WorldWideScience

Sample records for plasticized pvc a-series

  1. Evaporation kinetics of DIDP plasticizer from PVC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djouani, Fatma; Mkacher, Inès; Colin, Xavier; Brument, Yves; Cristiano-Tassi, Antonella

    2014-05-01

    The physical loss of diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP) plasticizer from PVC films of about 50 μm thickness has been investigated between 95 and 160°C in air by FTIR spectrophotometry and gravimetry. Complementary OIT measurements have been performed to follow the stabilizer depletion and to confirm that the dehydrochlorination of PVC remains negligible for all exposure durations under study. As expected for thin PVC films, the overall loss kinetics obeys a first order law, indicating that it is controlled by DIDP evaporation. The corresponding coefficient of DIDP evaporation obeys an Arrhenius law with an activation energy of about 96 kJ mol-1. These results are in good agreement with those previously reported in the literature for other types of phthalate plasticizers of PVC.

  2. Reduce Plasticizer Migration by Modification of PVC during Reactive Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XING X S; SCOTT G

    2003-01-01

    Plasticizers in plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC) are generally physically added into PVC by compounding so that they can be rapidly leached from PVC articles during service. This results in their migration into the human environment with potentially serious consequences and lower effectiveness of the additives in PVC. Potentially the chemical modification of PVC during processing via reactive processing procedure is one of the most attractive solutions to these problems.In this paper, we will report our work in exploring an environmentally friendly and cost-effective reactive processing approach for chemically binding plasticizer into PVC chains.Our research results indicate that it is possible to reduce the plasticizer migration from a plasticized PVC by chemically binding of a certain plasticizer into PVC chains via reactive processing. Thus, high levels of binding of DBM, a maleate plasticizer, to PVC may be reached in less than 10 min under prevailing reactive processing conditions. The extent of binding of DBM as a function of the loading shows two peaks: one at a relatively low loading (less than 0.12 mol*kg-1 PVC) tends to 100%, the other in the high loading region (more than 1.5 mol*kg-1 PVC) approaches around 50%. The DBM modified PVC polymer exhibits behaviours as a plasticized PVC but its bound plasticising groups would not be leached by solvent extraction.

  3. Reduce Plasticizer Migration by Modification of PVC during Reactive Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XINGXS; SCOTTG

    2003-01-01

    Plasticizers in plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC) are generally physically added into PVC by compounding so that they can be rapidly leached from PVC articles during service. This results in their migration into the human environment with potentially serious consequences and lower effectiveness of the additives in PVC. Potentially the chemical modification of PVC during processing via reactive processing procedure is one of the most attractive solutions to these problems. In this paper, we will report our work in exploring an environmentally friendly and cost-effective reactive processing approach for chemically binding plasticizer into PVC chains. Our research results indicate that it is possible to reduce the plasticizer migration from a plasticized PVC by chemically binding of a certain plasticizer into PVC chains via reactive processing. Thus, high levels of binding of DBM,a maleate plasticizer, to PVC may be reached in less than 10 min under prevailing reactive processing conditions. The extent of binding of DBM as a function of the loading shows two peaks: one at a relatively low loading (less than 0.12 mol·kg-1 PVC) tends to 100%, the other in the high loading region (more than 1.5 mol·kg-1 PVC) approaches around 50%. The DBM modified PVC polymer exhibits behaviours as a plasticized PVC but its bound plasticising groups would not be leached by solvent extraction.

  4. Superiorly Plasticized PVC/PBSA Blends through Crotonic and Acrylic Acid Functionalization of PVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Salazar Avalos

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Superior plasticization efficiency was achieved by a grafting from functionalization of the PVC backbone. This was deduced to a synergistic effect of internal plasticization and improved intermolecular interactions between PVC and an oligomeric poly(butylene succinate-co-adipate (PBSA plasticizer. A mild grafting process for functionalization of the PVC chain by crotonic acid (CA or acrylic acid (AA was used. The formation of PVC-g-CA and PVC-g-AA was confirmed by FTIR and 1H NMR. Grafting with the seemingly similar monomers, CA and AA, resulted in different macromolecular structures. AA is easily homopolymerized and long hydrophilic poly(acrylic acid grafts are formed resulting in branched materials. Crotonic acid does not easily homopolymerize; instead, single crotonic acid units are located along the PVC chain, leading to basically linear PVC chains with pendant crotonic acid groups. The elongation of PVC-g-CA and PVC-g-AA in comparison to pure PVC were greatly increased from 6% to 128% and 167%, respectively, by the grafting reactions. Blending 20% (w/w PBSA with PVC, PVC-AA or PVC-CA further increased the elongation at break to 150%, 240% and 320%, respectively, clearly showing a significant synergistic effect in the blends with functionalized PVC. This is a clearly promising milestone towards environmentally friendly flexible PVC materials.

  5. Strain rate dependence in plasticized and un-plasticized PVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siviour C.R.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available An experimental and analytical investigation has been made into the mechanical behaviour of two poly (vinyl chloride (PVC polymers – an un-plasticized PVC and a diisononyl phthalate (DINP-plasticized PVC. Measurements of the compressive stress-strain behaviour of the PVCs at strain rates ranging from 10−3 to 103s−1 and temperatures from − 60 to 100∘C are presented. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis was also performed in order to understand the material transitions observed in compression testing as the strain rate is increased. This investigation develops a better understanding of the interplay between the temperature dependence and rate dependence of polymers, with a focus on locating the temperature and rate-dependent material transitions that occur during high rate testing.

  6. Strain rate dependence in plasticized and un-plasticized PVC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, M. J.; Siviour, C. R.

    2012-08-01

    An experimental and analytical investigation has been made into the mechanical behaviour of two poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC) polymers - an un-plasticized PVC and a diisononyl phthalate (DINP)-plasticized PVC. Measurements of the compressive stress-strain behaviour of the PVCs at strain rates ranging from 10-3 to 103s-1 and temperatures from - 60 to 100∘C are presented. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis was also performed in order to understand the material transitions observed in compression testing as the strain rate is increased. This investigation develops a better understanding of the interplay between the temperature dependence and rate dependence of polymers, with a focus on locating the temperature and rate-dependent material transitions that occur during high rate testing.

  7. Degradation studies on plasticized PVC films submited to gamma radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinhas Glória Maria

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly (vinyl chloride, PVC, is a rigid polymer and for several of its applications must be compounded with plasticizing agents. The plasticizers minimize the dipolar interactions, which exist between the polymer's chains, promoting their mobility. In this work we studied the properties of PVC/plasticizer systems submitted to different doses of gamma radiation. We have used four commercial plasticizers amongt them di(2-ethylhexyl phthalate, DEHP, which is present in a great number of commercial applications. The PVC/plasticizer systems have been studied as films made by the solvent evaporation technique. Irradiated and non-irradiated films have been characterized by viscosimetric analysis, mechanical essays and infrared spectroscopy. The results have shown that the rigid, non plasticized, PVC film presented the greatest degradation index, while among the plasticized films the one which presented the larger degradation index due to chain scission was the DEHP plasticized PVC.

  8. Solubility and durability of cardanol derived plasticizers for soft PVC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Antonio; Ferrari, Francesca; Velardi, Rosario; Frigione, Mariaenrica; Maffezzoli, Alfonso

    2015-12-01

    This work is aimed to study the suitability of cardanol derivatives as primary plasticizer for PVC. The innovative plasticizer is obtained by chemical modification of cardanol, a natural, renewable resource, obtained as a by-product of the cashew nut shell industry. Cardanol derived plasticizers (CDP) were prepared by following various procedures, that allow obtaining different degrees of conversion of cardanol. Rheological and ageing tests were made on soft PVC produced by the addition of CDP;results obtained were compared to soft PVC attained by the use of di-ethyl-hexyl-phthalate (DEHP) and other natural derived plasticizers already used in PVC industry (epoxidated soybean oil, ESBO, and acetic acid ester, AAE).A high dependence on the degree of conversion was found: CDP with a good degree of conversion have similar gelation temperature and diffusion coefficient compared to DEHP based plastisols. Otherwise,CDP with a low degree of conversionshow a higher diffusion coefficient, index of a fast migration of the plasticizer from soft PVC.

  9. Properties of irradiated PVC plasticized with non-endocrine disruptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutzler, Beatriz W.; Machado, Luci D. B.; Lugão, Ademar B.; Villavicencio, Anna.-Lucia C. H.

    2000-03-01

    Polyvinylchloride (PVC) is under heavy attack from environmentalist groups due to the use of plasticizers and its recycling difficulties. Chloro-organics and phtalates are considered now as ubiquitous global contaminants due to their potential as weak endocrine disruptor and huge consumption. In order to make PVC acceptable for the irradiation processing industry in the long term, non-toxic plasticizers should be used. PVC was added with dioctyl phtalate (DOP) and epoxy soybean oil (ESO) and irradiated up to 50 kGy. Mechanical properties, optical properties and viscosity were measured and compared. The elongation and mechanical strength were under the usual range and they didn't show any significant change in the studied range of irradiation dose. All the samples showed a weak yellowing effect after irradiation and the molecular weight measured by viscosimetry showed only negligible changes. In conclusion, DOP and ESO were shown to be effective in stabilizing the radiolytic abstraction of HCl from PVC. Both plasticizers imparted good color stability and overall properties to the products.

  10. DEHA-plasticized PVC for retail packaging of fresh meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens Højslev; Naamansen, Ebbe Tubæk

    1998-01-01

    A selection of frequently consumed meat products were packed in two commercial types of plasticized PVC film with declared plasticizer compositions of 11 and 21% di-(ethylhexyl)adipate (DEHA), respectively. The meat products were analysed for DEHA after packaging and storage until their "use by......" date. Pretreatment of the meat, including cutting, chopping, cooking and packaging, was performed according to normal practice in a Danish supermarket. All samples contained DEHA, in general the investigation showed that a high fat content in or at the surface of the meat and/or a high storage...

  11. Nondestructive Quantification of Local Plasticizer Concentration in PVC by (1)H NMR Relaxometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Alina; Kwamen, Rance; Woldt, Benjamin; Graß, Michael

    2015-12-01

    The properties of plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) , one of the most important polymers today, are strongly dictated by the concentration of plasticizer. Yet, it has been impossible to quantify this concentration at different positions inside a PVC product without its destruction because of a lack of suitable analytical methods. Thus, this paper introduces a simple, fast, and efficient way to determine truly nondestructively the concentration of plasticizer in PVC by single-sided nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). With the help of correlation curves between the concentration of plasticizer inside nonaged PVC samples and the corresponding volume-averaged NMR parameters, single-sided NMR allows the quantification of the local concentration of plasticizer in aged PVC plates at different depths by spatially resolved relaxation measurements. The presented approach represents a fundamental step toward in situ characterization of plasticized PVC.

  12. EFFECT OF PLASTICIZER ON THE MICROSTRUCTURE OF PS/PVC BLENDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAO Jinliang; D. Vesely

    1996-01-01

    In this work, controlling of the particle size of PVC in PS/PVC blends was studied. It is shown that viscosity ratio and particle size can be changed by adding a third composition,such as plasticizers, and the distribution of the third composition in two phases plays a very important role in controlling viscosity ratio and particle size. When DOP was used as the plasticizer of PVC in PS/PVC blends, the particle size of PVC could not be reduced due to the transference of DOP into PS phase. When polycaprolactone (PCL) was used as the plasticizer of PVC in the same blends, the particle size of PVC could be descreased obviously because PCL does not migrate to PS phase.

  13. NOVEL FLEXIBLE PVC COMPOUNDS CHARACTERIZED BY IMPROVED SUSTAINABILITY AND REDUCED PLASTICIZER MIGRATION

    OpenAIRE

    Pannico, Marianna

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis three different strategies were adopted to reduce the migration of plasticizer from flexible PVC-based compounds: chemical cross-linking of flexible PVC, the use of polymeric plasticizers (linear and hyper-branched) as an alternative to monomeric ones, the addition of CPE to flexible PVC as a physical barrier. The physical, chemical, mechanical and tribological properties were studied in order to achieve materials with desired performance.

  14. Influence of plasticizer content on the transition of electromechanical behavior of PVC gel actuator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammad; Ueki, Takamitsu; Tsurumi, Daijiro; Hirai, Toshihiro

    2011-06-21

    The actuation performance of plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) gel actuators in an electric field depends on their chemical composition and electrical and mechanical properties. The influence of plasticizer (dibutyl adipate) content on electromechanical behavior of PVC gels was investigated by impedance spectroscopy and space charge measurement. By plasticizing the PVC, the dielectric constant and space charge density of PVC gel were drastically increased at 1:2 w/w ratio of PVC to plasticizer. To apply the results obtained from the impedance spectroscopy and space charge measurement, electrostatic adhesive forces generated between the PVC gel and the anode were measured. The electrostatic adhesive force at the anode was also dramatically increased at the same plasticizer content. All of the results indicated a transition of electromechanical behavior of PVC gel in the electric field, which was considered to originate from the orientation of polarized plasticizer molecules and dipole rotation of PVC chains. By using the electrostatic adhesive force of PVC gel derived from the electromechanical transition, a new electroactive actuator can be developed for novel applications.

  15. Plasticizer migration from cross-linked flexible PVC. 1. Effects on tribology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannico, M.; Persico, P.; Ambrogi, V.; Carfagna, C.

    2010-06-01

    Utilization of soft PVC is restricted by plasticizer migration that can affect material properties, as well as its toxicity. Modifying the chemical structure of PVC is one of the most effective tool to reduce the diffusion of plasticizer. In this work, a soft cross-linked PVC was obtained using a difunctional amine, namely isophoron diamine (IPDA) as the cross-linking agent. The gel content (wt %) was evaluated by weighting the insoluble portion obtained through solvent extraction technique. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) revealed that cross-linking reactions promote thermal degradation phenomena in the polymer matrix. Tribological properties of soft uncross-linked, cross-linked and rigid PVC were determined. Soft formulations were held in contact for 32 days with rigid PVC sheets. Plasticizer migration towards the interface causes an increase of dynamic friction compared to that of the reference rigid PVC.

  16. Penelitian penggunaan minarex sebagai plasticizer untuk pembuatan kompon slang PVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niken Karsiati

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research is to find out the maximum quantity of Minarex as plasticizer which can be added in making compound PVC hose which fulfills the requirements of JIS K. 6771-77 “Flexible Vinyl Tube. Materials used are PVC resin added by additives, i.e DOP, BaCdZn, Stearic Acid, dyes and Minarex as DOP substitution. They all must be mixed and feed to two roll mill homogenizing. Temperature of operational is within 50-800C, roll speed is approximately 10 and 8,6 rpm. Then the compound is moulded into slab form using hydraulic press machine at 1700C, pressure 150 kg/cm2for 10 minutes. The slab is tested its physical properties including tensile strength, elongation at break, tensile strength after accelerated aging, and also observed organoleptically. Based on the research, compound with Minarex substitution 10 parts still conform to JIS K. 6771-77 and the appearance is good.

  17. Analysis of Phthalate Ester Content in PVC Plastics by means of FT-Raman Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørbygaard, Thomas; Berg, Rolf W.

    2004-01-01

    , medical devices and toys may harm the e.g. reproductive organs of exposed infants. PVC is readily distinguished from other common polymers (e.g. polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene) by the use of Raman spectroscopy. By far the most commonly used phthalate plasticizer in PVC is di(2-ethylhexyl......Polyvinyl chloride, PVC or [CH2-CHCl]n , is a common polymer used extensively for a wide range of industrial and household products. To achieve the proper material characteristics (e.g. softness, ductility), plasticizers such as phthalates are usually added to the otherwise hard and brittle PVC...

  18. Penelitian pengaruh plasticizer DOP terhadap sifat fisis slab kompon PVC untuk acuan sepatu

    OpenAIRE

    Kelompok Peneliti Proses Produksi Barang Plastik

    1984-01-01

    Abstract DOP Plasticizer is a chemical substance which its function is to increase the plasticity of PVC compound slab. By adding DOP plasticizer can imporoves the impact resistance properties and decrease the hardness of slab. The utilization of 30% DOP results the greatest impact resistance (6,1016 kg/cm), and the hardness 55 shore A of PVC coumpund slab produced by this experiment.

  19. Penelitian pengaruh plasticizer DOP terhadap sifat fisis slab kompon PVC untuk acuan sepatu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelompok Peneliti Proses Produksi Barang Plastik

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract DOP Plasticizer is a chemical substance which its function is to increase the plasticity of PVC compound slab. By adding DOP plasticizer can imporoves the impact resistance properties and decrease the hardness of slab. The utilization of 30% DOP results the greatest impact resistance (6,1016 kg/cm, and the hardness 55 shore A of PVC coumpund slab produced by this experiment.

  20. Impact of the nature and concentration of plasticizers on the ability of PVC to sorb drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Salloum, H; Saunier, J; Aymes-Chodur, C; Barakat, H; Yagoubi, N

    2015-12-30

    The sorption of a drug by an infusion set may dramatically reduce the drug delivery efficiency. In this paper, we investigated how the drug sorption, in static conditions, is affected by the plasticizer's nature and ratio in the case of plasticized PVC, one of the most common material for infusion set tubing. Within the study, the drug concentration in diazepam solutions was studied after contact with PVC films containing different amounts of DEHP, DEHT, TOTM and DINCH® plasticizers. Moreover the partition coefficients between material and water were calculated. The drug sorption levels were equivalent for the different plasticizers and there was a plasticizer ratio for which the drug uptake was enhanced. As a consequence, the amount of sorbed drug might not be only linked to the amount of plasticizer in the film and to the solubility of the drug in the plasticizer alone: it must probably depend on specific interactions between plasticizer and PVC.

  1. Plasticizer Effects in the PVC Membrane of the Dibasic Phosphate Selective Electrode

    OpenAIRE

    Clifton Carey

    2015-01-01

    The PVC membrane of an ion-selective electrode (ISE) sensitive to dibasic phosphate ions (HPO4-ISE) has not been optimized for maximum selectivity, sensitivity, and useable ISE lifetime and further work was necessary to improve its performance. Two areas of investigation are reported here: include the parameters for the lipophilicity of the plasticizer compound used and the amount of cyclic polyamine ionophore incorporated in the PVC membrane. Six candidate plasticizers with a range of lipoph...

  2. Analysis of PVC plasticizers in medical devices and infused solutions by GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdeaux, Daniel; Yessaad, Mouloud; Chennell, Philip; Larbre, Virginie; Eljezi, Teuta; Bernard, Lise; Sautou, Valerie

    2016-01-25

    In 2008, di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), was categorized as CMR 1B under the CLP regulations and its use in PVC medical devices (MD) was called into question by the European authorities. This resulted in the commercialization of PVC MDs plasticized with the DEHP alternative plasticizers tri-octyl trimellitate (TOTM), di-(2-ethylhexyl) terephthalate (DEHT), di-isononyl cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylate (DINCH), di-isononyl phthalate (DINP), di-(2-ethylhexy) adipate (DEHA), and Acetyl tri-n-butyl citrate (ATBC). The data available on the migration of these plasticizers from the MDs are too limited to ensure their safe use. We therefore developed a versatile GC-MS method to identify and quantify both these newly used plasticizers and DEHP in MDs and to assess their migration abilities in simulant solution. The use of cubic calibration curves and the optimization of the analytical method by an experimental plan allowed us to lower the limit of plasticizer quantification. It also allowed wide calibration curves to be established that were adapted to this quantification in MDs during migration tests, irrespective of the amount present, and while maintaining good precision and accuracy. We then tested the developed method on 32 PVC MDs used in our hospital and evaluated the plasticizer release from a PVC MD into a simulant solution during a 24h migration test. The results showed a predominance of TOTM in PVC MDs accompanied by DEHP (plasticizers and a non-linear kinetic release.

  3. Hyperbranched poly(epsilon-caprolactone) as a nonmigrating alternative plasticizer for phthalates in flexible PVC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeongsoo; Kwak, Seung-Yeop

    2007-05-15

    Hyperbranched (dendritic) poly(epsilon-caprolactone)s (HPCLs) were synthesized to have architectural variations, which are the different lengths of linear segments and different numbers of branches, and were used as plasticizers for flexible poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC). The plasticization efficiency estimated by the lowering of glass transition temperature and the enhancement in ultimate elongation indicated that the HPCLs with the shorter linear segments and the larger number of branches imparted as high flexibility as di(ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and much higher flexibility than their linear analogue, linear poly(epsilon-caprolactone), which is one of currently used polymer plasticizers. Volatility, extractability, and exudation tests for PVC/HPCL samples showed that there was no plasticizer migration even at very harsh condition, while ca. 7-78% of additives in PVC/DEHP was migrated out of samples, indicating that the HPCL can be used as an alternative plasticizer to remove the potential health risk from migrating phthalates during end use.

  4. Molecular surface structural changes of plasticized PVC materials after plasma treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoxian; Zhang, Chi; Hankett, Jeanne M; Chen, Zhan

    2013-03-26

    In this research, a variety of analytical techniques including sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG), coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) have been employed to investigate the surface and bulk structures of phthalate plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) at the molecular level. Two types of phthalate molecules with different chain lengths, diethyl phthalate (DEP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP), mixed with PVC in various weight ratios were examined to verify their different surface and bulk behaviors. The effects of oxygen and argon plasma treatment on PVC/DBP and PVC/DEP hybrid films were investigated on both the surface and bulk of films using SFG and CARS to evaluate the different plasticizer migration processes. Without plasma treatment, SFG results indicated that more plasticizers segregate to the surface at higher plasticizer bulk concentrations. SFG studies also demonstrated the presence of phthalates on the surface even at very low bulk concentration (5 wt %). Additionally, the results gathered from SFG, CARS, and XPS experiments suggested that the PVC/DEP system was unstable, and DEP molecules could leach out from the PVC under low vacuum after several minutes. In contrast, the PVC/DBP system was more stable; the migration process of DBP out of PVC could be effectively suppressed after oxygen plasma treatment. XPS results indicated the increase of C═O/C-O groups and decrease of C-Cl functionalities on the polymer surface after oxygen plasma treatment. The XPS results also suggested that exposure to argon plasma induced chemical bond breaking and formation of cross-linking or unsaturated groups with chain scission on the surface. Finally, our results indicate the potential risk of using DEP molecules in PVC since DEP can easily leach out from the polymeric bulk.

  5. Polymeric plasticizer extends the lifetime of PVC-membrane ion-selective electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahran, Elsayed M; New, Andrea; Gavalas, Vasilis; Bachas, Leonidas G

    2014-02-21

    The nature of the plasticizer plays a pivotal role in the analytical performance of polymer membrane ion sensors. Conventional plasticizers suffer leaching or migration from the membrane and exudation, both of which could limit the lifetime of sensors based on plasticized membranes. Herein, we describe the use of polyester sebacate (PES), a model polymeric plasticizer, in the preparation of poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC) membrane ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) using valinomycin as ionophore. PVC membrane electrodes plasticized with polyester sebacate demonstrated potentiometric response characteristics that compared favorably to ones plasticized with the conventional and similarly structured plasticizer bis(2-ethylhexyl) sebacate (DOS). Increasing the content of polyester sebacate in the membrane enhanced the response and improved the selectivity of valinomycin-based ISEs toward potassium over sodium. Various methods, including electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy, dark field optical microscopy, and potentiometry were employed to study the effect of plasticizer on the leaching of the membrane components and the lifetime of both DOS- and PES-plasticized membranes. PES-plasticized electrodes maintained Nernstian response and high selectivity for more than four months, an improvement over DOS-plasticized membrane electrodes. This was attributed to enhanced retention of the membrane components because of the high polymeric nature of the polyester sebacate. These characteristics suggest that polyester sebacate is a good candidate to replace the conventional plasticizers in preparing PVC membrane electrodes with longer lifetime.

  6. Quantification of five plasticizers used in PVC tubing through high performance liquid chromatographic-UV detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radaniel, Tsanta; Genay, Stéphanie; Simon, Nicolas; Feutry, Frédéric; Quagliozzi, Francesca; Barthélémy, Christine; Lecoeur, Marie; Sautou, Valérie; Décaudin, Bertrand; Odou, Pascal

    2014-08-15

    Searching for alternatives to di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate, a plasticizer that has been widely used in the manufacturing of PVC medical devices, has become a major challenge since a European regulation underlined some clinical risks. The aim of this study is to develop an HPLC-UV method to quantify the currently used alternative plasticizers to DEHP. Five plasticizers, acetyl tributyl citrate, di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate, di-(ethylhexyl)-terephthalate, di-isononyl-1,2-cyclohexane-dicarboxylate, and trioctyl trimellitate, were separated on a C8 stationary phase (2.6 μm, 100 mm × 4.6mm) under gradient elution in 13 min. They were detected at 221 nm leading to a quantification threshold from 0.3 to 750 μg/mL as a function of the plasticizer. Within-day and between-day precisions were inferior to 0.9% and 18%, respectively. The assays were validated according to the accuracy profile method. Plasticizers were extracted from PVC-tubing by dissolving PVC in THF then precipitating it in methanol with a yield of over 90% for each plasticizer. This assay could feasibly be used to quantify plasticizers in PVC medical devices.

  7. Analysis of plasticizers in PVC medical devices: Performance comparison of eight analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, L; Bourdeaux, D; Pereira, B; Azaroual, N; Barthélémy, C; Breysse, C; Chennell, P; Cueff, R; Dine, T; Eljezi, T; Feutry, F; Genay, S; Kambia, N; Lecoeur, M; Masse, M; Odou, P; Radaniel, T; Simon, N; Vaccher, C; Verlhac, C; Yessad, M; Décaudin, B; Sautou, V

    2017-01-01

    A wide variety of medical devices (MDs) used in hospitals are made of flexible plasticized polyvinylchloride (PVC). Different plasticizers are present in variable amounts in the PVC matrix of the devices and can leach out into the infused solutions and may enter into contact with the patients. The ARMED(1) project aims to assess the migration of these plasticizers from medical devices and therefore the level of exposure in patients. For the first task of the project, eight methods were developed to directly detect and quantify the plasticizers in the PVC matrix of the MDs. We compared the overall performances of the analytical methods using standardized and validated criteria in order to provide the scientific community with the guidance and the technical specifications of each method for the intended application. We have shown that routine rapid screening could be performed directly on the MDs using the FTIR technique, with cost-effective analyses. LC techniques may also be used, but with limits and only with individual quantification of the main plasticizers expected in the PVC matrix. GC techniques, especially GC-MS, are both more specific and more sensitive than other techniques. NMR is a robust and specific technique to precisely discriminate all plasticizers in a MD but is limited by its cost and its low ability to detect and quantify plasticizer contamination, e.g. by DEHP. All these results have been confirmed by a real test, called the " blind test " carried out on 10 MD samples.

  8. Surface modification of plasticized PVC by dry cleaning methods: Consequences for artworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales Muñoz, C.

    2010-03-01

    A study of dry cleaning methods for plasticized PVC has been undertaken using three commercial cloths recommended for plastics artworks, in addition to cotton swabs traditionally used in art conservation. The evaluation of the cleaning has focussed on the efficiency of the cleaners, and the physical and chemical damages caused by the cleaning. The physical and chemical modifications of the PVC surface have been studied by optical microscopy, non-contact profilometry and ATR-FTIR spectroscopy, while spectrocolorimetry and non-contact profilometry have been used for evaluating the cleaning efficiency. The results have shown that the cleaner's composition and the cleaning time play an important role in damaging the plasticized PVC surface. On the contrary, it has not been completely determined if the texture of the cleaning agents' surface had an influence on the cleaning efficiency.

  9. Isolation and molecular characterization of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic degrading fungal isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Muhammad Ishtiaq; Ahmed, Safia; Robson, Geoff; Javed, Imran; Ali, Naeem; Atiq, Naima; Hameed, Abdul

    2014-01-01

    The recalcitrant nature of polyvinyl chloride creates serious environmental concerns during manufacturing and waste disposal. The present study was aimed to isolate and screen different soil fungi having potential to biodegrade PVC films. After 10 months of soil burial experiment, it was observed that a number of fungal strains were flourishing on PVC films. On morphological as well as on 18rRNA gene sequence and phylogenetic basis they were identified as Phanerochaete chrysosporium PV1, Lentinus tigrinus PV2, Aspergillus niger PV3, and Aspergillus sydowii PV4. The biodegradation ability of these fungal isolates was further checked in shake flask experiments by taking thin films of PVC (C source) in mineral salt medium. A significant change in color and surface deterioration of PVC films was confirmed through visual observation and Scanning electron microscopy. During shake flask experiments, P. chrysosporium PV1 produced maximum biomass of about 2.57 mg ml(-1) followed by A. niger PV3. P. chrysosporium PV1 showed significant reduction (178,292 Da(-1)) in Molecular weight of the PVC film than control (200,000 Da(-1)) by gel permeation chromatography. Furthermore more Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance also revealed structural changes in the PVC. It was concluded that isolated fungal strains have significant potential for biodegradation of PVC plastics.

  10. 增塑PVC/SAN共混体系相容性研究%Study on Compatibility of Plasticized PVC/SAN Blend

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江天凯; 张军

    2012-01-01

    对不同配比的增塑聚氯乙烯/苯乙烯-丙烯腈共聚物(PVC/SAN)共混体系的性能进行了研究,并进行了扫描电镜、差示扫描量热、红外光谱和力学性能的测试与表征.结果发现,PVC和SAN是部分相容的;SAN的加入改善了增塑PVC/SAN共混体系的部分力学性能.%Plasticized PVC/SAN blends with different proportions were prepared by melting blending. Properties of the binary blends were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectra and mechanical properties. The results show that PVC and SAN is partially compatible. Some mechanical properties of PVC/SAN blend systems are improved by adding SAN.

  11. CORRELATION OF THE GLASS TRANSITION TEMPERATURE OF PLASTICIZED PVC USING A LATTICE FLUID MODEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    A model has been developed to describe the composition dependence of the glass transition temperature (Tg) of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) + plasticizer mixtures. The model is based on Sanchez-Lacombe equation of state and the Gibbs-Di Marzio criterion, which states that th...

  12. Switching of the electrical conductivity of plasticized PVC films under uniaxial pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasov, D. V.; Apresyan, L. A.; Vlasova, T. V.; Kryshtob, V. I.

    2011-11-01

    The jumplike switching of the electrical conductivity in wide-band-gap polymer (antistatic plasticized polyvinylchloride) films under uniaxial pressure is studied. In various plasticized PVC materials, the uniaxial pressure inducing a conductivity jump by four orders of magnitude or higher changes from several to several hundreds of bars, and this effect is retained at a film thickness of several hundred microns, which is two orders of magnitude larger than the critical film thicknesses known for other wide-band-gap polymers. In addition to the earlier interpretation of the conductivity anomalies in plasticized PVC, we proposed a phenomenological electron-molecular dynamic nanotrap model, in which local charge transfer is provided by mobile molecule segments in a plasticized polymer.

  13. PVC-plasticizer DEHP in medical products: do thin coatings really reduce DEHP leaching into blood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildenbrand, Sibylle L; Lehmann, Hans-Dieter; Wodarz, Roman; Ziemer, Gerhard; Wendel, Hans P

    2005-10-01

    The hemocompatibility of artificial surfaces in extracorporeal blood circulation systems can be improved by coatings. According to the literature, heparin coatings should avoid the leaching of the plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) into the blood from components made from plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC). DEHP and its metabolites are known to impair the fertility of male rodents; effects on human fertility are assumed. Three different surface coatings with and without heparin were examined in a Chandler Loop model at 37 degrees C using fresh human blood to evaluate their hemocompatibility and barrier property to plasticizer. The levels of toxic oxidation products of DEHP generated in the blood, particularly, were found as high as in the uncoated tubing. The coatings improved the hemocompatibility, but are not safe protection against the hazardous metabolites of DEHP. For pregnant women, neonates and children, we would recommend using the available surface-coated plasticized PVC tubing sets, but free of DEHP.

  14. Evaluation of retail fresh meat packagings covered with stretch films of plasticized PVC and non-PVC alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens Højslev; Togeskov, P.; Hallas, J.

    2004-01-01

    The characteristics and performance of several non-PVC stretch films were compared to those of plasticized PVC. Initially the main polymer components Of the film were identified by infrared spectrometry and differential scanning calorimetry. The differences between films in mechanical properties,...... (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) through a prolonged shelf-life test. No differences in meat quality during normal shelf-life were seen as a function of the film used....... to legislation. The potential for specific migration was investigated by solvent extraction followed by gas chromatography. Twenty-four components were identified, of which 11 could be compared to relevant migration limits based on evaluations of the EU Scientific Committee for Food. The release of solvents...... was estimated by direct thermal desorption at 100degreesC. Four films of different composition were used in a storage experiment with fresh beef. The meat quality was followed by measurements of colour, microbiological quality (total colony forming units and lactic acid bacteria) and lipid oxidation...

  15. Identification of fatty foods with contamination possibilities by plasticizers when stored in PVC film packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Duval Barros

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Poly-(vinyl chloride (PVC requires the addition of plasticizers - additives that give flexibility and malleability for its processing into flexible film. The most used ones are: di-(2-ethylhexyl adipate (DEHA and di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP. Toxic effects of DEHP have been observed by several authors. Phthalates are being replaced by alternative substances in PVC flexible products, because of their possible toxicological effects. DEHA is a substitute for phthalates widely used as a plasticizer in PVC materials for involving food. Some authors have shown that the exposure to DEHA also induces toxicity. A cross-sectional study was performed to identify which fatty foods carry the possibility of contamination by DEHP and DEHA. Eighteen different foods with at least 3% (m/m fat and the possibility of being wrapped in plastic film were determined. This study suggested that all foods were subject to contamination by DEHP and DEHA in those conditions - in decreasing consumption order of 96 to 22% in the convenience sample. New guidelines on the limits of DEHA and DEHP established by the Brazilian legislation, as additives in PVC film for packaging fatty food, are still relevant to ensure human health.

  16. Electromechanical and electro-optical functions of plasticized PVC with colossal dielectric constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hiromu; Hirai, Toshihiro

    2013-04-01

    A soft dielectric polymer, plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC gel), has been known as a characteristic actuator with electrotactic creep deformation. The deformation can be applied for bending and contraction. The mechanism of the deformation has been attributed to the colossal dielectric constant of the gel induced by dc field. The dielectric constant at 1 Hz, jumps from less than10 to thousand times larger value. The huge dielectric constant suggests the gel can have electro-optic function. In this paper, we introduce the gel can bend light direction by applying a dc electric field. The PVC gel can bend light direction depending on the electric field. Detailed feature of the light bending will be introduced and discussed. Bending angle can be controlled by dielectric plasticizer and electric field. The components of the gel, PVC and plasticizer themselves, did not show any effect of electro-optical function like the PVC gel. The same feature can be observed in other polymer, like poly(vinyl alcohol)-dimethyl sulphoxide gel, too.

  17. Plasticizer Effects in the PVC Membrane of the Dibasic Phosphate Selective Electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Clifton

    2015-12-01

    The PVC membrane of an ion-selective electrode (ISE) sensitive to dibasic phosphate ions (HPO4-ISE) has not been optimized for maximum selectivity, sensitivity, and useable ISE lifetime and further work was necessary to improve its performance. Two areas of investigation are reported here: include the parameters for the lipophilicity of the plasticizer compound used and the amount of cyclic polyamine ionophore incorporated in the PVC membrane. Six candidate plasticizers with a range of lipophilicity were evaluated for their effect on the useable lifetime, sensitivity, and selectivity of the ISE against 13 different anions. Selectivity was determined by a modified fixed interferent method, sensitivity was determined without interferents, and the usable lifetime evaluated at the elapsed time where 50% of the HPO4-ISE failed (L50). The results show that choosing a plasticizer that has a lipophilicity similar to the ionophore's results in the best selectivity and sensitivity and the longest L50.

  18. Plasticizer Effects in the PVC Membrane of the Dibasic Phosphate Selective Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clifton Carey

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The PVC membrane of an ion-selective electrode (ISE sensitive to dibasic phosphate ions (HPO4-ISE has not been optimized for maximum selectivity, sensitivity, and useable ISE lifetime and further work was necessary to improve its performance. Two areas of investigation are reported here: include the parameters for the lipophilicity of the plasticizer compound used and the amount of cyclic polyamine ionophore incorporated in the PVC membrane. Six candidate plasticizers with a range of lipophilicity were evaluated for their effect on the useable lifetime, sensitivity, and selectivity of the ISE against 13 different anions. Selectivity was determined by a modified fixed interferent method, sensitivity was determined without interferents, and the usable lifetime evaluated at the elapsed time where 50% of the HPO4-ISE failed (L50. The results show that choosing a plasticizer that has a lipophilicity similar to the ionophore’s results in the best selectivity and sensitivity and the longest L50.

  19. Migration of plasticizers from PVC medical devices: Development of an infusion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, L; Cueff, R; Chagnon, Mc; Abdoulouhab, F; Décaudin, B; Breysse, C; Kauffmann, S; Cosserant, B; Souweine, B; Sautou, V

    2015-10-15

    Alternatives to DEHP plasticizers are used in various PVC medical devices (MD) for infusion. As they are able to migrate from these MDs into infused solutions, they may come into contact with patient. Different and specific clinical parameters influence their migration in at-risk situations such as infusion. In contrast to the regulations for Food Contact Materials (MCDA), there is currently no acceptable migration limits for the use of these plasticizers in clinical situations. In order to assess their migration, and thus control the risks linked to these MDs, we developed a migration model for the plasticizers in MDs. To this end, we applied a cross-disciplinary methodological process similar to that used in the food-processing industry, taking into account the MDs' conditions of use in clinical practice. The simulation model is simple and includes the following conditions: MD should be tested with a dynamic method that respects our established clinical assumption (2 L of infused solutions via 13 dm(2) of plasticized PVC), at a temperature of 25 °C and during 24 h of contact, using a 50/50 (v/v) ethanol/water simulant. This model could be proposed as a tool for the safety evaluation of the patients' exposure risk to plasticizers from PVC medical devices for infusions.

  20. Studying DEHP migration in plasticized PVC used for blood bags by coupling Raman confocal microscopy to UV spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Salloum, H; Saunier, J; Tfayli, A; Yagoubi, N

    2016-04-01

    Plasticized PVC is widely used to make medical devices such as tubing, perfusion bags and blood bags. By using confocal Raman microscopy on a PVC sheet plasticized with around 40% of di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), we propose a simple and sensitive approach to studying and understanding the diffusion of plasticizers from polymers into the surrounding media. Moreover, we sought to correlate our findings to standard measurements conducted by UV spectroscopy. This study showed differences in the concentration gradient observed due to the diffusion of the plasticizer inside a PVC sheet. We can thus follow the critical DEHP ratios that can impact the diffusion process. Water and ethanol were chosen as storage media: in ethanol, the lowest concentration of DEHP was observed at the surface resulting in the formation of a less plasticized layer near the interface; unlike ethanol, PVC sheets stored in water showed a greater concentration of DEHP on the film surface as an exudation of DEHP onto the surface.

  1. Migrability of PVC plasticizers from medical devices into a simulant of infused solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, L; Cueff, R; Breysse, C; Décaudin, B; Sautou, V

    2015-05-15

    Medical devices (MD) for infusion and artificial nutrition are essentially made of plasticized PVC. The plasticizers in the PVC matrix can leach out into the infused solutions and may enter into contact with the patients. In order to assess the risk of patient exposure to these plasticizers we evaluated the migration performance of DEHP, DEHT, DINCH, and TOTM using a model adapted to the clinical use of the MDs. Each PVC tubing sample was immersed in a simulant consisting of a mixture of ethanol/water (50/50v/v) at 40°C and migration tests were carried out after 24h, 72h, and 10 days.DEHP had the highest migration ability, which increased over time. The amount of TOTM released was more than 20 times less than that of DEHP, which makes it an interesting alternative. DEHT is also promising, with a migration level three times smaller than DEHP. However, the migration ability of DINCH was similar to DEHP, with the released amounts equaling 1/8th of the initial amount in the tubing after 24h of contact. Taking into account the available toxicological data, TOTM and DEHT appear to be of particular interest. However, these data should be supplemented and correlated with clinical and toxicological studies on plasticizers and their metabolites.

  2. Application of electrostatic separation to the recycling of plastic wastes: separation of PVC, PET, and ABS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chul-Hyun; Jeon, Ho-Seok; Yu, Hyo-Shin; Han, Oh-Hyung; Park, Jai-Koo

    2008-01-01

    Plastics are widely used in everyday life as a useful material, and thus their consumption is growing at a rate of about 5% per year in Korea. However, the constant generation of plastic wastes and their disposal generates environmental problems along with economic loss. In particular, mixed waste plastics are difficult to recycle because of their inferior characteristics. A laboratory-scale triboelectrostatic separator unit has been designed and assembled for this study. On the basis of the control of electrostatic charge, the separation of three kinds of mixed plastics, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS), in a range of similar gravities has been performed through a two-stage separation process. Polypropylene (PP) and high-impact polystyrene (HIPS) were found to be the most effective materials for a tribo-charger in the separation of PVC, PET, and ABS. The charge-to-mass ratio (nC/g) of plastics increased with increasing air velocity in the tribo charger. In the first stage, using the PP cyclone charger, the separation efficiency of particles considerably depended on the air velocity (10 m/s), the relative humidity ( 20 kV), and the splitter position (+2 cm from the center) in the triboelelctrostatic separator unit. At this time, a PVC grade of 99.40% and a recovery of 98.10% have successfully been achieved. In the second stage, using the HIPS cyclone charger, a PET grade of 97.80% and a recovery of 95.12% could be obtained under conditions of 10 m/s, over 25 kV, a central splitter position, and less than 40% relative humidity. In order to obtain 99.9% PVC grade and 99.3% PET grade, their recoveries should be sacrificed by 20.9% and 27%, respectively, with moving the splitter from the center to a (+)6 cm position.

  3. Pemanfaatan minarex sebagai secondary plasticizer untuk pembuatan kompon sepatu boot PVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supraptiningsih Supraptiningsih

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research is to find out optimum amount of minarex (side product from Pertamina Jakarta as secondary plasticizer which can be added to PVS compound in order to obtain boots compound conforming to SII 1990-86: Sepatu boot PVC. Research yield is a slab made by hydraulic press machine. 1700 C and pressure 150 kg/cm2 and the time must be suitable with the thickness. From various types of minarex used for the research, four of them can be applied as secondary plasticizer at PVC compound for boots which conforms to SII 1909-89, i.e. minarex C type 2, minarex C type 3, minarex D type 3 for five parts each.

  4. Analysis of Adipate Ester Contents in PVC Plastics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.

    2006-01-01

    -ethylhexyl adipate or DEHA [103-23-1], also known as Adimoll® or di-octyl adipate, DOA, see Fig. 1. A widely used plasticizer in food (cling) films is DEHA, often in combination with polymers, epoxidized soya-bean oil, etcetera. DEHA also occurs in children toys. We have previously shown that the presence...

  5. Investigation of conductivity switching upon action of monoaxial pressure on plasticized PVC films

    CERN Document Server

    Vlasov, D V; Krystob, V I; Vlasova, T V

    2010-01-01

    The effect of conductivity switching of wideband polymers -plasticized PVC films under the influence of mono axial pressure is experimentally investigated. For various plasticizers the value of monoaxial pressure, causing jumps of conductivity on four and more orders, changes from units to hundreds bars, and the effect remains at a thickness of films of an order of hundreds micron, that is on two orders more than critical thickness for others wideband polymers. In addition to the reasons stated earlier on the interpretation of anomalies of plastic compounds conductivity, the phenomenological electron-molecular model of dynamic traps is considered, in which local transfer of charges is carried out by mobile segments of the plasticized polymer molecules.

  6. Nonlinear response and two stable electroconducting states in transparent plasticized PVC films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasov, D. V.; Apresyan, L. A.; Vlasova, T. V.; Kryshtob, V. I.

    2010-10-01

    The electric conductivity of transparent plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) films with thicknesses about 30-50 μm has been studied in electric fields with strengths significantly below the breakdown level. It is established that the PVC films exhibit spontaneous reversible transitions between two stable states—with high and relatively low conductivities, in which the bulk resistivity amounts to ˜103 and 106 Ω m, respectively. Relaxation current-voltage characteristics have been measured in a continuous regime, which allowed the Debye relaxation processes to be taken into consideration and effects related to the nonlinearity and transitions between indicated states to be separated. A regime with deterministic switching between the two conducting states has been observed. A simple qualitative model that describes the anomalous character of conductivity in polymer films is proposed.

  7. Production of Laccase by Cochliobolus sp. Isolated from Plastic Dumped Soils and Their Ability to Degrade Low Molecular Weight PVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirupati Sumathi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the utmost man-made problems faced today has been the ever-increasing plastic waste filling the world. It accounts for an estimated 20–30% (by volume of municipal solid waste in landfill sites worldwide. Research on plastic biodegradation has been steadily growing over the past four decades. Several fungi have been identified that produce enzymes capable of plastic degradation in various laboratory conditions. This paper presents a study that determined the ability of fungi to degrade low molecular weight polyvinyl chloride (PVC by the enzyme laccase. We have isolated a fungal species, Cochliobolus sp., from plastic dumped soils and they were cultured on Czapek Dox Agar slants at 30°C. The effectiveness of this fungal species on the degradation of commercial low molecular weight polyvinyl chloride (PVC was studied under laboratory conditions. Significant differences were observed from the FTIR, GC-MS, and SEM results in between control and Cochliobolus sp. treated PVC.

  8. Utilization of spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques to determine plasticizers in PVC; Utilizacao de tecnicas espectroscopicas e cromatograficas na determinacao de plastificantes em PVC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, Marcos R.; Chinelatto, Marcelo A. [Sao Carlos Univ., SP (Brazil). Centro de Caracterizacao e Desenvolvimento de Materiais]. E-mails: monteiro@ccdm.ufscar.br; mchinelatto@ccdm.ufscar.br; Cordeiro, Paulo J.M. [Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Central de Analises Quimicas e Instrumentais]. E-mail: cordeiro@iqsc.usp.br

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this work was to identify plasticizers in soft PVC toys using gas chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance as combined techniques. After extraction procedure the results of GC/NMR allowed to determine the kind of plasticizers. The results showed that DOP was found in five commercial samples investigated. The use of this phthalate in toys and children's articles are forbidden in some countries. In the quantification of soluble heavy metals by atomic absorption the level of Pb and Cd are below 63,3 mg Kg{sup -1} and 2,0 mg Kg{sup -1}, respectively. (author)

  9. PVC/PE基木塑复合材料性能研究%Study on the Property of PVC/PE Wood-plastics Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宝云; 陈伟; 杨柳; 宋艳江

    2011-01-01

    Using CPE ( chlorinated polyethylene), MAPE ( polyethylene-g-maleic anhydride), and ACR (polyacrylate) as the modifiers, PVC( polyvinyl chloride)/PE(polyethylene) blends and its wood-plastic composites(WPC) were prepared by an open mixing mill, and the sample laminates were prepared by a hot press molding machine. The effect of modifiers and wood-flour on the mechanical property, processing characteristics and dynamic thermal mechanical properties of the PVC/PE and its WPC materials were investigated. The result showed: CPE can improve the mechanical properties of PVC/PE blends dramatically, but the processing properties and storage modulus were decreased. In the same way, MAPE can improve the mechanical properties of PVC/PE WPCS obviously. ACR can improve the processing properties and storage modulus of PVC/PE blends and its' WPCS. On the contrary, wood-flour made the processing properties of WPC decreased evidently, but the storage modulus was improved and loss factor was decreased.%以氯化聚乙烯(CPE)、马来酸酐接枝聚乙烯(MAPE)、聚丙烯酸酯(ACR)为改性剂,采用二辊开炼机制备PVC/PE共混体系及其木塑复合材料(WPC),并采用热压成型的方法制备材料试样.考察了改性剂和木粉对PVC/PE及其WPC力学性能、加工性能及动态热机械性能的影响.结果显示:CPE能够显著提高PVC/PE共混体系的机械性能,使材料加工性能下降,储能模量降低;MAPE则能使PVC木塑复合材料力学性能大幅提高;ACR则能够提高材料的加工性能,使材料储能模量增大;木粉的加入使复合材料加工性能大幅下降,材料储能模量提高,损耗因子下降.

  10. Preparation and testing of a solid secondary plasticizer for PVC produced by chemical degradation of post-consumer PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, Lucía Pérez; Coiai, Serena; Ciardelli, Francesco; Passaglia, Elisa

    2015-12-01

    Post-consumer poly(ethylene therephthalate) (PET) obtained from milled water bottles was chemically degraded by glycolysis, using suitable amounts of diethylene glycol (DEG) and Ca/Zn stearate as catalyst system. The process was carried out by employing a melt mixer as the chemical reactor, which is the facility generally used for plastic compounding. The degraded PET products were first characterized from structural and thermal point of view by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR), Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and thereafter used alone or together with di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in poly(vinyl chloride) PVC formulations. The plasticization was, in fact, accomplished by using a binary system consisting of DEHP as primary plasticizer and a degraded PET product as secondary plasticizer (SP). The obtained materials were characterized through the main methods used to assess flexible PVC compounds: hardness in Shore A scale, thermal properties and quantitative migration of the plasticizer. The solid secondary plasticizer obtained from post-consumer PET improves both the processing characteristics and the thermal stability of the final flexible PVC compounds while maintaining their hardness within the top values of the Shore A scale. In addition, a considerable reduction of the plasticizers migration (23%) was obtained by optimizing the formulation.

  11. A PVC-foam material model based on a thermodynamically elasto-plastic-damage framework exhibiting failure and crushing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielen, A.W.J.

    2008-01-01

    A well known foam for naval sandwiches is PVC (polyvinyl chloride) foam. This foam exhibits elasto-damage behavior under tension and elasto-plastic behavior under compression. A proper material model is required for the prediction of the failure and post-failure behavior of these sandwiches during (

  12. PVC-U塑料门窗的焊接%Welding of PVC-U Plastic Door and Window

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢少恩; 王占永

    2006-01-01

    详细阐述了PVC-U型材的物理机械性能及门窗焊接工序中各种因素对焊接质量的影响,叙述了门窗焊接工序的详细工艺,分析了型材在焊接安装后易在焊缝或焊口旁开裂的原因及解决办法.

  13. Identification and quantification of 14 phthalates and 5 non-phthalate plasticizers in PVC medical devices by GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno, Pascal; Thomas, Sébastien; Bousquet, Claudine; Maggio, Annie-Françoise; Civade, Corinne; Brenier, Charlotte; Bonnet, Pierre-Antoine

    2014-02-15

    A GC/MS method was developed for the identification and quantification of 14 phthalates: 8 phthalates classified H360 (DBP, DEHP, BBP, DMEP, DnPP, DiPP, DPP and DiBP), 3 phthalates proposed to be forbidden in medical devices (DnOP, DiNP and DiDP) and 3 other phthalates none regulated (DMP, DCHP and DEP) which may interfere with hormone function. In order to identify and quantify other plasticizers that are commonly used in PVC medical devices such as DEHP substitute, 5 non-phthalate plasticizers (ATBC, DEHA, DEHT, TOTM, and DINCH) were included in this study. Analyses are carried out on a GC/MS system with electron impact ionization mode (EI). The separation of plasticizers is obtained on a cross-linked 5%-phenyl/95%-dimethylpolysiloxane capillary column 30m×0.25mm (i.d.)×0.25μm film thickness using a gradient temperature. Compounds quantification is performed by external calibration using an internal standard. Validation elements on standard solutions were determined using the ISO 12787 standard approach. Plasticizers are extracted from PVC medical devices using THF for dissolving the PVC part of the sample followed by precipitation of the PVC by addition of ethanol. The supernatant is injected into a GC/MS system after dilution in ethanol. Different validation elements, including extraction recoveries for all compounds or for DEHP a cross-validation of the extraction process using the European pharmacopoeia monograph 3.1.14 as reference method, are discussed. Results obtained on 61 medical devices in PVC and 12 raw materials used as plasticizers are given. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Unentangled star-shape poly(ε-caprolactone)s as phthalate-free PVC plasticizers designed for non-toxicity and improved migration resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Woohyuk; Chung, Jae Woo; Kwak, Seung-Yeop

    2014-07-23

    We develop a nontoxic unentangled star-shape poly(ε-caprolactone) (UESPCL) plasticizer with excellent migration resistance for the production of phthalate-free flexible poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) by means of the ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone, initiated from the multifunctional core, combined with end-capping, and vacuum purification processes. UESPCL is a transparent liquid at room temperature and exhibits unentangled Newtonian behavior because of its extremely short branched segments. UESPCL is biologically safe without producing an acute toxicity response. Torque analysis measurements reveals that UESPCL offers a faster fusion rate and a higher miscibility with PVC compared to a typical plasticizer, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). The solid-state (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrum reveals that PVC and UESPCL are miscible with an average domain size of less than 8 nm. The flexibility and transparency of the PVC/UESPCL mixture, that is, phthalate-free flexible PVC, are comparable to the corresponding properties of the PVC/DEHP mixture, and the stretchability and fracture toughness of PVC/UESPCL are superior to the corresponding properties of the PVC/DEHP system. Most of all, PVC/UESPCL shows excellent migration resistance with a weight loss of less than 0.6% in a liquid phase, whereas DEHP migrated out of PVC/DEHP into a liquid phase with a weight loss of about 10%.

  15. Influence of Al2O3 on the ionic conductivity of plasticized PVC-PEG blend polymer electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindran, D.; Vickraman, P.

    2016-05-01

    Polymer electrolytes with PVC-PEG blend as host matrix and LiClO4 as dopant salt was prepared through conventional solution casting method. To enhance the conductivity propylene carbonate (PC) was used as plasticizer. The influence of ceramic filler Al2O3 on the conductivity of the electrolyte films were studied by varying the (PVC: Al2O3) ratio. The films were subjected to XRD, complex impedance analysis and SEM analysis. The XRD studies reveal a marginal increase in the amorphous phase of the electrolyte films due to the incorporation of filler. The AC impedance analysis shows the dependency of ionic conductivity on the content (wt %) of filler and exhibit a maximum at 4 wt% filler. The SEM analysis depicts the occurrence of phase separation in electrolyte which is attributed to the poor solubility of polymer PVC in the liquid electrolyte.

  16. Identification and quantification by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of seven plasticizers in PVC medical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genay, Stéphanie; Feutry, Frédéric; Masse, Morgane; Barthélémy, Christine; Sautou, Valérie; Odou, Pascal; Décaudin, Bertrand; Azaroual, Nathalie

    2017-02-01

    Medical devices are generally made of polyvinyl chloride plasticized by six authorized plasticizers as alternatives to di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP) classified as reprotoxic class 1b. These are acetyl tri-n-butyl citrate (ATBC), di-(2-ethylhexy) adipate (DEHA), di-(2-ethylhexyl) terephthalate (DEHT), di-isononyl cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylate (DINCH), di-isononyl phthalate (DINP), and tri-octyl trimellitate (TOTM). The main objective of this study was to propose a new method using (1)H NMR spectroscopy to determine and quantify these seven plasticizers in PVC sheets, standard infusion tubings, and commercially available medical devices. Two techniques were compared: dissolution in deuterated tetrahydrofuran and extraction by deuterated chloroform. Plasticizer (1)H NMR spectra were very similar in both deuterated solvents; dissolution and extraction provided similar results. The sensitivity of this method enabled us to detect and quantify the presence of minor plasticizers in PVC. In nine commercially available samples, the major plasticizer was identified and quantified by (1)H NMR. In six samples, one, two, or three minor plasticizers were identified and also quantified. DEHP was detected in only one tubing. NMR is therefore very convenient for studying plasticizers contained in medical devices. Only small quantities of solvents and sample are required. It is not necessary to dilute samples to enter a quantification range, and it is sufficiently sensitive to detect contaminants.

  17. Effects of Bio-based Plasticizers on Mechanical and Thermal Properties of PVC/Wood Flour Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhua Xie

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Poly(vinyl chloride/wood flour (WPVC composites with dioctyl phthalate (DOP, dibutyl phthalate (DBP, cardanol acetate (CA, or epoxy fatty acid methyl ester (EFAME were prepared using twin-screw extrusion. The effects of plasticizers on the mechanical, dynamic mechanical, and melt rheological properties of composites and the thermal migration of plasticizers were characterized. The results demonstrated that WPVC/ DBP and WPVC/EFAME composites had better elongation at break; however, composites with bio-based plasticizers exhibited significantly higher impact strength. The morphology indicated that the compatibility between CA and WPVC was poor, while the surface of the composites showed good plasticity with the addition of DBP or EFAME. The PVC matrix with a plasticizer of higher molecular weight exhibited a higher glass transition temperature (Tg. The dynamic rheological test showed that WPVC/EFAME composites had the lowest storage modulus, loss modulus, and complex viscosity, but EFAME migrated more easily from composites than other plasticizers.

  18. Covalently linked plasticizers: triazole analogues of phthalate plasticizers prepared by mild copper-free “click” reactions with azide-functionalized PVC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earla, Aruna; Braslau, Rebecca

    2014-03-01

    Copper-free azide-alkyne click chemistry is utilized to covalently modify polyvinyl chloride(PVC). Phthalate plasticizer mimics di(2-ethylhexyl)-1H-triazole-4,5 dicarboxylate (DEHT), di(nbutyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazole-4,5-dicarboxylate (DBT), and dimethyl-1H-triazole-4,5-dicarboxylate(DMT) are covalently attached to PVC. DEHT, DBT, and DMT have similar chemical structures to traditional plasticizers di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di(n-butyl) phthalate (DBP), and dimethyl phthalate (DMP), but pose no danger of leaching from the polymer matrix and forming small endocrine disrupting chemicals. The synthesis of these covalent plasticizers is expected to be scalable, providing a viable alternative to the use of phthalates, thus mitigating dangers to human health and the environment.

  19. Analysis of the cracking problem of weld corner of PVC plastic-steel windows%PVC塑钢窗焊角开裂问题的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李慧

    2012-01-01

    The general cracking rules of weld corner of PVC plastic-steel windows are discussed.The main causes of weld corner cracking and the effect of PVC plastic-steel windows assembling plant,the installation process of PVC plastic-steel windows and the inherent quality of PVC profiles on weld corner cracking are analyed.The improvement measures are provided.%探讨了PVC塑钢窗焊角开裂的一般规律,分析了焊角开裂的主要原因以及PVC塑钢窗组装厂、PVC塑钢窗的安装过程、PVC型材的内在质量对焊角开裂的影响,并提出了改进措施。

  20. Mycelial fungi completely remediate di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, the hazardous plasticizer in PVC blood storage bag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradeep, S. [Enzyme Technology Laboratory, Biotechnology Division, Department of Botany, University of Calicut, Kerala 673 635 (India); Benjamin, Sailas, E-mail: sailasben@yahoo.co.in [Enzyme Technology Laboratory, Biotechnology Division, Department of Botany, University of Calicut, Kerala 673 635 (India)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three novel phthalate utilizing fungi: A. parasiticus, F. subglutinans and P. funiculosum. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fungi utilize DEHP in PVC plastics in situ, in simple mineral salt medium. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Employing these fungi, a batch process can remediate phthalates in plastics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phthalate-free PVC can be recycled afresh. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mineral salt and phthalate remediated into fungal biomass. - Abstract: This pioneering work describes how simply, inexpensively and efficiently novel fungi utilize the alarming plasticizer, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) blended in PVC blood storage bags (BB). In order to quantify total DEHP (33.5%, w/w) present in BB, it was extracted using n-hexane and confirmed by GC-MS. Three mycelial fungi, viz., Aspergillus parasiticus, Fusarium subglutinans and Penicillium funiculosum isolated in our laboratory form heavily plastics-contaminated soil - either singly or in consortium - completely consumed intact DEHP physically bound to BB by static submerged growth (28 Degree-Sign C) in simple basal salt medium (BSM). A two-stage cultivation strategy was adopted for the complete removal of DEHP from BB in situ. During the first growth stage, almost 70% DEHP contained in the BB was consumed in 2 weeks, accompanied by increased fungal biomass ({approx}0.15-0.35 g/g BB; OD {approx}7 at 600 nm) and a sharp declining (3.3) of initial pH (7.2). Spent BSM was replaced at this stagnant growth state (low pH), thus in the second stage, remaining DEHP bound to BB utilized completely (over 99%). Furthermore, A. parasiticus and F. subglutinans also grew well on scrapes of PVC water pipes in BSM. F. subglutinans was as efficient independently as consortium in completely utilizing the DEHP bound to BB, and these fungi offer great potentials for the inexpensive and eco-friendly bioremediation of phthalates in medical and allied PVC wastes on a large

  1. Compatibility and thermal stability studies on plasticized PVC/PMMA blend polymer electrolytes complexed with different lithium salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nimma Elizabeth

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The lithium salt (x (X= LiAsF6, LiPF6, LiN(C2F5SO22 , LiN(CF3SO22, LiBF4 was complexed with a host of poly(vinyl chloride (PVC/ poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA blend polymer and plasticized with a combination of ethylene carbonate (EC and propylene carbonate(PC. The polymer electrolyte films were prepared for constant PVC/PMMA blend ratio. The electrochemical stability and thermal stability of the solid polymer electrolytes were reported. The role of PMMA to the phenomena occurring at the interface between the electrolyte and the lithium metal electrode was explored.

  2. Resistance of particleboard panels made of agricultural residues and bonded with synthetic resins or PVC plastic to wood-rotting fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divino Eterno Teixeira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the resistance of three types of particleboard panel to biodeterioration, two of which bonded with synthetic resins and one bonded with PVC plastic. Composite panels were made using sugar cane straw particles as raw material which were bonded together with urea-formaldehyde (UF, tannin-formaldehyde (TANI and PVC plastic (PVC resins. Decay tests were performed following procedures outlined in the ASTM D2017-81/1994 standard, whereby sample specimens were subjected to attack by white rot fungus Trametes versicolor and brown rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum using pine (Pinus sp. and embaúba (Cecropia sp. as reference timber. Panels bonded with PVC resin were rated ‘resistant’ to attack by both fungi while those bonded with UF and TANI resins were rated ‘slightly resistant’ to their attack.

  3. Comparative acute toxicity of leachates from plastic products made of polypropylene, polyethylene, PVC, acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene, and epoxy to Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lithner, Delilah; Nordensvan, Ildikó; Dave, Göran

    2012-06-01

    The large global production of plastics and their presence everywhere in the society and the environment create a need for assessing chemical hazards and risks associated with plastic products. The aims of this study were to determine and compare the toxicity of leachates from plastic products made of five plastics types and to identify the class of compounds that is causing the toxicity. Selected plastic types were those with the largest global annual production, that is, polypropylene, polyethylene, and polyvinyl chloride (PVC), or those composed of hazardous monomers (e.g., PVC, acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene [ABS], and epoxy). Altogether 26 plastic products were leached in deionized water (3 days at 50°C), and the water phases were tested for acute toxicity to Daphnia magna. Initial Toxicity Identification Evaluations (C18 filtration and EDTA addition) were performed on six leachates. For eleven leachates (42%) 48-h EC50s (i.e the concentration that causes effect in 50 percent of the test organisms) were below the highest test concentration, 250 g plastic/L. All leachates from plasticized PVC (5/5) and epoxy (5/5) products were toxic (48-h EC50s ranging from 2 to 235 g plastic/L). None of the leachates from polypropylene (5/5), ABS (5/5), and rigid PVC (1/1) products showed toxicity, but one of the five tested HDPE leachates was toxic (48-h EC50 17-24 g plastic/L). Toxicity Identification Evaluations indicated that mainly hydrophobic organics were causing the toxicity and that metals were the main cause for one leachate (metal release was also confirmed by chemical analysis). Toxic chemicals leached even during the short-term leaching in water, mainly from plasticized PVC and epoxy products.

  4. Mycelial fungi completely remediate di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, the hazardous plasticizer in PVC blood storage bag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeep, S; Benjamin, Sailas

    2012-10-15

    This pioneering work describes how simply, inexpensively and efficiently novel fungi utilize the alarming plasticizer, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) blended in PVC blood storage bags (BB). In order to quantify total DEHP (33.5%, w/w) present in BB, it was extracted using n-hexane and confirmed by GC-MS. Three mycelial fungi, viz., Aspergillus parasiticus, Fusarium subglutinans and Penicillium funiculosum isolated in our laboratory form heavily plastics-contaminated soil - either singly or in consortium - completely consumed intact DEHP physically bound to BB by static submerged growth (28 °C) in simple basal salt medium (BSM). A two-stage cultivation strategy was adopted for the complete removal of DEHP from BB in situ. During the first growth stage, almost 70% DEHP contained in the BB was consumed in 2 weeks, accompanied by increased fungal biomass (~0.15-0.35 g/g BB; OD ~7 at 600 nm) and a sharp declining (3.3) of initial pH (7.2). Spent BSM was replaced at this stagnant growth state (low pH), thus in the second stage, remaining DEHP bound to BB utilized completely (over 99%). Furthermore, A. parasiticus and F. subglutinans also grew well on scrapes of PVC water pipes in BSM. F. subglutinans was as efficient independently as consortium in completely utilizing the DEHP bound to BB, and these fungi offer great potentials for the inexpensive and eco-friendly bioremediation of phthalates in medical and allied PVC wastes on a large scale through a batch process in alleviating the plactics waste management issue.

  5. Electrochemical methods for the determination of the diffusion coefficient of ionophores and ionophore-ion complexes in plasticized PVC membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodor, Sándor; Zook, Justin M; Lindner, Erno; Tóth, Klára; Gyurcsányi, Róbert E

    2008-05-01

    The diffusion coefficients of active components in ion-selective membranes have a decisive influence on the life-time and detection limit of the respective ion-selective electrodes, as well as influencing the rate of polarization and relaxation processes of electrically perturbed ion sensors. Therefore, the rational design of mass transport controlled ion-selective electrodes with sub-nanomolar detection limits requires reliable data on the diffusion coefficients. We have implemented electrochemical methods for the quantitative assessment of both the diffusion coefficients of free ionophores and ion-ionophore complexes. The diffusion coefficients of the pH-sensitive chromoionophore ETH 5294 and the calcium-selective ionophore ETH 5234 were determined in plasticized PVC membranes with different PVC to plasticizer ratios. The diffusion coefficient of the free chromoionophore determined by a chronoamperometric method was validated with optical methods for a variety of membrane compositions. The calcium-selective ionophore ETH 5234 was used as a model compound to assess the diffusion coefficient of the ion-ionophore complex calculated from the time required for the complexes to cross a freshly prepared membrane during potentiometric ion-breakthrough experiments. The difference between the diffusion coefficients of the free ionophore ETH 5234 and the ion-ionophore complex was found to be significant and correlated well with the geometry of the respective species.

  6. PVC塑料改性混凝土的温度挥发性研究实验分析%PVC Plastic Modified Concrete Temperature Volatile Research Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗海艳

    2016-01-01

    PVC plastic particles as fine aggregate in concrete replacement material, by adjusting the dosage proportion of different PVC plastic particles, making different PVC plastic modified concrete samples. To modified the volatilization rate of concrete and compressive strength as index, the mixed quantity of PVC plastic particles is studied through experiments and heating temperature on the properties of modified concrete resistance to high temperature. Results show that the modified PVC plastic particles and high temperature resistant performance of concrete and the heating temperature, the heating temperature and the increase of the dosage of PVC plastic particles, PVC plastic modified concrete volatilize quantity increase gradually, gradually reduce the compressive strength. In the case of the same dosage of PVC plastic particles, volatilize quantity and there is a linear relationship between heating temperature.%以PVC塑料颗粒作为混凝土中细骨料的替代材料,通过调整不同PVC塑料颗粒的掺量比例,制作不同的PVC塑料改性混凝土样品。以改性混凝土的挥发率和抗压强度作为指标,通过实验研究了PVC塑料颗粒掺量和加热温度对改性混凝土耐高温性能的影响。结果表明,改性混凝土的耐高温性能与PVC塑料颗粒和加热温度有关,随着加热温度和PVC塑料颗粒掺量的增加,PVC塑料改性混凝土的挥发量逐渐增加,抗压强度逐渐降低。在相同PVC塑料颗粒掺量的情况下,挥发量与加热温度之间存在一定的线性关系。

  7. Estudo do uso de plastificantes de fontes renovável em composições de PVC Study of the use of plasticizer from renewable sources in PVC compositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Madaleno

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Polímeros sintéticos são largamente utilizados em diversos produtos devido às suas propriedades físicas, químicas e facilidade de transformação. O poli(cloreto de vinila, conhecido como PVC, é um dos polímeros mais versáteis desenvolvidos pelo homem, de grande utilidade para a sociedade moderna. Suas aplicações incluem: janelas, calhas de chuva, revestimentos de paredes, portas, papel de parede, mangueiras, brinquedos, calçados, bolsas de sangue e tubos para condução de água. Em todas estas aplicações são utilizados aditivos junto à resina de PVC, sendo que um dos aditivos mais utilizados é o plastificante. Este estudo apresenta a análise comparativa de formulações flexíveis de PVC, baseada em dois plastificantes de origem renovável (óleo vegetal modificado - OVM e óleo vegetal modificado e epoxidado - OVME, e também dois plastificantes petroquímicos convencionais, di(2-etilhexil ftalato - (DEHP ou DOP e di(2-etilhexil adipato - (DEHA ou DOA. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas entre as propriedades mecânicas das formulações. Os diferentes plastificantes demonstram influenciar na dureza e resistência química das formulações, sendo que o grupo epóxi e a maior massa molar no plastificante vegetal apresentam maior compatibilidade com a resina de PVC. A análise de MEV apresenta uma provável exudação do plastificante OVM da matriz do PVC.Synthetic polymers have been widely used in manufactured products because of their physical and chemical properties and low cost of production. Poly(vinyl chloride, called PVC, is a versatile, inexpensive plastic whose use has become pervasive in modern society. Its applications include window frames, rain gutters, wall paneling, doors, wallpapers, flooring, garden furniture, toys, blood bags and pipes. In all of these applications additives are used, with plasticizers being among the most important. This work shows a comparative study among distinct

  8. 增塑剂对PVC电缆料电性能的影响%Influences of plasticizers on the electrical properties of PVC cable materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易碧霞

    2001-01-01

    介绍了DBP、TPP、DOP、TOTM、TCP、DIDP及M-50等增塑剂在不同用量时对PVC电缆料电性能的影响:随着增塑剂用量的增加,PVC电缆料的电性能一般呈下降趋势。实验发现TOTM和TCP两种增塑剂的电性能较优,其最佳用量为35~40份。%Influences of different using amount of plasticizers, such as DBP, TPP, DOP,TOTM, TCP, DIDP and M-50, on the electrical properties of PVC cable materials are introduced. Generally, with the increase of using amount of plasticizers, the electrical properties of PVC cable materials go down. It is found that the electrical property of PVC cable material with TOTM or TCP plasticizer is better, and that the optimum using amount of the above two kinds of plasticizer is 35~40 parts based on 100 parts PVC resin.

  9. A development and biological safety evaluation of novel PVC medical devices with surface structures modified by UV irradiation to suppress plasticizer migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haishima, Yuji; Isama, Kazuo; Hasegawa, Chie; Yuba, Toshiyasu; Matsuoka, Atsuko

    2013-09-01

    This study examines the chemical, physicochemical, and biological properties of PVC sheets treated with UV irradiation on their surfaces to suppress the elution of a plasticizer, di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), for developing novel polyvinyl chloride (PVC) medical devices. The PVC sheets irradiated under conditions 1 (52.5 μW/cm(2), 136 J/cm(2)) and 2 (0.45 mW/cm(2), 972 J/cm(2)) exhibited considerable toxicity in cytotoxicity tests and chromosome aberration tests due to the generation of DEHP oxidants, but no toxicity was detected in the PVC sheet irradiated under condition 3 (8.3 mW/cm(2), 134 J/cm(2)). The release of DEHP from the surface irradiated under condition 3 was significantly suppressed, and mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) converted from a portion of DEHP could be easily removed from the surface by washing with methanol. The physicochemical properties of the surface regarding the suppression of DEHP elution remained stable through all sterilizations tested, but MEHP elution was partially recrudesced by the sterilizations except for gamma irradiation. These results indicated that UV irradiation using a strong UV-source over a short time (condition 3) followed by methanol washing and gamma sterilization may be useful for preparing novel PVC products that did not elute plasticizers and do not exhibit toxicity originating from UV irradiation.

  10. An investigation of PVdF/PVC-based blend electrolytes with EC/PC as plasticizers in lithium battery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, S.; Sivakumar, P.

    2008-03-01

    Solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) composed of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVdF)-poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) complexed with lithium perchlorate (LiClO 4) as salt and ethylene carbonate (EC)/propylene carbonate (PC) as plasticizers were prepared using solvent-casting technique, with different weight ratios of EC and PC. The amorphicity and complexation behavior of the polymer electrolytes were confirmed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and FTIR studies. TG/DTA and scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies explained the thermal stability and surface morphology of electrolytes, respectively. The prepared thin films were subjected to AC impedance measurements as a function of temperature ranging from 302 to 373 K. The temperature-dependence conductivity of polymer films seems to obey VTF relation.

  11. Multiresidual LC-MS analysis of plasticizers used in PVC gaskets of lids and assessment of their migration into food sauces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambertini, F; Catellani, D; Vindigni, M; Suman, M

    2016-09-01

    Plasticizers may migrate from polyvinyl chloride (PVC) gaskets into the foodstuffs mainly by direct contact during the packaging and sterilization procedure, but also by means of occasional contacts occurring during shipment and storage. The present work reports a reliable liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method able to quantify the main plasticizers used in the PVC closure gaskets for metal lids to verify their compliance in both food contact materials and foodstuffs. The atmospheric pressure chemical ionization in the positive ion mode resulted the best performing interface for the multiresidual detection of the plasticizers taken into account, followed by selected/multiple reaction monitoring, selected ion monitoring or full scan experiments, depending on the compounds to detect. The method was single-laboratory validated, demonstrating to reach a good sensitivity, thus making possible to perform analysis without any preliminary sample purification or concentration step. It proved to be effectively applicable not only for the determination of plasticizers in PVC gaskets but also in complex food matrices. In particular, it was applied for monitoring plasticizer migration into sauces placed in contact with the lids in worst storage conditions, observing therefore their trend during the shelf-life. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Preparation and characterization of plasticized high molecular weight PVC-based polymer electrolytes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Ramesh; Geok Bee Teh; Rong-Fuh Louh; Yong Kong Hou; Pung Yen Sin; Lim Jing Yi

    2010-02-01

    Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)-based polymer electrolytes films consisting of lithium trifluromethanesulfonate (LiCF3SO3)-ethylene carbonate (EC) were prepared by the solution-casting method. Ionic conductivities of the electrolytes have been determined by an impedance studies in the temperature range of 298–373 K. Complexation of the prepared electrolytes is studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to confirm the thermal stability of the polymer electrolytes. The conductivity–temperature plots were found to follow an Arrhenius nature. All these films are found to be thermally stable until 132–167°C.

  13. Analysis of Polyadipate Ester Content in PVC Plastics by Means of FT-Raman Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.

    2006-01-01

    -ethylhexyl adipate or DEHA [103-23-1], also known as Adimoll or di-octyl adipate, DOA. A widely used plasticizer in food (cling) films is DEHA, often in combination with polymers, epoxidized soya-bean oil, etcetera. DEHA also occurs in children toys. We have previously shown that the presence of phthalate...

  14. 用竹材作衬材的PVC-U塑料窗%PVC-U Plastic Window Which Bamboo Materials are Used for the Lining Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵劲松

    2009-01-01

    介绍了一种用于建筑的PVC-U塑竹窗,其创新点是不用钢材而用竹材作PVC型材的衬材,这可使塑料窗原料成本降低17.00元/m2,窗重降低3.12kg/m2,不用钢材从而节煤(标准煤)10.37 kg/m2.不用煤从而减排CO2 38.02 kg/m2.

  15. Plasticizers, antioxidants, and other contaminants found in air delivered by PVC tubing used in respiratory therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Sandra S; Shaw, Brenda R; Wu, Alan H B

    2003-06-01

    Of the many compounds that leach from respiratory therapy tubing into air passing through it, we selected five compounds to analyze. The five compounds are known to be potentially carcinogenic, toxic or known to induce estrogenic activity. Parts-per-million and parts-per-billion concentrations of these species were found in the air passing through the tubing: the plasticizers di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-ethyl phthalate (DEP), the antioxidants butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT) and p-nonylphenol (p-NP), and the contaminant (from commercial preparation of DEHP) 2-ethylhexanol (2-EH). These levels are high enough to cause some concern about exposure for patients who use oxygen on a long-term basis, those sensitive or allergic to these species, or those with asthma. A method was developed for analysis of solid tubing samples, showing great variability in concentrations of small, volatile molecules from sample to sample. A method was also developed for pre-concentration of small molecules onto Tenax adsorbants from air passing through the tubing. Both solid samples and adsorbant loaded with analyte were analyzed by direct dynamic thermal desorption gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS). This study does not imply that adverse reactions by patients to chemical compounds leaching from respiratory medical tubing will occur but that further investigation is warranted.

  16. The effect of di-(-2-ethyl hexyl phthalate (Dehp as plasticizer on the thermal and mechanical properties of pvc/pmma blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamira Aouachria

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Plasticizers play a key role in the formulation of polymers and in determining their physical properties and processability. This study examines the effect of di(2-ethyl hexylphthalate (DEHP as plasticizer on the thermal and mechanical properties of PVC/PMMA blends. For that purpose, blends of variable composition, from 0 to 100 wt%, were prepared in the presence (15, 30 and 50 wt % and in the absence of di(2-ethyl hexylphthalate. The thermal degradation of the blends was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA in an atmosphere of synthetic air in the temperature range of 50-550°C. The variation of the mechanical properties, such as tensile behavior, hardness and impact resistance, were investigated for all blend compositions. The effect of the plasticizer on the same properties was considered. The results obtained show that a range of properties can be generated according to the blend compositions. Therefore, the addition of PMMA to the blends stabilized PVC, for the initial thermal degradation, and the addition of the plasticizer caused a decrease of stress at break and Young modulus.

  17. Migration of di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate and acetyltributyl citrate plasticizers from food-grade PVC film into sweetened sesame paste (halawa tehineh): kinetic and penetration study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulas, Antonios E; Zygoura, Panagiota; Karatapanis, Andreas; Georgantelis, Dimitris; Kontominas, Michael G

    2007-04-01

    Food-grade polyvinyl chloride (PVC) cling-film containing 5.3% (w/w) di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA) and 3.0% (w/w) acetyltributyl citrate (ATBC) plasticizers was used to wrap halawa tehineh (halva) samples. Samples were split into two groups and stored at 25+/-1 degrees C. One group was analyzed for DEHA and ATBC content at intervals between 0.5 and 240h of contact (kinetic study) and a second group was cut into slices (1.5mm thick) after 240h of halva/PVC contact and was analyzed for DEHA and ATBC content (penetration study). Determination of both plasticizers was performed using a direct gas chromatographic (GC) method after extraction of DEHA from halva samples. DEHA readily migrated into halva samples: the equilibrium amount of DEHA in halva (3.31mg/dm(2) film or 81.4mg/kg halva) corresponding to a loss of 54.7% (w/w) DEHA from PVC film. This value is slightly higher than the limit of 3mg/dm(2) of film surface set by the European Union for DEHA. The equilibrium amount of ATBC in halva was 1.46mg/dm(2) (36.1mg/kg) corresponding to a loss of 42.7% ATBC from PVC film. With regard to the penetration of both placticizers into halva samples, migration of DEHA was detectable up to the 7th slice beneath the surface of halva (total depth 10.5mm) while the migration of ATBC was detectable up to the 5th slice (total depth 7.5mm).

  18. The effect of priming solutions and storage time on plasticizer migration in different PVC tubing types--implications for wet storage of ECMO systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, David C; Torrance, Ida; Modine, Thomas; Gourlay, Terence

    2009-12-01

    The wet priming of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation systems and storage of these systems for rapid deployment is common practice in many clinical centers. This storage policy is, however, seen by many to be controversial due to the potential adverse effects associated with the migration of the di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate plasticizer (DEHP) from the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) circuit tubing and issues surrounding the maintenance of sterility. This study was performed to evaluate the effects of both short and long-term storage and priming fluid type on plasticizer migration from four commonly used PVC tubes in extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy circuits. The four tubes incorporating three plasticizers, two DEHP, one tri(2-ethylhexyl) trimellitate (TOTM), and one dioctyl adipate (DOA) were exposed to each of the three priming fluids for a period of 28 days. Samples were taken at time intervals of 1, 4, 8, 24, and 48 hours, followed by samples at 7, 14, and 28 days. Each sample was processed using a spectrophotomer and the concentration of plasticizer leaching into each solution at each time-point determined. There was a time dependent increase in plasticizer leached from each tube. The migration was greatly affected by both the priming fluid and tubing type. The migration of DEHP was higher than that of TOTM and DOA over both the short and long-term exposure levels. Plasticizer migration occurs from all of the tubes tested over the long term. The TOTM and DOA tubes performed better than the DEHP counterparts in the short term. Selection of priming fluid has a major bearing on plasticizer migration with significant lipid and protein containing fluids promoting higher migration than simple sodium chloride .9% solution prime. The results suggest that DOA tubing and sodium chloride. 9% solution priming fluid should be selected if wet primed perfusion circuits are to be used over short terms of storage.

  19. Electroless plating of PVC plastic through new surface modification method applying a semi-IPN hydrogel film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ming-Qiu, E-mail: mqwang1514@163.com; Yan, Jun; Du, Shi-Guo; Li, Hong-Guang

    2013-07-15

    A novel palladium-free surface activation process for electroless nickel plating was developed. This method applied a semi-Interpenetrating Polymer Network (semi-IPN) hydrogel film to modify the poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) surface by chemical bonds. The activation process involved the formation of semi-IPN hydrogel film on the PVC surface and the immobilization of catalyst for electroless plating linking to the pretreated substrate via N-Ni chemical bond. The hydrogel layer was used as the chemisorption sites for nickel ions, and the catalyst could initiate the subsequent electroless nickel plating onto the PVC surface. Finally, a Ni–P layer was deposited on the nickel-activated PVC substrate by electroless plating technique. The composition and morphology of nickel-plated PVC foils were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results of SEM and XRD show that a compact and continuous Ni–P layer with amorphous nickel phase is formed on the PVC surface. EDS shows that the content of the nickel and the phosphorus in the deposits is 89.4 wt.% and 10.6 wt.%, respectively.

  20. Electroless plating of PVC plastic through new surface modification method applying a semi-IPN hydrogel film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming-Qiu; Yan, Jun; Du, Shi-Guo; Li, Hong-Guang

    2013-07-01

    A novel palladium-free surface activation process for electroless nickel plating was developed. This method applied a semi-Interpenetrating Polymer Network (semi-IPN) hydrogel film to modify the poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) surface by chemical bonds. The activation process involved the formation of semi-IPN hydrogel film on the PVC surface and the immobilization of catalyst for electroless plating linking to the pretreated substrate via Nsbnd Ni chemical bond. The hydrogel layer was used as the chemisorption sites for nickel ions, and the catalyst could initiate the subsequent electroless nickel plating onto the PVC surface. Finally, a Ni-P layer was deposited on the nickel-activated PVC substrate by electroless plating technique. The composition and morphology of nickel-plated PVC foils were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results of SEM and XRD show that a compact and continuous Ni-P layer with amorphous nickel phase is formed on the PVC surface. EDS shows that the content of the nickel and the phosphorus in the deposits is 89.4 wt.% and 10.6 wt.%, respectively.

  1. Technical properties of packaging PVC films

    OpenAIRE

    V. A. Sedyh; A. V. Zhuchkov

    2013-01-01

    Dependence of thermal treatment of membrane PVC is set on a temperature. Influence of maintenance of plasticizer and heat treatment is shown on the physicomechanical parameters of membrane PVC. Influence of duration of mixing mixture components set on physicomechanical parameters membrane PVC.

  2. Technical properties of packaging PVC films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Sedyh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dependence of thermal treatment of membrane PVC is set on a temperature. Influence of maintenance of plasticizer and heat treatment is shown on the physicomechanical parameters of membrane PVC. Influence of duration of mixing mixture components set on physicomechanical parameters membrane PVC.

  3. Stability, compatibility and plasticizer extraction of quinine injection added to infusion solutions and stored in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faouzi, M A; Khalfi, F; Dine, T; Luyckx, M; Brunet, C; Gressier, B; Goudaliez, F; Cazin, M; Kablan, J; Belabed, A; Cazin, J C

    1999-12-01

    The stability of quinine was determined in various diluents and in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) containers. The release of diethyhexyl phthalate (DEHP) from PVC bags into intravenous infusions of quinine was also measured. We used an injection of two doses of quinine; quiniforme at 500 mg and quinimax at 400 mg in either 250- or 500-ml PVC infusion bags containing 5% dextrose, to give initial nominal concentrations of 2 or 1 mg ml(-1) quiniforme and 1.6 or 0.8 mg ml(-1) quinimax, the mean concentrations commonly used in clinical practice. Samples were assayed by stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the clarity was determined visually. Experiments were conducted to determine whether the stability and compatibility of quinine would be compromised, and whether DEHP would be leached from PVC bags and PVC administration sets during storage and simulated infusion. There was no substantial loss of quiniforme and quinimax over 1- or 2-h simulated infusion irrespective of the diluent, and storage during 8 h at 22 degrees C, 48 or 72 h at 4 degrees C and 96 h at 45 degrees C. Leaching of DEHP was also detected during simulated infusion delivery using PVC bags and PVC administration sets. The quantity was less than 2 microg ml(-1). During storage at 4 degrees C and room temperature the leaching of DEHP was low, but when the temperature was 45 degrees C the quantity was high, 21 microg ml(-1). To minimise patient exposure to DEHP, quinine solutions with all drugs should be infused immediately or stored for a maximum of 48 h at 4 degrees C.

  4. Covalent immobilization of lipase, glycerol kinase, glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase & horseradish peroxidase onto plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC strip & its application in serum triglyceride determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Chauhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives:Reusable biostrip consisting enzymes immobilized onto alkylamine glass beads affixed on plasticized PVC strip for determination of triglyceride (TG suffers from high cost of beads and their detachments during washings for reuse, leading to loss of activity. The purpose of this study was to develop a cheaper and stable biostrip for investigation of TG levels in serum. Methods: A reusable enzyme-strip was prepared for TG determination by co-immobilizing lipase, glycerol kinase (GK, glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase (GPO and peroxidase (HRP directly onto plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC strip through glutaraldehyde coupling. The method was evaluated by studying its recovery, precision and reusability. Results: The enzyme-strip showed optimum activity at pH 7.0, 35 o C and a linear relationship between its activity and triolein concentration in the range 0.1 to 15 mM. The strip was used for determination of serum TG. The detection limit of the method was 0.1 mM. Analytical recovery of added triolein was 96 per cent. Within and between batch coefficients of variation (CV were 2.2 and 3.7 per cent, respectively. A good correlation (r=0.99 was found between TG values by standard enzymic colrimetric method employing free enzymes and the present method. The strip lost 50 per cent of its initial activity after its 200 uses during the span of 100 days, when stored at 4 o C. Interpretation & conclusions: The nitrating acidic treatment of plasticized PVC strip led to glutaraldehyde coupling of four enzymes used for enzymic colourimetric determination of serum TG. The strip provided 200 reuses of enzymes with only 50 per cent loss of its initial activity. The method could be used for preparation of other enzyme strips also.

  5. Evaluation of the effect of the concentration of plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate on the quantity of residual monomer vinyl chloride in PVC chest drainage tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kicheva, Y I; Richter, H; Popova, E

    2004-08-01

    The effect of amount of plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) amount on the amount of residual monomer vinyl chloride (VC) was determined in samples of plasticised polyvinyl chloride (PVC) with different concentration of plasticiser (22.32-33.05%), before and after sterilisation by a titrimetric method. The titrimetric method was used to determine the VC concentration in a KMnO4 solution where the samples were kept immersed under the same conditions for 2 h. The influence of PVC film extracts with different amounts of DEHP on mouse fibroblast cells L-929 in a culture medium was evaluated by using quantitative tests: the amount of cells (protein determination), viability (MTT test) and proliferation (incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine (BrDU). The amount of vinyl chloride before and after heat sterilisation at 120 degrees C for 30 min was found to be almost the same for all samples and without any dependence on the concentration of DEHP. The extracts of the PVC films which were tested have no toxic effect on cells in a culture medium.

  6. Gamma irradiation of food contact plastics: identification of tin-containing intermediates in the degradation of organotin-stabilised PVC by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, D.W.; Brooks, J.S.; Unwin, J.; McGuiness, J.D.

    1985-08-05

    A brief account is given of the use of radiation as a process for food preservation. In particular, the effect of radiation on food packaging plastic materials is considered. Results are presented for the effect of various doses of gamma radiation on PVC containing organotin stabilisers, showing the presence of varying amounts of intermediates and a steady increase in the amount of tin (IV) chloride. Thermal degradation produced only a trace of tin (IV) chloride, in contrast. The significance of the results is discussed.

  7. Preparation of Rigid Cross-Linking PVC Foam Plastics%硬质交联PVC泡沫塑料的制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雁国; 汪艳; 张慧

    2014-01-01

    Based on polyvinyl chloride(PVC) resin,rigid cross-linking PVC foam plastics with special performance were prepared by isocyanate and melamine which were used as the cross-linking agent and maleic anhydride which was used as the grafting agent. It is confirmed that the cross-linking reaction happen in the boiling process phase by infrared spectrum analysis, thermal gravimetric analysis,thermal mechanical analysis and gel content measurement. It also shows that the glass transition temperature of the foam plastics is at about 180℃. Dosage of maleic anhydride was studied on the influence of the gel content of the foam plastics,the amount of maleic anhydride has less effect on the degree of cross-linking in plasticization and molding phase and the gel content of the foam plastics is increased with the increase of dosage of maleic anhydride. Bubble pore diameter were measured by optical microscope. It shows that the distribution of bubble pore diameter are homogeneous,the bubble pore diameter of the foam plastics for the density of 60 kg/m3 are mainly distributed in 100~130 μm and the density of 90 kg/m3 are mainly distributed in 70~80 μm. By the determination of the mechanical properties of the foam plastics,it shows that the foam plastics has the same mechanical properties as the Swiss Airex C70 products.%以聚氯乙烯(PVC)为基体,马来酸酐为接枝剂,异氰酸酯、三聚氰胺为交联剂,制备出性能优异的硬质交联PVC泡沫塑料;通过红外光谱、热失重和热机械分析及凝胶含量测定对硬质交联PVC泡沫塑料进行分析,证实交联反应发生在水煮工艺阶段,玻璃化转变温度在180℃左右;研究了马来酸酐用量对硬质交联PVC泡沫塑料凝胶含量的影响,马来酸酐的用量在塑化成型阶段对交联度的影响较小,硬质交联PVC泡沫塑料的凝胶含量随着马来酸酐用量的增加而增大;用光学显微镜对硬质交联PVC泡沫塑料的泡孔直径进行了

  8. 腰果酚基乙酸酯增塑剂的合成及其增塑聚氯乙烯性能%Synthesis and application performance of environmentally-friendly plasticizer cardanol acetate for PVC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈洁; 李小英; 王义刚; 黄金瑞; 李科; 聂小安; 蒋剑春

    2015-01-01

    As the plastic industry and the environmental awareness continuously grow, there is an urgent unmet need to develop new natural plasticizers with improved properties and cost competitiveness. Natural plasticizers from vegetable origin, such as modified or epoxidized vegetable oil, epoxidized fatty acid methyl eater and glycerin acetates, are alternatives for phthalate. Numerous raw materials have been used, like soybean, corn, sunflower, palm, flaxseed. As one of the most commonly used renewable raw material, cardanol, and its derivatives, have important applications in developing new eco-friendly materials. In this work, the cardanol-based polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plasticizer, cardanol acetate (CA) was prepared by the reaction of cardanol with acetic anhydride using potassium carbonate as a catalyst. 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) and13C nuclear magnetic resonance (13C NMR) analyses were used to characterize the structure of the product. The results showed that the CA was obtained. The plasticizing effects of the obtained plasticizer onPVC formula were also investigated. The commercial phthalate plasticizer bis (2-ethylhexyl) benzene-1, 4-dicarboxylate (DOTP) was used as the control. Dynamic thermal mechanical properties, mechanical properties, thermal stability and compatibility were assessed by means of dynamic thermo mechanical analysis (DMA), tensile analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), respectively. The results indicated that the glass-transition temperature of the plasticized PVC samples decreased from 41.52 to 36.35°C, reflecting a good compatibility of the CA with polyvinyl chloride resin. The reasons for this performance were that the plasticizers mixed with CA had higher ability to lubricate by incorporating itself among the polymer chains, and therefore reduced PVC-PVC interactions due to the replacing partly by plasticizer-PVC interactions. From the characteristic temperatures in TGA

  9. Long-term Performance of PVC and CSPE Cables used in Nuclear Power Plants: the Effect of Degradation and Plasticizer migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekelund, Maria

    2009-10-15

    that the transport of DEHP to the surrounding environment was diffusion controlled at temperatures between 120 deg C and 150 deg C, with an activation energy of 89 kJ/mol. At lower temperatures, HTML clipboard =100 deg C, the loss of plasticizer was controlled by evaporation, with an activation energy of 99 kJ/mol. Under the latter conditions, the rate of plasticizer loss from the PVC cable was very similar to that from the pure plasticizer, suggesting that a film of plasticizer was formed on the PVC surface. The evaporation of DEHP showed a clear dependence on the rate of ventilation of the gas phase surrounding the cable. The ability to monitor the condition of the installed cables is dependent on good techniques for the remaining lifetime assessment. The condition monitoring technique, Line Resonance Analysis, was applied to chlorosulfonated polyethylene cables. A clear correlation between LIRA and indenter modulus data obtained and LIRA and tensile testing results was found. This is of interest since existing lifetime criteria used in the nuclear plants are based on these two testing techniques

  10. Study on Mechanical Properties of PVC Wood-plastic Composite%PVC基木塑复合材料力学性能的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈凡成; 贾润礼; 魏伟

    2011-01-01

    利用胺类改性剂M处理木粉,研究了改性剂M和力学性能改性剂丙烯腈-苯乙烯共聚物(AS)的用量对聚氯乙烯(PVC)基复合材料力学性能的影响.结果表明:随着改性剂M用量的增加,复合材料的拉伸强度、无缺口冲击强度、弯曲强度以及弯曲模量都呈先上升后下降的趋势,且当M用量略大于2%时达到最大值;随着AS用量的增加,复合材料的拉伸强度、弯曲强度及弯曲模量都呈逐渐上升的趋势,无缺口冲击强度呈逐渐下降的趋势,到8%时越于平缓.%The wood flour was treated by amine reagent (modifier M).The effects of content of modifier M and mechanical properties modifier (AS) on the mechanical properties of PVC wood-plastic composites were studied.The results show that with the increase of modifier M content, the tensile strength, non-notched impact strength, flexural strength and flexural modulus of the composites increase at first and then decrease; when the modifier M content is slightly more than 2%, the mechanical properties of the composites are up to the maximum values; with the increase of AS content, the tensile strength, flexural strength and flexural modulus of the composites increase gradually, while the non-notched impact strength decreases gradually, and there is no obvious change when AS content is 8%.

  11. A Series of Zr-Based Bulk Metallic Glasses with Room Temperature Plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anhui Cai

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A group of plastic Zr-Al-Ni-Cu bulk metallic glasses (BMGs with low Zr content was developed and their thermal and mechanical properties were investigated. The results show that these Zr-based BMGs have a single crystallization event for all heating rates in the studied temperature region. The glass transition temperature Tg decreases with increasing Zr content for all heating rates. There are two melting procedures for the BMGs whose Zr content is less than 52 at %, while three melting procedures for the other Zr-based BMGs. The second melting procedure is split into two melting procedures for Zr52.5Al12.2Ni12.6Cu22.7 and Zr53Al11.6Ni11.7Cu23.7 BMGs, while the first melting procedure is split into two melting procedures for the other BMGs. The activation energy decreases with increasing sensitivity index β for the studied Zr-based BMGs. The plastic strain εp is in the region of 0.2%–19.1% for these Zr-based BMGs. Both yield strength σy and fracture strength σf are smallest for Zr55Al8.9Ni7.3Cu28.8 BMG whose εp is largest among all studied Zr-based BMGs and reaches up to 19.1%. In addition, the mechanism for the large difference of the plasticity among the studied Zr-based BMGs is also discussed.

  12. Survey on plasticizers currently found in PVC toys on the Swiss market: Banned phthalates are only a minor concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCombie, Gregor; Biedermann, Sandra; Suter, Gaby; Biedermann, Maurus

    2017-01-27

    Plasticizers in toys are a recurring source of criticism and concern, as consumers feel they may endanger the health of their children. Most of the information available in literature concerns the presence or absence of certain phthalic acid ester plasticizers. Very little information can be found in the public domain with respect to the actually used plasticizers at a given time and place. In this paper, we present the plasticizer composition of 118 samples from 88 polyvinyl chloride toys found on the Swiss market in autumn 2015. Bis(2-ethylhexyl) terephthalate (DEHT) was by far the most frequent main plasticizer in the analyzed samples, which is a change when compared to the plasticizers found in toys and child care articles in 2007. Furthermore, the data show that the banned phthalates in toys are only a minor concern. The occurrence, however, is not evenly distributed between importers. If a toy is not designed to be sold on the European market by the manufacturer, it seems to be more likely to contain a banned phthalic acid ester.

  13. Plasticizing PVC with aliphatic polycarbonate plasticizers%聚脂肪族聚碳酸酯增塑聚氯乙烯

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛亚慧; 王小龙; 贺逍遥; 牛永盛

    2014-01-01

    考察了不同分子质量和不同用量的二氧化碳/环氧丙烷/γ-丁内酯三元共聚物(PPCGB)对聚氯乙烯的增塑效果,并通过稀溶液黏度法研究了聚氯乙烯和PPCGB的相容性.结果表明:当PVC和PPCGB的总质量为1 g、PPCGB的分子质量为15 890 g/mol时,PPCGB对PVC具有良好的增塑效果;当PPCGB用量不超过0.2g时,PVC和PPCGB相容,超过0.2g时,只能部分相容;当PPCGB用量为0.25 g时,PVC/PPCGB复合材料的断裂伸长率可达到164.7%.

  14. Properties of Plant Based Plasticizer HM-828 and Its Effect on PVC%生物基增塑剂HM-828性能及其对PVC性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毋亭亭; 潘海泉; 邓健能; 钟增培; 李道斌

    2016-01-01

    研究了新型环保生物基增塑剂二乙酰环氧植物油酸甘油酯(HM-828)的结构及主要性能;选用环氧大豆油(ESO)、邻苯二甲酸二辛酯( DOP)、邻苯二甲酸二异壬酯( DINP)、已二酸二辛酯( DOA)、偏苯三酸三辛酯( TOTM)及HM-828为增塑剂分别制备了增塑聚氯乙烯( PVC),对添加40份增塑剂的PVC制品的动态热稳定性、热老化质量损失、拉伸性能、硬度等进行表征。结果表明:六种增塑PVC混合物料中, DOA扭矩最小,加工能耗最低; HM-828的增塑性能与DOP和DINP相近; DOP/DINP/DOA/TOTM四种物料的耐热性不及HM-828和ESO;六种增塑PVC制品的热老化质量损失为DOA>DOP>DINP>HM-828>TOTM>ESO;其拉伸强度均大于20 MPa,断裂伸长率均大于270%;以DOP/DINP/DOA增塑PVC制品的邵氏硬度比另外三种高出7度左右。%The structure and physicochemical properties of glycery 1,2-diacetate-3-(9,10-) epoxy octadecanate was researched which was called as HM-828, a new environmentally friendly plant based plasticizer. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) was plasticized by epoxidized soybean oil ( ESO) , dioctyl phthalate ( DOP) , diisononyl phthalate ( DINP) , dioctyl adipate (DOA), trioctyl trimellitate (TOTM) and HM-828 for plasticizer, separately. Dynamic thermal stability, thermal aging quality loss, tensile properties and hardness of PVC with 40 portion plasticizer were characterized. It was found that the PVC plasticized by DOA had the minimum torque and energy consumption in the process. The plasticizing capacity of HM-828 was similar to DOP and DINP. The heat resistance of the PVC plasticized by DOP/DINP/DOA/TOTM were worse than those plasticized by HM-828 and ESO. The thermal aging quality loss of plasticized PVC were DOA>DOP>DINP>HM-828>TOTM>ESO, and their tensile strength and elongation at break were greater than 20 MPa and 270%, respectively. The Shore Hardness of the PVC plasticized by DOP/DINP/DOA were higher of about 7 degrees than others.

  15. Migration from plasticized films into foods. 1. Migration of di-(2-ethylhexyl)adipate from PVC films during home-use and microwave cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Startin, J R; Sharman, M; Rose, M D; Parker, I; Mercer, A J; Castle, L; Gilbert, J

    1987-01-01

    Migration of di-(2-ethylhexyl)adipate (DEHA) into a diverse range of foods arising from the domestic use of plasticized PVC films has been determined using a stable isotope dilution GC/MS procedure. Aspects of home use reported in this study include the wrapping and covering of foods such as cheese, cooked meats, sandwiches, cakes, fresh fruit and vegetables; the use of films during food preparation such as marinading; covering during microwave reheating of previously prepared foods, and covering during microwave cooking. Contact between film and foods was for differing temperatures and times, representative of the range of conditions likely to be experienced in practice in the home. Migration increased with both the length of contact time and temperature of exposure, with the highest levels observed where there was a direct contact between the film and food, and where the latter had a high fat content on the contact surface. Highest levels of migration were observed for cheese, cooked meats, cakes and for microwave-cooked foods, whilst lower levels were observed for wrapping of unfilled sandwiches, fruit and vegetables (except avocado), and for food preparation including microwave reheating where there was covering of the food in a container but little or no direct contact.

  16. Thermal degradation of PVC: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jie; Sun, Lushi; Ma, Chuan; Qiao, Yu; Yao, Hong

    2016-02-01

    This review summarized various chemical recycling methods for PVC, such as pyrolysis, catalytic dechlorination and hydrothermal treatment, with a view to solving the problem of energy crisis and the impact of environmental degradation of PVC. Emphasis was paid on the recent progress on the pyrolysis of PVC, including co-pyrolysis of PVC with biomass/coal and other plastics, catalytic dechlorination of raw PVC or Cl-containing oil and hydrothermal treatment using subcritical and supercritical water. Understanding the advantage and disadvantage of these treatment methods can be beneficial for treating PVC properly. The dehydrochlorination of PVC mainly happed at low temperature of 250-320°C. The process of PVC dehydrochlorination can catalyze and accelerate the biomass pyrolysis. The intermediates from dehydrochlorination stage of PVC can increase char yield of co-pyrolysis of PVC with PP/PE/PS. For the catalytic degradation and dechlorination of PVC, metal oxides catalysts mainly acted as adsorbents for the evolved HCl or as inhibitors of HCl formation depending on their basicity, while zeolites and noble metal catalysts can produce lighter oil, depending the total number of acid sites and the number of accessible acidic sites. For hydrothermal treatment, PVC decomposed through three stages. In the first region (T<250°C), PVC went through dehydrochlorination to form polyene; in the second region (250°C

  17. Specific migration of di-(2-ethylhexyl)adipate (DEHA) from plasticized PVC film: results from an enforcement campaign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens Højslev; Breindahl, T.

    1998-01-01

    , olive oil, followed by clean-up using size exclusion chromatography and final determination of di-(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA) by combined capillary gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In the initial screening, the samples were exposed to the alternative food simulant, isooctane, and DEHA...... Units. Initially, all films were screened for the migration into isooctane (exposed 2 h at 40 degrees C) of DEHA and other potentially present low molecular weight plasticizers using full scanning mass spectrometry. Films showing a substantial migration of DEHA were further tested with olive oil...

  18. Cryopreserved red blood cells for pediatric transfusion. Frozen storage of small aliquots in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeri, C R; Valeri, D A; Gray, A; Melaragno, A J; Vecchione, J J; Dennis, R C; Emerson, C P

    1981-01-01

    Human nonrejuvenated and rejuvenated red bood cells were prepared for cryopreservation and subsequent pediatric transfusion. Glycerol was added to the red blood cells in the primary polyvinyl chloride plastic collection bag to achieve a concentration of 40 per cent W/V. The red blood cells were concentrated by centrifugation, and the supernatant glycerol was discarded. Each glycerolized unit was divided into four equal aliquots in the individual 600-ml bags of a dry quadruple polyvinyl chloride plastic system, and each aliquot was frozen and stored at -80 C. After thawing, sodium chloride solutions were used to wash the aliquots in the IBM Blood Processor 2991-1 or 2991-2 or the Haemonetics Blood Processor 115, and the washed aliquots were stored in a sodium chloride-glucose-phosphate solution at 4 C for 24 hours. Freeze-thaw recovery of the red blood cells was about 97 per cent, and freeze-thaw-wash recovery was about 84 per cent. Twenty-four-hour posttransfusion survival values were about 92 per cent for both nonrejuvenated and indated-rejuvenated red blood cells. Nonrejuvenated red blood cells, those frozen within three to five days of collection without biochemical modification, had normal oxygen transport function at the time of transfusion; rejuvenated red blood cells, those biochemically treated with PIGPA Solution A after three to five days of storage at 4 C, had improved oxygen transport function at the time of transfusion.

  19. Applications and market of PVC for piping industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnny De N. Martins

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of plastic materials by the piping industry accounts for a significant volume of polymers. In this segment PVC represents the largest worldwide market for plastics. PVC is often used in plastic pressure pipe systems for pipelines in the water and sewer industries because of its inexpensive nature and flexibility. Pipes and fittings constitute the largest volume application at 40% of the marketplace. This paper discusses the piping extrusion process and the worldwide PVC market, emphasizing the Brazilian market. It is also presented a case study including an overall cost calculation for making an extrusion line for PVC piping.

  20. Specific migration of di-(2-ethylhexyl)adipate (DEHA) from plasticized PVC film: results from an enforcement campaign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens Højslev; Breindahl, T.

    1998-01-01

    Units. Initially, all films were screened for the migration into isooctane (exposed 2 h at 40 degrees C) of DEHA and other potentially present low molecular weight plasticizers using full scanning mass spectrometry. Films showing a substantial migration of DEHA were further tested with olive oil...... according to the declared field of application (exposed for 10 days at 40 degrees C). In 47 of the 49 films the migrate contained a substantial amount of DEHA. In 46 films the migration exceeded the specific migration limit of 3 mg/dm(2) after use of the relevant reduction factor given in legislation....... However, because of the general uncertainty of the analytical method and because the variation in the thickness of the films was calculated to be I mg/dm(2), the action limit in this campaign was 4 mg/cm(2). A migration higher than this action limit was found in 42 films (89% of the samples...

  1. 食品接触材料PVC中塑化剂迁移规律研究及迁移模型建立%Research on the migration regularity and the modeling building of plasticizers in food contact material PVC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜珍妮; 苗宏健; 李敬光; 吴永宁

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究在不同食品模拟溶液下 PVC 中塑化剂的迁移规律。方法运用同位素内标稀释结合气相色谱质谱方法检测 PVC 中的塑化剂邻苯二甲酸二异丁酯(DIBP)、邻苯二甲酸二丁酯(DBP)、邻苯二甲酸二(2-乙基)己酯(DEHP)和己二酸二辛酯(DEHA)。以3%乙酸、10%、20%、50%、95%乙醇作为食品模拟溶液,在25℃及40℃条件下对PVC中四种塑化剂的迁移情况进行研究。结果食品模拟溶液、温度对塑化剂迁移有影响;以Fick 第二扩散定律为依据,建立了 PVC 中塑化剂的迁移规律数学模型,得到了模型的重要参数。结论建立的模型可以提供有效的食品安全性评价。%ABSTRACT:Objective To study the migration rule of plasticizers from food contact material PVC under different food stimulants.Methods The content of plasticizer dilsobutyl phthalate (DIBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), di 2 ethyl hexyl phthalate (DEHP), and dioctyl adipate (DEHA) from PVC were detected by gas chro-matography-mass spectrometry coupled with the isotope internal standard dilution. Migration behavior of plas-ticizer DIBP, DBP, DEHP, and DEHA intofood stimulants of 3% acetic acid and 10%, 20%, 50%, 95% ethanol was studied at 25℃ and 40℃.Results The food stimulants and temperature were proved to have effects on the migration of plasticizers. The mathematical models of four plasticizers’ migration which based by Fick’s 2nd law was established and the models’ important parameters were also achieved.Conclusion The estab-lished models can effectively provide the food safety assessment.

  2. Study on Transferring for PF_6 Plasticized PVC Paste Resin Film%[bmim]PF_6增塑PVC糊树脂膜迁移规律研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江炜; 刘江涛

    2012-01-01

    文章应用固相萃取、液相色谱联用技术,研究了[bmim]PF6增塑PVC糊树脂膜中的[bmim]PF6在水环境及低酒精含量模拟溶剂(15%乙醇-水溶液)中的迁移规律,同时研究了[bmim]PF6迁移对薄膜力学性能的影响。结果表明:时间和温度对[bmim]PF6向水环境中迁移均有加速效应,在中性条件下迁移量较小,在酸性和碱性条件下迁移量较大。[bmim]PF6在低酒精含量模拟溶剂中与浸泡在去离子水中的薄膜迁移量相比,迁移量明显降低。增塑剂迁出后PVC糊树脂膜的断裂伸长率降低,弹性模量、拉伸强度均升高,可望用于医疗制品的开。%Transfer of plasticizers in water and simulated solvent of low-alcohol were studied by using solid-phase-extraction and high-performance-liquid-chromatography.Effect of plasticizer transfer on mechanical properties of the film was studied.The result showed that the operating conditions such as temperature and macerating time had a great accelerated effect on it.There was smaller migration in the neutral conditions,however,the migrations were volume in acidic and alkaline conditions.Compared with in the water environment,the migration was reduced evidenced in the simulated solvent of low-alcohol.The tensile strength and elastic moduli hoisted;and their elongation at break were dropped obviously.After transferring,the tensile strength and elastic moduli of PVC paste resin films' were hoisted,and their elongation at break dropped obviously.

  3. INVESTIGATION RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF PVC-BASED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Niftaliev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Obtained hydrophobic filler compositions based on PVC from calcium carbonate, which is a byproduct in the preparation of mineral nitrogen fertilizers. The methods for pretreatment of the chalk used as a filler in PVC compositions. Conducted modifying the properties of chalk with hydrophobic additives: stearic acid, zinc stearate, calcium stearate. When stearic acid treated chalk heating leads to an interaction with the surface layers of calcium carbonate, a thin film of calcium stearate. Therefore, more cost-effective to create compositions with PVC content of one percent of calcium stearate as its hydrophobic surface is easily wetted by the polymer matrix, which provides rapid mixing of PVC compounds. As a result, the excipient serves as an additional stabilizer, providing higher thermal stability of PVC products, compared with its values for the composition of the compared with the other ingredients. Extrusion processes that are central to the processing of PVC compounds filled by acting them filler, fractional increase heat and accelerate melting and increase output. The rheological properties of polymeric compositions created PVC. A significant reduction in viscosity observed for water repellent based on stearic acid. Study viscosity characteristics for hydrophobic additives showed that their activity increased in the series: zinc stearate, calcium stearate, stearic acid. It was established that modifying additives used in the preparation of hydrophobic carbonate filler PVC compositions exhibit both plasticizers and stabilizing properties.

  4. 硼化合物对WF-PVC热解和燃烧的影响%Influence.of boron compounds on pyrolysis and combustion behaviors of PVC wood-plastics composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白晓艳; 王清文; 张春生; 房轶群

    2012-01-01

    采用热重分析法和锥形量热仪测试方法研究硼化合物Na2B8O13·4H2O和2ZnO.3B2O3 ·3.5H2O对PVC木塑复合材料(WF- PVC)热解和燃烧过程的影响.结果表明:Na2B8 O13·4H2O对WF-PVC热解过程影响较小,2ZnO·3B2O3·3.5H2O使WF-PVC热解过程的残炭量从18.04%提高到27.57%.与未经处理的WF-PVC相比,加入硼化合物均使燃烧过程的总热释放量(THR)和总烟释放量(TSP)降低,其中,2ZnO·3B2O3·3.5H2O使THR和TSP分别降低36.3%和55.8%,阻燃和抑烟效果显著.2ZnO· 3B2O3·3.5H2O在WF-PVC中阻燃作用以凝聚相为主,同时伴随气相中的化学作用;Na2B8O13·4H2O在WF-PVC中为凝聚相作用机理.%effects of Na2O13· 4H2O and 2ZnO · 3B2O3· 3. 5H2O on pyrolysis and combustion behaviors of PVC wood-plastic composite (WF- PVC) were investigated by Thermo-gravimetry analysis CTGA) and Cone calorimeter (CONE) a-nalysis methods. It was showed that Na2B8O13· 4H2O had less effect on pyrolysis of WF-PVC ;the addition of 2ZnO · 3B2O3 · 3. 5 H2O could make residues increase from 18.04% to 27.57%, compared with WF-PVC. The total heat release (THR) and total smoke production (TSP) of PVC wood-plastic composite decreased with the introduction of 2ZnO · 3B2O3 · 3. 5H2O and Na2B8O13 · 4H2O, and they both showed fire-re-tardant and smoke-suppressant effect on the combustion processing ; for the WF- PVC composite containing 2ZnO · 3B2O3 · 3. 5H2O, the total heat release and total smoke production were decreased by 36. 3% and 55. S% respectively. 2ZnO · 3B2O3 · 3.5H2O used for WF-PVC mainly shows the characteristics of condensed phase for flame-retardant and associated with chemical reaction in gas phase. Na2B8O13 · 4H2O shows the characteristics of condensed phase for flame-retardant.

  5. REASONS ANALYSIS OF WELD CRACKING OF PVC PLASTIC DOOR AND WINDOW PROFILE%PVC塑料门窗型材焊缝开裂原因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文学; 王晓华

    2011-01-01

    The main forms and reasons of weld cracking of PVC door and window profile were discussed. The effect of welding stress on weld strength was analyzed mainly. Moreover, the method of controlling welding stress was mentioned.%论述了聚氯乙烯(PVC)塑料门窗型材焊缝开裂的主要形式和原因,主要分析了焊接应力对焊接强度造成的影响,并提出了控制焊接应力的方法.

  6. Penelitian pembuatan komponen PVC untuk bahan bangunan (enternit PVC dengan variasi filler serat batang pisang dan CaCO3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Rochani

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available This research is an experiment which use plastic material for making enternit. The plastic material is made of PVC resin 100 phr. by adding ingredients DOP 35 phr., EPO 5 phr., BaCdZn 3.5 phr., Stearic Acid 0.75 phr., CaCO3 varied 50-90 phr., and fibre of banana stem 20-40 phr. The experiment result proved that the PVC plastic material can made enternit sheet. The optimum value of physical properties is achiven by the PVC compound which using CaCO3 90 phr. and banana stem 40 phr.

  7. Preparation of maleic anhydride modified cassava lees/PVC wood plastic composites%马来酸酐改性木薯酒糟/PVC木塑复合材料制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃宇奔; 胡华宇; 张燕娟; 覃杏珍; 蒋婷; 杨梅; 黄爱民; 黄祖强; 罗袁伟

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on the preparation of cassava lees/PVC wood plastic composites ( WPC) by solid phase blending modification.Cassava lees/PVC WPC were prepared by hot press molding technology using cassava lees as reinforced material, PVC as polymer matrix, maleic an-hydride as modifier, internal mixer as synchronous mixing equipment, and plate vulcanizing press as plate-pressing machine.The effects of hot press temperature, pressure, time, dosage of maleic an-hydride, etc.on the properties of the composites were investigated, and the feasibility of synchronous modification of cassava lees and PVC by maleic anhydride was also discussed.The results show that under the conditions of cassava lees content 50%, hot press temperature 180 ℃, pressure 6 MPa, time 7.5 min, and the dosage of maleic anhydride of 1%, the bending strength and tensile strength of the cassava lees/PVC composite were 26.1 MPa and 11.1 MPa, respectively, meeting the re-quirements of the basic mechanics indexes of the composites.The addition of calcium zinc compound heat stabilizer could effectively improve the mechanical properties of the composites.With the dosage of heat stabilizer of 0.8%, the bending strength and tensile strength increased by 7.7% and 19.8%, respectively.Our results indicated that cassava lees and PVC could be modified synchronously by maleic anhydride in solid phase process, which improved the adhesion between fiber and polymer matrix and effectively enhanced the mechanical properties of WPC.%为研究固相共混改性法制备木薯酒糟/PVC木塑复合材料的工艺,探讨马来酸酐同步改性木薯酒糟和PVC的可行性,以木薯酒糟为增强原料,PVC为聚合物基体,马来酸酐为改性剂,密炼机为同步混炼设备,平板硫化机为压板机,采用热压成型技术制备酒糟/PVC木塑复合材料,研究热压成型温度、压力、时间、马来酸酐用量等因素对板材力学性能的影响。结果表明:在酒糟填充量50%

  8. Penelitian pengaruh variasi dioktyl phtalat dan azodicarbonamide terhadap ketahanan kikis dan berat jenis kompon sol PVC

    OpenAIRE

    Siti Rochani

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this research is to know influence of plasticizer Dioctyl Phtalat (DOP) and blowing agent Azodicarbonamide (ADCM) to the physical properties of abrasive resistant and density PVC compound for sole. It makes from PVC suspension EH 1000 as raw material with addition ingredients are DOP, epoxy plasticizer oil, Ba Cd Zn complex stabilizer, kicker, stearic acid and ADCM blowing agent. PVC compound for sole, formed to slab by hydraulic press at 170oC and than tested density and abrasive ...

  9. 聚氯乙烯钢塑门窗的涂装工艺%Coating Technology of Rigid PVC Plastic Door and Window

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯立明

    2002-01-01

    根据聚氯乙烯(PVC)的结构、性能特点及PVC钢塑门窗的使用环境,分析了适于PVC钢塑门窗表面涂装的涂料种类;制定了适宜的涂装工艺,并对各主要工艺作了较详细的说明.通过试验证明:采用该工艺在PVC钢塑门窗表面涂装丙烯酸树脂涂料或聚氨酯树脂涂料,能显著提高其外观装饰性,附着力可达到4~5级.

  10. Nonmigrating Equivalent Substitutes for PVC/DOP Formulations as Shown by a TG Study of PVC with Covalently Bound PEO-PPO Oligomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Rodrigo; Gacal, Tülin; Ocakoglu, Melike; García, Carolina; Elvira, Carlos; Gallardo, Alberto; Reinecke, Helmut

    2017-03-01

    Monoamino functionalized ethylenoxide (EO)/propylenoxide oligomers (Jeffamine) are linked chemically to poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) using trichlorotriazine chemistry in order to prepare nonmigrating internally plasticized materials. The dependence of the plasticizer efficiency on both the number of anchoring points to the chains and the PVC/plasticizer compatibility is investigated using oligomers of different molecular weight and hydrophilic-hydrophobic balance. Hydrophilic oligomers (containing predominantly EO) of molecular weights between 2000 and 5000 g mol(-1) exhibit excellent plasticizer efficiency, nearly identical to di-2-ethylhexylphthalate (DOP) in conventional PVC/DOP mixtures and may therefore be used as nonmigrating equivalents for DOP.

  11. PVC Gross Profit Climbed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter Zong

    2007-01-01

    @@ China has nearly 150 PVC (polyvinyl chloride) manufacturers operated in 2006. Here seventeen publicly listed companies are discussed, representing 25% of the national total output (8.23 million tons).

  12. Estimated daily intake of plasticizers in 1-week duplicate diet samples following regulation of DEHP-containing PVC gloves in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsumura, Y; Ishimitsu, S; Saito, I; Sakai, H; Tsuchida, Y; Tonogai, Y

    2003-04-01

    Duplicate hospital diet samples obtained over 1 week in 2001 were analysed to estimate the daily intake of plasticizers and the results were compared with those obtained in 1999. The plasticizers quantified in this study were: dibutyl phthalate, butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), diisononyl phthalate (DINP), di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA), diisononyl adipate (DINA) and O-acetyl tributyl citrate (ATBC). Dipropyl, dipentyl, dihexyl and dicyclohexyl phthalate were also analysed but not detected. The analytical procedure for this follow-up study was essentially the same as in the previous one. Detection limits were 0.1-15.6 ng g(-1) for each plasticizer. One-week duplicate diet samples provided by three hospitals in three remote prefectures of Japan were analysed as individual meals. DEHP was detected at 6-675 ng g(-1) in 62 of 63 meals, significantly lower levels compared with those detected in 1999. Levels of DEHA and DINP also decreased. The mean intake of plasticizers estimated from all samples was 160 microg DEHP day(-1), 12.5 microg DEHA day(-1), 4.7 microg DINP day(-1) and 3.4 microg BBP day(-1). Levels of DINA were relatively high in meals from one hospital: in those meals, the average daily intake was 1338 microg day(-1). Those of ATBC were also higher in meals from another hospital: the average daily intake was 1228 microg day(-1). The sources of DINA and ATBC can be cling-film or sausage packaging.

  13. Stability study of docetaxel solution (0.9%, saline) using Non-PVC and PVC tubes for intravenous administration

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Kang Hoon; Chung, Dong June

    2015-01-01

    Background Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) are added to poly(vinyl chloride)(PVC) infusion tubes as a plasticizer to ensure tube flexibility. In addition to previously reported disadvantages of DEHP, released DEHP molecules from PVC tubes can easily interact with surfactants in anticancer drug solutions (i.e., polysorbate 80 for Taxotere®-Inj) and reduce the solubility of docetaxel in aqueous solution during anticancer drug administration. Results In this study, we investigated the in vitro ...

  14. Technology Status-quo and Development Direction of PVC Pipes%国内外PVC管技术现状及发展方向

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李成吾; 左继成

    2015-01-01

    The molding technology of PVC pipes, toughening technology of PVC resin used in PVC pipes and assistants of PVC pipes were introduced. According to research and application of PVC pipes at home and abroad, it’s pointed out that, to develop PVC-M and PVC-O pipes is inevitable trend. The production technology of the foreign PVC-M pipes and PVC-O pipes has gradually matured. Compared with foreign, the production technology of the domestic PVC-M pipes is little different, but the production technology of the domestic PVC-O pipes is still in the laboratory research stage. In the next coming years, the domestic PVC plastic pipe industry must vigorously develop PVC-M pipes, and must strengthen the cooperation with scientific research institutes to develop the technology of PVC-O pipes as early as possible.%介绍了PVC管材的成型技术、PVC管材用树脂增韧改性技术以及PVC管材用助剂发展趋势。纵观国内外的研究和应用,发展PVC-M管和PVC-O管是必然趋势。国外PVC-M管和PVC-O管生产技术已渐进成熟,国内PVC-M管生产技术与国外差别不大,但国内PVC-O管生产技术仍停留在实验室研究阶段。今后几年,国内PVC管业应大力发展PVC-M管,应加强与科研院所合作,尽快开发出PVC-O管生产技术。

  15. Application of the Long-Chain Linear Polyester in Plastification of PVC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yan; WANG Changming; WANG Guojian; QU Zehua

    2008-01-01

    The plastification modification of poly(vinyl chloride)(PVC)with the long-chain linear polyester(LP)synthesized by linear dodecanedioic acid(DC12)or tetradecanedioic acid(DC 14)with different diols is investigated.The processing characteristics,mechanical properties and extraction property of the PVC/LP blends in different solvents(xylene,cyclohexane,ethanol)were also studied in detail.All results were compared with that of the PVC plasticized with dioctyl phthalate(DOP).The results show that the molecular weight,molecular structure and loading of LP greatly influence the mechanical properties of the PVC/LP blends.The processability and the mechanical properties of PVC plasticized by LP are comparable to those of the corresponding PVC/DOP blends.However,the PVC/LP blends posses much better migration resistance property than the corresponding PVC/DOP blends,which makes the long-chain linear polyester become a very good plasticizer candidate for PVC industry.

  16. 邻苯二甲酸二(2-乙基己基)酯在广式腊肠中的迁移特性%Migration of plasticizer di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate from PVC packaging material into cured meat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海光; 肖乃玉; 刘朝霞; 谭贵良; 刘垚

    2011-01-01

    利用增塑剂DEHP的皂化反应,采用膜/肉接触的比色管模式和气相色谱法,研究了温度、时间、脂肪含量和加工方式等因素对PVC膜中的增塑剂DEHP向广式腊肠迁移的影响。结果表明:随着温度的升高,时间的延长,脂肪含量的增加,DEHP向肉中的迁移量均会增大;在紫外照射、微波辐射和高温蒸煮等条件下,DEHP的迁移量也会增加,其中微波辐射的作用较为明显,如微波照射18 s后,DEHP的迁移量高达189.3342 mg/kg,紫外光照射48 h后,迁移量是173.5921 mg/kg。同时研究了DEHP迁移溶出后,PVC%The migration of plasticizer di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate(DEHP)existing in food packaging PVC film into Guangdong style sausage(GSS),was studied by the saponification reaction of DEHP,and the influence of temperature,time,fat content and processing method was also investigated by using the model of colorimetric tube of film/meat contact.The results indicated that the higher the temperature,the longer the time and the more the fat content,the faster the migration was.It showed that ultraviolet irradiation and microwave heating could enhance the migration of DEHP from PVC film into meat.After microwave heating for 18 s,the amount of migration of DEHP was 189.3342 mg/kg,while the amount of migration of DEHP was 173.5921 mg/kg after ultraviolet irradiation for 48 h.PVC film mechanical properties,and penetration of oxygen and moisture were studied after migration of plasticizer DEHP from PVC into GSS.It was observed that with the transfer of DEHP the power of pulling and breaking changed in PVC film,and the transfer of air and moisture distinctly decreased.

  17. Migration of additives from poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) tubes into aqueous media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Qian; Storm, Birgit Kjærside

    2005-01-01

    The stability and migration product of medical PVC tubes plasticized with polyadipates were investigated by ageing in phosphate buffer at pH 1.679 and water at different temperatures. Changes in the PVC tubes were studied by wtaer absorption, weight loss, Fourier infrared spectroscopy (FTIR...... from PVC matrix occurred. When the tube was aged at 110 C, significant degradation of both polyadipates and PVC were observed. Adipic acid and 1,4-butanediol monomers and oligomers of polyadipate were the major migration products from polyadipates in the water ageing solution, while only a relatively...

  18. Chemical Recycle of Plastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Fatima

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Various chemical processes currently prevalent in the chemical industry for plastics recycling have been discussed. Possible future scenarios in chemical recycling have also been discussed. Also analyzed are the effects on the environment, the risks, costs and benefits of PVC recycling. Also listed are the various types of plastics and which plastics are safe to use and which not after rcycle

  19. CHEMICALLY MODIFIED FIELD-EFFECT TRANSISTORS - POTENTIOMETRIC AG+ SELECTIVITY OF PVC MEMBRANES BASED ON MACROCYCLIC THIOETHERS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BRZOZKA, Z; COBBEN, PLHM; REINHOUDT, DN; EDEMA, JJH; KELLOGG, RM

    1993-01-01

    A chemically modified field-effect transistor (CHEMFET) with satisfactory Ag+ selectivity is described. The potentiometric Ag+ selectivities of CHEMFETs with plasticized PVC membranes based on macrocyclic thioethers have been determined. All the macrocyclic thioethers tested showed silver response a

  20. TG/FTIR analysis on co-pyrolysis behavior of PE, PVC and PS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jingli; Chen, Tianju; Luo, Xitao; Han, Dezhi; Wang, Zhiqi; Wu, Jinhu

    2014-03-01

    The pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis behaviors of polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) under N2 atmosphere were analyzed by Thermal gravimetric/Fourier transform infrared (TG/FTIR). The volatile products were analyzed to investigate the interaction of the plastic blends during the thermal decomposition process. The TGA results showed that the thermal stability increased followed by PVC, PS and PE. The pyrolysis process of PE was enhanced when mixed with PS. However, PS was postponed when mixed with PVC. As for PE and PVC, mutual block was happened when mixed together. The FTIR results showed that the free radical of the decomposition could combine into a stable compound. When PE mixed with PVC or PS, large amount of unsaturated hydrocarbon groups existed in products while the content of alkynes was decreased. The methyl (-CH3) and methylene (-CH2-) bonds were disappeared while PVC mixed with PE.

  1. Inhibition of membrane Na(+)-K+ Atpase of the brain, liver and RBC in rats administered di(2-ethyl hexyl) phthalate (DEHP) a plasticizer used in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) blood storage bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanya, C R; Indu, A R; Deepadevi, K V; Kurup, P A

    2003-08-01

    Significant amounts of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) leach out into blood stored in DEHP plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC) bags resulting in the exposure of recipients of blood transfusion to this compound. The aim of this study was to find out whether DEHP at these low levels has any effect on the activity of membrane Na(+)-K+ ATPase, since a decrease in this enzyme activity has been reported to take place in a number of disorders like neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders, coronary artery disease and stroke, syndrome-X, tumours etc. DEHP was administered (ip) at a low dose of 750 microg/100 g body weight to rats and the activity of membrane Na(+)-K+ ATPase in liver, brain and RBC was estimated. Histopathology of brain, activity of HMG CoA reductase (a major rate limiting enzyme in the isoprenoid pathway of which digoxin, the physiological inhibitor of Na(+)-K+ ATPase is a product), intracellular concentration of Ca2+ and Mg2+ in RBC (which is altered as a result of inhibition of Na(+)-K+ ATPase) were also studied. (In the light of the observation of increase of intracellular Ca2+ load and intracellular depletion of Mg2+ when Na(+)-K+ ATPase is inhibited). Histopathology of brain revealed areas of degeneration in the rats administered DEHP. There was significant inhibition of membrane Na(+)-K+ ATPase in brain, liver and RBC. Intracellular Ca2+ increased in the RBC while intracellular Mg2+ decreased. However activity of hepatic HMG CoA reductase decreased. Activity of Na(+)-K+ ATPase and HMG CoA reductase, however returned to normal levels within 7 days of stopping administration of DEHP. The inhibition of membrane Na(+)-K+ ATPase activity by DEHP may indicate the possibility of predisposing recipients of transfusion of blood or hemodialysis to the various disorders mentioned above. However since this effect is reversed when DEHP administration is stopped, it may not be a serious problem in the case of a few transfusion; but in patients receiving

  2. Plasticizers increase adhesion of the deteriogenic fungus Aureobasidium pullulans to polyvinyl chloride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Webb, JS; Van der Mei, HC; Nixon, M; Eastwood, IM; Greenhalgh, M; Read, SJ; Robson, GD; Handley, PS

    1999-01-01

    Initial adhesion of fungi to plasticized polyvinyl chloride (pPVC) may determine subsequent colonization and biodeterioration processes. The deteriogenic fungus Aureobasidium pullulans was used to investigate the physicochemical nature of adhesion to both unplasticized PVC (uPVC) and pPVC containing

  3. Plasticizers increase adhesion of the deteriogenic fungus Aureobasidium pullulans to polyvinyl chloride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Webb, JS; Van der Mei, HC; Nixon, M; Eastwood, IM; Greenhalgh, M; Read, SJ; Robson, GD; Handley, PS

    Initial adhesion of fungi to plasticized polyvinyl chloride (pPVC) may determine subsequent colonization and biodeterioration processes. The deteriogenic fungus Aureobasidium pullulans was used to investigate the physicochemical nature of adhesion to both unplasticized PVC (uPVC) and pPVC containing

  4. STUDY ON THE PYROLYSIS AND RECYCLING OF PVC WASTE AS AN ENERGY SOURCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    IntroductionIn China, the production of Poly (vinyl chloride)have reached 2 million tons in 1995, accounts forabout 33% of the total plastics market. PVC is themost common chlorinated plastic and accounts forabout half the chlorine in municipal solid waste. Themost obvious possibility of recycling of waste Plasticsas an enelgy source to Obtain fuel oil is pyrolysisl' (4].The Pyrolysis of chlorine containing polymers such asPVC has been studied extensively. Generally thethermal decomPOsition of PVC is a tWo ...

  5. The molecular interfacial structure and plasticizer migration behavior of "green" plasticized poly(vinyl chloride).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoxian; Li, Yaoxin; Hankett, Jeanne M; Chen, Zhan

    2015-02-14

    Tributyl acetyl citrate (TBAC), a widely-used "green" plasticizer, has been extensively applied in products for daily use. In this paper, a variety of analytical tools including sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG), coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS), contact angle goniometry (CA), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were applied together to investigate the molecular structures of TBAC plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) and the migration behavior of TBAC from PVC-TBAC mixtures into water. We comprehensively examine the effects of oxygen and argon plasma treatments on the surface structures of PVC-TBAC thin films containing various bulk percentages of plasticizers and the leaching behavior of TBAC into water. It was found that TBAC is a relatively stable PVC plasticizer compared to traditional non-covalent plasticizers but is also surface active. Oxygen plasma treatment increased the hydrophilicity of TBAC-PVC surfaces, but did not enhance TBAC leaching. However, argon plasma treatment greatly enhanced the leaching of TBAC molecules from PVC plastics to water. Based on our observations, we believe that oxygen plasma treatment could be applied to TBAC plasticized PVC products to enhance surface hydrophilicity for improving the biocompatibility and antibacterial properties of PVC products. The structural information obtained in this study will ultimately facilitate a molecular level understanding of plasticized polymers, aiding in the design of PVC materials with improved properties.

  6. Development of a continuous flow model system for studies of biofilm formation on polymers and its application on PVC-C and PVC-P

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corfitzen, Charlotte B.; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    could be harvested from three different combinations of flow velocity and residence time. Biofilm formation was followed by ATP analysis on test material (chlorinated polyvinylchloride, PVC-C), negative control (stainless steel) and positive control (plasticized polyvinylchloride, PVC-P) incubated...... in separate flow model systems. Results show a good agreement between biofilm densities on test pieces from the developed flow model system and batch-incubated test pieces during 16 weeks of incubation; average values during 8 to 16 weeks of operation were 40 pg ATP/cm2 for steel, 60 pg ATP/cm2 for PVC-C......, while most of the very deviating values for PVC-P were between 2-13,000 pg ATP/cm2. During 43 weeks of operation of the continuous flow model systems the biofilm formation increased on all three materials, with biofilm formation on PVC-C at the same level as on the negative steel control (values of 75...

  7. Investigation and Analysis of Production in a Given Area of PVC Material in Plastic Food Containers by PAEs Plasticizer Pollution%某地区生产的非PVC材质食品用塑料容器受PAEs增塑剂污染情况的调查和分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓东; 杜锡勇; 孙卫良; 詹剑良

    2015-01-01

    目的:初步调查浙江省某地区生产的非PVC材质食品用塑料容器受PAEs类增塑剂污染情况。方法:通过深入研究相关文献、国家标准和欧盟法规后,结合研究中PAEs类增塑剂含量及其特定食品模拟物迁移量检出情况,对其污染范围、程度及其安全性进行探索性调查。结果:在20批次的抽检容器中, PAEs类增塑剂DEHP、DBP和DIBP检出率分别为100.0%、35.0%和40.0%,检出量在0.10~57.70 mg/kg;在橄榄油模拟迁移试验中,5个样品中有DEHP检出,其迁移率最高可达15.4%。结论:PAEs类增塑剂在该地区食品用塑料容器的分布较广;通过特定食品模拟物迁移试验发现,在盛装高温油性食品时,PAEs类增塑剂会加速向食品中迁移,迁移量会超过相关标准限量,存在质量风险。%Objective: By sampling and texting, PAEs plasticizer contamination in a region of Zhejiang plastic Non-PVC food containers produced was studied. Methods: Through in-depth study of the relevant literature, standards and EU regulations, and binding of the data of plastic food packaging containers PAEs plasticizer content and specific detection of food simulant migration situation, this paper surveyed the scope of its pollution and the the secrity level exploratory. Results: In 20 batches of plastic food packaging containers, DEHP, DBP and DIBP detection rates were 100.0%、35.0%和40.0%, and PAEs detectable amount of 0.10 ~ 57.70 mg/kg; In the olive oil migration simulation tests, DEHP were detected in each sample, the maximum migration rate could reach to 15.4%. Conclusion: PAEs plasticizer in plastic food container in the region is widespread; Found by specific migration in food simulants: Especially at high temperature containing oily food, PAEs plasticizer will accelerate the migration from contain to food, migration may exceed the standard limit, and there is a quality risk.

  8. Quality control in the recycling stream of PVC from window frames by hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciani, Valentina; Serranti, Silvia; Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Di Maio, Francesco; Rem, Peter

    2013-05-01

    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) is one of the most commonly used thermoplastic materials in respect to the worldwide polymer consumption. PVC is mainly used in the building and construction sector, products such as pipes, window frames, cable insulation, floors, coverings, roofing sheets, etc. are realised utilising this material. In recent years, the problem of PVC waste disposal gained increasing importance in the public discussion. The quantity of used PVC items entering the waste stream is gradually increased as progressively greater numbers of PVC products approach to the end of their useful economic lives. The quality of the recycled PVC depends on the characteristics of the recycling process and the quality of the input waste. Not all PVC-containing waste streams have the same economic value. A transparent relation between value and composition is required to decide if the recycling process is cost effective for a particular waste stream. An objective and reliable quality control technique is needed in the recycling industry for the monitoring of both recycled flow streams and final products in the plant. In this work hyperspectral imaging technique in the near infrared (NIR) range (1000-1700 nm) was applied to identify unwanted plastic contaminants and rubber present in PVC coming from windows frame waste in order to assess a quality control procedure during its recycling process. Results showed as PVC, PE and rubber can be identified adopting the NIR-HSI approach.

  9. PET and PVC Separation with Hyperspectral Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroni, Monica; Mei, Alessandro; Leonardi, Alessandra; Lupo, Emanuela; La Marca, Floriana

    2015-01-01

    Traditional plants for plastic separation in homogeneous products employ material physical properties (for instance density). Due to the small intervals of variability of different polymer properties, the output quality may not be adequate. Sensing technologies based on hyperspectral imaging have been introduced in order to classify materials and to increase the quality of recycled products, which have to comply with specific standards determined by industrial applications. This paper presents the results of the characterization of two different plastic polymers—polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC)—in different phases of their life cycle (primary raw materials, urban and urban-assimilated waste and secondary raw materials) to show the contribution of hyperspectral sensors in the field of material recycling. This is accomplished via near-infrared (900–1700 nm) reflectance spectra extracted from hyperspectral images acquired with a two-linear-spectrometer apparatus. Results have shown that a rapid and reliable identification of PET and PVC can be achieved by using a simple two near-infrared wavelength operator coupled to an analysis of reflectance spectra. This resulted in 100% classification accuracy. A sensor based on this identification method appears suitable and inexpensive to build and provides the necessary speed and performance required by the recycling industry. PMID:25609050

  10. PET and PVC separation with hyperspectral imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroni, Monica; Mei, Alessandro; Leonardi, Alessandra; Lupo, Emanuela; Marca, Floriana La

    2015-01-20

    Traditional plants for plastic separation in homogeneous products employ material physical properties (for instance density). Due to the small intervals of variability of different polymer properties, the output quality may not be adequate. Sensing technologies based on hyperspectral imaging have been introduced in order to classify materials and to increase the quality of recycled products, which have to comply with specific standards determined by industrial applications. This paper presents the results of the characterization of two different plastic polymers--polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC)--in different phases of their life cycle (primary raw materials, urban and urban-assimilated waste and secondary raw materials) to show the contribution of hyperspectral sensors in the field of material recycling. This is accomplished via near-infrared (900-1700 nm) reflectance spectra extracted from hyperspectral images acquired with a two-linear-spectrometer apparatus. Results have shown that a rapid and reliable identification of PET and PVC can be achieved by using a simple two near-infrared wavelength operator coupled to an analysis of reflectance spectra. This resulted in 100% classification accuracy. A sensor based on this identification method appears suitable and inexpensive to build and provides the necessary speed and performance required by the recycling industry.

  11. In vitro investigation of the effect of plasticizers on the blood compatibility of medical grade plasticized poly (vinyl chloride).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Rui; Wang, Hong; Wu, Xia; Cao, Ye; He, Zeng; He, Yuliang; Liu, Jiaxin

    2013-08-01

    This paper reports the results of an in vitro investigation into the blood response of medical grade poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC), and two types of plasticized PVC in tubing or sheet form, with di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and di(isononyl) cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylate (HEXAMOLL(®) DINCH) as plasticizer, were selected for assessment of complement activation, coagulation system and platelet activation. The results of the study show that not only the plasticizers at PVC surface have an influence on complement activation, but also the incubation condition such as incubation time and the diameter of PVC tubing. Under static status, C3a, C5a and SC5b-9 concentration in the blood were higher after contacting with PVC plasticized with DEHP (PVC1) than after contacting with PVC plasticized with DINCH (PVC2). However, under dynamic circulation, the results were totally converse, which may be due to smaller diameter and higher shear rate of PVC2. In addition, there was a significant increase of activated partial thrombin time (APTT) and decrease of FIX concentration after plasma contacting with the PVC tubing, which indicated that the intrinsic pathway may be impacted when blood contacted with PVC tubing. However, there was no significant difference of APTT, FIX concentration and CD62p expression rate between the two materials. Moreover, the migration in the DINCH system was considerably lower than for DEHP, which indicates that DINCH could be a promising alterative plasticizer of DEHP.

  12. Interaction between vegetable oil based plasticizer molecules and polyvinyl chloride, and their plasticization effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haryono, Agus; Triwulandari, Evi; Jiang, Pingping

    2017-01-01

    Plasticizer molecules are low molecular weight compounds that are widely used in polymer industries especially in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) resin. As an additive in PVC resin, the important role of plasticizer molecules is to improve the flexibility and processability of PVC by lowering the glass transition temperature (Tg). However, the commercial plasticizer like di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) is known to cause liver cancer, at least in laboratory rats. DEHP can leach out from PVC into blood, certain drug solutions and fatty foods, which has been detected in the bloodstream of patients undergoing transfusion. Vegetable oil based plasticizers have some attractive properties such as non-toxic, bio-degradable, good heat and light stability, renewable resources, and environmentally friendly. Here we discussed the main results and development of vegetable oil based plasticizer, and especially palm oil based plasticizer. The interaction between plasticizer and polymer was discussed from the properties of the plasticized polymeric material.

  13. Emission of phthalates from PVC and other materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshari, A; Gunnarsen, L; Clausen, P A; Hansen, V

    2004-04-01

    The main objective of this study was to generate quantitative and qualitative emission data on phthalates from different materials. To achieve this the existing (Chamber for Laboratory Investigations of Materials, Pollution and Air Quality) Climpaq-based procedure for simplified measurements of emissions of plasticizer from PVC and other plasticized materials was modified. It was applied to a range of products. Some of them were suspected of contributing to the indoor concentration of plasticizers. The emissions from PVC flooring, polyolefine flooring, a refrigerator list, two electric cables, PVC skirting and floor wax were studied in separate Climpaqs. The emission from the PVC flooring in the Climpaq was compared with results from the ultra-small chamber Field and Laboratory Emission Cell (FLEC). Sampling and analysis methods were optimized to measure plasticizers. Samples were taken in exhaust air from the chambers after 6, 35, 62, 105, and 150 days from the start of the experiment. PVC flooring was tested for an additional 100 days. Polyolefine covered with wax resulted in an air concentration of 22 microg/m3 of dibutylphthalate (DBP), which is two orders of magnitude larger than any other materials, but did not emit di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP). The other materials resulted in max concentration of approximately 1 microg/m3 of DEHP and low emissions of DBP. The concentration of DEHP in each chamber increased slowly to a rather stable level which was reached after 150 days. DBP concentrations in the chambers with PVC skirting, PVC flooring, polyolefine and floor wax reached their quasi-static equilibrium after 60 days. The modified method did not create sufficient data for the calculation of emission rates. Adsorption of emission on chamber surfaces made it impossible to use the first part of the experiment for emission rate calculation. When the concentration had stabilized, it was found to be almost identical and independent of chamber and ventilation

  14. PVC塑钢窗的结构形式在建筑节能设计中的应用%Application Situation of the Structure Forms of PVC Plastic-Steel Window in Eco Design for Building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯光荣

    2016-01-01

    研究基于建筑节能设计要求及聚氯乙烯(PVC)塑钢窗型设计原则,结合建筑低碳环保设计理念及热力学原理,通过分析PVC塑钢窗的应用现状及现存问题,给予其最优化的建筑节能结构形式应用建议.

  15. A reciclagem de PVC no Brasil Recycling of PVC Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Magda Piva

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa discute as possibilidades práticas da reciclagem de PVC. Na reciclagem de polímeros, a do PVC representa uma importante parcela. PVC é um polímero que é usado em uma ampla faixa de produtos: filmes, fios, cabos, em compostos para uma variedade de formas. A reciclagem é uma técnica vantajosa, capaz de reproduzir as propriedades do polímero original, no polímero reciclado e isto em condições razoavelmente econômicas. A tecnologia brasileira, em relação a produtos reciclados, apresenta algumas diferenças da reciclagem tradicional. Métodos alternativos de reciclagens são necessários se os processos não desvalorizam os resultados finais.This research discuss the practical possibilities of recycling PVC. PVC, plays an important part in the recycleability of polymers; PVC is a polymer which is used in a very wide range of products -films, wire, cabes, in compounds for a variety of forms. Recycling is only worthwile, one is able to reproduce the original polymer properties in the polymer being recycled, and this under reasonable economics conditions. The brasilian technology that produces recycled products is a little different from the tradicional recycling. Therefore alternative methods to recycle are needed if recycling is not to devalue the end results.

  16. Flame Retardation Modification of Paper-Based PVC Wallcoverings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Hui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The flame-retarded paper-based polyvinyl chloride (PVC wallcoverings were successfully prepared, using plant fiber paper as base material and adding inorganic flame retardants and flame-retarded plasticizer as additives. Flame retardancy, thermostability, smoke suppression and mechanical properties were tested regarding to the prepared wallcoverings. The results showed that 2ZnO·3B2O3·3.5H2O could improve flame retardancy and thermostability of paper-based PVC wallcoverings; plasticizer tricresyl phosphate increased flame retardancy of the prepared materials auxiliarily. Also, flame-retarded paper-based PVC wallcoverings with higher flame retardancy, smoke suppression and mechanical property was prepared using plant fiber paper with fix quantity of 90 g/m3 as base material, using 2ZnO·3B2O3·3.5H2O as inorganic flame retardant, and using tricresyl phosphate as plasticizer. For the flame-retarded paper-based PVC wallcoverings in this study, the limit oxygen index (LOI reaches 32.3, maximal smoke density is 16.91 %, and the horizontal and longitudinal wet tensile strength reaches 1.38 kN·m−1 and 1.51 kN·m−1 respectively. Meanwhile, its flame retardancy meets the requirements about flame retardancy for material Class B1 listed in Chinese National Standards GB 8624-2012, Classification for burning behavior of building materials and products. This research creates an effective path to prepare paper-based PVC wallcoverings with high flame retardancy.

  17. PVC-gulve i baderum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, P.A.

    Denne SBI-anvisning indeholder forskrifter for udførelsen af PVC-gulve, så det sikres, at gulvene får en tilstrækkelig god kvalitet. Forskrifterne svarer stort set til de, der findes i Norge og Sverige. Afsnittet om primere, spartelmasser og klæbestoffer er dog udvidet en del, ligesom forskrifterne...... er forsynet med forklarende tekst. Prøvemetoderne for PVC-gulvbelægninger er anbefalet af NKB's gulvudvalg....

  18. Penelitian pengaruh variasi dioktyl phtalat dan azodicarbonamide terhadap ketahanan kikis dan berat jenis kompon sol PVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Rochani

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to know influence of plasticizer Dioctyl Phtalat (DOP and blowing agent Azodicarbonamide (ADCM to the physical properties of abrasive resistant and density PVC compound for sole. It makes from PVC suspension EH 1000 as raw material with addition ingredients are DOP, epoxy plasticizer oil, Ba Cd Zn complex stabilizer, kicker, stearic acid and ADCM blowing agent. PVC compound for sole, formed to slab by hydraulic press at 170oC and than tested density and abrasive resistant. The result of this reseach indicated that DOP and blowing agent ADCM variation are high significant to density and abrasive resistant properties of PVC compound for sole.

  19. Separation of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) from automobile shredder residue (ASR) by froth flotation with ozonation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, Mallampati Srinivasa [Department of Chemical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, 1-4-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8527 (Japan)]. E-mail: srireddys@hiroshima-u.ac.jp; Kurose, Keisuke [Department of Chemical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, 1-4-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8527 (Japan); Okuda, Tetsuji [Environmental Research and Management Center, Hiroshima University, 1-5-3 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8513 (Japan); Nishijima, Wataru [Environmental Research and Management Center, Hiroshima University, 1-5-3 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8513 (Japan); Okada, Mitsumasa [Department of Chemical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, 1-4-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8527 (Japan)

    2007-08-25

    The purpose of this study is to develop froth flotation to separate polyvinyl chloride (PVC) from automobile shredder residue (ASR) plastic mixtures of variable composition. Some polymers in ASR polymer mixtures have similar density and hydrophobicity with PVC and thus selective flotation of PVC from ASR polymer mixtures cannot be achieved. The present study focused on the surface modification of PVC with ozonation, and then the modified PVC can be separated from other polymers by the following froth flotation. The results of this study indicate that the selective recovery of PVC from real ASR polyethylene tetra pethelate (PET), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), polybutyl methacralate (PBMA), ethyl acrylate (EA), polycarbonate (PC) and rubber mixtures can be accomplished in a three-step process involving a gravity separation, ozonation and froth flotation. The rubber was removed from other heavy ASR (PVC, PET, PMMA, PBMA, EA and PC) polymers by froth flotation without mixing. It was found that ozonation process produced the desired difference in contact angle required (from 89.5 to 73.0{sup o}) for separation of PVC from other heavy ASR polymers, whereas the contact angles of other polymers was slightly decreased. The most of the load ASR, i.e. about 72.4% is floated away and 27.6% was settled down. The highest component 96.7% of PVC was recovered in the settled fraction. As a result of this research effort, the surface modification of PVC with ozonation can be efficiently useful to separate the PVC from other similar density ASR mixed polymers.

  20. Effect of Boric Diglyceride Palmitic Acid Ester on Properties of PVC-rice Hull Powder Wood-plastic Composite%硼酸二甘油酯棕榈酸酯对PVC-稻壳粉木塑性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜春霖

    2013-01-01

    以硼酸二甘油酯棕榈酸酯作为PVC-稻壳粉木塑润滑加工助剂应用于木塑的加工研究,考察了稻壳粉在木塑复合材料中加入量分别为30%、40%、50%、60%时产品的性能.结果表明:当加入比例增大时,产品的挤出速度、冲击强度、拉伸强度和弯曲强度都有不同程度的提高.当硼酸二甘油酯棕榈酸酯的加入量完全替代原有润滑剂使用时,PVC-稻壳粉木塑的挤出速度平均提高了3.98%.冲击强度平均增加了2.36%,拉伸强度平均增加了0.82%,弯曲强度平均增加了0.55%.同时吸水率最大增加了0.21%.

  1. A QSPR for the plasticization efficiency of polyvinylchloride plasticizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandola, Mridula; Marathe, Sujata

    2008-01-01

    A simple quantitative structure property relationship (QSPR) for correlating the plasticization efficiency of 25 polyvinylchloride (PVC) plasticizers was obtained using molecular modeling. The plasticizers studied were-aromatic esters (phthalate, terephthalate, benzoate, trimellitate), aliphatic esters (adipate, sebacate, azelate), citrates and a phosphate. The low temperature flex point, Tf, of plasticized polyvinylchloride resins was considered as an indicator of plasticization efficiency. Initially, we attempted to predict plasticization efficiency of PVC plasticizers from physical and structural descriptors derived from the plasticizer molecule alone. However, the correlation of these descriptors with Tf was not very good with R=0.78 and r2=0.613. This implied that the selected descriptors were unable to predict all the interactions between PVC and plasticizer. Hence, to account for these interactions, a model containing two polyvinylchloride (PVC) chain segments along with a plasticizer molecule in a simulation box was constructed, using molecular mechanics. A good QSPR equation correlating physical and structural descriptors derived from the model to Tf of the plasticized resins was obtained with R=0.954 and r2=0.909.

  2. Investigation on the mechanical and physical properties of TPU/PVC blend as potential material of bedpan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, M. I.; Shahnaz, S. S. B.; Luqman, M.; Anis, N. I.; Shuhaida, Y.; Zaharah, S. A.; Baidi, M. B.; Yu, C. W.; Kathiresan, V. S.

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the impact properties, chemical resistance and morphology of TPU/PVC blend in order to be used as potential material to fabricate bedpan. TPU and incorporation of PVC in TPU was done by melt-mixing method. The blends of TPU/PVC from melt mixing were then undergoing hot press compression moulding to produce sample with 3mm thickness. The blend sample was subjected to drop weight impact test, chemical resistance test and SEM test. Results from impact test showed that 30/70 TPU/PVC has recorded the maximum velocity impacted by 6 J of 1.8 m/s at 97ms while 50/50 TPU/PVC has the highest force (impact strength) of 0.95kN compared with other samples. The result also found that 50/50 TPU/PVC blend has lowest weight change, indicated that the blend has good resistance toward NaOH. HCl has a stronger effect on TPU/PVC blend compared to NaOH for all blend composition where 10/90 TPU/PVC showed highest resistance towards HCl. The micrograph shows that 50/50 TPU/PVC exhibited both smooth surface, indicating the brittleness of PVC and rough and the plasticity fractured surface, indicating the ductility of TPU features.

  3. Physico-Chemical Studies of the Pvc K+ - Selective Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana COROIAN

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A plasticized ion-selective membrane based on PVC matrix which tricrezylphosphate (TCP and containing K+ - ionophores (dibenzo-18-crown-6 and decyl-18-crown-6 was used to obtain a potentiometric potassium sensor. The potassium selective membranes were characterized in terms of their electrochemical and physical properties, surface morphology and structural parameters. The a.c. impedance, UV/VIS analysis of the membranes was also studied.

  4. 纳米TiO2含量对PVC/稻壳粉木塑复合材料性能的影响%Effects of Nano TiO2 Content on Properties of PVC/Rice Husk Powder Wood-Plastic Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宣博; 陈小丹; 陈佳伟; 刘玉涛; 姚雪霞

    2016-01-01

    Nano TiO2,rice husk powder,poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) and stabilizer and so on were blended according to certain proportion to prepare PVC/rice husk powder wood plastic composites with the extrusion. The effects of nano TiO2 content on the properties of the wood plastic composites were examined. The experimental results show that the mechanical properties,waterproof performance and thermal stability ofthe wood plastic composites first increase then decrease,but surface colors become shallow gradually along with nano TiO2 content increasing. The wood plastic composite which the content of nano TiO2 is 1.00 phr has best comprehensive properties,compared with non-adding nano TiO2 wood plastic composite,the tensile strength,impact strength,and bending strength are increased by 40.6%,62.2% and 19.7% respectively,the water absorption rate for 8 days is reduced from 2.5% to 1.6%,the contact angle is increased from 78.5°to 82.1°,and the content of remaining carbon at 800℃ is increased from 21.1% to 29.5%. The surface color of the wood plastic composites become shallow gradually along with nano TiO2 content increasing.%将纳米TiO2、稻壳粉、聚氯乙烯(PVC)和稳定剂等按一定比例混合,用挤出成型法制备PVC/稻壳粉木塑复合材料。考察纳米TiO2添加量对PVC/稻壳粉木塑复合材料性能的影响。实验结果表明,随着纳米TiO2含量的增加,木塑复合材料的力学性能、防水性能和热稳定性呈现先增加后降低的趋势,但木塑复合材料的表面颜色却随着纳米TiO2含量的增加而逐渐变浅。当纳米TiO2含量为1.00份时,木塑复合材料的综合性能最好,与未添加纳米TiO2的木塑复合材料相比,其拉伸强度、冲击强度和弯曲强度分别提高了40.6%,62.2%和19.7%,8 d的吸水率从2.5%降低为1.6%,表面接触角从78.5°增加到82.1°,800℃时的残炭率从21.1%提高到29.5%。

  5. Migration from PVC cling films compared with their field of application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens Højslev; Lillemark, L.; Lund, L.

    1997-01-01

    . Results of the migration testing were compared with the recommended and/or actual use of the PVC film and the labelling discussed in relation to the relevant EEC directives on food contact plastics. The correct labelling of plasticized PVC film intended for use in retail packaging is important to avoid......Samples of PVC cling films were taken at importers, wholesalers and retail shops, and their overall migration to the alternative food simulant iso-octane was measured, after establishment of a correlation between overall migration to olive oil at 40 degrees C in 10 days and to iso-octane in 2 h...... the risk of significant consumer intakes of the plasticizer di-(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA) after the film has been used in contact with fatty foodstuffs. Sixty percent of the films declared for use in contact with fatty foods showed too high overall migration compared with the current interpretation...

  6. 2006 Review of China's PVC Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gu Yao

    2007-01-01

    @@ 1 Capacity Increased rapidly China's PVC (polyvinyl chloride) sector continued to develop rapidly in 2006. The PVC production capacity was 12.84 million t/a in 2006, an in crease of 31% over 2005. PVC produced using the calcium carbide process accounted for 73.36% of the total.

  7. PVC基体表面抗菌镀层的组成及性能研究%Study on Composition and Properties of Antibacterial Co-Coating on PVC Plastic Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周苏闽

    2011-01-01

    在聚曩乙烯(pvc)材料表面,采用化学镀方法制备镍-磷-钼酸银(Ni-P-Ag2MoO4)复合镀层.运用SEM、EDS,AES和XPS对镶层的表面形貌和组成进行分析,并对镀层抗大肠杆菌和金黄色葡萄球置的性能及持久性进行了定量测试.结果表明:用优化工艺所得Ni-p-Ag2MoO4,镶层表面光滑、均匀、附着力好;镀层对大肠杆菌和金黄色葡萄球薯具有良好的抑制作用,耐久性能好.其相对愿子百分数约为Ni 62.41%、P19.02%、0 10.53%、Mo 2.63%、Ag 5.27%、C 0.15%.%The composite coating of Ni-P-Ag2MoO4 co-coating on PVC substrate surface was prepared. The surface morphology and composition was analyzed by SEM, EDS, AES and XPS. The antibacterial performance and antibacterial duration of the co-coating were investigated.The results show that: Ni-P-Ag2MoO4 co-coating prepared with optimal formula maintains a preferable adhesion and smooth uniform surface. It maintains a preferable antibacterial performance against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The relative atomic percent contents of the co-coating is Ni 62.41%, P 19.02%, O 10.53%, Mo 2.63%, Ag 5.27%, and C 0.15%.

  8. Effect of relative humidity and temperature on PVC degradation under gamma irradiation: Evolution of HCl production Yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labed, V.; Obeid, H.; Ressayre, K.

    2013-03-01

    The separate and combined effects of the relative humidity and temperature were investigated on the HCl production yields arising from two types of PVC subjected to gamma irradiation (pure PVC and PVC formulated with plasticizing additives). The test procedure developed included experiments performed at different dose rates (400 Gy h-1 and 4 kGy h-1), temperatures (room temperature and 70 °C) and relative humidity values (plasticized PVC at low dose rates, raising the temperature increases the HCl production by a factor of about 1.3, with either low or high relative humidity. For pure PVC, depending on the humidity and dose rate, G(HCl) varies differently with the temperature: at low humidity and low dose rates, G(HCl) increases by a factor of 1.7 for a 45 °C temperature increase; at high humidity, the same temperature increase does not result in a significant increase of G(HCl). The influence of the relative humidity on HCl production has not been clearly identified and interpreted. The relative humidity appears to be a factor limiting the effects of temperature on the formation of HCl from pure PVC at high dose rates. The G values remain constant and even diminish under some experimental conditions. For plasticized PVC, the relative humidity has no influence on the HCl production yields.

  9. EFFECT OF STRESS-INDUCED REACTIONS ON MORPHOLOGICAL STRUCTURE AND PROCESSABILITY OF PVC DURING PAN-MILLING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua-wei Zou; Wen Xu; Qing-fen Feng; Xi Xu

    2005-01-01

    The effect of pan-milling on morphological structure, processability and properties of PVC was studied through SEM, FTIR, granulometer, GPC and mechanical properties test in the hope of gaining ease in operation, needless of plasticizers, a clean and efficient route for improving the processability of PVC through stress-induced reactions,fulfilling the idea of "plasticizing PVC by itself'. The experimental results show that during pan-milling at ambient temperature, within 2-3 min, the microcrystalline structure of PVC becomes indistinct, the grain size of PVC is reduced from 130-160 μm to 1-50 μm the molecular weight of PVC is slightly decreased, the variation of molecular weight distribution is indistinct, the plasticizing time and torque at balance drop a great deal from 71-132 s to 31-33 s and from 18.2-22.1 Nm to 14.7-18.4 Nm, respectively, the processability of PVC is markedly improved, and the mechanical properties get enhanced too.

  10. A novel biobased polyester plasticizer prepared from palm oil and its plasticizing effect on poly (vinyl chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Puyou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, palm oil was the first time to convert into a novel polyester plasticizer for polyvinyl chloride (PVC. In the first stage, palm oil was converted into palm oil monoglyceride (POM by alcoholysis with glycerol. Next, a novel palm oil monoglycerides based polyester plasticizer (POMP was synthesized from POM and maleic anhydride through esterification and condensation reaction. The structure of POMP was characterized with FTIR, 1H NMR and GPC. Then PVC blends were prepared using POMP as a plasticizer, melting behavior, thermal property, compatibility, mechanical properties and mechanism of plasticization of PVC blends were systematically studied. Melting behavior indicated that POMP could decrease the torque and the melt viscosity of PVC blends that was conducive to process. With the content of POMP increasing from 5 g to 15 g in PVC blends, the plasticized PVC blends demonstrated better compatibility, the degradation temperature (Td increased from 252.6°C to 257.0°C, the glass transition temperature (Tg decreased from 55°C to 49.5°C. Plasticization was put into effect by interaction of the electron cloud between the PVC chain and POMP molecule. This study may lead to the development of new type of PVC plasticizer based on vegetable oil.

  11. PET and PVC Separation with Hyperspectral Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Moroni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional plants for plastic separation in homogeneous products employ material physical properties (for instance density. Due to the small intervals of variability of different polymer properties, the output quality may not be adequate. Sensing technologies based on hyperspectral imaging have been introduced in order to classify materials and to increase the quality of recycled products, which have to comply with specific standards determined by industrial applications. This paper presents the results of the characterization of two different plastic polymers—polyethylene terephthalate (PET and polyvinyl chloride (PVC—in different phases of their life cycle (primary raw materials, urban and urban-assimilated waste and secondary raw materials to show the contribution of hyperspectral sensors in the field of material recycling. This is accomplished via near-infrared (900–1700 nm reflectance spectra extracted from hyperspectral images acquired with a two-linear-spectrometer apparatus. Results have shown that a rapid and reliable identification of PET and PVC can be achieved by using a simple two near-infrared wavelength operator coupled to an analysis of reflectance spectra. This resulted in 100% classification accuracy. A sensor based on this identification method appears suitable and inexpensive to build and provides the necessary speed and performance required by the recycling industry.

  12. Penelitian pemanfaatan Minarex-B yang merupakan hasil samping pengilangan minyak sebagai bahan pemlastis sekunder dalam pembuatan kulit imitasi PVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Nadilah

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Application research of Minarex B type 2 and 3 as secondary plasticizer material in making PVC imitation leather is carried out through some stages, i.e. : 1. Making imitation leather sheet, 2. Physical testing of PVC imitation leather sheet, 3. Data analyzing from physical testing result. In making PVC compound for imitation leather lining is used to kinds of formulation, i.e : formula I (standard, without Minarex B, and formula II (with Minarex B. PVC imitation leather in this research consists of plastic lining and fabric lining, plastic lining consist of three linings, i.e : top coat, middle coat and base coat. Total Minarex B applicated is varieted, i.e : 4 part, 5 part and 6 part from subtitution result total DOP in PVC compound formulation. Physical testing data is evaluated to determine total and type of optimal Minarex B, so that it can be taken the conclusion that Minarex B can be used/applicated as secondary plasticize material in making PVC imitation leather with optimum limit 4 part. Optimum result Minarex B type 2 is not significance different from type 3.

  13. Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy for the fast identification of PVC-based films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laasonen, M; Rantanen, J; Harmia-Pulkkinen, T; Michiels, E; Hiltunen, R; Räsänen, M; Vuorela, H

    2001-07-01

    Near infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopy was used to develop a non-destructive and rapid qualitative method for the analysis of plastic films used by the pharmaceutical industry for blistering. Three types of films were investigated: 250 microm PVC [poly(vinyl chloride)] films, 250 microm PVC films coated with 40 g m(-2) of PVDC [poly(vinylidene dichloride)] and 250 microm PVC films coated with 5 g m(-2) of TE (Thermoelast) and 90 g m(-2) of PVDC. Three analyses were carried out using different pre-treatment options and a PLS (partial least squares) algorithm. Each analysis was aimed at identifying one type of film and rejecting all types of false sample (different thickness, colour or layer). True and false samples from four plastics manufacturers were included in the calibration sets in order to obtain robust methods that were suitable regardless of the supplier. Specificity was demonstrated by testing validation sets against the methods. The tests showed 0% of type I (false negative identification) and 1% of type II errors (false positive identification) for the PVC method, 13 and 3%, respectively, for the PVC-PVDC method and no error for the PVC-TE-PVDC method. Type II errors, mostly due to the slight sensitivity of the methods to film thickness, are easily corrected by simple thickness measurements. This study demonstrates that NIR spectroscopy is an excellent tool for the identification of PVC-based films. The three methods can be used by the pharmaceutical industry or plastics manufacturers for the quality control of films used in blister packaging.

  14. Nano-SiO2对软质PVC中DINCH增塑剂迁移行为的抑制作用%Effect of Nano-SiO2 on Inhibition of Plasticizer DINCH Migrating from Soft PVC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦晓洁; 蒋平平; 李志莹; 冷炎; 张萍波; 盛英佩

    2014-01-01

    将nano-Si02引入环己烷-1,2-二甲酸二异壬酯(DINCH)增塑的软质聚氯乙烯(PVC)中,研究了nano-SiO2用量对PVC试片中的DINCH在30℃、95%乙醇浸泡环境中的迁移行为及试片拉伸性能的影响.结果表明:增塑剂的迁移率随着浸泡时间的延长而呈总体上升趋势,前期上升较快,中期缓慢,后期逐渐趋于平衡;nano-SiO2的添加可以降低DINCH的迁移率,并且当nano-Si02用量为1份时,DINCH在溶剂中的迁移抑制率最大,而此时DINCH的挥发损失率亦最小;另外,随着nano-Si02用量的增加,PVC试片的拉伸强度和断裂伸长率有所下降,但降幅不大.

  15. The Effect of processing on the PVC/Clay Nanocomposites Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalendova, A.; Zykova, J.; Kovarova, L.; Slouf, M.; Gerard, J. F.

    2010-06-01

    Reported nanocomposites of poly(vinyl chloride) have been prepared using bentonite-based clay, Na-montmorillonite (nature clay) and organophilic clay 30B. Polymer nanocomposites of differing compositions were produced using Buss KO-kneader via melt intercalation method. The effect of different type of plasticizer (both low molecular and high molecular) and compounding conditions on the structure of PVC/clay nanocomposites was investigated. Different compounding conditions were tested to study their influence on nanoparticles dispersion, orientation and exfoliation in PVC/clay nanocomposites. The structure of PVC/MMT nanocomposites was observed using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy). It was found that the Na-montmorillonite offer low exfoliation level, while 30B modified by plasticizer exhibits fine dispersion of partial to nearly full exfoliated MMT. Moreover the processing conditions play also important role in nanocomposite production.

  16. RETGEM with polyvinylchloride (PVC) electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Razin, V I; Reshetin, A I; Filippov, S N

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a new design of the RETGEM (Resistive Electrode Thick GEM) based on electrodes made of a polyvinylchloride material (PVC). Our device can operate with gains of 10E5 as a conventional TGEM at low counting rates and as RPC in the case of high counting rates without of the transit to the violent sparks. The distinct feature of present RETGEM is the absent of the metal coating and lithographic technology for manufacturing of the protective dielectric rms. The electrodes from PVC permit to do the holes by a simple drilling machine. Detectors on a RETGEM basis could be useful in many fields of an application requiring a more cheap manufacturing and safe operation, for example, in a large neutrino experiments, in TPC, RICH systems.

  17. PVC cling film in contact with cheese: health aspects related to global migration and specific migration of DEHA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens Højslev; Naamansen, Ebbe Tubæk; Nielsen, Preben Aagård

    1995-01-01

    Following exposure to the food simulant olive oil for 10 days at 5, 20 or 40 degrees C a global migration ranging from 20 to 30 mg/dm(2) was detected from a common 'low migration' PVC film plasticized with a mixture of di-(ethylhexyl)adipate (DEHA) and a polymeric plasticizer. In a laboratory...

  18. Mechanical and morphological characterization of novel vinyl plastisols with epoxidized linseed oil as natural-based plasticizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenollar, O.; Balart, R.; Sánchez-Nácher, L.; García-Sanoguera, D.; Boronat, T.

    2010-06-01

    Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) is one of the most commonly used plastics in the current market due to its low cost and versatility in processing, combined with its satisfactory physical and chemical properties. However, there is an important problem associated to the use of plasticized PVC. This problem is regarding to the toxicity of the most common plasticized used like DOP, DEHP, DINP, due to its possible migration. This problem limits the use of the plasticized PVC in the industry. In this work we have used epoxidized linseed oil (ELO) as a non toxic plasticizer for PVC. This type of natural oil is characterized by acting as both plasticizer and stabilizer of PVC. With this purpose, ELO have been added to PVC. The processing conditions (temperature and time of curing) are vital to determine the final properties of the material. A study of the processing conditions shows the adequate temperature and time to achieve the optimum properties.

  19. Study on thickness distribution of thermoformed medical PVC blister

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiping

    2017-08-01

    Vacuum forming has many advantages over other plastic forming processes due to its cost effectiveness, time efficiency, higher product precision, and more design flexibility. Nevertheless, when pressures greater than the atmospheric value are required to force the thermo-plastic into more intimate contact with the mold surface, pressure forming is a better choice. This paper studies the process of air-pressure thermoforming of plastic sheet, and focuses on medical blister PVC products. ANSYS POLYFLOW tool is used to simulate the process and analyze the wall thickness distribution of the blister. The influence of mold parameters on the wall thickness distribution of thermoformed part is thus obtained through simulation. Increasing radius between mold and side wall at the bottom of blister and draft prove to improve the wall thickness distribution.

  20. PVC pipes in gas distribution: still going strong!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermkens, Rene; Wolters, Mannes; Weller, Jeroen; Visser, Roy

    2008-01-01

    In the Netherlands (impact-modified) PVC is the preferred material for low-pressure (30 and 100 mbar) gas distribution systems. More than 50% of the total length (about 122,000 km) of this system is rigid PVC or impact-modified PVC. The installation of rigid PVC (uPVC) pipelines started about 50 yea

  1. Production technologies and application of PVC/NBR composite%PVC/NBR复合材料的生产技术及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张传贤

    2012-01-01

    以聚氯乙烯(PVC)与丁腈橡胶(NBR)为原料制备的复合材料综合了两种聚合物的优势,弥补了各自的缺陷,成为一种性能卓越的橡塑并用材料.我国NBR生产及应用位居世界前列,对PVC/NBR复合材料的研究及生产已有一定基础,已经具备生产条件,具有相当广阔的市场空间.建议国内PVC,NBR生产和加工应用企业有计划、有步骤地开发并推广应用这种复合材料.%The composite blend consisting of nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) and polyvinylchloride (PVC) is a kind of rubber-plastic composite material with superior properties, which integrated the advantages and offset the disadvantages of the two polymers. Now, China's production and application of NBR is in the front rank of the world, which laid a certain foundation for studying and producing the NBR/PVC blends. China not only owns facilities and technologies for producing NBR/PVC composite, but also possesses a broad market for the composite. The domestic production and processing enterprises of NBR and PVC are supposed to draw up a schedule for promoting the development and application of the composite material.

  2. Materials degradation in PVC medical devices, DEHP leaching and neonatal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latini, G; Ferri, M; Chiellini, F

    2010-01-01

    Polymeric materials play a key role in the production of medical and clinical devices thanks to their special features such as flexibility, easy processing and good price/performance ratio. Among the different polymeric matrixes, one of the most used is Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC). At room temperature PVC is hard and brittle, thus great amounts (40-50%) of phthalate esters that act as plasticizers are added to the polymer to make it flexible and appropriate for medical use. Di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP) is the most widely used plasticizer in PVC medical devices. However, DEHP is not chemically bound to PVC and migrates from medical devices with time and use. The potential for DEHP to produce adverse effects in humans has been the subject of considerable discussion and debate in the scientific community. In particular, newborns in the new environment have to be considered at particularly increased risk, because of their small body size and the multiple medical device-related to the DEHP exposure. The major factors determining the degree to which DEHP migrates from medical devices are temperature, amount of DEHP in the device, storage time, shaking of the device while in contact with the medical solutions and degree of PVC degradation.

  3. Electron beam crosslinking of non-lead PVC formulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaneda Facio, A.; Benavides, R. [Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplicada, Blvd. Ing. Enrique Reyna No. 140, Saltillo Coah. (Mexico); Martinez Pardo, M.E. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apdo. Postal 18-1027, Col. Escandon, 11801 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: memp@nuclear.inin.mx; Uribe, R. [Neo Beam, Kent State University, 15825 Old State Road, 44062 Middlefield, OH (United States)

    2007-11-15

    PVC samples with lead-free and lead-base stabilizer, containing TMPTMA (trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate) as a crosslinker and DOP (2-ethylhexyl phthalate) as a plasticizer, were electron beam treated at different doses (2-200 kGy) and characterized to evaluate crosslinking and other several properties, as a continuation of our previously reported paper, where these PVC formulations, typical for wire and cable applications, underwent gamma irradiation. The PVC was formulated with two different stabilizing systems: Ca/Zn and dibasic lead phthalate for comparison, to use them as jackets for a 22 wire gage (AWG). Small samples of the jacketed wires were irradiated in an industrial Dynamitron electron accelerator for the corresponding doses, along with two dosimetric systems: radiochromic thin film and alanine pellets dosimeters. The maximum dose applied was decided as the crosslinking increased, until the gel content was stable. The dose of 200 kGy was the condition for the highest crosslinking, so most of the wire was irradiated at such dose. Chemical and mechanical evaluations were carried out to the irradiated wire. The results show that 200 kGy was too high dose for the materials, since an important degradation is observed for the Ca/Zn systems. Unfortunately, such dose affects basically to CaZn formulations, which showed much poorer performance than classical lead-containing compositions. The results also indicate that gel content is not the best way of deciding the optimum condition for irradiation.

  4. Environmental stress cracking of PVC and PVC-CPE - Part III Crack growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breen, J.

    1995-01-01

    The fracture toughness of Polyvinylchloride (PVC) and PVC modified with 10% chlorinated polyethylene (PVC-CPE) was studied in vapour and in liquid environments by crack growth measurements on single-edge notch specimens under three-point bending at 23°C. In addition, some results obtained in air at

  5. Estudo de propriedades de PVC modificado com grupos alquila e benzila Study of the properties of PVC modified through substitution by alkyl and benzyl groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M Vinhas

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available O poli(cloreto de vinila (PVC é o segundo termoplástico mais consumido em todo o mundo, sendo considerado o mais versátil dentre os plásticos. A grande versatilidade do PVC deve-se a suas propriedades e também a sua adequação aos mais variados processos de transformação. Uma vez que a resina de PVC é atóxica e inerte, a escolha de aditivos com essas mesmas características, permite a fabricação de filmes para embalagens de alimentos e produtos médico-hospitalares. Entretanto, suas propriedades podem se alterar quando submetido a qualquer processo de esterilização, especialmente por radiação gama. Neste trabalho foi realizado um estudo sobre a flexibilidade e estabilidade frente à radiação gama do PVC modificado quimicamente. O PVC foi modificado pela substituição de átomos de cloro por grupos alquila e benzila através de reações com reagentes de Grignard. Amostras de PVC modificado foram caracterizadas por espectroscopia de ressonância magnética nuclear de hidrogênio (RMN ¹H, espectroscopia na região do infravermelho com transformada de Fourier e calorimetria diferencial exploratória. A degradação do PVC modificado, quando submetido à radiação gama, foi avaliada por seus parâmetros viscosimétricos. De uma forma geral, o PVC modificado apresentou maior estabilidade à radiação gama que o original. O polímero modificado por substituição do cloro por grupo que contém um anel aromático foi o que apresentou maior estabilidade, quando submetido à dose de esterilização de 25 kGy. O PVC modificado apresentou temperaturas de transição vítrea ligeiramente mais baixas que o PVC original, indicando uma tendência ao aumento de flexibilidade pela presença de grupos alquila e benzila na cadeia do polímero.Poly(vinyl chloride (PVC ranks second among the most consumed thermoplastics in the world, and is considered the most versatile plastic. This versatility arises from its properties and suitability to a

  6. [Discrimination of plasticizers and screening of phthalates in polyvinyl chloride using DART-TOF/MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Yutaka; Yamaguchi, Miku; Mutsuga, Motoh; Hirahara, Yoshichika; Kawamura, Maiko; Kikura-Hanajiri, Ruri; Goda, Yukihiro; Kawamura, Yoko

    2010-01-01

    A technique using a direct analysis in real time (DART) ion source coupled with time of flight/mass spectrometry (TOF/MS) was developed to discriminate plasticizers and to screen phthalates in polyvinyl chloride (PVC). In DART-TOF/MS analysis of 40 plasticizers, the protonated molecular ion, [M+H](+), was detected for most plasticizers, and the molecular weight could be easily predicted. In the analysis of PVC sheets and toys, mass spectra of plasticizers were successfully detected, and accordingly, plasticizers in PVC were easily discriminated. PVC with a phthalates content in excess of 0.1% could be screened accurately according to the DART-TOF/MS ion intensity of phthalates corresponding to the limit of detection or a suitable criterion value. DART-TOF/MS analysis is a simple and rapid technique that is suitable for the discrimination of plasticizers and for screening of phthalates in PVC.

  7. Research on the property improvement of PVC using red mud in industrial waste residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Xiaopeng; Li, Xingang; Shuai, Songxian

    2015-07-01

    Red mud is a red solid power waste that is discharged in the aluminium refinery industry during production. It is a strong alkali and can be categorized as polluting industrial residue. How to make comprehensive use of red mud has become a worldwide issue. In this paper, we put red mud into PVC (polyvinyl chloride polymer), taking advantage of the complicated chemical properties of red mud derived from the Bayer process. The results are compared with silica fume, coal ash and calcium carbonate under the same experimental conditions, which shows that improvement of PVC plastication can be achieved by adding red mud.

  8. Penelitian pembuatan kompon PVC untuk acuan sepatu dengan variasi serat pohon pisang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Rochani

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available DOP (Dioctyl Phtalate is a chemical substance which its function as plasticizer in PVC compound preparation, while the function of fibre of banana stem (musaceae is a filler. The used of banana stem in this research can improve impact resistance of the compound as well. So the addition of DOP and fibre of banana stem influnces the properties of impact resistance and hardness. The optimum value of impact resistance (23,12 kgcm/cm is archived by the PVC compound which using DOP 50% and banana stem 40%, and the optimum value of hardness (65 shore D is achived by using DOP 30% and banana stem 50%.

  9. The Development of PVC Extrusions for a 14,000 Ton Self-Supporting Structure for the Detection of Neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grudzinski, J. J. [Argonne; Talaga, R. L. [Argonne; Pla-Dalmau, A. [Fermilab; Fagan, J. E. [Fermilab; Grozis, C. [Fermilab; Kephart, K. [Fermilab; Fischer, R. [Argonne

    2014-01-01

    The NOvA Neutrino Experiment has built a one of a kind self-supporting plastic structure, potentially the largest ever built. The PVC structure serves as a neutrino detector and is composed of 28 individual blocks that measure 15.5 m (51 feet) high by 15.5 m (51 feet) wide by 2.1 m (7 feet) deep. The primary parts in the detector construction are 15.5m (51 foot), 15-cell PVC extrusions. These extrusions from the basis of the detector modules which are laminated together in a crossed pattern to form the individual blocks and then filled with mineral oil based liquid scintillator. The self-supporting nature of the detector places important structural requirements on both the PVC formulation and the extrusions. Block assembly requirements impose narrow geometric tolerances. Due to the method of detecting neutrinos, the extrusions must possess exceptionally high reflectivity over a particular wavelength range. The requirement places additional restrictions on the components of the PVC formulation. Altogether, the PVC extrusions have to maintain important reflectivity characteristics, provide structural support to the detector, and meet relatively tight geometric requirements for assembly. In order to meet these constraints, a custom PVC formulation had to be created and extruded. We describe the purpose and requirements of the NOvA detector leading to the production of our unique PVC extrusion, summarize the R&D process, and discuss the lessons learned.

  10. Evaluation of the influence of water and oil derivatives absorption on PVC pipes; Avaliacao da influencia da absorcao de agua e de derivados de petroleo em tubulacoes de PVC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpio, D.C.F. del; D' Almeida, J.R.M., E-mail: dalmeida@puc-rio.b [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais

    2010-07-01

    PVC is the only polymer of large consume that is not totally obtained from petroleum, since it contains 57% of chlorine. As chlorine containing materials are resistant to bacteria rich environments, such as buried pipes, PVC is being used for fluid transportation, principally water, but it can also be considered as an alternative material for the transportation of other fluids. This work analyzes the aging behavior of PVC exposed to water, ethanol and diesel oil, using TGA, DSC, FT-IR and DR-X techniques. The results showed that the chemical structure of PVC is not affected by exposure to water and ethanol. For these fluids a dipolar interaction could be occurring, increasing at the beginning of the absorption process, the polymer thermal stability. The diesel oil caused plasticization, with reduction of the Tg since the beginning of the aging process. (author)

  11. The influence of soil and landfill leachate microorganisms in the degradation of PVC/PCL films cast from DMF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana de Campos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While the use of plastics continues to increase in our daily lives in a growing range products, these materials are very persistent in the environment. The blending of aliphatic polyesters with other thermoplastic polymers is a profitable way of producing materials with changed physical properties and biodegradability, which can facilitate microbial adhesion to the polymer matrix and help to reduce (post-consumer degradation time of these materials in landfills. This study was an investigation of the biodegradation of films of blends of poly(vinyl chloride (PVC and poly(ε-caprolactone (PCL by soil microorganisms and leachate, by means of respirometry, infrared absorption spectroscopy (FTIR, differential calorimetry scanning (DSC, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, contact angle and weight loss. The results showed that in the soil, the films suffered oxidative biodegradation. The PCL promoted degradation of the PVC in the film of PVC/PCL and the PVC inhibited the rapid degradation of the PCL.

  12. Microwave treatment of electric arc furnace dust with PVC: dielectric characterization and pyrolysis-leaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Harahsheh, Mohammad; Kingman, Sam; Al-Makhadmah, Leema; Hamilton, Ian E

    2014-06-15

    Microwave treatment of electric arc furnace dust (EAFD) with poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) was studied in this work. A comprehensive characterization of the dust as well as assessing the suitability of using the thermal de-chlorination of the common plastic (PVC) under inert atmosphere was carried out to assess the possibility of Zn and other heavy metals extraction (Pb and Cd) from EAFD. The dielectric and thermal properties of EAFD, PVC and their mixtures were measured. Once combined and heated the metal oxides present in the dust reacted with HCl released from PVC during thermal de-chlorination, forming metal chlorides which were subsequently recovered by leaching with water. It was found that zinc chloride could be almost completely recovered in the leaching stage, with the overall recovery of Zn reaching 97% when the EAFD:PVC ratio was 1:2. The investigation highlighted that franklinite, the most refractory mineral to leaching, was completely destroyed. The leaching residue was found to compose mainly of magnetite and hematite.

  13. PVC med DEHP - funktionelt men farligt

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Nærværende projekt beskæftiger sig med problematikkerne ved Polyvinylchlorid (PVC) artikler med [Di-2-ethyl-hexyl]phthalat (DEHP) til patientbehandling i hospitalssektoren. En lovgivning omkring substitution af materialet PVC har spillet fallit, hvorfor fokus rettes mod udbyder og efterspørgere, der som aktører, kan presse på en substitution af PVC artikler med DEHP. Feltets aktører eksemplificeres ved plastproducenten Coloplast A/S, Glostrup Hospital samt Region Hovedstadens indkøbscentral, ...

  14. Sorting Techniques for Plastics Recycling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the basic principles of three different types of separating methods and a general guideline for choosing the most effective method for sorting plastic mixtures. It also presents the results of the tests carried out for separation of PVC, ABS and PET from different kinds of plastic mixtures in order to improve the grade of the raw input used in mechanical or feedstock recycling.

  15. Viscoelastic, Spectroscopic, and Microscopic Characterization of Novel Bio-Based Plasticized Poly(vinyl chloride Compound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Chan Sin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasticized poly(vinyl chloride (PVC is one of the most widely consumed commodity plastics. Nevertheless, the commonly used plasticizers, particularly phthalates, are found to be detrimental to the environment and human health. This study aimed to investigate the ability of an alternative greener material, medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHA, a kind of biopolyester and its thermally degraded oligoesters, to act as a compatible bioplasticizer for PVC. In this study, mcl-PHA were synthesized by Pseudomonas putida PGA1 in shake flask fermentation using saponified palm kernel oil (SPKO and subsequently moderately thermodegraded to low molecular weight oligoesters (degPHA. SEM, ATR-FTIR, 1H-NMR, and DMA were conducted to study the film morphology, microstructure, miscibility, and viscoelastic properties of the PVC-PHA and PVC/degPHA binary blends. Increased height and sharpness of tan δmax⁡ peak for all binary blends reveal an increase in chain mobility in the PVC matrix and high miscibility within the system. The PVC-PHA miscibility is possibly due to the presence of specific interactions between chlorines of PVC with the C=O group of PHA as evidenced by spectroscopic analyses. Dynamic viscoelastic measurements also showed that mcl-PHA and their oligoesters could reduce the Tg of PVC, imparting elasticity to the PVC compounds and decreasing the stiffness of PVC.

  16. A novel biobased polyester plasticizer prepared from palm oil and its plasticizing effect on poly (vinyl chloride)

    OpenAIRE

    Jia Puyou; Zhang Meng; Hu Lihong; Zhou Yonghong

    2016-01-01

    In this study, palm oil was the first time to convert into a novel polyester plasticizer for polyvinyl chloride (PVC). In the first stage, palm oil was converted into palm oil monoglyceride (POM) by alcoholysis with glycerol. Next, a novel palm oil monoglycerides based polyester plasticizer (POMP) was synthesized from POM and maleic anhydride through esterification and condensation reaction. The structure of POMP was characterized with FTIR, 1H NMR and GPC. Then PVC blends were prepared using...

  17. Americium behaviour in plastic vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legarda, F.; Herranz, M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Idoeta, R., E-mail: raquel.idoeta@ehu.e [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Abelairas, A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    The adsorption of {sup 241}Am dissolved in water in different plastic storage vessels was determined. Three different plastics were investigated with natural and distilled waters and the retention of {sup 241}Am by these plastics was studied. The same was done by varying vessel agitation time, vessel agitation speed, surface/volume ratio of water in the vessels and water pH. Adsorptions were measured to be between 0% and 70%. The adsorption of {sup 241}Am is minimized with no water agitation, with PET or PVC plastics, and by water acidification.

  18. Desenvolvimento de PVC reforçado com fibras de vidro longas para fabricação de produtos moldados Long glass fiber reinforcement of PVC molding compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro H. Grizzo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi desenvolvido um método para reforçar PVC rígido com fibras de vidro longas através da incorporação pelo processo de recobrimento da fibra contínua com um composto de PVC plastificado. Posteriormente o filamento foi picotado para a formação de grânulos, com fibras de vidro já incorporadas, que foram misturados mecanicamente ao PVC rígido granulado para alimentação direta por moldagem. A moldagem por injeção direta foi realizada com sucesso não sendo necessário a compostagem prévia, o que foi considerado conveniente, pois reduziu as etapas de processamento da resina de PVC e que proporcionou, possivelmente, redução de custos, redução da degradação do comprimento médio das fibras de vidro e diminuição da possibilidade de degradação da resina de PVC. O reforçamento do PVC rígido com 20% em massa de fibras de vidro longas de comprimento inicial entre 13 e 14 mm resultou em adequadas propriedades mecânicas, bem superiores ao PVC rígido não reforçado. Os módulos (tração e flexão e a resistência ao impacto Charpy praticamente dobraram, mesmo com os compósitos apresentando grande quantidade de plastificante em sua formulação, que possibilita ao PVC ser utilizado em outras aplicações não antes possíveis como em peças técnicas de engenharia.In this paper, a method to reinforce rigid PVC with long glass fibers (LGF was developed through the incorporation of continuous glass fibers, as rovings, with plasticized vinyl matrix prepared by the wire coating technique. The plasticized vinyl rovings were pelletized. The pellets (13-14 mm were then blended to a granulated rigid PVC formulation and directly injection molded as testing specimens. The direct injection molding, eliminating the preliminary melt-compounding process, was achieved successfully, which was considered convenient because it reduced the number of processing steps, which allowed cutting expenses, reduced the deterioration of the

  19. High photocatalytic degradation activity of the polyvinyl chloride (PVC)-vitamin C (VC)-TiO2 nano-composite film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Changjun; Gong, Chuqing; Peng, Tianyou; Deng, Kejian; Zan, Ling

    2010-06-15

    A novel photodegradable polyvinyl chloride (PVC)-vitamin C (VC)-TiO(2) nano-composite film was prepared by embedding VC modified nano-TiO(2) photocatalyst into the commercial PVC plastic. The solid-phase photocatalytic degradation behavior of PVC-VC-TiO(2) nano-composite film under UV light irradiation was investigated and compared with those of the PVC-TiO(2) film and the pure PVC film, with the aid of UV-Vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), weight loss monitoring, and X-ray diffraction spectra (XRD). The results show that PVC-VC-TiO(2) nano-composite film has a high photocatalytic activity; the photocatalytic degradation rate of it is two times higher than that of PVC-TiO(2) film and fifteen times higher than that of pure PVC film. The optimal mass ratio of VC to TiO(2) is found to be 0.5. The mechanism of enhancing photocatalytic activity is attributed to the formation of a Ti(IV)-VC charge-transfer complex with five-member chelate ring structure and a rapid photogenerated charge separation is thus achieved.

  20. [Pyrolysis characteristics of medical waste compositions containing PVC (polyvinyl chloride)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Na; Zhang, Yu-Feng; Zhao, Wei; Ma, Hong-Ting; Wei, Li-Li

    2008-03-01

    To obtain pyrolysis characteristics of medical waste compositions containing PVC (polyvinyl chloride), thermogravimetric study of tube for transfusion (TFT) and sample collector for urine (SCFU) was carried out using the thermogravimetric analyser (TGA) with N2. The heat change in pyrolysis process was analyzed and the properties of pyrolysis residues are reported. The mathematics model with two-step and four-reaction was established to simulate the pyrolysis process. The results show that: 1) The pyrolysis mechanism of the two samples is in agreement with that of PVC. The decomposition process appears two stages in 200 - 390 degrees C and 390 - 550 degrees C, which are clearly expressed with two prominent peaks with maximum rate of weight loss at about 315 degrees C and 470 degrees C. 2) Complex ingredients in samples result in irregular and uneven shape of DTG peaks, in which plasticizer lowers the antichloration temperature and enhances the weight loss rate. 3) The model could satisfactorily describe the weight loss and differential process of TFT and SCFU.

  1. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1AYM2-1PVC2 [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1AYM2-1PVC2 1AYM 1PVC 2 2 ----SDRIIQITRGDSTITSQDVANAVVGYGVWPHYLTP...GREV-------GTQVENEKQPSDDNWLNFDGTLLGNLLIFPHQFINLRSNNSATLIVPYVNAVPMDSMVRHNNWSLVIIPVCQLQS-NNISNIVPITVSISPMCAEFS...e> ASN CA 176 1PVC 2 1PVC

  2. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1AYN2-1PVC2 [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1AYN2-1PVC2 1AYN 1PVC 2 2 ----SDRIIQITRGDSTITSQDVANAVVGYGVWPHYLTP...GREV-------GTQVENEKQPSDDNWLNFDGTLLGNLLIFPHQFINLRSNNSATLIVPYVNAVPMDSMVRHNNWSLVIIPVCQLQS-NNISNIVPITVSISPMCAEFS...ine>ASN CA 177 1PVC 2 1PVC

  3. Degradação biológica do PVC em aterro sanitário e avaliação microbiológica Biological degradation of PVC in landfill and microbiological evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. C. Grisa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O poli(cloreto de vinila (PVC é um dos polímeros utilizado no campo das embalagens e no setor calçadista, e, em função da sua aplicação diversificada, apresenta elevados percentuais em aterros domésticos e industriais. É um polímero amorfo podendo apresentar diferentes teores de plastificante e outros aditivos responsáveis pela sua estabilização, os quais podem influenciar no tempo de vida útil e nas propriedades do produto final. Este trabalho apresenta o estudo da degradação química e biológica de filmes de poli(cloreto de vinila flexível (PVC-f, no aterro sanitário São Giácomo, na cidade de Caxias do Sul/RS, antes e após 330 dias de disposição. As amostras de PVC-f antes e após a disposição no aterro sanitário foram avaliadas por análise térmica (TGA, estrutural (FT-IR e morfológica (MEV e MO. Observou-se que as amostras de PVC-f dispostas no aterro sanitário (PVC-fa, apresentam um único evento de perda de massa, em relação ao PVC-f não degradado ou virgem (PVC-fv, além de um maior % de perda de massa e de mudanças estruturais. Nas amostras de PVC-fa foram observadas modificações morfológicas importantes para descrever os fenômenos de degradação como erosão da superfície, bioerosão, que propiciaram a ação das leveduras, bactérias e fungos presentes no meio no polímero aterrado.The poly (vinyl chloride (PVC is one of the polymers used in the field of packing materials and footwear sector, and due its diversified applications, it has presented in a high percentage of domestic and industrial landfills It is an amorphous polymer and may present different levels of plasticizer and other additives responsible for its stabilization, which can influence the lifetime and the properties of the final product. This work presents the study of the chemical and biological degradation of poly (vinyl chloride flexible (PVC-f films, at São Giácomo landfill, in Caxias do Sul city after 330 days of

  4. Creep performance of PVC aged at temperature relatively close to glass transition temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-hong ZHOU; Yao-long HE; Hong-jiu HU; Feng ZHAO; Xiao-long ZHANG

    2012-01-01

    In order to predict the mechanical performance of the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) at a high operating temperature,a series of short-term tensile creep tests (onetenth of the physical aging time) of the PVC are carried out at 63 ℃ with a small constant stress by a dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA).The Struik-Kohlrausch (SK)formula and Struik shifting methods are used to describe these creep data for various physical aging time.A new phenomenological model based on the multiple relaxation mechanisms of an amorphous polymer is developed to quantitatively characterize the SK parameters (the initial creep compliance,the characteristic retardation time,and the shape factor) determined by the aging time.It is shown that the momentary creep compliance curve of the PVC at 63 ℃ can be very well fitted by the SK formula for each aging time.However,the SK parameters for the creep curves are not constant during the aging process at the elevated temperatures,and the evolution of these parameters and the creep rate versus aging time curves at the double logarithmic coordinates have shown a nonlinear phenomenon. Moreover,the creep master curves obtained by the superposition with the Struik shifting methods are unsatisfactory in such a case.Finally,the predicted results calculated from the present model incorporating with the SK formula are in excellent agreement with the creep experimental data for the PVC isothermally aged at the temperature relatively close to the glass transition temperature.

  5. Characterization of All Solid State Hydrogen Ion Selective Electrode Based on PVC-SR Hybrid Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon-Bo Shim

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen ion selective membranes formulated with 3140 RTV silicone rubber (SR in PVC were studied to extend the life time of solid state ion sensors through improved membrane adhesion. All solid state hydrogen ion selective electrodes were prepared by incorporation of tridodecyl amine (TDDA as an ionophore, potassium tetrakis[3.5-bis(p-chlorophenylborate (KTpClPB as a lipophilic additive, bis(2-ethylhexyladipate (DOA as a plasticizer. Their linear dynamic range was pH 2.0-11.0 and showed the near Nernstian slope of 55.1±0.2 mV/pH (r=0.999. The ifluences from alkali and alkaline earth metal ions were studied for the response of the final ISE membrane composition. Impedance spectroscopic data showed that the resistance was increased by increasing SR content in PVC. Brewster Angle Microscopy (BAM image showed clear differences according to the SR compositions in PVC. Life time of the all solid state membrane electrode was extended to about 2 months by preparing the membrane with PVC and SR. The standard reference material from NIST (2181 HEPES Free acid and 2182 NaHEPESate was tested for the ISE and it gave good result.

  6. Superhydrophobic Materials Technology-PVC Bonding Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, Scott R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Efird, Marty [VeloxFlow, LLC

    2013-05-03

    The purpose of the technology maturation project was to develop an enhanced application technique for applying diatomaceous earth with pinned polysiloxane oil to PVC pipes and materials. The oil infiltration technique is applied as a spray of diluted oil in a solvent onto the superhydrophobic diatomaceous earth substrate. This makes the surface take on the following characteristics: wet-cleanable; anti-biofouling; waterproof; and anti-corrosion. The project involved obtaining input and supplies from VeloxFlow and the development of successful techniques that would quickly result in a commercial license agreement with VeloxFlow and other companies that use PVC materials in a variety of other fields of use.

  7. THE STUDY OF TECHNOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF PLASTISOLS BASED EMULSION PVC FILLED WITH CHALK GIDROFOBIZIROVANNYM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Sedykh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Baby toys are made using the centrifugal molding plastisol based emulsion of polyvinyl chloride plasticized with dioctylphthalate. To reduce cost and decrease biotelemetry the dioctylphthalate on the surface of the product domestic toys than toys produced in China, there was a necessity of introduction of the filler is chalk from different manufacturers. By using a Brookfield vis-cometer PV-D was studied rheology of filled hydrophobized chalk PVC plastisols in storage conditions for up to 72 hours at temperatures of 14-20°C. It was found that the flow plastisols consistent with pseudo-plastic fluids. Given the flow rates of emulsion PVC plastisols filled to 35 % of the mass. hydrophobized chalk. The influence of the content of the plasticizer dioctylphthalate in a narrow interval (37,0 - 41,4 % of the mass. on the viscosity of polymer pastes and the kinetics of its changes during storage. Revealed a linear dependence of the viscosity of the filled hydrophobized chalk plastisols on the speed of rotation of the spindle of the viscometer and during storage. Given the rate of expansion changes the viscosity of the plastisols of the speed of rotation of the spindle of the viscometer, the rate of change in viscosity and calculation of the initial viscosity. Determined the stability of the dispersion hydrophobized chalk in a colloidal solution of PVC in dioctylphthalate during storage. We determined the variation of the content of chalk (ash with top and bottom layers plastisols height 8 cm after 24 hours storage. It is proved that the temperature of the preparation and storage of polymer pastes were determining factors in the regulation of such technological properties of PVC plastisols in the presence hydrophobized chalkas viscosity, stability of the dispersion of chalk and, consequently, the efficiency of distribution plastisols in the form of a centrifugal molding.

  8. Aging and characterization of PVC compound used as flat-panel of a low cost solar collector; Envelhecimento e caracterizacao de compostos de PVC usado em placas de coletores solares de baixo custo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prado, Bruna R.; Pinto, Tatiana T.; Bartoli, Julio R. [Depto. de Tecnologia de Polimeros, Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica/Universidade Estadual de Campinas. FEQ/UNICAMP, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: bartoli@feq.unicamp.br; Fernandes, Elizabeth G. [Tezca P and D Celulas Solares (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Regardless the excellent amount of solar irradiation in Brazil, the development and production of solar water heating systems did not reach the low-income families yet. The relatively high cost of conventional solar water heaters is still the main reason to prevent it. The development of a low cost solar water heater (around US$ 200), easy technology, was the scope of previous work. All-plastic solar collector prototypes were developed using unplasticized Poly (vinyl chloride) ceiling panels and tubes, commodities from building engineering. Nevertheless, the main thermal and photo degradation mechanisms for PVC are well known; the unusual application of PVC as solar collector materials should need a specific investigation on environmental aging. This work presents a study on outdoor aging and characterization of PVC flat-plate absorber of solar collectors after 5 years on use. (author)

  9. Synthesis and application of a natural plasticizer based on cardanol for poly(vinyl chloride)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A natural plasticizer with multifunctional groups, similar in structure to phthalates, cardanol derivatives glycidyl ether (CGE) was synthesized from cardanol by a two-step modification process and characterized by FT-IR, 1-HNMR, and 13-CNMR. The resulting product was incorporated to PVC (CGE/PVC), ...

  10. Informative document waste plastics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagelhout D; Sein AA; Duvoort GL

    1989-01-01

    This "Informative document waste plastics" forms part of a series of "informative documents waste materials". These documents are conducted by RIVM on the indstruction of the Directorate General for the Environment, Waste Materials Directorate, in behalf of the program of

  11. Polarizing PVC--A Discrepant Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headly, David; Karabatek, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    This article describes an experiment teaching polarization phenomena and the Triboelectric Series in a unit on electrostatics. Using rods (2-3 ft in length) made from wood, aluminum, PVC, and Plexiglas on an inverted watch glass, these items demonstrated to the class how a party balloon rubbed with fake rabbit fur (charging the balloon negative)…

  12. Diazepam sorption to PVC- and non-PVC-based tubes in administration sets with quantitative determination using a high-performance liquid chromatographic method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Su-Eon; You, Siwon; Jeon, Seungho; Hwang, Sung-Joo

    2016-06-15

    Diazepam is highly sorbed to the plastic materials of administration sets for intravenous infusion. This can be detrimental as it should be delivered to the patient at the administered amount for efficacy and safety. We report here the sorption levels of diazepam onto various types of tubes in administration sets. The tube materials of the administration sets included polyvinylchloride (PVC) and the non-PVC materials such as polyurethane (PU) and polyolefin (PO) were used. Two conditions of diazepam administered in preclinical and clinical settings were tested using an infusion pump. Injections were prepared by diluting diazepam to 20mg/500mL and 10mg/100mL in 5% dextrose. Diluted diazepam solutions at the concentrations of 10mg/100mL and 20mg/500mL were separately delivered through 1m of tubing at 1mL/min for 1.05 and 4.05h. Samples were analyzed using a high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. PVC- and PU-based tubes showed higher sorption of diazepam than did PO-based tubes. PO-based tubes delivered more than 90% of the administered diazepam. The results showed that PO-based tubes of administration sets have a promising potential to deliver hydrophobic drugs like diazepam with minimal sorption levels. In addition, the tube materials in administration sets may be one of the critical factors to ensure drug efficacy and safety.

  13. Selective sequential separation of ABS/HIPS and PVC from automobile and electronic waste shredder residue by hybrid nano-Fe/Ca/CaO assisted ozonisation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallampati, Srinivasa Reddy; Lee, Byoung Ho; Mitoma, Yoshiharu; Simion, Cristian

    2017-02-01

    The separation of plastics containing brominated flame retardants (BFR) like (acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS), high-impact polystyrene (HIPS), and polyvinyl chloride (PVC)) from automobile and electronic waste shredder residue (ASR/ESR) are a major concern for thermal recycling. In laboratory scale tests using a hybrid nano-Fe/Ca/CaO assisted ozonation treatment has been found to selectively hydrophilize the surface of ABS/HIPS and PVC plastics, enhancing ABS wettability and thereby promoting its separation from ASR/ESR by means of froth flotation. The water contact angles, of ABS/HIPS and PVC decreased, about 18.7°, 18.3°, and 17.9° in ASR and about 21.2°, 20.7°, and 20.0° in ESR respectively. SEM-EDS, FT-IR, and XPS analyses demonstrated a marked decrease in [Cl] and a significant increase in the number of hydrophilic groups, such as CO, CO, and (CO)O, on the PVC or ABS surface. Under froth flotation conditions at 50rpm, about 99.1% of combined fraction of ABS/HIPS in ASR samples and 99.6% of ABS/HIPS in ESR samples were separated as settled fraction. After separation, the purity of the recovered combined ABS/HIPS fraction was 96.5% and 97.6% in ASR and ESR samples respectively. Furthermore, at 150rpm a 100% PVC separation in the settled fraction, with 98% and 99% purity in ASR and ESR plastics, respectively. Total recovery of non-ABS/HIPS and PVC plastics reached nearly 100% in the floating fraction. Further, this process improved the quality of recycled ASR/ESR plastics by removing surface contaminants or impurities.

  14. Effect of the Clay Modification on the Thermal Properties of Pvc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zykova, J.; Kalendova, A.; Kovarova, L.; Malac, J.

    2010-06-01

    The intercalation of organic compound is necessary to functionalize the montmorillonite surface. So, the intercalation of diethylene glycol and polyethylene glycol and the influence of plasticizer, namely tricresyl phosphate and isodecyldiphenyl phosphate as co-intercalating agents were studied. For the PVC/clay nanocomposites the suspension type of PVC was used and the compound was prepared by the melt intercalation method. Two kinds of MMT (Cloisite®Na+, Cloisite®30B) and laboratory modified MMT by intercalation (diethylene glycol, polyethylene glycol) and co-intercalation (tricresyl phosphate and isodecildifenyl phosphate) agents were used for the set of nanocomposite samples. The thermal stability of nanocomposite specimens was tested using of thermo gravimetric analysis, DMA and pH method.

  15. Flammability Properties of Composites of Wood Fiber and Recycled Plastic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Flammability properties of composites of wood fiber and recycled plastic were evaluated by the cone calorimeter and oxygen index chamber. Results were shown as follows: 1) Wood-PVC composite showed worse thermal stability on time to ignition (TTI) and mean heat release rate (MHRR), but better performance on heat release rate (HRR) and mean efficient heat of combustion (MEHC); wood-PP composite had better thermal stability properties, but was worse on other fire performance; 2) Compared with wood-PVC composi...

  16. Investigation into the sorption of nitroglycerin and diazepam into PVC tubes and alternative tube materials during application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treleano, Anna; Wolz, Gerd; Brandsch, Rainer; Welle, Frank

    2009-03-18

    Plastic bags and tubes are increasingly used for the storage and application of pharmaceutical formulations. The most common polymer material for drug application sets is plasticized poly(vinylchloride) (PVC). During application of pharmaceutical drug solution through PVC tubes, the polymer and the contact media interact which leads to leaching out of polymer additives or sorption of ingredients of the drug solution. Whereas the discussion of leaching of plasticizers is focussed on the toxicological properties of a drug packaging system, the sorption of drug formulation compounds has an influence on the dosage of the active pharmaceutical ingredient resulting in a reduced drug delivery to the patient. Therefore sorption has an influence on the effectiveness and success of the therapy. Within the study, the concentration profiles of nitroglycerin and diazepam solutions were determined after pumping the solutions through infusion administration sets. The study includes plasticized PVC tubes with different plasticizers (DEHP, DEHA, DEHT, TEHTM, DINCH, poly adipate), PVC (DEHP) tubes with different shore hardness as well as alternative polymer materials like EVA, TPE, PUR, silicone, LDPE and PP. From the experimental concentration curves it could be shown, that in the first minutes of the application of the drug solution the sorption of the active compound is at its maximum, resulting in the lowest concentration in the applied pharmaceutical solution. For a PVC tube with DEHP as plasticizer and a shore hardness of 80 only about 57% of the initial nitroglycerin concentration in the solution is applied to the patient in the first minutes of the application. For PVC tube (DEHP, shore 80) the experimental data were simulated using mathematical diffusion models. The concentration profiles during application could be well simulated using the partition coefficient K=50 (nitroglycerin) and K=300 (diazepam), respectively. However, the experimental results indicate, that the

  17. Cell Adhesion to Plasma-Coated PVC

    OpenAIRE

    Elidiane C. Rangel; Souza,Eduardo S. de; Francine S. de Moraes; Eliana A. R. Duek; Carolina Lucchesi; Schreiner, Wido H.; Durrant, Steven F.; Cruz, Nilson C.

    2014-01-01

    To produce environments suitable for cell culture, thin polymer films were deposited onto commercial PVC plates from radiofrequency acetylene-argon plasmas. The proportion of argon in the plasmas, P-Ar, was varied from 5.3 to 65.8%. The adhesion and growth of Vero cells on the coated surfaces were examined for different incubation times. Cytotoxicity tests were performed using spectroscopic methods. Carbon, O, and N were detected in all the samples using XPS. Roughness remained almost unchang...

  18. 无增塑剂PVC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    无增塑剂PVC Teknor公司开发了不用增塑剂的软质PVC树脂,它是PVC与聚烯烃弹性体(POE)的合金。不像增塑剂,POE会永久混合住PVC中。采州POE,不仅赋予PVC柔软性,还避免了增塑剂挥发的问题。

  19. COMPATIBILITY OF PVC WITH POLYURETHANES OF DIFFERENT SOFT SEGMENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Fengfei; ZHANG Xian; HU Shiru; MA Dezhu; LUO Xiaolie; XU Mao

    1988-01-01

    Blends of PVC and polyurethanes with four different soft segments of molecular weight 1000 were prepared and studied by dynamic mechanical and DSC techniques. It was found that the compatibility of PVC with segmented polyurethanes was related to the mixing of PVC molecules and the soft segments of the polyurethanes. Polyester based polyurethanes are more compatible with PVC than polyether based polyurethanes. Solution cast blends of PVC with PCL-polyurethane (1/2/1) exhibit single and narrow glass transition, while the blends with PPO-polyurethane (1/2/1) are completely incompatible. The compatibility was found to decrease with increasing hard segment content for all the polyurethanes used. The methods of blend preparation may change the compatibility of PVC/PU blends through their influence on the mixing or demixing of the hard and soft segments.

  20. Development of hydrophobicity and selective separation of hazardous chlorinated plastics by mild heat treatment after PAC coating and froth flotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh Truc, Nguyen Thi; Lee, Chi-Hyeon; Lee, Byeong-Kyu; Mallampati, Srinivasa Reddy

    2017-01-05

    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) containing chlorine can release highly toxic materials and persistent organic pollutants if improperly disposed of. The combined technique of powder activated carbon (PAC) coating and mild heat treatment has been found to selectively change the surface hydrophobicity of PVC, enhancing its wettability and thereby promoting its separation from heavy plastic mixtures included polycarbonate (PC), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), polystyrene (PS) and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) by means of froth flotation. The combined treatments helped to rearrange the surface components and make PVC more hydrophobic, while the remaining plastics became more hydrophilic. After the treatments at 150°C for 80s the contact angle of the PVC was greatly increased from 90.5 to 97.9°. The SEM and AFM reveal that the surface morphology and roughness changes on the PVC surface. XPS and FT-IR results further confirmed an increase of hydrophobic functional groups on the PVC surface. At the optimized froth flotation and subsequent mixing at 150rpm, 100% of PVC was recovered from the remaining plastic mixture with 93.8% purity. The combined technique can provide a simple and effective method for the selective separation of PVC from heavy plastics mixtures to facilitate easy industrial recycling.

  1. Volatile organic compounds of polyethylene vinyl acetate plastic are toxic to living organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Tingzhu Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic products readily evaporate; as a result, hazardous gases enter the ecosystem, and cause cancer in humans and other animals. Polyethylene vinyl acetate (PEVA) plastic has recently become a popular alternative to PVC since it is chlorine-free. In order to determine whether PEVA is harmful to humans, this research employed the freshwater oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus as a model to compare their oxygen intakes while they were exposed to the original stock solutions of PEVA, PVC or distilled water at a different length of time for one day, four days or eight days. During the exposure periods, the oxygen intakes in both PEVA and PVC groups were much higher than in the distilled water group, indicating that VOCs in both PEVA and PVC were toxins that stressed L. variegatus. Furthermore, none of the worms fully recovered during the24-hr recovery period. Additionally, the L. variegatus did not clump together tightly after four or eight days' exposure to either of the two types of plastic solutions, which meant that both PEVA and PVC negatively affected the social behaviors of these blackworms. The LD50 tests also supported the observations above. For the first time, our results have shown that PEVA plastic has adverse effects on living organisms, and therefore it is not a safe alternative to PVC. Further studies should identify specific compounds causing the adverse effects, and determine whether toxic effect occurs in more complex organisms, especially humans.

  2. Study on Mechanism of Rare Earth PVC Stabilizer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭振博; 胡斌; 苏庆德; 曲锦忠

    2003-01-01

    Rare earth compounds can be used as PVC thermal stabilizers. According to the infrared spectra of the mixture of PVC and some stearates, the mechanism of stabilization of different stearates was studied. The specialty of rare earth stabilizers was found. They can change the conformation of PVC and restrain the elimination of HCl. From this aspect, the unique synergetic effect with other stabilizers of rare earth compounds can be explained.

  3. Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowell, Michael S.

    1995-01-01

    A polishing compound for plastic surfaces. The compound contains by weight approximately 4 to 17 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 6 parts mineral spirits, 2.5 to 15 parts abrasive particles, and 2.5 to 10 parts water. The abrasive is tripoli or a similar material that contains fine particles silica. Preferably, most of the abrasive particles are less than approximately 10 microns, more preferably less than approximately 5 microns in size. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS.TM., LEXAN.TM., LUCITE.TM., polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired.

  4. Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stowell, M.S.

    1993-01-01

    A polishing compound for plastic surfaces is disclosed. The compound contains by weight approximately 4 to 17 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 6 parts mineral spirits, 2.5 to 15 parts abrasive particles, and 2.5 to 10 parts water. The abrasive is tripoli or a similar material that contains colloidal silica. Preferably, most of the abrasive particles are less than approximately 10 microns, more preferably less than approximately 5 microns in size. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS{sup TM}, LEXAN{sup TM}, LUCITE{sup TM}, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired.

  5. Stabilization of nontoxic PVC formulation for gamma irradiation sterilization, II. Effect of antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Chong-Su; Yoon, Goan Hee; Khang, Gilson; Rhee, John M; Lee, Hai Bang

    2002-01-01

    In order to investigate the fundamental data for the resistance of gamma radiation sterilization of polyvinylchloride (PVC), the formulations of the antioxidants such as commercial Irganox series and inorganic, processing aids, stabilizer aids, trans-stilbene oxide (StO) and so on have been carried out. The control and irradiated PVC samples with 1.5, 2.5 and 4.0 Mrad were characterized by mechanical tester, colorimetry, and extractant in water. Irganox 1010 was more effective than Irganox 1076 for color changes whereas Irganox 1076 was more effective than Irganox 1010 for the change of extractant. It was also observed the significant diminution of color changes for inorganic antioxidants as CaO and ZnO. Oxidized paraffin wax as lubricant, styrene-methylmetacrylate copolymers as processing aids, and nontoxic debenzoylmethane as secondary stabilizer did not show good stabilization for the irradiation. The new proposed radiation stabilizer in this study, StO, showed the significant improvement of gamma radiation resistance for the plasticized PVC. The possible mechanism could be explained that an epoxy functional group stabilizes effectively the processes of dehydrogenation, the formation of hydroperoxides, and the formation of oxygen containing groups, and the synergetic effects of an epoxy compound are more notable for the prevention of radiation oxidation in the presence of an aromatic group.

  6. A Novel Tetraiodocadmate(Ⅱ)-PVC Membrane Electrode for the Potentiometric Determination of Cadmium(Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Chang WANG; Ya Qin CHAI; Ruo YUAN

    2006-01-01

    A novel tetraiodocadmate(Ⅱ)-selective membrane electrode consisting of tetraiodo-cadmate(Ⅱ)-rhodamin B ion pair (TICRhB) dispersed in a PVC matrix plasticized with 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (o-NPOE) was prepared. The sensor demonstrated a near-Nernstian response for 1×10-2 to 2×10-6 mol/L cadmium (Ⅱ) at 25℃ with an anionic slope of 29.0. Itrevealed very good selectivity for Cd2+ with negligible interference from many cations and anions,and could be used in a pH range of 3 to 6.

  7. Mechanical behavior of styrene grafted PVC films by electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Jessica R.; Moura, Eduardo; Somessari, Elisabeth S.R.; Silveira, Carlos G.; Paes, Helio A.; Souza, Carlos A.; Manzoli, Jose E.; Geraldo, Aurea B.C., E-mail: ageraldo@ipen.br, E-mail: jmanzoli@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The polyvinyl chloride (PVC) is a technological and low cost polymer, however it presents high sensitivity to high energy irradiation because of the weakness of carbon-chloride bond face to carbon-carbon and carbon-hydrogen bonds. Grafting is a type of co-polymerization process that can allow it an increase of mechanical characteristics. The aim of this work is to evaluate the mechanical properties of styrene grafted PVC by electron beam irradiation using mutual and pre-irradiation methods to verify the mechanical resistance changes of obtained product whether grafting process is applied from non-irradiated or from pre-irradiated substrates. The irradiation procedures were performed in atmosphere air or inert atmosphere and the irradiation conditions comprised doses from 10 kGy to 100 kGy and dose rates of 2.2 kGy/s and 22.4 kGy/s. The styrene grafted samples were analyzed by gravimetry to determinate the grafting yield; the final values have been averaged from a series of three measurements. The Mid-A TR-FTIR was the spectrophotometer technique used for qualitative/semi-quantitative analysis of grafted samples. The Young's module and tensile strength of pre-irradiated and grafted PVC samples at both methods were measured at a Lloyd LXR tensile tester at a cross-head speed of 10.00 mm/min. We observed the decrease of Young's module and tensile strength with the increase of absorbed dose at pre-irradiated PVC samples. These mechanical parameters results are discussed. (author)

  8. Enhancement of the thermo-mechanical properties and efficacy of mixing technique in the preparation of graphene/PVC nanocomposites compared to carbon nanotubes/PVC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mudassir Hasan; Moonyong Lee

    2014-01-01

    Thin films of poly vinyl chloride (PVC)/multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and PVC/graphene (GN) nanocomposites were prepared by mixing in the presence of different quantities of nanoparticles. Film casting was performed using tetrahydrofuran as a solvent. The as-prepared PVC/MWCNT and PVC/GN nanocomposites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, dynamic mechanical analysis, and diffused reflectance spectroscopy. Only the PVC/GN nanocomposite films were evaluated further for detailed mechanical analysis because of the poor dispersion of MWCNTs in PVC. The PVC/GN nanocomposite films were thermo-mechanically more stable than the PVC films. These nanocomposites have potential as a replacement material for PVC and PVC/MWCNT owing to their better dispersion and high stability.

  9. Enhancement of the thermo-mechanical properties and efficacy of mixing technique in the preparation of graphene/PVC nanocomposites compared to carbon nanotubes/PVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudassir Hasan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Thin films of poly vinyl chloride (PVC/multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT and PVC/graphene (GN nanocomposites were prepared by mixing in the presence of different quantities of nanoparticles. Film casting was performed using tetrahydrofuran as a solvent. The as-prepared PVC/MWCNT and PVC/GN nanocomposites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, dynamic mechanical analysis, and diffused reflectance spectroscopy. Only the PVC/GN nanocomposite films were evaluated further for detailed mechanical analysis because of the poor dispersion of MWCNTs in PVC. The PVC/GN nanocomposite films were thermo-mechanically more stable than the PVC films. These nanocomposites have potential as a replacement material for PVC and PVC/MWCNT owing to their better dispersion and high stability.

  10. Continous assessment of a drinking water PVC pipe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marques Arsenio, A.; Vreeburg, J.H.G.; Wielinga, M.P.C.; Van Dijk, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    In 2010 the Dutch drinking water network stretched for almost 116,000 km supplying water to more than 16 million people. Almost 50% was made of PVC. The analysis of the failure registration of 5 Dutch drinking water companies showed that ca. 29 % of the total number of failures in the PVC Dutch netw

  11. Destructive laboratory tests with PVC push-fit joints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marques Arsenio, A.; Vreeburg, J.H.G.; Bouma, F.; Van Dijk, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    In 2010 the Dutch drinking water network stretched for almost 116,000 km supplying water to more than 16 million people. Almost 50% was made of PVC. The analysis of the failure registration of 5 Dutch drinking water companies showed that ca. 29 % of the total number of failures in the PVC Dutch netw

  12. Cell adhesion to plasma-coated PVC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel, Elidiane C; de Souza, Eduardo S; de Moraes, Francine S; Duek, Eliana A R; Lucchesi, Carolina; Schreiner, Wido H; Durrant, Steven F; Cruz, Nilson C

    2014-01-01

    To produce environments suitable for cell culture, thin polymer films were deposited onto commercial PVC plates from radiofrequency acetylene-argon plasmas. The proportion of argon in the plasmas, P(Ar), was varied from 5.3 to 65.8%. The adhesion and growth of Vero cells on the coated surfaces were examined for different incubation times. Cytotoxicity tests were performed using spectroscopic methods. Carbon, O, and N were detected in all the samples using XPS. Roughness remained almost unchanged in the samples prepared with 5.3 and 28.9% but tended to increase for the films deposited with P(Ar) between 28.9 and 55.3%. Surface free energy increased with increasing P(Ar), except for the sample prepared at 28.9% of Ar, which presented the least reactive surface. Cells proliferated on all the samples, including the bare PVC. Independently of the deposition condition there was no evidence of cytotoxicity, indicating the viability of such coatings for designing biocompatible devices.

  13. Cell Adhesion to Plasma-Coated PVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elidiane C. Rangel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To produce environments suitable for cell culture, thin polymer films were deposited onto commercial PVC plates from radiofrequency acetylene-argon plasmas. The proportion of argon in the plasmas, PAr, was varied from 5.3 to 65.8%. The adhesion and growth of Vero cells on the coated surfaces were examined for different incubation times. Cytotoxicity tests were performed using spectroscopic methods. Carbon, O, and N were detected in all the samples using XPS. Roughness remained almost unchanged in the samples prepared with 5.3 and 28.9% but tended to increase for the films deposited with PAr between 28.9 and 55.3%. Surface free energy increased with increasing PAr, except for the sample prepared at 28.9% of Ar, which presented the least reactive surface. Cells proliferated on all the samples, including the bare PVC. Independently of the deposition condition there was no evidence of cytotoxicity, indicating the viability of such coatings for designing biocompatible devices.

  14. Observing phthalate leaching from plasticized polymer films at the molecular level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoxian; Chen, Zhan

    2014-05-06

    Phthalates, the most widely used plasticizers in poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC), have been extensively studied. In this paper, a highly sensitive, easy, and effective method was developed to examine short-term phthalate leaching from PVC/phthalate films at the molecular level using sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG). Combining SFG and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), surface and bulk molecular structures of PVC/phthalate films were also comprehensively evaluated during the phthalate leaching process under various environments. The leaching processes of two phthalates, diethyl phthalate (DEP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP), from the PVC/phthalate films with various weight ratios were studied. Oxygen plasma was applied to treat the PVC/phthalate film surfaces to verify its efficacy on preventing/reducing phthalate leaching from PVC. Our results show that DBP is more stable than DEP in PVC/phthalate films. Even so, DBP molecules were still found to very slowly leach to the environment from PVC at 30 °C, at a rate much slower than DEP. Also, the bulk DBP content substantially influences the DBP leaching. Higher DBP bulk concentration yields less stable DBP molecules in the PVC matrix, allowing molecules to leach from the polymer film more easily. Additionally, DBP leaching is very sensitive to temperature changes; higher temperature can strongly enhance the leaching process. For most cases, the oxygen plasma treatment can effectively prevent phthalate leaching from PVC films (e.g., for samples with low bulk concentrations of DBP-5 and 30 wt %). It is also capable of reducing phthalate leaching from high DBP bulk concentration PVC samples (e.g., 70 wt % DBP in PVC/DBP mixture). This research develops a highly sensitive method to detect chemicals at the molecular level as well as provides surface and bulk molecular structural changes. The method developed here is general and can be applied to detect small amounts of chemical

  15. Strawberries packaged with Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC film/ Morangos embalados com filme de Ppolicloreto de Vinila (PVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Ruffo Roberto

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Strawberries cv. Dover with approximately 75% of their surface with red color was packaged in disposable polyethylene terephthalate (PET container and sealed with PVC film of 15mm thick. Strawberries without film serves as control. The fruits were stored at 12°C for ten days and there were determined during storage time the titratable acidity, solid soluble and vitamin C contents, color, respiration rate, texture and weight loss. After 6 days the strawberries packaged without film had decayed while the fruits packaged with PVC film were in conditions of consumption and commercialization. After 10 days all fruits were inappropriate to consumption. Packages with PVC film extended the shelf life of strawberries preserving the color characteristic of the product and vitamin C content, reducing the respiration rate and weight loss, characterizing this packaging as being adequate to this kind of product.Foram utilizados morangos cv. Dover com aproximadamente 75% de sua superfície com coloração vermelha e embalados em potes de polietileno tereftalato (PET. No tratamento CONTROLE os morangos foram acondicionados sem filme e no tratamento FILME, as embalagens foram seladas com filme de PVC de 15mm de espessura. As frutas foram armazenadas a 12°C por dez dias e foram determinadas ao longo do tempo acidez titulável, sólidos solúveis, vitamina C, cor, taxa de respiração, textura e perda de massa. Após 6 dias de armazenagem os morangos CONTROLE estavam impróprios para consumo pois apresentavam deterioração visível por bolores enquanto que os embalados com PVC estavam em condições de consumo e comercialização. Após 10 dias todos os morangos estavam impróprios para consumo. A embalagem utilizando filme de PVC aumentou a vida de prateleira de morangos em relação aos sem embalagem pois preservou melhor a coloração característica do produto e teor de vitamina C e reduziu as taxas de respiração e de perda de massa, caracterizando a

  16. Forensic utility of the carbon isotope ratio of PVC tape backings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, L. A.; Thompson, A. H.; Mehltretter, A. H.; McLaskey, V.; Parish, A.; Aranda, R.

    2008-12-01

    Forensic interest in adhesive tapes with PVC-backings (polyvinyl chloride, electrical tapes) derives from their use in construction of improvised explosive devices, drug packaging and in a variety of other illicit activities. Due to the range of physical characteristics and chemical compositions of such tapes, traditional microscopic and chemical analysis of the tape backings and adhesives offer a high degree of discrimination between tapes from different manufacturers and products. To evaluate whether carbon isotope ratios may be able to increase discrimination of electrical tapes, particularly with regards to different tapes of the same product, we assessed the PVC-backings of 87 rolls of black electrical tape for their δ13C values. The adhesive on these tapes was physically removed with hexane, and plasticizers within the PVC tape backings were removed by three-20 minute extractions with chloroform. The δ13C values of the PVC tape backings ranged between -23.8 and -41.5 (‰ V-PDB). The carbon isotopic variation within a product (identical brand and product identification) is significant, based on five products with at least 3 rolls (ranges of 7.4‰ (n=3), 10.0‰ (n=6), 4.2‰ (n=16), 3.8‰ (n=6), and 11.5‰ (n=8), respectively). There was no measurable carbon isotope variation in regards to the following: a) along the length of a roll (4 samples from 1 roll); b) between the center and edge of a strip of tape (1 pair); c) between rolls assumed to be from the same lot of tape (2 pairs); d) between different rolls from the same batch of tape (same product purchased at the same time and place; 5 pairs); and e) between samples of a tape at room temperature, heated to 50° C and 80° C for 1 week. For each sample within the population of 87 tapes, carbon isotopes alone exclude 80 to 100% of the tapes as a potential match, with an average exclusion power of 92.5%, using a window of ± 0.4‰. Carbon isotope variations originate from variations in starting

  17. Hybrid selective surface hydrophilization and froth flotation separation of hazardous chlorinated plastics from E-waste with novel nanoscale metallic calcium composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallampati, Srinivasa Reddy; Heo, Je Haeng; Park, Min Hee

    2016-04-05

    Treatment by a nanometallic Ca/CaO composite has been found to selectively hydrophilize the surface of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), enhancing its wettability and thereby promoting its separation from E-waste plastics by means of froth flotation. The treatment considerably decreased the water contact angle of PVC, by about 18°. The SEM images of the PVC plastic after treatment displayed significant changes in their surface morphology compared to other plastics. The SEM-EDS results reveal that a markedly decrease of [Cl] concentration simultaneously with dramatic increase of [O] on the surface of the PCV samples. XPS results further confirmed an increase of hydrophilic functional groups on the PVC surface. Froth flotation at 100rpm mixing speed was found to be optimal, separating 100% of the PVC into a settled fraction of 96.4% purity even when the plastics fed into the reactor were of nonuniform size and shape. The total recovery of PVC-free plastics in E-waste reached nearly 100% in the floated fraction, significantly improved from the 20.5wt% of light plastics that can be recovered by means of conventional wet gravity separation. The hybrid method of nanometallic Ca/CaO treatment and froth flotation is effective in the separation of hazardous chlorinated plastics from E-waste plastics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. MAIN FACTORS IN PREPARATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL PARTICLES/PVC COMPOSITE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuehua Chen; Chunzhong Li; Ling Zhang; Shoufang Xu; Qiuling Zhou; Yihua Zhu; Xianzhang Qu

    2004-01-01

    Zirconium phosphate containing silver was chosen as antibacterial particles in preparing antibacterial particles/PVC composite. The effect of surface property of the antibacterial particles and of their filler content on the properties of antibacterial particles/PVC composite was studied. The effect of the interfacial compatibility on mechanical properties of the composite was also discussed. Experimental results showed that the antibacterial PVC composite had good antibacterial property, reaching almost 100% bacteriostatic level at an antibacterial powder filler content of 1.5 phr.

  19. NMR STUDY ON THE COMPATIBILITY OF ACR/PVC BLENDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiaoqing; QIU Lingshi; WANG Dongsheng; WANG Yuanshen

    1988-01-01

    A 300MHz solid NMR study on the compatibility of ACR (poly (methyl methacrylate-co-methacrylate),in the ratio of 1:1)-PVC (poly (vinyl chloride)) blends is reported. Spin-lattice (T1) and spin-spin (T2)relaxation time of ACR, PVC and their blends are recorded in the temperature range from 215K to 355K.Experimental results indicate that ACR and PVC are compatible with each other and the domain size is smaller than 25 nm, but heterogeneities of molecular dimensions still exist. Some problems of mechanism of compatibility and data analysis are also discussed.

  20. MIXTURE OF PVC POWDER%PVC粉料的混合

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹伯峰

    2001-01-01

    研究了PVC粉料在混合过程中物料的加料量、加料顺序、混合温度、混合时间等因素对PVC干混粉料质量与产量的影响。%In the mixing process of PVC powder, the influences of the amount of PVC powder in mixing, the sequence of stuffing,mixing temperature, mixing time, etc. on the quality and output of PVC dry mixture powder are discussed.

  1. Plastik Enjeksiyon Kalıplarında PVC (Polivinil Klorür ve PC (Polikarbonat İçin En Uygun Kalıp Çeliği Seçimi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Veli DÖNDÜREN

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available With each passing day, the use of plastics in the life of human beings with a further increase of the field, the plastics gligibly small. In this study, PVC (Polyvinyl Chloride and PC (Poindustry has evolved to the present day. Because of increased demand and competition, plastics technology continues to evolve rapidly. Work on the plastic technology to further grow while maintaining its position in the industry in our country are continuing. In these studies reinforced plastics, heat, temperature, pressure such variables has been working on. But

  2. PVC/特种CPE的共混增韧%Blended Toughening of PVC/Special CPE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜壮; 徐超; 闫志佩; 赵季若; 冯莺

    2011-01-01

    The special chlorinated polyethylene was synthesized from high density polyethylene(HDPE) through solid phase method,in which a new kind chlorinated polyethylene(CPE) with special chlorine distribution was obtained by controlling temperature and time of the chlorinating reaction.The special chlorinated polyethylene(SCPE) can be used as a new modifier to toughen poly(vinyl chloride)(PVC).In this article,the mechanical property and microcosmic structure of SCPE and the blended system were studied.The results show that tensile strength of the blends increases 4% and notch impact strength of the blends increases 62.5% contrast to pure PVC.Results of DSC and 1H-NMR indicate that chain segments of different chlorine content exist in molecular chains of SCPE.The toughness of PVC can be modified by SCPE blended onto PVC while tensile strength of blends is improved.The analysis of morphological structure shows that the sufficient amalgamation between PVC phase and SCPE phase is excellent to improve mechanical property of the blends.%采用固相法对高密度聚乙烯(HDPE)进行氯化,得到分子链上具有特殊氯分布的特种氯化聚乙烯(CPE)(SCPE),其可以作为增韧剂对聚氯乙烯(PVC)增韧。结果表明,在SCPE含量为5份时,PVC/SCPE共混物的拉伸强度相对于PVC没有降低,反而提高了4%左右;缺口冲击强度提高了62.5%(13 kJ/m2)。差示扫描量热(DSC)和核磁共振(1H-NMR)的结果表明,SCPE分子链上特殊的氯嵌段结构对材料的性能至关重要。材料断面扫描电镜(SEM)分析表明PVC相与SCPE相的充分融合是力学性能优异的原因之一。

  3. Forensic utility of carbon isotope ratio variations in PVC tape backings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Marianne E; Stern, Libby A; Mehltretter, Andria Hobbs; Parish, Ashley; McLasky, Velvet; Aranda, Roman

    2012-03-01

    Forensic interest in adhesive tapes with polyvinyl chloride (PVC) backings (electrical tape) derives from their use in a variety of illicit activities. Due to the range of physical characteristics, chemical compositions, and homogeneity within a single roll of tape, traditional microscopic and chemical analyses can offer a high degree of discrimination between tapes, permitting the assessment of potential associations between evidentiary tape samples. The carbon isotope ratios of tapes could provide additional discrimination among tape samples. To evaluate whether carbon isotope ratios may be able to increase discrimination of electrical tapes, particularly with regards to different rolls of tape of the same product, we assessed the δ(13)C values of backings from 87 rolls of PVC-based black electrical tape (~20 brands, >60 products) Prior to analysis, adhesives were removed to prevent contamination by adhering debris, and plasticizers were extracted because of concern over their potential mobility. This result is consistent with each of these tapes having approximately the same plasticizer δ(13)C value and proportion of carbon in these plasticizers. The δ(13)C values of the 87 PVC tape backings ranged between -23.5 and -41.3 (‰, V-PDB), with negligible carbon isotopic variation within single rolls of tape, yet large variations among tape brands and tape products. Within this tape population, carbon isotope ratios permitted an average exclusion power of 93.7%, using a window of +/-0.3‰; the combination of carbon isotope ratio measurement with additional chemical and physical analyses raises the discrimination power to over 98.9%, with only 41 out of a possible 3741 pairs of tape samples being indistinguishable. There was a linear relationship between the δ(13)C value of tape backings and the change in δ(13)C value with the extraction of plasticizers. Analyses of pre- and post-blast tape sample pairs show that carbon isotope signatures are within 0.3‰ of

  4. ANALYSIS OF ADIPATE ESTER CONTENTS IN POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) PLASTICS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.; Otero, Amalia Dopazo

    2006-01-01

    Fourier transform (FT-) Raman spectroscopy excited with a 1064 nm laser can be used to determine the content of plasticizers in commercial flexible poly vinyl chloride (PVC) products. Our previous study [T. Nørbygaard, R.W. Berg, Analysis of phthalate ester content in PVC plastics by means of FT......-Raman Spectroscopy, Appl. Spectrosc. 58 (4) (2004) 410–413]—on detection of the presence of phthalate esters in PVC by FT-Raman spectroscopy — is here extended to the similar case of adipate esters (AEs) in samples of soft poly vinyl chloride plastics. Spectra of a range of adipate ester plasticizers (11 AEs......) in pure form are reported. We studied if qualitative and quantitative determination of the adipate ester content would be possible based on the use of proper reference samples. It was found that AEs as a group cannot be definitively identified by their characteristic Raman bands because other aliphatic...

  5. Influence of shape and size of the particles on jigging separation of plastics mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pita, Fernando; Castilho, Ana

    2016-02-01

    Plastics are popular for numerous applications due to their high versatility and favourable properties such as endurance, lightness and cheapness. Therefore the generation of plastic waste is constantly increasing, becoming one of the larger categories in municipal solid waste. Almost all plastic materials are recyclable, but for the recycling to be possible it is necessary to separate the different types of plastics. The aim of this research was to evaluate the performance of the jig separation of bi-component plastic mixtures. For this study six granulated plastics had been used: Polystyrene (PS), Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET-S, PET-D) and Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC-M, PVC-D). Plastics mixtures were subjected to jigging in a laboratorial Denver mineral jig. The results showed that the quality of the jigging separation varies with the mixture, the density differences and with the size and shape of the particles. In the case of particles with more regular shapes the quality of separation of bi-component plastic mixtures improved with the increase of the particle size. For lamellar particles the influence of particle size was minimal. In general, the beneficiation of plastics with similar densities was not effective, since the separation efficiency was lower than 25%. However, in bi-component plastic mixtures that join a low density plastic (PS) with a high density one (PMMA, PET-S, PET-D, PVC-M and PVC-D), the quality of the jigging separation was greatly improved. The PS grade in the sunk was less than 1% for all the plastic mixtures. Jigging proved to be an effective method for the separation of bi-component plastic mixtures. Jigging separation will be enhanced if the less dense plastic, that overflows, has a lamellar shape and if the denser plastic, that sinks, has a regular one.

  6. Plastic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Plastic Surgery KidsHealth > For Teens > Plastic Surgery Print A A ... forehead lightened with a laser? What Is Plastic Surgery? Just because the name includes the word "plastic" ...

  7. Studies of Wettability of Medical PVC by Remote Nitrogen Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ru; Chen, Jierong

    2006-05-01

    The effects of remote nitrogen plasma and nitrogen plasma on medical PVC's surface modification are studied. The surface properties are characterized by the contact angle measurement, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Results show that the remote nitrogen plasma treatments modify the PVC surface in both morphology and composition and the treatment by the remote nitrogen plasma in PVC surface modification is more effective than that by the nitrogen plasma. Remote nitrogen plasma can modify the surface more uniformly. After the PVC surface is treated for 2 min by remote nitrogen plasma, the [w(O)+ w(N)]/w(C)] value increases from 0.13 to 0.51 and the water contact angle decreases from 89o to 18o.

  8. Applications and market of PVC for piping industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnny De N. Martins; Estevão Freire; Henry Hemadipour

    2009-01-01

    .... Pipes and fittings constitute the largest volume application at 40% of the marketplace. This paper discusses the piping extrusion process and the worldwide PVC market, emphasizing the Brazilian market...

  9. Aqueous leaching of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate and "green" plasticizers from poly(vinyl chloride).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastner, Joshua; Cooper, David G; Marić, Milan; Dodd, Patrick; Yargeau, Viviane

    2012-08-15

    A method was developed to assess leaching of several poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) plasticizers in aqueous media using gas chromatography (GC), and compared to a gravimetric standard test method (ASTM Method D1239). The GC method was a more direct measurement of plasticizer concentration in the aqueous phase. The leaching of commercial plasticizers, as well as several series of "green" candidate plasticizers, were assessed as a function of their molecular characteristics and compared to the industry standard PVC plasticizer, di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP). It was found that plasticizers containing longer alkyl chains or non-polar branching emanating from polar structural units, increased the hydrophobicity of the molecule and reduced its aqueous leaching rate. Several "green" plasticizer candidates were found to minimize aqueous leaching to rates ten times below that of DEHP; notably dioctyl succinate (DOS), dihexyl maleate (DHM), methyl cyclohexyl diester (MCDE), diethylhexyl succinate (DEHS), hexanediol dibenzoate (C6), and the commercially available Hexamoll® DINCH.

  10. Separation and analysis of low molecular weight plasticizers in poly(vinyl chloride) tubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Qian; Storm, Birgit Kjærside

    2005-01-01

    The separation of plasticizers in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) used in medical applications was carried out in different solvents and compared by studying the remaining PVC after separation using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravime...... on extracted diisooctyl phthalate (DOP) concentration were obtained from different methods. Analysis on one kind of the used tubes showed that 64-67% of DOP migrated to the patient, but bis(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DOA) was 70-100% retained....

  11. Study on the Effect of Inorganic Nano-particles on the Anti-migration of Plasticizers in Printed PVC Films%纳米无机粒子抑制喷绘PVC膜中增塑剂析出的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨宝红; 白永平; 曹英杰

    2010-01-01

    用纳米SiO2和纳米CaCO3来抑制喷绘用聚氯乙烯(PVC)膜中增塑剂的析出,探讨了其对喷绘PVC膜喷绘性能的影响.结果表明,纳米CaCO3和纳米SiO2可以有效抑制喷绘PVC膜中增塑剂的析出,其含量越高,抑制作用越明显,但含量超过20份(质量份,下同)时,PVC膜的力学性能和喷绘性能下降.纳米SiO2和纳米CaCO3还可提高喷绘PVC膜的油墨吸收速度;但当团聚颗粒较大时,对PVC膜的喷绘性能会产生不利影响.

  12. Absorbed Dose Distributions in Irradiated Plastic Tubing and Wire Insulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Arne; McLaughlin, W. L.

    1979-01-01

    Plastic tubing and wire insulation were simulated by radiochromic dye dosimeter films having electron absorbing properties similar to the materials of interest (polyethylene and PVC). A 400-keV electron accelerator was used to irradiate from 1, 2, 3 and 4 sides simulating possible industrial...

  13. The PVC superphylum: exceptions to the bacterial definition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuerst, John A

    2013-10-01

    The PVC superphylum is a grouping of distinct phyla of the domain bacteria proposed initially on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. It consists of a core of phyla Planctomycetes, Verrucomicrobia and Chlamydiae, but several other phyla have been considered to be members, including phylum Lentisphaerae and several other phyla consisting only of yet-to-be cultured members. The genomics-based links between Planctomycetes, Verrucomicrobia and Chlamydiae have been recently strengthened, but there appear to be other features which may confirm the relationship at least of Planctomycetes, Verrucomicrobia and Lentisphaerae. Remarkably these include the unique planctomycetal compartmentalized cell plan differing from the cell organization typical for bacteria. Such a shared cell plan suggests that the common ancestor of the PVC superphylum members may also have been compartmentalized, suggesting this is an evolutionarily homologous feature at least within the superphylum. Both the PVC endomembranes and the eukaryote-homologous membrane-coating MC proteins linked to endocytosis ability in Gemmata obscuriglobus and shared by PVC members suggest such homology may extend beyond the bacteria to the Eukarya. If so, either our definition of bacteria may have to change or PVC members admitted to be exceptions. The cases for and against considering the PVC superphylum members as exceptions to the bacteria are discussed, and arguments for them as exceptions presented. Recent critical analysis has favoured convergence and analogy for explaining eukaryote-like features in planctomycetes and other PVC organisms. The case is made for constructing hypotheses leaving the possibility of homology and evolutionary links to eukaryote features open. As the case of discovery of endocytosis-like protein uptake in planctomycetes has suggested, this may prove a strong basis for the immediate future of experimental research programs in the PVC scientific community.

  14. Informative document waste plastics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagelhout D; Sein AA; Duvoort GL

    1989-01-01

    This "Informative document waste plastics" forms part of a series of "informative documents waste materials". These documents are conducted by RIVM on the indstruction of the Directorate General for the Environment, Waste Materials Directorate, in behalf of the program of acti

  15. Enhancement of the thermo-mechanical properties and efficacy of mixing technique in the preparation of graphene/PVC nanocomposites compared to carbon nanotubes/PVC

    OpenAIRE

    Mudassir Hasan; Moonyong Lee

    2014-01-01

    Thin films of poly vinyl chloride (PVC)/multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and PVC/graphene (GN) nanocomposites were prepared by mixing in the presence of different quantities of nanoparticles. Film casting was performed using tetrahydrofuran as a solvent. The as-prepared PVC/MWCNT and PVC/GN nanocomposites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, dynamic mechanical analysis, and...

  16. Structure and performance of ZnO/PVC nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elashmawi, I.S., E-mail: islam_shukri2000@yahoo.co [Spectroscopy department, Physics division, National Research Centre, Dokki (Egypt); Hakeem, N.A. [Spectroscopy department, Physics division, National Research Centre, Dokki (Egypt); Marei, L.K.; Hanna, F.F. [Faculty of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, Suez Canal University, Suez (Egypt)

    2010-10-01

    ZnO/PVC nanocomposites films have been prepared by the solvent casting method and investigated by various techniques. All results show good dispersion of ZnO nanoparticles in the polymeric matrix. XRD revealed that pure PVC films are partially crystalline with hallow peak but ZnO nanoparticles have wurtzite structure and the nanocomposite films were almost the same as those of ZnO with decrease in the degree of crystallization, causing increase in the amorphous region. FT-IR presented the same spectra for nanocomposites in the wavenumber range 700-3100 cm{sup -1}, weak band located at 500-700 cm{sup -1},which can be attributed to stretching of Zn---O bond and an increase of the bending band of O-H at 1631 cm{sup -1} was observed. The surface of the films was analyzed by SEM, which becomes rough with some small aggregates compared with pure PVC with good distribution in the entire surface region with bright spots. TEM revealed a regular crystalline lattice superimposed on an amorphous background due to carbon support and PVC matrix and the structure of these particles is hexagonal. In addition, the nanocomposites films have higher glass transition temperature, specific heat and thermal stability relative to those of pure PVC because of strong interaction among ZnO nanoparticles and PVC.

  17. Preparation and Characterization of Novel PVC/Silica–Lignin Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Klapiszewski

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An advanced SiO2–lignin hybrid material was obtained and tested as a novel poly(vinyl chloride (PVC filler. The processing of compounds of poly(vinyl chloride in the form of a dry blend with silica–lignin hybrid material and, separately, with the two components from which that material was prepared, was performed in a Brabender mixing chamber. An analysis was made of processing (mass melt flow rate, MFR, thermal (thermogravimetric analysis, Congo red and Vicat softening temperature test and tensile properties of the final PVC composites with fillers in a range of concentrations between 2.5 wt % and 10 wt %. Additionally, the effects of filler content on the fusion characteristics of PVC composites were investigated. The homogeneity of dispersion of the silica–lignin hybrid material in the PVC matrix was determined by optical microscopy and SEM. Finally, it should be noted that it is possible to obtain a PVC composite containing up to 10 wt % of silica–lignin filler using a melt processing method. The introduction of hybrid filler into the PVC matrix results in a homogeneous structure of the composites and positive processing and functional properties, especially thermal stability and Vicat softening temperature.

  18. Interfacial molecular restructuring of plasticized polymers in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankett, Jeanne M; Lu, Xiaolin; Liu, Yuwei; Seeley, Emily; Chen, Zhan

    2014-10-07

    Upon water contact, phthalate-plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) surfaces are highly unstable because the plasticizer molecules are not covalently bound to the polymer network. As a result, it is difficult to predict how the surface polymer chains and plasticizers may interact with water without directly probing the plastic/water interface in situ. We successfully studied the molecular surface restructuring of 10 wt% and 25 wt% bis 2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP)-plasticized and pure PVC films (deposited on solid substrates) in situ due to water contact using sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy. SFG spectral signals from both the top and the bottom of the plastic film were obtained simultaneously, so a thin-film model spectral analysis was applied to separately identify the molecular changes of plastics at the surface and the plastic/substrate interface in water. It was found that in water both the structures of the plastic surface and the buried plastic/substrate interface changed. After removing the samples from the water and exposing them to air again, the surface structures did not completely recover. Further SFG experiments confirmed that small amounts of DEHP were transferred into the water. The leached DEHP molecules could reorder and permanently transfer to new surfaces through water contact. Our studies indicate that small amounts of phthalates can transfer from surface to surface through water contact in an overall scope of minutes. This study yields vital new information on the molecular surface structures of DEHP plasticized PVC in water, and the transfer behaviors and environmental fate of plasticizers in polymers.

  19. [Survey of plasticizers in polyvinyl chloride toys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Yutaka; Yamaguchi, Miku; Mutsuga, Motoh; Hirahara, Yoshichika; Kawamura, Yoko

    2012-01-01

    Plasticizers in 101 samples of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) toys on the Japanese market were surveyed. No phthalates were detected in designated toys, though bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, diisononyl phthalate, diisobutyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, diisodecyl phthalate and benzyl butyl phthalate were detected in more than half of other toys. 2,2,4-Tributyl-1,3-pentanediol diisobutylate, o-acetyl tributyl citrate, adipates and diacetyl lauroyl glycerol, which are alternative plasticizers to phthalates, were detected. The results of structural analysis confirmed the presence of di(2-ethylhexyl)terephthalate, tributyl citrate, diisononyl 1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylate and neopentyl glycol esters; these have not previonsly been reported in Japan. There appears to be a shift in plasticizers used for designated toys from phthalates to new plasticizers, and the number of different plasticizers is increasing.

  20. Flotation separation of polyvinyl chloride and polyethylene terephthalate plastics combined with surface modification for recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chongqing; Wang, Hui; Fu, Jiangang; Zhang, Lingling; Luo, Chengcheng; Liu, Younian

    2015-11-01

    Surface modification with potassium permanganate (KMnO4) solution was developed for separation of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) waste plastics. The floatability of PVC decreases with increasing of KMnO4 concentration, treatment time, temperature and stirring rate, while that of PET is unaffected. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis confirms that mechanism of surface modification may be due to oxidization reactions occurred on PVC surface. The optimum conditions are KMnO4 concentration 1.25 mM/L, treatment time 50 min, temperature 60°C, stirring rate 300 r/min, frother concentration 17.5 g/L and flotation time 1 min. PVC and PET with different particle sizes were separated efficiently through two-stage flotation. Additionally, after ultrasonic assisted surface modification, separation of PVC and PET with different mass ratios was obtained efficiently through one-stage flotation. The purity and the recovery of the obtained products after flotation separation are up to 99.30% and 99.73%, respectively. A flotation process was designed for flotation separation of PVC and PET plastics combined with surface modification. This study provides technical insights into physical separation of plastic wastes for recycling industry.

  1. 阻燃型NBR改性PVC软质泡沫塑料的研制%Preparation of flame- retardant PVC foam modified by nitrile rubber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张军; 梁亚平

    2001-01-01

    Using chemical crosslinking technologyand one-step compression molding process, thefoaming technique of flame-retardant polyvinylchloride(PVC) foamed plastics modified by nitrilerubber(NBR) was studied. The effects of chlorinatedparaffin(CP) , dioctyl phthalate(DOP), Sb203, mod-ified rubber types, blowing agents, fillers andcrosslinking agent on modified flame - retardant PVCfoam were discussed. The optimum recipe (phr) wasas follow: PVC 100, NBR 60, DOP 30, CP 30, Sb2038, blowing agent AC 4. 0, blowing agent H 4. 0,dicamyl peroxide 1.0. The oxygen index of flame -retardant PVC foam was 27.0% and the mechanicalproperties were good. The experiment of electronmicroscope showed that the cellular structure offlame- retardant PVC foamed plastics was not sogood as that of flammable PVC foamed plastics.%在以聚氯乙烯(PVC)为主体材料、加入丁腈橡胶(NBR)共混改性、用化学交联模压一步法制备改性PVC泡沫塑料的基础上,选用阻燃型增塑剂氯化石蜡(CP)、阻燃剂Sb2O3进行阻燃型NBR改性PVC软质泡沫塑料的制备研究。结果表明,当用Pvc 100份(质量份,下同)、NBR60份、邻苯二甲酸二辛酯30份、CP 30份、Sb203 8份、偶氮二甲酰胺4.0份、N,N′-二亚硝基五次甲基四胺4.0份、过氧化二异丙苯1.0份及适量稳定剂时,可使NBR改性PVC软质泡沫塑料的氧指数达到27.0%,综合力学性能较好。电镜分析表明,阻燃型NBR改性PVC软质泡沫塑料的泡孔分布均匀性不如非阻燃型同类产品的好。

  2. A Lesson Plan to Develop Structured Discussion of the Benefits and Disadvantages of Selected Plastics Using the Product-Testing Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmeister, Mareike; Eilks, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    People use many different products made from plastics every day. But conventional plastics such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC) do not always have a good reputation in society at large. Bioplastics such as thermoplastic starch (TPS) promise to be better alternatives but are they really better than conventional plastics? This article presents a new…

  3. Preparation and characterization of PVC/PMMA blend polymer electrolytes complexed with LiN(C2F5SO22

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nimma Elizabeth

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Thin films of polymer blend electrolytes comprising Poly(vinyl chloride (PVC and Poly(methyl methacrylate(PMMA and plasticized with a combination of ethylene carbonate (EC and propylene carbonate (PC for different lithium imide salt, LiN(C2F5SO32 , concentrations were prepared using the solution casting technique. The films were subjected to a. c. impedance measurements as a function of temperature ranging from -30 °C to 70 °C. The variation of ionic conductivity as a function of temperature and PVC content in the blend was analysed. The role of PMMA in the phenomena occurring at the interface between the plasticized polymer electrolyte and lithium electrode was also studied. The cast films were also subjected to TG/DTA and FT-IR studies which are discussed.

  4. Determination of additives in PVC material by UV laser ablation inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmerlin, M.; Mermet, J. M.; Bertucci, M.; Zydowicz, P.

    1997-04-01

    UV laser ablation inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (LA-ICP-AES) has been applied to the direct determination of additives in solid poly(vinyl chloride) materials. A Nd:YAG laser, operating at its fourth harmonic (266 nm), was used with a beam masking device, in the most reproducible conditions, to introduce solid particles into the plasma torch of a simultaneous ICP-AES system. Emphasis was placed on both precision and accuracy in the analysis of PVC materials by LA-ICP-AES. A series of six in-house PVC reference materials was prepared by incorporating several additives in increasing concentrations. Three alternative methods were evaluated to certify the amount of incorporated elements: ICP-AES with sample dissolution, NAA and XRF. Satisfactory results and good agreement were obtained for seven elements (Al, Ca, Cd, Mg, Sb, Sn and Ti) among the ten incorporated. Sample homogeneity appeared to be satisfactory, and calibration graphs obtained by LA-ICP-AES for several elements are presented. Finally, the performance of the technique in terms of repeatability (1.6-5%), reproducibility (2-5%), and limits of detection was investigated.

  5. Ionophore-based potentiometric PVC membrane sensors for determination of phenobarbitone in pharmaceutical formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrabiah, Haitham; Al-Majed, Abdulrahman; Abounassif, Mohammed; Mostafa, Gamal A E

    2016-12-01

    The fabrication and development of two polyvinyl chloride (PVC) membrane sensors for assaying phenobarbitone sodium are described. Sensors 1 and 2 were fabricated utilizing β- or γ-cyclodextrin as ionophore in the presence of tridodecylmethylammonium chloride as a membrane additive, and PVC and dioctyl phthalate as plasticizer. The analytical parameters of both sensors were evaluated according to the IUPAC guidelines. The proposed sensors showed rapid, stable anionic response (-59.1 and -62.0 mV per decade) over a relatively wide phenobarbitone concentration range (5.0 × 10-6-1 × 10-2 and 8 × 10-6-1 × 10-2 mol L-1) in the pH range of 9-11. The limit of detection was 3.5 × 10-6 and 7.0 × 10-6 mol L-1 for sensors 1 and 2, respectively. The fabricated sensors showed high selectivity for phenobarbitone over the investigated foreign species. An average recovery of 2.54 μg mL-1 phenobarbitone sodium was 97.4 and 101.1 %, while the mean relative standard deviation was 3.0 and 2.1 %, for sensors 1 and 2, respectively. The results acquired for determination of phenobarbitone in its dosage forms utilizing the proposed sensors are in good agreement with those obtained by the British Pharmacopoeial method.

  6. Ionophore-based potentiometric PVC membrane sensors for determination of phenobarbitone in pharmaceutical formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alrabiah Haitham

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The fabrication and development of two polyvinyl chloride (PVC membrane sensors for assaying phenobarbitone sodium are described. Sensors 1 and 2 were fabricated utilizing β- or γ-cyclodextrin as ionophore in the presence of tridodecylmethylammonium chloride as a membrane additive, and PVC and dioctyl phthalate as plasticizer. The analytical parameters of both sensors were evaluated according to the IUPAC guidelines. The proposed sensors showed rapid, stable anionic response (-59.1 and -62.0 mV per decade over a relatively wide phenobarbitone concentration range (5.0 × 10-6-1 × 10-2 and 8 × 10-6-1 × 10-2 mol L-1 in the pH range of 9-11. The limit of detection was 3.5 × 10-6 and 7.0 × 10-6 mol L-1 for sensors 1 and 2, respectively. The fabricated sensors showed high selectivity for phenobarbitone over the investigated foreign species. An average recovery of 2.54 μg mL-1 phenobarbitone sodium was 97.4 and 101.1 %, while the mean relative standard deviation was 3.0 and 2.1 %, for sensors 1 and 2, respectively. The results acquired for determination of phenobarbitone in its dosage forms utilizing the proposed sensors are in good agreement with those obtained by the British Pharmacopoeial method.

  7. Analytical methods for the determination of DEHP plasticizer alternatives present in medical devices: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, L; Décaudin, B; Lecoeur, M; Richard, D; Bourdeaux, D; Cueff, R; Sautou, V

    2014-11-01

    Until 2010, diethylhexylphthalate (DEHP) was the plasticizer most commonly used to soften PVC medical devices (MDs), because of a good efficiency/cost ratio. In flexible plasticized PVC, phthalates are not chemically bound to PVC and they are released into the environment and thus may come into contact with patients. The European Directive 2007/47/CE, classified DEHP as a product with a toxicity risk and restricted its use in MDs. MD manufacturers were therefore forced to quickly find alternatives to DEHP to maintain the elasticity of PVC nutrition tubings, infusion sets and hemodialysis lines. Several replacement plasticizers, so-called "alternative to DEHP plasticizers" were incorporated into the MDs. Nowadays, the risk of exposure to these compounds for hospitalized patients, particularly in situations classified "at risk", has not yet been evaluated, because migrations studies, providing sufficient exposure and human toxicity data have not been performed. To assess the risk to patients of DEHP plasticizer alternatives, reliable analytical methods must be first developed in order to generate data that supports clinical studies being conducted in this area. After a brief introduction of the characteristics and toxicity of the selected plasticizers used currently in MDs, this review outlines recently analytical methods available to determine and quantify these plasticizers in several matrices, allowing the evaluation of potential risk and so risk management.

  8. Comparative study of three different kinds of geo membranes (PVC-P, HDPE, EPDM) used in the waterproofing of reservoirs; Estudio comparativo de tres geomembranas de distinta naturaleza (PVC-P, PEAD, EPDM) empleadas en la impermeabilizacion de balsas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco Fernandez, M.; Castillo Rubi, F.; Soriano Carrillo, J.; Noval Arango, A. M.; Touze-Foltz, N.; Pargada Iglesias, L.; Rico Arnaiz, G.; Aguilar gonzalez, E.

    2014-02-01

    This work describes the long-term behaviour of three kinds of geo membranes which are constituted by plasticised poly vinyl chloride (PVC-P), high density polyethylene (HDPE) and terpolymer rubber of ethylene-propylene-dienic monomer (EPDM) used as the waterproofing system of the reservoirs Los Llanos de Mesa, San Isidro and El Golfo, respectively. Characteristics of the three original geo membranes and their behaviour along time are presented. Thicknesses, content and nature of the plasticizers ( in PVC-P), tensile properties dynamic and static puncture, fold ability at low temperature, shore hardness, tear resistance and carbon black ( in HDPE), joint strength (shear and peeling test) and microscopy, both optical and electronic scanning tests were carried out. Results obtained conclude with a long-term durability of geo membranes, independently of their macromolecular nature. These characteristics were determined by advanced analytical techniques in PVC-P samples, such as fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Gas Chromatography (GC) and Mass Spectrometry (MS). Spectrometry (MS). (Author)

  9. Extraction of Gold(III) from Hydrochloric Acid Solutions with a PVC-based Polymer Inclusion Membrane (PIM) Containing Cyphos® IL 104

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) based polymer inclusion membranes (PIMs), with different concentrations of Cyphos® IL 104 as the membrane extractant/carrier, were studied for their ability to extract Au(III) from hydrochloric acid solutions. Some of the PIMs also contained one of the following plasticizers or modifiers: 2-nitrophenyloctyl ether, dioctylphthalate, 1-dodecanol, 1-tetradecanol, or tri(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate. The best performance, in terms of extraction rate and amount of A...

  10. Immobilization of ionophore and surface characterization studies of the titanium(III) ion in a PVC-membrane sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezayi, Majid; Heng, Lee Yook; Kassim, Anuar; Ahmadzadeh, Saeid; Abdollahi, Yadollah; Jahangirian, Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Novel ionophores comprising various hydroxide and amine structures were immobilized onto poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) matrices, and these were examined to determine Ti(III) selectivity. To predict the selectivity of Ti(III), a PVC membrane was used to investigate the binding of Ti(III) to c-methylcalix[4]resorcinarene (CMCR). The study showed that the chelating ligand, CMCR, was coordinated selectively to Ti(III) at eight coordination sites involving the oxygen atoms at the interface of the membrane/solution. The membrane was prepared, based on CMCR as an ionophore, sodium tetrakis(4-fluorophenyl) borate (NaTFPB) as a lipophilic ionic additive, and dioctylphthalate (DOP) as a plasticizer. The immobilization of the ionophore and surface characterization studies revealed that the performance of CMCR-immobilized PVC was equivalent to that of mobile ionophores in supported liquid membranes (SLMs). The strengths of the ion-ionophore (CMCR-Ti(OH)(OH(2))(5) (2+)) interactions and the role of ionophores on membranes were studied via UV-Vis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and and X-ray diffraction (XRD).

  11. Immobilization of Ionophore and Surface Characterization Studies of the Titanium(III Ion in a PVC-Membrane Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Rezayi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Novel ionophores comprising various hydroxide and amine structures were immobilized onto poly(vinyl chloride (PVC matrices, and these were examined to determine Ti(III selectivity. To predict the selectivity of Ti(III, a PVC membrane was used to investigate the binding of Ti(III to c-methylcalix[4]resorcinarene (CMCR. The study showed that the chelating ligand, CMCR, was coordinated selectively to Ti(III at eight coordination sites involving the oxygen atoms at the interface of the membrane/solution. The membrane was prepared, based on CMCR as an ionophore, sodium tetrakis(4-fluorophenyl borate (NaTFPB as a lipophilic ionic additive, and dioctylphthalate (DOP as a plasticizer. The immobilization of the ionophore and surface characterization studies revealed that the performance of CMCR-immobilized PVC was equivalent to that of mobile ionophores in supported liquid membranes (SLMs. The strengths of the ion-ionophore (CMCR-Ti(OH(OH252+ interactions and the role of ionophores on membranes were studied via UV-Vis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT–IR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and and X-ray diffraction (XRD.

  12. Resource Efficiency and Carbon Footprint Minimization in Manufacture of Plastic Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sabaliauskaitė

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Efficient resource management, waste prevention, as well as renewable resource consumption promote sustainable production and lower greenhouse gas emissions to the environment when manufacturing plastic products.The paper presents the analysis of the efficiency of resources and the potential of carbon footprint minimization in manufacture of plastic products by means of implementation of wood-plastic composite (WPC production. The analysis was performed using life cycle assessment and material flow analysis methodology. To devise the solution for better management of resources and minimization of carbon footprint, the environmental impacts of polyvinyl chloride (PVC and WPC wall panels through their life cycle were assessed, as well as the detailed material flow analyses of the PVC and WPC in production stages were carried out.The life cycle assessment has revealed that carbon footprints throughout life cycle of 1 kg of WPC wall panel are 37 % lower than those of the same weight of PVC wall panel product. Both products have a major impact on the environment during their production phase, while during this phase WPC wall panel has 35 % smaller carbon footprint and even 47 % smaller during disposal stages than those of the PVC wall panel.The results of material flow analysis have shown that recycling and reuse of production spoilage reduce the need of PVC secondary resources for PVC panels and primary WPC resources for WPC panel production.For better resource efficiency, the conceptual model of material flow management has been proposed. As WPC products are made of primary WPC granules, which are imported from abroad, the model suggests to produce the WPC granules at the company using collected PVC secondary materials (PVC stocks. It would lower environmental costs and environmental impact, increase the efficiency of resources, and diminish dependence on suppliers.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.67.1.6587

  13. Resource Efficiency and Carbon Footprint Minimization in Manufacture of Plastic Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamilė Sabaliauskaitė

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Efficient resource management, waste prevention, as well as renewable resource consumption promote sustainable production and lower greenhouse gas emissions to the environment when manufacturing plastic products. The paper presents the analysis of the efficiency of resources and the potential of carbon footprint minimization in manufacture of plastic products by means of implementation of wood-plastic composite (WPC production. The analysis was performed using life cycle assessment and material flow analysis methodology. To devise the solution for better management of resources and minimization of carbon footprint, the environmental impacts of polyvinyl chloride (PVC and WPC wall panels through their life cycle were assessed, as well as the detailed material flow analyses of the PVC and WPC in production stages were carried out. The life cycle assessment has revealed that carbon footprint throughout life cycle of 1 kg of WPC wall panel is 37 % lower than those of the same weight of PVC wall panel product. Both products have a major impact on the environment during their production phase, while during this phase WPC wall panel has 35 % smaller carbon footprint and even 47 % smaller during disposal stages than those of the PVC wall panel. The results of material flow analysis have shown that recycling and reuse of production spoilage reduce the need of PVC secondary resources for PVC panels and primary WPC resources for WPC panel production. For better resource efficiency, the conceptual model of material flow management has been proposed. As WPC products are made of primary WPC granules, which are imported from abroad, the model suggests to produce the WPC granules at the company using collected PVC secondary materials (PVC stocks. It would lower environmental costs and environmental impact, increase the efficiency of resources, and diminish dependence on suppliers.

  14. Investigation of thermal treatment on selective separation of post consumer plastics prior to froth flotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guney, Ali; Poyraz, M Ibrahim; Kangal, Olgac; Burat, Firat

    2013-09-01

    Plastics have become the widely used materials because of their advantages, such as cheapness, endurance, lightness, and hygiene. However, they cause waste and soil pollution and they do not easily decompose. Many promising technologies are being investigated for separating mixed thermoplastics, but they are still uneconomical and unreliable. Depending on their surface characteristics, these plastics can be separated from each other by flotation method which is useful mineral processing technique with its low cost and simplicity. The main objective of this study is to investigate the flotation characteristics of PET and PVC and determine the effect of plasticizer reagents on efficient plastic separation. For that purpose, various parameters such as pH, plasticizer concentration, plasticizer type, conditioning temperature and thermal conditioning were investigated. As a result, PET particles were floated with 95.1% purity and 65.3% efficiency while PVC particles were obtained with 98.1% purity and 65.3% efficiency.

  15. The viability of PVC/Al blister reuse and PVC property studies after ionizing radiation processing; Viabilizacao do reaproveitamento dos 'blister' de PVC/Al e estudos das propriedades do PVC apos processamento por radiacao ionizante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Alex Terela Pinheiro de

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this research was to separate, by means of a process of dissolution, the PVC and the aluminum that compose blister packs, generally used for pharmaceutical pills. We also studied the effect of the ionizing radiation on the PVC, and, finally, the mechanical recycling of the separated PVC, by a process of extrusion. The material we used in this work is the surplus of the pharmaceutical industry, i.e., packs with defects or burrs. We ground the material to facilitate the handling and the homogenization of the system. After that, we chose two bases for the dissolution of the aluminum: the sodium hydroxide and the potassium hydroxide. We used a system with two concentrations (1 and 2M) for each base, and for every solution we had also an agitated and a non-agitated process. From this method resulted eight experiments. After the dissolution, the samples of the material were submitted to ionizing radiation with doses of 50, 100, 150 and 200 kGy in the Dynamitron II electron accelerator of the CTR-IPEN/CNEN-SP. In the following, these samples were submitted to traction resistance tests to analyze which modifications the irradiation caused. The last step of the research was the recycling of the PVC separated from the Aluminum. We made the recycling in industrial equipment, a PVC tube extruder. The material was combined with lubricants, heat stabilizers and pigment in an intensive mixer and processed into the form of rigid PVC electrical conduits. After the eight experiments, the system with potassium hydroxide base, concentration of 2M and agitation presented the best relation between time of dissolution and characteristics of the resulting material, without degradation of the PVC. In the irradiated samples, the color of the material changed as well as its extension that was as larger as the dose of irradiation they received, indicating the dissociation of the PVC molecules. The extrusion of the PVC was successfully realized: about 200 kg (440 pounds) of

  16. Stabilizing effects of estertins mercaptide (methyl acrylate) for PVC degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S. H.; Liu, T. M.; Li, J. L.; Wang, C. R.; Li, C.; Wang, Z. Q.

    2016-07-01

    The thermal and UV light (ultraviolet light) stability of PVC films with estertins mercaptide (methyl acrylate), methyltins mercaptide and the compound consisted of estertins mercaptide (methyl acrylate) and hydrotalcite (2:2.5) were investigated by ageing in a circulation oven at 190 °C and irradiating with 72W UV light for 96h, respectively, and then the yellowness and transmission rate were tested by Color Quest XE. Hydrotalcite was proved to have good synergies with estertins mercaptide (methyl acrylate) on improving the thermal stability and UV light stability. The retarding effects of the heat stabilizers to PVC degradation were tested by TGA from 50°C to 600°C. The results show that temperature of HCl evolution from PVC film was improved obviously by compounding with estertins mercaptide(methyl acrylate) and hydrotalcite and estertins mercaptide(methyl acrylate) was found to have a better long term stability. Sn4+ consistence of water and seawater in which films before and after UV light irradiation were soaked for 60 days was analyzed by ICP; the results indicate that the Sn4+ consistence from the films with estertins mercaptide(methyl acrylate) as thermal stabilizer was lower than that from the film with methyltins mercaptide. The crosslink moderately by UV irradiation for PVC films can hold back the dissolution of organotin heat stabilizers from PVC products into water and seawater.

  17. Materials Selection, Synthesis, and Dielectrical Properties of PVC Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Mobarak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Materials selection process for electrical insulation application was carried out using Cambridge Engineering Selector (CES program. Melt mixing technique was applied to prepare polyvinyl-chloride- (PVC- nanofumed silica and nanomontmorillonite clay composites. Surface analysis and particles dispersibility were examined using scanning electron microscope. Dielectrical properties were assessed using Hipot tester. An experimental work for dielectric loss of the nanocomposite materials has been investigated in a frequency range of 10 Hz–50 kHz. The initial results using CES program showed that microparticles of silica and clay can improve electrical insulation properties and modulus of elasticity of PVC. Nano-montmorillonite clay composites were synthesized and characterized. Experimental analyses displayed that trapping properties of matrix are highly modified by the presence of nanofillers. The nanofumed silica and nanoclay particles were dispersed homogenously in PVC up to 10% wt/wt. Dielectric loss tangent constant of PVC-nanoclay composites was decreased successfully from 0.57 to 0.5 at 100 Hz using fillers loading from 1% to 10% wt/wt, respectively. Nano-fumed silica showed a significant influence on the electrical resistivity of PVC by enhancing it up to 1 × 1011 Ohm·m.

  18. Preparation and Mechanical Properties of Solid-phase Grafting Nanocomposites of PVC/Graft Copolymers/MMT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Dunbai; CAI Changgen; JIA Demin

    2006-01-01

    In order to improve the mechanical properties of PVC, by solid-phase grafting reaction, grafting on and nano-modifying the PVC process synchronously, acrylic monomers not only graft on PVC, but also are intercalated into the layers of MMT in the heating process. Blending PVC and the MMT-PVC grafting copolymers, we can get nanocomposites of PVC/ grafters/ MMT, and the mechanical performance of the material is improved.

  19. Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stowell, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    This invention is comprised of a polishing compound for plastic materials. The compound includes approximately by approximately by weight 25 to 80 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 12 parts mineral spirits, 50 to 155 parts abrasive paste, and 15 to 60 parts water. Preferably, the compound includes approximately 37 to 42 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, up to 8 parts mineral spirits, 95 to 110 parts abrasive paste, and 50 to 55 parts water. The proportions of the ingredients are varied in accordance with the particular application. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS{trademark}, LEXAN{trademark}, LUCITE{trademark}, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired.

  20. Interaction between plastic catheter tubings and regular insulin preparations used for continuous subcutaneous insulin-infusion therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantelau, E; Lange, G; Gasthaus, M; Boxberger, M; Berger, M

    1987-01-01

    In search of possible interactions between plastic tubings used for insulin-pump treatment and commercial regular insulin preparations, various catheter sets made from polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyethylene (PE), and nylon plastics were perfused at 30 degrees C in a laboratory setting for up to 72 h. The perfused insulin solutions were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography and atomic absorption spectroscopy. Although no plasticizer, e.g., dioctyl phthalate, or nickel or chromium ions were found in the perfusates, substantial interactions between the plastics and the insulin solutions were detected, extraction of bacteriostatic additives from the insulin solutions in particular. The PVC retained up to 88% of the bacteriostatics from the insulin preparations, whereas PE tubings retained only 10-15%. Whether the loss of preservatives during perfusion through PVC catheters predisposes to cutaneous infections during insulin-pump therapy remains to be shown.

  1. Comparative studies of neodymium (III)-selective PVC membrane sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Vinod K., E-mail: vinodfcy@iitr.ernet.in [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247 667 (India); Goyal, Rajendra N.; Sharma, Ram A. [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247 667 (India)

    2009-08-04

    Sensors based on two neutral ionophores, N,N'-bis((1H-pyrrol-2-yl)methylene)cyclohexane-1,2-diamine (L{sub 1}) and 3,3'-(cyclohexane-1,2-diylbis(azan-1-yl-1-ylidene) bis(methan-1-yl-1-ylidene)bis(5-hydroxymethyl)pyridine-2-ol) (L{sub 2}) are described for quantification of neodymium (III). Effect of various plasticizers; 2-nitrophenyloctylether (o-NPOE), dibutyl butylphosphonate (DBBP), tri-n-butyl phosphates (TBP), dioctylpthalate (DOP) and chloronapthalen (CN) and anion excluder, sodiumtetraphenylborate (NaTPB) has been studied. The membrane composition of PVC:o-NPOE:ionophore (L{sub 1}):NaTPB (w/w; mg) of 150:300:5:5 exhibited best performance. The sensor with ionophore (L{sub 1}) exhibits significantly enhanced selectivity towards neodymium (III) in the concentration range 5.0 x 10{sup -7} to 1.0 x 10{sup -2} M with a detection limit of 1.0 x 10{sup -7} M and a Nernstian compliance (19.8 {+-} 0.3 mV decade{sup -1} of activity) within pH range 4.0-8.0. The response time of sensor was found as 10 s. The influence of the membrane composition and possible interfering ions has also been investigated on the response properties of the electrode. The fast and stable response, good reproducibility and long-term stability of the sensor are observed. The sensor has been found to work satisfactorily in partially non-aqueous media up to 20% (v/v) content of methanol, ethanol or acetonitrile and could be used for a period of 3 months. The selectivity coefficients determined by using fixed interference method (FIM) indicate high selectivity for neodymium. The proposed electrode shows fairly good discrimination of neodymium (III) from other cations. The application of prepared sensor has been demonstrated in the determination of neodymium (III) in spiked water samples.

  2. Investigation of thermal treatment on selective separation of post consumer plastics prior to froth flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guney, Ali; Poyraz, M. Ibrahim; Kangal, Olgac, E-mail: kangal@itu.edu.tr; Burat, Firat

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • Both PET and PVC have nearly the same densities. • The best pH value will be 4 for optimizing pH values. • Malic acid gave the best results for selective separation of PET and PVC. - Abstract: Plastics have become the widely used materials because of their advantages, such as cheapness, endurance, lightness, and hygiene. However, they cause waste and soil pollution and they do not easily decompose. Many promising technologies are being investigated for separating mixed thermoplastics, but they are still uneconomical and unreliable. Depending on their surface characteristics, these plastics can be separated from each other by flotation method which is useful mineral processing technique with its low cost and simplicity. The main objective of this study is to investigate the flotation characteristics of PET and PVC and determine the effect of plasticizer reagents on efficient plastic separation. For that purpose, various parameters such as pH, plasticizer concentration, plasticizer type, conditioning temperature and thermal conditioning were investigated. As a result, PET particles were floated with 95.1% purity and 65.3% efficiency while PVC particles were obtained with 98.1% purity and 65.3% efficiency.

  3. Erfaringer med substitution af PVC ved renere teknologi og brancheaftaler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ulrik

    Rapporten gennemgår den danske debat om PVC og de miljøpolitiske tiltag, der har været gennemført. Et survey i danske plastvirksomheder gennemført i projektet viser, at industrien er forberedt på at gennemføre en omfattende substitution af PVC, hvis der stilles politisk krav om det eller markedet...... efterspørger det. Til gengæld viser brancheaftalerne sig at være et svagt instrument og der peges på et behov for en opfølgning af de gode resultater, der er opnået med substitution af PVC i en række renere teknologi projekter, som har fået statslig støtte....

  4. Migration of plasticisers from PVC and other polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundsgaard, Rasmus

    The main purpose of this thesis is to investigate, from a modeling point of view, the migration of GRINDSTEDr SOFT-N-SAFE (SNS) and other plasticisers from polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polyolefin food package materials and into foodstuff (specifically the four food simulants set by EU legislation......). In this work it is shown how diffusion coefficients can be obtained by regression of experimental migration data plotted as the square root of time. This was done from plasticiser migration data of GRINDSTEDr SOFT-N-SAFE, GRINDSTEDr ACETEM 95 CO (Acetem) and Epoxidised Soybean Oil (ESBO) migrating from...... Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) and into iso-octane at 20◦C, 40◦C and 60◦C. Using these experimentally obtained diffusion coefficients the migration was modeled using two analytical models with relatively good accuracy. The diffusion coefficient in highly plasticised PVC should, however, not be considered uniform...

  5. Effect of Palm Oil Bio-Based Plasticizer on the Morphological, Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Poly(Vinyl Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kar Min Lim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Flexible poly(vinyl chloride (PVC was fabricated using a palm oil-based alkyd as a co-plasticizer to di-octyl phthalate (DOP and di-isononyl phthalate (DiNP. The effects of the incorporation of the palm oil-based alkyd on morphological, thermal and mechanical properties of PVC compounds were studied. Results showed the incorporation of the alkyd enhanced the mechanical and thermal properties of the PVC compounds. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR results showed that the polar –OH and –C=O groups of alkyd have good interaction with the –C–Cl group in PVC via polar interaction. The morphological results showed good incorporation of the plasticizers with PVC. Improved tensile strength, elastic modulus, and elongation at break were observed with increasing amount of the alkyd, presumably due to chain entanglement of the alkyd with the PVC molecules. Thermogravimetric analysis results confirmed that the alkyd has improved the thermostability of the PVC compounds.

  6. A novel biobased plasticizer of epoxidized cardanol glycidylether: Synthesis and application in soft poly(vinyl chloride) films

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel plasticizer derived from cardanol, epoxied cardanol glycidyl ether (ECGE), was synthesized and characterized by 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. Effects of the ECGE combined with dioctyl phthalate (DOP), a commercial plasticizer, in soft poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) films were studied. Dynamic mechanical a...

  7. PUR-T/PVC热塑性弹性体的制备及工艺探究%Preparation and Process Technology for PUR-T/PVC Thermoplastic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张青海; 李云龙; 林松柏; 黄高爽

    2016-01-01

    以热塑性聚氨酯弹性体(PUR–T)、聚氯乙烯(PVC)为主要原材料,通过熔融共混挤出制备PUR–T/PVC共混热塑性弹性体。讨论了PUR–T/PVC共混比、增塑剂用量、挤出共混温度、螺杆转速对共混弹性体性能的影响,利用万能试验机、扫描电子显微镜、转矩流变仪、旋转流变仪等研究了弹性体的加工性能及结构。结果表明,当PUR–T/PVC共混比为70/30,增塑剂邻苯二甲酸二辛酯用量为20份,挤出温度为160℃,螺杆转速为330 r/min时,弹性体材料的综合性能最佳;共混弹性体的表观黏度小于纯PUR–T,PVC含量在20%~50%时,PVC易形成网络结构。%PUR–T/PVC thermoplastic elastomer blends were prepared with PUR–T and PVC by melting blending. The effects of processing conditions and formula on blends mechanical properties,including the PUR–T/PVC weight ratio,plasticizer amount,extrusion temperature,and screw rotating speed were discussed. The process properties and structures of the blends were studied by universal testing machine,scanning electron microscope,torque rheometer,and rotor rheometer. Results showed that the best PUR–T/PVC ratio was 70/30,DOP amount was 20 portion,temperature was 160℃,and screw rotating speed was 330 r/min. The apparent viscosity of PUR–T/PVC blends was lower than that of PUR–T. With 20% – 50% PVC in the blend,PVC could form network structure.

  8. Effect of Palm Oil Bio-Based Plasticizer on the Morphological, Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Poly(Vinyl Chloride)

    OpenAIRE

    Kar Min Lim; Yern Chee Ching; Seng Neon Gan

    2015-01-01

    Flexible poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) was fabricated using a palm oil-based alkyd as a co-plasticizer to di-octyl phthalate (DOP) and di-isononyl phthalate (DiNP). The effects of the incorporation of the palm oil-based alkyd on morphological, thermal and mechanical properties of PVC compounds were studied. Results showed the incorporation of the alkyd enhanced the mechanical and thermal properties of the PVC compounds. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results showed that the polar...

  9. Structures and Mechanical Properties of PVC/Na+- Montmorillonite Nanocomposites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Poly (vinyl chloride)/Na+-montmorillonite (PVC/MMT) nanocomposites with different MMT contents were prepared via melt blending. Wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to characterize the structures. Effects of MMT content on the mechanical properties were also studied. It is found that PVC molecular chains can intercalate into the gallery of MMT layers during melt blending process, the stiffness and toughness of the composites are improved simultaneously within 0.5~7wt% MMT content, and the transparency and mechanical properties decrease as MMT content further increases.

  10. Processing and Properties of Carbon Nanotube PVC Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Kristin Trommer; Carina Petzold; Bernd Morgenstern

    2014-01-01

    Commercially available multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) were incorporated in coating masses based on PVC by means of three roll mill. The best results could be obtained using the 5 µm gap. Thin PVC sheets were formed via knife coating having an electrical conductivity up to 1,500 S/m that are applicable as electric heating elements. For the use in the antistatic range, CNT contents ≤0.5% are sufficient. Rheological measurements indicate the quality of particle processing. AFM investigatio...

  11. Three - layer PVC - U composite for soundproof drain pipes%三层复合PVC-U静音排水管

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付志敏; 赵劲松

    2006-01-01

    介绍了重庆顾地塑胶电器有限公司开发的三层复合PVC-U静音排水管,内、外皮层由PVC树脂、冲击改性剂、加工改性剂、稳定剂、润滑剂、填料和颜料组成,吸音芯层由PVC树脂、加工改性剂、稳定剂、润滑剂、颜料、弹性体吸音材料和固体吸音材料组成.该PVC-U静音排水管可使排水噪声下降14~18dB,比普通PVC-U排水管的排水噪声低3~8dB,比普通铸铁排水管排水噪声还要低.

  12. Plasticity theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lubliner, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    The aim of Plasticity Theory is to provide a comprehensive introduction to the contemporary state of knowledge in basic plasticity theory and to its applications. It treats several areas not commonly found between the covers of a single book: the physics of plasticity, constitutive theory, dynamic plasticity, large-deformation plasticity, and numerical methods, in addition to a representative survey of problems treated by classical methods, such as elastic-plastic problems, plane plastic flow, and limit analysis; the problem discussed come from areas of interest to mechanical, structural, and

  13. Effect of low molecular weight additives on immobilization strength, activity, and conformation of protein immobilized on PVC and UHMWPE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondyurin, Alexey; Nosworthy, Neil J; Bilek, Marcela M M

    2011-05-17

    Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was immobilized onto both plasticized and unplasticized polyvinylchloride (PVC) and ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE). Plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) in a nitrogen plasma with 20 kV bias was used to facilitate covalent immobilization and to improve the wettability of the surfaces. The surfaces and immobilized protein were studied using attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy and water contact angle measurements. Protein elution on exposure to repeated sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) washing was used to assess the strength of HRP immobilization. The presence of low molecular weight components (plasticizer, additives in solvent, unreacted monomers, adsorbed molecules on surface) was found to have a major influence on the strength of immobilization and the conformation of the protein on the samples not exposed to the PIII treatment. A phenomenological model considering interactions between the low molecular weight components, the protein molecule, and the surface is developed to explain these observations.

  14. 门窗用PVC型材对PVC树脂的要求%Requirements of PVC profiles for doors & windows on PVC resins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜晴莉

    2011-01-01

    According to requirements of PVC profiles for doors & windows on properties of PVC resins, influcnccs of various properties of PVC resins on properties of PVC profiled products wcrc bricfly analyzed, and according to the acccssion measurement situations, specific requirements of PVC profile production plants for PVC resins werc proposed.%从门窗用PVC型材对PVC树脂的性能要求入手,简要分析了PVC树脂各项性能对PVC型材产品性能的影响,并就入厂检测情况提出了PVC型材厂家对PVC树脂的具体要求。

  15. Characterization of PZT/PVC Composites Added with Carbon Black

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiaofang; XIONG Chuanxi; SUN Huajun; DONG Lijie; LI Rui; LIU Yang

    2005-01-01

    A new three-phase PZT/ C/ PVC composite comprising PZT (50vol%), nanocrystalline PVC (50 vol% ) and a small volume fraction f of carbon black (C) was prepared by the hot-pressing technique. The dielectric property of the composite as a function of the frequency and the dielectric and piezoelectric properties as a function of the volume fraction f of C were studied. The measured dielectric property demonstrates that a percolation transition occurs in the three-phase composites as in normal two-phase metal-insulator continuum media. The dielectric constant varies slightly with f at f < 0.1 and increases rapidly when f is close to the percolation threshold at 1 kHz. The optimum properties were obtained for f = 0.5 before the percolation threshold in the PZT/ C/ PVC (50/f/(50 - f) vol% ) composite with its d33 (20 pC/N) being 50% higher than that of the PZT/ PVC (50/50vol% ), and its g33(47.23 × 10-3 Vm/N) and Kp (0.25) much higher than the earlier reported values.XRD patterns and P-E hysteresis loops were used to interpret the experimental results.

  16. Properties of Commercial PVC Films with Respect to Electron Dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Arne; Liqing, Xie

    The properties of three commercially available polyvinyl chloride (PVC) film supplies and one made without additives were tested with respect to their application as routine dose monitors at electron accelerators. Dose fractionation was found to increase the response and the post-irradiation heat...

  17. The PVC-rat and other alternatives in microsurgical training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remie, R

    2001-01-01

    The number of animals used in educational training programs in experimental microsurgery can be reduced by using artificial devices such as the anastomoses device and the MD PVC-Rat. Such in vitro methods allow development of technical skills, making the transition to in vivo models much easier.

  18. Index of Joint Condition for PVC push-fit joints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arsenio, A.M.; Vreeburg, J.H.G.; Rietveld, L.

    2014-01-01

    The Index of Joint Condition (IJC) for polyvinyl chloride (PVC) push-fit joints, discussed in this article, was derived from installation guidelines and from destructive laboratory tests. The IJC is presented in a graphical framework and is a powerful tool to employ in order to visualize and compare

  19. A new 2 methylalanine-PVC ESR dosimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, Bruno T. [Departmento de Fisica e Matematica, FFCLRP-Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Bandeirantes, 3900, 14040-901, Ribeirao Preto-SP (Brazil); Chen, Felipe [Departmento de Fisica e Matematica, FFCLRP-Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Bandeirantes, 3900, 14040-901, Ribeirao Preto-SP (Brazil); Department of Radiological Health, Caja de Seguro Social, Panama City (Panama); Department of Physics, Faculty of Natural and Exact Sciences and Technology, University of Panama, Panama City (Panama); Baffa, Oswaldo [Departmento de Fisica e Matematica, FFCLRP-Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Bandeirantes, 3900, 14040-901, Ribeirao Preto-SP (Brazil)

    2005-02-01

    The use of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) as a binder to 2-methylalanine (2MA) dosimeters was investigated. It was recently shown by Olsson et al. (Radiat. Res. 157 (2002) 113), that 2MA is approximately 70% more sensitive than L-alanine which makes this substance a good candidate to replace alanine in ESR dosimetry. PVC is a low yield material for free radical production by ionizing radiation and a good binding material easily processed and widely available. PVC can be prepared at room temperature and mixed up to 50% in weight with 2MA to produce a pellet stable in mass and physical dimensions, in large quantities and with low background signal. Pure PVC pellet irradiated at 50 Gy gave weaker ESR signals compared to 2MA at the region of spectral interest. Spectrometer settings such as microwave power, and modulation amplitude were optimized for the measurements. This dosimeter production scheme allows the addition of Mn{sup 2+} ions for an internal reference signal, leading to a self-calibrated dosimeter (J. Radional. Nucl. Chem. 240 (1999) 215)

  20. Materials Selection, Synthesis, and Dielectrical Properties of PVC Nanocomposites

    OpenAIRE

    Youssef Mobarak; Bassyouni, M.; Almutawa, M.

    2013-01-01

    Materials selection process for electrical insulation application was carried out using Cambridge Engineering Selector (CES) program. Melt mixing technique was applied to prepare polyvinyl-chloride- (PVC-) nanofumed silica and nanomontmorillonite clay composites. Surface analysis and particles dispersibility were examined using scanning electron microscope. Dielectrical properties were assessed using Hipot tester. An experimental work for dielectric loss of the nanocomposite materials has bee...

  1. FORMULATION TECHNOLOGY OF PVC-U PROFILE FOR DOOR AND WINDOW BY EXTRUSION%挤出PVC-U门窗异型材配方设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亚明; 李海梅; 申长雨; 李倩

    2001-01-01

    介绍了挤出PVC-U门窗异型材用树脂及助剂的最新开发动态,并对原料选用、配方设计进行了探讨。%The new developing trend of PVC and assistant for PVC-U profile for door and window is introduced, meanwhile, the choosing of raw materials and formulation design are discussed.

  2. Blends of nitrile butadiene rubber/poly (vinyl chloride: The use of maleated anhydride castor oil based plasticizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indiah Ratna Dewi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, much attention has been focused on research to replace petroleum-based plasticizers, with biodegradable materials, such as biopolymer which offers competitive mechanical properties. In this study, castor oil was modified with maleic anhydride (MAH to produce bioplasticizer named maleated anhydride castor oil (MACO, and used in nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR/poly vinyl chloride (PVC blend. The effect of MACO on its cure characteristics and mechanical properties of NBR/PVC blend has been determined. The reactions were carried out at different castor oil (CO/xylene ratios, i.e. 1:0 and 1:1 by weight, and fixed CO/MAH ratio, 1:3 by mole. DOP, CO, and MACO were added into each NBR/PVC blend according to the formula. It was found that the viscosity and safe process level of NBR/PVC blend is similar from all plasticizer, however, MACO (1:0 showed the highest cure rate index (CRI. MACO-based plasticizer gave a higher value of the mechanical properties of the NBR/PVC blend as compared to DOP based plasticizer. MACO (1:1 based plasticizer showed a rather significance performance compared to another type of plasticizers both before and after aging. The value of hardness, elongation at break, tensile strength, and tear strength were 96 Shore A, 155.91 %, 19.15 MPa, and 74.47 MPa, respectively. From this result, NBR/PVC blends based on MACO plasticizer can potentially replace the DOP, and therefore, making the rubber blends eco-friendly.

  3. Current situation of domestic PVC cable industry and its demand for PVC resin%我国PVC电缆料行业现状及对PVC树脂的需求

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘家栋

    2001-01-01

    Current situation of domestic PVC cable industry and its new demand of PVC cable materials are introduced. PVC resin with uniform molecular weight distribution, dull PVC resin,bulk PVC resin and PVC resin with high polymerization degree are required in PVC cable industry.%介绍了我国PVC电缆料行业的现状及线缆业对PVC电缆料的新需求。提出了PVC电缆料行业对分子质量分布均匀的PVC树脂、PVC消光树脂、本体法PVC树脂及高聚合度PVC树脂的需求。

  4. [Research on enhanced photocatalytic degradation of medical PVC by plasma-initiated free radicals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-jing; Qiao, Guan-jun; Chen, Jie-rong

    2007-05-01

    Effects of plasma-initiated free radicals on photocatalytic degradation of medical PVC with anatase TiO2 were studied. Surface properties of PVC were characterized by the contact angle, surface tension, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electron spin resonance (ESR). The results indicate that the surface free energy and wettability of plasma-treated PVC increase greatly. The contact angles of distilled water, glycerin and dihydroxyethylsulfide for the plasma-treated PVC decrease. ESR reveals radicals on the surface of the plasma-treated PVC film nearly increase ten times. Moreover, the photodegradation of the PVC-TiO2 was compared with that of plasma-treated PVC-TiO2 through performing weight loss monitoring, scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis. Weight-loss rate of the plasma-treated PVC-TiO2 increases 27.4% in comparison with that of PVC-TiO2 under UV irradiation for 60 hours. SEM of the plasma-treated PVC-TiO2 film shows a lot of crack on the surface after photodegradation. Plasma treatments aggravate the photocatalytic degradation of medical PVC.

  5. Studies on Thermal Stability and Fluid Property of PVC Filled with Hydrotalcite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Hydrotalcite can act as a co-stabilizer with other main stabilizer for poly(vinyl chloride)(PVC). The thermal stability and fluid property of PVC filled with hydrotalcite surface-treated with titanate and silane were studied in this work. Organic Sn is a main stabilizer and hydrotalcite is a stabilizing assistant. The stability of the PVC resin mixed with organic Sn and hydrotalcite is better than that of the PVC resin mixed with organic Sn alone. It is shown that the PVC resin filled with hydrotalcite possesses a better static and dynamic heat stability. Moreover, hydrotalcite can improve the fluid property of PVC, which is advantageous to the processing of PVC, and the optimum content of hydrotalcite is about 1%-2%(mass fraction).

  6. Synthesis and Structure Control of A New Kind of Inelastomer Impact Modifier with Core-shell Structure and Impact Modification to PVC/CPE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A new kind of inelastomer impact modifier with a core-shell structure was synthesized by employing a multi-step composite emulsion polymerization technique, the size and morphology structure of the core-shell particles could be controlled by the multi-step composite emulsion polymerization technique. The study of the impact strength and the elongation at break of the PVC/CPE blend with different contents of core-shell particles(C-S) indicated that the mechanical properties of PVC/CPE/C-S composite were the best when the concentration of the particle was 2.5%(mass fraction) which showed the different regularities and characteristics of elastomer toughening plastic.

  7. Degradation of PVC/rPLA Thick Films in Soil Burial Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Bożena; Rusinowski, Szymon; Chmielnicki, Blazej; Kamińska-Bach, Grażyna; Bortel, Krzysztof

    2016-10-01

    Some of the biodegradable polymers can be blended with a synthetic polymer to facilitate their biodegradation in the environment. The objective of the study was to investigate the biodegradation of thick films of poly(vinyl chloride)/recycled polylactide (PVC/rPLA). The experiments were carried out in the garden soil or in the mixture of garden soil and hydrocarbon-contaminated soil under laboratory conditions. Since it is widely accepted that the biosurfactants secreted by microorganisms enable biotransformation of various hydrophobic substances in the environment, it was assumed that the use of contaminated soil, rich in biosurfactant producing bacteria, may accelerate biodegradation of plastics. After the experimental period, the more noticeable weight loss of polymer films was observed after incubation in the garden soil. However, more pronounced changes in the film surface morphology and chemical structure as well as decrease of tensile strength were observed after incubation of films in the mixture of garden and contaminated soil. It turned out that as a result of competition between two distinct groups of microorganisms present in the mixture of garden and hydrocarbon-contaminated soils the number of microorganisms and their activity were lower than the activity of indigenous microflora of garden soil as well as the amount of secreted biosurfactants towards plastics.

  8. Interactions between six psychotherapeutic drugs and plastic containers. Influence of plastic material and infusion solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airaudo, C B; Gayte-Sorbier, A; Bianchi, C; Verdier, M

    1993-06-01

    The interactions of chlorpromazine, clomipramine, maprotiline and viloxazine hydrochlorides, and of clorazepate dipotassium salt and diazepam with polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and Stedim 6 infusion bags were studied. Stedim 6, is anew multilayer film whose inner layer is made of polyethylene. The drugs were in 5% dextrose and 0.9% sodium chloride isotonic solutions and the influence of these was also considered. The remaining concentrations of each drug were determined at regular time intervals in a 24-h period, by a spectrofluorometric method for chlorpromazine hydrochloride and by ultraviolet spectrophotometric methods for the other drugs. No binding was observed for viloxazine and maprotiline hydrochlorides whatever the infusion solution and the plastic container. A slight retention in PVC bags, but not in Stedim 6 ones, was noted for clomipramine hydrochloride and clorazepate dipotassium salt. This was more marked in the sodium chloride solution than in the dextrose one. Diazepam and chlorpromazine hydrochloride were bound both in PVC and Stedim 6 bags, but more in the former and more again in the sodium chloride solution than in the dextrose one. The results were explained in terms of the degree of crystallinity of the plastic material and the degree of lipophilicity of the drugs. Practical consequences are discussed.

  9. Morphology, thermal and mechanical properties of PVC/MMT nanocomposites prepared by solution blending and solution blending + melt compounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madaleno, Liliana Andreia Oliveira; Schjødt-Thomsen, Jan; Pinto, José Cruz

    2010-01-01

    and solution blending + melt compounding The effects on morphology, thermal and mechanical properties of the PVC/MMT nanocomposites were studied by varying the amount of Na-MMT and OMMT in both methods SEM and XRD analysis revealed that possible intercalated and exfoliated structures were obtained in all...... of the PVC/MMT nanocomposites Thermogravimetric analysis revealed that PVC/Na-MMT nanocomposites have better thermal stability than PVC/OMMT nanocomposites and PVC. In general, PVC/MMT nanocomposites prepared by solution blending + melt compounding revealed improved thermal properties compared to PVC....../MMT nanocomposites prepared by solution blending Vicar tests revealed a significant decrease in Vicar softening temperature of PVC/MMT nanocomposites prepared by solution blending + melt compounding compared to unfilled PVC The mechanical properties of the PVC/MMT nanocomposites were, in general, greatly improved...

  10. Ingredient of Biaxial Orientation Pipe(PVC-O)%双轴取向聚氯乙烯(PVC-O)管材的专用配方

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘涛; 刘颖; 吴大鸣; 许红

    2011-01-01

    Ingredient and processing for PVC-0 had been researched. As follow the amount of ACR had been fixed through the open mill; the factors which would influence material character were analyzed by orthogonal test, the result showed too much of composite lubricant would influence the material character seriously. Advance impact strength was exhibited with type PVC (SG-3) resin,but the elongation at break which was the important character for the PVC-O ingredient was reduced by type PVC(SG-3) resin,higher balanced-force was got though Brabender rheometer,which showed the processing of the ingredient with PVC (SG-3) resin would be more difficult.%研究了PVC-O专用配方及加工工艺.通过双辊筒开炼机对PVC-O配方进行初试并确定增韧剂的用量;通过正交试验确定了主要助剂对材料性能的影响程度,复合润滑剂的用量过多会导致材料的性能显著下降,PVC(SG-3)树脂的加入明显提高了PVC-O材料的冲击强度,但是使PVC-O配方最为关心的断裂伸长率明显下降,从而给出了主要助剂的最佳用量.布拉本德流变测试表明:PVC( SG-3)树脂的加入使材料的平衡转矩呈上升趋势,增加挤出机的能耗并造成加工困难.

  11. Plastic Jellyfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Christine

    2000-01-01

    Presents an environmental science activity designed to enhance students' awareness of the hazards of plastic waste for wildlife in aquatic environments. Discusses how students can take steps to reduce the effects of plastic waste. (WRM)

  12. Analysis of plasticizers in poly(vinyl chloride) medical devices for infusion and artificial nutrition: comparison and optimization of the extraction procedures, a pre-migration test step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Lise; Cueff, Régis; Bourdeaux, Daniel; Breysse, Colette; Sautou, Valérie

    2015-02-01

    Medical devices (MDs) for infusion and enteral and parenteral nutrition are essentially made of plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The first step in assessing patient exposure to these plasticizers, as well as ensuring that the MDs are free from di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), consists of identifying and quantifying the plasticizers present and, consequently, determining which ones are likely to migrate into the patient's body. We compared three different extraction methods using 0.1 g of plasticized PVC: Soxhlet extraction in diethyl ether and ethyl acetate, polymer dissolution, and room temperature extraction in different solvents. It was found that simple room temperature chloroform extraction under optimized conditions (30 min, 50 mL) gave the best separation of plasticizers from the PVC matrix, with extraction yields ranging from 92 to 100% for all plasticizers. This result was confirmed by supplemented Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total reflection (FTIR-ATR) and gravimetric analyses. The technique was used on eight marketed medical devices and showed that they contained different amounts of plasticizers, ranging from 25 to 36% of the PVC weight. These yields, associated with the individual physicochemical properties of each plasticizer, highlight the need for further migration studies.

  13. Tribo-charging properties of waste plastic granules in process of tribo-electrostatic separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Wu, Guiqing; Xu, Zhenming

    2015-01-01

    Plastic products can be found everywhere in people's daily life. With the consistent growth of plastic consumption, more and more plastic waste is generated. Considering the stable chemical and physics characteristics of plastic, regular waste management methods are not suitable for recycling economic strategy of each government, which has become a serious environmental problem. Recycling plastic waste is considered to be the best way to treat it, because it cannot only deduce the waste but also save the energy to produce new virgin plastic. Tribo-electrostatic separation is strongly recommended for plastic separation as it can preserve the original properties of plastic and has little additional pollution. In this study, plastic granules are generated by crushing plastic waste in waste electric and electronic equipment. The tribo-charging properties of plastic waste were studied by vibrating tribo-charging and cyclone tribo-charging. The triboelectric series obtained by vibrating was: (-)-PE-PS-PC-PVC-ABS-PP-(+), while the triboelectric series obtained by cyclone was (-)-PE-PS-PC-PVC-ABS-PP-(+). Further, the cyclone charging was more effective and stable than vibrating charging. The impact factors experiments showed that small particle size was better changed than large ones and were more suitable recycled by tribo-electrostatic separation. High relative humidity was identified as impede charging effect. The results of this study will help defining the operating parameters of subsequent separator.

  14. Hydrogenation induced deviation of temperature and concentration dependences of polymer-solvent interactions in poly(vinyl chloride) and a new eco-friendly plasticizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Rongchun; Wang, Xiaoliang; Sun, Pingchuan; Chen, Wei; Shen, Jianyi; Xue, Gi

    2015-06-01

    As a substitute for di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DOP), a new eco-friendly plasticizer, di(2-ethylhexyl) cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylate (DEHHP), was systematically studied in this work, mainly focusing on its interaction with poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC). The temperature and concentration dependences of polymer-solvent interactions in PVC/DEHHP were systematically investigated by rheology, low-field NMR and molecular dynamics simulations, and the results were quite different from those in PVC/DOP. With temperature increasing or PVC concentration decreasing, rheology experiments revealed that polymer-solvent interactions in PVC/DEHHP were weaker than that in PVC/DOP. Low-field 1H NMR results showed that the number of polymer-solvent complexes decreased as temperature increased. A faster decreasing rate of this number made the polymer-solvent interactions weaker in PVC/DEHHP than in PVC/DOP. Molecular dynamics simulations were further performed to study the role of polymer-solvent hydrogen bonding interactions in the systems. The radial distribution function showed that heating and dilution both resulted in faster molecular motions, and disassociation of the hydrogen bonds in the simplex hydrogen bonding system. Therefore, heating and dilution had an equivalent effect on the polymer-solvent interactions.

  15. 利用PVC-U管材洗机料生产渔用浮标%PRODUCTION OF FISHERY FLOAT BY USE OF PVC-U PIPES WASTES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶荣龙

    2001-01-01

    介绍以PVC-U管材洗机料生产渔用浮标的配方设计、工艺流程及各工序的工艺控制。%The formulation design, technical process and technical control of the procedures in the production of fishe~ float by use of PVC-U pipe wastes are introduced.

  16. The Three-Dimensional Structures of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa PvcA And PvcB, Two Proteins Involved in the Synthesis of 2-Isocyano-6,7-Dihydroxycoumarin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drake, E.J.; Gulick, A.M.

    2009-05-12

    The pvcABCD operon of Pseudomonas aeruginosa encodes four proteins (PA2254, PA2255, PA2256, and PA2257) that form a cluster that is responsible for the synthesis of a cyclized isocyano derivative of tyrosine. These proteins, which were identified originally as being responsible for a step in the maturation of the chromophore of the peptide siderophore pyoverdine, have been identified recently as belonging to a family of proteins that produce small organic isonitriles. We report that strains harboring a disruption in the pvcA or pvcB genes are able to grow in iron-depleted conditions and to produce pyoverdine. Additionally, we have determined the three-dimensional crystal structures of PvcA and PvcB. The structure of PvcA demonstrates a novel enzyme architecture that is built upon a Rossmann fold. We have analyzed the sequence conservation of enzymes within this family and identified six conserved motifs. These regions of the protein cluster around a putative active site cavity. The structure of the PvcB protein confirms it is a member of the Fe2+/alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent oxygenase family of enzymes. The active site of PvcB is compared to the structures of other family members and suggests that a conformational change to order several loops will accompany the binding of ligands.

  17. Processing and Properties of Carbon Nanotube PVC Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Trommer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Commercially available multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT were incorporated in coating masses based on PVC by means of three roll mill. The best results could be obtained using the 5 µm gap. Thin PVC sheets were formed via knife coating having an electrical conductivity up to 1,500 S/m that are applicable as electric heating elements. For the use in the antistatic range, CNT contents ≤0.5% are sufficient. Rheological measurements indicate the quality of particle processing. AFM investigations are suitable to investigate the alignment of the nanoparticles in the bulk polymer. Using this method, the decrease of agglomerates as well as the splitting of CNT bundles within further mass processing could be visualized.

  18. The effects of thermally reversible agents on PVC stability properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Yao, J.; Xiong, X. H.; Jia, C. X.; Ren, R.; Chen, P.; Liu, X. M.

    2016-07-01

    One kind of thermally reversible cross-linking agents for improving PVC thermally stability was synthesized. The chemical structure and thermally reversible characteristics of cross-linking agents were investigated by FTIR and DSC analysis, respectively. FTIR results confirmed that the cyclopentadienyl barium mercaptides ((CPD-C2H4S)2Ba) were successfully synthesized. DSC results showed it has thermally reversible characteristics and the depolymerization temperature was between 170 °C and 205 °C. The effects of cross-linking reaction time on gel content of Poly(vinyl chloride) compounds was evaluated. The gel content value arrived at 42% after being cross-linked for 25 min at 180 C. The static thermally stability measurement proved that the thermally stability of PVC compounds was improved.

  19. Optimized Quality Factor of Graphene Oxide-Reinforced PVC Nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Girish M.; Deshmukh, Kalim

    2014-04-01

    Graphene oxide (GO)-reinforced polyvinyl chloride (PVC) composite films were prepared by solution blending. The homogeneity of GO dispersion with PVC was confirmed by an optical microscope. Quality factor ( Q-factor) as a function of temperature (40-150 °C) was measured within a broadband frequency range of 50-35 MHz. The controlled GO loading demonstrates a crucial impact on the optimization of the Q-factor, resonance frequency ( f 0) and wide bandwidth. This nanocomposite may be well suited for electronic applications. The further development of GO-reinforced polymer nanocomposites based on an optimized Q-factor may result in a material for electromagnetic frequency radiation shields for radar and communication towers/devices.

  20. The effect of magnesium hydroxide, hydromagnesite and layered double hydroxide on the heat stability and fire performance of plasticized poly(vinyl chloride)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Molefe, DM

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available plasticizers used in the manufacture of flexible PVC detract from this outstanding fire resistance. Therefore, flame-retardant (FR) and smoke-suppressant (SS) additives must be incorporated in order to meet product test specifications such as oxygen index..., heat release rate, smoke evolution, etc. (5). Levchik and Weil (8) and Weil et al. (9) reviewed the chemical additives that have been considered to achieve acceptable fire properties in the principal PVC application areas. The hydrated filler...

  1. Influence of plasticizer on the selectivity of nitrate-sensitive CHEMFETs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stauthamer, W.P.R.V.; Engbersen, J.F.J.; Verboom, W.; Reinhoudt, D.N.

    1994-01-01

    By chemical modification of an ion-sensitive field-effect transistor, a sensor (CHEMFET) has been developed whose sensitivity for nitrate has been tested. A plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) membrane, which contains lipophilic tetra-n-octyl-ammonium ions, is responsible for the nitrate sensitiv

  2. Thermomechanical coupling effect of PVC sheet with defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨占宇; 罗迎社; 粟建新; 张永忠; 邓旭华; 陈胜铭; 邓瑞基; 马敏伟; 张亮

    2008-01-01

    Thermomechanical coupling of PVC sheet with defects under uniaxial loading at different rates and different sizes of microbores was studied.The local temperature field of the dynamic damage-rupture process zone at crack tip was surveyed with infrared thermographic sensor.Based on the irreversible thermomechanics theory,the dissipation law of deformation-heat effect during the whole process was found.Furthermore,the effect of thermoelasticity in the initial stage of extension was explained.

  3. Plastic Recycling Experiments in Materials Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping; Waskom, Tommy L.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this project was to introduce a series of plastic recycling experiments to students in materials-related courses such as materials science, material technology and materials testing. With the plastic recycling experiments, students not only can learn the fundamentals of plastic processing and properties as in conventional materials courses, but also can be exposed to the issue of materials life cycle and the impact on society and environment.

  4. Hexamoll DINCH plasticised PVC containers for the storage of platelets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhaskaran Nair C

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Containers for the storage of platelets are made using polyvinyl chloride plasticised with di, (2-ethyl hexyl phthalate, n-butyryl, tri (n-hexyl citrate and tri (2-ethyl hexyl mellitate or using special poly olefins without plasticiser. Of these, the first two have disadvantages such as plasticiser leaching and impairment of platelet function. Polyolefin bags cannot be HF welded or steam sterilized. Mellitate plasticised bags can store platelets well for five days but they are not completely phthalate free. Research and Development: We have developed a new generation of containers made of PVC plasticised with the non DEHP, non aromatic plasticiser,1,2- Cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, diisononyl ester (Hexamoll DINCH which can store platelets without loss of function for at least six days. Observation: The present studies show that DINCH plasticised PVC bags (TPL-167 are well suited for the storage of platelet concentrates for more than five days. Conclusion: The present studies show that the PVC plasticised with the non phthalate, non aromatic, non toxic plasticiser DINCH is a viable alternative to other existing containers for the storage of platelets for more than five days.

  5. Biochemical lesions of platelets stored as concentrates in PVC bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, L K; Mathai, J; Sulochana, P V; Jacob, J; Sivakumar, R

    1997-02-01

    Acid-base status of platelet suspension during storage is a measure of the gas permeability of the bag material. To assess the efficacy of the bags available in our market to store platelets, we compared biochemical lesions of platelets stored in an Indian polyvinyl chloride (PVC) triple bag against a Japanese PVC bag standardized for 5 days platelet storage. Platelet concentrates prepared in both control and test PVC bags were stored for 72 h. Two ml samples were drawn 1 h after preparation, and then at 24 h intervals, for analysis. Our data show that the mean pH value in the test bags was maintained above 6.5. However, the CO2 tension was high and O2 tension was low. We also analyzed malondialdehyde (MDA) formation which is a measure of arachidonic acid metabolism, and seemed to be unaffected in stored platelets. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was not released into the plasma excessively and hence significant platelet lysis was absent during storage. Hypotonic shock response (HSR) of platelets stored in both test and control bags was comparable, indicating the possibility of satisfactory post-transfusion recovery.

  6. STUDY ON PP/PVC/PP-HBP BLENDS%PP/PVC/PP-HBP共混体系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刁建志; 巴信武; 丁海涛; 李春子

    2005-01-01

    研究了聚丙烯接枝超支化聚(酰胺-酯)(PP-HBP)对聚丙烯/聚氯乙烯(PP/PVC)共混体系力学性能的影响.结果表明,在PP/PVC(质量比为70/30)共混体系中加入5份PP-HBP时,共混物拉伸强度和冲击强度均出现最大值.扫描电子显微镜(SEM)研究结果证明,PP-HBP增强了PP/PVC的界面粘结作用,减小了共混体系的相分离程度.

  7. Opening New Gates for the Modification of PVC or Other PVC Derivatives: Synthetic Strategies for the Covalent Binding of Molecules to PVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Navarro

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Several synthetic strategies based on the use of substituted aromatic and hetero-aromatic thiols for the covalent binding of modifier compounds to PVC are described. A variety of aliphatic alcohols and amines are linked to the aromatic or heteroaromatic rings via highly active functionalities as the isocyanate, acidchloride, or chlorosulfonyl group, and the three chlorine atoms of trichlorotriazine. The first three pathways lead to protected aromatic disulfides obtaining the substituted aromatic thiols by reduction as a final step of an unprecedented synthetic route. The second approach, in a novel, extremely efficient, and scalable process, uses the particular selectivity of trichlorotriazine to connect aliphatic amines, alcohols, and thiols to the ring and creates the thiol via nucleophilic substitution of a heteroaromatic halogen by thiourea and subsequent hydrolysis. Most of the modifier compounds were linked to the polymer chains with high degrees of anchorage. The presented approaches are highly versatile as different activations of aromatic and heteroaromatic rings are used. Therefore, many types of tailored functional nucleophiles may be anchored to PVC providing non-migrating materials with a broad range of applications and properties.

  8. [Acroosteolysis in PVC autoclave cleaners: history of an occupational disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zocchetti, C; Osculati, A; Colosio, C

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the history of an occupational disease which has now disappeared: acroosteolysis of manual tank cleaners in the production of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), which is a rare disease characterized by destructive alterations of the distal phalanges of the hands. All the available literature on this disease was examined. The history of acroosteolysis was studied within the general framework of the history of the discovery of adverse health effects of exposure to vinyl chloride, and this history was studied up to the end of the 1960's. The disease was observed for the first time in mid-1963 in Belgium (Jemeppe) in a chemical plant operated by Solvay, and affected two workers whose job was the manual cleaning of vessels used for the polymerization of vinyl chloride; similar cases occurred in almost all PVC production plants all over the world, but not in the plants where the main activity was the production of vinyl chloride monomer (VCM). Little more than one hundred cases are described in the scientific literature, and this number increases by a few dozen if we consider known but unpublished cases. These figures confirm the rarity of the disease, which peaked at the end of the 1960's and disappeared during the 1970's, probably due to the complete elimination of manual reactor cleaning. Observation of the disease lasted no more than fifteen years and the disease was not replicated in experimental conditions on animals. The disease was clinically characterized, had a short latency (from several months to several years), was rare and unequivocally linked to the manual cleaning of PVC polymerization tanks. However many questions still remain open: the period when the disease first appeared (many years after the start of PVC production in the world), the etiology of the disease (the most accredited hypothesis considers three concomitant factors: a chemical factor--one of the many substances used during polymerization, and particularly vinyl chloride monomer

  9. I-TiO2/PVC film with highly photocatalytic antibacterial activity under visible light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Weihua; Ning, Shangbo; Lin, Qianying; Zhang, Hualei; Zhou, Tanghua; Lin, Huaxiang; Long, Jinlin; Lin, Qun; Wang, Xuxu

    2016-08-01

    Iodine-modified TiO2(I-TiO2) film were coated on medical-grade PVC material by impregnation-deposition method and subsequently characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, AFM, DRS and XPS. The photocatalytic anti-bacterial activity of I-TiO2/PVC was investigated both by in vitro anti-bacterial experiments and by clinical study. The results revealed that I-TiO2/PVC exhibit excellent photocatalytic antibacterial activity, which can destroy the propagation of the Escherichia coli and cause the deactivation and death of most E. coli bacteria within 30min visible light illumination. Clinical study on animals showed that I-TiO2 coated on PVC decrease the formation of biofilm on PVC surface in the mechanical ventilation. Furthermore, I-TiO2/PVC can effectively reduce inflammation of tracheal tissue of bam suckling pig and prevents the occurrence of VAP.

  10. Optical properties of a long dynamic range chemical UV dosimeter based on solvent cast polyvinyl chloride (PVC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amar, Abdurazaq; Parisi, Alfio V

    2013-11-01

    The dosimetric properties of the recently introduced UV dosimeter based on 16 μm PVC film have been fully characterised. Drying the thin film in air at 50 °C for at least 28 days was found to be necessary to minimise the temperature effects on the dosimeter response. This research has found that the dosimeter response, previously reported to be mainly to UVB, has no significant dependence on either exposure temperature or dose rate. The dosimeter has negligible dark reaction and responds to the UV radiation with high reproducibility. The dosimeter angular response was found to have a similar pattern as the cosine function but deviates considerably at angles larger than 70°. Dose response curves exhibit monotonically increasing shape and the dosimeter can measure more than 900 SED. This is about 3 weeks of continuous exposure during summer at subtropical sites. Exposures measured by the PVC dosimeter for some anatomical sites exposed to solar radiation for twelve consecutive days were comparable with those concurrently measured by a series of PPO dosimeters and were in line with earlier results reported in similar studies.

  11. Construction of Tb3+ PVC-MembraneElectrode Based on N,N’-Bis(pyrrolylmethylene-2-aminobenzylamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ali Zamani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we report as new Tb3+-PVC membrane sensor based on N,N’-bis(pyrrolylmethylene- 2-aminobenzylamine (PMA as a suitable ion carrier. Poly vinylchloride (PVC-based membrane composed of PMA with oleic acid (OA as anionic additives and acetophenone (AP as plasticizing solvent mediators. The Tb3+ sensor exhibits a Nernstian slope of 19.7±0.4 mV per decade over the concentration range of 1.0×10-5 to 1.0×10-2 M and a detection limit of 4.6×10-6 M of Tb3+ ions. The potentiometric response of the sensor is independent of the solution pH in the range of 2.9–8.1. It has a very short response time, in the whole concentration range (∼5 s. The recommended sensor revealed comparatively good selectivity with respect to most alkali, alkaline earth, some transition and heavy metal ions. It was successfully employed as an indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration of Tb(III ions with EDTA. The electrode was also employed for the determination of the fluoride ion in two mouth wash preparations and the determination of Tb3+ ions concentration in mixtures of three different ions.

  12. Preparation of ethambutol-copper(II) complex and fabrication of PVC based membrane potentiometric sensor for copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vinod K; Prasad, Rajendra; Kumar, Azad

    2003-05-28

    Copper(II) complex of ethambutol (I) was prepared and used in the fabrication of Cu(2+) selective ISE membrane. The membrane having Cu(II)-ethambutol complex (I) as electroactive material, along with sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) as anion discriminator, dioctylphthalate (DOP) as plasticizer in poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) matrix in the percentage ratio 6:2:190:200 (I:NaTPB:DOP:PVC) (w/w) gave a linear response in the concentration range 7.94x10(-6) to 1.0x10(-1) M of Cu(2+) with a slope of 29.9+/-0.2 mV per decade of activity and a fast response time of 11+/-2 s. The sensor works well in the pH range 2.1-6.3 and could be satisfactorily used in presence of 40% (v/v) methanol, ethanol and acetone and is selective for copper over a large number of cations with slight interference from Na(+) and Co(2+) if present at a level 1.5x10(-5) and 6.5x10(-5) M, respectively. It works well over a period of 6 months and can also be used as indicator electrode for the end point determination in the potentiometric titration of Cu(2+) against EDTA as well as in the determination of Cu(2+) in real samples.

  13. PVC mixtures’ mechanical properties with the addition of modified calcite as filler

    OpenAIRE

    Vučinić Dušica R.; Jovanović Vladimir D.; Kolonja Božo M.; Sekulić Živko T.; Mihajlović Slavica R.

    2012-01-01

    In this study mechanical properties of PVC mixtures (PVC, stabilizer, lubricant, filler) such as tensile strength, tensile elongation, breaking strength, and breaking elongation were investigated. Unmodified calcite, as well as calcite modified by stearic acid, were used as fillers in wet and dry processes. The PVC mixtures containing the calcite modified by wet procedure have better mechanical properties compared to those with the calcite modified by the dry process. Tensile and breaki...

  14. Evaluation of the properties of the jointing strip in soft PVC for concrete structures - Correlation between accelerated aging, long-term exposure and jointing strip in service; Utvaerdering av egenskaperna hos fogband i mjukgjord PVC foer betongkonstruktioner - Korrelation mellan accelererad aaldring, laangtidsexponering och fogband i drift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomfeldt, Thomas; Bergsjoe, Petter

    2013-02-15

    Plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC) sealing strip are present in very large scale in concrete structures at the Swedish hydro and nuclear power plants. Sealing strips should both be able to take up the movement between concrete blocks and at the same time seal against water leakage between. The status of the sealing strip is very difficult to assess since they are hidden in the concrete structure. Replacing gaskets cannot be done without destroying the concrete structure. This study was done as a complement to Elforsk project BET 112 polymeric materials in concrete construction, because the interest in joint strips appeared markedly for both hydropower and nuclear power. As a numerous of strips and results from long-time exposures, accelerated ageing's and strips that have been in use became available in the above mentioned project it was decided to make an initial study of these sealing strips. The study showed that loss of plasticizer is the most likely cause of aging of the sealing strips. Plasticizers can both migrate out to the surrounding environment and also be chemically consumed through reactions with a consequential degradation. In this case previous studies have shown that alkali hydrolysis can be a factor to degradation on PVC materials in concrete constructions. Furthermore, the result from this study indicates that the choice of plasticizer is probably the deciding factor for the long-term properties of the sealing strips.

  15. Progress in the removal of di-[2-ethylhexyl]-phthalate as plasticizer in blood bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmchen, Juliane; Ventura, Rosa; Segura, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    Polyvinylchloride (PVC) is used in blood component containers as well as in many other medical devices because it shows optimal inertness, durability, and resistance to heat and chemicals. However, the polymer itself does not provide good handling characteristics or the necessary properties for red blood cell (RBC) survival. PVC thus needs to be plasticized, and di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) has been the most common plasticizer to produce the required flexibility to PVC. However, DEHP has been found to leach out from the containers, causing toxic effects, as demonstrated mainly in rodents. It is considered to be a possible carcinogen and suspected to also produce endocrine effects especially in young males. Although controversial, it is commonly accepted that in vulnerable patients such as newborns, trauma patients, or pregnant women, high exposure to DEHP should be avoided. The replacement of the common PVC + DEHP blood bags poses technical challenges due to the positive influence of the DEHP molecules on the red blood cell (RBC) membrane, and thus it has been shown to affect RBC storage and survival after transfusion. Different approaches are thus being taken to find a suitable alternative to DEHP for blood components bags. Environmentalists even favor the substitution of the PVC to avoid not only the plasticizers but even the other residues contained in the polymer material. Consequently, whereas the simplest solution is the substitution of the DEHP by other plasticizers, alternative plasticizer-free materials are becoming explored. Even modifications of existing materials are being presented by some research groups, ranging from covering of the DEHP-containing materials to alloys or special additive solutions. Different strategies as well as the most promising approaches are presented in this review. In any case, the degree of stabilization of RBCs undergoing prolonged storage will dictate the final acceptance for such alternatives.

  16. FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF THE PHYSICAL GELATION PROCESS OF PVC PLASTISOL DURING ROTATIONAL MOLDING%旋转模塑过程中PVC溶胶物理凝胶化转变的有限元分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王菲; 姚卫国; 乔从德; 贾玉玺

    2012-01-01

    The physical gelation of PVC plastisol is an important procedure in rotational molding processes, at the early stage of which the variation characteristics of plastisol viscosity determine its distribution on the mold surface, then affect the quality of products. On the basis of the unsteady temperature fields of the nickel mould and PVC material simulated by finite element method, the evolution and distribution of PVC material structures are calculated according to a theoretical model fitting well with experimental results, and then the plastisol viscosity and its evolution characteristics are obtained by the material structure-performance relationship. Hence the effect of different plasticizers on the physical gelation process of PVC materials is compared and analyzed. The results show the that PVC plastisol close to a mold surface, gets faster heating rate and earlier gel transition because of its smaller heat resistance. During the heating process, the viscosity of the PVC material is first reduced to a minimum, then increases rapidly due to the start of the gel transition. The micro mechanism of the gelation process is that the solution of PVC in the plasticizer and the swelling of PVC particles by the plasticizer are both strengthened, while the macro picture is a sharp increase in viscosity which makes the material stop flowing. Different plasticizers have different impacts on the evolution of material structure and plastisol viscosity, which is mainly due to their different lengths of chains. For the rotational molding process, the PVC thickness distribution depends on three important factors appeared during the physical gelation process of PVC plastisol: the minimum viscosity determined by the plastisol, the rate of the gelation process and the gelation temperature.%采用有限元法,数值模拟了成型过程中镍制模具和PVC材料的非稳态温度场,进而得到了PVC材料结构参数的时间演变和空间分布规律,再由结构-性能关

  17. Leaching of plasticizers from polyvinylchloride perfusion lines by different lipid emulsions for premature infants under clinical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faessler, David; McCombie, Gregor; Biedermann, Maurus; Felder, Florian; Subotic, Ulrike

    2017-03-30

    Plasticizers migrate from polyvinylchloride (PVC) infusion systems into lipid emulsions. The aim of this study was to investigate the leaching of different plasticizers from PVC perfusion lines by a selection of lipid emulsions under clinical conditions. Seven PVC perfusion lines with an equal length of 150cm and three internal diameters were perfused with three lipid emulsions: Intralipid(®) 20%, ClinOleic(®) 20% and SMOFlipid(®) 20%, mimicking clinical conditions. The concentrations of the plasticizers were measured directly in the emulsions by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry. Of the four plasticizers examined in this study, di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) leached the most and was found, on average, at 46.5μg/ml in the emulsions - around one order of magnitude higher than the other plasticizers. This study demonstrates that the leaching of DEHP by lipid emulsions in conditions of total parenteral nutrition is many times higher than should be accepted and higher when compared to the other plasticizers. There was no significant difference in leaching of plasticizers in relation to the type of lipid emulsion. The influence of tube diameter on the leaching rate of plasticizers should be taken into account especially in particular exposed patients.

  18. 聚丙烯酸酯/纳米碳酸钙复合增韧PVC的研究%Study on Polyacrylate/Nano-CaCO3 Composite Toughened PVC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马治军; 杨景辉; 吴秋芳

    2011-01-01

    制备了复合增韧改性剂聚丙烯酸酯/纳米CaCO3(PA-C),并将其用于硬质聚氯乙烯(PVC)中,以研究其增韧效果.使用扫描电子显微镜(SEM)观察了复合材料的微观结构,并测试了复合材料的力学性能.结果表明:PA-C均匀分散于PVC基体中;当在PVC中添加10份PA-C时,复合材料的缺口冲击强度达到88.2kJ/m2,冲击强度和弯曲模量明显增大,拉伸强度未明显降低;SEM照片显示PA-C有效地引发了PVC基体产生塑性形变,有利于能量的吸收.%The polyacrylate/nano-CaCO3 (PA-C)composite toughening hard PVC was successfully prepared and the toughening effect was researched. The effects of polyacrylate/nano-CaCO 3 composite on the mechanical properties and micro-morphology of PVC were investigated by SEM. It was found that PA-C dispersed in PVC matrix uniformly. The addition of PA-C 10 phr in PVC could make the notched impact strength of composite reach to 88.2 kJ/m2, the impact strength and the flexure modulus increased obviously, led to a slight decrease in the tensile strength. SEM photos showed PA-C effectively led to the plastic deformation of the PVC matrix which was conducive to the absorption of energy.

  19. Equilibrium and kinetic modeling of iron adsorption and the effect by chloride, sulfate, and hydroxyl: evaluation of PVC-U drinking pipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia -Ying; Li, Shu-Ping; Xin, Kun-Lun; Tao, Tao

    2016-12-01

    The update of pipeline was quick over the last few years and the plastic pipes were widely used in the drinking water distribution systems (DWDSs), especially in the small-diameter pipes. In this study, the iron adsorptive characteristics and the affecting factors in unplasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC-U) pipe were investigated. Results showed that the average amount of iron in the 10-year-old PVC-U pipe's interior surface was 2.80 wt% which was almost 187 times larger than that in a new one. Goethite (α-FeOOH) and magnetite (Fe3O4) were the major iron compounds in the scales which covered on the old pipes' interior surface and showed loose and porous images under a scanning electron microscope. Moreover, the influence of the iron concentration on the adsorption amount and rate was discussed. The adsorption amount was significantly influenced by iron concentration, but similar adsorption rate was discovered. Notably, iron was quantitatively adsorbed by PVC-U pipe during the experimental period in accordance with the pseudo second order kinetic model. Meanwhile, regression model and response surface methodology were used to analyze the regular of iron adsorption in different concentrations of chloride (Cl(-)), sulfate (SO4(2-)), and hydroxyl (OH(-)). It can be concluded that Cl(-) and OH(-) showed the strong ability of iron adsorption which were larger than SO4(2-).

  20. PVC/PUR-T/SEBS-g-MAH三元共混物性能研究%Study on Properties of PVC / PUR-T / SEBS-g-MAH Blends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘运学; 范兆荣; 焦翠萍; 王旭; 滕飞

    2012-01-01

    以马来酸酐接枝氢化苯乙烯-丁二烯-苯乙烯嵌段共聚物( SEBS-g-MAH)作为聚氯乙烯(PVC)/热塑性聚氨酯弹性体( PUR-T)共混体系的增容剂,对不同配比的PVC/PUR-T/SEBS-g-MAH共混体系的物理力学性能进行了研究.结果表明,SEBS-g-MAH对PVC/PUR-T共混体系起到了明显的增容作用,当SEBS-g-MAH用量为6份时,PVC/PUR-T/SEBS-g-MAH共混物具有较好的力学性能.%SBS-g-MAH graft polymers were used as compatibilizers in blends of PVC and PUR-T. The mechanical properties of PVC / PUR-T / SEBS-g-MAH blends were studied. The results showed that SEBS-g-MAH graft polymers could increase compatibility of PVC/PUR-T. When the content of SEBS-g-MAH was 6 phr, the blend had optimal mechanical properties.

  1. Study on the hydrocyclonic separation of waste plastics with different density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, H; Fu, S; Tan, W; He, J; Wu, K

    2015-11-01

    The recycling of waste plastics is an important aspect in the recycling of solid waste. Based on the difference in density, PET and PVC particles was separated with help of the centrifugal sedimentation and shearing dispersion in a hydrocyclone. Through tests and CFD simulation, the relationship between the separating efficiency and pressure drop and split ratio has been investigated. Test results show that the Newton efficiency can reach above 80%, i.e. the purity of PVC could reach 93.2% while the purity of PET could reach 94.5%.

  2. Simulated neonatal exposure to DEHP and MEHP from PVC enteral nutrition products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takatori, Satoshi; Okamoto, You; Kitagawa, Yoko; Hori, Shinjiro; Izumi, Shun-Ichiro; Makino, Tsunehisa; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki

    2008-03-20

    The leaching of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (MEHP) from medical products made of polyvinyl-chloride (PVC) to enteral nutrition (EN) for neonatal patients was determined in a simulated study. The study simulated a typical case of EN administration to a neonatal patient (body weight, 3 kg) in a neonatal care unit (temperature, 25 degrees C); the medical products used were an irrigator and catheter containing DEHP (9.1-31.8%, w/w) as a plasticizer. The worst-case daily exposures of the neonatal patient to DEHP and MEHP by the administration of EN were estimated to be 148 and 3.72 microg/(kg day), respectively, as assessed from the levels of these compounds leaching from the medical products to the EN. The use of DEHP-free medical products reduced the exposure of DEHP and MEHP to the minimum levels contained in the EN at preparation. A transition to DEHP-free medical products for neonatal patients would be effective in reducing the exposure of neonatal patients to DEHP via EN administration.

  3. Plastics Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Tommy G.

    This curriculum guide is designed to assist junior high schools industrial arts teachers in planning new courses and revising existing courses in plastics technology. Addressed in the individual units of the guide are the following topics: introduction to production technology; history and development of plastics; safety; youth leadership,…

  4. Fittings of unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC-U), chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (PVC-C) or acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene (ABS) with plain sockets for pipes under pressure - Dimensions of sockets - Metric series

    CERN Document Server

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva

    1985-01-01

    Fittings of unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC-U), chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (PVC-C) or acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene (ABS) with plain sockets for pipes under pressure - Dimensions of sockets - Metric series

  5. Nonlinear optical properties of manganese porphyrin-incorporated PVC film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Hyon Ha

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We measured thermally originated solid phase nonlinear optical properties of manganese porphyrin-incorporated PVC polymer film using CW low-power Z-scan and optical power limiting methods. The nonlinear refractive index (n2 of this porphyrin film is estimated to have a negative value of 7.2 ⅹ10-5 cm2/W at 632.8 nm and to be larger than that of ZnTPP in the Nafion film. The photodegradation effect common in the solution phase appears to be minor in this solid phase system. The large nonlinear effect is thought to limit the optical power due to the aperture effect.

  6. PVC DISULFIDE AS CATHODE MATERIALS FOR SECONDARY LITHIUM BATTERIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-xiang Xu; Lu Qi; Bi-tao Yu; Lei Wen

    2006-01-01

    PVC disulfide (2SPVC) was synthesized by solution crosslink and its molecular structure was confirmed by the particle size of d0.5 = 11.3 μm. With SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope) experiment the surface morphology and obvious S-S redox reaction in charge-discharge process. When 2SPVC was used as cathode material for secondary lithium mixture of o-xylene (oxy), diglyme (DG) and dimethoxymethane (DME) at 30℃, the first discharge capacity of 2SPVC is very promising cathode candidate for rechargeable lithium batteries.

  7. PVC钢塑共挤门窗%PVC steel plastic coextrusion door and window

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏德刚

    2001-01-01

    @@ 1 PVC钢塑共挤型材 PVC钢塑共挤型材采用内部钢衬与外部PVC塑料一次共挤成型,使高分子材料与钢材有机结合成一体化复合型材,既保证了隔声、隔热性能,又大大提高了型材的杆件强度.型材断面如图1所示.0.8 mm厚的镀锌冷轧钢衬位于塑料型材的中央,4 mm厚的复合塑料采用专有的结皮微发泡技术,令型材表面平整光滑、硬度高.型材使用进口助剂和颜料,仿天然木纹色,美观大方装饰效果好,使用寿命长.

  8. Rigid PVC plastic-bamboo windows & doors%硬质PVC塑竹门窗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵劲松; 付志敏

    2007-01-01

    介绍了一种用于建筑的硬质PVC塑竹门窗,其创新点是不用钢材而用竹材作PVC型材的衬材,这可使塑料窗原料成本降低13.59元/m2,窗质量降低2.5 kg/m2,节省炼钢用煤(标准煤)8.3 kg/m2,窗的传热损耗有所下降.

  9. Analysis of Phthalate Ester Content in PVC Plastics by means of FT-Raman Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørbygaard, Thomas; Berg, Rolf W.

    2004-01-01

    ) phthalate, DEHP (also referred to as dioctyl phthalate - DOP) and many products containing this phthalate are in common use. We measured the Raman spectra of 21 different phthalate esters and found six common Raman bands, present for all. These bands are accordingly assigned to the dicarbonyl ortho......-phenyl group, and as the relative intensities of the six bands vary only slightly from one phthalate ester to the next one we have obtained an identifiable, characteristic fingerprint of the phthalate ester group as a whole. By use of the set of six bands, which are common to all the measured Raman spectra, we...

  10. Non-destructive and in-situ determination of the degree of gelation of pvc pipes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drenth, E.; Bor, T.C.; Visser, H.A.; Wolters, M.; Davidovski, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Various non-destructive methods, based on different physical principles, were investigated for their ability to differentiate between uPVC pipes having various levels of gelation. It was found that the micro-hardness method was not able to differentiate between uPVC samples of different levels of ge

  11. Non-collinear wave mixing for non-linear ultrasonic detection of physical ageing in PVC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demcenko, A.; Akkerman, Remko; Nagy, P.B.; Loendersloot, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This work considers the characterization of linear PVC acoustic properties using a linear ultrasonic measurement technique and the non-collinear ultrasonic wave mixing technique for measurement of the physical ageing state in PVC. The immersion pulse-echo measurements were used to evaluate phase

  12. PVC-based composite material containing recycled non-metallic printed circuit board (PCB) powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinjie; Guo, Yuwen; Liu, Jingyang; Qiao, Qi; Liang, Jijun

    2010-12-01

    The study is directed to the use of non-metallic powders obtained from comminuted recycled paper-based printed circuit boards (PCBs) as an additive to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) substrate. The physical properties of the non-metallic PCB (NMPCB) powders were measured, and the morphological, mechanical and thermal properties of the NMPCB/PVC composite material were investigated. The results show that recycled NMPCB powders, when added below a threshold, tended to increase the tensile strength and bending strength of PVC. When 20 wt% NMPCB powders (relative to the substrate PVC) of an average diameter of 0.08 mm were added, the composite tensile strength and bending strength reached 22.6 MPa and 39.83 MPa, respectively, representing 107.2% and 123.1% improvement over pure PVC. The elongation at break of the composite material reached 151.94% of that of pure PVC, while the Vicat softening temperature of the composite material did not increase significantly compared to the pure PVC. The above results suggest that paper-based NMPCB powders, when used at appropriate amounts, can be effective for toughening PVC. Thus, this study suggests a new route for reusing paper-based NMPCB, which may have a significant beneficial environmental impact.

  13. Phthalate release from soft PVC baby toys, Report from the Dutch Consensus Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konemann WH; RIVM/CSR

    1998-01-01

    Op verzoek van de staatssecretaris van Volksgezondheid, Welzijn en Sport, heeft een werkgroep van vertegenwoordigers van betrokken partijen de afgifte van ftalaten uit zacht PVC babyspeelgoed onderzocht. Omdat di-isononylftalaat (DINP) veruit de meest gebruikte weekmaker in PVC babyspeelgoed is

  14. Study of mechanical properties of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polystyrene (PS) polymers and their blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Shalini; Saxena, N. S.; Agrawal, R.; Saraswat, Vibhav K.

    2013-06-01

    Presented work is an effort to observe the variation in mechanical properties of two thermoplastic materials PVC, PS and their blends. PVC and PS are taken in the ratio of 100:0, 70:30, 50:50, and 0:100. Mixing of PVC and PS is carried out by solution casting method using tetra hydro furan as solvent. Dynamical mechanical analyzer (DMA) is used to study mechanical properties. The storage modulus, loss modulus and mechanical loss factor (tan δ) are determined with temperature. The pallets of pure PS, PVC and their blends are scanned over a temperature range from room to 140 °C. The variation of modulus, tan δ of pure PVC & pure PS and their blends with temperature were studied. The observed variation in modulus and tan δ could be accounted for their thermal behavior and compositions.

  15. Investigation on the thermal stability of PVC filled with hydrotalcite by the UV-vis spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Li, Hancheng

    2008-01-01

    The thermal stability of the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) filled with hydrotalcite was studied in this paper. It was found that the stability of the PVC resin mixed with organic Sn and hydrotalcite was better than that of the PVC resin mixed with organic Sn alone. The UV-vis spectra showed that under certain heat treatment conditions, the sample without hydrotalcite embodied relatively high content of the conjugated double bonds with the chain length of about 3-5, however, the content of the conjugated double bond with the chain length of about 7 was greatly increased when the hydrotalcite was filled into the PVC resin. The hydrotalcite could inhibit the thermal degradation process of PVC resin in ionic mechanism.

  16. Synthesis of lanthanum ricinoleate and its effect on thermal stability and mechanical properties in PVC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟; 董丹丹; 魏忠; 马彦青

    2014-01-01

    The lanthanum ricinoleate (abbreviated as Lari3) of rare earth heat stabilizer was synthesized by the reaction of ricinoleic acid, lanthanum nitrate and sodium hydroxide. The IR and fluorescence spectra methods confirmed the structure of the product. The thermal stability of PVC in the presence of Lari3 was studied by the Congo method and using TG analysis. The results showed that Lari3 could be used as a thermal stabilizer for PVC. When the ratio of Lari3/pentaerythritol was 3:1, the complex exhibited better syn-ergistic effect. Incorporation of Lari3 to PVC resulted in a marked increase of maximum and onset degradation temperature as well as elongation and impact strength of PVC. Lari3 might replace the labile chlorine atoms to interrupt the formation of conjugated double bonds in PVC chains and act as HCl scavenger to restrain the self-catalyticdehydrochlorination.

  17. Plastic bronchitis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Singhi, Anil Kumar; Vinoth, Bharathi; Kuruvilla, Sarah; Sivakumar, Kothandam

    2015-01-01

    Plastic bronchitis, a rare but serious clinical condition, commonly seen after Fontan surgeries in children, may be a manifestation of suboptimal adaptation to the cavopulmonary circulation with unfavorable hemodynamics...

  18. Plastic Fishes

    CERN Multimedia

    Trettnak, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    In terms of weight, the plastic pollution in the world’s oceans is estimated to be around 300,000 tonnes. This plastic comes from both land-based and ocean-based sources. A lecture at CERN by chemist Wolfgang Trettnak addressed this issue and highlighted the role of art in raising people’s awareness. The slideshow below gives you a taste of the artworks by Wolfgang Trettnak and Margarita Cimadevila.

  19. Plastic Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    履之

    1994-01-01

    Already ubiquitous in homes and cars, plastic is now appearing inbridges. An academic-industrial consortium based at the University ofCalifornia in San Diego is launching a three-year research program aimed atdeveloping the world’s first plastic highway bridge, a 450-foot span madeentirely from glass-,carbon,and polymer-fiber-reinforced composite mate-rials, the stuff of military aircraft. It will cross Interstate 5 to connect thetwo sides of the school’s campus.

  20. Development of PVC and PP resin pellet certified reference materials for heavy metal analysis with respect to the RoHS directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohata, Masaki; Hioki, Akiharu

    2013-01-01

    The PVC (polyvinyl chloride) and the PP (polypropylene) resin pellet certified reference materials (CRMs, NMIJ CRM 8123-a and 8133-a) with respect to the RoHS (restriction of the use of hazardous substances in electrical and electronics equipment) directive were developed in the present study. Both the sample pretreatment and the measurement procedures for the determination of Cd, Cr, Hg and Pb in the PVC and the PP resin pellets were examined, and several analytical methods were developed. Microwave acid digestion and dry-ashing followed by acid digestion procedures were examined as sample pretreatment procedures. In the case of measurement procedures, an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) including an isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) and an ICP optical emission spectrometry (ICPOES) were used. Since the analytical results obtained by different analytical methods showed good agreement within their uncertainties estimated, it was concluded that the analytical methods established in this study were reliable with high accuracy. The homogeneity and the stability of Cd, Cr, Hg and Pb in these plastic CRMs were also evaluated, and the results revealed sufficient homogeneity of 0.3-0.7% and stability for more than 5 years. From these results, it is considered that these CRMs are useful CRM for the determination of Cd, Cr, Hg and Pb in plastics with respect to the RoHS directive.

  1. Impact of plastics on fate and transport of organic contaminants in landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saquing, Jovita M; Saquing, Carl D; Knappe, Detlef R U; Barlaz, Morton A

    2010-08-15

    Factors controlling organic contaminant sorption to common plastics in municipal solid waste were identified. Consumer plastics [drinking water container, prescription drug bottle, soda bottle, disposable cold cup, computer casing, furniture foam, carpet, vinyl flooring, formica sheet] and model polymers [high-density polyethylene (HDPE), medium-density polyethylene, low-density polyethylene, poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)] were characterized by X-ray diffractometry, differential scanning calorimetry, and elemental analysis. The material characterization was used to interpret batch isotherm and kinetic data. K(p) values describing toluene sorption to rubbery or "soft" polymers could be normalized by the amorphous polymer fraction (f(amorphous)) but not by the organic carbon fraction (f(oc)). Diffusion coefficients (D) describing the uptake rate of toluene by rubbery plastics (HDPE, drinking water container, prescription drug bottle) were similar (D approximately 10(-10) cm(2)/s), indicating that pure HDPE can be used as a model for rubbery plastics. Toluene diffusivity was similar among glassy or "hard" plastics (PVC, soda bottle, computer casing, disposable cold cup; D approximately 10(-12) cm(2)/s) but lower than for rubbery plastics. Plastics in landfills are potential sinks of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) because of their higher affinity for HOCs compared to lignocellulosic materials and the slow desorption of HOCs from glassy plastics.

  2. GREEN PLASTIC: A NEW PLASTIC FOR PACKAGING

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. Pankaj Kumar*, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    This paper gives a brief idea about a new type of plastic called as bio-plastic or green plastic. Plastic is used as a packaging material for various products, but this plastic is made up of non renewable raw materials. There are various disadvantages of using conventional plastic like littering, CO2 production, non-degradable in nature etc. To overcome these problems a new type of plastic is discovered called bio-plastic or green plastic. Bio-plastic is made from renewable resources and also...

  3. Properties of blends for profiles and semi-rigid films made of PVC nanocomposites produced in pilot scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obloj-Muzaj, Maria; Abramowicz, Agnieszka; Kumosinski, Marcin; Zielecka, Maria; Kozakiewicz, Janusz; Gorska, Agnieszka

    2016-05-01

    PVC nanocomposites containing 0.5 wt. %/VCM of either nanosilica or hybrid core/shell type nanofiller were produced in-situ in suspension polymerisation. Significant increase in impact strength of PVC composites obtained was observed (higher 25 - 60 % in comparison with PVC). The amount of impact modifier in selected rigid PVC blends (e.g. in window profiles) could be significantly reduced (≥ 50 %). Tensile and flexural properties of nanocomposites were similar to PVC, however, at smaller amount of impact modifier other mechanical properties improve. Tear resistance of rigid films was better.

  4. Biotreatment effects in films and blends of PVC/PCL previously treated with heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana de Campos

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out on biomodification and the pre-heat (130(0C influence on Poly (vinyl chloride / Poly (epsilon-caprolactone films. The results showed that heat pre-treatment improved the biomodification of PVC films, but it inhibited the biomodification of the PVC/PCL film.Poli épsilon-caprolactona é um importante polímero biodegradável e miscível com o PVC, um polímero sintético industrial, termo susceptível e não biodegradável. A blenda PVC/PCL é importante quanto a suas propriedades mecânicas e biodegradabilidade. Neste trabalho foi analisada a biomodificação da blenda PVC/PCL pré-tratada com calor (130ºC, através da espectroscopia UV-Vis. Os resultados mostraram que o pré-tratamento com calor pode facilitar a biomodificação em filmes de PVC, mas pode inibir a biomodificação nos filmes da blenda PVC/PCL.

  5. Interaction of plasma proteins with commercial protein repellent polyvinyl chloride (PVC): a word of caution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Somer, F; Van Landschoot, A; Van Nooten, G; Delanghe, J

    2008-07-01

    Protein adsorption onto polymers remains a problem. In recent years, several protein-repellent PVC tubings have been developed. Although several studies report the interaction between plasma coagulation proteins and PVC, few address the interaction with other plasma proteins. Two commercial brands of untreated medical grade PVC tubing, phosphorylcholine-coated PVC tubing, triblock-copolymer (polycaprolactone-polydimethylsiloxane-polycaprolactone)-treated PVC tubing and poly-2-methoxyethylacrylate (PMEA)-coated tubing were exposed for 60 minutes to human plasma. A broad spectrum of plasma proteins was found on all tubing. The adsorbed albumin to total protein ratio is lower than the similar ratio in plasma while alpha1 and alpha2 globulins are over-represented in the protein spectrum. On PMEA tubing, not only alpha globulins, but also beta and gamma globulins, are found in high concentrations in the adsorbed protein. PMEA tubing and uncoated PVC tubing of brand B had a higher amount of protein adsorbed compared against all other tubing (p < 0.05). There were no statistical differences in protein adsorption between the triblock-copolymer-treated tubing, the phosphorylcholine-coated tubing and the uncoated PVC tubing of brand A. The average thickness of the protein layer was 23 nm. Plasma protein adsorption still exists on uncoated and protein-repellent tubing and can initiate a systemic inflammatory reaction.

  6. Effect of PVC and iron materials on Mn(II) deposition in drinking water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerrato, José M; Reyes, Lourdes P; Alvarado, Carmen N; Dietrich, Andrea M

    2006-08-01

    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and iron pipe materials differentially impacted manganese deposition within a drinking water distribution system that experiences black water problems because it receives soluble manganese from a surface water reservoir that undergoes biogeochemical cycling of manganese. The water quality study was conducted in a section of the distribution system of Tegucigalpa, Honduras and evaluated the influence of iron and PVC pipe materials on the concentrations of soluble and particulate iron and manganese, and determined the composition of scales formed on PVC and iron pipes. As expected, total Fe concentrations were highest in water from iron pipes. Water samples obtained from PVC pipes showed higher total Mn concentrations and more black color than that obtained from iron pipes. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that manganese was incorporated into the iron tubercles and thus not readily dislodged from the pipes by water flow. The PVC pipes contained a thin surface scale consisting of white and brown layers of different chemical composition; the brown layer was in contact with the water and contained 6% manganese by weight. Mn composed a greater percentage by weight of the PVC scale than the iron pipe scale; the PVC scale was easily dislodged by flowing water. This research demonstrates that interactions between water and the infrastructure used for its supply affect the quality of the final drinking water.

  7. Layered and intercalated hydrotalcite-like materials as thermal stabilizers in PVC resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yanjun; Wang, Jianrong; Evans, David G.; Li, Dianqing

    2006-05-01

    In the light of the accepted mechanism of thermal stabilization of PVC by layered double hydroxides (LDHs), the layer cations and interlayer counterions in LDHs were tailored to give MgZnAl-CO3-LDH and MgZnAl-maleate-LDH. These materials were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, and TG DTA. The thermal stability of PVC composites containing different LDH additives was tested in sheets having a thickness of about 1 mm. The results showed that compared with MgAl-CO3-LDH, MgZnAl-CO3-LDH enhances the thermal stability of PVC in terms of both long-term stability and early coloring. After intercalation of maleate in the LDH by reaction of maleic acid with the MgZnAl-CO3-LDH precursor, the interlayer distance increases from 0.75 to 1.11 nm. Since Cl- promotes the autocatalytic dehydrochlorination of PVC, which is responsible for its degradation, an increased interlayer distance should facilitate entry of Cl- into the interlayer galleries and inhibit the decomposition of PVC. In addition, maleic acid has a conjugated C=C double bond which can react with double bond formed in the dehydrochlorination of PVC and thus further inhibit the autocatalytic degradation reaction. The results show that the early coloring of PVC is markedly improved and the long-term stability slightly reduced by addition of the MgZnAl-maleate-LDH.

  8. Phase Transition and Mechanical Properties of PS/PVC/CdS Polymeric Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Vishal; Dixit, Manasvi; Saxena, N. S.; Sharma, Kananbala

    2010-06-01

    The present study reports the phase transition temperature and mechanical properties of CdS dispersed PS-PVC nanocomposite through Dynamic Mechanical Analyzer (DMA). Thick films of polymeric nanocomposites have been synthesized by dispersing nano-filler particles of CdS in PS/PVC binary blend matrix. The surface morphology of PS/PVC blend samples has been characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) while the nanostructure of the CdS filler in PS/PVC/CdS composite has been ascertained through small angle X-ray Diffraction (XRD) technique. The phase transition temperature study of PS/PVC polymeric blends reveals that glass transition temperature, Tg, of the PS phase shifts towards lower temperature with the increase in PVC content in the blend whereas for CdS embedded polymeric phases of blends i.e. for PS/PVC/CdS samples, an increase in respective Tg values have been observed. This is suggestive to the fact that phase transition temperature and mechanical properties have been significantly influenced through the dispersion of CdS nano-filler particles in the studied polymeric blend series.

  9. Control, operator support and safety system of PVC reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ytreeide, J.I.; Aaker, O.; Kristoffersen, V.; Moe, G.; Naustdal, C.

    1997-06-01

    In modern petrochemical plants the corporate and societal demands to plant safety and minimum environmental effects are high. These demands rise high performance requirements to the technical systems, specially the process control and safety systems including an effective operator support system with fault detection capability. PVC producing plants have high inherent hazard potentials, and the studied reaction in this publication is exothermic and non-linear and open-loop unstable, and the plant is equipped with two independent cooling systems to keep the reaction under control. A system to solve the stability problem of parallel control is suggested, showing the simulation of real process data. The publication describes an operator support system for monitoring the heat of reaction in the autoclave consisting of a model based estimator. The system is tested on-line, and the results of simulations and on-line estimates are presented. 6 refs., 13 figs.

  10. Leaching of the plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) from plastic containers and the question of human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erythropel, Hanno C; Maric, Milan; Nicell, Jim A; Leask, Richard L; Yargeau, Viviane

    2014-12-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) is a widely used plasticizer to render poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) soft and malleable. Plasticized PVC is used in hospital equipment, food wrapping, and numerous other commercial and industrial products. Unfortunately, plasticizers can migrate within the material and leach out of it over time, ending up in the environment and, frequently, the human body. DEHP has come under increased scrutiny as its breakdown products are believed to be endocrine disruptors and more toxic than DEHP itself. DEHP and its breakdown products have been identified as ubiquitous environmental contaminants, and daily human exposure is estimated to be in the microgram per kilogram level. The objective of this review is to summarize and comment on published sources of DEHP exposure and to give an overview of its environmental fate. Exposure through bottled water was examined specifically, as this concern is raised frequently, yet only little exposure to DEHP occurs through bottled water, and DEHP exposure is unlikely to stem from the packaging material itself. Packaged food was also examined and showed higher levels of DEHP contamination compared to bottled water. Exposure to DEHP also occurs in hospital environments, where DEHP leaches directly into liquids that passed through PVC/DEHP tubing and equipment. The latter exposure is at considerably higher levels compared to food and bottled water, specifically putting patients with chronic illnesses at risk. Overall, levels of DEHP in food and bottled water were below current tolerable daily intake (TDI) values. However, our understanding of the risks of DEHP exposure is still evolving. Given the prevalence of DEHP in our atmosphere and environment, and the uncertainty revolving around it, the precautionary principle would suggest its phaseout and replacement. Increased efforts to develop viable replacement compounds, which necessarily includes rigorous leaching, toxicity, and impact assessment studies, are

  11. PVC mixtures’ mechanical properties with the addition of modified calcite as filler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučinić Dušica R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study mechanical properties of PVC mixtures (PVC, stabilizer, lubricant, filler such as tensile strength, tensile elongation, breaking strength, and breaking elongation were investigated. Unmodified calcite, as well as calcite modified by stearic acid, were used as fillers in wet and dry processes. The PVC mixtures containing the calcite modified by wet procedure have better mechanical properties compared to those with the calcite modified by the dry process. Tensile and breaking strength of the PVC mixture containing the calcite modified with 1.5% stearic acid using wet process, are higher for 2.8% and 5.2%, respectively, compared to the PVC mixture containing the calcite modified with the same amount of acid used in the dry process. The tensile strength difference between the mixtures increases with the increase of the concentration of used stearic acid up to 3%. The strength of PVC mixture with the calcite modified by wet process is 3.1% higher compared to the mixture containing calcite modified by dry process. The results showed that the bonding strength between calcite and the adsorbed organic component affected tensile strength, tensile elongation and breaking strength of the PVC mixtures. The best filler was obtained by wet modification using 1.5% stearic acid solution that provided the formation of a stearate monolayer chemisorbed on calcite. The PVC mixtures containing the calcite modified by wet process using 1.5% stearic acid solution exhibited the best mechanical properties. This calcite was completely hydrophobic with dominant chemically adsorbed surfactant, which means that stearate chemisorbed on calcite provided stronger interaction in the calcite-stearic acid-PVC system.

  12. Recyclable plastics as substrata for settlement and growth of bryozoans Bugula neritina and barnacles Amphibalanus amphitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Heng-Xiang; Orihuela, Beatriz; Zhu, Mei; Rittschof, Daniel

    2016-11-01

    Plastics are common and pervasive anthropogenic debris in marine environments. Floating plastics provide opportunities to alter the abundance, distribution and invasion potential of sessile organisms that colonize them. We selected plastics from seven recycle categories and quantified settlement of (i) bryozoans Bugula neritina (Linnaeus, 1758) in the lab and in the field, and of (ii) barnacles Amphibalanus (= Balanus) amphitrite (Darwin, 1854) in the field. In the laboratory we cultured barnacles on the plastics for 8 weeks and quantified growth, mortality, and breaking strength of the side plates. In the field all recyclable plastics were settlement substrata for bryozoans and barnacles. Settlement depended on the type of plastic. Fewer barnacles settled on plastic surfaces compared to glass. In the lab and in the field, bryozoan settlement was higher on plastics than on glass. In static laboratory rearing, barnacles growing on plastics were initially significantly smaller than on glass. This suggested juvenile barnacles were adversely impacted by materials leaching from the plastics. Barnacle mortality was not significantly different between plastic and glass surfaces, but breaking strength of side plates of barnacles on polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polycarbonate (PC) were significantly lower than breakage strength on glass. Plastics impact marine ecosystems directly by providing new surfaces for colonization with fouling organisms and by contaminants shown previously to leach out of plastics and impact biological processes.

  13. Plastic condoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-01-01

    Only simple equipment, simple technology and low initial capital investment are needed in their manufacture. The condoms can be made by people who were previously unskilled or only semi-skilled workers. Plastic condoms differ from those made of latex rubber in that the nature of the plastic film allows unlimited shelf-life. Also, the plastic has a higher degree of lubricity than latex rubber; if there is a demand for extra lubrication in a particular market, this can be provided. Because the plastic is inert, these condoms need not be packaged in hermetically sealed containers. All these attributes make it possible to put these condoms on the distributors' shelves in developing countries competitively with rubber condoms. The shape of the plastic condom is based on that of the lamb caecum, which has long been used as luxury-type condom. The plastic condom is made from plastic film (ethylene ethyl acrilate) of 0.001 inch (0.0254 mm.) thickness. In addition, a rubber ring is provided and sealed into the base of the condom for retention during coitus. The advantage of the plastic condom design and the equipment on which it is made is that production can be carried out either in labour-intensive economy or with varying degrees of mechanization and automation. The uniform, finished condom if made using previously untrained workers. Training of workers can be done in a matter of hours on the two machines which are needed to produce and test the condoms. The plastic film is provided on a double wound roll, and condom blanks are prepared by means of a heat-sealing die on the stamping machine. The rubber rings are united to the condom blanks on an assembly machine, which consists of a mandrel and heat-sealing equipment to seal the rubber ring to the base of the condom. Built into the assembly machine is a simple air-testing apparatus that can detect the smallest pinhole flaw in a condom. The manufacturing process is completed by unravelling the condom from the assembly

  14. Glucose Biosensor Based on Carbon/PVC-COOH/Ferrocene Composite with Covalently Immobilized Enzyme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A carbon/PVC-COOH/ferrocene composite electrode used for the determination of glucose has been prepared. The ferrocene acted as mediator was incorporated into the PVC-COOH polymer and the leakage could be prevented. The presence of carboxyl groups on the electrode surface allowed immobilizing enzyme via EDC and NHS. The ratio of PVC-COOH to graphite powder (w/w) has been studied. Amperometric determination of glucose has been performed at potential of 0.30 V vs SCE. The response time was < 15 s. The linear response range was of 0.1-20 mmol/L with a detection limit of 48 μmol/L.

  15. Effect of Different Organic Modifiers on the Tensile Properties of PVC/EVA/Montmorillonite Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao Ying WAN; Yong ZHANG; Yin Xi ZHANG

    2004-01-01

    Poly (vinyl chloride)/ethylene-vinyl acetate/montmorillonite (PVC/EVA/OMMT) composites were prepared by melt blending method. Two kinds of montmorillonites were organically modified by trimethyloctadecyl ammonium and dimethyl bis (hydrogenated tallow) ammonium, respectively. The morphology and tensile properties of the resultant composites were discussed in terms of the modifier type and OMMT content. The PVC/EVA/OMMT composites have intercalated structure, which is independent of the polarity of the modifiers, while the tensile properties show strong dependence on the modifier type. The OMMT modified by polar modifier gives higher tensile ductile and strength of PVC/EVA/OMMT composites.

  16. Penelitian pengaruh asam sulfat terhadap sifat fisika kekerasan atasan sepatu kerja PVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusumo Retno Winahyu

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The Research of hardness aspect of PVC boot upper treated by sulfuric acid to detect influence of sulfuric acid to hardness upper on PVC boot upper. The method of the research has been done by immersing samples in sulfuric acid solution 30 % (v/v for 24 hours. After immersing samples examined connected with hardness physical property. The result of the research shown that hardness physical property become decreasing until 16,08 % has error standard 5,48. It is still agree with SNI 12 – 1848-1990. Sepatu bot dari PVC.

  17. Preparation and Properties of Ni-plated Glass Beads/PVC Composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wei; WANG Sijie; ZHAO Yang

    2014-01-01

    Ni-plated glass beads (GB) was obtained by electroless plating, based on PVC adhesive, Ni-plated GB/PVC composite was prepared. Temperature insulation, fire retardation and microwave absorption properties were tested, the results showed that the nickel coating was compact and continuous, Ni-plated GB/PVC composite is a kind of excellent temperature insulated, fire retardate and light-weight material, and especially for microwave absorption well;Reflectivity was lower than -2 dB in the frequency range of 11-17 GHz.

  18. Market situation of PVC in China%中国PVC市场状况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白海丹

    2012-01-01

    介绍了2011年中国PVC的生产和消费情况,通过具体的PVC进出口量数据及价格走势,预测了PVC的消费及市场状况。%The production situation and consumption situation of PVC in China in the ycar 2011 were introduced. Based on the detailed import & export data and the price movement of PVC, the consumption and market situations of PVC were predicted.

  19. 中国 PVC市场状况%PVC market situation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白海丹; 贺宁

    2013-01-01

    The production situation and consumption situation of PVC in China in the year 2012 were introduced .On the basis of the detailed import&export data and the price movement of PVC ,the consumption and market situations of PVC were predicted .%  介绍了2012年中国PVC的生产和消费情况,通过具体的 PVC进出口量数据及价格走势,预测了PVC的消费及市场状况。

  20. INVESTIGATION ON THE MECHANICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF FOAMED NANOCOMPOSITES BASED ON WOOD FLOUR/PVC/MULTI-WALLED CARBON NANOTUBE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Tavassoli Farsheh

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the use of nanoparticles in Wood Plastic Composites (WPCs has been considered by researchers. In this study, Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs were compounded with PVC, wood-flour, and foaming agent in an internal mixer. The wood flour amount was constant at 40 phr. For CNT and chemical foaming agent , different levels of 0, 1, 2 phr and 0, 3, 6 phr were considered respectively. The samples were foamed via batch process using a compression molding machine at 180°C. Morphology, density, water absorption, thickness swelling, and tensile properties of foamed composites were evaluated as a function of CNT and chemical foaming agent contents. The experimental results indicated that in the presence of CNT, cell density increased and cell size decreased. Density of the foamed composites was not affected by chemical foaming agent contents. Water absorption and thickness swelling of samples were decreased as compared with wood plastic composite without CNTs. Also, the maximum tensile strength and modulus were increased by up to 20% and 23% respectively

  1. Plastic Bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Bruce K

    2016-09-01

    Plastic bronchitis is an uncommon and probably underrecognized disorder, diagnosed by the expectoration or bronchoscopic removal of firm, cohesive, branching casts. It should not be confused with purulent mucous plugging of the airway as seen in patients with cystic fibrosis or bronchiectasis. Few medications have been shown to be effective and some are now recognized as potentially harmful. Current research directions in plastic bronchitis research include understanding the genetics of lymphatic development and maldevelopment, determining how abnormal lymphatic malformations contribute to cast formation, and developing new treatments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Analysis of phthalate ester content in poly(vinyl chloride) plastics by means of Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørbygaard, Thomas; Berg, Rolf W.

    2004-01-01

    Fourier transform (FT) Raman spectroscopy is applied to a range of phthalate ester plasticizers in pure form as well as in poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) samples. It is found that phthalate esters as a group can be identified by a set of six characteristic Raman bands. FT-Raman spectra of 22 phthalate...... esters are given. It is demonstrated that the presence of phthalate esters in PVC products is readily detectable by FT-Raman spectroscopy. By use of proper ref. samples quant. detn. of the phthalate ester content becomes possible as well....

  3. Analysis of phthalate ester content in poly(vinyl chloride) plastics by means of Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørbygaard, Thomas; Berg, Rolf W.

    2004-01-01

    Fourier transform (FT) Raman spectroscopy is applied to a range of phthalate ester plasticizers in pure form as well as in poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) samples. It is found that phthalate esters as a group can be identified by a set of six characteristic Raman bands. FT-Raman spectra of 22 phthalate...... esters are given. It is demonstrated that the presence of phthalate esters in PVC products is readily detectable by FT-Raman spectroscopy. By use of proper ref. samples quant. detn. of the phthalate ester content becomes possible as well....

  4. Comparative Study of PVC-Free All-Solid-State, PVC Membrane, and Carbon Paste Ion-Selective Electrodes for the Determination of Dapoxetine Hydrochloride in Pharmaceutical Formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Azza; Khamees, Nesrin; Mohamed, Tagreed Abdel-Fattah; Derar, Abeer Rashad

    2016-11-01

    The potentiometric response characteristics and analytical applications of a poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)-free all-solid-state ion-selective electrode for dapoxetine hydrochloride (DAP) are examined. The Nernstian response of the electrode was evaluated by comparison with PVC-based liquid membrane and carbon paste electrodes. The PVC-free electrode is prepared by direct incorporation of dapoxetine-tetraphenyl borate (DAP-TPB) as a sensing element into a commercial nail varnish containing cellulose acetate propionate. The composite was applied onto a 3 mm diameter graphite disk electrode. The electrode exhibited a Nernstian slope of 56.0 mV/decade in the concentration range of 1 × 10-4 to 1 × 10-2 mol/L with an LOD of 2 × 10-5 mol/L. The electrode is independent of pH in the range of 2 to 6 and showed good selectivity for DAP with respect to a large number of inorganic cations and amino acids. Comparable Nernstian slope, sensitivity, pH range, and selectivity pattern were obtained with a PVC membrane and a carbon paste incorporating DAP-TPB as a sensing element and dioctylphthalate as a solvent mediator. The electrodes were used for the determination of DAP in pure solution and in tablets without extraction with high accuracy and precision (RSD ≤ 2%). The nail varnish solid-state electrode is simple, economical, and rapid when compared with PVC membrane and carbon paste electrodes.

  5. Comparison of isopropanol and isooctane as food simulants in plasticizer migration tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaspyrides, C D; Tingas, S G

    1998-01-01

    In the last 25 years, plastics have faced a massive demand in packaging technology due to their desirable properties, such as flexibility, light weight, etc. Moreover, their packaging applications have spread in the area of food and pharmaceutical products. Much concern has arisen from that fact as most of these plastics contain high amounts of additives which tend to migrate when they come into contact with liquid or solid surrounding media. Plasticized PVC is one of the most popular polymers in packaging technology and at the same time is subject to criticism for the high concentration levels of plasticizer in most of its applications. In an attempt to carry out simple and realistic migration tests, many investigators used simple organic substances which simulate as much as possible the behaviour of foods towards plasticizer migration. Much of our previous work intended to examine migration of dioctyl phthalate (DOP) from PVC sheets into some simple surrounding media, such as methanol, white spirit, paraffin oil, etc. The present work is focused on the examination of the plasticizer migration into two promising food simulants, namely isopropanol and isooctane. Radioactivity measurements were employed in order to detect quantitatively the plasticizer which had migrated into the surrounding liquid. In contrast to similar studies, the phenomenon of migration was studied until equilibrium was reached.

  6. Mixed plastics recycling technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hegberg, Bruce

    1995-01-01

    Presents an overview of mixed plastics recycling technology. In addition, it characterizes mixed plastics wastes and describes collection methods, costs, and markets for reprocessed plastics products.

  7. Plastic fish

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    In terms of weight, the plastic pollution in the world’s oceans is estimated to be around 300,000 tonnes. This plastic comes from both land-based and ocean-based sources. A lecture at CERN by chemist Wolfgang Trettnak addressed this issue and highlighted the role of art in raising people’s awareness.   Artwork by Wolfgang Trettnak. Packaging materials, consumer goods (shoes, kids’ toys, etc.), leftovers from fishing and aquaculture activities… our oceans and beaches are full of plastic litter. Most of the debris from beaches is plastic bottles. “PET bottles have high durability and stability,” explains Wolfgang Trettnak, a chemist by education and artist from Austria, who gave a lecture on this topic organised by the Staff Association at CERN on 26 May. “PET degrades very slowly and the estimated lifetime of a bottle is 450 years.” In addition to the beach litter accumulated from human use, rivers bring several ki...

  8. Plastic zonnecellen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roggen, Marjolein

    1998-01-01

    De zonnecel van de toekomst is in de maak. Onderzoekers van uiteenlopend pluimage werken eendrachtig aan een plastic zonnecel. De basis is technisch gelegd met een optimale, door invallend licht veroorzaakte, vorming van ladingdragers binnen een composiet van polymeren en buckyballs. Nu is het zaak

  9. PVC-MEMBRANE POTENTIOMETRIC SENSORS BASED ON A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    2Group of Organometallic Catalysts, Shahid Bahonar University, Kerman, Iran. 3Mineral Industry ... Reagents and materials. Analytical .... The nature and amount of plasticizer on the dielectric constant of the membrane phase, the mobility of ...

  10. What are the limits to cell plasticity?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jane Taylor; Ian Wilmut; Gareth Sullivan

    2010-01-01

    @@ It is now well established that the fate of a somatic cell is not fixed rigidly and that there is a significant degree of cell plasticity. The term plasticity refers to the opportunity to change differentiated cells from one cell type to another. Over the past 25 years a series of papers have each demonstrated that plasticity is wider than had previously been under-stood [1-4]. An exciting recent article by Thomas Vierbuchen and colleagues at Stanford University extended that series by describing a method for directly re-programming mouse fibroblast cells into neurons without the need to generate a stem cell intermediary.

  11. Kinetic Migration of Diethylhexyl Phthalate in Functional PVC Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费斐; 刘忠伟; 陈强; 刘福平

    2012-01-01

    Plasticizers that are generally used in plastics to produce flexible food packaging materials have proved to cause reproductive system problems and women's infertility. A long- term consumption may even cause cancer diseases. Hence a nano-scale layer, named as functional barrier layer, was deposited on the plastic surface to prevent plasticizer diethylhexyl phthalate's (DEHP) migration from plastics to foods. The feasibility of functional barrier layer i.e. SiOx coating through plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process was then described in this paper. We used Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to analyze the chemical composition of coatings, scanning electron microscope (SEM) to explore the topography of the coating surfaces, surface profilemeter to measure thickness of coatings, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to evaluate the barrier properties of coatings. The results have clearly shown that the coatings can perfectly block the migration of the DEHP from plastics to their containers. It is also concluded that process parameters significantly influence the block efficiency of the coatings. When the deposition conditions of SiOx coatings were optimized, i.e. 50 W of the discharge power, 4 : 1 of ratio of O2 : HMDSO, and ca.100 nm thickness of SiOx, 71.2% of the DEHP was effectively blocked.

  12. Kinetic Migration of Diethylhexyl Phthalate in Functional PVC Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Fei; Liu, Zhongwei; Chen, Qiang; Liu, Fuping

    2012-02-01

    Plasticizers that are generally used in plastics to produce flexible food packaging materials have proved to cause reproductive system problems and women's infertility. A long-term consumption may even cause cancer diseases. Hence a nano-scale layer, named as functional barrier layer, was deposited on the plastic surface to prevent plasticizer diethylhexyl phthalate's (DEHP) migration from plastics to foods. The feasibility of functional barrier layer i.e. SiOx coating through plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process was then described in this paper. We used Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to analyze the chemical composition of coatings, scanning electron microscope (SEM) to explore the topography of the coating surfaces, surface profilemeter to measure thickness of coatings, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to evaluate the barrier properties of coatings. The results have clearly shown that the coatings can perfectly block the migration of the DEHP from plastics to their containers. It is also concluded that process parameters significantly influence the block efficiency of the coatings. When the deposition conditions of SiOx coatings were optimized, i.e. 50 W of the discharge power, 4:1 of ratio of O2: HMDSO, and ca.100 nm thickness of SiOx, 71.2% of the DEHP was effectively blocked.

  13. Investigation of Ice-PVC separation under Flexural Loading using FEM Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Xue

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the FEM technique applied in the study of ice separation over a polyvinyl chloride (PVC surface. A two layer model of ice and PVC is analysed theoretically using Euler-Bernoulli beam theory and the rule of mixtures. The physical samples are prepared by freezing ice over the PVC surfaces. The samples are tested experimentally in a four-point loading setup. The experimental results contain strain data gathered through a data acquisition system using the LabView software. The data is collected at the rate of 1 kHz per load step. A model is also coded in MATLAB® and simulated using the finite element method (FEM in ANSYS® Multiphysics. The FEM model of the ice and PVC sample is built using solid elements. The mesh is tested for sensitively. A good agreement is found between the theoretical, experimental and numerical simulation results.

  14. D-FNN Based Modeling and BP Neural Network Decoupling Control of PVC Stripping Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-zhi Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available PVC stripping process is a kind of complicated industrial process with characteristics of highly nonlinear and time varying. Aiming at the problem of establishing the accurate mathematics model due to the multivariable coupling and big time delay, the dynamic fuzzy neural network (D-FNN is adopted to establish the PVC stripping process model based on the actual process operation datum. Then, the PVC stripping process is decoupled by the distributed neural network decoupling module to obtain two single-input-single-output (SISO subsystems (slurry flow to top tower temperature and steam flow to bottom tower temperature. Finally, the PID controller based on BP neural networks is used to control the decoupled PVC stripper system. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed integrated intelligent control method.

  15. Modification of medical grade PVC with N-vinylimidazole to obtain bactericidal surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meléndez-Ortiz, H. Iván; Alvarez-Lorenzo, Carmen; Concheiro, Angel; Jiménez-Páez, Víctor M.; Bucio, Emilio

    2016-02-01

    N-vinylimidazole (VIm) was grafted onto medical-grade poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) catheters in order to provide a bactericidal surface that make them less susceptible to microbial colonization. The grafting of VIm was carried out by means of gamma rays using the direct method, which demonstrated to be an efficient and fast procedure for obtaining PVC-g-VIm copolymers. These copolymers could be quaternized in a second step using methyl iodide (CH3I). The effects of solvent nature, absorbed dose, and monomer concentration on the grafting yield were investigated. Modified PVC catheters were characterized by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetry (TGA), and swelling studies. PVC-g-VIm copolymers both before and after quaternization showed good hemocompatibility, while quaternization was required to inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus.

  16. Effects of Sulfate, Chloride, and Bicarbonate on Iron Stability in a PVC-U Drinking Pipe

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jiaying Wang; Tao Tao; Hexiang Yan

    2017-01-01

    ...) drinking pipes employed in this research. In this paper, sulfate, chloride, and bicarbonate, as well as synthesized models, were chosen to investigate the iron stability on the inner wall of PVC-U drinking pipes...

  17. Photostabilizing Efficiency of PVC in the Presence of Schiff Bases as Photostabilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousif, Emad; Al-Amiery, Ahmed A; Kadihum, Abdulhadi; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H; Mohamad, Abu Bakar

    2015-11-04

    The photostabilization of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) films by Schiff bases was investigated. Polyvinyl chloride films containing 0.5 wt % Schiff bases were produced using the same casting method as that used for additive-free PVC films from tetrahydrofuran (THF) solvent. The photostabilization activities of these compounds were determined by monitoring the carbonyl, polyene and hydroxyl indices with irradiation time. The changes in viscosity average molecular weight of PVC with irradiation time were also monitored using THF as a solvent. The quantum yield of chain scission (Φcs) for the studied complexes in PVC was estimated to range between 4.72 and 8.99 × 10(-8). According to the experimental results, several mechanisms were suggested, depending on the structure of the additive. Ultra violet (UV) absorption, peroxide decomposition and radical scavenging were suggested as the photostabilizing mechanisms.

  18. [Improvement of PVC bio-carrier surface property by remote plasma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ru; Chen, Jie-Rong; Chen, Jun; Yao, Xin

    2006-01-01

    The effects of various remote plasma, such as Ar, He, O2 and N2 on PVC bio-carrier surface modification were studied. The surface properties were characterized by the contact angle measurement and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The role of all kinds of active species such as electrons, ions and free radicals involved in plasma surface modification were evaluated. Results show that the remote plasma treatments modify the PVC surface in both wettability and composition, the (O + N)/C of PVC surface increases from 7% to 22%, and the water contact angle decreases from 97 degrees to 15 degrees. The optimal results was achieved when plasma treatment parameters were set, that is treatment time 3 min, Ar flux at 20 cm3/s, power at 60W, sample position of 40 cm. The results show that the modified PVC Bio-carrier adhesion rate and capacity on the modified surface are greatly increased.

  19. Photostabilizing Efficiency of PVC in the Presence of Schiff Bases as Photostabilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad Yousif

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The photostabilization of polyvinyl chloride (PVC films by Schiff bases was investigated. Polyvinyl chloride films containing 0.5 wt % Schiff bases were produced using the same casting method as that used for additive-free PVC films from tetrahydrofuran (THF solvent. The photostabilization activities of these compounds were determined by monitoring the carbonyl, polyene and hydroxyl indices with irradiation time. The changes in viscosity average molecular weight of PVC with irradiation time were also monitored using THF as a solvent. The quantum yield of chain scission (Φcs for the studied complexes in PVC was estimated to range between 4.72 and 8.99 × 10−8. According to the experimental results, several mechanisms were suggested, depending on the structure of the additive. Ultra violet (UV absorption, peroxide decomposition and radical scavenging were suggested as the photostabilizing mechanisms.

  20. Novel Antimicrobial Organic Thermal Stabilizer and Co-Stabilizer for Rigid PVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia A. Mohamed

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Biologically active N-benzoyl-4-(N-maleimido-phenylhydrazide (BMPH was synthesized and its structure was confirmed by elemental analysis and various spectral tools. It was examined as a thermal stabilizer and co-stabilizer for rigid poly (vinyl chloride at 180 °C in air. Blending BMPH with reference samples in different ratios greatly lengthens the thermal stability value and improves the extent of discoloration of PVC. TGA confirmed the improved stability of PVC in presence of the investigated organic stabilizer. GPC measurements were done to investigate the changes occurred in the molecular masses of the degraded samples of blank PVC and PVC in presence of the novel stabilizer. BMPH showed good antimicrobial activity towards two kinds of bacteria and two kinds of fungi.

  1. Antibacterial activity of copper-containing clinoptilolite/PVC composites toward clinical isolate of Acinetobacter baumannii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenković Jelena K.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The multidrug resistant bacteria Acinetobacter baumannii cause serious hospital infections. Commercial poly(vinyl chloride (PVC used for endotracheal tubes was modified in order to obtain the composite with antibacterial effect towards clinical isolate of A. baumannii ST145. The composites were prepared by addition of different amounts of copper-containing zeolite tuff (CuZ and by successive impregnation with D-Tyrosine (D-Tyr solution. The composites which were obtained by addition of CuZ (CuZ-PVC only did not exhibit antibacterial effect. The impregnation of the CuZ-PVC by D-Tyr resulted in an antibacterial effect which is explained by a synergistic effect of CuZ and D-Tyr. Rheological tests confirmed that the modification of PVC by CuZ does not affect its processability and reformability. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172018

  2. Nano-TiO2@Ag/PVC film with enhanced antibacterial activities and photocatalytic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fajia; Liu, Hu; Li, Xiaoyun; Zhao, Huanyu; Zhu, Danping; Zheng, Yingying; Li, Chaorong

    2012-03-01

    The antibacterial and photocatalytic PVC film was prepared by doping heteronanostructure of TiO2 nanowire@Ag nanoparticles. TiO2 nanowire with 50-60 nm in diameter and 0.1 mm in length was prepared by a hydrothermal method, and Ag nanopartical about 5-10 nm in diameter was grafted on the surface of TiO2 nanowire evenly in the solution. The antimicrobial ability and the photocatalytic properties of the nano-TiO2@Ag/PVC film were systematically investigated by changing the influence factors such as the content of nano-TiO2@Ag, pH value and the cultivation condition. It confirmed that the nano-TiO2@Ag nanostructure could increase the antibacterial efficiency of the PVC film. Further, nano-TiO2@Ag/PVC film also showed enhanced photocatalytic activity to decompose Rhodmine B (RhB).

  3. Electrical properties of NiO/PVC nano hybrid composites for organic field effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayati, A.; Bahari, A.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, NiO/PVC nano hybrid composites have been synthesized through sol-gel method. Nano crystallites phases, crystallinity and electrical properties have been characterized using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transfer infrared radiation, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy techniques. The dielectric constant of the samples has been calculated through measuring the capacity of samples by application of GPS 132 A. Obtained results have indicated that an NiO/PVC sample with 5 g NiO and 0.02 g PVC, equivalent to 0.4 %wt PVC, in weight synthesis, at a temperature of 80 °C has a higher dielectric constant, better surface morphology, less rough surface, less leakage current, and thus has potential to be suggested as a possible gate dielectric material for future organic field effect transistor devices.

  4. Discrimination of poly(vinyl chloride) samples with different plasticizers and prediction of plasticizer contents in poly(vinyl chloride) using near-infrared spectroscopy and neural-network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeki, Kazumitsu; Funatsu, Kimito; Tanabe, Kazutoshi

    2003-02-01

    In the recycling of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC), it is required to discriminate every plasticizer for quality control. For this purpose, the near-infrared spectra were measured for 41 kinds of PVC samples with different plasticizers (DINP, DOP, DOA, TOTM and Polyester) and different plasticizer contents (0-49%). A neural-network analysis was applied to the near-infrared spectra pretreated by second-derivative processing. They were discriminated from one another. The neural-network analysis also allowed us to propose a calibration model which predicts the contents of plasticizers in PVC. The correlation coefficient (R) and the root-mean-square error of prediction (RMSEP) for the DINP calibration model were found to be 0.999 and 0.41 wt%, respectively. In comparison, a partial least-squares regression analysis was carried out. The R and RMSEP of the DINP calibration model were calculated to be 0.993 and 1.27 wt%, respectively. It is found that a near-infrared spectra measurement combined with a neural-network analysis is useful for plastic recycling.

  5. 浅谈硬质 PVC 的共混改性研究%Brief Discussion on Research Progresses on Blending Modification of Rigid PVC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺均林; 李宁; 王建平; 黄燕

    2014-01-01

    The development history and the present situation of polyvinyl chloride were summarized.The research achievements were introduced about blending modification on PVC in domestic literature of science and technology in recent years.The technical progress was also introduced about blending modification on PVC in overseas patent in recent years.It was a effectual method that was proved by physical blending modification for improving process ability and mechanical ability of PVC.It was all the same active field of investigation was pointed out , wherever in domestic or in overseas, by using one or two even several macromolecule material as blending modifier of PVC.Author predict that new blending materials and new technology will come forth continuously , to meet the higher technique needs of blending materials of PVC, more broad application field will be brought for PVC.%简述了聚氯乙烯( PVC)的发展历史和现状。介绍了近年来国内文献报导的PVC共混改性的研究成果,也介绍了近年来国外专利透露的PVC共混改性技术进展。证明共混物理改性是一种改善加工性能和提高力学性能的有效方法。指出了用一种或两种甚至多种高分子材料与PVC共混作为改性剂,不论是国内或是国外,目前仍是较活跃的研究领域。预见新的共混材料和新的工艺将不断出现,满足对PVC共混材料更高的技术要求,给PVC带来更广泛的应用领域。

  6. Study on the recycling of waste PVC compounds from electrical wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roman Jr, Celso, E-mail: romancelso@gmail.com; Zattera, Ademir José, E-mail: romancelso@gmail.com [Center for Exact Sciences and Technology (CCET), University of Caxias do Sul (UCS), Caxias do Sul-RS (Brazil)

    2014-05-15

    The good mechanical, thermal and electrical properties of poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC) make it a polymer used in many applications, among which is the coating of wires and cables. The processing of PVC for this application is made using the extrusion process. The PVC waste resulting from extrusion can be recycled or placed on landfills. The objective of this work is to develop recycling methods to decrease the amount of PVC stored in landfills. This work evaluated the influence of successive processing of PVC on the final properties of the obtained compound, which will be used in the process of coating wire and cable by extrusion. The mechanical properties of the electrical wires were assessed according to the Brazilian Association of Technical Standards (ABNT NBR 6251). Tests of tensile strength, elongation at break, before and after thermal aging in an oven with air circulation for a period of 168 hours at 100 °C were performed. The degradation of the PVC compound was carried out through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and mechanical properties evaluation. The results showed that the compound can be reprocessed five times keeping the minimum requirements of the ABNT NBR 6251 Standard. Reprocessing was stopped upon color changing (yellowing) of the compound. Yellowing is a characteristic degradation behavior by dehydrochlorination of PVC. FTIR analysis showed changes at 1600 cm{sup −1}, 1430 cm{sup −1}, 685 cm{sup −1} and 614 cm{sup −1} bands. The performance of the PVC compound for coating electrical wire and cable was fair, meeting the requirements of the ABNT NBR 6251 Standard even after five reprocessing cycles.

  7. Solution casting method for PVC nano-composites with functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes1

    OpenAIRE

    Vlasova, T. V.; Kryshtob, V. I.; Mironov, V. F.; Apresyan, L. A.; Bokova, S. N.; Obraztsova, E. D.; Vlasov, D. V.

    2011-01-01

    Annotation A carbon nanotubes (CNT) filled polymer nanocomposites with their unique physical, mechanical and electro-optical properties has repeatedly discussed in the literature. The main part of this problem is to obtain high quality dispersion of CNTs. If for water-soluble polymers this problem can be considered as solved, it is not so for hydrophobic polymers, and PVC is an important example of this kind. This paper describes the methods of dispersion of SWNTs bundles in PVC, both by the ...

  8. Thermal behavior of vehicle plastic blends contained acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) in pyrolysis using TG-FTIR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guicai; Liao, Yanfen; Ma, Xiaoqian

    2017-03-01

    As important plastic blends in End-of-Life vehicles (ELV), pyrolysis profiles of ABS/PVC, ABS/PA6 and ABS/PC were investigated using thermogravimetric-Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (TG-FTIR). Also, CaCO3 was added as plastic filler to discuss its effects on the pyrolysis of these plastics. The results showed that the interaction between ABS and PVC made PVC pyrolysis earlier and HCl emission slightly accelerated. The mixing of ABS and PA6 made their decomposition temperature closer, and ketones in PA6 pyrolysis products were reduced. The presence of ABS made PC pyrolysis earlier, and phenyl compounds in PC pyrolysis products could be transferred into alcohol or H2O. The interaction between ABS and other polymers in pyrolysis could be attributed to the intermolecular radical transfer, and free radicals from the polymer firstly decomposed led to a fast initiation the decomposition of the other polymer. As plastic filler, CaCO3 promoted the thermal decomposition of PA6 and PC, and had no obvious effects on ABS and PVC pyrolysis process. Also, CaCO3 made the pyrolysis products from PA6 and PC further decomposed into small-molecule compounds like CO2. The kinetics analysis showed that isoconversional method like Starink method was more suitable for these polymer blends. Starink method showed the average activation energy of ABS50/PVC50, ABS50/PA50 and ABS50/PC50 was 186.63kJ/mol, 239.61kJ/mol and 248.95kJ/mol, respectively, and the interaction among them could be reflected by the activation energy variation.

  9. Plastic Surgery Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PSN PSEN GRAFT Contact Us News Plastic Surgery Statistics Plastic surgery procedural statistics from the American Society of Plastic Surgeons. Statistics by Year Print 2016 Plastic Surgery Statistics 2015 ...

  10. From Oil to Plastic. Young Discovery Library Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice, Raphaelle

    This book is written for children ages 5 through 10. Part of a series designed to develop their curiosity, fascinate them and educate them, this volume explains in text and pictures how plastic is made from oil, the problems with this nearly indestructible material, and the future of plastics. Topics include: (1) formation of oil; (2) history of…

  11. PVC/秸秆复合发泡材料成型工艺初探%STUDY ON MOLDING TECHNOLOGY OF PVC/STRAW COMPOSITE FOAM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛盘芳

    2007-01-01

    简述聚氯乙烯(PVC)/秸秆复合发泡材料的优点,介绍PVC/秸秆复合发泡材料的3种成型方法,包括模压成型法、注塑成型法和连续挤出成型法,简述了各自工艺参数如温度、压力等对制品的影响,对该种材料成型设备的发展趋势进行了展望.

  12. Effect of oil extracted from coffee grounds in the radiolytic stabilization of PVC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Thaysa Araujo de; Aquino, Katia Aparecida da Silva; Araujo, Elmo S., E-mail: aquino@ufpe.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear

    2013-07-01

    Commercial Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) containing oil extracted from coffee grounds (OCG) at concentrations of 0.50; 1.00 and 1.50 wt% were investigated. The samples were irradiated with gamma radiation ({sup 60}Co) at room temperature and air atmosphere. The viscosity-average molar mass (M{sub v}) was measured for PVC systems without and with oil. Decreases in molar mass observed when the systems were gamma irradiated reflect the random scission effects that take place in the main chain. Degradation index (DI) value was also obtained by viscosity analysis. DI results showed that the addition of OCG at 0.5 wt% into PVC matrix irradiated at dose of 25 kGy decreased the number of main chain scissions and was calculated a protection index of 67% in PVC matrix. Results about the free radical scavenger action of the OCG were obtained by use of 2,2-diphenyl-1-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)-hydrazyl radical (DPPH) and are discussed in this study. Decrease of 7% of Young's modulus value and a decrease of 31.5% on the elongation at break value were recorded for PVC films exposed to gamma irradiation. However, no significant changes were recorded in mechanical properties of PVC with OCG. (author)

  13. Comparison of VOC and ammonia emissions from individual PVC materials, adhesives and from complete structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järnström, H; Saarela, K; Kalliokoski, P; Pasanen, A-L

    2008-04-01

    Emission rates of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and ammonia measured from six PVC materials and four adhesives in the laboratory were compared to the emission rates measured on site from complete structures. Significantly higher specific emission rates (SERs) were generally measured from the complete structures than from individual materials. There were large differences between different PVC materials in their permeability for VOCs originating from the underlying structure. Glycol ethers and esters from adhesives used in the installation contributed to the emissions from the PVC covered structure. Emissions of 2-ethylhexanol and TXIB (2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol diisobutyrate) were common. High ammonia SERs were measured from single adhesives but their contribution to the emissions from the complete structure did not appear as obvious as for VOCs. The results indicate that three factors affected the VOC emissions from the PVC flooring on a structure: 1) the permeability of the PVC product for VOCs, 2) the VOC emission from the adhesive used, and 3) the VOC emission from the backside of the PVC product.

  14. Effect of Calcium Sulphate Nanoparticles on Fusion, Mechanical and Thermal Behaviour Polyvinyl Chloride (pvc)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, C. B.; Shisode, P. S.; Kapadi, U. R.; Hundiwale, D. G.; Mahulikar, P. P.

    Calcium Sulphate [CaSO4] was synthesized by in-situ deposition technique and its nano size (60 to 100 nm) was confirmed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Composites of the filler CaSO4 (micro and nano) and the matrix poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC) were prepared with different filler loading (0-5 wt. %) by melt mixing. The Brabender torque rheometer equipped with an internal mixer was used for preparation and evaluation of fusion behaviour of composites of different formulations. The effect of nano and micro-CaSO4 content on the structure and properties of composites was studied. The nanostructures and dispersion were studied by wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mechanical and thermal properties of PVC/ micro and nano-CaSO4 composites were characterized using Universal Testing Machine (UTM) and Thermo Gravimetric Analyzer (TGA). From the results of WAXD and SEM the flocculation of CaSO4 nanoparticles were observed on the surfaces of PVC matrix. The thermal analysis results showed that the first thermal degradation onset (T onset) of PVC/nano-CaSO4 composites for 1 wt. % of filler were higher as compared with corresponding microcomposites and pristine PVC. However, the tensile strength was decreasing with increasing filler content while, it shows increment in magnitude at 1 and 2 wt. % of nano-CaSO4 as compared with corresponding micro-CaSO4 as well as pristine PVC.

  15. Flotation separation of PET from a PET, PVC and PS mixture by the hydrofilization of the PET surface in NaOH solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubica Kozáková

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Recycling is the most effective method of waste minimization created by the human activity. The idea of waste re-use as a result of environmental, social and economical factors is becoming very relevant in the last decades. The portion of plastics in the municipal waste is growing year by year as also is its use in the wrapping industry. A condition for recycling technologies is the input of highly pure plastics (without undesirable admixtures suitable for recycling. Various separation technologies can be used which provide separation of particular components of plastic waste and contaminants. Flotation is one of the separation methods used especially for the ore beneficiation but recently is widely also used for the separation of various types of waste. Plastics, which are not possible to be separated by gravitational methods (because they have almost the same density, PET from beverage bottles, PVC from bottles and foils and PS from beverage beakers, were studied. By changing the surface properties of PET from naturally hydrophobic to hydrophilic by the adjustment in a NaOH solution, PET with the recovery of up to 99 % in the non-foamy product and with the product purity of up to 98 % was acquired by the flotation.

  16. Synthesis And Application Of Natural Polymeric Plasticizer Obtained Through Polyesterification Of Rice Fatty Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, MGA; da Silva, MA; Macumoto, ACG; dos Santos, LO; Beppu, Mm

    2014-01-01

    This study includes the synthesis of a new natural plasticizer obtained through esterification reaction of rice fatty acid and polyols, its physicochemical characterization and its preliminary application in polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Monopropylene glycol, octanol and diethylene glycol were used as polyols for esterification reaction. Catalyst Fascat (R) 4100, was also added. Viscosity, acidity and hydroxyl index, moisture content, molar mass, chemical composition (by FTIR) and color were dete...

  17. Plastic bronchitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Singhi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastic bronchitis, a rare but serious clinical condition, commonly seen after Fontan surgeries in children, may be a manifestation of suboptimal adaptation to the cavopulmonary circulation with unfavorable hemodynamics. They are ominous with poor prognosis. Sometimes, infection or airway reactivity may provoke cast bronchitis as a two-step insult on a vulnerable vascular bed. In such instances, aggressive management leads to longer survival. This report of cast bronchitis discusses its current understanding.

  18. Setup time reduction in pvc boots production through smed technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Herculano da Costa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The competition imposed by the market requires of the organizations the continuous improvement of its processes, products and offered services, with lower production costs. This article addresses this issue describing the resulting improvements from the implementation of Single Minute Exchange of Die (SMED in the process of exchange the mold of the injection machine of PVC during the boots manufacturing. The case study was conducted in a large company of footwear, located in the state of Paraiba. In order to find the best alternative to the problem of the setup of the molds, were used the SMED and the methodology for problem resolution, and then was implemented the solution that generated greater productivity for the company. Among the improvements made, we should emphasize the reduction of inactive time of 11.56 minutes to 5 minutes, reducing the time needed for the adjustments of the molds with the implementation of guides for centering and shims to standardize the heights of the molds.

  19. H-mode inductive coupling plasma for PVC surface treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croccolo, F.; Quintini, A.; Barni, R.; Ripamonti, M.; Malgaroli, A.; Riccardi, C.

    2009-08-01

    An inductively coupled plasma machine has been modified to be able to apply working powers in the order of 1 kW, thus switching to the real inductive H-mode. The plasma is generated by applying a 13.56 MHz radio-frequency to a λ/4 antenna outside the plasma chamber in low pressure conditions. The working gas is argon at pressure in the range from 10 to 100 Pa. With this high power source we have been able to perform plasma etching on a poly(vinyl-chloride) (PVC) film. In particular the effect of the plasma is the selective removal of hydrogen and chlorine from the sample surface. The action of the high power plasma on the sample has been proved to be much more effective than that of the low power one. Results similar to those obtained with the low power machine at about 300 W for 120 min, have been obtained with the high power source at about 600 W for 30 min. The superficial generation of a conductive layer of double C=C bonds was obtained. The samples have been investigated by means of ATR spectroscopy, FIB/SEM microscopy and micro-electrical measurements, which revealed the change in charge conductivity.

  20. Studies on the preparation of multi-monomer grafted PP by one-step extrusion and the blends with PVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Firstly, a novel grafted polypropylene (PP was prepared by one step free-radical melt grafting way in a single-screw extruder. The results were shown that the addition of St to the melt-grafting system as a comonomer could significantly enhance MMA grafting degree onto PP and reduce the degradation of PP matrix by means of FTIR and MFR test, respectively. Then, the extruded multi-monomer grafted PP, as a component, directly blend with poly (vinyl chloride (PVC, named as gPP/PVC. The corresponding improved compatibility was examined. Comparison with pure PP/PVC blends, due to the addition of gPP, the tensile strengths of gPP/PVC blends increased significantly and the impact strengths were unchanged as those of pure PP/PVC blends. The DSC results also suggested that the compatibility of PP/PVC blends were improved largely.

  1. Lipase degradation of plasticized polyvinyl chloride endotracheal tube surfaces to create nanoscale features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Mary C; Webster, Thomas J

    2017-01-01

    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) endotracheal tubes (ETTs) nanoetched with a fungal lipase have been shown to reduce bacterial growth and biofilm formation and could be an inexpensive solution to the complex problem of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Although bacterial growth and colonization on these nanoetched materials have been well characterized, little is known about the mechanism by which the fungal lipase degrades the PVC and, thus, alters its properties to minimize bacteria functions. This study used X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) to better describe the surface chemistry of both unetched and lipase nanoetched PVC ETT. ATR-FTIR analysis of the unetched and treated surfaces showed a similar presence of a plasticizer. This was confirmed by XPS analysis, which showed an increase of carbon and the presence of oxygen on both unetched and nanoetched surfaces. A quantitative comparison of the FTIR spectra revealed significant correlations (Pearson’s correlation, R=0.997 [R2=0.994, Pinfrared peaks due to the degradation of the plasticizer by the fungal lipase. In contrast, results from this study did demonstrate significantly increased nanoscale surface features on the lipase etched compared to non-etched PVC ETTs. This led to a change in surface energetics, which altered ion adsorption to the ETTs. Thus, these results showed that PVC surfaces nanoetched with a 0.1% lipase solution for 48 hours have no significant change on surface chemistry but do significantly increase nanoscale surface roughness and alters ion adsorption, which suggests that the unique properties of these materials, including their previously reported ability to decrease bacterial adhesion and growth, are due to the changes in the degree of the nanoscale roughness, not changes in their surface chemistry. PMID:28352177

  2. PVC-M管材在高层建筑雨水管道中的应用%Application of PVC-M pipes in high-building rainwater drainage system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李福灿; 陈建春; 陈蓉

    2013-01-01

    介绍了高层建筑雨水管道(HRS )的特点、应用现状,PVC-M管材在HRS中应用的优点及现状,并比较了HRS专用PVC-M管材的配方。%The characteristics and present situation of high-building rainwater drainage system (HRS ) ,the advantages and present situation of applying PVC-M pipes in HRS were introduced . The formulas of the PVC-M pipe special for HRS were compared .

  3. Using PVC ion-selective electrodes for the potentiometric flow injection analysis of distigmine in its pharmaceutical formulation and biological fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousry M. Issa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The construction and electrochemical response characteristics of poly(vinylchloride (PVC membrane selective electrodes for the determination of distigmine (Ds are described. The sensing membrane comprised an ion-pair based on distigmine phosphomolybdate (Ds-PM, distigmine phosphotungstate (Ds-PT, distigmine silicomolybdate (Ds-SM, distigmine silicotungstate (Ds-ST, distigmine tetraphenylborate (Ds-TPB, and distigmine reineckate (Ds-Rein in a plasticized PVC matrix with dioctylphthalate (DOP. The influence of membrane composition on the electrodes’ response was studied. The electrodes showed a fast, stable and Nernstian response over a wide distigmine concentration range 5.0 × 10−7–1 × 10−2 mol L−1 with a slope of ∼30.5 ± 1.0 mV dec−1. The response is independent of the pH of test solution within the range 3.8–10.5. The life span of the electrodes extends to at least 2 months without any considerable divergence in potential and has a fast response time of <15 s. The electrodes showed good selectivity towards distigmine with respect to large numbers of ions in batch and FIA systems. The electrodes have been applied to the determination of distigmine in pure solution, pharmaceutical compound and human urine. The dissolution profile for Ubretid tablets (5 mg/tablet was studied.

  4. Technical transformation of screw conveyors for PVC drying system%PVC 干燥系统螺旋输送器的技术改造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈六娟; 张军锋

    2013-01-01

    介绍了PVC旋流干燥工艺中螺旋输送器存在的问题以及改造措施。%Problems existed in the crew conveyors for the cyclone drying process of PVC were in-troduced as well as technical transform measures.

  5. Estado de mistura e dispersão da fase borrachosa em blendas PVC/NBR Phase separation and rubber phase dispersion in PVC/NBR blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio R. Passador

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Termoplásticos modificados com elastômeros têm despertado grande interesse de pesquisadores e de indústrias devido à atraente relação custo/benefício e a possibilidade de aumento significativo da tenacidade sob impacto de polímeros frágeis com a incorporação de uma fase borrachosa dispersa. Este artigo mostra a relação entre o estado de mistura e a dispersão da fase borrachosa em blendas de poli (cloreto de vinila (PVC com borracha nitrílica (NBR. O estado de mistura de blendas poliméricas é um fator muito importante a ser considerado no desenvolvimento destes tipos de materiais, uma vez que determina o nível de mistura molecular das blendas. A característica estrutural do PVC é responsável pela morfologia das blendas PVC/NBR, sendo que há uma otimização de propriedades mecânicas quando as partículas de borracha formam a morfologia "pseudo-network", ou seja, quando as partículas de borracha estão randomicamente dispersas entre as partículas primárias do PVC.Thermoplastics modified with elastomers have attracted great interest of researchers and industries due to the low cost/benefit relationship and the possibility of significant increase in the toughness of brittle polymers through the incorporation of a dispersed rubber phase. This article shows the relationship between the interaction between phases and rubber phase dispersion in poly (vinyl chloride/nitrile rubber blends. The interaction between components in polymer blends is an important factor to be considered in the development of this kind of materials because it determines the level of the mixture at the molecular level. The particulate nature of PVC and the degree of nitrile groups in the NBR are responsible to the PVC/NBR blends morphologies leading to an optimization of the mechanical properties when the rubber particles form a pseudo-network morphology with the rubber particles randomly dispersed in between the PVC primary particles.

  6. Zn-Al-La hydrotalcite-like compounds as heating stabilizer in PVC resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Runjuan; YANG Zhanhong; CHEN Hongyan; HU Youwang; DUAN Ji'an

    2012-01-01

    ZnAlLa-CO3 layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with different Zn/Al/La molar ratios were prepared by the constant pH coprecipitation method.The synthetic materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD),Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR),scanning electron microscopy (SEM),Brtmauer-Emmett-Teller method (BET) and particle analysis.The results showed that the hydrotalcite-like materials had a layered structure.The ZnAlLa-CO3-LDHs as stabilizers were mixed with PVC resin.The tests of thermal aging,mass loss test and Congo red for the PVC composites were carried out at 180±1 ℃,respectively.The results showed that ZnAlLa-CO3- LDHs used as single thermal stabilizers could enhance both the long-term thermal stability and initial thermal stability of PVC,and 2.4 phr (parts per hundred PVC resin) ZnAlLa-CO3-LDHs with Zn/Al/La (molar ratio)=20/8/2 had a better stabilizing effect on PVC than others.Compared with single thermal stabilizers,the composite thermal stabilizers including 0.3 phr calcium stearate (CaSt2),0.4 phr β-diketone and 2.4 phr ZnAlLa-CO3-LDHs significantly enhanced the thermal stability of PVC sample.And rare earth ion could optimize the conformation of PVC and refrain the initiation of the thermal stability and the thermal stable time was over 220 min.The main reason could be concluded to the special structure of rare earth ion,which had longer atom radius and more coordination numbers.So the rare earth ion (REδ+) could react with the labile chlorine atoms (Cl-) to form a stable coordinate complex.

  7. Enhanced thermo-mechanical performance and strain-induced band gap reduction of TiO2@PVC nanocomposite films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mudassir Hasan; Arghya Narayan Banerjee; Moonyong Lee

    2015-04-01

    The present paper reports the fabrication of TiO2@PVC nanocomposites by incorporating TiO2 in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) followed by solution casting to prepare TiO2@PVC nanocomposite thin films. The asprepared TiO2@PVC nanocomposite films were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, optical spectroscopy and mechanical strength analyses. The TiO2@PVC nanocomposites were found to be thermally and mechanically more stable compared with pure PVC. The anatase TiO2 in the TiO2@PVC nanocomposite showed a lower indirect band gap compared with pure TiO2, which can be attributed to the strain within the nanocomposite, thereby affecting the band-structure of the nanocomposite. Significant enhancement in the mechanical properties of TiO2@PVC compared with pure PVC was observed with a 10 wt% TiO2 loading, such as a 50% increase in Young's modulus and almost 100% improvement in the tensile strength.

  8. Estudo das propriedades mecânicas de um composto de PVC modificado com fibras de bananeira Study of the mechanical properties of PVC/banana fiber composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palova S. Balzer

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foram avaliadas as propriedades de compósitos de poli (cloreto de vinila - PVC rígido com adição de fibras de bananeira. As fibras foram extraídas do pseudocaule da bananeira e incorporadas nas proporções de 5, 10 e 20% em volume em um composto de PVC rígido pelo processo de extrusão. Para a obtenção dos corpos de prova utilizados na caracterização das formulações foi utilizado o processo de injeção. A utilização de fibras extraídas do pseudocaule da bananeira, tratadas manualmente em um processo simples desenvolvido na SOCIESC, mostra-se como alternativa viável na forma de fibra de reforço para a produção de compósitos de PVC rígido, tendo mostrado aumento da resistência à tração, discreta redução no alongamento na ruptura e aumento da resistência ao impacto, bem como redução, mesmo que discreta, no peso específico do compósito resultante, potencializando a obtenção de componentes com melhor desempenho mecânico e menor peso.Mechanical properties (tensile and impact resistance, specific weight and phase morphology of PVC/banana tree fiber composites were evaluated in this paper. The fibers were extracted from de pseudostem of the banana tree and mixed with a rigid PVC compound in the proportions of 5, 10 and 20% in volume by the extrusion process. Specimens were obtained by injection molding. The composites showed improvement of the impact and tensile properties, reduction of the specific weight, making possible the production of final products.

  9. NBR Modified PVC/nano-CaCO3 Composites%NBR改性PVC/nano-CaCO3复合材料的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓月义; 代云水; 况波; 赵树高

    2007-01-01

    将NBR、PVC及纳米CaCO3熔融复合以增韧PVC/纳米CaCO3复合材料.研究了复合材料的力学性能、流变性能、热性能及微观形态.结果显示:NBR对PVC/纳米CaCO3具有增韧效果,材料的断裂伸长率明显增大,PVC/NBR/nano-CaCO3为100/12/8时冲击强度最大,达到了30kJ/m2,比对应的单独纳米CaCO3增韧的PVC提高了大约27%.NBR能降低PVC/CaCO3复合材料的熔体黏度,复合材料加工性能改善.同时NBR的加入使得复合材料的玻璃化转变温度降低,热稳定性变差.扫描电镜照片显示,PVC/NBR/nano-CaCO3为100/12/8时,NBR的加入提高了CaCO3的纳米级分散程度,冲击断面出现了纤维状形变,使得复合材料的冲击强度提高.

  10. PLASTIC MATERIALS IN EUROPEAN AGRICULTURE: ACTUAL USE AND PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Scarascia-Mugnozza

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The world consumption of plastics in agriculture amounts yearly to 6.5 million tons. In addition to conventional polymers used in agriculture for greenhouses and mulches such as PE, PVC, EVA, photo-selective and luminescent polymers have been used, in order to improve the quality of crops. For the same reason plastic nets are used mainly in countries with tropical and Mediterranean climates. For an environmentally friendly agricultural activity, an alternative strategy can be represented by bio-based agricultural raw materials. For low environmental impact applications, biodegradable materials for agricultural films are nowadays produced. An overview of the main methods for the disposal and recycling of plastic materials are presented with the results of mechanical and radiometric tests on recycled plastics. The strategies to reduce the burden of plastics in agriculture are: a correct procedure for the collection, disposal and recycling of post-consumption plastics; the increase of lifetime duration and performance; and the introduction and promotion of bio-based materials.

  11. Analysis of Factors Affecting the Properties of PVC/Wood-Flour Foaming Composites%PVC/木粉发泡复合材料的性能影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康永

    2011-01-01

    PVC(PW)/木粉复合材料的研制?生产和应用对于寻求实体木材的替代品和利用木材加工残余物具有重要意义,也是塑料回收再生利用的有效途径之一。PVC(PW)/木粉复合材料的优点主要是力学强度高、耐强酸碱腐蚀性强和经济环保。对复合材料的性能影响因素进行了分析,并对PVC/木粉复合材料研究和探索的方向和趋势进行概述。%It is subjected to the important significance for researching and producing wood plastic composite in order to seek for the substitutes of the solid wood and the utilization of the remainder of the wood processing.Meanwhile,it is an effective way for recy

  12. An evaluation of lead contamination in plastic toys collected from day care centers in the Las Vegas Valley, Nevada, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenway, Joseph A; Gerstenberger, Shawn

    2010-10-01

    Childhood exposure to environmental lead continues to be a major health concern. This study examined lead content within the plastic of children's toys collected from licensed day care centers in the Las Vegas valley, Nevada. It was hypothesized that the use of lead as a plastics stabilizer would result in elevated lead (≥600 ppm) in polyvinyl chloride plastics (PVC) compared to non-PVC plastics. It was also hypothesized that, due to the use of lead chromate as a coloring agent, yellow toys would contain higher concentrations of lead (≥600 ppm) than toys of other colors. Toy samples were limited to those found in day care centers in Las Vegas, Nevada. 10 day care centers were visited and approximately 50 toy samples were taken from each center. Of the 535 toys tested, 29 contained lead in excess of 600 parts per million (ppm). Of those 29 toys, 20 were PVC and 17 were yellow. Both of the two hypotheses were strongly supported by the data.

  13. Conservação pós-colheita de carambola sob refrigeração com recobrimento de biofilme de gelatina e PVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    with a film solution of gelatin to 10% with 1% glycerol as plasticizer, covered four fruits with flexible film of polyvinyl chloride (PVC of 15μm per tray and control (without coating. The fruits were stored at 10 ± 1 ° C and 85-90% RH, valued at five-day intervals for 20 days as the mass loss, peel color, flesh firmness, soluble solids, titratable acidity, pH and ascorbic acid. The experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial 3 x 5, with four replications of three fruits. The PVC coating was more efficient in minimizing the mass loss of Star fruit fruit during cold storage. While the biofilm provided the maintenance of green color of the fruit for a longer period of time. An increase in the ascorbic acid content and decrease in firmness of fruit with storage time.

  14. Electrospun PVdF-PVC nanofibrous polymer electrolytes for polymer lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong Zheng [Key Laboratory of Environmentally Friendly Chemistry and Applications of Minister of Education, College of Chemistry, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105 (China); Cao Qi, E-mail: wjcaoqi@163.com [Key Laboratory of Environmentally Friendly Chemistry and Applications of Minister of Education, College of Chemistry, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105 (China); Jing Bo; Wang Xianyou; Li Xiaoyun; Deng Huayang [Key Laboratory of Environmentally Friendly Chemistry and Applications of Minister of Education, College of Chemistry, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105 (China)

    2012-01-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nanofibrous polymer electrolytes based on PVdF-PVC (8:2, w/w) prepared by electrospinning have an ionic conductivity of 2.25 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} S cm{sup -1} at 25 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nanofibrous polymer electrolytes presented a good electrochemical stability up to 5.1 V (vs. Li/Li{sup +}). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nanofibrous polymer electrolytes showed a very good charge/discharge and cycling performance. - Abstract: Nanofibrous membranes based on Poly (vinyl difluoride) (PVdF)-Poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC) (8:2, w/w) were prepared by electrospinning and then they were soaked in a liquid electrolyte to form polymer electrolytes (PEs). The morphology, thermal stability, function groups and crystallinity of the electrospun membranes were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), thermal analysis (TG), Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), respectively. It was found that both electrolyte uptake and ionic conductivity of the composite PEs increased with the addition of PVC. The composite PVdF-PVC PEs had a high ionic conductivity up to 2.25 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} S cm{sup -1} at 25 Degree-Sign C. These results showed that nanofibrous PEs based on PVdF-PVC were of great potential application in polymer lithium-ion batteries.

  15. Gas permeability of ENR/PVC membrane with the addition of inorganic fillers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nor, Farhan Mohd; Abdullah, Ibrahim; Othaman, Rizafizah

    2013-11-01

    Epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) was blended with polyvinyl chloride to form a flexible and porous membrane. SiO2 and MgO were added into the membrane for pore formation and the effects of the addition was investigated by means of FTIR, TGA, SEM, EDX and gas permeability towards CO2 and N2 gases. FTIR result showed the presence of Si-O-Si asymmetric stretching at the absorption peak of 467 cm-1 for ENR/PVC/SiO2 membrane and MgO signature peak at 3700 cm-1 for ENR/PVC/MgO membrane. Thermal analysis showed that the thermal stability of ENR/PVC membrane increased with the addition of fillers. Morphological studies prove that subsequently, the pores in the membranes increased showing that some of the added fillers were drawn towards the water leaving empty spaces and tracks. The remaining fillers are homogenously distributed on the surface of the membranes. CO2 and N2 gas permeability increased with increasing filler content and the permeability of ENR/PVC/SiO2 membranes towards CO2 and N2 gasses was higher than ENR/PVC/MgO membranes.

  16. Change Spectroscopic, thermal and mechanical studies of PU/PVC blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hezma, A.M. [Spectroscopy Department, Physics Division, National Research Center, Giza (Egypt); Elashmawi, I.S. [Spectroscopy Department, Physics Division, National Research Center, Giza (Egypt); Physic Department, Faculty of Science, Taibah University, Al-Ula (Saudi Arabia); Rajeh, A., E-mail: a.rajeh88@yahoo.com [Physic Department, Faculty of Science, Amran University, Sa' dah (Yemen); Physics Department, Faculty of science, Mansoura University, Mansoura (Egypt); Kamal, Mustafa [Physics Department, Faculty of science, Mansoura University, Mansoura (Egypt)

    2016-08-15

    Blends of polyurethane (PU) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) with different concentrations were prepared by casting method. The effects of PU on PVC blends was examined by Fourier transform-infrared (FTIR), Ultra-violet visible studies (UV/VIS.), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Thermogravimetric (TGA), Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and mechanical properties (stress–strain curve). The interaction between PU and PVC was examined by FT-IR through the absorbance of the N–H groups and was correlated to mechanical/thermal properties. Ultra-violet visible said that optical energy gap decrease with increasing concentration of PU. Differential scanning calorimetry results was observed a single glass transition temperature (T{sub g}) for blends this confirming existence miscibility within the blends. The causes for best thermal stability of some blends may be described by measurements of interactions between C=O groups of PU and the α-hydrogen of PVC or a dipole–dipole –C=O..Cl–C– interactions. Significant alterations in FTIR, X-ray and DSC examination shows an interactions between blends had good miscibility. X-ray shows some alterations in the intensity with additional PU. PU change the mechanical behavior of PVC through of the blends. When polyurethane content increase causes polyvinyl chloride tensile strength decreases and elongation at break increase.

  17. Change Spectroscopic, thermal and mechanical studies of PU/PVC blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hezma, A. M.; Elashmawi, I. S.; Rajeh, A.; Kamal, Mustafa

    2016-08-01

    Blends of polyurethane (PU) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) with different concentrations were prepared by casting method. The effects of PU on PVC blends was examined by Fourier transform-infrared (FTIR), Ultra-violet visible studies (UV/VIS.), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Thermogravimetric (TGA), Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and mechanical properties (stress-strain curve). The interaction between PU and PVC was examined by FT-IR through the absorbance of the N-H groups and was correlated to mechanical/thermal properties. Ultra-violet visible said that optical energy gap decrease with increasing concentration of PU. Differential scanning calorimetry results was observed a single glass transition temperature (Tg) for blends this confirming existence miscibility within the blends. The causes for best thermal stability of some blends may be described by measurements of interactions between C=O groups of PU and the α-hydrogen of PVC or a dipole-dipole -C=O..Cl-C- interactions. Significant alterations in FTIR, X-ray and DSC examination shows an interactions between blends had good miscibility. X-ray shows some alterations in the intensity with additional PU. PU change the mechanical behavior of PVC through of the blends. When polyurethane content increase causes polyvinyl chloride tensile strength decreases and elongation at break increase.

  18. Review of the partitioning of chemicals into different plastics: Consequences for the risk assessment of marine plastic debris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Isabel A; Golsteijn, Laura; Hendriks, A Jan

    2016-12-15

    Marine plastic debris are found worldwide in oceans and coastal areas. They degrade only slowly and contain chemicals added during manufacture or absorbed from the seawater. Therefore, they can pose a long-lasting contaminant source and potentially transfer chemicals to marine organisms when ingested. In order to assess their risk, the contaminant concentration in the plastics needs to be estimated and differences understood. We collected from literature plastic water partition coefficients of various organic chemicals for seven plastic types: polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), high-density, low-density and ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (LDPE, HDPE, UHMWPE), polystyrene (PS), polypropylene (PP), and polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Most data was available for PDMS (1060) and LDPE (220), but much less for the remaining plastics (73). Where possible, regression models were developed and the partitioning was compared between the different plastic types. The partitioning of chemicals follows the order of LDPE≈HDPE≥PP>PVC≈PS. Data describing the impact of weathering are urgently needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Coated-Wire Ion Selective Electrode (CWISE of Chromate Using PVC-Membrane Based on Chitosan as A Carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedeh Kurniasih

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A coated-wire ion selective electrode (CWISE based on chitosan as a carrier for detection of chromate, was developed. CWISE has easy measurement for field analysis, good selectivity and sensitivity. The CWISE’s membrane consist of mixture an active material of chitosan, aliquat 336-chromate, polyvinylchloride (PVC and dioctylphtalate (DOP as plasticizer = 4:0.5:35:60.5 (% w/w dissolved in tetrahydrofuran (THF solvent (1:3 w/v. The electrode exhibited a good Nernstian slope of 29.77±0.03 mV/decade and a linear concentration range from 10-6 to 10-1 M for chromate. The limit of detection was 1.862 x 10-6 M. It had response time of 20 – 40 sec, and could be used for 49 days. This chromate selective-electrode was found more selective towards the chromate ion than other anions, useable in pH range of 5.0 – 9.0 and temperature of 20 – 50 oC. It was applied as an electrode for direct determination of chromate in water samples and their result compared to standard spectrophotometric method.

  20. A series array of dc SQUIDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welty, R.P. (Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering); Martinis, J.M. (Geraghty and Miller, Inc., Reston, VA (United States))

    1991-03-01

    This paper reports on a series array of 100 dc SQUIDs using trilayer Nb-AlO{sub x}-Nb junctions. The SQUIDs are modulated with a common flux bias line and produce an output voltage swing of several millivolts across the array. The large output voltage will allow direct connection to room temperature electronics without the transformer coupling and resulting frequency limitations commonly associated with dc SQUID amplifiers. The authors measured a bandwidth of dc to at least 175 MHz for a 100-SQUID array. The series array will be used as the output stage for a multistage integrated SQUID amplifier.

  1. Overcoming maladaptive plasticity through plastic compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R.J. MORRIS, Sean M. ROGERS

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Most species evolve within fluctuating environments, and have developed adaptations to meet the challenges posed by environmental heterogeneity. One such adaptation is phenotypic plasticity, or the ability of a single genotype to produce multiple environmentally-induced phenotypes. Yet, not all plasticity is adaptive. Despite the renewed interest in adaptive phenotypic plasticity and its consequences for evolution, much less is known about maladaptive plasticity. However, maladaptive plasticity is likely an important driver of phenotypic similarity among populations living in different environments. This paper traces four strategies for overcoming maladaptive plasticity that result in phenotypic similarity, two of which involve genetic changes (standing genetic variation, genetic compensation and two of which do not (standing epigenetic variation, plastic compensation. Plastic compensation is defined as adaptive plasticity overcoming maladaptive plasticity. In particular, plastic compensation may increase the likelihood of genetic compensation by facilitating population persistence. We provide key terms to disentangle these aspects of phenotypic plasticity and introduce examples to reinforce the potential importance of plastic compensation for understanding evolutionary change [Current Zoology 59 (4: 526–536, 2013].

  2. Overcoming maladaptive plasticity through plastic compensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matthew R.J.MORRIS; Sean M.ROGERS

    2013-01-01

    Most species evolve within fluctuating environments,and have developed adaptations to meet the challenges posed by environmental heterogeneity.One such adaptation is phenotypic plasticity,or the ability of a single genotype to produce multiple environmentally-induced phenotypes.Yet,not all plasticity is adaptive.Despite the renewed interest in adaptive phenotypic plasticity and its consequences for evolution,much less is known about maladaptive plasticity.However,maladaptive plasticity is likely an important driver of phenotypic similarity among populations living in different environments.This paper traces four strategies for overcoming maladaptive plasticity that result in phenotypic similarity,two of which involve genetic changes (standing genetic variation,genetic compensation) and two of which do not (standing epigenetic variation,plastic compensation).Plastic compensation is defined as adaptive plasticity overcoming maladaptive plasticity.In particular,plastic compensation may increase the likelihood of genetic compensation by facilitating population persistence.We provide key terms to disentangle these aspects of phenotypic plasticity and introduce examples to reinforce the potential importance of plastic compensation for understanding evolutionary change.

  3. Surface modification of poly(vinyl chloride) by physisorbed free radical initiation for reduced plasticizer migration and antimicrobial properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, Kathryn

    Poly(vinyl chloride), PVC, is a particularly important commodity polymer that accounts for an annual world-wide production of 26 million tons. It is used frequently in the medical field as blood storage bags, endotracheal and dialysis tubing and intravenous catheters. Common plasticizers, namely di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), are added to PVC to improve the processability and flexibility by lowering the glass transition temperature. However, most phthalate plasticizers are potential carcinogens. There has been extensive research on PVC with surface coatings to improve biocompatibility, surface crosslinking to create a barrier to the plasticizer leaching and surface grafting of hydrophilic polymers for both biocompatibility and reduced plasticizer migration. A novel surface grafting technique is the grafting of hydrophilic monomers by physisorbed free radical initiators. This modification method can be applied to PVC to attach vinyl hydrophilic monomers by the "grafting from" method. This approach, extending on earlier work involving polymer brush formation on poly(dimethylsiloxane), involves a two-step process: physisorption of a hydrophobic free radical initiator onto a polymer surface followed by radical polymerization of hydrophilic monomers in water. The key step is creating a hydrophobic/hydrophilic diffusional barrier that promotes radical reactions at the polymer surface. Polymers that have been successfully grafted from PVC films and tubing include: poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA), poly(dimethylacrylamide) (PDMA), poly(hydroxyethyl acrylate) (PHEA), poly(dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA), poly(acrylic acid) (PAA), and poly(4-vinylpyridine) (P4VP). Characterization methods performed include bulk chemical composition by transmission infrared spectroscopy, surface composition using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, surface wettability by tensiometry and capillary rise, film thickness determination by infrared, gravimetric analysis and UV

  4. PVC-piping promotes growth of Ralstonia pickettii in dialysis water treatment facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrowsky, Matthias; Kirschner, Alexander; Sommer, Regina

    2013-01-01

    Biofilms forming inside dialysis water treatment systems are one of the main sources of microbiological contamination. Among the bacteria found in biofilms, Ralstonia pickettii is frequently encountered in dialysis water treatment systems and has been shown to develop extreme oligotrophic talents. In Austria, R. pickettii was exclusively detected in high numbers in dialysis water treatment facilities equipped with chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (PVC-C) piping. In this laboratory study it was shown that PVC-C effectively promotes growth of R. pickettii biofilms, while residual organic carbon in purified dialysis water is sufficient for promoting substantial growth of planktic R. pickettii. This provides evidence that PVC-C is an unsuitable material for piping in dialysis water treatment systems.

  5. Model fire tests on polyphosphazene rubber and polyvinyl chloride (PVC)/nitrile rubber foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widenor, W. M.

    1978-01-01

    A video tape record of model room fire tests was shown, comparing polyphosphazene (P-N) rubber and polyvinyl chloride (PVC)/nitrile rubber closed-cell foams as interior finish thermal insulation under conditions directly translatable to an actual fire situation. Flashover did not occur with the P-N foam and only moderate amounts of low density smoke were formed, whereas with the PVC/nitrile foam, flashover occurred quickly and large volumes of high density smoke were emitted. The P-N foam was produced in a pilot plant under carefully controlled conditions. The PVC/nitrile foam was a commercial product. A major phase of the overall program involved fire tests on P-N open-cell foam cushioning.

  6. Effect of radiation on properties of ENR/PVC/SiO2 membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Nur Farahein Hadina; Abdullah, Ibrahim; Daik, Rusli; Ahmad, Ishak; Jamil, Suzereen; Lazim, Mohammad Azwan Mat; Othaman, Rizafizah

    2015-09-01

    In this study epoxidised natural rubber (ENR)/polyvinyl chloride (PVC) matrix was prepared by melt blending. The matrix was swelled in THF and silica as a filler was introduced to the solution to generate pore formation. The ENR/PVC/10 % SiO2 membrane was prepared using a casting knife technique. The membrane was irradiated using 2 MeV electron beam accelerator at a dose range of 10-100 kGy. The effect of electron beam irradiation of the membrane was studied by undergo characterization of Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Fourier transform infra red (FTIR). Morphological studies showed that pores generated in ENR/PVC/10 % SiO2 membrane increased with the dosage of radiation. While FTIR analysis showed the presence of peak of Si-O-Si asymmetric stretching at 834 cm-1. There are no significant changes in the functional group before and after radiation.

  7. Effect of radiation on properties of ENR/PVC/SiO{sub 2} membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, Nur Farahein Hadina; Abdullah, Ibrahim; Daik, Rusli; Ahmad, Ishak; Jamil, Suzereen; Lazim, Mohammad Azwan Mat; Othaman, Rizafizah [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan. Malaysia (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    In this study epoxidised natural rubber (ENR)/polyvinyl chloride (PVC) matrix was prepared by melt blending. The matrix was swelled in THF and silica as a filler was introduced to the solution to generate pore formation. The ENR/PVC/10 % SiO{sub 2} membrane was prepared using a casting knife technique. The membrane was irradiated using 2 MeV electron beam accelerator at a dose range of 10-100 kGy. The effect of electron beam irradiation of the membrane was studied by undergo characterization of Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Fourier transform infra red (FTIR). Morphological studies showed that pores generated in ENR/PVC/10 % SiO{sub 2} membrane increased with the dosage of radiation. While FTIR analysis showed the presence of peak of Si-O-Si asymmetric stretching at 834 cm{sup −1}. There are no significant changes in the functional group before and after radiation.

  8. Lysozyme immobilization onto PVC catheters grafted with NVCL and HEMA for reduction of bacterial adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadarrama-Zempoalteca, Yesica; Díaz-Gómez, Luis; Meléndez-Ortiz, H. Iván; Concheiro, Angel; Alvarez-Lorenzo, Carmen; Bucio, Emilio

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present work was to functionalize poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) urinary catheters with grafted copolymers that can improve the biocompatibility and serve as binding points of lysozyme. PVC catheters were modified by grafting a mixture of N-vinylcaprolactam (NVCL) and 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA) applying a gamma-ray pre-irradiation method. The effect of absorbed dose, monomer concentration, temperature, and reaction time on the grafting percentage was evaluated. The grafted catheters were characterized regarding surface composition (FTIR-ATR spectroscopy), thermal properties (DSC and TGA) and swelling in aqueous medium. Lysozyme was directly coupled onto PVC-g-(NVCL/HEMA) previously activated using carbonyldiimidazole. Antimicrobial lytic activity of the modified catheters over time was tested against Micrococcus lysodeikticus. Lysozyme diminished the adhesion of Staphylococcus aureus onto the functionalized catheters, which may be suitable to prevent biofilm formation.

  9. COMPORTAMIENTO DE UN CEMENTO ASFÁLTICO MODIFICADO CON UN DESECHO DE PVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredy Alberto Reyes Lizcano

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Las propiedades físicas y reológicas a altas temperaturas de servicio de un cemento asfáltico (CA modificado con un desecho de policloruro de vinilo (PVC fueron evaluadas y son presentadas en el artículo. Adicionalmente se presenta la influencia del tiempo de mezcla del CA con el PVC y el envejecimiento a corto plazo. Un incremento notable en la rigidez y la resistencia a fluir se reporta cuando se adiciona el desecho de PVC a un CA 80-100. De la misma forma, se reporta un incremento en la temperatura máxima de operación en servicio del ligante modificado.

  10. Electron spin resonance spectral study of PVC and XLPE insulation materials and their life time analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsy, M. A.; Shwehdi, M. H.

    2006-03-01

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) study is carried out to characterize thermal endurance of insulating materials used in power cable industry. The presented work provides ESR investigation and evaluation of widely used cable insulation materials, namely polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE). The results confirm the fact that PVC is rapidly degrades than XLPE. The study also indicates that colorants and cable's manufacturing processes enhance the thermal resistance of the PVC. It also verifies the powerfulness and the importance of the ESR-testing of insulation materials compared to other tests assumed by International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Standard 216-procedure, e.g. weight loss (WL), electric strength (ES) or tensile strength (TS). The estimated thermal endurance parameters by ESR-method show that the other standard methods overestimate these parameters and produce less accurate thermal life time curves of cable insulation materials.

  11. Estudo de propriedades de PVC modificado com grupos alquila e benzila

    OpenAIRE

    Vinhas,G. M; Rosa M. Souto-Maior; Yeda M. B. de Almeida

    2005-01-01

    O poli(cloreto de vinila) (PVC) é o segundo termoplástico mais consumido em todo o mundo, sendo considerado o mais versátil dentre os plásticos. A grande versatilidade do PVC deve-se a suas propriedades e também a sua adequação aos mais variados processos de transformação. Uma vez que a resina de PVC é atóxica e inerte, a escolha de aditivos com essas mesmas características, permite a fabricação de filmes para embalagens de alimentos e produtos médico-hospitalares. Entretanto, suas propriedad...

  12. 户外用PVC-U给排水管及窗用型材粉化现象的防止%PULVERIZATION PREVENTING OF OUTDOOR PVC-U SERVICE AND DRAIN PIPES AND WINDOW SECTIONAL MATERIALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵鸥; 赵劲松

    2005-01-01

    介绍一种新型配方技术,用于户外PVC-U给排水管、雨落水管及窗用型材制备,可显著提高户外用PVC-U型材的使用寿命.在户外用PVC-U型材配方中加入适量的硬脂酸铜和蜜胺,既可防止PVC-U表面的粉化现象,同时又能抑制其耐热老化性能的降低.新配方PVC-U具有抗氧化、抗紫外线、耐候、耐老化的优良性能,热稳定性好.同时探讨了硬脂酸铜和蜜胺抗粉化及热稳定的机理.

  13. The Application of PVC/ACR Composite Filled With Activation Salty Putty to the Pipe%活化盐泥填充PVC/ACR复合材料在管材中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张友新

    2011-01-01

    The stable mechanism of PVC/ACR composties filled with the activation salty putty (SM) and its processing applications in PVC formula after activation processing were introduced. The results show that the processing stability of PVC/ACR composites are improved by adding the activation salty putty. The products surface and mechanical properties are both enhanced.%介绍了活化盐泥(SM)在聚氯乙烯/丙烯酸酯类加工助剂(PVC/ACR)复合材料中的稳定机理和SM经活化处理后在PVC配方体系中的加工应用情况.结果表明,SM经活化处理后填充在PVC/ACR复合材料中,使物料的加工稳定性得到改善,产品的表面光洁度和力学性能得到提高.

  14. Application of fluidization to separate packaging waste plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, M Teresa; Ferreira, Célia; Portela, Antía; Santos, João Tiago

    2009-03-01

    The objective of the experimental work described in this paper is the study of the separation of PS (polystyrene) from PET (polyethylene terephthalate) and PVC (polyvinyl chloride) from drop-off points using a fluidized bed separator. This is a low-cost process commonly used in the hydro-classification of mineral ores. Firstly, experimental tests were carried out with artificial granulated samples with different grain sizes, types and sources of plastic ("separability tests"). The particle settling velocities were determined under different operating conditions. Then, based on the results, the laboratory tests continued with real mixtures of waste plastics ("separation tests") and the efficiency of the process was evaluated. From a PET-rich mixture, a concentrate of PS with a 75% grade in PS was produced while the underflow was quite clear from PS (grade less than 0.5% in PS).

  15. Menedžment vrednosti v proizvodnji PVC oken in vrat

    OpenAIRE

    Hohler, Borut

    2016-01-01

    Gospodarski svet ter potrošniki pričakujejo od proizvajalcev nenehno izboljševanje svojih izdelkov, kajti konkurenca na trgu in pričakovanja potrošnikov so velika, zato je ključnega pomena nenehno prilagajanje razmeram na trgu. V podjetju Marta HOHLER s.p. že vrsto let uspešno ponujajo svojim kupcem 5-komorni profil z vgradno širino 70 mm za izdelavo PVC elementov stavbnega pohištva. Podjetje Marta HOHLER s.p. bi želelo narediti posodobitev v sami tehnologiji PVC profila za novejši, energetsk...

  16. Knoevenagel condensation catalysed by poly(vinyl chloride) supported tetraethylenepentamine (PVC-TEPA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fen Dong; Yi Qun Li; Rong Feng Dai

    2007-01-01

    Poly(vinyl chloride) supported tetraethylenepentamine (PVC-TEPA) has been found to be an efficient catalyst for the Knoevenagel condensation. A wide range of aromatic aldehydes easily undergo condensations with ethyl cyanoacetate and malononitrile in the commercial 95% ethanol in refluxing using PVC-TEPA as catalyst to afford the desired products of good purity in moderate to excellent yields. A recycling study confirmed that the catalyst could be reused, the yield of the desired condensation product were not reduced. The merits of this protocol are environmentally benign, simple operation, convenient work-up and good yields. Furthermore, the catalyst can easily be recovered and reused at five times with comparable yields.

  17. Dielectric behavior of different nanofillers incorporated in PVC-PMMA based polymer electrolyte membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowmya, G.; Pradeepa, P.; Kalaiselvimary, J.; Edwinraj, S.; Prabhu, M. Ramesh

    2016-05-01

    The Poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)-Poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC) based polymer electrolytes were prepared by solvent casting technique. The prepared polymer electrolytes were subjected to conductivity studies by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and the maximum ionic conductivity value was found to be 0.8011 × 10-3 Scm-1 at 303K for PVC (17.5wt%) - PMMA (7.5wt %) - LiClO4 (8wt %) - PC (67wt %) - BaTiO3 (8wt%) electrolyte system. The dielectric behavior of the samples also studied.

  18. Recycling of Plastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2011-01-01

    Plastic is produced from fossil oil. Plastic is used for many different products. Some plastic products like, for example, wrapping foil, bags and disposable containers for food and beverage have very short lifetimes and thus constitute a major fraction of most waste. Other plastic products like......, good strength and long durability. Recycling of plastic waste from production is well-established, while recycling of postconsumer plastic waste still is in its infancy. This chapter describes briefly how plastic is produced and how waste plastic is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements...

  19. Producción y modelamiento de gliceril-ésteres como plastificantes para PVC / Production et modelisation de glycerol-esters comme plastifiants pour le PVC

    OpenAIRE

    Suárez Palacios, Oscar Yesid

    2011-01-01

    El aumento en la producción mundial de glicerina, debido al crecimiento en el uso de biodiesel, y la tendencia a reemplazar los plastificantes derivados del anhídrido ftálico en la industria del PVC, por la toxicidad de dichas sustancias, motivaron la investigación de la plastificación del PVC con gliceril-ésteres derivados de ácidos carboxílicos de cadena corta (C3 - C8) y aromáticos. En este estudio se aplicó una metodología de diseño de producto para abordar la solución a las problemáticas...

  20. Dosimetry of the JS-6500 industrial irradiator for the irradiation of the PVC graduated flasks; Dosimetria del irradiador industrial JS-6500 para la irradiacion de probetas de PVC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaneda F, A.; Carrasco A, H.; Martinez P, M.E. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2002-07-01

    The dosimetry of the JS-6500 AECL irradiator was realized, outside of the industrial transportation rails to know the dose distribution, as well as its dose speed. This one with the intention of exposing to gamma radiation; plastified PVC graduated flasks and evaluating their interweavement or degradation or both. This study of dosimetry was carried out by means of a theoretical and experimental evaluation in air atmosphere. The results allow to know the irradiation conditions of the PVC graduated flasks as well as those results prove that has not a significant difference among the obtained result as theoretical as experimentally due to that the obtained result in the theoretical evaluation is 2.62 KGy/h and the result for the case of the experimental evaluation is 2.74 KGy/h. (Author)

  1. Effect of PVC on ionic conductivity, crystallographic structural, morphological and thermal characterizations in PMMA-PVC blend-based polymer electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramesh, S., E-mail: rameshtsubra@gmail.com [Centre for Ionics University Malaya, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Lembah Pantai, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Liew, Chiam-Wen; Morris, Ezra; Durairaj, R. [Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Setapak, 53300 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2010-11-20

    In this paper, temperature dependence of ionic conductivity, crystallographic structural, morphological and thermal characteristics of polymer blends of PMMA and PVC with lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide (LiTFSI) as a dopant salt are investigated. The study on the temperature dependence of ionic conductivity shows that these polymer blends exhibit Arrhenius behavior. The highest ionic conductivity was achieved when 70 wt% of PMMA was blended with 30 wt% of PVC. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) reveal the amorphous nature and surface morphology of polymer electrolytes, respectively. In DSC analysis it was found that the glass transition temperature (T{sub g}) and melting temperature (T{sub m}) decreased, whereas the decomposition temperature (T{sub d}) increased. In contrast, the shift towards higher decomposition temperature and decrease in weight loss of polymer electrolytes, in TGA studies, indicates that the thermal stability of polymer electrolytes improved.

  2. Optimization on Properties of Rigid PVC Insulation Electrician Pipe%硬质 PVC 绝缘电工套管的性能优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张正红

    2015-01-01

    CPE and CaCO3 were used to toughen rigid polyvinyl chloride insulation electrician pipe .It was found that using CPE/CaCO3 on the compressive properties of rigid polyvinyl chloride insulation electrican pipe 、impact performance and flame retardant performance has great improvement .%采用氯化聚乙烯(CPE)、改性碳酸钙(CaCO3)对硬质 PVC 绝缘电工套管进行协同增韧改性。研究表明,使用协同改性对硬质 PVC 绝缘电工套管的抗压性能、冲击性能、阻燃性能有较大的提高。

  3. Estudo do comportamento de compostos de PVC com adição de amido Study of the behavior of PVC compounds with added starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisandra Abatti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta o estudo do comportamento de compostos de PVC com adição de amido para aplicação especialmente na indústria calçadista. As propriedades mecânicas dos compostos nas proporções de 5, 7,5 e 10% foram estudadas através de ensaios de tração. Também foram verificados os índices de fluidez, alterações de propriedades quando submetidos ao envelhecimento artificial em estufa e natural ao expor às intempéries e enterrar no solo. A viabilidade da aplicação na indústria calçadista foi feita por injeção em gáspeas e tiras de sandálias, com testes de resistência, flexão e testes de campo. Os resultados demonstraram que o acréscimo de amido ao PVC provoca perda nas propriedades mecânicas, justificado pela baixa resistência mecânica do amido em relação ao PVC. Após envelhecimento em estufa o processo de retrogradação do amido deixa os compostos mais rígidos e com menor fluidez. Quando expostos às intempéries e ao solo, o PVC pode ser degradado com perda de HCl, o que leva à acidificação do solo. Nas aplicações em calçados e sandálias a resistência mecânica não atende aos requisitos do mercado. Apesar do baixo custo, o fraco comportamento mecânico dificulta sua viabilização para substituição em escala.This paper deals with the behavior of PVC compounds with addition of starch for applications, especially in the footwear industry. The mechanical properties of the compounds in the proportions of 5, 7.5 and 10% were studied using tensile tests. Also investigated were the flow rates, in addition to changes in properties when the material was subjected to artificial aging in an oven and exposed to natural weather and buried in the soil. The feasibility of application in the industry was evaluated with tests of endurance, strength and field tests in injection uppers and straps of sandals. The results showed that the addition of starch to PVC causes loss of mechanical properties, owing to

  4. Effects of 60 MeV C{sup 5+} ion irradiation on PmT-PVC and p-TSA doped PoT-PVC blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakshmi, G.B.V.S.; Siddiqui, Azher M.; Ali, Vazid [Department of Physics, Jamia Millia Islamia (Central University), New Delhi 25 (India); Kulriya, Pawan K. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi 67 (India); Zulfequar, M. [Department of Physics, Jamia Millia Islamia (Central University), New Delhi 25 (India)], E-mail: mzulfe@rediffmail.com

    2008-04-15

    Poly(m-toluidine) (PmT) and Poly(o-toluidine) (PoT) have been synthesized from derivatives of aniline (m-toluidine), (o-toluidine) monomers by chemical oxidative polymerization method. After polymerization, PoT powder was doped with p-toluene sulphonic acid (p-TSA) and the polymer powders were blended with poly vinyl chloride (PVC) to achieve PmT and p-TSA doped PoT dispersed films. XRD, FTIR and UV-visible studies were carried out to get their structural changes and optical information. These blends were irradiated by 60 MeV C{sup 5+} ions with different fluences. Post Irradiation XRD, FTIR and UV-visible spectroscopy were also performed on all films. On p-TSA doped PoT-PVC blends dc-conductivity measurements are also carried out before and after irradiation. The results show structural modifications which lead to changes in optical and electrical properties.

  5. Effects of 60 MeV C 5+ ion irradiation on PmT-PVC and p-TSA doped PoT-PVC blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, G. B. V. S.; Siddiqui, Azher M.; Ali, Vazid; Kulriya, Pawan K.; Zulfequar, M.

    2008-04-01

    Poly(m-toluidine) (PmT) and Poly(o-toluidine) (PoT) have been synthesized from derivatives of aniline (m-toluidine), (o-toluidine) monomers by chemical oxidative polymerization method. After polymerization, PoT powder was doped with p-toluene sulphonic acid (p-TSA) and the polymer powders were blended with poly vinyl chloride (PVC) to achieve PmT and p-TSA doped PoT dispersed films. XRD, FTIR and UV-visible studies were carried out to get their structural changes and optical information. These blends were irradiated by 60 MeV C5+ ions with different fluences. Post Irradiation XRD, FTIR and UV-visible spectroscopy were also performed on all films. On p-TSA doped PoT-PVC blends dc-conductivity measurements are also carried out before and after irradiation. The results show structural modifications which lead to changes in optical and electrical properties.

  6. PVC/Nano-SiO2复合材料性能研究%Study on Properties of PVC/Nano-SiO2 Composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔文广; 高岩磊; 刘会茹; 郧海丽

    2013-01-01

    采用熔融共混法制备了聚氯乙烯/纳米二氧化硅(PVC/nano-SiO2)复合材料,研究了nano-SiO2用量对复合材料力学性能的影响,并利用扫描电镜(SEM)分析了nano-SiO2在PVC基体中的分散性.结果表明:随着nano-SiO2用量的增加,PVC/nano-SiO2复合材料的冲击强度和拉伸强度均呈先增后降趋势,而弯曲模量则呈增加趋势;另外,随着nano-SiO2用量的增加,其在PVC基体中的分散性逐渐变差.

  7. Effect of oxygen plasma treatment on surface charge and wettability of PVC blood bag—In vitro assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorasani, M. T.; Mirzadeh, H.

    2007-06-01

    Wettability and zeta potential studies were performed to characterize the hydrophobicity and surface charge of PVC blood bag samples and evaluate the effect of these properties on fibroblast cells growth. The surface properties of PVC and plasma treated PVC were compared by water drop contact angle and zeta potential measurement. Light microscopy was used to study the behavior of cell attachment and growth on these surfaces. Water drop contact angle measurement shows that the plasma treated PVC becomes more hydrophilic and wettability increased. Zeta potential and in vitro cell culture measurements noticed that the plasma treated PVC surface is more negatively charge and consequently attachment of the L929 fibroblast cells decreased on this surface.

  8. Effect of oxygen plasma treatment on surface charge and wettability of PVC blood bag-In vitro assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khorasani, M.T. [Biomaterial Department of Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, P.O. Box: 14965/115, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: M.Khorasani@ippi.ac.ir; Mirzadeh, H. [Biomaterial Department of Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, P.O. Box: 14965/115, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2007-06-15

    Wettability and zeta potential studies were performed to characterize the hydrophobicity and surface charge of PVC blood bag samples and evaluate the effect of these properties on fibroblast cells growth. The surface properties of PVC and plasma treated PVC were compared by water drop contact angle and zeta potential measurement. Light microscopy was used to study the behavior of cell attachment and growth on these surfaces. Water drop contact angle measurement shows that the plasma treated PVC becomes more hydrophilic and wettability increased. Zeta potential and in vitro cell culture measurements noticed that the plasma treated PVC surface is more negatively charge and consequently attachment of the L929 fibroblast cells decreased on this surface.

  9. Multicomponent recycled plastics: considerations about their use in food contact applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerín, C; Salafranca, J; Rubio, C; Cacho, J

    1998-10-01

    Two multicomponent post-use recycled plastics named as NPP40A3 (formulated with 85% HDPE and 15% of a PP-PS-PVC mixture) and NPP40A6 (formulated with 80% NPP40A3, 10% ABS and 10% HIPS), both of them with 3.1% of plasticizer and 0.6% of stabilizer to obtain a better final product, have been analysed. Plastics were extracted both with dichloromethane and methylbenzene, and analysed by HPLC and GC-MS to identify the maximum possible number of compounds. Major additives quantified were di(ethylhexyl)phthalate (3.262% and 2.955% respectively) and Irganox 1010 (0.473% and 0.498% respectively). Several degradation compounds have been detected. In order to check if these plastics could be used in food contact applications, global and specific migration tests have been applied. The results obtained are discussed.

  10. Fungal biodegradation of phthalate plasticizer in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeep, S; Faseela, P; Josh, M K Sarath; Balachandran, S; Devi, R Sudha; Benjamin, Sailas

    2013-04-01

    This unique study describes how Aspergillus japonicus, Penicillium brocae and Purpureocillium lilacinum, three novel isolates of our laboratory from heavily plastics-contaminated soil completely utilized the plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) bound to PVC blood storage bags (BB) in simple basal salt medium (BSM) by static submerged growth (28 °C). Initial quantification as well as percentage utilization of DEHP blended to BB were estimated periodically by extracting it into n-hexane. A two-stage cultivation strategy was employed for the complete mycoremediation of DEHP from BB in situ. During the first growth stage, about two-third parts of total (33.5% w/w) DEHP bound to BB were utilized in two weeks, accompanied by increased fungal biomass (~0.15-0.32 g per g BB) and sharp declining (to ~3) of initial pH (7.2). At this stagnant growth state (low pH), spent medium was replaced by fresh BSM (pH, 7.2), and thus in the second stage the remaining DEHP (one-third) in BB was utilized completely. The ditches and furrows seen from the topology of the BB as seen by the 3D AFM image further confirmed the bioremediation of DEHP physically bound to BB in situ. Of the three mycelial fungi employed, P. lilacinum independently showed highest efficiency for the complete utilization of DEHP bound to BB, whose activity was comparable to that of the consortium comprising all the three fungi described herein. To sum up, the two-stage cultivation strategy demonstrated in this study shows that a batch process would efficiently remediate the phthalic acid esters blended in plastics on a large scale, and thus it offers potentials for the management of plastics wastes.

  11. Pyrolysis of plastic packaging waste: A comparison of plastic residuals from material recovery facilities with simulated plastic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrados, A; de Marco, I; Caballero, B M; López, A; Laresgoiti, M F; Torres, A

    2012-05-01

    Pyrolysis may be an alternative for the reclamation of rejected streams of waste from sorting plants where packing and packaging plastic waste is separated and classified. These rejected streams consist of many different materials (e.g., polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), aluminum, tetra-brik, and film) for which an attempt at complete separation is not technically possible or economically viable, and they are typically sent to landfills or incinerators. For this study, a simulated plastic mixture and a real waste sample from a sorting plant were pyrolyzed using a non-stirred semi-batch reactor. Red mud, a byproduct of the aluminum industry, was used as a catalyst. Despite the fact that the samples had a similar volume of material, there were noteworthy differences in the pyrolysis yields. The real waste sample resulted, after pyrolysis, in higher gas and solid yields and consequently produced less liquid. There were also significant differences noted in the compositions of the compared pyrolysis products.

  12. Thermal stability of formulations of PVC irradiated with {gamma} of {sup 60}; Estabilidad termica de formulaciones de PVC irradiadas con {gamma} de {sup 60} Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez P, M.E.; Carrasco A, H. [ININ, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: memp@nuclear.inin.mx; Castaneda F, A.; Benavides C, R.; Garcia R, S.P. [CIQA, 25100 Saltillo, Coahuila (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    The industry of cables and wires frequently use cable isolations with base of formulations of PVC, in those that stabilizer has usually been used with the help of heavy metals, as the lead, which is toxic. To solve the problem, from the 2002 one has come studying in combined form in the National Institute of Nuclear Research ININ and the Center of Investigation in Applied Chemistry CIQA, the modifications induced by the radiation in formulations with the help of vinyl poly chloride PVC. In these formulations, prepared with cross linking agent, plastifying industrial grade, stuff and non toxic stabilizers of calcium estearate and zinc industrial grade, it is sought to replace the stabilizer of Pb. For this were irradiated it test tubes of PVC with gamma radiation of cobalt 60 to three different dose in atmospheres of air and argon. Later it was determined their thermal stability at different times of heating and it was measured the Young modulus by means of thermo mechanical analysis. Those results obtained together with other techniques of characterization suggest that the irradiated proposed formulation can substitute the one stabilized with lead. (Author)

  13. Flow-Injection Amperometric Determination of Tacrine based on Ion Transfer across a Water–Plasticized Polymeric Membrane Interface

    OpenAIRE

    Rueda, C.; Joaquin A. Ortuño

    2007-01-01

    A flow-injection pulse amperometric method for determining tacrine, based on ion transfer across a plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) membrane, was developed. A four-electrode potentiostat with ohmic drop compensation was used, while a flow-through cell incorporated the four electrodes and the membrane, which contained tetrabutylammonium tetraphenylborate. The influence of the applied potential and of the flow-injection variables on the determination of tacrine was studied. In the selecte...

  14. Properties Influencing Factors Analysis of the PVC/Wood-flour Foaming Composites%聚氯乙烯/木粉发泡复合材料性能影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康永

    2011-01-01

    It was subjected to the important significance for researching and producing wood plastic composite in order to seek for the substitutes of the solid wood and the utilization of the remainder of the wood processing. Meanwhile, it was a effective way for recycling and regeneration using of the waste plastics. It was possessed the advantages of the higher mechanical strength, higher acid and alkali resistance and economic and environmental protection. It was analyzed the properties of the PVC/wood-flour composites in this article.%对影响聚氯乙烯/木粉复合材料性能的因素,包括PVC树脂分子结构、木粉处理工艺、加工润滑剂的选择等,进行了分析。指出木粉的加入对该复合材料起一定阻燃作用。

  15. Investigation on an innovative technology for wet separation of plastic wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, Emanuela; Moroni, Monica; La Marca, Floriana; Fulco, Simone; Pinzi, Valentina

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents an original device for the separation of plastic polymers from mixtures. Due to the combination of a characteristic flow pattern developing within the apparatus and density, shape and size differences among two or more polymers, this device allows their separation into two products, one collected within the instrument and the other one expelled through its outlet ducts. Experimental tests have been conducted to investigate the effectiveness of the apparatus, using two geometric arrangements, nine hydraulic configurations and three selections of polymers at three stages of a material life cycle. Tests with samples composed of a single typology of polymer have been used to understand the interaction between the particles and the carrying fluid within the apparatus in different hydraulic configurations and geometric arrangements. Multi-material tests are essential to simulate the real conditions in an industrial recycling plant. The separation results have been evaluated in terms of grade and recovery of a useful material. Under the proper hydraulic configurations, the experimentation showed that it is possible to produce an almost pure concentrate of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) from a mixture of 85% PET and 15% Polycarbonate (PC) (concentrate grade and recovery equal to 99.5% and 95.1%) and a mixture of 85% PET and 15% Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) (concentrate grade and recovery equal to 97.9% and 100.0%). It is further demonstrated that almost pure concentrates of PVC and PC can be produced from a mixture of 85% PVC and 15% PC (PVC grade and recovery equal to 99.9% and 99.7%) and a mixture of 85% PC and 15% PVC (PC grade and recovery equal to 99.0% and 99.5%). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Reduced migration from flexible poly(vinyl chloride) of a plasticizer containing beta-cyclodextrin derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ong Yong; Chung, Jae Woo; Kwak, Seung-Yeop

    2008-10-01

    The migration of endocrine-disrupting di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) poses a serious threat to public health and the environment. In this study, we successfully prepared a plasticizerwith reduced DEHP migration by directly incorporating 2,3,6-per-O-benzoyl-beta-cyclodextrin (Bz-beta-CD) into DEHP. Bz-beta-CD was prepared by esterification between the hydroxyl groups of beta-CD and benzoyl chloride. The presence of this cyclodextrin is expected to facilitate formation of stable complexes through pi-pi association with DEHP molecules. The flexible PVC was prepared with a gelation-fusion process that uses the prepared migration-resistant plasticizer, and its properties (flexibility, thermal stability, and clarity) were evaluated by carrying out DSC and tensile testing, TGA, and haze testing, respectively. No significant changes in the physical properties of the flexible PVC were observed when Bz-beta-CD was added. DEHP migration tests were carried out for the flexible PVC according to the ISO 3826:1993(E) test method, and the quantity of migrated DEHP was then determined with UV-vis spectroscopy. It was found that the addition of Bz-beta-CD decreases the levels of DEHP migration from the flexible PVC samples by almost 40%. We investigated the molecular interaction between Bz-beta-CD and DEHP using molecular mechanics simulations, and we conclude that this reduction in DEHP migration is due to the formation of stabilized pi-pi attractive association and inclusion complexes of Bz-beta-CD and DEHP in flexible PVC.

  17. Tratamento químico superficial e metalização de ABS, PVC e blendas de PVC/ABS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Kurek

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Visando à substituição do ABS em peças cromadas, amostras de PVC e blendas de PVC/ABS, na razão mássica de 20/80, 40/60 e 60/40, foram submetidas ao pré-tratamento em solução sulfocrômica sob diferentes condições de concentração, tempo e temperatura e sendo em seguida cromadas. As modificações na superfície das peças após o condicionamento foram analisadas por microscopia eletrônica de varredura, microscopia de força atômica e rugosidade. A qualidade da deposição metálica foi avaliada por inspeção visual e teste de adesão. Os resultados mostraram que, aumentando a concentração de PVC nas peças necessitou-se de condições operacionais mais agressivas, tais como maiores temperaturas de banho, tempo de imersão e concentração de solução sulfocrômica para que ocorresse a adesão da camada metálica. De todas as condições testadas com a solução condicionante sulfocrômica no tratamento das peças de PVC e blendas PVC/ABS de 20/80 e 40/60, a concentração de 350 g/L de ácido crômico e 400 g/L de ácido sulfúrico, temperatura de 70°C e tempo de imersão de 15 minutos, ocasionou deposição do metal em toda a superfície das peças, as quais foram aprovadas nos testes de adesão e corrosão.

  18. Preparation of modified clay with benzethonium or cetylpyridinium chloride and evaluation of their interactions with PVC;Preparacao de argilas modificadas com cloreto de benzetonio ou cetilpiridineo e avaliacao da interacao destas com o PVC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resende, Daniel K.; Dornelas, Camila B.; Moreira, Leonardo A.; Gomes, Ailton S.; Tavares, Maria I.B., E-mail: dkresende@ima.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IMA/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Macromoleculas Profa. Eloisa Mano; Cabral, Lucio M. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Tecnologia Industrial Farmaceutica; Simeoni, Luiz A. [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Lab. de Farmacologia Molecular

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this work was the preparation of modified clays with benzethonium or cetylpyridinium to obtain organophilic silicates with good stability and evaluate the possible use of them for the preparation of nanocomposites of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC). The reactions of modification of clays and the PVC were prepared by solution intercalation. The new clays were evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Low field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The reactions of clays with PVC were assessed by Low-field NMR, through the determination of proton spin lattice relaxation time. The stability of new organophilic clays and their reactions with PVC were evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). High stability was observed for organophilic clays prepared. The degradation of PVC materials obtained with the organophilic clay began at temperatures above 200 deg C. If it is considered that the temperatures normally used in the processing of PVC are between 140 deg C to 180 deg C, the observed results may indicate the possibility of the use of clays for preparation of nanomaterials with PVC. (author)

  19. 关于PVC-U型材共混料灰分测定的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李荣顺; 牛建华; 黄建立

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the methods and results of the ash determination in main raw material blend for PVC-U profile and PVC-CaCO3 blend have been studied and validated by representative blend recipe. We explain the problem in the ash classification and test in the current industry standard draft and provide suggestions for a more feasible and instructive PVC-U profile blend industry standard.%本文通过对PVC-U型材共混料中的主要原材料和PVC与CaCO3混合物的灰分测定方法和结果进行了研究,并利用具有代表性配方的共混料进行了验证,阐述了目前行业标准草案所拟定的灰分分级与检测方法存在的问题,为编制更具有操作性和指导意义的共混料行业标准提供建议。

  20. Leaching of lead from new unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (uPVC) pipes into drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Lin, Yi-Pin

    2015-06-01

    Unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (uPVC) pipes have been used in the premise plumbing system due to their high strength, long-term durability, and low cost. uPVC pipes, however, may contain lead due to the use of lead compounds as the stabilizer during the manufacturing process. The release of lead from three locally purchased uPVC pipes was investigated in this study. The effects of various water quality parameters including pH value, temperature, and type of disinfectant on the rate of lead release were examined. The elemental mapping obtained using scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) confirmed the presence of lead on the inner surfaces of the uPVC pipes and their surface lead weight percentages were determined. The leachable lead concentration for each pipe was determined using high strength acidic EDTA solutions (pH 4, EDTA = 100 mg/L). Lead leaching experiments using tap water and reconstituted tape water under static conditions showed that the rate of lead release increased with the decreasing pH value and increasing temperature. In the presence of monochloramine, lead release was faster than that in the presence of free chlorine.

  1. Selective separation of virgin and post-consumer polymers (PET and PVC) by flotation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burat, Firat; Güney, Ali; Olgaç Kangal, M

    2009-06-01

    More and more polymer wastes are generated by industry and householders today. Recycling is an important process to reduce the amount of waste resulting from human activities. Currently, recycling technologies use relatively homogeneous polymers because hand-sorting waste is costly. Many promising technologies are being investigated for separating mixed thermoplastics, but they are still uneconomical and unreliable. At present, most waste polymers cause serious environmental problems. Burning polymers for recycling is not practiced since poisonous gases are released during the burning process. Particularly, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) materials among waste polymers generate hazardous HCl gas, dioxins containing Cl, etc., which lead to air pollution and shorten the life of the incinerator. In addition, they make other polymers difficult to recycle. Both polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and PVC have densities of 1.30-1.35g /cm(3) and cannot be separated using conventional gravity separation techniques. For this reason, polymer recycling needs new techniques. Among these techniques, froth flotation, which is also used in mineral processing, can be useful because of its low cost and simplicity. The main objective of this research is to recycle PET and PVC selectively from post-consumer polymer wastes and virgin polymers by using froth flotation. According to the results, all PVC particles were floated with 98.8% efficiency in virgin polymer separation while PET particles were obtained with 99.7% purity and 57.0% efficiency in post-consumer polymer separation.

  2. Photoetching of Immobilized TiO2-ENR50-PVC Composite for Improved Photocatalytic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Nawi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Commercially acquired TiO2 photocatalyst (99% anatase powder was mixed with epoxidized natural rubber-50 (ENR50/polyvinyl chloride (PVC blend by ultrasonication and immobilized onto glass plates as TiO2-ENR50-PVC composite via a dip-coating method. Photoetching of the immobilized TiO2-ENR50-PVC composite was investigated under the irradiation of a 45 W compact fluorescent lamp and characterized by chemical oxygen demand (COD analysis, scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX spectrometry, thermogravimetry analysis (TGA, and fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy. The BET surface area of the photoetched TiO2 composite was observed to be larger than the original TiO2 powder due to the systematic removal of ENR50 while PVC was retained within the composite. It also exhibited better photocatalytic efficiency than the TiO2 powder in a slurry mode and was highly reproducible and reusable. More than 98% of MB removal was consistently achieved for 10 repeated runs of the photo-etched photocatalyst system. About 93% of the 20 mg L−1 MB was mineralized over a period of 480 min. The presence of SO42−, NO3−, and Cl− anions was detected in the mineralized solution where the solution pH was reduced from 7 to 4.

  3. Enhanced Design of a Soft Thin-Film Vibrotactile Actuator Based on PVC Gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won-Hyeong Park

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We fabricated a soft thin-film vibrotactile actuator, which can be easily inserted into wearable devices, based on an electroactive PVC gel. One of the most important factors in fabricating a soft and thin vibrotactile actuator is to create vibrational force strong enough to stimulate human skin in a wide frequency range. To achieve this, we investigate the working principle of the PVC gel and suggest a new structure in which most of electric energy contributes to the deformation of the PVC gel. Due to this structure, the vibrational amplitude of the proposed PVC gel actuator could considerably increase (0.816 g (g = 9.8 m/s2 at resonant frequency. The vibrotactile amplitude is proportional to the amount of input voltage. It increased from 0.05 g up to 0.416 g with increasing applied voltages from 200 V to 1 kV at 1 Hz. The experimental results show that the proposed actuator can create a variety of haptic sensations.

  4. Migration from PVC cling films compared with their field of application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens Højslev; Lillemark, L.; Lund, L.

    1997-01-01

    Samples of PVC cling films were taken at importers, wholesalers and retail shops, and their overall migration to the alternative food simulant iso-octane was measured, after establishment of a correlation between overall migration to olive oil at 40 degrees C in 10 days and to iso-octane in 2 h...

  5. Investigation of PVC physical ageing in field test specimens using ultrasonic and dielectric measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demcenko, A.; Ravanan, M.; Visser, Roy; Loendersloot, Richard; Akkerman, Remko

    2013-01-01

    Physical ageing in PVC is studied using two techniques: a) non-linear ultrasonic measurements based on the non-collinear wave interaction theory and b) dielectric measurements. The ultrasonic measurement results are compared with dielectric measurement results. The comparison shows that the used

  6. Lead exposure reduction in workers using stabilizers in PVC manufacture: effects of a new encapsulated stabilizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischbein, A. (Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, NY); Thornton, J.C.; Berube, L.; Villa, F.; Selikoff, I.J.

    1982-09-01

    The handling of lead-containing powdered stabilizers may be associated with excessive lead exposure and occupational lead poisoning. An encapsulated stabilizer has been designed, which is shown to result in a marked reduction in air lead levels and a concommitant decrease in blood lead concentrations in a group of blender operators manufacturing PVC electrical cable coating.

  7. 微波辐照实现PVC-PS之间的Friedel-Crafts接枝反应%FRIEDEL-CRAFTS REACTION GRAFTING OF PVC AND PS THROUGH MICROWAVE IRRADIATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李侃社; 黄虎; 李锦; 牛红梅; 闫兰英

    2013-01-01

    With tetrahydrofuran or cyclohexanone as dissolvent, Friedel-Crafts reaction grafting of polyvinyl chloride and polystyrene was realized through microwave irradiation. Graft of PVC-g-PS was successfully prepared. Influence of heating method, reaction temperature, type and mass fraction of catalyst on grafting reaction and grafting ratio was investigated. Graft structure of PVC-g-PS was characterized through FTIR,the mechanism and features were discussed. Results showed that Friedel-Crafts reaction grafting of polyvinyl chloride and polystyrene can carry out through heating by oil bath or microwave irradiation. Under heating with oil bath the graft of PVC-g-PS occurs at the meta position of the benzene ring, and the graft ratio is only 0. 27% ; while in the case of microwave irradiation,the graft of PVC-g-PS occurs at ortho-para positions of the benzene ring,and the graft ratio reaches up to 23%. Anhydrous AlCl3 ,FeCl3 or SnCl4 can all catalyze Friedel-Crafts reaction grafting of polyvinyl chloride and polystyrene, but the best catalytic activity is observed for anhydrous AlCl3. When the mass fraction of anhydrous AlCl3 is 3% ,the highest graft ratio reaches up to 29% , but when mass fraction of anhydrous AlCl3 is over 3% ,the graft ratio declines, PVC begins degradation and produces olefinic bonds. Research results demonstrate that microwave irradiation is an effective way of realizing Friedel-Crafts reaction grafting of polyvinyl chloride and polystyrene.%在四氢呋喃、环己酮等溶液中实现了聚氯乙烯(PVC)与聚苯乙烯(PS)的Friedel-Crafts接枝反应,考察了加热方式、反应温度、催化剂种类、催化剂用量对接枝反应的影响,通过FTIR表征了PVC-g-PS接枝物的结构,探讨了反应的机理和特点.研究发现,油浴加热和微波辐照都能使PVC和PS发生接枝反应,但微波辐照效果更好,油浴加热,接枝率仅0.27%,而微波辐照接枝率高达23%;油浴加热时产物少且多为间位,微波辐照

  8. Ventral striatal plasticity and spatial memory

    OpenAIRE

    Ferretti, Valentina; Roullet, Pascal; Sargolini, Francesca; Rinaldi, Arianna; Perri, Valentina; Del Fabbro, Martina; Costantini, Vivian J. A.; ANNESE, VALENTINA; Scesa, Gianluigi; De Stefano, Maria Egle; Oliverio, Alberto; Mele, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Spatial memory formation is a dynamic process requiring a series of cellular and molecular steps, such as gene expression and protein translation, leading to morphological changes that have been envisaged as the structural bases for the engram. Despite the role suggested for medial temporal lobe plasticity in spatial memory, recent behavioral observations implicate specific components of the striatal complex in spatial information processing. However, the potential occurrence of neural plasti...

  9. Thermal Degradation Properties of Flexible PVC Filled with Alumina Trihydrate and Magnesium Hydroxide%Al(OH)3和Mg(OH)2对PVC热解特性的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何翊

    2012-01-01

    利用热重分析仪并借助电导率测定法探讨了Al(OH)3和Mg(OH)2对PVC热解特性的影响,简要分析了其机理.结果表明:加入Al(OH)3和Mg(OH)2后均能增加PVC体系在第一阶段的最大热解速率和残炭量,最大热解速率增加约1倍,残炭量增加约4倍.并且分解产生的结晶水吸收大量的热量,惰性金属氧化物也有利于成核、炭层生长和凝聚,有着明显的阻燃和抑烟作用.HCl毒性气体的释放主要集中在体系的第一阶段,Al(OH)3能促使HCl提前释放,HCl的释放总量增加,Mg(OH)2也能促使HCl提前释放,但HCl的释放总量却是减少的.%The thermal degradation behaviors and the HCl toxic gas release characteristics of flexible PVC and its fillers treated with alumina trihydrate (ATH) and magnesium hydroxide (MH) were studied by thermal analysis and conductance method.The mechanical properties were also investigated briefly.Compared with the samples of plasticized PVC polymer without metal hydroxide additives,in the treated samples there are more rates of maximal pyrogenation at the first stage,enhancing both about one time,and higher mass of residual char,advancing about four times.The water generated is turned into steam and steam also takes heat away from the degradation points,and the inert oxides decomposed from metal hydroxides are beneficial to the process of nucleation,growth and aggregation.These are also indicated that the metal hydroxides were the very effective flame retardant and smoke suppression action for flexible PVC.The thermal decomposition behaviors of PVC and its fillers at the first stage are mainly due to the emission of HCl,the maximal absorptivity of smoke vs light,the time of maximal smoke density and the mass of residue after burning change markedly.Metal hydroxides can be taken as effective catalyzers for the evolution of hydrogen chloride and char formation in the thermal degradation process of PVC.

  10. Mercury transformation and distribution across a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) production line in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wen; Duan, Lei; Zhu, Zhenwu; Du, Wen; An, Zhongyi; Xu, Lingjun; Zhang, Chi; Zhuo, Yuqun; Chen, Changhe

    2014-02-18

    The production of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) via the calcium carbide process utilizes a catalyst containing large amounts of mercury (Hg) and is therefore one of the most important sources of anthropogenic Hg in China. To measure the emission of Hg from PVC production, we established a flowchart for the calcium carbide process, for which we quantified the Hg content of the material/product at each step. Results indicated that 71.5% of the total Hg (Hg(T)) was lost from the catalyst, most of which was recovered by the Hg remover, accounting for 46.0% of the total Hg (Hg(T)). We determined that 3.7% of the Hg(T) was released into the environment, mostly in solid wastes and byproducts such as hydrochloric acid. Furthermore, no Hg has been detected in the PVC end product. However, we were only able to account for 78.1% of the Hg across the whole system, leaving 21.7% unaccounted for in the mass balance. A rough estimation indicates that most of the "missing" Hg had accumulated in deposits on the inner surface of converters and downstream pipelines; however, the emission to the atmosphere was ≤ 1% of the Hg(T). For a PVC production line equipped with a Hg remover, emissions of Hg to the atmosphere have been estimated to be 4.9 g per tonne PVC. Currently, almost all calcium carbide facilities have been equipped with a Hg remover, which may reduce the release of Hg in China by ∼ 500 t/year.

  11. Stabilizing effect of epoxidized sunflower oil as a secondary stabilizer for Ca/Hg stabilized PVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Unsaturated triglyceride oil sunflower was epoxidized and characterized by chemical and spectroscopic methods. Epoxidized sunflower oil (ESO was used as an organic thermal co-stabilizer for rigid poly(vinyl chloride (PVC in the presence of tricalcium dicitrate (Ca3(C6H5O72 and mercury (II acetate (Hg(CH3COO2. The thermo-oxidative degradation of PVC was studied in the presence of these ternary stabilizer systems at 170, 180, 190 and 200°C in N2 atmosphere. The effects of metal carboxylate combination Ca/Hg in the absence and in the presence of epoxidized sunflower oil on static heat treatment of PVC have been studied. The formation of polyene sequences was investigated by UV-visible and FT-IR spectroscopy and by comparing viscosity data obtained in the presence and in the absence of the additives. It was found that the additives retard the rate of degradation and reduce the extent of polymer chain scission associated with the thermal degradation of poly(vinyl chloride. Synergistic effects were found when stabilizer was blended in 50:50 weight ratios with either. It was found that ESO exerted a stabilizing effect on the degradation of PVC. The activation energy for degraded PVC in absence of stabilizers was 38.6 kJ•mol–1 and in the presence of Ca/Hg and Ca/Hg/ESO were 53.3 and 64.7 kJ•mol–1 respectively. In order of compare the efficiency of the epoxidized sunflower oil with these metal soap stabilizers, thermal stabilities were evaluated on the basis of evolved hydrogen chloride determined by conductometry technique and degree of discoloration are discussed.

  12. Long-Term Performance of the Laguna de Barlovento Reservoir Water-Proofing using a PVC-P Geo membrane; Impermeabilizacion de la balsa de la Laguna de Barlovento con geomembrana de PVC-P: evolucion a lo largo del tiempo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco Fernandez, M.; Leiro Lopez, A.; Soriano Carrillo, J.; Crespo Mucientes, M.; Zornberg, J.; Aguilar Gonzalez, E.; Rico Arnaiz, G.; Pargada Iglesias, L.

    2014-02-01

    The Laguna de Barlovento reservoir was one of the most important European hydraulic projects at the time of its construction because of its high capacity and challenging location. At the time, the designers decided to waterproof this reservoirs with a geo membrane of plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC-P). This paper documents the initial characteristics of the geo membrane and its performance since its installation until 2010. The material characterization includes a comprehensive testing program, the results of which are presented. They include quantification of the geo membrane thickness, amount and nature of plasticizers, tensile properties, fold ability under low temperatures, dynamic impact resistance, puncture resistance, welding strength (both in the manufacturing facility and in the field), as well as the use of techniques involving optical and scanning electron microscopy. In addition, advanced analytical techniques, such as Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Gas Chromatography (GC) and Mass spectrometry (MS), were used in order to identify the plasticizers used in the geo membrane formulation. Fold ability tests were found to provide early indication of degradation. Results from reflection optical and electron scanning microscopy showed that, after 19 nineteen years of installation, the geo membrane remains in good conditions, particularly on the non-exposed side. (Author)

  13. 复合光稳定剂JC-568在PVC-U型材中的耐候稳定作用%The weather resistance effect of composite light stabilizer JC-568 in PVC-U section materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李杰; 孙书适; 陈明辉; 王存吉

    2006-01-01

    通过试验,研究了复合光稳定剂JC-568在PVC-U型材中的耐候稳定作用.结果表明,复合光稳定剂JC-568用于PVC-U型材,适用于一般加工要求,可促进塑化,表现出明显的光、氧稳定作用;PVC-U型材制品经6 000 h老化后,各项指标满足GB/T 8814-2004要求.

  14. Effect of Hyperbranched Poly(amine-ester) Grafted Nano-SiO2 on Reinforcement and Toughness of PVC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jie; ZHAO Hui; SUN Rui-min; LUO Yun-jun

    2008-01-01

    Nano-SiO2 was modified using silane coupling agent (KH-550) and hyperbranched poly(amine-ester) respectively, and Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)/modified nano-SiO2 composites were made by melt-blending. The composites' structures andmechanical properties were characterized by transmission electron microscopy(TEM), sanning electronic microscopy(SEM) and electronic universal testing machine. The results show that nano-SiO2 grafted by hyperbranched poly (amine-ester) increases obviously in dispersion in PVC matrix, and mechanical properties of PVC are effectively improved. Moreover, it was found that mechanical properties of PVC/nano-SiO2 composites reach the best when weight percent of nano-SiO2 in PVC matrix is 1%. Compared with crude PVC, the tensile strength of hyperbranched poly (amine-ester) grafted nano-SiO2/PVC composite increases by 24.68% and its break elongation, flexural strength and impact strength increase by 15.73%, 4.07% and 1841.84%, respectively. Moreover, the processing of the composites is improved.

  15. 国内PVC电缆料研究近况%Recent research on PVC cable compounds in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨森

    2011-01-01

    The new requirements for PVC cable compounds guided by the RollS and REACH regulations were introduced as well as the recent research on PVC cable compounds in China. Research directions of environment-friendly PVC cable compounds were suggested.%叙述了RoHS和REACH等环保规定对PVC电缆料提出的新要求及国内PVC电缆料的研究近况,指出了环保型PVC电缆料的研究方向。

  16. Relationships Analysis and Public Perception of the Healthy Plastic as One Solution to Healthy Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartatik; Hartono, R.; Purnomo, A.; Riasti, B. K.; Munawaroh, H.

    2017-02-01

    Direct Plastics are used for various human purposes, ranging from household to industry. Tableware and drink made of plastic is very practical to use, easy to clean, durable and cost far less than tableware made of the other material. However, must also be considered in terms of security in the use of plastic containers for food storage because there are adverse effects. There are seven types of plastic based material used, namely Polyethylene, Terephthalate, High Density Polyethylene, Polyvinyl Chloride or V/PVC, Low Density Polyethylene or LDPE, Polypropylene, Polystyrene, Plastics others including polycarbonate. Experts claims that the plastic code numbers 2, 4 and 5 are used for equipment safely eat/drink because it is more stable and safe if used correctly. In this study will analyze the relationship between the recent education, family income to perception and behavior in the use of plastics in food storage daily as one solution to healthy living. The population of this research is all the people in the Solo area particularly housewife and all the people in the productive age. Data were obtained through a survey with cluster random sampling method. Statistical method used is a parametric method and Chi Square test This method is used as an alternative method of parametric when some assumptions are not met. Based on the results of Chi Square test with α = 15% was concluded that recent education and income related to the behavior of people using plastic products as one of the solutions to Healthy Living.

  17. Recycling of Plastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2011-01-01

    Plastic is produced from fossil oil. Plastic is used for many different products. Some plastic products like, for example, wrapping foil, bags and disposable containers for food and beverage have very short lifetimes and thus constitute a major fraction of most waste. Other plastic products like......, for example, gutters, window frames, car parts and transportation boxes have long lifetimes and thus appear as waste only many years after they have been introduced on the market. Plastic is constantly being used for new products because of its attractive material properties: relatively cheap, easy to form......, good strength and long durability. Recycling of plastic waste from production is well-established, while recycling of postconsumer plastic waste still is in its infancy. This chapter describes briefly how plastic is produced and how waste plastic is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements...

  18. STUDY CONCERNING THE INFLUENCE OF CERTAIN HYDROPHILIC AUXILIARIES ON THE PROPERTIES OF THE PLASTICIZED POLYVINYL CHLORIDE POROUS FILMS Part II-HYGIENIC PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BĂLĂU MÎNDRU Tudorel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to obtain certain PVC films with improved hygienic properties, with applications both in the artificial leather industry and in other domains. This was done by introducing certain hydrophilic auxiliaries with free chemical functions into the chemical structure of the PVC films, such as: collagen hydrolysates (CH, hydroxyl-terminated polydimethylsiloxane (HTPDMS and nonylphenol ethoxylate (NPE. The use of these hydrophilic auxiliaries combined with the action of the high frequency electric fields (H.F.E.F. allows the attainment of cellular structures where the walls of the cells obtained from the expanding process display an enhanced humidity absorption. The collagen hydrolysates used to obtain the plasticized PVC porous films was obtained by electrolytic hydrolysis starting from Chamois leather powder waste resulting from buffing operation, according to a methodology described in a previous paper. The first part of this study was concerned with the influence of the addition of hydrophilic agents upon the moisture sorption of the plasticized PVC porous films. In this paper, there was investigated the water vapour and air permeability as well as the water vapour absorption of the porous films expanded in the H.F.E.F. in correlation with the nature and the recipe variant of the hydrophilic auxiliaries. The results highlighted the fact that the use of certain combinations of hydrophilic agents led to obtaining materials with adequate hygienic properties.

  19. Extraction of Gold(III) from Hydrochloric Acid Solutions with a PVC-based Polymer Inclusion Membrane (PIM) Containing Cyphos(®) IL 104.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonggotgetsakul, Ya Ya Nutchapurida; Cattrall, Robert W; Kolev, Spas D

    2015-12-08

    Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) based polymer inclusion membranes (PIMs), with different concentrations of Cyphos® IL 104 as the membrane extractant/carrier, were studied for their ability to extract Au(III) from hydrochloric acid solutions. Some of the PIMs also contained one of the following plasticizers or modifiers: 2-nitrophenyloctyl ether, dioctylphthalate, 1-dodecanol, 1-tetradecanol, or tri(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate. The best performance, in terms of extraction rate and amount of Au(III) extracted, was exhibited by a PIM consisting of 25 wt% Cyphos(®) IL 104, 5 wt% 1-dodecanol, and 70 wt% PVC. An almost complete back-extraction of the Au(III) extracted from this membrane was achieved by using a 0.10 mol L(-1) Na₂SO₃ receiver solution at pH 8. The stoichiometry of the extracted Au(III)/Cyphos® IL 104 adduct was determined as [P]⁺ [AuCl₄](-) H⁺ [PO₂](-) where [P]⁺ and [PO₂](-) represent trihexyl(tetradecyl) phosphonium and bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) phosphinate ions, respectively. Back-extraction of Au(III) is suggested to occur by reduction of Au(III) to Au(I), with the formation of the species [Au(SO₃)₂](3-) in the aqueous receiver solution. Loss of 1-dodecanol from the newly developed PIM to the aqueous solutions in contact with it was observed, which indicated that this membrane was suitable for single use in the efficient recovery of Au(III) from hydrochloric acid solutions of electronic scrap or recycled jewelry.

  20. Fabrication of a PVC membrane samarium(III) sensor based on N,N Prime ,N Double-Prime -tris(4-pyridyl)trimesic amide as a selectophore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamani, Hassan Ali, E-mail: haszamani@yahoo.com [Department of Applied Chemistry, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Naghavi-Reyabbi, Fatemeh [Resident of General Surgery, Endoscopic and Minimaly Invasive Surgery Research Center, Ghaem Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faridbod, Farnoush [Center of Excellence in Electrochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohammadhosseini, Majid [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Basic Sciences, Shahrood Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ganjali, Mohammad Reza [Center of Excellence in Electrochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tadjarodi, Azadeh; Rad, Maryam [Department of Chemistry, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-03-01

    A new ion-selective electrode for Sm{sup 3+} ion is described based on the incorporation of N,N Prime ,N Double-Prime -tris(4-pyridyl)trimesic amide (TPTA) in a poly(vinylchloride) (PVC) matrix. The membrane sensor comprises nitrobenzene (NB) as a plasticizer, and oleic acid (OA) as an anionic additive. The sensor with the optimized composition shows a Nernstian potential response of 19.8 {+-} 0.5 mV decade{sup -1} over a wide concentration range of 1.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2} and 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} mol L{sup -1}, with a lower detection limit of 4.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} mol L{sup -1} and satisfactor applicable pH range of 3.6-9.2. Having a short response time of less than 10 s and a very good selectivity towards the Sm{sup 3+} over a wide variety of interfering cations (e.g. alkali, alkaline earth, transition and heavy metal ions) the sensor seemed to be a promising analytical tool for determination of the Sm{sup 3+}. Hence, it was used as an indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration of samarium ion with EDTA. It was also applied to the direct samarium recovery in binary mixtures. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new Sm{sup 3+}-PVC membrane sensor is introduced for determination of Sm{sup 3+} ions in the solutions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N,N Prime ,N Double-Prime -tris(4-pyridyl)trimesic amide was used as a suitable selectophore for samarium sensor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Detection limit of the sensor is 4.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} mol L{sup -1} with a short response time of less than 10 s.

  1. Ventral striatal plasticity and spatial memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, Valentina; Roullet, Pascal; Sargolini, Francesca; Rinaldi, Arianna; Perri, Valentina; Del Fabbro, Martina; Costantini, Vivian J A; Annese, Valentina; Scesa, Gianluigi; De Stefano, Maria Egle; Oliverio, Alberto; Mele, Andrea

    2010-04-27

    Spatial memory formation is a dynamic process requiring a series of cellular and molecular steps, such as gene expression and protein translation, leading to morphological changes that have been envisaged as the structural bases for the engram. Despite the role suggested for medial temporal lobe plasticity in spatial memory, recent behavioral observations implicate specific components of the striatal complex in spatial information processing. However, the potential occurrence of neural plasticity within this structure after spatial learning has never been investigated. In this study we demonstrate that blockade of cAMP response element binding protein-induced transcription or inhibition of protein synthesis or extracellular proteolytic activity in the ventral striatum impairs long-term spatial memory. These findings demonstrate that, in the ventral striatum, similarly to what happens in the hippocampus, several key molecular events crucial for the expression of neural plasticity are required in the early stages of spatial memory formation.

  2. Effect of extensional cyclic strain on the mechanical and physico-mechanical properties of PVC-NBR/graphite composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The variation of electrical resistivity as will as the mechanical properties of PVC (polyvinylchloride-NBR (acrylonitrile butadiene rubber based conductive composites filled with different concentrations of graphite were studied. These samples were studied as function of the constant deformation fatigue test. When the specimen was subjected to a large number of rapidly repeating strain cycles, and different strain amplitudes, the conductivity, σ(T, shows an initial rapid fall followed by dynamic equilibrium. Increasing the number of cycles and strain amplitudes, the conductivity remains almost constant over the temperature range 30–140°C. The equilibrium state between destruction and reconstruction of graphite particles has been detected for all strains of certain values of strain cycles (1000, 2000, 3000, and 4000 cycles for 30% strain amplitude. A preliminary study was done to optimize the possibility to use Conductive Polymer Composites (CPC as a strain sensor and to evaluate its performance by an intrinsic physico-mechanical modification measurement. The electromechanical characterization was performed to demonstrate the adaptability and the correct functioning of the sensor as a strain gauge on the fabric. The coefficient of strain sensitivity (K was measured for 50 phr graphite/PVCNBR vulcanized at 3000 number of strain cycles and 30% strain amplitude. There was a broad maximum of K, with a peak value of 82, which was much higher, compared to conventional wire resistors. A slight hysteresis was observed at unloading due to plasticity of the matrix. A good correlation exists between mechanical and electrical response to the strain sensitivity. Mechanical reinforcement was in accordance with the Quemada equation [1] and Guth model [2] attested to good particle-matrix adhesion. It was found that the viscous component of deformation gradually disappeared and the hardening occurred with increasing strain cycles. The modulus, fracture

  3. Construction and evaluation of PVC conventional and tubular tripelennamine-selective electrodes: their application in pharmaceutical preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, J L; Montenegro, M C; Sales, M G

    1996-06-01

    The construction and evaluation of tripelennamine conventionally-shaped ion-selective electrodes and tubular detectors for the determination of this compound in pharmaceutical formulations are described. Electrodes with conventional configuration have been constructed without an internal reference solution, using several types of immobilized ionic sensors in PVC. The different electrode membranes were prepared by using tripelennamine tetraphenylborate as ionic-exchanger, dissolved in 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (type A), dibutylphthalate (type B) and bis-(2-ethylhexyl)sebacate (type C) as plasticizer solvents. The general working characteristics of the different types of conventional electrodes were evaluated in tripelennamine solutions, with adjusted ionic strength, showing a linear response in the concentration range of about 4 x 10(-5) - 1 x 10(-1) M and a slope near the theoretical value. The electrodes presented a fast response (> 20 s) and a high reproducibility (> or = 0.2 mV per day). The electrode selectivity in the presence of some interferents, such as sodium, potassium, lithium, ammonium, chlorpheniramine, diphenydramine, promethazine, meclizine and pentazocine, was good, particularly for those whose sensor membrane was prepared with tripelennamine tetraphenylborate dissolved in 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (type A). Tubular detectors were also prepared using the same sensor membrane and were evaluated in a low-dispersion flow-injection manifold. Under these conditions the detectors presented response characteristics similar to those of the corresponding conventionally-shaped electrodes. The analysis of different pharmaceutical forms (creams, syrups and gels) gave good results with mean recoveries of 99.8-100.6% when the experiments were conducted by direct potentiometry and 99.9-100.4% where the same determinations were conducted by flow-injection analysis with tubular detectors.

  4. ASSESSMENT OF BAGGING OPERATORS EXPOSURE TO WITH PVC AIRBORNE PARTICULATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Asilian, M. Nasseri Nejad, S. B. Mortazavi, M. J. Jafari, A. Khavanin, A. R. Dehdashti

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Dust consists of tiny solid particles carried by air currents. These particles are formed by many different processes. One of these processes is polymerization of inert plastic such as Polyvinyl Chloride production plant. According to the Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series requirements, section 4.4.6, occupational health and safety risks must be defined and controlled where needed. This field study was conducted to evaluate the occupational exposure of packaging operators to airborne polyvinyl chloride dust in order to health risk assessment and recommend feasible controlling methods. The mass concentration of polyvinyl chloride particulate was measured in two fractions according to the particle size that expressed as total and respirable particulates. The Air Sampling Methods, Methods for the Determination of Hazardous Substances 14/3, of Health and Safety Executive were used as a standard sampling protocol. The average mass concentrations for respirable and total particulates were measured 3.54±0.3 mg/m3 and 11.89±0.8 mg/m3 respectively. Also health risks of studied condition were estimated as significant level, category one, therefore the risk must be reduced below the standard level. According to the work requirements to reduce the emission rate and mitigate the health risk exposure, a local exhaust ventilation system design was recommended for bag-filters of hopper tank.

  5. 77 FR 54930 - Carlyle Plastics and Resins, Formerly Known as Fortis Plastics, A Subsidiary of Plastics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... Employment and Training Administration Carlyle Plastics and Resins, Formerly Known as Fortis Plastics, A... plastic parts. New information shows that Fortis Plastics is now called Carlyle Plastics and Resins. In... of Carlyle Plastics and Resins, formerly known as Fortis Plastics, a subsidiary of...

  6. The application of a new type of foaming agent in the PVC-U microfoaming tubing%新型发泡剂在PVC-U微发泡管材中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牧保文; 张其超

    2004-01-01

    讨论了PVC-U结皮微发泡管材生产中易出现的问题,各种助剂对发泡性能的影响,以及新型发泡剂--改性对甲苯磺酰氨基脲在PVC-U结皮微发泡管材生产应用中的特点.

  7. Design of Thermal Insulation for PVC Plastic Window%PVC塑料窗保温性能设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎晋

    2001-01-01

    论述了提高窗户保温性能对降低建筑能耗的重要性;比较各类窗的传热系数和节能效果,只有双玻PVC窗能达到民用建筑设计标准中全国大部分地区的采暖居住建筑的节能要求;窗框型材结构、玻璃的选择、框玻比对PVC窗的传热系数有影响.

  8. Jointing Quality Control of PVC Plastic Windows and Doors%PVC塑料门窗焊接质量控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田玉民

    2004-01-01

    本文在对PVC塑料门窗焊接过程中的尺寸误差、焊角强度低和安装后焊角开裂的原因分析基础上,针对性地提出解决对策,从而达到对其质量实施控制的目的.

  9. Vitamin E prevents deleterious effects of di (2-ethyl hexyl) phthalate, a plasticizer used in PVC blood storage bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanya, C R; Gayathri, N S; Mithra, K; Nair, K V Neelakantan; Kurup, P A

    2004-09-01

    Vitamin E administration prevented DEHP induced deleterious effects like (i) degenerative changes in the brain and thyroid, (ii) decrease in the activity of neuronal membrane Na+ - K+ ATPase, (iii) decrease in the concentration of insulin, cortisol and TSH, and (iv) the increase in T3 and T4 in female Albino rats. The results suggest use of vitamin E to prevent harmful effects of repeated transfusion of DEHP containing blood as in thalassemia patient. The possibility of using vitamin E to prevent the harmful effects of repeated transfusion of DEHP containing blood, as in thalassemia patients, is discussed.

  10. Approach to Plasticizing Quality of PVC Profiles%PVC异型材塑化质量的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯伟刚

    2004-01-01

    从PVC树脂在塑化过程中的转化、工艺温控曲线与PVC异型材的塑化质量、配方设计与PVC异型材的塑化质量、挤出机性能与PVC异型材的塑化质量等四方面对PVC异型材塑化质量进行了讨论,阐述了保证PVC异型材塑化质量的措施和方法.

  11. Spectral response of solvent-cast polyvinyl chloride (PVC) thin film used as a long-term UV dosimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amar, Abdurazaq; Parisi, Alfio V

    2013-08-01

    The spectral response of solvent-cast polyvinyl chloride (PVC) thin film suitable for use as a long-term UV dosimeter has been determined by measuring the UV induced change in the 1064 cm(-1) peak intensity of the PVC's infrared (IR) spectra as a function of the wavelength of the incident radiation. Measurements using cut-off filters, narrow band-pass filters and monochromatic radiation showed that the 16 μm PVC film responds mainly to the UVB band. The maximum response was at 290 nm and decreasing exponentially with wavelength up to about 340 nm independent of temperature and exposure dose. The most suitable concentration (W/V%) of PVC/Tetrahydrofuran solution was found to be 10% and the best thickness for the dosimeter was determined as 16 μm.

  12. Study on HCl emission behavior during pyrolysis of demolition wood with PVC and municipal solid waste for clean hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hidetoshi Kuramochi; Wei Wu; Katsuya Kawamoto [Research Center for Material Cycles and Waste Management, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506, (Japan)

    2006-07-01

    In this study, first, HCl emission during the pyrolysis of demolition wood containing polyvinyl chloride (PVC) film and refuse-derived fuel (RDF) converted from municipal wastes was measured with a laboratory scale cylindrical batch reactor. The difference in the HCl emission behavior between both feedstocks was discussed. In the case of the demolition wood with PVC, the effects of wood composition on HCl emission were investigated by not only measuring the HCl emission during the co-pyrolysis of the primary constituents of wood (cellulose, hemi-cellulose and lignin) with PVC film but also by conducting thermogravimetric analysis of the constituents. Finally, the reduction of HCl emission due to blending demolition wood and PVC film with a K-rich biomass was experimentally evaluated as a method for reducing the HCl emission. (authors)

  13. Effect of nano CuO on the ionic conductivity of PVC-PEG blend polymer electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindran, Dhandapani; Vickraman, Palanichamy

    2013-06-01

    Nano CuO was prepared by co-precipitation method and it was incorporated as filler in PVC-PEG blend based solid polymer electrolytes with lithium perchlorate (LiClO4) as salt. The PVC: CuO ratio was systematically varied in order to study its effect on the ionic conductivity behavior of electrolyte membranes. The membranes were subjected to XRD and impedance analysis. The analysis shows that the conductivity profile was strongly influenced by the PVC: CuO ratio. The membrane with PVC/CuO: PEG: PC: LiClO4=23/2:15:50:10 exhibits higher conductivity of 4.0×10-6 S/cm at room temperature.

  14. Study on the yellow bags after sterilization of packaging non -PVC large volume injections%非 PVC 软包装大容量注射剂灭菌后黄袋问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周美丽; 宋艳萍; 臧恒昌

    2016-01-01

    By studying of non -PVC multi -layer co -extruded film properties,the sterilization process of non -PVC packaging of large volume injections and the characteristics of the water bath sterilizer,the authors found the reasons for making the bags yellow.And the issue on the yellow bags after sterilization of non -PVC packaging large volume injections can be solved by the Methods of transformation and regular cleaning.%通过研究非 PVC 多层共挤膜的特性、非 PVC 软包装大容量注射剂灭菌工艺、水浴灭菌柜的特点,找到造成黄袋问题的原因,通过改造灭菌柜及定期清洁等方法,解决非 PVC 软包装大容量注射剂灭菌后出现的黄袋问题。

  15. 卫星结构用 PVC 泡沫芯与铝蜂窝芯夹层板的比较%Comparison beteen PVC Foam Core and Aluminum Core Sandwich Panel in Satellite Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马立; 朱大雷

    2013-01-01

    Taking a shear web of satellite for example, comparison between PVC foam core and aluminum core sandwich panel has been conducted in the aspects of material, process, mechanical properties, mass, production cycle, and cost. The benefits and disadvantages of PVC foam core sandwich panel are summarized. Finally, application prospect of PVC foam core sandwich panel in space is presented.%  以卫星隔板为例,从原材料、工艺方法、力学性能、重量、生产周期及制造成本等方面比较了 PVC 泡沫芯夹层板和传统的铝蜂窝芯夹层板,总结出 PVC 泡沫芯夹层板的优势与劣势。最后,展望了 PVC 泡沫夹层结构在航天领域的应用前景。

  16. Thermal Property and Migration of Polyvinyl Chloride Plasticized with Polyester Based on Soybean Oil%豆油基聚酯塑化聚氯乙烯的热性能和迁移性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    The soybean oil based polyester was synthesized by the polycondensation of o-phthalic anhydride and the soybean oil monoglyceride obtained from the transesterification of soybean oil and glycerol at 230 -240 ℃. The soybean oil polyester was characterized by gel permeation chromatography ( GPC) and FT-IR. And the synthesized soybean oil polyester was then blend with polyvinyl chloride ( PVC ) to form a plasticized PVC. Thermodynamic properties, plasticizer migration stability and mechanical properties of soybean oil polyester plasticized PVC were investigated. The results showed that relative molecular mass of the polyester was 3 541. The thermal degradation temperature of the plasticized PVC was 256. 1 ℃. And tensile strength and elongation at break for this plasticized PVC could reach 6. 5 MPa and 230. 3%, respectively. In addition, the combination of soybean oil polyester and dioctyl phthalate ( DOP ) using as complex plasticizer to plasticize PVC was also evaluated. The migration ratio of these complex plasticizers in distilled water, acetic acid solution, ethanol solution, petroleum ether and olive oil reduced to 0. 18%,0. 22%,0. 28%,0. 83% and 0. 34%, which was indicative of their excellent migration property. Herein, the thermal and mechanical properties of the soybean oil polyester plasticized PVC could maintain for long time and the potential harm to human caused by plasticizer could be reduced at same time.%使用大豆油经醇解、酯化和缩合反应制备了豆油基聚酯,采用红外光谱( FT-IR)、核磁共振氢谱(1 H NMR)和凝胶渗透色谱( GPC)对该豆油聚酯产品的化学结构进行了表征,将其与邻苯二甲酸二辛酯复配使用增塑聚氯乙烯( PVC),经热塑共混成型制备塑化PVC共混物,对共混物的热性能、耐迁移性能和力学性能进行了测定。研究发现:该豆油基聚酯的相对分子质量为3541、黏度2.7 Pa·s、酸值1.02 mg/g。聚酯产品可将PVC共混

  17. Our plastic age

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Richard C. Thompson; Shanna H. Swan; Charles J. Moore; Frederick S. vom Saal

    2009-01-01

    Within the last few decades, plastics have revolutionized our daily lives. Globally we use in excess of 260 million tonnes of plastic per annum, accounting for approximately 8 per cent of world oil production...

  18. Weinig plastic in vissenmaag

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foekema, E.M.

    2012-01-01

    Waar de magen van sommige zeevogels vol plastic zitten, lijken vissen in de Noordzee nauwelijks last te hebben van kunststofafval. Onderzoekers die plastic resten zochten in vissenmagen vonden ze in elk geval nauwelijks.

  19. Ear Plastic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ENTCareers Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Plastic Surgery Ear Plastic Surgery Patient Health Information ... they may improve appearance and self-confidence. Can Ear Deformities Be Corrected? Formation of the ear during ...

  20. A novel EIS field effect structures coated with TESUD-PPy-PVC-dibromoaza[7]helicene matrix for potassium ions detection

    OpenAIRE

    Tounsi, Moncef; Ben Braiek, Mourad; Barhoumi, Houcine; Baraket, Abdoullatif; Lee, Michael; Zine, Nadia; Maaref, Abderrazak; Errachid, Abdelhamid

    2016-01-01

    International audience; In this work, we describe the development of new Aza[7]helicene-containing PVC-based membranes for the K+ ions quantification. Here, silicon nitride-based structures (Si-p/SiO2/Si3N4) were developed and the surface was activated, functionalized with an aldehyde–silane (11-(Triethoxysilyl)undecanal (TESUD)), functionalized with polypyrrole (PPy), and coated with the polyvinylchloride (PVC)-membrane containing the Aza[7]helicene as ionophore. All stages of functionalizat...