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Sample records for plasticized corn starch

  1. Determination of the structural changes by Raman and {sup 13}C CP/MAS NMR spectroscopy on native corn starch with plasticizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cozar, O. [Academy of Romanian Scientists, Splaiul Independentei 54, 050094, Bucharest, Romania and National Institute of Research-Development for Machines and Installations Designed to Agriculture and Food Industry - INMA Bucureşti - Cluj-Napoca Branch (Romania); Filip, C.; Tripon, C. [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Cioica, N.; Coţa, C.; Nagy, E. M. [National Institute of Research-Development for Machines and Installations Designed to Agriculture and Food Industry - INMA Bucureşti - Cluj-Napoca Branch, RO-400458 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2013-11-13

    The plasticizing - antiplasticizing effect of water and glycerol contents on native corn starch samples is investigated by FT-Raman and {sup 13}C CP/MAS NMR spectroscopy. The presence of both amorphous and crystalline structural phases was evidenced in pure native corn starch and also in the samples containing plasticizers. Among the crystalline starch structures, the A- and V- types were suggested by CP/MAS NMR spectra.

  2. Effect of cellulose nanocrystals and gelatin in corn starch plasticized films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, J S; dos Reis, K C; Menezes, E G T; Pereira, F V; Pereira, J

    2015-01-22

    Cellulose at the nanoparticle scale has been studied as a reinforcement for biodegradable matrices to improve film properties. The goal has been to investigate the properties of starch/gelatin/cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) films. Eleven treatments were considered using RCCD (rotatable central composite design), in addition to four control treatments. For each assay, the following dependent variables were measured: water vapor permeability (WVP), thickness, opacity and mechanical properties. The microstructure and thermal properties of the films were also assessed. Increases in gelatin and CNC concentrations lead to increases in film thickness, strength and elongation at break. The films containing only gelatin in their matrix displayed better results than the starch films, and the addition of CNC had a positive effect on the assessed response variables. The films exhibited homogeneous and cohesive structures, indicating strong interactions between the filler and matrix. Films with low levels of gelatin and CNC presented the maximum degradation temperature.

  3. Cassava and corn starch in maltodextrin production

    OpenAIRE

    Geovana Rocha Plácido Moore; Luciana Rodrigues do Canto; Edna Regina Amante; Valdir Soldi

    2005-01-01

    Maltodextrin was produced from cassava and corn starch by enzymatic hydrolysis with alpha-amylase. The cassava starch hydrolysis rate was higher than that of corn starches in maltodextrin production with shorter dextrose equivalent (DE). DE values do not show directly the nature of the obtained oligosaccharides. Maltodextrin produced from cassava and corn starch was analysed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the analysis showed that maltodextrin production differs accordin...

  4. Cassava and corn starch in maltodextrin production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovana Rocha Plácido Moore

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Maltodextrin was produced from cassava and corn starch by enzymatic hydrolysis with alpha-amylase. The cassava starch hydrolysis rate was higher than that of corn starches in maltodextrin production with shorter dextrose equivalent (DE. DE values do not show directly the nature of the obtained oligosaccharides. Maltodextrin produced from cassava and corn starch was analysed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, and the analysis showed that maltodextrin production differs according to the source of the starch. This is important in defining the application of the maltodextrin, according to its desired function.

  5. Thermoplastic Starch Prepared with Different Plasticizers:Relation between Degree of Plasticization and Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZUO Yingfeng; GU Jiyou; TAN Haiyan; ZHANG Yanhua

    2015-01-01

    Ethylene glycol, glycerol, sorbitol, formamide, and urea were used as plasticizers for the preparation of thermoplastic starch (TPS) from corn starch. The properties of TPS were tested by analysis method. The results showed that TPSs were more highly plasticized with amines than alcohols. For the same type of plasticizer, the degree of plasticization decreased as the molecular weight of plasticizer increased. The relationship between plasticization degree and TPS properties was characterized and described by mechanical properties and water absorption. The experimental results showed that when the degree of plasticization increased, the tensile strength decreased and the elongation at breakage and water absorption increased.

  6. Characterization of normal and waxy corn starch for bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yangcheng, Hanyu; Jiang, Hongxin; Blanco, Michael; Jane, Jay-lin

    2013-01-16

    Objectives of this study were to compare ethanol production between normal and waxy corn using a cold fermentation process and to understand effects of starch structures and properties on ethanol production. Ethanol yields positively correlated (p starch contents of kernels of the normal and waxy corn. The average starch-ethanol conversion efficiency of waxy corn (93.0%) was substantially greater than that of normal corn (88.2%). Waxy corn starch consisted of very little amylose and mostly amylopectin that had a shorter average branch chain length than normal corn amylopectin. Regression analyses showed that average amylopectin branch chain lengths and percentage of long branch chains (DP > 37) of waxy corn starch negatively correlated with the starch hydrolysis rate and the ethanol yield. These results indicated that starch structures and properties of the normal and waxy corn had significant effects on the ethanol yield using a cold fermentation process.

  7. Properties of corn starch subjected hydrothermal modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryszkin, Artur; Zięba, Tomasz; Kapelko-Żeberska, Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of heating a water dispersion of corn starch to various temperatures, followed by its freezing and defrosting, on selected properties of re-formed starch pastes. A suspension of starch was heated to various temperatures ranging from 59 to 94°C, and afterwards frozen and defrosted. The differential scanning calorimetry (Mettler Toledo, 822E) thermal characteristics of starch pre-heated to temperatures not inducing complete pasting revealed transitions of: (I) retrograded amylopectin, (II) non-pasted starch, (III) amylose-lipid complexes, (IV) retrograded amylose, and (V) highly thermostable starch structures. The application of higher temperatures during heating caused disappearance of transitions II and V. The increase of pre-heating temperature induced firstly a decrease and then stabilization of the swelling power as well as a successive decrease in starch solubility. Pastes pre-heated to temperatures over 79°C contained large macroparticles that were increasing viscosity of the re-formed starch paste (their size was positively correlated with viscosity value).

  8. Deformation mechanisms of plasticized starch materials.

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    Mikus, P-Y; Alix, S; Soulestin, J; Lacrampe, M F; Krawczak, P; Coqueret, X; Dole, P

    2014-12-19

    The aim of this paper is to understand the influence of plasticizer and plasticizer amount on the mechanical and deformation behaviors of plasticized starch. Glycerol, sorbitol and mannitol have been used as plasticizers. After extrusion of the various samples, dynamic mechanical analyses and video-controlled tensile tests have been performed. It was found that the nature of plasticizer, its amount as well as the aging of the material has an impact on the involved deformation mechanism. The variations of volume deformation could be explained by an antiplasticization effect (low plasticizer amount), a phase-separation phenomenon (excess of plasticizer) and/or by the retrogradation of starch.

  9. Compressional characteristics of native and pregelatinized forms of sorghum, plantain, and corn starches and the mechanical properties of their tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alebiowu, G; Itiola, O A

    2002-07-01

    A study was made of the compressional characteristics of native and pregelatinized forms of sorghum, plantain, and corn starches and the mechanical properties of their tablets. Compressional characteristics were analyzed using density measurements and the Heckel and Kawakita plots. Pregelatinized starches exhibited more densification than native starches during die filling and at low pressures. The ranking for the mean yield pressure (Py) values for the starches was plantain starches having lower values than the native starches. The ranking for the values of another pressure term, Pk--an inverse measure of plasticity, was corn plantain starches having the lower values. For the tablets, the ranking for values of tensile strength (T) was corn > plantain > sorghum, while the ranking for the brittle fracture index (BFI) was plantain > corn > sorghum. Tablets made from pregelatinized starches had lower T and BFI values than those made from native starches. The results suggest that pregelatinization of the starches facilitated faster onset of plastic deformation but reduced the amount of plastic deformation which occurred during the compression process.

  10. Resistant Starch and Starch Thermal Characteristics in Exotic Corn Lines Grown in Temperate and Tropical Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn as a food that is heated and cooled to allow starch retrogradation has higher levels of resistant starch (RS). Increasing the amount of RS can make corn an even healthier food and may be accomplished by breeding and selection, especially by using exotic germplasm. Sixty breeding lines of introg...

  11. Shear thickening of corn starch suspensions: does concentration matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Nathan C; Popp, Lauren B; Johns, Kathryn E; Caire, Lindsey M; Peterson, Brittany N; Liberatore, Matthew W

    2013-04-15

    Suspensions of corn starch and water are the most common example of a shear thickening system. Investigations into the non-Newtonian flow behavior of corn starch slurries have ranged from simplistic elementary school demonstrations to in-depth rheological examinations that use corn starch to further elucidate the mechanisms that drive shear thickening. Here, we determine how much corn starch is required for the average person to ‘‘walk on water’’ (or in this case, run across a pool filled with corn starch and water). Steady shear rate rheological measurements were employed to monitor the thickening of corn starch slurries at concentrations ranging from 0 to 55 wt.% (0-44 vol.%). The steady state shear rate ramp experiments revealed a transition from continuous to discontinuous thickening behavior that exists at 52.5 wt.%. The rheological data was then compared to macro-scopic (~5 gallon) pool experiments, in which thickening behavior was tested by dropping a 2.1 kg rock onto the suspension surface. Impact-induced thickening in the ‘‘rock drop’’ study was not observed until the corn starch concentration reached at least 50 wt.%. At 52.5 wt.%, the corn starch slurry displayed true solid-like behavior and the falling rock ‘‘bounced’’ as it impacted the surface. The corn starch pool studies were fortified by steady state stress ramps which were extrapolated out to a critical stress value of 67,000 Pa (i.e., the force generated by an 80 kg adult while running). Only the suspensions containing at least 52.5 wt.% (42 vol.%) thickened to high enough viscosities (50-250 Pa s) that could reasonably be believed to support the impact of a man’s foot while running. Therefore, we conclude that at least 52.5 wt.% corn starch is required to induce strong enough thickening behavior to safely allow the average person to ‘‘walk on water’’.

  12. Microscopic Analysis of Corn Fiber Using Corn Starch- and Cellulose-Specific Molecular Probes

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    Porter, S. E.; Donohoe, B. S.; Beery, K. E.; Xu, Q.; Ding, S.-Y.; Vinzant, T. B.; Abbas, C. A.; Himmel, M. E.

    2007-09-01

    Ethanol is the primary liquid transportation fuel produced from renewable feedstocks in the United States today. The majority of corn grain, the primary feedstock for ethanol production, has been historically processed in wet mills yielding products such as gluten feed, gluten meal, starch, and germ. Starch extracted from the grain is used to produce ethanol in saccharification and fermentation steps; however the extraction of starch is not 100% efficient. To better understand starch extraction during the wet milling process, we have developed fluorescent probes that can be used to visually localize starch and cellulose in samples using confocal microscopy. These probes are based on the binding specificities of two types of carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs), which are small substrate-specific protein domains derived from carbohydrate degrading enzymes. CBMs were fused, using molecular cloning techniques, to a green fluorescent protein (GFP) or to the red fluorescent protein DsRed (RFP). Using these engineered probes, we found that the binding of the starch-specific probe correlates with starch content in corn fiber samples. We also demonstrate that there is starch internally localized in the endosperm that may contribute to the high starch content in corn fiber. We also surprisingly found that the cellulose-specific probe did not bind to most corn fiber samples, but only to corn fiber that had been hydrolyzed using a thermochemical process that removes the residual starch and much of the hemicellulose. Our findings should be of interest to those working to increase the efficiency of the corn grain to ethanol process.

  13. In vitro analyses of resistant starch in retrograded waxy and normal corn starches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xing; Chung, Hyun-Jung; Kim, Jong-Yea; Lim, Seung-Taik

    2013-04-01

    Gelatinized waxy and normal corn starches (40% starch) were subjected to temperature cycling between 4 and 30°C (1 day at each temperature) or isothermal storage (4°C) to induce retrogradation. The in vitro analysis methods that are currently used for the measurement of resistant starch (RS), i.e. Englyst, AACC 32-40 and Goni methods, were compared with homogenized retrograded starch gels and freeze-dried powders of the gels. RS contents obtained by the three analysis methods were in the following order: Goni>Englyst>AACC. Although different RS values were obtained among the analysis methods, similar trends in regards to the starch type and storage conditions could be observed. Little or no RS was found in freeze-dried powders of the retrograded starch gels and storage conditions had no effect, indicating that the physical state for RS analysis is important. More RS was found in normal corn starch gels than in waxy corn starch gels under identical storage conditions and in the gels stored under temperature cycling than those under isothermal storage (4°C), indicating that the presence of amylose inhibits starch digestion and the level of crystalline structure of re-crystallized amylopectin also affects the RS formation during retrogradation.

  14. Mid-infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics in corn starch classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuy, N.; Wojciechowski, C.; Ta, C. D.; Huvenne, J. P.; Legrand, P.

    1997-06-01

    The authentication of food is a very important issue for both the consumer and the food industry at all levels of the food chain from raw materials to finished products. Corn starch can be used in a wide variety of food preparations such as bakery cream fillings, sauces, salad dressings, frozen foods etc. Many modifications are made to corn starch in connection with its use in agrofood. The value of the product increases with the degree of modification. Some chemical and physical tests have been devised to solve the problem of identifying these modifications but all the methods are time consuming and require skilled operators. We separate corn starches into groups related to their modification on the basis of the infrared spectra.

  15. Biosysthesis of Corn Starch Palmitate by Lipase Novozym 435

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    Kai Lin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Esterification of starch was carried out to expand the usefulness of starch for a myriad of industrial applications. Lipase B from Candida antarctica, immobilized on macroporous acrylic resin (Novozym 435, was used for starch esterification in two reaction systems: micro-solvent system and solvent-free system. The esterification of corn starch with palmitic acid in the solvent-free system and micro-solvent system gave a degree of substitution (DS of 1.04 and 0.0072 respectively. Esterification of corn starch with palmitic acid was confirmed by UV spectroscopy and IR spectroscopy. The results of emulsifying property analysis showed that the starch palmitate with higher DS contributes to the higher emulsifying property (67.6% and emulsion stability (79.6% than the native starch (5.3% and 3.9%. Modified starch obtained by esterification that possesses emulsifying properties and has long chain fatty acids, like palmitic acid, has been widely used in the food, pharmaceutical and biomedical applications industries.

  16. Development of Corn Starch-Neusilin UFL2 Conjugate as Tablet Superdisintegrant: Formulation and Evaluation of Fast Disintegrating Tablets

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    Prateek Juneja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, corn Starch-Neusilin UFL2 conjugates were prepared by physical, chemical, and microwave methods with the aim of using the conjugates as tablet superdisintegrant. Various powder tests, namely, angle of repose, bulk density, tapped density, Hausner’s ratio, Carr’s index, swelling index, and powder porosity were conducted on the samples. The conjugates were characterized by ATR-FTIR, XRD, DSC, and SEM techniques. Heckel and Kawakita models were applied to carry out compression studies for the prepared conjugates. Fast disintegrating tablets of domperidone were prepared using corn starch and corn Starch-Neusilin UFL2 conjugates as tablet superdisintegrants in different concentrations. Conjugates were found to possess good powder flow and tabletting properties. Heckel analysis indicated that the conjugates prepared by microwave method showed the slowest onset of plastic deformation while Kawakita analysis indicated that the conjugates prepared by microwave method exhibited the highest amount of total plastic deformation. The study revealed that the corn Starch-Neusilin UFL2 conjugates possess improved powder flow properties and could be a promising superdisintegrant for preparing fast disintegrating tablet. Also, the results sugessted that the microwave method was found to be most effective for the preparation of corn Starch-Neusilin UFL2 conjugates.

  17. Impact of dry heating on physicochemical properties of corn starch and lysine mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Ying; Yu, Jicheng; Xu, Yongbin; Zhang, Yinghui

    2016-10-01

    Corn starch was modified with lysine by dry heat treatment and to investigate how they can affect the pasting and structural properties of the treated starches. Dry heating with lysine reduced the pasting temperature and resulting in viscosity increase. The particle size of heated starch-lysine mixture increased, suggesting that starch granules were cross-linked to lysine. After dry heating, the onset temperature, peak temperature and conclusion temperature of corn starch-lysine mixture were lower than those of other starches. The degree of crystallinity decreased for the starch after dry heat treatment while these heated starch samples still have the same X-ray diffraction types as the original starch.

  18. Characterization of normal and waxy corn starch for bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to: 1) Compare the differences of ethanol production between normal and waxy corn representing a diverse set of racial germplasm using a cold-fermentation process; 2) Understand the effects of starch structure and properties on ethanol production. Ethanol yields po...

  19. Green composites of thermoplastic corn starch and recycled paper cellulose fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amnuay Wattanakornsiri

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Ecological concerns have resulted in a renewed interest in environmental-friendly composites issues for sustainabledevelopment as a biodegradable renewable resource. In this work we used cellulose fibers from recycled newspaper as reinforcementfor thermoplastic starch in order to improve its mechanical, thermal and water resistance properties. The compositeswere prepared from corn starch plasticized by glycerol (30% wt/wt of glycerol to starch as matrix that was reinforcedwith micro-cellulose fibers, obtained from used newspaper, with fiber content ranging from 0 to 8% (wt/wt of fibers to matrix.Physical properties of composites were determined by mechanical tensile tests, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetricanalysis, water absorption measurement and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that higherfibers content raised the tensile strength and elastic modulus up to 175% and 292%, respectively, when compared to thenon-reinforced thermoplastic starch. The addition of the fibers improved the thermal resistance and decreased the waterabsorption up to 63%. Besides, scanning electron microscopy illustrated a good adhesion between matrix and fibers. Theseresults indicated that thermoplastic starch reinforced with recycled newspaper cellulose fibers could be fruitfully used ascommodity plastics being strong, cheap, abundant and recyclable.

  20. Crystallinity in starch plastics: consequences for material properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Soest, J.J.G. van

    1997-01-01

    The processing of starches with biodegradable additives has made biodegradable plastics suitable for a number of applications. Starch plastics are partially crystalline as a result of residual crystallinity and the recrystallization of amylose and amylopectin. Such crystallinity is a key determinant

  1. Thermoplastic starch plasticized with alginate-glycerol mixtures: Melt-processing evaluation and film properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Olivia V; Ninago, Mario D; Lencina, M M Soledad; García, María A; Andreucetti, Noemí A; Ciolino, Andrés E; Villar, Marcelo A

    2015-08-01

    Corn starch melt-processing in the presence of a commonly used plasticizer mixture (water/glycerol) and a non-conventional alternative (alginate/glycerol) was evaluated. All assayed formulations were successfully processed by melt-mixing and injected in circular probes. It was determined that all samples presented a typical viscoelastic behavior, observing a decrease in storage and loss modulus with water and alginate concentration, which facilitated samples processability. Concerning to thermal stability, it was not affected neither for water nor alginate presence. From injected probes, flexible films were obtained by thermo-compression. Films with the highest assayed water content presented a sticky appearance, whereas those containing alginate were non-tacky. Plasticizing action of water and alginate was evidenced by the occurrence of homogeneous fracture surfaces, without the presence of unmelted starch granules. Besides, the shift of glass transition temperature to lower values also corroborated the plasticizing effect of both additives. In conclusion, obtained results demonstrated the well-plasticizing action of sodium alginate on starch matrix, turning this additive into a promissory alternative to replace water during melt-processing of thermoplastic corn-starch.

  2. Glycemic response to corn starch modified with cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase and its relationship to physical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn starch was modified with cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase) below the gelatinization temperature. The porous, partially hydrolyzed, granules with or without CGTase hydrolysis products, cyclodextrins (CDs) and short chain maltodextrins, may be used as an alternative to modified corn starc...

  3. Recrystallization characteristics of high hydrostatic pressure gelatinized normal and waxy corn starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenhao; Tian, Xiaoling; Wang, Peng; Saleh, Ahmed S M; Luo, Qingui; Zheng, Jianmei; Ouyang, Shaohui; Zhang, Guoquan

    2016-02-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) can lead to starch gelatinization at room temperature, while the retrogradation mechanism of HHP gelatinized starch is not well known. HHP gelatinized normal and waxy corn starches were stored at room temperature for 192 h in order to investigate the retrogradation characteristics. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM), polarised light microscopy and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) analysis showed that the pressurization of normal and waxy corn starch suspensions with concentration of 30% (w/v) at 600 MPa for 15 min resulted in a complete gelatinization. In addition, the pressure-gelatinized normal and waxy corn starch gels were stored and subjected to X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, resistant starch content determination, swelling power and pasting behavior. The retrograded normal maize and waxy maize starch showed a substantial loss of A-type crystallinity. Both pressure-gelatinized normal and waxy corn starches showed an increase in resistant starch content and relative crystallinity degree with the increase of storage time. In addition, restricted starch swelling power and lower pasting viscosities were observed for these two retrograded starches. The amylose molecule within starch granules has been regarded as the main factor to affect the structural and physicochemical properties during the retrogradation process of HHP-gelatinized starch granules.

  4. Effect of cellulose reinforcement on the properties of organic acid modified starch microparticles/plasticized starch bio-composite films.

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    Teacă, Carmen-Alice; Bodîrlău, Ruxanda; Spiridon, Iuliana

    2013-03-01

    The present paper describes the preparation and characterization of polysaccharides-based bio-composite films obtained by the incorporation of 10, 20 and 30 wt% birch cellulose (BC) within a glycerol plasticized matrix constituted by the corn starch (S) and chemical modified starch microparticles (MS). The obtained materials (coded as MS/S, respectively MS/S/BC) were further characterized. FTIR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction were used to evidence structural and crystallinity changes in starch based films. Morphological, thermal, mechanical, and water resistance properties were also investigated. Addition of cellulose alongside modified starch microparticles determined a slightly improvement of the starch-based films water resistance. Some reduction of water uptake for any given time was observed mainly for samples containing 30% BC. Some compatibility occurred between MS and BC fillers, as evidenced by mechanical properties. Tensile strength increased from 5.9 to 15.1 MPa when BC content varied from 0 to 30%, while elongation at break decreased significantly.

  5. Internal structure and physicochemical properties of corn starches as revealed by chemical surface gelatinization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuakpetoon, Daris; Wang, Ya-Jane

    2007-11-05

    The organization of amylose and amylopectin within starch granules is still not well elucidated. This study investigates the radial distribution of amylose and amylopectin in different corn starches varying in amylose content (waxy corn starch (WC), common corn starch (CC), and 50% and 70% amylose corn starches (AMC)). Corn starches were surface gelatinized by 13 M LiCl at room temperature to different extents (approximately 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40%). The gelatinized surface starch and remaining granules were characterized for amylose content, amylopectin chain-length distribution, thermal properties, swelling power (SP), and water solubility index (WSI). Except for the outmost 10% layer, the amylose content in CC increased slightly with increasing surface removal. In contrast, amylose was more concentrated at the periphery than at the core for 50% and 70% AMC. The proportion of amylopectin A chains generally decreased while that of B1 chains generally increased with increasing surface removal for all corn starches. The gelatinization enthalpy usually decreased, except for 70% AMC, whereas the retrogradation enthalpy relatively remained unchanged for CC but increased for WC, 50% and 70% AMC with increasing surface removal. The SP and WSI increased with increasing surface removal for all corn starches, with WC showing a significant increase in SP after the removal of the outmost 10% layer. The results of this study indicated that there were similarities and differences in the distribution of amylose and amylopectin chains along the radial location of corn starch granules with varying amylose contents. More amylose-lipid complex and amylopectin long chains were present at the periphery than at the core for amylose-containing corn starches.

  6. Effects of Different Comsteep Liquids on Structure of Starch and Protein Binding in Corn Endosperm

    OpenAIRE

    Rong Yan; Xinhua Li; Xiaojun Qi

    2015-01-01

    The changes in the structures of corn endosperms immersed in different reagents were studied, in order to preliminarily determine the mode of binding of starch and protein in the endosperm. The corn endosperm was immersed in Sulfurous acid, NaOH, ethanol, L-cysteine and morel berry, respectively. The dissociated starch content was analyzed using water as the reference. The results of the treatment were analyzed by the dissociated starch content, optical microscopy and scanning electron micros...

  7. Effects of corn fiber gum with different molecular weights on the gelatinization behaviors of corn and wheat starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn fiber gum (CFG) is a novel arabinoxylan hydrocolloid. Recent research has shown that it has a considerable potential in food processing. In our previous study, we reported that CFG could be used to modify the gelling and rheological properties of starch-based food. In this study, starch and CFG...

  8. A Novel Plasticizer for the Preparation of Thermoplastic Starch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Hui YANG; Jiu Gao YU; Xiao Fei MA

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, ethylenebisformamide was synthesized and used as a novel plasticizer for cornstarch to prepare thermoplastic starch (TPS). FT-IR expressed that ethylenebisformamide formed stronger and stable hydrogen bond with starch molecules compared to the native cornstarch.X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that the typical A-style crystallinity in the native starch has been destructed. By scanning electron microscope (SEM) native cornstarch granules were proved to transfer to a homogeneous system. After being stored for one week at RH=33%, the mechanical properties of EPTPS was also studied. The elongation reached to 264% utmost. As a novel plasticizer, ethylenebisformamide would be practical to extend TPS application scopes.

  9. Thermal Properties of Starch From New Corn Lines as Impacted by Environment and During Line Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elizabeth M. Lenihan

    2003-12-12

    The objectives of this research were to further characterize exotic by adapted corn inbreds by studying the impact of environment on their starch thermal properties, and investigating the development of starch thermal properties during kernel maturation by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). A method to expedite identification of unusual starch thermal traits was investigated by examining five corn kernels at a time, instead of one kernel, which the previous screening methods used. Corn lines with known thermal functions were blended with background starch (control) in ratios of unique starch to control starch, and analyzed by using DSC. Control starch was representative of typical corn starch. The values for each ratio within a mutant type were unique ({alpha} < 0.01) for most DSC measurements. These results supported the five-kernel method for rapidly screening large amounts of corn germplasm to identify unusual starch traits. The effects of 5 growing locations on starch thermal properties from exotic by adapted corn and Corn Belt lines were studied using DSC. The warmest location, Missouri, generally produced starch with greater gelatinization onset temperature (T{sub oG}), narrower range of gelatinization (R{sub G}), and greater enthalpy of gelatinization ({Delta}H{sub G}). The coolest location, Illinois, generally resulted in starch with lower T{sub oG}, wider R{sub G}, and lower {Delta}H{sub G}. Starch from the Ames 1 farm had thermal properties similar to those of Illinois, whereas starch from the Ames 2 farm had thermal properties similar to those of Missouri. The temperature at Ames 2 may have been warmer since it was located near a river; however, soil type and quality also were different. Final corn starch structure and function change during development and maturity. Thus, the changes in starch thermal properties during 5 stages of endosperm development from exotic by adapted corn and Corn Belt lines at two locations were studied by using DSC

  10. Effects of plantain and corn starches on the mechanical and disintegration properties of paracetamol tablets

    OpenAIRE

    Akin-Ajani, Olufunke D.; Itiola, Oludele A.; ODEKU, OLUWATOYIN A.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of plantain starch obtained from the unripe fruit of the plantMusa paradisiaca L. (Musaceae) on the mechanical and disintegration properties of paracetamol tablets have been investigated in comparison with the effects of corn starch BP using a 23 factorial experimental design. The individual and combined effects of nature of starch binder (N), concentration of starch binder (C), and the relative density of tablet (RD) on the tensile strength (TS), brittle fracture index (BFI), and...

  11. Preparation and structural characterization of corn starch-aroma compound inclusion complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu; Zhou, Yibin; Jin, Shanshan; Meng, Xin; Yang, Liping; Wang, Haisong

    2017-01-01

    Six corn starch inclusion complexes were synthesized using small nonpolar or weak polar aroma compounds (heptanolide, carvone and menthone) and small polar aroma compounds (linalool, heptanol and menthol). The objectives of this study were to (a) investigate the ability of corn starch to form inclusion complexes with these aroma compounds and (b) characterize the structure of the corn starch inclusion complexes. The resulting inclusion ratios were 75.6, 36.9, 43.8, 91.9, 67.2 and 54.7% for heptanolide, carvone, menthone, linalool, heptanol and menthol respectively. The inclusion complexes had laminated structures with a certain amount of holes or blocky constructions. Compared with gelatinized corn starch, the transition temperatures, peak temperatures and enthalpies of the inclusion complexes were significantly different. The major peak of CO at 1771 cm(-1) and significant peak shifts revealed the formation of inclusion complexes. X-ray diffractometry (XRD) analyses revealed that the crystallinity of corn starch-polar aroma compound inclusion complexes increased. Based on cross-polarization magic angle spinning (13) C nuclear magnetic resonance (CP-MAS (13) C NMR) results, novel peaks and chemical shifts were attributed to the presence of small aroma compounds, thereby confirming the formation of corn starch inclusion complexes. Small nonpolar and polar aroma compounds can be complexed to corn starch. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Effect of Different Modification Techniques on the Physicochemical and Thermoanalytical Properties of Wheat and Corn Starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. G. Kotancilar

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The starches of wheat and corn treated with four different modification methods (pregelatinized, thinnedwith acid, cross-linked and dextrinized were investigated in terms of changes in swelling, water-holdingcapacity, gelatinization and thermoanalytical properties. Modification processes caused significant changes inthe physicochemical properties of the starches. Also, having effect on the thermoanalytical properties ofstarch, of modification process pregelatinization, cross-linking and dextrinization increased the temperaturesof gelatinization initiation, peak, and final points. In addition, the modification process decreased the changein the value of entalphi. In general, peaks appeared in shorter time in corn starch amylograph than that inwheat starch for all the modified methods. The wheat starch had more swelling capacity than those of thecorn starch at 30 and 40 oC. The modifications applied, in this study, decreased water-holding capacity of thestarches of the wheat and corn at 70 oC.

  13. The influence of plasticizer on extruded thermoplastic starch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanderBurgt, M.C.; VanderWoude, M.E.; Janssen, L.P.B.M.; Burgt, M.C. van der; Woude, M.E. van der

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the use of an extruder for the plastification process of potato starch with glycerol and water as plasticizers. The influence of both plasticizers is expressed in the water absorption index (WAI) and water solubility index (WSI). The amount of water added prior to extrusion is a

  14. Effect of electron beam irradiation on the biodegradability of aromatic aliphatic copolyester film and their blend with corn starch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Leonardo G. Andrade e; Poveda, Patricia N.S., E-mail: lgasilva@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Rezende, Maira L.; Rosa, Derval S. [Universidade Sao Francisco, Itatiba, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Biodegradable and green plastics have been studied in the last years. The aim of this paper is to study the effect of electron beam irradiation on the biodegradability of aromatic aliphatic copolyester film and their blend with corn starch. The samples were irradiated at different doses 10 and 40 kGy in a linear accelerator. The biodegradability of the materials was evaluated by two methods: soil simulated and enzymatic. In the method enzymatic when it was used alpha-amylase, the irradiated samples presented faster biodegradation than the references non irradiated. The blend of aromatic aliphatic copolyester with corn starch (Ecobras{sup R}) irradiated presented a bigger biodegradability than the aromatic aliphatic copolyester (Ecoflex{sup R}) film in both methods studied. (author)

  15. Physicochemical and morphological properties of starch from fresh waxy corn kernels

    OpenAIRE

    Ketthaisong, Danupol; Suriharn, Bhalang; Tangwongchai, Ratchada; Jane, Jay-lin; Lertrat, Kamol

    2015-01-01

    The characteristics on physicochemical and morphological properties of starches were investigated in fresh waxy corn kernels. Starches were isolated from eight waxy corn genotypes at the immature kernel stage growing in Thailand. The starch content showed variation with genotypes and ranged from 77.76 to 90.97 %. Granule size distribution showed a two population of starch granules with peak values ranged from 0.8 to 1.1 μm (small) and 9.0 to 12.2 μm (large). Genotypes were also significantly ...

  16. Hydrophobic corn starch thermoplastic films produced by plasma treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Daniele C; Santos, Anastácia E F; da Silva, Monica L V J; Simão, Renata A

    2009-07-01

    Polymer coating technology is currently an important field in science as it can lead to final products with enhanced characteristics characterized by desired bulk and surface properties. Low power plasmas can induce the polymerization of a precursor gas on the substrate surface as well as introduce functional groups under specific plasma conditions. In the present work, we studied the possibility of reducing water sensitivity of corn starch films by sulfur hexafluoride (SF(6)) plasma treatment. Confocal laser microscopy as well as atomic force microscopy was used to observe the main surface modifications and results indicated starch cross-linking. Fluoride was incorporated to the surface and the relationship between fluoride and sulfur incorporation to the surface was very much dependent on plasma power. Results indicate that fluoride could be preferentially incorporated on polymeric surfaces at -100V self-bias and the overall surface morphology determined the measured contact angle. The dynamic behavior of surface contact angle was observed to be very much dependent on the treatment time and force-distance curves were used to further characterize the chemical surface modifications locally. Optimized treatment conditions led to water contact angles up to 130 degrees . Even after being in contact with water for 10min, surfaces remained hydrophobic, presenting contact angles over 100 degrees .

  17. The pasting and gel textural properties of corn starch in glucose, fructose and maltose syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qingjie; Xing, Yan; Qiu, Chao; Xiong, Liu

    2014-01-01

    The pasting and gel textural properties of corn starch in syrup at different concentrations were investigated by Rapid Visco Analyzer (RVA) and Texture profile analysis (TPA) tests. The results showed that the pasting temperatures of corn starch greatly increased, especially at higher sugar concentration. Increasing concentration of syrup caused an increase in peak, trough and final viscosity of corn starch. Peak viscosity and the disintegration rate of starch increased in the following order: fructose syrup> maltose syrup> glucose syrup. Increasing syrup concentration to 13%, 25% and 50% resulted in a lower retrogradation rate than the control. When the maltose syrup concentration increased to 50%, the retrogradation rate decreased to 14.30% from 33.38%. The highest hardness was observed when the syrup concentration was 25%. There was a particular low hardness when the concentration of syrup was 50%. The springiness of starch gels in syrup was similar at different concentrations.

  18. The pasting and gel textural properties of corn starch in glucose, fructose and maltose syrup.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingjie Sun

    Full Text Available The pasting and gel textural properties of corn starch in syrup at different concentrations were investigated by Rapid Visco Analyzer (RVA and Texture profile analysis (TPA tests. The results showed that the pasting temperatures of corn starch greatly increased, especially at higher sugar concentration. Increasing concentration of syrup caused an increase in peak, trough and final viscosity of corn starch. Peak viscosity and the disintegration rate of starch increased in the following order: fructose syrup> maltose syrup> glucose syrup. Increasing syrup concentration to 13%, 25% and 50% resulted in a lower retrogradation rate than the control. When the maltose syrup concentration increased to 50%, the retrogradation rate decreased to 14.30% from 33.38%. The highest hardness was observed when the syrup concentration was 25%. There was a particular low hardness when the concentration of syrup was 50%. The springiness of starch gels in syrup was similar at different concentrations.

  19. Microscopic analysis of corn fiber using starch- and cellulose-specific molecular probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Stephanie E; Donohoe, Bryon S; Beery, Kyle E; Xu, Qi; Ding, Shi-You; Vinzant, Todd B; Abbas, Charles A; Himmel, Michael E

    2007-09-01

    Ethanol is the primary liquid transportation fuel produced from renewable feedstocks in the United States today. The majority of corn grain, the primary feedstock for ethanol production, has been historically processed in wet mills yielding products such as gluten feed, gluten meal, starch, and germ. Starch extracted from the grain is used to produce ethanol in saccharification and fermentation steps; however the extraction of starch is not 100% efficient. To better understand starch extraction during the wet milling process, we have developed fluorescent probes that can be used to visually localize starch and cellulose in samples using confocal microscopy. These probes are based on the binding specificities of two types of carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs), which are small substrate-specific protein domains derived from carbohydrate degrading enzymes. CBMs were fused, using molecular cloning techniques, to a green fluorescent protein (GFP) or to the red fluorescent protein DsRed (RFP). Using these engineered probes, we found that the binding of the starch-specific probe correlates with starch content in corn fiber samples. We also demonstrate that there is starch internally localized in the endosperm that may contribute to the high starch content in corn fiber. We also surprisingly found that the cellulose-specific probe did not bind to most corn fiber samples, but only to corn fiber that had been hydrolyzed using a thermochemical process that removes the residual starch and much of the hemicellulose. Our findings should be of interest to those working to increase the efficiency of the corn grain to ethanol process.

  20. Gelatinization and solubility of corn starch during heating in excess water: new insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnayake, Wajira S; Jackson, David S

    2006-05-17

    Starch gelatinization is associated with the disruption of granular structure causing starch molecules to disperse in water. This study was designed to examine starch granules as they were heated in water, and their resulting morphological, structural, and solubility traits. The results indicate that starch gelatinization is a more complex process than the previously suggested order-to-disorder transition. The energy absorbed by the granules facilitates the rearrangement or formation of new bonds among molecules prior to the temperatures normally associated with the melting of amylopectin crystallites during gelatinization. It is also evident that amylose plays an important role during the initial stages of corn starch gelatinization.

  1. Flocculation of Pyrite Fines in Aqueous Suspensions with Corn Starch to Eliminate Mechanical Entrainment in Flotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Ge

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The hydrophilic flocculation of pyrite fines in aqueous suspensions with corn starch was studied by measuring particle size distribution, microscopy observation and micro-flotation. Furthermore, the interaction of corn starch with pyrite was investigated by determining the adsorption density and based on zeta potential measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS analysis in this work. The results of the particle size distribution measurement show that corn starch can effectively aggregate pyrite fines, and the pyrite floccules (flocs are sensitive to mechanical stirring. The micro-flotation results suggest that the mechanical entrainment of pyrite fines in flotation can be effectively eliminated through the formation of large-size flocs. The zeta potential of pyrite particles decreases with the addition of corn starch. The XPS results prove that carboxyl groups are generated on the digested corn starch, and both iron hydroxyl compounds and ferrous disulfide on the pyrite surface can chemically interact with the corn starch digested by sodium hydroxide.

  2. Retrogradation behavior of corn starch treated with 1,4-α-glucan branching enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenwen; Li, Caiming; Gu, Zhengbiao; Qiu, Yijing; Cheng, Li; Hong, Yan; Li, Zhaofeng

    2016-07-15

    The retrogradation behavior of corn starch treated with 1,4-α-glucan branching enzyme (GBE) was investigated using rheometry, pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance (PNMR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Dynamic time sweep analysis confirmed that the storage modulus (G') of corn starch stored at 4 °C decreased with increasing GBE treatment time. PNMR analysis demonstrated that the transverse relaxation times (T2) of corn starches treated with GBE were higher than that of control during the storage at 4 °C. DSC results demonstrated that the retrogradation enthalpy (ΔHr) of corn starch was reduced by 22.3% after GBE treatment for 10h. Avrami equation analysis showed that GBE treatment reduced the rate of starch retrogradation. FTIR analysis revealed that GBE treatment led to a decrease in hydrogen bonds within the starch. Overall, these results demonstrate that both short- and long-term retrogradation of corn starch were retarded by GBE treatment.

  3. Investigation of glycerol concentration on corn starch morphologies and gelatinization behaviours during heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xu; Guo, Li; Du, Xianfeng; Chen, Peirong; Ji, Yishun; Hao, Huili; Xu, Xiaonan

    2017-11-15

    The effects of various glycerol concentrations (0%, 5%, 10%, 20%, and 50%, w/w) on the morphologies and gelatinization behaviours of corn starch were evaluated by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and rapid visco-analyzer (RVA). When corn starch granules with no added glycerol were treated at 65°C, the granules of corn starch were almost completely broken and tightly connected, and the characteristic birefringence of the starch granules disappeared. Various microscopic techniques revealed that starch gelatinization was delayed to higher temperatures as the glycerol concentration increased. In the presence of glycerol-water systems (5%, 10%, 20%, and 50%, w/w), the peak temperatures of corn starch increased by 1.6°C, 7.4°C, 10.7°C, and 19.7°C, respectively, compared to corn starch in water. The RVA pasting profiles showed that the gelatinization temperature increased as the glycerol concentration increased, which was consistent with polarized light microscope observations and DSC tests. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of Different Comsteep Liquids on Structure of Starch and Protein Binding in Corn Endosperm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Yan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The changes in the structures of corn endosperms immersed in different reagents were studied, in order to preliminarily determine the mode of binding of starch and protein in the endosperm. The corn endosperm was immersed in Sulfurous acid, NaOH, ethanol, L-cysteine and morel berry, respectively. The dissociated starch content was analyzed using water as the reference. The results of the treatment were analyzed by the dissociated starch content, optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The test results showed that by immersing in NaOH solution, the protein matrix was effectively decomposed, the protein in the endosperm was dissolved and the highest amount of starch granules were released. Sulfurous acid and L-cysteine solution could make the protein matrix into pieces by destroying intermolecular disulfide bridge and the starch granules would be released. There were some holes on the surface of starch granules after L-cysteine steeping. Immersed in the morel berry, there were holes on the protein matrix surface and the water absorption of corn endosperm was improved. In case of the sample immersed in ethanol, the zein was dissolved, whereas the matrix protein was still intact with the starch grains that still bound to it. By analysis of the microscopic structure and morphological change of starch and protein in corn endospers in different comsteep liquor, it is demonstrated that the main reason which the starch grains were tightly wrapped by Glutenin is the intermolecular disulfide bonds in glutelin. In addition, a part of the protein combined with starch granules directly. The study provided a reference for exploring the structure of binding of starch and protein and their interaction in corn.

  5. Optimization of resistant starch formation from high amylose corn starch by microwave irradiation treatments and characterization of starch preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Selime; Kahraman, Kevser; Öztürk, Serpil

    2017-02-01

    The effects of microwave irradiation on resistant starch (RS) formation and functional properties in high-amylose corn starch, Hylon VII, by applying microwave-storing cycles and drying processes were investigated. The Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the reaction conditions, microwave time (2-4min) and power (20-100%), for RS formation. The starch:water (1:10) mixtures were cooked and autoclaved and then different microwave-storing cycles and drying (oven or freeze drying) processes were applied. The RS contents of the samples increased with increasing microwave-storing cycle. The highest RS (43.4%) was obtained by oven drying after 3 cycles of microwave treatment at 20% power for 2min. The F, p (oven-dried samples applied by 1 and 3 cycles of microwave with regression coefficients of 0.65 and 0.62, respectively. Quadratic equation was obtained for freeze-dried samples applied by 3 cycles of microwave with a regression coefficient of 0.83. The solubility, water binding capacity (WBC) and RVA viscosity values of the microwave applied samples were higher than those of native Hylon VII. The WBC and viscosity values of the freeze-dried samples were higher than those of the oven-dried ones.

  6. Influence of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose addition and homogenization conditions on properties and ageing of corn starch based films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Alberto; Fabra, María José; Talens, Pau; Chiralt, Amparo

    2012-06-20

    Edible films based on corn starch, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and their mixtures were prepared by using two different procedures to homogenize the film forming dispersions (rotor-stator and rotor-stator plus microfluidizer). The influence of both HPMC-starch ratio and the homogenization method on the structural, optical, tensile and barrier properties of the films was analysed. The ageing of the films was also studied by characterizing them after 5 weeks' storage. Starch re-crystallization in newly prepared and stored films was analysed by means of X-ray diffraction. HPMC-corn starch films showed phase separation of polymers, which was enhanced when microfluidization was applied to the film forming dispersion. Nevertheless, HPMC addition inhibited starch re-crystallization during storage, giving rise to more flexible films at the end of the period. Water barrier properties of starch films were hardly affected by the addition of HPMC, although oxygen permeability increased due to its poorer oxygen barrier properties.

  7. SINTESIS PATI JAGUNG TERFOSFORILASI MELALUI TEKNIK GELOMBANG MIKRO [Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Phosphorylated Corn Starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atep Dian Supardan*

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorylated starch is a type of modified starches which is mostly imported. Commonly, starch to be modified must contain more than 25% of amylose. This study aimed to synthesize phosphorylated starch and evaluate its potency as a heavy metal adsorbent. Corn starch was subjected to phosphorylation through microwave-assisted reaction with a mixture of sodium dihydrogen orthophosphate and disodium hydrogen phosphate. The experiment was designed to optimize the pH, microwave radiation power, and phosphorylation time. The results showed that the maximum phosphate subtitution degree was obtained at pH of 6, microwave radiation of 500 W, and a reaction time of 10 minutes. The degree of subtitution ranged from 0.567 to 0.787. The physicochemical properties of the product i.e. swelling capacity, solubility, water binding capacity, and paste clarity were significantly different than that of the unmodified corn starch. The infrared spectrum showed a high peak absorption at the wavelength of 1651 cm-1, indicating hydrogen bond formation of phosphoric group-water- phosphoric group. In the fingerprint area, there were two new absorption peaks at 1200 and 990 cm-1, which were assigned for the P=O and C-O-P vibrations, respectively. The phosphorylated corn starch adsorbed methylene blue up to 73.3% and mercury up to 73.6%, suggesting the prospect of the microwave-assisted synthetic phosphorylated corn starch as an effective adsorbent for heavy metals.

  8. Effect of Different Modification Techniques on the Physicochemical and Thermoanalytical Properties of Wheat and Corn Starch

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    The starches of wheat and corn treated with four different modification methods (pregelatinized, thinnedwith acid, cross-linked and dextrinized) were investigated in terms of changes in swelling, water-holdingcapacity, gelatinization and thermoanalytical properties. Modification processes caused significant changes inthe physicochemical properties of the starches. Also, having effect on the thermoanalytical properties ofstarch, of modification process pregelatinization, cross-linking and dext...

  9. A Mixed Plasticizer for the Preparation of Thermoplastic Starch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Fei MA; Jiu Gao YU; Jin FENG

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, formamide was firstly used as plasticizer to prepare thermoplastic starch (TPS), which could suppress the retrogradation of TPS by X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and show a good flexibility, but was weaker than conventional glycerol-plasticized TPS (GPTPS). When urea was introduced into plasticizer, both the retrogradation and mechanical properties were ameliorated. The tensile stress, strain and energy break of TPS plasticized by urea (wt. 20%) and formamide (wt.10%), respectively, reached 4.83 MPa, 104.6 % and 2.17 N?m (Newton?meter) after it had been stored at relative humidity (RH) 30% for one week.

  10. FABRICATION OF POROUS ALUMINA CERAMICS WITH CORN STARCH IN AN EASY AND LOW-COST WAY

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Porous alumina ceramics with different porosity were fabricated by combining the starch consolidation process with the gel-casting process using corn starch as a pore-forming agent and a binder. The bulk density, porosity, and microstructure of the obtained alumina ceramics were studied. It was found that the total porosity range of sintered samples with contents varying from 0 to 50 vol. % is 14.8 - 55.3 % and the total porosity increased with the increase of starch content. Moreove...

  11. Synthesis and characterization of maleic anhydride esterified corn starch by the dry method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Yingfeng; Gu, Jiyou; Yang, Long; Qiao, Zhibang; Tan, Haiyan; Zhang, Yanhua

    2013-11-01

    Maleic anhydride esterified starch was synthesized by a dry method using corn starch as the material and maleic anhydride as the esterifying agent. The esterified starch (ES) was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), which confirmed that there was a successful esterification reaction between the maleic anhydride and corn starch. The effects of reaction temperature and time on the degree of substitution of esterified starch were studied, where the results showed that 80 °C of reaction temperature and 3h of reaction time were optimal conditions. The result of XPS testing demonstrated that the esterification reaction led to increase of ester bonds in starch. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and laser particle size analyzer results showed that esterification led to roughness on the surface of the starch particle, and the particle size and distribution rate of esterification starch became larger. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis demonstrated that esterification reaction did not change the crystalline type of native starch. The differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) confirmed that destruction of the crystal structure resulted in improved thermoplasticity of the starch, decreased the gelatinization temperature and increased the thermogravimetric rate of esterification starch. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Characterisation of Physicochemical Properties of Propionylated Corn Starch and Its Application as Stabiliser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee-Fen Hong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of propionylated starches with diff erent degrees of substitution (DS was synthesised and their physicochemical properties and application as a stabiliser were investigated. Starch propionates with moderate DS were prepared by esterifi cation of native corn starch with propionic anhydride. By varying the reaction times of the esterification process, twelve starch propionates with DS of 0.47 to 0.94 were prepared. FTIR and NMR confirmed the introduction of propionyl groups to the starch. X-ray diffraction pattern showed reduced crystallinity in the starch propionates. The contact angle was found to increase proportionately with the increase in DS. Swelling power results showed that starch propionates were able to swell more than native corn starch at low temperature (40°C. Oil-in-water (O/W emulsions prepared using starch propionates (DS of 0.64 to 0.86 showed exceptional stability when challenged by centrifugation stress test. These stable O/W emulsions had viscosities in the range of 1236.7–3330.0 mPa·s. In conclusion, moderately substituted short-chain (propionylated starches could be a promising cold swelling starch, thickener and O/W emulsion stabiliser in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries.

  13. Enzymatically hydrolysed, acetylated and dually modified corn starch: physico-chemical, rheological and nutritional properties and effects on cake quality

    OpenAIRE

    Sahnoun, Mouna; Ismail, Nouha; Kammoun, Radhouane

    2015-01-01

    Corn starch was treated by enzymatic hydrolysis with Aspergillus oryzae S2 α-amylase, acetylation with vinyl acetate, and dual modification. The dual modified starch displayed a higher substitution degree than the acetylated starch and lower reducing sugar content than the hydrolysed starch. The results revealed that the cooling viscosity and amylose content of those products decrease (P 

  14. Influence of some formulation and process parameters on the stability of lysozyme incorporated in corn flour- or corn starch-based extruded materials prepared by melt blending processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jbilou, Fouzia; Galland, Sophie; Telliez, Camille; Akkari, Zied; Roux, Roselyne; Oulahal, Nadia; Dole, Patrice; Joly, Catherine; Degraeve, Pascal

    2014-12-01

    In order to obtain an antimicrobial biodegradable material, corn flour was extruded with 1% of lysozyme. Since the limited stability of natural preservatives such as lysozyme is a common bottleneck to the elaboration of active biomaterials by melt blending processes, the influence of formulation and of extrusion processing temperature on its residual enzymatic activity was investigated. To assess the contribution of process parameters such as temperature, shear stress and of related formulation parameters such as glycerol and moisture contents, the stability of lysozyme following its extrusion or its thermoforming with plasticized corn starch or thermal treatments in aqueous glycerol solutions was also studied. Increasing glycerol content from 25% to 30% significantly limited inactivation of lysozyme during extrusion, while increasing initial moisture content of the mixture from 14.5% to 28.5% had the opposite effect. These observations open the possibility to prepare active materials retaining more than 60±7% of initial lysozyme activity.

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF ADHESIVE TO THE BASIS OF CORN AND CASSAVA STARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Furtado Fabrício

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Corn and native cassava starch were modified by oxidation and acid hydrolysis, aiming to develop paper and paperboard stickers. The oxidation was made with Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl in two distinct concentrations of active chloride which is present on oxidizing agent solution. The synthesis resulting products were used to make stickers and they were compared to corn and cassava starch based stickers without any modification, as well as commercial stickers based on polyvinyl acetate (PVA. Two different methodologies were tested using acid hydrolysis to modify corn and cassava starch, both using phosphoric acid (H3PO4 in order to obtain dextrin and subsequently use it in the production of stickers and also comparing them to petrochemical-based commercial stickers. Considering the different starch modifications methods (oxidation and acid hydrolysis, stickers based on renewable raw material were obtained, which combine biodegradability, low costs and availability.

  16. Thermal Characterization of the Gelatinization of Corn Starch Suspensions with Added Sodium Hydroxide or Urea as a Main Component of Corrugating Adhesives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Koyakumaru, Takatoshi; Nakano, Hirofumi

    2016-01-01

    The effects of sodium hydroxide and urea on the gelatinization of corn starch suspensions, a main component of corrugating starch adhesives, were studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC...

  17. Effects of plantain and corn starches on the mechanical and disintegration properties of paracetamol tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin-Ajani, Olufunke D; Itiola, Oludele A; Odeku, Oluwatoyin A

    2005-10-22

    The effects of plantain starch obtained from the unripe fruit of the plant Musa paradisiaca L. (Musaceae) on the mechanical and disintegration properties of paracetamol tablets have been investigated in comparison with the effects of corn starch BP using a 2(3) factorial experimental design. The individual and combined effects of nature of starch binder (N), concentration of starch binder (C), and the relative density of tablet (RD) on the tensile strength (TS), brittle fracture index (BFI), and disintegration time (DT) of the tablets were investigated. The ranking of the individual effects on TS was RD > C > N, on BFI was C > RD > N and on DT was N > C > RD. The ranking for the interaction effects on TS and DT was N-C > N-RD > C-RD, while that on BFI was N-C > C-RD > N-RD. Changing nature of starch from a "low" (plantain starch) to a "high" (corn starch) level, increasing the concentration of starch binding agent from 2.5% to 10.0% wt/wt, and increasing relative density of the tablet from 0.80 to 0.90, led to increase in the values of TS and DT, but a decrease in BFI. Thus, tablets containing plantain starch had lower tensile strength and disintegration time values than those containing corn starch, but showed better ability to reduce the lamination and capping tendency in paracetamol tablet formulation. The interaction between N and C was significantly (P starch used as binding agent in tablet formulations to obtain tablets of desired bond strength and disintegration properties. Furthermore, plantain starch could be useful as an alternative binding agent to cornstarch, especially where faster disintegration is required and the problems of lamination and capping are of particular concern.

  18. Synchrotron X-ray Scattering Analysis of the Interaction Between Corn Starch and an Exogenous Lipid During Hydrothermal Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E Hernandez-Hernandez; C Avila-Orta; B Hsiao; j Castro-Rosas; J Gallegos-Infante; J Morales-Castro; L Ochoa-Martinez; C Gomez-Aldapa

    2011-12-31

    Lipids have an important effect on starch physicochemical properties. There exist few reports about the effect of exogenous lipids on native corn starch structural properties. In this work, a study of the morphological, structural and thermal properties of native corn starch with L-alpha-lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC, the main phospholipid in corn) was performed under an excess of water. Synchrotron radiation, in the form of real-time small and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS), was used in order to track structural changes in corn starch, in the presence of LPC during a heating process from 30 to 85 C. When adding LCP, water absorption decreased within starch granule amorphous regions during gelatinization. This is explained by crystallization of the amylose-LPC inclusion complex during gelatinization, which promotes starch granule thermal stability at up to 95 C. Finally, a conceptual model is proposed for explaining the formation mechanism of the starch-LPC complex.

  19. IN VITRO UTILIZATION OF NPN SOURCES BY INCREASING LEVELS OF CORN STARCH IN STRAW BASED DIETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. ALI, T. KHALIQ1, A. JAVAID, M. SARWAR, M. A. KHAN2, M. A. SHAHZAD AND S. ZAKIR3

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effect of replacement of 50% cottonseed meal (CSM nitrogen with various non protein nitrogen (NPN sources i.e. urea (CU, biuret (CB and diammonium phosphate (CD. The four energy sources were: wheat straw with no corn starch (WS, WS + 20% corn starch, WS + 30% corn starch and WS + 40% corn starch. These substrates were fermented with rumen liquor to measure in vitro dry matter digestibility (DMD, bacterial count and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N concentrations. The protein sources provided 2% nitrogen (12.5% CP. The control substrate contained CSM as the sole source of nitrogen and ground wheat straw as the sole sources of energy. The in vitro DMD increased to 49.10, 40.06 and 31.52% in substrates containing CB, CU and CD compared to 23.10% for CSM (P<0.01. Similarly, supplementation of straw with 20, 30 and 40% corn starch gave 24.31, 38.03 and 45.48% DMD compared to 23.10% for control (P<0.01. Increase of corn starch from 20 to 30% resulted in 13.72 units higher DMD which increased to a mere 7.45 units when the corn starch was raised from 30 to 40%. The interactions between nitrogen sources and starch levels revealed that substrate CB x 40% corn starch yielded 70.73% DMD, followed by 49.66% DMD with CU x 40% starch (P<0.01. The NH3-N increased due to 50% replacement of CSM with NPN sources on isonitrogenous basis. It was maximum with CU as nitrogen source, followed by CD, CB and CSM. The differences among the four nitrogen sources were significant (P<0.01. The substrates containing CU resulted in highest bacterial counts of 33.78x108 compared to 20.41x108, 17.06x108 and 11.34x108 for CB, CSM and CD, respectively (P<0.01. Addition of corn starch up to 20 and 30% to straw based substrates increased the bacterial counts to 23.25x108 and 23.12x108 and 40% corn starch yielded 15.58x108 bacterial counts which was significantly (P<0.01 lesser than 17.06x108 for substrates containing 0% corn starch. Bacterial count

  20. Physicochemical and Microstructural Characterization of Corn Starch Edible Films Obtained by a Combination of Extrusion Technology and Casting Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch-Vargas, Perla Rosa; Aguilar-Palazuelos, Ernesto; de Jesús Zazueta-Morales, José; Vega-García, Misael Odín; Valdez-Morales, Jesús Enrique; Martínez-Bustos, Fernando; Jacobo-Valenzuela, Noelia

    2016-09-01

    Starch edible films (EFs) have been widely studied due to their potential in food preservation; however, their application is limited because of their poor mechanical and barrier properties. Because of that, the aim of this work was to use the extrusion technology (Ex T) as a pretreatment of casting technique to change the starch structure in order to obtain EFs with improved physicochemical properties. To this, corn starch and a mixture of plasticizers (sorbitol and glycerol, in different ratios) were processed in a twin screw extruder to generate the starch modification and subsequently casting technique was used for EFs formation. The best conditions of the Ex T and plasticizers concentration were obtained using response surface methodology. All the response variables evaluated, were affected significatively by the Plasticizers Ratio (Sorbitol:Glycerol) (PR (S:G)) and Extrusion Temperature (ET), while the Screw Speed (SS) did not show significant effect on any of these variables. The optimization study showed that the appropriate conditions to obtain EFs with the best mechanical and barrier properties were ET = 89 °C, SS = 66 rpm and PR (S:G) = 79.7:20.3. Once the best conditions were obtained, the optimal treatment was characterized according to its microstructural properties (X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy) to determine the damage caused in the starch during Ex T and casting technique. In conclusion, with the combination of Ex T and casting technique were obtained EFs with greater breaking strength and deformation, as well as lower water vapor permeability than those reported in the literature. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Corn starch ferulates with antioxidant properties prepared by N,N'-carbonyldiimidazole-mediated grafting procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yu; Ye, Fayin; Zhu, Jianfei; Zhao, Guohua

    2016-10-01

    This work presents novel synthesis processes and properties of corn starch ferulates. First, N,N'-carbonyldiimidazole, a green activating reagent, was used to transform ferulic acid into ferulate-imidazolide. The ferulate-imidazolide was then further reacted with corn starch to produce corn starch ferulates. The grafting reaction of ferulic acid onto corn starch was confirmed by FT-IR and (1)H NMR. The degree of substitution (DS), relating products and reaction parameters, depended on the molar ratio of the anhydroglucose unit to ferulic acid (nAGU/FA), the temperature of the reaction, and the time that elapsed. The dependence of the degree of substitution was optimized by response surface methodology. Results implied the greatest DS (0.389) was obtained under the conditions of nAGU/FA 1:3.6, 90°C and 7.12h. The morphological, crystalline, and in vitro antioxidant properties were evaluated. The DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power, and ferric reducing power of the corn starch ferulates showed potential for antioxidant properties.

  2. Fermentation of corn starch to ethanol with genetically engineered yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inlow, D; McRae, J; Ben-Bassat, A

    1988-07-05

    Expression of the glucoamylase gene from Aspergillus awamori by laboratory and distiller's strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae allowed them to ferment soluble starch. Approximately 95% of the carbohydrates in the starch were utilized. Glycerol production was significantly decreased when soluble starch was used instead of glucose. Ethanol yield on soluble starch was higher than that on glucose. The rate of starch fermentation was directly related to the level of glucoamylase activity. Strains with higher levels of glucoamylase expression fermented starch faster. The decline in starch fermentation rates toward the end of the fermentation was associated with accumulation of disaccharides and limit dextrins, poor substrates for glucoamylase. The buildup of these products in continuous fermentations inhibited glucoamylase activity and complete utilization of the starch. Under these conditions maltose-fermenting strains had a significant advantage over nonfermenting strains. The synthesis and secretion of glucoamylase showed no deleterious effects on cell growth rates, fermetation rates, and fermentation products.

  3. Determining Machining Parameters of Corn Byproduct Filled Plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a collaborative project between the USDA and Northern Illinois University, the use of corn ethanol processing byproducts (i.e., DDGS) as bio-filler materials in the compression molding of phenolic plastics has been studied. This paper reports on the results of a machinability study in the milling...

  4. Determination of Machining Parameters of Corn Byproduct Filled Plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a collaborative project between the USDA and Northern Illinois University, the use of ethanol corn processing by-products as bio-filler materials in the compression molding of phenolic plastics has been studied. This paper reports on the results of a machinability study in the milling of various ...

  5. Nutritional perfomance of Tupinambis merianae lizards fed with corn starch as source of energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Vega Parry

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency in processing complex carbohydrates as a source of energy was studied in Tupinambis merianae lizards. Four isoproteic and isoenergetic diets in which different percentages of corn starch substituted fat (0, 10, 20 and 30 dry matter in the diet were provided. Even though consumption was similar in all diets, growth and feeding conversion rates decreased significantly with corn starch supplies of 10% and more. At the end of the trial, pancreatic alpha-amylase activity showed correlated increases, yet these were insufficient to compensate corn starch supplies. Results suggest that Tupinambis merianae lizards have a restricted omnivorous capacity. Therefore, diet formulation for these lizards should exclude high molecular weight carbohydrates.

  6. Effect of nylon bag and protozoa on in vitro corn starch disappearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zwieten, J T; van Vuuren, A M; Dijkstra, J

    2008-03-01

    An in vitro experiment was carried out to study whether the presence of protozoa in nylon bags can explain the underestimation of the in situ degradation of slowly degradable starch. Corn of a high (flint) and a low (dent) vitreousness variety was ground over a 3-mm screen, weighed in nylon bags with a pore size of 37 microm, and washed in cold water. Samples of washed cornstarch were incubated in 40-mL tubes with faunated and defaunated ruminal fluid. An additional amount of washed corn, in nylon bags, was inserted in each incubation tube. Incubations were carried out for 0, 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 h, and starch residue in tube and nylon bag was determined. In general, starch disappearance from the nylon bag was less than from the tube, and was less with faunated than defaunated rumen fluid, but corn variety did not affect starch disappearance. When no protozoa were present, the disappearance of starch from the bags was higher after 6 and 12 h incubation compared with presence of protozoa. However, in the tubes, there was no difference in starch disappearance due to presence or absence of protozoa. Estimated lag time was higher in presence (4.6 h) then absence (3.6 h) of protozoa. It was concluded that the effect of presence or absence of protozoa on starch disappearance differs within or outside nylon bags. The reduced disappearance rate of starch inside the nylon bags in the presence of protozoa helps to explain the underestimation of starch degradation based on the in sacco procedure when compared with in vivo data upon incubation of slowly degradable starch sources.

  7. Influence of thickness on properties of plasticized oat starch films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melicia Cintia Galdeano

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of thickness (between 80 and 120 µm on apparent opacity, water vapor permeability and mechanical properties (tensile and puncture of oat starch films plasticized with glycerol, sorbitol, glycerol:sorbitol mixture, urea and sucrose. Films were stored under 11, 57, 76 and 90% relative humidity (RH to study the mechanical properties. It was observed that the higher the thickness, the higher was the opacity values. Films without the plasticizer were more opaque in comparison with the plasticized ones. Glycerol:sorbitol films presented increased elongation with increasing thickness at all RH. Puncture force showed a strong dependence on the film thickness, except for the films plasticized with sucrose. In general, thickness did not affect the water permeability.

  8. Adhesion of an Amylolytic Arthrobacter sp. to Starch-Containing Plastic Films

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    Cells of the amylolytic bacterium KB-1 (thought to be an Arthrobacter sp.) adhered (∼70%) to the surface of plastic films composed of starch-poly (methylacrylate) graft copolymer (starch-PMA), but did not adhere (

  9. Imidazole-based deep eutectic solvents for starch dissolution and plasticization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdanowicz, Magdalena; Spychaj, Tadeusz; Mąka, Honorata

    2016-04-20

    Potato starch and high-amylose starch were treated with imidazole-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs) as dissolution and plasticization media. Beside imidazole (IM) for two-component DESs preparation choline chloride (CC), glycerol (G) or carboxylic acids (citric or malic) were used. An influence of water content in starch (as well as an extra water in the starch/DES system) on polymer dissolution and plasticization processes was investigated. Dissolution and gelatinization of starch in DESs were followed via DSC and laser scanning microscopy. A rheometric characteristics revealed an influence of starch/DES system storage time on the plasticization process. The tendency to recrystallization of compression-molded-starch films was evaluated using XRD technique. High dissolution and plasticization effectiveness of CC/IM and G/IM and a low tendency to film retrogradation of thermoplasticized starch were noted.

  10. Influence of drying temperature, water content, and heating rate on gelatinization of corn starches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altay, Filiz; Gunasekaran, Sundaram

    2006-06-14

    The gelatinization properties of starch extracted from corn and waxy corn dried at different temperatures were determined at various water contents and heating rates by differential scanning calorimetry. All gelatinization transition temperatures increased with drying temperature and heating rate. Onset and peak temperatures remained relatively constant, whereas end temperature decreased in the presence of excess water. The gelatinization enthalpy (deltaH(g)) of corn starch decreased with drying temperature at 50% water; however, it remained constant for waxy corn starch. The effects of water content and heating rate on deltaH(g) were dependent on each other. The minimum water levels required for gelatinization of starch extracted from corn dried at 20 and 100 degrees C are 21 and 29%, respectively. The activation energy (E(a)) was calculated using an Arrhenius-type equation and two first-order models; the degree of conversion (alpha) was predicted using a newly proposed model that produced good results for both E(a) and alpha.

  11. Gelatinization and freeze-concentration effects on recrystallization in corn and potato starch gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronda, Felicidad; Roos, Yrjö H

    2008-04-07

    Freeze-concentration of starch gels was controlled by temperature and gelatinization with glucose and lactose. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of freezing temperature and gel composition on starch recrystallization behaviour of corn and potato starch gels (water content 70%, w/w) in water or glucose or lactose (10%, w/w) solutions. Starch gels were obtained by heating in differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Samples of starch gels were frozen at -10 degrees C, -20 degrees C and -30 degrees C for 24h and, after thawing, stored at +2 degrees C for 0, 1, 2, 4 and 8 days. The extent of starch recrystallization was taken from the enthalpy of melting of the recrystallized starch by DSC. Freezing temperatures, glucose, lactose and the origin of the starch affected the recrystallization behaviour greatly. The recrystallization of amorphous starch during storage was enhanced by freeze-concentration of gels at temperatures above T'(m). Molecular mobility was enhanced by unfrozen water and consequently molecular rearrangements for nucleation could take place. Further storage at a higher temperature enhanced the growth and the maturation of crystals. In particular, glucose decreased the T'(m) of the gels and consequently lower freezing temperatures were needed to reduce enhanced recrystallization during storage. Freeze-concentration temperatures also showed a significant effect on the size and the perfection of crystals formed in starch recrystallization.

  12. Kinetic modeling of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of corn starch for ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Białas, Wojciech; Czerniak, Adrian; Szymanowska-Powałowska, Daria

    2014-01-01

    Fuel ethanol production, using a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process (SSF) of native starch from corn flour, has been performed using Saccharomyces cerevisiae and a granular starch hydrolyzing enzyme. The quantitative effects of mash concentration, enzyme dose and pH were investigated with the use of a Box-Wilson central composite design protocol. Proceeding from results obtained in optimal fermentation conditions, a kinetics model relating the utilization rates of starch and glucose as well as the production rates of ethanol and biomass was tested. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was applied to investigate corn starch granule surface after the SFF process. A maximum ethanol concentration of 110.36 g/l was obtained for native corn starch using a mash concentration of 25%, which resulted in ethanol yield of 85.71%. The optimal conditions for the above yield were found with an enzyme dose of 2.05 ml/kg and pH of 5.0. These results indicate that by using a central composite design, it is possible to determine optimal values of the fermentation parameters for maximum ethanol production. The investigated kinetics model can be used to describe SSF process conducted with granular starch hydrolyzing enzymes. The SEM micrographs reveal randomly distributed holes on the surface of granules.

  13. Enzymatic digestibility and ethanol fermentability of AFEX-treated starch-rich lignocellulosics such as corn silage and whole corn plant

    OpenAIRE

    Thelen Kurt D; Sousa Leonardo; Bals Bryan; Krishnan Chandraraj; Chundawat Shishir PS; Shao Qianjun; Dale Bruce E; Balan Venkatesh

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Corn grain is an important renewable source for bioethanol production in the USA. Corn ethanol is currently produced by steam liquefaction of starch-rich grains followed by enzymatic saccharification and fermentation. Corn stover (the non-grain parts of the plant) is a potential feedstock to produce cellulosic ethanol in second-generation biorefineries. At present, corn grain is harvested by removing the grain from the living plant while leaving the stover behind on the fi...

  14. Effect of acetic acid on physical properties of pregelatinized wheat and corn starch gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majzoobi, Mahsa; Kaveh, Zahra; Farahnaky, Asgar

    2016-04-01

    Pregelatinized starches are physically modified starches with ability to absorb water and increase viscosity at ambient temperature. The main purpose of this study was to determine how different concentrations of acetic acid (0, 500, 1000, 10,000 mg/kg) can affect functional properties of pregelatinized wheat and corn starches (PGWS and PGCS, respectively) produced by a twin drum drier. With increasing acetic acid following changes occurred for both samples; cold water solubility (at 25 °C) increased, water absorption and apparent cold water viscosity (at 25 °C) reduced, the smooth surface of the starch particles converted to an uneven surface as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, cohesiveness, consistency and turbidity of the starch gels reduced while their syneresis increased. It was found that in presence of acetic acid, PGWS resulted in higher water absorption and apparent cold water viscosity and produced more cohesive and turbid gels with less syneresis compared to PGCS.

  15. Effect of Nylon Bag and Protozoa on In Vitro Corn Starch Disappearance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwieten, van J.T.; Vuuren, van A.M.; Dijkstra, J.

    2008-01-01

    An in vitro experiment was carried out to study whether the presence of protozoa in nylon bags can explain the underestimation of the in situ degradation of slowly degradable starch. Corn of a high (flint) and a low (dent) vitreousness variety was ground over a 3-mm screen, weighed in nylon bags

  16. Gelatinisation kinetics of corn and chickpea starches using DSC, RVA, and dynamic rheometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The gelatinisation kinetics (non-isothermal) of corn and chickpea starches at different heating rates were calculated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), rapid visco analyser (RVA), and oscillatory dynamic rheometry. The data obtained from the DSC thermogram and the RVA profiles were fitt...

  17. Effect of Nylon Bag and Protozoa on In Vitro Corn Starch Disappearance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwieten, van J.T.; Vuuren, van A.M.; Dijkstra, J.

    2008-01-01

    An in vitro experiment was carried out to study whether the presence of protozoa in nylon bags can explain the underestimation of the in situ degradation of slowly degradable starch. Corn of a high (flint) and a low (dent) vitreousness variety was ground over a 3-mm screen, weighed in nylon bags wit

  18. A 90-day oral (dietary) toxicity and mass balance study of corn starch fiber in Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crincoli, Christine M; Nikiforov, Andrey I; Rihner, Marisa O; Lambert, Elizabeth A; Greeley, Melanie A; Godsey, Justin; Eapen, Alex K; van de Ligt, Jennifer L G

    2016-11-01

    The potential toxicity of corn starch fiber was assessed and compared to polydextrose, a commonly used bulking agent with a long history of safe use in the food supply. Groups of male and female Crl:CD(SD) rats were fed 0 (control), 1,000, 3,000, or 10,000 mg/kg-bw/day corn starch fiber in the diet for 90 days. The polydextrose reference article was offered on a comparable regimen at 10,000 mg/kg-bw/day. Following a single gavage dose of [(14)C]-corn starch fiber on study day 13 or 90, the mass balance of the test article was assessed by analysis of excreta samples collected from 0 to 168 h post-dose. There were no toxicologically or biologically relevant findings in any of the test article-treated groups. The few minor differences observed between the corn starch fiber and polydextrose exposed groups were considered to be due to normal biological variation. Following [(14)C]-corn starch fiber dosing, nearly complete excretion of the administered dose occurred over 168 h post-dosing, with the majority excreted in the feces. The dietary no-observed-adverse-effect level of corn starch fiber after 90 days was 10,000 mg/kg-bw/day. Similar toxicity profiles for corn starch fiber and polydextrose were observed due to the structural and compositional similarities of these materials.

  19. Hydrolysis of Raw Corn Starch Granules by Glucoamylase and Product Inhibition During the Hydrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jinpeng; ZENG Aiwu; LIU Zhen; YUAN Xigang; WU Shaomin

    2005-01-01

    Raw corn starch granules were hydrolysized by glucoamylase in a chemostat. The hydro-lysis of three different-sized granules shows that smaller granules undergo more hydrolyzation than larger ones. After 78 h, 97% of the granules was hydrolysized with diameter between 0.15 mm and 0.3 mm at 50 ℃. When corn starch concentration increased from 100 g/L to 250 g/L, the amount of reducing sugar produced was proportional to the initial substrate concentration and no substrate inhibition phenomenon appeared. In order to study the product inhibition exactly, the product from hydrolysis reaction itself was added into the hydrolysis system at the beginning of starch hydrolysis. Product inhibition with different quantities of product added were studied in the initial several hours, during which period enzyme inactivation could be neglected and product inhibition could be studied separately. The experiments indicate that product inhibition happens when the additional quantity exceeds 9.56 g/L.

  20. Effects of corn fiber gum (CFG) on the pasting and thermal behaviors of maize starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Shuang; Yadav, Madhav P; Chen, Hao; Liu, Yan; Tatsumi, Eizo; Yin, Lijun

    2015-01-22

    Corn fiber gum (CFG) was a novel arabinoxylan hydrocolloid and recent researches showed its considerable potential in food processing. In this study, the interactions of maize starch and CFG were studied. Maize starch/CFG blend gels were prepared from maize starch suspension mixing with 0.1%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 1.0% (w/w) CFG. The pasting and thermal properties, rheological properties, microstructure, leached amylose and swelling power characteristics were evaluated. Compared with the reference, CFG addition lowered peak viscosity and breakdown of the composite system, but increased final viscosity in RVA measurement. The swelling power and the amount of leached amylose of maize starch gels were reduced as the addition concentration of CFG increased. The thermal characteristics of maize starch/CFG mixtures varied insignificantly as determined in DSC heating process. Rheological parameters, such as storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G"), of the maize starches were observed to increase when CFG was present, supporting the hypothesis that the interaction between CFG and amylose could happen in the composite system. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) confirmed changes in gels microstructure as starch components tended to be inhibited from leaching out of the granules when CFG was added, and the morphology of starch granule was more compact when CFG was added.

  1. Effect of gamma irradiation on molecular structure and physicochemical properties of corn starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, H-J; Liu, Q

    2009-06-01

    Carboxyl content and amylose leaching of gamma-irradiated corn starch increased and swelling factor decreased with increasing radiation dose. The apparent amylose content decreased gradually from 28.7% for native starch to 20.9% for 50 kGy irradiated starch. The proportion of short amylopectin branch chains (DP 6 to 12) increased, while the proportion of longer branch chains (DP > or = 37) decreased with increasing radiation dose. The relative crystallinity and the degree of granule surface order decreased from 28.5% and 0.631 in native starch to 26.9% and 0.605 in 50 kGy irradiated starch, respectively. Pasting viscosity and gelatinization temperatures decreased with an increase in radiation dose. At a high dose (50 kGy), melting of amylose-lipid complex in DSC thermogram was not observed. The rapidly digestible starch (RDS) content slightly decreased up to 10 kGy but increased at 50 kGy. The resistant starch (RS) content slightly decreased at 2 kGy and then increased up to 50 kGy. The slowly digestible starch (SDS) content showed the opposite trend to RS content. Slower irradiation dose rate reduced carboxyl content, swelling factor, and amylose leaching. The apparent amylose content and amylopectin chain length distribution were not significantly affected by dose rate of gamma irradiation. However, the relative crystallinity and gelatinization enthalpy increased with slower dose rate. Slower dose rate decreased RDS and SDS contents, and increased RS content.

  2. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF BIODEGRDABLE PLASTIC FROM CASAVA STARCH AND ALOE VERA EXTRACT WITH GLYCEROL PLASTICIZER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mery Apriyani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis and characterizations of Biodegradable Plastic made of Cassava Waste Starch, glycerol, acetic acid and Aloe vera extract has done. The aims of this research are to study the influence of addition of aloe vera extract in plastics mechanics properties, water vapor transmission rate and biodegradation. There are five main steps in this research, extraction of aloe vera, cassava starch preparation from cassava waste, preparations, characterization and biodegradability study of biodegradable plastic. The addition variations of aloe vera extract that used in this research are 0.01; 0.03; 0.05; 0.07 and 0.14 grams. Results showed that the addition of aloe Vera tends to increased biodegrable plastic thickness to 0.01 mm and elongation to 32.07%. However, biodegradable plastic tensile strength tends to decreased to 23.95 Mpa. Optimum tensile strength is 3.90 Mpa and elongation is 34.43%. Optimum water vapor transmission rate is 2.40 g/m2hours. Biodegradation study of biodegradable plastic showed that addition of aloe vera extract doesn’t significantly influence in plastic degradations.

  3. A physicochemical study of sugar palm (Arenga Pinnata) starch films plasticized by glycerol and sorbitol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeloengasih, Crescentiana D.; Pranoto, Yudi; Hayati, Septi Nur; Hernawan, Rosyida, Vita T.; Prasetyo, Dwi J.; Jatmiko, Tri H.; Apriyana, Wuri; Suwanto, Andri

    2016-02-01

    The present work explores the physicochemical characteristics of sugar palm starch film for a potential hard capsule purpose. Sugar palm (Arenga pinnata) starch films were plasticized with glycerol or sorbitol in various concentrations (30% up to 50% w/w starch). Their effects on physicochemical properties of the films were investigated. The results showed that sugar palm starch was successfully developed as the main material of film using casting method. Incorporation of both glycerol or sorbitol affected the properties of films in different ways. It was found that thickness and solubility increased as plasticizer concentration increased, whereas retraction ratio, swelling degree and swelling thickness decreased with the increased plasticizer concentration.

  4. Preliminary Investigation to Determine the Suitable Mixture Composition for Corn Starch Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huzaimi Zakaria, Nazri; Ngali, Zamani; Zulkefli Selamat, Mohd

    2017-01-01

    The use of natural fiber as reinforcement in polymeric composites has been seen a dramatically increase over the last decades. The surge in the interest of natural fiber composite or biodegradable composite is mainly due to the attractive cost of production, improved of hardness, better fatigue endurance and good thermal and mechanical resistivity. In this work, corn starch in the form of powder is utilized as the matrix of the composite. However, starch is brittle and has low strength make it inappropriate candidate for matrix binder. The main objective of this study is to modify the mechanical properties of pure corn starch by mixing it with water, glycerol and vinegar. The composition ratio of water is 60~80%, corn starch 10~35%, glycerol is 5~15% and vinegar is 0~5%, ten samples (A-J) have been manufactured and the best mixture composition is selected based on few selection criteria. The selection criteria are visual impaction, hardness and density. From the results, the samples without vinegar are not suitable to be used because of the fungus availability on the surface. Meanwhile the results from the samples with 5 ml vinegar have no fungus on their surface even has been exposed to the ambient air. While the sample C has shown the best sample based on the visual, hardness and density test.

  5. Effect of plasticizer on moisture sorption isotherm of sugar palm (Arenga Pinnata) starch film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatmiko, Tri Hadi; Poeloengasih, Crescentiana D.; Prasetyo, Dwi Joko; Rosyida, Vita Taufika

    2016-02-01

    The effect of plasticizer type (glycerol, sorbitol) and plasticizer concentrations (30, 35, 40, 45% w/w polymer) on the moisture sorption isotherm characteristics of sugar palm (Arenga pinnata) starch films were investigated. Moisture affinity of sugar palm starch films was influenced by the plasticizer type and plasticizer concentration. The affinity of the glycerol plasticized film is stronger than that of sorbitol plasticized film. Sugar palm starch film with a higher concentration of glycerol absorbs more moisture with higher initial absorption rate than that of with sorbitol. Films with higher plasticizer concentration of glycerol and sorbitol show higher equilibrium moisture contents at the given relative humidity. The moisture sorption isotherm characteristic of sugar palm starch films can be described very well with the semi empirical 4 parameter Peleg's model.

  6. Comparative methodologies for measuring metabolizable energy of various types of resistant high amylose corn starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulley, Richard T; Appel, Marko J; Enos, Tanya G; Hegsted, Maren; McCutcheon, Kathleen L; Zhou, Jun; Raggio, Anne M; Jeffcoat, Roger; Birkett, Anne; Martin, Roy J; Keenan, Michael J

    2009-09-23

    Energy values of high amylose corn starches high in resistant starch (RS) were determined in vivo by two different methodologies. In one study, energy values were determined according to growth relative to glucose-based diets in rats fed diets containing RS(2), heat-treated RS(2) (RS(2)-HT), RS(3), and amylase predigested versions to isolate the RS component. Net metabolizable energy values ranged from 2.68 to 3.06 kcal/g for the RS starches, and 1.91-2.53 kcal/g for the amylase predigested versions. In a second study, rats were fed a diet containing RS(2)-HT and the metabolizable energy value was determined by bomb calorimetry. The metabolizable energy value was 2.80 kcal/g, consistent with Study 1. Thus, high amylose corn based RS ingredients and their amylase predigested equivalents have energy values approximately 65-78% and 47-62% of available starch (Atwater factor), respectively, according to the RS type (Garcia, T. A.; McCutcheon, K. L.; Francis, A. R.; Keenan, M. J.; O'Neil, C. E.; Martin, R. J.; Hegsted, M. The effects of resistant starch on gastrointestinal organs and fecal output in rats. FASEB J. 2003, 17, A335).

  7. Preparation of Triethylene Glycol Maleate and Its Effect on Plasticization of Oxidized Starch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Fei; LIN Yi; ZHAO Kang; ZHU Puxin

    2016-01-01

    A plasticizer triethylene glycol maleate (TEG-MA) was synthesized. The dominated monoester of moderate hydrophobicity with apparent oil-water partition coefifcient of 0.042 in the product was conifrmed by acid value determination, HPLC and FTIR. Its plasticizing effect on oxidized starch was manifested by crystallization, aging behaviour, moisture absorption, and mechanical performance. X-ray diffraction data showed that the relative crystallinity of the plasticized starch decreased. Both the crystal and the crystallinity of starch iflms were rarely changed in aging. Moisture absorption relied on the ester content and relative humidity. The elongation at break increased signiifcantly with plasticizer content more than 10% in the matrix.

  8. Influence of Chemical Modification Level of Starch on Flow Properties of Gelatinized Phosphate Cross-linked and Acetylated Waxy Corn Starch Suspensions

    OpenAIRE

    朝田, 仁; 鈴木, 寛一

    2004-01-01

    Waxy corn starch was modified doubly by acetylation and cross-linking with acetic vinyl and phosphorus oxychloride (POCl3). Degree of cross-linking was varied using 0.008∼0.02% phosphorus oxychloride, and acetylated substitution was adjusted to the same degree on all starch samples. Flow properties of these starch suspensions were determined by using a capillary tube viscometer. Flow parameters of these starch suspensions were markedly changed over 1.21×10-4% (w/w) of the phosphorus content. ...

  9. Enzymatically hydrolysed, acetylated and dually modified corn starch: physico-chemical, rheological and nutritional properties and effects on cake quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahnoun, Mouna; Ismail, Nouha; Kammoun, Radhouane

    2016-01-01

    Corn starch was treated by enzymatic hydrolysis with Aspergillus oryzae S2 α-amylase, acetylation with vinyl acetate, and dual modification. The dual modified starch displayed a higher substitution degree than the acetylated starch and lower reducing sugar content than the hydrolysed starch. The results revealed that the cooling viscosity and amylose content of those products decrease (P cake formulations at 5 and 10 % concentrations on a wheat flour basis and compared to native starch. The results revealed that when applied at 5 % concentrations, the modified starches reduced the hardness, cohesion, adhesion and chewiness of baked cakes and enhanced their elasticity, volume, height, crust color, and appearance as compared to native starch. These effects were more pronounced for the cake incorporating the dually modified starch.

  10. Gelatinized and nongelatinized corn starch/ poly(epsilon-caprolactone blends: characterization by rheological, mechanical and morphological properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derval S. Rosa

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Poly(epsilon-caprolactone/corn starch blends containing 25, 50 and 75 wt.% starch were prepared by mechanical processing and characterized by the melt flow index (MFI, tensile test and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. For comparison, starch was used in gelatinized and nongelatinized forms and was also characterized by viscography. The addition of starch to poly(epsilon-caprolactone reduced the MFI values, the tensile strength and the elongation at break, whereas the modulus increased. The reductions in the MFI and tensile properties were most evident when gelatinized starch was used. Viscography and SEM showed that starch was well gelatinized by the gelatinization process. Blends containing nongelatinized starch showed a good dispersion of starch but poor interfacial interactions.

  11. Fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and ethanol fermentation of native corn starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Włodzimierz Grajek

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The most important innovations in boethanol production in the last decade were: simultaneous saccharification and fermentation processes (SSF, high gravity fermentation, the use of new enzyme preparation able to hydrolyse native granular starch and construction of genetically modified strains of microorganisms able to carry out simultaneous production of hydrolytic enzymes and fermentation of C6 and C5 sugars. The aim of this study was to assess the efficiency of ethanol fermentation using new type of amylolytic enzymes able to hydrolyse native corn starch in a SSF process. Material and methods. The simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of raw corn flour by fed-batch processes using Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain Red Star Ethanol Red and Stargen 001 enzyme preparation was performed. As experimental variable were investigated: fermentation temperature (35-37-40°C, rate of mash stirring (100 and 200 rpm, fermentation time (0-92 h and dosage of corn flour (different portion and different time. Results. It was found that optimal temperature for fed-batch SSF process was 37°C at initial pH of 5.0. However, the yeast intensively fermented the saccharides also at 40°C. The fermentation stirring rate has significant effect on starch utilization and fermentation production. The prolongation of fermentation time over 72 h has no substantiation in additional ethanol production. In all experimental fermentations the level of produced organic acids was very low, significantly below toxic concentration for the yeast. Conclusions. It was stated that the use of new method of starch raw material preparation resulted in satisfied fermentation yield and allowed to reduce energy requirements for starch liquefaction.  

  12. All-natural bio-plastics using starch-betaglucan composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sagnelli, Domenico; Kirkensgaard, Jacob Judas Kain; Giosafatto, Concetta Valeria L.

    2017-01-01

    functionalities chemical modifications or blending with synthetic polymers, such as polycaprolactone are required (e.g. Mater-Bi). As an alternative, all-natural and compostable bio-plastics can be produced by blending starch with other polysaccharides. In this study, we used a maize starch (ST) and an oat β......Grain polysaccharides represent potential valuable raw materials for next-generation advanced and environmentally friendly plastics. Thermoplastic starch (TPS) is processed using conventional plastic technology, such as casting, extrusion, and molding. However, to adapt the starch to specific......-glucan (BG) composite system to produce bio-plastic prototype films. To optimize performing conditions, we investigated the full range of ST:BG ratios for the casting (100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75 and 0:100 BG). The plasticizer used was glycerol. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR), using TEMPO (2...

  13. Effect of starch source (corn, oats or wheat) and concentration on fermentation by equine faecal microbiota in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, B E; Donley, T M; Lawrence, L M; Flythe, M D

    2015-11-01

    The goal was to determine the effect of starch source (corn, oats and wheat) and concentration on: (i) total amylolytic bacteria, Group D Gram-positive cocci (GPC), lactobacilli and lactate-utilizing bacteria, and (ii) fermentation by equine microbiota. When faecal washed cell suspensions were incubated with any substrate amylolytics increased over time. However, at 24 h there were 10 and 1000-fold more amylolytics with corn than wheat or oats respectively. Predominant amylolytics isolated were Enterococcus faecalis (corn, wheat) and Streptococcus bovis (oats). GPC increased with any substrate, but decreased during stationary phase in oats only. Lactobacilli decreased during stationary phase with corn only. By 24 h, oats had more lactate-utilizers and lactobacilli and fewer GPC than corn and wheat. More gas was produced from oats or wheat than from corn. These results indicate that the growth of bacteria and fermentative capacity associated with starch metabolism is starch source dependent. This study demonstrates a relationship between starch source and microbial changes independent of host digestion. However, future research is needed to evaluate the effect of starch source on the hindgut microbial community in vivo. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  14. Effect of replacement of corn starch by whey protein isolate in biodegradable film blends obtained by extrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Viviane Machado; Borges, Soraia Vilela; Marconcini, José Manoel; Yoshida, Maria Irene; Neto, Alfredo Rodrigues Sena; Pereira, Tamara Coelho; Pereira, Camila Ferreira Gonçalves

    2017-02-10

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of replacing corn starch by whey protein isolated (WPI) in biodegradable polymer blends developed by extrusion. X-ray diffraction showed the presence of a Vh-type crystalline arrangement. The films were homogeneous, indicating strong interfacial adhesion between the protein and the thermoplastic starch matrix (TPS) as observed in scanning electron microscopy. The addition of WPI on TPS matrix promoted an increase in the thermal stability of the materials. It was observed 58.5% decrease in the water vapor permeability. The effect of corn starch substitution by WPI on mechanical properties resulted in a more resistant and less flexible film when compared the TPS film. The addition of WPI caused greenish yellow color and less transparent films. The substitution of corn starch by WPI made it possible to obtain polymer blends with improved properties and represents an innovation for application as a packaging material.

  15. Effect of lactic acid and UV irradiation on the cassava and corn starches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia Maria Landi Franco

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the effect of lactic acid and UV irradiation on the physicochemical and structural characteristics of cassava and corn starches was evaluated. Only the modified cassava starch presented baking expansion capacity. From RVA, reduction of viscosity values, greater internal stability and none set back for modified cassava starch were observed. Modified corn starch did not show any peak viscosity. There were no significant differences in DSC thermal properties of treated and native starches. Amylopectin and amylose molecules from both the modified starches displayed some degradation. Molecular weight of cassava amylopectin was mostly preserved, whereas corn amylopectin was evenly attacked through the granule. Nevertheless, the B long branched chains of cassava amylopectin, with DP~37, were degraded whereas they were unchanged for corn amylopectin.Amido de mandioca modificado com ácido lático e radiação ultravioleta antes da secagem artificial têm mostrado boa capacidade de expansão, a exemplo da encontrada para o polvilho azedo. Neste trabalho, os efeitos do ácido lático e radiação UV sobre as características físico-químicas e estruturais de amidos de mandioca e milho foram investigados. Apenas o amido de mandioca modificado apresentou capacidade de expansão durante o forneamento. Do RVA, redução dos valores de viscosidade, boa estabilidade interna e nenhuma tendência a retrogradação para este amido modificado foi observado. O amido de milho não apresentou qualquer pico de viscosidade após modificação. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas nas propriedades térmicas, determinadas em DSC, entre os amidos nativos e modificados de ambas as fontes. As moléculas de amilopectina e amilose de ambos os amidos modificados mostraram alguma degradação. O peso molecular da amilopectina do amido de mandioca foi mais preservado, enquanto a amilopectina do amido de milho foi mais atacada em todo o grânulo. As

  16. Gamma radiation influences pasting, thermal and structural properties of corn starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Bettaïeb, Nasreddine; Jerbi, Mohamed Taïeb; Ghorbel, Dorra

    2014-10-01

    Irradiation is one of the effective methods able to change starch structure and its functional properties. In this research, the effect of γ-radiation (3, 5, 10, 20 and 50 kGy) on the pasting, thermal, structural and morphological properties of corn starch was studied. Brabender viscoamylograph test showed that the maximal consistency of the starch paste and its corresponding temperature decreased significantly with increasing irradiation dose. Differential scanning calorimetry also showed a decrease in gelatinization temperatures (TOnset, Tp, TOffset) with increasing irradiation dose. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectra showed that the irradiated starch displayed a significant decrease in the intensity of O-H stretch, C-H stretch, bending mode of water and bending mode of glycosidic linkage. No modification in the shape and intensity of X-ray diffraction peaks was observed after irradiation. These results suggested that until 50 kGy, γ- radiation would affect the starch granule membrane and the amorphous zone rather than the crystalline one.

  17. Oxidized potato starch based thermoplastic films : Effect of combination of hydrophilic and amphiphilic plasticizers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niazi, Muhammad Bilal Khan; Broekhuis, Antonius A.

    2016-01-01

    Different combinations of hydrophilic (glycerol and water) and amphiphilic (isoleucine) plasticizers were studied in the production of thermoplastic starch (TPS) powders and films from oxidized potato starch. All powder samples had an irregular and shrivelled morphology. In all mixtures containing i

  18. Effects of the Noncyclic Cyanamides on the Gelatinization of Waxy Corn Starch; Waxy Corn Starch no koka ni oyobosu hikanjo shianamido rui no tenka koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Kazuo.; Nishikawa, Saisei.; Yoshimura, Toshiaki.; Ono, Shin.; Rengakuji, Seichi.; Nakamura, Yuko.; Shimasaki, Choichiro. [Toyama University, Toyama (Japan). Department of System Engineering of Materials and Life Science; Yamazaki, Isao. [Yayoikagaku Kogyo Corp., Toyama (Japan)

    1999-01-10

    Effects of noncyclic cyanamides on the gelatinization of waxy corn starch (WCS) suspension, containing amylopectin as a major component, were examined by analyses of differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray powder diffraction, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy by the attenuated total reflection method. The temperature for the gelatinization of WCS suspension decreased by addition of urea, tiourea, and biuret in comparison to that without additives. These results suggested that the amino, imino, carbamoyl, and thiocarbamoyl groups of additives might have affected the collapses of the intra-and intermolecular hydrogen bonds of the WCS by forming hydrogen bonds with hydroxy groups in the WCS. However, the temperature slightly increased with the increase of the concentraion of guanidinium salts except for guanidine gydrocholoride. The inhibition effect on the gelatinization might have been explained by the anion-constituting guanidinium salts. (author)

  19. 鹰嘴豆淀粉与玉米淀粉性质的比较%Comparative Study on Properties of Chickpea Starch and Corn Starch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾楠; 刘美艳; 赵国华

    2011-01-01

    研究了新疆产鹰嘴豆淀粉的一些基本性质,并与玉米淀粉进行比较,发现鹰嘴豆淀粉中直链淀粉质量分数为31.8%,高于玉米淀粉的直链淀粉质量分数(26.6%);通过电镜扫描发现鹰嘴豆淀粉颗粒表面光滑,形状多数为椭圆形、鹅卵石状,少数为圆形,而玉米淀粉颗粒多为圆形,呈多角状;粒度分析表明鹰嘴豆淀粉的粒径范围是6.39 ~41.80 μm,体积平均粒径是16.77 μn,而玉米淀粉粒径范围是4.02~33.35 μm,体积平均粒径是14.60 μm;鹰嘴豆淀粉持水力、溶解度优于玉米淀粉,透光率低于玉米淀粉;差示扫描量热( DSC)分析发现鹰嘴豆淀粉糊化温度为60.6 ~71.8℃,相变热焓值为7.12 J/g;玉米淀粉糊化温度为65.4~75.1℃,相变热焓值为10.61 J/g.%In this paper, some basic properties of Xinjiang chickpea starch was researched, and then compared with those of corn starch. It has been found that the mass fraction of amylose starch in chickpea starch was 31. 8% , which was higher than that (26.6% ) of the corn starch; by scanning starch granules with an electron microscopy,it was found that chickpea starch grain was smooth in surface, mainly in the form of oval and cobblestone and rarely in round,while the corn starch grain was mainly round with multiple angles. The particle size analysis showed that the particle size of chickpeas starch ranged from 6.39 to 41.80μm,and the volume average particle size was 14.60μm, while those of the corn starch were from 4.02 ~ 33.35μm and 14.60μm respectively. Besides,the water holding capacity and solubility of chickpea starch were better than those of the corn starch, of which the light transmittance was lower than that of the corn starch. The differential scanning calorimetry ( DSC) analysis showed that the gelatinization temperature of the chickpea starch was between 60. 6℃ and 71. 8 ℃,and the phase transition enthalpy value was 7. 12 J/g, while those of the corn starch was

  20. Enzymatic digestibility and ethanol fermentability of AFEX-treated starch-rich lignocellulosics such as corn silage and whole corn plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thelen Kurt D

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Corn grain is an important renewable source for bioethanol production in the USA. Corn ethanol is currently produced by steam liquefaction of starch-rich grains followed by enzymatic saccharification and fermentation. Corn stover (the non-grain parts of the plant is a potential feedstock to produce cellulosic ethanol in second-generation biorefineries. At present, corn grain is harvested by removing the grain from the living plant while leaving the stover behind on the field. Alternatively, whole corn plants can be harvested to cohydrolyze both starch and cellulose after a suitable thermochemical pretreatment to produce fermentable monomeric sugars. In this study, we used physiologically immature corn silage (CS and matured whole corn plants (WCP as feedstocks to produce ethanol using ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis (at low enzyme loadings and cofermentation (for both glucose and xylose using a cellulase-amylase-based cocktail and a recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae 424A (LNH-ST strain, respectively. The effect on hydrolysis yields of AFEX pretreatment conditions and a starch/cellulose-degrading enzyme addition sequence for both substrates was also studied. Results AFEX-pretreated starch-rich substrates (for example, corn grain, soluble starch had a 1.5-3-fold higher enzymatic hydrolysis yield compared with the untreated substrates. Sequential addition of cellulases after hydrolysis of starch within WCP resulted in 15-20% higher hydrolysis yield compared with simultaneous addition of hydrolytic enzymes. AFEX-pretreated CS gave 70% glucan conversion after 72 h of hydrolysis for 6% glucan loading (at 8 mg total enzyme loading per gram glucan. Microbial inoculation of CS before ensilation yielded a 10-15% lower glucose hydrolysis yield for the pretreated substrate, due to loss in starch content. Ethanol fermentation of AFEX-treated (at 6% w/w glucan loading CS hydrolyzate (resulting

  1. Enzymatic digestibility and ethanol fermentability of AFEX-treated starch-rich lignocellulosics such as corn silage and whole corn plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Corn grain is an important renewable source for bioethanol production in the USA. Corn ethanol is currently produced by steam liquefaction of starch-rich grains followed by enzymatic saccharification and fermentation. Corn stover (the non-grain parts of the plant) is a potential feedstock to produce cellulosic ethanol in second-generation biorefineries. At present, corn grain is harvested by removing the grain from the living plant while leaving the stover behind on the field. Alternatively, whole corn plants can be harvested to cohydrolyze both starch and cellulose after a suitable thermochemical pretreatment to produce fermentable monomeric sugars. In this study, we used physiologically immature corn silage (CS) and matured whole corn plants (WCP) as feedstocks to produce ethanol using ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis (at low enzyme loadings) and cofermentation (for both glucose and xylose) using a cellulase-amylase-based cocktail and a recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae 424A (LNH-ST) strain, respectively. The effect on hydrolysis yields of AFEX pretreatment conditions and a starch/cellulose-degrading enzyme addition sequence for both substrates was also studied. Results AFEX-pretreated starch-rich substrates (for example, corn grain, soluble starch) had a 1.5-3-fold higher enzymatic hydrolysis yield compared with the untreated substrates. Sequential addition of cellulases after hydrolysis of starch within WCP resulted in 15-20% higher hydrolysis yield compared with simultaneous addition of hydrolytic enzymes. AFEX-pretreated CS gave 70% glucan conversion after 72 h of hydrolysis for 6% glucan loading (at 8 mg total enzyme loading per gram glucan). Microbial inoculation of CS before ensilation yielded a 10-15% lower glucose hydrolysis yield for the pretreated substrate, due to loss in starch content. Ethanol fermentation of AFEX-treated (at 6% w/w glucan loading) CS hydrolyzate (resulting in 28 g/L ethanol

  2. Starch poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooking starch poisoning; Laundry starch poisoning ... Cooking and laundry starch are both made from vegetable products, most commonly: Corn Potatoes Rice Wheat Both are usually considered nonpoisonous (nontoxic), but ...

  3. STUDIES ON GRAFT COPOLYMERIZATION OF DL—LACTIDE ON CORN STARCH AND BIODEGRADABILITY OF THE COPOLYMERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YOUYingcai; ZHUChangying; 等

    2000-01-01

    The starch/D,L-lactide graft copolymers were synthesized by reacting D,L-lactide with corn starch in N,N-dimethylacetamide(DMAM)in the presence of triethylamine(NEt3)and anhydrous lithium chloride.The effect of reaction time and the molar ratio of D,L-lactide to glucose structural unit of starch on monomer conversion(C%),graft(G%)and graft efficiency(GE%)were studied,The C%,G%and GE% could approach 37.3% 179.7%and 68.0%,respectively when the molar ratio of D,L-lactide to glucose structuralunit of starch is 10:1 and the graft copolymerization was carried out at 80-85℃ for 4hr under nitrogen atmosphere.The Fourier transforms infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy.differential scanning calorimetry(DSC)and X_ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy were used in order to characterize the graft copolymers.FTIR spectra show that absorption band at 1740cm-1 confirmed the formation of ester bond,indicating the starch /D,L-lactide graft copolymers were produced,the DSC characteristic results show the melting temperature of the graft copolymer were elevated slightly as the molar ratio of D,L-lactide to glucose structural units of starch increased and the X-ray diffraction spectra show the synthesized graft copolymers were amorphous.The degradability of graft copolymer was tested with the aid of acid,alkali and microbe such as bacillus subtilis and staphylococcus aureus.The results of water rsistance show the graft copolymer produced can be used as a component of impermeable coating for cardboard.

  4. Mechanical properties and solubility in water of corn starch-collagen composite films: Effect of starch type and concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kun; Wang, Wenhang; Ye, Ran; Liu, Anjun; Xiao, Jingdong; Liu, Yaowei; Zhao, Yana

    2017-02-01

    This study investigated the possibility of enhancing the properties of collagen with three different maize starches: waxy maize starch, normal starch, and high amylose starch. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed that starch-collagen films had a rougher surface compared to pure collagen films which became smoother upon heating. Amylose starch and normal starch increased the tensile strength of unheated collagen films in both dry and wet states, while all starches increased tensile strength of collagen film by heating. Depending upon the amylose content and starch concentrations, film solubility in water decreased with the addition of starch. DSC thermograms demonstrated that addition of all starches improved the thermal stability of the collagen film. Moreover, X-ray diffraction results indicated that except for high amylose starch, the crystallinity of both starch and collagen was significantly decreased when subject to heating. FTIR spectra indicated that intermolecular interactions between starch and collagen were enhanced upon heating.

  5. Economic analysis of fuel ethanol production from corn starch using fluidized-bed bioreactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, M.S.; Davison, B.H.; Nghiem, N.P. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (United States). Chemical Technology Division; Taylor, F. [USDA, Wyndmoor, PA (United States). Eastern Regional Research

    2000-11-01

    The economics of fuel ethanol production from dry-milled corn starch were studied in fluidized-bed bioreactors (FBRs) using immobilized biocatalysts. Glucoamylase immobilized on porous diatomaceous earth was used for hydrolysis of the starch to glucose in a packed-bed reactor. The fermentation of glucose to ethanol was carried out in FBRs using Zymomonas mobilis immobilized in {kappa}-carrageenan beads. Volumetric ethanol productivities of up to 24 g/l h were achieved in non-optimized laboratory-scale systems. For a 15 million gal/yr ethanol plant, an economic analysis of this process was performed with Aspen Plus (Aspen Technology, Cambridge, MA) process simulation software. The analysis shows that an operating cost savings in the range of 1.1-3.1 cents/gal can be realized by using the FBR technology. (author)

  6. Possibilities of utilization of co-products from corn grain ethanol and starch production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semenčenko Valentina V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the expansion of alternative fuels production from crops traditionally used for food and animal feed has led to significant changes in the field of energy production, agriculture and food industry. Starch and sugar feedstocks for ethanol production (corn, wheat, sugar beet, sugar cane, etc. require increasing arable land to meet market demands for the biofuel production. Although intensive studies are being carried out in order to identify improved and more cost-effective methods for the utilization of lignocellulosic and communal waste in the production of alcohol fuel, the possibility of using dry distillers’ grains with solubles (DDGS, by-product of bioethanol production from corn and wheat as well as alcoholic beverages industry, is now in focus. Application of DDGS in livestock and poultry diets in concentrations greater than traditional could positively affect the economic viability of this biofuel production, but also stabilize the current imbalance in the food and animal feed market. However, DDGS feedstuff should not be treated as a perfect substitute for corn because the complexity of ration formulation determined at the farm or feedlot level is driven by energy and protein and other nutrient requirements, as well as their relative costs in the ration. Nevertheless, processing of corn by wet milling provides a multitude of co-products suitable for feedstuffs, food industry, pharmaceuticals, chemistry etc. Some of the most important wet milling co-products that have their use in feedstuffs are corn gluten feed and corn gluten meal. The use of DDGS as a substitute for traditional feed could prevent indirect land-use changes associated with biofuel production, and therefore preserve the environmental destruction by saving the forests and permanent pastures. The use of distiller’s grains can be beneficial to biofuel growth as this is an additional, the second largest, source of income accounting of 10-20% total

  7. Effect of incorporation of nutraceutical capsule waste of safflower oil in the mechanical characteristics of corn starch films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila de CAMPO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Biodegradable films blends made of safflower oil nutraceutical capsules waste corn starch (20:4, 30:4, 40:4 and 50:4 were prepared. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of addition of different concentrations of safflower oil nutraceutical capsule waste in the mechanical properties (tensile strength, elongation at break, Young’s modulus and thickness of corn starch films. A decrease in tensile strength and Young’s modulus and an increase in elongation at break were observed with the increase in the content of the nutraceutical capsule waste. The results showed that the blends of safflower oil capsules waste-corn starch films demonstrated promising characteristics to form biodegradable films with different mechanical characteristics.

  8. Physical, mechanical and barrier properties of corn starch films incorporated with plant essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemlou, Mehran; Aliheidari, Nahal; Fahmi, Ronak; Shojaee-Aliabadi, Saeedeh; Keshavarz, Behnam; Cran, Marlene J; Khaksar, Ramin

    2013-10-15

    Corn starch-based films are inherently brittle and lack the necessary mechanical integrity for conventional packaging. However, the incorporation of additives can potentially improve the mechanical properties and processability of starch films. In this work two essential oils, Zataria multiflora Boiss (ZEO) or Mentha pulegium (MEO) at three levels (1%, 2% and 3% (v/v)), were incorporated into starch films using a solution casting method to improve the mechanical and water vapor permeability (WVP) properties and to impart antimicrobial activity. Increasing the content of ZEO or MEO from 2% to 3% (v/v) increased values for elongation at break from 94.38% to 162.45% and from 53.34% to 107.71% respectively, but did not significantly change tensile strength values of the films. The WVP properties of the films decreased from 7.79 to 3.37 or 3.19 g mm m(-2) d(-1) kPa(-1) after 3% (v/v) ZEO or MEO incorporation respectively. The oxygen barrier properties were unaffected at the 1% and 2% (v/v) oil concentration used but oxygen transmission increased with 3% (v/v) for both formulations. The films' color became slightly yellow as the levels of ZEO or MEO were increased although transparency was maintained. Both films demonstrated antimicrobial activity with films containing ZEO more effective against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus than those containing MEO. These results suggest that ZEO and MEO have the potential to be directly incorporated into corn starch to prepare antimicrobial biodegradable films for various food packaging applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Regulatory effect of porcine plasma protein hydrolysates on pasting and gelatinization action of corn starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Baohua; Niu, Haili; Sun, Fangda; Han, Jianchun; Liu, Qian

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the regulatory effect of porcine plasma protein hydrolysates (PPPH) on the physicochemical, pasting, and gelatinization properties of corn starch (CS). The results showed that the solubility of CS markedly increased, whereas swelling power and gel penetration force decreased with increased PPPH concentration (Pgelatinization temperature as determined in differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) (Pgelatinization. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images indicated that the blocklet sizes of gelatinized CS-PPPH mixtures were smaller and more uniform than native CS. The results proved that pasting and gelatinization abilities of CS can be effectively influenced by adding PPPH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Isosorbide, a green plasticizer for thermoplastic starch that does not retrogradate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battegazzore, Daniele; Bocchini, Sergio; Nicola, Gabriele; Martini, Eligio; Frache, Alberto

    2015-03-30

    Isosorbide is a non-toxic biodegradable diol derived from bio-based feedstock. It can be used for preparing thermoplastic starch through a semi-industrial process of extrusion. Isosorbide allows some technological advantages with respect to classical plasticizers: namely, direct mixing with starch, energy savings for the low processing temperature required and lower water uptake. Indeed, maize starch was directly mixed with the solid plasticizer and direct fed in the main hopper of a co-rotating twin screw extruder. Starch plasticization was assessed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and dynamic-mechanical analysis (DMTA). Oxygen permeability, water uptake and mechanical properties were measured at different relative humidity (R.H.) values. These three properties turned out to be highly depending on the R.H. No retrogradation and changing of the material properties were occurred from XRD and DMTA after 9 months.

  11. Studies on the starch-water interactions between partially gelatinized corn starch and water during gelatinization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zong-Qiang; Wang, Li-Jun; Zou, Hui; Li, Dong; Adhikari, Benu

    2014-01-30

    The effect of moisture content on the interactions between water and partially gelatinized starch during gelatinization process was investigated. The interactions were probed using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The starch samples were partially gelatinized at 25°C (S25), 64°C (S64), 68°C (S68) and 70°C (S70) and the moisture contents were varied from 25% to 78% (w/w). The G endotherm was not observed and only the M1 endotherm was observed in S64, S68 and S70 in the entire moisture content range. The G endotherm was not observed and only the M1 endotherm was observed at higher peak temperature in S25 when the moisture content was below 30% (w/w). The melting temperature of M2 endotherm in S70 was the highest among all the samples tested in the entire moisture content range. At water content>30% (w/w), S68 and S70 had lower amount of unfreezable water, while S64 had higher amount of unfreezable water. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Quality Properties of Sausages Made with Replacement of Pork with Corn Starch, Chicken Breast and Surimi during Refrigerated Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Hyun-Woo; Kang, Geun-Ho; Cho, Soo-Hyun; Ba, Hoa Van; Seong, Pil-Nam

    2015-01-01

    This effect of replacing pork with corn starch, chicken breast and surimi on the chemical composition, physical, texture and sensory properties of sausage were investigated during storage. Five treatments of sausage such as; T1 (10:0:0, %), T2 (10:5:0, %), T3 (10:10:5, %), T4 (10:15:10, %) and T5 (10:20:15, %) were prepared with replacement of pork with corn starch, chicken breast and surimi. The sausage made with pork meat served as control (C). The sausage in the control had higher moisture...

  13. Strength of cellulosic fiber/starch acetate composites with variable fiber and plasticizer content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joffe, Roberts; Madsen, Bo; Nättinen, Kalle

    2015-01-01

    In this experimental study, the performance of injection-molded short flax and hemp fibers in plasticized starch acetate were analyzed in terms of strength. Parameters involved in the analysis are a variable fiber and plasticizer content. The measured strength of the composites varies in the rang...

  14. 玉米淀粉和糯玉米淀粉的微波糊化特性研究%Effect of microwave on paste property of corn starch and waxy corn starch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐忠; 刘雪唯; 王志鹏; 徐巧娇; 赵丹

    2015-01-01

    以玉米淀粉和糯玉米淀粉为原料,采用微波加热制备玉米淀粉糊,并与水浴加热制备的淀粉糊相比较,以碘兰值和酶解力为指标,研究了微波法对淀粉糊化特性的影响。研究结果表明,糊化过程中水浴法和微波法糊化淀粉的碘兰值和酶解力均随糊化时间的延长逐渐上升,其中微波糊化淀粉的速度比水浴快,但微波加热玉米淀粉糊的碘兰值和酶解力比水浴加热低。%With corn starch and waxy corn starch as raw material , the influence of microwave radation and water bath heating on blue value and enzyme hydrolysability of corn starch and waxy corn starch paste was studied .The results indicated that the blue value and enzyme hydrolysability of starch paste prepared by microwave and water bath heating increased as the prolonging of heating time during gelatinization .The gelatinization rate of starch paste pre-pared by microwave was faster .But the blue value and enzyme hydrolysability of starch paste prepared by microwave were lower than by water bath heating .

  15. Physical stability and moisture sorption of aqueous chitosan-amylose starch films plasticized with polyols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cervera, Mirna Fernández; Karjalainen, Milja; Airaksinen, Sari

    2004-01-01

    The short-term stability and the water sorption of films prepared from binary mixtures of chitosan and native amylose maize starch (Hylon VII) were evaluated using free films. The aqueous polymer solutions of the free films contained 2% (w/w) film formers, glycerol, or erythritol as a plasticizer...... in the crystallinity of the films are evident within a 3-month period of storage, and the changes in the solid state are dependent on the plasticizer and storage conditions. When stored at ambient conditions for 3 months, the aqueous chitosan-amylose starch films plasticized with erythritol exhibited a partly...

  16. Study on performance increasing of corn starch composite film by pullulanase%用普鲁兰酶改进玉米淀粉基复合膜性能的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈光; 王香琪; 孙旸; 刘洁心; 徐杨

    2011-01-01

    以玉米淀粉为原料,选用甘油为增塑剂,羧甲基纤维素钠与海藻酸钠复合为增强剂,采用延流法制备玉米淀粉基复合膜.研究增塑剂的种类、用量,增强剂的种类、用量,烘干温度,延流体积等对复合膜性能的影响.普鲁兰酶可使淀粉中的支链淀粉脱支而形成直链淀粉,从而提高淀粉膜的性能.利用正交实验法,以玉米淀粉基复合膜的抗拉强度为指标,研究得出普鲁兰酶对复合玉米淀粉脱支作用时的最佳工艺条件为:酶用量0.8ASPU/g,pH4.5,时间4h,温度60℃.%With corn starch as experimental material,glycerol as plasticizer,sodium carboxy methyl cellulose and sodium alginate composite for strengthening agent,using delay flow for corn starch composite membrane. Both plasticizer and reinforcing agent's types, usages, drying temperature, flow volume etc to the effectiveness of composite membrane's capability were studied.Pullulanase was used to cleave the branching point of amylopectin for preparing starch film.Using the orthogonal trials and measuring tensile strength with corn starch composite film, it was found that the best condition for pullulanase to degrease corn starch was that pullulanase 0.8ASPU/g, pH4.5 ,time 4h,temperature 60℃.

  17. Physicochemical properties of sugar palm starch film: Effect of concentration and plasticizer type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyo, D. J.; Apriyana, W.; Jatmiko, T. H.; Hernawan; Hayati, S. N.; Rosyida, V. T.; Pranoto, Y.; Poeloengasih, C. D.

    2017-07-01

    In order to find the best formula for capsule shell production, this present work dealt with exploring physicochemical properties of sugar palm (Arenga pinnata) starch film as a function of different kinds and various concentrations of plasticizers. The films were prepared by casting method at different formula: starch 9-11%, glycerol or sorbitol 35-45% and polyethylene-glycol 400 (PEG 400) 5-9%. Appearance, thickness, retraction ratio, moisture content, swelling behavior and solubility of the film in water were analyzed. Both glycerol and sorbitol are compatible with starch matrix. On the contrary, PEG 400 did not form a film with suitable characteristics. The result reveals that glycerol- and sorbitol-plasticized films appeared translucent, homogenous, smooth and slightly brown in all formulas. Different type and concentration of plasticizers altered the physicochemical of film in different ways. The sorbitol-plasticized film had lower moisture content (≤ 10%) than that of glycerol-plasticized film (≥ 18%). In contrast, film plasticized with sorbitol showed higher solubility in water (28-35%) than glycerol-plasticized film (22-28%). As the concentration of both plasticizers increased, there was an increasing tendency on thickness and solubility in water. Conversely, retraction ratio and swelling degree decreased when both plasticizers concentration increased. In conclusion, the sorbitol-plasticized film showed a potency to be developed as hard capsule material.

  18. Study of quantitative interactions of potato and corn starch granules with ions in diluted solutions of heavy metal salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymońska, Joanna; Molenda, Marcin; Wieczorek, Jerzy

    2015-12-10

    Interactions of potato and corn starch granules with ions in diluted solutions of silver, lead, copper or iron salts were investigated. It was shown experimentally that granules accumulated the cations in amounts depending on the granule structure and water content as well as a type of both metal and counter-ions present in solution. Potato starch retained almost three times more cations compared to corn starch what was proportional to the total phosphorous content in these starches. Quantity of milligrams of cations bound by 1g of starch was inversely correlated with the cation hydration. Ag(+), Pb(2+) and Cu(2+) were connected in stoichiometric amounts of moles to semicrystalline and amorphous parts of the granules. Fe(3+) ions were accumulated in higher than stoichiometric quantities mainly in granule amorphous regions. Metal ions penetrated into granules together with anions except nitrates which remained on surface of potato starch granules. Cations facilitated the starch thermal decomposition in accordance with values of their standard redox potentials. Nitrates supported this process only in the presence of base metal cations.

  19. Soil Air Regime of Corn Field Under Plastic Mulching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENYONG-XIANG; LIUXIAO-YI; 等

    1995-01-01

    The effects of plastic mulching on soil aeration at the soil depth of 0-100 cm were studied in a corn field.The results indicated that the CO2 concentration of unmulched soil in the 0-100 cm layer ranged from 0.001 to 0.016 m3/m3,and that of mulched oil 0.002 to 0.018m3/m3,about 32,39% higher than the former on the average.Such a CO2 concentration in the soil air is still sutiable for crop growth.The O2 concentration was inversely correlated with CO2 concentration in the soil air (unmulching r=-0.92,mulching r=-0.79*).O2 concentration raged from 0.11 to 0.17m3/m3 in the mulched soil and 0.13 to 0.18m3/m3 in the unmulched soil.By contrast,N2 concentration in soil air remained relatively steady,with no difference between the two treatments.The relationship between the soil respiratory intensity and the depth of a soil layer appeard to be a power function.At the layer of 0-20cm,the soil respiration intensity in the mulched soil was obviously higher than that in the unmulched.Plastic mulching could also affect soil structure.In comparison with the unmulched soil,the content of >0.25mm aggregate and 0.05-0.001mm microaggregate in the mulched soil was reduced by 82.1% and 35.8%,respectively;the soil total porotity,gaseous phase rate and aeration porosity in the depth of 10-20cm were reduced by 2.85%,19.89%and 26.54% respectively ,but contrary at the depth of 0-10cm.

  20. Technology and economics of conversion of cellulose (wood) and corn starch to sugars, alcohol and yeast. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolnak, B.

    1978-08-01

    The present status of the technology and economics for the production of glucose, alcohol, and yeast from cellulose (wood), corn starch, and molasses is analyzed. The basic processes for producing glucose and the factors affecting the economics of its production are reviewed. The costs of producing ethanol and yeast from the glucose are derived. Market availability of glucose, ethanol, and yeast is surveyed. (JSR)

  1. Effect of starch source (corn, oats or wheat) and concentration on fermentation by equine fecal microbiota in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims: The goal was to determine the effect of starch source (corn, oats and wheat) and concentration on: 1) total amylolytic bacteria, Group D Gram-positive cocci (GPC), lactobacilli, and lactate-utilizing bacteria, and 2) fermentation by equine microflora. Methods and Results: When fecal washed cel...

  2. Tuning the Mechanical Properties of Tapioca Starch by Plasticizers, Inorganic Fillers and Agrowaste-Based Fillers

    OpenAIRE

    Edwin Azwar; Minna Hakkarainen

    2012-01-01

    Mechanical properties of tapioca starch-based films were tuned by different additives and additive combinations. The additives included plasticizers (glycerol, sorbitol, and citric acid), inorganic fillers (halloysite and kaolin), and agrowaste-based fillers (milled wood flour and rice bran). In addition, new biobased additives were prepared from wood flour and rice bran through liquefaction reaction. Through different additive combinations, starch-based materials with significant differences...

  3. Effect of gamma irradiation on thermophysical properties of plasticized starch and starch surfactant films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieśla, Krystyna; Watzeels, Nick; Rahier, Hubert

    2014-06-01

    In this work the influence of gamma irradiation on the thermomechanical properties of the films formed in potato starch-glycerol and potato starch-glycerol-surfactant systems were examined by Dynamic Mechanical Analysis, DMA, and Differential Scanning Calorimetry, DSC, and the results were correlated to the amount of the volatile fraction in the films.

  4. Utilization of sorghum, rice, corn flours with potato starch for the preparation of gluten-free pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Sila Mary Rodrigues; de Mello, Ana Paula; de Caldas Rosa dos Anjos, Mônica; Krüger, Cláudia Carneiro Hecke; Azoubel, Patrícia Moreira; de Oliveira Alves, Márcia Aurelina

    2016-01-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of mixture of sorghum-rice-corn flour and potato starch in the development of gluten-free pasta for celiac disease patients. The experiment was designed according to simplex-lattice method and different types of gluten-free flours were used, such as sorghum, rice, corn, and potato starch. The fifteen formulations were subjected to sensory analysis (Mixed Structured Scale - MSS) and seven formulations were selected in respect to taste and grittiness. These formulations were subjected to Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA), which evaluated the attributes: appearance, color, odor, hardness, elasticity, stickiness, grittiness, taste, residual bitterness and overall quality. Results showed significant difference in appearance, color and hardness. The formulations that showed the best sensory results were submitted to chemical analysis and cooking quality of pasta. It was observed that the best results for mixing is sorghum flour, rice flour and potato starch.

  5. Utilization of starch films plasticized with urea as fertilizer for improvement of plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychter, Piotr; Kot, Marta; Bajer, Krzysztof; Rogacz, Diana; Šišková, Alena; Kapuśniak, Janusz

    2016-02-10

    The utilization of starch films, obtained by extrusion of potato starch with urea as plasticizer, for the fertilization of plants has been undertaken. Release rate of urea from the starch films was conducted in water conditions. The molecular weight distribution, surface erosion and weight loss of the starch samples have been determined. The evaluation of efficiency of urea as a fertilizer in the process of release from the starch films was performed under laboratory conditions based on the plant growth test proposed by OECD 208 Guideline and the PN-ISO International Standard using oat and common radish. Although among extruded starch-based films, those that contain the highest amount of fertilizer hold the most promise for a delayed release system, the time of release of fertilizer from obtained films in undertaken study was not satisfactory. All the same, in the present study effort has been made to utilize extruded samples as a fertilizer for agriculture or horticulture purposes. Urea-plasticized starch was successfully used as a fertilizer. Plant growth assessment, including determination of such parameters as fresh and dry matter of plants and their visual evaluation, has proved the stimulating effect of using extruded films on the growth and development of cultivated plants.

  6. Formulation factors affecting the binding properties of Chi-nese yam (Dioscorea oppositifolia)and corn starches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adenike Okunlola; Oluwatoyin A.Odeku

    2009-01-01

    Objective:The quantitative effects of formulation and processing variables affecting the binding properties of Chinese yam starch (Dioscorea oppositifolia)in chloroquine phosphate tablet formulations have been investiga-ted in comparison with corn starch using a 23 factorial experimental design.Methods:Chinese yam starch,re-presenting the "low"level,and corn starch,representing the "high"level were used as binders at concentra-tions of 2.5 %w/w and 10 % w/w in chloroquine phosphate tablet formulations.The mechanical properties of the tablets,measured by the tensile strength (T)and brittle fracture index (BFI)as well as the release prop-erties measured by the disintegration time (DT)and dissolution time (t8 0-time for 80 % drug release),were used as assessment parameters.Results:The ranking of the individual coefficient values for the formulations on T was D >N C,on BFI was N >D C,on DT was D >N >C and on t8 0 was C >N >D while the ranking of the interaction coefficient on T was N-D >C-D  N-C,on BFI was N-D >N-C =C-D,on DT and t8 0 was N-C >N-D >C-D.Changing the binding agent from Chinese to corn starch,led to a decrease in T,DT and t8 0 but increase in BFI of the tablets.There were significant (P <0.001)interactions between the nature of binder,N and the other two variables,C and D.Conclusion:The result showed that Chinese yam possessed stronger binding capacity than corn starch and could be useful as an alternative binder when tablets with high mechanical strength with minimal problems of lamination,and slow release are required.

  7. Pasting and thermal properties of waxy corn starch modified by 1,4-α-glucan branching enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Junyan; Li, Yang; Li, Caiming; Gu, Zhengbiao; Cheng, Li; Hong, Yan; Li, Zhaofeng

    2017-04-01

    Waxy corn starch was modified with the 1,4-α-glucan branching enzyme (GBE) from Geobacillus thermoglucosidans STB02. Incubating waxy corn starch with GBE increased the number of α-1,6 branch points and reduced the average chain length. Enzymatic modification also decreased the breakdown and setback values of Brabender viscosity curves, indicating that the modified starch had higher paste stability. Preheating the starch at 65°C for 30min before incubation with GBE could promote enzymatic modification of starch. Linear regression was used to describe the relationships between starch structure and its pasting and thermal properties. The setback value showed a negative linear correlation with the α-1,6 branch point content (R(2)=0.9824) and a positive linear correlation with the average chain length (R(2)=0.8954). Meanwhile, the gelatinization enthalpy was also linearly correlated to the α-1,6 branch point content (R(2)=0.9326) and the average chain length (R(2)=0.8567). These insights provide a useful reference for food processors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A GREEN CHEMICAL APPROACH OF CORN STARCH MODIFICATION FOR INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS IN ADSORPTION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA MARIA ROŞU

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of research is to achieve chemical modifications of corn starch. Therefore, the present study focuses on its chemical modifications, in order to increase its aqueous solubility and to ameliorate its adsorption properties for one hydrophobic pollutant, belonging to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP, as a model. Starch chemical modifications are realized by alkylation reactions using ether (propylene oxide or ester (succinic anhydride alkyl agents. Starches obtained are characterized by 1H NMR technique in order to verify the alkylation procedure. Water solubility of the obtained product was determined and its capacity to adsorb the considered model pollutant was studied. According to the registered results, starch modification with succinic anhydride conducts to an aqueous solubility of 34.00 g·L-1, significantly increased in comparison with the solubility of native corn starch which is insoluble in water at room temperature. With this modified starch, promising results for BaP aqueous solubilisation were obtained.

  9. Synthesis of aliphatic amidediol and used as a novel mixed plasticizer for thermoplastic starch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian She Zhang; Jiu Gao Yu; Ying Wu; Xiao Fei Ma

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,aliphatic amidediol was synthesized and mixed with glycerol used as a plasticizer for preparing thermoplastic starch (AGPTPS).The yield of aliphatic amidediol was 91%.FT-IR expressed that the mixture of aliphatic amidediol and glycerol formed stronger and stable hydrogen bond with starch molecules compared to the native cornstarch.By scanning electron microscope (SEM) native cornstarch granules were proved to transfer to a homogeneous continuous system.After being stored for a period time at room temperature,the mechanical properties of AGPTPS were also studied.As a mixed plasticizer,aliphatic amidediol and glycerol would be practical to extend TPS application scopes.

  10. Preparation and properties of blends composed of lignosulfonated layered double hydroxide/plasticized starch and thermoplastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Privas, Edwige; Leroux, Fabrice; Navard, Patrick

    2013-07-01

    Layered double hydroxide prepared with lignosulfonate (LDH/LS) can be easily dispersed down to the nanometric scale in thermoplastic starch, at concentration of 1 up to 4 wt% of LDH/LS. They can thus be used as a bio-based reinforcing agent of thermoplastic starch. Incorporation of LDH/LS in starch must be done using LDH/LS slurry instead of powder on order to avoid secondary particles aggregation, the water of the paste being used as the starch plasticizer. This reinforced starch was used for preparing a starch-polyolefine composite. LDH/LS-starch nanocomposites were mixed in a random terpolymer of ethylene, butyl acrylate (6%) and maleic anhydride (3%) at concentrations of 20 wt% and 40 wt%. With a 20% loading of (1 wt% LDH/LS in thermoplastic starch), the ternary copolymer is partially bio-based while keeping nearly its original processability and mechanical properties and improving oxygen barrier properties. The use of layered double hydroxides is also removing most odours linked to the lignin phase.

  11. Corn Growth as Affected by Plastic Cover Under Drip Irrigation Condition in the Desert

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGXUE-FENG; U.SHANI

    1994-01-01

    Plastic cover,as a method to minimize soil water evaporation and improve water use efficiency,was used for corn during the whole growing period in a desert area.Field Studies were conducted to determine the effect of plastic covering nmanagement on corn growth and rooting pattern and its relationship with changes in climate.Four treatments.0) bared soil without cover,1) covering one side of the crop,2) covering both sides of the crop,and 3) covering the surface totally,were established on a sandy loam soil.Results showed that treatment 0 was significantly different from others and revealed that plastic covering was not always good to corn growht.Improper usage of plastic cover might weaken root development and thereafter lower the total yield of the crop.Suitable practices cvombining different methods discussed could not only improve water use efficiency but also increase the crop yield.

  12. 新型氧化淀粉胶粘剂的制备%Preparation of newly oxidized corn starch adhesive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟庆宇; 王永娟; 刘建国; 尹双良

    2013-01-01

    By using oxidation modification, pasting agent, cross linked gelatin and naki montmorillonite, the stability corn starch adhesive is developed. The effect of bond behavior for corn starch adhesive was investigated. Effect of the amount of oxidant, pasting agent, crosslinked gelatin and naki montmorillonite on the starch adhesive bonding performance were studied. The results showed that the optimal of directions for producing chemicals for corn starch adhesive was determined 0. 3% potassium permanganate,0. 9% NaOH,0. 3% borax and naki montmorillonite 4%.%以玉米淀粉为原料,采用氧化改性法,并配以糊化剂、胶联剂及适量钠基蒙脱土,研制出稳定氧化淀粉胶粘剂.研究了氧化剂、糊化剂、胶联剂及钠基蒙脱土用量对淀粉胶粘剂粘结性能的影响.结果表明,氧化淀粉胶粘剂的最佳配方为:高锰酸钾的用量为0.3%,氢氧化钠的用量为0.9%,硼砂的用量为0.3%,钠基蒙脱土的用量为4%.

  13. Improvement on the freeze-thaw stability of corn starch gel by the polysaccharide from leaves of Corchorus olitorius L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Eiji; Sago, Toru; Kasubuchi, Yoshiaki; Imamura, Kazuhito; Matsuoka, Toshio; Kurita, Osamu; Nambu, Hironobu; Matsumura, Yasuki

    2013-04-15

    Effect of the polysaccharide from leaves of Corchorus olitorius L. (PLC) on the freeze-thaw (FT) stability of corn starch gel was studied. PLC was incorporated into the starch gel at 0.7% and total solid was adjusted to 6.0%. The syneresis was measured by the centrifugal-filtration method and, as a result, addition of PLC reduced effectively the syneresis of the starch gel even after 5 FT cycles, which was less than one third that of the normal starch gel. The rheological changes of the starch/PLC gel during the FT treatments were evaluated while the gel remained on the rheometer plate. The starch/PLC gel had less significant changes in the rheological parameters during the FT cycles than starch/guar gum or xanthan gum gel systems. SEM images showed that PLC stabilized the gel matrix surrounding pores, which would contribute to both a lower syneresis production and a higher stability in the rheological behavior at FT.

  14. Formation of oil droplets in plasticized starch matrix in simple shear flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emin, M.A.; Hardt, N.A.; Goot, van der A.J.; Schuchmann, H.P.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the effect of simple shear flow on the formation of triglyceride oil droplets in a plasticized starch matrix. An in-house developed shearing device was used that enabled the application of controlled shear flow and rheological characterization of the native maize starch–triglyce

  15. Formation of oil droplets in plasticized starch matrix in simple shear flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emin, M.A.; Hardt, N.A.; Goot, van der A.J.; Schuchmann, H.P.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the effect of simple shear flow on the formation of triglyceride oil droplets in a plasticized starch matrix. An in-house developed shearing device was used that enabled the application of controlled shear flow and rheological characterization of the native maize

  16. Effects of ionic conduction on hydrothermal hydrolysis of corn starch and crystalline cellulose induced by microwave irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubaki, Shuntaro; Oono, Kiriyo; Onda, Ayumu; Yanagisawa, Kazumichi; Mitani, Tomohiko; Azuma, Jun-Ichi

    2016-02-10

    This study investigated the effects of ionic conduction of electrolytes under microwave field to facilitate hydrothermal hydrolysis of corn starch and crystalline cellulose (Avicel), typical model biomass substrates. Addition of 0.1M NaCl was effective to improve reducing sugar yield by 1.61-fold at unit energy (kJ) level. Although Avicel cellulose was highly recalcitrant to hydrothermal hydrolysis, addition of 0.1M MgCl2 improved reducing sugar yield by 6.94-fold at unit energy (kJ). Dielectric measurement of the mixture of corn starch/water/electrolyte revealed that ionic conduction of electrolytes were strongly involved in facilitating hydrothermal hydrolysis of polysaccharides. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Quality Properties of Sausages Made with Replacement of Pork with Corn Starch, Chicken Breast and Surimi during Refrigerated Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hyun-Woo; Kang, Geun-Ho; Cho, Soo-Hyun; Ba, Hoa Van; Seong, Pil-Nam

    2015-01-01

    This effect of replacing pork with corn starch, chicken breast and surimi on the chemical composition, physical, texture and sensory properties of sausage were investigated during storage. Five treatments of sausage such as; T1 (10:0:0, %), T2 (10:5:0, %), T3 (10:10:5, %), T4 (10:15:10, %) and T5 (10:20:15, %) were prepared with replacement of pork with corn starch, chicken breast and surimi. The sausage made with pork meat served as control (C). The sausage in the control had higher moisture and fat contents, but lower protein content than the treatments (psausages in the T2 and T5 had decreased pH values after 3 wk storage (psausage in the control had higher VBN (volatile basic nitrogen) value than the treatments during the 1 wk storage (preplacer, that it also improves the physicochemical and texture properties of pork sausages.

  18. Gelatinization and retrogradation phenomena in starch/montmorillonite nanocomposites plasticized with different glycerol/water ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Sandra Camila; Salcedo, Felipe

    2016-10-20

    This study aims to gain insights into the intermolecular interactions present in thermoplastic starch (TPS)/montmorillonite (MMT) nanocomposites prepared using water and/or glycerol as plasticizers. Specifically, the impact of using different glycerol/water proportions on the nature of gelatinization and retrogradation processes is studied. Nanocomposites were characterized by rheometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-rays diffraction (XRD). It is shown that clay tactoids preferentially interact with glycerol molecules rather than starch macromolecules. Consequently, the effects of MMT incorporation strongly depend on the glycerol/water ratio; when a ratio of 0.5 is used minor variations were observed on the starch gelatinization process-although stronger clays-starch interactions were evident-whereas at higher ratios the addition of clays significantly increased the gelatinization temperature, up to values over 100°C. In the gelatinization process of starch in TPS samples having only glycerol as a plasticizer, the leaching of amylose and the melting of amylopectin crystalline domains seem to occur simultaneously. This different gelatinization mechanism produces a TPS having a substantially different morphology, which exhibited reduced retrogradation characteristics.

  19. Effect of Soil Burial on Tensile Properties of Polypropylene/Plasticized Cassava Starch Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry C. Obasi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Polypropylene (PP/plasticized cassava starch (PCS blended with and without compatibilizer (polypropylene-graft-maleic anhydride (PP-g-MA via melt blending were prepared for soil burial which lasted for 90 days. Plasticized starch loadings of 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 wt.% were used, while pp-g-ma was used at 10 wt.% based on starch weight. The PP/PCS and PP/PCS/PP-G-MA blends were evaluated for their tensile properties. It was observed that the tensile strength, elongation at break, and young’s modulus decreased with increases in soil burial time as well as starch content for PP/PCS blends. Similar treads for the tensile properties were observed for PP/PCS/PP-g-MA, but with higher properties as compared to uncompatibilized blends. However, the tensile properties for both PP/PCS and PP/PCS/PP-g-Ma decrease with increases in starch loading and also as the burial period progressed.

  20. Study on the characteristics of esterification-enzimatic corn starch%酯化-酶解玉米淀粉的特性分析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹建; 刘亚伟

    2011-01-01

    Corn starch was esterified by octenyl succinic anhydride(OSA) and hydrolyzed with α-amylase to prepare esterifi-cation-enzyme complex modified corn starch. The results showed as that: the transparency and solubility of esterification-enzi-matic starch were greatly improved compared to the native starch. As DE≦8,the transparency and solubility increased with DE value. In the order of freeze-thaw stability,esterification-enzymatic starch>esterification starch>native starch. In the order of retrogradation,esterification starch>esterification-enzymatic starch>native starch. In the order of emulsification,esterification starch> esterification-enzymatic starch > native starch, but in the order of emulsification stability, esterification-enzymatic starch>esterification starch>native starch.%以玉米淀粉为原料,对其进行了辛烯基琥珀酸酐(OSA)酯化,并用α-淀粉酶水解,制备了酯化-酶解复合改性玉米淀粉.结果表明,酯化-酶解淀粉的透明度、溶解度较原淀粉有很大的提高,在葡萄糖当量浓度(DE)≤8的范围内,随DE值的增加,透明度和溶解度随之增大;冻融稳定性是酯化-酶解淀粉>酯化淀粉>原淀粉,凝沉性是酯化淀粉>酯化-酶解淀粉>原淀粉;乳化能力是酯化淀粉>酯化-酶解淀粉>原淀粉,但乳化稳定性是酯化-酶解淀粉>酯化淀粉>原淀粉.

  1. Preparation and properties of thermoplastic poly(caprolactone) composites containing high amount of esterified starch without plasticizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yujie; Hu, Qiongen; Qian, Jiangtao; Li, Ting; Ma, Piming; Shi, Dongjian; Dong, Weifu; Chen, Mingqing

    2016-03-30

    Based on stearyl chloride and native starch, esterified starch were prepared and the chemical structure was characterized by (1)H NMR and FTIR. It was found that stearyl chloride was an efficient agent to fabricate esterified starch with high degree of substitution (DS). During the melt blending of esterified starch (80 wt%) and poly(caprolactone) (PCL, 20 wt%), it was shown the torque of PCL/esterified starch was much lower than that of PCL/native starch without any plasticizer, and further decreased with increasing DS. Compared with PCL/native starch, the tensile properties of PCL/esterified starch composites were significantly enhanced. The tensile strength and elongation at break were increased from 2.7 MPa to 56% for PCL/native starch composites to 9.1 MPa and 626% for PCL/esterified starch ones with DS of 1.50, respectively. SEM observation revealed the esterified starch particles in matrix became smaller and more uniform. In addition, the water resistance and hydrophobic character of PCL/esterified starch composites were improved. PCL composites containing 80 wt% esterified starch with favorable mechanical properties would have great potential applications in broad areas.

  2. Hydrothermal treatment and iodine binding provide insights into the organization of glucan chains within the semi-crystalline lamellae of corn starch granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vamadevan, Varatharajan; Hoover, Ratnajothi; Bertoft, Eric; Seetharaman, Koushik

    2014-08-01

    The importance of glucan chains that pass through both the amorphous and crystalline lamellae (tie chains) in the organization of corn starch granules was studied using heat-moisture treatment (HMT), annealing (ANN), and iodine binding. Molecular structural analysis showed that hylon starches (HV, HVII, and HVIII) contained higher proportion of intermediate glucan chains (HVIII > HVII > HV) than normal corn (CN) starch. Wide angle X-ray scattering revealed that on HMT, the extent of polymorphic transition in hylon starches decreased with increasing proportion of intermediate and long chains. Iodine treated hylon starches exhibited increased order in the V-type polymorphism as evidenced by the intense peak at 20° 2θ and the strong reflection intensity at 7.5° 2θ and the extent of the change depended on the type of hylon starch. DSC results showed that the gelatinization enthalpy of CN and waxy corn starch (CW) remained unchanged after ANN. However, hylon starches showed a significant increase in enthalpy with more distinct endotherms after ANN. It can be concluded that tie chains influence the organization of crystalline lamellae in amylose extender mutant starches.

  3. EFFECT OF PLASTICIZERS ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF EDIBLE FILM FROM JANENG STARCH – CHITOSAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narlis Juandi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The interest in the development of edible and biodegradable films has increased because it is every day more evident that non degradable are doing much damage to the environment. In this research, edible films were based on blends of janeng starch in different proportions, added of palm oil or glycerol, which were used as plasticizers. The objective was to study the effect of two different plasticizers, palm oil and glycerol of edible film from janeng starch–chitosan on the mechanical properties and FTIR spectra. Increasing concentration of glycerol as plasticizer resulted tend to increased tensile strength and elongation at break. The tensile strength and elongation at break values for palm oil is higher than glycerol as plasticizer at the same concentration. FTIR spectra show the process of making edible film from janeng starch–chitosan with palm oil or glycerol as plasticizers are physically mixing in the presence of hydrogen interactions between chains.

  4. Influência de hidrocolóides na textura de gel de amido de milho Influence of hydrocolloids in texture of corn starch gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maisa Peixoto Munhoz

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem como objetivo determinar a influência das interações das gomas xantana e guar com o amido de milho de alto teor de amilose na textura de gel durante o armazenamento. Foram utilizadas amostras de amido milho Hylon VII® (71% de amilose, National Starch, goma guar (Higum 55I®, Rhodia e goma xantana (Rhodigel 200®, Rhodia. Foram utilizadas diferentes concentrações das gomas guar e xantana, que variaram de 0 a 1%, de acordo com o delineamento experimental central composto rotacional. Em cada tratamento foram utilizadas 50g de amido com alto teor de amilose (Hylon VII, adicionadas das gomas. Estas amostras foram diluídas em água destilada e submetidas à agitação mecânica até completa dissolução. As soluções foram aquecidas até 95°C por 5 minutos para formação dos géis, os quais foram acondicionados em recipientes plásticos de 50mL e mantidos em temperatura de 5-10°C até 120h. Nos tempos T1 (24h, T2 (48h, T3 (72h, T4 (96h e T5 (120h de armazenamento foram feitas medidas da força máxima do gel de amilose em texturômetro (Stable Micro-System, Modelo TAX-T2. No período inicial, de 24 horas, a goma guar não apresentou influência positiva na redução da força do gel, sendo que a aplicação de goma xantana entre 0,7 e 1,0% apresentou os menores valores de força do gel de amilose. Após 120h de armazenamento, a força do gel de amilose diminuiu com a adição de 0,5-1,0% de goma xantana e 0-0,15% de goma guar.The main objective of this study was to determine the influence of the interactions between guar and xanthan gums with high amylose content corn starch on the texture of the gel during storage. The samples used were Hylon VII® corn starch (71% amylose (National Starch, Guar gum (Higum 551®, Rhodia and Xanthan gum (Rhodigel 200®, Rhodia. A central composite rotational design was used to formulate gels with different concentrations of the guar and xanthan gums, from 0 to 1%. For each treatment

  5. Ethanol production from dry-mill corn starch in a fluidized-bed bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, M.S.; Nghiem, N.P.; Davison, B.H.

    1998-08-01

    The development of a high-rate process for the production of fuel ethanol from dry-mill corn starch using fluidized-bed bioreactor (FBR) technology is discussed. Experiments were conducted in a laboratory scale FBR using immobilized biocatalysts. Two ethanol production process designs were considered in this study. In the first design, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation was performed at 35 C using {kappa}-carageenan beads (1.5 mm to 1.5 mm in diameter) of co-immobilized glucoamylase and Zymomonas mobilis. For dextrin feed concentration of 100 g/L, the single-pass conversion ranged from 54% to 89%. Ethanol concentrations of 23 to 36 g/L were obtained at volumetric productivities of 9 to 15 g/L-h. No accumulation of glucose was observed, indicating that saccharification was the rate-limiting step. In the second design, saccharification and fermentation were carried out sequentially. In the first stage, solutions of 150 to 160 g/L dextrins were pumped through an immobilized glucoamylase packed column maintained at 55 C. Greater than 95% conversion was obtained at a residence time of 1 h, giving a product of 165 to 170 g glucose/L. In the second stage, these glucose solutions were fed to the FBR containing Z. mobilis immobilized in {kappa}-carageenan beads. At a residence time of 2 h, 94% conversion and ethanol concentration of 70 g/L was achieved, giving an overall productivity of 23 g/L-h.

  6. Plasticization effect of triacetin on structure and properties of starch ester film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jie; Li, Xiaoxi; Huang, Chen; Chen, Ling; Li, Lin

    2013-05-15

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the plasticizing effect of triacetin on the structure and properties of starch ester film and further establish the structure-property relationships. The presence of triacetin resulted in multiple structure changes of the film. The mobility of macromolecular chain was increased to form scattered crystallite during the film formation process. The amorphous region was enlarged to contain more triacetin squeezed from crystalline region. The plasticization of triacetin and restriction of crystallite oppositely influenced the mobility of macromolecular chains in different regions. The thermal stability of triacetin changed along with its fluctuant interaction with macromolecules. Comparatively, the enhanced ether bond and the restriction from crystalline regions on the mobility of the amorphous chain consequently improved the thermal stability of the film matrix. The interaction between triacetin and starch ester was essential to film forming but unexpectedly lowered the triacetin stability.

  7. Starch digestibility, energy utilization, and growth performance of broilers fed corn-soybean basal diets supplemented with enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanello, C; Vieira, S L; Santiago, G O; Kindlein, L; Sorbara, J O B; Cowieson, A J

    2015-10-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary α-amylase and β-xylanase supplementation of corn-soy diets, formulated with or without supplemental phytase, on growth performance, energy utilization, and starch digestibility in broiler chickens. A total of 336 slow-feathering, Cobb × Cobb 500 male broilers were randomly distributed to 6 treatments having 8 replicates of 7 birds each. Birds were fed a common starter diet to d 14 post-hatch (3,050 kcal/kg AMEn, 21.7% CP, 1.05% Ca, and 0.53% nPP). The experimental diets were provided afterwards until d 25. A 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of 2 control diets (basal = corn-soy diet without added phytase or PHY = corn-soy diet formulated with 1,000 phytase units/kg) and 3 carbohydrase supplementations (0, 80 kilo-Novo α-amylase units/kg, or 80 kilo-Novo α-amylase units/kg + 100 fungal β-xylanase units/kg) was used from d 14 to 25. Excreta were collected from 21 to 24 d and all birds were euthanized at 25 d for jejunum and ileum content collection. Samples of feed, excreta, and jejunal and ileal digesta were analyzed for determination of total tract retention and ileal apparent digestibility. No interactions between diet and carbohydrase were observed. Broilers fed diets formulated with phytase or supplemented with amylase + xylanase had higher BW gain (BWG) and lower FCR (P amylase and amylase + xylanase, respectively. Starch digestibility in the jejunum and ileum was increased (P amylase + xylanase. Results from this experiment show that corn-soy diets having phytase and supplemented with amylase and xylanase led to increased growth performance, AMEn, and starch digestibility in broilers. Furthermore, the efficacy of exogenous amylase and xylanase was independent of the presence of microbial phytase.

  8. Strategies to improve the mechanical properties of starch-based materials: plasticization and natural fibers reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lopez-Gil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable polymers are starting to be introduced as raw materials in the food-packaging market. Nevertheless, their price is very high. Starch, a fully biodegradable and bioderived polymer is a very interesting alternative due to its very low price. However, the use of starch as the polymer matrix for the production of rigid food packaging, such as trays, is limited due to its poor mechanical properties, high hidrophilicity and high density. This work presents two strategies to overcome the poor mechanical properties of starch. First, the plasticization of starch with several amounts of glycerol to produce thermoplastic starch (TPS and second, the production of biocomposites by reinforcing TPS with promising fibers, such as barley straw and grape waste. The mechanical properties obtained are compared with the values predicted by models used in the field of composites; law of mixtures, Kerner-Nielsen and Halpin-Tsai. To evaluate if the materials developed are suitable for the production of food-packaging trays, the TPS-based materials with better mechanical properties were compared with commercial grades of oil-based polymers, polypropylene (PP and polyethylene-terphthalate (PET, and a biodegradable polymer, polylactic acid (PLA.

  9. The impact of single and dual hydrothermal modifications on the molecular structure and physicochemical properties of normal corn starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hyun-Jung; Hoover, Ratnajothi; Liu, Qiang

    2009-03-01

    Effect of single and dual hydrothermal modifications with annealing (ANN) and heat-moisture treatment (HMT) on molecular structure and physicochemical properties of corn starch was investigated. Normal corn starch was modified by ANN at 70% moisture at 50 degrees C for 24h and HMT at 30% moisture at 120 degrees C for 24h as well as by the combination of ANN and HMT. The apparent amylose content and swelling factor (SF) decreased on ANN and HMT, but amylose leaching (AML) increased. These changes were more pronounced on dual modification. The crystallinity (determined by X-ray diffraction), the gelatinization enthalpy (determined by differential scanning calorimetry) and ratio of 1047 cm(-1)/1022 cm(-1) (determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) slightly increased on ANN and decreased on HMT. The ANN and subsequent HMT (ANN-HMT) resulted in the lowest crystallinity, gelatinization enthalpy and ratio of 1047 cm(-1)/1022 cm(-1). The gelatinization temperature range decreased on ANN but increased on HMT. However, the gelatinization range of dually modified starches (ANN-HMT and HMT-ANN) was between ANN starch and HMT starch. Birefringence remained unchanged on ANN but slightly decreased on HMT as well as dual modification. Average chain length and amount of longer branch chains (DP> or =37) remained almost unchanged on ANN but decreased on HMT and dual modifications (ANN-HMT and HMT-ANN). HMT and dual modifications resulted in highly reduced pasting viscosity. ANN and HMT as well as dual modifications increased RDS content and decreased SDS and RS content.

  10. Effect of high molecular weight plasticizers on the gelatinization of starch under static and shear conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghizadeh, Ata; Favis, Basil D

    2013-02-15

    Starch gelatinization in the presence of high molecular weight polyol plasticizers and water was studied under static and dynamic conditions and was compared to a glycerol reference. For static gelatinization, glycerol, sorbitol, diglycerol and polyglycerol were examined using polarized light microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. A wide range of starch/water/plasticizer compositions were prepared to explore the gelatinization regime for each plasticizer. The plasticizers show that the onset and conclusion temperatures for sorbitol and glycerol are in the same range and are lower than the other two plasticizers. On the other hand, polyglycerol shows a higher gelatinization temperature than diglycerol because of its higher molecular weight and viscosity. The results indicate that in the case of all plasticizers, increasing the water content tends to decrease the gelatinization temperature and, except for polyglycerol, increasing the plasticizer content increases the gelatinization temperature. In the case of polyglycerol, however, increasing the plasticizer content had the opposite effect and this was found to be related to the borderline solubility of polyglycerol in water. When the polyglycerol/water solubility was increased by increasing the temperature of the water/plasticizer/starch slurry, the gelatinization temperature dependence was found to be similar to the other polyols. A rheological technique was developed to study the dynamic gelatinization process by tracking the influence of shear on the complex viscosity in a couette flow system. Glycerol, diglycerol and sorbitol were subjected to different dynamic gelatinization treatments and the results were compared with static gelatinization. It is quantitatively shown that shear has a major effect on the gelatinization process. The conclusion temperature of gelatinization is significantly diminished (up to 21 °C) in the presence of shear whereas the onset temperature of gelatinization remains

  11. Effect of a saponin-based surfactant and aging time on ruminal degradability of flaked corn grain dry matter and starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristov, A N; Zaman, S; VanderPol, M; Szasz, P; Huber, K; Greer, D

    2007-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of a saponin-based surfactant, Grain Prep surfactant (GP), and hot flake aging time on starch characteristics and ruminal DM and starch degradability of steam-flaked corn grain. In 2 experiments, the moisture content of incoming corn was automatically adjusted using the Grain Prep Auto Delivery System to 19.8% (Exp. 1) and 18.5% (Exp. 2). The application rate of GP was 22 mg/kg (as-is basis). Control corn was treated with water alone. Processed corn in Exp. 2 was stored in insulated containers for 0, 4, 8, or 16 h. Flaked corn samples were incubated in the rumen of lactating dairy cows for 0, 2, 4, 6, 16, or 24 h. In Exp. 1, GP increased, compared with the control, the soluble fraction and effective degradability (ED) of DM by 17.2 and 8.6%, respectively. The ED of cornstarch was increased by 6.7%. In Exp. 2, the concentration of soluble DM and starch were increased by GP by 15 and 24% compared with the control. The ED of DM and starch were also increased by 3 and 4%, respectively. No differences in gelatinization temperatures were observed due to treatment, except that GP-treated grain had a slightly greater mean gelatinization enthalpy in Exp. 2. In a pilot study, DM degradability parameters were not affected by germination of the corn kernels. Aging of the hot flakes for up to 16 h resulted in a quadratic decrease in DM and starch ruminal degradability. The aging process affected starch gelatinization enthalpy values of flaked grain in a manner opposite to that observed for ruminal DM and starch degradation. This phenomenon was most likely explained by increased starch intramolecular associations or crystallinity associated with starch annealing, or both. This study confirmed our previous observations that Grain Prep surfactant increases flaked corn DM and starch degradability in the rumen. Because the rate of degradation was not affected by the surfactant, the increase in degradability was attributed

  12. Modification of water absorption capacity of a plastic based on bean protein using gamma irradiated starches as additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koeber, E. [Facultad de Ingenieria, Grupo de Ingenieria Bioquimica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Paseo Colon 850, 1063, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Gonzalez, M.E. [Comision Nacional Energia Atomica, Av. Del Libertador 8250, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Gavioli, N. [Facultad de Ingenieria, Grupo de Ingenieria Bioquimica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Paseo Colon 850, 1063, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Salmoral, E.M. [Facultad de Ingenieria, Grupo de Ingenieria Bioquimica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Paseo Colon 850, 1063, Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. E-mail: esalmor@fi.uba.ar

    2007-01-15

    Some properties of a bean protein-starch plastic were modified by irradiation of the starch. Two kinds of starch from bean and cassava were irradiated with doses until 50 kGy before their inclusion in the composite. Water absorption of the resultant product was reduced by 36% and 60% in materials containing bean and cassava starch, respectively. A large decline in the elongation is observed till 10 kGy in both materials, while tensile strength diminished by 11% in the cassava composite.

  13. Biodegradable aliphatic-aromatic copolyester/corn starch blend composite reinforced with coffee parchment husk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Valquiria A.; Teixeira, Jaciele G.; Gomes, Michelle G.; Ortiz, Angel V.; Oliveira, Rene R.; Scapin, Marcos A.; Moura, Esperidiana A.B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Colombo, Maria A., E-mail: valquiriaalves36@yahoo.com.br [Faculdade de Tecnologia da Zona Leste (FATEC), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    In recent years, studies have shown that the addition of natural fiber or proper filler is an effective strategy for achieving improved properties in biodegradable polymer materials. Moreover, is especially important if such fibers are residues of agro-industrial processes. In this work, a promising technique to develop biodegradable polymer matrix composite based on aliphatic-aromatic copolyester/corn starch blend (Evela®) and coffee parchment husk, which is residue from coffee processing is described. The biodegradable polymeric blend (Evela®) with 5 % (w/w) of ball-milled coffee parchment husk fiber powder, with size ≤250 μm, without any modification was prepared by melt-mixing processing, using a twin screw extruder machine and then pelletized. In a second step, the pelletized Evela®)/coffee parchment (Composite) was then dried at 70 ± 2 deg C for 24 h in a circulating air oven, fed into injection molding machine and test specimens were obtained. The Composite specimen samples were irradiated using an electron beam accelerator, at radiation dose of 20 and 40 kGy, at room temperature in presence of air. The irradiated and non-irradiated samples were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-Ray diffraction (XRD), tensile tests and sol-gel analysis and the correlation between their properties was discussed. In addition, coffee parchment husk fiber characterization by SEM, EDS, XRD and WDXRF have also been carried out with a view to evaluate its importance in determining the end-use properties of the composite. (author)

  14. Effect of thermal and chemical modifications on the mechanical and release properties of paracetamol tablet formulations containing corn, cassava and sweet potato starches as filler-binders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mariam; Vbamiunomhene; Lawal; Michael; Ayodele; Odeniyi; Oludele; Adelanwa; Itiola

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of acetylation and pregelatinization of cassava and sweet potato starches on the mechanical and release properties of directly compressed paracetamol tablet formulations in comparison with official corn starch.Methods: The native starches were modified by acetylation and pregelatinization. The tablets were assessed using friability(Fr), crushing strength(Cs), disintegration time(Dt) and dissolution parameters. Results: Starch acetylation produced paracetamol tablets that were stronger and had the best balance of mechanical and disintegration properties, while pregelatinization produced tablets that were more friable but had a better overall strength in relation to disintegration than formulations made from natural starches. Correlations mainly existed between Dt and the dissolution parameters t80, t2 and k1 in the formulations. Conclusions: Modification of the experimental starches improved the mechanical and release properties of directly compressed paracetamol tablet formulations. Thus, they can be developed for use as pharmaceutical excipients in specific formulations.

  15. Effect of thermal and chemical modiifcations on the mechanical and release properties of paracetamol tablet formulations containing corn, cassava and sweet potato starches as ifller-binders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mariam Vbamiunomhene Lawal; Michael Ayodele Odeniyi; Oludele Adelanwa Itiola

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects of acetylation and pregelatinization of cassava and sweet potato starches on the mechanical and release properties of directly compressed paracetamol tablet formulations in comparison with official corn starch. Methods: The native starches were modified by acetylation and pregelatinization. The tablets were assessed using friability (Fr), crushing strength (Cs), disintegration time (Dt) and dissolution parameters. Results: Starch acetylation produced paracetamol tablets that were stronger and had the best balance of mechanical and disintegration properties, while pregelatinization produced tablets that were more friable but had a better overall strength in relation to disintegration than formulations made from natural starches. Correlations mainly existed between Dt and the dissolution parameters t80, t2 and k1 in the formulations. Conclusions:Modification of the experimental starches improved the mechanical and release properties of directly compressed paracetamol tablet formulations. Thus, they can be developed for use as pharmaceutical excipients in specific formulations.

  16. Physical and biological treatments of polyethylene-rice starch plastic films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Naggar, Manal M.A., E-mail: mmelnaggar@yahoo.com [Microbiology Lab., National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Alexandria (Egypt); Farag, Magdy Gh. [Development Plastic Center, Victoria, Alexandria (Egypt)

    2010-04-15

    This study aimed to produce an industrial applicable thermo-stable {alpha}-amylase from marine Bacillus amyloliquefaciens which isolated and selected according to its significant enzyme production. The effect of different pH values and temperatures on the bacterial growth and the enzyme production was estimated using an experimental statistical design; maximum amylase production and bacterial growth was obtained at pH 7.0 and 50 deg. C. Some biodegradable polyethylene rice starch plastic films (PERS-P) were manufactured using 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10% starch concentrations. The biodegradability (reduction in the plastic elongation%) was tested using the exposure to UV radiation at {lambda}{sub 300-400nm} (intensity of about 1000 W/m{sup 2}) and the produced B. amyloliquefaciens thermo-stable {alpha}-amylase. A significant reduction in the elongation% of these biodegradable plastics was observed in both cases especially on testing the 10% PERS-P; they showed a reduction of 26% and 20%, respectively, compared to the untreated plastic films (180 {+-} 5).

  17. Effect of storage time on in vitro digestion rate and resistant starch content of tortillas elaborated from commercial corn masas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agama-Acevedo, Edith; Rendón-Villalobos, Rodolfo; Tovar, Juscelino; Trejo-Estrada, Sergio Rubén; Bello-Pérez, Luis Arturo

    2005-03-01

    Tortilla samples were elaborated by four small commercial factories in Mexico, employing masas prepared with the traditional nixtamalization process. Samples were stored at 4 degrees C for up to 72 hours and their chemical composition and in vitro starch digestibility features were evaluated. Chemical composition did not change with the storage time, but soluble carbohydrates decreased slightly during storage. A significant decrease in available starch content upon storage was observed, concomitant with increased resistant starch (RS) levels. These changes are possibly due to retrogradation. Retrograded resistant starch (RRS) values increased with storage time; in some samples, RRS represented more than 75% of total RS whereas in others it only accounted for 25%. The digestion rate (DR) in the freshly prepared tortillas was similar for the various samples, but after 72 h storage some differences among tortillas were found. Also, when a single tortilla sample was compared throughout the different storage times, lower DRs were determined in samples subjected to prolonged storage, which is related to the concomitant. increase in RRS. The differences found among the various tortilla samples may be due to minor variations in the commercial processing conditions and to the use of different corn varieties.

  18. Starch films from a novel (Pachyrhizus ahipa) and conventional sources: Development and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Olivia V., E-mail: ovlopez75@yahoo.com.ar; Garcia, Maria A.

    2012-10-01

    Biodegradable films from ahipa, cassava and corn native starches were developed by casting method and their physicochemical, mechanical and barrier properties were analyzed taking into account the different starch botanical sources. Filmogenic suspensions were prepared; their rheological behaviors were studied and all of them exhibited film-forming ability. However, mechanical assays demonstrated that unplasticized films were too rigid, limiting their technological applications. Thus, 1.5% w/w of glycerol as plasticizer was added to filmogenic suspensions and film flexibility and extensibility were improved, this effect was more significant for ahipa and cassava starch films. Furthermore, thickness, moisture content and water solubility of the developed films were increased when plasticizer was incorporated. Glycerol addition reduced film water vapor permeability and the lowest reduction corresponded to cassava starch films due to the high viscosity of its filmogenic suspensions. Plasticized starch films resulted to be UV radiation barriers; ahipa starch films had the lowest light absorption capacity and higher transparency than cassava and corn starch films. Dynamic-mechanical analysis indicated that plasticized films were partially miscible systems exhibiting two relaxations, one attributed to the starch-rich phase and the other to the glycerol-rich one. Likewise, it could be demonstrated that glycerol exerted a major plasticizing effect on ahipa starch matrixes. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ahipa, cassava and corn starch films were developed by casting method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Glycerol effect on film mechanical behavior was major for tuberous starch films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ahipa starch films resulted to be more transparent with lower UV absorption capacity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Plasticized films were partially miscible systems: with a glycerol-rich and a starch-rich phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Glycerol exerted

  19. Supplemental cracked corn for steers fed fresh alfalfa: I. Effects on digestion of organic matter, fiber, and starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizalde, J C; Merchen, N R; Faulkner, D B

    1999-02-01

    The effect of supplementation with different levels of cracked corn on the sites of OM, total dietary fiber (TDF), ADF, and starch digestion in steers fed fresh alfalfa indoors was determined. Six Angus steers (338 +/- 19 kg) fitted with cannulas in the rumen, duodenum, and ileum consumed 1) alfalfa (20.4% CP, 41.6% NDF) ad libitum (AALF); 2), 3), and 4) AALF supplemented (S) with .4, .8, or 1.2%, respectively, of BW of corn; or 5) alfalfa restricted at the average level of forage intake of S steers (RALF), in a 5 x 5 Latin square design. Total OM intake was lower (P .05). Forage OM intake decreased (P fiber digestion was not affected.

  20. Some functional characteristics of extruded blends of fiber from sugarcane bagasse, whey protein concentrate, and corn starch

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Blends of fiber from sugar cane bagasse, corn starch, and whey protein concentrate were extruded. A single screw extruder, equipped with a screw at a constant compression ratio of 1:1 and a die diameter of 3 mm, was used. The best processing conditions were determined according to a central composite rotatable design (α = 1.41) with 5 central points, which gives a total of 13 tests. During the extrusion process the content of insoluble fiber decreased and that of soluble fiber increased....

  1. Preparation and characterization of glycerol plasticized-pea starch/ZnO-carboxymethylcellulose sodium nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiugao; Yang, Jingwen; Liu, Baoxiang; Ma, Xiaofei

    2009-06-01

    Among natural polymers, starch is one of the most promising biodegradable materials because it is a renewable bioresource that is universally available and of low cost. However, the properties of starch-based materials are not satisfactory. One approach is the use of nano-filler as reinforcement for starch-based materials. In this paper, a nanocomposite is prepared using ZnO nanoparticles stabilized by carboxymethylcellulose sodium (CMC) as the filler in glycerol plasticized-pea starch (GPS) matrix by the casting process. According to the characterization of ZnO-CMC particles with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TG), ZnO (about 60 wt%) is encapsulated with CMC (about 40 wt%) in ZnO-CMC particles with the size of about 30-40 nm. A low loading of ZnO-CMC particles can obviously improve the pasting viscosity, storage modulus, the glass transition temperature and UV absorbance of GPS/ZnO-CMC nanocomposites. When the ZnO-CMC contents vary from 0 to 5 wt%, the tensile yield strength increase from 3.94 MPa to 9.81 MPa, while the elongation at break reduce from 42.2% to 25.8%. The water vapor permeability decrease from 4.76 x 10(-10) to 1.65 x 10(-10) g m(-1) s(-1) Pa(-1).

  2. Starch/polyester films: simultaneous optimisation of the properties for the production of biodegradable plastic bags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. Olivato

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Blends of starch/polyester have been of great interest in the development of biodegradable packaging. A method based on multiple responses optimisation (Desirability was used to evaluate the properties of tensile strength, perforation force, elongation and seal strength of cassava starch/poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate (PBAT blown films produced via a one-step reactive extrusion using tartaric acid (TA as a compatibiliser. Maximum results for all the properties were set as more desirable, with an optimal formulation being obtained which contained (55:45 starch/PBAT (88.2 wt. (%, glycerol (11.0 wt. (% and TA (0.8 wt. (%. Biodegradable plastic bags were produced using the film with this formulation, and analysed according to the standard method of the Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas (ABNT. The bags exhibited a 45% failure rate in free-falling dart impact tests, a 10% of failure rate in dynamic load tests and no failure in static load tests. These results meet the specifications set by the standard. Thus, the biodegradable plastic bags fabricated with an optimised formulation could be useful as an alternative to those made from non-biodegradable materials if the nominal capacity declared for this material is considered.

  3. Potential application of corn starch edible films with spice essential oils for the shelf life extension of red meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radha Krishnan, K; Babuskin, S; Rakhavan, K R; Tharavin, R; Azhagu Saravana Babu, P; Sivarajan, M; Sukumar, M

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the effect of corn starch (CS) edible films with spice oils on the stability of raw beef during refrigerated storage. The antimicrobial properties of corn starch films containing 0-4·0% (w/v) ratios of clove (CL) and cinnamon (CI) essential oils (EOs) were tested against seven meat spoilage organisms by zone inhibition test. Effects of CS films containing 3% CL or CI or a mixture of CL + CI were also tested in raw beef stored at 4°C. Meat samples were analysed for pH, microbial counts, colour values and Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values for a period of 15 days. CS films with CL + CI resulted in a significant reduction in microbial populations in the meat samples and also improved meat colour stability at the end of storage period. The incorporation of spice EOs in CS films may provide antimicrobial and antioxidant activities that could improve the stability of raw meat. Results from this study may be applied in meat industries as an additional barrier to control microbial spoilage as well as lipid oxidation in meat products. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Structure and function of starch and resistant starch from corn with different doses of mutant amylose-extender and floury-1 alleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ni; Paez, Alix V; White, Pamela J

    2009-03-11

    Four corn types with different doses of mutant amylose-extender (ae) and floury-1 (fl1) alleles, in the endosperm, including no. 1, aeaeae; no. 2, fl1fl1fl1; no. 3, aeaefl1; and no. 4, fl1fl1ae, were developed for use in making Hispanic food products with high resistant starch (RS) content. The RS percentages in the native starch (NS) of 1-4 were 55.2, 1.1, 5.7, and 1.1%, respectively. All NS were evaluated for pasting properties with a rapid viscoanalyzer (RVA) and for thermal properties with a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). NS 1 had a low peak viscosity (PV) caused by incomplete gelatinization, whereas NS 3 had the greatest PV and breakdown of all four starch types. On the DSC, NS 2 had the lowest onset temperature and greatest enthalpy. NS 1 and 3 had similar onset and peak temperatures, both higher than those of NS 2 and 4. The gel strength of NS heated with a RVA was evaluated by using a texture analyzer immediately after RVA heating (fresh, RVA-F) and after the gel had been stored at 4 degrees C for 10 days (retrograded, RVA-R). NS 1 gel was watery and had the lowest strength (30 g) among starch gel types. NS 3 gel, although exhibiting syneresis, had greater gel strength than NS 2 and 4. The structures of the NS, the RS isolated from the NS (RS-NS), the RS isolated from RVA-F (RS-RVA-F), and the RS isolated from RVA-R (RS-RVA-R) were evaluated by using size exclusion chromatography. NS 1 had a greater percentage of amylose (AM) (58.3%) than the other NS (20.4-26.8%). The RS from all NS types (RS-NS) had a lower percentage of amylopectin (AP) and a greater percentage of low molecular weight (MW) AM than was present in the original NS materials. The RS-RVA-R from all starches had no AP or high MW AM. The percentages of longer chain lengths (DP 35-60) of NS were greater in 1 and 3 than in 2 and 4, and the percentages of smaller chain lengths (DP 10-20) were greater in 2 and 4 than in 1 and 3. In general, NS 3 seemed to have inherited some pasting

  5. Hydrocolloids Decrease the Digestibility of Corn Starch, Soy Protein, and Skim Milk and the Antioxidant Capacity of Grape Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Yue; Jeon, Hyeong-Ju; Yoon, Sun; Lee, Seung-Min

    2015-12-01

    Hydrocolloids have many applications in foods including their use in dysphagia diets. We aimed to evaluate whether hydrocolloids in foods affect the digestibility of starch and protein, and their effects on antioxidant capacity. The thickening hydrocolloids: locust bean gum and carboxymethyl cellulose, and the gel-forming agents: agar agar, konjac-glucomannan, and Hot & Soft Plus were blended with corn starch and soy protein, skim milk, or grape juice and were examined for their in vitro-digestability by comparing the reducing sugar and trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-soluble peptide, for antioxidant capacity by total polyphenol contents and the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity. The hydrocolloids resulted in a decrease in starch digestibility with the gel-forming agents. Hydrocolloids diminished TCA-soluble peptides in skim milk compared to soy protein with the exception of locust bean gum and decreased free radical scavenging capacities and total phenolic contents in grape juice. Our findings may provide evidence for the use of hydro-colloids for people at risk of nutritional deficiencies such as dysphagia patients.

  6. Production of Starch Based Bioplastic from Cassava Peel Reinforced with Microcrystalline Celllulose Avicel PH101 Using Sorbitol as Plasticizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulida; Siagian, M.; Tarigan, P.

    2016-04-01

    The production of starch based bioplastics from cassava peel reeinforced with microcrystalline cellulose using sorbitol as plasticizer were investigated. Physical properties of bioplastics were determined by density, water uptake, tensile strength and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Bioplastics were prepared from cassava peel starch plasticized using sorbitol with variation of 20; 25; 30% (wt/v of sorbitol to starch) reinforced with microcrystalline celllulose (MCC) Avicel PH101 fillers with range of 0 to 6% (wt/wt of MCC to starch). The results showed improvement in tensile strength with higher MCC content up to 9, 12 mpa compared to non-reinforced bioplastics. This could be mainly attributed to the strong hydrogen bonds between MCC and starch. On the contrary, the addition of MCC decreased the elongation at break, density and water uptake. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy showed the functional groups of bioplastics, which the majority of O-H groups were found at the bioplastics with reinforcing filler MCC that represented substantial hydrogen bonds. The highest tensile strength value was obtained for bioplastic with MCC content 6% and sorbitol content 20%. With good adhesion between MCC and starch the production of bioplastics could be widely used as a substitute for conventional plastics with more benefits to the environment.

  7. The Optimum Sowing Time for Plastic-film Corn and the Application of Two Related Theories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Rui-xiang; WANG Xin-huan; LIU Rong-quan; LU Cui-ling; L(U) Yong-lai; LI Hua; ZHANG Li; LU Xiu-zhi; YU Shu-ping; WU Xiu-yan

    2002-01-01

    There are two main theories, the "temperature-raising" theory and the "precipitation-based regulation" theory, which guide the optimum sowing time of the plastic-film corn. The former was applied in the humid or semi-humid ecotope and on irrigated or half-shaded land in the arid and semi-arid ecotopes,while the latter was suitable for the dry-farming land in the semi-arid ecotope. The results of experiments and investigations for many years showed that the corn output was increased by 69.2% when the former theory was applied to guide the optimum sowing time for plastic-film corn in the semi-humid ecotope, and by 60.0%when the latter theory was applied in the semi-arid ecotope. In the semi-arid ecotope, however, the output was increased only by 15.7% when the former theory was applied, and even dropped by 14.4% when the latter theory was applied.

  8. FOAMED ARTICLES BASED ON POTATO STARCH, CORN AND WHEAT FIBRE, AND POLY(VINYL ALCOHOL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Continued research cooperation between USDA Laboratories (USA) and the University of Pisa, Italy, has yielded several composites based on blends of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and either corn or wheat fibres, co-product of the corn-wheat wet-milling process. Foam trays were prepared by baking the blen...

  9. Effect of plasticizers on properties of pregelatinised starch acetate (Amprac 01) free films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonacucina, Giulia; Di Martino, Piera; Piombetti, Martina; Colombo, Angela; Roversi, Francesco; Palmieri, Giovanni F

    2006-04-26

    Film coating is a technique widely used in the pharmaceutical field to improve and modify technological and release characteristics of capsules, tablets and granules. In this paper physical and mechanical properties of free films of Amprac 01, obtained by the solvent cast method, were studied in order to investigate the film forming ability of this modified starch and the effects of the addition of different plasticizers. A morphological microscopical analysis (SEM) was performed to study surface properties of the films, while thermal analysis (DSC) was carried out to investigate the influence of different types of plasticizers on the glass transition temperature of the polymer. Then a mechanical characterization permitted to evaluate important parameters such as film crack resistance and deformation at break. Extensional creep/relaxation tests were also performed to investigate the viscoelastic characteristics. As clearly demonstrated by the T(g) values, the residual water present in the films acted as plasticizers, making possible the formation of free films characterised by good macroscopical and mechanical properties. Except glycerol, the kind and amount of the other tested plasticizers did not markedly improve the mechanical and crack resistance of the films.

  10. 氯化钠和氯化钙对玉米淀粉-瓜尔胶复配体系的影响%Effects of Sodium Chloride and Calcium Chloride on Corn Starch and Guar Gum Mixed System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      通过测定分析玉米淀粉-瓜尔胶复配体系在有无氯化钠和氯化钙存在条件下的糊化特性、动态与静态流变学特性,研究氯化钠和氯化钙对玉米淀粉-瓜尔胶复配体系的影响。结果表明,氯化钠和氯化钙的加入,提高了玉米淀粉-瓜尔胶复配体系的成糊温度,降低了崩解值和回升值,峰值黏度也略微下降;玉米淀粉-瓜尔胶复配体系的弹性模量G′值显著减小,黏性模量G″值的频率依赖性较大;氯化钠和氯化钙使玉米淀粉-瓜尔胶复配体系的假塑性增强,且氯化钙的作用大于氯化钠。%Through the analysis and determination of pasting property, dynamic and static rheological properties of corn starch and guar gum mixed system with or without sodium chloride and calcium chloride, the effects of sodium chloride and calcium chloride on corn starch and guar gum mixed system were studied. The results showed, the addition of sodium chloride and calcium chloride increased the pasting temperature of corn starch and guar gum mixed system, decreased the breakdown value and consistence value, and the peak viscosity also dropped slightly. The G′ value of elastic modulus decreased significantly, the frequency dependence of G" value of viscous modulus was larger. The addition of sodium chloride and calcium chloride enhanced pseudo-plasticity of corn starch and guar gum mixed system, and calcium chloride was more effective.

  11. Effect of Plasticizer Type and Concentration on Tensile, Thermal and Barrier Properties of Biodegradable Films Based on Sugar Palm (Arenga pinnata Starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed L. Sanyang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of starch based films as a potential alternative choice to petroleum derived plastics is imperative for environmental waste management. This study presents a new biopolymer (sugar palm starch for the preparation of biodegradable packaging films using a solution casting technique. The effect of different plasticizer types (glycerol (G, sorbitol (S and glycerol-sorbitol (GS combination with varying concentrations (0, 15, 30 and 45, w/w% on the tensile, thermal and barrier properties of sugar palm starch (SPS films was evaluated. Regardless of plasticizer types, the tensile strength of plasticized SPS films decreased, whereas their elongation at break (E% increased as the plasticizer concentrations were raised. However, the E% for G and GS-plasticized films significantly decreased at a higher plasticizer concentration (45% w/w due to the anti-plasticization effect of plasticizers. Change in plasticizer concentration showed an insignificant effect on the thermal properties of S-plasticized films. The glass transition temperature of SPS films slightly decreased as the plasticizer concentration increased from 15% to 45%. The plasticized films exhibited increased water vapor permeability values from 4.855 × 10−10 to 8.70 × 10−10 g·m−1·s−1·Pa−1, irrespective of plasticizer types. Overall, the current study manifested that plasticized sugar palm starch can be regarded as a promising biopolymer for biodegradable films.

  12. Effect of antimicrobial on mechanical, barrier and optical properties of corn starch based self-supporting edible film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanima Chowdhury

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobials like potassium sorbate, sodium propionate, and benzoic acid were incorporated in corn starch based formulation to investigate their effect on mechanical, water vapour barrier and optical properties of the developed self supporting edible film. The film was prepared by casting technique. When incorporated at 1.40% and above, potassium sorbate decreased the tensile strength (about 22% and increased the elongation (about 55% of control film; whereas, it increased the water vapour permeability by 15% only when added at 2.66%. At 2.66%, benzoic acid reduced the tensile strength by 24% and sodium propionate increased elongation by 17%. These two antimicrobials did not change the water vapour permeability. However, all the three antimicrobials adversely affected the optical properties by decreasing the whiteness index, increasing yellowness index, and reducing the surface gloss, with potassium sorbate showing the maximum effect. Among the three antimicrobials, sodium propionate appeared to be the best with minimum deterioration of film properties.

  13. Effect of antimicrobial on mechanical, barrier and optical properties of corn starch based self-supporting edible film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanima Chowdhury

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobials like potassium sorbate, sodium propionate, and benzoic acid were incorporated in corn starch based formulation to investigate their effect on mechanical, water vapour barrier and optical properties of the developed self supporting edible film. The film was prepared by casting technique. When incorporated at 1.40% and above, potassium sorbate decreased the tensile strength (about 22% and increased the elongation (about 55% of control film; whereas, it increased the water vapour permeability by 15% only when added at 2.66%. At 2.66%, benzoic acid reduced the tensile strength by 24% and sodium propionate increased elongation by 17%. These two antimicrobials did not change the water vapour permeability. However, all the three antimicrobials adversely affected the optical properties by decreasing the whiteness index, increasing yellowness index, and reducing the surface gloss, with potassium sorbate showing the maximum effect. Among the three antimicrobials, sodium propionate appeared to be the best with minimum deterioration of film properties.

  14. 玉米淀粉的热力学性质与消化性%Thermodynamic Property and Digestibility of Corn Starches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄强; 王婵; 罗发兴; 扶雄; 张斌

    2011-01-01

    对4种不同直链/支链淀粉含量的玉米淀粉(蜡质玉米淀粉、普通玉米淀粉、Hylon Ⅴ和Hylon Ⅶ)的热力学性质及体外消化性进行测定,进一步分析了淀粉热力学性质与消化性的关系.结果表明:高支(蜡质和普通)玉米淀粉与高链玉米淀粉(Hylon Ⅴ和Hylon Ⅶ)的热力学性质存在显著差异;高支玉米淀粉的起糊温度在70℃左右,而高链玉米淀粉( Hylon Ⅶ)在煮沸的情况下也难以糊化;4种淀粉的峰值黏度随直链含量升高显著下降;具有适当直链含量的普通玉米淀粉具有较高的膨胀度,普通玉米淀粉、Hylon Ⅴ和Hylon Ⅶ在90℃的膨胀度分别为13.07、5.63和4.54 g/g.差示扫描量热(DSC)分析结果表明:蜡质玉米淀粉只有单一的吸热峰,而普通玉米淀粉和高链玉米淀粉还有直链淀粉与脂质复合物吸热峰,但吸热焓值较蜡质玉米淀粉低;淀粉经蒸煮处理后,糊化温度较低且具有较高膨胀度的普通玉米淀粉的慢消化淀粉含量较高;而糊化温度较高、膨胀度较低的高链玉米淀粉中的抗性淀粉含量较高.%Four kinds of corn starches with different amylose/amylopectin contents, namely, waxy corn starch, normal corn starch, Hylon Vand Hylon Ⅶ, were investigated in the aspects of thermodynamic property and in vitro digestibility , and the relationship between the two properties was further analyzed. It is found that the thermodynamic property difference between the native high-amylopectin ( waxy and normal) corn starches and the high-amylose ( Hylon Ⅴand Hylon Ⅶ) ones is great, that the pasting temperatures of the high-amylopectin corn starches are a-bout 70℃, while the high-amylose corn starch ( Hylon Ⅶ) is resistant to gelatinization even in the boiling water, that the peak viscosities of four kinds of corn starches varieties significantly decrease with the increase of amylose content, that the normal corn starch with proper amylose content is of

  15. 氨基增塑剂对淀粉浆料的增塑作用%Effects of some amino plasticizers on plasticization of starch sizing agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟; 祝志峰

    2011-01-01

    In order to meet the demand of starch plasticization in non-PVA-containing size formulation, the effect of some amino substances used as plasticizers on the plasticization of starch sizing agents was investigated in terms of paste viscosity, viscosity stability, adhesion-to-fibers, and starch film behavior. The plasticizers evaluated included aniline, monoethanolamine, urea, etc. Superior plasticizer with good performance/price ratio was found through control test, and the content was also determined. The experimental results demonstrated that the plasticizers could improve the fragility of starch film because breaking elongation and flex resistance of the film increased and wear loss decreased. However, tensile strength of the film decreased with the increase of plasticizer content. It was recommended that monoethanolamine should be used for plasticizing starch with a content of 6% ~ 9% based on dry weight of starch.%为满足无PVA浆料配方中对淀粉增塑作用的更高要求,以浆液黏度、黏度热稳定性、黏附性及浆膜性能为评价指标,研究几种氨基化合物对淀粉浆料的增塑作用.所研究的氨基化合物包括苯胺、一乙醇胺、尿素等,通过对比实验筛选出性价比较高的淀粉浆料增塑剂,探索合理的用量.结果表明:使用增塑剂能改善淀粉浆膜脆硬的属性,提高它的断裂伸长率和耐屈曲次数,降低磨耗,但会使淀粉浆膜的断裂强度有所下降;在上述几种增塑剂中,一乙醇胺的作用效果最好,其质量分数推荐为干淀粉质量的6%~9%.

  16. Characterization of blend hydrogels based on plasticized starch/cellulose acetate/carboxymethyl cellulose synthesized by electron beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senna, Magdy M.; Mostafa, Abo El-Khair B.; Mahdy, Sanna R.; El-Naggar, Abdel Wahab M.

    2016-11-01

    Blend hydrogels based on aqueous solutions of plasticized starch and different ratios of cellulose acetate (CA) and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) were prepared by electron beam irradiation (EB). The blends before and after EB irradiation were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The physico-chemical properties of blend hydrogels prepared by electron beam irradiation were improved compared to unirradiated blends.

  17. In vitro starch digestibility and predicted glycemic index of corn tortilla, black beans, and tortilla-bean mixture: effect of cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáyago-Ayerdi, S G; Tovar, Juscelino; Osorio-Díaz, P; Paredes-López, Octavio; Bello-Pérez, Luis A

    2005-02-23

    People in the rural areas of Mexico consume corn tortillas and beans as basic components of their diet. However, little is known about the nutritionally relevant features of starch present in such combined meals. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro bioavailability of starch in tortilla-bean mixtures stored at 4 degrees C for different times, as compared to that of corn tortilla and boiled black beans kept separately under the same conditions. Available starch (AS), resistant starch (RS), and retrograded resistant starch (RRS) contents were measured. The in vitro starch hydrolysis indices (HI) of freshly cooked and cold-stored samples were evaluated using a chewing/dialysis digestion protocol. HIs were used to predict glycemic indices (pGI) of the samples. AS in tortilla and beans decreased between 3 and 6% after 48-72 h, whereas values in the mixture fell by 3% after 48 h, with no further change by 72 h. Only minor rises in RS contents (1.5-1.6%) were recorded for tortilla and beans after 72 h of storage, and a lower increase (0.4%) was recorded in the mixture. Judging from RRS values, an important proportion of RS is due to starch retrogradation. The HI and pGI were higher in tortilla than in bean and the mixture. Hydrolysis rate values decreased in the stored samples, a pattern that corresponded with RS and RRS changes. The slow digestion features of common beans are largely retained by the legume-tortilla combination. Data support the perceived health beneficial properties of starch in this traditional cereal-legume food.

  18. Preparation of superabsorbent by graft copolymerization of acrylic acid onto corn starch using K2S2O8 and rare earths as initiators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Yong-ping; LI Wei-dong; FENG Li-qun; ZHAO chao

    2008-01-01

    K2S2O8 and rare earths (RE) were used as initiators to prepare superabsorbents by graft copolymeri-zation of acrylic acid (AA) onto corn starch. The effects of monomer concentration, initiator K2S2O8 concentra-tion, cross-linker concentration, reaction temperature and the concentration ratio of RE and K2S2O8 on the graft copolymerization were studied in terms of the water absorption capacity of superabsorbents. Results indicate that the optimum conditions obtained for the grafting of AA onto 5g starch are as follows: AA of 75. 773 g/L, K2S2O8 of 0.437 g/L, RE of 0.874 g/L, cross-linker of 0.381 g/L and temperature of 70℃. The maximum water absorption capacity obtained is 740 g/g. The new method of graft polymerization is easily proceeded and controlled. The graft copolymers were characterized by infra-red spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and TG. Results characterized by IR and SEM give strong evidence for grafting of AA onto corn starch, and those characterized by TG reveal that the grafting of AA improves the thermostability of corn starch.

  19. Study on Moulding Technology of Starch-Based Totally-Biodegradable Plastic Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Tao; LIU Chang-jiang

    2005-01-01

    Based on monofactorial comparison experiment,the following two excellent technological formations are derived for the production of starch-based totally-biodegradable tray via extruding,pelleting,slicing,and sucking molding:The first formulation:40% of starch,12.5% of DOP,5% of EVA,15% of polyvinyl alcohol,20%of talc power and calcium carbonate,and 7.5% of other materials. The material temperature in high-speed kneader is about 90℃,rotation velocity is 600 r/min,kneading duration is 5 ~ 10 minutes,diameter of screw stem of extruder is 90 mm,ratio of length versus diameter of screw stem (L/D) is 44,rotation velocity of the screws stem is 40 ~ 50 r/min. Temperature in four segments of extruder is 145 ℃,155 ℃,150℃,and 160 ℃ respectively,and temperature in extruder head is 170 ℃; the material rod extruded is set while passing a cold water bath,and then is cut to pellets whose size is 3 mm × 3 mm; the latter is transformed into slices and subject to sucking molding after predrying; temperature of sucking molding is 180~190 ℃,and sucking molding duration is 15~20 seconds.The second formulation:60% of starch,15% of DOP,5% of PHB,15% of polyvinyl alcohol,and 5 % of other materials. All technological parameters are the same with that for the first formulation.According to the test result of Chinese Institute of Plastic Processing,the biodegradation ratio of the tray made through the above treatment 1 and 2 in 30 days amounted to 54.2 % and 70.6 % respectively,which shows that a satisfied biodegradation effect is realized.

  20. [Use of domestically produced corn starch in the manufacture of calcium carbonate tablets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazikalović, E; Obrenović, D; Nidzović, Z; Toskić-Radojicić, M

    1998-01-01

    The results of the testing of calcium carbonate tablets, compounded with starch as the binding and decay substance are presented. The content of calcium carbonate in the tablets, as well as the mass varying, solidity, prodigality and aptness to decay were determined. The best properties were observed in the tablets with 15% starch mucilage, added suddenly, in the whole amount, to the prepared mixture of calcium carbonate and lactose. This procedure is fast and simple, and compound tablets of calcium carbonate are of regulated quality.

  1. Biodegradable polymer blends based on corn starch and thermoplastic chitosan processed by extrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, J F; Paschoalin, R T; Carmona, V B; Sena Neto, Alfredo R; Marques, A C P; Marconcini, J M; Mattoso, L H C; Medeiros, E S; Oliveira, J E

    2016-02-10

    Blends of thermoplastic cornstarch (TPS) and chitosan (TPC) were obtained by melt extrusion. The effect of TPC incorporation in TPS matrix and polymer interaction on morphology and thermal and mechanical properties were investigated. Possible interactions between the starch molecules and thermoplastic chitosan were assessed by XRD and FTIR techniques. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analyses showed a homogeneous fracture surface without the presence of starch granules or chitosan aggregates. Although the incorporation of thermoplastic chitosan caused a decrease in both tensile strength and stiffness, films with better extensibility and thermal stability were produced.

  2. Method to Produce Durable Pellets at Lower Energy Consumption Using High Moisture Corn Stover and a Corn Starch Binder in a Flat Die Pellet Mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumuluru, Jaya Shankar; Conner, Craig C.; Hoover, Amber N.

    2016-01-01

    A major challenge in the production of pellets is the high cost associated with drying biomass from 30 to 10% (w.b.) moisture content. At Idaho National Laboratory, a high-moisture pelleting process was developed to reduce the drying cost. In this process the biomass pellets are produced at higher feedstock moisture contents than conventional methods, and the high moisture pellets produced are further dried in energy efficient dryers. This process helps to reduce the feedstock moisture content by about 5-10% during pelleting, which is mainly due to frictional heat developed in the die. The objective of this research was to explore how binder addition influences the pellet quality and energy consumption of the high-moisture pelleting process in a flat die pellet mill. In the present study, raw corn stover was pelleted at moistures of 33, 36, and 39% (w.b.) by addition of 0, 2, and 4% pure corn starch. The partially dried pellets produced were further dried in a laboratory oven at 70 °C for 3-4 hr to lower the pellet moisture to less than 9% (w.b.). The high moisture and dried pellets were evaluated for their physical properties, such as bulk density and durability. The results indicated that increasing the binder percentage to 4% improved pellet durability and reduced the specific energy consumption by 20-40% compared to pellets with no binder. At higher binder addition (4%), the reduction in feedstock moisture during pelleting was 510 kg/m3 and >98%, respectively, and the percent fine particles generated was reduced to <3%. PMID:27340875

  3. The effect of partial gelatinization of corn starch on its retrogradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zong-qiang; Wang, Li-jun; Li, Dong; Zhou, Yu-guang; Adhikari, Benu

    2013-09-12

    The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of partial gelatinization of starch on its retrogradation using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The Avrami equation was used to predict the evolution of starch retrogradation kinetics. The degree of retrogradation in starch samples partially gelatinized 64°C (S64), 68°C (S68) and 70°C (S70) and control (S25) increased with storage time. The retrogradation enthalpies of S68 and S70 were almost four times as high as that of S64. The S25 and S64 had dominant A-type crystalline pattern while S68 and S70 showed dominant B-type crystalline pattern. The growth of remainder crystals was faster in S25 and S64, while both the nucleation and growth rates of new crystals were faster in S68 and S70. The Avrami model was found to represent the retrogradation kinetics data of these partially gelatinized starch samples quite satisfactorily (R(2)>0.95).

  4. Lactobacillus amylovorus, a new starch-hydrolyzing species from cattle waste-corn fermentations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, L.K.

    1981-01-01

    The morphology, physiology and fermentation characteristics of this hitherto unrecognized species are described. The new Lactobacillus species can be differentiated from L. acidophilus, L. jensenii, and L. leichmannii on the basis of starch fermentation, G + C content, vitamin requirements and stereoisomerism of lactic acid produced. The type strain of L. amylovorus is NRRL B-4540. (Refs. 39).

  5. BIODEGRADABLE PLASTICS FROM A MIXTURE OF LOW DENSITY POLYETHYLENE (LDPE AND CASSAVA STARCH WITH THE ADDITION OF ACRYLIC ACID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susilawati Susilawati

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A research of preparation biodegradable plastics, from LDPE and cassava starch mixture with the addition of acrylic acid, had been conducted. This research purpose to  studied compatibility properties of the material and percent weight loss during the biodegradation test. Optimum weight loss (59,26% was showed after 60 days witches LDPE and starch composition ratio 6 : 4 (w/w  while tensile strength  equal to 0,38 Kgf/mm2.  SEM characterization showed that biodegradation has occurred by  formation of hole in the biodegradable plastic surface. DTA test gave Tg = 130 °C, Tm = 230 °C and Td = 370-450 °C while FT-IR analysis showed that the biodegradable plastics have a chemistry interaction.

  6. 高直链玉米淀粉的糊化特性研究%Study on gelatinization properties of high amylose corn starch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐忠; 刘雪唯; 王志鹏; 徐巧娇; 赵丹

    2015-01-01

    Objective The effect of water bath heating, microwave heating and high pressure heating on the gelatinization properties of high amylase corn starch were studied,the theoretical basis for further study on development and application of high amylase corn starch were provided. Methods High amylase corn starch based starch paste was prepared under excessive water by water bath heating, microwave heating and high pressure heating method,the variation rules of the blue value and enzyme hydrolysability of high amylase corn starch as the increase of gelatinization time under different temperature and microwave power were studied. Results Blue value and enzyme hydrolysability of high amylase corn starch prepared by water bath heating, microwave heating and high pressure heating increased as the prolong of heating time during gelatinization. the blue value and enzyme hydrolysability of high amylase corn starch paste prepared by microwave were lower than those by high pressure heating, and higher than those by water bath heating, and the gelatinization rate of starch prepared by microwave was faster than that by water bath heating and that by high pressure heating. Conclusion The gelatinization effect and degree of starch prepared were better by high pressure heating, which was a good method to make high amylase corn starch gelatinized entirely.%目的:研究水浴加热、微波加热和高压加热方法对高直链玉米淀粉糊化性能的影响,为高直链淀粉的进一步开发和应用提供理论基础。方法以高直链玉米淀粉为原料,在过量水分存在条件下,分别采用水浴加热、微波加热和高压加热制备高直链玉米淀粉糊,分别研究不同温度和微波功率下,高直链玉米淀粉糊碘兰值和酶解力随糊化时间增加的变化规律。结果水浴加热、微波加热和高压加热糊化过程中高直链玉米淀粉的碘兰值和酶解力均随时间的延长呈上升趋势,微波加热高直链玉

  7. 银杏果淀粉与玉米、马铃薯淀粉理化性质的比较研究%Comparison of physical and chemical properties of ginkgo starchand corn,potato starch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新华; 杨强; 王琳; 刘爽

    2012-01-01

    The physical and chemical properties of the ginkgo fruit starch extracted in the laboratory were studied,and compared with the corn starch and potato starch.The results showed that the transparency,solubility,turgidity of ginkgo starch were higher than corn starch,lower than potato starch;the retrogradation,freeze-thaw stability were superior to corn starch,worse than potato starch;starch milk concentration,shear force,medium had effect on the viscosity of ginkgo starch.%以实验室提取的银杏果淀粉为原料,对其性质进行研究,并与玉米淀粉和马铃薯淀粉的性质进行了比较。结果表明,银杏果淀粉的透明度、溶解度、膨胀度比玉米淀粉高,比马铃薯淀粉低;凝沉性、冻融稳定性比玉米淀粉强,比马铃薯淀粉差;淀粉乳浓度、剪切力、介质对银杏果淀粉的黏度都有影响。

  8. Granulomatous peritonitis caused by glove starch.

    OpenAIRE

    Michowitz, M.; Stavorovsky, M.; Ilie, B.

    1983-01-01

    Corn starch particles are used as a surgical glove lubricant. At present there is no better alternative for this lubricant. Implantation of corn starch particles into the peritoneal cavity can induce foreign body reactions, starch peritonitis and starch granulomata, and may cause adhesions and intestinal obstruction. Starch peritonitis should be treated conservatively.

  9. Effects of pigeon pea and plantain starches on the compressional, mechanical, and disintegration properties of paracetamol tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dare, Kunle; Akin-Ajani, Dorothy O; Odeku, Oluwatoyin A; Itiola, Oludele A; Odusote, Omotunde M

    2006-03-01

    A study has been made of the effects of pigeon pea starch obtained from the plant Cajanus cajan (L) Millisp. (family Fabaceae) and plantain starch obtained from the unripe fruit of Musa paradisiaca L. (family Musaceae) on the compressional, mechanical, and disintegration properties of paracetamol tablets in comparison with official corn starch BP. Analysis of compressional properties was done by using density measurements, and the Heckel and Kawakita equations, whereas the mechanical properties of the tablets were evaluated by using tensile strength (T--a measure of bond strength) and brittle fracture index (BFI--a measure of lamination tendency). The ranking for the mean yield pressure, P(y), for the formulations containing the different starches was generally corn plantain starch while the ranking for P(k), an inverse measure of the amount of plasticity, was pigeon pea plantain starch, which indicated that formulations containing corn starch generally exhibited the fastest onset of plastic deformation, whereas those formulations containing pigeon pea starch exhibited the highest amount of plastic deformation during tableting. The tensile strength of the tablets increased with increase in concentration of the starches while the Brittle Fracture Index decreased. The ranking for T was pigeon pea > plantain > corn starch while the ranking for BFI was corn > plantain > pigeon pea starch. The bonding capacity of the formulations was in general agreement with the tensile strength results. The disintegration time (DT) of the formulation increased with concentration of plantain and corn starches but decreased with concentration of pigeon pea starch. The general ranking of DT values was plantain starch. Notably, formulations containing pigeon pea starch exhibited the highest bond strength and lowest brittleness, suggesting the usefulness of pigeon pea starch in producing strong tablets with minimal lamination tendency. Plantain starch, on the other hand, would be more

  10. Impact of amylosucrase modification on the structural and physicochemical properties of native and acid-thinned waxy corn starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Zhou, Xing; He, Jian; Wang, Tao; Luo, Xiaohu; Wang, Li; Wang, Ren; Chen, Zhengxing

    2017-04-01

    Recombinant amylosucrase from Neisseria polysaccharea was utilized to modify native and acid-thinned starches. The molecular structures and physicochemical properties of modified starches were investigated. Acid-thinned starch displayed much lower viscosity after gelatinization than did the native starch. However, the enzyme exhibited similar catalytic efficiency for both forms of starch. The modified starches had higher proportions of long (DP>33) and intermediate chains (DP 13-33), and X-ray diffraction showed a B-type crystalline structure for all modified starches. With increasing reaction time, the relative crystallinity and endothermic enthalpy of the modified starches gradually decreased, whereas the melting peak temperatures and resistant starch contents increased. Slight differences were observed in thermal parameters, relative crystallinity, and branch chain length distribution between the modified native and acid-thinned starches. Moreover, the digestibility of the modified starches was not affected by acid hydrolysis pretreatment, but was affected by the percentage of intermediate and long chains.

  11. Effect of corn preparation methods on dry-grind ethanol production by granular starch hydrolysis and partitioning of spent beer solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamsal, B P; Wang, H; Johnson, L A

    2011-06-01

    Two corn preparation methods, rollermill flaking and hammermill grinding, were compared for efficient processing of corn into ethanol by granular starch hydrolysis and simultaneous fermentation by yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Corn was either ground in a hammermill with different size screens or crushed in a smooth-surfaced rollermill at different roller gap settings. The partitioning of beer solids and size distribution of solids in the thin stillage were compared. The mean particle diameter d(50) for preparations varied with set-ups and ranged between 210 and 340 μm for ground corn, and 1180-1267 μm for flaked corn. The ethanol concentrations in beer were similar (18-19% v/v) for ground and flaked preparations, however, ethanol productivity increased with reduced particle size. Roller versus hammermilling of corn reduced solids in thin stillage by 28%, and doubled the volume percent of fines (d(50) ∼ 7 μm)in thin stillage and decreased coarse (d(50) ∼ 122 μm) by half compared to hammermilling.

  12. 黄原胶对玉米淀粉糊化性能的影响%Effects of xanthan gum on pasting properties of corn starch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石点; 吴孟茹; 朱谱新

    2011-01-01

    Xanthan gum was introduced into a corn starch size, and Rapid Viscosity Analyzer (RVA)was applied to investigate the effect of the addition of xanthan gum on pasting properties of the corn starch and the apparent viscosity of the sizing liquor. The interactions between xanthan gum and corn starch were discussed. The results revealed that the xanthan gum could facilitate the pasting of corn starch,lower pasting temperature, and shorten pasting time. The peak viscosity increased with the increase of xanthan gum content, which indicated some interactions between xanthan gum and corn starch. The compatibility of the two components decreased with the increase of xanthan gum content, which was reflected by the increased decay viscosity of the blended paste. An uncommon decrease in the viscosity,as the temperature of the sizing liquor cooled down to 50 ℃ and the content of xanthan gum was 5.5%,suggested that a phase separation of the system occurred.%将黄原胶引入到淀粉浆料中,采用快速黏度分析法(RVA)研究了黄原胶的加入对玉米淀粉糊化性能和浆液表观黏度的影响,讨论了黄原胶与玉米淀粉分子之间的相互作用.结果表明:黄原胶可促进淀粉糊化,降低淀粉的糊化温度,缩短糊化时间;随着黄原胶质量分数的增加,淀粉的糊化峰值黏度增加,表现了2种高分子的相互作用;黏度衰减值随黄原胶增加而增大,表现了其相容性随之减小;浆液冷却至50℃的黏度变化表明,黄原胶质量分数≥5.5%以后体系出现相分离.

  13. Effects of ruminal doses of sucrose, lactose, and corn starch on ruminal fermentation and expression of genes in ruminal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oba, M; Mewis, J L; Zhining, Z

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate effects of a ruminal dose of sucrose, lactose, and corn starch on ruminal fermentation and expression of genes in ruminal epithelial cells. Six ruminally cannulated nonlactating nonpregnant Holstein cows (body weight=725±69.6kg) were assigned to treatments in a 3×3 Latin square design with 7-d periods; 1d for data and sample collection followed by a 6-d washout period. Cows were fed a diet containing whole-crop barley silage and dry ground corn, and dietary neutral detergent fiber and crude protein contents were 41.8 and 13.2% [dry matter (DM) basis], respectively. Treatment was a pulse-dose of sucrose, lactose, and corn starch (3.0, 3.0, and 2.85kg of DM, respectively; providing similar amounts of hexose across the treatments) through the ruminal cannulas. All treatments were given with alfalfa silage (1.75kg DM) to prevent acute rumen acidosis. Rumen pH was continuously monitored, and rumen fluid was sampled at 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180min after the dose. In addition, ruminal papillae were sampled from the ventral sac at 180min after the dose. Ruminal dosing with sucrose and lactose, compared with corn starch, increased ruminal total volatile fatty acid concentration and molar proportion of butyrate from 60 to 180min after the dose, and expression of genes for sodium hydrogen exchanger isoforms 1 and 2, and ATPase isoform 1 in ruminal epithelial cells. Ruminal dosing with sucrose, compared with lactose and corn starch, decreased rumen pH from 120 to 180min after the dose and molar proportion of acetate in ruminal fluid from 60 to 150min after the dose, and increased molar proportion of propionate in ruminal fluid from 60 to 150min, and expression of genes involved in butyrate metabolism (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase isoform 1) and anion exchange across ruminal apical cell membrane (putative anion transporter isoform 1). These results suggest that replacing dietary starch with sugars may affect ruminal

  14. Modification of Corn Starch Ethanol Refinery to Efficiently Accept Various High-Impact Cellulosic Feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derr, Dan

    2013-12-30

    The goal of the Corn-to-Cellulosic Migration (CCM) pilot facility was to demonstrate the implementation of advanced technologies and methods for conversion of non-food, cellulosic feedstocks into ethanol, assess the economics of the facility and evaluate potential environmental benefits for biomass to fuels conversion. The CCM project was comprised of design, build, and operate phases for the CCM pilot facility as well as research & development, and modeling components. The CCM pilot facility was designed to process 1 tonne per day of non-food biomass and biologically convert that biomass to ethanol at a rate of 70 gallons per tonne. The plant demonstrated throughputs in excess of 1 tonne per day for an extended run of 1400 hours. Although target yields were not fully achieved, the continuous operation validated the design and operability of the plant. These designs will permit the design of larger scale operations at existing corn milling operations or for greenfield plants. EdeniQ, a partner in the project and the owner of the pilot plant, continues to operate and evaluate other feedstocks.

  15. Effects of some extrusion variables on physicochemical characteristics of extruded corn starch-passion fruit pulp (Passiflora edulis) snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, R Nallely Falfán; Guzmán, Iñigo Verdalet; Martínez-Bustos, Fernando

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of the addition of passion fruit pulp (PFP: 0-7%), the variation of barrel temperature in the third zone extruder (BT: 80-140 °C) and feed moisture (FM:16-30%) in a blend of corn starch and passion fruit pulp on different physicochemical characteristics of directly expanded snacks by extrusion technology. Single-screw laboratory extruder and a central, composite, rotatable experimental design were used. Expansion index of extrudates ranged between 1.0 and 1.8. Decreasing of feed moisture (18%), passion fruit pulp concentration (1.42%) and the increasing of barrel temperature (127 °C) resulted in higher expansion index. The increasing of feed moisture and passion fruit pulp concentration resulted in higher penetration force values of extrudates. The passion fruit pulp concentration showed a highly significant effect (p ≤ 0.01) on the L *, a * and b * parameters. Passion fruit pulp has a reasonable source of β-carotene, proteins and dietary fibers that can be added to expanded snacks.

  16. Some functional characteristics of extruded blends of fiber from sugarcane bagasse, whey protein concentrate, and corn starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Martínez-Bustos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Blends of fiber from sugar cane bagasse, corn starch, and whey protein concentrate were extruded. A single screw extruder, equipped with a screw at a constant compression ratio of 1:1 and a die diameter of 3 mm, was used. The best processing conditions were determined according to a central composite rotatable design (α = 1.41 with 5 central points, which gives a total of 13 tests. During the extrusion process the content of insoluble fiber decreased and that of soluble fiber increased. An increase in the contents of fiber and in the barrel temperature resulted in a decrease in the expansion index values and an increase in the water absorption index values; whereas in blends with intermediate fiber contents the effects in these parameters were found to be the opposite. High fiber contents increased penetration force but decreased luminosity, water solubility index values and the adhesive force in gels. The extrusion process improved the functional properties of sugarcane fiber bagasse enabling its addition to diverse alimentary systems.

  17. 复合酶酶解制备微孔糯玉米淀粉%Micro-porous Waxy Corn Starch Prepared by Compound Enzyme Enzymolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐洪波; 王晓宇; 李艳平

    2011-01-01

    以糯玉米淀粉为原料,以α-淀粉酶和葡萄糖淀粉酶复合酶解制备了多孔淀粉,考察了复合酶用量、酶配比、酶解pH、酶解温度和酶解时间对微孔糯玉米淀粉成孔的影响.试验结果表明,上述5个因素对微孔糯玉米淀粉的成孔均有影响.制备微孔糯玉米淀粉的较佳工艺条件为:α-淀粉酶和葡萄糖淀粉酶的比例1∶3,酶解温度55℃,酶解时间12h,pH 5.0,复合酶用量1.5%.比较了容积率法与吸油率法测定微孔糯玉米淀粉成孔的一致性,通过扫描电子显微镜分析微孔糯玉米淀粉的孔结构.%Micro - porous starch was prepared by using waxy com starch as raw material, through the enzymolys-is of compound enzyme composed of a - amylase and glucoamylase in this paper. The effects of factors such as amount of compound enzyme, ratio of α - amylase to glucoamylase, enzymolysis pH, enzymolysis temperature, and enzymolysis time on the pore - forming of waxy corn starch, were discussed. The results showed that the pore - forming of waxy corn starch was influenced by amount of compound enzyme, ratio of a - amylase to glucoamylase, enzymolysis pH value , enzymolysis temperature and enzymolysis time. The better technology conditions of preparing micro - porous waxy com starch were mass ratio of α - amylase to glucoamylase 1: 3, enzymolysis temperature 55 °C, enzymolysis time 12 h, enzymolysis pH 5.0, and amount of compound enzyme 1.5% respectively. The pore - forming consistency of micro - porous waxy corn starch was compared by the volume rate method and oil absorption rate method. The pore structure of micro - porous waxy com starch was observed by SEM.

  18. Bioplastic made from corn starch as an effective biological delivery vehicle for control of agricultural pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, increasing consumer sensitivity to environmental sustainability and favorable legislation has resulted in a rising demand for renewable and bio-based products, including biodegradable plastic. A recent market research report has projected a 15% annual increase in the demand of biode...

  19. Processamento de amido de milho em câmara de mistura Peocessing of corn starch in an internal mixer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia C. Silva

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Misturas de amido de milho e água nas proporções 70:30, 80:20 e 90:10% (p/p foram submetidas a processamento a 90°C, sob diferentes velocidades de rotação (20, 40, 80 e 100rpm, em câmara de mistura Rheomix 600 equipada com rotores do tipo "roller". A influência do teor de água e da velocidade de rotação dos rotores no processamento do amido de milho foi investigada por meio de curvas de torque e de temperatura fornecidas pelo reômetro de torque Rheocord 9000. Análises em Analisador Rápido de Viscosidade e por microscopia óptica de luz polarizada foram realizadas, a fim de complementar as informações registradas pelas curvas de torque e de temperatura. Os resultados mostraram que o teor de água e a rotação empregada no processamento exercem influência significativa nas características do amido processado. Os menores teores de água (10 e 20% p/p e as velocidades de rotação mais elevadas (80 e 100rpm contribuíram para a maior degradação do amido. Nas misturas com teor de água de 30% (p/p, sob as velocidades de rotação empregadas, a função plastificante da água contribuiu para minimizar o efeito do cisalhamento, já que a degradação do amido não foi observada. Nesses casos, a estrutura granular do amido foi preservada em grande parte durante o processamento.Corn starch/water mixtures at compositions of 70:30, 80:20 and 90:10 (w/w % were submitted to processing at 90ºC and different rates (20, 40, 80 and 100rpm in an internal mixer (Rheomix 600, equipped with counter-rotating roller type rotors. The effect of the water content and of the rotation rate on the starch processing was investigated by torque and temperature curves given by the in-line Rheocord 9000 torque rheometer. Viscosity measurements, carried out in a Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA, and optical microscopy analysis were performed on the processed samples to complement the rheometry data. The results indicated that the water content and the rotation rate

  20. Progress of the effect factors of freeze-thawing behavior and modification mechanisms of corn starch%玉米淀粉颗粒冻融特性影响因素及机制研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余世锋; 郑喜群

    2012-01-01

    玉米淀粉是一种供应稳定、价格低廉,广泛应用于焙烤食品、医药及食品工业等领域的重要原材料。综述了玉米淀粉变性方法现状,详细分析了玉米淀粉颗粒冻融特性的影响因素,探讨了玉米淀粉颗粒冻融变性机制,玉米淀粉颗粒冻融变性机制可能是冰晶微机械破坏力和水分迁移渗透压力共同作用的结果。%Corn starch was one of the most important industry materials, which is widely used in baking foods, pharmacology and food manufacturing. In the paper, the modification methods of corn starch were reviewed, and the effect factors of freeze-thawing behavior of corn starch granule were analyzed. The corn starch modification mechanism of freeze-thawing was discussed, and the corn starch granule modification mechanisms maybe were the destruction of ice-matrix expansion pressure and water penetration pressure together.

  1. Effect of plasticizer type and concentration on physical properties of biodegradable films based on sugar palm (arenga pinnata) starch for food packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyang, M L; Sapuan, S M; Jawaid, M; Ishak, M R; Sahari, J

    2016-01-01

    In this study, sugar palm starch (SPS) films were developed using glycerol (G), sorbitol (S) or their combination (GS) as plasticizers at the ratio of 15, 30 and 45 (wt)% using casting technique. The addition of plasticizers to SPS film-forming solutions helped to overcome the brittle and fragile nature of unplasticized SPS films. Increased plasticizer concentration resulted to an increase in film thickness, moisture content and solubility. On the contrary, density and water absorption of plasticized films decreased with increasing plasticizer concentration. Raising the plasticizer content from 15 to 45 % showed less effect on the moisture content and water absorption of S-plasticized films. Films containing glycerol and glycerol-sorbitol plasticizer (G, and GS) demonstrated higher moisture content, solubility and water absorption capacity compared to S-plasticized films. The results obtained in this study showed that plasticizer type and concentration significantly improves film properties and enhances their suitability for food packaging applications.

  2. Screening of different wheat protease hydrolysates inhibiting retrogradation of corn starch%抑制玉米淀粉回生的面粉蛋白酶解液筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭俊杰; 康海岐; 孙海波; 连喜军; 李琳

    2014-01-01

    为防止玉米淀粉食品会因回生而降低品质,该文利用酸性、中性和碱性3种蛋白酶水解小麦面粉中的球蛋白、谷蛋白和醇溶蛋白,研究酶解物中混合多肽对玉米淀粉回生的影响。研究结果表明,酸性蛋白酶水解谷蛋白所得多肽混合液能强烈抑制玉米淀粉回生,使玉米淀粉回生率由14.0%降低到8.0%。其他2种水解物促进玉米淀粉回生,促进最多的是碱性蛋白酶水解醇溶蛋白,使玉米淀粉回生率由14.0%升高到19.5%。通过红外和核磁分析了混合多肽抑制或促进玉米淀粉回生的可能机理。研究成果为控制淀粉回生提供一条全新的途径。%Retrogradation is the molecular interaction that occurs between glucan molecules in gelatinized starch during cooling. It profoundly affects quality, acceptability, and shelf-life of starch-containing foods. Corn starch is cheap and is widely used in foods such as instant noodles, sausages, pastries, etc. But the quality of these foods in hardness, digestion, compatibility, etc, becomes deteriorated during storage due to starch retrogradation. Wheat gluten is a kind of nutritious, high quality, and inexpensive plant-based protein. It is often suggested that gluten has an anti-firming effect in bread, but the reason for this is not clear. There are four kinds of proteins in wheat flour:albumin, globulin, glutenin, and gliadin. In order to find the peptides with the ability of hindering corn starch retrogradation, these proteins were hydrolyzed by acid, neutral, and alkali proteases. The effects of these peptides in hydrolysate of globulin, glutenin, and gliadin on the retrogradation of corn starch were carried out in this paper. The results showed that the peptides from hydrolysis of glutenin by acid protease strongly inhibited retrogradation of corn starch, lowering the retrogradation rate of corn starch from 14.0%to 8.0%. Other hydrolysis promoted the retrogradation of corn starch

  3. One step preparation of spherical drug particles by contamination-free dry milling technique with corn starch beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Toshiyuki; Yoshida, Maria; Hayashi, Naoko; Kondo, Keita

    2017-08-07

    The novel dry milling technique has been developed by using a mechanical powder processor for improving the dissolution properties of poorly water-soluble drugs. It was found that the drug crystals were well pulverized by co-processing with fine particles of corn starch (CS). The morphological observation and particle size evaluation revealed that the processed products formed the composite particles with ordered-mixed structure, having double-layered particles with a core of CS and a coating layer of phenytoin (Phe), as a model drug. This result suggested that the drug crystals were selectively micronized and the resultant miniaturized Phe particles were adhered/fixed on the surface of un-milled CS particles. The mechanical characteristics detected by the indentation test assumed that the brittle Phe crystals sandwiched between elastic CS particles would be successfully crushed down by high shearing stress in the processor. The newly-established dispersion-sedimentation test indicated that the fine Phe particles were immediately detached from the composite particles in aqueous phase, constructing the suspension. The dissolution behavior from the processed particles was found to be improved and strongly dependent on the size and amount of detached Phe particles. Such milling and ordered-mixturization have been also successfully done by using recrystallized larger Phe particles than 100μm. These results would propose the contamination-free dry milling technique without using hard milling balls or beads. The mechanism of the current milling and ordered-mixing phenomena is also provided in this report. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Characterization of blend hydrogels based on plasticized starch/cellulose acetate/carboxymethyl cellulose synthesized by electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senna, Magdy M., E-mail: magdysenna@hotmail.com [Radiation Chemistry Department, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt); Mostafa, Abo El-Khair B. [Chemistry Department, College for Girls, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Mahdy, Sanna R.; El-Naggar, Abdel Wahab M. [Radiation Chemistry Department, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Semi-interpenetrating (IPN) blend hydrogels were synthesized by EB irradiation. • The hydrogels were based on starch/cellulose acetate/carboxymethyl cellulose blends. • The gelation, swelling, thermal and mechanical properties of hydrogels were studied. • The thermal stability was studied by determining kinetic energy by different methods. - Abstract: Blend hydrogels based on aqueous solutions of plasticized starch and different ratios of cellulose acetate (CA) and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) were prepared by electron beam irradiation (EB). The blends before and after EB irradiation were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The physico-chemical properties of blend hydrogels prepared by electron beam irradiation were improved compared to unirradiated blends.

  5. Effect of oil lamination between plasticized starch layers on film properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basiak, Ewelina; Debeaufort, Frédéric; Lenart, Andrzej

    2016-03-15

    To reduce the hygroscopic character of biodegradable starch-based films, rapeseed oil was incorporated by lamination (starch-oil-starch 3-layers technique). The lipid lamination followed by starch solution casting step induced an emulsion type structure of dried films. Composite films are more opalescent and glossier than fatty free starch films. For all the films, structure is heterogeneous in the cross-section only. Adding fat induced a twice decrease of the tensile strength. Thermal gravimetry analysis did not show differences between films with and without oil. Lipid reduced the moisture absorption particularly at higher RH as well as the surface swelling index, when water droplet contact occurred. Addition of lipids always decreases the contact angle for all liquid tested, except for water. Surface affinity of films for liquids less polar that water increased with rapeseed oil addition. The addition of rapeseed oil significantly reduces water vapour and oxygen permeability.

  6. 羧甲基玉米淀粉合成过程的优化%The optimization of carboxymethyl corn starch synthesis process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王华; 谭艳君; 李超; 马佳利

    2014-01-01

    以乙醇溶液为介质,分析乙醇浓度、乙醇用量、反应温度、反应时间、nNaOH/nAGU 、nMCA/nAGU等因素对羧甲基玉米淀粉取代度的影响.通过Box-Behnken实验设计和SAS确定羧甲基玉米淀粉合成的最佳反应条件:乙醇浓度93.5%、反应温度60℃、反应时间265min、nNaOH/nAGU =2.6、nMCA/nAGU =1.25,在此条件下合成的羧甲基玉米淀粉的取代度为0.914、原糊质量分数为4%时的黏度为6590mPa · s .%Using ethanal as medium ,the effects of ethanol concentration ,ethanol dosage ,reaction tem-perature ,reaction time ,nNaOH/nAGU ,nMCA/nAGU and other factors on the substitution degree of carboxym-ethyl corn starch was studied .And according to Box-Behnken experimental design and SAS ,the optimal reaction conditions on carboxymethyl corn starch synthesis was determined :ethanol concentration of 93.5% ,reaction temperature of 60℃ ,reaction time of 265 min ,nNaOH/nAGU of=2.6 ,nMCA/nAGU =1.25 . And under this condition ,carboxymethyl corn starch with the substitution degree of 0 .914 can be made , and w hile the mass fraction of original paste is 4% ,the viscosity of original paste is 6 590mPa · s .

  7. In situ identification and quantification of starch-hydrolyzing bacteria attached to barley and corn grain in the rumen of cows fed barley-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yun; Kong, Yunhong; Seviour, Robert; Yang, Hee-Eun; Forster, Robert; Vasanthan, Thavaratnam; McAllister, Tim

    2015-08-01

    Cereal grains rich in starch are widely used to meet the energy demands of high-producing beef and dairy cattle. Bacteria are important players in starch digestion in the rumen, and thus play an important role in the hydrolysis and fermentation of cereal grains. However, our understanding of the composition of the rumen starch-hydrolyzing bacteria (SHB) is limited. In this study, BODIPY FL DQ starch staining combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and quantitative FISH were applied to label, identify and quantify SHB possessing active cell-surface-associated (CSA) α-amylase activity in the rumen of heifers fed barley-based diets. When individual cells of SHB with active CSA α-amylase activity were enumerated, they constituted 19-23% of the total bacterial cells attached to particles of four different cultivars of barley grain and corn. Quantitative FISH revealed that up to 70-80% of these SHB were members of Ruminococcaceae in the phylum Firmicutes but were not Streptococcus bovis, Ruminobacter amylophilus, Succinomonas amylolytica, Bifidobacterium spp. or Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, all of whose amylolytic activities have been demonstrated previously in vitro. The proportion of barley grain in the diet had a large impact on the percentage abundance of total SHB and Ruminococcaceae SHB in these animals.

  8. Effect of plasticizer type and concentration on physical properties of biodegradable films based on sugar palm (arenga pinnata) starch for food packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Sanyang, M. L.; Sapuan, S. M.; Jawaid, M.; M. R. Ishak; J. Sahari

    2015-01-01

    In this study, sugar palm starch (SPS) films were developed using glycerol (G), sorbitol (S) or their combination (GS) as plasticizers at the ratio of 15, 30 and 45 (wt)% using casting technique. The addition of plasticizers to SPS film-forming solutions helped to overcome the brittle and fragile nature of unplasticized SPS films. Increased plasticizer concentration resulted to an increase in film thickness, moisture content and solubility. On the contrary, density and water...

  9. Influence of ensiling, exogenous protease addition, and bacterial inoculation on fermentation profile, nitrogen fractions, and ruminal in vitro starch digestibility in rehydrated and high-moisture corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraretto, L F; Fredin, S M; Shaver, R D

    2015-10-01

    Exogenous protease addition may be an option to increase proteolysis of zein proteins and thus starch digestibility in rehydrated and high-moisture corn (HMC) ensiled for short periods. In addition, microbial inoculation may accelerate fermentation and increase acid production and thus increase solubilization of zein proteins. Four experiments were performed to evaluate the effect on fermentation profile, N fractions, and ruminal in vitro starch digestibility (ivSD) of the following: (1) rehydration and ensiling of dry ground corn; (2) exogenous protease addition to rehydrated un-ensiled and ensiled corn; (3) exogenous protease addition or inoculation in rehydrated ensiled corn; and (4) exogenous protease addition or inoculation in HMC. Experiments 1, 2, and 3 were performed with 7 treatments: dry ground corn (DGC); DGC rehydrated to a targeted dry matter content of 70% (REH); REH treated with exogenous protease (REH+); REH ensiled for 30 d (ENS); ENS treated with exogenous protease (ENS+); ENS treated with a microbial inoculant containing Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus casei, Enterococcus faecium, and Pediococcus sp. (ENSI); and ENS treated with exogenous protease and microbial inoculant (ENSI+). Experiment 1 compared DGC, REH, and ENS with ivSD being greater for ENS (64.9%) than DGC and REH (51.7% on average). Experiment 2 compared REH and ENS without or with exogenous protease addition (REH+ and ENS+, respectively). Ensiling and exogenous protease addition increased ivSD, but exogenous protease addition was more effective in ENS than REH (6.4 vs. 2.6 percentage unit increase). Experiment 3 compared the effects of exogenous protease addition and inoculation in ENS corn (ENS, ENS+, ENSI, and ENSI+). The addition of protease, but not inoculant, increased ivSD. Inoculation reduced pH and acetate, propionate, and ethanol concentrations, and increased lactate and total acid concentrations. In experiment 4, 8 treatments were a combination of HMC noninoculated

  10. Experimental study on the rheological properties of starch gels of buckwheat, corn and potato%荞麦、玉米、马铃薯淀粉凝胶特性的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪小芳; 李小昱; 王为

    2006-01-01

    利用电子万能材料试验机对荞麦、玉米、马铃薯淀粉的力学特性进行了研究.结果表明:在一定范围内,随着淀粉乳浓度的增加,荞麦、玉米、马铃薯的凝胶强度、弹性模量和凝胶弹性呈线性增加,但凝胶弹性变化较小;同一淀粉乳浓度下凝胶强度由高到低顺序为马铃薯淀粉>玉米淀粉>荞麦淀粉,弹性模量为马铃薯淀粉>玉米淀粉>荞麦淀粉,凝胶弹性为荞麦淀粉>玉米淀粉>马铃薯淀粉.在淀粉乳浓度为20%时,随着NaCl浓度增加,3种淀粉的凝胶强度均有一定程度增强.在同一NaCl浓度下,其凝胶强度为马铃薯淀粉>玉米淀粉>荞麦淀粉,弹性模量为马铃薯淀粉>玉米淀粉>荞麦淀粉,对凝胶弹性的影响不大.%The mechanical properties of starch gels of buckwheat, corn and potato were tested with All-purpose Electronic Tester. The test results show that the gel strength, elastic modulus and gel elasticity of buckwheat starch, corn starch and potato starch increase linearly with the increase of starch concentration, while the increase trend of gel elasticity changes little. Under the condition of the same starch concentration, the gel strength, elastic modulus and gel elasticity of three different starches behave in different orders: the gel strength and elastic modulus of starch follows the same trend, the first is potato starch and the last is buckwheat starch; while the gel elasticity of starch order is reverse, the first is buckwheat starch and the last is potato starch. When the starch concentration is 20%, the gel strengths of three starches increase with the increase of NaCl concentration. Under the condition of same NaCl concentration, the gel strength and elastic modulus of starch follow the same trend, the first is potato starch and the last is buckwheat starch; but it has little effect on gel elasticity.

  11. Utilization starch of jackfruit seed (Artocarpus heterophyllus) as raw material for bioplastics manufacturing using sorbitol as plasticizer and chitosan as filler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubis, M.; Harahap, M. B.; Manullang, A.; Alfarodo; Ginting, M. H. S.; Sartika, M.

    2017-01-01

    Starch is a natural polymer that can be used for the production of bioplastics because its source is abundant, renewable and easily degraded. Jackfruit seeds can be used as raw material for bioplastics because its contains starch. The aim of this study to determine the characteristics of jackfruit seeds and determine the effect of chitosan and sorbitol on the physicochemical properties of bioplastics from jackfruit seeds. Starch is extracted from jackfruit seeds were then characterized to determine its chemical composition. In the manufacture of bioplastics starch composition jackfruit seeds - chitosan used was 7: 3, 8: 2 and 9: 1 (g/g), while the concentration of sorbitol used was 20%, 25%, 30%, 35%, and 40% by weight dry ingredients. From the analysis of jackfruit seed starch obtained water content of 6.04%, ash content of 1.08%, the starch content of 70.22%, 16.39% amylose content, amylopectin content of 53.83%, 4.68% protein content, fat content 0.54%. The best conditions of starch bioplastics jackfruit seeds obtained at a ratio of starch: chitosan (w/w) = 8: 2 and the concentration of plasticizer sorbitol 25% with tensile strength 13.524 MPa. From the results of FT-IR analysis indicated an increase for the OH group and the group NH on bioplastics due to the addition of chitosan and sorbitol. The results of mechanical tests is further supported by analysis of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showing jackfruit seed starch has a small granule size with the size of 7.6 μm and in bioplastics with chitosan filler and plasticizer sorbitol their fracture surface is smooth and slightly hollow compared bioplastics without fillers chitosan and plasticizer sorbitol.

  12. Preparation and Characterization of Release Film from Corn Starch%玉米淀粉基缓释膜的制备及表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨铁金; 王琦; 厉悦; 刘敏; 刘亚红

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective ] The research aimed to study the preparation and characterization of release film from corn starch. [ Method ] The coated fertilizer was prepared by coating material,which was synthesized by corn starch,polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and additives. Effects of additives included in coating materials on the slow-release fertilizer were studied in detail. The construction of the membrane was analyzed and characterized by IR spectrum and TG. The effectible factors and optimum conditions of the membranes prepared were investigated. [ Result ] The best reaction condition of the preparation of release film from corn starch was as following:starch:PVA = 1∶1 ,PVA content of 15% ,tween of 0.2 ml,urea of 0.5 g, glycerin of 1.5 g, formaldehyde of 2 ml, borax of 0.2 g, evocator of 0.5 %, reaction for 30 min, reaction temperature of 80 ℃.[ Conclusion ] The release film has characteristics of low cost, biodegradation, no pollution.%[目的]研究玉米淀粉基缓释膜的制备条件及特征.[方法]以玉米淀粉与聚乙烯醇为原料,在交联剂的作用下,制得包膜料液,用此料液给尿素涂膜,制得包膜尿素.通过红外光谱时膜的结构进行表征和分析,研究改性淀粉膜的形成条件和影响因素.[结果]制备玉米淀粉基缓释膜的最佳反应条件是淀粉和PVA的质量比为1:1,PVA的含量为15%,吐温0.2 ml,尿素0.5 g,丙三醇1.5 g,甲醛2ml,硼砂0.2 g,引发剂用量0.5%,反应30 min,反应温度控制在80℃.[结论]制备得到的包膜材料具有成本低、可生物降解、无环境污染等特点.

  13. 月桂酸玉米淀粉酯的合成工艺研究%Study on Synthesis of Corn Laurate Starch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高艳; 蒋利丽; 杨文静; 汪兰

    2012-01-01

    以玉米淀粉与月桂酸为原料,脂肪酶为催化剂,干法制备了低取代度的月桂酸玉米淀粉酯.以取代度和特性黏度为评价标准,对影响月桂酸玉米淀粉酯合成的因素:反应时间、反应温度、水分添加量、脂肪酶添加量和月桂酸添加量进行研究.并在此基础上,进行了4因素3水平的正交试验.用DPS软件对正交试验结果进行方差分析,得出了月桂酸玉米淀粉酯合成的最佳工艺条件:以20 g淀粉干基计,月桂酸添加量5%,酶添加量2.5%,水分添加量25%,反应时间3h,温度60 ℃.%Corn laurate starch was prepared by esterification of corn starch with lauric acid, and lipase was added as catalyzer. The effects of the varieties of factors on the degree of substitute ( DS) and intrinsic viscosity are studied , including reactive temperature and time,the quantity of water,lipase and lauric acid. Based on those,the four -factor three - level orthogonal experiments are designed to optimize the technology, and the experimental data was processed by the DPS for variance analysis. The most optimal process condition is as follows: starch amount of 20 g( absolutely dry),lauric acid of 5% ,lipase of 2.5% ,initial water content of 25% ,reaction time of 3 h,temperature of 60 ℃.

  14. End-product quality characteristics and consumer response of chickpea flour-based gluten-free muffins containing corn starch and egg white.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, María Dolores; Herranz, Beatriz; Jiménez, María José; Canet, Wenceslao

    2017-03-15

    The objective of this work was to study changes in technological characteristics and sensory properties of gluten-free muffins when using chickpea flour (CF) alone and/or with partial CF replacement by corn starch (CS). The effect of partial whole egg replacement by egg white (EW) was also investigated. Four different CF:CS ratios (100:0, 75:25, 50:50, and 25:75) were used in formulations with and without incorporated EW, and compared with wheat flour (WF) muffins (0:0). Muffins prepared from CF alone had lower hardness, springiness, cohesiveness, chewiness, and resilience than control ones. However, reducing protein content by CS addition significantly increased texture profile analysis parameters of muffin crumb. Muffins prepared with 25:75 ratio had a structure with springiness similar to muffins made with WF but were too hard. Reducing whole egg content by partial replacement with EW also significantly increased muffin hardness. Flash profile performed by consumers showed a clear discrimination of muffins according to CF:CS ratio. Muffins containing both CF and CS at 50:50 ratio had the same high overall acceptability and purchase intention as gluten ones. Gluten-free CF-based muffins of satisfactory quality can be manufactured by CS incorporation, either with or without EW. By decreasing and increasing protein and starch contents of chickpea flour (CF) by incorporation of corn starch (CS), muffins formulated from a combination of CF and CS at different CF:CS ratios, either with or without partial replacement of whole egg with egg white, result in high-quality muffins with similar technological and sensory characteristics to those of their gluten counterparts. Sensory overall acceptability and purchase intention of muffins made with a 50:50 ratio did not differ significantly from those of the controls. These findings will benefit celiac population, while promoting the value and utilization of pulses through muffins. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Effect of fiaxseed gum on retrogradation of corn starch%亚麻籽胶对玉米淀粉老化特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宏霞; 徐幸莲; 周光宏

    2011-01-01

    In the present study,the effect of flaxseed gum on retrogradation of corn starch was analyzed by measuring the changes of blue value,rheological properties,and thermal properties during storage of 60 g·L-1 com starch gel with and without flaxseed gum.The results showed that blue value( BV )decreased while storage modulus increased at a slower speed when adding flaxseed gum, and the enthalpy of transition( ΔH)was significantly less than control( without flaxseed gum)( P<0.05 ). All these results indicated that flaxseed gum could retard the speed of the retrogradation of corn starch with the optional addition of 1 g·L-1 flaxseed gum.%通过测定添加和不添加亚麻籽胶的60 g·L-1玉米淀粉胶在贮存过程中碘蓝值(BV)、流变特性、热特性的变化,分析了亚麻籽胶对玉米淀粉老化特性的影响.结果表明:加入亚麻籽胶后,BV下降速度减缓,贮能模量(G')上升缓慢,热焓值(△H)明显低于不添加组(P<0.05),说明亚麻籽胶可以减缓玉米淀粉老化的速度,且添加量为1 g·L-1时效果最好.

  16. Investigations into the free-volume changes within starch/plasticizer/nanoclay systems using Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Huihua, E-mail: h.liu@federation.edu.au [School of Health Sciences, Federation University Australia, Ballarat, Vic (Australia); Chaudhary, Deeptangshu, E-mail: deepc@ers.com.au [ERS Environmental Risk Solutions PTY LTD, Perth, WA (Australia); Campbell, Colin, E-mail: colin.campbell@anu.edu.au [ARC Centre of Excellence for Antimatter-Matter Studies (CAMS), Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra (Australia); Roberts, Jason, E-mail: jxr107@physics.anu.edu.au [ARC Centre of Excellence for Antimatter-Matter Studies (CAMS), Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra (Australia); Buckman, Stephen, E-mail: stephen.buckman@anu.edu.au [ARC Centre of Excellence for Antimatter-Matter Studies (CAMS), Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra (Australia); Sullivan, James, E-mail: james.sullivan@anu.edu.au [ARC Centre of Excellence for Antimatter-Matter Studies (CAMS), Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra (Australia)

    2014-11-14

    The free-volume of a matrix is a fundamental parameter that relates to its molecular and bulk characteristics, such as crystalline change and glass transition behavior. In starch-based bionanocomposite, we investigated the effect of the addition of montmorillonite nanoclay (MMT) and food plasticizers (glycerol and sorbitol) on changes of molecular pore size (including pore volume and pore distribution) using the Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS) method. The results demonstrated counter-intuitive impact of MMT on the total free-volume where the total free-volume increased within the polymeric matrix. When compared to the pure matrix free-volume, the addition of MMT also resulted in the appearance of a broader distribution of the void sizes. The plasticizers, on the other hand, apparently occupied the void spaces, and therefore decreased the free-volume of the matrix. Further, together with the small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analysis, we concluded that this is a result of interplay between the plasticizer-plasticizer interactions and the polymer–plasticizer interactions. For example, in the starch/glycerol/MMT system, the pore radii slightly decrease upon the increasing of glycerol amount (OG210 = O.27 nm and OG220 = 0.26 nm), but the relative weight did increase with the increasing glycerol concentration. However, increasing the sorbitol amount increased the pore size from 0.23 nm(OS210) to 0.28 nm(OS220). Furthermore, the addition MMT in the OS010 system, promote the emergence of a new dateable pore radius(0.90 nm), and the total weight significantly increased from 13.70 (OS010) to 19.5% (OS210). We suggest that the pore variation (size and distribution) due to the MMT and plasticizers are reflected in the polymer glass transition and crystallinity because ultimately, the, total free-volume is a reflection of level of interactions existing within the bulk of these nanocomposites. - Highlights: • PALS is applied to explore the

  17. Effect of gelatinization and additives on morphology and thermal behavior of corn starch/PVA blend films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xuegang; Li, Jiwei; Lin, Xiaoyan

    2012-11-06

    The blend films of ungelatinized and gelatinized starch/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) were prepared with a solution casting method by the introduction of additives (glycerol/urea) or not. The phase morphologies and thermal behaviors of the blends were carefully analyzed. A droplet phase was observed in the blends containing ungelatinized starch and a laminated phase was observed in the blends containing gelatinized starch. For both ungelatinized and gelatinized starch/PVA blends, the melting temperature (T(m)) (210-230 °C) of PVA was detected, and the T(m) of gelatinized starch/PVA blends was higher than that of the ungelatinized starch/PVA blends. Blend films containing 16.8 wt% of glycerol or urea exhibited a decreased T(m). The introduction of additives (glycerol or urea) reduced the decomposition onset temperature of the blend films. These various morphologies and thermal behaviors could be attributed to the different hydrogen bonding interaction characteristics between starch and polyvinyl alcohol at different conditions. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Overcoming hydrolysis of raw corn starch under industrial conditions with Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 9945a α-amylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šokarda Slavić, Marinela; Pešić, Milja; Vujčić, Zoran; Božić, Nataša

    2016-03-01

    α-Amylase from Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 9945a (BliAmy) was proven to be very efficient in hydrolysis of granular starch below the temperature of gelatinization. By applying two-stage feeding strategy to achieve high-cell-density cultivation of Escherichia coli and extracellular production of BliAmy, total of 250.5 U/mL (i.e. 0.7 g/L) of enzyme was obtained. Thermostability of amylase was exploited to simplify purification. The hydrolysis of concentrated raw starch was optimized using response surface methodology. Regardless of raw starch concentration tested (20, 25, 30 %), BliAmy was very effective, achieving the final hydrolysis degree of 91 % for the hydrolysis of 30 % starch suspension after 24 h. The major A-type crystalline structure and amorphous domains of the starch granule were degraded at the same rates, while amylose-lipid complexes were not degraded. BliAmy presents interesting performances on highly concentrated solid starch and could be of value for starch-consuming industries while response surface methodology (RSM) could be efficiently applied for the optimization of the hydrolysis.

  19. Effect of starch type on the physico-chemical properties of edible films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basiak, Ewelina; Lenart, Andrzej; Debeaufort, Frédéric

    2017-05-01

    Food preservation is mostly related to packaging in oil-based plastics, inducing environmental problems, but this drawback could be limited by using edible/biodegradable films and coatings. Physical and chemical properties were assessed and reflect the role of the starch type (wheat, corn or potato) and thus that of the amylose/amylopectin ratio, which influences thickness, colour, moisture, wettability, thermal, surface and mechanical properties. Higher amylose content in films induces higher moisture sensitivity, and thus affects the mechanical and barrier properties. Films made from potato starch constitute a greater barrier for oxygen and water vapour though they have weaker mechanical properties than wheat and corn starch films. Starch species with higher amylose content have lower wettability properties, and better mechanical resistance, which strongly depends on the water content due to the hydrophilic nature of starch films, so they could be used for products with higher water activity, such as cheese, fruits and vegetables. It especially concerns wheat starch systems, and the contact angle indicates less hydrophilic surfaces (above 90°) than those of corn and potato starch films (below 90°). The starch origin influences optical properties and thickness: with more amylose, films are opalescent and thicker; with less, they are transparent and thinner.

  20. PENGARUH UKURAN PARTIKEL, KADAR PADATAN, NaCl dan Na2CO3 TERHADAP SIFAT AMILOGRAFI TEPUNG DAN PATI JAGUNG [The Effect of Particle Size, Solid Content, NaCl and Na2CO3 on The Amilographic Characteristics of Corn Flour and Corn Starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjahja Muhandri

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The ojective of this research was to investigate the effect of corn flour particle sizes (60, 80 and 100 mesh, solid content (40, 45, 50 and 55 gr sample, NaCl (1, 2, 3, and 4% w/w and Na2CO3 (0.1, 0.3, 0.6, 0.9 and 1.2%, w/w on the amilography properties of the corn flour and corn starch revealed. Which were characterised by using Brabender Amilograph. The study that initial temperature of gelatization, maximum temperature of gelatinization and maximum viscosity increased with the increased of particle sizess. In most cases, each increment of 1 gram solid content could increase maximum viscosity about 57 BU and 49 BU for corn flour and corn starch, respectivevely . More over, addition of Na2CO3 and NaCl upon corn flour could increase the initial temperature of geletinization, maximum temperature of geletinization, maximum viscosity and cold viscosity. In the case of corn starch, addition of Na2CO3 had no significant effect on initial temperature of gelatinization. Whereas this treatment could decrease the maximum temperature of gelatinization and increase maximum viscosity at low concentrations ( <0.3%. As far as the cold viscosity is corceerned, it was decreased from 800 BU to 400 BU by the addition of Na2CO3 at least 0.1% (w/w. Furthermore, the addition of NaCl had no significant effect on amylography properties of corn starch at the experimental a mount added.

  1. Effects of partial replacement of dietary starch from barley or corn with lactose on ruminal function, short-chain fatty acid absorption, nitrogen utilization, and production performance of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibisa, G E; Gorka, P; Penner, G B; Berthiaume, R; Mutsvangwa, T

    2015-04-01

    In cows fed diets based on corn-alfalfa silage, replacing starch with sugar improves milk production. Although the rate of ruminal fermentation of sugar is more rapid than that of starch, evidence has been found that feeding sugar as a partial replacement for starch does not negatively affect ruminal pH despite increasing diet fermentability. The mechanism(s) for this desirable response are unknown. Our objective was to determine the effects of replacing barley or corn starch with lactose (as dried whey permeate; DWP) on ruminal function, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) absorption, and nitrogen (N) utilization in dairy cows. Eight lactating cows were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 28-d periods and source of starch (barley vs. corn) and level of DWP (0 vs. 6%, DM basis) as treatment factors. Four cows in 1 Latin square were ruminally cannulated for the measurement of ruminal function, SCFA absorption, and N utilization. Dry matter intake and milk and milk component yields did not differ with diet. The dietary addition of DWP tended to increase ruminal butyrate concentration (13.6 vs. 12.2 mmol/L), and increased the Cl(-)-competitive absorption rates for acetate and propionate. There was no sugar effect on minimum ruminal pH, and the duration and area when ruminal pH was below 5.8. Minimum ruminal pH tended to be lower in cows fed barley compared with those fed corn (5.47 vs. 5.61). The duration when ruminal pH was below pH 5.8 tended to be shorter (186 vs. 235 min/d), whereas the area (pH × min/d) that pH was below 5.8 was smaller (47 vs. 111) on the corn than barley diets. Cows fed the high- compared with the low-sugar diet had lower ruminal NH3-N concentration. Feeding the high-sugar diet tended to increase apparent total-tract digestibility of dry matter and organic matters and increased apparent total-tract digestibility of fat. Apparent total-tract digestibility of N tended to be greater in cows fed barley compared with those fed corn

  2. Spray drying thermoplastic starch formulations : Need for processing aids and plasticizers?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niazi, Muhammad Bilal Khan; Zijlstra, Mark; Broekhuis, Antonius A.

    2013-01-01

    Retrogradation of amorphous thermoplastic starch (TPS) films obtained by compression moulding of spray dried amorphous powder was investigated. The aim of the work was to study the influence of malto-oligosaccharide molecular weight, i.e. dextrose equivalents (DEs), on the performance of the powders

  3. Effects of annealing on the pasting properties of potato and corn starches%韧化处理对马铃薯淀粉及玉米淀粉糊化性质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒲华寅; 王乐; 黄峻榕; 杨婷

    2016-01-01

    The effects of annealing on the pasting and viscosity properties of potato and corn starches were studied by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and rapid viscosity analyzer (RVA) .The results showed that the onset temperature (To) of potato and corn starches in‐creased and the gelatinization peak narrowed with increasing annealing time ,especially for starch annealed for 3 h .The gelatinization enthalpy (ΔH) increased and then decreased with the increase in annealing time for the annealed starch .In addition ,potato starch annealed for 24 h showed a higher gelatinization enthalpy compared with its raw starch ,while the gelatini‐zation enthalpy of annealed corn starch was not higher than that of raw starch .After annea‐ling ,the pasting temperature increased and the peak viscosity decreased ,w hereas potato starch and corn starch showed an inverse varying pattern in trough viscosity and final viscosi‐ty .The onset temperature measured by DSC was lower than the pasting temperature meas‐ured by RVA ,which indicated that the crystalline structure was destroyed before the rising in viscosity during gelatinization .%利用差示扫描量热及快速黏度分析技术研究了韧化对马铃薯淀粉及玉米淀粉糊化热性质及黏度性质的影响。结果显示:随着韧化时间的增加,淀粉糊化起始温度(T o )增加,糊化峰变窄,且韧化前3 h变化较明显,韧化淀粉糊化焓先增大后减小,但马铃薯淀粉韧化24 h后焓值高于原淀粉,而玉米淀粉韧化后焓值均不高于原淀粉。韧化淀粉起糊温度增加,峰值黏度减小,但两种淀粉谷值黏度和最终黏度变化趋势相反。起始糊化温度低于起糊温度,证明淀粉糊化过程中黏度快速上升前结晶结构已遭到破坏。

  4. 机械力与柠檬酸双改性热塑性玉米淀粉的制备研究%Preparation of mechanical force and citric acid thermoplastic modified corn starch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马莉莎; 高翠平; 吴悦; 张晓琳; 袁怀波

    2011-01-01

    Corn starch used as raw material to synthesis double-modified thermoplastic starch through the ultra-fine powder and citric acid and glycerol as modifiers. The optimum conditions of double-modified thermoplastic corn starch were researched. Under the reaction time is 60 min, the reaction temperature is 120 ℃, mass ratio of micronization corn starch:citric acid:glycerol was 1:0.4:0.3, obtained that double-modified thermoplastic starch are 0.259 degree of substitution and 0.346 degree of etherification, which are all higher than single-modified starch. Infrared spectroscopy confirmed that the lemon anhydride groups were introduced in starch. The X- diffraction showed the crystalline of double modified starch were dropped.%以玉米淀粉为原料,经过超微粉碎,用柠檬酸与甘油作改性剂,合成双改性热塑性玉米淀粉,确定了双改性热塑性玉米淀粉合成工艺的最佳条件——原淀粉经超微粉碎,在反应温度120℃,反应时间60min,配料比m(含水20%的玉米淀粉):m(柠檬酸):m(甘油)=1:0.4:0.3下,双改性热塑性玉米淀粉的取代度是0.259,酯化度是0.346,均比单改性的大。红外光谱分析证实在淀粉中引入了柠檬酸酐,X-衍射揭示双改性淀粉的结晶度下降。

  5. A novel solution blending method for using olive oil and corn oil as plasticizers in chitosan based organoclay nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakas, A; Patsaoura, A; Barkoula, N-M; Ladavos, A

    2017-02-10

    In the current study a novel reflux-solution blending method is being followed with the introduction of small ethanol volumes into chitosan acetic acid aquatic solution in order to incorporate olive oil and corn oil in chitosan and its organoclay nanocomposites. Ethanol enables the direct interaction of chitosan with oils and results in effective plasticization of chitosan/oil films with remarkable increase of the strain at break from 8% of chitosan and chitosan/oil aquatic samples to app. 22% for chitosan/oil ethanol samples. Compared with olive oil, corn oil is less effective as plasticizer (max strain at break app. 14%). Addition of oils is beneficial for water sorption, water vapor permeability and oxygen permeability response of the obtained films. Barrier properties are further improved after the use of OrgMMT, however OrgMMT results in significant reduction of strain at break of all oil containing samples (app. 8%) acting as stress concentrator upon deformation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Feasibility study for co-locating and integrating ethanol production plants from corn starch and lignocellulosic feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ibsen, Kelly [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McAloon, Andrew [U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. (United States); Yee, Winnie [U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of the feasibility of co-locating corn-grain-to-ethanol and lignocellulosic ethanol plants and potential savings from combining utilities, ethanol purification, product processing, and fermentation.

  7. Thermodynamic study of binary system Propafenone Hydrocloride with Metoprolol Tartrate: solid-liquid equilibrium and compatibility with α-lactose monohydrate and corn starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinescu, Daniela-Crina; Pincu, Elena; Meltzer, Viorica

    2013-05-20

    Solid-liquid equilibrium (SLE) for binary mixture of Propafenone Hydrocloride (PP) with Metoprolol Tartrate (MT) was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and corresponding activity coefficients were calculated. Simple eutectic behavior for this system was observed. The excess thermodynamic functions: G(E) and S(E) for the pre-, post-, and eutectic composition have been obtained using the computed activity coefficients data of the eutectic phase with their excess chemical potentials μi(E) (i=1, 2). The experimental solid-liquid phase temperatures were compared with predictions obtained from available eutectic equilibrium models. The results indicate non-ideality in this mixture. Also, the compatibility of each component and their eutectic mixture with usual excipients was investigated, and the DSC experiments indicate possible weak interactions with α-lactose monohydrate and compatibility with corn starch. The results obtained were confirmed by FT-IR measurements.

  8. Efficient production of optically pure D-lactic acid from raw corn starch by using a genetically modified L-lactate dehydrogenase gene-deficient and alpha-amylase-secreting Lactobacillus plantarum strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Kenji; Zhang, Qiao; Shinkawa, Satoru; Yoshida, Shogo; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Fukuda, Hideki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2009-01-01

    In order to achieve direct and efficient fermentation of optically pure D-lactic acid from raw corn starch, we constructed L-lactate dehydrogenase gene (ldhL1)-deficient Lactobacillus plantarum and introduced a plasmid encoding Streptococcus bovis 148 alpha-amylase (AmyA). The resulting strain produced only D-lactic acid from glucose and successfully expressed amyA. With the aid of secreting AmyA, direct D-lactic acid fermentation from raw corn starch was accomplished. After 48 h of fermentation, 73.2 g/liter of lactic acid was produced with a high yield (0.85 g per g of consumed sugar) and an optical purity of 99.6%. Moreover, a strain replacing the ldhL1 gene with an amyA-secreting expression cassette was constructed. Using this strain, direct D-lactic acid fermentation from raw corn starch was accomplished in the absence of selective pressure by antibiotics. This is the first report of direct D-lactic acid fermentation from raw starch.

  9. Plastic biofilm carrier after corn cobs reduces nitrate loading in laboratory denitrifying bioreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrate-nitrogen removal rates can be increased substantially in denitrifying bioreactors with a corn cob bed medium compared to woodchips; however, additional organic carbon (C) is released into the effluent. This laboratory column experiment was conducted to test the performance of a post-bed cha...

  10. The effect of branched limit dextrin on corn and waxy corn gelatinization and retrogradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lili; Xu, Jin; Fan, Xuerong; Wang, Qiang; Wang, Ping; Yuan, Jiugang; Yu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Ying; Cui, Li

    2017-08-02

    The effect of branched limit dextrins (BLDs) on the gelatinization and retrogradation properties of corn and waxy corn starch was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), wide X-ray diffraction (WXRD). The DSC data showed that the presence of BLDs increased the gelatinization and decreased the gelatinization enthalpy (ΔHgel). The retrogradation of corn and waxy corn starch were retarded by BLDs. The BLD with the lowest molecular weight had the best influence on corn and waxy corn starch retrogradation. The result of WXRD confirmed it. Avrami equation was used to analyze the enthalpies of retrograded corn and waxy corn starch. Starch recrystallization rate (k) reduced with the addition of BLDs, indicating that BLDs reduced the kinetics of starch retrogradation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF MODIFIED STARCH-BASED BIODEGRADABLE MATERIALS REINFORCED WITH PULP FIBER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LingfangJi; ShucaiLi

    2004-01-01

    Native corn starch and hydroxypropyl starch (HPS) based plastic films were prepared using the short pulp fiber as reinforcement and the glycerol as the plasticizer. The results of tensile test showed that the tensile strength and the elongation at break increased with the pulp contents. With the glycerol contents, the elongation at break increased considerably, but the tensile strength decreased. The water uptake of the films decreased with the pulp contents and hydroxypropylation, but increased with the glycerol contents. So it is concluded that the films was reinforced by pulp fiber and hydroxypropylation.

  12. A student project to quantify machinability of plastics using corn ethanol co-products as biofiller – an educational perspective for green manufacturing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn ethanol processing by-products are primarily used as animal feeds. Other potential applications include the manufacture of biodegradable plastic composites. This, however, requires subsequent processing, adding cost to the final product. Thus, it is necessary to investigate alternative methods ...

  13. Effect of Hydroxyl Number of Hydroxyl-Containing Plasticizers on Their Plasticization for Starch Sizing Agents%羟基增塑剂的羟基数目对淀粉浆料增塑作用的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟; 祝志峰

    2012-01-01

    In order to reveal the influence of number of hydroxyls in molecules of hydroxyl-containing plasticizers on the plasticization for starch sizing agents, plasticization of the plasticizers was investigated through contrast test. The plasticization was evaluated in terms of extension and tensile strength of starch film. And end - use ability of the plasticizers was accessed through film performances, adhesion-to-fibers, and paste behaviors (viscosity and its stability). The plasticizers evaluated included n-amyl alcohol, n-butyl alcohol, 1, 2-propylene glycol, glycol, glycerol, 1, 1, 1-trimethylolpropane, pentaerythritol, xylitol, and sorbic alcohol. Experimental results demonstrated that all the plasticizers exhibited plasticization for starch sizing agents, and could reduce the shortcomings such as film rigidity and brittleness of starch. The plasticizers enhanced the plasticization of starch with increasing the number of hydroxyls up to 3, reaching maximal effect, and beyond this number it reduced again. Glycerol and 1,1,1-trimethylolpropane showed the most marked plasticization for plasticizing starch sizing agents among the plasticizers considered. For this reason, these two plasticizers were recommended in uses for reducing shedding of size and lint in sizing and weaving operations so as to improve weaving efficiency.%以淀粉浆膜的断裂伸长为评价标准,通过对比试验评价羟基增塑剂对淀粉浆料的增塑作用,从分子结构上认识羟基增塑剂的羟基数目对淀粉浆料增塑作用的影响,并通过浆液特性及黏附性能评估羟基增塑剂正戊醇、正丁醇、1,2-丙二醇、乙二醇、甘油、1,1,1-三羟甲基丙烷、季戊四醇、木糖醇及山梨醇的使用效果.研究结果表明:羟基增塑剂对淀粉浆料都具有增塑作用,能够改善淀粉浆膜脆而硬的缺陷.随着增塑剂羟基数目的增加,淀粉浆膜的断裂伸长率逐渐增大;在羟基数目为3时,增塑作用达到最大;但

  14. Degradation of Raw Corn Starch by an α-Amylase (AmyP) from Marine Environment%海洋环境来源的淀粉酶AmyP对生玉米淀粉的降解特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭惠; 雷寅; 刘源涛; 汪颖

    2012-01-01

    来自海洋宏基因组文库的α-淀粉酶(AmyP)属于最新建立的糖苷水解酶亚家族GH13_37.AmyP是一个生淀粉降解酶,能有效降解玉米生淀粉.在最适反应条件pH7.5和40℃下,生玉米淀粉的比活达到(39.6±1.4) U/mg.酶解反应动力学显示AmyP可以非常快速的降解生玉米淀粉.对1%的生玉米淀粉降解仅需要30min;4%和8%的生玉米淀粉只需3h.DTT可以显著提高AmyP对生玉米淀粉的降解活性,1% DTT促使活性增加1倍.根据电镜观察和产物分析,认为AmyP是以内腐蚀的模式降解生玉米淀粉颗粒,释放出葡萄糖、麦芽糖和麦芽三糖作为终产物.%The α-amylase ( AmyP) from a marine metagenomic library belongs to the recently classified glycoside hydrolase subfamily GH13_37. AmyP is raw starch degrading enzyme, exhibiting a remarkable ability to digest raw corn starch. The specific activity of raw corn starch was reached (39. 6 ± 1.4) U/mg under the optimum pH 7. 5 and temperature 40 ℃. The hydrolysis curve showed that AmyP could hydrolyze raw corn starch at a very high speed. The final hydrolysis degrees were obtained in 30min for 1% raw corn starch and 3h for 4% and 8% concentration. The enzyme's activity was greatly increased in the presence of DTT. 1% DTT led to a twofold-enhanced activity. The results of scanning electron microscopy and thin-layer chromatography show that AmyP attacks sites on raw corn starch granules with a mode of endo-corrosion, and releases glucose, maltose and maltotriose as end products.

  15. 海洋耐高温酸性α-淀粉酶水解玉米淀粉的研究%Marine Thermo-Resistant Acidic α-Amylase to Hydrolyze Corn Starch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑛; 吕明生; 王淑军; 李华钟; 房耀雏; 焦豫良; 刘姝

    2012-01-01

    为开发适用于工业生产的新型酶制剂,以实验室自主构建的基因工程菌所产的新型海洋耐高温酸性α-淀粉酶为液化酶,以玉米淀粉液化后的DE值为指标,研究影响玉米淀粉的液化的因素,确定该酶水解玉米淀粉的最佳工艺条件.新型海洋耐高温酸性α-淀粉酶最佳的工艺条件为温度85℃、时间90 min、粉浆浓度250 g/L、酶用量32 U/g淀粉.%The purpose of this study was to develop a new enzyme preparation suitable for industrial production. A new marine thermo-resistanl acidic ot-amylase produced by independently constructed strain by genetic engineering in the laboratory was a liquefied enzyme, and took DE value of corn starch after liquefied as an index to study the influencing factors to liquefy corn starch, and confirmed the optimum technological conditions for corn starch enzymolysis. The optimum technological conditions for the new marine thermo-resistant acidic a-amylase were as follows; temperature at 85℃, hydrolyze for 90 rain, concentration of liquid starch at 250 g/L, quantity of enzyme at 32 U/g starch.

  16. Physical and mechanical properties of LDPE incorporated with different starch sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormin, Shaharuddin; Kormin, Faridah; Dalour Hossen Beg, Mohammad; Bijarimi Mat Piah, Mohd

    2017-08-01

    In this study it was investigated the incorporation of different starches, such as sago starch, corn starch, potato starch, tapioca starch and wheat starch, in low-density polyethylene matrix (LDPE) to enhanced mechanical properties and to obtain partially biodegradable product with the aim to reduce the plastics wastes in the environment. For comparison, virgin LDPE, LDPE with different sources of starch blends were prepared and characterized under the same conditions. The starches were mixed to the LDPE using a twin screw extruder to guarantee the homogeneity of the formulations. The compound were shaping processed by injection moulding. The characterization of those compounds was done by physical (density, MFI), mechanical (Universal tensile machine). The addition of starch to LDPE reduced the MFI values, the tensile strength, elongation at break and impact strength, whereas the elastic modulus, flexural modulus and flexural strength increased. LDPE/SS show the good mechanical behavior compared to other formulation. The physical and mechanical properties were evident when 5 and 30 wt% were added. Water uptake increased with increased starch content and immersion time. The time taken for the composites to equilibrate was about one month even when they were immersed completely in water.

  17. Rheological and gel properties of corn starch-xanthan mixed systems%玉米淀粉与黄原胶复配体系流变和凝胶特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雅媛; 洪雁; 顾正彪; 朱玲

    2011-01-01

    In order to investigate the effects of hydrocolloid on the rheological and gel properties of starch paste, rheolgical and gel behaviors of corn starch and corn starch/xanthan gum mixed systems were studied. The mechanism of interaction between corn starch and xanthan gum was also analyzed. The results showed that corn starch and corn starch/xanthan gum mixed pastes were the typic yield-pseudoplasticity. A significant synergistic effect on consistency index was evident. The flow behavior index of mixed pastes was increased as the ratio of xanthan gum in the mixtures was raised. The mixture pastes exhibited more pseudoplasticity., but the effect was no pronounced as the proportion of xanthan gum was greater than 10%.The dynamic oscillatory test showed that the mixture pastes had a more superior viscoelastic property. The xanthan gum molecules exerted intermolecular interactions with the amylose molecules by hydrogen bond. The short-term retrogradation of amylose was prolonged and restricted by the present of xanthan gum. The mixed gels were more softer. Based on an overall consideration, a 9.0:1.0 (g/g) mixture of corn starch and xanthan gum proved to be the optimal additive. The research results will provide a theoretical basis for application and quality control of corn starch/xanthan gum mixed system in food industry.%为考察胶体对淀粉流变及凝胶特性的影响,该文以玉米淀粉为原料,加入不同比例黄原胶,研究两者复配后流变及凝胶特性的变化,对其相互作用机理进行了初步探讨.结果表明,玉米淀粉及两者复配体系属于屈服-假塑性流体,随着黄原胶比例的提高,复配体系的稠度系数显著增加,流体指数降低,假塑性增强,但黄原胶比例大于10%时,增加不再显著.动态流变学试验显示,复配体系具有更为优越的黏弹性,黄原胶可与淀粉分子间相互作用形成氢键,使得分子链段间的缠结点增加,同时,可延缓及阻止部分直链淀粉分

  18. Digestion Profiles and Some Physicochemical Properties of Native and Modified Waxy Corn Starch%糯玉米化学变性淀粉的消化性比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡丹; 邬应龙

    2013-01-01

    Waxy corn starch was chemically modified by esterification (OSA), acetylation (AC), hydroxypropylation(HP), and crosslinking(CL).The effects of these modifications on the nutritionally important starch fractions, namely rapidly digestible starch (RDS), slowly digestible starch (SDS), and resistant starch (RS), were studied in both uncooked and cooked starches. Light transmissivity, resistant sink stability and gelatinization parameters of the native and modified starches were also studied. OSA, HP, and AC increased the light transmissivity, where CL decreased the light transmissivity. The amount of resistant starch (RS) in prime starches were 28.4% ,14%,57.8%and 39.6%in the acetylated, esterified, hydroxypropylated, and cross-linked starches, respectively, whereas the unmodified starch contained 5.7%. By gelatinization, compared with native starches, all the modifications applied tended to decrease the RDS. The highest decrease in RDS was determined after HP treatment. Like the prime starches, the modified starches contained higher contents of undigested starches after gelatinization. The total SDS+RS, the two starch fractions that have nutritional benefits, content of HP and AC starches were notably higher than the OSA and CL starches.%  糯玉米淀粉经过酯化,乙酰化,羟丙基化和交联化学变性后,分别测定生淀粉和糊化淀粉的快速消化淀粉,慢速消化淀粉和抗性淀粉含量以评价其消化性,同时测定其部分理化性质。研究结果表明,除交联淀粉外,其他变性淀粉都具有较高的透明度和抗凝层性。在未糊化的状态下,乙酰化淀粉,辛烯基琥珀酸淀粉,羟丙基淀粉和交联淀粉的抗性淀粉含量分别是28.4%,14%,57.8%和39.6%,而原淀粉仅为5.7%。糊化之后,与原淀粉相比,所有的化学变性淀粉都能减少快速消化淀粉的含量,其中羟丙基淀粉含有最低的快速消化淀粉含量。与生淀粉一样,

  19. Durability of Starch Based Biodegradable Plastics Reinforced with Manila Hemp Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Ochi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The biodegradability of Manila hemp fiber reinforced biodegradable plastics was studied for 240 days in a natural soil and 30 days in a compost soil. After biodegradability tests, weights were measured and both tensile strength tests and microscopic observation were performed to evaluate the biodegradation behavior of the composites. The results indicate that the tensile strength of the composites displays a sharp decrease for up to five days, followed by a gradual decrease. The weight loss and the reduction in tensile strength of biodegradable composite materials in the compost soil are both significantly greater than those buried in natural soil. The biodegradability of these composites is enhanced along the lower portion because this area is more easily attacked by microorganisms.

  20. Hydrolysate of corn starch saccharified with a dual-enzyme system and the effect on the crystallization of itaconic acid when used in fermentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Piwu; Chen Xiguang; Liu Jianjun; Wang Lingchong

    2008-01-01

    An improved process of hydrolysis of corn starch was adopted in the production of itaconic acid (IA), the aim was to decrease the unfermentable reducing sugar (RS) in the medium from the beginning of the fermentation and to increase the crystallization efficiency of IA from the fermentation broth.The glucose (GS) syrups saccharified by several combinations of glucoamylase and pullulanase were investigated and used as the carbohydrate source of the fermentation medium for the spore-initiated submerged fermentations experiments.Compared with the conventional process (with pullulanase controlled), the improved process decreased the RS residue in the fermentation broth from 3.01g/L to 1.35g/L and from 4.25g/L to 3.25g/L when the original RS of the medium were 100 and 120g/L, respectively.The crystallization efficiency of IA increased from 65% to 78.8% and from 69.58% to 82.81% with the original RS being 100 and 120g/L, respectively.

  1. Preparation and characterization of poly(acrylic acid)—corn starch blend for use as chemical sand-fixing materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Xugang; Chen, Hui; Shan, Zhihua

    2017-07-01

    One chemical sand-fixing materials based on poly(acrylic acid)-corn starch (PACS) blend was studied in this work. The PACS blend was prepared by solution mixing method between PA and CS. In order to prepare sand-fixing materials for environmental applications using the well-established method of spraying evenly PACS blend solution on the surfaces of fine sand. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) revealed the existence of the intermolecular interactions between the blend components. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis showed a continuous phase of blend, and it also showed the good sand-fixing capacity. The test results of hygroscopicity and water retention experiments indicated that the blends had excellent water-absorbing and water-retention capacity. The results of contact angle measurements between the PACS solutions and fine sand showed that the PACS blend has a satisfactory effect on fine sand wetting. And the PACS, as a sand-fixation material, has excellent sand-fixation rate up to 99.5%.

  2. Effect of the Starch Source on the Performance of Cationic Starches having Similar Degree of Substitution for Papermaking using Deinked Pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Liu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cationic waxy corn starch was prepared from waxy corn starch with 2,3-epoxypropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (ETMAC as a cationic etherifying reagent. Its structure was identified by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD. The results showed that quaternary ammonium groups were introduced successfully into the waxy corn starch, and the cationic reaction occurred on the surface of the starch granules. Cationic waxy corn starch was then applied into deinked pulp as a paper reinforcer, and the result was compared with that of cationic tapioca starch and cationic maize starch. In general, the physical strengths of the paper were improved significantly with an increasing dosage of cationic starches. Cationic waxy corn starch was superior in terms of enhancing the physical properties of paper. In addition, with the use of cationic waxy corn starch, anionic trash in the slurry could be better removed.

  3. 交联羧甲基玉米淀粉和交联酯化木薯淀粉的制备与性质研究%Study on preparation and properties of cross-linked carboxymethyl corn starch and cross-linked esterified cassava starch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史娟; 杨海涛

    2011-01-01

    The optimum synthesis conditions of the cross-linked carboxymethyl corn starch and cross-linked esterified cassava starch and the key factors affecting the degree of substitution were studied. The physical properties of the two kinds of composite-modified starch, such as freeze-melt stability, light transmissivity, expansibility, were determined. The results showed that the freeze-melt stability, light transmissivity, expansibility of composite-modified starch all improved compared to the n-ative starch,and the cross-linked esterified cassava starch could be used in polluted water with better flocculation effect.%研究了制备交联羧甲基玉米淀粉和交联酯化木薯淀粉的最佳工艺条件及影响取代度的关键因素,并测定了两种复合变性淀粉的冻融稳定性、透光率、膨胀度等特性.结果表明:两种复合变性淀粉的冻融稳定性、膨胀度、透光率等性能均优于原淀粉;交联酯化木薯淀粉具有良好的絮凝效果可用于污水处理.

  4. Contribution of protein, starch, and fat to the apparent ileal digestible energy of corn- and wheat-based broiler diets in response to exogenous xylanase and amylase without or with protease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, L F; Sands, J S; Indrakumar, S E; Plumstead, P W; Dalsgaard, S; Ravindran, V

    2014-10-01

    The ileal energy contribution of protein, starch, and fat in response to 2 exogenous enzyme combinations was studied in 2 digestibility assays with 21- (experiment 1; 432 birds) and 42-d-old (experiment 2; 288 birds) Ross 308 broiler chickens. A 2 × 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments with 2 base grains (corn or wheat), without or with high fiber ingredients (corn distillers dried grains with solubles and canola meal), and 3 enzyme treatments was implemented. Enzyme treatments, fed from 12 to 21 d or 32 to 42 d, were 1) without enzymes, 2) with xylanase from Trichoderma ressei (2,000 U/kg) and amylase from Bacillus licheniformis (200 U/kg; XA), or 3) with XA plus protease from Bacillus subtilis (4,000 U/kg; XAP). All diets contained Escherichia coli phytase (500 FTU/kg). Apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of protein, starch, and fat, as well as the apparent ileal digestible energy, were determined using titanium dioxide as inert marker. A generalized mixed model was used to test main effects and 2-way interactions at P starch at 21 and 42 d, and AID of fat at 21 d, with greater effects of enzymes in wheat-based compared with corn-based diets, but significant increments due to enzymes compared with controls in both diet types. Apparent ileal digestibility of fat at 42 d increased with enzyme supplementation compared with the control treatments. The XA and XAP treatments gradually (P starch, fat, and protein were affected differentially by base grain and the presence of fibrous ingredients at 21 and 42 d of age.

  5. Carbohydrate composition and in vitro digestibility of dry matter and non-starch polysaccharides in corn, sorghum, and wheat, and co-products from these grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaworski, N. A.; Lærke, Helle Nygaard; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2015-01-01

    was determined. The 12 ingredients included 3 grains (corn, sorghum, and wheat), 3 coproducts from the dry grind industry (corn distillers dried grains with solubles [DDGS] and 2 sources of sorghum DDGS), 4 coproducts from the wet milling industry (corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, corn germ meal, and corn.......3% in corn gluten meal. In conclusion, grains and grain coproducts contain mostly insoluble NSP and arabinoxylans make up the majority of the total NSP fraction. The in vitro digestibility of NSP depends on the amount and type of NSP and degree of lignification in the feed ingredient. The NSP composition...

  6. Study on modified corn starch adhesive in reinforcing and water-resistance%玉米淀粉胶粘剂的增强及耐水改性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂亚楠; 田孝才; 吴凯; 汪济奎

    2012-01-01

    With starch-g-PV Ac (starch grafted by polyvinyl acetate) as reinforcing component ,epoxy resin(EP) as water-resistance modified component,a new corn starch adhesive with higher bonding strength and better water-resistance was prepared. The results showed that the modified starch adhesive had the reversely best combination property and good application prospect in the field of plywood production because its dry shear strength and wet shear strength were 4.50,2.51 Mpa respectively,the viscosity was 0.875 Pa·s when mass ratio of m(starch-g-PVAc):m(EP) was 2*1 ,mass fraction of starch-g-PVAc/EP was 70% in oxidized starch emulsion.%以淀粉接枝聚醋酸乙烯酯(淀粉-g-PVAc)作为增强组分,环氧树脂(EP)作为耐水改性组分,制备了一种新型的粘接强度较高、耐水性较好的玉米淀粉胶粘剂.结果表明:当m(淀粉-g-PVAc):m(EP)=2:1、w(淀粉-g-PVAc/EP)=70%(相对于氧化淀粉乳质量而言)时,改性淀粉胶粘剂的综合性能相对最好,其干态剪切强度和湿态剪切强度分别为4.50、2.51 MPa,黏度为0.875 Pa·s;该改性淀粉胶粘剂在胶合板生产领域中具有良好的应用前景.

  7. Effect of Acid Hydrolysis Temperature and Time on Properties of Corn Starch%酸解温度和时间对玉米淀粉性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左迎峰; 顾继友; 张彦华; 谭海彦

    2012-01-01

    Acid hydrolytic com starch was prepared with hydrochloric acid hydrolysis method by taking corn starch as raw material. The influences of acid hydrolysis temperature and time duration on structure and properties of the acid hydrolytic corn starch were studied. The crystallinity, gelatinization viscosity, gelatinization temperature and the thermal performance of the acid hydrolysis starch were analyzed by X ray diffraction (XRD) , rotational viscometer, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) respectively. The results showed that the crystallinity and gelatinization temperature were increased first and then decreased along with the increase of acid hydrolysis temperature and time duration. Gelatinization viscosity was rapidly decreased with the increase of acid hydrolysis temperature and time duration. The thermal stability of com starch was slightly influenced by acid modification.%以玉米淀粉为原料,研究盐酸制备酸解玉米淀粉,考察酸解温度和酸解时间对酸解玉米淀粉结构和性能的影响.通过X射线衍射(XRD)、旋转黏度计、差示扫描量热法(DSC)和热重分析(TGA)对酸解淀粉的结晶度、糊化黏度、糊化温度和热性能进行分析,结果表明:结晶度和糊化温度随酸解温度的升高和酸解时间的延长表现为先增大后减小;糊化黏度随酸解温度的升高和酸解时间的延长而迅速降低;酸解改性对玉米淀粉的热稳定性影响较小.

  8. The Study on Physicochemical Properties and Digestibility of Waxy Corn Starch Crystallite%蜡质玉米淀粉微晶的理化性质及其消化性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李云云; 卢未琴; 高群玉

    2011-01-01

    Waxy corn starch crystallite was prepared with acid-alcohol hydrolysis. For different hydrolysis rate of starch crystallites, the properties such as granule morphology, X-ray diffraction pattern , DSC thermostability, solubility and digestibility were studied. As the degree of acid-alcohol hydrolysis increased, starch granules gradually became lamellae and finally debris ; the amorphous areas of the starch were first hydrolyzed, then defective crystal areas was hydrolyzed, and breakdown; They were A-typed starch. Compared with native starch, Tp and Tc value of starch crystallites were all raised, the range of gelatinization temperature of treated starch crystallines became larger, and gel enthalpy with different hydrolysis rate were decreased and then increased. The solubility gradually increased with increasing hydrolysis rate of starch crystallites. In vitro, the digestion products and rates increased with increasing hydrolysis rate. The digestion rates were increased first and then decreased for the same hydrolysis rate of starch crystallit.%以蜡质玉米淀粉为原料,在酸醇介质中制备淀粉微晶。对制得的不同水解率的蜡质玉米淀粉微晶进行了颗粒形貌、x射线衍射、DSC热稳定性分析,溶解度和消化性能的测定。结果表明:随着酸醇水解程度的增加,淀粉颗粒形貌逐渐呈片晶状,最终为碎片;淀粉颗粒的无定形区先被水解,结晶区后被水解,进而导致颗粒破裂;晶体形态仍为A型。与原淀粉相比,淀粉微晶的Tp和Tc均增大,糊化温度范围也有很大提高;不同水解率的淀粉微晶的热焓(△H)先减小后增大。淀粉微晶的溶解度随水解率的增加不断增大。酸醇水解蜡质玉米淀粉的水解率越高,其在invitro模型中的消化产物也就越多,消化速度也越快。对于同一水解率的淀粉微晶,其消化速度随时间的延长先上升后下降。

  9. Preparation of Fat Mimetic From Corn Starch Hydrolysates Via Medium Temperature of α-amylase%中温ɑ-淀粉酶水解玉米淀粉制备脂肪模拟物的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李卡; 刘骞; 孔保华; 韩建春

    2014-01-01

    采用中温α-淀粉酶水解玉米淀粉,制备低 DE 值玉米淀粉基质的脂肪模拟物。通过单因素试验,对底物浓度、酶添加量、反应温度及酶解时间等对玉米淀粉水解程度的影响进行研究。通过正交试验确定玉米淀粉脂肪模拟物制备工艺的最佳条件为:酶添加量5U/g,底物浓度8%,酶解时间15min,反应温度70℃,此条件下制备的产品的DE 值为3.18。在此条件下制备的脂肪模拟物可以形成类似脂肪的弱凝胶,而且具有20%浓度的凝胶最佳的感官指标。本研究为玉米淀粉类脂肪模拟物在低脂食品中的应用提供了理论依据。%Hydrolyzed corn starch with α-amylase to obtain fat replacer .The degree of hydrolization were studied in sin-gle factor experiments , including starch slurry concentration , quantity of amylase , temperature and hydrolyze time .Based on those , the perpendicular experiments were used to optimize the technology .The most optimal corn starch based fat re-placers ’ process condition was as follows:quantity of amylase was 5 U/g dry starch , starch slurry concentration was 8%, hydrolyze time was 15 min and reactive temperature was 70℃.DE value of the products was 3.18.Under this condi-tion , the gel properties of corn starch based fat replacer was similar to fat and the best ratio of gel is 20%.The result was provided a theoretical basis for its application in low fat food .

  10. Effect of Curing on the Tensile and Flexural Performance of Fully Biodegradable Corn Starch/Areca Frond Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Shenoy Heckadka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Composites have monopolized the automotive, construction, and packaging industry. Their high strength to weight ratio has made them an integral part of numerous engineering applications. In this study biodegradable matrix is combined with areca frond fibres for developing composites for low strength structural applications. Areca frond fibres were extracted and treated with sodium bicarbonate to improve the surface characteristics. Hand lay-up and compression moulding techniques were used to fabricate composites having unidirectional fibre orientation. The specimens prepared were exposed to varied environments, namely, sunlight, OTG oven, steam oven, and hot air oven, for curing and the results were analyzed to best suit the implicated requirements. Scanning electron microscopy was used to observe the changes in surface characteristics of the frond fibres after treatment. Tensile and flexural strength of starch based/areca frond reinforced composites were evaluated according to ASTM standards. Test results revealed that composites cured in a steam oven resulted in improved tensile and flexural strength compared to other curing environments.

  11. Formation conditions and pore forming process of porous corn starch%玉米多孔淀粉生成条件及其成孔过程的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱培蕾; 赵贵云; 汪名春; 刘才宇

    2011-01-01

    以玉米淀粉为原料,考察了糖化酶酶解条件对原淀粉水解规律的影响;同时采用扫描电子显微镜、X射线衍射仪等手段对淀粉成孔过程中颗粒形貌、结晶结构、直链淀粉含量变化进行了研究.结果表明:酶解条件对多孔淀粉的生成有较显著影响,可通过改变酶添加量、反应时问、温度等因素控制淀粉水解率大小;在多孔淀粉生成过程中,随着酶解时间的延长,淀粉颗粒的完整性遭到破坏,淀粉结晶度大小和直链淀粉含量都呈现了先上升后下降的趋势,但多孔淀粉衍射曲线仍维持A型图谱特征,说明淀粉颗粒结晶结构的有序化程度变化有限.%Corn starch was used as raw materials to investigate the effect of enzymatic hydrolysis conditions on the law of native corn starch hydrolysis. Changes of granule morphology, crystal structure and amylose content were also studied by scanning electron microscope and x-ray diffractometer during the pore forming process. The results indicated that the enzymatic hydrolysis conditions had relatively significant effects on the production of porous starch, and the hydrolysis rate could be controlled by changing the reaction factors such as enzyme concentration, reaction time and temperature. During the production process of porous starch, starch granule integrity was destroyed. The degree of crystallinity of the processed com starch and the amylose content increased at first,and then decreased. In the meantime, the diffraction curve of com starch still kept a A-type diffraction pattern,which meant that the crystal structure ordering had a limited change.

  12. Effects of acid hydrolysis and annealing treatment on the properties of corn starch%酸解结合热处理对玉米淀粉性质影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姬娜; 熊柳; 孙庆杰

    2013-01-01

    利用酸水解结合热处理对玉米淀粉进行复合改性。研究不同pH、温度对玉米淀粉性质影响。实验结果表明,酸解结合热处理会使部分改性淀粉溶胀度降低、可溶指数升高,糊化温度升高。大多酸解结合热处理玉米淀粉样品峰值粘度、谷值粘度、最终粘度、衰减值和回生值低于其原淀粉。当pH=1时,酸解结合热处理玉米淀粉没有糊化曲线。改性玉米淀粉最大凝胶硬度为76.55 g,高于原淀粉,但是其凝胶弹性和内聚性变化不大。酸解结合热处理玉米淀粉Tc-To下降了,ΔH从11.41 J/g降到9.65 J/g。改性后玉米淀粉结晶峰型仍为A型,且相对结晶度降低。%In this article,corn starch(CS)samples modified by acid hydrolysis(AH)combined with annealing treatment(ANN)were made by changing pH and treated temperature. Swelling power of most modified starches decreased,while solubility increased. Peak viscosity(PKV),trough viscosity(TV), final viscosity(FNV),breakdown(BD)and setback(SB)of most modified starches were lower than that of native starch. When pH was 1,starches modified by AH-ANN had no gelatinization curves. The biggest hardness of modified starch gel was 76.55 g,improving 21.61 g compared with native starch gel. While gel springiness and cohesiveness of all treated starch samples had no significantly change. Compared to the native starch,Tc-To decreased andΔH decreased from 11.41 J/g to 9.65 J/g. Modified CS exhibited“A”type X-ray pattern. Relative crystallinity decreased after AH-ANN.

  13. 玉米淀粉基脂肪替代物低脂再制干酪的研究%Research of low-fat processed cheeses made from corn starch based fat substitute

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫波

    2012-01-01

    研究了玉米淀粉基脂肪替代物在低脂再制干酪中应用的关键影响因素,并对低脂再制干酪的融化性、硬度和感官指标进行了评定.在单因素试验的基础上,运用响应面分析法,建立了玉米淀粉基脂肪替代物低脂再制干酪的因素影响模型,确定了最佳工艺条件为:玉米淀粉基脂肪替代物添加量4.1%,水分质量分数51%,pH值5.9,在此条件下产品感官可接受性较高.%The objective of present study was to investigate the key influence factors in the application of corn starch based fat substitute in low -fat processed cheeses, and melting property, hardness and sensory acceptability were evaluated. On the basis of single -factor test, the mathematical model of the factors on the low-fat processed cheeses made from Corn starch based fat substitute was established. The optimum process conditions were as follows: die addition amount of corn starch based fat substitute 4.1 %, moisture content 51 % and pH value 5.9. The sensory acceptability of the product was higher under this condition.

  14. 酶水解法测定玉米中淀粉含量方法的探讨%The Measurement of Starch Content in Corn by Enzyme Hydrolysis Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄景禄; 刘海明; 王旭艳; 高凤宇

    2015-01-01

    玉米中淀粉含量的测定方法有很多,GB/T 5514—2008标准中规定采用酶水解法对玉米中的淀粉含量进行测定,但该方法存在结果偏低、偏差较大的缺点。本实验对标准中的实验方法及相关条件,如玉米称样量、加水量、液化酶用量、液化温度、液化时间、水浴条件、过滤方式、加酸量等,进行了优化并对实验中存在的问题进行了分析和探讨,优化后的方法适合玉米中淀粉含量的测定,具有实用、准确、稳定性好的特点。%There are many methods for the measurement of starch content in corn. GB/T 5514-2008 provides that enzyme hydrolysis method is adopted for the measurement of starch content in corn. However, such method has the disadvantages such as comparatively low measuring re-sults and comparatively high deviations. In this study, the related technical parameters in enzyme hydrolysis method (sample weight, water add-ing level, the use level of liquefied enzyme, liquefying temperature, liquefying time, water bathing conditions, filtration modes, acid adding lev-el etc.) were explored and further optimized. After technical optimization, enzyme hydrolysis method was suitable for the measurement of starch content in corn and it had the features such as practical, high-accuracy, and good stability.

  15. Effects of Polyacrylamide on the Properties of Corn Starch Adhesive%聚丙烯酰胺掺杂对玉米淀粉胶黏剂性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司红岩; 王娅楠

    2015-01-01

    Corn starch adhesives have some shortcomings need to be improved , such as instability , poor moisture resistance , etc.The corn starch adhesive was doped by polyacrylamide to improve its performance.The influence of polyacrylamide e on the properties of adhesive have been investigated by analyzing the initial adhesion , viscosity , the influence of the drying rate , get damp rate of starch adhesive and so on.The results showed that the add fertilizer could improve the viscosity , drying rate , and reduce its damp rate of adhesive.The experiment showed that the optimum condition was 0.5%of starch quality.%玉米淀粉胶黏剂存在着稳定性差、防潮性不好等缺点需要改进。利用聚丙烯酰胺对玉米淀粉胶进行掺杂改性,研究了在不同配比胶黏剂中加入聚丙烯酰胺对初粘性、黏度、干燥速率、返潮速率等性能的影响。结果表明:加入助剂,在一定配比时可以提高玉米淀粉胶的黏度、干燥速率,并降低其返潮速率。实验结果显示在氧化淀粉胶黏剂中聚丙烯酰胺的最佳加入量为淀粉质量的0.5%。

  16. Enzyme Mechanism of Starch Granule Size Distribution Formation in Waxy Corn Endosperm%糯玉米胚乳淀粉粒粒度分布形成的酶学机理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伊祖涛; 张海艳

    2015-01-01

    以7个糯玉米品种为材料,测定其籽粒发育过程中淀粉粒粒度分布及淀粉合成相关酶活性的变化,分析两者之间的关系。结果表明,随着籽粒发育,糯玉米淀粉粒平均粒径逐渐增大,可溶性淀粉合成酶(SSS)和淀粉分支酶(SBE)活性呈单峰曲线变化。籽粒发育前期,小淀粉粒(≤7.4µm)所占体积较大;随着籽粒发育,小淀粉粒所占体积减少,大淀粉粒(>7.4µm)所占体积增多;籽粒发育后期,大淀粉粒所占体积较大。相关分析表明, SSS和SBE活性与大淀粉粒体积增大速率和平均粒径增大速率均呈显著或极显著正相关。因此, SSS和SBE是影响糯玉米胚乳淀粉粒粒度分布形成的主要酶, SSS和SBE活性越高,淀粉粒平均粒径越大,大淀粉粒所占体积越多。%In this study, seven varieties of waxy corn (Zea mays var. sinensis) were used to determine starch granule size distribution and starch synthetic enzyme activity and analyze their correlation. The results indicat-ed that with kernel development, mean diameter of starch granule increased, and soluble starch synthase (SSS) and starch-branching enzyme (SBE) activities showed single peak curve. During early period of kernel devel-opment, the volume percentage of small starch granule (≤7.4 µm) was large. Then, the volume percentages of small and large starch granules decreased and increased, respectively. During late period, the volume percent-age of large starch granule (>7.4 µm) was large. Correlation analysis indicated that SSS and SBE activities were positively (highly) signiifcantly correlated with the increasing percentages of large starch granule volume and mean diameter. Therefore, SSS and SBE are the key enzymes to affect starch granule size distribution formation of waxy corn. The higher SSS and SBE activities are, the larger mean diameter and volume percentage of large starch granule are.

  17. Oxidação dos amidos de mandioca e de milho comum fermentados: desenvolvimento da propriedade de expansão Oxidation of fermented cassava and corn starches: development of the expansion property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Renato Guerra Dias

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Amidos de mandioca e de milho comum foram fermentados em laboratório a 20 °C, sendo uma fração seca ao sol e outra oxidada com peróxido de hidrogênio e secada artificialmente, visando o desenvolvimento da propriedade de expansão. Estudou-se a fermentação em 0, 10, 30 e 50 dias, sendo a propriedade de expansão no forneamento avaliada pelo teste do biscoito e o comportamento viscoamilográfico pelo RVA. Verificou-se que a fermentação promove modificação que auxilia na oxidação dos amidos de mandioca e de milho elevando a acidez titulável do produto. O amido de mandioca fermentado oxidado com exposição solar ou com peróxido de hidrogênio pode desenvolver a propriedade de expansão, já o amido de milho comum nessas condições não tem essa capacidade. Os melhores resultados para a propriedade de expansão foram no amido de mandioca oxidado com peróxido de hidrogênio aos 50 dias de fermentação.Cassava and corn starches were fermented in the laboratory at 20 °C, and a fraction was in the sun while another fraction was oxidized with hydrogen peroxide and dried artificially to develop the expansion property. Fermentation in 0, 10, 30 and 50 days was checked and the expansion property was evaluated by the baking test and viscoamilograph behavior (RVA. Fermentation was found to cause changes that help the oxidation of cassava and corn starches, increasing the product's titrable acidity. The fermented cassava starch, oxidized by exposure to sunlight or hydrogen peroxide, may develop the expansion property, but the corn starch did not display that ability under these conditions. The best results for the expansion property were obtained with cassava starch oxidized with hydrogen peroxide after 50 days of fermentation.

  18. Optimization Study on Processing Conditions of Corn Resistant Starch by Autoclaving and Acid Hydrolysis Treatment%压热酸解法制备玉米抗性淀粉的工艺优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯铄涵; 阚建全

    2011-01-01

    The resistant starch was prepared with the High amylose corn starch by autoclaving-cooling cycles combined with acids hydrolysis treatment.The effects of concentration of starch solution,autoclaved temperature,autoclaved time and times of autoclaved-cooling cycles on the content of RS were studied in the autoclaved treatment.The type,concentration and treatment time of acids were also studied in the acid hydrolysis process.The results showed that the optimum conditions is: 30% starch solution was autoclaved at 125℃ for 45min,after repeated 2 times,0.15mol/L citric acid hydrolysised for 12h.The yield of resistant starch is up to 39.27%.%以高直链玉米淀粉为原料,研究压热-冷却循环结合酸解法制备抗性淀粉的最佳工艺条件。通过单因素实验和正交实验探讨了压热-冷却循环过程中淀粉溶液浓度、压热温度、压热时间、循环次数以及酸解处理过程中酸的种类、酸的浓度、酸解时间对抗性淀粉得率的影响。结果表明,在淀粉溶液浓度为30%、压热温度125℃、压热时间45min条件下,经过2次压热-冷却循环,然后0.15mol/L柠檬酸水解处理12h,在此条件下抗性淀粉得率可达39.27%。

  19. 臭氧氧化法处理玉米淀粉的干法工艺研究%Study on dry process of corn starch oxidized by ozone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海霞; 傅宏俊; 刘学敏; 张昊

    2016-01-01

    Ozone was used as oxidizing agent to treat corn starch. Choosing reaction temperature, reaction time and ozone concentration gear as influential factors,orthogonal experiments were carried out and then the gelatinization properties and carboxyl content of starch samples were tested and analyzed. The results showed that oxidation time was the most significant factors affecting oxidation degree of starch. In a reasonable range,the longer reaction time was,the higher reaction temperature was,the greater the ozone concentration was,the oxidized starch carboxyl content increased,while the stable viscosity,breakdown value and setback decreased. Ozone oxidation starch by dry process could shorten the time required by traditional preparation technology greatly,and have no produce chemical residues.%以臭氧为氧化剂,采用干法工艺对玉米淀粉进行氧化处理,选择反应温度、反应时间、臭氧溶度3个影响因子进行正交试验,对氧化处理前后玉米淀粉的糊化性能、羧基含量进行了测试与分析。试验结果表明,氧化时间是影响淀粉氧化程度的最主要因素,反应时间越长,反应温度越高,臭氧浓度越大,氧化淀粉羧基含量增加,稳定黏度、崩解值、回升值降低。臭氧干法工艺氧化淀粉所需氧化时间较传统制备工艺极大缩短,且无化学残留。

  20. Effect of Starch/Polylactic Acid Ratio on the Interdependence of Two-Phase and the Properties of Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZUO Yingfeng; GU Jiyou; CAO Jun; WEI Shuangying; TAN Haiyan; ZHANG Yanhua

    2015-01-01

    Starch/polylactic acid (PLA) composites were prepared by melt extrusion, with corn starch and PLA as raw materials, glycerol as the plasticizer. Effects of starch/PLA ratio on the interdependence of two-phase and other properties of the composites were studied. The combination of results of TGA with SEM indicated that the interdependence between starch and PLA was increased gradually as the starch/PLA ratio reduced. DSC results showed that the glass transition temperature (Tg), melting temperature (Tm) and degree of crystallinity of PLA in composites were increased gradually, whereas the cold crystallization temperature (Tc) was gradually decreased as the starch/PLA ratio reduced. The rheological properties of composites were closely related with the interdependence of two-phase, with reducing starch/PLA proportion, the interdependence was increased, and then the strain for storage modulus was ifrstl reduced and then gradually increased. Frequency scanning showed that the storage modulus and complex viscosity were decreased with reducing starch content. As the starch/PLA ratio reduced, the matrix phase PLA was increased, so that the strength of composites was increased gradually, whereas water absorption rate was decreased gradually.

  1. 非淀粉多糖酶对玉米加工副产品能量利用的影响%Effects of Non-Starch Polysaccharide Enzymes on Energy Utilization of Corn By-Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林谦; 王照群; 戴求仲; 蒋桂韬; 张旭; 王向荣; 张建华

    2013-01-01

    为了使玉米加工副产品和复合非淀粉多糖酶制剂在畜禽饲料配方中得到精准应用,试验选用56只体重为(2.5±0.2) kg的健康成年黄羽肉公鸡,采用完全随机试验设计,随机分为7组,每组8个重复,每个重复1只鸡,采用绝食强饲法进行3期代谢试验,以单一原料以及其添加复合非淀粉多糖酶为饲粮,测定玉米及其加工副产品添加复合非淀粉多糖酶前后的代谢能及能量代谢率.结果表明:玉米加工副产品的表观代谢能(AME)和真代谢能(TME)除3种玉米蛋白粉和2种玉米糖渣高于玉米外,其他均低于玉米.玉米及其加工副产品的AME和TME预测方程分别为:AME =3.322 1+0.704 2GE-0.521 3CF(R2=0.893 9),TME=25.697 6+0.742 5GE-0.426 2CF-0.252 2DM(R2 =0.919 4);加酶后玉米及其加工副产品能量表观代谢率及真代谢率以不喷浆玉米皮最低,玉米蛋白粉[粗蛋白质(CP)55%]最高.添加非淀粉多糖复合酶后,玉米及其加工副产品能量表观代谢率提高了0.82%~3.32%,能量真代谢率提高了0.78% ~3.00%,AME提高了0.82% ~3.32%,TME提高了0.98% ~2.94%;玉米及其加工副产品AME与TME的有效营养改进值范围均为0.19~0.25 MJ/kg,其中以玉米麸质饲料最高,玉米最低.由此可见,添加复合非淀粉多糖酶能提高玉米及其加工副产品的能量利用率,改善玉米加工副产品的能量效价.%To make the precise application of corn by-products and non-starch polysaccharide (NSP) enzymes in animal feed formulation, 56 healthy adult yellow-feathered roosters with body weight of(2.5±0.2) kg were randomly divided into 7 groups and 8 replicates in each group and 1 rooster in each replicate. Three metabolic test periods were carried out by super-alimentation, the roosters were fed diets with a single raw material and the material with non-starch polysaccharide enzymes to determine the metabolizable energy and energy me-tabolizability of corn and corn by

  2. Production and characterization of bio plastics from potato starch, poly-hydroxybutyrate and poly-hydroxybutyrate-co-valerate;Producao e caracterizacao de bioplasticos a partir de amido de batata, poli-hidroxibutirato e poli-hidroxibutirato-co-valerato

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, Fernanda M.; Curvelo, Antonio A.S., E-mail: fernanda@iqsc.usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IQ/USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2009-07-01

    This work describes the study of thermoplastic starch (TPS) blends obtained from potato starch (plasticised with glycerol) with biodegradable polymers poly-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) and poly-hydroxybutyrate-co-valerate (PHB V). For this purpose it were developed several formulations with TPS/PHB, TPS/PHB V and TPS/PHB/PHB V prepared by physical mixing and water and glycerol as plasticizers. The amount of glycerol was 30% based on starch (dry basis). The starting materials (starch, PHB and PHB V) were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Then, it was determined the optimal processing conditions for the samples, performed by using an intensive mixer. The materials were hot pressed to produce the standardized samples employed in the characterizations: mechanical testing (tensile strength), dynamic-mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA), scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffractometry. (author)

  3. Toughening polylactide with polyether-block-amide and thermoplastic starch acetate: Influence of starch esterification degree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Linyao; Zhao, Guiyan; Feng, Yulin; Yin, Jinghua; Jiang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Native corn starch was esterified with acetic anhydride and plasticized with glycerol to give the thermoplastic starch acetate (TPSA). TPSA was blended with polylactide (PLA) and polyether-block-amide-graft-glycidyl methacrylate (PEBA-g-GMA) to obtain biodegradable PLA/PEBA-g-GMA/TPSA blends with high notched impact resistance and low cost. Compared with PLA/PEBA-g-GMA blends, as much as 9 wt% expensive PEBA-g-GMA elastomer could be substituted by the slightly acetylated thermoplastic starch while retaining high impact strength. The mechanical properties depended on the esterification degree of starch acetate. The impact strength, tensile strength and elongation at break increased to the peak value with increasing the esterification degree from 0 to 0.04, thereafter they decreased on further increasing the esterification degree. The morphological results showed that the TPSA particles were smaller and more uniform at the optimum esterification degree of 0.04, leading to the peak value of the mechanical properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Modified-starch Consolidation of Alumina Ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JU Chenhui; WANG Yanmin; YE Jiandong; HUANG Yun

    2008-01-01

    The alumina ceramics with the homogeneous microstructure and the higher density were fabricated via the modified-starch consolidation process by 1.0 wt%of a modified starch as a consolidator/binder.The swelling behavior of the modified oxidized tapioca starch was analyzed by optical microscope,and two other corn starches(common corn starch and high amylose COrn starch)were also analyzed for comparison.The modified starch used as a binder for the consolidation swelled at about 55℃.began to gelatinize at 65℃ and then was completely gelatinized at 75℃.But the corn starches could not be completely gelatinized even at 80℃for 1 h.The high-strength green bodies(10.6 MPa)with the complex shapes were produced.The green bodies were sintered without any binder burnout procedure at 1700℃and a relative density of 95.3% was obtained for the sintered bodies,which is similar to that of the sintered sample formed by conventional slip casting.In addition,the effect of temperature on the apparent viscosity of the starch/alumina slurry in the process was investigated,and the corresponding mechanism for the starch consolidation was discussed.

  5. Effect of thermal and chemical modifications on the mechanical and release properties of paracetamol tablet formulations containing corn, cassava and sweet potato starches as filler-binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariam Vbamiunomhene Lawal

    2015-07-01

    Conclusions: Modification of the experimental starches improved the mechanical and release properties of directly compressed paracetamol tablet formulations. Thus, they can be developed for use as pharmaceutical excipients in specific formulations.

  6. Caracterização físico-química, reológica, morfológica e térmica dos amidos de milho normal, ceroso e com alto teor de amilose Physicochemical, rheological, morphological, and thermal characterization of normal, waxy, and high amylose corn starches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Hart Weber

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar os amidos de milho normal, ceroso e com alto teor de amilose, fabricados pela National Starch, por meio da determinação das suas características físico-químicas, morfológicas, térmicas e reológicas. O amido de milho com alto teor de amilose (AM apresentou teor de amilose igual a 71%, sendo que os valores obtidos para o amido de milho normal (M e o amido de milho ceroso (AP foram de 27,8 e 1,8%, respectivamente. Traços de proteína e lipídios foram encontrados nas amostras. O amido de milho ceroso apresentou maior viscosidade máxima e uma menor tendência à retrogradação, se comparado ao amido de milho normal. O amido AP apresentou menor entalpia de gelatinização, como pode ser observado nas análises de calorimetria exploratória diferencial (DSC, na qual a temperatura de gelatinização foi de 75 °C e o ΔH de 3,34 J.g-1, e também na análise de RVA (Rapid Visco Analyser, em que a temperatura de pasta foi de 71 °C. Apresentando, dessa forma, valores inferiores aos verificados para os outros amidos. O valor do ΔH de retrogradação do amido AP, mostrou-se 25,8% inferior ao ΔH do amido M. O amido AM apresentou o valor de 26,38 J.g-1, demonstrando o maior envolvimento da molécula de amilose no processo de retrogradação. Isso também foi evidenciado pela medida da força dos géis: o gel de AM apresentou força 99,18% superior, retrogradando mais que os outros amidos. As análises de difração de raio X mostraram que os amidos de milho normal e ceroso apresentaram um padrão de difração do tipo A e o amido de milho com alto teor de amilose apresentou padrão do tipo B.The objective of this work was to evaluate normal, waxy, and high amylose corn starches from National Starch, through the determination of the physicochemical, morphological, thermal, and rheological properties. The high amylose corn starch (AM presented amylose content of 71%, and the value of this component for the

  7. 盐酸浓度对酸解玉米淀粉结晶结构和性能的影响%Effects of hydrochloric acid concentration on crystalline structure and properties of corn starch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左迎峰; 张彦华; 杨龙; 谭海彦; 顾继友

    2013-01-01

    以玉米淀粉为原料,用盐酸对其酸解制备酸解玉米淀粉.考虑盐酸浓度对酸解玉米淀粉结构和性能的影响.通过抽滤洗涤法、X射线衍射(XRD)、旋转粘度计、差示扫描量热法(DSC)和热重分析(TGA)对酸解淀粉的回收率、结晶度、糊化粘度、糊化温度和热性能进行分析.结果表明,酸解玉米淀粉的回收率、结晶度和糊化温度随盐酸浓度的增大,先增大后减小,盐酸浓度为0.5 mol/L时,回收率、结晶度和糊化温度都达到最大值;糊化粘度随盐酸浓度的增大而迅速减小;酸解改性对玉米淀粉的热稳定性影响较小.%Acid hydrolysis corn starch was prepared by hydrochloric acid method to study the effects of hydrochloric acid concentrations on the structure and properties of acid hydrolysis com starch.. The crystallinity, gelatinization viscosity, gelatinization temperature and thermal performance of acid hydrolysis starch were analyzed by using filtration washing method, X-ray diffraction, rotational viscometer, differential scanning calorimetry and thermo gravimetric analysis, respectively. The results show that the recovery yield, crystallinity and gelatinization temperature increased first and then decreased with the increase of hydrochloric acid concentration, and reached the maximum values when hydrochloric acid concentration was 0.5 mol/L; the gelatinization viscosity rapidly decreased with increase of hydrochloric acid concentration. So the acid modification had small effect on thermal stability of corn starch.

  8. The Comparison of Sugar Components in the Developing Grains of Sweet Corn and Normal Corn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Peng; HU Chang-hao; DONG Shu-ting; WANG Kong-jun; ZHANG Ji-wang

    2003-01-01

    The sugar components and their dynamic variation in the developing grains of sweet corn(Zeamays L. seccharata Sturt)and normal corn (Zea mays L. indentata Sturt) were compared. There are WSP(water-soluble polysaccharides), sucrose, fructose, glucose, mannitol and sorbitol in both sweet corn and nor-mal corn, but no maltose. Two components with different degrees of polymerization (D. P. N) were detected inthe sweet corn; only one of them was detected in the normal corn 20 days after pollination. With the develop-ment of grains, the total soluble sugar content(TSS)in sweet corn increased, but in normal corn it decreased.The dynamic variation of WSP, sucrose, glucose, fructose, mannitol and sorbitol in sweet and normal corngrains are different. The contents of sugar components in the sweet corn grains are higher than that in the nor-mal corn. Sweet corn accumulates less starch than normal corn.

  9. The effects of feeding rice in substitution of corn and the degree of starch gelatinization of rice on the digestibility of dietary components and productive performance of young pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, B; Valencia, D G; Pérez-Serrano, M; Lázaro, R; Mateos, G G

    2008-01-01

    A 28-d trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of the main cereal of the diet (corn or rice), heat processing (HP) of rice, and the degree of starch gelatinization (SG) of rice on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of dietary components and productive performance of pigs weaned at 25 d of age. The experimental design was a completely randomized, with 4 treatments and 8 replicates per treatment (5 pigs penned together). Control pigs were fed a complex diet without growth promoters and based on milk products, fish meal, and 50% cooked and flaked corn, with a degree of SG of 84%. Experimental groups received the same complex diet as the control group, but the corn was substituted by rice with 3 different degrees of SG; 11% that corresponded to raw rice and 52 or 76% that corresponded to cooked rice processed under 2 different conditions. Pig growth was measured at 25, 39, and 53 d of age, and ATTD was determined at 29, 39, and 53 d of age. The ATTD of all dietary components except for N increased with age (P <0.01) and were greater for the rice than for the corn diet. Heat processing of rice improved ATTD of all dietary components at 29 d of age, but no beneficial effects were observed at 39 or 53 d of age. Modifying the conditions of HP to increase the degree of SG of rice from 52 to 76% and to reduce mean particle size from 480 to 405 mum did not result in further improvement of nutrient digestibility. From 25 to 53 d of age, pigs fed rice consumed more feed (678 vs. 618 g/d; P <0.05), grew faster (466 vs. 407 g/d; P <0.01), and tended to have greater G:F (0.685 vs. 0.662; P <0.10) than pigs fed corn. In fact, from 25 to 39 d of age, pigs fed rice consumed 23% more feed (P <0.01), grew 29% faster (P <0.01), and had 5% greater G:F (P <0.05) than pigs fed corn. Feeding rice improved performance of weanling pigs, and HP of rice under mild conditions enhanced diet digestibility and productive performance of pigs. Severe processing of rice increased the degree

  10. The effects of starches on mechanical properties of paracetamol tablet formulations. I. Pregelatinization of starch binders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alebiowu, Gbenga; Itiola, Oludele Adelanwa

    2003-09-01

    A study has been made of the effects of pregelatinization of native sorghum and plantain starches on the mechanical properties of a paracetamol tablet formulation in comparison with corn starch BP. The mechanical properties tested, viz. tensile strength (T) and brittle fracture index (BFI) of the paracetamol tablets were affected by pregelatinization of the starch. The results suggest that pregelatinized starches may be useful as binders when a particular degree of bond strength and brittleness is desired.

  11. Reuse technology of reclaimed water in corn starch plant%反渗透膜用于玉米淀粉厂的中水回用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郜培; 赵琳琳; 程兆鹏; 魏翠兰

    2012-01-01

    The reverse osmosis membrane was used to treat reclaimed water in corn starch plant. The results indicated that: by reverse osmosis membrane treatment , COD value of the reclaimed water was reduced to below 15 mg/L, the ammonia nitrogen was reduced to below 15 mg/L and the total salt content was reduced to below 130 mg/L, AII of the properties of the reclaimed water were accord with the quality of the reused water.%研究了反渗透膜在玉米淀粉厂中水处理中的效果.试验表明,采用反渗透膜处理后的中水COD降低到15 mg/L以下,氨氮含量降低到15 mg/L以下,全盐量降低到130 mg/L以下,各项指标均符合回用水的水质指标.

  12. Thermoplastic starch plasticized by mix of urea and glycerol%尿素甘油共塑化热塑性淀粉

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚东明; 何和智

    2011-01-01

    采用尿素、甘油为塑化剂制备热塑性淀粉材料,并对改性后淀粉的力学性能、塑化效果以及结晶状况进行了探索,考察了尿素与甘油不同比例对热塑性淀粉塑化效果的影响,得出热塑性淀粉最佳塑化质量比为淀粉/尿素/甘油为100/20/20。在RH为33%的湿度环境保存1周,上述比例塑化的热塑性淀粉拉伸模量可达0.959 MPa,断裂伸长率达209.64%,且热塑性淀粉内未出现尿素自结晶,淀粉塑化效果良好。%Through testing of mechanical properties,and crystallization and SEM testing of different urea and glycerol co-plasticized TPS,the optimum weight ratio starch/urea/glycerol was 100/20/20.The tensile modulus of the TPS could reach 0.959 MPa,the elongation was up to 209%,recrystallization of urea did not occur,and the TPS had a good plasticization effect,in RH = 33% humidity environment preserved for one week.

  13. 交联酶解高直链玉米淀粉的制备及糊化特性%Study on preparation and pasting properties of crosslinking hydrolysis high amylose corn starch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李德海; 马莺

    2011-01-01

    The crosslinking hydrolysis high amylose corn starch by the isoamylase was prepared with sodium hexametaphosphate as crosslinking agent By the response surface methodology, the optimal process parameters were obtained, sodium hexametaphosphate was 3.12%, pH was 11, temperature was 50℃, time was 2.2h, subsidence product was 2.34mL.The pasting temperature,the viscosity and stability of the crosslinking hydrolysis high amylose corn starch were improved by the analysis of RVA and DSC.%以异淀粉酶水解玉米淀粉制备的高直链玉米淀粉为原料,采用六偏磷酸钠为交联剂,制备交联酶解高直链玉米淀粉.采用响应面实验设计进行优化,结果表明,最佳工艺条件为:六偏磷酸钠的用量为3.12%、pH为11、温度为50℃、时间为2.2h,在此条件下制备的交联酶解高直链玉米淀粉沉降积为2.34mL.RVA和DSC分析表明,酶解高直链玉米淀粉经交联后淀粉的糊化温度、粘度和粘度稳定性较大程度上得到了提高.

  14. Granules morphology and rheological behavior of green banana (Musa cavendishii and corn (Zea mays starch gels Morfologia dos grânulos e comportamento reológico dos géis de amido de banana verde (Musa cavendishii e milho (Zea mays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayane Rosalyn Izidoro

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, it was used starch obtained from green banana (Musa cavendishii and commercial corn (Zea mays starch in order to compare the granule morphology and the rheological behavior of these gel-starches. Images of starch granules morphology were obtained from scanning electron microscope (SEM. The banana starch granules presented an oval and ellipsoidal shape with irregular diameters. Neverthless, the granules of corn starch showed a poliedric shape, with different sizes. The rheological behavior of gel starch solutions showed a non-newtonian character with a pseudoplastic behavior. Herschel-Bulkley model gave a good description on the rheological behavior of the gel starch. Banana gel-starch solutions showed higher values of shear stress and apparent viscosity when compared with corn gel-starch solutions. A progressive decrease in shear stress and viscosity occurred with the addition of sodium chloride and sucrose.No presente trabalho foi utilizado amido obtido de banana verde (Musa cavendishii e amido de milho (Zea mays comercial, com o objetivo de comparar a morfologia dos grânulos e o comportamento reológico dos géis. As imagens da morfologia dos grânulos foram obtidas por microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Os grânulos de amido da banana apresentaram forma oval e elipsoidal com diâmetros irregulares, todavia, os grânulos do amido de milho mostraram forma poliédrica e diferentes tamanhos. As análises reológicas dos géis das soluções de amido mostraram caráter não-newtoniano, pseudoplástico. O modelo de Herschel-Bulkley foi o que melhor representou comportamento reológico dos géis. O gel de amido de banana verde obteve maiores valores de tensão de cisalhamento e viscosidade aparente quando comparada ao gel de amido de milho. Ocorreu um decréscimo progressivo na tensão de cisalhamento e na viscosidade com a adição de cloreto de sódio e sacarose aos géis.

  15. Effects of starches on the textural, rheological, and color properties of surimi-beef gels with microbial tranglutaminase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fenghui; Fang, Ling; Wang, Chenjie; Shi, Liu; Chang, Tong; Yang, Hong; Cui, Min

    2013-03-01

    In order to evaluate effects of starches (corn starch, potato starch, and tapioca starch) on the characteristics of surimi-beef gels with microbial transglutaminase, the cooking loss, gel strength, color and rheological properties of samples were investigated. Results demonstrated that starches gave negative effects on the cooking loss of surimi-beef gels. The gel with corn starch had the highest cooking loss while that with tapioca starch showed the lowest value. The gel with potato starch obtained the highest gel strength. During the sol-gel transitions, surimi-beef complexes with 3% corn starch exhibited the highest storage modulus value, while that with 3% tapioca starch had the lowest one. The addition of starch caused the increase of L* values of surimi-beef gels. Results showed that the excessive amount of starch resulted in the decrease in gel strength of surimi-beef gels.

  16. Plasticizers effect on native biodegradable package materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozar, Onuc; Cioica, Nicolae; Coţa, Constantin; Nagy, Elena Mihaela; Fechete, Radu

    2017-01-01

    Changes in intensity of some IR and Raman bands suggest the plasticizing - antiplasticizing effects of water and glycerol contents and a small increase of amorphous/crystalline ratio, too. The nuclear magnetic relaxation data show that the amorphous/crystalline ratio depends on amylose/amylopectin mobility and also by the place of their polymer chain segments. Thus the distributions of spin-spin (T2) relaxation times and the shift toward higher values of some T2 characteristic peaks show that the increasing of water and glycerol content in the starch package materials lead to the more mobile amylose and amylopectin polymer chain segments and the prevalence of amorphous regions in the prepared native corn starch samples.

  17. 21 CFR 184.1865 - Corn syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... “glucose syrup,” is obtained by partial hydrolysis of corn starch with safe and suitable acids or enzymes. It may also occur in the dehydrated form (dried glucose sirup). Depending on the degree of...

  18. Effects of Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] Crude Extracts on Starch Digestibility, Estimated Glycemic Index (EGI), and Resistant Starch (RS) Contents of Porridges

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Bran extracts (70% aqueous acetone) of specialty sorghum varieties (tannin, black, and black with tannin) were used to investigate the effects of sorghum phenolic compounds on starch digestibility, Estimated Glycemic Index (EGI), and Resistant Starch (RS) of porridges made with normal corn starch, enzyme resistant high amylose corn starch, and ground whole sorghum flours. Porridges were cooked with bran extracts in a Rapid Visco-analyser (RVA). The cooking trials indicated that bran extracts ...

  19. 糊化和凝沉玉米淀粉的消化性能%Digestibility of Gelatinized and Retrogradated Corn Starch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高群玉; 李佳佳; 李云云

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the pasting and thermodynamic properties of four kinds of com starch with different amy-lose contents were investigated by using a Brabender viscometer and a differential scanning calorimeter. Then, after being gelatinized only or with an additional storage at 4℃ for 24h, the starch was tested to reveal the effects of different treatment modes on the digestibility. Moreover, the correlation between the amylose content and the digestibility was analyzed. The results show that the amylose content greatly influences the peak viscosity, setback viscosity, DSC gelatinization temperature of the starch, that both the digestion products and the digestion rate of the starch with different treatments in the in-vitro digestion model decrease with the increase of amylose content, and that, as compared with the gelatinized starch, the retrogradated starch stored at 4℃ for 24h is of less digestion products and lower digestion rate, with the decrement being related to the amylose content.%以4种不同直链淀粉含量的玉米淀粉为研究对象,利用Brabender黏度仪与差示扫描量热仪(DsC)对淀粉糊性质与热力学性质进行了表征;考察了糊化及糊化后4℃条件下保藏24h两种处理方式对玉米淀粉消化性能的影响,分析了直链淀粉含量与玉米淀粉消化性能的关系.结果表明:直链淀粉含量对淀粉的峰值黏度、消减值、DSC糊化温度影响显著;在in-vitro消化模型中,4种玉米淀粉经两种方式处理后产生的消化产物总量以及消化速度均随着直链淀粉含量的升高而降低;4℃条件下保藏24h处理后,凝沉淀粉消化产物总量与消化速度均低于糊化淀粉,且降低程度与直链淀粉含量有关.

  20. Quantifying Resistant Starch Using Novel, In Vivo Methodology and the Energetic Utilization of Fermented Starch in Pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, W.J.J.; Bosch, M.W.; Borne, van den J.J.G.C.

    2012-01-01

    To quantify the energy value of fermentable starch, 10 groups of 14 pigs were assigned to one of two dietary treatments comprising diets containing 45% of either pregelatinized (P) or retrograded (R) corn starch. In both diets, a contrast in natural 13C enrichment between the starch and nonstarch

  1. Quantifying Resistant Starch Using Novel, In Vivo Methodology and the Energetic Utilization of Fermented Starch in Pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, W.J.J.; Bosch, M.W.; Borne, van den J.J.G.C.

    2012-01-01

    To quantify the energy value of fermentable starch, 10 groups of 14 pigs were assigned to one of two dietary treatments comprising diets containing 45% of either pregelatinized (P) or retrograded (R) corn starch. In both diets, a contrast in natural 13C enrichment between the starch and nonstarch co

  2. 湿热处理多孔玉米淀粉对大鼠脂质代谢的影响%Effect of Heat-Moisture Treated Corn Porous Starch on Lipid Metabolism in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘庆庆; 游玉明; 陆红佳; 田宝明; 陈朝军; 刘雄

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of heat-moisture treated corn porous starch on lipid metabolism in rats. Methods:Totally 32 female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 groups including control group and three other groups as high-fat blank group, high-fat porous starch (PS) group and high-fat heat-moisture treated corn porous starch (HTMPS) group. After adaptive feeding with a basal diet for a week, the rats from the control group were still fed with the basal diet and those from high-fat groups were given a high fat diet. After 4 weeks, all rats were sacrificed for the analysis of triglyceride (TG), cholesterol (TC) in serum and liver, and bile acid in small intestine and feces. Results:By feeding corn porous starch and heat-moisture treated corn porous starch, the contents of TC, TG and non-HDL-C in serum, atherosclerosis index (AI) and TG/HDL-C ratio in serum as well as TC content in liver and abdominal fat content decreased significantly (P<0.05);the fecal excretion of neutral steroid and bile acid increased significantly (P<0.05). Compared with HTMPS group, the rats from PS group revealed a reduction in serum TC level, AI, TG/HDL-C ratio and abdominal fat, and an increase in fecal bile acid excretion and bile acid in small intestinal contents. Conclusion:PS is more successful in reducing cholesterol than HTMPS. Therefore, porous starch can reduce the risk of hyperlipidemia caused by high-fat diet, and has a significant role in preventing cardiovascular diseases.%目的:探讨湿热处理多孔玉米淀粉对大鼠脂质代谢的影响。方法:32只雌性Sprague-Dawley(SD)大鼠随机分为4组,其中1组为对照组饲喂基础饲料,另外3组为高脂组,分别为高脂空白组、多孔淀粉组(porous starch,PS)和湿热处理多孔淀粉组(heat moisture treatment starch,HTMPS),饲喂基础饲料,适应1周后,对照组饲喂基础饲料,高脂组分别饲喂相应高脂饲料。饲喂4

  3. Influence of starch origin on rheological properties of concentrated aqueous solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Željko P.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The rheological properties of corn and potato starch concentrated aqueous solutions were investigated at 25ºC. The starches were previously dispersed in water and the solutions were obtained by heating of dispersions at 115-120ºC for 20 minutes. The solutions of potato starch were transparent, while the corn starch solutions were opalescent. The results of dynamic mechanical measurements showed that the values of viscosity, h, storage modulus, G′, and loss modulus, G″, of the corn starch solutions increased with the storage time. This phenomenon was not observed for the potato starch solutions. It was assumed that the increase of h, G′ and G″ is the result of starch solutions retrogradation. The potato starch solutions retrogradation did not occur probably because of the phosphates presence. The viscosity of 2 mass % corn starch solution is less than the viscosity of 2 mass % potato starch solution. By increasing the concentration of corn starch solution the gel with elastic behavior was formed. The corn starch solutions formed gel as early as at 4 mass % concentration, while potato starch solutions achieved the gel state at the concentration of 5 mass %. The value of exponent m (G′ and G″ µ wm during the transition of potato starch solutions to gel is 0.414, which gives the fractal dimensions for corn starch of 2.10. The obtained value of fractal dimension corresponds to slow aggregation. The corn starch solutions with the starch concentrations higher than 4 mass % form weak gels. For these solutions the values of modulus in rubber plateau were determined. It was found that the modulus in rubber plateau increased with the concentration by the exponent of 4.36. Such high exponent value was obtained in the case when the tridimensional network is formed, i.e. when supermolecular structures like associates or crystal domains are formed.

  4. Effect of dietary starch source and concentration on equine fecal microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starch from corn is less susceptible to equine small intestinal digestion than starch from oats, and starch that reaches the hindgut can be utilized by the microbiota. The objective of the current study was to examine the effects of starch source on equine fecal microbiota. Thirty horses were assig...

  5. Synthesis of Higher Fatty Acid Starch Esters using Vinyl Laurate and Stearate as Reactants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junistia, Laura; Sugih, Asaf K.; Manurung, Robert; Picchioni, Francesco; Janssen, Leon P. B. M.; Heeres, Hero J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the synthesis of long-chain fatty esters of corn starch (starch laurate and starch stearate) with a broad range in degree of substitution (DS = 0.24-2.96). The fatty esters were prepared by reacting the starch with vinyl laurate or vinyl stearate in the presence of basic catalys

  6. NILAI BIOLOGIS MI KERING JAGUNG YANG DISUBSTITUSI TEPUNG JAGUNG TERMODIFIKASI MELALUI HEAT MOISTURE TREATMENT [Biological Values of Dried Corn Noodles Substituted with Heat Moisture Treated (HMT-Corn Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurheni Sri Palupi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine the effects of physical modification of corn flour by heat moisture treatment (110°C, 6 hours on the biological values of Heat Moisture Treated (HMT-corn flour obtained as well as corn noodles substituted with the HMT-corn flour. The parameters tested which were directly associated were starch and protein digestibility in vitro while indirect parameters included the resistant starch and insoluble fiber contents. The chemical composition (protein, fat, carbohydrates, starch, amylose and amylopectin of the substituted corn noodles were analyzed by chemical methods. In vitro dietary fiber of the noodles were determined gravimetrically whereas the resistant starch, starch and protein digestibility for both the HMT-corn flour and corn noodles substituted with 10% HMT-corn flour were determined using spectrophotometry. The HMT-corn flour had higher resistant starch and soluble fiber contents, but lower starch and protein digestibilities. Meanwhile, the substituted corn noodle had higher resistant starch and soluble fiber yet had significantly lower starch digestibility than those of corn noodle without HMT-corn flour.

  7. Effect of adsorption of an inhibitory factor on raw starch hydrolysis by glucoamylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towprayoon, S; Fujio, Y; Ueda, S

    1990-12-01

    An inhibitory factor (IF) produced byAspergillus niger strain 19, and which inhibits the action of glucoamylase on starch, has the ability to be tightly adsorbed on to various raw starches, though the amount differs from starch to starch. Based on the hydrolysis of the IF-starch complex by glucoamylase, the inhibitions per unit IF adsorbed are similar for some varieties of starch. The effectiveness ratio of IF (% hydrolysis inhibition per % IF adsorbed on raw starch) for corn, sweet potato, waxy rice and waxy corn starches are 1.1, 1.0, 0.85 and 0.96, respectively. These results support the hypothesis that both glucoamylase and IF are adsorbed on to a common binding site on raw starch. However, the effectiveness ratio of IF for cassava and wheat starches are 0.71 and 1.65, respectively, which differ significantly from other varieties of starch.

  8. Production of ethyl alcohol from corn silage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pieper, H.J.; Ponitz, H.

    1973-01-01

    Corn silage may be employed as a raw material for the production of ethyl alcohol when starch is first cracked by pressure cooking and subsequently saccharified by microbial amalyses. Cracking conditions are: pressure increase 1.6 atmosphere within 60 minutes; maximum maintained for 35 minutes. The fermentation is complete after 72 hours. Extract decreases of fermented mashes made from corn silage are less than when dried corn is used. In the most advantageous case the degree of fermentation was -0.2 weight % of the extract. The maximum yields of alcohol were 26.0.1. pure alcohol/100 kg corn silage and 61.2.1. pure alcohol/100 kg starch. The latter is 3.9.1. pure alcohol lower than when dried corn was used. Despite the high bacterial infection of corn silage practically infection-free processing is assured.

  9. MISTURAS DE FARINHA DE AVEIA E AMIDO DE MILHO COM ALTO TEOR DE AMILOPECTINA PARA PRODUÇÃO DE "SNACKS" OAT FLOUR/WAXY CORN STARCH BLENDS FOR SNACKS PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Beatriz KARAM

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available O potencial de uso do amido modificado com alto teor de amilopectina combinado à farinha de aveia para produção de "snacks" extrusados foi investigado. O processamento foi executado em extrusor mono-rosca, de acordo com um delienamento fatorial (2(5 incompleto, com 3 repetições no ponto central. As variáveis independentes controladas foram: umidade da matéria-prima, temperatura de extrusão, rotação do parafuso, diâmetro da matriz e teor de amido modificado. Como respostas, avaliou-se o volume específico, a dureza e a fraturabilidade. A partir da modelagem exploratória foram definidas as variáveis significativas e novos deslocamentos na área experimental, até se atingir o ponto ótimo para produção de "snacks". A melhor combinação de variáveis encontrada, para obter um produto com boas propriedades de expansão e de textura, foi: 17% de umidade de matéria-prima, 183°C de temperatura de extrusão, 100rpm de rotação do parafuso, 4mm de diâmetro da matriz e 30% de amido modificado. O produto obtido nessas condições apresentou 7,2mL/g de volume específico, 5,41N de dureza e 2,02N de fraturabilidade, assemelhando-se, por essas características, aos produtos comerciais de milho.The potential application of modified starch to enhance properties of oat flour extruded products was investigated. The process was performed using a single screw extruder, applying a 2(5 factorial design with 3 repetitions on the central point. The independent variables were: feed moisture, extrusion temperature, screw speed, die diameter and modified starch level and depended studied variables were: specific volume, hardness and fracturability. Based on results of the experiments a new experimental design was proposed to optimize product characteristics. The best combination of variables to obtain snacks with good expansion and texture was: 17% feed moisture, 183°C temperature, 100rpm screw speed, 4mm die diameter and 30% waxy starch. The product

  10. A laboratory and pilot plant scaled continuous stirred reactor separator for the production of ethanol from sugars, corn grits/starch or biomass streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, M.C.; Lei, Shuiwang; Zhou, Chongde

    1995-10-01

    An improved bio-reactor has been developed to allow the high speed, continues, low energy conversion of various substrates to ethanol. The Continuous Stirred Reactor Separator (CSRS) incorporates gas stripping of the ethanol using a recalculating gas stream between cascading stirred reactors in series. We have operated a 4 liter lab scale unit, and built and operated a 24,000 liter pilot scale version of the bioreactor. High rates of fermentation are maintained in the reactor stages using a highly flocculent yeast strain. Ethanol is recovered from the stripping gas using a hydrophobic solvent absorber (isothermal), after which the gas is returned to the bioreactor. Ethanol can then be removed from the solvent to recover a highly concentrated ethanol product. We have applied the lab scale CSRS to sugars (glucose/sucrose), molasses, and raw starch with simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of the starch granules (SSF). The pilot scale CSRS has been operated as a cascade reactor using dextrins as a feed. Operating data from both the lab and pilot scale CSRS are presented. Details of how the system might be applied to cellulosics, with some preliminary data are also given.

  11. Properties of foam and composite materials made o starch and cellulose fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Composite materials were made of starch and cellulose fibers. Pre-gelatinized starch was effective in dispersing pulp fiber in a starch matrix to form a viscous starch/fiber dough. The starch/fiber dough was a useful feedstock for various composite foam and plastic materials. Viscous blends of star...

  12. ENZYME RESISTANCE OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED STARCH POTATOES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sh. Mannapova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Here in this article the justification of expediency of enzyme resistant starch use in therapeutic food products is presented . Enzyme resistant starch is capable to resist to enzymatic hydrolysis in a small intestine of a person, has a low glycemic index, leads to decrease of postprandial concentration of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides in blood and insulin reaction, to improvement of sensitivity of all organism to insulin, to increase in sense of fulness and to reduction of adjournment of fats. Resistant starch makes bifidogenшс impact on microflora of a intestine of the person, leads to increase of a quantity of lactobacillus and bifidobacterium and to increased production of butyric acid in a large intestine. In this regard the enzyme resistant starch is an important component in food for prevention and curing of human diseases such as diabetes, obesity, colitis, a cancer of large and direct intestine. One method is specified by authors for imitation of starch digestion in a human body. This method is based on the definition of an enzyme resistance of starch in vitro by its hydrolysis to glucose with application of a glucoamylase and digestive enzyme preparation Pancreatin. This method is used in researches of an enzyme resistance of starch, of genetically modified potato, high amylose corn starch Hi-Maize 1043 and HYLON VII (National Starch Food Innovation, USA, amylopectin and amylose. It is shown that the enzyme resistance of the starch emitted from genetically modified potatoes conforms to the enzyme resistance of the high amylose corn starch “Hi-Maize 1043 and HYLON VII starch”, (National Starch Food Innovation, the USA relating to the II type of enzyme resistant starch. It is established that amylopectin doesn't have the enzyme resistant properties. The results of researches are presented. They allow us to make the following conclusion: amylose in comparison with amylopectin possesses higher enzyme resistance and gives to

  13. Effects of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) tannins on alpha-amylase activity and in vitro digestibility of starch in raw and processed flours

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of condensed tannins (CT) on in vitro starch digestibility in cooked, wholegrain sorghum flours and on corn starch was investigated. CT extracts were also tested for their inhibitory effect on alpha-amylases. Rapidly digestible starch, slowly digestible starch, and resistant starch were n...

  14. Starch gelatinization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnayake, Wajira S; Jackson, David S

    2009-01-01

    Starch occurs as highly organized structures, known as starch granules. Starch has unique thermal properties and functionality that have permitted its wide use in food products and industrial applications. When heated in water, starch undergoes a transition process, during which the granules break down into a mixture of polymers-in-solution, known as gelatinization. The sequence of structural transformations that the starch granule undergoes during this order-to-disorder transition has been extensively researched. None of the published starch gelatinization theories can fully and adequately explain the exact mechanism of sequential structural changes that starch granules undergo during gelatinization. This chapter analyzes several published theories and summarizes our current understanding of the starch gelatinization process.

  15. Effects of starches on the mechanical properties of paracetamol tablet formulations. II. Sorghum and plantain starches as disintegrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alebiowu, Gbenga; Itiola, Oludele Adelanwa

    2003-12-01

    This study evaluates the disintegrant properties--tablet disintegration time (DT) and crushing strength--friability/disintegration time (CSFR/DT) ratio of a paracetamol tablet formulation prepared with sorghum and plantain starches in comparison with corn starch BP. The effects of disintegrant concentration, relative density of tablets and the mode of disintegrants addition were studied. The study revealed that the rank order of effectiveness of the starches as disintegrants was corn > plantain > sorghum. The mode of addition of disintegrants, disintegrant concentration and relative density had a significant impact on the disintegrant properties. The tested starches, namely, sorghum and plantain, showed promising results.

  16. 玉米全膜双垄沟残膜回收机作业性能优化与试验%Optimization and experiment of operating performance of collector for corn whole plastic film mulching on double ridges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴飞; 赵武云; 张锋伟; 吴正文; 宋学锋; 吴一非

    2016-01-01

    The corn seeding patterns with whole plastic-film mulching on double ridges in the dry land is the new technology for rainwater harvesting and soil moisture conservation and drought resistance in northwest arid area of China. Market demand of this new technology is very large, and hence, until December 2015 the promotion cultivation area of corn seeding patterns with whole plastic-film mulching on double ridges had reached 8.02×105 hm2 in Gansu Province. However, with the input quantity of plastic film and application area increasing, the problem was not allowed to ignore that the large amount of plastic film was residual in the fields after harvesting the corn, which caused serious field soil pollution and environmental pollution. Therefore, to promote the mechanization of residual film recycling had become an inevitable trend. Meanwhile, the first-generation collector for corn whole plastic film mulching on double ridges was designed by our research team. In order to improve the work performance of the collector for corn whole plastic film mulching on double ridges, the film-stubble distribution characteristics and the mechanization recycling process of residual plastic film were investigated, and through the analysis of the related operation mechanism of key components (loosening residual plastic film device, and collecting residual plastic film mechanism) and the process of collecting plastic film mechanism, the related parameters were determined, which were the parameters affecting the leakage rate of residual plastic film and the wrapping rate of residual plastic film. So in order to reduce the frequency of field experiment, based on field experiment and four-factor three-level Box-Behnken experimental design method, the mathematical models between the key parameters and the leakage rate of residual plastic film and the wrapping rate of residual plastic film were established, the regression equations of the 4 factors were fitted through the Design Expert 8

  17. [Evaluation of culture media for detecting the starch hydrolysis reaction in pathovars of Xanthomonas campestris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alippi, A M

    1991-01-01

    Sixty strains of different pathovars of Xanthomonas campestris have been tested for the evaluation of various starch agars and compounds of starch degradation on six media: soluble starch, potato insoluble starch, corn insoluble starch, potato amylopectin, corn amylopectin and potato amylose. The purpose of the present investigation was the selection of the most suitable medium for the visualization of the starch hydrolysis test, presenting this reaction as a distinct character between pathovars of the Xanthomonas campestris group. From 60 strains tested, 74% gave positive reactions. Pathovars holcicola, pelargonii, pruni and vitians were negative. Regarding X. campestris pv. vesicatoria cultures, results were variable. Potato and corn insoluble starch agars were the most suitable media for the visualization of the starch hydrolysis reaction and at the same time the most appropriate for direct isolation. Differentiation at species level could be practicable, but within the Xanthomonas campestris group, variation amongst pathovars suggest the unsuitability of the test in spite of the high percentage of positive reactions.

  18. Retrogradation of starches and maltodextrins of various origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Sobolewska-Zielińska

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. The retrogradation which occurs during the processes food storage is an essential problem in food industry. In this study, the ability to retrogradate of native starches and maltodextrins of different botanical origin was analysed. Material and methods. The materials were starches of various botanical origin, including commercial samples: potato, tapioca, wheat, corn, waxy corn starches, and laboratory isolated samples: triticale and rice starches. The above starches were used as material for laboratory production of maltodextrins of medium dextrose equivalents (DE in the range from 8.27 to 12.75. Starches were analysed for amylose content, while the ratio of non-branched/long-chain-branched to short-chain-branched fractions of maltodextrins was calculated from gel permeation chromatography data. The susceptibility to retrogradation of 2% starch pastes and 2% maltodextrin solutions was evaluated according to turbidimetric method of Jacobson. Results. The greatest starch in turbidance of starch gels was observed within initial of the test. days. Initial retrogradation degree of cereal starches was higher than that of tuber and root starches. The waxy corn starch was the least prone to retrogradate. The increase in turbidance of maltodextrin solutions were minimal. Waxy corn maltodextrin was not susceptible to retrogradation. Among other samples, the lowest susceptibility to retrogradation after 14 days was found for rice maltodextrin, while the highest for wheat and triticale maltodextrin. Conclusions. On the basis of this study, the retrogradation dependence on the kind of starches and the maltodextrins was established and the author stated that all the maltodextrins have a much less ability to retrogradation than the native starches.

  19. Waxy corn starch hydrolysis by β-amylase and properties of the dextrin%β-淀粉酶对蜡质玉米淀粉的酶解规律及其产物性质研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈旭; 陈磊; 黄强; 姜锐; 何小维

    2013-01-01

    以蜡质玉米淀粉为原料,制备了β-极限糊精,研究了加酶量及酶解时间与产物流度关系的变化规律,以膜分离手段分离部分小分子麦芽糖,研究了产物溶解性、冻融稳定性、持水性及表观黏度等理化性质.结果表明,淀粉糊的流度在酶解前5h迅速降低,24h后产物流度趋于稳定.随着酶解程度的提高,β-极限糊精的溶解度提高,冻融稳定性和持水性降低,表观黏度下降,酶解物为假塑性流体.与未经膜分离的样品相比,膜分离后产物的持水性、冻融稳定性、表观黏度提高.%Using waxy corn starch as material,β-limit dextrin was prepared,and the effect of dosage and hydrolysis time of β-amylase on the fluidity of the product was studied.Part of maltose was separated by membrance.The solubility,freeze-thaw stability,water holding capacity and apparent viscosity of the separated products was investigated.Results showed that the fluidity of the starch paste decreased rapidly within 5 hours hydrolysis,and became stable after 24h of hydolysis.As the degree of hydrolysis increasing,the solubility of dextrin increased,and freeze-thaw stability,water holding capacity and apparent viscosity decreased.The product showed pseudoplastic fluid.After membrane separation,the water holding capacity,freeze-thaw stability and apparent viscosity of the dextrin increased.

  20. Enzymatic hydrolysis of corn bran arabinoxylan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Jane

    This thesis concerns enzymatic hydrolysis of corn bran arabinoxylan. The work has focused on understanding the composition and structure of corn bran with specific interest in arabinoxylan with the main purpose of targeting enzymatic hydrolysis for increased yields. Corn bran has been used...... as a model substrate because it represents a readily available agroindustrial side product with upgrading potentials. Corn bran originates from the wet-milling process in corn starch processing, is the outmost layers of the corn kernel and is particularly rich in pentose monosaccharides comprising the major...... components of arabinoxylan. Corn bran is one of the most recalcitrant cereal byproducts with arabinoxylans of particular heterogeneous nature. It is also rich in feruloyl derived substitutions, which are responsible for extensive cross-linking between arabinoxylan molecules and thereby participate...

  1. Effect of Plasticizers on Physical and Mechanical Properties of Potato Starch- based Composite Films%增塑剂对马铃薯淀粉基复合膜物理机械性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾超; 王利强; 卢立新; 赵艺程

    2012-01-01

    Potato starch based composite films were prepared by casting using potato starch, pullulan, gelatin as film forming material, calcium chloride as cross-linking agent, and glycerol, sorbitol, and polyethylene glycol as plasticizer. The effects of three kinds of plasticizers on physical and mechanical properties of composite films were studied. The results showed that tensile strength and Young's modulus of the composite films decrease significantly with plasticizer contents; elongation increases significantly with glycerol and sorbitol contents; effect of polyethylene glycol on elongation is not obvious; water vapor permeability and water solubility of composite films increase with plasticizer contents; polyethylene glycol can reduce the light transmission rate of the composite films significantly.%以马铃薯淀粉、普鲁兰多糖、明胶为成膜物质,氯化钙为交联剂,甘油、山梨醇、聚乙二醇为增塑剂,采用流延法制备了马铃薯淀粉基复合膜,研究了3种增塑剂对复合膜物理机械性能的影响。结果表明:复合膜的抗拉强度和弹性模量均随增塑剂含量的增加而显著减小,断裂伸长率随甘油和山梨醇含量的增加而显著增加,聚乙二醇对其影响不显著;复合膜的水蒸气透过率和水溶性均随增塑剂含量的增加而增加;聚乙二醇能够显著降低复合膜的透光率。

  2. The effects of forage proportion and rapidly degradable dry matter from concentrate on ruminal digestion in dairy cows fed corn silage-based diets with fixed neutral detergent fiber and starch contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechartier, C; Peyraud, J-L

    2010-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of the forage-to-concentrate (F:C) ratio and the rate of ruminal degradation of carbohydrates from the concentrate on digestion in dairy cows fed corn silage-based diets. Six cows with ruminal cannulas were assigned to 6 treatments in a 6x6 Latin square. Treatments were arranged in a 3x2 factorial design. Three proportions of neutral detergent fiber from forage [FNDF; 7.6, 13.2, and 18.9% of dry matter (DM)] were obtained by modifying F:C (20:80, 35:65, and 50:50). These F:C were combined with concentrates with either high or low content of rapidly degradable carbohydrates. The dietary content of rapidly degradable carbohydrates from the concentrate was estimated from the DM disappearance of concentrate after 4h of in sacco incubation (CRDM). Thus, 2 proportions of CRDM were tested (20 and 30% of DM). Wheat and corn grain were used as rapidly and slowly degradable starch sources, respectively. Soybean hulls and citrus pulp were used as slowly and rapidly degradable fiber sources, respectively. Concentrate composition was adjusted to maintain dietary starch and neutral detergent fiber contents at 35.9 and 28.9% of DM, respectively. There was no effect of the interaction between F:C and CRDM on DM intake (DMI), ruminal fermentation, chewing activity, and fibrolytic activity. When F:C decreased, DMI increased, the mean ruminal pH linearly decreased, and the pH range linearly increased from 0.95 to 1.27 pH unit. At the same time, the acetate-to-propionate ratio decreased linearly. Decreasing F:C linearly decreased the average time spent chewing per kilogram of DMI from 35.2 to 19.5min/kg of DMI and decreased ruminal liquid outflow from 11.6 to 9.2L/kg of DMI, suggesting a decrease in the salivary flow. Increasing CRDM decreased DMI and increased the time during which pH was below 6.0 (3.1 vs. 4.8h), the pH range (0.90 vs. 1.33), and the initial rate of pH drop. It also increased the volatile fatty acid range (35 vs. 59mM), thus

  3. 淀粉/聚乙烯醇包覆尿素膜的制备及其性能%Preparation and properties of starch/polyvinyl alcohol membrane coated urea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔迁; 王树江; 姜宇航; 兰明利

    2012-01-01

    用可降解材料包覆的控释肥料可以减少肥料损失及对环境的污染。以玉米淀粉、土豆淀粉、聚乙烯醇(PVA)为原料,在交联剂甲醛和增塑剂甘油的作用下,通过溶解、糊化、再交联等工艺过程,制得肥料包膜料液,用此料液制备了包膜尿素。考察了玉米淀粉:土豆淀粉(质量比)以及用碱改性玉米淀粉对包膜尿素缓释性能的影响。结果表明,玉米淀粉:土豆淀粉(质量比)=8:2,总淀粉:PVA=10:9时,制备的包膜尿素缓释性能最好,用碱改性的玉米淀粉并不能提高包膜尿素的缓释性能。将包膜尿素进行土壤降解实验,发现该膜在土壤中完全降解时间为45d左右。此包膜材料缓释性能良好,具有成本低、可生物降解、无环境污染等特点。%Using degradable material coated controlled release fertilizer, can reduce the fertilizer loss and pollution of the environment. Corn starch, potato starch, polyvinyl alcohol ( PVA ) as raw material, a cross linking agent in formaldehyde and plasticizer glycerin role, by dissolving, gelatinization, cross linking process, produce fertilizer coating liquid, the liquid preparation of the coated urea. Corn starch potato starch is investigated: (mass ratio), alkali modified corn starch, the coated urea slow-release effect. The results showed that corn starch potato starch (mass ratio) = 8 : 2, PVA=10 : 9, total starch= preparation of coated urea slow release performance of the best, with alkali modification of corn starch can improve the coated urea slow release performance. The coated urea in soil degradation experiment, found the film of complete degradation in soil in time for 45 days. The film material delivery performance is good, has the advantages of low cost, biodegradable, no environment pollution etc.

  4. 改性淀粉/PVA生物降解塑料膜的制备及表征%Preparation and characterization of biodegradable plastic film from modified starch/PVA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董明; 郝艳玲; 范福海

    2013-01-01

    以氧化改性过后的马铃薯淀粉为原料,经过交联、增塑、增强后,采用流延的方法制备生物降解塑料膜,研究了改性淀粉、丙三醇、甲醛、尿素、聚乙烯醇、反应温度等因素对模力学性能的影响.结果表明,影响膜强度主要因素为丙三醇的含量,其次为甲醛、改性淀粉、尿素的量、反应时间及聚乙烯醇的量.最佳条件为:水100 mL,改性淀粉3.3g,尿素1.0g,聚乙烯醇1.2g,甲醛1.6 mL,丙三醇0.6 mL,反应时间110 min.在此条件下,制得膜的拉伸强度为20.05 MPa,断裂伸长率为65%.%We take oxidation modified potato starch as raw material, after the step of cross linking, plasti-cing and reinforcing, to prepare biodegradable plastic film by the method of continuation flow membrane. Effects of modified starch, glycerol, formaldehyde, urea, polyvinyl alcohol, reaction temperature, and other factors on capability of the plastic film were researched. The results shows that the main factor on effecting film strength is amount of glycerin, secondly, the amount of formaldehyde, modified starch, urea, the reaction time and the amount of polyvinyl alcohol. The optimum conditions were as follows; H2O 100 mL, modified starch 3.3 g, urea 1.0 g, polyvinyl alcohol 1.2 g, formaldehyde 1.6 mL, glycerol 0.6 mL, reaction time is 110 min. Under this condition, the tensile strength of this film is 20.05 MPa, and the elongation at break is 65%.

  5. Study on the gelatinization of corn starch by enzyme-added extrusion at low temperature%低温加酶挤压玉米淀粉糊化度的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯秋娟; 肖志刚; 郑广钊; 魏旭; 叶鸿剑

    2011-01-01

    In order to study the behaviors of extrusion conversion of amylase,a in-temperature resistant α-amylase as catalyzer and a twin-screw extruder were used for testing the gelatinization and liquefaction of corn starch,and extrudates with different gelatinization were obtained.On the basis of single factor,the response surface methodology was used to study the barrel temperature,influences of screw speed,moisture of material and enzyme concentration on gelatinization values.The results showed that when barrel temperature of extruded was 71.35℃,moisture of material was 31.81%,rotation speed of extruder was 133.96r/min,enzyme concentration was 3.15u/g,the optimal value of gelatinization was 55.31%.%为了探讨淀粉加酶挤压转化规律,以中温α-淀粉酶为外加酶,利用双螺杆挤压机对玉米淀粉进行了糊化实验研究,获得了不同糊化程度的挤出物;在单因素研究基础上,采用响应面分析方法研究了机筒温度、螺杆转速、物料水分和酶浓度对挤出物糊化度的影响规律。结果表明:在机筒温度为71.35℃、物料水分31.81%、转速133.96r/min、酶浓度3.15u/g条件下,挤压玉米淀粉糊化度的最优值为55.31%。

  6. Corn silage management I: effects of hybrid, maturity, and mechanical processing on chemical and physical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L M; Harrison, J H; Davidson, D; Robutti, J L; Swift, M; Mahanna, W C; Shinners, K

    2002-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of hybrid, maturity, and mechanical processing of whole plant corn on chemical and physical characteristics, particle size, pack density, and dry matter recovery. In the first experiment, hybrid 3845 whole plant corn was harvested at hard dough, one-third milkline, and two-thirds milkline with a theoretical length-of-cut of 6.4 mm. In the second experiment, hybrids 3845 and Quanta were harvested at one-third milkline, two-thirds milkline, and blackline stages of maturity with a theoretical length-of-cut of 12.7 mm. At each stage of maturity, corn was harvested with and without mechanical processing by using a John Deere 5830 harvester with an onboard kernel processor. The percentage of intact corn kernels present in unprocessed corn silage explained 62% of variation in total tract starch digestibility. As the amount of intact kernels increased, total tract starch digestibility decreased. Post-ensiled vitreousness of corn kernels within the corn silage explained 31 and 48% of the variation of total tract starch digestibility for processed and unprocessed treatments, respectively. For a given amount of vitreous starch in corn kernels, total tract starch digestibility was lower for cows fed unprocessed corn silage compared with processed corn silage. This suggests that processing corn silage disrupts the dense protein matrix within the corn kernel where starch is embedded, therefore making the starch more available for digestion. Particle size of corn silage and orts that contained corn silage was reduced when it was processed. Wet pack density was greater for processed compared with unprocessed corn silage.

  7. Development of starch-based materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habeych Narvaez, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    Starch-based materials show potential as fully degradable plastics. However, the current applicability of these materials is limited due to their poor moisture tolerance and mechanical properties. Starch is therefore frequently blended with other polymers to make the material more suitable for sp

  8. Development of starch-based materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habeych Narvaez, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    Starch-based materials show potential as fully degradable plastics. However, the current applicability of these materials is limited due to their poor moisture tolerance and mechanical properties. Starch is therefore frequently blended with other polymers to make the material more suitable for

  9. Starch hydrolysis modeling: application to fuel ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Ganti S; Johnston, David B; Rausch, Kent D; Tumbleson, M E; Singh, Vijay

    2011-09-01

    Efficiency of the starch hydrolysis in the dry grind corn process is a determining factor for overall conversion of starch to ethanol. A model, based on a molecular approach, was developed to simulate structure and hydrolysis of starch. Starch structure was modeled based on a cluster model of amylopectin. Enzymatic hydrolysis of amylose and amylopectin was modeled using a Monte Carlo simulation method. The model included the effects of process variables such as temperature, pH, enzyme activity and enzyme dose. Pure starches from wet milled waxy and high-amylose corn hybrids and ground yellow dent corn were hydrolyzed to validate the model. Standard deviations in the model predictions for glucose concentration and DE values after saccharification were less than ± 0.15% (w/v) and ± 0.35%, respectively. Correlation coefficients for model predictions and experimental values were 0.60 and 0.91 for liquefaction and 0.84 and 0.71 for saccharification of amylose and amylopectin, respectively. Model predictions for glucose (R2 = 0.69-0.79) and DP4+ (R2 = 0.8-0.68) were more accurate than the maltotriose and maltose for hydrolysis of high-amylose and waxy corn starch. For yellow dent corn, simulation predictions for glucose were accurate (R2 > 0.73) indicating that the model can be used to predict the glucose concentrations during starch hydrolysis.

  10. Sixth taste – starch taste?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zygmunt Zdrojewicz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Scientists from Oregon State University, USA, came up with the newest theory of the sixth taste – starch taste that might soon join the basic five tastes. This argument is supported by studies done on both animals and humans, the results of which seem to indicate the existence of separate receptors for starch taste, others than for sweet taste. Starch is a glucose homopolymer that forms an α-glucoside chain called glucosan or glucan. This polysaccharide constitutes the most important source of carbohydrates in food. It can be found in groats, potatoes, legumes, grains, manioc and corn. Apart from its presence in food, starch is also used in textile, pharmaceutical, cosmetic and stationery industries as well as in glue production. This polysaccharide is made of an unbranched helical structure – amylose (15–20%, and a structure that forms branched chains – amylopectin (80–85%. The starch structure, degree of its crystallisation or hydration as well as its availability determine the speed of food-contained starch hydrolysis by amylase. So far, starch has been considered tasteless, but the newest report shows that for people of different origins it is associated with various aliments specific for each culture. Apart from a number of scientific experiments using sweet taste inhibitors, the existence of the sixth taste is also confirmed by molecular studies. However, in order to officially include starch taste to the basic human tastes, it must fulfil certain criteria. The aim of the study is to present contemporary views on starch.

  11. Paraformaldehyde-resistant starch-fermenting bacteria in "starch-base" drilling mud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MYERS, G E

    1962-09-01

    Starch-fermenting bacteria were found in each of 12 samples of nonfermenting starch-base drilling mud examined. Of the 12 samples, 3 contained very active starch-fermenting gram-positive spore-bearing bacilli closely resembling Bacillus subtilis. Similar active starch-fermenting bacteria were found in fermenting starch-base drilling mud and in corn starch and slough water used to prepare such mud. The active starch-fermenting microorganisms completely hydrolyzed 1% (w/v) corn starch within 24 hr at 37.5 C. The active starch-fermenting bacteria isolated from fermenting drilling mud were capable of surviving 12 hr of continuous exposure to 0.1% (w/w) paraformaldehyde or 1 hr of continuous exposure to 0.5% (w/w) paraformaldehyde, with no diminution in starch-fermenting ability. The same organisms fermented starch after 3 hr of continuous exposure to 0.5% (w/w) paraformaldehyde, but not after 4 hr of exposure. The phenomenon of rapid disappearance of paraformaldehyde from fermenting drilling mud was observed in the laboratory using a modified sodium sulfite test. Paraformaldehyde, initially present in a concentration of 0.192 lb per barrel of mud, completely disappeared in 9 hr at 22 to 23 C. A significant decrease in paraformaldehyde concentration was detected 0.5 hr after preparation of the mud. It is suggested that the presence of relatively high concentrations of ammonia and chloride in the mud may facilitate the disappearance of paraformaldehyde. The failure of 0.1% (w/w) paraformaldehyde to inhibit the strong starch-fermenting microorganisms isolated from fermenting drilling mud, and the rapid disappearance of paraformaldehyde from the mud, explains the fermentation of starch which occurred in this mud, despite the addition of paraformaldehyde.

  12. 机械活化醋酸酯淀粉的制备及其生物降解塑料膜性能%Preparation of mechanical activated starch acetate and performance research of the biodegradable plastic films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈渊; 黄祖强; 谢祖芳; 朱万仁; 伍念荣

    2011-01-01

    In order to improve properties of starch-based biodegradable plastic films, the mechanical activated starch acetate (MASA) was synthesized from mechanical activated maize starch (MAS) with activation time for 1.0 h. At the same time, the biodegradable plastic films were produced by thermal gelatinization of starch suspensions blending MASA with degree of substitution and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). By Fourier transform infrared spectrogram (FTIR),differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the microstructure, particle shape,thermal stability were studied. The mechanical properties and biodegrade ability of the MASA/PVA were investigated by comparing with those of native starch acetate (SA). The results indicated that the microstmcture and particle shape changed greatly and thermal property of MASA increased compared with those of MAS and native starch. The properties of MASA/PVA were better than those of SA/PVA, and the tensile strength of the MASA/PVA with MASA (DS=0.1) was 3.56 MPa, the breaking elongation was 146.22% before soaking in water, and the absorption of water was 134.79% after 24 h. Hot water resistance properties was good, and the rate of biodegradation was 45.90% in the soil after 20 days. The mechanical activation pretreatment effectively improved the properties of biodegradable plastic films.%为了有效提高淀粉基生物降解塑料的性能,本试验对机械活化1.0 h的玉米淀粉(MAS)进行酯化改性,制备了机械活化醋酸酯淀粉(MASA)及机械活化醋酸酯淀粉/聚乙烯醇的牛物降解塑料膜(MASA/PVA),用傅立叶红外光谱仪(FTIR)、差示扫描量热仪(DSC)、扫描电镜(SEM)分别对MASA的结构、热稳定性、形貌等进行测试和表征,并与原醋酸酯淀粉/聚乙烯醇生物降解塑料膜(SA/PVA)对比研究了塑料膜的力学性能和生物降解性能.结果表明,机械活化淀粉经酯化改性后,结构和形貌都有很大的改变,热性能提

  13. Measurement of Thermal Properties of Triticale Starch Films Using Photothermal Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Pacheco, Z. N.; Cruz-Orea, A.; Jiménez-Pérez, J. L.; Solorzano-Ojeda, S. C.; Tramón-Pregnan, C. L.

    2015-06-01

    Nowadays, several commercially biodegradable materials have been developed with mechanical properties similar to those of conventional petrochemical-based polymers. These materials are made from renewable sources such as starch, cellulose, corn, and molasses, being very attractive for numerous applications in the plastics, food, and paper industries, among others. Starches from maize, rice, wheat, and potato are used in the food industry. However, other types of starches are not used due to their low protein content, such as triticale. In this study, starch films, processed using a single screw extruder with different compositions, were thermally and structurally characterized. The thermal diffusivity, thermal effusivity, and thermal conductivity of the biodegradable films were determined using photothermal techniques. The thermal diffusivity was measured using the open photoacoustic cell technique, and the thermal effusivity was obtained by the photopyroelectric technique in an inverse configuration. The results showed differences in thermal properties for the films. Also, the films microstructures were observed by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and the crystalline structure determined by X-ray diffraction.

  14. Functionality of porous starch obtained by amylase or amyloglucosidase treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dura, A; Błaszczak, W; Rosell, C M

    2014-01-30

    Porous starch is attracting very much attention for its absorption and shielding ability in many food applications. The effect of two different enzymes, fungal α-amylase (AM) or amyloglucosidase (AMG), on corn starch at sub-gelatinization temperature was studied as an alternative to obtain porous starch. Biochemical features, thermal and structural analyses of treated starches were studied. Microscopic analysis of the granules confirmed the enzymatic modification of the starches obtaining porous structures with more agglomerates in the case of AMG treated starches. Several changes in thermal properties and hydrolysis kinetics were observed in enzymatically modified starches. Hydration properties were significantly affected by enzymatic modification being greater influenced by AMG activity, and the opposite trend was observed in the pasting properties. Overall, results showed that enzymatic modification at sub-gelatinization temperatures really offer an attractive alternative for obtaining porous starch granules to be used in a variety of foods applications.

  15. Starch modification with microbial alpha-glucanotransferase enzymes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Maarel, Marc J. E. C.; Leemhuis, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Starch is an agricultural raw material used in many food and industrial products. It is present in granules that vary in shape in the form of amylose and amylopectin. Starch-degrading enzymes are used on a large scale in the production of sweeteners (high fructose corn syrup) and concentrated glucos

  16. Alteration of biomass composition in response to changing substrate particle size and the consequences for enzymatic hydrolysis of corn bran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Jane; Meyer, Anne S.

    2012-01-01

    Corn bran is a by-product from corn starch processing. This work examined the effects of changing substrate particle size on enzymatic hydrolysis of both raw and pretreated destarched corn bran. The biomass composition of the corn bran varied between particle size fractions: The largest particles...

  17. The structure and properties of different types of starch exposed to UV radiation: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajer, Dagmara; Kaczmarek, Halina; Bajer, Krzysztof

    2013-10-15

    The effect of UV-irradiation on four different types of native starch (corn, waxy corn, wheat and potato) have been investigated. Although the changes in the chemical structure of starch specimens were small, indicating good photostability, the samples lost adsorbed water and their crystallinity degree decreased after irradiation. Moreover, a drop in average molecular weight occurred in samples (with the exception of potato starch) as a result of main chain scission. The variations in the properties of investigated specimens of various origin were related to the differences in their structure and macromolecular arrangement. The lowest photostability among the four starches was exhibited by potato starch.

  18. Unique features of several microbial α-amylases active on soluble and native starch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarian, Fean Davisunjaya

    2016-01-01

    Starch is the main energy store of major agricultural crops such as corn, potato, rice and wheat. Various amylase type enzymes are used to convert cooked starch to glucose that goes into bioethanol fermentation. Only a few amylase type enzymes have been described that can act on the starch granule i

  19. Production of a raw starch saccharifying amylase byBacillus alvei grown on different agricultural substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achi, O K; Nijoku-Obi, A N

    1992-03-01

    Maximum activity of the amylase ofBacillus alvei was attained after growth of the organism on sorghum starch. Rice, corn, yam, cassava and potato starch gave high enzyme activities as did soluble starch. Glucose, maltose and glycerol were less effective. Optimum conditions for both growth and enzyme production were pH 6.8 at 40°C.

  20. Influence of ginger and banana starches on the mechanical and disintegration properties of chloroquine phosphate tab-lets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    O.A.Odeku; M.A.Odeniyi; G.O.Ogunlowo

    2009-01-01

    Objective:The influence of two experimental starches -ginger starch obtained from Zingiber officinale and ba-nana starch from Musa sapientum -on the mechanical and disintegration properties of chloroquine tablets have been studied in comparison with the influence of official corn starch.Methods:Chloroquine tablets were for-mulated using various concentarions of the starches as binding agent.The mechanical properties of the tablets were assessed in terms of crushing strength and friability and the crushing strength-friability ratio (CSFR) while drug release properties were evaluated based on disintegration and the time of tablets.Results:The ranking for crushing strength and CSFR was corn >banana >ginger starch while the ranking was reverse for friability.The disintegration time increased with packing fraction and starch concentration in the rank order of formulations containing corn >banana >ginger starch.The CSFR/DT values increased with concentration of starch binder indicating an improved balance between binding and disintegrant properties of the starches.Sta-tistical analysis showed that there were significant (P <0.001)difference in the CSFR/DT for tablets contai-ning the various starch binders.Conclusion:The mechanical and disintegration properties of the experimental starches compared favorably with those of corn starch and ginger starch could be more useful when faster tablet disintegration is desired.

  1. CORN FLAVOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn is a large part of the modern diet through sweeteners, oil, processed foods, and animal-derived foods. In addition, corn is eaten directly in bread and cereal-type foods, snack foods, and foods made from masa flour. Corn gluten meal is a byproduct of grain processed by wet milling. Although pri...

  2. Hydrolysis of native and heat-treated starches at sub-gelatinization temperature using granular starch hydrolyzing enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthumporn, U; Shariffa, Y N; Karim, A A

    2012-03-01

    The effect of heat treatment below the gelatinization temperature on the susceptibility of corn, mung bean, sago, and potato starches towards granular starch hydrolysis (35°C) was investigated. Starches were hydrolyzed in granular state and after heat treatment (50°C for 30 min) by using granular starch hydrolyzing enzyme for 24 h. Hydrolyzed heat-treated starches showed a significant increase in the percentage of dextrose equivalent compared to native starches, respectively, with corn 53% to 56%, mung bean 36% to 47%, sago 15% to 26%, and potato 12% to 15%. Scanning electron microscopy micrographs showed the presence of more porous granules and surface erosion in heat-treated starch compared to native starch. X-ray analysis showed no changes but with sharper peaks for all the starches, suggested that hydrolysis occurred on the amorphous region. The amylose content and swelling power of heat-treated starches was markedly altered after hydrolysis. Evidently, this enzyme was able to hydrolyze granular starches and heat treatment before hydrolysis significantly increased the degree of hydrolysis.

  3. 增塑剂甘油对甘薯淀粉膜性能的影响研究%Effect of Glycerol Plasticizer on the Properties of Sweet Potato Starch -Based Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鹏飞; 孙圣麟; 王文涛; 侯汉学; 董海洲

    2015-01-01

    采用甘油作为增塑剂制备甘薯淀粉膜,研究了甘油/淀粉比对甘薯淀粉膜性能的影响。结果表明:加入甘油后,淀粉糊各特征点黏度值发生不同程度的变化;随着甘油量的增加,膜的断裂伸长率和水蒸气透过率呈递增的趋势,淀粉膜的热封性能逐步得到提高,抗拉强度呈递减的趋势;随着甘油的加入,膜的透光率增大;甘油分子与淀粉分子之间有较弱的作用,在2θ=14.8°处产生了一个新的峰;淀粉颗粒的分散和分布随着甘油的加入有明显改善,淀粉膜表面变得平整;紫外老化试验表明随着甘油量的增加,延缓了淀粉膜的老化作用。当甘油/淀粉比在0.3/1~0.4/1之间时,甘油和淀粉的相容性较好,甘油对淀粉有较好的塑化效果。%Sweet potato starch (SPS)-based films have been prepared with glycerol as plasticizer.The influ-ence of glycerol /starch of different ratios on the films properties has been studied in the paper.The results showed that the glycerol could significantly change SPS pasting characteristics.With the increase of glycerol content,the e-longation at break,as well as the water vapor permeability gradually increased,while the tensile strength gradually decreased.The films exhibited a better heat endurance with the increasing content of glycerol.The addition of glycer-ol could raise the light transmission of films.The glycerol and starch molecules had weaker interaction;a new peak was produced after the addition of glycerol,between the 2 theta,at 14.8°.The dispersion and distribution of the starch granules were improved significantly,and the surface of the films became smooth since adding glycerol.The retrogradation of the films was delayed by the increasing content of the glycerol.These results indicated that the glyc-erol has a good compatibility and rather better plasticizing effect with the starch matrix when the ratios of glycerol /starch

  4. Enzymatic corn wet milling: engineering process and cost model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzymatic Corn Wet Milling (E-Milling) is a proposed alternative process to conventional wet milling for the recovery and purification of starch and coproducts using proteases to eliminate the need for sulfites and to decrease the steeping time. In 2005, the total starch production in USA by conven...

  5. Changes in the Functional Properties of Three Starches by Interaction with Lima Bean Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Huerta-Abrego

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The functional properties of starches determine their potential applications in food systems. These properties depend largely on granular and molecular structure and can be physically, chemically or enzymatically modified. One way of modifying starch functional properties is by interaction with other food components, such as proteins. Starch-protein interactions are frequent in plant foods, particularly cereals and legumes, which are formed mainly of starches and proteins. An evaluation has been done of changes in the functional properties of three native starches (corn, Zea mays L.; cassava, Manihot esculenta; and lima bean, Phaseolus lunatus L. when blended with lima bean protein concentrate. The gelatinization temperature of each blend increased compared to its corresponding native starch. The cassava starch/lima bean protein blend had the highest overall swelling power and water absorption capacity values at all temperatures. Maximum viscosity for each blend was higher than for the corresponding native starches. The blends of lima bean protein with cassava and corn starches did not exhibit syneresis. The lima bean starch/lima bean protein blend had the highest gel firmness values, followed by the blends with corn and cassava starches. The protein-starch mixtures are an alternative in the improvement of the starch functional properties which are useful in the development of nutritional products.

  6. Influence of Suspension Parameters on Water Absorbency of Starch-g-poly(sodium acrylate) Synthesized by Inverse Suspension Polymerization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ming-da; ZHOU Young-yuan

    2002-01-01

    Superabsorbents starch grafted sodium polyacrylate was prepared by inverse suspension polymerization, using toluene as the continuous phase, potassiun persulfate as the initiator. The effect of suspension parameters, such as volume ratio of continuous phase and dispersed phase,type and dosage of suspending agents, on water absorbency of the starch grafted polymer was studied.Different starch derivatives were also investigated.Superabsorbents made of cationic starch has higher water absorbency than that made of native corn starch.

  7. 地膜覆盖对木薯生长发育和产量及淀粉含量的影响%Effects of Plastic Film Mulching on Development and Yield and Starch Content of Cassava

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦威旭; 韦民政; 覃维治; 陆柳英; 唐秀桦; 韦哲; 何虎冀; 甘秀芹; 韦本辉

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] The study was to explore cultivation techniques with less cost and high benefit for cassava.[Method] 2 planting patterns of plastic film mulching and no mulching (CK) were taken to plant cassava, the effects of plastic film mulching on growth of stem and leaf, yield components and starch content of cassava were studied.[Result] Plastic film mulching could improve the growth of stem and leaf of cassava at early and middle stage and increase the biomass of cassava.After plastic film mulching, the length and diameter of root tuber, number and weight of root tuber per plant and fresh root tuber yield per plot of cassava were increased by 17.79%, 14.61%, 14.28%, 76.14%, 76.09% resp.than that of CK.After plastic film mulching the starch content of cassava was decreased by 2% than that of CK, while the starch yield of cassava of the same area was increased by 65.35% than that of CK.[Conclusion] Plastic film mulching was the effective measurement of cultivation with less cost and high benefit for cassava, the yield increasing effect was realized through promoting stem and leaf growth of cassava at early and middle sate, improving root tuber diameter and root tuber weight per plant, and increasing the plumpness of root tuber.%[目的]探索木薯节本增效栽培技术.[方法]分别采用地膜覆盖与不覆膜(对照)2种方式种植木薯,研究地膜覆盖对木薯茎叶生长、产量构成因素及淀粉含量的影响.[结果]地膜覆盖可促进木薯前中期茎叶生长,增加木薯生物量;地膜和覆盖后,木薯的块根长度、块根直径、单株块根数、单株块根重和小区鲜块根产量分别较对照增加了17.79%、14.61%、14.28%、76.14%和76.09%;地膜覆盖后木薯的淀粉含量较对照降低2%,但相同面积木薯的淀粉产量较对照增加65.35%.[结论]地膜覆盖是木薯节本增效栽培的有效措施,其增产效应主要是通过促进木薯前中期茎叶生长、提高块根直径和

  8. Effect of Starch Sources on the Release Rates of Herbicides Encapsulated

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The effects of starch sources on the behaviors of starch matrices and on the rates of herbicides released from the matrices were studied for slow release. The starches considered include native corn starch, wheat starch, potato starch and cassava starch. The matrices were prepared through encapsulating 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic or 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acids as model herbicides with hot-gelatinized starch pastes. The encapsulation was evaluated in terms of herbicide content, swellability, encapsulation efficiency, and release rate. The results show that starch sources play an important role on the matrix behaviors and on release rates. The rate of 2,4-D released follows the order: wheat starch < potato starch < corn starch < cassava starch. And for the rate of 2,4,5-T, this order is nearly the same only with an exception that the late two kinds of starch are similar. It is also demonstrated that herbicides with different water solubility show different release rates, no matter what type of starch is used as the matrices.

  9. Fact sheet: Ethanol from corn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-31

    This fact sheet is intended to provide an overview of the advantages of ethanol from corn, emphasizing ethanol`s contribution to environmental protection and sustainable agriculture. Ethanol, an alternative fuel used as an octane enhancer is produced through the conversion of starch to sugars by enzymes, and fermentation of these sugars to ethanol by yeast. The production process may involve wet milling or dry milling. Both these processes produce valuable by-products, in addition to ethanol and carbon dioxide. Ethanol contains about 32,000 BTU per litre. It is commonly believed that using state-of-the-art corn farming and corn processing processes, the amount of energy contained in ethanol and its by-products would be more than twice the energy required to grow and process corn into ethanol. Ethanol represents the third largest market for Ontario corn, after direct use as animal feed and wet milling for starch, corn sweetener and corn oil. The environmental consequences of using ethanol are very significant. It is estimated that a 10 per cent ethanol blend in gasoline would result in a 25 to 30 per cent decrease in carbon monoxide emissions, a 6 to 10 per cent decrease in net carbon dioxide, a slight increase in nitrous oxide emissions which, however, would still result in an overall decrease in ozone formation, since the significant reduction in carbon monoxide emissions would compensate for any slight increase in nitrous oxide. Volatile organic compounds emission would also decrease by about 7 per cent with a 10 per cent ethanol blend. High level blends could reduce VOCs production by as much as 30 per cent. 7 refs.

  10. Characterization of new sources of derivative starches as wall materials of essential oil by spray drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iñigo Verdalet-Guzmán

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Starch derivatives of taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott and rice were characterized as wall materials of orange oil (d-limonene by spray drying. Native starches were initially hydrolyzed with HCl and then esterified. Succinylated starches were modified using a conventional method in a slurry and were extruded; whereas, the phosphorylated starches were modified using the extrusion process. Viscosity and solubility of starches reduced after acid hydrolysis, derivatization, and extrusion. The particle size of the wall materials ranged between 20.05 and 31.81 µm. The encapsulation efficiency of the phosphorylated taro, rice, and waxy corn starches was 96.9, 96.8 and 97.1% respectively, and 98.6, 98.1, and 98.8% for succynilated taro, rice, and waxy corn starches, respectively. Starch derivatives of taro and rice could potentially be used as wall materials of orange oil d-limonene.

  11. Starch Accumulation and Enzyme Activities Associated with Starch Synthesis in Maize Kernels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hai-yan; DONG Shu-ting; GAO Rong-qi; SUN Qing-quan

    2007-01-01

    The filling rate and the starch accumulation in developing maize kernel were analyzed. The changes of enzyme activities associated with sucrose metabolism and starch biosynthesis were investigated. The purpose is to discuss the enzymatic mechanisms responsible for starch synthesis. Two types of maize cultivars (Zea mays), high starch maize (Feiyu 3) and normal maize (Yuyu 22), were grown in a corn field. The factors involved in starch synthesis were performed during the growth period. The kernel filling rate, the sucrose content, the starch accumulating rates and the activities of SS (sucrose synthase), GBSS (granule-bound starch synthase), SBE (starch branching enzyme) of Feiyu 3, which has high starch content, were significantly higher than those of Yuyu 22, which has low starch content, after 10 DAP (days after pollination).Correlation analysis indicated that ADPGPPase (ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase) and DBE (starch debranching enzyme)were not correlated with the starch accumulating rates and the kernel filling rate, but the SS activity at the middle and late period were highly significantly correlated with the starch accumulating rates and the kernel filling rate. The GBSS activity was highly significantly correlated with the amylose accumulating rate, but not correlated with the kernel filling rate. The SBE activity was highly significantly correlated with the amylopectin accumulating rate and the kernel filling rate. It was not ADPGPPase and DBE, but SS was the rate-limiting factor of starch biosynthesis in developing maize kernels. GBSS had an important effect on amylose accumulation, and SBE had a significant effect on amylopectin accumulation.

  12. The Rheological Property of Potato Starch Adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjun Liu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was to use potato starch in the production of environmentally sound adhesives. ‘Three-formaldehyde glue’ pollutes the environment and harms to human health strongly, which widely used for wood-based panels preparation. Environment-friendly potato starch adhesives were prepared using method of oxidation-gelatinization, insteading of the three formaldehyde glue. The effects of the quality ratio of starch and water, temperature and shear rate on the apparent viscosity of the adhesive were studied. The rheological eigenvalue of apparent viscosity was studied through nonlinear regression. The results showed that the apparent viscosity of potato starch adhesives decreased with the increasing of temperature; the apparent viscosity decreased slowly with the increasing of rotor speed; the phenomenon of shear thinning appeared within potato starch adhesives which was pseudo-plastic fluids. Potato starch adhesives with characteristics of non-toxic, no smell and pollution could be applied in interior and upscale packaging.

  13. Structure stabilization in starch-quinoa bran doughs: The role of water availability and gelatinization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Föste, Maike; Jekle, Mario; Becker, Thomas

    2017-10-15

    Bran is a promising ingredient for nutritional fortification in starch-based dough systems. However its incorporation is a technological challenge favoring a shift in dough functionality. The objective of this study was to elucidate the impact of bran on baking performance independent of dough firmness and start of gelatinization. Therefore, corn starch was replaced by quinoa bran (10% to 50%) and water addition (80-110g/100g flour) was standardized on a fixed complex shear modulus (G*) and start of gelatinization (TOnset) based on a corn starch reference dough. A destabilizing effect by bran particles was counteracted in corn starch dough by adjusting the water content up to 110 g/100g flour. Moreover, a negative correlation between TOnset and loaf volume was determined (r=- 0.9042), thus an early TOnset should be aspired in order to prevent gas release and to stabilize corn starch- quinoa bran dough. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Sensory properties determined by starch type in white sauces: effects of freeze/thaw and hydrocolloid addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arocas, A; Sanz, T; Salvador, A; Varela, P; Fiszman, S M

    2010-03-01

    The effect of 5 types of starch (rice, potato, waxy corn, corn, and modified waxy corn) on the sensory properties of white sauces was studied. A comparative study was also made of variations resulting from freezing/thawing and effect of replacing 0.15% starch with 2 nonstarchy hydrocolloids, xanthan gum (XG), or locust bean gum (LBG) in samples to be frozen. The sensory properties were studied through descriptive analysis by a panel of 10 trained judges. Principal components analysis and cluster analysis were used to group each of the samples according to the scores for consistency, resilience, graininess, thickness, heterogeneity, creaminess, and mouth coating, the sensory attributes which were chosen to define the sauces under study. Significant differences were found between the different starches employed: the rice and modified starches presented similar behavior to each other, as did the potato starch and corn starch, while the waxy starch sauce stood apart from the rest because of its resilience. The freeze/thaw cycle had the greatest effect on the corn-starch sauce, increasing its graininess and heterogeneity values owing to retrogradation. Adding XG or LBG to the sauces subjected to a period of freezing/thawing did not have a significant effect on the sensory attributes of the reheated sauces made with rice, potato, or waxy or modified starch, but lower graininess and heterogeneity values were observed in the sauce made with corn starch.

  15. Characterization of starch from two ecotypes of andean achira roots (Canna edulis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisneros, Fausto H; Zevillanos, Roberto; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis

    2009-08-26

    Starches from two ecotypes of achira roots (Canna edulis Ker-Gawler) were characterized and compared to commercial potato and corn starches. This included scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of starch granules and amylose content determination of starch. Starch solutions or gels were tested by rotational viscometry, Rapid Visco Analyzer (RVA), and texture analysis. Some starch samples were subjected to various treatments: pH reduction, autoclaving at high temperature, and high shear before testing by rotational viscometry. Achira starch showed some unusual properties, such as very large oblong granules (approximately 45-52 microm major axis and approximately 33-34 microm minor axis) and relatively high amylose content (approximately 33-39%). The San Gaban achira ecotype formed high-consistency gels upon cooling, both in RVA study (5% starch) and in texture analysis (8% starch), compared to other starch gels and also exhibited higher thermal resistance to viscosity breakdown.

  16. Comparative study on properties of oat starch and commonly used starches%燕麦淀粉与常见淀粉的性质对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张杰; 何义萍; 韩小贤; 赵亚娟; 郑学玲

    2012-01-01

    以常见市售淀粉(小麦淀粉、玉米淀粉、土豆淀粉)为参比,研究了燕麦淀粉的透明度、凝沉性、冻融稳定性、溶解度、膨润力和糊化特性.结果表明:燕麦淀粉的透明度、凝沉性、冻融稳定性比小麦淀粉、玉米淀粉和土豆淀粉都要差.燕麦淀粉的溶解度在4种淀粉中是最高的,而膨润力是最低的.燕麦淀粉的糊化特性与小麦淀粉较接近.%The commonly used starches (wheat starch, corn starch and potato starch ) were used as compare objects to study the properties of oat starch such as light transmittance, retrogradation, freezing-thawing stability, solubility, swelling power and pasting property. The results indicated that oat starch had poorer light transmittance, retrogradation and freezing-thawing stability than that of wheat starch, corn starch and potato starch. Oat starch had the highest solubility and lowest swelling power in the four starches. The pasting property of oat starch was closer to wheat starch.

  17. Acid hydrolysis of native and annealed starches and branch-structure of their Naegeli dextrins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Yuta; Wang, Ya-Jane

    2003-11-21

    Eight commercial starches, including common corn, waxy corn, wheat, tapioca, potato, Hylon V, Hylon VII, and mung bean starch, were annealed by a multiple-step process, and their gelatinization characteristics were determined. Annealed starches had higher gelatinization temperatures, reduced gelatinization ranges, and increased gelatinization enthalpies than their native starches. The annealed starches with the highest gelatinization enthalpies were subjected to acid hydrolysis with 15.3% H2SO4, and Naegeli dextrins were prepared after 10 days' hydrolysis. Annealing increased the acid susceptibility of native starches in the first (rapid) and the second (slow) phases with potato starch showing the greatest and high amylose starches showing the least changes. Starches with a larger shift in onset gelatinization temperature also displayed a greater percent hydrolysis. The increase in susceptibility to acid hydrolysis was proposed to result from defective and porous structures that resulted after annealing. Although annealing perfected the crystalline structure, it also produced void space, which led to porous structures and possible starch granule defects. The molecular size distribution and chain length distribution of Naegeli dextrins of annealed and native starches were analyzed. The reorganization of the starch molecule during annealing occurred mainly within the crystalline lamellae. Imperfect double helices in the crystalline lamellae improved after annealing, and the branch linkages at the imperfect double helices became protected by the improved crystalline structure. Therefore, more long chains were observed in the Naegeli dextrins of annealed starches than in native starches.

  18. 非淀粉多糖酶对玉米加工副产品氨基酸及养分真代谢率的影响%Non-Starch Polysaccharide-Degrading Enzymes: Effects on True Amino Acid and Nutrient Metabolic Rates of Corn By-Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林谦; 王照群; 蒋桂韬; 王向荣; 张旭; 张建华; 戴求仲

    2013-01-01

    To study the effects of non-starch polysaccharide-degrading enzymes on true amino acid and nutrient metabolic rates of corn by-products,a complete randomized design and three metabolic test periods had been taken,and 56 healthy adult yellow-feathered roosters with an average body weight of (2.5 ± 0.2) kg were randomly divided into 7 groups with 8 replicates in each group and 1 rooster in each replicate.The roosters were force-fed with a single raw material and the material with non-starch polysaccharide-degrading enzymes to determine the true amino acid metabolic rates of corn and its by-products before and after the enzyme addition.Results showed that before the enzyme addition,the average true amino acid metabolic rate of corn was the highest,and the lowest one was germ (no spray,from Jining).After the enzyme was added,the true amino acid metabolic rates of corn by-products were between 70.77% to 99.29%,and the enzyme increased the true amino acid metabolic rates of corn by-products by 0.96% to 3.52%.The true metabolic rates of many amino acids in corn and corn gluten meal [crude protein (CP) 50% and CP 55%] were significantly increased by the supplementation of the enzyme (P < 0.05).And the effective nutrient improvement values (ENIV) of true available amino acid contents of corn by-products were in the range of 0.03 to 1.87 g/kg,the highest was corn gluten meal (CP 55%),and the lowest one was corn fiber feed.The supplementation of the enzyme can improve the metabolic rates of true CP,dry matter (DM) and ether extract (EE) of varieties of corn by-products (P > 0.05),and for some by-products it could significantly increase the true metabolic rates of DM and CP (P < 0.05).The enzyme could also significantly enhance the true crude fiber (CF) metabolic rate of all corn by-products (P < 0.05).Generally speaking,complex non-starch polysaccharide-degrading enzymes can improve the true amino acid and nutrient metabolic rates of corn and its by

  19. Liquefaction, saccharification, and fermentation of ammoniated corn to ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Frank; Kim, Tae Hyun; Abbas, Charles A; Hicks, Kevin B

    2008-01-01

    Treatment of whole corn kernels with anhydrous ammonia gas has been proposed as a way to facilitate the separation of nonfermentable coproducts before fermentation of the starch to ethanol, but the fermentability of ammoniated corn has not been thoroughly investigated. Also, it is intended that the added ammonia nitrogen in ammonia treated corn (approximately 1 g per kg corn) may satisfy the yeast nutritional requirement for free amino nitrogen (FAN). In this study, procedures for ammoniation, liquefaction, saccharification, and fermentation at two scales (12-L and 50-mL) were used to determine the fermentation rate, final ethanol concentration, and ethanol yield from starch in ammoniated or nonammoniated corn. The maximum achievable ethanol concentration at 50 h fermentation time was lower with ammoniated corn than with nonammoniated corn. The extra nitrogen in ammoniated corn satisfied some of the yeast requirements for FAN, thereby reducing the requirement for corn steep liquor. Based upon these results, ammoniation of corn does not appear to have a positive impact on the fermentability of corn to ethanol. Ammoniation may still be cost effective, if the advantages in terms of improved separations outweigh the disadvantages in terms of decreased fermentability.

  20. Optimisation of the reaction conditions for the production of cross-linked starch with high resistant starch content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahraman, Kevser; Koksel, Hamit; Ng, Perry K W

    2015-05-01

    The optimum reaction conditions (temperature and pH) for the preparation of cross-linked (CL) corn and wheat starches with maximum resistant starch (RS) content were investigated by using response surface methodology (RSM). According to the preliminary results, five levels were selected for reaction temperature (38-70 °C) and pH (10-12) in the main study. RS contents of the CL corn and wheat starch samples increased with increasing temperature and pH, and pH had a greater influence on RS content than had temperature. The maximum RS content (with a maximum p value of 0.4%) was obtained in wheat starch cross-linked at 38 °C and pH 12. In the case of CL corn starch, the optimum condition was 70 °C and pH 12. CL corn and wheat starch samples were also produced separately under the optimum conditions and their RS contents were 80.4% and 83.9%, respectively. These results were also in agreement with the values predicted by RSM.

  1. Physicochemical properties and starch digestibility of whole grain sorghums, millet, quinoa and amaranth flours, as affected by starch and non-starch constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srichuwong, Sathaporn; Curti, Delphine; Austin, Sean; King, Roberto; Lamothe, Lisa; Gloria-Hernandez, Hugo

    2017-10-15

    Minor grains such as sorghum, millet, quinoa and amaranth can be alternatives to wheat and corn as ingredients for whole grain and gluten-free products. In this study, influences of starch structures and other grain constituents on physicochemical properties and starch digestibility of whole flours made from these grains were investigated. Starches were classified into two groups according to their amylopectin branch chain-length: (i) quinoa, amaranth, wheat (shorter chains); and (ii) sorghum, millet, corn (longer chains). Such amylopectin features and amylose content contributed to the differences in thermal and pasting properties as well as starch digestibility of the flours. Non-starch constituents had additional impacts; proteins delayed starch gelatinization and pasting, especially in sorghum flours, and high levels of soluble fibre retarded starch retrogradation in wheat, quinoa and amaranth flours. Enzymatic hydrolysis of starch was restricted by the presence of associated protein matrix and enzyme inhibitors, but accelerated by endogenous amylolytic enzymes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Levels of replacing corn by cassava starch on performance and carcass characteristics of bulls finished in feedlot / Substituição do milho pelo resíduo da fecularia de mandioca no desempenho e nas características de carcaça de bovinos terminados em confinamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liandra Maria Abaker Bertipaglia

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This work was carried out to study the effects of replacing corn by different levels of cassava starch (0; 12.5; 22.8 and 32.7% on performance and carcass characteristics of bulls finished in feedlot. Thirtytwo crossbred bulls (½ Aberdeen Angus vs. ½ Nellore with 18 months old and 380 + 24 kg live weight were used in a completely randomized experimental design with four treatments and eight replications. The experiment was realized during 56 days with 14 days for adaptation. The complete diets [roughage (cottonseed hulls + concentrate (corn, soybean meal and cassava starch] were given at 8 am and at 4 pm to bulls. It was analyzed the initial weight (IW, final weight (FW, average daily gain (ADG, dry matter intake (DMI, feed conversion (FC, hot carcass dressing (HCD, fat thickness (FAT, Longissimus muscle area (LMA, leg length (LL and cushion thickness (CT. The IW, FW, ADG, FC, HCW, HCD, FT, LMA, LL and CT did not present difference (P > 0.05 among levels of replacing corn by cassava starch. The results obtained on performance and carcass traits using cassava starch by-products as a replacement for corn can be considered satisfactory.Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o efeito do nível de substituição (0; 12,5; 22,8 e 32,7% do milho pelo resíduo de fecularia de mandioca sobre o desempenho e características de carcaça de bovinos em confinamento. Trinta e dois machos inteiros mestiços (½ Aberdeen Angus vs. ½ Nelore com 18 meses de idade e 380 + 24 kg de peso vivo foram utilizados em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos e oito repetições. O experimento foi desenvolvido durante 56 dias com 14 dias de adaptação. As rações completas [volumoso (casca de algodão + concentrado (milho, farelo de soja e resíduo desidratado de fecularia de mandioca] foram fornecidas às 8 h e 16 h aos animais. Foi analisado o peso inicial (PI, peso final (PF ganho médio diário (GMD, ingestão de matéria seca

  3. Estabilidade de géis de amido de milho normal, ceroso e com alto teor de amilose adicionados de gomas guar e xantana durante os processos de congelamento e descongelamento Freeze-thaw stability of normal, waxy and high amylose corn starch gels with added guar and xanthan gums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Hart Weber

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi estudar os efeitos das gomas guar e xantana sobre a estabilidade dos géis de amido de milho normal, ceroso e com alto teor de amilose submetidos aos processos de congelamento e descongelamento. Os géis desses amidos, com concentração total de sólidos de 10% e adicionados das gomas (0,15; 0,50; 0,85 e 1%, foram submetidos a 5 ciclos de congelamento (20 horas a -18 °C e descongelamento (4 horas a 25 °C, com exceção dos géis com alto teor de amilose, que foram submetidos a apenas 1 ciclo, devido à perda da estrutura de gel. A determinação da sinérese (porcentagem de água liberada foi realizada pela diferença entre a massa inicial e a massa final das amostras. O gel de amido de milho normal liberou 74,45% de água, sendo que a adição de 1% da goma xantana reduziu significativamente a sinérese para 66,43%. A adição de 0,85 e 1% da goma xantana também reduziu a sinérese dos géis de amido ceroso. O menor teor de sinérese foi obtido com a utilização de 1% de goma xantana ao gel de amido de milho com alto teor de amilose, evidenciando a ação crioprotetora desta goma.The objective of the present work was to study the effects of guar and xanthan gums on the stability of normal, waxy and high amylose corn starch gels, submitted to freeze-thaw processes. The gels of these starches with a total solids content of 10% and added gums (0.15;0.50;0.85and1%, were submitted to 5 freezing (20 hours, -18 °C and thawing (4 hours, 25 °C cycles, with exception of the high amylose gels that were submitted to only 1 cycle. Syneresis (% water released was determined by the difference between the initial and final masses of the samples. The normal corn starch gel released 74.45% water and the addition of 1% xanthan gum significantly reduced syneresis to 66.43%. The incorporation of 0.85 and 1% xanthan gum also reduced syneresis of waxy starch gels. The lowest level of syneresis was reached with the use of 1

  4. Quantificação de açúcares solúveis totais, açúcares redutores e amido nos grãos verdes de cultivares de milho na colheita Quantification of total soluble sugars, reducing sugars and starch in immature kernels of corn cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Fátima Caniato

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar os teores de açúcares solúveis totais (AST, açúcares redutores (AR e amido em nove cultivares de milho colhidos no estádio verde, uma vez que estes influenciam diretamente o sabor, o aroma e a aceitação do consumidor. O experimento foi conduzido em Ponte Nova, MG, no ano agrícola 2002/2003. Para a determinação das características, foi retirada uma amostra de três espigas de cada unidade experimental. O ponto de colheita foi identificado por método empírico, quando o estilo-estigma se desprendia da espiga com facilidade. As cultivares apresentaram umidades diferentes no momento da colheita, variando de 56 a 64%. Não foi detectada diferença entre as cultivares quanto aos teores de AR, porém, P3232 e AG4051 apresentaram boa relação entre AR e AST, destacando-se para esta finalidade.Total soluble sugars (TSS, reducing sugars (RS, moisture and starch directly influence flavor and consumption. In this work, TSS, RS and starch were determined at harvest in young kernels of nine corn cultivars. The experiment was carried out in Ponte Nova, MG, Brazil. To determine chemical characters of young kernels a sample was obtained of three cobs from each experimental plot. Corn ears were harvested using an empirical method, when the silk was loose from the ear. Moisture varied among samples of different cultivars at harvest. Moisture content ranged from 56 to 64%. There were no differences among cultivars regarding RS. However, cultivars P3232 and AG4051 showed good RS to TSS ratio, being adequate for fresh consumption.

  5. Resistant starches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, D J; Kendall, C W

    2000-03-01

    Initially, it was hoped that resistant starches (ie, starches that enter the colon) would have clear advantages in the reduction of colon cancer risk and possibly the treatment of ulcerative colitis. Recent studies have confirmed the ability of resistant starch to increase fecal bulk, to increase the molar ratio of butyrate in relation to other short-chain fatty acids, and to dilute fecal bile acids. However, reduction in fecal ammonia, phenols, and N-nitroso compounds have not been achieved. At this point the picture from the standpoint of colon cancer risk reduction is not clear. Nevertheless, there is a fraction of what has been termed resistant starch (RS1), which enters the colon and acts as slowly digested, or lente, carbohydrate. Foods in this class are low glycemic index and have been shown to reduce the risk of chronic disease. They have been associated with systemic physiologic effects such as reduced postprandial insulin levels and higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Consumption of low glycemic index foods has been shown to be related to a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes has in turn been related to a higher risk of colon cancer, especially colon cancer deaths. If carbohydrate has a protective role in colon cancer prevention, it may lie in the systemic effects of low glycemic index foods. The colonic advantages of different carbohydrates, therefore, remain to be documented. However, there is reason for optimism about the possible health advantages of so-called resistant starches that are slowly digested in the small intestine.

  6. Corn fiber hulls as a food additive or animal feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle E.; Cecava, Michael J.; Doane, Perry H.

    2010-12-21

    The present invention provides a novel animal feed or food additive that may be made from thermochemically hydrolyzed, solvent-extracted corn fiber hulls. The animal feed or food additive may be made, for instance, by thermochemically treating corn fiber hulls to hydrolyze and solubilize the hemicellulose and starch present in the corn fiber hulls to oligosaccharides. The residue may be extracted with a solvent to separate the oil from the corn fiber, leaving a solid residue that may be prepared, for instance by aggolmerating, and sold as a food additive or an animal feed.

  7. Effects of Plastizers on the Structure and Properties of Starch-Clay Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodegradable nanocomposites were successfully fabricated from corn starch and montmorillonite (MMT) nanoclays by melt extrusion processing. The structure and morphology of the nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and film propertie...

  8. Characterisation, in vitro digestibility and expected glycemic index of commercial starches as uncooked ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Annalisa; Mackie, Alan; Farina, Federica; Aponte, Maria; Sarghini, Fabrizio; Masi, Paolo

    2016-12-01

    In this study native starches as ingredients (corn, rice, wheat, tapioca and potato) were characterized for microstructure, physicochemical, functional and thermal properties, in vitro digestibility and glycemic index. There was a significant variation in the granule shape and size distribution of the starches. Particle size monomodal (corn, tapioca, potato) and bimodal (rice, wheat) distribution was observed amongst the starches. The potato starch showed the biggest size granules while the rice showed the smallest. The examined properties and nutritional characteristics of starches were significantly different. Thermal properties were studied using Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). DSC results showed that the transition temperatures (58.8-78.7 °C) and enthalpies of gelatinization (2.3-8.2 J/g) of the starches appeared to be greatly influenced by microstructure and chemical composition (e.g. resistant starch). Nutritional properties such as slowly digestible starch and expected glycemic index values followed the order: rice > wheat > tapioca > corn > potato. In particular, the highest resistant starch was recorded for potato starch.

  9. Unique features of several microbial α-amylases active on soluble and native starch

    OpenAIRE

    Sarian, Fean Davisunjaya

    2016-01-01

    Starch is the main energy store of major agricultural crops such as corn, potato, rice and wheat. Various amylase type enzymes are used to convert cooked starch to glucose that goes into bioethanol fermentation. Only a few amylase type enzymes have been described that can act on the starch granule itself. Granular starch has a complex crystalline structure that prevents most amylases to directly act on it. In this PhD thesis the action of several amylases on native granular starch was studied...

  10. 酶水解法制备玉米抗性淀粉的工艺设计研究%New Technology of Preparing Corn Resistant Starch by Enzymatic Hydrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于长伟

    2013-01-01

    Resistant starch is a very important function factor with good food-processing performance and also an important physiological functional food , which was perfect for people with Diabetes or Hyperglycemia. The functions of resistant starch is quickly realized and researched by academicians of medicine and food , while there is a promising market prospect. However , compared with the understanding of the physiological functions of resistant starch, there was no deep research in the mechanism of resistant starch formation, as well as preparation and quantitative analysis. In this article , the preparation of resistant starch with α-amylase and glucoamylase was mainly studied.%抗性淀粉是一种非常重要的功能因子,具有优良的食品加工性能和重要的生理功可成为糖尿病、高血糖等特殊人群的一种优良食品。抗性淀粉的功能很快得到医食学界的认识和重视,有非常良好的市场前景。但是相对于对抗性淀粉生理功能的了解,目前对抗性淀粉的形成机理、加工制备、定量分析等还缺乏深入的研究和了解。主要探讨α-淀粉酶和糖化酶酶解法制备抗性淀粉。

  11. quantification of starch physicochemical characteristics in a cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    18-24 hr and stored in dry plastic air tight containers at room temperature until ... maximum output of the total utilisable solid matter within the crop. ..... characteristics of starch based on their effect on ..... of adhesives and in the use of starch as a binder. The amylose .... poly(hydroxyester ether) composite materials. Polymer ...

  12. Domain C of thermostable α-amylase of Geobacillus thermoleovorans mediates raw starch adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Deepika; Satyanarayana, T

    2014-05-01

    The gene (1,542 bp) encoding thermostable Ca(2+)-independent and raw starch hydrolyzing α-amylase of the extremely thermophilic bacterium Geobacillus thermoleovorans encodes for a protein of 50 kDa (Gt-amyII) with 488 amino acids. The enzyme is optimally active at pH 7.0 and 60 °C with a t 1/2 of 19.4 h at 60 and 4 h at 70 °C. Gt-amyII hydrolyses corn and tapioca raw starches efficiently and therefore finds application in starch saccharification at industrial sub-gelatinisation temperatures. The starch hydrolysis is facilitated following adsorption of the enzyme to starch at the C-terminal domain, as confirmed by the truncation analysis. The adsorption rate constant of Gt-amyII to raw corn starch is 37.6-fold greater than that for the C-terminus truncated enzyme (Gt-amyII-T). Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic analysis in terms of equilibrium parameter (K R) suggested that the adsorption of Gt-amyII to corn starch is more favourable than that of Gt-amyII-T. Thermodynamics of temperature inactivation indicated a decrease in thermostabilisation of Gt-amyII upon truncation of its C-terminus. The addition of raw corn starch increased t 1/2 of Gt-amyII, but it has no such effect on Gt-amyII-T. It can, therefore, be stated that Gt-amyII binds to raw corn starch via C-terminal region that contributes to its thermostability. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that starch binding region of Gt-amyII is, in fact, the non-catalytic domain C, and not the typical SBD of CBM families. The role of domain C in raw starch binding throws light on the evolutionary path of the known SBDs.

  13. Starch/fiber/poly(lactic acid) foam and compressed foam composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Composites of starch, fiber, and poly(lactic acid) (PLA) were made using a foam substrate formed by dehydrating starch or starch/fiber gels. PLA was infiltrated into the dry foam to provide better moisture resistance. Foam composites were compressed into plastics using force ranging from 4-76MPa. Te...

  14. Effect of Starch Sources and Protein Content on Extruded Aquaculture Feed Containing DDGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 3x3 completely randomized design was used to investigate the extrusion cooking and product characteristics of DDGS, protein levels, and various starch sources in a laboratory scale single screw extruder. Cassava, corn, and potato starches with varying levels of DDGS (20, 30, and 40% wb) were extru...

  15. Extruded foams prepared from high amylose starch with sodium stearate to form amylose inclusion complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starch foams were prepared from high amylose corn starch in the presence and absence of sodium stearate and PVOH to determine how the formation of amylose-sodium stearate inclusion complexes and the addition of PVOH would affect foam properties. Low extrusion temperatures were used, and X-ray diffra...

  16. The effect of thermomechanical treatment on starch breakdown and the consequences for process design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Einde, van den R.M.; Bolsius, A.; Soest, van J.J.G.; Janssen, L.P.B.M.; Goot, van der A.J.; Boom, R.M.

    2004-01-01

    Macromolecular degradation of starch by heating and shear forces was investigated using a newly developed shear cell. With this equipment, waxy corn starch was subjected to a variety of heat and shear treatments in order to find the key parameter determining the degree of macromolecular degradation.

  17. 糯玉米辛烯基琥珀酸淀粉酯糊性质的研究%Paste Properties of Octenyl Succinic Anhydride Modified Waxy Corn Starch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋晓燕; 李真; 谢慧玲

    2009-01-01

    The paste properties (e.g. , viscosity, paste clarity, retrogradation, freeze-thaw stability and digestibility) of waxy maize starch before and after oetenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) modification were investigated. The results showed that the starch derivatives had higher viscosities and paste clarity, lower retrogradation and digestibility, better freeze-thaw stability. The viscosities of the starches increased from 91.7 mPa·s to 2 013.3 mPa·s with the increase of DS from 0 to 0. 0185. The light transparency increased from 37.0 % to 90.4 % ; the water precipitation decreased from 4.0 mL to 0 mL at room temperature (25℃) for 720 h; during the fourth freeze-thaw cycle, no water discharged from the gels of OSA modified starch. The paste of OSA modified starch is shear-shinning, which should belong to pseudoplastic liquid. The experiment provided the reference of the application of OSA modified starches in food industry .%为了探讨辛烯基琥珀酸淀粉酯的应用特性,对糯玉米淀粉辛烯基琥珀酸酐(OSA)改性前后淀粉糊的黏度、透明度、凝沉性和消化特性进行了研究.结果表明:经过OSA改性之后,糯玉米淀粉糊的黏度、透明度、凝沉性和冻融稳定性得到显著改善,离体消化速度下降.当取代度由0增加至0.018 5时,淀粉糊的表观黏度由91.7 mPa·s增至2 013.3 mPa·s,透光率由37.0%提高到90.4%;25℃下静置720 h时析出水的体积由4.0 mL降低为0 mL;经过4次冻融循环后无水析出.糯玉米辛烯基琥珀酸淀粉酯具有剪切变稀现象,属于假塑性流体.

  18. Novel polymer blends with thermoplastic starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghizadeh, Ata

    A new class of polymers known as "bioplastics" has emerged and is expanding rapidly. This class consists of polymers that are either bio-based or biodegradable, or both. Among these, polysaccharides, namely starch, are of great interest for several reasons. By gelatinizing starch via plasticizers, it can be processed in the same way as thermoplastic polymers with conventional processing equipment. Hence, these bio-based and biodegradable plastics, with their low source and refinery costs, as well as relatively easy processability, have made them ideal candidates for incorporation into various current plastic products. Four different plasticizers have been chosen here for gelatinization of thermoplastic starch (TPS): glycerol, sorbitol, diglycerol and polyglycerol, with the latter two being used for the first time in such a process. Two methodological categories are used. The first involves a calorimetric method (Differential Scanning Calorimetry) as well as optical microscopy; these are "static" methods where no shear is applied A wide range of starch/water/plasticizer compositions were prepared to explore the gelatinization regime for each plasticizer. The onset and conclusion gelatinization temperatures for sorbitol and glycerol were found to be in the same vicinity, while diglycerol and polyglycerol showed significantly higher transition temperatures. The higher molecular weight and viscosity of polyglycerol allow this transition to occur at an even higher temperature than with diglycerol. This is due to the increase in molecular weight and viscosity of the two new plasticizers, as well as their significant decrease in water solubility. It is demonstrated that the water/plasticizer ratio has a pronounced effect on gelatinization temperatures. When plasticizer content was held constant and water content was increased, it was found that the gelatinization temperature decreased for all the plasticizers. Meanwhile, when the water content was held constant and the

  19. Heat expanded starch-based compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Gregory M; Klamczynski, Artur K; Holtman, Kevin M; Shey, Justin; Chiou, Bor-Sen; Berrios, Jose; Wood, Delilah; Orts, William J; Imam, Syed H

    2007-05-16

    A heat expansion process similar to that used for expanded bead polystyrene was used to expand starch-based compositions. Foam beads made by solvent extraction had the appearance of polystyrene beads but did not expand when heated due to an open-cell structure. Nonporous beads, pellets, or particles were made by extrusion or by drying and milling cooked starch slurries. The samples expanded into a low-density foam by heating 190-210 degrees C for more than 20 s at ambient pressures. Formulations containing starch (50-85%), sorbitol (5-15%), glycerol (4-12%), ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVAL, 5-15%), and water (10-20%) were studied. The bulk density was negatively correlated to sorbitol, glycerol, and water content. Increasing the EVAL content increased the bulk density, especially at concentrations higher than 15%. Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVAL) increased the bulk density more than EVAL. The bulk density was lowest in samples made of wheat and potato starch as compared to corn starch. The expansion temperature for the starch pellets decreased more than 20 degrees C as the moisture content was increased from 10 to 25%. The addition of EVAL in the formulations decreased the equilibrium moisture content of the foam and reduced the water absorption during a 1 h soaking period.

  20. Características físicas y químicas de dos razas de maíz azul: morfología del almidón Physical and chemical characteristics of blue corn from two races: starch morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Agama-Acevedo

    2011-06-01

    , density and grain hardness as well as chemical composition. Although these variables are defined by genetic factors, they also depend on farming practices, climatic conditions and soil type. The physical characteristics of corn grain are related to production and yield aspects, while its chemical composition and starch granules morphology, help to define the nutritional quality and its use in food processing. The objective of this study was to determine the physical and chemical properties of blue corn grain from two races and morphologically characterize the starch granules of the endosperm. The study was conducted at the Centre for Development of Biotic Products of the National Polytechnic Institute and the Valley of Mexico Experimental Station of the National Forestry, Agriculture and Livestock Research Institute. The samples were collected in the field with the producers, six Tabloncillo race materials at locations in Sinaloa and nine from Chalqueño race at Tlaxcala and Mexico State locations. Tabloncillo corn has small grains, higher hardness and damaged starch, and lowest levels of anthocyanins than Chalqueño corn has. The starch amount in both races was from 0.78 to 0.89 g g-1 of dry sample, and they are classified as normal because of their amylose content. The starch granules were spherical with smooth surface and a bimodal distribution (small granules were 2-8 µm and large granules were 16-18 µm. The main differences between the two races were their grain size, floating rate and anthocyanin content.

  1. Aroma interactions with starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anders Dysted

    Starches are used to enhance aroma perception in low-fat foods. Aroma compounds can bind physically to the starch in grooves on the surface or they can form complexes inside amylose helices. This study has been divided into two parts: one part regarding binding of aromas to starches and their aroma......-release, and another part regarding stimulation of a fungal secretome using different carbohydrates. In the first part, nine aromas and one aroma-mixture were mixed with nine different starches, including genetically modified starches. The objective of this sub-project was to bind aromas to the starches to 15 weight......-percent. Aroma binding was tested on both amorphous starches and on native starch granules. A series of aldehydes and alcohols were also tested for binding to the starches. The aromas with the highest volatility were positively retained by starch, whereas for aromas with a lower volatility the starch had...

  2. Fabrication and characterization of size-controlled starch-based nanoparticles as hydrophobic drug carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Fei; Gao, Chunmei; Liu, Mingzhu

    2013-10-01

    Acetylated corn starch was successfully synthesized and optimized by the reaction of native corn starch with acetic anhydride and acetic acid in the presence of sulfuric acid as a catalyst. The optimal degree of substitution of 2.85 was obtained. Starch-based nanoparticles were fabricated by a simple and novel nanoprecipitation procedure, by the dropwise addition of water to acetone solution of acetylated starch under stirring. Fourier transform infrared spectrometry showed that acetylated starch had some new bands at 1750, 1375 and 1240 cm(-1) while acetylated starch nanoparticles presented the identical peaks as the drug-loaded acetylated starch nanoparticles and the acetylated starch. Wide angle X-ray diffraction indicated that A-type pattern of native starch was completely transformed into the V-type pattern of Acetylated starch and starch-based nanoparticles show the similar type pattern with the acetylated starch. The scanning electron microscopy showed that the different sizes of pores formed on the acetylated starch granules were utterly converted into the uniform-sized spherical nanoparticles after the nanoprecipitation. The encapsulation efficiency and diameter of nanoparticle can be adjusted by the degree of substitution, the volume ratio of nonsolvent to solvent and the weight ratio of acetylated starch to drug. It was also depicted that the release behaviors of drug-loaded nanoparticles depend on the size of nanoparticles and the degree of substitution of the acetylated starch. Release studies prove that the starch-based nanoparticles with uniform size can be used for the encapsulation of hydrophobic drug and attained the sustained and controllable drug release carriers.

  3. Effect of cattle age, forage level, and corn processing on diet digestibility and feedlot performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorocica-Buenfil, M A; Loerch, S C

    2005-03-01

    Three experiments were conducted to determine the effects of cattle age and dietary forage level on the utilization of corn fed whole or ground to feedlot cattle. In Exp. 1, 16 steers were used to investigate the effects of cattle age and corn processing on diet digestibility. Two cattle age categories were evaluated (weanling [254 +/- 20 kg BW] and yearling [477 +/- 29 kg BW]; eight steers per group), and corn was fed either ground or whole to each cattle age category. Cattle age and corn processing did not affect (P > 0.10) diet digestibility of DM, OM, starch, CP, NDF or ADF, and no interactions (P > 0.10) between these two factors were detected. In Exp. 2, the effects of forage level and corn processing on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics were evaluated. One hundred eighty steers (310 +/- 40 kg BW) were allotted to 24 pens, and were fed one of the following diets: high-forage (18.2% corn silage) cracked corn (HFCC); high-forage shifting corn (whole corn for the first half of the trial, then cracked corn until harvest; HFSC); high-forage whole corn (HFWC); low-forage (5.2% corn silage) cracked corn (LFCC); low-forage shifting corn (LFSC); and low-forage whole corn (LFWC). For the high-forage diets, steers fed cracked corn had 7% greater DMI than those fed whole corn, whereas for the low-forage diets, grain processing did not affect DMI (interaction; P = 0.02). No interactions (P > 0.10) between forage level and corn processing were found for ADG and G:F. Total trial ADG and G:F, and percentage of carcasses grading USDA Choice, and carcass yield grade were not affected (P > 0.10) by corn processing. Cattle with fewer days on feed grew faster and more efficiently when cracked corn was fed, whereas cattle with longer days on feed had greater ADG and G:F when corn was fed whole (interaction; P 0.10) between forage level and corn processing were detected for starch digestibility. Forage level and corn processing (grinding) did not affect (P > 0

  4. Effect of the Extender on Form and Structure of the Thermoplastic Starch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA ZuFu; WANG QingNing; YU ShuRong; SONG YanQing; YE QiZhi; WANG JiHong

    2001-01-01

    @@ The thermoplastic starch is a complete biodegradable plastic materials, in the fullstarch plastic the thermoplastic starch attained amount to 90% or higher. For the improve on machine properties, general added a extender of 5-10% according to the process method and/or claim of the use properties, the process and use properties of full-starch depend on a kind of the extender to a certainly extent1 As a type of polysaccharide compound, the starch contained a great amount of the polar group-hydroxyl (-OH), These hydroxyl on the chain bounded chain and chain closely together via association of the hydrogen bond, the chain cannot free revolve and twist, so it has not the thermoplasicity. But through thermoplastic denaturation of the starch, the plasticity agent breaked associated of the hydrogen bond between chain and chain, the starch chain may be freely revolved or tensional formation when is heated or forced. So it's plasticity2,3

  5. Effects of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] crude extracts on starch digestibility, Estimated Glycemic Index (EGI), and Resistant Starch (Rs) contents of porridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemlioglu-Austin, Dilek; Turner, Nancy D; McDonough, Cassandra M; Rooney, Lloyd W

    2012-09-17

    Bran extracts (70% aqueous acetone) of specialty sorghum varieties (tannin, black, and black with tannin) were used to investigate the effects of sorghum phenolic compounds on starch digestibility, Estimated Glycemic Index (EGI), and Resistant Starch (RS) of porridges made with normal corn starch, enzyme resistant high amylose corn starch, and ground whole sorghum flours. Porridges were cooked with bran extracts in a Rapid Visco-analyser (RVA). The cooking trials indicated that bran extracts of phenolic-rich sorghum varieties significantly reduced EGI, and increased RS contents of porridges. Thus, there could be potential health benefits associated with the incorporation of phenolic-rich sorghum bran extracts into foods to slow starch digestion and increase RS content.

  6. Effects of Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench] Crude Extracts on Starch Digestibility, Estimated Glycemic Index (EGI, and Resistant Starch (RS Contents of Porridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Lemlioglu-Austin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bran extracts (70% aqueous acetone of specialty sorghum varieties (tannin, black, and black with tannin were used to investigate the effects of sorghum phenolic compounds on starch digestibility, Estimated Glycemic Index (EGI, and Resistant Starch (RS of porridges made with normal corn starch, enzyme resistant high amylose corn starch, and ground whole sorghum flours. Porridges were cooked with bran extracts in a Rapid Visco-analyser (RVA. The cooking trials indicated that bran extracts of phenolic-rich sorghum varieties significantly reduced EGI, and increased RS contents of porridges. Thus, there could be potential health benefits associated with the incorporation of phenolic-rich sorghum bran extracts into foods to slow starch digestion and increase RS content.

  7. 秸秆腐熟剂在全膜双垄沟播玉米栽培中的应用效果%Application Effect of Straw Decomposition Agent in Corn Ditch Sowing in Double Ridge Mulched With Plastic Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘淑琴; 何宝林

    2012-01-01

      Effects of straw decomposition agent on yield and soil nutrient of corn ditch sowing in double ridge mulched with plastic films has been observed in the experiment of Zhuanglang county . The results showed that the application of straw returning combined application of straw reminder preservatives can effectively increase the available nutrient content of soil organic matter and nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, etc., the yield could reach 12 537.9 kg/hm2 and 10.6% more than that control.%  在庄浪县旱作区全膜双垄沟播条件下,试验观察了秸秆还田施用秸秆腐熟剂对玉米产量及土壤养分的影响,结果表明,秸秆还田配施秸秆腐熟剂能有效提高土壤有机质及氮、磷、钾等速效养分的含量,玉米平均产量可达12537.9 kg/hm2,较对照增产10.6%

  8. An applied investigation of corn-based distillers dried grains with solubles in the production of natural fiber-plastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Hugo Eudosio

    The main objective of this research was to examine uses for distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), a coproduct of ethanol production plant, in the fiber-reinforced plastic composites industry. Initially the effort intended to take advantage of the DDGS components, using chemical reactions, to produce coupling agents to improve the physical properties of the composite. Four different chemicals plus water were used to convert proteins into soluble amino acids. The results were not as expected, and appeared to show an early pyrolysis of DDGS components. This may be due to regeneration of proteins when pH of solutions is neutralized. Procedures were then investigated to utilize DDGS for different markets. Considering that oils and proteins of DDGS can thermally decompose, it seemed important to separate the major components and work with DDGS fiber alone. A procedure to extract oil from DDGS using ethanol and then to hydrolyze proteins with ethanol diluted with water, acid and sodium sulfite, was developed. The resulting DDGS fiber or residual material, with a low content of oil and proteins, was used as filler in a propylene matrix with a lubricant and coupling agent to make natural fiber plastic composites (NFPC). Composites containing wood flour (WPC) were prepared simultaneously with those of DDGS fiber to compare tensile properties and fracture surfaces of the specimens by scanning electron microscope (SEM). This study demonstrates that DDGS fiber can replace wood fiber as a filler in NFPC.

  9. Responses of non-starch polysaccharide-degrading enzymes on digestibility and performance of growing pigs fed a diet based on corn, soya bean meal and Chinese double-low rapeseed meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Z F; Peng, J; Liu, Z L; Liu, Y G

    2007-08-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of two distinct enzyme preparations on nutrients' digestibility and growth performance of growing pigs fed diets based on corn, soya bean meal and Chinese double-low rapeseed meal (DLRM). The two enzyme preparations were Enzyme R, a preparation extracted from fermentation of a non-GMO fungus Penicillum funiculosum, developed for multi-grain and multi-animal species; and Enzyme P, a xylanase preparation from Trichoderma longibrachiatum, for pigs fed corn-based diets only. Both enzymes were tested at 0, 0.25 and 0.50 g/kg feed using 70 crossbred male pigs (Large Yorkshire x Landrace) in five dietary treatments and seven replicates in each treatment, for growth period from 27 to 68 kg live weight in 49 days. Results showed that the supplementation of both enzymes (1) increased total-tract digestibility of dietary energy from 77.5% (control) to 81.4% (Enzyme R, p Enzyme P, p Enzyme R, p Enzyme P, p Enzyme R, p Enzyme P, p Enzyme R) and 2.00 (p > 0.05) and feed conversion ratio from 2.50 (control) to 2.42 (Enzyme R) and 2.36 (Enzyme P, p enzyme efficacy between the two enzyme preparations. The present study demonstrated beneficial effects of applying xylanase-based enzymes to improve feeding values of pig diets based on corn, soya bean meal and DLRM.

  10. Rheological behaviour of heated potato starch dispersions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juszczak, L.; Witczak, M.; Ziêba, T.; Fortuna, T.

    2012-10-01

    The study was designed to investigate the rheological properties of heated potato starch dispersions. Water suspensions of starch were heated at 65, 80 or 95°C for 5, 15, 30 or 60 min. The dispersions obtained were examined for granule size distribution and rheology. It was found that the starch dispersions significantly differed in both respects. The mean diameters of starch granules were largest for the dispersion heated at 65°C and smallest for that heated at 95°C. As the heating temperature was raised, the yield stresses and consistency coefficients decreased, while the flow behaviour indexes and Casson plastic viscosities increased. There were also differences in the viscoelastic properties of the dispersions: for those heated at 65°C the storage and loss moduli increased with heating time whereas for those heated at 80°C both moduli decreased.

  11. Thermal and rheological properties of nixtamalized maize starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez-Montealvo, G; Sánchez-Rivera, M M; Paredes-López, O; Bello-Pérez, L A

    2006-12-15

    The effect of nixtamalization process on thermal and rheological characteristics of corn starch was studied. Starch of raw sample had higher gelatinization temperature than its raw counterpart, because, the Ca(2+) ions stabilize starch structure of nixtamalized sample; however, the enthalpy values were not different in both samples. The temperature of the phase transition of the retrograded starches (raw and nixtamalized) were not different at the storage times assessed, but the enthalpy values of the above mentioned transition was different, indicating a lower reorganization of the starch structure in the nixtamalized sample. The viscoamylographic profile showed differences between both starches, since raw starch had higher peak viscosity than the nixtamalized sample due to partial gelatinization of some granules during this heat treatment. Rheological test showed that at low temperature (25 degrees C) the raw and nixtamalized starches presented different behaviour; however, the elastic characteristic was more important in the starch gel structure. The nixtamalization process produced changes in thermal and rheological characteristics becoming important in those products elaborated from nixtamalized maize.

  12. Hyperphosphorylation of cereal starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carciofi, Massimiliano; Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana; Jensen, Susanne Langgård

    2011-01-01

    Plant starch is naturally phosphorylated at a fraction of the C6 and the C3 hydroxyl groups during its biosynthesis in plastids. Starch phosphate esters are important in starch metabolism and they also generate specific industrial functionality. Cereal grains starch contains little starch bound......-type phenotype. Transgenic cereal grains synthesized starch with higher starch bound phosphate content (7.5 (±0.67) nmol/mg) compared to control lines (0.8 (±0.05) nmol/mg) with starch granules showing altered morphology and lower melting enthalpy. Our data indicate specific action of GWD during starch...... biosynthesis and demonstrates the possibility for in planta production of highly phosphorylated cereal starch....

  13. Thermoplastic starch materials prepared from rice starch; Preparacao e caracterizacao de materiais termoplasticos preparados a partir de amido de arroz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pontes, Barbara R.B.; Curvelo, Antonio A.S., E-mail: barbarapont@gmail.co [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IQSC/USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2009-07-01

    Rice starch is a source still little studied for the preparation of thermoplastic materials. However, its characteristics, such as the presence of proteins, fats and fibers may turn into thermoplastics with a better performance. The present study intends the evaluation of the viability of making starch thermoplastic from rice starch and glycerol as plasticizer. The results of X-ray diffraction and scanning electronic microscopy demonstrate the thermoplastic acquisition. The increase of plasticizer content brings on more hydrophilic thermoplastics with less resistance to tension and elongation at break. (author)

  14. Corn stover harvest strategy effects on grain yield and soil quality indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development of technologies to use cellulosic biomass as a feedstock for biofuel production was recognized as an important research focus because cellulose is a more widely-available feedstock than corn starch. Our objective was to compare various corn (Zea mays L.) stover harvest strategies to ...

  15. Starch and cellulose nanocrystals together into thermoplastic starch bionanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Kizkitza; Retegi, Aloña; González, Alba; Eceiza, Arantxa; Gabilondo, Nagore

    2015-03-01

    In the present work, thermoplastic maize starch based bionanocomposites were prepared as transparent films, plasticized with 35% of glycerol and reinforced with both waxy starch (WSNC) and cellulose nanocrystals (CNC), previously extracted by acidic hydrolysis. The influence of the nanofiller content was evaluated at 1 wt.%, 2.5 wt.% and 5 wt.% of WSNC. The effect of adding the two different nanoparticles at 1 wt.% was also investigated. As determined by tensile measurements, mechanical properties were improved at any composition of WSNC. Water vapour permeance values maintained constant, whereas barrier properties to oxygen reduced in a 70%, indicating the effectiveness of hydrogen bonding at the interphase. The use of CNC or CNC and WSNC upgraded mechanical results, but no significant differences in barrier properties were obtained. A homogeneous distribution of the nanofillers was demonstrated by atomic force microscopy, and a shift of the two relaxation peaks to higher temperatures was detected by dynamic mechanical analysis.

  16. The effect of acid hydrolysis on the technological functional properties of pinhão (Araucaria brasiliensis starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Cruz Silveira Thys

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Technological functional properties of native and acid-thinned pinhão (seeds of Araucária angustifolia, Brazilian pine starches were evaluated and compared to those of native and acid-thinned corn starches. The starches were hydrolyzed (3.2 mol.L-1 HCl, 44 ºC, 6 hours and evaluated before and after the hydrolysis reaction in terms of formation, melting point and thermo-reversibility of gel starches, retrogradation (in a 30-day period and measurements every three days, paste freezing and thawing stability (after six freezing and thawing cycles, swelling power, and solubility. The results of light transmittance (% of pastes of native and acid-thinned pinhão starches was higher (lower tendency to retrogradation than that obtained for corn starches after similar storage period. Native pinhão starch (NPS presented lower syneresis than native corn starch (NCS when submitted to freeze-thaw cycles. The acid hydrolysis increased the syneresis of the two native varieties under storage at 5 ºC and after freezing and thawing cycles. The solubility of NPS was lower than that of native corn starch at 25, 50, and 70 ºC. However, for the acid-thinned pinhão starch (APS, this property was significantly higher (p < 0.05 when compared to that of acid-thinned corn starch (ACS. From the results obtained, it can be said that the acid treatment was efficient in producing a potential fat substitute from pinhão starch variety, but this ability must be further investigated.

  17. Relationships among dietary fiber components and the digestibility of energy, dietary fiber, and amino acids, and energy content of 9 corn co-products fed to growing pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    An experiment was conducted to determine the best fitting dietary fiber (DF) assay to predict digestibility of energy, DF, and amnio acids, and energy value of 9 corn co-products: conventional corn bran (CB-NS; 37.0% total non-starch polysaccharides (NSP)), corn bran with solubles (CBS; 17.1% NSP), ...

  18. Mechanically processed corn silage digestibility and intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Franco da Silveira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The dry matter content increase due to the extension of the harversted period beginning and the kind of hybrid used can affect the starch digestibility and voluntary intake of ruminants. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the best corn hybrid and processing type of silage corn, and evaluate the possible effects on starch digestibility and voluntary intake of lambs. It was used 24 Santa Inês lambs with average age of three months and average initial weight of 25.0 kg. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 2x2 factorial design (dent and flint hybrids; crushed and not crushed. The processing of the dent hybrid resulted in less dry matter intake (0.583 kg/day associated to higher total digestibility of dry matter and starch, 68.21 and 95.33% respectively. Thus, the processing of corn plants used for silage should be performed on hybrids with the dent grain texture to provide the best digestibility of silage to lambs.

  19. Study on the Rheological Property of Cassava Starch Adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjun Liu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was to use cassava starch in the production of environmentally sound adhesives. ‘Three-formaldehyde glue’ pollutes the environment and harms to human health strongly, which widely used for wood-based panels preparation. Environment-friendly cassava starch adhesives were prepared using method of oxidation-gelatinization, insteading of the three formaldehyde glue. The effects of the quality ratio of starch and water, temperature and shear rate on the apparent viscosity of the adhesive were studied. The rheological eigenvalue of apparent viscosity was studied through nonlinear regression. The results showed that the apparent viscosity of cassava starch adhesives decreased with the increasing of temperature; the apparent viscosity decreased slowly with the increasing of rotor speed; the phenomenon of shear thinning appeared within cassava starch adhesives which was pseudo-plastic fluids. Cassava starch adhesives with characteristics of non-toxic, no smell and pollution could be applied in interior and upscale packaging.

  20. A structured approach to target starch solubilisation and hydrolysis for the sugarcane industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Marsha R; Rose, Ingrid; Chung, Yoo Jin; Eggleston, Gillian

    2015-01-01

    In sugarcane processing, starch is considered an impurity that negatively affects processing and reduces the quality of the sugar end-product. In the last decade, there has been a general world-wide increase in starch concentrations in sugarcane. Industrial α-amylases have been used for many years to mitigate issues arising from starch in the sugarcane industry. Mixed results have prompted further studies of the behaviour of different physical forms of starch and their interactions with α-amylases during processing. By using corn starch as a reference in model juices and syrups, processing parameters, activities, and hydrolysis of insoluble, swollen, and soluble starch forms were evaluated for two commercial α-amylases with high (HT) and intermediate (IT) temperature stability, respectively. The ability of starch to solubilise across a sugarcane factory is largely limited by increased Brix values. Optimum target locations and conditions for the application of α-amylases in sugarcane processing are discussed in detail.

  1. Effect of Dietary Starch Source and Concentration on Equine Fecal Microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany E Harlow

    Full Text Available Starch from corn is less susceptible to equine small intestinal digestion than starch from oats, and starch that reaches the hindgut can be utilized by the microbiota. The objective of the current study was to examine the effects of starch source on equine fecal microbiota. Thirty horses were assigned to treatments: control (hay only, HC (high corn, HO (high oats, LC (low corn, LO (low oats, and LW (low pelleted wheat middlings. Horses received an all-forage diet (2 wk; d -14 to d -1 before the treatment diets (2 wk; d 1 to 14. Starch was introduced gradually so that horses received 50% of the assigned starch amount (high = 2 g starch/kg BW; low = 1 g starch/kg BW by d 4 and 100% by d 11. Fecal samples were obtained at the end of the forage-only period (S0; d -2, and on d 6 (S1 and d 13 (S2 of the treatment period. Cellulolytics, lactobacilli, Group D Gram-positive cocci (GPC, lactate-utilizers and amylolytics were enumerated. Enumeration data were log transformed and analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA. There were sample day × treatment interactions (P 0.05. All treatments except LO resulted in increased amylolytics and decreased cellulolytics, but the changes were larger in horses fed corn and wheat middlings (P < 0.05. Feeding oats resulted in increased lactobacilli and decreased GPC (P < 0.05, while corn had the opposite effects. LW had increased lactobacilli and GPC (P < 0.05. The predominant amylolytic isolates from HC, LC and LW on S2 were identified by 16S RNA gene sequencing as Enterococcus faecalis, but other species were found in oat fed horses. These results demonstrate that starch source can have a differential effect on the equine fecal microbiota.

  2. Thermal characterization of starch-water system by photopyroelectric technique and adiabatic scanning calorimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Orea, A.; Bentefour, E. H.; Jamée, P.; Chirtoc, M.; Glorieux, C.; Pitsi, G.; Thoen, J.

    2003-01-01

    Starch is one of the most important carbohydrate sources in human nutrition. For the thermal analysis of starch, techniques such as differential scanning calorimetry have been extensively used. As an alternative, we have applied a photopyroelectric (PPE) configuration and adiabatic scanning calorimetry (ASC) to study the thermal properties of starch-water systems. For this study we used nixtamalized corn flour and potato starch with different quantities of distilled water, in order to obtain samples with different moisture content. By using PPE and ASC methods we have measured, for each technique separately, the heat capacity by unit volume (ρcp) at room temperature for a corn flour sample at 90% moisture. The obtained values agree within experimental uncertainty. By using these techniques we also studied the thermal behavior of potato starch, at 80% moisture, in the temperature range where phase transitions occur. In this case the PPE signal phase could be used as a sensitive and versatile monitor for phase transitions.

  3. In situ study starch gelatinization under ultra-high hydrostatic pressure using synchrotron SAXS

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Zhi

    2015-12-13

    The gelatinization of waxy (very low amylose) corn and potato starches by high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) (up to ∼1 GPa) was investigated in situ using synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) on samples held in a diamond anvil cell (DAC). The starch pastes, made by mixing starch and water in a 1:1 ratio (by weight), were pressurized and measured at room temperature. During HHP, both SAXS peak areas (corresponding to the lamellar phase) of waxy corn and potato starches decreased suggesting the starch gelatinization increases with increasing pressure. As pressure increased, lamellar peak broadened and the power law exponent increased in low q region. 1D linear correlation function was further employed to analyse SAXS data. For both waxy potato and waxy corn starches, the long period length and the average thickness of amorphous layers decreased when the pressure increased. While for both of waxy starches, the thickness of the crystalline layer first increased, then decreased when the pressure increased. The former is probably due to the out-phasing of starch molecules, and the latter is due to the water penetrating into the crystalline region during gelatinization and to pressure induced compression.

  4. Application of Hydrothermally Modified Sweet Potato Starch as a Substitute Additive for Soup Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Senanayake

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Potential application of modified sweet potato starch as a substitute thickener for corn starch was studied, by using native starches extracted from five different cultivars of sweet potatoes commonly available in Sri Lanka. Physicochemical properties (swelling power, water solubility index, pasting, and gelatinization and digestibility of native and modified (heat-moisture treated, 20% moisture, 85°C for 6 hrs starches were analysed. Modified Swp3 (Wariyapola white, Swp4 (Pallepola, and Swp5 (Malaysian starches were selected based on the favourable conditions shown in the required physical and chemical properties and applied in a vegetable soup formula as a thickening aid. Corn starch added samples were kept as controls and the viscosity difference and sensory attributes were tested. Viscosity of the reconstituted soup powder and sensory analysis showed that Swp4 and Swp5 had significantly high level (P<0.05 of sensory quality and the average rank for mouth feel (taste, texture and overall acceptability was significantly high (P<0.05 in Swp5 added samples. Shelf life studies ensured 6 months of stability with negligible level of moisture increase and total plate count in air tight polypropylene packages at ambient temperatures (28–31°C. Results of this study revealed a possibility of applying physically modified Swp4 and Swp5 starches as a substituent food ingredient for commercially available corn starch to improve the thickness of food products.

  5. Starch addition in renneted milk gels: partitioning between curd and whey and effect on curd syneresis and gel microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, K M; McManus, W R; McMahon, D J

    2012-12-01

    Milk gels were made by renneting and acidifying skim milk containing 5 different starches, and then compressed by centrifugation to express whey and simulate curd syneresis during the manufacture of low-fat cheese. A series of 17 starches were examined, with 5 starches being selected for in-depth analysis: a modified waxy corn starch (WC), a waxy rice starch (WR), an instant tapioca starch (IT), a modified tapioca starch (MT), and dextrin (DX). Milks containing WC, WR, and DX were given a 72°C heat treatment, whereas those containing IT and MT had a 30-min treatment at 66°C that matched their optimum gelatinization treatments. Curd yields were calculated by weight, estimated starch content in whey was measured gravimetrically by alcohol precipitation, and starch retention in curd was calculated. Curd yields were 13.1% for the control milk (no added starch) and 18.4, 20.7, 21.5, 23.5, and 13.2% for the gels containing starches WC, WR, IT, MT, and DX, respectively. Estimated starch retentions in the curd were, respectively, 71, 90, 90, 21, and 1%. Laser scanning confocal microscopy was used to determine the location of the starches in the curd and their interaction with the protein matrix. Waxy corn, WR, and IT starches have potential to improve texture of low-fat cheese because they had high retention in the curd and they generated interruptions in the protein matrix network that may have helped limit extensive protein-protein interactions. Modified tapioca starch interfered with formation of the protein structure of the curd and produced a soft noncohesive gel, even though most (79%) of the MT starch was lost in the whey. Few distinct starch particles were present in the MT curd network. Dextrin was not retained in the curd and did not disrupt the protein network, making it unsuitable for use in low-fat cheese.

  6. Enzymatic modification of starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Susanne Langgård

    substrate, and granular products were only obtained at low hydration of the starch. Hence, limiting hydration and gelatinization by using low-phosphate starch and high substrate oncentration was required for obtaining these products. Also high BE activity was a requirement and could partly compensate...... exclusively been conducted on gelatinized starch. This study provides a new concept for transferase-based modification of starches in granular state.......In the food industry approaches for using bioengineering are investigated as alternatives to conventional chemical and physical starch modification techniques in development of starches with specific properties. Enzyme-assisted post-harvest modification is an interesting approach to this, since...

  7. Enzymatic modification of starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Susanne Langgård

    In the food industry approaches for using bioengineering are investigated as alternatives to conventional chemical and physical starch modification techniques in development of starches with specific properties. Enzyme-assisted post-harvest modification is an interesting approach to this, since...... branching connecting larger chain segments. In case of high BE activity this transfer happened prior to hydration and phase separation. The starch substrates thereby became locked in their granular structure and blocked furher access of BE. Transferase-based modification of starch has today almost...... exclusively been conducted on gelatinized starch. This study provides a new concept for transferase-based modification of starches in granular state....

  8. 实验室模拟越夏贮藏条件对玉米籽粒中淀粉及淀粉酶活性的影响%Effect of high temperature and humidity storage on starch and amylase activity of corn grain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    修琳; 畅鹏飞; 郑明珠; 蔡丹; 张大力; 刘景圣

    2016-01-01

    选用2013年收获的“农大709”玉米籽粒,将其分别贮藏于室温和恒温恒湿培养箱(35℃,RH75%)中,并测定玉米籽粒淀粉酶活性、淀粉和可溶性糖含量的变化,分析了高温高湿(35℃,RH75%)条件下淀粉酶与可溶性糖代谢之间的关系。试验结果表明:常温条件下总淀粉酶和α-淀粉酶活性在贮藏初期仍继续上升,而后不再发生显著变化;除蔗糖含量降低外,总淀粉和直链淀粉以及果糖、葡萄糖、麦芽糖均无显著变化。高温高湿贮藏条件下,总淀粉酶和α-淀粉酶活性均显著下降;玉米总淀粉含量无明显变化而直链淀粉含量上升;葡萄糖和果糖变化一致,均先上升后下降;而麦芽糖和蔗糖含量均为先下降后上升。%ABSTRACT:We collected samples of corn grain"Nongda 709"harvested in 2013 and stored them under the conditions of room temperature and constant temperature and humidity(35℃,75%),respectively,and measured the change of amylase activity, starch content and soluble sugar content of corn grains,and analyzed the relationship between amylase and soluble sugar metabolism in maize.The results showed that:under normal temperature,the activity of total amylase andα-amylase were detected significantly increased at the beginning of the storage and then no significant changes.The sucrose content of samples was decreased significantly.However,the content of fructose,glucose,maltose,total starch and amylose had no significant changes.Under high temperature and humidity storage conditions,the activity of total amylase andα-amylase were detected significantly decreased.The amylose content decreased but the total starch content did not change significantly.The glucose sucrose and fructose content of samples were both increased at the early storage,and then decreased later.However,the content of sucrose and maltose tended to fall,and then rise.

  9. Changes in the mechanical properties of thermoplastic potato starch in relation with changes in B-type crystallinity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Soest, J.J.G. van; Hulleman, S.H.D.; Wit, D. de

    1996-01-01

    The influence of crystallization on the stress-strain behaviour of thermoplastic potato starch has been monitored. Potato starch has been processed by extrusion with glycerol and water added as plasticizers. The thermoplastic starch consists of a molecular network of semicrystalline amylose and amyl

  10. Starch hydrolysis and its effect on product yield and microbial contamination in yeast ethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnecki, Z; Grajek, W

    1991-05-01

    The influence of temperature and incubation time on starch gelatinization in wheat, rye and corn grain were studied. Rye starch was the most susceptlble to enzyme hydrolysls. Heat treatment of ground grain during starch gelatinlzation significantly reduced microblal contamination. In the batch fermentation of wheat, a high sugar utillization ranged from 92 to 94%. The highest alcohol yield was 65% from rye starch. The results obtained show that the high pressure cooking used for mash preparation can be replaced successfully by low temperature treatment.

  11. Starch levels on performance, milk composition and energy balance of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmo, Carolina Almeida; Batistel, Fernanda; de Souza, Jonas; Martinez, Junio Cesar; Correa, Paulo; Pedroso, Alexandre Mendonça; Santos, Flávio Augusto Portela

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of starch levels in diets with the replacement of citrus pulp for corn on milk yield, milk composition, and energy balance of lactating dairy cows. Twenty-eight multiparous Holstein cows were used in seven 4 × 4 Latin squares conducted concurrently, and each experimental period consisted of 20 days (16 days for adaptation and 4 days for sampling). The experimental treatments comprised four starch levels: 15, 20, 25, and 30% in the diet. The dry matter intake increased linearly with increasing starch levels. The milk yield and 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield showed quadratic response to increasing starch levels. The milk protein content and milk total solids content responded linearly to increasing starch levels. The feed efficiency, milk lactose content, milk urea nitrogen, plasma urea nitrogen, and plasma glucose concentration were not affected by starch levels. The estimated net energy for lactation (NEL) intake increased linearly as the starch level was raised. Although the milk NEL output per kilogram of milk was not affected by starch, the milk NEL output daily responded quadratically to starch levels. In addition, the NEL in body weight gain also responded quadratically to increasing starch levels. The efficiency of energy use for milk yield and the NEL efficiency for production also responded quadratically to increasing starch levels. Diets for mid-lactating dairy cows producing around 30 kg/day of milk should be formulated to provide around 25% starch to optimize performance.

  12. Poly(lactic acid) degradable plastics, coatings, and binders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonsignore, P.V.; Coleman, R.D.; Mudde, J.P.

    1992-01-01

    Biochemical processes to derive value from the management of high carbohydrate food wastes, such as potato starch, corn starch, and cheese whey permeate, have typically been limited to the production of either ethanol or methane. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) believes that lactic acid presents an attractive option for an alternate fermentation end product, especially in light of lactic acids' being a viable candidate for conversion to environmentally safe poly(lactic acid) (PLA) degradable plastics, coatings, and binders. Technology is being developed at ANL to permit a more cost effective route to modified high molecular weight PLA. Preliminary data on the degradation behavior of these modified PLAs shows the retention to the inherent hydrolytic degradability of the PLA modified, however, by introduced compositional variables. A limited study was done on the hydrolytic stability of soluble oligomers of poly(L-lactic acid). Over a 34 day hold period, water-methanol solutions of Pl-LA oligomers in the 2-10 DP range retained some 75% of their original molecular weight.

  13. Poly(lactic acid) degradable plastics, coatings, and binders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonsignore, P.V.; Coleman, R.D.; Mudde, J.P.

    1992-05-01

    Biochemical processes to derive value from the management of high carbohydrate food wastes, such as potato starch, corn starch, and cheese whey permeate, have typically been limited to the production of either ethanol or methane. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) believes that lactic acid presents an attractive option for an alternate fermentation end product, especially in light of lactic acids` being a viable candidate for conversion to environmentally safe poly(lactic acid) (PLA) degradable plastics, coatings, and binders. Technology is being developed at ANL to permit a more cost effective route to modified high molecular weight PLA. Preliminary data on the degradation behavior of these modified PLAs shows the retention to the inherent hydrolytic degradability of the PLA modified, however, by introduced compositional variables. A limited study was done on the hydrolytic stability of soluble oligomers of poly(L-lactic acid). Over a 34 day hold period, water-methanol solutions of Pl-LA oligomers in the 2-10 DP range retained some 75% of their original molecular weight.

  14. INFLUENCE OF SILAGE ADDITIVES ON FERMENTATION OF HIGH MOISTURE CRIMPED CORN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislav Gálik

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to find influence of different silage additives on silages fermentation and nutritional value made from high moisture crimped corn, which were conserved in semi experimental conditions. Three variants were examined, untreated control (C, and two experimental variants conserved by biological (variant A and chemical (variant B additives. The maize crimped corn was hermetically filled into plastic bins with the capacity 50 dm3. In silage conserved by additives was lower content of crude fibre (significantly in both experimental variants and higher content of nitrogen free extract, starch and total sugars (significantly in variant A established. In silages form both experimental variants we found significantly lower content of lactic acid. The highest concent we detected in silage conserved without additives. In silage conserved by biological inoculant we found lower content of acetic acid and higher content of butyric acid, but their content was generally very low. Additives used in the experiment decreased content of amonia (0.074 g.kg-1 in variant A and 0.095 g.kg-1 of dry matter in variant B and alcohols too.

  15. Sensory evaluation of aromatic foods packed in developed starch based films using fuzzy logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanima Chowdhury

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The last two decades have seen attempts to replace non biodegradable, synthetic food packaging films with alternatives made from biopolymers. The objective of the present work was to evaluate sensory quality of tea leaf and culinary tastemaker powder when sealed in pouches based on starch films.Films were developed from corn starch and a functional polysaccharide (FP from amylose (AM, methylcellulose (MC, and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC, using a casting technique. Pouches were stored inside a secondary package (plastic jar under ambient condition for 90 days. Sensory attributes of the stored food samples were evaluated (tea in liquor form and the scores analysed by fuzzy logic. Results were compared with similarly stored foods but using market available poly-pouches as packaging material.For tea and tastemaker in general, the relative importance of the sensory attributes under consideration was assessed as:  aroma (Highly important >taste (Highly important>colour (Highly important > strength (Important for tea, and taste (Highly important>aroma (Highly important>colour (Important>appearance (Important for tastemaker. Among the three films that were developed, the highly important sensory attributes of aroma and taste were maintained as ‘Very good’ when the foods were packed in starch–HPMC/AM film. When the products were packed in market-available poly-pouches they exhibited similar attributes. With the exception of ‘Very good’ maintenance of the colour of tastemaker by the commercial pouch, irrespective of film and food, the colour and strength/appearance were retained in the ‘Good’-‘Satisfactory’ range. The overall sensory score of tea was also maintained as ‘Very good’ in starch-HPMC film.

  16. Thermomechanical treatment of starch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goot, van der A.J.; Einde, van den R.M.

    2006-01-01

    Starch is used as a major component in many food and nonfood applications and determines the overall product properties to a large extent. It is therefore important to understand the effect of processing on starch. Many starch-based products are produced using a thermal as well as a mechanical treat

  17. Influence of Pretreatment on Cold Water Solubility and Esterification Activity of Starch

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    Jiaying Xin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to improve the Cold Water Solubility (CWS and esterification activity of Native corn Starch (NS by pretreatment NS using NaOH/urea aqueous solution. The influence of pretreatment on granule shape and crystal structure of corn starch was investigated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD. It has been found that the average particle size of Pretreatment corn Starch (PS decreased to nanometer level, smaller than those of NS (4-15 μm. XRD revealed that crystalline pattern of PS was VH-type, which was different from that of NS (A-type. The maximum CWS of PS was 96.77%, while the NS was only 0.3%. NS and PS were esterified with oleic acid catalyzed by lipase under the same conditions respectively. The effects of the pretreatment on esterification activity of the corn starches were investigated by analyzing the Degrees of Substitutions (DS of the esterification products. The maximum DS of pretreatment starch oleate was 0.229, while the DS of native starch oleate was very low and even could not be detected.

  18. Enzymatic method for measuring starch gelatinization in dry products in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, KeShun; Han, Jianchun

    2012-05-02

    An enzymatic method based on hydrolysis of starch by amyloglucosidase and measurement of d-glucose released by glucose oxidase-peroxidase was developed to measure both gelatinized starch and hydrolyzable starch in situ of dried starchy products. Efforts focused on the development of sample handling steps (particle size reduction of dry samples followed by a unique mechanical resolubilization step) prior to the enzymatic hydrolysis using native and fully gelatinized flours of corn and rice. The new steps, when optimized, were able to maximize resolubilization of gelatinized/retrograded starch while minimizing solubilization of native starch in dried samples, thus effectively addressing issues of insusceptibility of retrograded starch and susceptibility of native starch to enzymatic attacks and eliminating the need to isolate starch from dry samples before using an enzymatic method. Various factors affecting these and other steps were also investigated, with the objectives to simplify the procedures and reduce errors. Results are expressed as the percentage of the total starch content. The proposed method, verified by measuring mixed samples of native and fully gelatinized flours of five grain species (corn, rice, barley, oat, and wheat) at different ratios, is simple, accurate, and reliable, with a relative standard deviation of less than 5%.

  19. Starch modification with microbial alpha-glucanotransferase enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Maarel, Marc J E C; Leemhuis, Hans

    2013-03-01

    Starch is an agricultural raw material used in many food and industrial products. It is present in granules that vary in shape in the form of amylose and amylopectin. Starch-degrading enzymes are used on a large scale in the production of sweeteners (high fructose corn syrup) and concentrated glucose syrups as substrate for the fermentative production of bioethanol and basic chemicals. Over the last two decades α-glucanotransferases (EC 2.4.1.xx), such as branching enzyme (EC 2.4.1.18) and 4-α-glucanotransferase (EC 2.4.1.25), have received considerable attention. These enzymes do not hydrolyze the starch as amylases do. Instead, α-glucanotransferases remodel parts of the amylose and amylopectin molecules by cleaving and reforming α-1,4- and α-1,6-glycosidic bond. Here we review the properties of α-glucanotransferases and discuss the emerging use of these enzymes in the generation of novel starch derivatives.

  20. Gas Transmission and Water Vapor Transmission Properties of High-Amylose Corn Starch/Chitosan Edible Film%高直链玉米淀粉-壳聚糖复合膜透气透水性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈琼; 邱礼平; 马细兰

    2011-01-01

    In this experiment, edible films from high-amylose com starch (HACS) and chitosan (CS) were developed by casting film-solution on leveled trays. The effects of ratio of starch to chitosan, glycerol dosage and methylcellulose (MC) dosage on CO2 and O2 transmission, water vapor transmission (WVT) of edible films were investigated. The result showed that the edible composite fihns had the lowest CO2 and O2 transmission and lower WVT when the ratio of chitosan and content of glycerol reach 2:1. The value of CO2 and O2 transmission increase to the highest and then decrease, and WVT increased while the ratio of chitosan and content of glycerol continued decrease. The increase of content of glycerol improved the CO2, O2 transmission and WVT of edible films first, and then decreased gradually. The addition of 2% methylcellulose decreased the gas permeability properties of the edible film to the lowest When the content of methylcellulose was between 4% and 6%, WVT of the edible film reached the lowest.%本文以高直链玉米淀粉(HACS)和壳聚糖(CS)为基本材料,甘油为增塑剂,甲基纤维素(MC)为增强剂制备可食性复合膜,研究了高直链玉米淀粉与壳聚糖的配比、甘油的添加量以及甲基纤维素的添加量对复合膜的透气透水性能的影响.结果表明,HACS:CS为2:1时,膜的CO2透过量和O2透过量最低,水蒸气透过量(WVT)也处于较低水平.随着HACS:CS的降低,膜的CO2透过量和O2透过量增加到最大值再降低,而WVT值呈增大趋势.甘油量的增加使复合膜的CO2透过量和O2透过量先增加后降低,而WVT变化趋势与透气量一致.MC的添加量为2%时,HACS/CS复合膜的透气量最低,而在MC添加量4%~6%时,膜的WVT最低.

  1. Structure and Properties of Starch/Poly(butylene succinate) Blends Plasticized by [ BMIM] Cl%离子液体增塑改性玉米淀粉/聚丁二酸丁二醇酯共混材料的结构与性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷蓓; 罗辉; 石孟可; 张熙

    2016-01-01

    为考察离子液体对淀粉/聚丁二酸丁二醇酯( PBS)的作用效果,降低淀粉/PBS的脆性,以离子液体(1-丁基-3-甲基咪唑氯盐[ BMIM] Cl)作为增塑改性剂通过熔融共混法制备了玉米淀粉/聚丁二酸丁二醇酯( PBS)共混材料,采用红外光谱( FTIR)、扫描电镜( SEM)、热重分析( TGA)、 X射线衍射分析( XRD)及力学性能测试方法研究了[ BMIM] Cl对淀粉/PBS共混材料结构和性能的影响。结果表明,[ BMIM] Cl能与淀粉/PBS分子发生强相互作用,破坏淀粉/PBS共混物中原有的氢键与结晶结构,增强界面相互作用,改善相容性,进而改变淀粉/PBS共混材料的结构与性能;[ BMIM] Cl的加入不影响淀粉/PBS的热稳定性,可使材料玻璃化转变温度( Tg )、结晶温度( Tc )、冷结晶温度( Tcc )及结晶度( Xc )降低。[ BMIM] Cl具有显著降低淀粉/PBS脆性的作用,使其断裂伸长率大幅度增加,拉伸强度和弹性模量降低。%In order to study the effect of the ionic liquid on starch/poly ( butylene succinate ) ( PBS ) blends and reduce the brittleness of the blends, starch/PBS blends plasticized with ionic liquid([BMIM]Cl) were prepared by melt blending. Infrared absorption spectroscopy ( IR ) , scanning electron microscopy ( SEM ) , thermal gravimetric analysis(TGA), X-ray diffraction(XRD) and mechanical test were adopted to study the effects of [ BMIM ] Cl on the structure and performance of starch/PBS blends. The results showed that [ BMIM] Cl can form strong interactions between starch and PBS molecules, thus disrupting the inter and intra hydrogen bonding of starch and PBS chains and also destroying the crystal structure, which improved the interfacial bonding strength and compatibility between starch and PBS. The glass transition temperature( Tg ) , crystallization point(Tc), cold crystallization temperatures(Tcc) and crystallinity(Xc) of starch/PBS blends declined with addition of [ BMIM] Cl, that

  2. Effect of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as biopolymers to the edible film sorghum starch hydrophobicity characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, Rr. Dewi Artanti; Setiawan, Aji; Anggraini, Puji D.

    2017-03-01

    The use of synthetic plastic should be limited because it causes the plastic waste that can not be decomposed quickly, triggering environmental problems. The solution of the plastic usage is the use of biodegradable plastic as packaging which is environmentally friendly. Synthesis of edible film can be done with a variety of components. The component mixture of starch and cellulose derivative products are one of the methods for making edible film. Sorghum is a species of cereal crops containing starch amounted to 80.42%, where the use of sorghum in Indonesia merely fodder. Therefore, sorghum is a potential material to be used as a source of starch synthesis edible film. This research aims to study the characteristics of edible starch films Sorghum and assess the effect of CMC (Carboxymethyl Cellulose) as additional materials on the characteristics of biopolymers edible film produced sorghum starch. This study is started with the production of sorghum starch, then the film synthesizing with addition of CMC (5, 10, 15, 20, and 25% w/w starch), and finally the hydrophobicity characteristics test (water uptake test and water solubility test). The addition of CMC will decrease the percentage of water absorption to the film with lowest level of 65.8% in the degree of CMC in 25% (w/w starch). The addition of CMC also influences the water solubility of film, where in the degree of 25% CMC (w/w starch) the solubility of water was the lowest, which was 28.2% TSM.

  3. Fragrant starch-based films with limonene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian K. Antosik

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Novel fragrant starch-based films with limonene were successfully prepared. Biodegradable materials of natural origin were used and the process was relatively simple and inexpensive. The effect of limonene on physicochemical properties of starch-based films (moisture absorption, solubility in water, wettability, mechanical properties were compared to glycerol plasticized system. Taking into consideration that the obtained materials could also exhibit bactericidal and fungicidal properties, the studies with Escherichia coli, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger were performed. Such a material could potentially find application in food packaging (e.g. masking unpleasant odors, hydrophilic starch film would prevent food drying, or in agriculture (e.g. for seed encapsulated tapes.

  4. Examination of injection moulded thermoplastic maize starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the effect of the different injection moulding parameters and storing methods on injection moulded thermoplastic maize starch (TPS. The glycerol and water plasticized starch was processed in a twin screw extruder and then with an injection moulding machine to produce TPS dumbbell specimens. Different injection moulding set-ups and storing conditions were used to analyse the effects on the properties of thermoplastic starch. Investigated parameters were injection moulding pressure, holding pressure, and for the storage: storage at 50% relative humidity, and under ambient conditions. After processing the mechanical and shrinkage properties of the manufactured TPS were determined as a function of the ageing time. While conditioning, the characteristics of the TPS changed from a soft material to a rigid material. Although this main behaviour remained, the different injection moulding parameters changed the characteristics of TPS. Scanning electron microscope observations revealed the changes in the material on ageing.

  5. Suitability of sago starch as a base for dual-modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saowakon Wattanachant

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The quality and physicochemical properties of native sago starch were studied in order to evaluate the suitability of sago starch as a base for dual-modification, hydroxypropylation and crosslinking. The properties of starch derivatives obtained from dual-modification are different depending upon the kind of starch bases used and their basic properties. Therefore, the properties of several starches including waxy maize, waxy barley, tapioca, wheat, corn and rice and properties of their derivatives were investigated comparatively. The data obtained elucidates that the swelling power of a starch base is the most important factor which influences the dual-modification. The native sago starch had higher swelling power and bigger average granule size when compared to that of other starch bases. Its gelatinization temperature was in the same range as that of waxy maize while its pasting characteristic was similar to that of tapioca starch. It can be inferred that sago starch is suitable as a starch base for hydroxypropylation and crosslinking.

  6. Performance of high amylose starch-composited gelatin films influenced by gelatinization and concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenhang; Wang, Kun; Xiao, Jingdong; Liu, Yaowei; Zhao, Yana; Liu, Anjun

    2017-01-01

    In order to study the impact of starch in film performance, high amylose corn starch was composited in gelatin films under different gelatinization conditions and, in high and low concentrations (10 and 50wt.%). It was found that hot water gelatinized starch (Gel-Shw) increased film mechanical strength and was dependent upon the starch concentration. The addition of an alkali component to the starch significantly enhanced the swelling of the starch granules and expedited the gelatinization process. Incorporation of starch, especially the alkalized starch (Sha), into the gelatin films decreased film solubility which improved its water resistance and water vapor permeability (WVP). Multiple techniques (DSC, TGA, FT-IR, and XRD) were used to characterize the process and results, including the crosslinking of the dissolved starch molecules and the particles formed from gelatinized starch during retrogradation process, which played an important role in improving the thermal stability of the composited gelatin films. Overall, the starch-gelatin composition provides a potential approach to improve gelatin film performance and benefit its applications in the food industry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of dry method esterification of starch on the degradation characteristics of starch/polylactic acid composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Ying Feng; Gu, Jiyou; Qiao, Zhibang; Tan, Haiyan; Cao, Jun; Zhang, Yanhua

    2015-01-01

    Maleic anhydride esterified corn starch was prepared by dry method. Esterified starch/polylactic acid (PLA) biodegradable composite was produced via melt extrusion method with blending maleic anhydride esterified corn starch and PLA. The influence of the dry method esterification of starch on the degradation characteristics of starch/PLA composites was investigated by the natural aging degradation which was soil burial method. Test results of mass loss rate showed that the first 30 days of degradation was mainly starch degradation, and the degradation rate of esterified starch/PLA (ES/PLA) was slower than that of native starch/PLA (NS/PLA). Therefore, the damage degree of ES/PLA on the surface and inside was smaller than that of NS/PLA, and the infrared absorption peak intensities of C-O, C=O and C-H were stronger than that of NS/PLA. With the increasing time of soil burial degradation, the damage degree of NS/PLA and ES/PLA on the exterior and interior were gradually increased, whereas the infrared absorption peak intensities of C-O, C=O and C-H were gradually decreased. The XRD diffraction peak intensity of PLA in composites showed an increased trend at first which was then followed by a decreased one along with the increasing time of soil burial degradation, indicating that the degradation of amorphous regions of PLA was earlier than its crystalline regions. When the soil burial time was the same, the diffraction peak intensity of PLA in ES/PLA was stronger than that of NS/PLA. If the degradation time was the same, T0, Ti and residual rate of thermal decomposition of NS/PLA were larger than those of ES/PLA. The tensile strength and bending strength of composites were decreased gradually with soil burial time increasing. Both the tensile strength and bending strength of ES/PLA were stronger than those of NS/PLA.

  8. Effect of corn silage harvest maturity and concentrate type on milk fatty acid composition of dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, N.A.; Tewoldebrhan, T.A.; Zom, R.L.G.; Cone, J.W.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    The variation in maturity at harvest during grain filling has a major effect on the carbohydrate composition (starch:NDF ratio) and fatty acid (FA) content of corn silages, and can alter the FA composition of milk fat in dairy cows. This study evaluated the effect of silage corn (cv. Atrium) harvest

  9. Effects of electron beam irradiation on physicochemical properties of corn flour and improvement of the gelatinization inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Peiyu; Zhao, Yue; Wen, Chengrong; Cheng, Sheng; Lin, Songyi

    2017-10-15

    The properties and viscosity-reduction mechanism of corn flour irradiated by electron beam have not been understood properly. Here, we investigate the effects of electron beam irradiation (EBI) on the gelatinization and physicochemical properties of corn flour irradiated by 0-5.40kGy of electron beam. The total starch and crude fiber contents of corn flour decreased significantly (Pgelatinization of corn flour was completely inhibited. Thus, EBI can be used to inhibit the gelatinization of corn flour, which may be beneficial for industrial and food formulations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of self-assembled bacterial cellulose-starch nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grande, Cristian J. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Catholic University of Peru (PUCP), Lima 32 (Peru); Torres, Fernando G., E-mail: fgtorres@pucp.edu.pe [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Catholic University of Peru (PUCP), Lima 32 (Peru); Gomez, Clara M., E-mail: Clara.Gomez@uv.es [Departament de Quimica Fisica and Institut de Ciencia dels Materials, Dr Moliner 50, Universitat de Valencia, E-46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Troncoso, Omar P. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Catholic University of Peru (PUCP), Lima 32 (Peru); Canet-Ferrer, Josep; Martinez-Pastor, Juan [Unit of Optoelectronic Materials and Devices of the University of Valencia, P.O. Box 22085, 46071 Valencia (Spain)

    2009-05-05

    A bioinspired bottom-up process was developed to produce self-assembled nanocomposites of cellulose synthesized by Acetobacter bacteria and native starch. This process takes advantage of the way some bacteria extrude cellulose nanofibres and of the transport process that occurs during the gelatinization of starch. Potato and corn starch were added into the culture medium and partially gelatinized in order to allow the cellulose nanofibrils to grow in the presence of a starch phase. The bacterial cellulose (BC)-starch gels were hot pressed into sheets that had a BC volume fraction higher than 90%. During this step starch was forced to further penetrate the BC network. The self-assembled BC-starch nanocomposites showed a coherent morphology that was assessed by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM). The nanocomposites structure was studied using X-ray diffraction and ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. The degree of crystallinity of the final nanocomposites was used to estimate the volume fraction of BC. The aim of this paper is to explore a new methodology that could be used to produce nanomaterials by introducing a different phase into a cellulose nanofibre network during its assembly.

  11. Simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation of lignocellulosic residues from commercial furfural production and corn kernels using different nutrient media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristhian Carrasco

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As the supply of starch grain and sugar cane, currently the main feedstocks for bioethanol production, become limited, lignocelluloses will be sought as alternative materials for bioethanol production. Production of cellulosic ethanol is still cost-inefficient because of the low final ethanol concentration and the addition of nutrients. We report the use of simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation (SSCF of lignocellulosic residues from commercial furfural production (furfural residue, FR and corn kernels to compare different nutritional media. The final ethanol concentration, yield, number of live yeast cells, and yeast-cell death ratio were investigated to evaluate the effectiveness of integrating cellulosic and starch ethanol. Results Both the ethanol yield and number of live yeast cells increased with increasing corn-kernel concentration, whereas the yeast-cell death ratio decreased in SSCF of FR and corn kernels. An ethanol concentration of 73.1 g/L at 120 h, which corresponded to a 101.1% ethanol yield based on FR cellulose and corn starch, was obtained in SSCF of 7.5% FR and 14.5% corn kernels with mineral-salt medium. SSCF could simultaneously convert cellulose into ethanol from both corn kernels and FR, and SSCF ethanol yield was similar between the organic and mineral-salt media. Conclusions Starch ethanol promotes cellulosic ethanol by providing important nutrients for fermentative organisms, and in turn cellulosic ethanol promotes starch ethanol by providing cellulosic enzymes that convert the cellulosic polysaccharides in starch materials into additional ethanol. It is feasible to produce ethanol in SSCF of FR and corn kernels with mineral-salt medium. It would be cost-efficient to produce ethanol in SSCF of high concentrations of water-insoluble solids of lignocellulosic materials and corn kernels. Compared with prehydrolysis and fed-batch strategy using lignocellulosic materials, addition of starch

  12. Chemical and physical characteristics of corn silages and their effects on in vitro disappearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, G; Mertens, D R

    2005-12-01

    Estimating the available energy in corn silage provides a unique challenge because the silage contains variable proportions of grain and stover, each of which can differ in availability due to chemical composition and physical form. The objectives of this study were to investigate relationships among chemical components and their relationships with in vitro disappearance of ground and unground dried silages, and to quantify minimally fragmented starch in corn silage and investigate its impact and that of mean particle size (MPS) on in vitro disappearance of unground silages. Thirty-two corn silages were selected to provide diversity in dry matter, protein, fiber, and MPS. Detergent fibers were highly correlated with each other and with nonfiber carbohydrates, and were used to develop prediction equations between these constituents. Sieves with apertures > or =4.75 mm were used to isolate intact kernels and large kernel fragments, which were collected and analyzed to measure minimally fragmented starch (Starch>4.75). Dividing Starch>4.75 by total starch defined the proportion of minimally fragmented starch (Starch>4.75/Total), which ranged from 9 to 100% with a mean of 52%. Starch>4.75/Total was positively correlated with MPS (r = 0.46). The inverse of Starch>4.75/Total is an index of kernel fragmentation. Silages were prepared as whole material or ground to pass through a 4- or 1-mm screen of a cutter mill. In vitro dry matter disappearance (IVDMD) was greater for ground than for whole samples (71.7 and 61.2%, respectively). Increased IVDMD for ground samples was attributed to greater in vitro neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and neutral detergent solubles (NDS) disappearances. The IVDMD of ground samples was related to NDF and acid detergent lignin (R2 = 0.80). The IVDMD of whole corn silage was related to acid detergent lignin, Starch>4.75, MPS, and dry matter. When IVDMD was partitioned into in vitro digestible NDS (IVdNDS) and in vitro digestible NDF, the IVd

  13. Substituição do milho pelo resíduo de fecularia de mandioca sobre o desempenho, digestibilidade e características de carcaça de novilhos confinados = Replacing corn with cassava starch by-products on the performance, digestibility and carcass characteristics of bulls in confinement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Velandia Valero

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O efeito de substituição do milho pelo resíduo desidratado de fecularia de mandioca (0; 12,5; 22,8 e 32,7% foi avaliado sobre o desempenho, a digestibilidade e características de carcaça e 32 bovinos mestiços (½ Nelore x ½ Angus de aproximadamente 18 meses de idade e 380 kg de peso vivo. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos e oito repetições. Foram analisados o ganho médio diário (GMD, rendimento de carcaça (RC, espessura de gordura de cobertura (EGC, área de olho de lombo (AOL, comprimento de perna (CP, espessura de coxão (EC, ingestãode matéria seca (IMS, conversão alimentar (CA, digestibilidade total aparente da matéria seca (DAMS, matéria orgânica (DAMO, proteína bruta (DAPB, energia bruta (DAEB, fibra em detergente ácido (DAFDA e fibra em detergente neutro (DAFDN. O experimento foidesenvolvido durante um período de 56 dias, após 14 dias de adaptação. Os resultados de GMD, RC, CA, EGC, AOL, CP e EC não apresentaram diferenças (p > 0,05 entre os tratamentos. A IMS apresentou redução linear quando o milho foi substituído pelo resíduodesidratado de fecularia de mandioca. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade da MS, MO, PB, EB, FDN e FDA não variaram entre as rações experimentais.The effects of replacing corn with different levels of cassava starch by-products (0; 12.5; 22.8; and 32.7% were evaluated on performance, digestibility and carcass traits of feedlot bulls. Thirty-twocrossbred bulls (½ Nelore x ½ Angus around 18 months of age and 380 kg of body weight were used. A completely randomized design was used, with 4 treatments and 8 replicates. Evaluated traits were: average daily gain (ADG, carcass dressing (CD, backfat thickness (BT, Longissimus area (LDA, leg length (LL and cushion thickness (CT, dry matter intake (DMI, feed conversion ratio (FCR, total apparent digestibility of dry matter (DMDC, organic matter (OMDC, crude protein (CPDC, crude energy (CEDC

  14. Effect of castor oil enrichment layer produced by reaction on the properties of PLA/HDI-g-starch blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Zhu; Zhang, Lisheng; Ma, Songqi; Yang, Yong; Zhang, Chuanzhi; Tang, Zhaobin; Zhu, Jin

    2013-04-15

    Blends of entirely bio-sourced polymers, namely polylactide (PLA) and starch, have been melt-compounded by lab-scale co-extruder with castor oil (CO) as a plasticizer. The enrichment of castor oil on starch had great effect on the properties of the blends. If the castor oil was mainly dispersed in PLA matrix, the properties of the blends were poor, but when the hexamethylenediisocyanate (HDI) was grafted on starch granules the ready reactions between the hydroxyl on CO and the isocyante on the HDI-grafted starch (HGSTs) brought CO molecules enriched on starch particles. DSC analysis shows that the CO layer on starch has a positive effect on the crystallization of PLA in the ternary blend. The accumulation of CO on starch greatly improves the toughness and impact strength of PLA/starch blends. The grafting content of HDI on the starch granules primarily determined the compatibility and properties of the resulted blends.

  15. 纳米SiO2改性玉米淀粉/聚乙烯醇复合薄膜研究%The Study on Corn Starch / Polyvinyl Alcohol Composite Films Modified by Nano-SiO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾云芝; 陈志周; 迟建

    2012-01-01

    以薄膜拉伸强度、断裂伸长率、透光率和吸水率为主要指标,通过单因素试验和正交试验研究纳米SiO2改性玉米淀粉/聚乙烯醇复合薄膜的工艺条件,以改善玉米淀粉/聚乙烯醇复合薄膜的物理性能.试验结果表明:纳米SiO2含量,分散剂种类及含量,膜液pH对膜的性能均有影响.适宜的工艺参数为:纳米SiO2最佳含量2.0%,最佳分散剂聚丙烯酰胺含量1.5%,膜液最佳pH 5.0.%To improve the physical properties, the technological conditions of com starch and polyvinyl alcohol composite film modified by nano-SidO2 are studied through single-factor experiments and orthogonal test, using tensile strength, break age elongation, transmittance and water absorption rate as indexes. The experimental results showed that the concentration of nano-SiO2, variety and concentration of dispersant and pH of film liquid all can affect the properties of the films. The suitable process parameters: the optimum concentration of nano-SiO2 was 2.0%; the best dispersant was polyacrylamide, and its optimal concentration was 1.5%; the best pH of film liquid was 5.0.

  16. Fly ash-reinforced thermoplastic starch composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, X.F.; Yu, J.G.; Wang, N. [Tianjin University, Tianjin (China). School of Science

    2007-01-02

    As a by-product from the combustion of pulverized coal, fly ash was, respectively, used as the reinforcement for formamide and urea-plasticized thermoplastic starch (FUPTPS) and glycerol-plasticized thermoplastic starch (GPTPS). The introduction of fly ash improved tensile stress from 4.56 MPa to 7.78 MPa and Youngs modulus increased trebly from 26.8 MPa to 84.6 MPa for fly ash-reinforced FUPTPS (A-FUPTPS), while tensile stress increased from 4.55 MPa to 12.86 MPa and Youngs modulus increased six times from 76.4 MPa to 545 MPa for fly ash-reinforced GPTPS (A-GPTPS). X-ray diffractograms illustrated that fly ash destroyed the formation of starch ordered crystal structure, so both A-GPTPS and FUPTPS could resist the starch re-crystallization (retrogradation). Also fly ash improved water resistance of TPS. As shown by rheology, during the thermoplastic processing, the extruder screw speed effectively adjusted the flow behavior of A-FUPTPS, while the increasing of the processing temperature effectively ameliorated the flow behavior of A-GPTPS. However, superfluous ash contents (e.g., 20 wt%) worsened processing fluidity and resulted in the congregation of fly ash in FUPTPS matrix (tested by SEM) rather than in GPTPS matrix. This congregation decreased the mechanical properties and water resistance of the materials.

  17. Effect of the mode of incorporation on the disintegrant properties of acid modified water and white yam starches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeku, Oluwatoyin A; Akinwande, Babatunde L

    2012-04-01

    Acid modified starches obtained from two species of yam tubers namely white yam - Dioscorea rotundata L. and water yam - D. alata L. DIAL2 have been investigated as intra- and extra-granular disintegrants in paracetamol tablet formulations. The native starches were modified by acid hydrolysis and employed as disintegrant at concentrations of 5 and 10% w/w and their disintegrant properties compared with those of corn starch BP. The tensile strength and drug release properties of the tablets, assessed using the disintegration and dissolution (t 50 and t 80 - time required for 50% and 80% of paracetamol to be released) times, were evaluated. The results showed that the tensile strength and the disintegration and dissolution times of the tablets decreased with increase in the concentration of the starch disintegrants. The acid modified yam starches showed better disintegrant efficiency than corn starch in the tablet formulations. Acid modification appeared to improve the disintegrant efficiency of the yam starches. Furthermore, tablets containing starches incorporated extragranularly showed faster disintegration but lower tensile strength than those containing starches incorporated intragranularly. This emphasizes the importance of the mode of incorporation of starch disintegrant.

  18. Preparation and flocculation properties of cationic starch/chitosan crosslinking-copolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Lijun; Lu, Feifei; Li, Dan; Qiao, Zhongming; Yin, Yeping

    2009-12-15

    A novel flocculant (CATCS) based on corn starch and chitosan was prepared and its flocculation behaviors were studied. The synthesis conditions of CATCS were discussed and the production obtained was characterized using Fourier infrared spectra and scanning electron microscopy. Flocculation properties of the products were evaluated in terms of transmittance, removal of organic contaminant and solid suspending substances. Influences of temperature, pH and flocculant dosage on flocculation efficiency of CATCS were examined. CATCS had better flocculation performance at lower temperature for the wastewater investigated. CATCS showed better flocculation performance than cationic starch and chitosan in 5 g/L kaolin suspension trended to performance well in acidic and alkaline solution. The comparison of the flocculation performance between CATCS, Fe2(SO4)3 and polyacrylamide showed CATCS had much efficient flocculation performance. In addition, cationic starch was prepared from corn starch using microwave-assisted method.

  19. Preparation and flocculation properties of cationic starch/chitosan crosslinking-copolymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You Lijun; Lu Feifei; Li Dan; Qiao Zhongming [Department of chemistry, College of Science, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070 (China); Yin Yeping, E-mail: yljyoyo@yahoo.cn [Department of chemistry, College of Science, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070 (China)

    2009-12-15

    A novel flocculant (CATCS) based on corn starch and chitosan was prepared and its flocculation behaviors were studied. The synthesis conditions of CATCS were discussed and the production obtained was characterized using Fourier infrared spectra and scanning electron microscopy. Flocculation properties of the products were evaluated in terms of transmittance, removal of organic contaminant and solid suspending substances. Influences of temperature, pH and flocculant dosage on flocculation efficiency of CATCS were examined. CATCS had better flocculation performance at lower temperature for the wastewater investigated. CATCS showed better flocculation performance than cationic starch and chitosan in 5 g/L kaolin suspension trended to performance well in acidic and alkaline solution. The comparison of the flocculation performance between CATCS, Fe{sub 2} (SO{sub 4}){sub 3} and polyacrylamide showed CATCS had much efficient flocculation performance. In addition, cationic starch was prepared from corn starch using microwave-assisted method.

  20. Analysis of Resistant Starches in Rat Cecal Contents Using Fourier Transform Infrared Photoacoustic Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Timothy J. [Ames Laboratory; Ai, Yongfeng [Iowa State University; Jones, Roger W. [Ames Laboratory; Houk, Robert S. [Ames Laboratory; Jane, Jay-lin [Iowa State University; Zhao, Yinsheng [Iowa State University; Birt, Diane F. [Iowa State University; McClelland, John F. [Ames Laboratory

    2013-01-29

    Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS) qualitatively and quantitatively measured resistant starch (RS) in rat cecal contents. Fisher 344 rats were fed diets of 55% (w/w, dry basis) starch for 8 weeks. Cecal contents were collected from sacrificed rats. A corn starch control was compared against three RS diets. The RS diets were high-amylose corn starch (HA7), HA7 chemically modified with octenyl succinic anhydride, and stearic-acid-complexed HA7 starch. To calibrate the FTIR-PAS analysis, samples from each diet were analyzed using an enzymatic assay. A partial least-squares cross-validation plot generated from the enzymatic assay and FTIR-PAS spectral results for starch fit the ideal curve with a R2 of 0.997. A principal component analysis plot of components 1 and 2 showed that spectra from diets clustered significantly from each other. This study clearly showed that FTIR-PAS can accurately quantify starch content and identify the form of starch in complex matrices.

  1. Isolation and characterization of starch obtained from Brosimum alicastrum Swarts seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Pacheco, E; Moo-Huchin, V M; Estrada-León, R J; Ortiz-Fernández, A; May-Hernández, L H; Ríos-Soberanis, C R; Betancur-Ancona, D

    2014-01-30

    In this paper, the Ramon starch was isolated and its chemical composition and physical and microscopic characteristics were determined. Corn starch was used as reference. In general, the proximal composition was similar between starches studied. Ramon starch granules were oval-spherical and rounded with sizes between 6.5 and 15 μm. Starch purity was high (92.57%) with amylose content of 25.36%. The gelatinization temperature was 83.05°C and transition enthalpy was 21.423 J/g. At 90°C, solubility was 20.42%, swelling power 17.64 g water/gstarch and water absorption capacity was 13 gwater/gstarch. The pH, clarity and color (Hue angle) of Ramon starch were higher to those reported for corn starch. The results achieved suggest that Ramon starch has potential for application in food systems requiring high processing temperatures and it is also a promising option for use in the manufacture of biodegradable materials.

  2. A review on introduction and applications of starch and its biodegradable polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Shanta Pokhrel

    2015-01-01

    Biodegradable polymers play a very important role in plastic engineering by replacing non biodegradable, non renewable petrol based polymers. Starch is a renewable, biodegradable, low cost natural polymer with high availability. Natural polymers can be blended with synthetic polymers to improve their properties significantly. This article reviews advance in starch and starch based blends and presents their numerous potential applications. Therefore, this review helps to understand the importa...

  3. Starch Digestion and Phosphorus Excretion in Lactating Dairy Cows

    OpenAIRE

    Guyton, Autumn Deanne

    2002-01-01

    The effects of starch and phosphorus (P) source on P partitioning and ruminal phytase activity were evaluated in eight lactating cows (113 DIM). Four cows were ruminaly cannulated. Cows were randomly assigned to treatments in a duplicated 4x4 Latin square with four, 18-d periods. Diets included dry ground corn (DG) or steam flaked corn (SF), with a no supplemental P (low P diet; 0.34% P) or supplemental purified phytic acid (PA; 0.45% P) to provide additional P from an organic source. Total c...

  4. Starch Digestion and Phosphorus Excretion in Lactating Dairy Cows

    OpenAIRE

    Guyton, Autumn Deanne

    2002-01-01

    The effects of starch and phosphorus (P) source on P partitioning and ruminal phytase activity were evaluated in eight lactating cows (113 DIM). Four cows were ruminaly cannulated. Cows were randomly assigned to treatments in a duplicated 4x4 Latin square with four, 18-d periods. Diets included dry ground corn (DG) or steam flaked corn (SF), with a no supplemental P (low P diet; 0.34% P) or supplemental purified phytic acid (PA; 0.45% P) to provide additional P from an organic source. Total c...

  5. STARCH RETROGRADATION AND PRODUCTION OF RESISTANT STARCH IN COOKED RICE

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    After rice cooking, retrogradation of starch in a cooked rice progresses quickly at under gelatinization temperature. Cold rice (aging rice) is tasteless, firm and digested slowly. My aim in this report is explained the relationship between cold rice tasteless and indexes of starch retrogradation. Starch gelatinization degree, starch whiteness index and resistant starch content that were indexes of starch retrogradation did not change remarkably of cold and aging rice that were very firm and ...

  6. Starch composites reinforced by bamboo cellulosic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dagang; Zhong, Tuhua; Chang, Peter R; Li, Kaifu; Wu, Qinglin

    2010-04-01

    Using a method of combined HNO(3)-KClO(3) treatment and sulfuric acid hydrolysis, bamboo cellulose crystals (BCCs) were prepared and used to reinforce glycerol plasticized starch. The structure and morphology of BCCs were investigated using X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, and solid-state (13)C NMR. Results showed that BCCs were of typical cellulose I structure, and the morphology was dependent on its concentration in the suspension. BCC of 50-100 nm were assembled into leaf nervations at low concentration (i.e. 0.1 wt.% of solids), but congregated into a micro-sized "flower" geometry at high concentration (i.e. 10.0 wt.% of solids). Tensile strength and Young's modulus of the starch/BCC composite films (SBC) were enhanced by the incorporation of the crystals due to reinforcement of BCCs and reduction of water uptake. BCCs at the optimal 8% loading level exhibited a higher reinforcing efficiency for plasticized starch plastic than any other loading level.

  7. The Effect of Carboxymethyl Cellulose Addition on the Properties of Starch-based Wood Adhesive

    OpenAIRE

    Zhibang Qiao; Jiyou Gu; Yingfeng Zuo; Haiyan Tan; Yanhua Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Starch adhesive was prepared utilizing corn starch, polyvinyl alcohol, and borax as raw materials. A certain amount of water-soluble carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) was added in the preparation process, and a certain percentage of polymethylene polyphenylene isocyanate pre-polymer as cross-linking agent was used to improve its water resistance. To evaluate the water resistance, three-layer plywood was fabricated by hot pressing, and bonding strength was measured using a mechanical testing machi...

  8. Effect of modification temperature on starch oxidation and its physico-chemical properties

    OpenAIRE

    Sławomir Pietrzyk; Teresa Fortuna; Elżbieta Pabiś

    2012-01-01

    Corn starch was oxidised by hydrogen peroxide at temperatures 20, 30, 40 and 50°C. The oxidised starches were examined for the content of carboxyl groups, carbonyl groups, amylose and for water binding capacity and water solubility. Susceptibility to retrogradation and pasting characteristics were also determined. The results indicate that the effectiveness of oxidation process increased with increased temperature of modification. Temperature of modification influenced content of amylose ...

  9. Material properties and glass transition temperatures of different thermoplastic starches after extrusion processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Léon P.B.M.; Karman, Andre P.; Graaf, Robbert A. de

    2003-01-01

    Four different starch sources, namely waxy maize, wheat, potato and pea starch were extruded with the plasticizer glycerol, the latter in concentrations of 15, 20 and 25% (w/w). The glass transition temperatures of the resulting thermoplastic products were measured by Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Anal

  10. Effect of glycerol on the morphology of starch-sunflower oil composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yilmaz, G.; Jongboom, R.O.J.; Soest, van J.J.G.; Feil, H.

    1999-01-01

    The presented study involves the encapsulation of sunflower oil in starch by casting emulsions of oil in aqueous starch solutions. Glycerol was used as a plasticizer and lecithin was used as an emulsifier, to improve the emulsion stability. Increasing glycerol concentration in the samples resulted

  11. The effect of mono- and poly-organic acids on thermoformed starch-protein composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioplastic materials derived from proteins and starch are often difficult to process in high throughput plastic polymer molders due to their high moisture content and low melt properties. Starch and protein materials degrade above 140 deg C, exhibiting discoloration and low mechanical strength. In t...

  12. Effect of glycerol on the morphology of starch-sunflower oil composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yilmaz, G.; Jongboom, R.O.J.; Soest, van J.J.G.; Feil, H.

    1999-01-01

    The presented study involves the encapsulation of sunflower oil in starch by casting emulsions of oil in aqueous starch solutions. Glycerol was used as a plasticizer and lecithin was used as an emulsifier, to improve the emulsion stability. Increasing glycerol concentration in the samples resulted i

  13. Preparation and characterization of dry method esterified starch/polylactic acid composite materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Yingfeng; Gu, Jiyou; Yang, Long; Qiao, Zhibang; Tan, Haiyan; Zhang, Yanhua

    2014-03-01

    Corn starch and maleic anhydride were synthesized from a maleic anhydride esterified starch by dry method. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used for the qualitative analysis of the esterified starches. The reaction efficiency of dry method esterified starch reached 92.34%. The dry method esterified starch was blended with polylactic acid (PLA), and the mixture was melted and extruded to produce the esterified starch/polylactic acid (ES/PLA) composites. The degree of crystallinity of the ES/PLA was lower than that of the NS/PLA, indicating that the relative dependence between these two components of starch and polylactic acid was enhanced. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated that the dry method esterified starch increased the two-phase interface compatibility of the composites, thereby improving the tensile strength, bending strength, and elongation at break of the ES/PLA composite. The introduction of a hydrophobic ester bond and increase in interface compatibility led to an increase in ES/PLA water resistance. Melt index determination results showed that starch esterification modification had improved the melt flow properties of starch/PLA composite material. Strain scanning also showed that the compatibility of ES/PLA was increased. While frequency scanning showed that the storage modulus and complex viscosity of ES/PLA was less than that of NS/PLA.

  14. Gluten-free dough-making of specialty breads: Significance of blended starches, flours and additives on dough behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collar, Concha; Conte, Paola; Fadda, Costantino; Piga, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    The capability of different gluten-free (GF) basic formulations made of flour (rice, amaranth and chickpea) and starch (corn and cassava) blends, to make machinable and viscoelastic GF-doughs in absence/presence of single hydrocolloids (guar gum, locust bean and psyllium fibre), proteins (milk and egg white) and surfactants (neutral, anionic and vegetable oil) have been investigated. Macroscopic (high deformation) and macromolecular (small deformation) mechanical, viscometric (gelatinization, pasting, gelling) and thermal (gelatinization, melting, retrogradation) approaches were performed on the different matrices in order to (a) identify similarities and differences in GF-doughs in terms of a small number of rheological and thermal analytical parameters according to the formulations and (b) to assess single and interactive effects of basic ingredients and additives on GF-dough performance to achieve GF-flat breads. Larger values for the static and dynamic mechanical characteristics and higher viscometric profiles during both cooking and cooling corresponded to doughs formulated with guar gum and Psyllium fibre added to rice flour/starch and rice flour/corn starch/chickpea flour, while surfactant- and protein-formulated GF-doughs added to rice flour/starch/amaranth flour based GF-doughs exhibited intermediate and lower values for the mechanical parameters and poorer viscometric profiles. In addition, additive-free formulations exhibited higher values for the temperature of both gelatinization and retrogradation and lower enthalpies for the thermal transitions. Single addition of 10% of either chickpea flour or amaranth flour to rice flour/starch blends provided a large GF-dough hardening effect in presence of corn starch and an intermediate effect in presence of cassava starch (chickpea), and an intermediate reinforcement of GF-dough regardless the source of starch (amaranth). At macromolecular level, both chickpea and amaranth flours, singly added, determined

  15. Delaying corn rootworm resistance to Bt corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabashnik, Bruce E; Gould, Fred

    2012-06-01

    Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins for insect control have been successful, but their efficacy is reduced when pests evolve resistance. To delay pest resistance to Bt crops, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has required refuges of host plants that do not produce Bt toxins to promote survival of susceptible pests. Such refuges are expected to be most effective if the Bt plants deliver a dose of toxin high enough to kill nearly all hybrid progeny produced by matings between resistant and susceptible pests. In 2003, the EPA first registered corn, Zea mays L., producing a Bt toxin (Cry3Bb1) that kills western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, one of the most economically important crop pests in the United States. The EPA requires minimum refuges of 20% for Cry3Bb1 corn and 5% for corn producing two Bt toxins active against corn rootworms. We conclude that the current refuge requirements are not adequate, because Bt corn hybrids active against corn rootworms do not meet the high-dose standard, and western corn rootworm has rapidly evolved resistance to Cry3Bb1 corn in the laboratory, greenhouse, and field. Accordingly, we recommend increasing the minimum refuge for Bt corn targeting corn rootworms to 50% for plants producing one toxin active against these pests and to 20% for plants producing two toxins active against these pests. Increasing the minimum refuge percentage can help to delay pest resistance, encourage integrated pest management, and promote more sustainable crop protection.

  16. A Constitutive Model for Uni-axial Compaction of Non-adhesive Corn Stalk Powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Dong; Sun Yanling

    2004-01-01

    In order to study mechanical behaviors of corn stalk powder during the compaction, the yield criterion for corn stalk powder is proposed with a plasticity theory. From the stress-strain curves of uni-axial compaction test for corn stalk powder, the constitutive model, in which the equations are modified by experiments on corn stalk powder, is adopted to describe plastic behaviors of powder, and is discussed based on the incremental theory and deformation theory. The numerical results agree well with the experimental ones.

  17. Production of bioethanol from corn meal hydrolyzates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljiljana Mojovic; Svetlana Nikolic; Marica Rakin; Maja Vukasinovic [University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro). Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, Department of Biochemical Engineering and Biotechnology

    2006-09-15

    The two-step enzymatic hydrolysis of corn meal by commercially available {alpha}-amylase and glucoamylase and further ethanol fermentation of the obtained hydrolyzates by Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast was studied. The conditions of starch hydrolysis such as substrate and enzyme concentration and the time required for enzymatic action were optimized taking into account both the effects of hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation. The corn meal hydrolyzates obtained were good substrates for ethanol fermentation by S. cerevisiae. The yield of ethanol of more than 80% (w/w) of the theoretical was achieved with a satisfactory volumetric productivity P (g/l h). No shortage of fermentable sugars was observed during simultaneous hydrolysis and fermentation. In this process, the savings in energy by carrying out the saccharification step at lower temperature (32{sup o}C) could be realized, as well as a reduction of the process time for 4 h. 31 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. 不同施肥条件下覆膜对玉米干物质积累及吸磷量的影响%Effect of plastic film mulching on dry mass accumulation and phosphorus uptake of corn receiving different fertilizers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兆君; 杨佳佳; 范菲菲; 候云鹏; 谢佳; 梁永超

    2011-01-01

    In order to investigate the effects of plastic film mulching (PFM) on maize growth and phosphorus uptake, effects of PFM were studied on dry mass accumulation, phosphorus content, phosphorus uptake, phosphorus distribution, and phosphorus harvest index of corn receiving different fertilizers in field condition.The results were presented as follows: 1 ) PFM could significantly increase the dry mass of corn at different growth stage.The largest percentage of dry mass occurred at seedling and jointing stages of corn with the values of 24.9%-126.3%.At the seedling stage, dry mass of corn was more strongly increased by PFM, with the application of just phosphorus fertilizer than with the application of phosphorus and potassium, or nitrogen, and potassium fertilizers at the same time.2) PFM could also significantly increase the phosphorus content, phosphorus accumulation of above part of corn,and its effect is stronger at the early growth stage of corn than that at the late growth stage.At the presence of PFM,the content of phosphorus, and accumulation of phosphorus of corn are higher at the treatment of P than those at other treatments such as CK, PK, and NPK.The content of phosphorus and accumulation of phosphorus of corn were increased by 56.3% and 253.0%, respectively, at the treatment of phosphorus fertilizer and PFM.PFM has no significant effects on phosphorus transferring rate of corn.%为了探明覆膜对不同施肥条件下玉米生长及磷素吸收的影响,采用田间试验法,研究了覆膜对不同施肥条件下玉米全生育期干物质积累、地上部磷含量、吸磷量、磷分配以及磷收获指数的影响.结果表明:1)覆膜处理能够显著增加玉米不同生育期地上部干重,其中苗期和拔节期玉米地上部干重增加幅度最大,达24.9%~126.3%.覆膜对单施磷肥条件下玉米苗期生长的促进作用较明显,而生长后期则对氮、磷、钾配施条件下的促进作用较明显.2)覆膜处理显

  19. Biodegradable plastics from renewable sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flieger, M; Kantorová, M; Prell, A; Rezanka, T; Votruba, J

    2003-01-01

    Plastic waste disposal is a huge ecotechnological problem and one of the approaches to solving this problem is the development of biodegradable plastics. This review summarizes data on their use, biodegradability, commercial reliability and production from renewable resources. Some commercially successful biodegradable plastics are based on chemical synthesis (i.e. polyglycolic acid, polylactic acid, polycaprolactone, and polyvinyl alcohol). Others are products of microbial fermentations (i.e. polyesters and neutral polysaccharides) or are prepared from chemically modified natural products (e.g., starch, cellulose, chitin or soy protein).

  20. Wet method for measuring starch gelatinization temperature using electrical conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Sanchez, E; Figueroa, J D C; Gaytan-Martínez, M

    2009-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to develop a method for obtaining the gelatinization temperature of starches by using electrical conductivity. Native starches from corn, rice, potato, and wheat were prepared with different proportions of water and heated from room temperature to 90 degrees C, in a device especially designed for monitoring the electrical conductivity as a function of temperature. The results showed a linear trend of the electrical conductivity with the temperature until it reaches the onset gelatinization temperature. After that point, the electrical conductivity presented an increment or decrement depending on the water content in the sample and it was related to starch swelling and gelatinization phenomena. At the end gelatinization temperature, the conductivity becomes stable and linear, indicating that there are no more changes of phase. The starch gelatinization parameter, which was evaluated in the 4 types of starches using the electrical conductivity, was compared with those obtained by using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The onset temperature at which the electrical conductivity increased or decreased was found to be similar to that obtained by DSC. Also, the final temperature at which the electrical conductivity returned to linearity matched the end gelatinization temperature of the DSC. Further, a wet method for measuring the onset, peak, and end gelatinization temperatures as a function of temperature using the electrical conductivity curves is presented for a starch-water suspension.

  1. pH catalyzed pretreatment of corn bran for enhanced enzymatic arabinoxylan degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Jane; Johansen, Katja Salomon; Meyer, Anne S.

    2011-01-01

    Corn bran is mainly made up of the pericarp of corn kernels and is a byproduct stream resulting from the wet milling step in corn starch processing. Through statistic modeling this study examined the optimization of pretreatment of corn bran for enzymatic hydrolysis. A low pH pretreatment (pH 2......, 150°C, 65min) boosted the enzymatic release of xylose and glucose and maximized biomass solubilization. With more acidic pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis the total xylose release was maximized (at pH 1.3) reaching ∼50% by weight of the original amount present in destarched corn bran......, but the enzyme catalyzed xylose release was maximal after pretreatment at approx. pH 2. The total glucose release peaked after pretreatment of approx. pH 1.5 with an enzymatic release of approx. 68% by weight of the original amounts present in destarched corn bran. For arabinose the enzymatic release...

  2. In vitro ruminal fermentation kinetic of diets containing forage cactus with urea and different starch sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann dos Santos Luz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate fermentation kinetic of diets based on cactus forage enriched with urea and Tifton 85 hay, containing different starch sources, using semi-automated in vitro gas production technique. Treatments were disposed in a randomized block design, with four replications, where concentrates were formulated as follows: cassava roots (FSMa, semi flint corn grains (FSMiSD, dent corn grains (FSMiD and wheat bran (FTMa. All diets were formulated to obtain 15% of crude protein. Gas pressure were measured 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24, 30, 36, 48, 72 and 96 h after inoculation. For fast phase maximum gas volume (Vf1, both treatments containing corn did not differ (P>0.05. FTMa differed (P<0.05 from diets composed with corn, as main starch source. Specific degradation rate of fast fraction (Kd1 was higher (P<0.05 on FSMa and FTMa diets, compared with corn diets. Colonization time (L showed lower values (P<0.05 for FTMa diet. The lowest total gas production was observed on FTMa and the highest for FSMiD, varying from 225.49 to 268.31 mL/g, respectively. Cassava roots as starch source contributes to a faster fermentation, compared to both corns, allowing a better synchronization with faster degradation nitrogen sources.

  3. Naturally Compatible: Starch Acetate/Cellulosic Fiber Composites. I. Processing and Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nättinen, Kalle; Hyvärinen, Sari; Joffe, Roberts;

    2010-01-01

    Composite compounds based on hemp and flax fibers in triethyl citrate plasticized starch acetate were prepared by melt processing. For better properties and processability, compounds with plasticizer contents in the range 20-35 wt% were screened. Composites were prepared with fiber contents up...... to 50 wt%. The composite mechanical properties were measured from injection molded test specimens. A Young's modulus of 8.3 GPa and stress at maximum load of 51 MPa were obtained with 40 wt% flax fiber in a plasticized starch acetate with 20 wt% triethyl citrate. Decreasing the plasticizer...

  4. Gluten-free bread formulated with Prosopis ruscifolia (vinal) seed and corn flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, C; Sánchez, H; Freyre, M; Osella, C

    2010-05-01

    Vinal (Prosopis ruscifolia) is a wild leguminous tree found widely in the north of Argentina. Like other Prosopis, vinal can grow under extreme temperatures, in poor soils and can tolerate high saline conditions. Taking into account the high protein and gums contents of vinal seeds, a gluten-free bread was developed including them and corn flour. A central composite design involving vinal seed flour/corn starch ratio (X1) and corn flour/corn starch ratio (X2) was used, and second-order models for specific volume (Y1) and bread score (Y2), evaluated by an expert panel, were employed to generate response surfaces. In the optimum zone of response surfaces, a product with higher protein content (5.2 g/100 g) than gluten-free breads found in local commercial markets was obtained. Also, an interesting antioxidant activity (115 mg ascorbic acid equivalent/100 g) was found in optimized gluten-free bread.

  5. Potato starch synthases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nazarian-Firouzabadi, Farhad; Visser, Richard G.F.

    2017-01-01

    Starch, a very compact form of glucose units, is the most abundant form of storage polyglucan in nature. The starch synthesis pathway is among the central biochemical pathways, however, our understanding of this important pathway regarding genetic elements controlling this pathway, is still

  6. Potato starch synthases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nazarian-Firouzabadi, Farhad; Visser, Richard G.F.

    2017-01-01

    Starch, a very compact form of glucose units, is the most abundant form of storage polyglucan in nature. The starch synthesis pathway is among the central biochemical pathways, however, our understanding of this important pathway regarding genetic elements controlling this pathway, is still insuffic

  7. Pengaruh Penambahan Kitosan Terhadap Karakteristik Bioplastik Dari Pati Umbi Talas Dengan Menggunakan Plasticizer Gliserol

    OpenAIRE

    Sirait, Toni Pahri

    2015-01-01

    Bioplastic is a plastic which made from renewable biomass sources, such as starch, vegetable oil, and etc. Taro starch (Colocasia esculenta) is a potential raw material for bioplastics by using glycerol as plasticizer and chitosan as a filler. The objective of this research was to investigate the characteristics and gelatinization profile of taro starch, to investigate the effect of adding chitosan and glycerol on mechanical properties such as tensile strength, elongation at br...

  8. Characteristics of raw starch degrading alpha-amylase from Bacillus aquimaris MKSC 6.2 associated with soft coral Sinularia sp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puspasari, Fernita; Nurachman, Zeily; Noer, Achmad Saefuddin; Radjasa, Ocky Karna; van der Maarel, Marc J. E. C.; Natalia, Dessy

    Partially purified alpha-amylase from Bacillus aquimaris MKSC 6.2, a bacterium isolated from a soft coral Sinularia sp., Merak Kecil Island, West Java, Indonesia, showed an ability to degrade raw corn, rice, sago, cassava, and potato starches with adsorption percentage in the range of 65-93%. Corn

  9. Characteristics of raw starch degrading alpha-amylase from Bacillus aquimaris MKSC 6.2 associated with soft coral Sinularia sp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puspasari, Fernita; Nurachman, Zeily; Noer, Achmad Saefuddin; Radjasa, Ocky Karna; van der Maarel, Marc J. E. C.; Natalia, Dessy

    2011-01-01

    Partially purified alpha-amylase from Bacillus aquimaris MKSC 6.2, a bacterium isolated from a soft coral Sinularia sp., Merak Kecil Island, West Java, Indonesia, showed an ability to degrade raw corn, rice, sago, cassava, and potato starches with adsorption percentage in the range of 65-93%. Corn h

  10. Use of biomass energy. Saccharification of raw starch and ethanol fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, S.

    1982-01-01

    Raw starch was saccharified under acidic condition of pH 3.5 using black-koji amylase, and the resultant saccharidies were fermented to give ethanol in succession. White polished rice flour was fermented at 30 degrees C during the period of 7 to 10 days to give ethanol. Semi-continuous ethanol fermentation was carried out using corn starch and cassava starch. Batch ethanol fermentation was also carried out using cassava or sweet potato. Sweet potato was fermented using Rhizopus gluco-amylase. 11 references.

  11. Gelatinization kinetic of waxy starches under pressure according to ionic strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonin, Hélène; Guyon, Claire; de Lamballerie, Marie; Lebail, Alain

    2010-12-01

    High pressure is a potential technology for the texturization of food products at ambient temperature. In this area, waxy starches are particularly interesting because they gelatinize quickly under sufficient pressure. However, gelatinization may be influenced by other components in the food matrix. Here, we investigate the influence of increasing ionic strength on gelatinization rate and kinetics at 500 MPa for waxy corn and waxy rice starches. We show that increasing ionic strength strongly retards and inhibits starch gelatinization under pressure and leads to heterogeneous gels with remnant granules.

  12. Plastic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Plastic Surgery KidsHealth > For Teens > Plastic Surgery Print A A ... forehead lightened with a laser? What Is Plastic Surgery? Just because the name includes the word "plastic" ...

  13. Starch Bioengineering in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana

    the wild-type cultivar. These exciting results may provide a potential clean technological approach to starch modification by in-planta bioengineering and avoid environmental hazards resulting from post-harvest treatments by chemical modifications. The third study was to investigate the effects...... involved in this process, has enabled the genetic modification f crops in a rational manner to produce novel designer starches with improved functionality. The hypothesis of the present study is that the hyper-phosphorylation of cereal endosperm starch makes it easily accessible and degradable...... by the amylolytic enzymes while the amylose-only endosperm starch exhibits high resistance to degradation and hence less available for degradation. With the aim to investigate the hypothesis, starch molecular structures were modulated with the above mentioned modifications and were studied for the effects...

  14. TECHNOLOGY OF THERMOPLASTIC STARCH PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. D. Lukin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the manufacturing of bio-recyclable polymer products, which production and consumption has become an efficient way to protect environment from solid wastes in different countries of the world. The issue of environmental protection becomes global and the rapid growth of synthetic plastics application in many industries is a serious concern. There is a important task to improve the quality, safety and durability of products as well as their utilization after the expiration period. One of the most acceptable ways to solve these issues is to produce biodegradable materials based on natural materials, which are not harmful for environment and human health. A very common and effective method to give biological degradability to synthetic polymers is to insert starch into polymer composition in combination with other ingredients.

  15. A comparison between corn and grain sorghum fermentation rates, Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles composition, and lipid profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, David J; Moreau, Robert A

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if the compositional difference between grain sorghum and corn impact ethanol yields and coproduct value when grain sorghum is incorporated into existing corn ethanol facilities. Fermentation properties of corn and grain sorghum were compared utilizing two fermentation systems (conventional thermal starch liquefaction and native starch hydrolysis). Fermentation results indicated that protease addition influenced the fermentation rate and yield for grain sorghum, improving yields by 1-2% over non-protease treated fermentations. Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles produced from sorghum had a statistically significant higher yields and significantly higher protein content relative to corn. Lipid analysis of the Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles showed statistically significant differences between corn and sorghum in triacylglycerol, diacylglycerol and free fatty acid levels.

  16. Effect of maturity and hybrid on ruminal and intestinal digestion of corn silage in dry cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyrat, J; Baumont, R; Le Morvan, A; Nozière, P

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of stage of maturity at harvest on extent of starch, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and protein digestion, and rumen fermentation in dry cows fed whole-plant corn silage from different hybrids. Four nonlactating Holstein cows cannulated at the rumen and proximal duodenum were fed 4 corn silages differing in hybrid (flint vs. flint-dent) and maturity stage (early vs. late) in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. From early to late maturity, starch content increased (from 234.5 to 348.5 g/kg), whereas total-tract (99.7 to 94.5%) and ruminal starch digestibility (91.3 to 86.5%) decreased significantly. The decrease in ruminal starch digestibility with increasing maturity was similar between hybrids. No effects were found of maturity, hybrid, or maturity × hybrid interaction on total-tract NDF digestibility, ruminal NDF digestibility, true digestibility of N and organic matter in the rumen, or microbial synthesis. Harvesting at later maturity led to increased ruminal ammonia, total volatile fatty acid concentrations, and acetate/propionate ratio but not pH. This study concludes that delaying date of harvest modifies the proportions of digestible starch and NDF supplied to cattle. Adjusting date of corn harvest to modulate amount of rumen-digested starch could be used as a strategy to control nutrient delivery to ruminants.

  17. Studies on the Property of Starch Sodium Dodecenylsuccinate%十二烯基琥珀酸淀粉酯性质的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈煦; 张燕萍; 吴嘉根

    2001-01-01

    The paste property of starch sodium dodecenylsuccinate and cornstarch was studied with Haake rotoviscometer and Brabender viscometer. The result showed that the thickening ability of starch sodium dodecenylsuccinate was better than that of corn starch. The emulsion stability of starch sodium dodecenylsuccinate was invcstigatcd by the mcthod of wcighting, comparcd with that of gum arabic and corn starch. The result indicated that the emulsion stability of starch sodium dodecenylsuccinate was better than that of corn starch and equal to that of gum arabic. The starch sodium dodecenylsuccinate and dextrin adding gum arabic was sued as the wall material in microencapsulation examination by the method of spray-drying. The result showed that the microencapsulation efficiency using starch sodium dodecenylsuccinate was better than that using dextrin adding gum arabic.%十二烯基酯化淀粉是一种优良的增稠和乳化剂.作者研究了其力学性质和乳化稳定性,并进行了微胶囊包埋实验,实验证明其包埋效果比传统的壁材更好.

  18. Production of Cyclodextrins by CGTase from Bacillus clausii Using Different Starches as Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves-Prado, H. F.; Carneiro, A. A. J.; Pavezzi, F. C.; Gomes, E.; Boscolo, M.; Franco, C. M. L.; da Silva, R.

    Cyclodextrins (CDs) are cyclic oligasaccharides composed by d-glucose monomers joined by α-1,4-d glicosidic linkages. The main types of CDs are α-, β- and γ-CDs consisting of cycles of six, seven, and eight glucose monomers, respectively. Their ability to form inclusion complexes is the most important characteristic, allowing their wide industrial application. The physical property of the CD-complexed compound can be altered to improve stability, volatility, solubility, or bio-availability. The cyclomaltodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase, EC 2.4.1.19) is an enzyme capable of converting starch into CD molecules. In this work, the CGTase produced by Bacillus clausii strain E16 was used to produce CD from maltodextrin and different starches (commercial soluble starch, corn, cassava, sweet potato, and waxy corn starches) as substrates. It was observed that the substrate sources influence the kind of CD obtained and that this CGTase displays a β-CGTase action, presenting a better conversion of soluble starch at 1.0%, of which 80% was converted in CDs. The ratio of total CD produced was 0:0.89:0.11 for α/β/γ. It was also observed that root and tuber starches were more accessible to CGTase action than seed starch under the studied conditions.

  19. Intestinal transport and fermentation of resistant starch evaluated by the hydrogen breath test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, M; Rumessen, J J; Gudmand-Høyer, E

    1994-01-01

    To study fermentability of different samples of resistant starch (RS), compared to one another and to lactulose, and to study the effect on gastric emptying of addition of RS to test meal. Finally to study if adaptation to RS results in a measurable change in fermentation pattern, (H2/CH4 product...... production). Sources of RS: Raw potato starch (RPS), 58% RS; corn flakes (CF), 5% RS; hylon VII high amylomaize starch, extrusion cooked and cooled (HAS) 30% RS; highly retrograded hylon VII high amylomaize starch (HRA) 89% RS.......To study fermentability of different samples of resistant starch (RS), compared to one another and to lactulose, and to study the effect on gastric emptying of addition of RS to test meal. Finally to study if adaptation to RS results in a measurable change in fermentation pattern, (H2/CH4...

  20. Vacuum stripping of ethanol during high solids fermentation of corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shihadeh, Jameel K; Huang, Haibo; Rausch, Kent D; Tumbleson, Mike E; Singh, Vijay

    2014-05-01

    In corn-ethanol industry, yeast stress inducing glucose concentrations produced during liquefaction and subsequent high ethanol concentrations produced during fermentation restrict slurry solids to 32 % w/w. These limits were circumvented by combining two novel technologies: (1) granular starch hydrolyzing enzyme (GSHE) to break down starch simultaneously with fermentation and (2) vacuum stripping to remove ethanol. A vacuum stripping system was constructed and applied to fermentations at 30, 40, and 45 % solids. As solids increased from 30 to 40 %, ethanol yield decreased from 0.35 to 0.29 L/kg. Ethanol yield from 45 % solids was only 0.18 L/kg. An improvement was conducted by increasing enzyme dose from 0.25 to 0.75 g/g corn and reducing yeast inoculum by half. After improvement, ethanol yield from 40 % solids vacuum treatment increased to 0.36 L/kg, comparable to ethanol yield from 30 % solids (control).

  1. Modelling of moisture adsorption for sugar palm (Arenga pinnata) starch film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatmiko, Tri Hadi; Poeloengasih, Crescentiana D.; Prasetyo, Dwi Joko; Hernawan

    2017-03-01

    Sorption characteristic of food products is important for design, optimization, storage and modelling. Sugar palm starch film with two different plasticizers (sorbitol and glycerol) with varied concentration studied for its adsorption isotherm characteristic. The data of adsorption isotherm fitted with GAB, Oswin, Smith and Peleg models. All models describe the experiment data well, but Peleg model is better than the other models on both sugar palm starch film plasticized with sorbitol and glycerol. Moisture sorption of sugar palm starch increased linearly with plasticizer concentration. A new model by taking account of plasticizer concentration describes the experiment data well with an average of coefficients of determination (R2) 0.9913 and 0.9939 for film plasticized with glycerol and sorbitol respectively.

  2. Enzymatic corn wet milling: engineering process and cost model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McAloon Andrew J

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enzymatic corn wet milling (E-milling is a process derived from conventional wet milling for the recovery and purification of starch and co-products using proteases to eliminate the need for sulfites and decrease the steeping time. In 2006, the total starch production in USA by conventional wet milling equaled 23 billion kilograms, including modified starches and starches used for sweeteners and ethanol production 1. Process engineering and cost models for an E-milling process have been developed for a processing plant with a capacity of 2.54 million kg of corn per day (100,000 bu/day. These models are based on the previously published models for a traditional wet milling plant with the same capacity. The E-milling process includes grain cleaning, pretreatment, enzymatic treatment, germ separation and recovery, fiber separation and recovery, gluten separation and recovery and starch separation. Information for the development of the conventional models was obtained from a variety of technical sources including commercial wet milling companies, industry experts and equipment suppliers. Additional information for the present models was obtained from our own experience with the development of the E-milling process and trials in the laboratory and at the pilot plant scale. The models were developed using process and cost simulation software (SuperPro Designer® and include processing information such as composition and flow rates of the various process streams, descriptions of the various unit operations and detailed breakdowns of the operating and capital cost of the facility. Results Based on the information from the model, we can estimate the cost of production per kilogram of starch using the input prices for corn, enzyme and other wet milling co-products. The work presented here describes the E-milling process and compares the process, the operation and costs with the conventional process. Conclusion The E-milling process

  3. A novel process for direct production of acetone-butanol-ethanol from native starches using granular starch hydrolyzing enzyme by Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thang, Vu Hong; Kobayashi, Genta

    2014-02-01

    In this work, a new approach for acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production has been proposed. Direct fermentation of native starches (uncooked process) was investigated by using granular starch hydrolyzing enzyme (GSHE) and Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4. Even the process was carried out under suboptimal condition for activity of GSHE, the production of ABE was similar with that observed in conventional process or cooked process in terms of final solvent concentration (21.3 ± 0.4 to 22.4 ± 0.4 g/L), butanol concentration (17.5 ± 0.4 to 17.8 ± 0.3 g/L) and butanol yield (0.33 to 0.37 g/g). The production of solvents was significantly dependent on the source of starches. Among investigated starches, corn starch was more susceptible to GSHE while cassava starch was the most resistant to this enzyme. Fermentation using native corn starch resulted in the solvent productivity of 0.47 g/L h, which was about 15 % higher than that achieved in cooked process. On the contrary, uncooked process using cassava and wheat starch resulted in the solvent productivity of 0.30 and 0.37 g/L h, which were respectively about 30 % lower than those obtained in cooked process. No contamination was observed during all trials even fermentation media were prepared without sterilization. During the fermentation using native starches, no formation of foam is observed. This uncooked process does not require cooking starchy material; therefore, the thermal energy consumption for solvent production would remarkably be reduced in comparison with cooked process.

  4. CARACTERIZACIÓN MORFOLÓGICA DE PELÍCULAS BIODEGRADABLES A PARTIR DE ALMIDÓN MODIFICADO DE YUCA, AGENTE ANTIMICROBIANO Y PLASTIFICANTE CARACTERIZAÇÃO MORFOLÓGICA DE FILMES BIODEGRADÁVEIS A PARTIR DE AMIDO MODIFICADO DE MANDIOCA, AGENTE ANTIMICROBIANO E PLASTIFICANTE MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF BIODEGRADABLE FILMS MADE FROM MODIFIED CASSAVA STARCH, ANTIMICROBIAL AGENT AND PLASTICIZER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    REINALDO VELASCO M

    2012-12-01

    propriedades microestruturais e mecânicas dos amidos termoplásticos, que são essenciais para a continuidade no estudo de filmes biodegradáveisIt was evaluated the morphological surface of thermoplastic starch (TPS obtained from three modified cassava starch varieties, plasticizer and an antimicrobial agent. The films was made by blown extrusion and extended over a slide and then was taken photomicrographs with 4x and 10x objectives. It was used High Resolution Optical Microscopy to image characterization. The technique showed the effect of plasticizer addition over the starch films microstructure, it was found some inhomogeneity; however was identified some smooth regions related to form and size of starch granule, plasticizer concentration and extrusion variables process like velocity screw and temperature profile. This research contributed to characterize microstructural properties and gave some insights about the mechanical behaviour of TPS films, needed to study and make biodegradable films.

  5. Effect of the corn grain storage method on saccharification and ethanol fermentation field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Nowak

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The chemical conservation was chosen in the study as the method for preserving fresh corn grain for distilleries. Five types of preserved corn samples were prepared. The control (with no additives and four preserved with the preparation, based on formic and propionic acids (KemiSile 2000 Plus, at different levels. All the samples were stored for two months. Ethanol fermentations of low-temperature-cooked and pressure-cooked corn starch were carried out using commercial distillery yeast. The yeast strain, after starch hydrolysis with two enzymes, was able to produce 86-93% of theoretical ethanol yield from low-temperature-cooked corn. The ethanol production was almost equal to that produced from pressure-cooked corn starch (121°C, which was 87-94% of theoretical ethanol yield. The quality of distillates was also investigated. The most common by-products found were: acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate, propanol, isobutanol and 3-metylo-1-butanol. There were no important differences of spirits chemical composition between low-temperature- -cooking and pressure-cooking method as well as between the kind of corn sample.

  6. An enzyme complex increases in vitro dry matter digestibility of corn and wheat in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyu Ree; Park, Chan Sol; Kim, Beob Gyun

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of enzyme complex on in vitro dry matter (DM) digestibility for feed ingredients. The objective of experiment 1 was to screen feed ingredients that can be effective substrates for an enzyme complex, mainly consisted of β-pentosanase, β-glucanase and α-amylase, using in vitro digestibility methods. In experiment 1, the test ingredients were three grain sources (barley, corn and wheat) and six protein supplements (canola meal, copra expellers, cottonseed meal, distillers dried grains with solubles, palm kernel expellers and soybean meal). In vitro ileal and total tract digestibility (IVID and IVTTD, respectively) of DM for test ingredients were determined. In vitro digestibility methods consisted of two- or three-step procedure simulating in vivo digestion in the pig gastrointestinal tracts with or without enzyme complex. As the enzyme complex added, the IVID of DM for corn and wheat increased (p vitro digestibility of the fractions (starch, germ, hull and gluten) that maximally respond to the enzyme complex in experiment 2. The IVID of DM for corn starch, germ and hull increased (p vitro DM digestibility of corn and wheat, and the digestibility increments of corn are mainly attributed to the increased digestibility of corn starch.

  7. Energy and greenhouse gas assessment of European glucose production from corn – a multiple allocation approach for a key ingredient of the bio-based economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsiropoulos, I.; Cok, B.; Patel, M.K.

    2013-01-01

    Bio-based products are considered to be a sustainable alternative to conventional fossil fuel-based materials. This paper studies the production of glucose from corn starch, an important feedstock for a wide range of bio-based products (e.g. ethanol, bio-based monomers), in a European corn wet mill

  8. Variation trends in decomposition rate of corn straw and in temperature and relative humidity of straw returned layer when returning straw to blank strips above plastic film%带膜还田时玉米秸秆的腐解率和还田层的温湿度变化趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢秉林; 包兴国; 车宗贤; 张久东; 杨新强; 王平

    2016-01-01

    To provide a theoretical basis and technical support for returning corn straw to field in local areas ,varia-tion trends in decomposition rate of corn straw ,and temperature and relative humidity of straw returned layer when return-ing straw to blank strips above plastic film were studied by using nylon net bags in Hexi oasis irrigation .The results showed that straw returning could increase topsoil temperature at around 8 am but alleviate the soil temperature decline at around 8 pm .Daily average relative humidity ,maximum relative humidity and minimum relative humidity at the straw re-turned layer under straw-buried to blank strips above the plastic film were higher than those with the straw-mulching treat-ment ,but the diurnal relative humidity was lower .Meanwhile ,daily minimum temperature at the straw returned layer by the straw-buried treatment was higher than that by straw-mulching ,but the average daily temperature ,maximum tempera-ture and diurnal temperature were lower than those by straw-mulching to blank strips above cover plastic film .The tem-perature ,relative humidity and decomposition time of straw returning layer were the main influencing factors for corn straw decomposition .Temperature at the straw returned layer had the greatest effect on the decomposition of corn straw , followed by relative humidity and decomposition time .The temperature and relative humidity at the straw returned layer played major roles in the decomposition of straw and the decomposition time played a secondary role under straw-mulcheing to blank strips above plastic film .The temperature ,relative humidity and decomposition time played major roles in the decomposition rate of corn straw under straw-buried to blank strips above cover plastic film model .Straw-buried treatment entered the peak stage of straw decomposition after 30 days ,while the monthly decomposition rate of corn straw reached to 15% ~16% . Straw-mulched treatment entered the peak stage of straw

  9. Irradiated gelatin-potato starch blends: evaluation of physicochemical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inamura, Patricia Y.; Regis, Wellington; Mastro, Nelida L., E-mail: nlmastro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Macromolecular polysaccharides of large chains as starch can interlace with gelatin modifying their mechanical resistance. In this work, biodegradable bovine gelatin-potato starch blends films were developed using glycerol as plasticizer. Three formulations of gelatin/starch proportions (w/w) were used (1:0; 3:1; 1:1) and casting was the chosen method. The dried samples were then submitted to ionizing radiation coming from an electron beam (EB) accelerator with doses of 20 and 40 kGy, at room temperature, in the presence of air. Mechanical properties such as puncture strength and elongation at break were measured. Color measurements, water absorption, moisture, and film solubility were assessed. The results showed that starch addition to films based on gelatin as well as irradiation affected physical and structural properties of the films. Although the increase of starch content in the mixture led to decrease of the puncture force even in samples irradiated with the higher dose, there was a decrease of water absorption of films with the increase of the dose, and also by the higher starch content. Samples irradiated at 20 kGy presented higher moisture and film solubility. The methodology developed in this paper can be applied to other composite systems to establish the best protein:starch ratio, and the contribution of the radiation crosslinking in each specific case. (author)

  10. Fundamental Study on the Impact of Gluten-Free Starches on the Quality of Gluten-Free Model Breads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan W. Horstmann

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Starch is widely used as an ingredient and significantly contributes to texture, appearance, and overall acceptability of cereal based foods, playing an important role due to its ability to form a matrix, entrapping air bubbles. A detailed characterisation of five gluten-free starches (corn, wheat, rice, tapioca, potato was performed in this study. In addition, the influence of these starches, with different compositional and morphological properties, was evaluated on a simple gluten-free model bread system. The morphological characterisation, evaluated using scanning electron microscopy, revealed some similarities among the starches, which could be linked to the baking performance of the breads. Moreover, the lipid content, though representing one of the minor components in starch, was found to have an influence on pasting, bread making, and staling. Quality differences in cereal root and tuber starch based breads were observed. However, under the baking conditions used, gluten-free rendered wheat starch performed best, followed by potato starch, in terms of loaf volume and cell structure. Tapioca starch and rice starch based breads were not further analysed, due to an inferior baking performance. This is the first study to evaluate gluten-free starch on a simple model bread system.

  11. Fundamental Study on the Impact of Gluten-Free Starches on the Quality of Gluten-Free Model Breads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horstmann, Stefan W; Belz, Markus C E; Heitmann, Mareile; Zannini, Emanuele; Arendt, Elke K

    2016-04-21

    Starch is widely used as an ingredient and significantly contributes to texture, appearance, and overall acceptability of cereal based foods, playing an important role due to its ability to form a matrix, entrapping air bubbles. A detailed characterisation of five gluten-free starches (corn, wheat, rice, tapioca, potato) was performed in this study. In addition, the influence of these starches, with different compositional and morphological properties, was evaluated on a simple gluten-free model bread system. The morphological characterisation, evaluated using scanning electron microscopy, revealed some similarities among the starches, which could be linked to the baking performance of the breads. Moreover, the lipid content, though representing one of the minor components in starch, was found to have an influence on pasting, bread making, and staling. Quality differences in cereal root and tuber starch based breads were observed. However, under the baking conditions used, gluten-free rendered wheat starch performed best, followed by potato starch, in terms of loaf volume and cell structure. Tapioca starch and rice starch based breads were not further analysed, due to an inferior baking performance. This is the first study to evaluate gluten-free starch on a simple model bread system.

  12. Phenolic acids in some cereal grains and their inhibitory effect on starch liquefaction and saccharification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandil, Amin; Li, Jihong; Vasanthan, Thava; Bressler, David C

    2012-08-29

    The presence of phenolic acids in cereal grain is thought to influence starch hydrolysis during liquefaction and saccharification of grain flours in the bioethanol industry. As a basis for remodeling starch hydrolysis systems and understanding inhibition mechanisms, the composition and concentration of phenolic acids in whole grain flours of triticale, wheat, barley, and corn were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The total phenolic acid contents (sum of nine phenolic acids) in the four grains were 1.14, 1.70, 0.90, and 1.25 mg/g, respectively, with more than 90% found in the bound form. Ferulic, coumaric, and protocatechuic acids were the major phenolic acids in triticale and wheat. Gallic acid was also rich in triticale. Ferulic, coumaric, hydroxybenzoic, and gallic acids were predominant in barley. In corn, ferulic, coumaric, gallic, and syringic acids were abundant. On the basis of these profiles, pure phenolic acids were added individually and collectively to isolated starches at amounts either equivalent to or 3 times those in the whole grains for hydrolysis. The degree of starch hydrolysis with α-amylase and amyloglucosidase decreased up to 8% when individual phenolic acids were present in cooked starch slurry. The decreases were more pronounced when phenolic acids were added collectively (4-5% with α-amylase and 9-13% with sequential α-amylase and amyloglucosidase). The study of a phenolic acid-starch-enzyme model system indicated that the interactions of phenolic acid-enzyme and phenolic acid-starch significantly contributed to the inhibitory effect of starch hydrolysis. Heating facilitated the interactions. Phenolic acids thus play a significant role in the resistance of starch to enzyme and/or the loss of enzyme activity during starch hydrolysis.

  13. INCREASING OF FALL RYE CORN FEEDING VALUE BY HYDROBARATHERNAL TREATMENT

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The results of production experience on hydrobarathernal treatment fall rye grain feeding are presented in the article. It is determined that ater high temperature and pressure impact on fall rye grain in aqueous media dextrinization of starch specifically amylopectin occurs to monosugar in the form of glucose, therewith, sugar content increases more than in twice in comparison with parent grain. It is revealed that replacement of milled corn grain mixture to fall rye grain hydrolyzate in rat...

  14. The mechanical properties of thermoplastic waxy maize starch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soest, van J.J.G.; Wit, de D.; Viiegenthart, J.F.G.

    1996-01-01

    The properties of thermoplastic amylopectin materials were investigated by stress-strain and relaxation measurements as a function of water content and crystallinity. Granular waxy maize starch was plasticized by extrusion with water and glycerol. The materials are amorphous after processing. The sh

  15. Characterization of starch nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymońska, J.; Targosz-Korecka, M.; Krok, F.

    2009-01-01

    Nanomaterials already attract great interest because of their potential applications in technology, food science and medicine. Biomaterials are biodegradable and quite abundant in nature, so they are favoured over synthetic polymer based materials. Starch as a nontoxic, cheap and renewable raw material is particularly suitable for preparation of nanoparticles. In the paper, the structure and some physicochemical properties of potato and cassava starch particles of the size between 50 to 100 nm, obtained by mechanical treatment of native starch, were presented. We demonstrated, with the aim of the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and the non-contact Atomic Force Microscopy (nc-AFM), that the shape and dimensions of the obtained nanoparticles both potato and cassava starch fit the blocklets - previously proposed as basic structural features of native starch granules. This observation was supported by aqueous solubility and swelling power of the particles as well as their iodine binding capacity similar to those for amylopectin-type short branched polysaccharide species. Obtained results indicated that glycosidic bonds of the branch linkage points in the granule amorphous lamellae might be broken during the applied mechanical treatment. Thus the released amylopectin clusters could escape out of the granules. The starch nanoparticles, for their properties qualitatively different from those of native starch granules, could be utilized in new applications.

  16. Physico-Chemical Characterization of Brew during the Brewing Corn Malt in the Production of Maize Beer in Congo

    OpenAIRE

    P. Diakabana; M. Mvoula-Tsiéri; J. Dhellot; S.C. Kobawila; D. Louembé

    2013-01-01

    The study consists in the production of a traditional beer from maize in the Congo. The traditional method of brewing corn malt has three main stages: malting corn, brewing corn malt and fermentation. During the brewing corn malt, endogenous amylase activity is destroyed during the stiffening of the starch to about 80°C. A pre-cooking of the mash is necessitated to promote amylolyse at 50°C with an exogenous enzyme. The use of a preparation of α-amylase can liquefy the mash and produce a swee...

  17. The effect of an exogenous protease on the fermentation and nutritive value of high-moisture corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, L; Windle, M C; Walker, N

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if treating high-moisture corn at harvest with an exogenous protease could accelerate the increase in in vitro ruminal starch degradation that is normally found with advancing times of ensiling. Ground high-moisture corn (HMC; 73% dry matter) was untreated or treated with an exogenous protease to achieve a final concentration of 2,000 mg of protease/kg of fresh corn. Corn was ensiled in laboratory-scale bags (approximately 500 g) that were evacuated of air, heat-sealed, and stored at 22 to 23°C for 70 and 140 d. Samples of freshly treated corn samples were collected to represent d 0 samples. Treatment of HMC with protease did not affect the gross populations of lactic acid bacteria or yeasts throughout the ensiling period. Treatment of HMC with protease resulted in higher concentrations of lactic acid and ethanol after 70 but not 140 d of ensiling. Concentrations of crude protein, water-soluble carbohydrates, and starch were unaffected by treatment with protease within each sampling day. After 70 or 140 d of ensiling, HMC that was treated with protease had higher concentrations of soluble protein (as a % of crude protein) and NH3-N, and had lower concentrations of prolamin protein, compared with untreated corn. In vitro rumen degradability (7-h incubation) of starch was greater in protease-treated versus untreated corn at all sampling days but the difference was more pronounced after 70 and 140 d compared with d 0. Concentrations of soluble protein and NH3-N were positively correlated with in vitro starch degradation. Conversely, the concentrations of prolamin protein in HMC were negatively correlated with in vitro starch degradation. Treating HMC with an exogenous protease could be a method to obtain greater potential for ruminal starch fermentation after a relatively short period of ensiling. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of cyclodextrin glycosiltransferase modified starch and cyclodextrins on plasma glucose and lipids metabolism in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential functional and nutritional benefits of granular starch treated with cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase) and the released cyclodextrins (CDs) were explored in in vivo studies. The metabolic effects of diets in the C57BL/6J mouse containing native and enzymatically modified corn st...

  19. Effect of the storage conditions on mechanical properties and microstructure of biodegradabel baked starch foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baked foam films were prepared from four sources of starch: corn, potato, tapioca and chayotextle, and stored at relative moisture conditions of 0 to 75% and at temperatures of 4 and 65 °C. Then, the structural and mechanical properties of the films were evaluated. The results showed that the source...

  20. Corrosion protection of steel by thin coatings of starch-oil dry lubricants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrosion of materials is one of the most serious and challenging problems faced worldwide by industry. Dry lubricants reduce friction between two metal surfaces. This research investigated the inhibition of corrosive behavior a dry lubricant formulation consisting of jet-cooked corn starch and soyb...

  1. 秸秆还田对全膜双垄沟播玉米产量及土壤养分的影响%Effects of Straw Returning on Yield and Soil Nutrient of Corn Ditch Sowing in Double Ridge Mulched With Plastic Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐军

    2012-01-01

      在庄浪县试验观察了秸秆还田对全膜双垄沟播玉米产量及土壤养分的影响.结果表明,秸秆还田处理的玉米经济性状表现较好.秸秆还田配施秸秆催腐剂能有效提高土壤有机质及氮、磷、钾等速效养分的含量,产量可达11212.1 kg/hm2,较对照增产10.45%.%  Effects of straw returning on yield and soil nutrient of corn ditch sowing in double ridge mulched with plastic films has been observed in the experiment of Zhuanglang county. The results showed that the corn economic traits straw returning was the best . The application of straw returning combined application of straw reminder preservatives can effectively increase the available nutrient content of soil organic matter and nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, etc., the yield could reach 11 212.1 kg/hm2 and 10.45%more than that control.

  2. Glyphosate effect on shikimate, nitrate reductase activity, yield, and seed composition in corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Krishna N; Bellaloui, Nacer; Zablotowicz, Robert M

    2010-03-24

    When glyphosate is applied to glyphosate-resistant (GR) crops, drift to nonglyphosate-resistant (non-GR) crops may cause significant injury and reduce yields. Tools are needed to quantify injury and predict crop losses. In this study, glyphosate drift was simulated by direct application at 12.5% of the recommended label rate to non-GR corn (Zea mays L.) at 3 or 6 weeks after planting (WAP) during two field seasons in the Mississippi delta region of the southeastern USA. Visual plant injury, shikimate accumulation, nitrate reductase activity, leaf nitrogen, yield, and seed composition were evaluated. Effects were also evaluated in GR corn and GR corn with stacked glufosinate-resistant gene at the recommended label rate at 3 and 6 WAP. Glyphosate at 105 g ae/ha was applied once at 3 or 6 weeks after planting to non-GR corn. Glyphosate at 840 (lower label limit) or 1260 (upper label limit) g ae/ha was applied twice at 3 and 6 WAP to transgenic corn. Glyphosate caused injury (45-55%) and increased shikimate levels (24-86%) in non-GR compared to nontreated corn. In non-GR corn, glyphosate drift did not affect starch content but increased seed protein 8-21% while reducing leaf nitrogen reductase activity 46-64%, leaf nitrogen 7-16%, grain yield 49-54%, and seed oil 18-23%. In GR and GR stacked with glufosinate-resistant corn, glyphosate applied at label rates did not affect corn yield, leaf and seed nitrogen, or seed composition (protein, oil, and starch content). Yet, nitrate reductase activity was reduced 5-19% with glyphosate at 840 + 840 g/ha rate and 8-42% with glyphosate at 1260 + 1260 g/ha rate in both GR and GR stacked corn. These results demonstrate the potential for severe yield loss in non-GR corn exposed to glyphosate drift.

  3. 增塑剂对淀粉/聚己内酯基共混合物的物理性能和生物降解能力的影响%Effect of plasticizers on physical property and biodegradability of starch/polycaprolactone base blend

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丽英; K.SRIROTH

    2002-01-01

    利用淀粉聚己内酯基共混物制做可降解塑料近年得到很大的发展.本文主要研究增塑剂(氯化胺、尿素、山梨醇、蔗糖、山梨醇酯60,甘氨酸和酪氨酸)对基础混合物(50:50 木薯淀粉和聚己内酯基加上35%的50:50甘油和水)物理性能和生物降解能力的影响.结果表明:除酪氨酸外,随着增塑剂含量的增加,各种增塑剂均有效地降低混合物的熔体粘度, 其中山梨醇酯60和氯化胺最有效.用拉伸强度和断裂伸长率表示的机械性能表明:尿素和氯化胺能提高基础混合物的断裂伸长,而酪氨酸能提高基础混合物的抗张强度.生物降解能力试验表明:在脂肪酶和α-淀粉酶的作用下,山梨醇、蔗糖和甘氨酸能增加基础混合物的溶解性和降解性,而氯化胺则降低降解性,近一步研究表明:尿素和山梨醇酯60对基础混合物的降解性影响很小.本项研究表明:基础混合物物理性能的提高依赖于增塑剂类型和增塑剂的含量,我们可以改变增塑剂类型和含量来发展具有不同性质的可降解塑料.%The technology of using starch/polycaprolactone (PCL) base blend for producing bi odegradable plastics advances rapidly in recent years. We study the effect of pl asticizers (amonium choride, urea, sorbitol, sucrose, span60, glycine, and tyros ine) on the physical property and biodegradability of the base blend of cassava starch: PCL (50:50) with 35% glycerol and water (50:50). We find all the plastic izers, except tyrosine, are effective in lowering the blend melt viscosity, by i ncreasing the plasticizer content. Among all plasticizers, span60 and amonium ch oride (NH4Cl) exhibit the greatest efficiency. Mechanical test, described by t ensile strength and breaking elongation, indicates that using urea and NH4Cl would improve the base blend breaking elongation, and using tyrosine would impr ove the base blend tensi le strength. It shows that sorbitol, sucrose, and glycine

  4. The Influence of Pair Spiral Extrusion Equipment on Thermoplastic Potato Starch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Qing-ning; Feng Hui-xia; Ye Qi-zhi

    2004-01-01

    denaturalizing and plasticizing reactions. After the continuous probing, we have successfully developed three types of thermoplastics starch plastic from the potato starch (starch content of all of them is greater than 90%). The fluidity of the thermoplastics starch will be better if the processing is performed under the condition of 4.0-6.0Mpa (pressure) and 80-110℃ (temperature). By doing so, it is shown that there is the possibility of further thermoplastic fabrication upon it.

  5. 苦荞淀粉制备工艺及加工特性研究%Research on preparation process and processing properties of buckwheet starch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈燕; 米粱波; 周怡梅; 孙伟峰

    2016-01-01

    研究苦荞淀粉的提取工艺及理化特性,并与土豆淀粉、红薯淀粉、豌豆淀粉、玉米淀粉这四种淀粉的理化指标及特性进行了对比研究。结果表明,苦荞淀粉的最优提取工艺:在55℃条件下水浴加热,料液比15∶1(w/w),加酶量1%,酶解时间1.5 h;苦荞淀粉的透明度略高于玉米淀粉,但低于土豆淀粉、豌豆淀粉和红薯淀粉;其凝沉性高于土豆淀粉、红薯淀粉、豌豆淀粉,但低于玉米淀粉;苦荞淀粉糊的冻融稳定性和玉米、豌豆、红薯相当,但弱于土豆淀粉糊。%The extraction process and physical and chemical properties of buckwheat starch compared with potato starch,sweet potato starch,pea starch and corn starch were discussed. The results showed that the optimum extraction process of buckwheat starch was:heated in water bath at 55℃condition, solid–liquid ratio 15∶1(w/w),1% enzyme dosage,and reaction time 1.5 h. The transparency of buckwheat starch was slightly higher than corn starch ,but lower than potato starch,pea starch and sweet potato starch. Meanwhile,its retrogradation was higher than potato starch,sweet potato starch and corn starch,but lower than pea starch. The results also showed that buckwheat starch had equivalent paste freeze–thaw stability with corn,peas,sweet potato,but weaker than the potato starch paste.

  6. Resistant starches and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Cyril W C; Emam, Azadeh; Augustin, Livia S A; Jenkins, David J A

    2004-01-01

    It was initially hypothesized that resistant starches, i.e., starch that enters the colon, would have protective effects on chronic colonic diseases, including reduction of colon cancer risk and in the treatment of ulcerative colitis. Recent studies have confirmed the ability of resistant starch to increase fecal bulk, increase the molar ratio of butyrate in relation to other short-chain fatty acids, and dilute fecal bile acids. However the ability of resistant starch to reduce luminal concentrations of compounds that are damaging to the colonic mucosa, including fecal ammonia, phenols, and N-nitroso compounds, still requires clear demonstration. As such, the effectiveness of resistant starch in preventing or treating colonic diseases remains to be assessed. Nevertheless, there is a fraction of what has been termed resistant (RS1) starch, which enters the colon and acts as slowly digested or lente carbohydrate in the small intestine. Foods in this class are low glycemic index and have been shown to reduce the risk of chronic disease. They have been associated with systemic physiological effects such as reduced postprandial insulin levels and higher HDL cholesterol levels. Consumption of low glycemic index foods has been shown to be related to reductions in risk of coronary heart disease and Type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes has in turn been related to a higher risk of colon cancer. If carbohydrates have a protective role in colon cancer prevention this may lie partly in the systemic effects of low glycemic index foods. The colonic advantages of different carbohydrates, varying in their glycemic index and resistant starch content, therefore, remain to be determined. However, as recent positive research findings continue to mount, there is reason for optimism over the possible health advantages of those resistant starches, which are slowly digested in the small intestine.

  7. Nutritional performance of cattle grazing on low-quality tropical forage supplemented with nitrogenous compounds and/or starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ísis Lazzarini

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of protein and/or starch supplementation on the nutritional performance of cattle grazing on low-quality tropical forage. Five crossbred steers (Holstein × Gyr with an average body weight (BW of 397 kg that were fitted with ruminal and abomasal cannulae were used. The animals were kept in individual signal-grass (Bracharia decumbens paddocks. Five treatments were evaluated: 1 - control (without supplementation; 2 - supplementation with 1 g of crude protein (CP per kg of BW; 3 - supplementation with 2.5 g of starch per kg of BW; 4 - supplementation with CP and starch as described for treatments 2 and 3; and 5 - supplementation as described for treatment 4 but replacing the corn starch with a mixture of corn starch and nitrogenous compounds, thereby resulting in an energy supplement of 150 g CP/kg of dry matter. The experiment was performed according to a 5 × 5 Latin square design in a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial arrangement. The forage intake was not affected by any of the factors evaluated in this study. The production of microbial nitrogen in the rumen was not affected by nitrogen or starch supplementation. The apparent nitrogen balance was only increased when both starch and nitrogen were supplied. Supplementation with both starch and nitrogenous compounds for cattle grazing on low-quality tropical forage is characterized by an interactive metabolic effect that increases nitrogen accretion by the animals.

  8. Mechanical characterization of commercial biodegradable plastic films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanstrom, Joseph R.

    Polylactic acid (PLA) is a biodegradable plastic that is relatively new compared to other plastics in use throughout industry. The material is produced by the polymerization of lactic acid which is produced by the fermentation of starches derived from renewable feedstocks such as corn. Polylactic acid can be manufactured to fit a wide variety of applications. This study details the mechanical and morphological properties of selected commercially available PLA film products. Testing was conducted at Iowa State University and in conjunction with the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) BioPreferred ProgramRTM. Results acquired by Iowa State were compared to a similar study performed by the Cortec Corporation in 2006. The PLA films tested at Iowa State were acquired in 2009 and 2010. In addition to these two studies at ISU, the films that were acquired in 2009 were aged for a year in a controlled environment and then re-tested to determine effects of time (ageing) on the mechanical properties. All films displayed anisotropic properties which were confirmed by inspection of the films with polarized light. The mechanical testing of the films followed American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards. Mechanical characteristics included: tensile strength (ASTM D882), elongation of material at failure (ASTM D882), impact resistance (ASTM D1922), and tear resistance (ASTM D4272). The observed values amongst all the films ranged as followed: tensile strength 33.65--8.54 MPa; elongation at failure 1,665.1%--47.2%; tear resistance 3.61--0.46 N; and puncture resistance 2.22--0.28 J. There were significant differences between the observed data for a number of films and the reported data published by the Cortec Corp. In addition, there were significant differences between the newly acquired material from 2009 and 2010, as well as the newly acquired materials in 2009 and the aged 2009 materials, suggesting that ageing and manufacturing date had an effect on

  9. Biotechnological processes for conversion of corn into ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bothast, R.J.; Schlicher, M.A. [National Corn-To-Ethanol Research Center, Southern Illinois Univ. Edwardsville, Edwardsville, IL (United States)

    2005-04-01

    Ethanol has been utilized as a fuel source in the United States since the turn of the century. However, it has repeatedly faced significant commercial viability obstacles relative to petroleum. Renewed interest exists in ethanol as a fuel source today owing to its positive impact on rural America, the environment and United States energy security. Today, most fuel ethanol is produced by either the dry grind or the wet mill process. Current technologies allow for 2.5 gallons (wet mill process) to 2.8 gallons (dry grind process) of ethanol (1 gallon = 3.7851) per bushel of corn. Valuable co-products, distillers dried grains with solubles (dry grind) and corn gluten meal and feed (wet mill), are also generated in the production of ethanol. While current supplies are generated from both processes, the majority of the growth in the industry is from dry grind plant construction in rural communities across the corn belt. While fuel ethanol production is an energy-efficient process today, additional research is occurring to improve its long-term economic viability. Three of the most significant areas of research are in the production of hybrids with a higher starch content or a higher extractable starch content, in the conversion of the corn kernel fiber fraction to ethanol, and in the identification and development of new and higher-value co-products. (orig.)

  10. Microbial production of hydrogen from starch-manufacturing wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoi, H.; Maki, R.; Hirose, J.; Hayashi, S. [Miyazaki Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Applied Chemistry

    2002-05-01

    Effective hydrogen production from starch-manufacturing wastes by microorganisms was investigated. Continuous hydrogen production in high yield of 2.7 mol H{sub 2} mol{sup -1} glucose was attained by a mixed culture of Clostridium butyricum and Enterobacter aerogenes HO-39 in the starch waste medium consisting of sweet potato starch residue as a carbon source and corn steep liquor as a nitrogen source in a repeated batch culture. Rhodobacter sp. M-19 could produce hydrogen from the supernatant of the culture broth obtained in the repeated batch culture of C. butyricum and E. aerogenes HO-39. Hydrogen yield of 4.5 mol H{sub 2} mol{sup -1} glucose was obtained by culturing Rhodobacter sp. M-19 in the supernatant supplemented with 20{mu}gl{sup -1} Na{sub 2}MoO{sub 4} 2H{sub 2}O and 10mgl{sup -1} EDTA in a repeated batch culture with pH control at 7.5. Therefore, continuous hydrogen production with total hydrogen yield of 7.2 mol H{sub 2} mol{sup -1} glucose from the starch remaining in the starch residue was attained by the repeated batch culture with C. butyricum and E. aerogenes HO-39 and by the successive repeated batch culture with Rhodobacter sp. M-19. (Author)

  11. Physicochemical properties of Venezuelan breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincón, Alicia Mariela; Padilla, Fanny C

    2004-12-01

    Artocarpus altilis, seedless variety, is a fruit-producing plant which is cultived in Margarita Island, Venezuela, and is consumed by the inhabitants of the region. Its chemical composition and physical characteristics were determined. The chemical (AOAC and AACC methods), physicochemical, morphometric characteristics, viscoamylographic properties and digestibility in vitro of starch from Artocarpus were studied. The starch yield was 18.5 g/100 g (dw)w with a purity of 98.86%, 27.68 and 72.32% of amylose and amylopectin, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy showed irregular-rounded granules. Swelling power, water absorption and solubility values were determined and found to be higher than that of corn and amaranth starch. The amylographic study showed a gelatinization temperature at 73.3 degrees C, with high stability during heating and cooling cycles. Artocarpus starch could also be categorized in the group of mixed short chain branched/long chain branched glucan starches, this agrees with digestibility results that showed a high degree of diges