 35 dm3 H2/kg VS. However, dark fermentation of biohydrogen was more efficient when sugar beet pulp hydrolyzate was used.

  20. Regulation of sucrose synthase activity and sugar yield by nitrogen in sugar beet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Caifeng; MA Fengming; LI Wenhua; WANG Rui; CHEN Shengyong; LUO Yu

    2007-01-01

    The content of sugar is influenced by sucrose synthase (SS) activity in roots. The effects of nitrogen level in the aminonitrate ratio on SS activity of leaves and roots, roots yield and sugar content in sugar beet were studied in the field experiment by nutrient solution culture. The results showed that SS activity in leaves was lower than that in roots. With nitrogen level increasing,SS decomposition activity enhanced, and synthesis activity reduced. SS activity was regulated by different nitrogen forms and the ratio of NO3- and NH4+. SS synthesis activity was enhanced as NH4+ increasing when NO3-: NH4+≥ 1, and it decreased as increasing NH4+ when NO3-: NH4+≤1, and it was the highest when NO3-: NH4+=1. SS decomposition activity was enhanced as NO3- increasing.Sucrose content in root was lowed as nitrogen level increasing, but it was enhanced as NH4+ increasing in the same nitrogen level.Root and sugar yield were the highest in the medium nitrogen level and NO3-: NH4+=1. The result in field experiment corresponded with that in the nutrient fluid culture. It provides a basis for using reasonably nitrogen fertilizer in sugar beet production.

  1. A nine-scaffold genome assembly of the nine chromosome sugar beet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the course of 20 months, we assembled a sugar beet genome (700 - 800 Mb) into a close representation of the nine haploid chromosomes of beet. This result was obtained by sequentially assembling sequences >40 kb in length, orienting these assemblies via optical mapping, and scaffolding with in v...

  2. Reduction of soil tare by improved uprooting of sugar beet : a soil dynamic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, G.D.

    2001-01-01

    The relative amount of soil in sugar beet lots, called soil tare, should be reduced to curtail the cost and negative aspects of soil tare. Highest soil tare occurs in beet lots harvested out of wet clay soil. The main problem is that commonly-used share lifters press the soil against the

  3. Length of efficacy for control of curly top in sugar beet with seed foliar insecticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curly top in sugar beet caused by Beet curly top virus (BCTV) is an important yield limiting disease that can be reduced via neonicotinoid and pyrethroid insecticides. However the length of efficacy of these insecticides is poorly understood, so a series of field experiments was conducted with the ...

  4. The genome of the recently domesticated crop plant sugar beet (Beta vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohm, Juliane C; Minoche, André E; Holtgräwe, Daniela; Capella-Gutiérrez, Salvador; Zakrzewski, Falk; Tafer, Hakim; Rupp, Oliver; Sörensen, Thomas Rosleff; Stracke, Ralf; Reinhardt, Richard; Goesmann, Alexander; Kraft, Thomas; Schulz, Britta; Stadler, Peter F; Schmidt, Thomas; Gabaldón, Toni; Lehrach, Hans; Weisshaar, Bernd; Himmelbauer, Heinz

    2014-01-23

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris) is an important crop of temperate climates which provides nearly 30% of the world's annual sugar production and is a source for bioethanol and animal feed. The species belongs to the order of Caryophylalles, is diploid with 2n = 18 chromosomes, has an estimated genome size of 714-758 megabases and shares an ancient genome triplication with other eudicot plants. Leafy beets have been cultivated since Roman times, but sugar beet is one of the most recently domesticated crops. It arose in the late eighteenth century when lines accumulating sugar in the storage root were selected from crosses made with chard and fodder beet. Here we present a reference genome sequence for sugar beet as the first non-rosid, non-asterid eudicot genome, advancing comparative genomics and phylogenetic reconstructions. The genome sequence comprises 567 megabases, of which 85% could be assigned to chromosomes. The assembly covers a large proportion of the repetitive sequence content that was estimated to be 63%. We predicted 27,421 protein-coding genes supported by transcript data and annotated them on the basis of sequence homology. Phylogenetic analyses provided evidence for the separation of Caryophyllales before the split of asterids and rosids, and revealed lineage-specific gene family expansions and losses. We sequenced spinach (Spinacia oleracea), another Caryophyllales species, and validated features that separate this clade from rosids and asterids. Intraspecific genomic variation was analysed based on the genome sequences of sea beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima; progenitor of all beet crops) and four additional sugar beet accessions. We identified seven million variant positions in the reference genome, and also large regions of low variability, indicating artificial selection. The sugar beet genome sequence enables the identification of genes affecting agronomically relevant traits, supports molecular breeding and maximizes the plant

  5. Efficient dsRNA-mediated transgenic resistance to Beet necrotic yellow vein virus in sugar beets is not affected by other soilborne and aphid-transmitted viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennefors, Britt-Louise; van Roggen, Petra M; Yndgaard, Flemming; Savenkov, Eugene I; Valkonen, Jari P T

    2008-04-01

    Rhizomania caused by Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) is one of the most devastating sugar beet diseases. Sugar beet plants engineered to express a 0.4 kb inverted repeat construct based on the BNYVV replicase gene accumulated the transgene mRNA to similar levels in leaves and roots, whereas accumulation of the transgene-homologous siRNA was more pronounced in roots. The roots expressed high levels of resistance to BNYVV transmitted by the vector, Polymyxa betae. Resistance to BNYVV was not decreased following co-infection of the plants with Beet soil borne virus and Beet virus Q that share the same vector with BNYVV. Similarly, co-infection with the aphid-transmitted Beet mild yellowing virus, Beet yellows virus (BYV), or with all of the aforementioned viruses did not affect the resistance to BNYVV, while they accumulated in roots. These viruses are common in most of the sugar beet growing areas in Europe and world wide. However, there was a competitive interaction between BYV and BMYV in sugar beet leaves, as infection with BYV decreased the titres of BMYV. Other interactions between the viruses studied were not observed. The results suggest that the engineered resistance to BNYVV expressed in the sugar beets of this study is efficient in roots and not readily compromised following infection of the plants with heterologous viruses.

  6. In Vitro fermentability of sugar beet pulp derived oligosaccharides using human and pig fecal inocula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijdekkers, A.G.M.; Aguirre, M.; Venema, K.; Bosch, G.; Gruppen, H.; Schols, H.A.

    2014-01-01

    The in vitro fermentation characteristics of different classes of sugar beet pectic oligosaccharides (SBPOS) were studied using human and pig fecal inocula. The SBPOS consisted mainly of partially acetylated rhamnogalacturonan-oligosaccharides and partially methyl esterified/acetylated

  7. Percolation transition, stipulated by the generation of ice in the sugar-beet tissue. (in Ukrainian)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulavin, L. A.; Zabashta, Yu. F.; Fridman, A. Ya.; Kostyuk, A. I.

    The temperature dependence of sugar-beet parenchyma tissue dynamic shear modulus has been studied. The dynamic shear modulus investigation was performed employing low frequency reverse torsional pendulum at the temperature ranging from 200 to 280 K. Percolation transition (T_0 = 251 K), stipulated by the generation of ice in the sugar-beet tissue, is discovered. The quantity of ice in the sugar-beet at the temperatures lower than the percolation transition temperature was calculated on the dynamic shear modulus temperature dependence in terms of the percolation theory. It is concluded that this transition corresponds to the appearance of an infinite ice cluster. One can maintain that the sugar-beet survives above the percolation transition temperature.

  8. Leuconostoc spp. Associated with Root Rot in Sugar Beet and Their Interaction with Rhizoctonia solani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strausbaugh, Carl A

    2016-05-01

    Rhizoctonia root and crown rot is an important disease problem in sugar beet caused by Rhizoctonia solani and also shown to be associated with Leuconostoc spp. Initial Leuconostoc studies were conducted with only a few isolates and the relationship of Leuconostoc with R. solani is poorly understood; therefore, a more thorough investigation was conducted. In total, 203 Leuconostoc isolates were collected from recently harvested sugar beet roots in southern Idaho and southeastern Oregon during 2010 and 2012: 88 and 85% Leuconostoc mesenteroides, 6 and 15% L. pseudomesenteroides, 2 and 0% L. kimchi, and 4 and 0% unrecognized Leuconostoc spp., respectively. Based on 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing, haplotype 11 (L. mesenteroides isolates) comprised 68 to 70% of the isolates in both years. In pathogenicity field studies with commercial sugar beet 'B-7', all Leuconostoc isolates caused more rot (P rot (P rot when both Leuconostoc spp. and R. solani are present in sugar beet roots.

  9. Isolation of diferulic bridges ester-linked to arabinan in sugar beet cell walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levigne, Sébastien; Ralet, Marie-Christine; Quéméner, Bernard; Thibault, Jean-François

    2004-09-13

    After degradation of sugar beet cell walls with Driselase and fractionation of the solubilised products by hydrophobic interaction chromatography, a dehydrodiferuloylated oligoarabinan was isolated. Its structure was assigned to two dimers of (1-->5)-linked arabinose units esterified by a central 8-O-4' ferulic dimer. These results provide the first direct evidence that pectic arabinans in sugar beet cell walls may be covalently cross-linked through dehydrodiferulates.

  10. QUALITY OF SUGAR BEET ROOT IN RELATION TO WEATHER CONDITIONS AND DIFFERENT ATONIK DOSES

    OpenAIRE

    I ČERNÝ; V PAČUTA

    2004-01-01

    In the field trial carried out in 1998 and 1999 the effect of weather conditions and different Atonik doses application on sugar beet quality (refined sugar, refined sugar yield) was studied. The trial results confirmed statistically high significant effect of weather conditions on above mentioned parameters. More favourable weather conditions in 1999 influenced high significantly increasing of refined sugar (+ 0,67 %, rel. 5,53 %) and refined sugar yield (+ 0,67 t.ha-1, rel. 9,75 %) comparin...

  11. EVOLUTION OF SUGAR BEET AND SUGAR PRODUCTION IN ROMANIA AFTER ITS ACCESSION INTO THE E.U.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel-Florentin BADIU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of the evolution for sugar beet production and sugar beet extraction after Romania accesion in European Union. The analysis is based on the evolutions of areas, total and average yields per unit of area. The last period (2007- 2013 is compared to the previous period (2001-2006, utilised at reference. Also, it is performed in the four sugar factories respectively (SC AGRANA Romania SA, Sugar Factory Bod, SC sugar Oradea SA, sugar Ludus SA and it was made for the 2007-2013 period, after the application of EU’s rules for sugar market. The study presents the evolution of the biological sugar content and white sugar content between the years 2007 and 2013 and it evaluates the variability of the way of achieving production quotas. The main conclusion imposed after the analysis is that the systems of sugar production from sugar beet are stabilized. Statistically multi-annual average deviation from the assigned quota is approx .2%. Annual variations of sugar production are set between (- 15 % - (+ 43%, compared with the Romanian quota (104.688 tons white sugar.

  12. Environmental implications of gene flow from sugar beet to wild beet--current status and future research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Detlef; Cuguen, Joel; Biancardi, Enrico; Sweet, Jeremy

    2003-01-01

    Gene flow via seed or pollen is a basic biological process in plant evolution. The ecological and genetic consequences of gene flow depend on the amount and direction of gene flow as well as on the fitness of hybrids. The assessment of potential risks of transgenic plants should take into account the fact that conventional crops can often cross with wild plants. The precautionary approach in risk management of genetically modified plants (GMPs) may make it necessary to monitor significant wild and weed populations that might be affected by transgene escape. Gene flow is hard to control in wind-pollinated plants like beet (Beta vulgaris). In addition, wild beet populations potentially can undergo evolutionary changes which might expand their geographical distribution. Unintended products of cultivated beets pollinated by wild beets are weed beets that bolt and flower during their first year of planting. Weed beets cause yield losses and can delay harvest. Wild beets are important plant genetic resources and the preservation of wild beet diversity in Europe has been considered in biosafety research. We present here the methodology and research approaches that can be used for monitoring the geographical distribution and diversity of Beta populations. It has recently been shown that a century of gene flow from Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris has not altered the genetic diversity of wild Beta vulgaris L. ssp. maritima (L.) Arcang. in the Italian sugar beet seed production area. Future research should focus on the potential evolution of transgenic wild beet populations in comparison to these baseline data. Two monitoring models are presented describing how endpoints can be measured: (1) "Pre-post" crop commercialization against today's baseline and (2) "Parallel" to crop commercialization against GMP free reference areas/ populations. Model 2 has the advantage of taking ongoing changes in genetic diversity and population dynamics into account. Model 1 is more applicable if

  13. Multi-trait association mapping in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stich, Benjamin; Piepho, Hans-Peter; Schulz, Britta; Melchinger, Albrecht E

    2008-10-01

    Association mapping promises to overcome the limitations of linkage mapping methods. The main objective of this study was to examine the applicability of multivariate association mapping with an empirical data set of sugar beet. A total of 111 diploid sugar beet inbreds was selected from the seed parent heterotic pool to represent a broad diversity with respect to sugar content (SC). The inbreds were genotyped with 26 simple sequence repeat markers chosen according to their map positions in proximity to previously identified quantitative trait loci for SC. For SC and beet yield (BY), the genotypic variances were highly significant (P beet breeding context for detection of marker-phenotype associations. Furthermore, based on our results multivariate association mapping can be recommended as a promising tool to discriminate with a high mapping resolution between pleiotropy and linkage as reasons for co-localization of marker-phenotype associations for different traits.

  14. ESST Proceedings Rotterdam 2009. Beet Quality. Sustainability of beet sugar production. Energy usage - future challenges. General process technology developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Within the conference of the European Society for Sugar Technology (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) between 17th and 20th June, 2009 in Rotterdam (The Netherlands) the following lectures were held: (1) Sugar beet quality during long-term storage in clamp and field (A.W.M. Huijbregts); (2) Methods used in the Netherlands to limit frost damage and to process frost-deteriorated beets (J. Strujis, M. Jaspers, M. van Dijk); (3) Biotech in sugarbeet and sugarcane: Current status (T.K. Schwartz, C. Richard); (4) Separation of water through gas hydrate (T. Boech Andersen); (5) Optimised standard of sugar manufacturing - first calculations (F. Lorenz, T. Frankenfeld); (6) Reconsidering vapour compression for sugar crystallization (A. Dolls, M. Bruhns); (7) The development of sustainability standards in the sugar industry (P. Rein); (8) Bioethanol: sugar beet, sugar cane or second generation? (W.J. Corre, J.G. Conijin); (9) The sustainability of beet sugar production in comparison with other sugar crops (P. Christodoulou, V. Kazantzi, S. Bezergianni, K. Gounaris); (10) Alternative products from sugar beets (J. Iciek, S. Wawro); (11) Alternative products from sugar beets (M. Wojtczak); (12) Increase of sugar yield by electrodialysis (J.P. Jenen, P.B. Hansen, M.P. Carter); (13) Optimal dosing of alkalizing agents in the juice purification (G. Roesner, W. Hein, F. Emerstorfer); (14) Affinity based separation technologies and their role in the current and future sugar industry (V. Kochergin); (15) Four to three-stage sugarhouse with two white sugar products (J. Jeppesen, M. Carter); (16) Practical experience of juice decalcification using a weak acid cation exchange resin plant incorporating fractal fluid distribution (E. West, P. Burroughs, P. Seymour); (17) A new process for the production of 'seed crystals' - Process development and field report from the factories (M. Walter, B. Ekelhof, S. Heppner, D. Wullbrandt); (18) Application possibilities and Properties

  15. Proteomic Profiling of Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris) Leaves during Rhizomania Compatible Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Kimberly M; Broccardo, Carolyn J; Prenni, Jessica E; Wintermantel, William M

    2014-04-09

    Rhizomania, caused by Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV), severely impacts sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) production throughout the world, and is widely prevalent in most production regions. Initial efforts to characterize proteome changes focused primarily on identifying putative host factors that elicit resistant interactions with BNYVV, but as resistance breaking strains become more prevalent, effective disease control strategies will require the application of novel methods based on better understanding of disease susceptibility and symptom development. Herein, proteomic profiling was conducted on susceptible sugar beet, infected with two strains of BNYVV, to clarify the types of proteins prevalent during compatible virus-host plant interactions. Total protein was extracted from sugar beet leaf tissue infected with BNYVV, quantified, and analyzed by mass spectrometry. A total of 203 proteins were confidently identified, with a predominance of proteins associated with photosynthesis and energy, metabolism, and response to stimulus. Many proteins identified in this study are typically associated with systemic acquired resistance and general plant defense responses. These results expand on relatively limited proteomic data available for sugar beet and provide the ground work for additional studies focused on understanding the interaction of BNYVV with sugar beet.

  16. Modified sugar beet pectin induces apoptosis of colon cancer cells via an interaction with the neutral sugar side-chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Ellen G; Colquhoun, Ian J; Chau, Hoa K; Hotchkiss, Arland T; Waldron, Keith W; Morris, Victor J; Belshaw, Nigel J

    2016-01-20

    Pectins extracted from a variety of sources and modified with heat and/or pH have previously been shown to exhibit activity towards several cancer cell lines. However, the structural basis for the anti-cancer activity of modified pectin requires clarification. Sugar beet and citrus pectin extracts have been compared. Pectin extracted from sugar beet pulp only weakly affected the viability of colon cancer cells. Alkali treatment increased the anti-cancer effect of sugar beet pectin via an induction of apoptosis. Alkali treatment decreased the degree of esterification (DE) and increased the ratio of rhamnogalacturonan I (RGI) to homogalacturonan. Low DE per se did not play a significant role in the anti-cancer activity. However, the enzymatic removal of galactose and, to a lesser extent, arabinose from the pectin decreased the effect on cancer cells indicating that the neutral sugar-containing RGI regions are important for pectin bioactivity.

  17. Effects of Bio-char on Sugar Beet Growth in Clomazone Residual Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Yu-mei

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Effects of biological carbon (bio-char on sugar beet growth were studied by pot experiments simulating long residual herbicide residues in soil environment. The results showed that the safety threshold of sugar beet growth with clomazone residual was 0.12 mg·kg-1, and beyond this value, sugar beet growth was in inhibition with clomazone residues increased gradually; Early seedling growth under severe phytotoxicity inhibition rate reached 100% when clomazone concentration was greater than 0.48 mg·kg-1; Seedlings subjected to injury sym-ptoms generally reduced to no phytotoxicity after put into a certain amount of bio-car in soil, the plant growth and root shoot ratio increased. Sugar beet root tuber yield and total sugar yield were influenced after applying carbon, sugar content increased 1.10%, which showed significant difference compared with CK. It explained that the bio-char could promote the growth of sugar beet. Applying biochar to soil could reduce the biological hazardous taken by clomazone residues within certain scope.

  18. THE PRODUCTION OF CONCENTRATED SUGAR BEET JUICE AND PERSPECTIVES OF ITS USE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Magomedov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Different methods of obtaining the product given were tested and rational modes for the proposed technology were chosen in the development of technology for production of sugar beet concentrated juice. The sugar beet concentrated juice is obtained as follows: sugar beets are washed in the continuous action washing machine, checked, rotten or spoiled beets are removed from the cycle, and insufficiently treated roots are directed to re-washing. Then with the help of thermal processing the sugar beet is peeled. The peeled roots are white. They are crushed to the 3-4 mm particles size, mixed with acidified to pH 3,5-4,0 water (hydromodule 1-1.2, then the resulting mass is heated to 80 0C temperature. The use of acidified water is necessary to prevent the darkening initiation. Then the received sugar beet mass is fed to pressing to obtain its juice. The pressed juice depending on the beet source contains 12 % of DS and 1.5-3 % reducing substances (RS of the total mass of dry substances. The juice concentration is under the suction of 0.008 MPa at the boiling temperature of up to 60 0C to the content of 70 % DS. Due to the delicate mode, the sugars breakdown is less intensive, the finished product is of good quality. At the simultaneous concentration with steam the volatile substances with a specific smell are removed, that improves the juice taste and smell. Under this mode, the sugar hydrolysis is intensive, there is a growth reducing substances up to 20 %, the color is increased to 40% density. The research results allow to recommend the product obtained as the sugar syrup substitute.

  19. Influence of additive from sugar beet on white bread quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Nada K.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The additive of acceptable sensory, physical and chemical and microbiological characteristics was made from cossettes. Great water binding capacity related to microcrystals of cellulose qualifies this additive as a desired one in bread making process. Bread was baked in the laboratory and patent flour was used. The additive with particles smaller than 95 (m was supplemented in the quantities of 2, 5 and 10%. The data related to the influence of the quantity of additive on white bread quality point that parallel to increasing the amount of the additive in the dough, yield of dough and bread were also increased. Negative effects are detected as volume depression and inferior bread crumb quality and altered crumb color. The decrease in bread quality is small if 2% of additive was applied, but significant with 5 and 10%. The bread freshness was highly graded 48 hours after baking due to the ability of the additive to retain water. On the whole, bread of superior quality supplemented by 5 and 10% of the additive from sugar beet fiber can be easily made by fortifying flour with gluten and by adding appropriate dough conditioner.

  20. Genetic analysis of bolting after winter in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Nina; Tränkner, Conny; Lemnian, Ioana; Grosse, Ivo; Müller, Andreas E; Jung, Christian; Kopisch-Obuch, Friedrich J

    2014-11-01

    This study reveals for the first time a major QTL for post-winter bolting resistance in sugar beet ( Beta vulgaris L.). The knowledge of this QTL is a major contribution towards the development of a winter sugar beet with controlled bolting behavior. In cool temperate climates, sugar beets are currently grown as a spring crop. They are sown in spring and harvested in autumn. Growing sugar beet as a winter crop with an extended vegetation period fails due to bolting after winter. Bolting after winter might be controlled by accumulating genes for post-winter bolting resistance. Previously, we had observed in field experiments a low post-winter bolting rate of 0.5 for sugar beet accession BETA 1773. This accession was crossed with a biennial sugar beet with regular bolting behavior to develop a F3 mapping population. The population was grown in the greenhouse, exposed to artificial cold treatment for 16 weeks and transplanted to the field. Bolting was recorded twice a week from May until October. Post-winter bolting behavior was assessed by two different factors, bolting delay (determined as days to bolt after cold treatment) and post-winter bolting resistance (bolting rate after winter). For days to bolt, means of F3 families ranged from 25 to 164 days while for bolting rate F3 families ranged from 0 to 1. For each factor one QTL explaining about 65% of the phenotypic variation was mapped to the same region on linkage group 9 with a partially recessive allele increasing bolting delay and post-winter bolting resistance. The results are discussed in relation to the potential use of marker-assisted breeding of winter sugar beets with controlled bolting.

  1. Metagenomic Analysis of the Bacterial Community Associated with the Taproot of Sugar Beet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurumaru, Hirohito; Okubo, Takashi; Okazaki, Kazuyuki; Hashimoto, Megumi; Kakizaki, Kaori; Hanzawa, Eiko; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Asanome, Noriyuki; Tanaka, Fukuyo; Sekiyama, Yasuyo; Ikeda, Seishi; Minamisawa, Kiwamu

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed a metagenome of the bacterial community associated with the taproot of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) in order to investigate the genes involved in plant growth-promoting traits (PGPTs), namely 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase, indole acetic acid (IAA), N2 fixation, phosphate solubilization, pyrroloquinoline quinone, siderophores, and plant disease suppression as well as methanol, sucrose, and betaine utilization. The most frequently detected gene among the PGPT categories encoded β-1,3-glucanase (18 per 105 reads), which plays a role in the suppression of plant diseases. Genes involved in phosphate solubilization (e.g., for quinoprotein glucose dehydrogenase), methanol utilization (e.g., for methanol dehydrogenase), siderophore production (e.g. isochorismate pyruvate lyase), and ACC deaminase were also abundant. These results suggested that such PGPTs are crucially involved in supporting the growth of sugar beet. In contrast, genes for IAA production (iaaM and ipdC) were less abundant (~1 per 105 reads). N2 fixation genes (nifHDK) were not detected; bacterial N2 -fixing activity was not observed in the 15N2 -feeding experiment. An analysis of nitrogen metabolism suggested that the sugar beet microbiome mainly utilized ammonium and nitroalkane as nitrogen sources. Thus, N2 fixation and IAA production did not appear to contribute to sugar beet growth. Taxonomic assignment of this metagenome revealed the high abundance of Mesorhizobium, Bradyrhizobium, and Streptomyces, suggesting that these genera have ecologically important roles in the taproot of sugar beet. Bradyrhizobium-assigned reads in particular were found in almost all categories of dominant PGPTs with high abundance. The present study revealed the characteristic functional genes in the taproot-associated microbiome of sugar beet, and suggest the opportunity to select sugar beet growth-promoting bacteria. PMID:25740621

  2. EFFECT OF YEAR AND ATONIK APPLICATION ON THE SELECTED SUGAR BEET PRODUCTION AND QUALITY PARAMETERS

    OpenAIRE

    I ČERNÝ; V PAČUTA; J FECKOVÁ; J. GOLIAN

    2002-01-01

    In a field trial, realised in a warm, slightly dry, maize growing region, an influence of different rates of Atonik (A: 0,6 + 0,6 l.ha-1; B: 0,4 + 0,6 + 0,6 l.ha-1; C: 0,25 + 1,0 + 0,6 l.ha-1) was observed on some technological and qualitative parameters of sugar beet (root yield, digestion, refined sugar yield). We have found a statistically high significant effect of both the yearly weather conditions and Atonik application on the development of production parameters of sugar beet in 1998 -...

  3. Molecular markers for improving control of soil-borne pathogen Fusarium oxysporum in sugar beet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. betae (FOB) is an important pathogen of sugar beet worldwide causing leaf yellowing and vascular discoloration. The use of tolerant varieties is one of the most effective methods for managing this disease. In this study, a large germplasm collection,comprised of 29 sugar be...

  4. Sugar beet cell wall protein confers fungal and pest resistance in genetically engineered plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar beet biomass and sugar yield are reduced by diseases caused by microbial pathogens and insect pest infestations. Since disease and pest control measures continue to rely on harmful chemical fungicides and insecticides, biotechnological approaches offer an alternate approach for disease and pe...

  5. Taproot promoters cause tissue specific gene expression within the storage root of sugar beet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltmanns, Heiko; Kloos, Dorothee U; Briess, Waltraud; Pflugmacher, Maike; Stahl, Dietmar J; Hehl, Reinhard

    2006-08-01

    The storage root (taproot) of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) originates from hypocotyl and primary root and contains many different tissues such as central xylem, primary and secondary cambium, secondary xylem and phloem, and parenchyma. It was the aim of this work to characterize the promoters of three taproot-expressed genes with respect to their tissue specificity. To investigate this, promoters for the genes Tlp, His1-r, and Mll were cloned from sugar beet, linked to reporter genes and transformed into sugar beet and tobacco. Reporter gene expression analysis in transgenic sugar beet plants revealed that all three promoters are active in the storage root. Expression in storage root tissues is either restricted to the vascular zone (Tlp, His1-r) or is observed in the whole organ (Mll). The Mll gene is highly organ specific throughout different developmental stages of the sugar beet. In tobacco, the Tlp and Mll promoters drive reporter gene expression preferentially in hypocotyl and roots. The properties of the Mll promoter may be advantageous for the modification of sucrose metabolism in storage roots.

  6. RESULTS OF SUGAR BEET PRODUCTION DEPENDING ON THE HYBRIDS SELECTION AND THE NUMBER OF FUNGICIDE APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrija Kristek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of the production values of 10 sugar beet hybrids was conducted on chernozem soil type in Eastern Croatia (Tovarniklocation. The used treatments with and without fungicides application were investigated in 2013 and 2014. Sugar beet hybrids used in the study originate from three market-leading sugar beet seed companies in Croatia, whose varieties provide disease tolerance to C. beticola. The years of the study were quite warm with higher mean monthly air temperature (°C and increased amount of rainfall, as compared to the long-term mean. In the second year of the study, due to increased amount of rainfall (mm in July and August, as well as the total loss ofstrobilurin efficiency and low effectiveness ofthe cyproconazole treatment, the destruction ofthe leaves by C. beticola Sacc. was significantly higher. The results of the study showed a huge coherence of sugar beet yield and quality with leaf conservation through the vegetation (the number of treatment, and with the hybrids. Due to leaves destruction on control treatments, as compared to fungicide application three times, the sugar beet root yield was reduced on the average by 9.79 t ha'1 (10.03%, sugar content by 0.69% (rel. 4.89% and sugar yield by 2.041 ha1 (17.04%. On the other hand, three fungicide applications increased the root yield by 4.881 ha1 (5.26%, sugar content by 0.52% and sugar yield by 0.99 t ha1 (9.01% as compared to one fungicide application. All sugar beet hybrids of the study were strongly negatively affected the control treatment, indicating repeated fungicide application against C. beticola as a regular agricultural practices. On the average, for all variations of fungicides applications, the sugar beet hybrid Jadranka had significantly higher root yield in comparison with other hybrids included in the study. Moreover, the highest sugar content achieved Sandor, Marianka and Kundera. Significantly higher sugar yield had a hybrid Jadranka.

  7. Two-step enzymatic fingerprinting of sugar beet pectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remoroza, C; Broxterman, S; Gruppen, H; Schols, H A

    2014-08-01

    A two-step enzymatic fingerprinting method was introduced to analyze a highly methylesterified and acetylated sugar beet pectin having a degree of methylesterification (DM) of 62 and acetylation of 30. A cocktail of pectolytic enzymes, including endo-polygalacturonase II (endo-PGII) and pectin lyase (PL), was used for the first digestion. The endo-PGII and PL resistant pectin fragments were isolated and subjected to a second digestion using fungal pectin methylesterase and endo-PGII. After the two sequential digestions, 78% of the total GalA residues present in the parental pectin were recovered as mono- and oligomers, which were used to quantitatively describe the parental SBP. For this reason, the descriptive parameters degree of blockiness (DBabs), degree of hydrolysis by PG (DHPG) and degree of hydrolysis by PL (DHPL) were established for both digestions. The first digestion revealed the presence of short blocks of nonesterified GalA residues and blocks of partly methylesterified and acetylated GalA residues in the parental SBP, in addition to blocks of highly methylesterified and acetylated GalA residues. The second digestion revealed the presence of blocks of methylesterified, partly methylesterified and/or acetylated GalA residues in a sequence not to be degradable by neither endo-PGII nor by PL. The acetyl groups were present in an blockwise manner. Application of the method to two differently prepared DM 50 SBPs showed that the two pectins differ in the ratio of blocks of nonesterified and blocks of partly methylesterified and acetylated GalA residues.

  8. The influence of the extraction parameters on the quality of dried sugar beet pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanović Branislav V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Growing demand for better quality and cheaper products put on the need to industry to balance between the two kinds of needs, which are the reduction of production costs and to ensure a high quality product. This is the case with dried sugar beet pulp as a byproduct of sugar refining process. One of the possibilities to reduce energy consumption is savings in the process of thermal dehydration in the process of the conventional drying of pulp. Pulp drying is one third of total energy consumption in the sugar factory. Acidification of water extraction result in pulp that could be pressed better and in other hand in the juice with less non-sucrose compounds. Keeping the extraction process under certain conditions, directly affects on the quality of the extracted pulp and on effects of their further processing. This paper examines the impact of the extraction parameters of sugar from sugar beet and agents of acidification for water extraction (sulphurous acid, hydrogen peroxide on the quality of dried sugar beet pulp. Extraction of sugar from sugar beet cossettes by hydrogen peroxide at pH 5.5 to 8.5 does not cause changes in mechanical properties of sugar beet cossettes and in water retention coefficient, but increases the brightness of dried sugar beet pulp for about 5-7 units, which solubility in water does not depend on the applied concentration of extracting agents, but increases in dependence on the duration of the extraction. Sugar beet pulp extracted at pH 11.0 has reduced strength, they are highly hydrated, and under the force they lose their shape, binding a larger amount of water thus reducing the effect of their pressing. The changes in microstructure were probably accompanied by segmenting the linear parts of macromolecules and are reflected in the increase of water retention capacity and increase the solubility of dried sugar beet pulp for two to three times. Under the same conditions of extraction, sulphurous acid produces similar

  9. Co-Digestion of Sugar Beet Silage Increases Biogas Yield from Fibrous Substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Sharif Ahmed; Daniel Einfalt; Marian Kazda

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that the easily degradable carbohydrates of the sugar beet silage (S) will improve the anaerobic digestion of grass silage (G) more profoundly compared to co-digestion of sugar beet silage with maize silage (M). M : S and G : S mixtures were tested in two continuous laboratory-scale AD experiments at volatile solid ratios of 1 : 0, 6 : 1, 3 : 1, and 1 : 3 at organic loading rates of 1.5 kgVS m−3 day−1. While the sugar beet effects in mixtures with maize silage...

  10. Development of a field inoculation method to screen for sugar beet seedling resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. beta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium yellows is an important disease in many sugar beet production areas throughout the U.S. and yield losses can be devastating. Also seedling damping off caused by Fusarium can result in serious damage to the sugar beet stand establishment. This can lead to a severe loss in yield. The object...

  11. Registration of SR98 sugar beet germplasm with resistances to Rhizoctonia seedling and crown and root rot diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) germplasms SR98 (PI 655951) and SR98/2 (659754) are being released as potential pollinators or populations from which to select pollinators for hybrid seed production, and were developed by the USDA-ARS, at East Lansing, MI, in cooperation with the Beet Sugar Developmen...

  12. Enzyme resistant carbohydrate based micro-scale materials from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) pulp for food and pharmaceutical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bio-based micro scale materials are increasingly used in functional food and pharmaceutical applications. The present study produced carbohydrate-based micro scale tubular materials from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) pulp (SBP), a by-product of sugar beet processing. The isolated carbohydrates wer...

  13. Modeling sugar content of farmer-managed sugar beets (Beta vulgaris L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah A. Jaradat

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We measured or estimated leaf and root physical and chemical traits of spatio-temporally heterogeneousfield-grown sugar beet throughout its ontogeny during three growing seasons. The objective was toquantify the impact of temporal changes in these traits on root sugar content [S(R; g 100 g-1 root dryweight]. Artificial Neural Network (ANN, in conjunction with thermal time (ºCd, adequately delineatedthe boundaries (mean ± standard deviation, S.D. between S(R during early (41.6 ± 6.2, med (54.5 ± 3.0,and late ontogeny (63.4 ± 2.4, corresponding, respectively to low, medium, and high S(R. Calibrationand validation Partial Least Squares (PLS regression models, using plant physical and chemical traits,predicted and validated sugar content of sugar beet leaves [S(L] and roots [S(R] throughout its ontogenywith significant probabilities. Most physical and all chemical traits exhibited dynamic changesthroughout plant ontogeny and, consequently, negatively or positively impacted S(R. The positiveimpact of S(L and root volume (RV on S(R diminished towards the end of the growing season;whereas, the positive impact of root density (RD and carbon:nitrogen (C:N ratio in leaves [C:N(L] androots [C:N(R] persisted throughout plant ontogeny. Specific leaf area (SLA, in particular, exhibitednegative, then positive impact on S(R. The utility of physical and chemical traits of field-grown sugarbeets in building reliable PLS models was confirmed using multivariate analysis on secondary statistics(residual mean square errors, RMSE and validation coefficients of determination, Q2 whichdiscriminated between and correctly classified low (100%, medium (95% and high (97% S(R groups.The findings may have implications to design management practices that can enhance C:N ratio and Csequestrationin roots, maintain optimum, but not excessive, N level in developing leaves and roots,optimize root sugar content and minimize its variation under field conditions

  14. Biochemical properties of digestive carbohydrases from the sugar beet weevil, Lixus incanescens (Coleoptera: Curculionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Ahsaei

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The sugar beet weevil, Lixus incanescens B., is one of the most important pests of sugar beet plant in Iran. The petioles and leaves of sugar beet are attacked by larvae and adults of the sugar beet weevil. Chemical application is currently used for controlling the pest. Digestion in the alimentary canal of the sugar beet weevil is facilitated by some carbohydrases. Results of the in vitro studies indicated the presence of alpha-amylase, beta-glucosidase and beta-galactosidase in the digestive tract of the pest. Highest activities of alpha-amylase, beta-glucosidase and beta-galactosidase were at pH 5, pH 5 and pH 4, respectively. No significant alpha-glucosidase and alpha-galactosidase activity was detected in the pest's digestive system. Optimum temperatures for alpha-amylase, beta-glucosidase and beta-galactosidase activity were determined at 45, 50 and 40 oC, respectively. alpha-amylase was more stable under acidic condition (pH 4 to pH 6 than under highly acidic and alkaline condition. Na+ and K+ increased alpha-amylase activity, but sodium dodecyl sulfate significantly decreased amylase activity. Also, the activity of alpha-amylase was inhibited by the other compounds such as MgCl2, CaCl2 and EDTA. Zymogram analysis using native-PAGE revealed one band of alpha-amylase activity in Lixus incanescens. High activity of carbohydrases in the digestive system of adults was determined and further researches are needed to be applied to design new strategies for controlling the sugar beet weevil based on natural carbohydrase inhibitors.

  15. Kinetics of enzyme-catalyzed cross-linking of feruloylated arabinan from sugar beet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abang Zaidel, Dayang Norulfairuz; Arnous, Anis; Holck, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    the kinetics of HRP catalyzed cross-linking of FA esterified to α-(1,5)-linked arabinans are affected by the length of the arabinan chains carrying the feruloyl substitutions. The kinetics of the HRP-catalyzed cross-linking of four sets of arabinan samples from sugar beet pulp, having different molecular...... weights and hence different degrees of polymerization, were monitored by the disappearance of FA absorbance at 316 nm. MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS analysis confirmed that the sugar beet arabinans were feruloyl-substituted, and HPLC analysis verified that the amounts of diFAs increased when FA levels decreased...

  16. Modified sugar beet pectin induces apoptosis of colon cancer cells via interaction with the neutral sugar side-chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pectins extracted from a variety of sources and modified with heat and/or pH have previously been shown to exhibit activity towards several cancer cell lines. However, the structural basis for the anti-cancer activity of modified pectin requires clarification. Sugar beet and citrus pectin extracts h...

  17. Differences between the rhizosphere microbiome of Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima-ancestor of all beet crops-and modern sugar beets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachow, Christin; Müller, Henry; Tilcher, Ralf; Berg, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    The structure and function of the plant microbiome is driven by plant species and prevailing environmental conditions. Effectuated by breeding efforts, modern crops diverge genetically and phenotypically from their wild relatives but little is known about consequences for the associated microbiota. Therefore, we studied bacterial rhizosphere communities associated with the wild beet B. vulgaris ssp. maritima grown in their natural habitat soil from coastal drift lines (CS) and modern sugar beets (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris) cultivated in CS and potting soil (PS) under greenhouse conditions. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene fingerprints and pyrosequencing-based amplicon libraries revealed plant genotype- and soil-specific microbiomes. Wild beet plants harbor distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and a more diverse bacterial community than the domesticated sugar beet plants. Although the rhizospheres of both plant genotypes were dominated by Proteobacteria and Planctomycetes, 37.5% of dominant OTUs were additionally detected in the wild beet rhizosphere. Analysis of the cultivable fraction confirmed these plant genotype-specific differences at functional level. The proportion of isolates displayed in vitro activity against phytopathogens was lower for wild beet (≤45.8%) than for sugar beet (≤57.5%). Conversely, active isolates from the wild beet exhibited stronger ability to cope with abiotic stresses. From all samples, active isolates of Stenotrophomonas rhizophila were frequently identified. In addition, soil type-specific impacts on the composition of bacterial communities were found: Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Planctomycetes were only detected in plants cultivated in CS; whereas Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria dominated in PS. Overall, in comparison to modern sugar beets, wild beets were associated with taxonomically and functionally distinct microbiomes.

  18. Differences between the rhizosphere microbiome of Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima—ancestor of all beet crops—and modern sugar beets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachow, Christin; Müller, Henry; Tilcher, Ralf; Berg, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    The structure and function of the plant microbiome is driven by plant species and prevailing environmental conditions. Effectuated by breeding efforts, modern crops diverge genetically and phenotypically from their wild relatives but little is known about consequences for the associated microbiota. Therefore, we studied bacterial rhizosphere communities associated with the wild beet B. vulgaris ssp. maritima grown in their natural habitat soil from coastal drift lines (CS) and modern sugar beets (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris) cultivated in CS and potting soil (PS) under greenhouse conditions. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene fingerprints and pyrosequencing-based amplicon libraries revealed plant genotype- and soil-specific microbiomes. Wild beet plants harbor distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and a more diverse bacterial community than the domesticated sugar beet plants. Although the rhizospheres of both plant genotypes were dominated by Proteobacteria and Planctomycetes, 37.5% of dominant OTUs were additionally detected in the wild beet rhizosphere. Analysis of the cultivable fraction confirmed these plant genotype-specific differences at functional level. The proportion of isolates displayed in vitro activity against phytopathogens was lower for wild beet (≤45.8%) than for sugar beet (≤57.5%). Conversely, active isolates from the wild beet exhibited stronger ability to cope with abiotic stresses. From all samples, active isolates of Stenotrophomonas rhizophila were frequently identified. In addition, soil type-specific impacts on the composition of bacterial communities were found: Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Planctomycetes were only detected in plants cultivated in CS; whereas Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria dominated in PS. Overall, in comparison to modern sugar beets, wild beets were associated with taxonomically and functionally distinct microbiomes. PMID:25206350

  19. Growth and photosynthetic efficiency promotion of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) by endophytic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yingwu; Lou, Kai; Li, Chun

    2010-07-01

    Very little is known about the physiological interactions between plants and endophytic bacteria. We investigated the impact of three endophytic bacteria, Bacillus pumilus 2-1, Chryseobacterium indologene 2-2, and Acinetobacter johnsonii 3-1, on the photosynthetic capacity and growth of sugar beet. Endophyte-free plants were obtained first and infected with the bacteria. Measurements of total chlorophyll content revealed very significant differences between endophyte-free beet plants and some infected by endophytic bacteria. The maximum photochemical yield (Fv/Fm) was used to determine any photosynthetic effect on plants caused by biotic or abiotic factors. After 30 days of growth, there was significantly higher Fv/Fm for endophyte-infected than endophyte-free plants. The light response curves of beet showed that photosynthetic capacity was significantly increased in endophyte-infected plants. Photosynthesis of endophyte-free plants was saturated at 1,300 micromol m(-2) s(-1), whereas endophyte-infected plants were not saturated at the irradiance used. The effect seemed to be due to promotion of electron transport in the thylakoid membranes. Promotion of photosynthetic capacity in sugar beet was due to increased chlorophyll content, leading to a consequent increased carbohydrate synthesis. It is possible that the increased maximum yield of photosynthesis in sugar beet was promoted by phytohormones and produced by the bacteria.

  20. Comparative effectiveness of sugar beet microsatellite markers isolated from genomic libraries and GenBank ESTs to map the sugar beet genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, V; Devaux, P; Thiel, T; Viard, F; Mielordt, S; Touzet, P; Quillet, M C

    2007-10-01

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) is an important root crop for sucrose production. A study was conducted to find a new abundant source of microsatellite (SSR) markers in order to develop marker assistance for breeding. Different sources of existing microsatellites were used and new ones were developed to compare their efficiency to reveal diversity in mapping population and mapping coverage. Forty-one microsatellite markers were isolated from a B. vulgaris ssp maritima genomic library and 201 SSRs were extracted from a B. vulgaris ssp vulgaris library. Data mining was applied on GenBank B. vulgaris expressed sequence tags (ESTs), 803 EST-SSRs were identified over 19,709 ESTs. Characteristics, polymorphism and cross-species transferability of these microsatellites were compared. Based on these markers, a high density genetic map was constructed using 92 F(2) individuals from a cross between a sugar and a table beet. The map contains 284 markers, spans over 555 cM and covers the nine chromosomes of the species with an average markers density of one marker every 2.2 cM. A set of markers for assignation to the nine chromosomes of sugar beet is provided.

  1. A sugar beet chlorophyll a/b binding protein promoter void of G-box like elements confers strong and leaf specific reporter gene expression in transgenic sugar beet

    OpenAIRE

    Kloos Dorothee U; Stahl Dietmar J; Hehl Reinhard

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background Modification of leaf traits in sugar beet requires a strong leaf specific promoter. With such a promoter, expression in taproots can be avoided which may otherwise take away available energy resources for sugar accumulation. Results Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH) was utilized to generate an enriched and equalized cDNA library for leaf expressed genes from sugar beet. Fourteen cDNA fragments corresponding to thirteen different genes were isolated. Northern blot...

  2. Experimental conversion of sugar beets into alcohol without the addition of malt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bykovskaya, V.A.; Solov' eva, S.V.; Khokhlacheva, A.A.

    1968-01-01

    The omission of malt provides for different values of the viscosity in the wort. Various concentrations of the worts obtained this way were fermented to EtOH, and the important parameters, such as yeast cell count, acidity, EtOH assay, unfermented sugars, etc. were determined. Yeasts cultivated on beet worts under addition of (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/, K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/, and MgSO/sub 4/, will easily ferment sugar beet worts under technical conditions to acceptable EtOH values of 11.1 dl EtOH/long ton of beets. This method was used in a plant continuously for 3 years, saving 200 long tons malt/year.

  3. Impact of presowing laser irradiation of seeds on sugar beet properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacała, E.; Demczuk, A.; Grzyś, E.; Prośba-Białczyk, U.; Szajsner, H.

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the experiment was to establish the influence of biostimulation on the sugar beet seeds. The seeds came from the specialized breeding program energ'hill or were irradiated by the laser in two doses. The impact of the biostimulation was analyzed by determining the nitrate reductase activity and the nitrate, chlorophyll and carotenoids contents in leaves, as well as, the dry matter and sugar concentration in mature roots. The field experiment was established for two sugar beet cultivars. Biostimulation by irradiation and a special seed breeding program energ'hill had a positive influence on some examined parameters (particularly on nitrate reductase activity in Ruveta and in numerous cases on photosynthetic pigments in both cultivars). Regarding the dry matter accumulation and sugar concentration this impact was more favourable for Tiziana than for Ruveta cultivar.

  4. Bioethanol production from grape and sugar beet pomaces by solid-state fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, L.A.; Toro, M.E.; Vazquez, F.; Correa-Daneri, M.L.; Gouiric, S.C.; Vallejo, M.D. [Biotechnology Institute, Engineering Faculty, National University of San Juan, Av. San Martin 1109 (Oeste), 5400 San Juan (Argentina)

    2010-06-15

    A suitable alternative to replace fossil fuels is the production of bioethanol from agroindustrial waste. Grape pomace is the most abundant residue in San Juan and sugar beet pomace could be important in the region. Solid-State Fermentation (SSF) is a technology that allows transforming agroindustrial waste into many valuable bioproducts, like ethanol. This work reports a laboratory scale SSF to obtain alcohol from grape and sugar beet pomace by means of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts. The initial conditions of the culture medium were: sugars 16.5% (p/p); pH 4.5; humidity 68% (p/p). Cultures were inoculated with 10{sup 8} cells/g of pomace, and incubated in anaerobic environment, at 28 C, during 96 h. SSF showed ethanol maximum concentrations at 48 h and ethanol yield on sugars consumed was more than 82%. Yield attained creates expectation about the use of SSF to obtain fuel alcohol. (author)

  5. THE INFLUENCE OF THERMO-CHEMICAL TREATMENT ON THE MOLECULAR DIFFUSION COEFFICIENT OF SUCROSE FROM SUGAR BEET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Kulneva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional methods of extraction do not provide the required amount of sucrose extraction from sugar beet pulp. To improve the process it is advisable to use additional methods of processing pulp, including the thermo-physical methods using various coolants. Thermal pre-treatment of sugar beet pulp can increase the period of active extraction, the recovery of sucrose from it and reduce the loss of sugar in the pulp, increase the productivity of diffusion unit. One of the most important criteria for evaluating the efficiency of the extraction process is the value of the molecular diffusion coefficient D, m2/s. The coefficient is a physical constant that characterizes the ability of a substance to penetrate by diffusion in the stationary medium. One of the most promising technological directions that increases the efficiency of the extraction process and accelerates the extraction of sugar from the pulp, is its scalding, as well as the use of different extractants for the diffusion process. The method of extraction sucrose from sugar beet with the application of preliminary scalding of sugar beet samples and the use of solutions of various salts as extractants was proposed. Positive effect of heat treatment on the molecular diffusion coefficient of sucrose from sugar beet was found experimentally. The value of the optimal duration of scalding is 30 seconds. It was found out that the heat treatment of sugar beet samples with the solutions of proposed salts leads to a gradual uniform heating of beet tissues and denaturation of proteins, which increases the diffusion coefficient of the sugar beet tissue sucrose. The maximum value of the diffusion coefficient is achieved by using as an extractant solution of ammonium sulfate (NH42SO4. The optimal value of the duration of contact of sugar beet pulp and the proposed reactant was determined and it accounted 30 seconds.

  6. Root infection of sugar beet by Cercospora beticola in a climate chamber and in the field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vereijssen, J.; Schneider, J.H.M.; Termorshuizen, A.J.

    2005-01-01

    Sugar beet root infection by Cercospora beticola, the causal agent of Cercospora leaf spot (CLS), was studied in a climate chamber and in the field. In the climate chamber, root incubation of susceptible seedlings with a conidial suspension resulted in disease incidences that were significantly diff

  7. Association mapping in multiple segregating populations of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stich, Benjamin; Melchinger, Albrecht E; Heckenberger, Martin; Möhring, Jens; Schechert, Axel; Piepho, Hans-Peter

    2008-11-01

    Association mapping in multiple segregating populations (AMMSP) combines high power to detect QTL in genome-wide approaches of linkage mapping with high mapping resolution of association mapping. The main objectives of this study were to (1) examine the applicability of AMMSP in a plant breeding context based on segregating populations of various size of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.), (2) compare different biometric approaches for AMMSP, and (3) detect markers with significant main effect across locations for nine traits in sugar beet. We used 768 F(n) (n = 2, 3, 4) sugar beet genotypes which were randomly derived from 19 crosses among diploid elite sugar beet clones. For all nine traits, the genotypic and genotype x location interaction variances were highly significant (P < 0.01). Using a one-step AMMSP approach, the total number of significant (P < 0.05) marker-phenotype associations was 44. The identification of genome regions associated with the traits under consideration indicated that not only segregating populations derived from crosses of parental genotypes in a systematic manner could be used for AMMSP but also populations routinely derived in plant breeding programs from multiple, related crosses. Furthermore, our results suggest that data sets, whose size does not permit analysis by the one-step AMMSP approach, might be analyzed using the two-step approach based on adjusted entry means for each location without losing too much power for detection of marker-phenotype associations.

  8. Root rot symptoms in sugar beet lines caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. betae

    Science.gov (United States)

    The soil-borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum may cause both Fusarium yellows and Fusarium root rot diseases with severe yield losses in cultivated sugar beet worldwide. These two diseases cause similar foliar symptoms but different root response and have been proposed to be due to two distinct F. oxyspo...

  9. Multilocus analysis using putative fungal effectors to describe a population of Fusarium oxysporum from sugar beet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covey, Paul A; Kuwitzky, Brett; Hanson, Mia; Webb, Kimberly M

    2014-08-01

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) Fusarium yellows is caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. betae and can lead to significant reductions in root yield, sucrose percentage, juice purity, and storability. F. oxysporum f. sp. betae can be highly variable and many F. oxysporum strains isolated from symptomatic sugar beet are nonpathogenic. Identifying pathogenicity factors and their diversity in the F. oxysporum f. sp. betae population could further understanding of how this pathogen causes disease and potentially provide molecular markers to rapidly identify pathogenic isolates. This study used several previously described fungal effector genes (Fmk1, Fow1, Pda1, PelA, PelD, Pep1, Prt1, Rho1, Sge1, Six1, Six6, Snf1, and Ste12) as genetic markers, in a population of 26 pathogenic and nonpathogenic isolates of F. oxysporum originally isolated from symptomatic sugar beet. Of the genes investigated, six were present in all F. oxysporum isolates from sugar beet (Fmk1, Fow1, PelA, Rho1, Snf1, and Ste12), and seven were found to be dispersed within the population (Pda1, PelD, Pep1, Prt1, Sge1, Six1, and Six6). Of these, Fmk1, Fow1, PelA, Rho1, Sge1, Snf1, and Ste12 were significant in relating clade designations and PelD, and Prt1 were significant for correlating with pathogenicity in F. oxysporum f. sp. betae.

  10. A greenhouse test for screening sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) for resistance to Rhizoctonia solani

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, O.E.; Panella, L.; Bock, de T.S.M.; Lange, W.

    2001-01-01

    Rhizoctonia solani Kühn is a serious plant pathogenic fungus, causing various types of damage to sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.). In Europe, the disease is spreading and becoming a threat for the growing of this crop. Plant resistance seems to be the most practical and economical way to control the di

  11. Antioxidant and Physicochemical Properties of Hydrogen Peroxide-Treated Sugar Beet Dietary Fibre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mišan, Aleksandra; Sakač, Marijana; Medić, Đorđe; Tadić, Vanja; Marković, Goran; Gyura, Julliana; Pagano, Ester; Izzo, Angelo A; Borrelli, Francesca; Šarić, Bojana; Milovanović, Ivan; Milić, Nataša

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the present work was to examine if hydrogen peroxide treatment of sugar beet fibre that aimed at improving its physicochemical properties would impair its antioxidant potential. Three different sugar beet fibres were obtained from sugar beet - non-treated fibre (NTF) from sugar beet cossettes extracted with sulphurous acid, treated fibre (TF) from NTF treated with hydrogen peroxide in alkaline solution and commercially available Fibrex(®) . The antioxidant activity of extractable and non-extractable fibre fractions in ethanol/water mixture (80:20, v/v) of three fibre samples was estimated. Non-extractable fractions obtained after alkaline treatment of investigated fibres were much higher in phenolic compounds and possessed higher antioxidant potential than extractable fractions. Ferulic acid was proven to be the dominant phenolic acid. Regarding both extractable and non-extractable fractions, Fibrex(®) had the highest antioxidant activity in chemical tests, while NTF was superior in comparison with TF. Based on the results of Caco-2 cells-based test, all non-extractable fractions possessed potential for reactive oxygen species inhibition. Regarding the extractable fractions, only the TF manifested this effect.Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Application of generalized Hough transform for detecting sugar beet plant from weed using machine vision method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Bakhshipour Ziaratgahi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. as the second most important world’s sugar source after sugarcane is one of the major industrial crops. The presence of weeds in sugar beet fields, especially at early growth stages, results in a substantial decrease in the crop yield. It is very important to efficiently eliminate weeds at early growing stages. The first step of precision weed control is accurate detection of weeds location in the field. This operation can be performed by machine vision techniques. Hough transform is one of the shape feature extraction methods for object tracking in image processing which is basically used to identify lines or other geometrical shapes in an image. Generalized Hough transform (GHT is a modified version of the Hough transform used not only for geometrical forms, but also for detecting any arbitrary shape. This method is based on a pattern matching principle that uses a set of vectors of feature points (usually object edge points to a reference point to construct a pattern. By comparing this pattern with a set pattern, the desired shape is detected. The aim of this study was to identify the sugar beet plant from some common weeds in a field using the GHT. Materials and Methods Images required for this study were taken at the four-leaf stage of sugar beet as the beginning of the critical period of weed control. A shelter was used to avoid direct sunlight and prevent leaf shadows on each other. The obtained images were then introduced to the Image Processing Toolbox of MATLAB programming software for further processing. Green and Red color components were extracted from primary RGB images. In the first step, binary images were obtained by applying the optimal threshold on the G-R images. A comprehensive study of several sugar beet images revealed that there is a unique feature in sugar beet leaves which makes them differentiable from the weeds. The feature observed in all sugar beet plants at the four

  13. Metamitron-resistant Chenopodium album from sugar beet: cross-resistance profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechant, E; Bulcke, R

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, in several of the Belgian sugar beet growing regions, farmers have been confronted with unsatisfactory control of fat hen (Chenopodium album L.). Greenhouse bioassays conducted on reference C. album populations and on "suspected" populations from sugar beet fields where poor fat hen control had been observed, revealed that all "suspected" populations were resistant to metamitron, a key herbicide in the modern low rate weed control programs in sugar beet. These metamitron-resistant biotypes were all cross-resistant to atrazine. Since cross-resistance, particularly negative cross-resistance or reversed resistance, is known to play a major role in resistance management, other herbicides used in sugar beet and/or in rotational crops were tested to determine the cross-resistance profile of metamitron-resistant biotypes. Greenhouse bioassays were conducted using herbicides from different chemical families representing different modes of action. Cross-resistance was found for metribuzin, lenacil and chloridazon, all HRAC Group C1 herbicides that inhibit photosynthesis at PS II. The metamitron-resistant C. album populations examined showed negative cross-resistance to S-metolachlor (HRAC Group K3: inhibition of cell division), prosuifocarb (Group N: lipid synthesis, not AC-Case, inhibition), aclonifen and clomazone (both Group F3: inhibition of carotenoid biosynthesis).

  14. Sugar Beet Extract (Beta vulgaris L.) as a New Natural Emulsifier: Emulsion Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralla, Theo; Salminen, Hanna; Edelmann, Matthias; Dawid, Corinna; Hofmann, Thomas; Weiss, Jochen

    2017-05-24

    The interfacial and emulsion-forming properties of sugar beet extract (Beta vulgaris L.) were examined and compared to a Quillaja extract that is widely used within the food industry. We investigated the influence of extract concentration on surface activity at oil-water and air-water interfaces and on the formation of oil-in-water emulsions (10% w/w, pH 7). Sugar beet extract reduced the interfacial tension up to 38% at the oil-water interface, and the surface tension up to 33% at the air-water surface. The generated emulsions were negatively charged (ζ ≈ -46 mV) and had the smallest particle sizes (d43) of ∼1.3 μm at a low emulsifier-to-oil ratio of 0.75:10. Applying lower or higher extract concentrations increased the mean particle sizes. The smallest emulsions were formed at an optimum homogenization pressure of 69 MPa. Higher homogenization pressures led to increased particle sizes. Overall, sugar beet extract showed high surface activity. Furthermore, the formation of small emulsion droplets was successful; however, the droplets were bigger compared to those from the Quillaja extract. These results indicate sugar beet as an effective natural emulsifier that may be utilized for a variety of food and beverage applications.

  15. Alternative splicing of the maize Ac transposase transcript in transgenic sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisson, Ralph; Hellert, Jan; Ringleb, Malte; Machens, Fabian; Kraus, Josef; Hehl, Reinhard

    2010-09-01

    The maize Activator/Dissociation (Ac/Ds) transposable element system was introduced into sugar beet. The autonomous Ac and non-autonomous Ds element excise from the T-DNA vector and integrate at novel positions in the sugar beet genome. Ac and Ds excisions generate footprints in the donor T-DNA that support the hairpin model for transposon excision. Two complete integration events into genomic sugar beet DNA were obtained by IPCR. Integration of Ac leads to an eight bp duplication, while integration of Ds in a homologue of a sugar beet flowering locus gene did not induce a duplication. The molecular structure of the target site indicates Ds integration into a double strand break. Analyses of transposase transcription using RT-PCR revealed low amounts of alternatively spliced mRNAs. The fourth intron of the transposase was found to be partially misspliced. Four different splice products were identified. In addition, the second and third exon were found to harbour two and three novel introns, respectively. These utilize each the same splice donor but several alternative splice acceptor sites. Using the SplicePredictor online tool, one of the two introns within exon two is predicted to be efficiently spliced in maize. Most interestingly, splicing of this intron together with the four major introns of Ac would generate a transposase that lacks the DNA binding domain and two of its three nuclear localization signals, but still harbours the dimerization domain.

  16. Allelopathic effects of barley straw on germination and seedling growth of corn, sugar beet and sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohamad taghi naseri poor yazdi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Allelopathic effects of barley straw and root on germination and growth of maize, sugar beet, and sunflower were investigated under glasshouse and laboratory experiments in Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in 2006. The glasshouse experiment was designed based on randomized complete block design with three replications, treatments included: 0, 200, 400, 600 g/m² of grounded barley straw and also 0 and 50 g/m2 barley root. A laboratory experiment was carried out in order to study the effect of different concentrations of barley water extracts on germination and seedling characteristics of corn, sugar beet and sunflower. Treatments in laboratory trial included 0, 33, 50 and 100 percent of barley extracts. Results showed that leaf area of corn was significantly affected by barley straw treatments. Shoot dry matter and seed weight per plant in corn , leaf and tuber weight in sugar beet and leaf , stem weights , plant per plant in corn , leaf and tuber weight in sugar beet and leaf, stem weights, plant height, head diameter, head weight and seed weight in sunflower were significantly higher in treatment of 50g/m² barley roots. Crop seed germination decreased with increasing the amount of barley straw. The best germination response to barley extract was observed in corn. Maize radicle weight was significantly decreased with increasing concentration of barley water extract.

  17. Prebiotic potential of pectins and pectic oligosaccharides derived from lemon peel wastes and sugar beet pulp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gómez, Belén; Gullón, Beatriz; Yáñez, Remedios; Schols, Henk; Alonso, José L.

    2016-01-01

    Sugar beet pulp (SBP) and lemon peel wastes (LPW) were used to obtain two mixtures of pectic oligosaccharides (denoted as SBPOS and LPOS, respectively). Oligogalacturonides in LPOS showed a larger molecular weight, higher degree of methylation and lower degree of acetylation than the ones in

  18. A high efficiency technique for the generation of transgenic sugar beets from stomatal guard cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hall, R.D.; Riksen-Bruinsma, T.; Weyens, G.; Rosquin, I.J.; Denys, R.N.; Evans, I.J.; Lathouwers, J.E.; LefObvre, M.P.; Dunwell, J.M.; Tunen, van A.; Krens, F.A.

    1996-01-01

    An optimized protocol has been developed for the efficient and rapid genetic modification of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L). A polyethylene glycol- mediated DNA transformation technique could be applied to protoplast populations enriched specifically for a single totipotent cell type derived from stom

  19. Carob flour and sugar beet fiber as functional additives in bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šoronja-Simović Dragana M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of functional additives (carob flour and sugar beet fiber on empirical rheological dough performance and bread quality was examined. Also the microbiological quality of bread was investigated during 16 days of storage. The study included 5 samples: control (CON, with preservative calcium propionate (CONP, with carob flour (CON-CAR, with sugar beet fiber (CON-SBF and with a combination of carob flour and sugar beet fibers (CON-SBF-CAR. Samples with functional additives had a higher water holding capacity (2-10% and extended dough development time due to the presence of dietary fiber. Dough resistance of these samples was significantly increased, especially in CON-CAR, in which the time of final fermentation is remarkably prolonged (20% in comparison to CON. The addition of the functional ingredients (due to hydration properties of dietary fiber improved texture and sensory characteristics of bread. In sample CON-SBF crumb firmness was significantly reduced (by 70% while elasticity was increased by 25% compared to CON. Positive effect of addition of sugar beet fiber was proved by improving the elasticity of the crumb and finer crumb structure (sample CON-SBF in comparison with the addition of carob flour (sample CON-CAR. In bread sample with carob flour there was no microbiological contamination for 16 days of examination, which confirms the fact that carob flour can be used as a natural preservative.

  20. Stabilization of oil-in-water emulsions by enzyme catalyzed oxidative gelation of sugar beet pectin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abang Zaidel, Dayang Norulfairuz; Chronakis, Ioannis S.; Meyer, Anne S.

    2013-01-01

    Enzyme catalyzed oxidative cross-linking of feruloyl groups can promote gelation of sugar beet pectin (SBP). It is uncertain how the enzyme kinetics of this cross-linking reaction are affected in emulsion systems and whether the gelation affects emulsion stability. In this study, SBP (2.5% w...

  1. Prebiotic potential of pectins and pectic oligosaccharides derived from lemon peel wastes and sugar beet pulp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gómez, Belén; Gullón, Beatriz; Yáñez, Remedios; Schols, Henk; Alonso, José L.

    2016-01-01

    Sugar beet pulp (SBP) and lemon peel wastes (LPW) were used to obtain two mixtures of pectic oligosaccharides (denoted as SBPOS and LPOS, respectively). Oligogalacturonides in LPOS showed a larger molecular weight, higher degree of methylation and lower degree of acetylation than the ones in SBPO

  2. Regional characteristics of market production of sugar beet and sunflower in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Simo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the trends in the development of industrial crop production in the case of sugar beet and sunflower in Serbia from 1976 to 2013. Grouping of regions (4 regions without Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija and districts (25 districts in Serbia in 2013, according to the characteristics of land capacity, production of sugar beet and sunflower and level of development, was carried out by cluster analysis. Based on the median value of the important characteristics of available land capacity, production volume and economic development in municipalities, I-distance method were ranked districts in Serbia from 1 to 25. Similarities between the sugar beet and sunflower production regions in Serbia were determined by the method of complete-linkage clustering, and the results were presented in the dendrogram. According to data for 2013 it was found that 99.8% of sugar beet production and 93.9% of sunflower production in Serbia comes from the Vojvodina region. The average yields per hectare for analyzed crops in the areas of the Vojvodina region, on average, were by up to 10% higher compared to the yields in Serbia. According to the characteristics of land capacity and production, areas of the Vojvodina region belong to the highest rank 1-7, while according to the characteristics of the development level, these areas belong to rank 2-13.

  3. First report of the stubby root nematode Paratrichodorus allius on sugar beet in Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubby root nematodes (Paratrichodorus and Trichodorus) are migratory ectoparasites that feed on roots, transmit tobraviruses, and cause significant crop loss. In June 2015, three soil samples from a sugar beet field near Felton (Clay County), MN were submitted to the Nematology Laboratory at North ...

  4. Effects of limited irrigation on root yield and quality of sugar beet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... Controlled deficit irrigation (CDI) (English, 1990; English et al., 1990) may well .... in the form of urea, the first half of which during disk harrowing in spring and the .... fertilizer and irrigation on sugar beet at Broom's Barn 1974-1978. J. Agric. Sci. ... The SAS system for windows, release 8.02. The. SAS Inst.

  5. Arabinose and ferulic acid rich pectic polysaccharides extracted from sugar beet pulp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveld, A.; Beldman, G.; Schols, H.A.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    1996-01-01

    Arabinose and ferulic acid rich polysaccharides were extracted from sugar beet pulp using two extraction methods: a sequential extraction with H2O (2 times), NaOH/EDTA (2 times), and 4 M NaOH (2 times; method A) and a sequential extraction in which the NaOH/EDTA extraction was replaced by an

  6. Inducing effect of PGRs on small regulatory si/miRNA in resistance to sugar beet cyst nematode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsygankova, V A; Stefanovska, T R; Galkin, A P; Ponomarenko, S P; Blume, Ya B

    2012-01-01

    Sugar beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii Schmidt is an economically important plant parasite of sugar beet in Ukraine. The pest control options are limited. Sugar beet cyst nematode resistant varieties are not available on the market. Carbamate and organophosphate pesticides have been banned due to the high toxicity. The problem is aggravated by continuously increasing of oilseed rape (which is suitable host for H. schachtii) growing area due to biofuel demands. Several studies' results indicate that PGRs have role in management of plant parasitic nematodes but for sugar beet it is not studied well. We had an objective- studying of the role of four compositional PGRs created based of avermectin in suppression of sugar beet cyst nematode population on sugar beet and oilseed rape caused by enhancing of endogenous si/miRNA complementary to H. schachtii mRNA. Laboratory study was conducted in 2011 with using method DOT-blot hybridization si/miRNA with mRNA and by testing inhibitory activity in cell free system protein biosynthesis. That was shown that application of the PGRs enhances sugar beet and oilseeds rape plant immune-protective properties and resistance against plant-parasitic nematode Heterodera schochtii through enhancement of synthesis of small regulatory si/miRNA related (complementary) to an mRNA structure of the parasitic organisms. As a result, translation of mRNA of the nematode is blocked and causes the mortality of plant parasite juveniles.

  7. Economic feasibility of the sugar beet-to-ethylene value chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althoff, Jeroen; Biesheuvel, Kees; De Kok, Ad; Pelt, Henk; Ruitenbeek, Matthijs; Spork, Ger; Tange, Jan; Wevers, Ronald

    2013-09-01

    As part of a long-term strategy toward renewable feedstock, a feasibility study into options for the production of bioethylene by integrating the sugar beet-to-ethanol-to-ethylene value chain. Seven business cases were studied and tested for actual economic feasibility of alternative sugar-to-ethanol-to-ethylene routes in comparison to fossil-fuel alternatives. An elaborate model was developed to assess the relevant operational and financial aspects of each business case. The calculations indicate that bioethylene from sugar beet is not commercially viable under current market conditions. In light of expected global energy and feedstock prices it is also reasonable to expect that this will not change in the near future. To consider biorenewable sources as starting material, they need to be low in cost (compared to sugar beets) and also require less capital and energy-intensive methods for the conversion to chemicals. In general, European sugar prices will be too high for many chemical applications. Future efforts for in sugar-to-chemicals routes should, therefore, focus on integrated process routes and process intensification and/or on products that contain a significant part of the original carbohydrate backbone. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Co-Digestion of Sugar Beet Silage Increases Biogas Yield from Fibrous Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sharif; Einfalt, Daniel; Kazda, Marian

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that the easily degradable carbohydrates of the sugar beet silage (S) will improve the anaerobic digestion of grass silage (G) more profoundly compared to co-digestion of sugar beet silage with maize silage (M). M : S and G : S mixtures were tested in two continuous laboratory-scale AD experiments at volatile solid ratios of 1 : 0, 6 : 1, 3 : 1, and 1 : 3 at organic loading rates of 1.5 kgVS m(-3) day(-1). While the sugar beet effects in mixtures with maize silage were negligible, co-digestion with grass silage showed a beneficial performance. There, the specific methane production rate was 0.27 lN kg(-1)VS h(-1)at G : S ratio of 6 : 1 compared to G : S 1 : 0 with 0.14 lN kg(-1)VS h(-1). In comparison to G : S 1 : 0, about 44% and 62% higher biogas yields were obtained at G : S 6 : 1 and 3 : 1, respectively. Also, the highest methane concentration was found in G : S at ratio of 1 : 3. Synergistic increase of methane yield was found in co-digestion in both experiments, but higher effect was realized in G : S, independently of the amount of sugar beet silage. The findings of this study emphasize the improvement of AD of grass silage by even low addition of sugar beet silage.

  9. CONVISO® SMART – a new solution to control monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous weeds in ALStolerant sugar beets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balgheim, Natalie

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available CONVISO SMART is a new system to control monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous weeds in ALS-inhibitor tolerant sugar beets. This system consists of an ALS-inhibiting herbicide and a sugar beet variety which is tolerant against the complementary herbicide due to classic breeding mechanisms. The herbicide CONVISO is a combination of the two active ingredients foramsulfuron and thiencarbazonemethyl. Whereas foramsulfuron is the leaf active compound, thiencarbazone-methyl is leaf as well as soil active. The product will be formulated as an oily dispersion (OD. The registration was requested with an application rate of 1 x 1 l/ha or 2 x 0.5 l/ha in ALS-inhibitor tolerant sugar beets. Application should be done from BBCH 10 – 14 of the weeds, especially of Chenopodium album as well as from BBCH 12 – 18 of the sugar beet. The estimated introduction of this system on the German market will be 2018. CONVISO is well active against the most important weeds in sugar beets, including Polygonum and Chenopodium species. Furthermore several difficult to control weeds as Aethusa cynapium and Mercurialis annua will be controlled by CONVISO. The addition of special herbicides to control those difficult weeds will no longer be necessary. The tolerance of the variety against CONVISO is very strong, which will be shown by the results of the weed free selectivity trials. Due to the high tolerance of the variety against CONVISO and the not occurring of negative herbicide effects, the full yield potential can be utilized.

  10. GROWTH ANALYSIS OF SUGAR BEET IN DIFFERENT SOWING DENSITY DURING VEGETATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Varga

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyse sugar beet growth in field conditions during 2014 growing season. Sugar beet (hybrid Serenade, KWS was sown on March 18th at inter–row spacing of 50 cm and four different intra–row spacings: 13 cm, 15 cm,17 cm and 19 cm. During the growing season sugar beet plants samples were taken in eight terms from June to September. In each sampling term sugar beet leaf and root fresh weight (g/plant were determined. Also, diameter, number and distance between cambium rings and the number of cambium rings of 1 cm diameter were determined at the cross section of the widest hypocotyl part. Sowing density had a significant effect (P≤0.05 on all observed parameters. Average fresh leaf weight for all densities of 717.84 g/plant was the highest in late July and early August. Generally, during the growing season the plants sown at wider intra–row spacings (17 and 19 cm had on average higher root weight compared to average root weight in narrower intra–row spacings (13 and 15 cm. Average root diameter of all sowing densities increases from 4.13 cm in the first decade of June to 12.51 cm in the second decade of September wherein the diameter varied from 11.55 cm (intra–row spacing 13 cm to 14.79 cm (intra–row spacing 19 cm. Intensive formation of cambium rings for all densities was found out in June, where at the beginning of the June, the average number of cambium rings was 4.9, while and at the end of it was 7.3. In September, sugar beet root had on average of 8.4 cambium rings. On July 30th the largest number of cambium rings at 1 cm root diameter was on the average 1.52.

  11. Effect of Azotobacter chroococcum on sugar beet and microbial activity of rhizosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzevski Janja P.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In sugar beet production, one of the most important factors that affect the yield, apart from genetic properties, is the use of mineral fertilizers. Considerate amounts of mineral fertilizers are used in sugar beet production. However, if agroecological conditions are not optimum, mineral fertilizers cannot be completely absorbed, which may lead to soil contamination. Therefore, research has been focusing on ways of using atmospheric nitrogen by means of nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Numerous researches have proved that one part of mineral fertilizers can be replaced by biological nitrogen. The aim of this research was to determine the effect of genotype, azotobacter and the amount of mineral fertilizers on the root yield of sugar beet and on the microbiological activity of the sugar beet rhizospheric soil. Three hybrids of sugar beet were used during the two years of the research. The seed of the hybrids was inoculated with three strains of azotobacter. Various amounts of NPK were used (0;30;60;90 kg/ha. At the end of the vegetation period, the following were determined: root yield, total number of bacteria, number of azotobacter, oligotrophic bacteria, ammonifiers, fungi, and actinomycetes in soil. Dehydrogenase activity was measured. The results were processed statistically (analysis of variance for factorial trials and the effect of the factors was determined upon the expected mean square values. The yield was mainly affected by the amount of mineral fertilizers. However, the effect of mineral fertilizers was different with different inoculation treatments. The effect of the examined factors was dependant upon genotype, amount of mineral fertilizers, inoculation and the year of trials. The interaction between genotype, mineral fertilizers, inoculation and the year of trials was the factor that had the greatest effect on the number of almost all the examined soil microorganisms.

  12. Co-Digestion of Sugar Beet Silage Increases Biogas Yield from Fibrous Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einfalt, Daniel; Kazda, Marian

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that the easily degradable carbohydrates of the sugar beet silage (S) will improve the anaerobic digestion of grass silage (G) more profoundly compared to co-digestion of sugar beet silage with maize silage (M). M : S and G : S mixtures were tested in two continuous laboratory-scale AD experiments at volatile solid ratios of 1 : 0, 6 : 1, 3 : 1, and 1 : 3 at organic loading rates of 1.5 kgVS m−3 day−1. While the sugar beet effects in mixtures with maize silage were negligible, co-digestion with grass silage showed a beneficial performance. There, the specific methane production rate was 0.27 lN kg−1VS h−1at G : S ratio of 6 : 1 compared to G : S 1 : 0 with 0.14 lN kg−1VS h−1. In comparison to G : S 1 : 0, about 44% and 62% higher biogas yields were obtained at G : S 6 : 1 and 3 : 1, respectively. Also, the highest methane concentration was found in G : S at ratio of 1 : 3. Synergistic increase of methane yield was found in co-digestion in both experiments, but higher effect was realized in G : S, independently of the amount of sugar beet silage. The findings of this study emphasize the improvement of AD of grass silage by even low addition of sugar beet silage. PMID:27807538

  13. Efficient callus formation and plant regeneration are heritable characters in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagami, Hiroyo; Taguchi, Kazunori; Arakawa, Takumi; Kuroda, Yosuke; Tamagake, Hideto; Kubo, Tomohiko

    2016-01-01

    Obtaining dedifferentiated cells (callus) that can regenerate into whole plants is not always feasible for many plant species. Sugar beet is known to be recalcitrant for dedifferentiation and plant regeneration. These difficulties were major obstacles for obtaining transgenic sugar beets through an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation procedure. The sugar beet line 'NK-219mm-O' is an exceptional line that forms callus efficiently and is easy to regenerate, but the inheritance of these characters was unknown. Another concern was whether these characters could coexist with an annual habitat that makes it possible to breed short life-cycle sugar beet suitable for molecular genetic analysis. Five sugar beet lines including NK-219mm-O were crossed with each other and subjected to in vitro culture to form callus. F1s with a NK-219mm-O background generally formed callus efficiently compared to the others, indicating that efficient callus formation is heritable. The regeneration potential was examined based on the phenotypes of calli after placement on regeneration medium. Five phenotypes were observed, of which two phenotypes regenerated shoots or somatic embryo-like structures. Vascular differentiation was evident in regenerable calli, whereas non-regenerable calli lacked normally developed vascular tissues. In a half-diallel cross, the callus-formation efficiency and the regeneration potential of reciprocal F1s progeny having a NK-219mm-O background were high. Finally, we crossed NK-219mm-O with an annual line that had a poor in vitro performance. The callus-formation efficiency and the regeneration potential of reciprocal F1 were high. The regenerated plants showed an annual habitat. Efficient callus formation and the high plant regeneration potential of NK-219mm-O were inherited and expressed in the F1. The annual habitat does not impair these high in vitro performances.

  14. Co-Digestion of Sugar Beet Silage Increases Biogas Yield from Fibrous Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharif Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study tested the hypothesis that the easily degradable carbohydrates of the sugar beet silage (S will improve the anaerobic digestion of grass silage (G more profoundly compared to co-digestion of sugar beet silage with maize silage (M. M : S and G : S mixtures were tested in two continuous laboratory-scale AD experiments at volatile solid ratios of 1 : 0, 6 : 1, 3 : 1, and 1 : 3 at organic loading rates of 1.5 kgVS m−3 day−1. While the sugar beet effects in mixtures with maize silage were negligible, co-digestion with grass silage showed a beneficial performance. There, the specific methane production rate was 0.27 lN kg−1VS h−1 at G : S ratio of 6 : 1 compared to G : S 1 : 0 with 0.14 lN kg−1VS h−1. In comparison to G : S 1 : 0, about 44% and 62% higher biogas yields were obtained at G : S 6 : 1 and 3 : 1, respectively. Also, the highest methane concentration was found in G : S at ratio of 1 : 3. Synergistic increase of methane yield was found in co-digestion in both experiments, but higher effect was realized in G : S, independently of the amount of sugar beet silage. The findings of this study emphasize the improvement of AD of grass silage by even low addition of sugar beet silage.

  15. QUALITY OF SUGAR BEET ROOT IN RELATION TO WEATHER CONDITIONS AND DIFFERENT ATONIK DOSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I ČERNÝ

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available In the field trial carried out in 1998 and 1999 the effect of weather conditions and different Atonik doses application on sugar beet quality (refined sugar, refined sugar yield was studied. The trial results confirmed statistically high significant effect of weather conditions on above mentioned parameters. More favourable weather conditions in 1999 influenced high significantly increasing of refined sugar (+ 0,67 %, rel. 5,53 % and refined sugar yield (+ 0,67 t.ha-1, rel. 9,75 % comparing to average of both 1998, 1999 years. We found out significant effect of Atonik under its three times application ( 0,25 + 0,6 + 0,6 I.ha -1 on refined sugar (+ 0,48 %, rel. 4,05 % and refined sugar yield (+ 0,96 t.ha-1, rel. 15,86 % on C variant comparing to average values of control variant in total trial period.

  16. Qualitative TLC determination of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sugar-beet

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    BILJANA D. SKRBIC

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The presence of polycyclic or polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were investigated in sugar-beet from a local sugar factory in the district of Vojvodina. The sugar-beet was cultivated on areas near roads with intensive traffic. The procedure for the preparation and determination of these compounds included saponification of the sample, several liquid–liquid extraction systems and a silica gel column clean-up. The purified sample solution was analysed by thin layer chromatography (TLC on silica gel with cyclohexane as the developing solvent. Benzo(bfluoranthene and benzo(aanthracene and/or benzo(apyrene were detected at concentrations greater than the allowed limits in food.

  17. Disease variation and chemical control of Ramularia leaf spot in sugar beet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thach, Tine; Munk, Lisa; Hansen, Anne Lisbet

    2013-01-01

    Data from 1999 to 2009 on Ramularia leaf spot caused by Ramularia beticola in sugar beet showed that it was a serious disease in sugar beet in 5 out of 11 seasons. The severity and significance of the disease was found to vary depending on events with precipitation, particularly in two specific...... weeks in July and September. Several fungicides were found to give effective control, and positive net yield responses were found in 9 out of 11 seasons. The average sugar yield response varied in individual years between 0.7 and 2.2 t ha−1. High levels of control of Ramularia leaf spot was obtained...... in field trials, a semi-field trial and an in vitro test using the compounds pyraclostrobin, epoxiconazole, difenoconazole and propiconazole. Dose response trials with epoxiconazole from two seasons showed both reduced efficacy and yield responses from low doses. They also proved that the optimal input...

  18. EFFECT OF YEAR AND ATONIK APPLICATION ON THE SELECTED SUGAR BEET PRODUCTION AND QUALITY PARAMETERS

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    I ČERNÝ

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available In a field trial, realised in a warm, slightly dry, maize growing region, an influence of different rates of Atonik (A: 0,6 + 0,6 l.ha-1; B: 0,4 + 0,6 + 0,6 l.ha-1; C: 0,25 + 1,0 + 0,6 l.ha-1 was observed on some technological and qualitative parameters of sugar beet (root yield, digestion, refined sugar yield. We have found a statistically high significant effect of both the yearly weather conditions and Atonik application on the development of production parameters of sugar beet in 1998 - 2000. In average, the highest values of observed parameters such as yield of sugar beet roots (54,04 t.ha-1, digestion (17,13 °S, refined sugar (14,30 % were obtained for Atonik-treated variant C (0,25 + 1,0 + 0,6 l.ha-1 in 1999.

  19. A sugar beet chlorophyll a/b binding protein promoter void of G-box like elements confers strong and leaf specific reporter gene expression in transgenic sugar beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kloos Dorothee U

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modification of leaf traits in sugar beet requires a strong leaf specific promoter. With such a promoter, expression in taproots can be avoided which may otherwise take away available energy resources for sugar accumulation. Results Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH was utilized to generate an enriched and equalized cDNA library for leaf expressed genes from sugar beet. Fourteen cDNA fragments corresponding to thirteen different genes were isolated. Northern blot analysis indicates the desired tissue specificity of these genes. The promoters for two chlorophyll a/b binding protein genes (Bvcab11 and Bvcab12 were isolated, linked to reporter genes, and transformed into sugar beet using promoter reporter gene fusions. Transient and transgenic analysis indicate that both promoters direct leaf specific gene expression. A bioinformatic analysis revealed that the Bvcab11 promoter is void of G-box like regulatory elements with a palindromic ACGT core sequence. The data indicate that the presence of a G-box element is not a prerequisite for leaf specific and light induced gene expression in sugar beet. Conclusions This work shows that SSH can be successfully employed for the identification and subsequent isolation of tissue specific sugar beet promoters. These promoters are shown to drive strong leaf specific gene expression in transgenic sugar beet. The application of these promoters for expressing resistance improving genes against foliar diseases is discussed.

  20. Cloning and functional analyses of a gene from sugar beet up-regulated upon cyst nematode infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samuelian, S.; Kleine, M.; Spira, C.P.; Klein Lankhorst, R.M.; Jung, C.

    2004-01-01

    The cDNA-AFLP technique was used to isolate sugar beet genes up-regulated upon infection with the beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii. Hairy root cultures were obtained from resistant plants carrying a Beta procumbens translocation as well as from a non-resistant control. mRNA was isolated from

  1. Cloning and functional analyses of a gene from sugar beet up-regulated upon cyst nematode infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samuelian, S.; Kleine, M.; Spira, C.P.; Klein Lankhorst, R.M.; Jung, C.

    2004-01-01

    The cDNA-AFLP technique was used to isolate sugar beet genes up-regulated upon infection with the beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii. Hairy root cultures were obtained from resistant plants carrying a Beta procumbens translocation as well as from a non-resistant control. mRNA was isolated from

  2. INVESTIGATION OF BACTERIOSTATIC PROPERTIES OF CHLORINATED COMPOUNDS FOR BEET-SUGAR INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Kulneva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. One of the major causes of decline in the quality of granulated sugar is bacterial contamination of sugar beet. This is due to the fact that the beet-sugar industry is a good object for the development of different groups of microorganisms. The main sources of infection of products of sugar manufacture can be soil, water, air, packaging, packaging materials, vehicles, clothing, equipment. The higher the beet contamination with the microorganisms, the more they decompose sucrose and secrete metabolic byproducts. In this regard, there is a need to reduce the negative impact of various groups of microorganisms and to minimize the loss of sucrose from decomposition. In accordance with the problem given the studies to determine the bacteriostatic properties of chlorinated compounds for sugar production were carried out. We used the cultivated fluid colonized with a pure culture of Leuconostoc mesenteroides and reagent treated as an object of study. In the experiments, we determined the accumulation of biomass of L. mesenteroides with nephelometric method by measuring the optical density of bacterial suspension. It was found out that after 24 hours of bacterial culturing the level of optical density in the control and active acidity were considerably higher compared with the sample treated with germicide. The number of microorganisms in the nutrient medium was determined by Vinogradsky-Shulgina-Brid’s. According to the study in the control is 1,7*10^16, in experiment with the introduction of the chlorinated compound it is 5,8*10^14. The experimental results show that the investigated chlorinated compound has bacteriostatic action against grampositive cocci saprophytic of L. mesenteroides and can be recommended for use in a sugar beet production.

  3. Technological scoring of sugar beets which were infected by the pathogen of the vascular bacteriosis during vegetation period

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    L. N. Putilina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of the sugar production from sugar beets is close connected with quality of the raw material which uses for the processing. Quality of the raw material depends on complex impact of number of factors, like natural, climatic, agritechnical, and varietal. Currently, there are some negative factors, like decreasing of soil fertility, increasing of soil's infectious background, prevalence of the foreign hybrid sorts of sugar beets which are vulnerable for local pathogens. These factors cause the increase of the diseases of sugar beets' root system – fusarium decay and vascular bacteriosis. The explorations of sugar beets' crops for many years in different areas of Central-Chernozem region have revealed high damage for yield from these diseases. In some years the loss of yield was up to 50%. The determination of impact of bacterial infections on the processes of forming of the chemical composition of sugar beets' roots and the accumulation of sugar in sugar beets' roots is the very important task for science and production. The researches have been done in the laboratory of store and production raw materials, in the Laboratory of immunity, in the department of biotechnology of the FSTSO “All-Russian research institute for sugar beet and sugar named after A.L. Mazlumov”, and in the department of technology of fermentation and sugar productions of the Voronezh state university of engineering technologies. Was revealed, that increasing the level of the disease of sugar beets by vascular bacteriosis causes the rise amount of dry substances from 26.04% (healthy roots up to 32.75% (damage of roots is 5 scores. And the sugar content decreases from 18.77% up to 16.83%. Proportion of sucrose in dry substances also decreases from 72.08% (healthy roots up to 51.39% (damage of roots is 5 scores, because part of sucrose is utilized by bacteria in affected roots. Content of reducing substances increases by a factor of 1.2–4.9. Also was revealed

  4. Identification of saponins from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) by low and high-resolution HPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikołajczyk-Bator, Katarzyna; Błaszczyk, Alfred; Czyżniejewski, Mariusz; Kachlicki, Piotr

    2016-09-01

    We profiled triterpene saponins from the roots of sugar beet Beta vulgaris L. cultivars Huzar and Boryna using reversed-phase liquid chromatography combined with negative-ion electrospray ionization quadrupole mass spectrometry. We tentatively identified 26 triterpene saponins, including 17 that had not been detected previously in this plant species and 7 saponins that were tentatively identified as new compounds. All observed compounds were glycosides of five different aglycones, of which gypsogenin and norhederagenin are reported for the first time in sugar beet. Thirteen of the saponins detected in sugar beet roots were substituted with dioxolane-type (4 saponins) or acetal-type (9 saponins) dicarboxylic acids. Among the 26 detected saponins, we identified 2 groups of isomers distinguished using high-resolution mass measurements that were detected only in the Huzar cultivar of sugar beet.

  5. Early detection of sugar beet pathogen Ramularia beticola in leaf and air samples using qPCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieczorek, Thies Marten; Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup; Hansen, Anne Lisbet

    2014-01-01

    A quantitative PCR method (qPCR) was developed for the detection and quantification of Ramularia beticola causing Ramularia leaf spot in sugar beet. R. beticola specific primers were designed based on the internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS2). The assay was applied on DNA extracted from...... spores trapped on tape from Burkard spore traps placed in an artificially inoculated sugar beet field trial and in two sugar beet fields with natural infections. R. beticola DNA was detected at variable amounts in the air samples 14 to 16 days prior to first visible symptoms. R. beticola DNA was detected...... in air samples from fields with natural infection at significant and increasing levels from development of the first symptoms, indicating that spore production within the crop plays a major role in the epidemic development of the disease. Sugar beet leaves sampled from the inoculated field trial were...

  6. Ethanol fermentation of molasses by Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells immobilized onto sugar beet pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučurović Vesna M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural adhesion of Saccharomyces cerevisiae onto sugar beet pulp (SBP is a very simple and cheap immobilization method for retaining high cells density in the ethanol fermentation system. In the present study, yeast cells were immobilized by adhesion onto SBP suspended in the synthetic culture media under different conditions such as: glucose concentration (100, 120 and 150 g/l, inoculum concentration (5, 10 and 15 g/l dry mass and temperature (25, 30, 35 and 40°C. In order to estimate the optimal immobilization conditions the yeast cells retention (R, after each immobilization experiment was analyzed. The highest R value of 0.486 g dry mass yeast /g dry mass SBP was obtained at 30°C, glucose concentration of 150 g/l, and inoculum concentration of 15 g/l. The yeast immobilized under these conditions was used for ethanol fermentation of sugar beet molasses containing 150.2 g/l of reducing sugar. Efficient ethanol fermentation (ethanol concentration of 70.57 g/l, fermentation efficiency 93.98% of sugar beet molasses was achieved using S. cerevisiae immobilized by natural adhesion on SBP. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31002

  7. Genome-wide distribution of genetic diversity and linkage disequilibrium in elite sugar beet germplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weißleder Knuth

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Characterization of population structure and genetic diversity of germplasm is essential for the efficient organization and utilization of breeding material. The objectives of this study were to (i explore the patterns of population structure in the pollen parent heterotic pool using different methods, (ii investigate the genome-wide distribution of genetic diversity, and (iii assess the extent and genome-wide distribution of linkage disequilibrium (LD in elite sugar beet germplasm. Results A total of 264 and 238 inbred lines from the yield type and sugar type inbreds of the pollen parent heterotic gene pools, respectively, which had been genotyped with 328 SNP markers, were used in this study. Two distinct subgroups were detected based on different statistical methods within the elite sugar beet germplasm set, which was in accordance with its breeding history. MCLUST based on principal components, principal coordinates, or lapvectors had high correspondence with the germplasm type information as well as the assignment by STRUCTURE, which indicated that these methods might be alternatives to STRUCTURE for population structure analysis. Gene diversity and modified Roger's distance between the examined germplasm types varied considerably across the genome, which might be due to artificial selection. This observation indicates that population genetic approaches could be used to identify candidate genes for the traits under selection. Due to the fact that r2 >0.8 is required to detect marker-phenotype association explaining less than 1% of the phenotypic variance, our observation of a low proportion of SNP loci pairs showing such levels of LD suggests that the number of markers has to be dramatically increased for powerful genome-wide association mapping. Conclusions We provided a genome-wide distribution map of genetic diversity and linkage disequilibrium for the elite sugar beet germplasm, which is useful for the application of

  8. Effect of different integrated weed management methods on weed density and yield of sugar beet crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    alireza koochaki

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to compare different weed management methods in sugar beet, two experiments were conducted at mashhad for two years in 2005-2006 and 2006-2007. Each experiment designed as a Complete Randomized Block with three replication. The treatments include: Metamitron(Goltix plus Phenmedipham (Betanal (Gol+Bet, Goltix plus Cultivation (Gol+Cu, Disk plus Betanal (Di+Bet, Disk plus Cultivation(Di+Cu, Cover Crop plus Betanal (Co+Bet, Cover Crop plus Cultivation (Co+Cu, Weeding (W and Betanal plus Weeding (Bet+W. Samplings were taken at three stages early season, after imposing the treatments and late season. Results showed that at early season in two experiments, density of weeds was lower in cover crop and disk treatment compared with other treats and the second sampling in first experiment, weeding and disk plus cultivation of treatments with 21.5 and 26.6 respectively plants per m2 and in second experiment year, weeding and application betanal plus weeding treatments, with 14 and 17.8 respectively plant in m2 showed the lowest. In the second experiment year, minimum and maximum sugar beet yield were obtained with cover crop plus betanal and weeding with 43 and 104 ton per hectare respectively. The lowest yield was obtained in check plots with 3.5ton per hectare. Maximum sugar contain (19.35% was obtained in betanal herbicide plus cultivation treatment and minimum (14.88% was obtained with hand weeding treatment. However maximum sugar beet yield was obtained with betanal plus weeding (17.85 ton per hectare and the minimum with cover crop plus betanal (7.5 ton per hectare. Key words: integrated weed management, cover crop, herbicide, cultivation, sugar beet.

  9. EFFECT OF THE FOLIAR BORON FERTILIZATION ON SUGAR BEET ROOT YIELD AND QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kristek

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Effect of foliar fertilization with Fertina B element on sugar beet root yield and quality was investigated on two soil types (marsh gleyish hydro-meliorated and loess pseudo-gley poor in boron supply. The research was conducted in the growing season period of 2004th and 2005th. The research aimed to determine both needed boron amount in a foliar fertilization and necessary number of treatments. Increased level of top dressing boron led to increased sugar beet root yield and quality, only by 1 kg B/ha. Further progress followed was not significant. The most efficient fertilization appeared to be when conducted twice: first prior sugar beet leaf formation (end of May, beginning of June and second, 10-14 days later. Root yield of 85.45 t/ha, sugar content of 14.92% and sugar yield of 11.12 t/ha was obtained by the most efficient variant (1 kg B/ha twice, for two localities and two years on the average. Compared to the control variant, root yield is higher by 13.86 t/ha (19.4%, sugar concentration higher by 1.46% (relative 10.8% and sugar yield higher by 3.15 t/ha (39.5%. Based upon these results, foliar fertilization with 1.0 kg B/ha is suggested for soils characterized by insufficient boron supply. It should be added through two top dressings, first prior leaves formation and second 10 -14 days later.

  10. Disease detection in sugar beet fields: a multi-temporal and multi-sensoral approach on different scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlein, Anne-Katrin; Hillnhütter, Christian; Mewes, Thorsten; Scholz, Christine; Steiner, Ulrike; Dehne, Heinz-Willhelm; Oerke, Erich-Christian

    2009-09-01

    Depending on environmental factors fungal diseases of crops are often distributed heterogeneously in fields. Precision agriculture in plant protection implies a targeted fungicide application adjusted these field heterogeneities. Therefore an understanding of the spatial and temporal occurrence of pathogens is elementary. As shown in previous studies, remote sensing techniques can be used to detect and observe spectral anomalies in the field. In 2008, a sugar beet field site was observed at different growth stages of the crop using different remote sensing techniques. The experimental field site consisted of two treatments. One plot was sprayed with a fungicide to avoid fungal infections. In order to obtain sugar beet plants infected with foliar diseases the other plot was not sprayed. Remote sensing data were acquired from the high-resolution airborne hyperspectral imaging ROSIS in July 2008 at sugar beet growth stage 39 and from the HyMap sensor systems in August 2008 at sugar beet growth stage 45, respectively. Additionally hyperspectral signatures of diseased and non-diseased sugar beet plants were measured with a non-imaging hand held spectroradiometer at growth stage 49 in September. Ground truth data, in particular disease severity were collected at 50 sampling points in the field. Changes of reflection rates were related to disease severity increasing with time. Erysiphe betae causing powdery mildew was the most frequent leaf pathogen. A classification of healthy and diseased sugar beets in the field was possible by using hyperspectral vegetation indices calculated from canopy reflectance.

  11. Reaction of some weed species to herbicides in sugar beet cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Domańska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the years 1975-1980, on the Experimental Farm Chylice fields of the Warsaw Agricultural University, herbicide activity was evaluated on commonly appearing weed species in sugar beet cultivation. The most frequent weeds were: Chenopodium album, Echinochloa crus-galli, Polygonum convolvulus and Polygonum lapatifolium. Preemergence use of chloridazon and furthermore postemergence use of phenmedipham were most effective in control. Metolachlor or bentiocarb mixed with metamitron and chloridazon were effective too. It was found that 70% control of Chenopodium album increased crops of sugar beets by about 25% on the basis of two years experiments (1979-1980, differing in quantity and periods of rainfall, a visible dependence of herbicide effectiveness on climatic conditions was demonstrated.

  12. Hyper sausage neuron: Recognition of transgenic sugar-beet based on terahertz spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianjun; Li, Zhi; Hu, Fangrong; Chen, Tao; Du, Yong; Xin, Haitao

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach for identification of terahertz (THz) spectral of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) based on Hyper Sausage Neuron (HSN), and THz transmittance spectra of some typical transgenic sugar-beet samples are investigated to demonstrate its feasibility. Principal component analysis (PCA) is applied to extract features of the spectrum data, and instead of the original spectrum data, the feature signals are fed into the HSN pattern recognition, a new multiple weights neural network (MWNN). The experimental result shows that the HSN model not only can correctly classify different types of transgenic sugar-beets, but also can reject identity non similar samples in the same type. The proposed approach provides a new effective method for detection and identification of GMOs by using THz spectroscopy.

  13. Biolistic transformation of highly regenerative sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivic-Haymes, Snezana D; Smigocki, Ann C

    2005-03-01

    Leaves of greenhouse-grown sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) plants that were first screened for high regeneration potential were transformed via particle bombardment with the uidA gene fused to the osmotin or proteinase inhibitor II gene promoter. Stably transformed calli were recovered as early as 7 weeks after bombardment and GUS-positive shoots regenerated 3 months after bombardment. The efficiency of transformation ranged from 0.9% to 3.7%, and stable integration of the uidA gene into the genome was confirmed by Southern blot analysis. The main advantages of direct bombardment of leaves to regenerate transformed sugar beet include (1) a readily available source of highly regenerative target tissue, (2) minimal tissue culture manipulation before and after bombardment, and (3) the overall rapid regeneration of transgenic shoots.

  14. Isolation and purification of feruloylated oligosaccharides from cell walls of sugar-beet pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralet, M C; Thibault, J F; Faulds, C B; Williamson, G

    1994-10-17

    Cell walls from sugar-beet pulp contain some feruloyl groups linked to the pectic neutral side-chains. Enzymic as well as chemical hydrolysis of the pulp yielded a series of feruloylated oligosaccharides, which have been purified by Sephadex LH-20 and Biogel P-2 chromatography in aqueous solvents. Feruloylated arabinose di-, tri-, hexa-, hepta-, and octa-saccharides as well as feruloylated galactose disaccharides were obtained after hydrolysis of the pulp with a mixture of fungal carbohydrases (Driselase). Feruloylated arabinose and galactose monosaccharides were obtained through mild acid hydrolyses. Both arabinose and galactose residues in the side-chains are feruloylated, 50-55% of the feruloyl groups being linked to arabinose residues and 45-50% to galactose residues. It is concluded that 1 out of 56 arabinose residues and 1 out of 16 galactose residues present as pectic side-chains in sugar-beet pulp carry a feruloyl group.

  15. Cloning and functional analyses of a gene from sugar beet up-regulated upon cyst nematode infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelian, Suren; Kleine, Michael; Ruyter-Spira, Carolien P; Klein-Lankhorst, René M; Jung, Christian

    2004-01-01

    The cDNA-AFLP technique was used to isolate sugar beet genes up-regulated upon infection with the beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii. Hairy root cultures were obtained from resistant plants carrying a Beta procumbens translocation as well as from a non-resistant control. mRNA was isolated from hairy root clones and sugar beet plants infected or not with the beet cyst nematode and 8000 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) were analysed. One TDF was found to be differentially expressed in both materials and was further investigated. Real-time PCR confirmed that this TDF is specifically up-regulated in resistant sugar beet upon nematode infection and its full-length cDNA was isolated. Sequence analysis suggests that the gene encodes a 317 amino acid polypeptide of unknown function. No homology to any sequence present in the public databases could be detected. To further elucidate its function in resistance to the beet cyst nematode, the cDNA was transformed into hairy roots of susceptible sugar beet under the control of the 35S promoter and hairy root clones were inoculated with nematodes. The number of developing females was significantly reduced in 12 out of 15 clones resulting from independent transgenic events suggesting that the gene can be used for inducing cyst nematode resistance in plants.

  16. 7 CFR 457.109 - Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... eruption; or (h) Failure of the irrigation water supply, if caused by an insured peril that occurs during... price. The price per pound for raw sugar offered by buyers in the area in which you normally market the...

  17. [The "crystals" in the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenova, G A; Romanova, A K

    2011-01-01

    Crystal containing cells widely distributed in plant tissues, though the origin of the crystals and their functions are still opened to question. Membrane vesicles in beet leaves are visible in electronic microscope. They originate in cytoplasm and penetrate into vacuole by pinocytosis with participation of tonoplast. In light microscope, vesicles are luminous likewise crystals in crystal cells. Such vesicles-"crystals" fulfill crystal cells also. The content of vesicles-"crystals" are electronic transparent at every path of leaf development. It was proposed that distinct vesicles-"crystals" in cytoplasm and vacuole and mass of them in crystal cells, vein bundles, and epidermal cells--all of them are lytic compartments. Later, obviously, true crystals are formed.

  18. Rhizoctonia root rot (Rhizoctoni solani K ü h n of sugar beet in province Vojvodina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojšin Vera B.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar beet root rot appears regularly each year, but its intensity depends on agro ecological conditions. The predominant causers of root rot in Vojvodina are fungi from Fusarium genus and species Macrophomina phaseolina. Over the last couple of years, more intense occurrence of Rhizoctonia root rot has been observed. Rhizoctonia solani, the causal agent of root rot is present in sugar beet fields. During 2000-2005, on the territory of Vojvodina, the frequency of Rhizoctonia solani in phytopathological isolations from rotted sugar beet roots was between 0,0-18,2%. The intensity of the disease depends on localities, agro ecological conditions and genotypes. Symptoms of Rhizoctonia root rot were registered at some localities in all regions of Vojvodina: Srem, Banat and Bačka. The disease appearance is above all local. It occurs in small patches, on heavy, non-structured soil and on depressed wet parts of plots. Individual diseased plants can be found during July. Brown rot appears on sugar beet roots, with dried tissue on surface, which is present on the tail as well as on the middle part and the head of root. Tissues with described symptoms are deeper regarding the healthy part of root. On vertical root section, the necrotic changes are clearly visible comparing to tissue section without symptoms. The heavily infected tissue forms fissures on roots in most cases. Besides the above-mentioned symptoms on roots, the plant wilting and leaf handle necrosis as well as leaf dying are also observed. When rot spreads to the whole root head, plants quickly die.

  19. Reaction of some weed species to herbicides in sugar beet cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    H. Domańska; L. Leska; Z. Łęgowiak; G. Maćkowiak

    2013-01-01

    In the years 1975-1980, on the Experimental Farm Chylice fields of the Warsaw Agricultural University, herbicide activity was evaluated on commonly appearing weed species in sugar beet cultivation. The most frequent weeds were: Chenopodium album, Echinochloa crus-galli, Polygonum convolvulus and Polygonum lapatifolium. Preemergence use of chloridazon and furthermore postemergence use of phenmedipham were most effective in control. Metolachlor or bentiocarb mixed with metamitron and chloridazo...

  20. Transgene escape in sugar beet production fields: data from six years farm scale monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Darmency, Henri; Vigouroux, Yves; Gestat de Garambé, Thierry; RICHARD-MOLARD, Marc; Muchembled, Claude

    2007-01-01

    Concerns have been raised in Europe about the efficiency, sustainability, and environmental impact of the first genetically modified crops. The committees and regulators in charge of approving procedures have encouraged a field trial approach for safety assessment studies under current agronomic conditions. We describe the gene flow from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) in a multi-year and multi-crop monitoring study on farmers' fields at two locations that has been carried out since 1995. We an...

  1. Safety of life activity and environmental friendliness in beet processing department of a beet-sugar factory

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    V. V. Ageev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The branch of processing of a beet is characterized by a variety of dangerous and harmful production factors. To maintain the optimal values of microclimate in beet processing department carried out installation of systems of ventilation and heating. To implement the protection measures for impacts include the use of low-power equipment; the attenuation of the noise in the way of its propagation by means of sound insulation; maintenance equipment; install equipment on vibration isolation bases. Electrical safety in industrial environments by the appropriate design of electrical installations, technical means and means of protection, organizational and technical measures. For protection against static electricity use of protective grounding. The safe operation of lifting and handling equipment is provided by the audit of the reliability and strength of their structural elements, as well as ropes, lifting devices. To reduce the harmful impact of the use of the Department of toxic substances into the running, you must use individual protection equipment: special clothing, anti-dust respirators. Of technical means of protection used in the supply and exhaust ventilation, are also used cyclones. To protect surface and groundwater from effluent applied field of filtration, aeration tanks, biofilters. The amount of emissions into the atmosphere can reduce the reduction of steam consumption for technological needs. For dust removal in dusty offices with equipment install the cyclone. One of the measures to prevent the explosion is to install explosion protection. For fire in a sugar factory used fire boards, fire hoses, automatic water extinguishing systems, steam and gas fire. All facilities and process plant should be provided with primary fire extinguishing means. Place them in conspicuous places, readily accessible at any time. In addition, the company is required to lay special network of fire water. Thus, security and compliance with of

  2. Transcriptome analysis of sugar beet root maggot (Tetanops myopaeformis) genes modulated by the Beta vulgaris host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haiyan; Smigocki, Ann C

    2016-10-03

    Sugar beet root maggot (SBRM, Tetanops myopaeformis von Röder) is a major but poorly understood insect pest of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.). The molecular mechanisms underlying plant defense responses are well documented, however, little information is available about complementary mechanisms for insect adaptive responses to overcome host resistance. To date, no studies have been published on SBRM gene expression profiling. Suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) generated more than 300 SBRM ESTs differentially expressed in the interaction of the pest with a moderately resistant (F1016) and a susceptible (F1010) sugar beet line. Blast2GO v. 3.2 search indicated that over 40% of the differentially expressed genes had known functions, primarily driven by fruit fly D. melanogaster genes. Expression patterns of 18 selected EST clones were confirmed by RT-PCR analysis. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis predicted a dominance of metabolic and catalytic genes involved in the interaction of SBRM with its host. SBRM genes functioning during development, regulation, cellular process, signaling and under stress conditions were annotated. SBRM genes that were common or unique in response to resistant or susceptible interactions with the host were identified and their possible roles in insect responses to the host are discussed.

  3. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Han; Cao, Hua; Cai, Yan-Fei; Wang, Ji-Hua; Qu, Su-Ping; Huang, Xing-Qi

    2014-06-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris) chloroplast genome (cpDNA) was determined in this study. The cpDNA was 149,637 bp in length, containing a pair of 24,439 bp inverted repeat regions (IR), which were separated by small and large single copy regions (SSC and LSC) of 17,701 and 83,057 bp, respectively. 53.4% of the sugar beet cpDNA consisted of gene coding regions (protein coding and RNA genes). The gene content and relative positions of 113 individual genes (79 protein encoding genes, 30 tRNA genes, 4 rRNA genes) were almost identical to those of tobacco cpDNA. The overall AT contents of the sugar beet cpDNA were 63.6% and in the LSC, SSC and IR regions were 65.9%, 70.8% and 57.8%, respectively. Fifteen genes contained one intron, while three genes had two introns.

  4. Noninvasive presymptomatic detection of Cercospora beticola infection and identification of early metabolic responses in sugar beet

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    Hans-Peter Mock

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cercospora beticola is an economically significant fungal pathogen of sugar beet, and is the causative pathogen of Cercospora leaf spot. Selected host genotypes with contrasting degree of susceptibility to the disease have been exploited to characterize the patterns of metabolite responses to fungal infection, and to devise a pre-symptomatic, non-invasive method of detecting the presence of the pathogen. Sugar beet genotypes were analyzed for metabolite profiles and hyperspectral signatures. Correlation of data matrices from both approaches facilitated identification of candidates for metabolic markers. Hyperspectral imaging was highly predictive with a classification accuracy of 98.5-99.9 % in detecting C. beticola. Metabolite analysis revealed metabolites altered by the host as part of a successful defence response: these were L-DOPA, 12-hydroxyjasmonic acid 12-O-β-D-glucoside, pantothenic acid and 5-O-feruloylquinic acid. The accumulation of glucosylvitexin in the resistant cultivar suggests it acts as a constitutively-produced protectant. The study establishes a proof-of-concept for an unbiased, presymptomatic and non-invasive detection system for the presence of C. beticola. The test needs to be validated with a larger set of genotypes, to be scalable to the level of a crop improvement program, aiming to speed up the selection for resistant cultivars of sugar beet. Untargeted metabolic profiling is a valuable tool to identify metabolites which correlate with hyperspectral data.

  5. State of weed infestation and features of sugar beet protection in Belarus

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    Soroka Sergey Vladimirovich

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The changes of phytosanitary situation recently taking place in sugar beet crops in the Republic of Belarus are shown. It is noticed that in the crop agrocoenosises there is a high infestation level caused by Japanese barnyard millet (Echinochloa crus-galli (L Pal. Beauv, field sowthistle (Sonchus arvensis L, chickweed (Stellaria media (L Vill, quick grass (Agropyron repens (L Pal Beauv, matricary (Matricaria perforate Merat, creeping thistle (Circium arvense (L scop, marsh woundwort (Stachus palustris L wild buckwheat (Polygonum convolvulus L, bristle stem hemp nettle (Galeopsis tetrahit L, common horsetail (Equisetum arvense L, field forget-me-not (Myosotis arvensis (L Hill, shepherd's purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris (L Med etc. Due to non-observance of preventive and separate agrotechnical techniques especially in spring-summer period, such weeds as bedstraw (Galium aparine L, white campion (Melandrium album (Mill Garcke, green amaranthus (Amaranthus retroflexus L started to appear in the crops. To protect sugar beet effectively, two variants of herbicides application are proposed. The first one - a combined, one stipulating soil action herbicides application before planting or before sugar beet seedlings emergence and on seedlings - to carry out two treatment by post-emergence preparations. The second variant, a split post- -emergence herbicide application (two-three times spraying on growing weeds at small application rates. In the next 5-6 years, a combined method will be of a primary importance in the conditions of the Republic.

  6. Citramalic acid and salicylic acid in sugar beet root exudates solubilize soil phosphorus

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    Karlovsky Petr

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In soils with a low phosphorus (P supply, sugar beet is known to intake more P than other species such as maize, wheat, or groundnut. We hypothesized that organic compounds exuded by sugar beet roots solubilize soil P and that this exudation is stimulated by P starvation. Results Root exudates were collected from plants grown in hydroponics under low- and high-P availability. Exudate components were separated by HPLC, ionized by electrospray, and detected by mass spectrometry in the range of mass-to-charge ratio (m/z from 100 to 1000. Eight mass spectrometric signals were enhanced at least 5-fold by low P availability at all harvest times. Among these signals, negative ions with an m/z of 137 and 147 were shown to originate from salicylic acid and citramalic acid. The ability of both compounds to mobilize soil P was demonstrated by incubation of pure substances with Oxisol soil fertilized with calcium phosphate. Conclusions Root exudates of sugar beet contain salicylic acid and citramalic acid, the latter of which has rarely been detected in plants so far. Both metabolites solubilize soil P and their exudation by roots is stimulated by P deficiency. These results provide the first assignment of a biological function to citramalic acid of plant origin.

  7. CaSO4 and cationic polyelectrolyte as possible pectin precipitants in sugar beet juice clarification

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    Kuljanin Tatjana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Three pectin preparations were isolated from fresh sugar beet pulp during the 150 minutes of extraction, at pH values of 1, 3.5 and 8.5. CaSO4 precipitant was added to 100 cm3 of 0.1% (wt solution of pectin. Studies were performed with 9 different concentrations of CaSO4 solution (50-450 mg dm-3 with the addition of a cationic polyelectrolyte (cationic PAM in concentrations of 3 and 5 mg dm-3. The efficiency of pectin precipitation was monitored by measuring the zeta potential of pectin preparations. Optimal amounts of precipitant CaSO4, without the use of a cationic polyelectrolyte, were as follows: 490-678 mg CaSO4/g pectin. After the use of a cationic polyelectrolyte, the optimal amounts of CaSO4 were smaller (353-512 mg/g pectin. These quantities are significantly lower than the average amount of CaO used in the conventional clarification process of sugar beet juice (about 9 g/g pectin of sugar beet juice. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR -31055

  8. The phytosanitary form and fighting measures diseases and pests of sugar beet from Republic of Moldova

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    Timus Asea M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar beet is one of the most important agricultural crops in the Republic of Moldova. The North and Central regions have good enough pedoclimatic conditions. The genetic potential of sorts and hybrids can be created through the application of modern technologies in order to grow at least 32-35 tons/ha of sugar beet roots. In the Republic of Moldova, sugar beet vegetates between 160 and 180 days in the first year and needs approximately an amount of 2400-2900°C, average of 15.3-15.4°C. Each phenological phase needs different temperatures: at least 4C° is necessary for planting and springing an amount of 650°C is necessary for foliar apparatus; an amount of 1150- 1800°C is necessary to grow the volume of roots and for sugar depositing the average of 2400 to 2600°C is necessary. The mentioned temperatures ensure a normal development of sugar beet plants. If these temperatures fluctuate, the pathogens and pests are stimulated to develop. The most frequent diseases of sugar beet are: Pythium de baryanum Hesse., Aphanomyces cochlioides Dresch. Peronospora schachtii Fuck., Phoma betae Fr. Cercospora beticola Sacc. Erysiphe communis Grev. f. betae Jacz., virosis - Beta virus 2, 3 si 4 etc. The main pests belong to the following categories: Homoptera: Aphis fabae Scop. (fam. Aphididae, Pemphigus fuscicornis Koch. (fam. Pemphigidae Coleoptera: Agriotes sp. (fam. Elateridae, Chaetocnema concinna M. Ch. breviuscula Fld., Cassida nebulosa L. (fam. Chrysomelidae, Atomaria linearis Step. (fam. Cryptophagidae; Bothynoderes punctiventris Germ., Tanymechus dilaticollis Gyll., T. palliatus F., Psalidium maxillosum F. (Curculionidae; Lepidoptera: Agrotis segetum Den. et Schiff., Authographa gamma L. Mamestra (Barathra brassicae L. (Noctuidae, Loxostege sticticalis L. (Pyralidae, Gnorimoschema ocellatella Boyd.; Diptera Pegomyia betae Curtis. (fam. Anthomyidae. Heterodera schachtii Schmidt (Heteroderidae. The most recommended insecticides for fighting the

  9. The Role of Carbohydrate-Metabolizing Enzymes in Sugar Sensing and Differentiation in Sugar Beet Cell Lines

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    Daniel Hagége

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant development is influenced by changes in the levels and types of sugars produced metabolically. The normal (N, habituated organogenic (HO and habituated nonorganogenic (HNO sugar beet cell lines originate from the same mother plant but exhibit distinct levels of morphogenesis and differentiation, and contain different levels of simple carbohydrates. We aim to elucidate whether differences in the abundance and activity of enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism and sugar sensing/signalling help explain the different carbohydrate profiles and differentiation states of the cell lines. Using 13C NMR spectroscopy to analyze cultures of the cell lines over 28 days, we found that N cells accumulated sucrose; HO cells sucrose, glucose and fructose; and HNO cells glucose and fructose. Of three invertase isoforms, the activity of cell wall invertase (CWI was highest in all the cell lines, and CWI activity was greatest in HNO line. The specific accumulation of intracellular carbohydrates during subculture correlated strongly with CWI activity but less so with the vacuolar and cytoplasmic invertase isoforms, or with sucrose synthase activity. Cell lines showed differences in how sugars regulated invertase and sucrose synthase activity. The role of sugar sensing in the regulation of CWI activity was investigated in the cell lines using glucose and sucrose, as well as carbohydrate analogues such as mannitol, 2-O-deoxyglucose and 3-O-methylglucose. Differences in the regulation of CWI activity by carbohydrates across the three cell lines suggest that CWI can be fine-tuned according to the specific carbohydrate requirements of each line during growth. Differences in sugar signalling pathways across the cell lines were explored using glucose and sucrose in the presence of inhibitors of protein kinases or phosphatases. Taken together, our findings suggest that specific regulation of CWI activity plays an important role in determining the intracellular

  10. The origin of metamitron resistant Chenopodium album populations in sugar beet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aper, J; De Riek, J; De Cauwer, B; Bulcke, R; Reheul, D

    2012-01-01

    Chenopodium album L. is a major weed in spring-planted crops in the temperate regions of the world. Since 2000, farmers have reported an unsatisfactory control of this weed in sugar beet fields in Belgium, France and The Netherlands. Frequently, the surviving C. album plants are resistant to metamitron, a key herbicide in this crop. Metamitron resistance in C. album is caused by a Ser264 to Gly mutation in the psbA gene on the chloroplast genome, which prevents binding of metamitron to its target site. This mutation causes also resistance to other herbicides with a similar mode of action, like metribuzin -applied in potato- and atrazine in particular. Atrazine has been applied very frequently in maize in the 1970s and the 1980s, but is now banned in Europe due to environmental reasons. The persistent use of atrazine in maize confronted Belgian and other European farmers in the early 1980s with atrazine resistant C. album with the same Ser264 to Gly mutation. The problems with atrazine resistant C. album disappeared when other herbicides were applied in maize. Unfortunately, this is not the case for metamitron resistant C. album in sugar beet, because no replacement herbicide is readily available. The history of atrazine use in maize brought up a question concerning the origin of the current metamitron resistant C. album populations. Have these populations been selected locally by regular use of metamitron in sugar beet or did the selection occur earlier by atrazine use when maize was grown in the same fields? This would have serious implications regarding the reversibility of herbicide resistance. Therefore, soil samples were collected on 16 fields with different histories: five fields with an organic management over 25 years, two fields with a history of atrazine resistant C. album, five fields with metamitron resistant C. album in sugar beet and four fields which were under permanent grassland for 10 years, preceded by a regular rotation in which sugar beet was a

  11. YIELD AND QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF SUGAR BEET CULTIVARS UNDER CONTINENTAL CLIMATIC CONDITIONS

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    Hatice Erciyes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Sugar yield in per unit area mostly depends on root yield and sugar ratios of the roots. The present research was conducted in 2012 in Mahzemin Village of Kayseri to determine yield and quality parameters of 22 different sugar beet genotypes (Sandrina KWS, Aranka KWS, Corvinia KWS, Pauletta KWS, 1 K222, Serenada KWS, SR 374, SR 380, SR 381, SR 485, SR 489, SR 490, SR 538, SR 540, Festina, Grinta, Dozer, Maden, Coyote, Diamente, Esperia KWS and Turbata. Experiments were conducted in randomized block design. The highest root yields were obtained from Serenada KWS (9475.0 kg/da; the highest sugar ratios from SR 538 (20.09%; the highest pure sugar ratios from Dozer (18.54%; the highest pure sugar yields from Serenada KWS (1625.1 kg/da; the lowest amino nitrogen (amino-N ratios from SR 490 (0.75% and Coyote (0.79%; the lowest sodium (Na ratios from SR 490 80.64% and SR 489 (0.65% and the lowest potassium (K ratios from Dozer (3.06% genotypes.Considering the entire results together, the genotypes Serenada Kws, Corvinia KWS genotypes with the highest root yield, sugar ratio, pure sugar ratio and pure sugar yield; cultivars Dozer, SR538 and SR 490 with the lowest amino nitrogen, sodium and potassium ratios could be recommended to be cultivated in Kayseri province and other continental type of climatic zones.

  12. Starch biosynthetic genes and enzymes are expressed and active in the absence of starch accumulation in sugar beet tap-root

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Starch is the predominant storage compound in underground plant tissues like roots and tubers. An exception is sugar beet tap-root (Beta vulgaris ssp altissima) which exclusively stores sucrose. The underlying mechanism behind this divergent storage accumulation in sugar beet is currently not fully known. From the general presence of starch in roots and tubers it could be speculated that the lack in sugar beet tap-roots would originate from deficiency in pathways leading to starch. Therefore with emphasis on starch accumulation, we studied tap-roots of sugar beet using parsnip (Pastinaca sativa) as a comparator. Results Metabolic and structural analyses of sugar beet tap-root confirmed sucrose as the exclusive storage component. No starch granules could be detected in tap-roots of sugar beet or the wild ancestor sea beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima). Analyses of parsnip showed that the main storage component was starch but tap-root tissue was also found to contain significant levels of sugars. Surprisingly, activities of four main starch biosynthetic enzymes, phosphoglucomutase, ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, starch synthase and starch branching enzyme, were similar in sugar beet and parsnip tap-roots. Transcriptional analysis confirmed expression of corresponding genes. Additionally, expression of genes involved in starch accumulation such as for plastidial hexose transportation and starch tuning functions could be determined in tap-roots of both plant species. Conclusion Considering underground storage organs, sugar beet tap-root upholds a unique property in exclusively storing sucrose. Lack of starch also in the ancestor sea beet indicates an evolved trait of biological importance. Our findings in this study show that gene expression and enzymatic activity of main starch biosynthetic functions are present in sugar beet tap-root during storage accumulation. In view of this, the complete lack of starch in sugar beet tap-roots is enigmatic. PMID

  13. E-Screen evaluation of sugar beet feedstuffs in a case of reduced embryo transfer efficiencies in cattle: the role of phytoestrogens and zearalenone

    Science.gov (United States)

    The E-Screen assay was used to evaluate the estrogenicity of sugar beet by-products obtained from a dairy farm experiencing low success rates of embryo transfer. The beet tailings had ~ 3 fold the estradiol equivalents of the pelleted beet pulp (3.9 and 1.2 µg estradiol equivalents or E2Eq/kg dry m...

  14. Progress towards the understanding and control of sugar beet rhizomania disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrann, Graham R D; Grimmer, Michael K; Mutasa-Göttgens, Effie S; Stevens, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Rhizomania is a soil-borne disease that occurs throughout the major sugar beet growing regions of the world, causing severe yield losses in the absence of effective control measures. It is caused by Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV), which is transmitted by the obligate root-infecting parasite Polymyxa betae. BNYVV has a multipartite RNA genome with all natural isolates containing four RNA species, although some isolates have a fifth RNA. The larger RNA1 and RNA2 contain the housekeeping genes of the virus and are always required for infection, whereas the smaller RNAs are involved in pathogenicity and vector transmission. RNA5-containing isolates are restricted to Asia and some parts of Europe, and these isolates tend to be more aggressive. With no acceptable pesticides available to restrict the vector, the control of rhizomania is now achieved almost exclusively through the use of resistant cultivars. A single dominant resistance gene, Rz1, has been used to manage the disease worldwide in recent years, although this gene confers only partial resistance. More recently, new variants of BNYVV have evolved (both with and without RNA5) that are able to cause significant yield penalties on resistant cultivars. These isolates are not yet widespread, but their appearance has resulted in accelerated searches for new sources of resistance to both the virus and the vector. Combined virus and vector resistance, achieved either by conventional or transgenic breeding, offers the sugar beet industry a new approach in its continuing struggle against rhizomania.

  15. Monitoring gene flow from transgenic sugar beet using cytoplasmic male-sterile bait plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeglitz, C; Pohl, M; Bartsch, D

    2000-12-01

    One of the most discussed environmental effects associated with the use of transgenic plants is the flow of genes to plants in the environment. The flow of genes may occur through pollen since it is the reproductive system that is designed for gene movement. Pollen-mediated gene escape is hard to control in mating plants. Pollen from a wind pollinator can move over distances of more than 1000 m. To investigate the efficiency of transgenic pollen movement under realistic environmental conditions, the use of bait plants might be an effective tool. In this study, cytoplasmic male-sterile (CMS) sugar beets were tested with regard to their potential for monitoring transgene flow. As the pollen source, transgenic sugar beets were used that express recombinant DNA encoding viral (beet necrotic yellow vein virus) resistance, and antibiotic (kanamycin) and herbicide (glufosinate) tolerance genes. In a field trial, the effectiveness of a hemp (Cannabis sativa) stripe containment strategy was tested by measuring the frequency of pollinated CMS bait plants placed at different distances and directions from a transgenic pollen source. The results demonstrated the ineffectiveness of the containment strategy. Physiological and molecular tests confirmed the escape and production of transgenic offspring more than 200 m behind the hemp containment. Since absolute containment is unlikely to be effective, the CMS-bait plant detection system is a useful tool for other monitoring purposes.

  16. Transcript profiles uncover temporal and stress-induced changes of metabolic pathways in germinating sugar beet seeds

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    Windhövel Andrea

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With a cultivation area of 1.75 Mio ha and sugar yield of 16.7 Mio tons in 2006, sugar beet is a crop of great economic importance in Europe. The productivity of sugar beet is determined significantly by seed vigour and field emergence potential; however, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying these traits. Both traits exhibit large variations within sugar beet germplasm that have been difficult to ascribe to either environmental or genetic causes. Among potential targets for trait improvement, an enhancement of stress tolerance is considered because of the high negative influence of environmental stresses on trait parameters. Extending our knowledge of genetic and molecular determinants of sugar beet germination, stress response and adaptation mechanisms would facilitate the detection of new targets for breeding crop with an enhanced field emergence potential. Results To gain insight into the sugar beet germination we initiated an analysis of gene expression in a well emerging sugar beet hybrid showing high germination potential under various environmental conditions. A total of 2,784 ESTs representing 2,251 'unigenes' was generated from dry mature and germinating seeds. Analysis of the temporal expression of these genes during germination under non-stress conditions uncovered drastic transcriptional changes accompanying a shift from quiescent to metabolically active stages of the plant life cycle. Assay of germination under stressful conditions revealed 157 genes showing significantly different expression patterns in response to stress. As deduced from transcriptome data, stress adaptation mechanisms included an alteration in reserve mobilization pathways, an accumulation of the osmoprotectant glycine betaine, late embryogenesis abundant proteins and detoxification enzymes. The observed transcriptional changes are supposed to be regulated by ABA-dependent signal transduction pathway. Conclusion This study

  17. The Development of Sugar Beet Production and Processing Simulation Model – a System Dynamics Approach to Support Decision-Making Processes

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    Rozman Črtomir

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The sugar beet is the main field crop used for sugar production in the temperate climatic zone. The abolishment of the quota system will open new investment opportunities in countries that were forced to abandon sugar industry as the result of the reform in 2006. Present paper describes the modeling of sugar beet production and its processing into sugar for purpose of decision support.

  18. Sugar Beet Yield and Quality Characteristics as Affected by Magnetic Field and Silver Nano Particles

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    H Feizi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of magnetic field, silver nano particles and micronutrient fertilizers on sugar beet, an experiment was conducted at Razavi Research and Technology Institute, Mashhad, Iran. Experiment carried out with seven treatments based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Treatments included (T1 magnetic field and silver nano particles + Kemira fertilizer (T2 magnetic field and silver nano particles + Humax fertilizer (T3 magnetic field and silver nano particles (T4 Kemira fertilizer (T5 Librel fertilizer (T6 Humax fertilizer and (T7 control. The results showed that exposure of sugar beet with magnetic field and silver nano particles (T3 increased root yield about 43 percent more than control. Magnetic field and silver nano particles stimulated shoot yield twice more than control. Magnetic field + silver nano particles treatment showed the highest sugar yield (12.71 ton/ha but T4 and control treatments showed the lowest sugar yield. Experimental treatments had no significant effects on root quality except potassium content. It is expectable that magnetic field and silver nano particles could be suitable as an alternative for chemical fertilizers to reduce their application.

  19. Control of sugar beet pests at early season by seed treatment with insecticides

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    Kereši Tatjana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the period 2001-2004, experiments were conducted in the region of Bačka (northern Serbia to assess the efficiency of insecticide treatment of sugar beet seeds in controlling soil pests (larvae of Elateridae family and reducing the damage caused by beet weevil (Bothynoderes punctiventris G e r m and flea beetle (Chaetocnema tibialis I l l i g. Several insecticides mostly systemic ones (carbofuran, thiamethoxam, fipronil, imidacloprid and clothianidin, and their combinations with pyrethroids in different doses were tested in field conditions. Stand density, percentages of plants damaged by B. punctiventris and C. tibialis, injury level and weight of juvenile plants served as parameters for evaluation of insecticide efficiency. Most of the insecticides applied to seeds provided a significantly better stand density compared with the untreated control. Because of their systemic action, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam and their mixtures with pyrethroids provided very good protection of juvenile plants from C. tibialis and in some cases from B. punctiventris.

  20. DNA methylation of retrotransposons, DNA transposons and genes in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrzewski, Falk; Schmidt, Martin; Van Lijsebettens, Mieke; Schmidt, Thomas

    2017-03-03

    The methylation of cytosines shapes the epigenetic landscape of plant genomes, coordinates transgenerational epigenetic inheritance, represses activity of transposable elements (TEs), affects gene expression, and, hence, can influence the phenotype. Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris), an important crop that accounts for 30% of the worldwide sugar needs, has a relatively small genome size (758 Mbp) consisting of approximately 485 Mbp repetitive DNA (64%) in particular, satellite DNA, retrotransposons, and DNA transposons. Genome-wide cytosine methylation in the sugar beet genome was studied in leaves and leaf-derived callus with a focus on repetitive sequences, including retrotransposons and DNA transposons, the major groups of repetitive DNA sequences and compared with gene methylation. Genes showed a specific methylation pattern for CG, CHG (H=A, C, and T), and CHH sites, whereas the TE pattern differed, depending on the classes 1 (retrotransposons) and 2 (DNA transposons), respectively. Along genes and TEs, the CG and CHG methylation was higher than that of adjacent genomic regions. In contrast to the relatively low CHH methylation in retrotransposons and genes, the level of CHH methylation in DNA transposons was strongly increased, pointing toward a functional role of asymmetric methylation in DNA transposon silencing. Comparison of genome-wide DNA methylation between sugar beet leaves and callus revealed a differential methylation upon tissue culture. Potential epialleles were hypomethylated (lower methylation) at CG and CHG sites in retrotransposons and genes and hypermethylated (higher methylation) at CHH sites in DNA transposons of callus when compared to leaves. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Proteome analysis of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) elucidates constitutive adaptation during the first phase of salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeel, Abdul; Asif, Abdul R; Pitann, Britta; Schubert, Sven

    2011-04-15

    Salinity is one of the major stress factors responsible for growth reduction of most of the higher plants. In this study, the effect of salt stress on protein pattern in shoots and roots of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) was examined. Sugar beet plants were grown in hydroponics under control and 125 mM salt treatments. A significant growth reduction of shoots and roots was observed. The changes in protein expression, caused by salinity, were monitored using two-dimensional gel-electrophoresis. Most of the detected proteins in sugar beet showed stability under salt stress. The statistical analysis of detected proteins showed that the expression of only six proteins from shoots and three proteins from roots were significantly altered. At this stage, the significantly changed protein expressions we detected could not be attributed to sugar beet adaptation under salt stress. However, unchanged membrane bound proteins under salt stress did reveal the constitutive adaptation of sugar beet to salt stress at the plasma membrane level.

  2. Bioethanol Production from Raw Juice as Intermediate of Sugar Beet Processing: A Response Surface Methodology Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevan Popov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Response surface methodology (RSM was used for selecting optimal fermentation time and initial sugar mass fraction in cultivation media based on raw juice from sugar beet in order to produce ethanol. Optimal fermentation time and initial sugar mass fraction for ethanol production in batch fermentation by free Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells under anaerobic conditions at the temperature of 30 °C and agitation rate of 200 rpm were estimated to be 38 h and 12.30 % by mass, respectively. For selecting optimal conditions for industrial application, further techno-economic analysis should be performed by using the obtained mathematical representation of the process (second degree polynomial model. The overall fermentation productivity of five different types of yeast was examined and there is no significant statistical difference between them.

  3. Effect of Cuscuta (Dodder on Quality and Quantity Traits of Sugar Beet in Chenaran, Khorasan Razavi Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sh Amirmoradi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dodder is an annual parasitic plant that has not chlorophyll. This parasitic plant can attach to many field crops such as sugar beet. Also this parasite consumes some water, nutrients and assimilates from plants which result in decreasing of quality and quantity of crops yield. This study carried out in Chenaran county, Khorasan Razavi province, in order to evaluation of damage effects of dodder on qualitative and quantitative traits of sugar beet in 2006. Three fields which naturally formerly have infested by dodder, selected in three locations (Ghezlar, Masi Hazrati and Moghan. Sowing date was nearly in April in all fields. At the harvest time, in November, in each field 20 sample of sugar beet roots separately were harvested. Harvest area of each sample was 8m2. Each sample selected from spots which indicated nearly 80-100 percentage infestation. Observations were paired samples and then 20 samples of uninfested spots (with zero percentage infestation at neighboring rows of infested spots with the same area (8m2 were harvested. Samples were analyzed with qualitative and quantitative standard methods. Obtained data were analyzed by SAS Software with t test and samples compaired in pairwise comparisons. Results indicated that dodder in all sugar beet fields reduced root yield (RY, sugar content(SC, sugar yield (SY, white sugar content (WSC, yield, white sugar yield (WSY, 15.07% , 1.06 Unit, 20.35 %, 7.40 %, 1.89 Unit and 17.73%, respectively. Root potassium content and harmful nitrogen content on field infested spots reduced (8.55% and 8.02 % respectively, but Na content increased 24.3% and molasses Sugar content (MS increased 11.16 %. Conclusion from this experiment showed that dodder damage and its harmful effects were highly significant in all farms in Chenaran. Therefore consideration of field sanitation related to attachment of dodder to sugar beet is completely necessary. Also it had better consider methods of dodder control

  4. Alkali-aided enzymatic viscosity reduction of sugar beet mash for novel bioethanol production process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srichuwong, Sathaporn; Arakane, Mitsuhiro; Fujiwara, Maki; Zhang, Zilian; Tokuyasu, Ken [National Food Research Institute, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NARO), 2-1-12 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8642 (Japan); Takahashi, Hiroyuki [National Agricultural Research Center for Hokkaido Region, NARO, Shinsei, Memuro, Hokkaido 082-0081 (Japan)

    2010-09-15

    Ethanol fermentation of fresh sugar beet mash (SBM) could give a benefit on reducing energy input for sugar diffusion, juice separation, and water evaporation as used in conventional practices, thus offering promise as a low energy process. Actions of cell-wall degrading enzymes provide a mash with low viscosity, which can be easily fermented to ethanol. However, a several-fold higher enzyme loading was required for viscosity reduction of SBM compared with that of potato mash. In this study, the use of dilute alkali treatment (0.025-0.15 N NaOH, 25 C, 1 h) in enhancing enzymatic viscosity reduction of SBM was evaluated. The results showed that higher NaOH concentration enhanced demethylation and deacetylation of SBM, resulting in greater performances of the enzymes on reducing viscosity. Efficient enzymatic viscosity reduction of SBM was observed with the 0.1 N NaOH treatment. On the other hand, untreated SBM was highly resistant to viscosity reduction, even though a 20-fold more enzyme loading was used. The resulting mash containing 12-13% (w/v) sucrose yielded 7-8% (v/v) ethanol after 24 h of fermentation (90% efficiency). Accordingly, alkali treatment can be applied for facilitating the use of fresh sugar beet for ethanol production. (author)

  5. Evaluation and control of worker exposure to fungi in a beet sugar refinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, P A; Todd, W F; Hart, M E; Mickelsen, R L; O'Brien, D M

    1993-12-01

    A study of worker exposure to airborne fungi was undertaken in a sugar beet refinery to evaluate the level of exposure and to determine if controls could be implemented that would lower these exposures. A previous study at this refinery identified one worker who reacted on challenge testing to the moldy but not the fresh sugar beet pulp, had specific Immunoglobulin G to Aspergillus niger, and specific Immunoglobulin E to Aspergillus. Also, two employees were diagnosed with occupational asthma. In the study reported here, two field surveys were conducted, the first during the sugar production campaign (January) and the second during postproduction cleanup and maintenance (June). Approximately 65 personal and area air samples were collected on polycarbonate filters and the culturable fungal spores were identified and enumerated. This study showed high exposure of pellet loaders and pellet silo workers to various species of Aspergillus. Other fungal species that might pose a health hazard were detected. Exposures to fungi during the postproduction cleanup and maintenance phase were much higher than those measured during the production campaign. Engineering controls that would reduce employee exposure are discussed.

  6. Differential expression patterns of non-symbiotic hemoglobins in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva-Eriksson, Nélida; Pin, Pierre A; Kraft, Thomas; Dohm, Juliane C; Minoche, André E; Himmelbauer, Heinz; Bülow, Leif

    2014-04-01

    Biennial sugar beet (Beta vulgaris spp. vulgaris) is a Caryophyllidae that has adapted its growth cycle to the seasonal temperature and daylength variation of temperate regions. This is the first time a holistic study of the expression pattern of non-symbiotic hemoglobins (nsHbs) is being carried out in a member of this group and under two essential environmental conditions for flowering, namely vernalization and length of photoperiod. BvHb genes were identified by sequence homology searches against the latest draft of the sugar beet genome. Three nsHb genes (BvHb1.1, BvHb1.2 and BvHb2) and one truncated Hb gene (BvHb3) were found in the genome of sugar beet. Gene expression profiling of the nsHb genes was carried out by quantitative PCR in different organs and developmental stages, as well as during vernalization and under different photoperiods. BvHb1.1 and BvHb2 showed differential expression during vernalization as well as during long and short days. The high expression of BvHb2 indicates that it has an active role in the cell, maybe even taking over some BvHb1.2 functions, except during germination where BvHb1.2 together with BvHb1.1-both Class 1 nsHbs-are highly expressed. The unprecedented finding of a leader peptide at the N-terminus of BvHb1.1, for the first time in an nsHb from higher plants, together with its observed expression indicate that it may have a very specific role due to its suggested location in chloroplasts. Our findings open up new possibilities for research, breeding and engineering since Hbs could be more involved in plant development than previously was anticipated.

  7. Field Observations with Laser-Induced Fluorescence Transient (LIFT Method in Barley and Sugar Beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna R. Raesch

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The laser-induced fluorescence transient (LIFT method is a non-invasive remote sensing technique for measurement of photosynthetic performance of plants under laboratory and field conditions. We report here a long-term comparative study to monitor the performance of different cultivars of barley and sugar beet during the growth season of these crops. The LIFT measurements provided useful results about photosynthetic light use efficiency on selected leaves in the canopy of the studied crops. The different canopy architectures, with different optical properties, influenced the LIFT measurements.

  8. INFLUENCE OF YEAR AND ATONIK APPLICATION ON VARIABILITY OF SUGAR BEET ROOT YIELD AND DIGESTION

    OpenAIRE

    I ČERNÝ; P ONDRIŠÍK

    2004-01-01

    In 1998 and 1999 the effect of weather conditions and different doses of Atonik application on sugar beet root yield and digestion (cultivar Ranger) were studied in the field trial. The trial results confirmed statistically high significant effect of trial year weather conditions on above mentioned parameters. Comparing received results in the year 1998 to results in 1999 we found out lower root yield (- 7,6 t.ha-1) and digestion (- 0,2 t.ha-1) comparing with year 1999. We found out a signifi...

  9. A high efficiency technique for the generation of transgenic sugar beets from stomatal guard cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, R D; Riksen-Bruinsma, T; Weyens, G J; Rosquin, I J; Denys, P N; Evans, I J; Lathouwers, J E; Lefèbvre, M P; Dunwell, J M; van Tunen, A; Krens, F A

    1996-09-01

    An optimized protocol has been developed for the efficient and rapid genetic modification of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.). A polyethylene glycol-mediated DNA transformation technique could be applied to protoplast populations enriched specifically for a single totipotent cell type derived from stomatal guard cells, to achieve high transformation frequencies. Bialaphos resistance, conferred by the pat gene, produced a highly efficient selection system. The majority of plants were obtained within 8 to 9 weeks and were appropriate for plant breeding purposes. All were resistant to glufosinate-ammonium-based herbicides. Detailed genomic characterization has verified transgene integration, and progeny analysis showed Mendelian inheritance.

  10. Robotic intra-row weed hoeing in maize and sugar beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhards, Roland

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A prototype of robotic intra-row weed hoeing in maize and sugar beet is presented in this study. Weeds in the crop rows were identified using a bi-spectral image analysis system and shape analysis. Positions of weeds in the images were recorded. Selective weed control in the row was performed with a modified finger weeder driven by electrical motors. Speed of the finger weeder was increased at positions where only weeds were classified. The system was triggered by an encoder and controlled by a micro-controller.

  11. Characterization of a new antifungal non-specific lipid transfer protein (nsLTP) from sugar beet leaves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, A K; Brunstedt, J; Madsen, M T

    2000-01-01

    A novel protein (IWF5) comprising 92 amino acids has been purified from the intercellular washing fluid of sugar beet leaves using cation exchange chromatography and reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography. Based on amino acid sequence homology, including the presence of eight...... cysteines at conserved positions, the protein can be classified as a member of the plant family of non-specific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTPs). The protein is 47% identical to IWF1, an antifungal nsLTP previously isolated from leaves of sugar beet. A potential site for N-linked glycosylation present...... sequence of 26 amino acid residues. The protein shows a strong in vitro antifungal activity against Cercospora beticola (causal agent of leaf spot disease in sugar beet) and inhibits fungal growth at concentrations below 10 µg ml(-1)....

  12. [Creation of transgenic sugar beet lines expressing insect pest resistance genes cry1C and cry2A].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvin, D I; Sivura, V V; Kurilo, V V; Oleneva, V D; Emets, A I; Blium, Ia B

    2014-01-01

    Impact of insect pests makes a significant limitation of the sugar beet crop yield. Integration of cry-genes of Bacillus thuringiensis into plant genome is one of the promising strategies to ensure plant resistance. The aim of this work was to obtain sugar beet lines (based on the MM 1/2 line) transformed with cry2A and cry1Cgenes. We have optimized transformation protocol and direct plant let regeneration protocol from leaf explants using 1 mg/l benzylaminopurine as well as 0,25 mg/l benzylaminopurine and 0,1 mg/l indole-butyric acid. Consequently, transgenic sugar beet lines transformed with vector constructs pRD400-cry1C and pRD400-cry2A have been obtained. PCR analysis revealed integration of cry2A and cry1C into genome of transgenic lines and expression of these genes in leaf tissues was shown by reverse transcription PCR.

  13. Effect of sugar beet tubers as a partial replacer to green fodder on production performance and economics of lactating Surti buffaloes in lean period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Sorathiya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of sugar beet tubers as a replacer to green fodder on production performance and economics of lactating Surti buffaloes. Materials and Methods: This trial was conducted at the Livestock Research Station, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari. Twenty lactating Surti buffaloes in a changeover experimental design were selected to assess the effects of replacing green fodder with sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. tubers on production performance, economics of feeding sugar beet and blood biochemical profile. Half (50% of the hybrid Napier was replaced with sliced sugar beet tubers in the ration of experimental animals. Results: Partial replacement of hybrid Napier with that of sugar beet tubers numerically improved dry matter intake, milk yield, 4% fat corrected milk and milk composition parameters such as fat, solid non-fat, protein and lactose, but not significantly. The blood parameters were in normal range and non-significant except that of glucose and triglycerides, which were increased in the sugar beet group. Replacing sugar beet tubers also proved to be cost-effective with improved net profit around Rs. 6.63/day. Conclusion: It can be concluded that 50% hybrid Napier fodder can be replaced with sugar beet tubers without any adverse effect on animal production performance, milk composition blood biochemical profile and economics of feeding.

  14. Feruloylated and Nonferuloylated Arabino-oligosaccharides from Sugar Beet Pectin Selectively Stimulate the Growth of Bifidobacterium spp. in Human Fecal in Vitro Fermentations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Jesper; Lorentzen, Andrea; Vigsnæs, Louise Kristine

    2011-01-01

    The side chains of the rhamnogalacturonan I fraction in sugar beet pectin are particularly rich in arabinan moieties, which may be substituted with feruloyl groups. In this work the arabinan-rich fraction resulting from sugar beet pulp based pectin production was separated by Amberlite XAD hydrop...

  15. MANAGING PRODUCT SAFETY SYSTEM HACCP ON THE EXAMPLE OF BEET-SUGAR PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Golybin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The most effective safety management system of food production in all industrialized countries in the world recognized by the system based on the principles of HACCP. In Russia, the conformity assessment carried out by the HACCP system certification. The essence of the HACCP system is to identify and control the critical points. Critical Control Point – this is the stage of the process, which is subject to control for hazard identification and risk management in order to avoid the production of unsafe products. Implementation of HACCP system allows to tighten and coordinate the quality control system, which will improve the competitiveness of the products produced in the sugar market in Russia and abroad. In the early stages of food production HACCP system to prevent the occurrence of danger. It is based on the preventive approach to ensuring quality and safety in the production process, and can also be used in the development of new products. HACCP system is based on seven main principles to ensure the implementation and management of the system in production. 1. Creation of a working group of the coordinator and the technical secretary and various consultants. 2. Information on materials and products, in this case of sugar beet and sugar. 3. Information about the production. 4. Risk analysis of the available chemical, physical and microbiological factors. To determine the critical control points according to the results obtained for each factor is determined by a special chart the extent of its accounting. The need to consider the potential hazard is determined by the order in which area it has got. 5. The production program of mandatory preliminary activities in the production of sugar. 6. Determination of critical control points. 7. Making worksheets HACCP. It is shown that the use of HACCP in sugar beet production has several advantages.

  16. Evaluation of the environmental impacts of pesticides used in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. production systems in Khorasan provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. Bazrgar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Environmental optimizing of pest management strategies and improving theirs trends towards minimum environmental risks programs is a matter of considerable concern of food scientists particularly in developing countries. This study evaluates the environmental impacts of pesticides consumption based on Environmental Impact Quotient (EIQ model in different sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. production systems in Khorasan provinces as the largest producer of this strategic crop in Iran. For this purpose, information of pesticides used in 26 locations of 11 geographic regions in Khorasan provinces, (North, Razavi and South Khorasan provinces in three types of production systems was gathered: mechanized, semi-mechanized and traditional. In all three production systems, based on EIQ index which uses three risk components: farm worker, consumer and leaching and environment to estimate the relative potential risk of pesticide, the most negative effect of pesticide consumption was on ecosystem organisms as ecological component. Results showed that there is no relationship between sugar beet yield and increasing both diversity of pesticides types and quantity of active ingredients consumption as well. Moreover, granted that increasing in mechanization in sugar beet production caused more environmental load in farm, considering sugar beet yield, mechanized systems resulted in 33% less environmental damage per 1 ton sugar beet produced. Thus, it is expected that there is a possibility to improve ecological function of Khorasan sugar beet production systems without economic loss by substitution or decreasing the use of pesticides. Also, employing more mechanized and more productive systems may reduce environmental hazards in national scale and decrease environmental load due to transportation of non local production in international scale.

  17. Variation in the Yield of Root, Sugar and the Quality of Sugar Beet Depending on Variety and Soil Infestation with Rhizomania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radivojević Stevan Đ.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar beet field trials were planted in 2004 in order to determine sugar and root yield and the quality of sugar beet varieties depending on varietal tolerance to Rhizomania. The field trials were located at the agricultural station in Kikinda, covering a highly infested area and at the "Agroinstitut" in Sombor, where no infestation had been reported. At both locations twenty-one sugar beet varieties were planted. The selected varieties were provided from breeders distributing new selections in Serbia. At Kikinda beet root yield was 85.78 t/ha for Concerto variety and 12.00 t/ha for control variety (intolerant to disease. The obtained difference amounts to 73.78 t/ha or 86.01%. Difference in sugar content within the first-ranked variety Ivona (15.36% and the control sample (10.91% was 4.45% absolute. But, the established difference for crystalline sugar yield between the first-ranked variety Remos (9.205 t/ha and the control variety (0.842 t/ha amounted to 8.363 t/ha or 90.85%. At the other location, Sombor, extreme differences within varieties were also observed but to a lesser extent.

  18. Ethanol fermentation of sugar beet thick juice diluted with crude cheese whey by the flex yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus KD-15

    OpenAIRE

    Oda, Y.; Nakamura, K.; Shinomiya, N; Ohba, K.; 小田, 有二

    2010-01-01

    Kluyveromyces marxianus KD-15, called flex yeast, is a strain that is insensitive tocatabolite repression and has the capacity to produce ethanol efficiently from a mixtureof beet molasses and whey powder. When a fermentation test was conducted in 50 mLof a medium containing 200 mg mL-1 of sugar as sugar beet thick juice diluted with anarbitrary amount of crude whey, strain KD-15 produced over 99 mg mL-1 ethanol in allthe media tested, and ethanol formation decreased in proportion to the volu...

  19. Processing, disulfide pattern, and biological activity of a sugar beet defensin, AX2, expressed in Pichia pastoris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, A K; Brunstedt, J; Nielsen, J E

    1999-01-01

    AX2 is a 46-amino-acid cysteine-rich peptide isolated from sugar beet leaves infected with the fungus Cercospora beticola (Sacc.). AX2 strongly inhibits the growth of C. beticola and other filamentous fungi, but has little or no effect against bacteria. AX2 is produced in very low amounts in sugar...... beet leaves, and to study the protein in greater detail with respect to biological function and protein structural analysis, the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris was used for large-scale production. The amino acid sequence, processing of the signal peptide, disulfide bridges, and biological...

  20. Expression of bacterial poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) synthesis genes in hairy roots of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, G; Harloff, H-J; Jung, C

    2003-01-01

    Three genes from Ralstonia eutropha necessary for poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) synthesis were introduced into the hairy roots of sugar beet. Transformation of a vector construct harbouring the PHB genes, each fused to the coding region of the pea ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase plastid targeting sequence, resulted in 20 transgenic hairy-root clones, producing up to 55 mg high molecular PHB/g dry weight, as identified by gas chromatography, gel permeation chromatography and HPLC. Accumulation of PHB polymer in sugar beet root leucoplasts was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. Thus, for the first time, plastidic PHB production was demonstrated for roots of a carbohydrate-storing crop plant.

  1. Real-Time Blob-Wise Sugar Beets VS Weeds Classification for Monitoring Fields Using Convolutional Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milioto, A.; Lottes, P.; Stachniss, C.

    2017-08-01

    UAVs are becoming an important tool for field monitoring and precision farming. A prerequisite for observing and analyzing fields is the ability to identify crops and weeds from image data. In this paper, we address the problem of detecting the sugar beet plants and weeds in the field based solely on image data. We propose a system that combines vegetation detection and deep learning to obtain a high-quality classification of the vegetation in the field into value crops and weeds. We implemented and thoroughly evaluated our system on image data collected from different sugar beet fields and illustrate that our approach allows for accurately identifying the weeds on the field.

  2. Technical and economic assessments of storage techniques for long-term retention of industrial-beet sugar for non-food industrial fermentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Ramirez, Juan Manuel

    Industrial beets may compete against corn grain as an important source of sugars for non-food industrial fermentations. However, dependable and energy-efficient systems for beet sugar storage and processing are necessary to help establish industrial beets as a viable sugar feedstock. Therefore, technical and economic aspects of beet sugar storage and processing were evaluated. First, sugar retention was evaluated in whole beets treated externally with either one of two antimicrobials or a senescence inhibitor and stored for 36 wk at different temperature and atmosphere combinations. Although surface treatment did not improve sugar retention, full retention was enabled by beet dehydration caused by ambient air at 25 °C and with a relative humidity of 37%. This insight led to the evaluation of sugar retention in ground-beet tissue ensiled for 8 wk at different combinations of acidic pH, moisture content (MC), and sugar:solids. Some combinations of pH ≤ 4.0 and MC ≤ 67.5% enabled retentions of at least 90%. Yeast fermentability was also evaluated in non-purified beet juice acidified to enable long-term storage and partially neutralized before fermentation. None of the salts synthesized through juice acidification and partial neutralization inhibited yeast fermentation at the levels evaluated in that work. Conversely, yeast fermentation rates significantly improved in the presence of ammonium salts, which appeared to compensate for nitrogen deficiencies. Capital and operating costs for production and storage of concentrated beet juice for an ethanol plant with a production capacity of 76 x 106 L y-1 were estimated on a dry-sugar basis as U.S. ¢34.0 kg-1 and ¢2.2 kg-1, respectively. Storage and processing techniques evaluated thus far prove that industrial beets are a technically-feasible sugar feedstock for ethanol production.

  3. Molecular cloning, immunochemical localization to the vacuole, and expression in transgenic yeast and tobacco of a putative sugar transporter from sugar beet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, T J; Bush, D R

    1996-02-01

    Several plant genes have been cloned that encode members of the sugar transporter subgroup of the major facilitator superfamily of transporters. Here we report the cloning, expression, and membrane localization of one of these porters found in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.). This clone, cDNA-1, codes for a protein with 490 amino acids and an estimated molecular mass of 54 kD. The predicted membrane topology and sequence homology suggest that cDNA-1 is a member of the sugar transporter family. RNA gel blot analysis revealed that this putative sugar transporter is expressed in all vegetative tissues and expression increases with development in leaves. DNA gel blot analysis indicated that multiple gene copies exist for this putative sugar transporter in the sugar beet genome. Antibodies directed against small peptides representing the N- and C-terminal domains of the cDNA1 protein identified a 40-kD polypeptide in microsomes isolated from cDNA-1-transformed yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Moreover, the same protein was identified in sugar beet and transgenic tobacco (Nicotaina tobacum L.) membrane fractions. Detailed analysis of the transporter's distribution across linear sucrose gradients and flotation centrifugations showed that it co-migrates with tonoplast membrane markers. We conclude that this carrier is located on the tonoplast membrane and that it may mediate sugar partitioning between the vacuole and cytoplasmic compartments.

  4. The disease prevalence and severity of Cercospora leaf spot in sugar beet cultivations in Kayseri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacer Handan ALTINOK

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cercospora leaf spot disease (Cercospora beticola Sacc., is one of the most economically important fungal diseases in sugar beet growing. Under appropriate climatic conditions, the disease can reach epidemic levels. Although some fungicides exist for disease control, resistance development by pathogen against fungicides is creating difficulties. Besides, use of resistant varieties which is considered as the most efficient and environment-friendly method is adversely affected by pathogen’s ability to exhibit high genetic variations and varying resistance levels against different races of pathogen restricts the success of resistance breeding studies. In order to reveal status of this disease in Kayseri province, surveys were conducted in 2010 and 2011 in sugar beet growing areas and disease prevalence and severity were determined. Approximately, 1500 da area in 90 fields were examined and about 700 da of this area found as infected with Cercospora leaf spot disease in both years of the survey. Highest disease prevalence and severity were found as 80 % and 45 %, respectively, in Sarıoğlan district, which is followed by central district, Develi and Bünyan. Among surveyed districts, lowest prevalence and severity were detected as approx. 65 % and 35 %, respectively, in Yeşilhisar.

  5. Pretreatment of Sugar Beet Pulp with Dilute Sulfurous Acid is Effective for Multipurpose Usage of Carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharina, M; Emelyanov, V; Mokshina, N; Ibragimova, N; Gorshkova, T

    2016-05-01

    Sulfurous acid was used for pretreatment of sugar beet pulp (SBP) in order to achieve high efficiency of both extraction of carbohydrates and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of the remaining solids. The main advantage of sulfurous acid usage as pretreatment agent is the possibility of its regeneration. Application of sulfurous acid as hydrolyzing agent in relatively low concentrations (0.6-1.0 %) during a short period of time (10-20 min) and low solid to liquid ratio (1:3, 1:6) allowed effective extraction of carbohydrates from SBP and provided positive effect on subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis. The highest obtained concentration of reducing substances (RS) in hydrolysates was 8.5 %; up to 33.6 % of all carbohydrates present in SBP could be extracted. The major obtained monosaccharides were arabinose and glucose (9.4 and 7.3 g/l, respectively). Pretreatment of SBP with sulfurous acid increased 4.6 times the yield of glucose during subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of remaining solids with cellulase cocktail, as compared to the untreated SBP. Total yield of glucose during SBP pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis amounted to 89.4 % of the theoretical yield. The approach can be applied directly to the wet SBP. Hydrolysis of sugar beet pulp with sulfurous acid is recommended for obtaining of individual monosaccharides, as well as nutritional media.

  6. Effects of zinc toxicity on sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) plants grown in hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagardoy, R; Morales, F; López-Millán, A-F; Abadía, A; Abadía, J

    2009-05-01

    The effects of high Zn concentration were investigated in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) plants grown in a controlled environment in hydroponics. High concentrations of Zn sulphate in the nutrient solution (50, 100 and 300 microm) decreased root and shoot fresh and dry mass, and increased root/shoot ratios, when compared to control conditions (1.2 microm Zn). Plants grown with excess Zn had inward-rolled leaf edges and a damaged and brownish root system, with short lateral roots. High Zn decreased N, Mg, K and Mn concentrations in all plant parts, whereas P and Ca concentrations increased, but only in shoots. Leaves of plants treated with 50 and 100 microm Zn developed symptoms of Fe deficiency, including decreases in Fe, chlorophyll and carotenoid concentrations, increases in carotenoid/chlorophyll and chlorophyll a/b ratios and de-epoxidation of violaxanthin cycle pigments. Plants grown with 300 microm Zn had decreased photosystem II efficiency and further growth decreases but did not have leaf Fe deficiency symptoms. Leaf Zn concentrations of plants grown with excess Zn were high but fairly constant (230-260 microg.g(-1) dry weight), whereas total Zn uptake per plant decreased markedly with high Zn supply. These data indicate that sugar beet could be a good model to investigate Zn homeostasis mechanisms in plants, but is not an efficient species for Zn phytoremediation.

  7. Effects of hydrothermal pretreatment of sugar beet pulp for methane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemiński, K; Romanowska, I; Kowalska-Wentel, M; Cyran, M

    2014-08-01

    The effect of Liquid Hot Water treatment conditions on the degree of sugar beet pulp (SBP) degradation was studied. The SBP was subjected to hydrothermal processing at temperatures ranging from 120 to 200 °C. The relationship between processing temperature and parameters of liquid and solid fractions of resulting hydrolysates as well as the efficiency of their methane fermentation was determined. The highest concentration of free glucose (3.29 mg ml(-1)) was observed when the hydrolysis was conducted at 160 °C (it was 4-fold higher than that after processing at 120 °C). Total acids and aldehydes concentrations in the liquid fractions were increased from 0.005 mg ml(-1) for the untreated SBP to 1.61 mg ml(-1) after its processing at 200 °C. Parameters of the hydrolysates obtained by the LHW treatment decided of the efficiency of methane fermentation. The highest cumulative methane yield (502.50 L CH₄ kg(-1)VS) was obtained from the sugar beet pulp hydrolysate produced at 160 °C.

  8. Sugar beet M14 glyoxalase I gene can enhance plant tolerance to abiotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chuan; Ma, Chunquan; Pan, Yu; Gong, Shilong; Zhao, Chenxi; Chen, Sixue; Li, Haiying

    2013-05-01

    Glyoxalase I is the first enzyme of the glyoxalase system that can detoxify methylglyoxal, a cytotoxic compound increased rapidly under stress conditions. Here we report cloning and characterization of a glyoxalase I from sugar beet M14 line (an interspecific hybrid between a wild species Beta corolliflora Zoss and a cultivated species B. vulgaris L). The full-length gene BvM14-glyoxalase I has 1,449 bp in length with an open reading frame of 1,065 bp encoding 354 amino acids. Sequence analysis shows the conserved glyoxalase I domains, metal and glutathione binding sites and secondary structure (α-helixes and β-sheets). The BvM14-glyoxalase I gene was ubiquitously expressed in different tissues of sugar beet M14 line and up-regulated in response to salt, mannitol and oxidative stresses. Heterologous expression of BvM14-glyoxalase I could increase E. coli tolerance to methylglyoxal. Transgenic tobacco plants constitutively expressing BvM14-glyoxalase I were generated. Both leaf discs and seedlings showed significant tolerance to methylglyoxal, salt, mannitol and H2O2. These results suggest an important role of BvM14-glyoxalase I in cellular detoxification and tolerance to abiotic stresses.

  9. Salt Stress Induced Proteome and Transcriptome Changes in Sugar Beet Monosomic Addition Line M14

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Le Yang; ChuanHong Kang; Sixue Chen; Haiying Li

    2012-01-01

    Sugar beet monosomic addition line M14 displays interesting phenotypes such as apomixis and salt stress tolerance.Here we reported proteomic and transcriptomic analysis of M14 leaves and roots under 500 mmol/L NaCI treatment for seven days.Proteins from control and treated samples were extracted and separated using two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE).A total of 40 protein spots from leaf gels and 36 protein spots from root gels exhibited significant changes.Using mass spectrometry and database searching,38 unique proteins in leaves and 29 unique proteins in roots were identified.The proteins included those involved in metabolism,protein folding,photosynthesis,and protein degradation.In addition,cDNA libraries of differentially expressed genes were constructed using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH).Fifty-eight unigenes including 14 singletons and 44 contigs were obtained.Some salt-responsive genes were identified to function in metabolism,photosynthesis,stress and defense,energy,protein synthesis and protein degradation.This research has revealed candidate genes and proteins for detailed functional characterization,and set the stage for further investigation of the salt tolerance mechanisms in sugar beet.

  10. Centrifugal partition chromatography in a biorefinery context: Separation of monosaccharides from hydrolysed sugar beet pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, David P; Cárdenas-Fernández, Max; Hewitson, Peter; Ignatova, Svetlana; Lye, Gary J

    2015-09-11

    A critical step in the bioprocessing of sustainable biomass feedstocks, such as sugar beet pulp (SBP), is the isolation of the component sugars from the hydrolysed polysaccharides. This facilitates their subsequent conversion into higher value chemicals and pharmaceutical intermediates. Separation methodologies such as centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) offer an alternative to traditional resin-based chromatographic techniques for multicomponent sugar separations. Highly polar two-phase systems containing ethanol and aqueous ammonium sulphate are examined here for the separation of monosaccharides present in hydrolysed SBP pectin: l-rhamnose, l-arabinose, d-galactose and d-galacturonic acid. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was selected as an effective phase system modifier improving monosaccharide separation. The best phase system identified was ethanol:DMSO:aqueous ammonium sulphate (300gL(-1)) (0.8:0.1:1.8, v:v:v) which enabled separation of the SBP monosaccharides by CPC (200mL column) in ascending mode (upper phase as mobile phase) with a mobile phase flow rate of 8mLmin(-1). A mixture containing all four monosaccharides (1.08g total sugars) in the proportions found in hydrolysed SBP was separated into three main fractions; a pure l-rhamnose fraction (>90%), a mixed l-arabinose/d-galactose fraction and a pure d-galacturonic acid fraction (>90%). The separation took less than 2h demonstrating that CPC is a promising technique for the separation of these sugars with potential for application within an integrated, whole crop biorefinery.

  11. Yield of glyphosate-resistant sugar beets and efficiency of weed management systems with glyphosate and conventional herbicides under German and Polish crop production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichterlein, Henrike; Matzk, Anja; Kordas, Leszek; Kraus, Josef; Stibbe, Carsten

    2013-08-01

    In sugar beet production, weed control is one of the most important and most expensive practices to ensure yield. Since glyphosate-resistant sugar beets are not yet approved for cultivation in the EU, little commercial experience exists with these sugar beets in Europe. Experimental field trials were conducted at five environments (Germany, Poland, 2010, 2011) to compare the effects of glyphosate with the effects of conventional weed control programs on the development of weeds, weed control efficiency and yield. The results show that the glyphosate weed control programs compared to the conventional methods decreased not only the number of herbicide applications but equally in magnitude decreased the dosage of active ingredients. The results also showed effective weed control with glyphosate when the weed covering was greater and sugar beets had a later growth stage of four true leaves. Glyphosate-resistant sugar beets applied with the glyphosate herbicide two or three times had an increase in white sugar yield from 4 to 18 % in comparison to the high dosage conventional herbicide systems. In summary, under glyphosate management sugar beets can positively contribute to the increasingly demanding requirements regarding efficient sugar beet cultivation and to the demands by society and politics to reduce the use of chemical plant protection products in the environment.

  12. Quaternary IPM (integrated pest management)--concept for the control of powdery mildew in sugar beets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, P F J; Verreet, A

    2008-01-01

    Powdery mildew, caused by Erysiphe betae (Vanha) Weltzien, may be assumed as an important leaf disease in sugar beet growing areas of central Europe. Although the causal agent is mainly adapted to arid climatic zones, the disease is appearing every year, where the extent of infection is mainly dependent on weather conditions and susceptibility of cultivar. The losses caused by powdery mildew seldom exceed 10% of sugar yield; moreover, losses are likely only under the condition that the epidemic onset occurs before end-August. Nevertheless, the epidemic onset varies in a wide range, as there are years with high incidence followed by growing periods without severe infection. Therefore, in order to have a flexible control of the disease, where the use of fungicides could be minimised to an essential amount, a quaternary IPM (Integrated Pest Management) -concept was developed. The development is based on epidemiological field studies (Germany, 1993-2004, n = 76) of sugar beet leaf diseases under variation of year, site and cultivar. Efficacy of fungicide treatment timing was assessed in relation to the epidemic development. Comparison of treatments comprised fungicide sprays carried out from disease initiation till later stages of the epidemic. Additionally, the assessments were performed in relation to an untreated and a healthy control--the latter was three times treated according to a treatment regime with three to four week intervals. The effect of different application timings was measured by the potential of disease and yield loss control. The quaternary concept combines the advantages of four elements in order to compensate the constraints of the single tools: The period without disease risk is determined by a so-called negative-prognosis (i). First symptoms appear in the period from mid-July till the beginning of September. If disease initiation cannot be excluded, field observations by a sample of 100 leaves are advised. The disease scores enable the appliance

  13. [Physiological responses of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) to drought stress during vegetative development period under drip irrigation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang-yang; Geng, Qing-yun; Fei, Cong; Fan, Huai

    2016-01-01

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris cv. Beta 356) was subjected to drought stress during vegetative development by maintaining the soil water content in the 0-40 cm soil depth at 70%, 50% or 30% of field capacity to study the physiological traits of the leaves. Results showed that the compensation index was the highest in the 50% field capacity treatment. Malonaldehyde (MDA) content, relative conductivity, catalase (CAT) activity, and soluble sugar content began to increase 24 h after rehydration. Proline content began to increase 48 h after rehydration. In contrast, no compensation effect was observed in peroxidase (POD) activity after rehydration. Among the active oxygen scavenging enzymes, CAT was most sensitive to drought stress. Supplemental irrigation should be carried out promptly when the soil water content dropped to 50% of field capacity during vegetative development. Rehydration could promote self-repair functions in leaves, thus reducing the effects of drought on sugar beet yield and sugar content.

  14. High production of plant type levan in sugar beet transformed with timothy (Phleum pratense) 6-SFT genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuhira, Hiroaki; Tamura, Ken-ichi; Tamagake, Hideto; Sato, Yutaka; Anzai, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Midori

    2014-12-20

    Levan, a type of fructan, is an oligomer or polymer with mainly a β(2,6)-linked fructose chain attached to sucrose. We introduced two timothy genes, PpFT1 and PpFT2, coding for two homologous sucrose:fructan 6-fructosyltransferases into sugar beet. Sugar beet produces a high concentration of sucrose, a starting substrate in fructan synthesis, in the root. Among transgenic T1 lines, we obtained sugar beet transformants that accumulated large amounts of β(2,6)-linked levans (about 20 to 75mgg(-1) FW) in the roots. The transformed sugar beet plants possessing PpFT1 or PpFT2 produced linear levans with different degrees of polymerization (DP). Namely, the PpFT1 transformants accumulated mainly high DP levans including those with DP>40, while the PpFT2 transformants accumulated levans with DP between 3 and 40. Chromatograms showed that PpFT2 produces pure β(2,6)-linked linear levans compared with fructans synthesized by PpFT1. These levans belong to the high DP class of plant fructans, but have much shorter DP than that of levans generally produced by microorganisms.

  15. Quality changes in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. roots during storage period in piles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Entessar Al-Jbawi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Root transportation or remaining in fields or trucks for many days before manufacturing is considered one of the main problems that leads to the deterioration of root quality, and caused a great loss for the farmer and government. Because of the importance of this issue, a study was conducted during 2007 and 2008 seasons at winter time (15th of Jan at Al Ghab Agriculture Research Center, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR, Syria, to determine the effect of some agricultural treatments (varieties, and environment conditions on the quality traits, water content of sugar beet during 1-10 days after harvest. Also to estimate correlation coefficient between post harvest period and the quality traits and water content. Four recommended sugar beet varieties were used, tow monogerm i.e. Rizor and Sherif, and tow multigerm i.e. Hospoly and Kronos. Randomized Completely Block Design (RCBD was used with four replicates. The results showed that prolonging storage period of the harvested roots leads to high and gradual increment in the total soluble solids (brix %, from the first day to the last day of the studied storage period. The percent of increment for all varieties in brix% was 42.98%. Also the results clarified low sugar percent, and water content, which were 46 and 21.25 %, respectively. The reduction in juice purity % ranged from 76.08% in the first day to 67.23% in the last day for all varieties. The coefficient of correlation (r exhibited a positive correlation between brix % and sucrose % , and a negative correlation between brix % and purity %, and also a negative correlation between water content and both brix and sucrose percentages.International Journal of Environment Vol.4(4 2015: 77-85

  16. Root yield and quality of investigated sugar beet hybrids in northwest Croatia in the period from 2010 to 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Pospišil

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain reliable information on yield and root quality of new sugar beet hybrids, the micro varietal trials were set up on the experimental field of the Faculty of Agriculture at the University of Zagreb in the period from 2010 to 2013. The study included a total of 51 sugar beet hybrids owned by five breeding companies present in the Croatian market. There were significant differences among investigated hybrids in root and sugar yield and sugar content in the roots in all years of research, except in the dry 2011. However, a large number of hybrids achieved statistically equal values because the differences were within the statistical tolerance. In 2010, the highest root yield (107.5 t/ha and the highest technological sugar yield (13.5 t/ha were achieved by the hybrid Elvis. That year, the largest sugar content (15.68% was achieved by the hybrid Markus. In 2012, the highest root yield (86.4 t/ha, and the highest sugar yield (12.0 t/ha were achieved by the hybrid Serenada KWS. The largest root sugar content (17.37% was achieved by the hybrid Denisa KWS. In 2013, the highest root yield (90.2 t/ha and the highest sugar yield (10.8 t/ha were achieved by the hybrid Terranova KWS. That year, the largest sugar content in root (15.23% was achieved by the hybrid Pharaon.

  17. Development of real-time PCR method for the detection and the quantification of a new endogenous reference gene in sugar beet "Beta vulgaris L.": GMO application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaouachi, Maher; Alaya, Akram; Ali, Imen Ben Haj; Hafsa, Ahmed Ben; Nabi, Nesrine; Bérard, Aurélie; Romaniuk, Marcel; Skhiri, Fethia; Saïd, Khaled

    2013-01-01

    KEY MESSAGE : Here, we describe a new developed quantitative real-time PCR method for the detection and quantification of a new specific endogenous reference gene used in GMO analysis. The key requirement of this study was the identification of a new reference gene used for the differentiation of the four genomic sections of the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) (Beta, Corrollinae, Nanae and Procumbentes) suitable for quantification of genetically modified sugar beet. A specific qualitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was designed to detect the sugar beet amplifying a region of the adenylate transporter (ant) gene only from the species of the genomic section I of the genus Beta (cultivated and wild relatives) and showing negative PCR results for 7 species of the 3 other sections, 8 related species and 20 non-sugar beet plants. The sensitivity of the assay was 15 haploid genome copies (HGC). A quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR) assay was also performed, having high linearity (R (2) > 0.994) over sugar beet standard concentrations ranging from 20,000 to 10 HGC of the sugar beet DNA per PCR. The QRT-PCR assay described in this study was specific and more sensitive for sugar beet quantification compared to the validated test previously reported in the European Reference Laboratory. This assay is suitable for GMO quantification in routine analysis from a wide variety of matrices.

  18. Characteristics of on-demand biogas production by using sugar beet silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sharif; Kazda, Marian

    2017-04-29

    On-demand electricity generation can be achieved by just-in-time biogas production instantly utilized in co-generation units. For this goal, easily degradable substrates like sugar beet silage have a high potential. Potential for on-demand biogas production from co-digestion of sugar beet silage (SS) with grass silage (GS) was evaluated in two experiments at organic loading rates (OLRs) of 1.5 kgVS m(-3) day(-1) and 2.5 kgVS m(-3) day(-1), respectively. Each experiment was fed with intermittent feeding system at 8 hrs interval at the same feedstock ratios (volatile solids based) of GS:SS-1:0, 3:1 and 1:3, respectively. Modelling by Gaussian equation was performed in order to understand the effects of SS on biogas production. Addition of sugar beet silage led to maximum biogas production within a short time, but it differed significantly depending on feedstock ratios and OLRs, respectively. At OLR 1.5 kgVS m(-3) day(-1), during mono fermentation of grass silage maximum biogas production rate of 0.27 lN hr(-1) was reached at 2.74 hrs. Production rate did not change at feedstock ratio of GS:SS-3:1 but increased to 0.64 lN hr(-1) at GS:SS-1:3 within a shorter time span (1.58 hrs). On the contrary, at OLR of 2.5 kgVS m(-3) day(-1) time span between feedstock input and maximum biogas production did not differ significantly (p > 0.05) among the reactors. Biogas production rates were 0.60 lN hr(-1) within 2.27 hrs and 0.82 lN hr(-1) within 2.30 hrs at GS:SS-3:1 and GS:SS-1:3, respectively. Surprisingly, there was no time lag between maximum biogas and methane production rates, irrespectively of OLR. This implies that once the whole microbial community is adapted to intermittent substrate input, the metabolic products are instantly utilized through the all steps of anaerobic substrate degradation. Applying this finding opens new perspectives for on-demand biogas energy production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Artificial neural network approach to modeling of alcoholic fermentation of thick juice from sugar beet processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jokić Aleksandar I.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the bioethanol production in batch culture by free Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells from thick juice as intermediate product of sugar beet processing was examined. The obtained results suggest that it is possible to decrease fermentation time for the cultivation medium based on thick juice with starting sugar content of 5-15 g kg-1. For the fermentation of cultivation medium based on thick juice with starting sugar content of 20 and 25 g kg-1 significant increase in ethanol content was attained during the whole fermentation process, resulting in 12.51 and 10.95 dm3 m-3 ethanol contents after 48 h, respectively. Other goals of this work were to investigate the possibilities for experimental results prediction using artificial neural networks (ANNs and to find its optimal topology. A feed-forward back-propagation artificial neural network was used to test the hypothesis. As input variables fermentation time and starting sugar content were used. Neural networks had one output value, ethanol content, yeast cell number or sugar content. There was one hidden layer and the optimal number of neurons was found to be nine for all selected network outputs. In this study transfer function was tansig and the selected learning rule was Levenberg-Marquardt. Results suggest that artificial neural networks are good prediction tool for selected network outputs. It was found that experimental results are in very good agreement with computed ones. The coefficient of determination (the R-squared was found to be 0.9997, 0.9997 and 0.9999 for ethanol content, yeast cell number and sugar content, respectively.

  20. Sporamin-mediated resistance to beet cyst nematodes (Heterodera schachtii Schm.) is dependent on trypsin inhibitory activity in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) hairy roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Daguang; Thurau, Tim; Tian, Yanyan; Lange, Tina; Yeh, Kai-Wun; Jung, Christian

    2003-04-01

    Sporamin, a sweet potato tuberous storage protein, is a Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor. Its capability of conferring insect-resistance on transgenic tobacco and cauliflower has been confirmed. To test its potential as an anti-feedant for the beet cyst nematode (Heterodera schachtii Schm.), the sporamin gene SpTI-1 was introduced into sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) by Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation. Twelve different hairy root clones expressing sporamin were selected for studying nematode development. Of these, 8 hairy root clones were found to show significant efficiency in inhibiting the growth and development of the female nematodes whereas 4 root clones did not show any inhibitory effects even though the SpTI-1 gene was regularly expressed in all of the tested hairy roots as revealed by northern and western analyses. Inhibition of nematode development correlated with trypsin inhibitor activity but not with the amount of sporamin expressed in hairy roots. These data demonstrate that the trypsin inhibitor activity is the critical factor for inhibiting growth and development of cyst nematodes in sugar beet hairy roots expressing the sporamin gene. Hence, the sweet potato sporamin can be used as a new and effective anti-feedant for controlling cyst nematodes offering an alternative strategy for establishing nematode resistance in crops.

  1. Unusual and typical features of a novel restorer-of-fertility gene of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuhira, Hiroaki; Kagami, Hiroyo; Kurata, Masayuki; Kitazaki, Kazuyoshi; Matsunaga, Muneyuki; Hamaguchi, Yuko; Hagihara, Eiki; Ueda, Minoru; Harada, Michiyo; Muramatsu, Aki; Yui-Kurino, Rika; Taguchi, Kazunori; Tamagake, Hideto; Mikami, Tetsuo; Kubo, Tomohiko

    2012-12-01

    Male gametogenesis in plants can be impaired by an incompatibility between nuclear and mitochondrial genomes, termed cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS). A sterilizing factor resides in mitochondria, whereas a nuclear factor, Restorer-of-fertility (Rf), restores male fertility. Although a majority of plant Rf genes are thought to encode a family of RNA-binding proteins called pentatrico-peptide repeat (PPR) proteins, we isolated a novel type of Rf from sugar beet. Two BACs and one cosmid clone that constituted a 383-kbp contig covering the sugar beet Rf1 locus were sequenced. Of 41 genes borne by the contig, quadruplicated genes were found to be associated with specific transcripts in Rf1 flower buds. The quadruplicated genes encoded a protein resembling OMA1, a protein known from yeast and mammals to be involved in mitochondrial protein quality control. Construction of transgenic plants revealed that one of the four genes (bvORF20) was capable of restoring partial pollen fertility to CMS sugar beet; the level of restoration was comparable to that evaluated by a crossing experiment. However, the other genes lacked such a capability. A GFP-fusion experiment showed that bvORF20 encoded a mitochondrial protein. The corresponding gene was cloned from rf1rf1 sugar beet and sequenced, and a solitary gene that was similar but not identical to bvORF20 was found. Genetic features exhibited by sugar beet Rf1, such as gene clustering and copy-number variation between Rf1 and rf, were reminiscent of PPR-type Rf, suggesting that a common evolutionary mechanism(s) operates on plant Rfs irrespective of the translation product.

  2. Modification of gibberellin signalling (metabolism & signal transduction) in sugar beet: analysis of potential targets for crop improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutasa-Gottgens, Effie; Qi, Aiming; Mathews, Ann; Thomas, Stephen; Phillips, Andrew; Hedden, Peter

    2009-04-01

    Sugar beet, Beta vulgaris spp. vulgaris is a biennial long day plant with an obligate requirement for vernalization (prolonged exposure to low temperature). As a spring crop in temperate European climates, it is vulnerable to vernalization-induced premature bolting and flowering, resulting in reduced crop yield and quality. Gibberellins (GAs) play important roles in key physiological processes including stem elongation (bolting) and flowering and are, therefore, potential targets for controlling reproductive growth in sugar beet. We show that the BvGA20ox gene, which encodes an enzyme necessary for GA biosynthesis, was transcriptionally activated in apices of sugar beet plants after vernalization and that GA metabolism can be manipulated to delay bolting in vernalized plants. We demonstrate that down-regulation of GA responses by transformation with the Arabidopsis thaliana gai gene (which represses GA signalling), under its own promoter (pgai::gai) or deactivation of GA by over-expression of the Phaseolus coccineus (bean) GA2ox1 gene, which inactivates GA, increased the required post vernalization thermal time (an accurate and stable measure of physiological time), to bolt by approximately 300 degrees Cd. This resulted in agronomically significant bolting time delays of approximately 2 weeks and 3 weeks in the pgai::gai and 35S::PcGA2ox1 plants, respectively. Our data represent the first transgenic sugar beet model to (1) show that GA signalling can be used to improve crops by manipulation of the transition to reproductive growth; and (2) provide evidence that GA is required for seed set in sugar beet.

  3. Use of the GFP reporter as a vital marker for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C L; Chen, D F; McCormac, A C; Scott, N W; Elliott, M C; Slater, A

    2001-02-01

    Molecular approaches to sugar beet improvement will benefit from an efficient transformation procedure that does not rely upon exploitation of selectable marker genes such as those which confer antibiotic or herbicide resistance upon the transgenic plants. The expression of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) signal has been investigated during a program of research that was designed to address the need to increase the speed and efficiency of selection of sugar beet transformants. It was envisaged that the GFP reporter could be used initially as a supplement to current selection regimes in order to help eliminate "escapes" and perhaps eventually as a replacement marker in order to avoid the public disquiet associated with antibiotic/herbicide-resistance genes in field-released crops. The sgfp-S65T gene has been modified to have a plant-compatible codon usage, and a serine to threonine mutation at position 65 for enhanced fluorescence under blue light. This gene, under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter, was introduced into sugar beet via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Early gene expression in cocultivated sugar beet cultures was signified by green fluorescence several days after cocultivation. Stably transformed calli, which showed green fluorescence at a range of densities, were obtained at frequencies of 3-11% after transferring the inoculated cultures to selection media. Cocultivated shoot explants or embryogenic calli were regularly monitored under the microscope with blue light when they were transferred to media without selective agents. Green fluorescent shoots were obtained at frequencies of 2-5%. It was concluded that the sgfp-S65T gene can be used as a vital marker for noninvasive screening of cells and shoots for transformation, and that it has potential for the development of selectable marker-free transgenic sugar beet.

  4. PROCESS OF OBTAINING OF SUGAR FROM SUGAR BEET AND INFLUENCE ON ITS QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marián Tokár

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Cooking of massecuites has been study in the connection with different particle size distribution of white sugar. During the crystallization is possible to operate with parameters which have influence on particle size of white sugar. Dry matter of juice in crystallizer, volume of the standard syrup in crystallizer and heating curve of crystallization process are constant parameters in this process. Quantity of slurry (seed magma crystallizate and volume of slurry massecuite are parameters which can be changed for control the particle size distribution of white sugar. Five variants of viable parameters have been trying for obtain ideal particle size distribution of white sugar. As a best has been evaluated variant with 1100 cm3 of slurry and 20 % of volume of slurry massecuite in crystallizer. This variant has had the crystals proportions captured by the sieves between 1.00 and 0.40 mm with minimal differences in weight. More results have been related to reduction of losses of sugar in molasses with the right setting for the line of cooling crystallization process. The looses of sugar can be reduced by adding two coolers in the end of cooling crystalization process what will decrease a temperature to 40 ° C. This temperature will lead to more efficient crystallization in the cooling crystallization process.doi:10.5219/122

  5. Study of the production of ethanol from sugar beets for use as a motor fuel. Final report, February 1, 1980-April 30, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baird, H W

    1981-04-27

    This study was performed to assess the feasibility of producing fuel ethanol from sugar beets. Sugar beets are a major agricultural crop in the area and the beet sugar industry is a major employer. There have been some indications that increasing competition from imported sugar and fructose sugar produced from corn may lead to lower average sugar prices than have prevailed in the past. Fuel ethanol might provide an attractive alternative market for beets and ethanol production would continue to provide an industrial base for labor. Ethanol production from beets would utilize much of the same field and plant equipment as is now used for sugar. It is logical to examine the modification of an existing sugar plant from producing sugar to ethanol. The decision was made to use Great Western Sugar Company's plant at Mitchell as the example plant. This plant was selected primarily on the basis of its independence from other plants and the availability of relatively nearby beet acreage. The potential feedstocks assessed included sugar beets, corn, hybrid beets, and potatoes. Markets were assessed for ethanol and fermentation by-products saleability. Investment and operating costs were determined for each prospective plant. Plants were evaluated using a discounted cash flow technique to obtain data on full production costs. Environmental, health, safety, and socio-economic aspects of potential facilities were examined. Three consulting engineering firms and 3 engineering-construction firms are considered capable of providing the desired turn-key engineering design and construction services. It was concluded that the project is technically feasible. (DMC)

  6. Losses of the potential in methane formation during the storage of sugar beet pulp in open ground basins; Verluste an Methanbildungspotenzial bei der Lagerung von Zuckerruebenmus in offenen Erdbecken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parr, Klaus [Gut Dummerstorf GmbH, Dummerstorf (Germany); Reinsdorf, Uwe; Warnke-Gurgel, Christina [NAWARO BioEnergie Park Guestrow GmbH, Guestrow (Germany); Losand, Bernd [Landesforschungsanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft und Fischerei Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Dummerstorf (Germany); Weissbach, Friedrich

    2013-10-01

    For the use as a substrate in biogas production, it has been proposed to pulpify sugar beets and to store this material in open ground basins (lagoons) which are lined with plastic film. In the inner regions of the lagoon, the material is preserved by anaerobic conditions and lactic acid fermentation. In the surface layer, which is exposed to the atmosphere, however, additional losses are generated by aerobic substrate degradation and evaporation of volatile compounds. The objective of this joined experimental study was to examine the losses of methane forming potential (MFP) during storage of pulpified sugar beets in lagoons. For this purpose, a method was developed enabling the quantification of these losses without the need of a mass balance. This method uses the changes of ash content of dry matter as an internal marker. The results obtained in this way are suitable to calculate the losses which are to be expected during conservation of pulpified sugar beets in open storage facilities of any volume and geometric form. The losses during an all year round storage of pulpified beet mass in lagoons proved to be higher than commonly assumed. In lagoons of 3 to 4 m of depth, the losses according to this study amounted to about 25% of organic matter and about 20% of MFP. (orig.)

  7. Molecular characterization of a new type of cytoplasmic male sterile sugar beet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢纬武; 康传红; 王继志; 王斌; 郭德栋

    1996-01-01

    A line (named Cl) of cytoplasmic sterility of sugar beet whose cytoplasm derived from Betacicla Turkey was obtained by interspecific hybrid. Its cytoplasm and a spontaneous male sterile cytoplasm from wild beet Beta maritima (named M) were compared with that of Owen’s sterile line (S-cms) and a common maintainer of them named N was used as control. RFLP and RAPD methods were mainly used in our experiments. The restriction fragment patterns of mtDNAs were found to be likely but for a few of specific low-lighted electrophoresis bands in Cl. The results of Southern hybridization of six heterogeneous mitochondrial genes as probes to digests of mtDNAs by six restriction enzymes showed to be analogous between S and M lines. But the Cl mtDNA was sorted out by hybridization of atpA probe. Difference of low-molecular-weight mitochondrial DNAs was found among the three sterile lines. Three RNA molecules weighing about 4.2kb stably existed in Cl mitochondria. Our results of RAPD also supported that the Cl cytoplas

  8. Evaluation of the fermentation of high gravity thick sugar beet juice worts for efficient bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Sugar beet and intermediates of sugar beet processing are considered to be very attractive feedstock for ethanol production due to their content of fermentable sugars. In particular, the processing of the intermediates into ethanol is considerably facilitated because it does not require pretreatment or enzymatic treatment in contrast to production from starch raw materials. Moreover, the advantage of thick juice is high solid substance and saccharose content which eliminates problems with the storability of this feedstock. Results The objective of this study were to investigate bioethanol production from thick juice worts and the effects of their concentration, the type of mineral supplement, as well as the dose of yeast inoculum on fermentation dynamics and ethanol yield. The obtained results show that to ensure efficient ethanolic fermentation of high gravity thick juice worts, one needs to use a yeast strain with high ethanol tolerance and a large amount of inoculum. The highest ethanol yield (94.9 ± 2.8% of the theoretical yield) and sugars intake of 96.5 ± 2.9% were obtained after the fermentation of wort with an extract content of 250 g/kg supplemented with diammonium hydrogen phosphate (0.3 g/L of wort) and inoculated with 2 g of Ethanol Red dry yeast per L of wort. An increase in extract content in the fermentation medium from 250 g/L to 280 g/kg resulted in decreased efficiency of the process. Also the distillates originating from worts with an extract content of 250 g/kg were characterized by lower acetaldehyde concentration than those obtained from worts with an extract content of 280 g/kg. Conclusions Under the favorable conditions determined in our experiments, 38.9 ± 1.2 L of 100% (v/v) ethyl alcohol can be produced from 100 kg of thick juice. The obtained results show that the selection of process conditions and the yeast for the fermentation of worts with a higher sugar content can improve the economic performance of the

  9. 甜菜制糖安全性评价及改进措施%Safety analysis and improvement measures of beet sugar technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洪涛; 李琳; 秦文信

    2011-01-01

    Unsafe problems in the traditional beet sugar processing are mainly related to the quality of sugar beet, the environment of production and storage and transportation.It is proposed to enhanced safety in beet sugar industry.%影响甜菜制糖生产的不安全因素主要有原料甜菜的品质,加工工艺,生产环境,以及贮运条件等因素.给出了提高甜菜制糖安全性的措施.

  10. Pulsed electric field-assisted modification of pectin from sugar beet pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Sen; Wang, Zhong-he

    2013-02-15

    This current work is concerned with the modification of sugar beet pulp (SBP) pectin assisted by pulsed electric filed (PEF) without solvent. Pectin-arachates with degree of esterification (DE) ranging from 49 to 84 were prepared in one-step modification. The results showed that the DE of pectin derivatives increased significantly with the PEF intensity from 18 to 30 kV cm((1) and total specific energy input from 124 to 345 J mL((1). Evidence of modification of pectin was provided by FT-IR, X-ray diffraction patterns and NMR spectra. Thermogravimetric investigation of modified pectin indicated a higher thermal stability than the untreated one. Results revealed that PEF technology is a promising method for industrial manufacture of pectin derivatives.

  11. [Fruit set variation associated with apozygotic reproduction in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris l.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iudanova, S S; Maletskiĭ, S I; Pozniak, S I; Maletskaia, E I

    2011-05-01

    Fruit set upon apozygotic reproduction was studied for four years in the msSOAN-5 pollen-sterile inbred sugar beet line. The progenies obtained from pollen-sterile plants by apozygotic reproduction had both fruits with normal seeds and parthenocarpic fruits without seeds, which was not an occasional event. Growth conditions proved to strongly affect the fruit set and seed quality. For instance, water deficiency during early plant development increased the proportion ofparthenocarpic seeds. Waiter deficiency combined with a lower temperature during flowering additionally caused a substantial decrease in the total number of fruits. Under the same growth conditions, related accessions did not differ in seed productivity, but varied in the proportion of normal (with seeds) and parthenocarpic (without seeds) fruits.

  12. Hormonal control of endoreduplication in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) seedlings growing in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukaszewska, E; Virden, R; Sliwinska, E

    2012-01-01

    The effect on endoreduplication in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) seedlings of five plant hormones in MS medium, ethylene, 24-epibrassinolide (EBR), gibberellic acid (GA(3) ), kinetin and 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), as well as a combination of kinetin and NAA at two different concentrations, was studied using flow cytometry. Analyses of DNA content in nuclei of the root, hypocotyl and cotyledons of seedlings growing in vitro were performed during their early development, starting from when the root was 0.5-1.0 cm long until expansion of the first pair of leaves. The proportions of nuclei with different DNA contents were established and the mean C-value calculated. The presence of exogenous plant hormones changed endoreduplication intensity, although to different extents, depending on the organ and developmental stage. Ethylene and NAA stimulated the process, while EBR and kinetin suppressed it and GA did not clearly affect it.

  13. [Autosegregation of enzyme loci in agamospermous progenies of triploid plants of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levites, E V; Kirikovich, S S

    2011-07-01

    The ratios of the phenotypic classes of glucosephosphate isomerase (GP12) and malate dehydrogenase (MDH1 and MDH2) were studied in agamospermous progenies of triploid sugar beet plants. The ratio of the phenotypic classes of these enzymes corresponds to the calculations based on the assumption of polyteny of chromosomes carrying alleles of the enzyme loci accompanied by the loss of extra copies of the alleles in the first division of a cell entering embryogenesis. An increase in the gene dosage due to polyteny leads to the appearance in the progeny with a definite frequency of alleles that were absent in the original parental plant. The notions of meiotic autosegregation and mitotic autosegregation characteristic of meiotic and mitotic agamospermy are introduced, as well as the term locus polygenotype characterizing not only the allelic composition and the number of chromosomes, but also the number of chromatids carrying alleles of the marker locus in the cell before its entry into embryogenesis.

  14. INFLUENCE OF YEAR AND ATONIK APPLICATION ON VARIABILITY OF SUGAR BEET ROOT YIELD AND DIGESTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I ČERNÝ

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available In 1998 and 1999 the effect of weather conditions and different doses of Atonik application on sugar beet root yield and digestion (cultivar Ranger were studied in the field trial. The trial results confirmed statistically high significant effect of trial year weather conditions on above mentioned parameters. Comparing received results in the year 1998 to results in 1999 we found out lower root yield (- 7,6 t.ha-1 and digestion (- 0,2 t.ha-1 comparing with year 1999. We found out a significant effect of Atonik on root yield (+6,73 t.ha-1, rel.12,56 % and digestion (+ 0,6 °S,rel. 3,71 % on the variant C (Atonik treatment comparing to values of control variant. In general we can evaluate the effect of Atonik application as high significant.

  15. The use of sugar beet pulp lignin for the production of vanillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarabi, Aazam; Mizani, Maryam; Honarvar, Masoud

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of this work is to produce vanillin from sugar beet pulp by lignin oxidation and evaluate the effect of process parameters (temperature, partial pressure of oxygen, reaction time, CuSO4 as a catalyst) on the yield of vanillin. Purification and separation of vanillin from pressurized extract was carried out by organic solvent and crystallization. HPLC, FT-IR, H NMR, GC/MS and DSC methods were performed to approve the vanillin crystal. Results showed that production of vanillin was significantly affected by four parameters, and an optimal conditions for production of vanillin was found 4.3bar for an oxygen partial pressure under a temperature of 156°C and duration of time 30min without CuSO4, corresponding to 1439.3mg/100g vanillin. Thermal property of syntesis vanillin was coincide to DSC pure vanillin curve but there were differences in ΔH°f and ΔHc.

  16. Extraction, characterization and spontaneous emulsifying properties of pectin from sugar beet pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Sen; Yu, Shu-juan; Zheng, Xue-ling; Wang, Xiao-xi; Bao, Qing-Dan; Guo, Xiao-ming

    2013-10-15

    The effects of organic acid extractants on the yield and characteristics of pectin from sugar beet pulp were investigated with citric acid, malic acid and lactic acid at different pH (1.5 and 2.0) and time (1 h and 2 h). The results demonstrated that the yields of pectins were directly correlated with the decrease of pH and reaction time, and the optimum yield of 17.2% was obtained at pH 1.5 and 2 h. Furthermore, the acid type also affected the physicochemical characteristics of pectin, especially on the esterification degree (42-71), galacturonic acid content (60.2-77.8%), emulsion activity (35.2-40.1%) and emulsion stability (62.1-79.4%), and a relatively single pectin mainly consisted of homogalacturonan could be obtained under a suitable reaction condition, which was an excellent crude material for the production of emulsion activity.

  17. Sugar beet growth in a changing climate: past, present and future trends in southwest Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Pascal; Fuchs, Hans-Joachim; Lang, Christian

    2017-04-01

    In the study, single factors and their impact on sugar beet cultivation against the background of past and projected climate change are being analyzed. The database consists of climate data by the German Weather Service and 1x1 km interpolated INTERMET raster data. Impact models were run to assess possible future trends using climate projection data of the REgional MOdel (REMO), emission scenario A1B, Run 1, data stream 2 for Germany, daily resolution, without bias correction, 10x10 km raster (n=150) (MPI on behalf of UBA 2006). Compared periods were: B:1971 2000; K:2021-2050; L:2071-2100. Agronomic data were collected from the field books of regional trials from 1974 2014 (n=448). Moreover, a business survey of regional farmers was carried out and evaluated. Impact models to predict timing for sowing, the date of field emergence and row closure, were derived from these data. The ontogenesis was simulated using a linear, temperature-based leaf-growth model. Sowing shifted forward by 7,3 days in regional field trials from 1974 2014. Progress-oriented, risk-tolerant farmers start sowing 10-14 days earlier compared to 1980. Recently, sowing is being conducted on average on 21 March in southwest Germany. For period K, 17 March, and for period L, 2 March is being projected as the average future sowing date while the same late frost risk applies compared to present climatic conditions. Shifting forward the sowing date with spring warming and, thus, exploiting the associated yield potential is the most promising agronomic adaptation strategy to the projected climate change on the farm level. In connection to earlier sowing, the field emergence tendentially shifted forward by 14 days in the field trials. Assuming sowing on 15 March, projection results show an advance of field emergence form 7 April in period B to 3 April in period L. Row closure in field trials in average shifted forward by 19,6 days. For period L, 29 May and thus, an earlier row closure of 9 days compared

  18. THE PRODUCTIVITY OF SUGAR BEET MONOGERM LINES DEPENDING ON CERCOSPORA (Cercospora beticola Sacc. SUSCEPTIBILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrija Kristek

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The producing values of monogerm CMS lines of sugar beet and their tolerance on cercospora leaf spot are investigated in Osijek during two years (2001, 2002 under the following conditions: natural infection and full protection with fungicides. The parameters for evaluation were root quality and yield, just as visual review of leaf damages. Twenty eight genetically divergent CMS lines and two standards were confirmed by the examinations. The test results indicate achieved progress in breeding and monogerm CMS lines value which can be used for obtaining new hybrids and further improvements. Three investigated lines achieved high root yield on the level of standards and even ten lines had the same or higher digestion than better standard. It was found out that in the case of fungicide apply, root yield increased on the average by 7.09 t/ha (16%, sugar content by 0.81% (rel. 5% and sugar yield by 1.38 t/ha (22.8%. Protection measures with fungicides had higher influence on production results of line being susceptible to cercospora and compared to cercospora tolerant lines.

  19. Efficient acetone-butanol-ethanol production by Clostridium beijerinckii from sugar beet pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellido, Carolina; Infante, Celia; Coca, Mónica; González-Benito, Gerardo; Lucas, Susana; García-Cubero, María Teresa

    2015-08-01

    Sugar beet pulp (SBP) has been investigated as a promising feedstock for ABE fermentation by Clostridium beijerinckii. Although lignin content in SBP is low, a pretreatment is needed to enhance enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation yields. Autohydrolysis at pH 4 has been selected as the best pretreatment for SBP in terms of sugars release and acetone and butanol production. The best overall sugars release yields from raw SBP ranged from 66.2% to 70.6% for this pretreatment. The highest ABE yield achieved was 0.4g/g (5.1g/L of acetone and 6.6g/L butanol) and 143.2g ABE/kg SBP (62.3g acetone and 80.9g butanol) were obtained when pretreated SBP was enzymatically hydrolyzed at 7.5% (w/w) solid loading. Higher solid loadings (10%) offered higher acetone and butanol titers (5.8g/L of acetone and 7.8g/L butanol). All the experiments were carried out under not-controlling pH conditions reaching about 5.3 in the final samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. PRODUCTIVITY OF SUGAR BEET LINES AND THEIR CROSSES DEPENDING ON PLOIDITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrija Kristek

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Five diploid (2n=2x=18 cms lines, 2 tetraploid (2n=4x=36 and 2 diploid pollinators, as well as 10 diploid and 10 triploid (2n=3x=27 sugar beet hybrids, given by the crossing of investigated cms lines and pollinators were investigated in the field trials. Two triploid hybrids, widespread in sugarbeet production, were sown as standards – Os Sana and Iva. The trials were conducted on two localities (Osijek and Đakovo during the two years (2002 and 2003. There was a difference between years in weather conditions and between localities in terms of type and features of soil. First year of the investigation was humid and warm and the second was dry and hot. Osijek locality was characterized by chernozem-meadow type soil and Đakovo by loessial pseudoglei. The best average root yield was achieved between the investigated genotypes by the triploid hybrid 15 (58.09 t/ha and the hybrids 11, 13 and standard 31. As for the content and utilization of sugar, the standard 31 achieved best results (15.15% followed by the standard hybrids 15, 18, 17 and 11. The best sugar yield was achieved by hybrid 15 (7.08 t/ha, followed by hybrids 13, 11, 10 and 18.

  1. Characterisation of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris varieties using microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Riek Jan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sugar beet is an obligate outcrossing species. Varieties consist of mixtures of plants from various parental combinations. As the number of informative morphological characteristics is limited, this leads to some problems in variety registration research. Results We have developed 25 new microsatellite markers for sugar beet. A selection of 12 markers with high quality patterns was used to characterise 40 diploid and triploid varieties. For each variety 30 individual plants were genotyped. The markers amplified 3-21 different alleles. Varieties had up to 7 different alleles at one marker locus. All varieties could be distinguished. For the diploid varieties, the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.458 to 0.744. The average inbreeding coefficient Fis was 0.282 ± 0.124, but it varied widely among marker loci, from Fis = +0.876 (heterozygote deficiency to Fis = -0.350 (excess of heterozygotes. The genetic differentiation among diploid varieties was relatively constant among markers (Fst = 0.232 ± 0.027. Among triploid varieties the genetic differentiation was much lower (Fst = 0.100 ± 0.010. The overall genetic differentiation between diploid and triploid varieties was Fst = 0.133 across all loci. Part of this differentiation may coincide with the differentiation among breeders' gene pools, which was Fst = 0.063. Conclusions Based on a combination of scores for individual plants all varieties can be distinguished using the 12 markers developed here. The markers may also be used for mapping and in molecular breeding. In addition, they may be employed in studying gene flow from crop to wild populations.

  2. Impact of spring warming on sowing times of cereal, potato and sugar beet in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. KAUKORANTA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Historical data were used to determine if the warm springs experienced in recent decades have influenced time of sowing of spring cereals (barley, wheat and oats, potato and sugar beet in Finland. The start of the thermal growing season was used to represent all climatic factors affecting sowing time. Regional anomalies in sowing and start of growing season were computed for the years 1965–2007. The start of the growing season was 2–2.8 days earlier per decade, with a steeper increase since 1980. Sugar beet sowing advanced 2.5 (since 1980 5.2 and potato planting 3.4 (since 1980 4.5 days per decade, more than expected solely due to earlier starts to the growing season. Sowing of spring cereals advanced 0.6, 0.7 and 1.7 days per decade in the east, north and west respectively (since 1980 1.0, 1.9 and 3.1, with statistically significant trend (p < 0.01 in the west. Earlier sowings can be largely explained by warmer springs, but the trend was not as steep as that for the growing season. This has however not led to increased temperatures during early vegetative phases and thus faster development and increased drought or pest risk, which would have reduced the positive effects of earlier sowing on yield potential. Earlier sowing detected in the west can be explained by changes in spring temperatures, but may also result from economic and technological development. Farmers seem to have adequately adjusted their field activities to the changes in spring temperatures.;

  3. An environmental life cycle assessment comparing Australian sugarcane with US corn and UK sugar beet as producers of sugars for fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renouf, M.A. [School of Geography, Planning and Architecture, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia); CRC for Sugar Industry Innovation through Biotechnology, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia); Wegener, M.K. [School of Natural and Rural Systems Management, The University of Queensland, QLD 4072 (Australia); CRC for Sugar Industry Innovation through Biotechnology, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia); Nielsen, L.K. [Australian Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia); CRC for Sugar Industry Innovation through Biotechnology, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia)

    2008-12-15

    Sugarcane is a highly suitable substrate for the production of bio-products. As well as producing high yields of sugar, much of the plant's fibre is also recovered and used as a source of renewable energy. A life cycle assessment (LCA) of sugarcane production and processing in Australia was performed to develop an environmental profile of sugarcane as a source of bio-products. The application examined was fermentation products from sugar. The sugarcane results were compared with results for other sugar producing crops - US corn and UK sugar beet - to gauge its relative environmental performance. The results show sugarcane to have an advantage in respect of energy input, greenhouse gas emissions and possibly acidification potential due to its high saccharide yield and the displacement of fossil fuels with surplus renewable energy from cane fibre (bagasse). However Australian sugarcane can exhibit high nitrous oxide emissions, which would reduce greenhouse gas advantages in some regions. For eutrophication, sugar beet provides advantages due to the avoided production of other agricultural crops displaced by the use of beet pulp as an animal feed. The three factors found to have the most influence on the environmental impacts of these agro-industrial systems were the commodities displaced by by-products, agricultural yields, and nitrogen use efficiency. (author)

  4. Analysis of nematode-responsive promoters in sugar beet hairy roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Poucke, K; Karimi, M; Gheysen, G

    2001-01-01

    One of the strategies to make crops resistant to the beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii is the destruction of the feeding site or syncytium. This can be achieved by local expression of the cytotoxic barnase gene under control of a nematode-inducible plant promoter that is active in the syncytium. Expression of barnase outside the feeding site has to be neutralized by its inhibitor barstar driven from a constitutive promoter that is downregulated in the syncytium. Several promoters that are upregulated in feeding structures were identified using the promoter tagging strategy in Arabidopsis thaliana (Barthels et al., 1997) or by differential cDNA screening in tomato (Van der Eycken et al., 1996). Nematode downregulated promoters in Arabidopsis were described by Goddijn et al. (1993). Five nematode-induced promoters (ARM1, 1164, 728, 25 and Lemmi9) and four downregulated promoters (CaMV35S, the nopaline synthase promoter (nos) and the rooting loci promoters RolC and RolD) fused to the beta-glucuronidase (gus) reporter gene were introduced into sugar beet hairy roots by transformation with Agrobacterium rhizogenes to evaluate their expression pattern. All upregulated promoters were found to be active at the base of lateral roots. The 728 and 25 promoter were as well active in root tips. In the 25-gus lines GUS could also be detected in the vascular tissue, while the ARM1 promoter was also active in sugar beet callus. The Lemmi9 promoter and the 4 constitutive promoters were active in the entire root. The transgenic hairy roots were inoculated with Heterodera schachtii and at different time-points (4, 8, 15, 22 days after inoculation; dpi) GUS analysis was performed on the infected roots. For the ARM1, 1164 and 728 promoter the highest gus expression level in syncytia was observed at 8 dpi. In 4 days old syncytia of the 25-gus lines the intensity of the GUS signal was of the same extent as the non-specific vascular signal. In later stages it even disappeared from

  5. BNYVV-derived dsRNA confers resistance to rhizomania disease of sugar beet as evidenced by a novel transgenic hairy root approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavli, R.; Panopoulos, N.J.; Goldbach, R.W.; Skaracis, G.N.

    2010-01-01

    Agrobacterium rhizogenes-transformed sugar beet hairy roots, expressing dsRNA from the Beet necrotic yellow vein virus replicase gene, were used as a novel approach to assess the efficacy of three intron-hairpin constructs at conferring resistance to rhizomania disease. Genetically engineered roots

  6. BNYVV-derived dsRNA confers resistance to rhizomania disease of sugar beet as evidenced by a novel transgenic hairy root approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavli, R.; Panopoulos, N.J.; Goldbach, R.W.; Skaracis, G.N.

    2010-01-01

    Agrobacterium rhizogenes-transformed sugar beet hairy roots, expressing dsRNA from the Beet necrotic yellow vein virus replicase gene, were used as a novel approach to assess the efficacy of three intron-hairpin constructs at conferring resistance to rhizomania disease. Genetically engineered roots

  7. Measurement of moisture, soluble solids, and sucrose content and mechanical properties in sugar beet using portable visible and near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visible and near-infrared spectroscopy, coupled with partial least squares regression, was used to predict the moisture, soluble solids and sucrose content and mechanical properties of sugar beet. Interactance spectra were acquired from both intact and sliced beets, using two portable spectrometers ...

  8. INFLUENCE OF FERTILIZATION AND HERBICIDES APPLICATION ON SOIL MICROFLORA AND ELEMENTS OF SUGAR BEET YIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrija Kristek

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Two-year sugar beet trials were set up on two localities: Đakovo (Stagnic Luvisol and Osijek (Dystric Cambisol. The soils showed acid environment respond (pHKCL 4.9 – 5.4 and low humus contents (1.3 – 1.6%. The trial aimed to investigate use possibility of carbocalc (CC – pressed saturated silt (30% CaO and 40 t/ha stable manure in amendment of already determined unfavourable soil properties, increasing number of soil benefit microorganisms, as well as influence of obtained changes in weed control, sugar beet yield and quality. The weeds were controlled once with full-dose herbicides, repeated low-doses and by hoeing. Weed types, their number and weight were determined on 1 m2 in the July second decade. The investigation results show that carbocalc application (CC brought about increased pHKCL to 7.12 – 7.18 whereas stable manure one resulted in humus increased to 1.73 – 1.95%. It was resulted in increasing of number of bacteria, actinomycetes as well as aerobic asimbiotic nitrogen fixing bacteria – Azotobacter chroococcum. Weed prevailed were as follows : Ambrosia artemisiifolia L., Polygonum persicarie L., Amaranthus retroflexus L. and Echinochloa crus galli L. Total number of weeds without protection application was on the average 83.2 weeds/m2 and weight 4012 g. Hoeing resulted in decreased number of weeds to 2.9 weeds/m2 – weight 111 g, repeated herbicides application to 6.3 weeds/m2 – weight 294 g whereas the worst results , at weeds control, were obtained by the once herbicides control variant (9.1 weed/m2 i.e. 534 g. Low- dose herbicide application variants resulted in higher root yield (48.5 t/ha compared to the once application (45.1 t/ha. However, hoeing brought about the highest root (50.8 t/ha and sugar yield (6.2 t/ha. Root yield was very significantly increased and sugar yield significantly by carbocalc (CC application compared to the control.

  9. Genetic profiling of noncultivated bacteria from the rhizospheres of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) reveal field and annual variability but no effect of a transgenic herbicide resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalenberger, Achim; Tebbe, Christoph C

    2003-01-01

    In this field study, we compared the bacterial communities inhabiting the rhizosphere of a transgenic, herbicide-resistant sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) cultivar with those of its nonengineered counterpart, using a genetic profiling technique based on PCR amplifications of partial 16S rRNA gene sequences and single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP). As a control for the plasticity of the bacterial community, we also analyzed the influence of herbicides, the field heterogeneity, and the annual variation. DNA was isolated from bacterial cell consortia that were directly collected from root material. PCR was carried out with primers that hybridized to evolutionarily conserved regions flanking variable regions 4 and 5 of the 16S rRNA gene. SSCP patterns of these PCR products were composed of approximately 50 distinguishable bands, as detected by silver staining of the gels after electrophoresis. Patterns of the replicates and the different treatments were highly similar, but digital image and similarity analyses revealed differences that corresponded to the positions of the replicates in the field. In addition, communities collected from sugar beet in two successive growing seasons could be distinguished. In contrast, no effect of the transgenic herbicide resistance was detectable. Sequencing of 24 dominant products of the SSCP profiles indicated the presence of bacteria from different phylogenetic groups, with Proteobacteria and members of the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides group being most abundant.

  10. SAFETY OF LIFE ACTIVITY AND ECOLOGICAL COMPATIBILITY IN THE GROCERY DEPARTMENT OF A BEET-SUGAR FACTORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Ageev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Beet-sugar factory - is a large, well-equipped with modern technology, the company that operates in a continuous circuit. In the technological structure of a sugar factory there are three production divisions: beet processing department, juice purification house and grocery department. In the grocery department of a sugar factory dangerous and harmful factors may encounter while using equipment such as vacuum devices, centrifuges, and crystallizer tank, massecuite distributor, driers and classifiers sugar. The working area of the service of machinery may appear dangerous or harmful factors, which are divided into the following groups: physical, chemical, biological and physiological. To maintain microclimate parameters can be applied general ventilation, in which the replacement of the warm air to the cold going around the room volume. Heating in the grocery department in the production season is not carried out, since it is sufficient to heat generated by the equipment. In the grocery department uses natural and artificial lighting. In the sugar factory used the following measures to protect against vibration: perform detailed assembly, eliminate defects and looseness of individual parts; way to isolate the transmission of vibrations from the machine to the foundation apply vibration isolators. Widespread use of electrical installations in a sugar factory creates the risk of electric shock to persons. Causes of electrical shocks are often disadvantages of construction and installation of the equipment, its operation is wrong. During drying and transportation of sugar produced by static electricity. To remove the static electricity equipment grounded; also used the increase in humidity; air ionization. To reduce the consumption of fresh industrial water from reservoirs provides for the establishment of the system of working circuits cleaning and maximum reuse of industrial water. Thus, safety and environmental compliance in the grocery

  11. Assignment tests for variety identification compared to genetic similarity-based methods using experimental datasets from different marker systems in sugar beet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riek, de J.; Everaert, I.; Esselink, D.; Calsyn, E.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Vosman, B.

    2007-01-01

    High genetic variation within sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) varieties hampers reliable classification procedures independent of the type of marker technique applied. Datasets on amplified fragment length polymorphisms, sequence tagged microsatellite sites, and cleaved amplified polymorphic sites mar

  12. Fenton reagent and titanium dioxide nanoparticles as antifungal agents to control leaf spot of sugar beet under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamza Amany

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, foliar sprays of Fenton solutions (Fenton reaction, Fenton-like reaction and Fenton complex, titanium dioxide (TiO2 and the recommended fungicide (chlorothalonil were estimated in the control of sugar beet leaf spot caused by Cercospora beticola under field conditions in two growing seasons. In addition, the impacts of these treatments on some crop characters (leaf dry weight, root fresh weight, soluble solid content, sucrose content and purity of sugar were examined. Biochemical and histological changes in the livers and kidneys of treated rats compared to an untreated control were utilized to assess the toxicity of the examined curative agents. Overall, chlorothalonil and Fenton complex were the most effective treatments for disease suppression in both tested seasons followed by Fenton-like reagent, Fenton’s reagent and TiO2, respectively. Growth and yield characters of treated sugar beet significantly increased in comparison to an untreated control. There were mild or no (biochemical and histological changes in the livers and kidneys of treated rats compared to the control. Fenton solutions and TiO2 may offer a new alternative for leaf spot control in sugar beet.

  13. Taxonomic analysis of the microbial community in stored sugar beets using high-throughput sequencing of different marker genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebe, Sebastian; Wibberg, Daniel; Winkler, Anika; Pühler, Alfred; Schlüter, Andreas; Varrelmann, Mark

    2016-02-01

    Post-harvest colonization of sugar beets accompanied by rot development is a serious problem due to sugar losses and negative impact on processing quality. Studies on the microbial community associated with rot development and factors shaping their structure are missing. Therefore, high-throughput sequencing was applied to describe the influence of environment, plant genotype and storage temperature (8°C and 20°C) on three different communities in stored sugar beets, namely fungi (internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2), Fusarium spp. (elongation factor-1α gene fragment) and oomycetes (internal transcribed spacers 1). The composition of the fungal community changed during storage mostly influenced by the storage temperature followed by a weak environmental effect. Botrytis cinerea was the prevalent species at 8°C whereas members of the fungal genera Fusarium and Penicillium became dominant at 20°C. This shift was independent of the plant genotype. Species richness within the genus Fusarium also increased during storage at both temperatures whereas the oomycetes community did not change. Moreover, oomycetes species were absent after storage at 20°C. The results of the present study clearly show that rot development during sugar beet storage is associated with pathogens well known as causal agents of post-harvest diseases in many other crops.

  14. Spatial differentiation of gene expression in Aspergillus niger colony grown for sugar beet pulp utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Isabelle; Zhou, Miaomiao; Vivas Duarte, Alexandra; Downes, Damien J; Todd, Richard B; Kloezen, Wendy; Post, Harm; Heck, Albert J R; Maarten Altelaar, A F; de Vries, Ronald P

    2015-08-28

    Degradation of plant biomass to fermentable sugars is of critical importance for the use of plant materials for biofuels. Filamentous fungi are ubiquitous organisms and major plant biomass degraders. Single colonies of some fungal species can colonize massive areas as large as five soccer stadia. During growth, the mycelium encounters heterogeneous carbon sources. Here we assessed whether substrate heterogeneity is a major determinant of spatial gene expression in colonies of Aspergillus niger. We analyzed whole-genome gene expression in five concentric zones of 5-day-old colonies utilizing sugar beet pulp as a complex carbon source. Growth, protein production and secretion occurred throughout the colony. Genes involved in carbon catabolism were expressed uniformly from the centre to the periphery whereas genes encoding plant biomass degrading enzymes and nitrate utilization were expressed differentially across the colony. A combined adaptive response of carbon-catabolism and enzyme production to locally available monosaccharides was observed. Finally, our results demonstrate that A. niger employs different enzymatic tools to adapt its metabolism as it colonizes complex environments.

  15. Effects of ensilage on storage and enzymatic degradability of sugar beet pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yi; Yu, Chaowei; Cheng, Yu-Shen; Zhang, Ruihong; Jenkins, Bryan; VanderGheynst, Jean S

    2011-01-01

    Ensiling was investigated for the long-term storage of Sugar Beet Pulp (SBP). Eight strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and a non-inoculated control were screened based on their ability to rapidly reduce pH, produce a large amount of lactic acid and inhibit undesirable fermentations. Lactobacillus brevis B-1836 (LAB #120), Lactobacillus fermentum NRRL B-4524 (LAB #137) and a non-inoculated control were selected for further research to determine the effects of LAB inoculation level and packing density on SBP silage quality and sugar yield upon enzymatic hydrolysis. Both SBP preservation and prevention of cellulose and hemicellulose loss were better when SBP was treated with LAB #137 compared to LAB #120 and the non-inoculated control. Additionally, the ensiling process was found to significantly improve the enzymatic digestibility of SBP by as much as 35%. The results suggest that ensiling may be a promising technology for SBP stabilization and pretreatment for bioconversion to products. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Light-Dependent Betanin Production by Transformed Cells of Sugar Beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Višnja Besendorfer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to transform sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. var. altissima cells using Agrobacterium tumefaciens, a wild octopine strain B6S3, and to study metabolic changes associated with the transformation. From the primary tumours on leaf fragments, two tumour lines were established: one pale green and the other red-violet in colour. The red-violet pigment was identified by means of high-performance liquid chromatography as betanin. Betanin production is strongly light-dependent. To enhance the betanin yield, nutrient media with different carbohydrates like sucrose, a combination of glucose and fructose, or only glucose or only fructose were tested. The selection of carbohydrate affected betanin production and yield. It was observed that the production of betanin per g of dry mass was 20–40 % higher on simple carbohydrates, especially fructose, than on sucrose or the combination of glucose and fructose. However, due to higher biomass production on the medium with sucrose, the highest total yield of betanin was obtained in the presence of sucrose. The most suitable time for possible betanin extraction was between days 7 and 14 for tissue grown on sucrose. The tumour line seems to be promising as an alternative source of betanin as well as a model to study sugar-regulated genes involved in tissue morphology control.

  17. [High-priority research directions in genetics, and the breeding of the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) in the 21st century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornienko, A V; Podvigina, O A; Zhuzhzhalova, T P; Fedulova, T P; Bogomolov, M A; Oshevnev, V P; Butorina, A K

    2014-11-01

    High-priority research directions for the genetics and breeding of the sugar beet in the 21st century were developed with consideration of the available scientific achievements of domestic and foreign scholars. These directions unite the classical and molecular approaches to solving the problems of increasing the effectiveness of sugar beet breeding carried out on a genetic basis, and they correspond to the contemporary level of scientific research. Seven such directions are proposed.

  18. Lime pretreatment of sugar beet pulp and evaluation of synergy between ArfA, ManA and XynA from Clostridium cellulovorans on the pretreated substrate

    OpenAIRE

    Dredge, Roselyn; Radloff, Sarah E.; Van Dyk, J. Susan; Brett I. Pletschke

    2011-01-01

    Sugar beet pulp (SBP) is a waste product from the sugar beet industry and could be used as a potential biomass feedstock for second generation biofuel technology. Pretreatment of SBP with ‘slake lime’ (calcium hydroxide) was investigated using a 23 factorial design and the factors examined included lime loading, temperature and time. The pretreatment was evaluated for its ability to enhance enzymatic degradation using a combination of three hemicellulases, namely ArfA (an arabinofuranosidase)...

  19. Reaction of simple sterile sugar beet hybrids to regulated environmental factors for sugar yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. О. Корнєєва

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sugar yield, an important indicator, is resulting from interaction of two components: the yield and sugar content, both they are controlled by polygenes, and influenced significantly by environment. A.V. Kilchevskyi and L.V. Hotyliova pointed to the fact that in breeding, contrary to evolution, stabilizing forms are dominated by driving ones, which determine the growth response to regulated factors and decreased resistance to non-regulated environmental factors [1]. A relevant breeding trend is to create the genotypes adequate with certain technologies, so to say «low input variety high input variety» i.e. varieties with low and high energy contribution to technology. From this perspective, selection of stable in their manifestation lines against the analyzing backgrounds has become an important element of the breeding process [2]. Home scientists, such as A.L. Mazmulov and M.S. Hrytsyk have contributed greatly to the development and application of the agro-backgrounds [3, 4].

  20. Hydrogen production from sugar beet juice using an integrated biohydrogen process of dark fermentation and microbial electrolysis cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Bipro Ranjan; Elbeshbishy, Elsayed; Hafez, Hisham; Lee, Hyung-Sool

    2015-12-01

    An integrated dark fermentation and microbial electrochemical cell (MEC) process was evaluated for hydrogen production from sugar beet juice. Different substrate to inoculum (S/X) ratios were tested for dark fermentation, and the maximum hydrogen yield was 13% of initial COD at the S/X ratio of 2 and 4 for dark fermentation. Hydrogen yield was 12% of initial COD in the MEC using fermentation liquid end products as substrate, and butyrate only accumulated in the MEC. The overall hydrogen production from the integrated biohydrogen process was 25% of initial COD (equivalent to 6 mol H2/mol hexoseadded), and the energy recovery from sugar beet juice was 57% using the combined biohydrogen.

  1. Gibberellic acid (GA3) enhance seed water uptake, germination and early seedling growth in sugar beet under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Muhammad; Rha, Eui Shik

    2007-02-15

    The study was carried out to assess whether water uptake could be improved in sugar beet seeds and salt tolerance at the germination and early seedling stage by soaking the seeds for 10 h in distilled water (control), 100, 150 and 200 mg L(-1) GA3. Electrical Conductivity (EC) values of the NaCl solution were 0.0 (control), 4.7, 9.4 and 14.1 dS n(-1) NaCl. Priming increased the final germination percentage and the germination rate (1/t 50, where t 50 is the time to 50% of germination) under saline condition. Water uptake of primed seeds also increased significantly with increasing concentration of GA3 as compared to control. Priming also alleviated the adverse effect of salt stress on sugar beet in terms of roots and shoots lengths and fresh weights of plants, roots and shoots.

  2. Illumina-based analysis of endophytic bacterial diversity and space-time dynamics in sugar beet on the north slope of Tianshan mountain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, YingWu; Yang, Hongmei; Zhang, Tao; Sun, Jian; Lou, Kai

    2014-01-01

    Plants harbors complex and variable microbial communities. Endophytic bacteria play an important function and potential role more effectively in developing sustainable systems of crop production. To examine how endophytic bacteria in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) vary across both host growth period and location, PCR-based Illumina was applied to revealed the diversity and stability of endophytic bacteria in sugar beet on the north slope of Tianshan mountain, China. A total of 60.84 M effective sequences of 16S rRNA gene V3 region were obtained from sugar beet samples. These sequences revealed huge amount of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in sugar beet, that is, 19-121 OTUs in a beet sample, at 3 % cutoff level and sequencing depth of 30,000 sequences. We identified 13 classes from the resulting 449,585 sequences. Alphaproteobacteria were the dominant class in all sugar beets, followed by Acidobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes and Actinobacteria. A marked difference in the diversity of endophytic bacteria in sugar beet for different growth periods was evident. The greatest number of OTUs was detected during rossette formation (109 OTUs) and tuber growth (146 OTUs). Endophytic bacteria diversity was reduced during seedling growth (66 OTUs) and sucrose accumulation (95 OTUs). Forty-three OTUs were common to all four periods. There were more tags of Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria in Shihezi than in Changji. The dynamics of endophytic bacteria communities were influenced by plant genotype and plant growth stage. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first application of PCR-based Illumina pyrosequencing to characterize and compare multiple sugar beet samples.

  3. The Impact of Multi-Sensor Data Assimilation on Plant Parameter Retrieval and Yield Estimation for Sugar Beet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodrius, M.; Migdall, S.; Bach, H.; Hank, T.

    2015-04-01

    Yield Maps are a basic information source for site-specific farming. For sugar beet they are not available as in-situ measurements. This gap of information can be filled with Earth Observation (EO) data in combination with a plant growth model (PROMET) to improve farming and harvest management. The estimation of yield based on optical satellite imagery and crop growth modelling is more challenging for sugar beet than for other crop types since the plants' roots are harvested. These are not directly visible from EO. In this study, the impact of multi-sensor data assimilation on the yield estimation for sugar beet is evaluated. Yield and plant growth are modelled with PROMET. This multi-physics, raster-based model calculates photosynthesis and crop growth based on the physiological processes in the plant, including the distribution of biomass into the different plant organs (roots, stem, leaves and fruit) at different phenological stages. The crop variable used in the assimilation is the green (photosynthetically active) leaf area, which is derived as spatially heterogeneous input from optical satellite imagery with the radiative transfer model SLC (Soil-Leaf-Canopy). Leaf area index was retrieved from RapidEye, Landsat 8 OLI and Landsat 7 ETM+ data. It could be shown that the used methods are very suitable to derive plant parameters time-series with different sensors. The LAI retrievals from different sensors are quantitatively compared to each other. Results for sugar beet yield estimation are shown for a test-site in Southern Germany. The validation of the yield estimation for the years 2012 to 2014 shows that the approach reproduced the measured yield on field level with high accuracy. Finally, it is demonstrated through comparison of different spatial resolutions that small-scale in-field variety is modelled with adequate results at 20 m raster size, but the results could be improved by recalculating the assimilation at a finer spatial resolution of 5 m.

  4. Evaluation of the environmental impacts of pesticides used in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) production systems in Khorasan provinces

    OpenAIRE

    A.B. Bazrgar; Soltani,A.; A. Koocheki; Zeinali,E.; A GHAEMI

    2016-01-01

    Environmental optimizing of pest management strategies and improving theirs trends towards minimum environmental risks programs is a matter of considerable concern of food scientists particularly in developing countries. This study evaluates the environmental impacts of pesticides consumption based on Environmental Impact Quotient (EIQ) model in different sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) production systems in Khorasan provinces as the largest producer of this strategic crop in Iran. For this pur...

  5. Genome-wide identification and characterisation of R2R3-MYB genes in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stracke, Ralf; Holtgräwe, Daniela; Schneider, Jessica; Pucker, Boas; Sörensen, Thomas Rosleff; Weisshaar, Bernd

    2014-09-25

    The R2R3-MYB genes comprise one of the largest transcription factor gene families in plants, playing regulatory roles in plant-specific developmental processes, metabolite accumulation and defense responses. Although genome-wide analysis of this gene family has been carried out in some species, the R2R3-MYB genes in Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris (sugar beet) as the first sequenced member of the order Caryophyllales, have not been analysed heretofore. We present a comprehensive, genome-wide analysis of the MYB genes from Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris (sugar beet) which is the first species of the order Caryophyllales with a sequenced genome. A total of 70 R2R3-MYB genes as well as genes encoding three other classes of MYB proteins containing multiple MYB repeats were identified and characterised with respect to structure and chromosomal organisation. Also, organ specific expression patterns were determined from RNA-seq data. The R2R3-MYB genes were functionally categorised which led to the identification of a sugar beet-specific clade with an atypical amino acid composition in the R3 domain, putatively encoding betalain regulators. The functional classification was verified by experimental confirmation of the prediction that the R2R3-MYB gene Bv_iogq encodes a flavonol regulator. This study provides the first step towards cloning and functional dissection of the role of MYB transcription factor genes in the nutritionally and evolutionarily interesting species B. vulgaris. In addition, it describes the flavonol regulator BvMYB12, being the first sugar beet R2R3-MYB with an experimentally proven function.

  6. Identification of molecular variants of the nonrestoring restorer-of-fertility 1 allele in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohgami, Takashi; Uchiyama, Daisuke; Ue, Sachiyo; Yui-Kurino, Rika; Yoshida, Yu; Kamei, Yoko; Kuroda, Yosuke; Taguchi, Kazunori; Kubo, Tomohiko

    2016-04-01

    Only three variants of nonrestoring alleles for sugar beet Rf1 were found from the US maintainer lines which were the selections from a broad range of genetic resources. Cytoplasmic male sterility is widely used for hybrid breeding of sugar beets. Specific genotypes with a nonsterility-inducing cytoplasm and a nonrestoring allele of restorer-of-fertility gene (rf) are called maintainers. The infrequent occurrence of the maintainer genotype evokes the need to diagnose rf alleles. Molecular analysis of Rf1, one of the sugar beet Rfs, revealed a high level of nucleotide sequence diversity, but three variants were tightly associated with maintainer selection in Japan. The question was raised whether this small number of variants would be seen in cases where a wider range of genetic resources was used for maintainer selection. Fifty-seven accessions registered as maintainers in the USDA germplasm collection were characterized in this study. Mitochondrial DNA types (mitotypes) of 551 plants were diagnosed based on minisatellite polymorphism. A mitotype associated with sterility-inducing (S) cytoplasm was identified in 58 plants, indicating S-cytoplasm contamination. The organization of rf1 was investigated by two PCR markers and DNA gel blot analysis. Eight haplotypes were found among the US maintainers, but subsequently two haplotypes were judged as restoring alleles after a test cross and another haplotype was not inherited by the progeny. Nucleotide sequences of rf1 regions in the remaining five haplotypes were compared, and despite the sequence diversity of the gene-flanking regions, the gene-coding regions were identified to be three types. Therefore, there are three rf1 variants in US maintainers, the same number as in the Japanese sugar beet germplasm collection. The implications of having a small repertoire of rf1 variants are discussed.

  7. Effects of sugar beet chitinase IV on root-associated fungal community of transgenic silver birch in a field trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasonen, Hanna-Leena; Lu, Jinrong; Niskanen, Anna-Maija; Seppänen, Sanna-Kaisa; Rytkönen, Anna; Raunio, Janne; Pappinen, Ari; Kasanen, Risto; Timonen, Sari

    2009-10-01

    Heterogenous chitinases have been introduced in many plant species with the aim to increase the resistance of plants to fungal diseases. We studied the effects of the heterologous expression of sugar beet chitinase IV on the intensity of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) colonization and the structure of fungal communities in the field trial of 15 transgenic and 8 wild-type silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) genotypes. Fungal sequences were separated in denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and identified by sequencing the ITS1 region to reveal the operational taxonomic units. ECM colonization was less intense in 7 out of 15 transgenic lines than in the corresponding non-transgenic control plants, but the slight decrease in overall ECM colonization in transgenic lines could not be related to sugar beet chitinase IV expression or total endochitinase activity. One transgenic line showing fairly weak sugar beet chitinase IV expression without significantly increased total endochitinase activity differed significantly from the non-transgenic controls in the structure of fungal community. Five sequences belonging to three different fungal genera (Hebeloma, Inocybe, Laccaria) were indicative of wild-type genotypes, and one sequence (Lactarius) indicated one transgenic line. In cluster analysis, the non-transgenic control grouped together with the transgenic lines indicating that genotype was a more important factor determining the structure of fungal communities than the transgenic status of the plants. With the tested birch lines, no clear evidence for the effect of the heterologous expression of sugar beet chitinase IV on ECM colonization or the structure of fungal community was found.

  8. In vitro evaluation and determination of responsible fraction of coffee beans and dried sugar beet leaves for alpha-glucosidase inhibition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Singh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Recent studies have identified that hydrophobic phenolic phytochemicals and hydrophilic Amadori compounds have potential for type 2 diabetes management via inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolysis enzymes. Here, we determined the phenolic content, α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, and pancreatic α-amylase inhibitory activity of water extracts of roasted and unroasted coffee beans and dried sugar beet leaves. Sugar beet leaves appeared to have the lowest total phenolic content while unroasted and roasted coffee beans had similar phenolic contents (1.49 and 1.40 mg/mL GAE DW respectively. All tested samples resulted to a dose-dependent α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Sugar beet leaves had significant inhibitory activity (78% at the highest dose and after C18 extraction this activity appeared to be both hydrophilic and hydrophobic compound dependent.  Roasted coffee beans had significantly higher α-glucosidase inhibitory activity when compared to green coffee beans at all tested doses. Roasted coffee beans were subjected to C18 extraction and the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity was evaluated and determined to be solely hydrophobic compound dependent. When the α-amylase inhibitory activity was evaluated, no inhibition was observed with all tested samples. Our findings indicate that the observed bioactivities in coffee beans is hydrophobic compound dependent, while in sugar beet leaves the observed effect is possibly due to the synergistic effect of both hydrophobic and hydrophilic fractions. This is the first report on the carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme inhibition of roasted coffee beans and sugar beet leaves.Industrial Relevance. Sugar beets are widely cultivated in Europe and Northern Asia for the production of table sugar. After the harvesting of sugar beets large quantities of sugar beet leaves remain on the field and are either left to become fertilizer or appropriately disposed. Identification of appropriate strategies to

  9. Reliable in silico identification of sequence polymorphisms and their application for extending the genetic map of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtgräwe, Daniela; Sörensen, Thomas Rosleff; Viehöver, Prisca; Schneider, Jessica; Schulz, Britta; Borchardt, Dietrich; Kraft, Thomas; Himmelbauer, Heinz; Weisshaar, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Molecular markers are a highly valuable tool for creating genetic maps. Like in many other crops, sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) breeding is increasingly supported by the application of such genetic markers. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) based markers have a high potential for automated analysis and high-throughput genotyping. We developed a bioinformatics workflow that uses Sanger and 2nd-generation sequence data for detection, evaluation and verification of new transcript-associated SNPs from sugar beet. RNAseq data from one parent of an established mapping population were produced by 454-FLX sequencing and compared to Sanger ESTs derived from the other parent. The workflow established for SNP detection considers the quality values of both types of reads, provides polymorphic alignments as well as selection criteria for reliable SNP detection and allows painless generation of new genetic markers within genes. We obtained a total of 14,323 genic SNPs and InDels. According to empirically optimised settings for the quality parameters, we classified these SNPs into four usability categories. Validation of a subset of the in silico detected SNPs by genotyping the mapping population indicated a high success rate of the SNP detection. Finally, a total of 307 new markers were integrated with existing data into a new genetic map of sugar beet which offers improved resolution and the integration of terminal markers.

  10. Production of methane from sugar beet silage without manure addition by a single-stage anaerobic digestion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirel, B.; Scherer, P. [Lifetec Process Engineering, Faculty of Life Sciences, Hamburg University of Applied Sciences, Lohbruegger Kirchstrasse 65, 21033 Hamburg (Germany)

    2008-03-15

    Single-stage continuous anaerobic conversion of sugar beet silage without manure to methane was investigated in this experimental work, using a laboratory-scale mesophilic anaerobic biogas digester. The sugar beet silage had an extreme low pH of 3.3. The reactor was operated in a hydraulic retention time (HRT) range of between 95 and 15 days, and an organic loading rate (OLR) range of between 0.937 and 6.33 g{sup -1} VS l{sup -1} d{sup -1}. The highest specific gas production rate (spec. GPR) of 0.72 l g VS{sup -1} d{sup -1} could be obtained at 25 days of HRT, with an average methane content of about 63%, at a pH of around 6.8. Since sugar beet silage without the leaves is a poor substrate, in terms of the availability of the nutrients and the buffering capacity, external supplementation of nitrogen and buffering agents has to be regularly performed, in order to achieve a stable and an efficient process. Sodium or potassium hydrogen carbonate addition seemed to function best in our case, among the other agents used, to provide adequate buffering capacity and to keep the digester pH stable during the operation. Use of a new harvest (a new charge of substrate) also affected the spec. GPR values significantly. (author)

  11. Characterization of Fusarium secorum, a new species causing Fusarium yellowing decline of sugar beet in north central USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secor, Gary A; Rivera-Varas, Viviana; Christ, Daniela S; Mathew, Febina M; Khan, Mohamed F R; Varrelmann, Mark; Bolton, Melvin D

    2014-01-01

    This study characterized a novel sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) pathogen from the Red River Valley in north central USA, which was formally named Fusarium secorum. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of three loci (translation elongation factor1α, calmodulin, mitochondrial small subunit) and phenotypic data strongly supported the inclusion of F. secorum in the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (FFSC). Phylogenetic analyses identified F. secorum as a sister taxon of F. acutatum and a member of the African subclade of the FFSC. Fusarium secorum produced circinate hyphae sometimes bearing microconidia and abundant corkscrew-shaped hyphae in culture. To assess mycotoxin production potential, 45 typical secondary metabolites were tested in F. secorum rice cultures, but only beauvericin was produced in detectable amounts by each isolate. Results of pathogenicity experiments revealed that F. secorum isolates are able to induce half- and full-leaf yellowing foliar symptoms and vascular necrosis in roots and petioles of sugar beet. Inoculation with F. acutatum did not result in any disease symptoms. The sugar beet disease caused by F. secorum is named Fusarium yellowing decline. Since Fusarium yellowing decline incidence has been increasing in the Red River Valley, disease management options are discussed.

  12. Reliable In Silico Identification of Sequence Polymorphisms and Their Application for Extending the Genetic Map of Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtgräwe, Daniela; Sörensen, Thomas Rosleff; Viehöver, Prisca; Schneider, Jessica; Schulz, Britta; Borchardt, Dietrich; Kraft, Thomas; Himmelbauer, Heinz; Weisshaar, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Molecular markers are a highly valuable tool for creating genetic maps. Like in many other crops, sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) breeding is increasingly supported by the application of such genetic markers. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) based markers have a high potential for automated analysis and high-throughput genotyping. We developed a bioinformatics workflow that uses Sanger and 2nd-generation sequence data for detection, evaluation and verification of new transcript-associated SNPs from sugar beet. RNAseq data from one parent of an established mapping population were produced by 454-FLX sequencing and compared to Sanger ESTs derived from the other parent. The workflow established for SNP detection considers the quality values of both types of reads, provides polymorphic alignments as well as selection criteria for reliable SNP detection and allows painless generation of new genetic markers within genes. We obtained a total of 14,323 genic SNPs and InDels. According to empirically optimised settings for the quality parameters, we classified these SNPs into four usability categories. Validation of a subset of the in silico detected SNPs by genotyping the mapping population indicated a high success rate of the SNP detection. Finally, a total of 307 new markers were integrated with existing data into a new genetic map of sugar beet which offers improved resolution and the integration of terminal markers. PMID:25302600

  13. Using integrated inter- row cultivation and herbicide band application in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris weed management for reducing herbicide use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    gholamreza maleki

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted to investigate different weed management methods for reduce herbicide use in sugar beet at Arak Agriculture & Natural Research Center in 2005.Trial was designed in split-plot and consisted of 18 treatments with four replication. Each plot contains four 50 cm. rows. distance in inter row and 25cm. between plants on row. Main factor was inter row (with & without cultivation. Sub factors were herbicide dosages in two application methods (band & spread application. Herbicides were Desmedipham(Betanal A. M. plus Chloridazon (pyramin that used as tank mix application. Inter row cultivation done with tender wheal tractor and spraying by stable pressure charging sprayer with drop raining nozzle. The result showed no significance difference between main plots in crop characteristics evaluated. Highest root yield, plant total weight and more reduce weed biomass and control was obtained with 100 and 75 percent of the recommended dosages of the herbicide in spread application and 75 percent recommended dosages in band application. Therefore, in order to decreasing herbicide use toward environmental safety aspects and increasing economical profit for farmers, it is recommended to use 75 percent herbicide dosage in spread and band application in integrated with cultivation instead of complete dose alone in sugar beet. Keywords: Weed management, sugar beet, reduced herbicide dose, inter-row soil manipulation.

  14. Effect of halotolerant rhizobacteria isolated from halophytes on the growth of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Na; Zhao, Shuai; Tian, Chang-Yan

    2017-06-15

    Utilization of rhizobacteria that have associated with plant roots in harsh environments could be a feasible strategy to deal with limits to agricultural production caused by soil salinity. Halophytes occur naturally in high-salt environments, and their roots may be associated with promising microbial candidates for promoting growth and salt tolerance in crops. This study aimed to isolate efficient halotolerant plant-growth-promoting rhizobacterial strains from halophytes and evaluate their activity and effects on sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) growth under salinity stress. A total of 23 isolates were initially screened for their ability to secrete 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase (ACD) as well as other plant-growth-promoting characteristics and subsequently identified by sequencing the 16S rRNA gene. Three isolates, identified as Micrococcus yunnanensis, Planococcus rifietoensis and Variovorax paradoxus, enhanced salt stress tolerance remarkably in sugar beet, resulting in greater seed germination and plant biomass, higher photosynthetic capacity and lower stress-induced ethylene production at different NaCl concentrations (50-125 mM). These results demonstrate that salinity-adapted, ACD-producing bacteria isolated from halophytes could promote sugar beet growth under saline stress conditions. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Combined effects of independent variables on yield and protein content of pectin extracted from sugar beet pulp by citric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, De-Qiang; Du, Guang-Ming; Jing, Wei-Wen; Li, Jun-Fang; Yan, Jia-Yu; Liu, Zhi-Yong

    2015-09-20

    The extraction of pectin from sugar beet pulp by citric acid was carried out under different conditions using Box-Behnken design for four independent variables (pH, temperature, time and liquid to solid ratio). The yield of sugar beet pulp pectin ranged from 6.3% to 23.0%, and the content of protein from 1.5% to 4.5%. All independent variables significantly affected the yield, and all variables except liquid to solid ratio significantly affected the protein content. The yield increased as decreasing pH of extracting solution, extending time and advancing temperature, and an opposite relationship of effects between variables and content of protein was obtained. The chemical composition of collected samples was determined. Moreover, from the results of emulsifying properties study, the extracted pectin from sugar beet pulp could prepare steady oil-in-water emulsions. Therefore, it was inferred that the extraction conditions could influence yield and protein content, resulting in different emulsifying property.

  16. Non-invasive Presymptomatic Detection of Cercospora beticola Infection and Identification of Early Metabolic Responses in Sugar Beet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arens, Nadja; Backhaus, Andreas; Döll, Stefanie; Fischer, Sandra; Seiffert, Udo; Mock, Hans-Peter

    2016-01-01

    Cercospora beticola is an economically significant fungal pathogen of sugar beet, and is the causative pathogen of Cercospora leaf spot. Selected host genotypes with contrasting degree of susceptibility to the disease have been exploited to characterize the patterns of metabolite responses to fungal infection, and to devise a pre-symptomatic, non-invasive method of detecting the presence of the pathogen. Sugar beet genotypes were analyzed for metabolite profiles and hyperspectral signatures. Correlation of data matrices from both approaches facilitated identification of candidates for metabolic markers. Hyperspectral imaging was highly predictive with a classification accuracy of 98.5–99.9% in detecting C. beticola. Metabolite analysis revealed metabolites altered by the host as part of a successful defense response: these were L-DOPA, 12-hydroxyjasmonic acid 12-O-β-D-glucoside, pantothenic acid, and 5-O-feruloylquinic acid. The accumulation of glucosylvitexin in the resistant cultivar suggests it acts as a constitutively produced protectant. The study establishes a proof-of-concept for an unbiased, presymptomatic and non-invasive detection system for the presence of C. beticola. The test needs to be validated with a larger set of genotypes, to be scalable to the level of a crop improvement program, aiming to speed up the selection for resistant cultivars of sugar beet. Untargeted metabolic profiling is a valuable tool to identify metabolites which correlate with hyperspectral data. PMID:27713750

  17. Influence of total solids concentration on the anaerobic co-digestion of sugar beet by-products and livestock manures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboudi, K; Álvarez-Gallego, C J; Romero-García, L I

    2017-05-15

    A series of batch anaerobic digestion assays were implemented to determine the influence of total solids concentration on the anaerobic digestion of sugar beet by-products and their co-digestion with two kind of livestock manures (pig and cow manures). The two total solid concentrations studied were 8% and 5%. Total solids contents above 8% were not evaluated because of the inappropriate rheological behaviour of sugar beet by-products at these concentrations. The best total solid content tested corresponded to 8%, achieving specific methane yields of 464.3 and 451.4mL/g VSadded for co-digestion with pig manure and cow manure respectively. These data were 1.5 times higher than that obtained for reactors operating with 5% total solids content. For individual digestion of sugar beet by-products, final methane yields operating at 8% were also higher than those measured at 5% total solids concentration. However, in these tests, a large delay in the start of biogas production was registered due to the inhibition caused by the accumulation of volatile fatty acids. No significant differences in the organic matter removal efficiencies were observed for the two total solids contents studied. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Microbial community dynamics of a continuous mesophilic anaerobic biogas digester fed with sugar beet silage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirel, B.; Neumann, L.; Scherer, P. [Hochschule fuer Angewandte Wissenschaften, Fakultaet Life Sciences, Lifetec Process Engineering, Hamburg (Germany)

    2008-08-15

    The aim of the study was to investigate the long-term fermentation of an extremely sour substrate without any addition of manure. In the future, the limitation of manure and therefore the anaerobic digestion of silage with a very low buffering capacity will be an increasing general bottleneck for energy production from renewable biomass. During the mesophilic anaerobic digestion of sugar beet silage (without top and leaves) as the sole substrate (without any addition of manure), which had an extreme low pH of around 3.3, the highest specific gas production rate (spec. GPR) of 0.72 L/g volatile solids (VS) d was achieved at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 25 days compared to an organic loading rate (OLR) of 3.97 g VS/L d at a pH of around 6.80. The methane (CH{sub 4}) content of the digester ranged between 58 and 67 %, with an average of 63 %. The use of a new charge of substrate (a new harvest of the same substrate) with higher phosphate content improved the performance of the biogas digester significantly. The change of the substrate charge also seemed to affect the methanogenic population dynamics positively, thus improving the reactor performance. Using a new substrate charge, a further decrease in the HRT from 25 to 15 days did not influence the digester performance and did not seem to affect the structure of the methanogenic population significantly. However, a decrease in the HRT affected the size of the methanogenic population adversely. The lower spec. GPR of 0.54 L/g VS d attained on day 15 of the HRT could be attributed to a lower size of methanogenic population present in the anaerobic digester during this stage of the process. Furthermore, since sugar beet silage is a relatively poor substrate, in terms of the buffering capacity and the availability of nutrients, an external supply of buffering agents and nutrients is a prerequisite for a safe and stable digester operation. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  19. Temperature, moisture, and fungicide effects in managing Rhizoctonia root and crown rot of sugar beet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Melvin D; Panella, Lee; Campbell, Larry; Khan, Mohamed F R

    2010-07-01

    Rhizoctonia solani AG-2-2 is the causal agent of Rhizoctonia root and crown rot in sugar beet; however, recent increases in disease incidence and severity were grounds to reevaluate this pathosystem. To assess the capacity at which other anastomosis groups (AGs) are able to infect sugar beet, 15 AGs and intraspecific groups (ISGs) were tested for pathogenicity on resistant ('FC708 CMS') and susceptible ('Monohikari') seedlings and 10-week-old plants. Several AGs and ISGs were pathogenic on seedlings regardless of host resistance but only AG-2-2 IIIB and AG-2-2 IV caused significant disease on 10-week-old plants. Because fungicides need to be applied prior to infection for effective disease control, temperature and moisture parameters were assessed to identify potential thresholds that limit infection. Root and leaf disease indices were used to evaluate disease progression of AG-2-2 IIIB- and AG-2-2 IV-inoculated plants in controlled climate conditions of 7 to 22 growing degree days (GDDs) per day. Root disease ratings were positively correlated with increasing temperature of both ISGs, with maximum disease symptoms occurring at 22 GDDs/day. No disease symptoms were evident from either ISG at 10 GDDs/day but disease symptoms did occur in plants grown in growth chambers set to 11 GDDs/day. Using growth chambers adjusted to 22 GDDs/day, disease was evaluated at 25, 50, 75, and 100% moisture-holding capacity (MHC). Disease symptoms for each ISG were highest in soils with 75 and 100% MHC but disease still occurred at 25% MHC. Isolates were tested for their ability to cause disease at 1, 4, and 8 cm from the plant hypocotyl. Only AG-2-2 IIIB was able to cause disease symptoms at 8 cm during the evaluation period. In all experiments, isolates of AG-2-2 IIIB were found to be more aggressive than AG-2-2 IV. Using environmental parameters that we identified as the most conducive to disease development, azoxystrobin, prothioconazole, pyraclostrobin, difenoconazole

  20. Functional characterisation and cell specificity of BvSUT1, the transporter that loads sucrose into the phloem of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) source leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieberl, P; Ehrl, C; Pommerrenig, B; Graus, D; Marten, I; Jung, B; Ludewig, F; Koch, W; Harms, K; Flügge, U-I; Neuhaus, H E; Hedrich, R; Sauer, N

    2017-05-01

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is one of the most important sugar-producing plants worldwide and provides about one third of the sugar consumed by humans. Here we report on molecular characterisation of the BvSUT1 gene and on the functional characterisation of the encoded transporter. In contrast to the recently identified tonoplast-localised sucrose transporter BvTST2.1 from sugar beet taproots, which evolved within the monosaccharide transporter (MST) superfamily, BvSUT1 represents a classical sucrose transporter and is a typical member of the disaccharide transporter (DST) superfamily. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing the β-GLUCURONIDASE (GUS) reporter gene under control of the BvSUT1-promoter showed GUS histochemical staining of their phloem; an anti-BvSUT1-antiserum identified the BvSUT1 transporter specifically in phloem companion cells. After expression of BvSUT1 cDNA in bakers' yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) uptake characteristics of the BvSUT1 protein were studied. Moreover, the sugar beet transporter was characterised as a proton-coupled sucrose symporter in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Our findings indicate that BvSUT1 is the sucrose transporter that is responsible for loading of sucrose into the phloem of sugar beet source leaves delivering sucrose to the storage tissue in sugar beet taproot sinks. © 2017 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  1. Genetically modified feeds in animal nutrition. 2nd communication: glufosinate tolerant sugar beets (roots and silage) and maize grains for ruminants and pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhme, H; Aulrich, K; Daenicke, R; Flachowsky, G

    2001-01-01

    To analyse substantial equivalence of genetically modified sugar-beets and maize, in which the glufosinate-tolerant (Pat) gene is inserted, crude nutrients, the amino acid and the fatty acid profiles as well as the composition of the NDF-fraction of maize grains were determined and compared with those of the corresponding non-transgenic cultivars. Due to the genetic manipulation differences in crude nutrient contents including sugar and starch were not detected. The amino acid profile of maize grains was analysed to be the same. Fatty acid profile and composition of cell wall constituents did not show any influences as well. Digestibility of Pat-sugar-beets and maize grains for pigs did not demonstrate meaningful differences as compared to the corresponding non-transgenic cultivars. Digestibility of sugar-beet roots and sugar-beet top silage for ruminants proved to be also in the scope of natural variance. As the digestibility of the macro nutrients remained unaffected, the Pat-gene introduction into both crops did not show an influence on the energetic feeding value. For pigs the ME-content of Pat-sugar-beets was determined to be 14.1 MJ/kg DM versus 13.7 MJ of the non-transgenic cultivars. ME-content of Pat-maize grains was 16.0 MJ/kg DM versus 15.8 MJ for controls. For ruminants the feeding value of Pat-sugar-beets was found to be 8.5 MJ NEL/kg DM or 13.2 MJ ME/kg DM, regardless of whether the Pat-gene was inserted or not. The corresponding energy values of sugar-beet top silage ranged between 5.2 and 5.5 MJ NEL/kg DM or 8.6 and 9.1 MJ ME/kg DM, with differences considered in the biological range.

  2. Studying the effectiveness of re-hydration on productivity in a sugar beet workers among farmers in West Azarbaijan city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Golbabaei

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Heat-related illnesses are major causes of morbidity in the world. Workers who are exposed to extreme heat are not be able to activate their compensatory mechanisms and their health will consequently be at risk. Heat stress due to its impact on work performance increases the likelihood of worker disease and injuries and it also affect productivity. During sugar beet harvest, farmers from about 8 am to 4 pm, are exposed to sunlight and excessive heat. Therefore, preventive measures are essential in order to protect the health of farmers and improve productivity. The aim of this project as to study the effectiveness of the rehydration to reduce heat stress and increasing productivity during sugar beet harvest, conducted in 2012.   .Material and Method: in this project, 20 farmers from sugar beet farmers were studied during summer season, from 8 am to 4 pm in West Azarbaijan- Boukan city where the average temperature and relative humidity were 29.85 0C and 41%, respectively during sugar beet harvest. Selection criteria were defined as working more than 50% of the day’s working schedule and to have worked for at least 10 days of the follow-up period. Individual characteristics and water consumption rate during the work shift and also Production output data by farmers were recorded at the end of the working day. Environmental parameters using a portable monitoring device was measured and recorded and finally, the collected data was used for analysis using spss software version 20.   .Results: WBGT-TWA index for four the period of the time from morning to afternoon obtained 27.39 0C, as it was greater than the allowable thresholds. Ten workers receive 6-7 L of liquid and harvest production was significantly increased among those who are better hydrated (P=0.005, from 5 to 7 tons of harvest sugar beet per any worker per day, against lower 5 tons for farmers without drinking enough water.  . Conclusion: Farmers productivity can be

  3. Effect of Different Sugar Beet Pulp Pretreatments on Biogas Production Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemiński, Krzysztof; Kowalska-Wentel, Monika

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of different sugar beet pulp (SBP) pretreatments on biogas yield from anaerobic digestion. SBP was subjected to grinding, thermal-pressure processing, enzymatic hydrolysis, or combination of these pretreatments. It was observed that grinding of SBP to 2.5-mm particles resulted in the cumulative biogas productivity of 617.2 mL/g volatile solids (VS), which was 20.2 % higher compared to the biogas yield from the not pretreated SBP, and comparable to that from not ground, enzymatically hydrolyzed SBP. The highest cumulative biogas productivity, 898.7 mL/g VS, was obtained from the ground, thermal-pressure pretreated and enzymatically hydrolyzed SBP. The latter pretreatment variant enabled to achieve the highest glucose concentration (24.765 mg/mL) in the enzymatic hydrolysates. The analysis of energy balance showed that the increase in the number of SBP pretreatment operations significantly reduced the gain of electric energy.

  4. Cytotoxicity and Apoptotic Effects of Polyphenols from Sugar Beet Molasses on Colon Carcinoma Cells in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingshun Chen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Three polyphenols were isolated and purified from sugar beet molasses by ultrasonic-aid extraction and various chromatographic techniques, and their structures were elucidated by spectral analysis. Cytotoxicity and the molecular mechanism were measured by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT assay, flow cytometry, caspase-3 activity assay and Western blot assay. The results showed that gallic acid, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride and epicatechin have cytotoxicity to the human colon, hepatocellular and breast cancer cells. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride showed its cytotoxicity against various tumor cell lines, particularly against colon cancer Caco-2 cells with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 value of 23.21 ± 0.14 μg/mL in vitro. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride may be a potential candidate for the treatment of colon cancer. In the mechanism study, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride increased the ratio of cell cycle at G0/G1 phase and reduced cyclin D1 expression on Caco-2 cells. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride decreased mutant p21 expression, and increased the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 and the activation of caspase-3 to induce apoptosis.

  5. Leaching of the Neonicotinoids Thiamethoxam and Imidacloprid from Sugar Beet Seed Dressings to Subsurface Tile Drains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wettstein, Felix E; Kasteel, Roy; Garcia Delgado, Maria F; Hanke, Irene; Huntscha, Sebastian; Balmer, Marianne E; Poiger, Thomas; Bucheli, Thomas D

    2016-08-24

    Pesticide transport from seed dressings toward subsurface tile drains is still poorly understood. We monitored the neonicotinoid insecticides imidacloprid and thiamethoxam from sugar beet seed dressings in flow-proportional drainage water samples, together with spray applications of bromide and the herbicide S-metolachlor in spring and the fungicides epoxiconazole and kresoxim-methyl in summer. Event-driven, high first concentration maxima up to 2830 and 1290 ng/L for thiamethoxam and imidacloprid, respectively, were followed by an extended period of tailing and suggested preferential flow. Nevertheless, mass recoveries declined in agreement with the degradation and sorption properties collated in the groundwater ubiquity score, following the order bromide (4.9%), thiamethoxam (1.2%), imidacloprid (0.48%), kresoxim-methyl acid (0.17%), S-metolachlor (0.032%), epoxiconazole (0.013%), and kresoxim-methyl (0.003%), and indicated increased leaching from seed dressings compared to spray applications. Measured concentrations and mass recoveries indicate that subsurface tile drains contribute to surface water contamination with neonicotinoids from seed dressings.

  6. Flight dynamics of some Lepidoptera species of sugar beet and possibilities their control (Transylvania-Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muresanu Felicia

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors present the obtained results regarding the flight dynamics of some Lepidoptera species in sugar beet crops in Transylvania (the central part of Romania. In order to limit the appearance of mentioned pests to the economic threshold, Trichogramma spp. were obtained in laboratory conditions at ARDS Turda and SBRDS Brasov. The experiments were conducted in production areas on 0,5 ha minimum for each variant. The variants included four Trichogramma species: T. dendrolimi, T. evanescens, T. maidis, T. buesi that were manually released three times: the first release, 10.000 individuals/ha, the second, 120.000 individuals/ha and the third, 150.000 individuals/ha. The first release was performed at the beginning of the Lepidoptera flight, the second at the maximum flight and the third 5 days after the second. The efficiency of T. maidis was between 75-90%, of T. evanescens, it was between 73-88%, of T. dendrolimi, it was between 85-92% and of T. buesi 79-82%. Among the Trichogramma species utilized, T. dendrolimi and T. evanescens were very efficient in the reduction of mentioned pests. Root production was significantly higher compared to the untreated variant, 4,0-4,7 t/ha more were recorded after the application of biological treatments with T. evanescens and T. dendrolimi.

  7. Biological activities of the antiviral protein BE27 from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Rosario; Citores, Lucía; Di Maro, Antimo; Ferreras, José M

    2015-02-01

    The ribosome inactivating protein BE27 displays several biological activities in vitro that could result in a broad action against several types of pathogens. Beetin 27 (BE27), a ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) leaves, is an antiviral protein induced by virus and signaling compounds such as hydrogen peroxide and salicylic acid. Its role as a defense protein has been attributed to its RNA polynucleotide:adenosine glycosidase activity. Here we tested other putative activities of BE27 that could have a defensive role against pathogens finding that BE27 displays rRNA N-glycosidase activity against yeast and Agrobacterium tumefaciens ribosomes, DNA polynucleotide:adenosine glycosidase activity against herring sperm DNA, and magnesium-dependent endonuclease activity against the supercoiled plasmid PUC19 (nicking activity). The nicking activity could be a consequence of an unusual conformation of the BE27 active site, similar to that of PD-L1, a RIP from Phytolacca dioica L. leaves. Additionally, BE27 possesses superoxide dismutase activity, thus being able to produce the signal compound hydrogen peroxide. BE27 is also toxic to COLO 320 cells, inducing apoptosis in these cells by either activating the caspase pathways and/or inhibiting protein synthesis. The combined effect of these biological activities could result in a broad action against several types of pathogens such as virus, bacteria, fungi or insects.

  8. Drought Impact Is Alleviated in Sugar Beets (Beta vulgaris L.) by Foliar Application of Fullerenol Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borišev, Milan; Borišev, Ivana; Župunski, Milan; Arsenov, Danijela; Pajević, Slobodanka; Ćurčić, Živko; Vasin, Jovica; Djordjevic, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few years, significant efforts have been made to decrease the effects of drought stress on plant productivity and quality. We propose that fullerenol nanoparticles (FNPs, molecular formula C60(OH)24) may help alleviate drought stress by serving as an additional intercellular water supply. Specifically, FNPs are able to penetrate plant leaf and root tissues, where they bind water in various cell compartments. This hydroscopic activity suggests that FNPs could be beneficial in plants. The aim of the present study was to analyse the influence of FNPs on sugar beet plants exposed to drought stress. Our results indicate that intracellular water metabolism can be modified by foliar application of FNPs in drought exposed plants. Drought stress induced a significant increase in the compatible osmolyte proline in both the leaves and roots of control plants, but not in FNP treated plants. These results indicate that FNPs could act as intracellular binders of water, creating an additional water reserve, and enabling adaptation to drought stress. Moreover, analysis of plant antioxidant enzyme activities (CAT, APx and GPx), MDA and GSH content indicate that fullerenol foliar application could have some beneficial effect on alleviating oxidative effects of drought stress, depending on the concentration of nanoparticles applied. Although further studies are necessary to elucidate the biochemical impact of FNPs on plants; the present results could directly impact agricultural practice, where available water supplies are often a limiting factor in plant bioproductivity.

  9. Carbon Assimilation and Leaf Water Status in Sugar Beet Leaves during a Simulated Natural Light Regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, D R; Shieh, W J; Lu, L S; Servaites, J C

    1991-11-01

    Carbon assimilation and leaf water status were studied in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L., Klein E-type multigerm) leaves during a light period in which illumination either increased rapidly to full irradiance or changed gradually in a sinusoidal manner as generally occurs during a natural day. A light regimen that simulated the light of a natural day was produced by adjusting irradiance with a neutral-density filter under the control of a computer. Under this light regimen, photosynthesis, transpiration, and stomatal conductance followed the irradiance pattern very closely and ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase was nearly fully activated. When illumination was increased rapidly at the beginning of a light period, transpiration also increased quickly, causing leaves to wilt to some extent. The activation state of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase increased to only 52%, but ribulose bisphosphate level was nearly twice as high as during the simulated natural day. In spite of the differences in activation state and ribulose bisphosphate levels, photosynthesis rates were very similar under both regimens. Nevertheless, differences in parameters between leaves under the two irradiance regimens can affect how a plant responds to internal or external factors, and therefore, the rate at which irradiance increases at the beginning of a light period is an important consideration when interpreting data.

  10. Drought Impact Is Alleviated in Sugar Beets (Beta vulgaris L.) by Foliar Application of Fullerenol Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borišev, Milan; Borišev, Ivana; Župunski, Milan; Arsenov, Danijela; Pajević, Slobodanka; Ćurčić, Živko; Vasin, Jovica; Djordjevic, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few years, significant efforts have been made to decrease the effects of drought stress on plant productivity and quality. We propose that fullerenol nanoparticles (FNPs, molecular formula C60(OH)24) may help alleviate drought stress by serving as an additional intercellular water supply. Specifically, FNPs are able to penetrate plant leaf and root tissues, where they bind water in various cell compartments. This hydroscopic activity suggests that FNPs could be beneficial in plants. The aim of the present study was to analyse the influence of FNPs on sugar beet plants exposed to drought stress. Our results indicate that intracellular water metabolism can be modified by foliar application of FNPs in drought exposed plants. Drought stress induced a significant increase in the compatible osmolyte proline in both the leaves and roots of control plants, but not in FNP treated plants. These results indicate that FNPs could act as intracellular binders of water, creating an additional water reserve, and enabling adaptation to drought stress. Moreover, analysis of plant antioxidant enzyme activities (CAT, APx and GPx), MDA and GSH content indicate that fullerenol foliar application could have some beneficial effect on alleviating oxidative effects of drought stress, depending on the concentration of nanoparticles applied. Although further studies are necessary to elucidate the biochemical impact of FNPs on plants; the present results could directly impact agricultural practice, where available water supplies are often a limiting factor in plant bioproductivity. PMID:27832171

  11. Suppressed expression of choline monooxygenase in sugar beet on the accumulation of glycine betaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Nana; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Kitou, Kunihide; Sahashi, Kosuke; Tamagake, Hideto; Tanaka, Yoshito; Takabe, Teruhiro

    2015-11-01

    Glycine betaine (GB) is an important osmoprotectant and synthesized by two-step oxidation of choline. Choline monooxygenase (CMO) catalyzes the first step of the pathway and is believed to be a rate limiting step for GB synthesis. Recent studies have shown the importance of choline-precursor supply for GB synthesis. In order to investigate the role of CMO for GB accumulation in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris), transgenic plants carrying the antisense BvCMO gene were developed. The antisense BvCMO plants showed the decreased activity of GB synthesis from choline compared to wild-type (WT) plants which is well related to the suppressed level of BvCMO protein. However, GB contents were similar between transgenic and WT plants with the exception of young leaves and storage roots. Transgenic plants showed enhanced susceptibility to salt stress than WT plants. These results suggest the importance of choline-precursor-supply for GB accumulation, and young leaves and storage root are sensitive sites for GB accumulation.

  12. Electric double layer and electrokinetic potential of pectic macromolecules in sugar beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuljanin Tatjana A.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrokinetic potential is an important property of colloidal particles and, regarding the fact that it is a well defined and easily measurable property, it is considered to be a permanent characteristic of a particular colloidal system. In fact, it is a measure of electrokinetic charge that surrounds the colloidal particle in a solution and is in direct proportion with the mobility of particles in an electric field. Gouy-Chapman-Stern-Graham's model of electric double layer was adopted and it was proven experimentally that the addition of Cu++ ions to sugar beet pectin caused a reduction in the negative electrokinetic potential proportional to the increase of Cu++ concentration. Higher Cu++ concentrations increased the proportion of cation specific adsorption (Cu++ and H+ with regard to electrostatic Coulombic forces. Consequently, there is a shift in the shear plane between the fixed and diffuse layers directed towards the diffuse layer, i.e. towards its compression and decrease in the electrokinetic potential or even charge inversion of pectin macromolecules.

  13. Cloning of a cystatin gene from sugar beet M14 that can enhance plant salt tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuguang; Zhan, Yanan; Wu, Chuan; Gong, Shilong; Zhu, Ning; Chen, Sixue; Li, Haiying

    2012-08-01

    An open reading frame encoding a cysteine protease inhibitor, cystatin was isolated from the buds of sugar beet monosomic addition line M14 (BvM14) using 5'-/3'-RACE method. It encoded a polypeptide of 104 amino acids with conserved G and PW motifs, the consensus phytocystatin sequence LARFAV and the active site QVVAG. The protein showed significant homology to other plant cystatins. BvM14-cystatin was expressed ubiquitously in roots, stems, leaves and flower tissues with relatively high abundance in developing stems and roots. It was found to be localized in the nucleus, cytoplasm and plasma membrane. Recombinant BvM14-cystatin expressed in Escherichia coli was purified and it exhibited cysteine protease inhibitor activity. Salt-stress treatment induced BvM14-cystatin transcript levels in the M14 seedlings. Homozygous Arabidopsis plants over-expressing BvM14-cystatin showed enhanced salt tolerance. Taken together, these data improved understanding of the functions of BvM14-cystatin and highlighted the possibility of employing the cystatin in engineering plants for enhanced salt tolerance.

  14. Treatment of sugar beet extraction juice stillage by natural coagulants extracted from common bean

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    Prodanović Jelena M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Distillery wastewaters have a great pollution potential, and pollution caused by them is one of the most critical environmental issues. This study is concerned with the coagulation efficiency of a new, environmental friendly, natural coagulant extracted from common bean seeds in the primary treatment of distillery wastewater in the bioethanol production from sugar beet juice. Active coagulation components were extracted from ground seeds of common bean with 0.5 mol/L NaCl. The obtained raw extract was used as a coagulant. The coagulation efficiency was measured by jar test at different pH values of wastewater, and a decrease in organic matter content was determined. The experiments confirmed that natural coagulant from common bean could be successfully used for the treatment of extraction juice distillery wastewater. The highest coagulation efficiencies were achieved at the pH 5.2 with a coagulant dose of 30 mL/L, and at the pH 8.5 with a coagulant dose of 5 mL/L, and they were 64.71% and 68.75% respectively. These encouraging results indicate that natural coagulant from common bean seeds is a potential alternative to conventional chemical coagulant/flocculant agents for treatment of wastewaters.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 43005

  15. Effect of enzymatic pretreatment on anaerobic co-digestion of sugar beet pulp silage and vinasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemiński, Krzysztof; Kowalska-Wentel, Monika

    2015-03-01

    Results of sugar beet pulp silage (SBPS) and vinasse (mixed in weight ratios of 3:1, 1:1 and 1:3, respectively) co-fermentation, obtained in this study, provide evidence that addition of too high amount of vinasse into the SBPS decreases biogas yields. The highest biogas productivity (598.1mL/g VS) was achieved at the SBPS-vinasse ratio of 3:1 (w/w). Biogas yields from separately fermented SBPS and vinasse were by 13% and 28.6% lower, respectively. It was found that enzymatic pretreatment of SBPS before methane fermentation that caused partial degradation of component polysaccharides, considerably increased biogas production. The highest biogas yield (765.5mL/g VS) was obtained from enzymatic digests of SBPS-vinasse (3:1) blend (27.9% more than from fermentation of the counterpart blend, which was not treated with enzymes). The simulation of potential biogas production from all the aforementioned mixtures using the Gompertz equation showed fair fit to the experimental results.

  16. Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L. Yields and Potential for Bioethanol Production under Irrigation Regime

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    Simona C. BÂRSAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study was carried out to analyse three sugar beet genotypes regarding to the economic yield and the potential to produce bioethanol, under the influence of furrow irrigation regime in specific conditions of Transylvanian Plain, North-West Romania. The research factors, genotype (‘Leila’, ‘Clementina’ and ‘Libero’ and irrigation regime were studied within a polyfactorial experimental design. The results obtained indicated that in specific climatic conditions of Transylvanian Plain, ‘Libero’ genotype had a great performance and produced the highest yields. The average production of ‘Libero’ genotype was superior than ‘Clementina’ and ‘Leila’ varieties, both in irrigated and non-irrigated conditions, as it follows: 38.98 t ha–1, respectively, 52.72 t ha–1 in the first year of research; 47.63 t ha–1, respectively, 59.73 t ha–1 (in the second year; 2014-60.87 t ha–1, respectively, 74.43 t ha–1 (in the third year. Moreover, the production increased with 11.5% under irrigated conditions for all the studied genotypes. The results also revealed the positive influence of the irrigation regime on the qualitative parameters of the bioethanol (ethanol, higher saturated monoalcohols, methanol, water, inorganic chloride, cooper, phosphorous, sulphur etc. indicating that the obtained bioethanol might be a viable alternative for fossil fuels.

  17. Seasonal variation of radiation interception and radiation use efficiency in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.

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    sohail parsa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A high correlation existes between crop growth and the rate of radiation intercepted. The efficiency of radiation interception and absorption is dependent on leaf area index, light extinction coefficient and radiation use efficiency. In order to study mentioned coefficients a randomized complete block design with four replications was conducted during 2005 for different sugar beet cultivars (7233, 7112, 436, 276 and Rasoul at Ferdowsi University of Mashhad experimental farm station. The cultivars were cultivated in eight rows with 50 centimeters distance in plots with 12 meter length and optimum condition of nutrients and irrigation. In addition to measuring the radiation above and under the canopy, the plots were sampled 9 times during growing season and leaf area index, total dry matter and finally light extinction coefficient and radiation use efficiency were measured. Mean maximum leaf area index was 3.51. The final yield of total dry matter for different genotypes varied from 15670 to 25920 kilogram per hectare. There were no significant differences among genotypes in light extinction coefficient and radiation use efficiency and their mean values were about 0.56 and 1.23 g.Mj-1 , respectively. Seasonal variation of radiation use efficiency was similar to leaf area index changes during the crop growth cycle and maximum radiation use efficiency was located before the reaching of maximum green leaf area index. Sugar content was increased proportional with total and root dry matter in most of crop growth cycle. Considering the importance of light extinction coefficient and radiation use efficiency in crop growth models and also their spatio-temporal variability under different management, it is necessary to perform more experiments in different years and locations with various treatments, to obtain a range of these coefficients for modeling studies.

  18. Carry-over of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in dairy cows fed smoke contaminated maize silage or sugar beet pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogenboom, Ron L A P; Klop, Arie; Herbes, Rik; van Eijkeren, Jan C H; Zeilmaker, Marco J; van Vuuren, Ad M; Traag, Wim A

    2015-10-01

    Fires and improper drying may result in contamination of feed with PCDD/Fs and PCBs. To predict the impact of elevated feed levels, it is important to understand the carry-over to edible products from food producing animals. Therefore, a carry-over study was performed with maize silage contaminated by a fire with PVC materials, and with sugar beet pulp contaminated by drying with coal, containing particles from a plastic roof. Levels of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs in the maize silage were 0.93 and 0.25 ng TEQ kg(-1), those in beet pulp 1.90 and 0.15 ng TEQ kg(-1) (both on 88% dry matter (DM)). Dairy cows (3 per treatment) received either 16.8 kg DM per day of maize silage or 5.6 kg DM per day of sugar beet pellets for a 33-d period, followed by clean feed for 33 days. This resulted in a rapid increase of PCDD/F levels in milk within the first 10 days with levels at day 33 of respectively 2.6 and 1.7 pg TEQ g(-1) fat for maize silage and beet pulp. Levels of dl-PCBs at day 33 were lower, 1.0 and 0.5 pg TEQ g(-1) fat. In the case of the maize silage, the carry-over rates (CORs) at the end of the exposure were calculated to be 25% and 32% for the PCDD/F- and dl-PCB-TEQ, respectively. For the dried beet pulp the CORs were 18% and 35%. This study shows that the carry-over of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs formed during drying processes or fires can be substantial.

  19. BNYVV-derived dsRNA confers resistance to rhizomania disease of sugar beet as evidenced by a novel transgenic hairy root approach

    OpenAIRE

    Pavli, R.; Panopoulos, N J; Goldbach, R.W.; Skaracis, G.N.

    2010-01-01

    Agrobacterium rhizogenes-transformed sugar beet hairy roots, expressing dsRNA from the Beet necrotic yellow vein virus replicase gene, were used as a novel approach to assess the efficacy of three intron-hairpin constructs at conferring resistance to rhizomania disease. Genetically engineered roots were similar in morphology to wild type roots but were characterized by a profound abundancy, rapid growth rate and, in some cases, plagiotropic development. Upon challenge inoculation, seedlings s...

  20. Growth and some physiological parameters of four sugar beet (Beta vulgaris l.) cultivars as affected by salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khavari-Nejad, R A; Najafi, F; Khavari-Nejad, S

    2008-05-15

    The comparative responses of certain biochemical and physiological characteristics to salinity were studied in 4 cultivars of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) plants. Eight weeks old plants were treated with NaCl at 0, 25 and 50 mM in nutrient solutions. Plants were grown under controlled environment and harvested after 3 weeks for measurements of biochemical and physiological parameters. Results showed that in 25 mM NaCl for cultivars of ET5 and C3-3, soluble sugars in leaves, photosynthetic rate and growth parameters were significantly increased as compared to those of other cultivars. In 50 mM NaCl photosynthetic rate and soluble sugars were significantly increased only in ET5 cultivar as compared with those of others. Results indicated that in 25 mM NaCl, ET5 cultivar showed high growth responses and tolerated to 50 mM NaCl.

  1. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to sugar beet fibre and increasing faecal bulk pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    based on newly developed scientific evidence related to sugar beet fibre and “increasing faecal bulk”. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claim is sugar beet fibre. The Panel considers that sugar beet fibre is sufficiently characterised in relation to the claimed effect. The claimed......Following an application from Nordic Sugar A/S, submitted pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Denmark, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim...... that a cause and effect relationship has been established between the consumption of sugar beet fibre and increasing faecal bulk. The following wording reflects the scientific evidence: “Sugar beet fibre increases faecal bulk”. In order to bear the claim a food should be at least “high in fibre” as per...

  2. Tillage as a tool to manage crop residue: impact on sugar beet production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiel, Marie-Pierre; Chélin, Marie; Degrune, Florine; Parvin, Nargish; Bodson, Bernard

    2015-04-01

    Crop residues and plant cover represent a pool of organic matter that can be used either to restore organic matter in soils, and therefore maintain soil fertility, or that can be valorized outside of the field (e.g. energy production). However, it is crucial that the exportation of residues is not done to the detriment of the system sustainability. Three long term experiments have been settled in the loamy region in Belgium. All of them are designed to study the effect of residues management by several tillage systems (conventional plowing versus reduced tillage) on the whole soil-water-plant system. SOLRESIDUS is a field experiment where we study the impact of crop residue management while in SOLCOUVERT and SOLCOUVERT-BIS, we study the impact of cover crop management. SOLRESIDUS was started in 2008. In this field, four contrasted crop residues managements are tested in order to contrast as much as possible the responses from the soil-water plant system. Two practices characterize the four modalities: soil tillage (ploughing at 25 cm depth or reduce tillage at 10 cm max) and residue management (exportation or restitution). SOLCOUVERT and SOLCOUVERT-BIS were started in 2012 and 2013 respectively. In those fields cover crop management is also diverse: destruction of the cover crop by winter ploughing, spring ploughing, strip tillage (with a chemical destruction if needed) or shallow tillage (with a decompaction before cover crop sowing). Although although the overall project aims at studying the impact of management on the whole soil-water-plant system, here we will only present the results concerning crop production (sugar beet) in SOLCOUVERT experiments. The presented data will include germination rate, crop development (biomass quantification and BBCH stages) weeds population, disease occurrence, pest occurrences, nitrogen uptake by plants, quality and quantity of harvested products.

  3. A sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) reference FISH karyotype for chromosome and chromosome-arm identification, integration of genetic linkage groups and analysis of major repeat family distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paesold, Susanne; Borchardt, Dietrich; Schmidt, Thomas; Dechyeva, Daryna

    2012-11-01

    We developed a reference karyotype for B. vulgaris which is applicable to all beet cultivars and provides a consistent numbering of chromosomes and genetic linkage groups. Linkage groups of sugar beet were assigned to physical chromosome arms by FISH (fluorescent in situ hybridization) using a set of 18 genetically anchored BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) markers. Genetic maps of sugar beet were correlated to chromosome arms, and North-South orientation of linkage groups was established. The FISH karyotype provides a technical platform for genome studies and can be applied for numbering and identification of chromosomes in related wild beet species. The discrimination of all nine chromosomes by BAC probes enabled the study of chromosome-specific distribution of the major repetitive components of sugar beet genome comprising pericentromeric, intercalary and subtelomeric satellites and 18S-5.8S-25S and 5S rRNA gene arrays. We developed a multicolor FISH procedure allowing the identification of all nine sugar beet chromosome pairs in a single hybridization using a pool of satellite DNA probes. Fiber-FISH was applied to analyse five chromosome arms in which the furthermost genetic marker of the linkage group was mapped adjacently to terminal repetitive sequences on pachytene chromosomes. Only on two arms telomere arrays and the markers are physically linked, hence these linkage groups can be considered as terminally closed making the further identification of distal informative markers difficult. The results support genetic mapping by marker localization, the anchoring of contigs and scaffolds for the annotation of the sugar beet genome sequence and the analysis of the chromosomal distribution patterns of major families of repetitive DNA.

  4. Assessment of soil quality index for wheat and sugar beet cropping systems on an entisol in Central Anatolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şeker, Cevdet; Özaytekin, Hasan Hüseyin; Negiş, Hamza; Gümüş, İlknur; Dedeoğlu, Mert; Atmaca, Emel; Karaca, Ümmühan

    2017-04-01

    The sustainable use of agricultural lands is significantly affected by the implemented management and land processing methods. In sugar beet and wheat cropping, because the agronomic characteristics of plants are different, the tillage methods applied also exhibit significant variability. Soil quality concept is used, as a holistic approach to determining the effects of these applications on the sustainable use of soil. Agricultural soil quality evaluation is essential for economic success and environmental stability in rapidly developing regions. At present, a variety of methods are used to evaluate soil quality using different indicators. This study was conducted in one of the most important irrigated agriculture areas of Çumra plain in Central Anatolia, Turkey. In the soil under sugar beet and wheat cultivation, 12 soil quality indicators (aggregate stability (AS), available water capacity (AWC), surface penetration resistance (PR0-20), subsurface penetration resistance (PR20-40), organic matter (OM), active carbon (AC), potentially mineralizable nitrogen (PMN), root health value (RHV), pH, available phosphorus (AP), potassium (K), and macro-micro elements (ME) (Mg, Fe, Mn, and Zn)) were measured and scored according to the Cornell Soil Health Assessment (CSHA) and the Soil Management Assessment Framework (SMAF). The differences among 8 (AS, AWC, PR0-20, PR20-40, AC, PMN, AP, and ME) of these 12 soil quality characteristics measured in two different plant cultivation were found statistically significant. The result of the soil quality evaluation with scoring function in the examined area revealed a soil quality score of 61.46 in the wheat area and of 51.20 in the sugar beet area, which can be classified as medium and low, respectively. Low soil quality scores especially depend on physical and biological soil properties. Therefore, improvement of soil physical and biological properties with sustainable management is necessary to enhance the soil quality in the

  5. An integrated biorefinery concept for conversion of sugar beet pulp into value-added chemicals and pharmaceutical intermediates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas-Fernández, Max; Bawn, Maria; Hamley-Bennett, Charlotte; Bharat, Penumathsa K V; Subrizi, Fabiana; Suhaili, Nurashikin; Ward, David P; Bourdin, Sarah; Dalby, Paul A; Hailes, Helen C; Hewitson, Peter; Ignatova, Svetlana; Kontoravdi, Cleo; Leak, David J; Shah, Nilay; Sheppard, Tom D; Ward, John M; Lye, Gary J

    2017-06-30

    Over 8 million tonnes of sugar beet are grown annually in the UK. Sugar beet pulp (SBP) is the main by-product of sugar beet processing which is currently dried and sold as a low value animal feed. SBP is a rich source of carbohydrates, mainly in the form of cellulose and pectin, including d-glucose (Glu), l-arabinose (Ara) and d-galacturonic acid (GalAc). This work describes the technical feasibility of an integrated biorefinery concept for the fractionation of SBP and conversion of these monosaccharides into value-added products. SBP fractionation is initially carried out by steam explosion under mild conditions to yield soluble pectin and insoluble cellulose fractions. The cellulose is readily hydrolysed by cellulases to release Glu that can then be fermented by a commercial yeast strain to produce bioethanol at a high yield. The pectin fraction can be either fully hydrolysed, using physico-chemical methods, or selectively hydrolysed, using cloned arabinases and galacturonases, to yield Ara-rich and GalAc-rich streams. These monomers can be separated using either Centrifugal Partition Chromatography (CPC) or ultrafiltration into streams suitable for subsequent enzymatic upgrading. Building on our previous experience with transketolase (TK) and transaminase (TAm) enzymes, the conversion of Ara and GalAc into higher value products was explored. In particular the conversion of Ara into l-gluco-heptulose (GluHep), that has potential therapeutic applications in hypoglycaemia and cancer, using a mutant TK is described. Preliminary studies with TAm also suggest GluHep can be selectively aminated to the corresponding chiral aminopolyol. The current work is addressing the upgrading of the remaining SBP monomer, GalAc, and the modelling of the biorefinery concept to enable economic and Life Cycle Analysis (LCA).

  6. Early detection of sugar beet pathogen Ramularia beticola in leaf and air samples using qPCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieczorek, Thies Marten; Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup; Hansen, Anne Lisbet

    2014-01-01

    A quantitative PCR method (qPCR) was developed for the detection and quantification of Ramularia beticola causing Ramularia leaf spot in sugar beet. R. beticola specific primers were designed based on the internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS2). The assay was applied on DNA extracted from...... also tested with the qPCR assay. It was possible to detect the presence of R. beticola in the leaves pre-symptomatic at least 10 days before the occurrence of the visible symptoms of Ramularia leaf spot. This is the first report of a molecular assay, which allows screening for the presence of R...

  7. Rhizobium radiobacter conjugation and callus-independent shoot regeneration used to introduce the cercosporin export gene cfp from Cercospora into sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuykendall, L David; Stockett, Tammy M; Saunders, Joseph W

    2003-05-01

    Leaf spot disease caused by Cercospora is responsible for crop and profitability losses in sugar beet crops in the US and worldwide. The cfp gene that encodes a protein that exports phytotoxic cercosporins from Cercospora was conjugally transferred to sugar beet using Rhizobium radiobacter (Agrobacterium tumefaciens), to improve Cercospora-induced leafspot resistance. Conditions for shoot regeneration were optimized to increase regeneration/transformation efficiencies. Low-light and room-temperature conditions were favorable to sugar beet regeneration without callus when cytokinin had been added to the tissue culture medium. Using this procedure adventitious shoots from leaf pieces were obtained in a simple, one-step regeneration procedure. T7, a cfp-transgenic clone verified by PCR with gene-specific primers, is being propagated for leaf spot disease resistance evaluation.

  8. Application of HACCP in beet sugar industry%HACCP在甜菜制糖生产中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洪涛; 李琳; 秦文信

    2011-01-01

    HACCP is an advanced managerial method, which can ensure food quality and safety. According to the principle of HACCP, and combining with the beet sugar technology, this paper discussed the application of HACCP in beet sugar industry.%HACCP管理系统是确保食品卫生质量及安全性的一种先进的管理方法.根据HACCP的原理,结合甜菜制糖的实际生产工艺,探讨了HACCP在甜菜制糖生产中的应用.

  9. Fermentation of sugar beet waste by ¤Aspergillus niger¤ facilitates growth and P uptake of external mycelium of mixed populations of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medina, A.; Jakobsen, Iver; Vassilev, N.;

    2007-01-01

    Sugar beet waste has potential value as a soil amendment and this work studied whether fermentation of the waste by Aspergillus niger would influence the growth and P uptake of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Plants were grown in compartmentalised growth units, each with a root compartment (RC...... of exudates by A. niger, as a consequence of fermentation process of sugar beet waste, could possibly explain the increase of AM growth in ASB treatments. On the other hand, the highest P uptake was a result of the solubilisation of rock phosphate by A. niger during the fermentation. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd...

  10. The effect of copper ions, aluminium ions and their mixtures on separation of pectin from the sugar beet juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuljanin Tatjana A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In sugar industry there is a problem of the presence of undesirable macromolecules compounds such as pectin in sugar beet juice. The affinity of calcium ions commonly used in the sugar industry for the removal of pectin from the sugar beet juice is relatively small. Coagulation and precipitation of pectin can be performed by process of discharging that is chemically induced. Compounds with di- and trivalent cations such as pure CuSO4, Al2(SO43 or their mixtures can be applied for clarification of pectin colloidal systems. According to data from the order of pectin selectivity to divalent metal ions, Cu2+ ions are the first order of ion binding. Also, aluminum sulfate is commonly used in the waste water treatment. Two model solutions of pectin whose concentration corresponds to the concentration of these macromolecules in sugar beet juice (0.1% w/w are investigated. Using a method of measuring zeta potential, it was proven for both investigated pectin that fewer quantities of Cu2+ ions compared to the values of Al3+ ions are needed to reach zero zeta potential. In all the investigated coagulants and their mixtures, zeta potential has changed the sign. In experiments with mixtures has been shown that pure salts showed better coagulation properties. The reduced strength of binding of cations in the case of most of the applied mixture of Cu2+ and Al3+ ions, can be explained by the mutual competition of these ions for the adsorption site (COO- groups on the surface of macromolecules. Mixture with approximately equal shares of ions Cu2+ and Al3+ had the most unfavorable coagulation ability (ion antagonism. Mechanism of discharge as well as the model of double electric layer surrounding pectin macromolecules in the presence of mixtures of Cu2+ and Al3+ ions are suggested. However, due to possible undesirable effects of CuSO4 on food processing, Al2(SO43 is proposed instead of traditional coagulant CaO, not only because of lower consumptions of

  11. Early detection and quantification of Ramularia beticola in sugar beets using spore traps and real-time PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieczorek, Thies Marten; Justesen, Annemarie Fejer; Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup;

    2012-01-01

    . If not controlled, yield losses can amount to 15 – 20 %. Over the last decades an increase of severe attacks of Ramularia leaf spot has been reported in Denmark, Sweden, and Finland. The disease is typically controlled preventatively using fungicides like epoxiconazole or epoxiconaozle + pyraclostrobin. According...... used fungicide dose is recommended for each treatment. Preliminary field trials have indicated a more efficient control of fungal diseases and higher sugar yield if sugar beets are treated with fungicides before visual symptoms occur. For a better determination of the optimized timing of disease...... method to detect and to quantify R. beticola DNA in air samples obtained from Burkard® spore traps. Primers were designed based on the ITS region sequences and tested on R. beticola isolates from 2010 and 2011. The specificity of the primers was tested on related fungi, including Cercospora beticola...

  12. SMRT sequencing only de novo assembly of the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) chloroplast genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadermann, Kai Bernd; Weisshaar, Bernd; Holtgräwe, Daniela

    2015-09-16

    Third generation sequencing methods, like SMRT (Single Molecule, Real-Time) sequencing developed by Pacific Biosciences, offer much longer read length in comparison to Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) methods. Hence, they are well suited for de novo- or re-sequencing projects. Sequences generated for these purposes will not only contain reads originating from the nuclear genome, but also a significant amount of reads originating from the organelles of the target organism. These reads are usually discarded but they can also be used for an assembly of organellar replicons. The long read length supports resolution of repetitive regions and repeats within the organelles genome which might be problematic when just using short read data. Additionally, SMRT sequencing is less influenced by GC rich areas and by long stretches of the same base. We describe a workflow for a de novo assembly of the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris) chloroplast genome sequence only based on data originating from a SMRT sequencing dataset targeted on its nuclear genome. We show that the data obtained from such an experiment are sufficient to create a high quality assembly with a higher reliability than assemblies derived from e.g. Illumina reads only. The chloroplast genome is especially challenging for de novo assembling as it contains two large inverted repeat (IR) regions. We also describe some limitations that still apply even though long reads are used for the assembly. SMRT sequencing reads extracted from a dataset created for nuclear genome (re)sequencing can be used to obtain a high quality de novo assembly of the chloroplast of the sequenced organism. Even with a relatively small overall coverage for the nuclear genome it is possible to collect more than enough reads to generate a high quality assembly that outperforms short read based assemblies. However, even with long reads it is not always possible to clarify the order of elements of a chloroplast genome sequence reliantly

  13. Genetic basis of agronomically important traits in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) investigated with joint linkage association mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reif, Jochen C; Liu, Wenxin; Gowda, Manje; Maurer, Hans Peter; Möhring, Jens; Fischer, Sandra; Schechert, Axel; Würschum, Tobias

    2010-11-01

    Epistatic interactions may contribute substantially to the hybrid performance of sugar beet. The main goal of our study was to dissect the genetic basis of eight important physiological and agronomic traits using two different biometrical models for joint linkage association mapping. A total of 197 genotypes of an elite breeding population were evaluated in multi-location trials and fingerprinted with 194 SNP markers. Two different statistical models were used for the genome-wide scan for marker-trait associations: Model A, which corrects for the genetic background with markers as cofactors and Model B, which additionally models a population effect. Based on the extent of linkage disequilibrium in the parental population, we estimated that for a genome-wide scan at least 100 equally spaced markers are necessary. We mapped across the eight traits 39 QTL for Model A and 22 for Model B. Only 11% of the total number of QTL were identified based on Models A and B, which indicates that both models are complementary. Epistasis was detected only for two out of the eight traits, and contributed only to a minor extent to the genotypic variance. This low relevance of epistasis implies that in sugar beet breeding the prediction of performance of three-way hybrids is feasible with high accuracy based on the means of their single crosses.

  14. Effects of two types of sprinklers and height in the irrigation of sugar beet with a centre pivot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, J. N.; Tarjuelo, J. M.; Juan, J. A. de

    2012-11-01

    The main objective of this paper is to analyse the effects of sprinkler type and height above the ground on soil water uniformity (CUs) and sugar beet yield. Irrigation was performed with a centre pivot operating under field conditions with two types of sprinklers, one with a stationary plate (SPS) and the other with a moving plate (MPS), at two heights (1 and 2.5 m). The average coefficient of uniformity (CU) of water application of individual irrigation events with SPS ranged from 74 to 81%, compared to nearly 90% from MPS. The value of the cumulative coefficient of uniformity for the set of irrigation events (CUa) for all sprinkler-height combinations exceeded 90%, a value similar to that obtained for CUS. Results do not show a clear advantage in the final crop response by using sprinklers with MPS or SPS. However, MPS, and especially those located at 1 m in height with a spacing of 1.5 m, have higher water application uniformity, achieving higher yield and yield indexes, as well as higher water use efficiency. The final yield of sugar beet was more influenced by the amount of soil water available for the crop than the small differences in soil water uniformity obtained with the centre pivot. (Author) 62 refs.

  15. Integrated evaluation of energy use, greenhouse gas emissions and global warming potential for sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) agroecosystems in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Mohammad; Khoramivafa, Mahmud; Mondani, Farzad

    2014-08-01

    The main aim of this study was to determine and discuss the aggregate of energy use and greenhouse gas emission (CO2, N2O, and CH4) for sugar beet agroecosystems in western of Iran. For this propose data was collected by using questionnaires and face to face interview with 50 farmers. Results showed that total inputs and output energy were 49517.2 and 1095360.0 MJ ha-1, respectively. Energy use efficiency was 22.12. Total CO2, N2O and CH4 emissions due to chemical inputs were 2668.35, 22.92 and 3.49 kg, respectively. In sugar beet farms total global warming potential (GWPs) was 9847.77 kg CO2eq ha-1. In terms of CO2 equivalents, 27% of the GWPs come from CO2, 72% from N2O, and 1% from CH4. In this research input and output carbon were 29340.0 and 2678.6 kg C ha-1, respectively. Hence, carbon efficiency ratio was 10.95.

  16. Studies on some characteristics of nitrate reductase from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.)leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiWenhua; YanGuiping; 等

    1994-01-01

    Some characteristics of nitrate reductase from sugar beet leaves shown in this paper were as follows:The nitrate reductase from sugar beet leaves required NADH as an electron donor.Accordingly,the nitrate reductase was classified as NADH-dependent(E.C.1.6.61).The Km value of the nitrate reductase for NADH and NO3- were 0.86m mol and 0.18μ mol respectively.The optimum pH in reaction mixture solution for nitrate reduction activity was 7.5.The effect of variable concentrations of inorganic phosphorus in the reaction buffer on nitrate reductase activity was investigated.When the inorganic phosphorus concentration was below 35m mol,the nitrate reductase activity was increased with increase of inorganic phosphorus concentration.Conversely,when the inorganic phosphorus concentration was over 35m mol,the nitrate reductase activity was inhibited.The nitrate reductase activity assayed in vitro was 3.2 and 5.6times of that assayed in vivo under the condition of exogenous and endogenous ground substance respectively.

  17. Post-harvest regulated gene expression and splicing efficiency in storage roots of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotthues, Alexander; Kappler, Jeannette; Lichtfuss, Anna; Kloos, Dorothee U; Stahl, Dietmar J; Hehl, Reinhard

    2008-05-01

    Sixteen post-harvest upregulated genes from sugar beet comprising five novel sequences were isolated by subtractive cloning. Transcription profiles covering a period of up to 49 days after harvest under controlled storage conditions and in field clamps are reported. Post-harvest induced genes are involved in wound response, pathogen defense, dehydration stress, and detoxification of reactive oxygen species. An early induction of a cationic peroxidase indicates a response to post-harvest damage. Wound response reactions may also involve genes required for cell division such as a regulator of chromatin condensation and a precursor of the growth stimulating peptide phytohormone phytosulfokine-alpha. Surprisingly, also three putative non-protein coding genes were isolated. Two of these genes show intron specific and storage temperature dependent splicing of a precursor mRNA. The temperature dependent splicing of an intron containing sugar beet mRNA is also maintained in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana. The storage induced genes are integrated into a model that proposes the response to several post-harvest stress conditions. Temperature regulated splicing may be a mechanism to sense seasonal temperature changes.

  18. Evolutionary conservation of the FLOWERING LOCUS C-mediated vernalization response: evidence from the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Patrick A; He, Yuehui; Schmitz, Robert J; Amasino, Richard M; Panella, Lee W; Richards, Christopher M

    2007-05-01

    In many plant species, exposure to a prolonged period of cold during the winter promotes flowering in the spring, a process termed vernalization. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the vernalization requirement of winter-annual ecotypes is caused by the MADS-box gene FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), which is a repressor of flowering. During the vernalization process, FLC is downregulated by alteration of its chromatin structure, thereby permitting flowering to occur. In wheat, a vernalization requirement is imposed by a different repressor of flowering, suggesting that some components of the regulatory network controlling the vernalization response differ between monocots and dicots. The extent to which the molecular mechanisms underlying vernalization have been conserved during the diversification of the angiosperms is not well understood. Using phylogenetic analysis, we identified homologs of FLC in species representing the three major eudicot lineages. FLC homologs have not previously been documented outside the plant family Brassicaceae. We show that the sugar beet FLC homolog BvFL1 functions as a repressor of flowering in transgenic Arabidopsis and is downregulated in response to cold in sugar beet. Cold-induced downregulation of an FLC-like floral repressor may be a central feature of the vernalization response in at least half of eudicot species.

  19. In vitro and in vivo antagonism of actinomycetes isolated from Moroccan rhizospherical soils against Sclerotium rolfsii: a causal agent of root rot on sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errakhi, R; Lebrihi, A; Barakate, M

    2009-08-01

    To evaluate the ability of the isolated actinomycetes to inhibit in vitro plant pathogenic fungi and the efficacy of promising antagonistic isolates to reduce in vivo the incidence of root rot induced by Sclerotium rolfsii on sugar beet. Actinomycetes isolated from rhizosphere soil of sugar beet were screened for antagonistic activity against a number of plant pathogens, including S. rolfsii. Ten actinomycetes out of 195 screened in vitro were strongly inhibitory to S. rolfsii. These isolates were subsequently tested for their ability to inhibit sclerotial germination and hyphal growth of S. roflsii. The most important inhibitions were obtained by the culture filtrate from the isolates J-2 and B-11, including 100% inhibition of sclerotial germination and 80% inhibition of hyphal growth. These two isolates (J-2 and B-11) were then screened for their ability to protect sugar beet against infection of S. rolfsii induced root rot in a pot trial. The treatment of S. rolfsii infested soil with a biomass and culture filtrate mixture of the selected antagonists reduced significantly (P beet. Isolate J-2 was most effective and allowed a high fresh weight of sugar beet roots to be obtained. Both antagonists J-2 and B-11 were classified as belonging to the genus Streptomyces species through morphological and chemical characteristics as well as 16S rDNA analysis. Streptomyces isolates J-2 and B-11 showed a potential for controlling root rot on sugar beet and could be useful in integrated control against diverse soil borne plant pathogens. This investigation showed the role, which actinomycete bacteria can play to control root rot caused by S. rolfsii, in the objective to reduce treatments with chemical fungicides.

  20. A new RNASeq-based reference transcriptome for sugar beet and its application in transcriptome-scale analysis of vernalization and gibberellin responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris sp. vulgaris) crops account for about 30% of world sugar. Sugar yield is compromised by reproductive growth hence crops must remain vegetative until harvest. Prolonged exposure to cold temperature (vernalization) in the range 6°C to 12°C induces reproductive growth, leading to bolting (rapid elongation of the main stem) and flowering. Spring cultivation of crops in cool temperate climates makes them vulnerable to vernalization and hence bolting, which is initiated in the apical shoot meristem in processes involving interaction between gibberellin (GA) hormones and vernalization. The underlying mechanisms are unknown and genome scale next generation sequencing approaches now offer comprehensive strategies to investigate them; enabling the identification of novel targets for bolting control in sugar beet crops. In this study, we demonstrate the application of an mRNA-Seq based strategy for this purpose. Results There is no sugar beet reference genome, or public expression array platforms. We therefore used RNA-Seq to generate the first reference transcriptome. We next performed digital gene expression profiling using shoot apex mRNA from two sugar beet cultivars with and without applied GA, and also a vernalized cultivar with and without applied GA. Subsequent bioinformatics analyses identified transcriptional changes associated with genotypic difference and experimental treatments. Analysis of expression profiles in response to vernalization and GA treatment suggested previously unsuspected roles for a RAV1-like AP2/B3 domain protein in vernalization and efflux transporters in the GA response. Conclusions Next generation RNA-Seq enabled the generation of the first reference transcriptome for sugar beet and the study of global transcriptional responses in the shoot apex to vernalization and GA treatment, without the need for a reference genome or established array platforms. Comprehensive bioinformatic analysis identified

  1. Palaeohexaploid ancestry for Caryophyllales inferred from extensive gene-based physical and genetic mapping of the sugar beet genome (Beta vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohm, Juliane C; Lange, Cornelia; Holtgräwe, Daniela; Sörensen, Thomas Rosleff; Borchardt, Dietrich; Schulz, Britta; Lehrach, Hans; Weisshaar, Bernd; Himmelbauer, Heinz

    2012-05-01

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) is an important crop plant that accounts for 30% of the world's sugar production annually. The genus Beta is a distant relative of currently sequenced taxa within the core eudicotyledons; the genomic characterization of sugar beet is essential to make its genome accessible to molecular dissection. Here, we present comprehensive genomic information in genetic and physical maps that cover all nine chromosomes. Based on this information we identified the proposed ancestral linkage groups of rosids and asterids within the sugar beet genome. We generated an extended genetic map that comprises 1127 single nucleotide polymorphism markers prepared from expressed sequence tags and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) end sequences. To construct a genome-wide physical map, we hybridized gene-derived oligomer probes against two BAC libraries with 9.5-fold cumulative coverage of the 758 Mbp genome. More than 2500 probes and clones were integrated both in genetic maps and the physical data. The final physical map encompasses 535 chromosomally anchored contigs that contains 8361 probes and 22 815 BAC clones. By using the gene order established with the physical map, we detected regions of synteny between sugar beet (order Caryophyllales) and rosid species that involves 1400-2700 genes in the sequenced genomes of Arabidopsis, poplar, grapevine, and cacao. The data suggest that Caryophyllales share the palaeohexaploid ancestor proposed for rosids and asterids. Taken together, we here provide extensive molecular resources for sugar beet and enable future high-resolution trait mapping, gene identification, and cross-referencing to regions sequenced in other plant species.

  2. NMR-Based Metabolic Profiling of Field-Grown Leaves from Sugar Beet Plants Harbouring Different Levels of Resistance to Cercospora Leaf Spot Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuyo Sekiyama

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cercospora leaf spot (CLS is one of the most serious leaf diseases for sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. worldwide. The breeding of sugar beet cultivars with both high CLS resistance and high yield is a major challenge for breeders. In this study, we report the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR-based metabolic profiling of field-grown leaves for a subset of sugar beet genotypes harbouring different levels of CLS resistance. Leaves were collected from 12 sugar beet genotypes at four time points: seedling, early growth, root enlargement, and disease development stages. 1H-NMR spectra of foliar metabolites soluble in a deuterium-oxide (D2O-based buffer were acquired and subjected to multivariate analyses. A principal component analysis (PCA of the NMR data from the sugar beet leaves shows clear differences among the growth stages. At the later time points, the sugar and glycine betaine contents were increased, whereas the choline content was decreased. The relationship between the foliar metabolite profiles and resistance level to CLS was examined by combining partial least squares projection to latent structure (PLS or orthogonal PLS (OPLS analysis and univariate analyses. It was difficult to build a robust model for predicting precisely the disease severity indices (DSIs of each genotype; however, GABA and Gln differentiated susceptible genotypes (genotypes with weak resistance from resistant genotypes (genotypes with resistance greater than a moderate level before inoculation tests. The results suggested that breeders might exclude susceptible genotypes from breeding programs based on foliar metabolites profiled without inoculation tests, which require an enormous amount of time and effort.

  3. E-Screen evaluation of sugar beet feedstuffs in a case of reduced embryo transfer efficiencies in cattle: the role of phytoestrogens and zearalenone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shappell, N W; Mostrom, M S; Lenneman, E M

    2012-04-01

    The E-Screen assay was used to evaluate the estrogenicity of sugar beet by-products obtained from a dairy farm experiencing low success rates of embryo transfer. The beet tailings had ~3-fold the estradiol equivalents of the pelleted beet pulp (3.9 and 1.2 μg estradiol equivalents or E(2)Eq/kg dry matter, respectively). Whole sugar beets, sugar beet pellets, and shreds from several Midwest US locations were also evaluated by E-Screen. All pellets examined were found to have some estrogenic activity (range ~0.1-2.0 μg E(2)Eq/kg DM) with a mean of 0.46 μg/kg dry matter and median of 0.28 μg/kg dry matter. Relative E(2)Eq ranked as follows: pellets > shreds > most unprocessed roots. Using recommended feeding levels and conservative absorption estimates (10%), the estrogenic activity in the original samples could result in blood estradiol equivalents ≥ those found at estrus (10 pg/mL, cows). Chemical analyses revealed no known phytoestrogens, but the estrogenic mycotoxin, zearalenone, was found in 15 of 21 samples. Of significance to those using the E-Screen are our findings that contradict previous reports: ß-sitosterol has no proliferative effect and genistein's glucuronidated form-genistin-is equal to genistein in proliferative effect. The latter is the result of deconjugation of genistin to genistein in the presence of fetal bovine serum (determined by LC MSMS). These data show the usefulness and caveats of the E-Screen in evaluation of feedstuffs, and indicate a potential for sugar beet by-products to contain zearalenone at concentrations that may impact reproduction.

  4. Co-expression of xerophyte Zygophyllum xanthoxylum ZxNHX and ZxVP1-1 confers enhanced salinity tolerance in chimeric sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guo-Qiang; Feng, Rui-Jun; Wang, Suo-Min; Wang, Chun-Mei; Bao, Ai-Ke; Wei, Li; Yuan, Hui-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses that limit the growth and productivity of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.). To improve sugar beet's salinity tolerance, the ZxNHX and ZxVP1-1 genes encoding tonoplast Na(+)/H(+) antiporter and H(+)-PPase from xerophyte Zygophyllum xanthoxylum were co-expressed by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. It is showed here that co-expression of ZxNHX and ZxVP1-1 confers enhanced salinity tolerance to the transformed sugar beet plants compared with the wild-type (WT) plants. The chimeric plants grew well in the presence of high salinity (400 mM NaCl), whereas WT plants displayed chlorosis and died within 8 days. Compared to WT plants, the chimeric plants co-expressing ZxNHX and ZxVP1-1 accumulated more proline, Na(+) and K(+) in their leaves and petioles when exposed to high salinity, which caused lower solute potential, retained more water and thus subjected to lesser cell membrane damage. Interestingly, the chimeric plants accumulated higher sucrose, glucose and fructose contents in their storage roots than WT plants in the absence or presence of high salinity. Our results suggested that co-expression of ZxNHX and ZxVP1-1 improved the osmoregulatory capacity in chimeric sugar beet through increased compartmentalization of ions into the vacuoles by enhancing the activity of proton pumps and thus mitigated Na(+)-toxicity for plants.

  5. Functional Genomics Analysis of a Beta vulgaris Serine Proteinase Inhibitor Gene (BvSTI) to Determine its Role in Resistance to the Sugar Beet Root Maggot (Tetanops myopaeformis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damage from the sugar beet root maggot (SBRM) is a serious problem and control of this devastating pest ultimately relies on environmentally damaging insecticides. To explore novel strategies for management of SBRM and gain knowledge of root defense response mechanisms, we examined root gene expres...

  6. A Beta vulgaris serine proteinase inhibitor gene (BvSTI) regulated by sugar beet root maggot feeding on moderately resistant F1016 roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damage from the sugar beet root maggot (SBRM) is a serious problem and control of this devastating pest ultimately relies on environmentally damaging insecticides. To explore novel strategies for management of SBRM and gain knowledge of root defense response mechanisms, we examined root gene expres...

  7. Changes in physical, chemical and functional properties of whey protein isolate (WPI) and sugar beet pectin (SBP) conjugates formed by controlled dry-heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Maillard type reaction in the dry state was utilized to create conjugates between whey protein isolate (WPI) and sugar beet pectin (SBP) to achieve improved functional properties including solubility, colloidal stability and oil-in-water emulsion stability. To optimize the reaction conditions, mi...

  8. Effects of in vitro fermentation of barley β-glucan and sugar beet pectin using human fecal inocula on cytokine expression by dendritic cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosch, Christiane; Taverne, Nico; Venema, Koen; Gruppen, Harry; Wells, Jerry M.; Schols, Henk A.

    2016-01-01

    Scope: This study simulates the fermentation process of barley β-glucan and sugar beet pectin in the human colon and monitors the degradation products formed. Additionally, immune effects of the degradation products were investigated. Methods and results: Immunostimulatory activity of fermentatio

  9. Centrifugal partition chromatography in a biorefinery context: Optimisation and scale-up of monosaccharide fractionation from hydrolysed sugar beet pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, David P; Hewitson, Peter; Cárdenas-Fernández, Max; Hamley-Bennett, Charlotte; Díaz-Rodríguez, Alba; Douillet, Nathalie; Adams, Joseph P; Leak, David J; Ignatova, Svetlana; Lye, Gary J

    2017-05-12

    The isolation of component sugars from biomass represents an important step in the bioprocessing of sustainable feedstocks such as sugar beet pulp. Centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) is used here, as an alternative to multiple resin chromatography steps, to fractionate component monosaccharides from crude hydrolysed sugar beet pulp pectin. CPC separation of samples, prepared in the stationary phase, was carried out using an ethanol: ammonium sulphate (300gL(-1)) phase system (0.8:1.8v:v) in ascending mode. This enabled removal of crude feedstream impurities and separation of monosaccharides into three fractions (l-rhamnose, l-arabinose and d-galactose, and d-galacturonic acid) in a single step. Throughput was improved three-fold by increasing sample injection volume, from 4 to 16% of column volume, with similar separation performance maintained in all cases. Extrusion of the final galacturonic acid fraction increased the eluted solute concentration, reduced the total separation time by 24% and removed the need for further column regeneration. Reproducibility of the separation after extrusion was validated by using multiple stacked injections. Scale-up was performed linearly from a semi-preparative 250mL column to a preparative 950mL column with a scale-up ratio of 3.8 applied to mobile phase flow rate and sample injection volume. Throughputs of 9.4gL(-1)h(-1) of total dissolved solids were achieved at the preparative scale with a throughput of 1.9gL(-1)h(-1) of component monosaccharides. These results demonstrate the potential of CPC for both impurity removal and target fractionation within biorefinery separations. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Post-translational mechanisms are associated with fertility restoration of cytoplasmic male sterility in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitazaki, Kazuyoshi; Arakawa, Takumi; Matsunaga, Muneyuki; Yui-Kurino, Rika; Matsuhira, Hiroaki; Mikami, Tetsuo; Kubo, Tomohiko

    2015-07-01

    Genetic conflict between cytoplasmically inherited elements and nuclear genes arising from their different transmission patterns can be seen in cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), the mitochondrion-encoded inability to shed functional pollen. CMS is associated with a mitochondrial open reading frame (ORF) that is absent from non-sterility inducing mitochondria (S-orf). Nuclear genes that suppress CMS are called restorer-of-fertility (Rf) genes. Post-transcriptional and translational repression of S-orf mediates the molecular action of Rf that encodes a class of RNA-binding proteins with pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) motifs. Besides the PPR-type of Rfs, there are also non-PPR Rfs, but the molecular interactions between non-PPR Rf and S-orf have not been described. In this study, we investigated the interaction of bvORF20, a non-PPR Rf from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris), with preSatp6, the S-orf from sugar beet. Anthers expressing bvORF20 contained a protein that interacted with preSATP6 protein. Analysis of anthers and transgenic calli expressing a FLAG-tagged bvORF20 suggested the binding of preSATP6 to bvORF20. To see the effect of bvORF20 on preSATP6, which exists as a 250-kDa protein complex in CMS plants, signal bands of preSATP6 in bvORF20-expressing and non-expressing anthers were compared by immunoblotting combined with Blue Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The signal intensity of the 250-kDa band decreased significantly, and 200- and 150-kDa bands appeared in bvORF20-expressing anthers. Transgenic callus expressing bvORF20 also generated the 200- and 150-kDa bands. The 200-kDa complex is likely to include both preSATP6 and bvORF20. Post-translational interaction between preSATP6 and bvORF20 appears to alter the higher order structure of preSATP6 that may lead to fertility restoration in sugar beet. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Overexpression of S-Adenosyl-l-Methionine Synthetase 2 from Sugar Beet M14 Increased Arabidopsis Tolerance to Salt and Oxidative Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chunquan; Wang, Yuguang; Gu, Dan; Nan, Jingdong; Chen, Sixue; Li, Haiying

    2017-01-01

    The sugar beet monosomic addition line M14 is a unique germplasm that contains genetic materials from Beta vulgaris L. and Beta corolliflora Zoss, and shows tolerance to salt stress. Our study focuses on exploring the molecular mechanism of the salt tolerance of the sugar beet M14. In order to identify differentially expressed genes in M14 under salt stress, a subtractive cDNA library was generated by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH). A total of 36 unique sequences were identified in the library and their putative functions were analyzed. One of the genes, S-adenosylmethionine synthetase (SAMS), is the key enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), a precursor of polyamines. To determine the potential role of SAMS in salt tolerance, we isolated BvM14-SAMS2 from the salt-tolerant sugar beet M14. The expression of BvM14-SAMS2 in leaves and roots was greatly induced by salt stress. Overexpression of BvM14-SAMS2 in Arabidopsis resulted in enhanced salt and H2O2 tolerance. Furthermore, we obtained a knock-down T-DNA insertion mutant of AtSAMS3, which shares the highest homology with BvM14-SAMS2. Interestingly, the mutant atsam3 showed sensitivity to salt and H2O2 stress. We also found that the antioxidant system and polyamine metabolism play an important role in salt and H2O2 tolerance in the BvM14-SAMS2-overexpressed plants. To our knowledge, the function of the sugar beet SAMS has not been reported before. Our results have provided new insights into SAMS functions in sugar beet. PMID:28420190

  12. In vitro protein synthesis of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) and maize (Zea mays) is differentially inhibited when potassium is substituted by sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, Franziska; Schubert, Sven

    2017-09-01

    The substitution of potassium ions (K(+)) by sodium ions (Na(+)) in the nutrition of plants is restricted. It was shown earlier that net protein synthesis is the process which is most sensitive to the substitution of K(+) by Na(+) in young sugar beet. We hypothesized that the activity of ribosomes is inhibited by the substitution. This hypothesis was tested in an in vitro approach. Cytosolic polysomes were isolated from growing leaves of sugar beet and maize by means of differential centrifugation. In vitro systems of both plant species were tested for functionality and comparability. Translation was quantified by the (35)S-methionine incorporation in TCA-precipitable products. The effect of different substitution levels (0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, and 80% substitution of K(+) by Na(+)) on in vitro translation was measured. Translation by polysomes of both plant species was significantly inhibited by the substitution. However, the translation by maize polysomes was more negatively affected by the substitution. A significant decrease in the translation by maize polysomes was observed already when 20% of K(+) were replaced by Na(+), whereas in the case of sugar beet, the translation was inhibited firstly at the substitution level of 40%. The in vitro results show that the process of translation itself is disturbed by the substitution and indicate a higher tolerance of sugar beet polysomes to increased Na(+) concentrations and Na(+)/K(+) ratios compared to polysomes of maize. We propose that this tolerance contributes to the salt resistance of sugar beet. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparative proteomic analysis of apomictic monosomic addition line of Beta corolliflora and Beta vulgaris L. in sugar beet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong; Bi, Ying-Dong; Yu, Li-Jie; Guo, De-Dong; Wang, Bai-Chen

    2009-11-01

    Apomixis refers to a process in which plants produce seed without fertilization through female syngamy that produces embryos genetically identical to the maternal parent. In sugar beet, interspecific hybrids between diploid Beta vulgaris and tetraploid Beta corolliflora were established and monosomic addition line M14 was selected because of the apomictic phenotype. By using two-dimensional electrophoresis gels we identified the proteins which were differently expressed between the M14 and B. vulgaris. A total of 27 protein spots which varied expressed between lines were isolated and successfully identified with MALDI-TOF MS. Among them five protein spots were found to be only presented in M14 and two protein spots only expressed in Beta. According to their functional annotations described in Swissprot database, these proteins were, respectively, involved in important biological pathways, such as cell division, functionally classified using the KEGG functional classification system. The result may be useful for us to better understand the genetic mechanism of apomixes.

  14. Quantification of seed-soil contact of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) using X-ray Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blunk, Sebastian; Malik, Ali Hafeez; de Heer, Martine I; Ekblad, Tobias; Bussell, Jennifer; Sparkes, Debbie; Fredlund, Kenneth; Sturrock, Craig J; Mooney, Sacha J

    2017-01-01

    Seed-soil contact is important to ensure successful germination, however, there is a paucity of reported studies that have quantified the microstructure at and around this critical interface, mainly due to the opacity of soil. Here we describe a novel methodology to non-destructively calculate the seed-soil contact area using X-ray Computed Tomography. Under controlled conditions, we observed that seed-soil contact was strongly influenced by the size and type of seed, with a seed-soil contact of ca. 15% for naked sugar beet seeds compared to ca. 32% for pelleted and coated seeds. Similar results were obtained for seeds sampled from the field albeit with a higher spatial variability. By application of this new quantification method it is hoped seed enhancement technologies can be optimised and ultimately seedbed preparation improved to ensure better germination.

  15. Progress towards sugar beet improvement through somatic hybridization I. Inactivation of nuclei and cytoplasm in donor and recipient protoplasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Jażdżewska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The isolation and culture of suspension-derived protoplasts from two sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. genotypes are described. Immobilization of protoplasts in agarose resulted in high frequency divisions and microcallus regeneration, with plating efficiency (PE being clearly genotype-dependent. In further studies towards asymmetric fusion experiments, the effect of different doses of ultraviolet radiation (UV and iodoacetic acid (IA on protoplast physiology was assessed. Viability of both treated (UV, IA and untreated protoplasts (control was determined by FDA staining, and the biological effect was evaluated by testing the ability of protoplasts to divide and to form calli. The results are discussed in terms of the applicability of the methods for the production of asymmetric protoplasts suitable for somatic hybridization within the genus Beta.

  16. Studies on sorption, desorption, regeneration and reuse of sugar-beet pectin gels for heavy metal removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mata, Y.N. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, Complutense University of Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n 28040 Madrid (Spain); Blazquez, M.L., E-mail: mlblazquez@quim.ucm.es [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, Complutense University of Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n 28040 Madrid (Spain); Ballester, A.; Gonzalez, F.; Munoz, J.A. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, Complutense University of Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-06-15

    This work reports the effectiveness of sugar-beet pectin xerogels for the removal of heavy metals (cadmium, lead and copper) after multiple batch sorption-desorption cycles, with and without a gels regeneration step. Metals were recovered from xerogel beads without destroying their sorption capability and the beads were successfully reused (nine cycles) without significant loss in both biosorption capacity and biosorbent mass. Metals uptake levelled off or increased after using a 1 M CaCl{sub 2} regeneration step after each desorption. Calcium, as a regenerating agent, increased the stability and reusability of the gels repairing the damage caused by the acid and removing the excess protons after each elution providing new binding sites. Because of their excellent reusability, pectin xerogels are suitable for metal remediation technologies.

  17. Influence of Psyllium, sugar beet fibre and water on gluten-free dough properties and bread quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappa, Carola; Lucisano, Mara; Mariotti, Manuela

    2013-11-06

    Celiac patients generally have a low intake of protein and fibre attributed to their gluten-free (GF) diet. To satisfy the increasing demand for healthier products, this research focused on the effects of the supplementation of Psyllium (P) and sugar beet fibre (SB) on the mixing and leavening behaviour of gluten-free doughs. Four doughs, having different consistencies that made them suitable to be poured into moulds or to be shaped, and their corresponding breads were evaluated. The results obtained suggested that a lower consistency is preferred to assure good dough performances during leavening, in particular when ingredients having a high water affinity are included into the recipe. Both P and SB improved the workability of the doughs, but P played a central role on GF bread development, thanks to its film forming ability, and evidenced a more effective antistaling effect, thanks to its high water binding capacity.

  18. Biomethanization of sugar beet byproduct by semi-continuous single digestion and co-digestion with cow manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboudi, Kaoutar; Álvarez-Gallego, Carlos José; Romero-García, Luis Isidoro

    2016-01-01

    Dried pellet of exhausted sugar beet cossettes were digested alone and combined with cow manure as co-substrate in a mesophilic semi-continuous anaerobic system. In single digestion assay, the stable biogas production and stable reactor operation was observed at the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 20days (OLR: 3.26gVS/Lreactord) which was the minimum HRT tolerated by the system. However, co-digestion with cow manure allowed to decrease the HRT until 15days (OLR: 4.97gVS/Lreactord) with 32% higher biogas generation and efficient reactor operation. Propionic acid was the predominant VFA observed during single digestion assay failure, while acetic acid accumulation was observed in the co-digestion assay. In both single and co-digestion assays, the recovery of digesters was possible by ceasing the feeding and re-inoculation with a well-adapted inoculum.

  19. Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation of Sugar Beet Pulp with Mixed Bacterial Cultures for Lactic Acid and Propylene Glycol Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlowska, Joanna; Cieciura, Weronika; Borowski, Sebastian; Dudkiewicz, Marta; Binczarski, Michal; Witonska, Izabela; Otlewska, Anna; Kregiel, Dorota

    2016-10-17

    Research into fermentative production of lactic acid from agricultural by-products has recently concentrated on the direct conversion of biomass, whereby pure sugars are replaced with inexpensive feedstock in the process of lactic acid production. In our studies, for the first time, the source of carbon used is sugar beet pulp, generated as a by-product of industrial sugar production. In this paper, we focus on the simultaneous saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass and fermentation of lactic acid, using mixed cultures with complementary assimilation profiles. Lactic acid is one of the primary platform chemicals, and can be used to synthesize a wide variety of useful products, including green propylene glycol. A series of controlled batch fermentations was conducted under various conditions, including pretreatment with enzymatic hydrolysis. Inoculation was performed in two sequential stages, to avoid carbon catabolite repression. Biologically-synthesized lactic acid was catalytically reduced to propylene glycol over 5% Ru/C. The highest lactic acid yield was obtained with mixed cultures. The yield of propylene glycol from the biological lactic acid was similar to that obtained with a water solution of pure lactic acid. Our results show that simultaneous saccharification and fermentation enables generation of lactic acid, suitable for further chemical transformations, from agricultural residues.

  20. Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation of Sugar Beet Pulp with Mixed Bacterial Cultures for Lactic Acid and Propylene Glycol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Berlowska

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Research into fermentative production of lactic acid from agricultural by-products has recently concentrated on the direct conversion of biomass, whereby pure sugars are replaced with inexpensive feedstock in the process of lactic acid production. In our studies, for the first time, the source of carbon used is sugar beet pulp, generated as a by-product of industrial sugar production. In this paper, we focus on the simultaneous saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass and fermentation of lactic acid, using mixed cultures with complementary assimilation profiles. Lactic acid is one of the primary platform chemicals, and can be used to synthesize a wide variety of useful products, including green propylene glycol. A series of controlled batch fermentations was conducted under various conditions, including pretreatment with enzymatic hydrolysis. Inoculation was performed in two sequential stages, to avoid carbon catabolite repression. Biologically-synthesized lactic acid was catalytically reduced to propylene glycol over 5% Ru/C. The highest lactic acid yield was obtained with mixed cultures. The yield of propylene glycol from the biological lactic acid was similar to that obtained with a water solution of pure lactic acid. Our results show that simultaneous saccharification and fermentation enables generation of lactic acid, suitable for further chemical transformations, from agricultural residues.

  1. Monitoring the spread of recombinant DNA from field plots with transgenic sugar beet plants by PCR and natural transformation of Pseudomonas stutzeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Petra; Wackernagel, Wilfried

    2003-06-01

    Previous studies had shown that recombinant DNA can be detected for several months in soil after the deposition of litter from transgenic (tg) plants. Here we show by PCR monitoring of field releases of tg sugar beet plants that during the growth of the plants the soil close to the plants and also plant material contains recombinant DNA, in the form of extracellular molecules. Surprisingly, the monitoring also revealed the presence of tg DNA in many field plots (30-70%) in which tg plants were never grown. These studies and the further monitoring during other tg sugar beet release experiments by PCR and a novel bioassay (measuring the transforming potential of recombinant DNA for Pseudomonas stutzeri) indicated that recombinant DNA was only detectable in the surface soil of field plots and their vicinity where flowering of the tg beet plants was allowed. Recombinant DNA was found in soil at a distance of 50 m from pollen-producing plants surrounded by a strip with hemp plants as a containment regime. It is concluded that recombinant DNA is deposited in soil during the growth of tg sugar beets and that a major mechanism of recombinant DNA spread in the environment is the dispersal of pollen which allows recombinant DNA to persist in the field plot for at least a year.

  2. Extraction and application of sugar beet pectin%甜菜果胶的提取方法及其应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张睿

    2015-01-01

    Pectin is an acidic macromolecular polysaccharide which possesses gelling,emulsifying,thickening and stabilizing properties,hence it is widely used in food,medicine,chemical,textile and other industries.Beet pulp is the by-product of beet sugar processing which is rich in pectin polysaccharide;it could be a good source forextracting novel pectin.But many researches indicated that because of its low molecular weight and high acety-lation content,sugar beet pectin has poor gelling property,however,it has good emulsifying property.The extrac-tion methods and emulsifying properties of sugar beet pectin were reviewed and the development trends were dis-cussed.%果胶是一种多糖大分子物质,具有胶凝、乳化、增稠、稳定等功能特性,广泛地应用于食品、医药、化工、纺织等多种行业。甜菜废粕是甜菜制糖的副产物,果胶多糖含量高,是一种新的果胶提取原料。研究表明甜菜果胶分子量低、乙酰化程度高,其凝胶性差,但具有良好的乳化特性。

  3. Influence of Nitrogen Sources on Sucrose Synthetase(SS) in Sugar Beet%不同氮源对甜菜蔗糖合成酶的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵越; 马凤鸣; 王丽艳; 刘涧洋

    2001-01-01

    不同氮素形态对蔗糖合成酶(SS)活性影响不同,硝态氮促进SS分解活性,氨态氮则促进SS合成活性。生育前期SS分解活性大于SS合成活性,有利于器官的形态建成,而在生育后期SS合成活性大于SS分解活性,则有利于根中蔗糖的形成。生育前期根中的SS分解活性较强,说明根中有蔗糖合成后的再分解过程。%Influence of nitrogen sources on the activity of sucrose synthetase(SS) is different. Nitrate nitrogen can improve the decomposition activity of SS (SS-D), but ammonium nitrogen can improve the synthetic activity of SS(SS-S).In prophase of sugar beet life, it advantages morphogenesis of organ when SS-D> SS-S, and in postphase of sugar life, it advantages formation of sucrose in sucrose beet roots, when SS-S>SS-D. In prophase of sugar beet life, the activity of SS-D is higher than that of SS-S in sucrose beet roots, this indicates that there is redecomposition after sucrose synthesis.

  4. Influence of sugar beet pulp on feeding behavior, growth performance, carcass quality and gut health of fattening pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laitat, M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. Dietary fiber is largely used in pig production but some contradictions appear in the literature regarding the effects on performance and health. Objectives. This paper aims to contribute to the clarification of the effects of a diet rich in sugar beet pulp on animal behavior, growth performance, carcass quality and gut health of fattening pigs. Method. Two successive batches of 24 fattening pigs were each divided into two groups fed ad libitum either a standard diet based on cereals (STD, 19% NSP [non-starch-polysaccharides] or a fibrous diet based on 23% sugar beet pulp (HFD, 31% NSP. Results. Pigs activity rate and feeder occupancy duration were increased by 57% and 165% for group fed HFD, respectively (P < 0.05. The fecal bacteria counts showed increases with HFD for Lactobacillus (10.21 vs 9.84 log10 of cfu·g-1 of feces dry matter, P < 0.05 and Bifidobacterium (9.49 vs 8.88, P < 0.01 but decreases for Enterobacteriaceae (4.85 vs 5.97, P < 0.001. Reductions of the average daily gain (788 vs 876 g per day, P < 0.001 and the dressing percentage (75.7 vs 78.9%, P < 0.001 were observed with HFD. Gastric lesion score was decreased with HFD (0.82 vs 1.55, P < 0.05. For pigs fed HFD, the proportion of surface area occupied by goblet cells was increased in the jejunum (10.06 vs 7.99%, P < 0.01 and the number of CD3 lymphocytes was increased in the colon (1.24 vs 0.90·mm-², P < 0.05. Conclusions. HFD contributes to strengthen the gut health of fattening pigs, but it impairs growth performance and carcass traits.

  5. Transcriptomic profiling of taproot growth and sucrose accumulation in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) at different developmental stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong-Feng; Li, Guo-Long; Wang, Xue-Feng; Sun, Ya-Qing; Zhang, Shao-Ying

    2017-01-01

    In sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.), taproot weight and sucrose content are the important determinants of yield and quality. However, high yield and low sucrose content are two tightly bound agronomic traits. The advances in next-generation sequencing technology and the publication of sugar beet genome have provided a method for the study of molecular mechanism underlying the regulation of these two agronomic traits. In this work, we performed comparative transcriptomic analyses in the high taproot yield cultivar SD13829 and the high sucrose content cultivar BS02 at five developmental stages. More than 50,000,000 pair-end clean reads for each library were generated. When taproot turned into the rapid growth stage at the growth stage of 82 days after emergence (DAE), eighteen enriched gene ontology (GO) terms, including cell wall, cytoskeleton, and enzyme linked receptor protein signaling pathway, occurred in both cultivars. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of paired comparison in both cultivars were enriched in the cell wall GO term. For pathway enrichment analyses of DEGs that were respectively generated at 82 DAE compared to 59 DAE (the earlier developmental stage before taproot turning into the rapid growth stage), plant hormone signal transduction pathway was enriched. At 82 DAE, the rapid enlarging stage of taproot, several transcription factor family members were up-regulated in both cultivars. An antagonistic expression of brassinosteroid- and auxin-related genes was also detected. In SD13829, the growth strategy was relatively focused on cell enlargement promoted by brassinosteroid signaling, whereas in BS02, it was relatively focused on secondarily cambial cell division regulated by cytokinin, auxin and brassinosteroid signaling. Taken together, our data demonstrate that the weight and sucrose content of taproot rely on its growth strategy, which is controlled by brassinosteroid, auxin, cytokinin, and gibberellin.

  6. Diversity of a complex centromeric satellite and molecular characterization of dispersed sequence families in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Gerhard; Dechyeva, Daryna; Wenke, Torsten; Holtgräwe, Daniela; Weisshaar, Bernd; Schmidt, Thomas

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this work was the identification and molecular characterization of novel sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) repetitive sequences to unravel the impact of repetitive DNA on size and evolution of Beta genomes via amplification and diversification. Genomic DNA and a pool of B. vulgaris repetitive sequences were separately used as probes for a screening of high-density filters from a B. vulgaris plasmid library. Novel repetitive motifs were identified by sequencing and further used as probes for Southern analyses in the genus Beta. Chromosomal localization of the repeats was analysed by fluorescent in situ hybridization on chromosomes of B. vulgaris and two other species of the section Beta. Two dispersed repetitive families pDvul1 and pDvul2 and the tandemly arranged repeat family pRv1 were isolated from a sugar beet plasmid library. The dispersed repetitive families pDvul1 and pDvul2 were identified in all four sections of the genus Beta. The members of the pDvul1 and pDvul2 family are scattered over all B. vulgaris chromosomes, although amplified to a different extent. The pRv1 satellite repeat is exclusively present in species of the section Beta. The centromeric satellite pBV1 by structural variations of the monomer and interspersion of pRv1 units forms complex satellite structures, which are amplified in different degrees on the centromeres of 12 chromosomes of the three species of the Beta section. The complexity of the pBV1 satellite family observed in the section Beta of the genus Beta and, in particular, the strong amplification of the pBV1/pRv1 satellite in the domesticated B. vulgaris indicates the dynamics of centromeric satellite evolution during species radiation within the genus. The dispersed repeat families pDvul1 and pDvul2 might represent derivatives of transposable elements.

  7. Impact of Humic Acid on Yield and Quality of Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L. Grown on Calcareous Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghorbanali RASSAM

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was performed to determine the effects of using humic acid with irrigation on quantitative and qualitative yield traits of sugar beet grown on calcareous soils in Esfaraen, located in the North-East of Iran. Treatments consisted of three levels of humic acid concentration (zero or control, 2.5 and 5 L ha-1 and the number of applications (once 45 days after planting; twice, 45 and 75 days after planting; three times, respectively 45, 75 and 105 days after planting. The effect of the two experimental factors on sugar beet yield traits such as the content of sucrose, refined sugar, molasses forming substances, root yield and refined sugar yield were evaluated. The results proved the existence of a significant interaction between humic acid concentration and the number of applications on all parameters under study. The application of humic acid caused a significant increase of sucrose, refined sugar, root yield and refined sugar yield and a reduction in molasses forming substances content, compared to the control. The increased amount of sucrose and refined sugar content in all applications in concentration of 2.5 L ha-1 humic acid was more than with 5 L ha-1. Similarly, the content of molasses forming substances showed more reduction in 2.5 L ha-1 than in 5 L ha-1 treatment. However, the results revealed that the highest root yield and refined sugar yield, as the main qualitative and quantitative parameters of sugar beet yield, were achieved by three times application of 5 L ha-1 that had 24 and 37% increase compared to control.

  8. 甜菜力学特性的试验研究%The Experimental Research on Mechanical Properties of Sugar Beet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王方艳; 张东兴

    2015-01-01

    甜菜的力学特性是机具研发的基础。利用英国 Instron-4411型万能材料试验机,对“KWS3148”甜菜不同部位的试样进行压缩试验,分别研究了取样位置、加载速率和含水率对甜菜力学特性的影响,并得到收获期甜菜的弹性模量和抗压强度。试验结果表明:甜菜没有明显的屈服极限,破裂点较为明显;甜菜的力学特性受取样位置和加载速率的影响,且尾根处抗压强度最小;载荷加载速率对甜菜的弹性模量和最大抗压强度影响极显著,载荷位置对甜菜的最大抗压强度影响显著;随着加载速率的增加,同位置试样的弹性模量逐渐增大,最大抗压强度先减小后增大;甜菜的弹性模量和最大抗压强度分别随着含水率的减小而增大;弹性模量为(12.17±2.26) MPa,抗压强度为(2.67±0.3)MPa。%The mechanical property of sugar beet is the foundation of the machinery research and development .In order to research the effects of the factors on the mechanical properties of sugar beet , such as sampling position , loading rate and moisture content , the compression test of the sample of “KWS3148” sugar beet root was carried out by universal tes-ting machine “Instron-4411”.And the elastic modulus and compressive strength of sugar beet in the harvest was ob-tained .The results show that sugar beets have not obvious yield limit , while broken point is more obvious .The properties of sugar beet were affected by sampling position and loading rate .And the tail root was prone to injury because compres-sive strength is relatively small .The loading rate has significant effects on the elastic modulus or the maximum compres-sive strength respectively .With the increasing of the loading rate , the elastic modulus is increased , while the maximum compressive strength increased after decrease .On the sugar beet samples , the load pressure position of sugar beet has effect

  9. Belowground plant development measured with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI: exploiting the potential for non-invasive trait quantification using sugar beet as a proxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf eMetzner

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Both structural and functional properties of belowground plant organs are critical for the development and yield of plants but, compared to the shoot, much more difficult to observe due to soil opacity. Many processes concerning the belowground plant performance are not fully understood, in particular spatial and temporal dynamics and their interrelation with environmental factors. We used Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI as a noninvasive method to evaluate which traits can be measured when a complex plant organ is monitored in-vivo while growing in the soil. We chose sugar beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris as a model system. The beet consists mainly of root tissues, is rather complex regarding tissue structure and responses to environmental factors, and thereby a good object to test the applicability of MRI for 3D phenotyping approaches. Over a time period of up to 3 months, traits such as beet morphology or anatomy were followed in the soil and the effect of differently sized pots on beet fresh weight calculated from MRI data was studied. There was a clear positive correlation between the pot size and the increase in fresh weight of a sugar beet over time. Since knowledge of the development of internal beet structures with several concentric cambia, vascular and parenchyma rings is still limited, we consecutively acquired 3D volumetric images on individual plants using the MRI contrast parameter T2 to map the development of rings at the tissue level. This demonstrates that MRI provides versatile protocols to non-invasively measure plant traits in the soil. It opens new avenues to investigate belowground plant performance under adverse environmental conditions such as drought, nutrient shortage or soil compaction to seek for traits of belowground organs making plants more resilient to stress.

  10. Belowground plant development measured with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): exploiting the potential for non-invasive trait quantification using sugar beet as a proxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzner, Ralf; van Dusschoten, Dagmar; Bühler, Jonas; Schurr, Ulrich; Jahnke, Siegfried

    2014-01-01

    Both structural and functional properties of belowground plant organs are critical for the development and yield of plants but, compared to the shoot, much more difficult to observe due to soil opacity. Many processes concerning the belowground plant performance are not fully understood, in particular spatial and temporal dynamics and their interrelation with environmental factors. We used Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) as a noninvasive method to evaluate which traits can be measured when a complex plant organ is monitored in-vivo while growing in the soil. We chose sugar beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris) as a model system. The beet consists mainly of root tissues, is rather complex regarding tissue structure and responses to environmental factors, and thereby a good object to test the applicability of MRI for 3D phenotyping approaches. Over a time period of up to 3 months, traits such as beet morphology or anatomy were followed in the soil and the effect of differently sized pots on beet fresh weight calculated from MRI data was studied. There was a clear positive correlation between the pot size and the increase in fresh weight of a sugar beet over time. Since knowledge of the development of internal beet structures with several concentric cambia, vascular and parenchyma rings is still limited, we consecutively acquired 3D volumetric images on individual plants using the MRI contrast parameter T2 to map the development of rings at the tissue level. This demonstrates that MRI provides versatile protocols to non-invasively measure plant traits in the soil. It opens new avenues to investigate belowground plant performance under adverse environmental conditions such as drought, nutrient shortage, or soil compaction to seek for traits of belowground organs making plants more resilient to stress. PMID:25278947

  11. Research Progress in the Affective Factors of Sugar Beet Root Yield and Sugar Content%影响甜菜块根产量及含糖率因素的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段娜; 刘雪; 于超; 徐军; 刘芳

    2014-01-01

    Sugar beet is one of the important raw materials in the sugar industry,In our country, low per unit area yield and low sugar content become important restrict factors in the production of sugar beet. Four aspects of the relationship between root weight and sugar content, the impact of varieties on root growth and sugar content, the relationship between photosynthetic characteristics and growth of root and sugar content, the impact of plant growth regulators on root and sugar content were summarized in this article. The idea would be provided for researching root yield and sugar content in the future.%甜菜是制糖工业的重要原料之一,单产和含糖率低成为制约中国甜菜生产的重要因素。文章对甜菜根重与含糖率相关关系、品种对甜菜块根增长和含糖率的影响、光合特性与甜菜块根和含糖增长的关系、植物生长调节剂对甜菜块根和含糖率影响四方面进行了概述,为今后研究甜菜块根产量及含糖率提供一些思路。

  12. Dynamic variation of the microbial community structure during the long-time mono-fermentation of maize and sugar beet silage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klang, Johanna; Theuerl, Susanne; Szewzyk, Ulrich; Huth, Markus; Tölle, Rainer; Klocke, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the development of the microbial community during a long-term (337 days) anaerobic digestion of maize and sugar beet silage, two feedstocks that significantly differ in their chemical composition. For the characterization of the microbial dynamics, the community profiling method terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) in combination with a cloning-sequencing approach was applied. Our results revealed a specific adaptation of the microbial community to the supplied feedstocks. Based on the high amount of complex compounds, the anaerobic conversion rate of maize silage was slightly lower compared with the sugar beet silage. It was demonstrated that members from the phylum Bacteroidetes are mainly involved in the degradation of low molecular weight substances such as sugar, ethanol and acetate, the main compounds of the sugar beet silage. It was further shown that species of the genus Methanosaeta are highly sensitive against sudden stress situations such as a strong decrease in the ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N) concentration or a drop of the pH value. In both cases, a functional compensation by members of the genera Methanoculleus and/or Methanosarcina was detected. However, the overall biomass conversion of both feedstocks proceeded efficiently as a steady state between acid production and consumption was recorded, which further resulted in an equal biogas yield. PMID:25712194

  13. Dynamic variation of the microbial community structure during the long-time mono-fermentation of maize and sugar beet silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klang, Johanna; Theuerl, Susanne; Szewzyk, Ulrich; Huth, Markus; Tölle, Rainer; Klocke, Michael

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the development of the microbial community during a long-term (337 days) anaerobic digestion of maize and sugar beet silage, two feedstocks that significantly differ in their chemical composition. For the characterization of the microbial dynamics, the community profiling method terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) in combination with a cloning-sequencing approach was applied. Our results revealed a specific adaptation of the microbial community to the supplied feedstocks. Based on the high amount of complex compounds, the anaerobic conversion rate of maize silage was slightly lower compared with the sugar beet silage. It was demonstrated that members from the phylum Bacteroidetes are mainly involved in the degradation of low molecular weight substances such as sugar, ethanol and acetate, the main compounds of the sugar beet silage. It was further shown that species of the genus Methanosaeta are highly sensitive against sudden stress situations such as a strong decrease in the ammonium nitrogen (NH₄(+)-N) concentration or a drop of the pH value. In both cases, a functional compensation by members of the genera Methanoculleus and/or Methanosarcina was detected. However, the overall biomass conversion of both feedstocks proceeded efficiently as a steady state between acid production and consumption was recorded, which further resulted in an equal biogas yield.

  14. Repeat Composition of CenH3-chromatin and H3K9me2-marked heterochromatin in Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowar, Teresa; Zakrzewski, Falk; Macas, Jiří; Kobližková, Andrea; Viehoever, Prisca; Weisshaar, Bernd; Schmidt, Thomas

    2016-05-26

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) is an important crop of temperate climate zones, which provides nearly 30 % of the world's annual sugar needs. From the total genome size of 758 Mb, only 567 Mb were incorporated in the recently published genome sequence, due to the fact that regions with high repetitive DNA contents (e.g. satellite DNAs) are only partially included. Therefore, to fill these gaps and to gain information about the repeat composition of centromeres and heterochromatic regions, we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (ChIP-Seq) using antibodies against the centromere-specific histone H3 variant of sugar beet (CenH3) and the heterochromatic mark of dimethylated lysine 9 of histone H3 (H3K9me2). ChIP-Seq analysis revealed that active centromeres containing CenH3 consist of the satellite pBV and the Ty3-gypsy retrotransposon Beetle7, while heterochromatin marked by H3K9me2 exhibits heterogeneity in repeat composition. H3K9me2 was mainly associated with the satellite family pEV, the Ty1-copia retrotransposon family Cotzilla and the DNA transposon superfamily of the En/Spm type. In members of the section Beta within the genus Beta, immunostaining using the CenH3 antibody was successful, indicating that orthologous CenH3 proteins are present in closely related species within this section. The identification of repetitive genome portions by ChIP-Seq experiments complemented the sugar beet reference sequence by providing insights into the repeat composition of poorly characterized CenH3-chromatin and H3K9me2-heterochromatin. Therefore, our work provides the basis for future research and application concerning the sugar beet centromere and repeat-rich heterochromatic regions characterized by the presence of H3K9me2.

  15. Reducing the risk of foaming and decreasing viscosity by two-stage anaerobic digestion of sugar beet pressed pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyanova, Elitza; Forsthuber, Boris; Pohn, Stefan; Schwarz, Christian; Fuchs, Werner; Bochmann, Günther

    2014-04-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) of sugar beet pressed pulp (SBPP) is a promising treatment concept. It produces biogas as a renewable energy source making sugar production more energy efficient and it turns SBPP from a residue into a valuable resource. In this study one- and two-stage mono fermentation at mesophilic conditions in a continuous stirred tank reactor were compared. Also the optimal incubation temperature for the pre-acidification stage was studied. The fastest pre-acidification, with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 4 days, occurred at a temperature of 55 °C. In the methanogenic reactor of the two-stage system stable fermentation at loading rate of 7 kg VS/m³ d was demonstrated. No artificial pH adjustment was necessary to maintain optimum levels in both the pre-acidification and the methanogenic reactor. The total HRT of the two-stage AD was 36 days which is considerably lower compared to the one-stage AD (50 days). The frequently observed problem of foaming at high loading rates was less severe in the two-stage reactor. Moreover the viscosity of digestate in the methanogenic stage of the two-stage fermentation was in average tenfold lower than in the one-stage fermentation. This decreases the energy input for the reactor stirring about 80 %. The observed advantages make the two-stage process economically attractive, despite higher investments for a two reactor system.

  16. Vermistabilization of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L) waste produced from sugar factory using earthworm Eisenia fetida: Genotoxic assessment by Allium cepa test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Sartaj Ahmad; Singh, Jaswinder; Vig, Adarsh Pal

    2015-08-01

    In the present study, sugar beet mud (SBM) and pulp (SBP) produced as a waste by-products of the sugar industry were mixed with cattle dung (CD) at different ratios on dry weight basis for vermicomposting with Eisenia fetida. Minimum mortality and highest population of worms were observed in 20:80 (SBM20) mixture of SBM and 10:90 (SBP10) ratios. However, increased percentages of wastes significantly affected the growth and fecundity of worms. Nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus, sodium, increased from initial feed mixture to final products (i.e., vermicompost), while organic carbon (OC), C:N ratio and electrical conductivity (EC) declined in all the products of vermicomposting. Although there was an increase in the contents of all the heavy metals except copper, chromium, and iron in SBM, the contents were less than the international standards for compost which indicates that the vermicompost can be used in the fields without any ill effects on the soil. Allium cepa root chromosomal aberration assay was used to evaluate the genotoxicity of pre- and post-vermicomposted SBM to understand the effect of vermicomposting on the reduction of toxicity. Genotoxicity analysis of post-vermicomposted samples of SBM revealed 18-75% decline in the aberration frequencies. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was recorded to identify the changes in texture in the control and vermicomposted samples. The vermicomposted mixtures in the presence of earthworms confirm more numerous surface irregularities that prove to be good manure.

  17. The Research Progress on Beet Mosaic and Resistance of Germplasm in Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.)%甜菜花叶病及种质资源抗性的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁广洲; 陈丽; 陈连江; 赵春雷; 王希; 张玉霜; 刘娜; 贾海伦; 郭莹莹

    2012-01-01

    甜菜花叶病是甜菜生产的世界性病害,可经多种蚜虫非持久性传播.花叶病毒侵染甜菜,嫩叶常出现脉间褪绿的明脉现象,发生皱缩;功能叶片会出现明暗相间的绿色斑驳,进而产生花叶,严重的发生坏死,给甜菜生产造成巨大损失.本研究归纳了BtMV病原及种质资源抗性的研究概况,分析了BtMV病原生物学特性、病原基因组及编码蛋白结构功能,病原介体及病毒复制模式,以及BtMV侵染甜菜植株及叶片的结构与微观变化.总结了当前用于甜菜花叶病的检测方法和甜菜种质资源的花叶病抗性与抗病反应的研究进展.提出了当前甜菜抗花叶病需要深入开展的研究论题,并对甜菜抗花叶病分子机理和基因工程育种进行了展望.为该病的深入性研究,特别是基因工程育种提供参考.%Beet mosaic is an aphid transmitted viral disease of sugar beet found worldwide, transmitted by many species of aphids in the non-persistent manner. Infected beets are sometimes stunted, young leaves often show vein-clearing; older leaves show a pronounced light and dark green mottle, and are often puckered. The author concluded the situation of pathogen of Beet Mosaic Virus (BtMV) and germplasm resistance research, analyzed biological characteristics, genome and encoding protein structure function of BtMV pathogen, and studied the pathogen mediator and the virus replication mode; and also studied the structure and microscopic changes of BtMV inflected plants and leaves of sugar beet; summarized the detection methods for beet mosaic and the research progress of beet mosaic germplasm resistance and resistance reflection. The author put forwards the thesis of further research on beet mosaic resistance, and made prospects on molecular mechanics of beet mosaic resistance and genetic engineering breeding. It could be helpful for the disease resistance investigation in agricultural production and shed some light for genetic

  18. Correcting the dry matter content of sugar beet silages as a substrate for biogas production; Die Korrektur des Trockensubstanzgehaltes von Zuckerruebensilagen als Substrat fuer Biogasanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strubelt, Cornelia [Blgg Deutschland GmbH (Germany). Analytiklabor fuer Landwirtschaft und Umwelt; Weissbach, Friedrich

    2008-11-15

    During the process of determining DM content in silages, volatile compounds (fermentation acids and alcohols) are lost. Therefore, the DM content measured in the conventional way has to be corrected afterwards. If that is not done, calculations on nutrient contents, as well as specific biogas yields will be false, causing experimental data to be misleading. Up to half of the organic matter of sugar beet silages can consist of volatile fermentation products. Without exact knowledge of the respective fermentation acid and alcohol content, conclusions about the substrate specific gas yield cannot be drawn. After equations to correct the dry matter content of maize silages and grass silage, an equation for DM correction for ensiled sugar beets silage is recommended here. (orig.)

  19. Non-target effects of the microbial control agents Pseudomonas fluorescens DR54 and Clonostachys rosea IK726 in soils cropped with barley followed by sugar beet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Anders; Knudsen, Inge M.B.; Binnerup, Svend J.

    2005-01-01

    on plant growth or soil microorganisms. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis detected the perturbations of the soil microbial community structure in the MCA treatments as well as the return to non- perturbed conditions reflecting the decline of inoculant populations. The PLFA technique appears......Non-target effects of a bacterial (Pseudomonas fluorescens DR54) and a fungal (Clonostachys rosea IK726) microbial control agent (MCA), on the indigenous microbiota in bulk soil and rhizosphere of barley, and subsequent a sugar beet crop, were studied in a greenhouse experiment. MCAs were...... introduced by seed and soil inoculation. Bulk and rhizosphere soils were sampled regularly during the growth of barley and sugar beet. The soils were assayed for the fate of MCAs and various features of the indigenous soil microbiota. At the end of the experiment (193 d), DR54 and IK726 had declined...

  20. Hydrolytic and pumping activity of H+-ATPase from leaves of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) as affected by salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeel, Abdul; Hanstein, Stefan; Pitann, Britta; Schubert, Sven

    2010-06-15

    Cell wall extensibility plays an important role in plant growth. According to the acid-growth theory, lower apoplastic pH allows extension growth by affecting cell wall extensibility. A lowered apoplastic pH is presumed to activate wall-loosening enzymes that control plant growth. Plasma membrane (PM) H(+)-ATPases play a major role in the apoplastic acidification by H(+) transport from cytosol to the apoplast. A salt-induced decrease in H(+)-pumping activity of plasma membrane H(+)-ATPases in salt-sensitive maize plants has previously been found. This led us to formulate the hypothesis that salt-resistant plant species such as sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) may have a mechanism to eliminate the effect of higher salt concentrations on plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity. In the present study, sugar beet plants were grown in 1mM NaCl (control) or 150 mM NaCl in hydroponics. H(+)-ATPase hydrolytic and pumping activities were measured in plasma membrane vesicles isolated from sugar beet shoots. We found that plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase hydrolytic and pumping activities were not affected by application of 150 mM NaCl. Moreover, apoplastic pH was also not affected under salt stress. However, a decrease in plant growth was observed. We assume that growth reduction was not due to a decrease in PM-H(+)-ATPase activity, but that other factors may be responsible for growth inhibition of sugar beet plants under salt stress.

  1. Changes in the species composition of the rhizosphere and phyllosphere of sugar beet under the impact of biological preparations based on endophytic bacteria and their metabolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusenkova, L. I.; Il'yasova, E. Yu.; Lastochkina, O. V.; Maksimov, I. V.; Leonova, S. A.

    2016-10-01

    The species structure of the mycobiota in the rhizosphere and phyllosphere of sugar beet in ontogenesis was studied. The treatment of the plants with biopreparations based on endophytic bacteria and their metabolites (Phytosporin-M, Vitaplan, and Albit) were shown to create conditions for the colonization of the plant rhizosphere and phyllosphere by bacteria-antagonists displacing phytopathogenic microorganisms and stimulating plant growth, which induces the transformation of the microbial cenosis.

  2. Evaluation of Broadleaf Weeds Control with Selectivity of Post-Emergence Herbicides in Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Asghar CHITBAND; Ghorbani, Reza; Mohammad Hassan RASHED MOHASSEL; Majid ABBASPOOR; Abbasi, Rahmat

    2014-01-01

    The reduction of herbicide applications is a main research priority in recent years. In order to study the effect of individual post-emergence application of sugar beet broad-leaf herbicides at four to six true-leaf stage of weeds, experiments were conducted during 2013. Treatments included untreated control and several rates of desmedipham + phenmedipham + ethofumesate, chloridazon and clopyralid on Portulaca oleracea, Solanum nigrum, Amaranthus retroflexus and Chenopodium album. A completel...

  3. Agro-ecological zoning for wheat (Triticum aestivum, sugar beet (Beta vulgaris and corn (Zea mays on the Mashhad plain, Khorasan Razavi province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Neamatollahi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Climate is the most important factor determining the sustainability of agricultural production systems. A qualitative land evaluation was carried out for the Mashhad plain, Khorasan Razavi province, Iran, to assess the suitability of the land to grow the locally most important crops, i.e. wheat (Triticum aestivum, sugar beet (Beta vulgaris and corn (Zea mays using a Geographical Information System (GIS. The possible growing seasons were defined as early (10 September–20 June and late (10 October–20 July season for wheat, early (15 March–15 October and late (15 April–15 November season for sugar beet, and early (1 May–1 November and late (15 May–15 November season for corn. The study area covered approximately 99.915 ha−1. Climate variables were taken into account including maximum, optimum and minimum daily average temperatures and were obtained from 30 years agro-meteorological data set from 12 synoptic stations. Growing Degree Days (GDDs were determined for wheat, sugar beet, and corn crops from sowing to harvest. To produce digital elevation model for Mashhad plain two sources were used on utilization of the IRS III satellite images with resolution that is 23.5 m, and topographic maps with scale of 1:25000. Aspect and slope layers were produced by Arc GIS 9.2 software. The study identified suitable elevation, slope, and GDDs for optimal growth and indicated that high yields are possible for wheat, sugar beet, and corn on the Mashhad plain. The study also identified the most suitable regions of the Mashhad plain for each crop.

  4. Sugar beet contains a large CONSTANS-LIKE gene family including a CO homologue that is independent of the early-bolting (B) gene locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, T Y P; Müller, A; Jung, C; Mutasa-Göttgens, E S

    2008-01-01

    Floral transition in the obligate long-day (LD) plant sugar beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris) is tightly linked to the B gene, a dominant early-bolting quantitative trait locus, the expression of which is positively regulated by LD photoperiod. Thus, photoperiod regulators like CONSTANS (CO) and CONSTANS-LIKE (COL) genes identified in many LD and short-day (SD)-responsive plants have long been considered constituents and/or candidates for the B gene. Until now, the photoperiod response pathway of sugar beet (a Caryophyllid), diverged from the Rosids and Asterids has not been identified. Here, evidence supporting the existence of a COL gene family is provided and the presence of Group I, II, and III COL genes in sugar beet, as characterized by different zinc-finger (B-box) and CCT (CO, CO-like, TOC) domains is demonstrated. BvCOL1 is identified as a close-homologue of Group 1a (AtCO, AtCOL1, AtCOL2) COL genes, hence a good candidate for flowering time control and it is shown that it maps to chromosome II but distant from the B gene locus. The late-flowering phenotype of A. thaliana co-2 mutants was rescued by over-expression of BvCOL1 thereby suggesting functional equivalence with AtCO, and it is shown that BvCOL1 interacts appropriately with the endogenous downstream genes, AtFT and AtSOC1 in the transgenic plants. Curiously, BvCOL1 has a dawn-phased diurnal pattern of transcription, mimicking that of AtCOL1 and AtCOL2 while contrasting with AtCO. Taken together, these data suggest that BvCOL1 plays an important role in the photoperiod response of sugar beet.

  5. A protocol for sonication-assisted Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation of haploid and diploid sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) explants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimek-Chodacka, Magdalena; Baranski, Rafal

    2014-01-01

    Hairy root cultures obtained after Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated genetic transformation can serve as a model system for studying plant metabolism and physiology, or can be utilized for the production of secondary metabolites. So far no efficient protocol of hairy root development in sugar beet has been publically released. In this work, two A. rhizogenes strains (A4T and LBA1334) carrying a binary vector pBIN-m-gfp5-ER or pCAMBIA1301 possessing gfp and uidA reporter genes were used to transform petiole explants of haploid and diploid sugar beet genotypes. Five treatment combinations of sonicated-assisted Agrobacterium-mediated transformation were compared. Hairy roots appeared on 0% to 54% of explants depending on the treatment combination used. The highest frequency was achieved when explants of a diploid genotype were sonicated for 15 s in the inoculum containing A. rhizogenes of OD600=0.5 and then co-cultured for three days. Using the same treatment combinations the explants of haploid genotypes developed hairy roots with the frequency ranging from 10% to 36%. Transformation efficiency was independent on the bacterial strain used. The results indicate that haploid sugar beet explants are amenable to transformation using A. rhizogenes, and that the efficiency of that process can be increased by applying short ultrasound treatment.

  6. 圆盘挖掘式甜菜联合收获机设计与试验%Design and experiment of disc-dig sugar beet combine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王方艳; 张东兴※

    2013-01-01

      The combine harvester is one of important tools for a sugar beet harvest. In order to solve time-consuming, tedious, and inefficient process in manual picking up of sugar beet by a traditional digger, and alleviate the shortage of sugar beet harvesting equipment, a disc-dig sugar beet combine harvester with medium horsepower tractors was designed based on the planting pattern and agronomic requirements, and the overall configuration and the structure of the main parts were described. The combine was composed of a rack, transmission system, guiding mechanism, digging device, conveying and cleaning device, hoisting equipment and driven system, et al. which enabled a one-stop achievement of sugar beet digging, conveying, removing soil and collecting. It effectively decreased the labor cost, simplified the commodity sugar beet processing links, and enhanced the efficiency of production. The driving system was configured in two independent ways, and equipped with a mechanical hydraulic control system, which improved the control accuracy and automation. With the hydraulic control system, the guiding mechanism reflected quickly and reduced the leakage (loss) of the sugar beet during harvesting. The disc digging component of the digging device reduced the excavated soil volume, improved the ability of breaking soil, and reduced the working resistance effectively. The throwing wheel moved sugar beet to the conveying and cleaning device, which was arranged behind the digging device. The hoisting equipment has a compact structure and good working reliability. Meanwhile, the web chain was composed of bending rods and bar rods, realized the chain jitter without source vibration, and reduced the transmission loss and the impurity of sugar beet. Field tests indicated that the rate of sticking to soil, the loss rate, the damage rate, the broken rate, and the impurity rate reached 0.8%, 4.5%, 2.4%, 1.6%, and 3.1%, respectively, which are in line with the sugar beet harvesting

  7. A Detailed Analysis of the BR1 Locus Suggests a New Mechanism for Bolting after Winter in Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tränkner, Conny; Lemnian, Ioana M; Emrani, Nazgol; Pfeiffer, Nina; Tiwari, Surya P; Kopisch-Obuch, Friedrich J; Vogt, Sebastian H; Müller, Andreas E; Schilhabel, Markus; Jung, Christian; Grosse, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris) is a biennial, sucrose-storing plant, which is mainly cultivated as a spring crop and harvested in the vegetative stage before winter. For increasing beet yield, over-winter cultivation would be advantageous. However, bolting is induced after winter and drastically reduces yield. Thus, post-winter bolting control is essential for winter beet cultivation. To identify genetic factors controlling bolting after winter, a F2 population was previously developed by crossing the sugar beet accessions BETA 1773 with reduced bolting tendency and 93161P with complete bolting after winter. For a mapping-by-sequencing analysis, pools of 26 bolting-resistant and 297 bolting F2 plants were used. Thereby, a single continuous homozygous region of 103 kb was co-localized to the previously published BR1 QTL for post-winter bolting resistance (Pfeiffer et al., 2014). The BR1 locus was narrowed down to 11 candidate genes from which a homolog of the Arabidopsis CLEAVAGE AND POLYADENYLATION SPECIFICITY FACTOR 73-I (CPSF73-I) was identified as the most promising candidate. A 2 bp deletion within the BETA 1773 allele of BvCPSF73-Ia results in a truncated protein. However, the null allele of BvCPSF73-Ia might partially be compensated by a second BvCPSF73-Ib gene. This gene is located 954 bp upstream of BvCPSF73-Ia and could be responsible for the incomplete penetrance of the post-winter bolting resistance allele of BETA 1773. This result is an important milestone for breeding winter beets with complete bolting resistance after winter.

  8. ROW METHOD OF SUGAR BEET (BETA VULGARIS L. FERTILIZATION WITH MULTICOMPONENT FERTILIZER BASED ON UREA-AMMONIUM NITRATE SOLUTION AS A WAY TO INCREASE NITROGEN EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław BARŁÓG

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sugar beet is the main crop commonly cultivated for sugar production in temperate regions of the World. Actual yields in main Central Europe producing countries are much lower, due to many limiting factors. Among them, nutrients supply is of great value, especially referring to efficiency of nitrogen, which is generally low. In the conducted study two methods of nitrogen application were compared (i broadcast of calcium saltpeter and (ii row application of the multicomponent fertilizer based on urea-ammonium-nitrate (UAN solution. The basic amount of the applied N was 75 kg ha-1. The highest yields of both taproots and refined sugar were harvested on the plot receiving 75 kg N-1 as UAN liquid multicomponent fertilizer and 50% of the recommended P and K rates. The positive effects of row application of liquid N fertilizer on taproot and sugar yields were also corroborated by high values of indices of agronomic efficiency for both N as well as P and K. However this method of sugar beets fertilization has some possibilities, as indicated by still high contents of melassogenic substances.

  9. Effect of dietary supplement of sugar beet, neem leaf, linseed and coriander on growth performance and carcass trait of Vanaraja chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punita Kumari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was planned to investigate the effect of sugar beet, neem leaf, linseed and coriander on growth parameters such as feed intake, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR, performance index (PI, and carcass characteristics in broiler birds. Materials and Methods: The experiment was conducted for a period of 42 days on Vanaraja strain of broiler birds. Different dietary supplement such as sugar beet meal, neem leaf meal, linseed meal and coriander seed meal were used in the basal diet. All day-old 150 male chicks were individually weighed and distributed into five groups having 30 birds in each. Each group was further sub-divided into triplicates having 10 birds in each. Group T1served as control and rest groups T2, T3, T4 and T5 as treatment groups. Birds in T1 group were fed basal ration only, however, T2 , T3, T4 and T5 groups were fed basal ration mixed with 2.5% sugar beet meal, neem leaf meal, linseed meal, and coriander seed meal individually, respectively. Results: Broilers supplemented with herbs/spices showed improvement in growth attributes and carcass characteristics. Broilers fed with herbs at the rate of 2.5% had higher feed intake except sugar beet and coriander seed meal fed group. The body weight and weight gain was also significantly (p0.05 affected. Average giblet percentage of all supplemented groups were significantly (p<0.05 higher than control and was found to be highest in neem leaf meal fed group. Average by-product percentage was found to be highest in linseed fed group. Conclusion: Various herbs such as sugar beet, neem leaf, linseed and coriander seed meals affected the growth performance, and carcass trait showed positive inclination toward supplemented groups in broilers. The exact mode of action of these herbs/spices is still not clear, however, one or more numbers of active compounds present in these supplements may be responsible.

  10. Future policy options for EU beet production: quotas - yes or no?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, A.B.; Helming, J.F.M.

    2012-01-01

    Abolishment of EU sugar quotas will lead to lower sugar and sugar beet prices in the EU, leading to lower margins for farms. At the same time, expansion of sugar beet growing and processing in a quota-free situation can decrease fixed cost per ha of sugar beet and per kg of sugar, making both sugar

  11. cDNA cloning and analysis of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase, a salt inducible enzyme in sugar beet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCue, K.F.; Hanson, A.D. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Betaine accumulates and serves as a compatible osmolyte in some plants subjected to drought or salinity stress. The last enzyme in the betaine biosynthetic pathway is betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH). The activity of BADH increases in response to increasing salinity levels. This increase in activity corresponds to an increase in protein detectable by immunoblotting, and to an increase in the translatable BADH mRNA. BADH was cloned from a cDNA library constructed in {lambda}gt10 using poly(A){sup +} RNA from sugar beets salinized to 500 mM NaCl. cDNAs were size selected (>1kb) before ligation into the vector, and the library was screened with a spinach BADH cDNA probe. Three nearly full length clones obtained were confirmed as BADH by their nucleotide and deduced amino acid homology to spinach BADH. Clones averaged 1.8 kb and contained open reading frames of 500 amino acids at 80% identity with spinach BADH. RNA gel blot analysis of poly(A){sup +} RNA indicated that salinization to 500 mM NaCl resulted in a 5-fold increase of BADH mRNA level.

  12. Effect of Plant Age on the Quantity and Quality of Proteins Extracted from Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L.) Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiskini, Alexandra; Vissers, Anne; Vincken, Jean-Paul; Gruppen, Harry; Wierenga, Peter Alexander

    2016-11-09

    Effects of the developmental stage (e.g., young, mature, or senescent) of leaves on their chemical composition have been described in the literature. This study focuses on the variation in chemical composition and quantity and quality of proteins extracted from leaves due to variation in plant age (i.e., harvesting time), using leaves from sugar beets grown in a field (Rhino, Arrival) and in a greenhouse (Isabella). Within the same variety (Rhino, field; Arrival, field; Isabella, greenhouse) the protein content was similar for leaves from young and old plants (22 ± 1, 16 ± 1, and 10 ± 3% w/w db, respectively). Variation in final protein isolation yield was mostly due to variation in nitrogen extractability (28-56%), although no consistent correlation with plant age was found. A significant effect of plant age was observed on the quality (color) of the extracted protein, that is, brown (indicative of polyphenol oxidase activity) and yellow for extracts from old and young plants, respectively.

  13. Survey of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) hAT transposons and MITE-like hATpin derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Gerhard; Krebs, Carmen; Diez, Mercedes; Holtgräwe, Daniela; Weisshaar, Bernd; Minoche, André E; Dohm, Juliane C; Himmelbauer, Heinz; Schmidt, Thomas

    2012-03-01

    Genome-wide analyses of repetitive DNA suggest a significant impact particularly of transposable elements on genome size and evolution of virtually all eukaryotic organisms. In this study, we analyzed the abundance and diversity of the hAT transposon superfamily of the sugar beet (B. vulgaris) genome, using molecular, bioinformatic and cytogenetic approaches. We identified 81 transposase-coding sequences, three of which are part of structurally intact but nonfunctional hAT transposons (BvhAT), in a B. vulgaris BAC library as well as in whole genome sequencing-derived data sets. Additionally, 116 complete and 497 truncated non-autonomous BvhAT derivatives lacking the transposase gene were in silico-detected. The 116 complete derivatives were subdivided into four BvhATpin groups each characterized by a distinct terminal inverted repeat motif. Both BvhAT and BvhATpin transposons are specific for species of the genus Beta and closely related species, showing a localization on B. vulgaris chromosomes predominantely in euchromatic regions. The lack of any BvhAT transposase function together with the high degree of degeneration observed for the BvhAT and the BvhATpin genomic fraction contrasts with the abundance and activity of autonomous and non-autonomous hAT transposons revealed in other plant species. This indicates a possible genus-specific structural and functional repression of the hAT transposon superfamily during Beta diversification and evolution.

  14. Functionally redundant but dissimilar microbial communities within biogas reactors treating maize silage in co-fermentation with sugar beet silage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Susanne G; Ahmed, Sharif; Einfalt, Daniel; Bengelsdorf, Frank R; Kazda, Marian

    2015-01-01

    Numerous observations indicate a high flexibility of microbial communities in different biogas reactors during anaerobic digestion. Here, we describe the functional redundancy and structural changes of involved microbial communities in four lab-scale continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs, 39°C, 12 L volume) supplied with different mixtures of maize silage (MS) and sugar beet silage (SBS) over 80 days. Continuously stirred tank reactors were fed with mixtures of MS and SBS in volatile solid ratios of 1:0 (Continuous Fermenter (CF) 1), 6:1 (CF2), 3:1 (CF3), 1:3 (CF4) with equal organic loading rates (OLR 1.25 kgVS m−3 d−1) and showed similar biogas production rates in all reactors. The compositions of bacterial and archaeal communities were analysed by 454 amplicon sequencing approach based on 16S rRNA genes. Both bacterial and archaeal communities shifted with increasing amounts of SBS. Especially pronounced were changes in the archaeal composition towards Methanosarcina with increasing proportion of SBS, while Methanosaeta declined simultaneously. Compositional shifts within the microbial communities did not influence the respective biogas production rates indicating that these communities adapted to environmental conditions induced by different feedstock mixtures. The diverse microbial communities optimized their metabolism in a way that ensured efficient biogas production. PMID:26200922

  15. Biogas production within the bioethanol production chain: Use of co-substrates for anaerobic digestion of sugar beet vinasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, B S; Triolo, J M; Lecona, V P; Zaiat, M; Sommer, S G

    2015-08-01

    Bioethanol production generates large amounts of vinasse, which is suitable for biogas production. In this study, the anaerobic digestion of sugar beet vinasse was optimised using continuous stirred-tank reactors (CSTR) supplemented either with lime fertiliser or with 3% cow manure. In both reactors, the C/N ratio was adjusted by adding straw. The biochemical methane potential (BMP) of vinasse was 267.4±4.5LCH4kgVS(-1). Due to the low content of macro- and micronutrients and low C/N ratio of vinasse, biogas production failed when vinasse alone was fed to the reactor. When co-substrate was added, biogas production achieved very close to the BMP of vinasse, being 235.7±32.2LCH4kgVS(-1) from the fertiliser supplied reactor and 265.2±26.8LCH4kgVS(-1) in manure supplied reactor at steady state. Anaerobic digestion was the most stable when cow manure was supplied to digestion of vinasse.

  16. Stable operation during pilot-scale anaerobic digestion of nutrient-supplemented maize/sugar beet silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nges, Ivo Achu; Björn, Annika; Björnsson, Lovisa

    2012-08-01

    Biogas production from maize/sugar beet silage was studied under mesophilic conditions in a continuous stirred tank reactor pilot-scale process. While energy crop mono-digestion is often performed with very long hydraulic retention times (HRTs), the present study demonstrated an efficient process operating with a 50-day HRT and a corrected total solids (TS(corr)) based organic loading rate of 3.4 kg/m(3)d. The good performance was attributed to supplementation with both macro- and micronutrients and was evidenced by good methane yields (318 m(3)/ton TS(corr)), which were comparable to laboratory maximum expected yields, plus low total volatile fatty acid concentrations (<0.8 g/L). A viscoplastic and thixotropic digester fluid behaviour was observed, and the viscosity problems common in crop mono-digestion were not seen in this study. The effluent also complied with Swedish certification standards for bio-fertilizer for farmland application. Nutrient addition thus rendered a stable biogas process, while the effluent was a good quality bio-fertilizer.

  17. Functionally redundant but dissimilar microbial communities within biogas reactors treating maize silage in co-fermentation with sugar beet silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Susanne G; Ahmed, Sharif; Einfalt, Daniel; Bengelsdorf, Frank R; Kazda, Marian

    2015-09-01

    Numerous observations indicate a high flexibility of microbial communities in different biogas reactors during anaerobic digestion. Here, we describe the functional redundancy and structural changes of involved microbial communities in four lab-scale continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs, 39°C, 12 L volume) supplied with different mixtures of maize silage (MS) and sugar beet silage (SBS) over 80 days. Continuously stirred tank reactors were fed with mixtures of MS and SBS in volatile solid ratios of 1:0 (Continuous Fermenter (CF) 1), 6:1 (CF2), 3:1 (CF3), 1:3 (CF4) with equal organic loading rates (OLR 1.25 kgVS m(-3)  d(-1) ) and showed similar biogas production rates in all reactors. The compositions of bacterial and archaeal communities were analysed by 454 amplicon sequencing approach based on 16S rRNA genes. Both bacterial and archaeal communities shifted with increasing amounts of SBS. Especially pronounced were changes in the archaeal composition towards Methanosarcina with increasing proportion of SBS, while Methanosaeta declined simultaneously. Compositional shifts within the microbial communities did not influence the respective biogas production rates indicating that these communities adapted to environmental conditions induced by different feedstock mixtures. The diverse microbial communities optimized their metabolism in a way that ensured efficient biogas production.

  18. Microbial community structural analysis of an expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor for beet sugar industrial wastewater (BSIW) treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambuchi, John Justo; Liu, Junfeng; Wang, Haiman; Shan, Lili; Zhou, Xiangtong; Mohammed, Mohammed O A; Feng, Yujie

    2016-05-01

    A looming global energy crisis has directly increased biomethanation processes using anaerobic digestion technology. However, much knowledge on the microbial community structure, their distribution within the digester and related functions remains extremely scanty and unavailable in some cases, yet very valuable in the improvement of the anaerobic bioprocesses. Using pyrosequencing technique based on Miseq PE 3000, microbial community population profiles were determined in an operated mesophilic expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor treating beet sugar industrial wastewater (BSIW) in the laboratory scale. Further, the distribution of the organisms in the lower, middle and upper sections within the reactor was examined. To our knowledge, this kind of analysis of the microbial community in a reactor treating BSIW is the first of its kind. A total of 44,204 non-chimeric reads with average length beyond 450 bp were yielded. Both bacterial and archaeal communities were identified with archaea predominance (60 %) observed in the middle section. Bayesian classifier yielded 164 families with only 0.73 % sequences which could not be classified to any taxa at family level. The overall phylum predominance in the reactor showed Firmicutes, Euryarchaeota, Chloroflexi, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes in the descending order. Our results clearly demonstrate a highly diverse microbial community population of an anaerobic reactor treating BSIW, with distinct distribution levels within the reactor.

  19. Chlorophyll Fluorescence and Photon Yield of Oxygen Evolution in Iron-Deficient Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L.) Leaves 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Fermín; Abadía, Anunciación; Abadía, Javier

    1991-01-01

    The response of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) leaves to iron deficiency can be described as consisting of two phases. In the first phase, leaves may lose a large part of their chlorophyll while maintaining a roughly constant efficiency of photosystem II photochemistry; ratios of variable to maximum fluorescence decreased by only 6%, and photon yields of oxygen evolution decreased by 30% when chlorophyll decreased by 70%. In the second phase, when chlorophyll decreased below a threshold level, iron deficiency caused major decreases in the efficiency of photosystem II photochemistry and in the photon yield of oxygen evolution. These decreases in photosystem II photochemical efficiency were found both in plants dark-adapted for 30 minutes and in plants dark-adapted overnight, indicating that photochemical efficiency cannot be repaired in that time scale. Decreases in photosystem II photochemical efficiency and in the photon yield of oxygen evolution were similar when measurements were made (a) with light absorbed by carotenoids and chlorophylls and (b) with light absorbed only by chlorophylls. Leaves of iron-deficient plants exhibited a room temperature fluorescence induction curve with a characteristic intermediate peak I that increases with deficiency symptoms. PMID:16668527

  20. Comparison of mixed-model approaches for association mapping in rapeseed, potato, sugar beet, maize, and Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stich Benjamin

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, several attempts have been made in plant genetics to detect QTL by using association mapping methods. The objectives of this study were to (i evaluate various methods for association mapping in five plant species and (ii for three traits in each of the plant species compare the Topt, the restricted maximum likelihood (REML estimate of the conditional probability that two genotypes carry at the same locus alleles that are identical in state but not identical by descent. In order to compare the association mapping methods based on scenarios with realistic estimates of population structure and familial relatedness, we analyzed phenotypic and genotypic data of rapeseed, potato, sugar beet, maize, and Arabidopsis. For the same reason, QTL effects were simulated on top of the observed phenotypic values when examining the adjusted power for QTL detection. Results The correlation between the Topt values identified using REML deviance profiles and profiles of the mean of squared difference between observed and expected P values was 0.83. Conclusion The mixed-model association mapping approaches using a kinship matrix, which was based on Topt, were more appropriate for association mapping than the recently proposed QK method with respect to the adherence to the nominal α level and the adjusted power for QTL detection. Furthermore, we showed that Topt differs considerably among the five plant species but only marginally among different traits.

  1. Enzymatic Browning in Sugar Beet Leaves (Beta vulgaris L.): Influence of Caffeic Acid Derivatives, Oxidative Coupling, and Coupled Oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissers, Anne; Kiskini, Alexandra; Hilgers, Roelant; Marinea, Marina; Wierenga, Peter Alexander; Gruppen, Harry; Vincken, Jean-Paul

    2017-06-21

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) leaves of 8 month (8m) plants showed more enzymatic browning than those of 3 month (3m). Total phenolic content increased from 4.6 to 9.4 mg/g FW in 3m and 8m, respectively, quantitated by reverse-phase-ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet-mass spectrometry (RP-UHPLC-UV-MS). The PPO activity was 6.7 times higher in extracts from 8m than from 3m leaves. Substrate content increased from 0.53 to 2.45 mg/g FW in 3m and 8m, respectively, of which caffeic acid glycosyl esters were most important, increasing 10-fold with age. Caffeic acid glycosides and vitexin derivatives were no substrates. In 3m and 8m, nonsubstrate-to-substrate ratios were 8:1 and 3:1, respectively. A model system showed browning at 3:1 ratio due to formation of products with extensive conjugated systems through oxidative coupling and coupled oxidation. The 8:1 ratio did not turn brown as oxidative coupling occurred without much coupled oxidation. We postulate that differences in nonsubstrate-to-substrate ratio and therewith extent of coupled oxidation explain browning.

  2. Fermentative hydrogen production from beet sugar factory wastewater treatment in a continuous stirred tank reactor using anaerobic mixed consortia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gefu ZHU; Chaoxiang LIU; Jianzheng LI; Nanqi REN; Lin LIU; Xu HUANG

    2013-01-01

    A low pH, ethanol-type fermentation process was evaluated for wastewater treatment and bio-hydrogen production from acidic beet sugar factory wastewater in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) with an effective volume of 9.6 L by anaerobic mixed cultures in this present study. After inoculating with aerobic activated sludge and operating at organic loading rate (OLR) of 12 kgCOD·m-3·d-1, HRT of 8h, and temperature of 35℃ for 28 days, the CSTR achieved stable ethanol-type fermentation. When OLR was further increased to 18 kgCOD·m-3·d-1, on the 53rd day, ethanol-type fermentation dominant microflora was enhanced. The liquid fermentation products, including volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and ethanol, stabilized at 1493mg·L-1 in the bioreactor. Effluent pH, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), and alkalinity ranged at 4.1-4.5, -250-(-290) mV, and 230-260mgCaCO3·L-1. The specific hydrogen production rate of anaerobic activated sludge was 0.1 L'gMLVSS-1· d-1 and the COD removal efficiency was 45%. The experimental results showed that the CSTR system had good operation stability and microbial activity, which led to high substrate conversion rate and hydrogen production ability.

  3. An acidic class III chitinase in sugar beet: induction by Cercospora beticola, characterization, and expression in transgenic tobacco plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, K K; Mikkelsen, J D; Kragh, K M; Bojsen, K

    1993-01-01

    An acidic chitinase (SE) was found to accumulate in leaves of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) during infection with Cercospora beticola. Two isoforms, SE1 and SE2, with MW of 29 kDa and pI of approximately 3.0 were purified to homogeneity. SE2 is an endochitinase that also exhibits exochitinase activity, i.e., it is capable of hydrolyzing chito-oligosaccharides, including chitobiose, into N-acetyl-glucosamine. Partial amino acid sequence data for SE2 were used to obtain a cDNA clone by polymerase chain reaction. The clone was used to isolate a cDNA clone encoding SE2. The deduced amino acid sequence for SE2 is 58-67% identical to the class III chitinases from cucumber, Arabidopsis, and tobacco. A transient induction of SE2 mRNA during the early stages of infection with C. beticola is much stronger in tolerant plants than in susceptible plants. Transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) plants constitutively accumulate SE2 protein in the intercellular space of their leaves. In a preliminary infection experiment, the transgenic plants did not show increase in resistance against C. nicotianae.

  4. Competitive adsorption between sugar beet pectin (SBP) and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) at the oil/water interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangyang; Al-Assaf, Saphwan; Fang, Yapeng; Phillips, Glyn O

    2013-01-16

    The emulsification performance, stability and competitive adsorption of two natural food emulsifiers, sugar beet pectin (SBP) and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) have been investigated. Both can reduce the surface tension and emulsify oil in water. However, due to their different structure and conformation they operate via different mechanisms. Using 15% middle chain triglycerides (MCTs) oil, the amounts of SBP and HPMC adsorbed in emulsions made with these individually and in mixtures were determined. The interfacial concentration (Γ) for SBP stabilized emulsion was ∼1.25mg/m(2) and for HPMC 3.5mg/m(2). The higher adsorption of HPMC was due to multilayer adsorption, whereas SBP adsorbed as a monolayer. Competitive adsorption between SBP and HPMC was also investigated. When the HPMC concentration approached that of adsorbed SBP, the effect of HPMC became dominant and at 1.5wt.% controlled the behavior of the mixed emulsions, which were then almost independent of SBP. The minor role of SBP was mainly to decrease the proportion of large droplets in the emulsion. A model to describe the competitive adsorption between SBP and HPMC is proposed.

  5. Integrated expanded granular sludge bed and sequential batch reactor treating beet sugar industrial wastewater and recovering bioenergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justo, Ambuchi John; Junfeng, Liu; Lili, Shan; Haiman, Wang; Lorivi, Moirana Ruth; Mohammed, Mohammed O A; Xiangtong, Zhou; Yujie, Feng

    2016-10-01

    The exponential rise in energy demand vis-à-vis depletion of mineral oil resources has accelerated recovery of bioenergy from organic waste. In this study, a laboratory-scale anaerobic (An)/aerobic (Ar) system comprising of expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor coupled to an aerobic sequential batch reactor (SBR) was constructed to treat beet sugar industrial wastewater (BSIW) of chemical oxygen demand (COD) 1665 mg L(-1) while harnessing methane gas. The EGSB reactor generated methane at the rate of 235 mL/g COD added, with considerably higher than previously reported methane content of 86 %. Meanwhile, contaminants were successfully reduced in the combined An/Ar system, realizing a removal rate of more than 71.4, 97.3, 97.7, and 99.3 % of organic matter as total phosphorus, total nitrogen, biological oxygen demand (BOD), and soluble COD, respectively. Microbial community analysis showed that the bacterial genus Clostridium sp. and archaeal genus Methanosaeta sp. dominated the EGSB reactor, while Rhodobacter sp. dominance was observed in the SBR. The obtained experimental results indicate that the integration of expanded granular sludge bed and sequential batch reactor in treating BSIW obtained competitively outstanding performance.

  6. BNYVV-derived dsRNA confers resistance to rhizomania disease of sugar beet as evidenced by a novel transgenic hairy root approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavli, Ourania I; Panopoulos, Nicholas J; Goldbach, Rob; Skaracis, George N

    2010-10-01

    Agrobacterium rhizogenes-transformed sugar beet hairy roots, expressing dsRNA from the Beet necrotic yellow vein virus replicase gene, were used as a novel approach to assess the efficacy of three intron-hairpin constructs at conferring resistance to rhizomania disease. Genetically engineered roots were similar in morphology to wild type roots but were characterized by a profound abundancy, rapid growth rate and, in some cases, plagiotropic development. Upon challenge inoculation, seedlings showed a considerable delay in symptom development compared to untransformed or vector-transformed seedlings, expressing dsRNA from an unrelated source. The transgenic root system of almost all seedlings contained no or very low virus titer while the non-transformed aerial parts of the same plants were found infected, leading to the conclusion that the hairy roots studied were effectively protected against the virus. This readily applicable novel method forms a plausible approach to preliminarily evaluate transgenic rhizomania resistance before proceeding in transformation and whole plant regeneration of sugar beet, a tedious and time consuming process for such a recalcitrant crop species.

  7. Effect of plasticizer on moisture sorption isotherm of sugar palm (Arenga Pinnata) starch film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatmiko, Tri Hadi; Poeloengasih, Crescentiana D.; Prasetyo, Dwi Joko; Rosyida, Vita Taufika

    2016-02-01

    The effect of plasticizer type (glycerol, sorbitol) and plasticizer concentrations (30, 35, 40, 45% w/w polymer) on the moisture sorption isotherm characteristics of sugar palm (Arenga pinnata) starch films were investigated. Moisture affinity of sugar palm starch films was influenced by the plasticizer type and plasticizer concentration. The affinity of the glycerol plasticized film is stronger than that of sorbitol plasticized film. Sugar palm starch film with a higher concentration of glycerol absorbs more moisture with higher initial absorption rate than that of with sorbitol. Films with higher plasticizer concentration of glycerol and sorbitol show higher equilibrium moisture contents at the given relative humidity. The moisture sorption isotherm characteristic of sugar palm starch films can be described very well with the semi empirical 4 parameter Peleg's model.

  8. Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to sugar beet fibre and decreasing intestinal transit time pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following an application from Nordic Sugar A/S, submitted pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Denmark, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim...... based on newly developed scientific evidence related to sugar beet fibre and “decreasing intestinal transit time”. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claim is sugar beet fibre. This opinion applies to sugar beet fibre naturally present in foods and to those forms added to foods...... that decreasing intestinal (orofaecal) transit time may be a beneficial physiological effect. The applicant provided four human studies as pertinent to the health claim. The Panel considers that no conclusion can be drawn from three studies for the scientific substantiation of the claim owing to methodological...

  9. The influence of soil moisture and Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis and intraspecific group on the incidence of damping-off and the incidence and severity of Rhizoctonia crown and root rot in sugar beet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhizoctonia crown and root rot (Rhizoctonia solani) reduces plant stands, sugar quality and yield in sugar beet. To evaluate the influence of R. solani anastomosis (AG) and intraspecific groups and soil moisture on disease incidence and severity, a field trial was established in Ridgetown, Ontario, ...

  10. Methodological aspects of the integration of technological processing aids in the process stream of beet sugar production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Belyaeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The modern trends in the application of technological processing aids in the domestic beet sugar technology were considered. It is shown that the means used are characterized by a high technological effect, prolonged action, target application of means is technologically and economically feasible, local technologies are fixed in scientific and technical documentation, control of residual compounds in the finished product is carried out at their expense, methods for determining the active substances in white sugar, pulp, molasses are not available, the bulk of foreign-made means. It is noted that each agent efficiency and safety is considered as extremely specialized orientation on the local area of application, but not in a consistent manner – the entire production flow. The necessity of integrating application technology of processing aids in technological stream. We outlined a range of research areas to create a system of integrated process application of technological processing aids in the sugar production, focused on stability augmentation of technological flow functioning, safety of the finished product. Initial requirements for this system, providing integration of processing aids with the process stream were developed. Methodical approaches to the assessment of collective effect of means, based on the identification of synergistic or antagonistic effects were formed. Methodical aspects of formation of structures scheme of the system of integrated technologies, including technological decomposition with the release of area of collective effect of specific means, identification of synergism and antagonism, deep analysis of the causes of manifestation of the latter, its leveling or minimization based on the integration of technology or technical solutions were listed. The formation of the block diagram of integrated technology by the example of an area of the process stream from purified juice condensation to the I crystallisation

  11. 甜菜胞囊线虫抗性基因及遗传工程改良策略%The Sugar Beet Cyst Nematode Resistance Genes and Genetic Engineering Improvement Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章洁琼; 蔡大广; 唐桂香

    2012-01-01

    Cyst nematode ( Heterodera schachtii) is the most important diseases in sugar beet cultivation and it causes great losses to the sugar beet production . With the development of molecular biology and genetic engineering technology, the genetic engineering improvement strategies is the most economical and effective method for sugar beet cyst nematode resistant breeding. It firstly introduced the life of sugar beet cyst nematode fertility and resistant mechanism, then reviewed the studied progresses of beet cyst nematode resistant genes cloning, identification and the genetic engineering improvement strategies for sugar beet cyst nematode resistance breeding. Furthermore, the prospect of sugar beet cyst nematode breeding in the future has also been discussed.%甜菜胞囊线虫(Heterodera schachtii)是甜菜的重要病害之一,给甜菜生产造成了极大的损失.随着分子生物学和遗传工程技术的发展,采用遗传工程改良策略进行甜菜抗性品种选育是甜菜胞囊线虫防治中最经济、有效的方法.介绍了甜菜胞囊线虫的生育史及抗性机制,综述了甜菜胞囊线虫抗性基因的克隆和鉴定研究进展及甜菜胞囊线虫抗性育种的遗传工程改良策略,并提出今后甜菜胞囊线虫抗性育种的展望.

  12. The increase of the fertility of soils using the liquid organic fertilizers and fertilizers based on sugar-beet wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyborova, Oxana

    2010-05-01

    physical, physicochemical properties of soils, its air, water and thermal rate. Humic acids with mineral and organomineral particles of soil form the soil absorbent complex. The inclusion of humic fertilizers promotes the process when humic substances form a very valuable water-stable clumpy-granular structure, which improves water-carrying and water-holding capacity, its air permeability by agglutination of mineral particles with each other. The soils, where humic fertilizers are carried in soils regularly, are more stable for influence of chemical polluting substances (for example, radioactive nuclides, heavy metals, pesticides) than poor soils. The inclusion of humic fertilizers is very important in period of urbanization and cropping on the plough-lands not far from a big industrial area. The lignitic materials tie together the detrimental compounds formed the insoluble complex in soil solution. The detrimental compounds don't go into plants, subsoil waters and atmosphere. The lignitic watering of soils (in concentration from 0.1 to 0.01%) increases biological activity of soil in a man-caused zones and it promotes to stability of plants to detrimental emission of enterprises. Today the problem of processing of sugar-beet industry is very important. In the result of storing sugar-beet wastes the pollution of environment is occurred, examples of this pollution are gassing, salinization of soils and ground waters by filtrational sediments. One of these wastes is defecation sludge. The defecation sludge consists of CaCO3, organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and microelements. The technology of receiving N-Ca fertilizer based on defecate was developed because of impossibility of using this waste in pure form. For available data, using of these fertilizers improves the soil fertility and degree of pollution by heavy metals don't exceed an acceptance limits.

  13. Evaluation of water, sucrose and minerals effective diffusivities during osmotic treatment of pork in sugar beet molasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nićetin Milica R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective diffusivities of water, sucrose and minerals in osmotic treatment of pork cubes (M. triceps brachii were calculated using Response Surface Methodology (RSM, with respect to temperature (20, 35 and 50oC and concentration of sugar beet molasses, (60, 70 and 80% w/w. The numerical solution of Fick's' law for unsteady-state mass transfer in a perfect cube configuration was used to calculate the effective diffusivities of water, sucrose and minerals (Na, K, Ca and Mg. Zugarramurdi and Lupin's model was used to predict the equilibrium condition, which was shown to be appropriate for water loss and solute uptake during osmotic treatment. Effective diffusivity of water was found to be in the range of 6.95×10-10 - 8.03×10-10 m2s-1, the sucrose effective diffusivity was between 6.39×10-10 and 8.25×10-10 m2s-1, while diffusivities for minerals were in the range 6.34×10-10 - 8.82×10-10 m2s-1, for Na, 6.27×10-10 - 7.43×10-10 m2s-1, for K, 6.44×10-10 - 8.94×10-10 m2s-1, for Ca and 3.47×10-10 - 5.66×10-10 m2s-1, for Mg. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31055

  14. Design, Fabrication and pseudo Field Evaluation of a Sugar Beet Crust Breaker and Weeding Unit Equipped with an Infrared Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Chaligar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In conventional cultivation of sugar beet the weeding and crust breaking are mostly performed manually. The objectives of this research were to design, fabricate and evaluate a soil crust breaker and weeding implement equipped with a detecting sensor. Each unit consisted of a distance detecting sensor and a hydro-motor for driving the blades and pneumatic valves for moving the blades. The hydro-motor was activated by the sensors. To avoid damaging the plants, a command signal was sent to the pneumatic valves to move the blades up and down and pass safely. Three configurations of cutting blades were considered which could be mounted to the crust breaker. The field evaluation was conducted with two tractor forward speeds (0.4 and 1 km h-1 and four plant-to-plant spacings within rows (20, 25, 30 and 40 cm all with three different blade shapes. For field evaluation split plot experiments arranged in a completely randomized block design with three replications. The number of plants damaged (evaluated only for four-lobe blades and size of broken crusts (evaluated for all blade shapes for various treatments were recorded and compared. The results of analysis indicated that the higher the inter-row spacing the lower the injury to the plant. The highest and the least damage to the plants occurred for within-row plant spacings of 20 and 40 cm, respectively. The forward speed was also significantly affected the percent of plant damaged. The forward speed of 1 km h-1 at 20 cm spacing had the most (59% and the speed of 0.40 km h-1 at 40 cm spacing had the least effect (3.3% on the percent of plant damage. The two-lobe blade could result in the maximum surface area broken.

  15. Evaluation of the impact of various agricultural practices on nitrate leaching under the root zone of potato and sugar beet using the STICS soil-crop model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jégo, G; Martínez, M; Antigüedad, I; Launay, M; Sanchez-Pérez, J M; Justes, E

    2008-05-15

    The quaternary aquifer of Vitoria-Gasteiz (Basque Country, Northern Spain) is characterised by a shallow water table mainly fed by drainage water, and thus constitutes a vulnerable zone in regards to nitrate pollution. Field studies were performed with a potato crop in 1993 and a sugar beet crop in 2002 to evaluate their impact on nitrate leaching. The overall predictive quality of the STICS soil-crop model was first evaluated using field data and then the model was used to analyze dynamically the impacts of different crop management practices on nitrate leaching. The model was evaluated (i) on soil nitrate concentrations at different depths and (ii) on crop yields. The simulated values proved to be in satisfactory agreement with measured values. Nitrate leaching was more pronounced with the potato crop than with the sugar beet experiment due to i) greater precipitation, ii) lower N uptake of the potato crop due to shallow root depth, and iii) a shorter period of growth. The potato experiment showed that excessive irrigation could significantly increase nitrate leaching by increasing both drainage and nitrate concentrations. The different levels of N-fertilization examined in the sugar beet study had no notable effects on nitrate leaching due to its high N uptake capacity. Complementary virtual experiments were carried out using the STICS model. Our study confirmed that in vulnerable zones agricultural practices must be adjusted, that is to say: 1) N-fertilizer should not be applied in autumn before winter crops; 2) crops with low N uptake capacity (e.g. potatoes) should be avoided or should be preceded and followed by nitrogen catch crops or cover crops; 3) the nitrate concentration of irrigation water should be taken into account in calculation of the N-fertilization rate, and 4) N-fertilization must be precisely adjusted in particular for potato crops.

  16. A horizontally transferred tRNA(Cys) gene in the sugar beet mitochondrial genome: evidence that the gene is present in diverse angiosperms and its transcript is aminoacylated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitazaki, Kazuyoshi; Kubo, Tomohiko; Kagami, Hiroyo; Matsumoto, Takuma; Fujita, Asami; Matsuhira, Hiroaki; Matsunaga, Muneyuki; Mikami, Tetsuo

    2011-10-01

    Of the two tRNA(Cys) (GCA) genes, trnC1-GCA and trnC2-GCA, previously identified in mitochondrial genome of sugar beet, the former is a native gene and probably a pseudo-copy, whereas the latter, of unknown origin, is transcribed into a tRNA [tRNA(Cys2) (GCA)]. In this study, the trnC2-GCA sequence was mined from various public databases. To evaluate whether or not the trnC2-GCA sequence is located in the mitochondrial genome, the relative copy number of its sequence to nuclear gene was assessed in a number of angiosperm species, using a quantitative real-time PCR assay. The trnC2-GCA sequence was found to exist sporadically in the mitochondrial genomes of a wide range of angiosperms. The mitochondrial tRNA(Cys2) (GCA) species from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris), spinach (Spinacea oleracea) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) were found to be aminoacylated, indicating that they may participate in translation. We also identified a sugar beet nuclear gene that encodes cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase, which is dual-targeted to mitochondria and plastids, and may aminoacylate tRNA(Cys2) (GCA). What is of particular interest is that trnC1-GCA and trnC2-GCA co-exist in the mitochondrial genomes of eight diverse angiosperms, including spinach, and that the spinach tRNA(Cys1) (GCA) is also aminoacylated. Taken together, our observations lead us to surmise that trnC2-GCA may have been horizontally transferred to a common ancestor of eudicots, followed by co-existence and dual expression of trnC1-GCA and trnC2-GCA in mitochondria with occasional loss or inactivation of either trnC-GCA gene during evolution. © 2011 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Sequence-based analysis of pQBR103; a representative of a unique, transfer-proficient mega plasmid resident in the microbial community of sugar beet

    OpenAIRE

    Tett, Adrian; Spiers, Andrew J.; Crossman, Lisa C.; Ager, Duane; Ciric, Lena; Dow, J. Maxwell; Fry, John C.; Harris,David; Lilley, Andrew; Oliver, Anna; Parkhill, Julian; Quail, Michael A; Paul. B. Rainey; Saunders, Nigel J.; Seeger, Kathy

    2007-01-01

    The plasmid pQBR103 was found within Pseudomonas populations colonizing the leaf and root surfaces of sugar beet plants growing at Wytham, Oxfordshire, UK. At 425 kb it is the largest self-transmissible plasmid yet sequenced from the phytosphere. It is known to enhance the competitive fitness of its host, and parts of the plasmid are known to be actively transcribed in the plant environment. Analysis of the complete sequence of this plasmid predicts a coding sequence (CDS)-rich genome contain...

  18. Expression in sugar beet of the introduced cercosporin toxin export (CFP) gene from Cercospora kikuchii, the causative organism of purple seed stain in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuykendall, L David; Upchurch, Robert G

    2004-05-01

    The Cercospora kikuchii cercosporin export gene, CFP, introduced into Beta vulgaris L. by conjugation with Rhizobium radiobacter, was stably maintained during vegetative propagation as verified by PCR using primers specific for the CFP gene. Transcriptional expression of the CFP gene in leaves was determined by RT-PCR using CFP-specific primers. CFP protein was detected using Western analysis with an affinity-purified polypeptide-specifc antibody. Analysis of the relative susceptibility of CFP-transgenic and non-transgenic sugar beet plants is planned but will probably take several years to complete.

  19. Tailored enzymatic production of oligosaccharides from sugar beet pectin and evidence of differential effects of a single DP chain length difference on human faecal microbiota composition after in vitro fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Jesper; Hjernø, K.; Lorentzen, A.

    2011-01-01

    (DP) from 2 to 8 and six different rhamnogalacturonide (RGI) structures, ranging from DP4 to 6 with defined galactose substitutions were purified. Total recoveries of 200 mg homogalacturonides and 67 mg rhamnogalacturonides per gram sugar beet pectin were obtained. This integrated biorefining method......Sugar beet pectin was degraded enzymatically and separated by ion exchange chromatography into series of highly purified homogalacturonides and rhamnogalacturonides. MALDI-TOF/TOF mass-spectrometry was used to determine sizes and structural features. The methodology was based on the sequential use...... of monocomponent enzymes that were selected to target specific substructures in the sugar beet pectin. Notably pectin lyase and rhamnogalacturonan I lyase were used, which allowed detection of the resulting cleavage products by UV spectroscopy. Seven different homogalacturonides (HG) with degrees of polymerization...

  20. [Effect of high-carbohydrate diet in the form of sugar beet on glucose and ketone body levels in the blood serum of highly pregnant and freshly lactating cows].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatkowski, B; Voigt, J; Girschewski, H

    1977-12-01

    In an experiment using 24 high-yielding cows (3rd and 6th lactations), group II was fed sugar beet as carbohydrate source (2 kg DM per animal and day) for 4 weeks before and for 4 weeks after parturition, whilst group I was given the equivalent amount of dried spent beet pulp. Sugar beet feeding during the dry period caused the glucose level in the blood to rise significantly from 48 to 55 mg/100 ml. On the 21st day of lactation the glucose concentration in group II (27 mg) had declined more strongly than in group I (37 mg). Feeding large amounts of easily soluble carbohydrates during the dry period obviously inhibits gluconeogenesis during early lactation. The ketone body level of group II was found to rise to 14 mg/100 ml by the 21st day of lactation (group I--4 mg), a level indicative of ketosis. The ketogenous action (strong formation of butyric acid in the rumen) of sugar beet enhances this effect, too. The daily milk yield did not vary much coming to 26.8 and 27.8 kg in the control and in the experimental group, respectively. The results allow to conclude that feeding fresh sugar beet to high-yielding cows just before and shortly after parturition is not advisable.

  1. Molecular mapping of restorer-of-fertility 2 gene identified from a sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris) homozygous for the non-restoring restorer-of-fertility 1 allele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honma, Yujiro; Taguchi, Kazunori; Hiyama, Hajime; Yui-Kurino, Rika; Mikami, Tetsuo; Kubo, Tomohiko

    2014-12-01

    By genetically eliminating the major restorer - of - fertility gene ( Rf ), a weak Rf gene was unveiled. It is an allele of Z , long known as an elusive Rf gene in sugar beet. In the hybrid breeding of sugar beet, maintainer-genotype selection is a laborious process because of the dependence on test crossing, despite the very low occurrence of this genotype. Marker-assisted selection (MAS) of the maintainer genotype is highly desired by sugar beet breeders. The major restorer-of-fertility gene (Rf) was identified as Rf1, and its non-restoring allele (rf1) was discriminated at the DNA level; however, some of the rf1rf1 selections retained an as yet unidentified Rf, another target locus for MAS. The objective of this study was to identify this Rf. An rfrf1 plant was crossed to a cytoplasmic male-sterile sugar beet and then backcrossed to obtain progeny segregating the unidentified Rf. The progeny exhibited partial male-fertility restoration that was unstable in single plants. The segregation ratio of restored vs. non-restored plants suggested the involvement of a single Rf in this male-fertility restoration, designated as Rf2. We confirmed the feasibility of molecular tagging of Rf2 by identifying four shared amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fragments specific to 17 restored plants. Bulked segregant analysis also was performed to screen the Rf2-linked AFLP markers, which were subsequently converted into 17 sequence-tagged site markers. All the markers, as well two additional chromosome-IV-assigned markers, were linked to each other to form a single linkage map, on which Rf2 was located. Our data suggested that Rf2 is likely an allele of Z, long known as an elusive Rf gene in sugar beet. We also discuss the importance of Rf2 for sugar beet breeding.

  2. A physicochemical study of sugar palm (Arenga Pinnata) starch films plasticized by glycerol and sorbitol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeloengasih, Crescentiana D.; Pranoto, Yudi; Hayati, Septi Nur; Hernawan, Rosyida, Vita T.; Prasetyo, Dwi J.; Jatmiko, Tri H.; Apriyana, Wuri; Suwanto, Andri

    2016-02-01

    The present work explores the physicochemical characteristics of sugar palm starch film for a potential hard capsule purpose. Sugar palm (Arenga pinnata) starch films were plasticized with glycerol or sorbitol in various concentrations (30% up to 50% w/w starch). Their effects on physicochemical properties of the films were investigated. The results showed that sugar palm starch was successfully developed as the main material of film using casting method. Incorporation of both glycerol or sorbitol affected the properties of films in different ways. It was found that thickness and solubility increased as plasticizer concentration increased, whereas retraction ratio, swelling degree and swelling thickness decreased with the increased plasticizer concentration.

  3. The hrpZ gene of Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola enhances resistance to rhizomania disease in transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana and sugar beet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ourania I Pavli

    Full Text Available To explore possible sources of transgenic resistance to the rhizomania-causing Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV, Nicotiana benthamiana plants were constructed to express the harpin of Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola (HrpZ(Psph. The HrpZ protein was expressed as an N-terminal fusion to the PR1 signal peptide (SP/HrpZ to direct harpin accumulation to the plant apoplast. Transgene integration was verified by mPCR in all primary transformants (T0, while immunoblot analysis confirmed that the protein HrpZ(Psph was produced and the signal peptide was properly processed. Neither T0 plants nor selfed progeny (T1 showed macroscopically visible necrosis or any other macroscopic phenotypes. However, plants expressing the SP/HrpZ(Psph showed increased vigor and grew faster in comparison with non-transgenic control plants. Transgenic resistance was assessed after challenge inoculation with BNYVV on T1 progeny by scoring of disease symptoms and by DAS-ELISA at 20 and 30 dpi. Transgenic and control lines showed significant differences in terms of the number of plants that became infected, the timing of infection and the disease symptoms displayed. Plants expressing the SP/HrpZ(Psph developed localized leaf necrosis in the infection area and had enhanced resistance upon challenge with BNYVV. In order to evaluate the SP/HrpZ-based resistance in the sugar beet host, A. rhizogenes-mediated root transformation was exploited as a transgene expression platform. Upon BNYVV inoculation, transgenic sugar beet hairy roots showed high level of BNYVV resistance. In contrast, the aerial non-transgenic parts of the same seedlings had virus titers that were comparable to those of the seedlings that were untransformed or transformed with wild type R1000 cells. These findings indicate that the transgenically expressed SP/HrpZ protein results in enhanced rhizomania resistance both in a model plant and sugar beet, the natural host of BNYVV. Possible molecular

  4. The hrpZ gene of Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola enhances resistance to rhizomania disease in transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana and sugar beet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavli, Ourania I; Kelaidi, Georgia I; Tampakaki, Anastasia P; Skaracis, George N

    2011-03-04

    To explore possible sources of transgenic resistance to the rhizomania-causing Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV), Nicotiana benthamiana plants were constructed to express the harpin of Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola (HrpZ(Psph)). The HrpZ protein was expressed as an N-terminal fusion to the PR1 signal peptide (SP/HrpZ) to direct harpin accumulation to the plant apoplast. Transgene integration was verified by mPCR in all primary transformants (T0), while immunoblot analysis confirmed that the protein HrpZ(Psph) was produced and the signal peptide was properly processed. Neither T0 plants nor selfed progeny (T1) showed macroscopically visible necrosis or any other macroscopic phenotypes. However, plants expressing the SP/HrpZ(Psph) showed increased vigor and grew faster in comparison with non-transgenic control plants. Transgenic resistance was assessed after challenge inoculation with BNYVV on T1 progeny by scoring of disease symptoms and by DAS-ELISA at 20 and 30 dpi. Transgenic and control lines showed significant differences in terms of the number of plants that became infected, the timing of infection and the disease symptoms displayed. Plants expressing the SP/HrpZ(Psph) developed localized leaf necrosis in the infection area and had enhanced resistance upon challenge with BNYVV. In order to evaluate the SP/HrpZ-based resistance in the sugar beet host, A. rhizogenes-mediated root transformation was exploited as a transgene expression platform. Upon BNYVV inoculation, transgenic sugar beet hairy roots showed high level of BNYVV resistance. In contrast, the aerial non-transgenic parts of the same seedlings had virus titers that were comparable to those of the seedlings that were untransformed or transformed with wild type R1000 cells. These findings indicate that the transgenically expressed SP/HrpZ protein results in enhanced rhizomania resistance both in a model plant and sugar beet, the natural host of BNYVV. Possible molecular mechanisms

  5. Stomatal and mesophyll conductances to CO2 are the main limitations to photosynthesis in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) plants grown with excess zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagardoy, R; Vázquez, S; Florez-Sarasa, I D; Albacete, A; Ribas-Carbó, M; Flexas, J; Abadía, J; Morales, F

    2010-07-01

    *The effects of zinc (Zn) toxicity on photosynthesis and respiration were investigated in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) plants grown hydroponically with 1.2, 100 and 300 microM Zn. *A photosynthesis limitation analysis was used to assess the stomatal, mesophyll, photochemical and biochemical contributions to the reduced photosynthesis observed under Zn toxicity. *The main limitation to photosynthesis was attributable to stomata, with stomatal conductances decreasing by 76% under Zn excess and stomata being unable to respond to physiological and chemical stimuli. The effects of excess Zn on photochemistry were minor. Scanning electron microscopy showed morphological changes in stomata and mesophyll tissue. Stomatal size and density were smaller, and stomatal slits were sealed in plants grown under high Zn. Moreover, the mesophyll conductance to CO(2) decreased by 48% under Zn excess, despite a marked increase in carbonic anhydrase activity. Respiration, including that through both cytochrome and alternative pathways, was doubled by high Zn. *It can be concluded that, in sugar beet plants grown in the presence of excess Zn, photosynthesis is impaired due to a depletion of CO(2) at the Rubisco carboxylation site, as a consequence of major decreases in stomatal and mesophyll conductances to CO(2).

  6. [Construction of a bivalent plant expression vector carrying VvSUC11 and VvSUC12 genes and its genetic transformation in sugar beet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Donglin; Zhu, Jianbo; Wang, Aiying; Xiang, Benchun

    2011-08-01

    We have recombined genes VvSUC11, VvSUC12 from Vitis vinifera L., and root-specific promoters of sweet potato storage protein gene from Ipomoea batatas L. Lam., named as SP1 and SP2. We have constructed a vector pCAMBIA2301-SP1- VvSUC11-SP2-VvSUC12 using pCAMBIA2301 as an original vector. VvSUC11 and VvSUC12 were under the control of root-specific promoters of sweet potato storage protein gene. We transformed the vector into KWS-9103 breeding line of Beta vulgaris L. with Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. We have established the optimal genetic transformation protocol of sugar beet as following: the explants pre-cultured for 4 days were immersed in Agrobacterium suspension of OD(600)=0.5, supplemented with 0.005% Silwet L-77, and followed by a 4-day culture on medium containing cefotaxime, then the buds were selected on medium containing kanamycin and cefotaxime. The percentage of kanamycin-resistant buds was as high as 42%. Results of PCR and RT-PCR proved that the target genes had integrated into sugar beet genome and expressed. It will lay a foundation for further studying their function in Beta vulgaris.

  7. Characterization of the Xanthophyll Cycle and Other Photosynthetic Pigment Changes Induced by Iron Deficiency in Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L.) 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Fermín; Abadía, Anunciación; Abadía, Javier

    1990-01-01

    In this work we characterize the changes induced by iron deficiency in the pigment composition of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) leaves. When sugar beet plants were grown hydroponically under limited iron supply, neoxanthin and β-carotene decreased concomitantly with chlorophyll a, whereas lutein and the carotenoids within the xanthophyll cycle were less affected. Iron deficiency caused major increases in the lutein/chlorophyll a and xanthophyll cycle pigments/chlorophyll a molar ratios. Xanthophyll cycle carotenoids in Fe-deficient plants underwent epoxidations and de-epoxidations in response to ambient light conditions. In dark adapted Fe-deficient plants most of the xanthophyll cycle pigment pool was in the epoxidated form violaxanthin. We show, both by HPLC and by in vivo 505 nanometers absorbance changes, that in Fe deficient plants and in response to light, the de-epoxidated forms antheraxanthin and zeaxanthin were rapidly formed at the expense of violaxanthin. Several hours after returning to dark, the xanthophyll cycle was shifted again toward violaxanthin. The ratio of variable to maximum chlorophyll fluorescence from intact leaves was decreased by iron deficiency. However, in iron deficient leaves this ratio was little affected by light conditions which displace the xanthophyll cycle toward epoxidation or de-epoxidation. This suggests that the functioning of the xanthophyll cycle is not necessarily linked to protection against excess light input. PMID:16667755

  8. OF SUGAR BEET

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant Chemistry Unit,Indian Statistical Institute, Calcutta-, 203, Barrackpur Trank Road,. Calcutta 700 ... fertiliser, (3) plant population density, and (4) cropping ... found more root yield with higher nitrogen. They ... This study aimed at investigating the effect of ..... (Zea mays L.). ... nitrogen uptake and performance following.

  9. A comparative study of the apparent total tract digestibility of carbohydrates in Icelandic and Danish Warmblood horses fed two different haylages and a concentrate consisting of sugar beet pulp and black oats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Bovbjerg; Brøkner, Christine; Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik

    2010-01-01

    Four Icelandic (ICE) and four Danish Warmblood (DW) horses were used in a crossover study with two treatments to investigate the effect of breed and the effect of stage of maturity of haylage on the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of a diet consisting of sugar beet pulp, black oats...

  10. Enhanced Heavy Metal Tolerance and Accumulation by Transgenic Sugar Beets Expressing Streptococcus thermophilus StGCS-GS in the Presence of Cd, Zn and Cu Alone or in Combination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dali Liu

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation is a promising means of ameliorating heavy metal pollution through the use of transgenic plants as artificial hyperaccumulators. A novel Streptococcus thermophilus γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase-glutathione synthetase (StGCS-GS that synthesizes glutathione (GSH with limited feedback inhibition was overexpressed in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L., yielding three transgenic lines (s2, s4 and s5 with enhanced tolerance to different concentrations of cadmium, zinc and copper, as indicated by their increased biomass, root length and relative growth compared with wild-type plants. Transgenic sugar beets accumulated more Cd, Zn and Cu ions in shoots than wild-type, as well as higher GSH and phytochelatin (PC levels under different heavy metal stresses. This enhanced heavy metal tolerance and increased accumulation were likely due to the increased expression of StGCS-GS and consequent overproduction of both GSH and PC. Furthermore, when multiple heavy metal ions were present at the same time, transgenic sugar beets overexpressing StGCS-GS resisted two or three of the metal combinations (50 μM Cd-Zn, Cd-Cu, Zn-Cu and Cd-Zn-Cu, with greater absorption in shoots. Additionally, there was no obvious competition between metals. Overall, the results demonstrate the explicit role of StGCS-GS in enhancing Cd, Zn and Cu tolerance and accumulation in transgenic sugar beet, which may represent a highly promising new tool for phytoremediation.

  11. Enhanced Heavy Metal Tolerance and Accumulation by Transgenic Sugar Beets Expressing Streptococcus thermophilus StGCS-GS in the Presence of Cd, Zn and Cu Alone or in Combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dali; An, Zhigang; Mao, Zijun; Ma, Longbiao; Lu, Zhenqiang

    2015-01-01

    Phytoremediation is a promising means of ameliorating heavy metal pollution through the use of transgenic plants as artificial hyperaccumulators. A novel Streptococcus thermophilus γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase-glutathione synthetase (StGCS-GS) that synthesizes glutathione (GSH) with limited feedback inhibition was overexpressed in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.), yielding three transgenic lines (s2, s4 and s5) with enhanced tolerance to different concentrations of cadmium, zinc and copper, as indicated by their increased biomass, root length and relative growth compared with wild-type plants. Transgenic sugar beets accumulated more Cd, Zn and Cu ions in shoots than wild-type, as well as higher GSH and phytochelatin (PC) levels under different heavy metal stresses. This enhanced heavy metal tolerance and increased accumulation were likely due to the increased expression of StGCS-GS and consequent overproduction of both GSH and PC. Furthermore, when multiple heavy metal ions were present at the same time, transgenic sugar beets overexpressing StGCS-GS resisted two or three of the metal combinations (50 μM Cd-Zn, Cd-Cu, Zn-Cu and Cd-Zn-Cu), with greater absorption in shoots. Additionally, there was no obvious competition between metals. Overall, the results demonstrate the explicit role of StGCS-GS in enhancing Cd, Zn and Cu tolerance and accumulation in transgenic sugar beet, which may represent a highly promising new tool for phytoremediation.

  12. A comparative study of the apparent total tract digestibility of carbohydrates in Icelandic and Danish Warmblood horses fed two different haylages and a concentrate consisting of sugar beet pulp and black oats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Bovbjerg; Brøkner, Christine; Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik;

    2010-01-01

    Four Icelandic (ICE) and four Danish Warmblood (DW) horses were used in a crossover study with two treatments to investigate the effect of breed and the effect of stage of maturity of haylage on the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of a diet consisting of sugar beet pulp, black oats...

  13. Lime pretreatment of sugar beet pulp and evaluation of synergy between ArfA, ManA and XynA from Clostridium cellulovorans on the pretreated substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dredge, Roselyn; Radloff, Sarah E; van Dyk, J Susan; Pletschke, Brett I

    2011-10-01

    Sugar beet pulp (SBP) is a waste product from the sugar beet industry and could be used as a potential biomass feedstock for second generation biofuel technology. Pretreatment of SBP with 'slake lime' (calcium hydroxide) was investigated using a 2(3) factorial design and the factors examined included lime loading, temperature and time. The pretreatment was evaluated for its ability to enhance enzymatic degradation using a combination of three hemicellulases, namely ArfA (an arabinofuranosidase), ManA (an endo-mannanase) and XynA (an endo-xylanase) from C. cellulovorans to determine the conditions under which optimal activity was facilitated. Optimal pretreatment conditions were found to be 0.4 g lime/g SBP, with 36 h digestion at 40 °C. The synergistic interactions between ArfA, ManA and XynA from C. cellulovorans were subsequently investigated on the pretreated SBP. The highest degree of synergy was observed at a protein ratio of 75% ArfA to 25% ManA, with a specific activity of 2.9 U/g protein. However, the highest activity was observed at 4.2 U/g protein at 100% ArfA. This study demonstrated that lime treatment enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis of SBP. The ArfA was the most effective hemicellulase for release of sugars from pretreated SBP, but the synergy with the ManA indicated that low levels of mannan in SBP were probably masking the access of the ArfA to its substrate. XynA displayed no synergy with the other two hemicellulases, indicating that the xylan in the SBP was not hampering the access of ArfA or ManA to their substrates and was not closely associated with the mannan and arabinan in the SBP.

  14. Feeding of wheat bran and sugar beet pulp as sole supplements in high-forage diets emphasizes the potential of dairy cattle for human food supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertl, P; Zebeli, Q; Zollitsch, W; Knaus, W

    2016-02-01

    Besides the widely discussed negative environmental effects of dairy production, such as greenhouse gas emissions, the feeding of large amounts of potentially human-edible feedstuffs to dairy cows is another important sustainability concern. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the effects of a complete substitution of common cereal grains and pulses with a mixture of wheat bran and sugar beet pulp in a high-forage diet on cow performance, production efficiency, feed intake, and ruminating behavior, as well as on net food production potential. Thirteen multiparous and 7 primiparous mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments in a change-over design with 7-wk periods. Cows were fed a high-forage diet (grass silage and hay accounted for 75% of the dry matter intake), supplemented with either a cereal grain-based concentrate mixture (CON), or a mixture of wheat bran and dried sugar beet pulp (WBBP). Human-edible inputs were calculated for 2 different scenarios based on minimum and maximum potential recovery rates of human-edible energy and protein from the respective feedstuffs. Dietary starch and neutral detergent fiber contents were 3.0 and 44.1% for WBBP, compared with 10.8 and 38.2% in CON, respectively. Dietary treatment did not affect milk production, milk composition, feed intake, or total chewing activity. However, chewing index expressed in minutes per kilogram of neutral detergent fiber ingested was 12% lower in WBBP compared with CON. In comparison to CON, the human-edible feed conversion efficiencies for energy and protein, defined as human-edible output per human-edible input, were 6.8 and 5.3 times higher, respectively, in WBBP under the maximum scenario. For the maximum scenario, the daily net food production (human-edible output minus human-edible input) increased from 5.4 MJ and 250 g of crude protein per cow in CON to 61.5 MJ and 630 g of crude protein in the WBBP diet. In conclusion, our data suggest

  15. Accumulation of the hormone abscisic acid (ABA) at the infection site of the fungus Cercospora beticola supports the role of ABA as a repressor of plant defence in sugar beet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Klaus; Pflugmacher, Maike; Klages, Simone; Mäser, Anja; Mock, Andrea; Stahl, Dietmar J

    2008-09-01

    Inducible plant defence responses in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) leaves are repressed during the early phase of infection by the fungus Cercospora beticola. In this report, we show that the concentration of the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) increases in sugar beet leaves during C. beticola infection. After an initial burst of ABA induced by inoculation of the fungus, elevated ABA concentrations were detected during the fungal penetration and colonization phases 3-9 days after inoculation. Fifteen days after inoculation, with visible onset of the necrotic phase of infection, the strongly elevated ABA concentrations in infected leaves were at levels similar to drought-stressed plants. A synthetic promoter composed of four copies of the ABA-responsive element (ABRE) A2 and the coupling element CE3 of the ABA-inducible barley gene HVA1 was strongly induced by ABA and C. beticola infection in transgenic sugar beet leaves. Analysis of the spatial pattern of promoter activity revealed that the ABA-inducible promoter was locally activated at the fungal infection sites. Furthermore, expression of the basic leucine zipper transcription factor AREB1 was induced by drought stress and fungal infection in the sugar beet. Application of ABA reduced the promoter activity of the phenylalanine ammonia lyase (BvPAL) gene, and this effect was observed with the -34 to +248 BvPAL promoter region. This region is equivalent to the core promoter, which is necessary for the suppression of BvPAL expression by C. beticola, as recently shown. These data indicate that ABA accumulation and activation of the ABA-dependent signalling cascade are the primary cause of suppression of BvPAL expression during infection of sugar beet leaves.

  16. Sugar (sucrose) holograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce-Lee, E. L.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2004-06-01

    Computer holograms made with sugar crystals are reported. This material is well known as a good sweetener; the sugar from sugar cane or sugar beet (sucrose). These sweetener can be applied as honey "water and diluted sugar" easily on any substrate such as plastics or glasses without critical conditions for developed process. This step corresponds only to the cured sucrose as a photopolymer process. The maximum absorption spectra is localized at UV region λ=240 nm. We record with lithographic techniques some gratings, showing a good diffraction efficiency around 45%. This material has good resolution to make diffraction gratings. These properties are attractive because they open the possibility to make phase holograms on candies. Mainly the phase modulation is by refraction index.

  17. THE IMPACT OF FRESH SAWDUST AND DRY PIG MANURE PRODUCED ON SAWDUST BEDDING APPLICATION ON THE NUTRIENTS MOBILITY IN SOIL AND SUGAR BEET YIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kováčik

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the pot trial carried out at the area of the Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra was to determine the impact of dry pig manure produced on the sawdust bedding and sawdust litter on the level of nutrients’ mobility in the soil and sugar beet yield. The achieved results showed that one month after the sawdust and manure application to the soil, the contents of mobile nutrients (Nan, P, K, Ca, Mg in soil were lower than in the control unfertilized treatment. The sawdust litter immobilized nutrients more considerably than manure. Four months after the manure application into soil, its immobilization effect was not evident. On the contrary, the manure increased the mobile nutrients content in soil. In the second year of experiment the immobilization effect of sawdust litter was proved even four months after its application into soil. The application of manure increased considerably the beet root yield. The maximum root yield was determined in the treatment where the highest dose of manure was applied. The minimum root yield was detected in the treatment where the highest dose of sawdust litter was applied.

  18. Assessment of the Variability of Biogas Production from Sugar Beet Silage as Affected by Movement and Loss of the Produced Alcohols and Organic Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Heidarzadeh Vazifehkhoran

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The biochemical methane potential and composition of sugar beet pulp silage were investigated using samples taken from six different depths in both open and closed silos (height 3.6 m. The biochemical methane potential (BMP of pulp silage in open silos ranged from 337 to 420 normal litre (NL CH4/kg volatile solids (VS, while the BMP of pulp silage in closed silos varied between 411 and 451 NL CH4/kg VS. The biochemical methane potential peaked at a depth of 1.45 m with 420 NL CH4/kg VS for open silos and 451 NL CH4/kg VS for closed silos. The ethanol concentration and biochemical methane potential showed the same trend with depth throughout the silos. The energy loss correlated to the loss of volatile solids, and the depths described a linear relationship between them for both the open and closed silos (R2 = 0.997 for the open silo and R2 = 0.991 for the closed silo. The energy potentials and composition of beet pulp silage were highly stratified and there was a risk that the silage samples were not representative in investigations of biomass quality for energy production.

  19. The effect of leaf area reduction on the yield and quality of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. var. altissima Döll.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radim Cerkal

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The yield of sugar beet is directly affected by LAI (leaf area index and values of LAD (leaf area duration. The integral leaf area plays, except for other factors, an important role during the damage or reduction of leaf apparatus. There are many sources of leaf damage: natural disasters (hailstorm, diseases, pests (including game browsing etc. The intensity of the root production and quality differs in relation to the growth stage of the damage plant. The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent of losses in the root yield and the quality of sugar beet upon gradual reduction of the leaf area. Two diploid varieties Monza and Compact were used in the small-plot trials conducted in years 2004 to 2006 (in the experimental station Žabčice – maize production region, zone K2, average altitude 184 m, soil type was classified as gley fluvisoil, soil is medium heavy to heavy, clay-loam to loam type. The leaf area was manually reduced by 25% and 50% at BBCH 18–19 growth phase (8–9 leaves unfolded. The results were statistically evaluated by analysis of variance and testing by Tukey test (at the significance level α = 5%. Reduction of the leaf area was reflected on the decrease of the root yield by 1 to 10% depending on the year of harvest. In addition, the stressful state of the plants after defoliation resulted in the decrease of the yield of polarization sugar per hectare, namely by 0.45 to 1.66 t.ha–1. In 2005, the leaf area reduction caused a rise of the α-amino nitrogen content. The rise in the potassium and sodium cations content caused by the leaf area reduction also increased the sugar content in the treacle (by 0.1 to 0.16%. The increasing leaf area reduction lead to decreasing of yield of polarization sugar. However, this descent was statistically significant in harvest year 2006 only.

  20. The effect of feeding barley or hay alone or in combination with molassed sugar beet pulp on the metabolic responses in plasma and caecum of horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, R B; Austbø, Dag; Blache, D

    2016-01-01

    Highly fermentable fibre sources like sugar beet pulp (SBP) might be fed as an alternative to starch rich concentrate to horses. However, including soluble fibre from SBP in a meal of concentrate might delay gastric emptying and increase viscosity in the small intestine, altering or impairing...... only (HAY), hay and molassed SBP (HAY + SBP), hay and pelleted barley (BAR), and hay, pelleted barley and molassed SBP (BAR + SBP). The amount of barley (2 g starch/kg body weight (BW)) fed in the test meals was similar for the BAR and BAR + SBP diets. Each diet was fed for 16 days followed by data...... collection, then each horse changed to a new diet in the next period. Caecum pH and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) profiles and the metabolic responses measured in plasma at rest were followed for 9 h after the test meal. Caecum pH decreased more (P

  1. Yield and quality prediction using satellite passive imagery and ground-based active optical sensors in sugar beet, spring wheat, corn, and sunflower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Honggang

    Remote sensing is one possible approach for improving crop nitrogen use efficiency to save fertilizer cost, reduce environmental pollution, and improve crop yield and quality. Feasibility and potential of using remote sensing tools to predict crops yield and quality as well as detect nitrogen requirements, application timing, rate, and places in season were investigated based on 2012-2013 two-year and four-crop (corn, spring wheat, sugar beet, and sunflower) study. Two ground-based active optical sensors, GreenSeeker and Holland Scientific Crop Circle, and the RapidEye satellite imagery were used to collect sensing data. Highly significant statistical relationships between INSEY (NDVI normalized by growing degree days) and crop yield and quality indices were found for all crops, indicating that remote sensing tools may be useful for managing in-season crop yield and quality prediction.

  2. Properties and extraction of pectin-enriched materials from sugar beet pulp by ultrasonic-assisted treatment combined with subcritical water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hai-ming; Fu, Xiong; Luo, Zhi-gang

    2015-02-01

    Pectin-enriched material (PEM) was extracted from sugar beet pulp using subcritical water combined with ultrasonic-assisted treatment. Optimisation of the reaction parameters for maximum extraction yield of PEM was carried out using response surface methodology. Optimum modification conditions were as follows: liquid/solid ratio 44.03, extraction temperature 120.72°C, extraction time 30.49min and extraction pressure 10.70MPa. Under optimal conditions, the maximum yield of PEM was 24.63%. The composition of the PEM was determined. The data showed that the contents of galacturonic acid and arabinose were 59.12% and 21.66%, respectively. The flow behaviours were investigated by a rheometer. The effects of PEM on the pasting and thermal properties of maize starch were also conducted. The results showed that the addition of PEM increased pasting temperature and decreased other pasting parameters. Increasing PEM concentrations resulted in increased gelatinisation temperature and enthalpy.

  3. Evolutionary aspects of a unique internal mitochondrial targeting signal in nuclear-migrated rps19 of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Muneyuki; Takahashi, Yoshiya; Yui-Kurino, Rika; Mikami, Tetsuo; Kubo, Tomohiko

    2013-03-15

    The endosymbiotic theory postulates that many genes migrated from endosymbionts to the nuclear genomes of their hosts. Some migrated genes lack presequences directing proteins to mitochondria, and their mitochondrial targeting signals appear to be inscribed in the core coding regions as internal targeting signals (ITSs). ITSs may have evolved after sequence transfer to nuclei or ITSs may have pre-existed before sequence transfer. Here, we report the molecular cloning of a sugar beet gene for ribosomal protein S19 (Rps19; the first letter is capitalized when the gene is a nuclear gene). We show that sugar beet Rps19 (BvRps19) is an ITS-type gene. Based on amino-acid sequence comparison, dicotyledonous rps19s (the first letter is lower-cased when the gene is a mitochondrial gene), such as tobacco rps19 (Ntrps19), resemble an ancestral form of BvRps19. We investigated whether differences in amino-acid sequences between BvRps19 and Ntrps19 were involved in ITS evolution. Analyses of the intracellular localization of chimaeric GFP-fusion proteins that were transiently expressed in Welsh onion cells showed that Ntrps19-gfp was not localized in mitochondria. When several BvRps19-type amino acid substitutions, none of which was seen in any other angiosperm rps19, were introduced into Ntrps19-gfp, the modified Ntrps19-gfp became localized in mitochondria, supporting the notion that an ITS in BvRps19 evolved following sequence transfer to nuclei. Not all of these substitutions were seen in other ITS-type Rps19s, suggesting that the ITSs of Rps19 are diverse.

  4. Protein synthesis is the most sensitive process when potassium is substituted by sodium in the nutrition of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, Franziska; Schubert, Sven

    2016-10-01

    Potassium ions (K(+)) and sodium ions (Na(+)) share many physical and chemical similarities. However, their interchangeability in plant nutrition is restricted. Substitution studies showed that K(+) can be replaced by Na(+) to a large extent in the nutrition of Beta vulgaris L. However, the extent of substitution without negative impacts is not unlimited. The aim of the present study was to identify the process which is most sensitive during the substitution of K(+) by Na(+) in nutrition of young sugar beet plants. We focused on transpiration, growth, and net protein synthesis. Plants were grown under controlled environmental conditions. With transfer of seedlings into nutrient solution, plants were cultivated in different substitution treatments. For all treatments the sum of K(+) and Na(+) (applied as chloride) was fixed to 4 mM. The extent of substitution of K(+) by Na(+) in the nutrient solution was varied from low (0.25% substitution: 3.99 mM K(+), 0.01 mM Na(+)) to almost complete substitution (99.75% substitution: 0.01 mM K(+), 3.99 mM Na(+)). The supply of 3.99 mM K(+) in 0.25% substitution treatment guaranteed the absence of K(+) deficiency. Transpiration was not affected by the substitution. Growth was inhibited at a substitution level of 99.75%. Net protein synthesis was already affected at a substitution level of 97.50% (0.10 mM K(+), 3.90 mM Na(+)). Hence, net protein synthesis was most sensitive to the substitution and limited the extent of substitution of K(+) by Na(+) in the nutrition of young sugar beet plants.

  5. Sequence-based analysis of pQBR103; a representative of a unique, transfer-proficient mega plasmid resident in the microbial community of sugar beet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tett, Adrian; Spiers, Andrew J; Crossman, Lisa C; Ager, Duane; Ciric, Lena; Dow, J Maxwell; Fry, John C; Harris, David; Lilley, Andrew; Oliver, Anna; Parkhill, Julian; Quail, Michael A; Rainey, Paul B; Saunders, Nigel J; Seeger, Kathy; Snyder, Lori A S; Squares, Rob; Thomas, Christopher M; Turner, Sarah L; Zhang, Xue-Xian; Field, Dawn; Bailey, Mark J

    2007-08-01

    The plasmid pQBR103 was found within Pseudomonas populations colonizing the leaf and root surfaces of sugar beet plants growing at Wytham, Oxfordshire, UK. At 425 kb it is the largest self-transmissible plasmid yet sequenced from the phytosphere. It is known to enhance the competitive fitness of its host, and parts of the plasmid are known to be actively transcribed in the plant environment. Analysis of the complete sequence of this plasmid predicts a coding sequence (CDS)-rich genome containing 478 CDSs and an exceptional degree of genetic novelty; 80% of predicted coding sequences cannot be ascribed a function and 60% are orphans. Of those to which function could be assigned, 40% bore greatest similarity to sequences from Pseudomonas spp, and the majority of the remainder showed similarity to other gamma-proteobacterial genera and plasmids. pQBR103 has identifiable regions presumed responsible for replication and partitioning, but despite being tra+ lacks the full complement of any previously described conjugal transfer functions. The DNA sequence provided few insights into the functional significance of plant-induced transcriptional regions, but suggests that 14% of CDSs may be expressed (11 CDSs with functional annotation and 54 without), further highlighting the ecological importance of these novel CDSs. Comparative analysis indicates that pQBR103 shares significant regions of sequence with other plasmids isolated from sugar beet plants grown at the same geographic location. These plasmid sequences indicate there is more novelty in the mobile DNA pool accessible to phytosphere pseudomonas than is currently appreciated or understood.

  6. Expression of BvGLP-1 encoding a germin-like protein from sugar beet in Arabidopsis thaliana leads to resistance against phytopathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knecht, Katrin; Seyffarth, Monique; Desel, Christine; Thurau, Tim; Sherameti, Irena; Lou, Binggan; Oelmüller, Ralf; Cai, Daguang

    2010-04-01

    Nematode (Heterodera schachtii) resistance in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) is controlled by a single dominant resistance gene, Hs1(pro-1). BvGLP-1 was cloned from resistant sugar beet. The BvGLP-1 messenger (m)RNA is highly upregulated in the resistant plants after nematode infection, suggesting its role in the Hs1(pro-1) mediated resistance. BvGLP-1 exhibits sequence homology to a set of plant germin-like proteins (GLP), from which several have proved to be functional in plant basal or defense resistance against fungal pathogens. To test whether BvGLP-1 is also involved in the plant-fungus interaction, we transferred BvGLP-1 into Arabidopsis and challenged the transgenic plants with the pathogenic fungi Verticillium longisporum and Rhizoctonia solani as well as with the beneficial endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica. The expression of BvGLP-1 in Arabidopsis elevated the H(2)O(2) content and conferred significant resistance to V. longisporum and R. solani but did not affect the beneficial interaction with P. indica in seedlings. Microscopic observations revealed a dramatic reduction in the amount of hyphae of the pathogenic fungi on the root surface as well as of fungal mycelium developed inside the roots of transgenic Arabidopsis compared with wild-type plants. Molecular analysis demonstrated that the BvGLP-1 expression in Arabidopsis constitutively activates the expression of a subset of plant defense-related proteins such as PR-1 to PR-4 and PDF1.2 but not PDF2.1 and PDF2.3. In contrast, the PDF2.1 mRNA level was downregulated. These data suggest an important role of BvGLP-1 in establishment of plant defense responses, which follow specific signaling routes that diverge from those induced by the beneficial fungus.

  7. Effect of Several Fungicides on Controlling Leaf Spot of Sugar Beet%几种杀菌剂防治甜菜褐斑病效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨安沛; 马俊义; 陈卫民; 孙桂荣

    2011-01-01

    [目的]筛选出防治甜菜褐斑病(Cercoapora belicola Sacc.)效果较好的杀菌剂为该病的有效防治提供理论依据.[方法]选择5种杀菌剂,进行防治甜菜褐斑病的田间小区试验.[结果]筛选出防治效果较好的杀菌剂是福星5000倍液和氟硅唑·多菌灵(12.5%·27.5%)悬浮剂,防效分别为60.80%和58.37%.与其他杀菌剂有显著性差异.5种杀菌剂防治时应连续喷药,间隔期7d,连续施药2次.I结论]5种杀菌剂均对甜菜褐斑病有一定的防治效果,防效最高的杀菌剂是福星、氟硅唑·多菌灵,可在生产上推广应用.%[ Objective]The aim of this study was to screen better fungicides for controlling sugar beet leaf apot . [Method] Selecting several fungicides to carry out experiment of controlling sugar beet leaf spot in the field. [ Result] Fuxing 5000 times and Flusdazole·Carbendazim ( 12 . 5% 27 . 5 % ) are better fungicides , their controlling efficiency exceeded 60 . 80% and 58 . 37% . They have significant differences from other fungicides. All fungicides slowly give their pesticide effects, the fungicides should be continually applied every 7 days by twice spraying , the control effect will be increased . [ Conclusion]Several fungicides have a preventive effect on the beet leaf spot, anti - efficient pbarmaceuticals : fuxing and Flusilazole · Carbendazim ( 12. 5% · 27 . 5 % ) have the highest control effects .They could be applied in production .

  8. Quantitative studies on resistance to Polymyxa betae and beet necrotic yellow vein virus in beet = Kwantitatief onderzoek naar resistentie tegen Polymyxa betae en het bieterhizomanievirus in de biet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paul, H.

    1993-01-01

    Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) causes rhizomania in sugar beet. The virus is transmitted by the soil-borne fungus Polymyxa betae . Rhizomania in sugar beet can cause serious losses in sugar yield. Breeding for resistance is the most promising way to control the

  9. Genetic Diversity and Physiological Performance of Portuguese Wild Beet (Beta vulgaris spp. maritima) from Three Contrasting Habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Isa C; Pinheiro, Carla; Ribeiro, Carla M; Veloso, Maria M; Simoes-Costa, Maria C; Evaristo, Isabel; Paulo, Octávio S; Ricardo, Cândido P

    2016-01-01

    The establishment of stress resilient sugar beets (Beta vulgaris spp. vulgaris) is an important breeding goal since this cash crop is susceptible to drought and salinity. The genetic diversity in cultivated sugar beets is low and the beet wild relatives are useful genetic resources for tolerance traits. Three wild beet populations (Beta vulgaris spp. maritima) from contrasting environments, Vaiamonte (VMT, dry inland hill), Comporta (CMP, marsh) and Oeiras (OEI, coastland), and one commercial sugar beet (Isella variety, SB), are compared. At the genetic level, the use of six microsatellite allowed to detect a total of seventy six alleles. It was observed that CMP population has the highest value concerning the effective number of alleles and of expected heterozygosity. By contrast, sugar beet has the lowest values for all the parameters considered. Loci analysis with STRUCTURE allows defining three genetic clusters, the sea beet (OEI and CMP), the inland ruderal beet (VMT) and the sugar beet (SB). A screening test for progressive drought and salinity effects demonstrated that: all populations were able to recover from severe stress; drought impact was higher than that from salinity; the impact on biomass (total, shoot, root) was population specific. The distinct strategies were also visible at physiological level. We evaluated the physiological responses of the populations under drought and salt stress, namely at initial stress stages, late stress stages, and early stress recovery. Multivariate analysis showed that the physiological performance can be used to discriminate between genotypes, with a strong contribution of leaf temperature and leaf osmotic adjustment. However, the separation achieved and the groups formed are dependent on the stress type, stress intensity and duration. Each of the wild beet populations evaluated is very rich in genetic terms (allelic richness) and exhibited physiological plasticity, i.e., the capacity to physiologically adjust to

  10. Genetic Diversity and Physiological Performance of Portuguese Wild Beet (Beta vulgaris spp. maritima) from Three Contrasting Habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Isa C.; Pinheiro, Carla; Ribeiro, Carla M.; Veloso, Maria M.; Simoes-Costa, Maria C.; Evaristo, Isabel; Paulo, Octávio S.; Ricardo, Cândido P.

    2016-01-01

    The establishment of stress resilient sugar beets (Beta vulgaris spp. vulgaris) is an important breeding goal since this cash crop is susceptible to drought and salinity. The genetic diversity in cultivated sugar beets is low and the beet wild relatives are useful genetic resources for tolerance traits. Three wild beet populations (Beta vulgaris spp. maritima) from contrasting environments, Vaiamonte (VMT, dry inland hill), Comporta (CMP, marsh) and Oeiras (OEI, coastland), and one commercial sugar beet (Isella variety, SB), are compared. At the genetic level, the use of six microsatellite allowed to detect a total of seventy six alleles. It was observed that CMP population has the highest value concerning the effective number of alleles and of expected heterozygosity. By contrast, sugar beet has the lowest values for all the parameters considered. Loci analysis with STRUCTURE allows defining three genetic clusters, the sea beet (OEI and CMP), the inland ruderal beet (VMT) and the sugar beet (SB). A screening test for progressive drought and salinity effects demonstrated that: all populations were able to recover from severe stress; drought impact was higher than that from salinity; the impact on biomass (total, shoot, root) was population specific. The distinct strategies were also visible at physiological level. We evaluated the physiological responses of the populations under drought and salt stress, namely at initial stress stages, late stress stages, and early stress recovery. Multivariate analysis showed that the physiological performance can be used to discriminate between genotypes, with a strong contribution of leaf temperature and leaf osmotic adjustment. However, the separation achieved and the groups formed are dependent on the stress type, stress intensity and duration. Each of the wild beet populations evaluated is very rich in genetic terms (allelic richness) and exhibited physiological plasticity, i.e., the capacity to physiologically adjust to

  11. Research Advance on Application of Sugar Beet Pulp in Dairy Production%甜菜渣在奶牛生产应用中的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王超; 齐智利; 董淑慧; 卜登攀

    2013-01-01

    Sugar beet pulp contains various available nutrients for animals as main by-product of sugar manufacturing.But its dosage needs to be limited in dairy production because of the antinutritional factors.In this article,the authors have reviewed the nutritive value,antinutritional factors,suitable volume of addition,and applying notes in order to give some advices in dairy production.%甜菜渣作为制糖工业的主要副产品,含有多种可被家畜吸收利用的营养素.同时由于含有一些不利于奶牛生长的抗营养因子,因此在奶牛生产中需要限制用量 本文主要从甜菜渣的营养价值及抗营养因子、在奶牛日粮中的适宜添加量及应用注意事项等几个方面进行综述,以期为甜菜渣在奶牛日粮中的应用提供建议.

  12. Transgenic salt-tolerant sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) constitutively expressing an Arabidopsis thaliana vacuolar Na/H antiporter gene, AtNHX3, accumulates more soluble sugar but less salt in storage roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hua; Wang, Qiuqing; Yu, Mengmeng; Zhang, Yanyan; Wu, Yingbao; Zhang, Hongxia

    2008-09-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, six vacuolar Na(+)/H(+) antiporters (AtNHX1-6) were identified. Among them, AtNHX1, 2 and 5 are functional Na(+)/H(+) antiporters with the most abundant expression levels in seedling shoots and roots. However, the expression of AtNHX3 in Arabidopsis can only be detected by RT-PCR, and its physiological function still remains unclear. In this work, we demonstrate that constitutive expression of AtNHX3 in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) conferred augmented resistance to high salinity on transgenic plants. In the presence of 300 or 500 mm NaCl, transgenic plants showed very high potassium accumulation in the roots and storage roots. Furthermore, the transcripts of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS), sucrose synthase (SS) and cell wall sucrose invertase (SI) genes were maintained in transgenic plants. The accumulation of soluble sugar in the storage roots of transgenic plants grown under high salt stress condition was also higher. Our results implicate that AtNHX3 is also a functional antiporter responsible for salt tolerance by mediating K(+)/H(+) exchange in higher plants. The salt accumulation in leaves but not in the storage roots, and the increased yield of storage roots with enhanced constituent soluble sugar contents under salt stress condition demonstrate a great potential use of this gene in improving the quality and yield of crop plants.

  13. 甜菜糖生产中的节能新技术和新工艺%New technology of energy saving in beet sugar manufacturing and novel process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董爱军; 秦文信; 李琳; 徐德昌; 马立明; 洛铁男

    2012-01-01

    The applications of the technologies of reverse osmosis membrane and cooling crystallisation on beet sugar production were introduced in this paper, and a novel beet sugar manufacturing process was presented, in which the technologies of microfiltration membrane, ion exchange resin, reverse osmosis and cooling crystallisation were in combination with traditional process. The new process was environmental friendly and energy - saving.%介绍了反渗透膜技术和冷冻结晶技术在甜菜制糖中的应用,同时还介绍了一种将微滤膜清净,离子交换树脂软化,反渗透膜预浓缩稀汁和冷冻结晶与传统制糖工艺结合的节能环保型甜菜制糖新工艺.

  14. Changes in weed infestations on plantations of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. subsp. vulgaris cultivated on black soil near Wrocław in 1989–1995 and 2006–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Domaradzki

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Field studies were carried out in 1989–1995 and 2006–2012 on plantations of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. subsp. vulgaris. During this period, 542 phytosociological relevés were made using the Braun-Blanquet method. In total, 46 weed species were found. In 1989–1995, the occurrence of 36 segetal species was reported. The highest cover indices were determined for Chenopodium album and Amaranthus retroflexus. Galium aparine, Echinochloa crus-galli, and Elymus repens were the dominant species, as well. Analysis of the frequency of occurrence revealed one constant species (Chenopodium album, two frequent species (Amaranthus retroflexus and Galium aparine, and two medium-frequent species (Echinochloa crus-galli and Matricaria maritima ssp. inodora. In 2006–2012, the occurrence of 40 weed species on the sugar beet plantations was recorded. The plantations were clearly dominated by Chenopodium album, accompanied by Polygonum persicaria and Polygonum lapathifolium ssp. lapathifolium. Other dominant species comprised Setaria viridis, Galinsoga parviflora, Brassica napus ssp. napus, and Fallopia convolvulus. The Chenopodium album was a constant component of the sugar beet plantations. In turn, no frequent species were observed and six medium-frequent species were found (Setaria viridis, Galinsoga parviflora, Brassica napus ssp. napus, Echinochloa crus-galli, Amaranthus retroflexus, and Capsella bursa-pastoris. Noteworthy, the presence of previously unreported species, e.g., Abutilon theophrasti, Hyoscyamus niger, or Artemisia vulgaris, was revealed. These species are rare components in sugar beet crops. A reverse phenomenon, i.e., the disappearance of some species such as Euphorbia helioscopia, Malva neglecta, Rumex acetosella, Sinapis arvensis, or Sisymbrium officinale, was also observed.