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Sample records for plasticity mechanisms pulling

  1. Malfunctioning Plastic Biliary Endoprosthesis: Percutaneous Transhepatic Balloon Pulling Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto G. Rossi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Percutaneous transhepatic removal techniques for malfunctioning plastic biliary endoprosthesis are considered safe and efficient second-line strategies, when endoscopic procedures are not feasible. We describe the percutaneous transhepatic balloon pulling technique in a patient with an unresectable malignant hilar cholangiocarcinoma.

  2. Characterization and Effects of Fiber Pull-Outs in Hole Quality of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics Composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh Ashrafi, Sina; Miller, Peter W; Wandro, Kevin M; Kim, Dave

    2016-10-13

    Hole quality plays a crucial role in the production of close-tolerance holes utilized in aircraft assembly. Through drilling experiments of carbon fiber-reinforced plastic composites (CFRP), this study investigates the impact of varying drilling feed and speed conditions on fiber pull-out geometries and resulting hole quality parameters. For this study, hole quality parameters include hole size variance, hole roundness, and surface roughness. Fiber pull-out geometries are quantified by using scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of the mechanically-sectioned CFRP-machined holes, to measure pull-out length and depth. Fiber pull-out geometries and the hole quality parameter results are dependent on the drilling feed and spindle speed condition, which determines the forces and undeformed chip thickness during the process. Fiber pull-out geometries influence surface roughness parameters from a surface profilometer, while their effect on other hole quality parameters obtained from a coordinate measuring machine is minimal.

  3. Deadly Throwaways--Plastic Six-Pack Binders and Metal Pull-Tabs Doom Wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Penny

    1975-01-01

    Thousands of creatures are vulnerable to entrapment, entanglement, strangulation, or starvation as a result of plastic six-pack binders and metal pull-tabs. Possible solutions include: recycling, clean-up campaigns, and strong container legislation. (BT)

  4. Mechanism of oil-pulling therapy -In vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharath Asokan

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion: The myth that the effect of oil-pulling therapy on oral health was just a placebo effect has been broken and there are clear indications of possible saponification and emulsification process, which enhances its mechanical cleaning action.

  5. Elastic plastic fracture mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, L.A.

    1978-07-01

    The application of linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) to crack stability in brittle structures is now well understood and widely applied. However, in many structural materials, crack propagation is accompanied by considerable crack-tip plasticity which invalidates the use of LEFM. Thus, present day research in fracture mechanics is aimed at developing parameters for predicting crack propagation under elastic-plastic conditions. These include critical crack-opening-displacement methods, the J integral and R-curve techniques. This report provides an introduction to these concepts and gives some examples of their applications. (author)

  6. Mechanism of oil-pulling therapy - in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asokan, Sharath; Rathinasamy, T K; Inbamani, N; Menon, Thangam; Kumar, S Senthil; Emmadi, Pamela; Raghuraman, R

    2011-01-01

    Oil pulling has been used extensively as a traditional Indian folk remedy without scientific proof for many years for strengthening teeth, gums and jaws and to prevent decay, oral malodor, bleeding gums and dryness of throat and cracked lips. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of sesame oil and lignans isolated from sesame oil on oral microorganisms and to check whether saponification or emulsification occurs during oil-pulling therapy. The in vitro study was carried out in three different phases: (1) Antibacterial activity of the lignans and sesame oil were tested by minimum inhibitory concentration assay by agar dilution method and agar well diffusion method, respectively. (2) Increase in free fatty acid level of oil and the quantity of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) used up in the titration are good indicators of saponification process. This was assessed using analytical tests for vegetable oils. (3) Swished oil was observed under light microscope to assess the status of the oil, presence of microorganisms, oral debris and foreign bodies. Sesamin and sesamolin isolated from sesame oil did not have any antibacterial effect against oral microorganisms like Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus viridans. Emulsification of sesame oil occurs during oil-pulling therapy. Increased consumption of NaOH in titration is a definite indication of a possible saponification process. The myth that the effect of oil-pulling therapy on oral health was just a placebo effect has been broken and there are clear indications of possible saponification and emulsification process, which enhances its mechanical cleaning action.

  7. Neurogenomic mechanisms of social plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Sara D; Teles, Magda C; Oliveira, Rui F

    2015-01-01

    Group-living animals must adjust the expression of their social behaviour to changes in their social environment and to transitions between life-history stages, and this social plasticity can be seen as an adaptive trait that can be under positive selection when changes in the environment outpace the rate of genetic evolutionary change. Here, we propose a conceptual framework for understanding the neuromolecular mechanisms of social plasticity. According to this framework, social plasticity is achieved by rewiring or by biochemically switching nodes of a neural network underlying social behaviour in response to perceived social information. Therefore, at the molecular level, it depends on the social regulation of gene expression, so that different genomic and epigenetic states of this brain network correspond to different behavioural states, and the switches between states are orchestrated by signalling pathways that interface the social environment and the genotype. Different types of social plasticity can be recognized based on the observed patterns of inter- versus intra-individual occurrence, time scale and reversibility. It is proposed that these different types of social plasticity rely on different proximate mechanisms at the physiological, neural and genomic level. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Mechanical behaviour of nanoparticles: Elasticity and plastic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-06-03

    Jun 3, 2015 ... Mechanical behaviour of nanoparticles: Elasticity and plastic deformation mechanisms ... The main results in terms of elasticity and plastic deformation mechanisms are then reported ... Pramana – Journal of Physics | News.

  9. Micro/nano-mechanical test system employing tensile test holder with push-to-pull transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Yunje; Cyrankowski, Edward; Shan, Zhiwei; Asif, Syed Amanula Syed

    2013-05-07

    A micromachined or microelectromechanical system (MEMS) based push-to-pull mechanical transformer for tensile testing of micro-to-nanometer scale material samples including a first structure and a second structure. The second structure is coupled to the first structure by at least one flexible element that enables the second structure to be moveable relative to the first structure, wherein the second structure is disposed relative to the first structure so as to form a pulling gap between the first and second structures such that when an external pushing force is applied to and pushes the second structure in a tensile extension direction a width of the pulling gap increases so as to apply a tensile force to a test sample mounted across the pulling gap between a first sample mounting area on the first structure and a second sample mounting area on the second structure.

  10. Mechanical loading of the low back and shoulders during pushing and pulling activities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoozemans, M.J.M.; Kingma, I.; Dieen, van J.H.; Vries, de W.K.H.; Woude, van der L.H.V.; Veeger, H.E.J.; Frings-Dresen, M.H.W.; Beek, van der A.J.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the mechanical load on the low back and shoulders during pushing and pulling in combination with three task constraints: the use of one or two hands, three cart weights, and two handle heights. The second objective was to explore the relation between the

  11. Mechanical loading of the low back and shoulders during pushing and pulling activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoozemans, Marco J. M.; Kuijer, P. Paul F. M.; Kingma, Idsart; van Dieën, Jaap H.; de Vries, Wiebe H. K.; van der Woude, Luc H. V.; Veeger, Dirk Jan H. E. J.; van der Beek, Allard J.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the mechanical load on the low back and shoulders during pushing and pulling in combination with three task constraints: the use of one or two hands, three cart weights, and two handle heights. The second objective was to explore the relation between the

  12. Mechanisms of GABAergic Homeostatic Plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wenner

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Homeostatic plasticity ensures that appropriate levels of activity are maintained through compensatory adjustments in synaptic strength and cellular excitability. For instance, excitatory glutamatergic synapses are strengthened following activity blockade and weakened following increases in spiking activity. This form of plasticity has been described in a wide array of networks at several different stages of development, but most work and reviews have focussed on the excitatory inputs of excitatory neurons. Here we review homeostatic plasticity of GABAergic neurons and their synaptic connections. We propose a simplistic model for homeostatic plasticity of GABAergic components of the circuitry (GABAergic synapses onto excitatory neurons, excitatory connections onto GABAergic neurons, cellular excitability of GABAergic neurons: following chronic activity blockade there is a weakening of GABAergic inhibition, and following chronic increases in network activity there is a strengthening of GABAergic inhibition. Previous work on GABAergic homeostatic plasticity supports certain aspects of the model, but it is clear that the model cannot fully account for some results which do not appear to fit any simplistic rule. We consider potential reasons for these discrepancies.

  13. Analysis of CFRP Joints by Means of T-Pull Mechanical Test and Ultrasonic Defects Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casavola, Caterina; Palano, Fania; De Cillis, Francesco; Tati, Angelo; Terzi, Roberto; Luprano, Vincenza

    2018-04-18

    Defects detection within a composite component, with the aim of understanding and predicting its mechanical behavior, is of great importance in the aeronautical field because the irregularities of the composite material could compromise functionality. The aim of this paper is to detect defects by means of non-destructive testing (NDT) on T-pull samples made by carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP) and to evaluate their effect on the mechanical response of the material. Samples, obtained from an industrial stringer having an inclined web and realized with a polymeric filler between cap and web, were subjected to ultrasonic monitoring and then to T-pull mechanical tests. All samples were tested with the same load mode and the same test configuration. An experimental set-up consisting of a semiautomatic C-scan ultrasonic mapping system with a phased array probe was designed and developed, optimizing control parameters and implementing image processing software. The present work is carried out on real composites parts that are characterized by having their intrinsic defectiveness, as opposed to the previous similar results in the literature mainly obtained on composite parts with artificially produced defects. In fact, although samples under study were realized free from defects, ultrasonic mapping found defectiveness inside the material. Moreover, the ultrasonic inspection could be useful in detecting both the location and size of defects. Experimental data were critically analyzed and qualitatively correlated with results of T-pull mechanical tests in order to better understand and explain mechanical behavior in terms of fracture mode.

  14. Push-Pull and Feedback Mechanisms Can Align Signaling System Outputs with Inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Steven S; Peria, William J; Yu, Richard C; Colman-Lerner, Alejandro; Brent, Roger

    2016-11-23

    Many cell signaling systems, including the yeast pheromone response system, exhibit "dose-response alignment" (DoRA), in which output of one or more downstream steps closely matches the fraction of occupied receptors. DoRA can improve the fidelity of transmitted dose information. Here, we searched systematically for biochemical network topologies that produced DoRA. Most networks, including many containing feedback and feedforward loops, could not produce DoRA. However, networks including "push-pull" mechanisms, in which the active form of a signaling species stimulates downstream activity and the nominally inactive form reduces downstream activity, enabled perfect DoRA. Networks containing feedbacks enabled DoRA, but only if they also compared feedback to input and adjusted output to match. Our results establish push-pull as a non-feedback mechanism to align output with variable input and maximize information transfer in signaling systems. They also suggest genetic approaches to determine whether particular signaling systems use feedback or push-pull control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Ion Concentration- and Voltage-Dependent Push and Pull Mechanisms of Potassium Channel Ion Conduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kota Kasahara

    Full Text Available The mechanism of ion conduction by potassium channels is one of the central issues in physiology. In particular, it is still unclear how the ion concentration and the membrane voltage drive ion conduction. We have investigated the dynamics of the ion conduction processes in the Kv1.2 pore domain, by molecular dynamics (MD simulations with several different voltages and ion concentrations. By focusing on the detailed ion movements through the pore including selectivity filter (SF and cavity, we found two major conduction mechanisms, called the III-IV-III and III-II-III mechanisms, and the balance between the ion concentration and the voltage determines the mechanism preference. In the III-IV-III mechanism, the outermost ion in the pore is pushed out by a new ion coming from the intracellular fluid, and four-ion states were transiently observed. In the III-II-III mechanism, the outermost ion is pulled out first, without pushing by incoming ions. Increases in the ion concentration and voltage accelerated ion conductions, but their mechanisms were different. The increase in the ion concentrations facilitated the III-IV-III conductions, while the higher voltages increased the III-II-III conductions, indicating that the pore domain of potassium channels permeates ions by using two different driving forces: a push by intracellular ions and a pull by voltage.

  16. Analysis of CFRP Joints by Means of T-Pull Mechanical Test and Ultrasonic Defects Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Casavola

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Defects detection within a composite component, with the aim of understanding and predicting its mechanical behavior, is of great importance in the aeronautical field because the irregularities of the composite material could compromise functionality. The aim of this paper is to detect defects by means of non-destructive testing (NDT on T-pull samples made by carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP and to evaluate their effect on the mechanical response of the material. Samples, obtained from an industrial stringer having an inclined web and realized with a polymeric filler between cap and web, were subjected to ultrasonic monitoring and then to T-pull mechanical tests. All samples were tested with the same load mode and the same test configuration. An experimental set-up consisting of a semiautomatic C-scan ultrasonic mapping system with a phased array probe was designed and developed, optimizing control parameters and implementing image processing software. The present work is carried out on real composites parts that are characterized by having their intrinsic defectiveness, as opposed to the previous similar results in the literature mainly obtained on composite parts with artificially produced defects. In fact, although samples under study were realized free from defects, ultrasonic mapping found defectiveness inside the material. Moreover, the ultrasonic inspection could be useful in detecting both the location and size of defects. Experimental data were critically analyzed and qualitatively correlated with results of T-pull mechanical tests in order to better understand and explain mechanical behavior in terms of fracture mode.

  17. Continuum mechanics elasticity, plasticity, viscoelasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Dill, Ellis H

    2006-01-01

    FUNDAMENTALS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICSMaterial ModelsClassical Space-TimeMaterial BodiesStrainRate of StrainCurvilinear Coordinate SystemsConservation of MassBalance of MomentumBalance of EnergyConstitutive EquationsThermodynamic DissipationObjectivity: Invariance for Rigid MotionsColeman-Mizel ModelFluid MechanicsProblems for Chapter 1BibliographyNONLINEAR ELASTICITYThermoelasticityMaterial SymmetriesIsotropic MaterialsIncompressible MaterialsConjugate Measures of Stress and StrainSome Symmetry GroupsRate Formulations for Elastic MaterialsEnergy PrinciplesGeometry of Small DeformationsLinear ElasticitySpecial Constitutive Models for Isotropic MaterialsMechanical Restrictions on the Constitutive RelationsProblems for Chapter 2BibliographyLINEAR ELASTICITYBasic EquationsPlane StrainPlane StressProperties of SolutionsPotential EnergySpecial Matrix NotationThe Finite Element Method of SolutionGeneral Equations for an Assembly of ElementsFinite Element Analysis for Large DeformationsProblems for Chapter 3Bibliograph...

  18. Mechanisms for pituitary tumorigenesis: the plastic pituitary

    OpenAIRE

    Melmed, Shlomo

    2003-01-01

    The anterior pituitary gland integrates the repertoire of hormonal signals controlling thyroid, adrenal, reproductive, and growth functions. The gland responds to complex central and peripheral signals by trophic hormone secretion and by undergoing reversible plastic changes in cell growth leading to hyperplasia, involution, or benign adenomas arising from functional pituitary cells. Discussed herein are the mechanisms underlying hereditary pituitary hypoplasia, reversible pituitary hyperplas...

  19. Crack Tip Mechanics in Distortion Gradient Plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuentes-Alonso, Sandra; Martínez Pañeda, Emilio

    2017-01-01

    Gradient Plasticity (DGP), the influence on crack tip mechanics of DGP's distinguishing features that entail superior modelling capabilities has not been investigated yet. In this work crack tip fields are thoroughly examined by implementing the higher order theory of DGP in an implicit finite element...

  20. Recombination rate plasticity: revealing mechanisms by design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefick, Stephen; Rushton, Chase

    2017-01-01

    For over a century, scientists have known that meiotic recombination rates can vary considerably among individuals, and that environmental conditions can modify recombination rates relative to the background. A variety of external and intrinsic factors such as temperature, age, sex and starvation can elicit ‘plastic’ responses in recombination rate. The influence of recombination rate plasticity on genetic diversity of the next generation has interesting and important implications for how populations evolve. Further, many questions remain regarding the mechanisms and molecular processes that contribute to recombination rate plasticity. Here, we review 100 years of experimental work on recombination rate plasticity conducted in Drosophila melanogaster. We categorize this work into four major classes of experimental designs, which we describe via classic studies in D. melanogaster. Based on these studies, we highlight molecular mechanisms that are supported by experimental results and relate these findings to studies in other systems. We synthesize lessons learned from this model system into experimental guidelines for using recent advances in genotyping technologies, to study recombination rate plasticity in non-model organisms. Specifically, we recommend (1) using fine-scale genome-wide markers, (2) collecting time-course data, (3) including crossover distribution measurements, and (4) using mixed effects models to analyse results. To illustrate this approach, we present an application adhering to these guidelines from empirical work we conducted in Drosophila pseudoobscura. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Evolutionary causes and consequences of recombination rate variation in sexual organisms’. PMID:29109222

  1. Associative Mechanisms Allow for Social Learning and Cultural Transmission of String Pulling in an Insect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xingfu; Ingraham, Thomas; Søvik, Eirik

    2016-01-01

    Social insects make elaborate use of simple mechanisms to achieve seemingly complex behavior and may thus provide a unique resource to discover the basic cognitive elements required for culture, i.e., group-specific behaviors that spread from “innovators” to others in the group via social learning. We first explored whether bumblebees can learn a nonnatural object manipulation task by using string pulling to access a reward that was presented out of reach. Only a small minority “innovated” and solved the task spontaneously, but most bees were able to learn to pull a string when trained in a stepwise manner. In addition, naïve bees learnt the task by observing a trained demonstrator from a distance. Learning the behavior relied on a combination of simple associative mechanisms and trial-and-error learning and did not require “insight”: naïve bees failed a “coiled-string experiment,” in which they did not receive instant visual feedback of the target moving closer when tugging on the string. In cultural diffusion experiments, the skill spread rapidly from a single knowledgeable individual to the majority of a colony’s foragers. We observed that there were several sequential sets (“generations”) of learners, so that previously naïve observers could first acquire the technique by interacting with skilled individuals and, subsequently, themselves become demonstrators for the next “generation” of learners, so that the longevity of the skill in the population could outlast the lives of informed foragers. This suggests that, so long as animals have a basic toolkit of associative and motor learning processes, the key ingredients for the cultural spread of unusual skills are already in place and do not require sophisticated cognition. PMID:27701411

  2. The mechanical and thermodynamical theory of plasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Negahban, Mehrdad

    2012-01-01

    ""an excellent text for a graduate-level course in plasticity…the approach and selection of topics are appropriate for the audience. ... Professor Negahban has done an excellent job in presenting a unified approach to include thermal effects in the theory of finite deformation of plastic solids. The simple thermo-mechanical analog presented at the beginning of the chapter is also very instructive to the reader. {presented figures are] particularly helpful in understanding the mechanisms in a simple (one-dimensional) setting … The learning features included in this chapter are excellent (the fi

  3. Mechanically equivalent elastic-plastic deformations and the problem of plastic spin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steigmann David J.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of plastic spin is phrased in terms of a notion of mechanical equivalence among local intermediate configurations of an elastic/ plastic crystalline solid. This idea is used to show that, without further qualification, the plastic spin may be suppressed at the constitutive level. However, the spin is closely tied to an underlying undistorted crystal lattice which, once specified, eliminates the freedom afforded by mechanical equivalence. As a practical matter a constitutive specification of plastic spin is therefore required. Suppression of plastic spin thus emerges as merely one such specification among many. Restrictions on these are derived in the case of rate-independent response.

  4. Mechanisms of Biliary Plastic Stent Occlusion and Efforts at Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Il Kwon

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Biliary stenting via endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography has greatly improved the quality of patient care over the last 30 years. Plastic stent occlusion limits the life span of such stents. Attempts to improve plastic stent patency duration have mostly failed. Metal stents (self-expandable metal stents [SEMSs] have therefore replaced plastic stents, especially for malignant biliary strictures. SEMS are at least 10 times more expensive than plastic stents. In this focused review, we will discuss basic mechanisms of plastic stent occlusion, along with a systematic summary of previous efforts and related studies to improve stent patency and potential new techniques to overcome existing limitations.

  5. Common mechanisms of synaptic plasticity in vertebrates and invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanzman, David L.

    2016-01-01

    Until recently, the literature on learning-related synaptic plasticity in invertebrates has been dominated by models assuming plasticity is mediated by presynaptic changes, whereas the vertebrate literature has been dominated by models assuming it is mediated by postsynaptic changes. Here I will argue that this situation does not reflect a biological reality and that, in fact, invertebrate and vertebrate nervous systems share a common set of mechanisms of synaptic plasticity. PMID:20152143

  6. Mechanical load on the low back and shoulders during pushing and pulling of two-wheeled waste containers compared with lifting and carrying of bags and bins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schibye, B; Søgaard, K; Martinsen, D; Klausen, K

    2001-08-01

    Compare the mechanical load on the low back and shoulders during pushing and pulling a two-wheeled container with the load during lifting and carrying the same amount of waste. Only little is known about risk factors and mechanical loads during push/pull operations. A complete 2(3) factor push/pull experiment. A two-wheeled container with 25 or 50 kg was pushed in front of and pulled behind the body by seven waste collectors. Further, the same subjects lifted and carried a paper bag and a dustbin both loaded with 7 and 25 kg. All operations were video recorded and the push/pull force was measured by means of a three-dimensional force transducer. Peak Motus and Watbak software were used for digitising and calculation of torque at L4/L5 and the shoulder joints and compression and shear forces at L4/L5. During pushing and pulling the compression at L4/L5 is from 605 to 1445 N. The extension torque at L4/L5 produced by the push/pull force is counteracted by the forward leaning of the upper body. The shear force is below 202 N in all situations. The torque at the shoulders is between 1 and 38 Nm. In the present experiments the torques at the low back and the shoulders are low during pushing and pulling. No relation exists between the size of the external force and the torque at the low back and the shoulder. Pushing and pulling are common in many workplaces and have often replaced lifting and carrying situations. This has emphasised the need for more knowledge of the internal mechanical load on the body during these activities.

  7. Nicotinic mechanisms influencing synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andon Nicholas PLACZEK; Tao A ZHANG; John Anthony DANI

    2009-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are expressed throughout the hippocampus, and nicotinic signaling plays an important role in neuronal function. In the context of learning and memory related behaviors associated with hippocampal function, a potentially significant feature of nAChR activity is the impact it has on synaptic plasticity. Synaptic plasticity in hippocampal neurons has long been considered a contributing cellular mechanism of learning and memory. These same kinds of cellular mechanisms are a factor in the development of nicotine addiction. Nicotinic signaling has been demonstrated by in vitro studies to affect synaptic plasticity in hippocampal neurons via multiple steps, and the signaling has also been shown to evoke synaptic plasticity in vivo. This review focuses on the nAChRs subtypes that contribute to hippocampal synaptic plasticity at the cellular and circuit level. It also considers nicotinic influences over long-term changes in the hippocampus that may contribute to addiction.

  8. Plastic deformation mechanisms of the uranium-alpha. Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loureiro, A.P.

    1975-01-01

    A survey of the bibliography on the behaviour of the alpha-Uranium during its plastic deformation is made, with the aim of knowing the mechanisms which control that deformation. An analysis is made of some of the mechanisms suggested in the literature as controlling, with particular emphasis on the Peierls-Nabarro mechanism

  9. Translation-rotation plasticity as basic mechanism of plastic deformation in macro-, micro- and nanoindentation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabco, D; Shikimaka, O; Harea, E

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a brief review of multilateral examinations for the purpose of detection of interrelation between processes occuring in solids at different levels of action of exterior loading, namely, at macro-, micro- and nanoindentation. Convincing arguments supporting the rotation deformation mechanism alongside the recognized dislocation one are adduced. It has been shown that the decrease in dislocation mobility leads at all scales to the intensification of rotation plasticity and to the involvement of other plastic deformation mechanisms, such as appearance and interaction of disclinations, twinning, phase transition and compression of material. The conversion from translation plasticity to the rotation-translation one means transition to the higher level of plastic deformation, the mesolevel, when the possibilities of the previous microscopic level are exhausted. It was established that the plastic deformation zone in the vicinity of indentations could be separated into two main specific regions: (i) peripheral region predominantly with the dislocation deformation mechanism; otherwise, translation mechanism: microlevel, and (ii) quasidestructured region mainly with the disclination or the intergranular sliding mechanism: rotation mechanism, mesolevel

  10. Thermal degradation and plasticizing mechanism of poly(vinyl chloride) plasticized with a novel cardanol derived plasticizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.; Nie, X. A.; Jiang, J. C.; Zhou, Y. H.

    2018-01-01

    A natural plasticizer cardanol derivatives glycidyl ether (CGE) was synthesized and employed as a plasticizer for the poly(vinyl chloride). The effect of CGE on thermal degradation of PVC films and its plasticizing mechanism were firstly reported. The molecular structure of CGE was characterized with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Thermal properties, degradation properties and compatibility of the PVC films were investigated by Differential scanning calorimeter analysis (DSC), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and FTIR, respectively. Compared with the commercial plasticizers dioctylphthalate (DOP), CGE can endow PVC film with a decrease of 4.31 °C in glass transition temperature (Tg), an increase of 24.01 °C and 25.53 °C in 10% weight loss (T 10) and 50% weight loss (T 50) respectively, and a higher activetion energy of thermal degradation (Ea ).

  11. A Plastic Damage Mechanics Model for Engineered Cementitious Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dick-Nielsen, Lars; Stang, Henrik; Poulsen, Peter Noe

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the establishment of a plasticity-based damage mechanics model for Engineered Cementitious Composites (ECC). The present model differs from existing models by combining a matrix and fiber description in order to describe the behavior of the ECC material. The model provides...

  12. Massive weight loss-induced mechanical plasticity in obese gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hortobagyi, Tibor; Herring, Cortney; Pories, Walter J.; Rider, Patrick; DeVita, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Hortobagyi T, Herring C, Pories WJ, Rider P, DeVita P. Massive weight loss-induced mechanical plasticity in obese gait. J Appl Physiol 111: 1391-1399, 2011. First published August 18, 2011; doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00291.2011.-We examined the hypothesis that metabolic surgery-induced massive weight

  13. Yarn Pull-Out as a Mechanism for Dissipation of Ballistic Impact Energy in Kevlar KM-2 Fabric, Part 1: Quasi-Static Characterization of Yarn Pull-Out

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kirkwood, Keith

    2004-01-01

    .... This study reports the effects of fabric length, number of yarns pulled, arrangement of yarns, and transverse tension on the force-displacement curves for yarn pull-out tests on Kevlar KM-2 fabric...

  14. Frictionless Demonstration Using Fine Plastic Beads For Teaching Mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, K.; Kagawa, K.; Khumaeni, A.; Kurniawan, K. H.

    2010-01-01

    New equipment for demonstrating laws of mechanics have successfully been constructed utilizing fine sphere plastic beads (0.3 mm in diameter). Fine plastic beads function as ball bearings to reduce the friction between the object and the plate surface. By this method, a quantitative measurement of energy conservation law has successfully been carried out with a small error of less 3%. The strong advantage of this frictionless method is that we can always use the same objects like Petri dishes for demonstrating many kinds of mechanics laws, such as the first, second, and the third laws of motion, momentum conservation law, and energy conservation law. This demonstration method surely has a beneficial effect for students, who can then understand mechanics laws systematically with a unified concept and no confusion.

  15. Plastic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong Gi Hyeon

    1987-04-01

    This book deals with plastic, which includes introduction for plastic, chemistry of high polymers, polymerization, speciality and structure of a high molecule property of plastic, molding, thermosetting plastic, such as polyethylene, polyether, polyamide and polyvinyl acetyl, thermal plastic like phenolic resins, xylene resins, melamine resin, epoxy resin, alkyd resin and poly urethan resin, new plastic like ionomer and PPS resin, synthetic laminated tape and synthetic wood, mixed materials in plastic, reprocessing of waste plastic, polymer blend, test method for plastic materials and auxiliary materials of plastic.

  16. Special fracture mechanics specimens for multilayer plastic pipes testing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hutař, Pavel; Šestáková, Lucie; Knésl, Zdeněk; Nezbedová, E.; Náhlík, Luboš

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 8 (2009), s. 785-792 ISSN 0142-9418 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/09/0279; GA ČR GC101/09/J027 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : Multilayer plastic pipes * C-type specimen * K-calibration * Fracture toughness * Slow crack growth * Non-homogenous specimens Subject RIV: JL - Material s Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 1.667, year: 2009

  17. Elastic-plastic fracture mechanics study of thermal shock cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, K.; Kobayashi, H.; Nakazawa, H.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes thermal shock experiments conducted on a nuclear pressure vessel steel (A533 Grade B Class 1), an AISI304 steel and a tool steel (JIS SKD62) using both a new thermal shock test facility and method. Analysis of their quasi-static thermal stress intensity factors is performed on the basis of linear-elastic fracture mechanics; and a thermal shock fracture toughness value, Ksub(tsc) is evaluated. Then elastic-plastic fracture toughness tests are carried out in the same high temperature range of the thermal shock experiment, and a relation between the stretched zone width, SZW, formed as a result of the fatigue precrack tip plastic blunting and the J-integral is clarified. An elastic-plastic thermal shock fracture toughness value, Jsub(tsc), is evaluated from a critical value of the stretched zone width, SZWsub(tsc), at the initiation of the thermal shock cracking by using the relation between SZW and J. The Jsub(tsc) value is compared with an elastic-plastic fracture toughness value, Jsub(Ic), and the difference between these Jsub(tsc) and Jsub(Ic) values is discussed on the basis of fractography. (author)

  18. A calculational round robin in elastic-plastic fracture mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, L.H.

    1983-01-01

    Eighteen organisations participated in this elastic-plastic fracture mechanics (EPFM) numerical analysis round robin which treated the same three-point bend problem as a similar round robin conducted by ASTM four years earlier. The work involved the calculation of overall deformation, J, CTOD and crack profile using plane strain elastic-plastic finite element analysis for a monotonically increasing load up to a maximum deformation which was far beyond the elastic regime. It was found that all of the elastic solutions were accurate to within a few per cent. In the elastic-plastic regime, however, there was a large scatter of the results, increasing with increasing plastic deformation and roughly of the same order as in the ASTM round robin which contained ten solutions. No significant progress has taken place in the state of the art of numerical EPFM analysis over the four-year interval. The reasons for this scatter and tentative conclusions on the most suitable numerical analysis methods in EPFM are discussed. (author)

  19. Method of determining elastic and plastic mechanical properties of ceramic materials using spherical indenters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Thomas A.

    1996-01-01

    The invention pertains a method of determining elastic and plastic mechanical properties of ceramics, intermetallics, metals, plastics and other hard, brittle materials which fracture prior to plastically deforming when loads are applied. Elastic and plastic mechanical properties of ceramic materials are determined using spherical indenters. The method is most useful for measuring and calculating the plastic and elastic deformation of hard, brittle materials with low values of elastic modulus to hardness.

  20. Technical specifications for mechanical recycling of agricultural plastic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briassoulis, D.; Hiskakis, M.; Babou, E.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Technical specifications for agricultural plastic wastes (APWs) recycling proposed. • Specifications are the base for best economical and environmental APW valorisation. • Analysis of APW reveals inherent characteristics and constraints of APW streams. • Thorough survey on mechanical recycling processes and industry as it applies to APW. • Specifications for APW recycling tested, adjusted and verified through pilot trials. - Abstract: Technical specifications appropriate for the recycling of agricultural plastic wastes (APWs), widely accepted by the recycling industry were developed. The specifications establish quality standards to be met by the agricultural plastics producers, users and the agricultural plastic waste management chain. They constitute the base for the best economical and environmental valorisation of the APW. The analysis of the APW streams conducted across Europe in the framework of the European project “LabelAgriWaste” revealed the inherent characteristics of the APW streams and the inherent constraints (technical or economical) of the APW. The APW stream properties related to its recycling potential and measured during pilot trials are presented and a subsequent universally accepted simplified and expanded list of APW recycling technical specifications is proposed and justified. The list includes two sets of specifications, applied to two different quality categories of recyclable APW: one for pellet production process (“Quality I”) and another one for plastic profile production process (“Quality II”). Parameters that are taken into consideration in the specifications include the APW physical characteristics, contamination, composition and degradation. The proposed specifications are focused on polyethylene based APW that represents the vast majority of the APW stream. However, the specifications can be adjusted to cover also APW of different materials (e.g. PP or PVC) that are found in very small quantities

  1. Nonlinear Fracture Mechanics and Plasticity of the Split Cylinder Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, John Forbes; Østergaard, Lennart; Stang, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    properties. This implies that the linear elastic interpretation of the ultimate splitting force in term of the uniaxial tensile strength of the material is only valid for special situations, e.g. for very large cylinders. Furthermore, the numerical analysis suggests that the split cylinder test is not well...... models are presented, a simple semi-analytical model based on analytical solutions for the crack propagation in a rectangular prismatic body, and a finite element model including plasticity in bulk material as well as crack propagation in interface elements. A numerical study applying these models...... demonstrates the influence of varying geometry or constitutive properties. For a split cylinder test in load control it is shown how the ultimate load is either plasticity dominated or fracture mechanics dominated. The transition between the two modes is related to changes in geometry or constitutive...

  2. Topological defect clustering and plastic deformation mechanisms in functionalized graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Ricardo; Araujo, Joice; Chacham, Helio

    2011-03-01

    We present ab initio results suggesting that strain plays a central role in the clustering of topological defects in strained and functionalized graphene models. We apply strain onto the topological-defect graphene networks from our previous work, and obtain topological-defect clustering patterns which are in excellent agreement with recent observations in samples of reduced graphene oxide. In our models, the graphene layer, containing an initial concentration of isolated topological defects, is covered by hydrogen or hydroxyl groups. Our results also suggest a rich variety of plastic deformation mechanism in functionalized graphene systems. We acknowledge support from the Brazilian agencies: CNPq, Fapemig, and INCT-Materiais de Carbono.

  3. Human Body Mechanics of Pushing and Pulling: Analyzing the Factors of Task-related Strain on the Musculoskeletal System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argubi-Wollesen, Andreas; Wollesen, Bettina; Leitner, Martin; Mattes, Klaus

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this review is to name and describe the important factors of musculoskeletal strain originating from pushing and pulling tasks such as cart handling that are commonly found in industrial contexts. A literature database search was performed using the research platform Web of Science. For a study to be included in this review differences in measured or calculated strain had to be investigated with regard to: (1) cart weight/ load; (2) handle position and design; (3) exerted forces; (4) handling task (push and pull); or (5) task experience. Thirteen studies met the inclusion criteria and proved to be of adequate methodological quality by the standards of the Alberta Heritage Foundation for Medical Research. External load or cart weight proved to be the most influential factor of strain. The ideal handle positions ranged from hip to shoulder height and were dependent on the strain factor that was focused on as well as the handling task. Furthermore, task experience and subsequently handling technique were also key to reducing strain. Workplace settings that regularly involve pushing and pulling should be checked for potential improvements with regards to lower weight of the loaded handling device, handle design, and good practice guidelines to further reduce musculoskeletal disease prevalence.

  4. Plasticity of intermediate mechanics students’ coordinate system choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor C. Sayre

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the interplay between mathematics and physics resources in intermediate mechanics students. In the mechanics course, the selection and application of coordinate systems is a consistent thread. At the University of Maine, students often start the course with a strong preference to use Cartesian coordinates, in accordance with their prior physics and mathematics classes. In small-group interviews and in homework help sessions, we ask students to define a coordinate system and set up the equations of motion for a simple pendulum for which polar coordinates are more appropriate. We analyze video data from several encounters using a combination of Process/Object theory and Resource Theory. We find that students sometimes persist in using an inappropriate Cartesian system. Furthermore, students often derive (rather than recall the details of the polar coordinate system, indicating that their knowledge is far from solid. To describe our work more precisely, we define a scale of plasticity and several heuristics for defining resources and their plasticity.

  5. Mechanical and chemical recycling of solid plastic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragaert, Kim; Delva, Laurens; Van Geem, Kevin

    2017-11-01

    This review presents a comprehensive description of the current pathways for recycling of polymers, via both mechanical and chemical recycling. The principles of these recycling pathways are framed against current-day industrial reality, by discussing predominant industrial technologies, design strategies and recycling examples of specific waste streams. Starting with an overview on types of solid plastic waste (SPW) and their origins, the manuscript continues with a discussion on the different valorisation options for SPW. The section on mechanical recycling contains an overview of current sorting technologies, specific challenges for mechanical recycling such as thermo-mechanical or lifetime degradation and the immiscibility of polymer blends. It also includes some industrial examples such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET) recycling, and SPW from post-consumer packaging, end-of-life vehicles or electr(on)ic devices. A separate section is dedicated to the relationship between design and recycling, emphasizing the role of concepts such as Design from Recycling. The section on chemical recycling collects a state-of-the-art on techniques such as chemolysis, pyrolysis, fluid catalytic cracking, hydrogen techniques and gasification. Additionally, this review discusses the main challenges (and some potential remedies) to these recycling strategies and ground them in the relevant polymer science, thus providing an academic angle as well as an applied one. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Developmental plasticity and epigenetic mechanisms underpinning metabolic and cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Felicia M; Gluckman, Peter D; Hanson, Mark A

    2011-06-01

    The importance of developmental factors in influencing the risk of later-life disease has a strong evidence base derived from multiple epidemiological, clinical and experimental studies in animals and humans. During early life, an organism is able to adjust its phenotypic development in response to environmental cues. Such developmentally plastic responses evolved as a fitness-maximizing strategy to cope with variable environments. There are now increasing data that these responses are, at least partially, underpinned by epigenetic mechanisms. A mismatch between the early and later-life environments may lead to inappropriate early life-course epigenomic changes that manifest in later life as increased vulnerability to disease. There is also growing evidence for the transgenerational transmission of epigenetic marks. This article reviews the evidence that susceptibility to metabolic and cardiovascular disease in humans is linked to changes in epigenetic marks induced by early-life environmental cues, and discusses the clinical, public health and therapeutic implications that arise.

  7. Hair Pulling (Trichotillomania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Families - Vietnamese Spanish Facts for Families Guide Hair Pulling (Trichotillomania) No. 96; Reviewed July 2013 It ... for children and adolescents to play with their hair. However, frequent or obsessive hair pulling can lead ...

  8. Thermal and mechanical properties of bio-based plasticizers mixtures on poly (vinyl chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boussaha Bouchoul

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The use of mixtures of nontoxic and biodegradable plasticizers coming from natural resources is a good way to replace conventional phthalates plasticizers. In this study, two secondary plasticizers of epoxidized sunflower oil (ESO and epoxidized sunflower oil methyl ester (ESOME were synthesized and have been used with two commercially available biobased plasticizers; isosorbide diesters (ISB and acetyl tributyl citrate (ATBC in order to produce flexible PVC. Different mixtures of these plasticizers have been introduced in PVC formulations. Thermal, mechanical and morphological properties have been studied by using discoloration, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA, tensile - strain and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Studies have shown that PVC plasticization and stabilization were improved by addition of plasticizers blends containing ISB, ATBC, ESO and ESOME. An increase in the content of ESO or ESOME improved thermal and mechanical properties, whereas ESOME/ATBC formulations exhibited the best properties.

  9. Mechanical properties: wood lumber versus plastic lumber and thermoplastic composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Zandomenico Dias

    Full Text Available Abstract Plastic lumber and thermoplastic composites are sold as alternatives to wood products. However, many technical standards and scientific studies state that the two materials cannot be considered to have the same structural behaviour and strength. Moreover, there are many compositions of thermoplastic-based products and plenty of wood species. How different are their mechanical properties? This study compares the modulus of elasticity and the flexural, compressive, tensile and shear strengths of such materials, as well as the materials' specific mechanical properties. It analyses the properties of wood from the coniferae and dicotyledon species and those of commercialized and experimental thermoplastic-based product formulations. The data were collected from books, scientific papers and manufacturers' websites and technical data sheets, and subsequently compiled and presented in Ashby plots and bar graphs. The high values of the compressive strength and specific compressive and tensile strengths perpendicular to the grain (width direction shown by the experimental thermoplastic composites compared to wood reveal their great potential for use in compressed elements and in functions where components are compressed or tensioned perpendicularly to the grain. However, the low specific flexural modulus and high density of thermoplastic materials limit their usage in certain civil engineering and building applications.

  10. Track treeing mechanism and plastic zone in solid Part 1: Initial development of plastic zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Boyang

    2008-01-01

    After neutron exposure and chemical etching in advance, latent tracks of recoil nucleon develop into pits on CR39 surface. During electrochemical etching, plastic zone is formed at top of pits. Some pits develop into tree cracks in the initial stage of plastic zone development. Physical and mathematical model of crack and plastic zone is proposed; parameter of development free path of plastic zone is presented. Based on integration of elementary theories the stress analysis is build up; based on analyses of measured parameters, a set of common relations between parameters is obtained. Integrate parameter analysis and stress analysis, depth of plastic zone development, law and phenomenon in experimental data can be interpreted completely

  11. Plasticity enhancement mechanisms in refractory metals and intermetallics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibala, R.; Chang, H.; Czarnik, C.M.; Edwards, K.M.; Misra, A.

    1993-01-01

    Plasticity enhancement associated with surface films and precipitates or dispersoids in bcc refractory metals is operative in ordered intermetallic compounds. Some results are given for NiAl and MoSi 2 -based materials. The monotonic and cyclic plasticity of NiAl at room temperature can be enhanced by surface films. Ductile second phases also enhance the plasticity of NiAl. MoSi 2 exhibits similar effects of surface films and dispersoids, but primarily at elevated temperatures. The plasticity enhancement is associated with enhanced dislocation generation from constrained deformation at the film-substrate or precipitate/dispersoid-matrix interface of the composite systems

  12. Deep mechanisms of social affect - Plastic parental brain mechanisms for sensitivity versus contempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, James E; Ho, S Shaun

    2017-01-01

    Insensitive parental thoughts and affect, similar to contempt, may be mapped onto a network of basic emotions moderated by attitudinal representations of social-relational value. Brain mechanisms that reflect emotional valence of baby signals among parents vary according to individual differences and show plasticity over time. Furthermore, mental health problems and treatments for parents may affect these brain systems toward or away from contempt, respectively.

  13. A unified approach to elastic-plastic fracture mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neale, B.K.; Townley, C.H.A.

    1976-01-01

    To assess the integrity of a cracked structure, using materials data obtained from simple laboratory tests, it is essential to define materials properties which are independent of the shape and the size of the specimen and of the loading system applied to it. In those situations where either the specimen or the structure fails after significant yielding has taken place, there is considerable speculation about the materials parameters which are relevant. By extending the Griffith equation for the stability of a perfectly elastic cracked body, the authors derive a fracture criterion which is applicable in the post yield regime. Comparisons are made with procedures based on the J-contour integral, equivalent energy, and crack opening displacements and with the post yield fracture mechanics of Heald, Spink and Worthington, and Dowling and Townley. For certain materials, it is shown that the factor controlling crack initiation is the fracture toughness Ksub(1c), irrespective of the amount of prior plastic damage, and hence independent of the shape and size of the specimen tested. Load carrying capacity in the post yield regime cannot, however, be derived directly from a knowledge of fracture toughness; the ultimate tensile strength of the material is also relevant

  14. Maladaptive plasticity in tinnitus-triggers, mechanisms and treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Susan E; Roberts, Larry E.; Langguth, Berthold

    2016-01-01

    Tinnitus is a phantom auditory sensation that reduces quality of life for millions worldwide and for which there is no medical cure. Most cases are associated with hearing loss caused by the aging process or noise exposure. Because exposure to loud recreational sound is common among youthful populations, young persons are at increasing risk. Head or neck injuries can also trigger the development of tinnitus, as altered somatosensory input can affect auditory pathways and lead to tinnitus or modulate its intensity. Emotional and attentional state may play a role in tinnitus development and maintenance via top-down mechanisms. Thus, military in combat are particularly at risk due to combined hearing loss, somatosensory system disturbances and emotional stress. Neuroscience research has identified neural changes related to tinnitus that commence at the cochlear nucleus and extend to the auditory cortex and brain regions beyond. Maladaptive neural plasticity appears to underlie these neural changes, as it results in increased spontaneous firing rates and synchrony among neurons in central auditory structures that may generate the phantom percept. This review highlights the links between animal and human studies, including several therapeutic approaches that have been developed, which aim to target the neuroplastic changes underlying tinnitus. PMID:26868680

  15. Dual-functional Memory and Threshold Resistive Switching Based on the Push-Pull Mechanism of Oxygen Ions

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Yi-Jen

    2016-04-07

    The combination of nonvolatile memory switching and volatile threshold switching functions of transition metal oxides in crossbar memory arrays is of great potential for replacing charge-based flash memory in very-large-scale integration. Here, we show that the resistive switching material structure, (amorphous TiOx)/(Ag nanoparticles)/(polycrystalline TiOx), fabricated on the textured-FTO substrate with ITO as the top electrode exhibits both the memory switching and threshold switching functions. When the device is used for resistive switching, it is forming-free for resistive memory applications with low operation voltage (<±1 V) and self-compliance to current up to 50 μA. When it is used for threshold switching, the low threshold current is beneficial for improving the device selectivity. The variation of oxygen distribution measured by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy indicates the formation or rupture of conducting filaments in the device at different resistance states. It is therefore suggested that the push and pull actions of oxygen ions in the amorphous TiOx and polycrystalline TiOx films during the voltage sweep account for the memory switching and threshold switching properties in the device.

  16. Study on Mechanical Properties of Concrete Using Plastic Waste as an Aggregate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaivignesh, B.; Sofi, A.

    2017-07-01

    Disposal of large quantity of plastic causes land, water and air pollution etc.., so a study is conducted to recycle the plastic in concrete. This work investigates about the replacement of natural aggregate with non-biodegradable plastic aggregate made up of mixed plastic waste in concrete. Several tests are conducted such as compressive strength of cube, split tensile strength of cylinder, flexural strength test of prism to identify the properties and behavior of concrete using plastic aggregate. Replacement of fine aggregate weight by 10%, 15%, 20% with Plastic fine (PF) aggregate and for each replacement of fine aggregate 15%, 20%, 25% of coarse aggregate replacement also conducted with Plastic Coarse(PC) aggregate. In literatures reported that the addition of plastic aggregate in concrete causes the reduction of strength in concrete due to poor bonding between concrete and plastic aggregate, so addition of 0.3% of steel fiber by weight of cement in concrete is done to improve the concrete strength. Totally 60 cubes, 60 cylinders and 40 prisms are casted to identify the compressive strength, split tensile strength and flexural strength respectively. Casted specimens are tested at 7 and 28 days. The identified results from concrete using plastic aggregate are compared with conventional concrete. Result shows that reduction in mechanical properties of plastic aggregate added concrete. This reduction in strength is mainly due to poor bond strength between cement and plastic aggregate.

  17. A study of microindentation hardness tests by mechanism-based strain gradient plasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Y.; Xue, Z.; Gao, H.; Nix, W. D.; Xia, Z. C.

    2000-01-01

    We recently proposed a theory of mechanism-based strain gradient (MSG) plasticity to account for the size dependence of plastic deformation at micron- and submicron-length scales. The MSG plasticity theory connects micron-scale plasticity to dislocation theories via a multiscale, hierarchical framework linking Taylor's dislocation hardening model to strain gradient plasticity. Here we show that the theory of MSG plasticity, when used to study micro-indentation, indeed reproduces the linear dependence observed in experiments, thus providing an important self-consistent check of the theory. The effects of pileup, sink-in, and the radius of indenter tip have been taken into account in the indentation model. In accomplishing this objective, we have generalized the MSG plasticity theory to include the elastic deformation in the hierarchical framework. (c) 2000 Materials Research Society

  18. The elasto plastic fracture mechanics in ductile metal sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.A.; Malik, M.N.; Naeem, A.; Haq, A.U.; Atkins, A.G.

    1999-01-01

    The crack initiation of propagation in ductile metal sheets are caused by various micro and macro changes taking place due to material properties, applied loads, shape of the indenter (tool geometry) and the environmental conditions. These microstructural failures are directly related to the atomic bonding, crystal lattices, grain boundary status, material flaws in matrix, inhomogeneities and anisotropy in the metal sheets. The Elasto-Plastic related energy based equations are applied to these Rigid Plastic materials to determine the onset of fracture in metal forming. The combined stress and strain criterion of a critical plastic work per unit volume is no more considered as a universal ductile fracture criterion, rather a critical plastic work per unit volume dependence on all sort of stresses (hydrostatic) are the required features for the sheet metal failure (fracture). In this present study, crack initiation and propagation are related empirically with fracture toughness and the application of the theory in industry to save energy. (author)

  19. Elastic-plastic fracture mechanics of compact bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jiahau

    Bone is a composite composed mainly of organics, minerals and water. Most studies on the fracture toughness of bone have been conducted at room temperature. Considering that the body temperature of animals is higher than room temperature, and that bone has a high volumetric percentage of organics (generally, 35--50%), the effect of temperature on fracture toughness of bone should be studied. Single-edged V-shaped notched (SEVN) specimens were prepared to measure the fracture toughness of bovine femur and manatee rib in water at 0, 10, 23, 37 and 50°C. The fracture toughness of bovine femur and manatee rib were found to decrease from 7.0 to 4.3 MPa·m1/2 and from 5.5 to 4.1 MPa·m1/2, respectively, over a temperature range of 50°C. The decreases were attributed to inability of the organics to sustain greater stresses at higher temperatures. We studied the effects of water and organics on fracture toughness of bone using water-free and organics-free SEVN specimens at 23°C. Water-free and organics-free specimens were obtained by placing fresh bone specimen in a furnace at different temperatures. Water and organics significantly affected the fracture toughness of bone. Fracture toughness of the water-free specimens was 44.7% (bovine femur) and 32.4% (manatee rib) less than that of fresh-bone specimens. Fracture toughness of the organics-free specimens was 92.7% (bovine femur) and 91.5% (manatee rib) less than that of fresh bone specimens. Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics (LEFM) is widely used to study bone. However, bone often has small to moderate scale yielding during testing. We used J integral, an elastic-plastic fracture-mechanics parameter, to study the fracture process of bone. The J integral of bovine femur increased from 6.3 KJ/mm2 at 23°C to 6.7 KJ/mm2 at 37°C. Although the fracture toughness of bovine bone decreases as the temperature increases, the J integral results show a contrary trend. The energy spent in advancing the crack beyond the linear

  20. Mechanisms and costs of developmental plasticity in amphibian larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Burraco Gaitán, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    Programa de Doctorado en Estudios Medioambientales Nature is complex and organisms commonly need to rapidly be able to detect and respond to environmental inputs in order to increase their survival odds. The ability of a given genotype to alter its morphology, behavior or development against changing environments is known as phenotypic plasticity, which is adaptive when the induced phenotypes confer increased fitness in the altered environment. Adaptive plasticity favors phenotypic diversi...

  1. 10–25 GHz frequency reconfigurable MEMS 5-bit phase shifter using push–pull actuator based toggle mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, Sukomal; Koul, Shiban K

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a frequency tunable 5-bit true-time-delay digital phase shifter using radio frequency microelectromechanical system (RF MEMS) technology. The phase shifter is based on the distributed MEMS transmission line (DMTL) concept utilizing a MEMS varactor. The main source of frequency tuning in this work is a bridge actuation mechanism followed by capacitance variation. Two stages of actuation mechanisms (push and pull) are used to achieve a 2:1 tuning ratio. Accurate control of the actuation voltage between the pull to push stages contributes differential phase shift over the band of interest. The functional behavior of the push–pull actuation over the phase shifter application is theoretically established, experimentally investigated and validated with simulation. The phase shifter is fabricated monolithically using a gold based surface micromachining process on an alumina substrate. The individual primary phase-bits (11.25°/22.5°/45°/90°/180°) that are the fundamental building blocks of the complete 5-bit phase shifter are designed, fabricated and experimentally characterized from 10–25 GHz for specific applications. Finally, the complete 5-bit phase shifter demonstrates an average phase error of 4.32°, 2.8°, 1° and 1.58°, an average insertion loss of 3.76, 4.1, 4.2 and 4.84 dB and an average return loss of 11.7, 12, 14 and 11.8 dB at 10, 12, 17.2 and 25 GHz, respectively. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first reported band tunable stand alone 5-bit phase shifter in the literature which can work over the large spectrum for different applications. The total area of the 5-bit phase shifter is 15.6 mm 2 . Furthermore, the cold-switched reliability of the unit cell and the complete 5-bit MEMS phase shifter are extensively investigated and presented. (paper)

  2. Pulled Motzkin paths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janse van Rensburg, E J, E-mail: rensburg@yorku.c [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, York University, Toronto, ON, M3J 1P3 (Canada)

    2010-08-20

    In this paper the models of pulled Dyck paths in Janse van Rensburg (2010 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 43 215001) are generalized to pulled Motzkin path models. The generating functions of pulled Motzkin paths are determined in terms of series over trinomial coefficients and the elastic response of a Motzkin path pulled at its endpoint (see Orlandini and Whittington (2004 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 37 5305-14)) is shown to be R(f) = 0 for forces pushing the endpoint toward the adsorbing line and R(f) = f(1 + 2cosh f))/(2sinh f) {yields} f as f {yields} {infinity}, for forces pulling the path away from the X-axis. In addition, the elastic response of a Motzkin path pulled at its midpoint is shown to be R(f) = 0 for forces pushing the midpoint toward the adsorbing line and R(f) = f(1 + 2cosh (f/2))/sinh (f/2) {yields} 2f as f {yields} {infinity}, for forces pulling the path away from the X-axis. Formal combinatorial identities arising from pulled Motzkin path models are also presented. These identities are the generalization of combinatorial identities obtained in directed paths models to their natural trinomial counterparts.

  3. Pulled Motzkin paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janse van Rensburg, E. J.

    2010-08-01

    In this paper the models of pulled Dyck paths in Janse van Rensburg (2010 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 43 215001) are generalized to pulled Motzkin path models. The generating functions of pulled Motzkin paths are determined in terms of series over trinomial coefficients and the elastic response of a Motzkin path pulled at its endpoint (see Orlandini and Whittington (2004 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 37 5305-14)) is shown to be R(f) = 0 for forces pushing the endpoint toward the adsorbing line and R(f) = f(1 + 2cosh f))/(2sinh f) → f as f → ∞, for forces pulling the path away from the X-axis. In addition, the elastic response of a Motzkin path pulled at its midpoint is shown to be R(f) = 0 for forces pushing the midpoint toward the adsorbing line and R(f) = f(1 + 2cosh (f/2))/sinh (f/2) → 2f as f → ∞, for forces pulling the path away from the X-axis. Formal combinatorial identities arising from pulled Motzkin path models are also presented. These identities are the generalization of combinatorial identities obtained in directed paths models to their natural trinomial counterparts.

  4. Pulled Motzkin paths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janse van Rensburg, E J

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the models of pulled Dyck paths in Janse van Rensburg (2010 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 43 215001) are generalized to pulled Motzkin path models. The generating functions of pulled Motzkin paths are determined in terms of series over trinomial coefficients and the elastic response of a Motzkin path pulled at its endpoint (see Orlandini and Whittington (2004 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 37 5305-14)) is shown to be R(f) = 0 for forces pushing the endpoint toward the adsorbing line and R(f) = f(1 + 2cosh f))/(2sinh f) → f as f → ∞, for forces pulling the path away from the X-axis. In addition, the elastic response of a Motzkin path pulled at its midpoint is shown to be R(f) = 0 for forces pushing the midpoint toward the adsorbing line and R(f) = f(1 + 2cosh (f/2))/sinh (f/2) → 2f as f → ∞, for forces pulling the path away from the X-axis. Formal combinatorial identities arising from pulled Motzkin path models are also presented. These identities are the generalization of combinatorial identities obtained in directed paths models to their natural trinomial counterparts.

  5. A calculational round robin in elastic-plastic fracture mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, L.H.

    Eighteen organizations participated in this round robin which treated the same three-point bend problem as an ASTM round robin four years earlier. Overall deformation, J, CTOD and crack profile were the main results required using plane strain elastic-plastic finite element analysis for a monotonically increasing load up to a maximum deformation which was far beyond the elastic regime. All elastic solutions were accurate to within a few percent. In the elastic-plastic regime, however, there was a large scatter of the results, increasing with increasing plastic deformation and roughly of the same order as in the ASTM round robin which contained ten solutions. Apparently no significant progress has taken place in the state of the art of numerical EPFM analysis in four years time. The paper discusses the reasons for this scatter and draws tentative conclusions on the most suitable numerical analysis methods in EPFM. (Auth.)

  6. comparison of elastic-plastic FE method and engineering method for RPV fracture mechanics analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yingxue; Zheng Bin; Zhang Fenggang

    2009-01-01

    This paper described the FE analysis of elastic-plastic fracture mechanics for a crack in RPV belt line using ABAQUS code. It calculated and evaluated the stress intensity factor and J integral of crack under PTS transients. The result is also compared with that by engineering analysis method. It shows that the results using engineering analysis method is a little larger than the results using FE analysis of 3D elastic-plastic fracture mechanics, thus the engineering analysis method is conservative than the elastic-plastic fracture mechanics method. (authors)

  7. Mechanics Model of Plug Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Q. K.; Nunes, A. C., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    An analytical model has been developed for the mechanics of friction plug welding. The model accounts for coupling of plastic deformation (material flow) and thermal response (plastic heating). The model predictions of the torque, energy, and pull force on the plug were compared to the data of a recent experiment, and the agreements between predictions and data are encouraging.

  8. Modern plastic solar cells : materials, mechanisms and modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chiechi, Ryan C.; Havenith, Remco W.A.; Hummelen, Jan C.; Koster, L. Jan Anton; Loi, Maria A.

    2013-01-01

    We provide a short review of modern 'plastic' solar cells, a broad topic that spans materials science, physics, and chemistry. The aim of this review is to provide a primer for non-experts or researchers in related fields who are curious about this rapidly growing field of interdisciplinary

  9. Small-scale plasticity critically needs a new mechanics description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngan, Alfonso H. W.

    2013-06-01

    Continuum constitutive laws describe the plastic deformation of materials as a smooth, continuously differentiable process. However, provided that the measurement is done with a fine enough resolution, the plastic deformation of real materials is often found to comprise discrete events usually nanometric in size. For bulk-sized specimens, such nanoscale events are minute compared with the specimen size, and so their associated strain changes are negligibly small, and this is why the continuum laws work well. However, when the specimen size is in the micrometer scale or smaller, the strain changes due to the discrete events could be significant, and the continuum description would be highly unsatisfactory. Yet, because of the advent of microtechnology and nanotechnolgy, small-sized materials will be increasingly used, and so there is a strong need to develop suitable replacement descriptions for plasticity of small materials. As the occurrence of the discrete plastic events is also strongly stochastic, their satisfactory description should also be one of a probabilistic, rather than deterministic, nature.

  10. Trichotillomania (Hair-Pulling Disorder)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pulling Biting, chewing or eating pulled-out hair Playing with pulled-out hair or rubbing it across ... of trichotillomania: Family history. Genetics may play a role in the development of trichotillomania, and the disorder ...

  11. Progress in elastic-plastic fracture mechanics and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paris, P.C.; Zahalak, G.I.

    1980-01-01

    This paper surveys recent developments in the application of J-Integral methods to problems of elastic-plastic fracture. The analytical and experimental development of the J-Integral concept over the last ten years is reviewed briefly. Tearing instability theory is presented in general terms, and specific applications of the theory are discussed. Principles of fracture-proof design are shown to follow naturally from the tearing instability theory. These principles are illustrated first for simple structures, and then generalized to more complex configurations and loading conditions. Examples include multiple member tension structures, beams, frames, nuclear reactor pressure vessel nozzles and piping, and beams on elastic foundations. It is concluded that J-integral based methods offer the best immediate opportunity for the development of sound analytical techniques for treating important practical problems of elastic-plastic fracture

  12. Technical specifications for mechanical recycling of agricultural plastic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briassoulis, D; Hiskakis, M; Babou, E

    2013-06-01

    Technical specifications appropriate for the recycling of agricultural plastic wastes (APWs), widely accepted by the recycling industry were developed. The specifications establish quality standards to be met by the agricultural plastics producers, users and the agricultural plastic waste management chain. They constitute the base for the best economical and environmental valorisation of the APW. The analysis of the APW streams conducted across Europe in the framework of the European project "LabelAgriWaste" revealed the inherent characteristics of the APW streams and the inherent constraints (technical or economical) of the APW. The APW stream properties related to its recycling potential and measured during pilot trials are presented and a subsequent universally accepted simplified and expanded list of APW recycling technical specifications is proposed and justified. The list includes two sets of specifications, applied to two different quality categories of recyclable APW: one for pellet production process ("Quality I") and another one for plastic profile production process ("Quality II"). Parameters that are taken into consideration in the specifications include the APW physical characteristics, contamination, composition and degradation. The proposed specifications are focused on polyethylene based APW that represents the vast majority of the APW stream. However, the specifications can be adjusted to cover also APW of different materials (e.g. PP or PVC) that are found in very small quantities in protected cultivations in Europe. The adoption of the proposed specifications could transform this waste stream into a labelled commodity traded freely in the market and will constitute the base for the best economical and environmental valorisation of the APW. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Mechanisms by Which Phenotypic Plasticity Affects Adaptive Divergence and Ecological Speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, Etsuko; Svanbäck, Richard; Thibert-Plante, Xavier; Englund, Göran; Brännström, Åke

    2015-11-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is the ability of one genotype to produce different phenotypes depending on environmental conditions. Several conceptual models emphasize the role of plasticity in promoting reproductive isolation and, ultimately, speciation in populations that forage on two or more resources. These models predict that plasticity plays a critical role in the early stages of speciation, prior to genetic divergence, by facilitating fast phenotypic divergence. The ability to plastically express alternative phenotypes may, however, interfere with the early phase of the formation of reproductive barriers, especially in the absence of geographic barriers. Here, we quantitatively investigate mechanisms under which plasticity can influence progress toward adaptive genetic diversification and ecological speciation. We use a stochastic, individual-based model of a predator-prey system incorporating sexual reproduction and mate choice in the predator. Our results show that evolving plasticity promotes the evolution of reproductive isolation under diversifying environments when individuals are able to correctly select a more profitable habitat with respect to their phenotypes (i.e., adaptive habitat choice) and to assortatively mate with relatively similar phenotypes. On the other hand, plasticity facilitates the evolution of plastic generalists when individuals have a limited capacity for adaptive habitat choice. We conclude that plasticity can accelerate the evolution of a reproductive barrier toward adaptive diversification and ecological speciation through enhanced phenotypic differentiation between diverging phenotypes.

  14. PushPull++

    KAUST Repository

    Lipp, Markus; Wonka, Peter; Mü ller, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    PushPull tools are implemented in most commercial 3D modeling suites. Their purpose is to intuitively transform a face, edge, or vertex, and then to adapt the polygonal mesh locally. However, previous approaches have limitations: Some allow

  15. Constitutive relations in plasticity, damage and fracture mechanics based on a work property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marigo, J.J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper is devoted to restrictions imposed by a work property of Drucker-Iliushin's type on the general class of mechanical systems with an elastic range which contains plastic, damaged and cracked media. The analysis is purely mechanical and quasi-static. Starting from very weak assumptions relative to this constitutive class, we obtain a fundamental inequality which generalizes Hill's maximal work principle. So we can justify, for instance: the convexity of the elastic domain and the normality rule of the plastic strain rate in stress space for the infinitesimal and some finite plasticity theories, Griffith's criterion in brittle fracture mechanics, and we obtain some original results for elastic and elastic plastic damaged materials. It must be noted that the procedure is purely deductive, the assumptions are explicit and the results are implications

  16. An ultrafast spectroscopic and quantum mechanical investigation of multiple emissions in push-pull pyridinium derivatives bearing different electron donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlotti, B; Benassi, E; Cesaretti, A; Fortuna, C G; Spalletti, A; Barone, V; Elisei, F

    2015-08-28

    A joint experimental and theoretical approach, involving state-of-the-art femtosecond fluorescence up-conversion measurements and quantum mechanical computations including vibronic effects, was employed to get a deep insight into the excited state dynamics of two cationic dipolar chromophores (Donor-π-Acceptor(+)) where the electron deficient portion is a N-methyl pyridinium and the electron donor a trimethoxyphenyl or a pyrene, respectively. The ultrafast spectroscopic investigation, and the time resolved area normalised emission spectra in particular, revealed a peculiar multiple emissive behaviour and allowed the distinct emitting states to be remarkably distinguished from solvation dynamics, occurring in water in a similar timescale. The two and three emissions experimentally detected for the trimethoxyphenyl and pyrene derivatives, respectively, were associated with specific local emissive minima in the potential energy surface of S1 on the ground of quantum-mechanical calculations. A low polar and planar Locally Excited (LE) state together with a highly polar and Twisted Intramolecular Charge Transfer (TICT) state is identified to be responsible for the dual emission of the trimethoxyphenyl compound. Interestingly, the more complex photobehaviour of the pyrenyl derivative was explained considering the contribution to the fluorescence coming not only from the LE and TICT states but also from a nearly Planar Intramolecular Charge Transfer (PICT) state, with both the TICT and the PICT generated from LE by progressive torsion around the quasi-single bond between the methylpyridinium and the ethene bridge. These findings point to an interconversion between rotamers for the pyrene compound taking place in its excited state against the Non-equilibrated Excited Rotamers (NEER) principle.

  17. EFFECT OF PLASTICIZERS ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF EDIBLE FILM FROM JANENG STARCH – CHITOSAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narlis Juandi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The interest in the development of edible and biodegradable films has increased because it is every day more evident that non degradable are doing much damage to the environment. In this research, edible films were based on blends of janeng starch in different proportions, added of palm oil or glycerol, which were used as plasticizers. The objective was to study the effect of two different plasticizers, palm oil and glycerol of edible film from janeng starch–chitosan on the mechanical properties and FTIR spectra. Increasing concentration of glycerol as plasticizer resulted tend to increased tensile strength and elongation at break. The tensile strength and elongation at break values for palm oil is higher than glycerol as plasticizer at the same concentration. FTIR spectra show the process of making edible film from janeng starch–chitosan with palm oil or glycerol as plasticizers are physically mixing in the presence of hydrogen interactions between chains.

  18. A pull-back algorithm to determine the unloaded vascular geometry in anisotropic hyperelastic AAA passive mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveros, Fabián; Chandra, Santanu; Finol, Ender A; Gasser, T Christian; Rodriguez, Jose F

    2013-04-01

    Biomechanical studies on abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) seek to provide for better decision criteria to undergo surgical intervention for AAA repair. More accurate results can be obtained by using appropriate material models for the tissues along with accurate geometric models and more realistic boundary conditions for the lesion. However, patient-specific AAA models are generated from gated medical images in which the artery is under pressure. Therefore, identification of the AAA zero pressure geometry would allow for a more realistic estimate of the aneurysmal wall mechanics. This study proposes a novel iterative algorithm to find the zero pressure geometry of patient-specific AAA models. The methodology allows considering the anisotropic hyperelastic behavior of the aortic wall, its thickness and accounts for the presence of the intraluminal thrombus. Results on 12 patient-specific AAA geometric models indicate that the procedure is computational tractable and efficient, and preserves the global volume of the model. In addition, a comparison of the peak wall stress computed with the zero pressure and CT-based geometries during systole indicates that computations using CT-based geometric models underestimate the peak wall stress by 59 ± 64 and 47 ± 64 kPa for the isotropic and anisotropic material models of the arterial wall, respectively.

  19. Pull-push mechanism for the 1,2-hydrogen rearrangement of carbenes. Substituent and deuterium isotope effects for thermal decomposition of 1-phenyl-2-diazopropanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, D.T.T.; Thornton, E.R.

    1978-01-01

    Intramolecular and intermolecular deuterium isotope effects have been measured for the thermal carbene H rearrangements of three substituted 1-phenyl-2-diazopropanes-1-d in hexane at 25 0 C. The isotope effects, k/sub H//k/sub D/, vary from ca. 1.2 to 1.5, increasing with electron-withdrawing substituents, for the formation of both cis- and trans-β-methylstyrenes. Product ratios were determined for these compounds as well as the corresponding undeuterated ones, permitting calculation of intermolecular primary and secondary isotope effects. In addition, the competition among the cis and trans products and the product of H migration from the terminal methyl group permitted determination of Hammett rho values of ca. -1 for the competition between benzylic and terminal migration. The results strongly indicate a ''pull-push'' mechanism, which can be pictured roughly as electrophilic attack on the C--H bond by the phantom p orbital of the carbene along with backside nucleophilic attack by the carbene unshared electron pair to push the H away and form the π bond. The data are believed to be consistent only with a nonzero barrier for the carbene hydrogen rearrangement

  20. Mechanisms of Plastic Deformation in Collagen Networks Induced by Cellular Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Ehsan; Franklin, J Matthew; Nam, Sungmin; Smith, Lucas R; Wang, Hailong; Wells, Rebecca G; Chaudhuri, Ovijit; Liphardt, Jan T; Shenoy, Vivek B

    2018-01-23

    Contractile cells can reorganize fibrous extracellular matrices and form dense tracts of fibers between neighboring cells. These tracts guide the development of tubular tissue structures and provide paths for the invasion of cancer cells. Here, we studied the mechanisms of the mechanical plasticity of collagen tracts formed by contractile premalignant acinar cells and fibroblasts. Using fluorescence microscopy and second harmonic generation, we quantified the collagen densification, fiber alignment, and strains that remain within the tracts after cellular forces are abolished. We explained these observations using a theoretical fiber network model that accounts for the stretch-dependent formation of weak cross-links between nearby fibers. We tested the predictions of our model using shear rheology experiments. Both our model and rheological experiments demonstrated that increasing collagen concentration leads to substantial increases in plasticity. We also considered the effect of permanent elongation of fibers on network plasticity and derived a phase diagram that classifies the dominant mechanisms of plasticity based on the rate and magnitude of deformation and the mechanical properties of individual fibers. Plasticity is caused by the formation of new cross-links if moderate strains are applied at small rates or due to permanent fiber elongation if large strains are applied over short periods. Finally, we developed a coarse-grained model for plastic deformation of collagen networks that can be employed to simulate multicellular interactions in processes such as morphogenesis, cancer invasion, and fibrosis. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. From waste plastics to industrial raw materials: A life cycle assessment of mechanical plastic recycling practice based on a real-world case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Fu; Guo, Jianfeng; Zhang, Wujie; Summers, Peter A; Hall, Philip

    2017-12-01

    Mechanical recycling of waste plastics is an environmental solution to the problem of waste plastic disposal, and has already become a common practice in industry. However, limited information can be found on either the industralised plastic recycling or the recycled materials, despite the use of recycled plastics has already extended to automobile production. This study investigates the life cycle environmental impacts of mechanical plastic recycling practice of a plastic recycling company in China. Waste plastics from various sources, such as agricultural wastes, plastic product manufacturers, collected solid plastic wastes and parts dismantled from waste electric and electronic equipments, are processed in three routes with products end up in different markets. The results of life cycle assessments show that the extrusion process has the largest environmental impacts, followed by the use of fillers and additives. Compared to production of virgin plastics and composites, the mechanical recycling is proved to be a superior alternative in most environmental aspects. Substituting virgin plastic composites with recycled plastic composites has achieved the highest environmental benefits, as virgin composite production has an impact almost 4 times higher that of the recycled composite production in each ReCiPe endpoint damage factor. Sensitivity analysis shows that the coverage of collecting network contribute affect little to overall environmental impact, and centralisation plays an important role in reducing overall environmental impacts. Among the fillers and additives, impact modifiers account for the most significant contributions to the environmental impacts of recycled composites. This study provides necessary information about the existing industrialised plastic recycling practice, and recommendations are given. Research implications are presented with the purpose to achieve higher substitution rate and lower environmental impact. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B

  2. Delayed pull-in transitions in overdamped MEMS devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Michael; Moulton, Derek E.; Vella, Dominic

    2018-01-01

    We consider the dynamics of overdamped MEMS devices undergoing the pull-in instability. Numerous previous experiments and numerical simulations have shown a significant increase in the pull-in time under DC voltages close to the pull-in voltage. Here the transient dynamics slow down as the device passes through a meta-stable or bottleneck phase, but this slowing down is not well understood quantitatively. Using a lumped parallel-plate model, we perform a detailed analysis of the pull-in dynamics in this regime. We show that the bottleneck phenomenon is a type of critical slowing down arising from the pull-in transition. This allows us to show that the pull-in time obeys an inverse square-root scaling law as the transition is approached; moreover we determine an analytical expression for this pull-in time. We then compare our prediction to a wide range of pull-in time data reported in the literature, showing that the observed slowing down is well captured by our scaling law, which appears to be generic for overdamped pull-in under DC loads. This realization provides a useful design rule with which to tune dynamic response in applications, including state-of-the-art accelerometers and pressure sensors that use pull-in time as a sensing mechanism. We also propose a method to estimate the pull-in voltage based only on data of the pull-in times.

  3. Chapter 4. Fundamental mechanisms of the low temperature plastic deformation of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouquet, J. de

    1976-01-01

    The influence of microstructure, grain boundaries, and strain hardening, on the low temperature plasticity of polycristals is studied. The experimental data on flow stress, work hardening, temperature and strain rate effects, alloying elements and grain size effect are firstly considered, on a macroscopic scale. The mechanisms of the low temperature plastic deformation, and the strain-stress relations are then described in terms of slip modes, mobility, configuration and distributions and interactions of dislocations [fr

  4. Mechanisms of Plasticity in a Caenorhabditis elegans Mechanosensory Circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh eBozorgmehr

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite having a small nervous system (302 neurons and relatively short lifespan (14-21 days, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has a substantial ability to change its behavior in response to experience. The behaviour discussed here is the tap withdrawal response, whereby the worm crawls backwards a brief distance in response to a non-localized stimulus to the side of the Petri plate within which it lives. The neural circuit that underlies this behaviour is primarily made up of 5 sensory neurons and four pairs of interneurons. In this review we describe two classes of mechanosensory plasticity: adult learning and memory and experience dependent changes during development. As worms develop through young adult and adult stages there is a shift towards deeper habituation of response probability that is likely the result of changes in sensitivity to stimulus intensity. Adult worms show short- intermediate- and long-term habituation as well as context dependent habituation. Short-term habituation requires glutamate signalling and auto-phosphorylation of voltage-dependent potassium channels and is modulated by dopamine signalling in the mechanosensory neurons. Long-term memory for habituation is mediated by down-regulation of expression of an AMPA-type glutamate receptor subunit. Intermediate memory involves an increase in release of an inhibitory neuropeptide. Depriving larval worms of mechanosensory stimulation early in development leads to fewer synaptic vesicles in the mechanosensory neurons and lower levels of an AMPA-type glutamate receptor subunit in the interneurons. Overall, the mechanosensory system of C. elegans shows a great deal of experience dependent plasticity both during development and as an adult. The simplest form of learning, habituation, is not so simple and is mediated and/or modulated by a number of different processes, some of which we are beginning to understand.

  5. Pull remanufacturing: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, L.O.

    1992-09-01

    This paper describes how pull production methods have been applied to a manual transmission remanufacturing line at Tooele Army Depot in Utah. The paper emphasizes techniques for linking the control of disassembly and cleaning operations to the repair and assembly portions of the production system (PP&C). The primary objective is to show that production planning and control can be simplified when pull mechanisms are combined with shop floor improvements. One approach to applying MRP II to remanufacturing is to use a separate production schedule for the disassembly and assembly portions of the operation. This approach is primarily needed when managing the delivery and inventory of cores is critical to the successful operation of a remanufacturing organization. Because Army depots frequently have an adequate inventory of cores on hand (somewhere on-site), this requirement is usually less significant. Therefore, it is possible to eliminate the use of a master production schedule for disassembly and rely on pull linkages from the repair and assembly operations to control the activity of the disassembly and cleaning operations. In remanufacturing environments having multiple products and adequate buffers of core inventory, effective coordination of disassembly and cleaning functions with assembly production requirements becomes a key production control issue.

  6. Pull remanufacturing: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, L.O.

    1992-09-01

    This paper describes how pull production methods have been applied to a manual transmission remanufacturing line at Tooele Army Depot in Utah. The paper emphasizes techniques for linking the control of disassembly and cleaning operations to the repair and assembly portions of the production system (PP C). The primary objective is to show that production planning and control can be simplified when pull mechanisms are combined with shop floor improvements. One approach to applying MRP II to remanufacturing is to use a separate production schedule for the disassembly and assembly portions of the operation. This approach is primarily needed when managing the delivery and inventory of cores is critical to the successful operation of a remanufacturing organization. Because Army depots frequently have an adequate inventory of cores on hand (somewhere on-site), this requirement is usually less significant. Therefore, it is possible to eliminate the use of a master production schedule for disassembly and rely on pull linkages from the repair and assembly operations to control the activity of the disassembly and cleaning operations. In remanufacturing environments having multiple products and adequate buffers of core inventory, effective coordination of disassembly and cleaning functions with assembly production requirements becomes a key production control issue.

  7. Learning to learn - intrinsic plasticity as a metaplasticity mechanism for memory formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Megha; Song, Chenghui; Ehlers, Vanessa L; Moyer, James R

    2013-10-01

    "Use it or lose it" is a popular adage often associated with use-dependent enhancement of cognitive abilities. Much research has focused on understanding exactly how the brain changes as a function of experience. Such experience-dependent plasticity involves both structural and functional alterations that contribute to adaptive behaviors, such as learning and memory, as well as maladaptive behaviors, including anxiety disorders, phobias, and posttraumatic stress disorder. With the advancing age of our population, understanding how use-dependent plasticity changes across the lifespan may also help to promote healthy brain aging. A common misconception is that such experience-dependent plasticity (e.g., associative learning) is synonymous with synaptic plasticity. Other forms of plasticity also play a critical role in shaping adaptive changes within the nervous system, including intrinsic plasticity - a change in the intrinsic excitability of a neuron. Intrinsic plasticity can result from a change in the number, distribution or activity of various ion channels located throughout the neuron. Here, we review evidence that intrinsic plasticity is an important and evolutionarily conserved neural correlate of learning. Intrinsic plasticity acts as a metaplasticity mechanism by lowering the threshold for synaptic changes. Thus, learning-related intrinsic changes can facilitate future synaptic plasticity and learning. Such intrinsic changes can impact the allocation of a memory trace within a brain structure, and when compromised, can contribute to cognitive decline during the aging process. This unique role of intrinsic excitability can provide insight into how memories are formed and, more interestingly, how neurons that participate in a memory trace are selected. Most importantly, modulation of intrinsic excitability can allow for regulation of learning ability - this can prevent or provide treatment for cognitive decline not only in patients with clinical disorders but

  8. Learning to learn – intrinsic plasticity as a metaplasticity mechanism for memory formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Megha; Song, Chenghui; Ehlers, Vanessa L.; Moyer, James R.

    2013-01-01

    “Use it or lose it” is a popular adage often associated with use-dependent enhancement of cognitive abilities. Much research has focused on understanding exactly how the brain changes as a function of experience. Such experience-dependent plasticity involves both structural and functional alterations that contribute to adaptive behaviors, such as learning and memory, as well as maladaptive behaviors, including anxiety disorders, phobias, and posttraumatic stress disorder. With the advancing age of our population, understanding how use-dependent plasticity changes across the lifespan may also help to promote healthy brain aging. A common misconception is that such experience-dependent plasticity (e.g., associative learning) is synonymous with synaptic plasticity. Other forms of plasticity also play a critical role in shaping adaptive changes within the nervous system, including intrinsic plasticity – a change in the intrinsic excitability of a neuron. Intrinsic plasticity can result from a change in the number, distribution or activity of various ion channels located throughout the neuron. Here, we review evidence that intrinsic plasticity is an important and evolutionarily conserved neural correlate of learning. Intrinsic plasticity acts as a metaplasticity mechanism by lowering the threshold for synaptic changes. Thus, learning-related intrinsic changes can facilitate future synaptic plasticity and learning. Such intrinsic changes can impact the allocation of a memory trace within a brain structure, and when compromised, can contribute to cognitive decline during the aging process. This unique role of intrinsic excitability can provide insight into how memories are formed and, more interestingly, how neurons that participate in a memory trace are selected. Most importantly, modulation of intrinsic excitability can allow for regulation of learning ability – this can prevent or provide treatment for cognitive decline not only in patients with clinical

  9. A unified approach to the analysis and design of elasto-plastic structures with mechanical contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendsoe, Martin P.; Olhoff, Niels; Taylor, John E.

    1990-01-01

    With structural design in mind, a new unified variational model has been developed which represents the mechanics of deformation elasto-plasticity with unilateral contact conditions. For a design problem formulated as maximization of the load carrying capacity of a structure under certain constraints, the unified model allows for a simultaneous analysis and design synthesis for a whole range of mechanical behavior.

  10. PushPull++

    KAUST Repository

    Lipp, Markus

    2014-07-22

    PushPull tools are implemented in most commercial 3D modeling suites. Their purpose is to intuitively transform a face, edge, or vertex, and then to adapt the polygonal mesh locally. However, previous approaches have limitations: Some allow adjustments only when adjacent faces are orthogonal; others support slanted surfaces but never create new details. Moreover, self-intersections and edge-collapses during editing are either ignored or work only partially for solid geometry. To overcome these limitations, we introduce the PushPull++ tool for rapid polygonal modeling. In our solution, we contribute novel methods for adaptive face insertion, adjacent face updates, edge collapse handling, and an intuitive user interface that automatically proposes useful drag directions. We show that PushPull++ reduces the complexity of common modeling tasks by up to an order of magnitude when compared with existing tools. Copyright © ACM.

  11. Pulled elbow in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Syunsuke; Goldman, Ran D

    2018-06-01

    Question Our practice is seeing children with relatively minor injuries to their elbows, with a history of "swinging" them when their hands are being held to cross the road. Nothing is usually found on a physical examination. I know that this is likely a "pulled elbow." Can we manage this in the clinic setting rather than sending the family to the emergency department? What would be the best course of action in the clinic setting? Answer Pulled elbow, also called nursemaid's elbow , is a radial head subluxation caused by axial traction or a sudden pull of the extended pronated arm, and it is a very common phenomenon. The practice of swinging children while holding their hands should be abandoned. In the case of pulled elbow, the child usually avoids moving the affected arm, holding it close to his or her body, without considerable pain, and no obvious swelling or deformity can be seen. While a fracture should be excluded, pulled elbow can usually be identified based on this presentation. The reduction procedure can easily be done in the office setting, with an 80% success rate and no complications. The hyperpronation maneuver (holding the elbow at 90° and then firmly pronating the wrist) to reduce pulled elbow has been found to be better than a supination-flexion maneuver (holding the elbow at 90° with one hand, supinating and flexing the elbow rapidly with the other) and should be exercised first. When 2 trials of reduction are unsuccessful, the child's arm should be splinted and the family should be sent for further evaluation. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

  12. Mechanisms of oxygen permeation through plastic films and barrier coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilski, Stefan; Wipperfürth, Jens; Jaritz, Montgomery; Kirchheim, Dennis; Mitschker, Felix; Awakowicz, Peter; Dahlmann, Rainer; Hopmann, Christian

    2017-10-01

    Oxygen and water vapour permeation through plastic films in food packaging or other applications with high demands on permeation are prevented by inorganic barrier films. Most of the permeation occurs through small defects (visualized by etching with reactive oxygen in a capacitively coupled plasma and subsequent SEM imaging. In this work, defects in SiO x -coatings deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) are investigated and the mass transport through the polymer is simulated in a 3D approach. Calculations of single defects showed that there is no linear correlation between the defect area and the resulting permeability. The influence of adjacent defects in different distances was observed and led to flow reduction functions depending on the defect spacing and defect area. A critical defect spacing where no interaction between defects occurs was found and compared to other findings. According to the superposition principle, the permeability of single defects was added up and compared to experimentally determined oxygen permeation. The results showed the same trend of decreasing permeability with decreasing defect densities.

  13. Mechanisms of oxygen permeation through plastic films and barrier coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilski, Stefan; Wipperfürth, Jens; Jaritz, Montgomery; Kirchheim, Dennis; Dahlmann, Rainer; Hopmann, Christian; Mitschker, Felix; Awakowicz, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Oxygen and water vapour permeation through plastic films in food packaging or other applications with high demands on permeation are prevented by inorganic barrier films. Most of the permeation occurs through small defects (<3 µ m) in the barrier coating. The defects were visualized by etching with reactive oxygen in a capacitively coupled plasma and subsequent SEM imaging. In this work, defects in SiO x -coatings deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) are investigated and the mass transport through the polymer is simulated in a 3D approach. Calculations of single defects showed that there is no linear correlation between the defect area and the resulting permeability. The influence of adjacent defects in different distances was observed and led to flow reduction functions depending on the defect spacing and defect area. A critical defect spacing where no interaction between defects occurs was found and compared to other findings. According to the superposition principle, the permeability of single defects was added up and compared to experimentally determined oxygen permeation. The results showed the same trend of decreasing permeability with decreasing defect densities. (paper)

  14. Cellular Signal Mechanisms of Reward-Related Plasticity in the Hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masako Isokawa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The hippocampus has the extraordinary capacity to process and store information. Consequently, there is an intense interest in the mechanisms that underline learning and memory. Synaptic plasticity has been hypothesized to be the neuronal substrate for learning. Ca2+ and Ca2+-activated kinases control cellular processes of most forms of hippocampal synapse plasticity. In this paper, I aim to integrate our current understanding of Ca2+-mediated synaptic plasticity and metaplasticity in motivational and reward-related learning in the hippocampus. I will introduce two representative neuromodulators that are widely studied in reward-related learning (e.g., ghrelin and endocannabinoids and show how they might contribute to hippocampal neuron activities and Ca2+-mediated signaling processes in synaptic plasticity. Additionally, I will discuss functional significance of these two systems and their signaling pathways for its relevance to maladaptive reward learning leading to addiction.

  15. Effect of Plasticizers on Physicochemical and Mechanical Properties of Chitosan-Gelatin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manshor, N. Mohammed; Rezali, M. I.; Jai, J.; Yahya, A.

    2018-05-01

    Composite chitosan-gelatin films were produced to investigate the effect of plasticizer and composition of chitosan and gelatin on physicochemical and mechanical properties of the films. The films were prepared according to ratio of chitosan: gelatin of 1:1, 1:2 and 2:1. For each film, glycerol, sorbitol and sucrose were added as plasticizer. The film forming solution was poured on a glass plate and dried for 12 hours in an oven at 60°C. The highest tensile strength was 4.04 MPa for films of ratio 2:1 plasticized with glycerol compared to sorbitol and sucrose which were 3.94 MPa and 3.84 MPa, respectively. However, films plasticized with sorbitol at ratio of 1:2 had the highest percent elongation which was 68.20%, followed by glycerol and sucrose which were 26.51% and 24.08%, respectively.

  16. Effect of ageing time on mechanical properties of plasticized poly(hydroxybutyrate) (PHB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Giuseppe; Cinelli, Patrizia; Anguillesi, Irene; Salvadori, Sara; Coltelli, Maria-Beatrice; Lazzeri, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) based materials were prepared by melt extrusion by using different plasticizers, such as poly(ethylene glycol)s (PEG)s having different molecular weight (400, 1500 and 4000). The plasticizers content was varied in the range 10-20% by weight versus the PHB polymeric matrix. The variation of tensile properties of the different samples was monitored as a function of time of ageing to study the stability of the material. The elastic modulus and tensile strength increased as a function of time, whereas the strain at break decreased. The experimental results were explained by considering both the demixing of the plasticizers and the occurring of secondary crystallization. Moreover the variation in mechanical properties was correlated to the structure and concentration of the different plasticizers employed.

  17. THE EFFECT OF PLASTICIZER ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF THE CEMENT PASTE WITH FINE GROUND RECYCLED CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaromír Hrůza

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the usage of recycled concrete, which arises from the demolition of concrete structures. The work is focused on the development of mechanical properties (Young's modulus, compressive and flexural strength depending amount of plasticizer in the mixture. In the experiment were prepared three sets of samples with different amounts of plasticizer (0, 0.5 and 1.0 wt. % of cement. Each pair always contained reference samples (only cement and 35 wt. % of fine ground recycled concrete. One of the main reasons for the use of finely ground recycled concrete was a certain substitution of cement in the mixture, which is the most expensive component. Development of Young's modulus was measured by the nondestructive method. The aim of the experiment was to determine the effect of plasticizer on the resulting physical and mechanical properties of cement pastes with fine ground recycled concrete.

  18. Numerical modelling of ductile damage mechanics coupled with an unconventional plasticity model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Fincato

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Ductility in metals includes the material’s capability to tolerate plastic deformations before partial or total degradation of its mechanical properties. Modelling this parameter is important in structure and component design because it can be used to estimate material failure under a generic multi-axial stress state. Previous work has attempted to provide accurate descriptions of the mechanical property degradation resulting from the formation, growth, and coalescence of microvoids in the medium. Experimentally, ductile damage is inherently linked with the accumulation of plastic strain; therefore, coupling damage and elastoplasticity is necessary for describing this phenomenon accurately. In this paper, we combine the approach proposed by Lemaitre with the features of an unconventional plasticity model, the extended subloading surface model, to predict material fatigue even for loading conditions below the yield stress

  19. Tailoring plasticity of austenitic stainless steels for nuclear applications: Review of mechanisms controlling plasticity of austenitic steels below 400 °C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meric de Bellefon, G., E-mail: mericdebelle@wisc.edu [University of Wisconsin-Madison (United States); Duysen, J.C. van [EDF R& D (France); University of Tennessee-Knoxville (United States); Unité Matériaux et Transformation (UMET) CNRS, Université de Lille (France)

    2016-07-15

    AISI 304 and 316 austenitic stainless steels were invented in the early 1900s and are still trusted by materials and mechanical engineers in numerous sectors because of their good combination of strength, ductility, and corrosion resistance, and thanks to decades of experience and data. This article is part of an effort focusing on tailoring the plasticity of both types of steels to nuclear applications. It provides a synthetic and comprehensive review of the plasticity mechanisms in austenitic steels during tensile tests below 400 °C. In particular, formation of twins, extended stacking faults, and martensite, as well as irradiation effects and grain rotation are discussed in details. - Highlights: • This article is part of an effort to tailor the plasticity of 304L and 316L steels for nuclear applications. • It reviews mechanisms controlling plasticity of austenitic steels during tensile tests. • Formation of twins, extended stacking faults, and martensite, grain rotation, and irradiation effects are discussed.

  20. Novel ferrite–austenite duplex lightweight steel with 77% ductility by transformation induced plasticity and twinning induced plasticity mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Seok Su; Choi, Kayoung; Kwak, Jai-Hyun; Kim, Nack J.; Lee, Sunghak

    2014-01-01

    The need for lightweight materials has been an important issue in automotive industries to reduce greenhouse gas emission and to improve fuel efficiency. In addition, automotive steels require an excellent combination of strength and ductility to sustain automotive structures and to achieve complex shapes, but the traditional approach to obtain a reduction in weight from down-gauged steels with high strength has many limitations. Here, we present a new ferrite–austenite duplex lightweight steel containing a low-density element, Al; this steel exhibits tensile elongation up to 77% as well as high tensile strength (734 MPa). The enhanced properties are attributed to the simultaneous formation of deformation-induced martensites and deformation twins and the additional plasticity due to deformation twinning in austenite grains having optimal mechanical stability. The present work gives a promise for automotive applications requiring excellent properties as well as reduced specific weight

  1. Thermal, mechanical and morphological characterization of plasticized PLA-PHB blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    A blend of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) (75% by weight) and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) (25% by weight) with a polyester plasticizer (Lapol 108) at two different concentrations (5 and 7% by weight per 100 parts of the blends) were investigated by TGA, DSC, XRD, SEM, mechanical testing and biodegradatio...

  2. Mechanical and thermal properties of physically-blended-plastic films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu Issa, M. S.

    1983-10-01

    Low density polyethylene (LDPE) and isotactic polypropylene (PP) blend were produced in film form and were characterized by a number of techniques such as wide-angle x-ray diffraction (WAXD), differential thermal analysis (DTA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and instron tensile testing. Results of WAXD and DTA showed conclusively that the two components in the blend are incompatible. SEM micrographs indicated that the 60/40 and 40/60 PP/PE blends show approximately fine homogeneous dispersion of the minor component into the matrix of the major component. The mechanical properties of the blend films improved with respect to the PE homo polymer. The improvement was more remarkable with the increase of the PP component in the blend. Results obtained in this work were explained in terms of crystallinity and the crystallite orientation. 28 refs., 29 figs., 5 tabs. (A.M.H.)

  3. Effect of indoor climate on the rate and degradation mechanism of plasticized poly (vinyl chloride)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shashoua, Yvonne

    2003-01-01

    Many PVC materials deteriorate only 5 years after manufacture. The extent, rate and mechanisms of deterioration of model and naturally aged PVC containing di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), have been examined during thermal ageing in various environments. Weight loss was used to quantify loss...... inhibited degradation of the PVC polymer, therefore when it was lost, discolouration, tackiness and embrittlement resulted. Less plasticized materials degraded more rapidly than those more highly plasticized. Degradation was inhibited in both model sheets and naturally aged materials by enclosing them...

  4. Mechanical Properties of a Unidirectional Basalt-Fiber-Reinforced Plastic Under a Loading Simulating Operation Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobanov, D. S.; Slovikov, S. V.

    2017-01-01

    The results of experimental investigations of unidirectional composites based on basalt fibers and different marks of epoxy resins are presented. Uniaxial tensile tests were carried out using a specimen fixation technique simulating the operation conditions of structures. The mechanical properties of the basalt-fiber-reinforced plastics (BFRPs) were determined. The diagrams of loading and deformation of BFRP specimens were obtain. The formulations of the composites with the highest mechanical properties were revealed.

  5. Multiphase-field model of small strain elasto-plasticity according to the mechanical jump conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Christoph; Schoof, Ephraim; Schneider, Daniel; Schwab, Felix; Reiter, Andreas; Selzer, Michael; Nestler, Britta

    2018-04-01

    We introduce a small strain elasto-plastic multiphase-field model according to the mechanical jump conditions. A rate-independent J_2 -plasticity model with linear isotropic hardening and without kinematic hardening is applied exemplary. Generally, any physically nonlinear mechanical model is compatible with the subsequently presented procedure. In contrast to models with interpolated material parameters, the proposed model is able to apply different nonlinear mechanical constitutive equations for each phase separately. The Hadamard compatibility condition and the static force balance are employed as homogenization approaches to calculate the phase-inherent stresses and strains. Several verification cases are discussed. The applicability of the proposed model is demonstrated by simulations of the martensitic transformation and quantitative parameters.

  6. Elastic-plastic Fracture Mechanics Assessment of nozzle corners submitted to thermal shock loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapuliot, S.; Marie, S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the development of a simplified analytical scheme for the elastic-plastic Fracture Mechanics Assessment of large nozzle corners. Within that frame, following the specific numerical effort performed for the definition of a Stress Intensity Factor compendium, complementary elastic-plastic developments are proposed here for the consideration of the thermal shock loading in the elastic-plastic domain: this type of loading is a major loading for massive structures such as nozzle corners of large components. Thus, an important numerical was performed in order to extend the applicability domain of existing analytical schemes to those complex geometries. The final formulation is a simple one, applicable to a large variety of materials and geometrical configurations as long as the structure is large and the defect remains small in comparison to the internal radius of the nozzle. - Highlights: • Fracture Mechanics Assessment of large nozzle corners. • Elastic-plastic Stress Intensity Factor determination under thermal shock loading. • Semi-analytical schemes for J calculation.

  7. Application to refrigerator plastics by mechanical recycling from polypropylene in waste-appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Kyung Ho; Kim, Moon Saeng

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: → Polypropylene is mechanically recycled from waste-appliances. → Recycled polypropylene (RPP) is impact enhanced polypropylene with ethylene-propylene rubber (EPR). → Performance evaluation shows that RPP is applicable to refrigerator plastics. -- Abstract: For the application to refrigerator plastics by mechanical recycling from polypropylene (PP) in waste-appliances, it needs to identify the degradation and heterogeneity of recycled polypropylene (RPP). It is applicable the thermal analysis such as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), spectroscopic analysis such as Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and morphological analysis such as scanning electronic microscope (SEM). The analysis results show that RPP from waste-appliances is the polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP) copolymer enhanced impact property (Impact-PP) and it is possible to apply refrigerator plastics with good impact property at low temperature. Finally, the performance evaluation of RPP is estimated by Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) analysis and is performed by the various mechanical and physical testing methods. It shows that RPP has relatively high molecular weight and balanced properties with strength and toughness. It is expected that RPP by the mechanical recycling from waste-appliances will have about 50% cost-merit.

  8. Hormones and phenotypic plasticity in an ecological context: linking physiological mechanisms to evolutionary processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lema, Sean C

    2014-11-01

    Hormones are chemical signaling molecules that regulate patterns of cellular physiology and gene expression underlying phenotypic traits. Hormone-signaling pathways respond to an organism's external environment to mediate developmental stage-specific malleability in phenotypes, so that environmental variation experienced at different stages of development has distinct effects on an organism's phenotype. Studies of hormone-signaling are therefore playing a central role in efforts to understand how plastic phenotypic responses to environmental variation are generated during development. But, how do adaptive, hormonally mediated phenotypes evolve if the individual signaling components (hormones, conversion enzymes, membrane transporters, and receptors) that comprise any hormone-signaling pathway show expressional flexibility in response to environmental variation? What relevance do these components hold as molecular targets for selection to couple or decouple correlated hormonally mediated traits? This article explores how studying the endocrine underpinnings of phenotypic plasticity in an ecologically relevant context can provide insights into these, and other, crucial questions into the role of phenotypic plasticity in evolution, including how plasticity itself evolves. These issues are discussed in the light of investigations into how thyroid hormones mediate morphological plasticity in Death Valley's clade of pupfishes (Cyprinodon spp.). Findings from this work with pupfish illustrate that the study of hormone-signaling from an ecological perspective can reveal how phenotypic plasticity contributes to the generation of phenotypic novelty, as well as how physiological mechanisms developmentally link an organism's phenotype to its environmental experiences. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Plasticity theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lubliner, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    The aim of Plasticity Theory is to provide a comprehensive introduction to the contemporary state of knowledge in basic plasticity theory and to its applications. It treats several areas not commonly found between the covers of a single book: the physics of plasticity, constitutive theory, dynamic plasticity, large-deformation plasticity, and numerical methods, in addition to a representative survey of problems treated by classical methods, such as elastic-plastic problems, plane plastic flow, and limit analysis; the problem discussed come from areas of interest to mechanical, structural, and

  10. Radiation damage studies on the optical and mechanical properties of plastic scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizue Hamada, Margarida; Roberto Rela, Paulo; Eduardo da Costa, Fabio; Henrique de Mesquita, Carlos

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the radiation damage studies on a large volume plastic scintillator based in polystyrene doped with PPO and POPOP. The consequences on their mechanical and scintillation properties were evaluated before and after irradiation with different dose rates of 60 Co gamma radiation, in several doses. The optical results show a significant difference in the radiation susceptibility, when the plastic scintillator is irradiated at low rate (0.1 kGy/h) with that irradiated at high dose rate (85 kGy/h). The losses in the optical and mechanical properties increase as the irradiation dose is increased. The damage evaluated by the transmittance, emission intensity, pulse height and tensile strength was normalized as a damage fraction and fitted by a bi-exponential function. It was observed that the damage for irradiation is not permanent and it obeys a bi-exponential function

  11. Microscopic mechanisms contributing to the synchronous improvement of strength and plasticity (SISP) for TWIP copper alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, R; Zhang, Z J; Li, L L; An, X H; Zhang, Z F

    2015-04-01

    In this study, the concept of "twinning induced plasticity (TWIP) alloys" is broadened, and the underlying intrinsic microscopic mechanisms of the general TWIP effect are intensively explored. For the first aspect, "TWIP copper alloys" was proposed following the concept of "TWIP steels", as they share essentially the same strengthening and toughening mechanisms. For the second aspect, three intrinsic features of twinning: i.e. "dynamic development", "planarity", as well as "orientation selectivity" were derived from the detailed exploration of the deformation behavior in TWIP copper alloys. These features can be considered the microscopic essences of the general "TWIP effect". Moreover, the effective cooperation between deformation twinning and dislocation slipping in TWIP copper alloys leads to a desirable tendency: the synchronous improvement of strength and plasticity (SISP). This breakthrough against the traditional trade-off relationship, achieved by the general "TWIP effect", may provide useful strategies for designing high-performance engineering materials.

  12. Barrier and mechanical properties of plasticized and cross-linked nanocellulose coatings for paper packaging applications

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera, M. A. (Martha A.); Mathew, A. P. (Aji P.); Oksman, K. (Kristiina)

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Barrier, mechanical and thermal properties of porous paper substrates dip-coated with nanocellulose (NC) were studied. Sorbitol plasticizer was used to improve the toughness, and citric acid cross-linker to improve the moisture stability of the coatings. In general, the addition of sorbitol increased the barrier properties, maximum strength and toughness as well as the thermal stability of the samples when compared to the non-modified NC coatings. The barrier properties significan...

  13. Short-term plasticity as a neural mechanism supporting memory and attentional functions

    OpenAIRE

    Jääskeläinen, Iiro P.; Ahveninen, Jyrki; Andermann, Mark L.; Belliveau, John W.; Raij, Tommi; Sams, Mikko

    2011-01-01

    Based on behavioral studies, several relatively distinct perceptual and cognitive functions have been defined in cognitive psychology such as sensory memory, short-term memory, and selective attention. Here, we review evidence suggesting that some of these functions may be supported by shared underlying neuronal mechanisms. Specifically, we present, based on an integrative review of the literature, a hypothetical model wherein short-term plasticity, in the form of transient center-excitatory ...

  14. Mathematical and Simulation Modelling of Moisture Diffusion Mechanism during Plastic IC Packages Disassembly

    OpenAIRE

    Peng Mou; Dong Xiang; Guanghong Duan

    2013-01-01

    Reuse of plastic IC packages disassembled from printed circuit boards (PCBs) has significant environmental benefits and economic value. The interface delamination caused by moisture diffusion is the main failure mode of IC packages during the disassembling process, which greatly reduces the reusability and reliability of disassembled IC packages. Exploring moisture diffusion mechanism is a prerequisite to optimize prebaking processes before disassembling that is an effective way to avoid the ...

  15. Tailoring plasticity of austenitic stainless steels for nuclear applications: Review of mechanisms controlling plasticity of austenitic steels below 400 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meric de Bellefon, G.; van Duysen, J. C.

    2016-07-01

    AISI 304 and 316 austenitic stainless steels were invented in the early 1900s and are still trusted by materials and mechanical engineers in numerous sectors because of their good combination of strength, ductility, and corrosion resistance, and thanks to decades of experience and data. This article is part of an effort focusing on tailoring the plasticity of both types of steels to nuclear applications. It provides a synthetic and comprehensive review of the plasticity mechanisms in austenitic steels during tensile tests below 400 °C. In particular, formation of twins, extended stacking faults, and martensite, as well as irradiation effects and grain rotation are discussed in details.

  16. Mineralogical Plasticity Acts as a Compensatory Mechanism to the Impacts of Ocean Acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Jonathan Y S; Russell, Bayden D; Connell, Sean D

    2017-03-07

    Calcifying organisms are considered particularly susceptible to the future impacts of ocean acidification (OA), but recent evidence suggests that they may be able to maintain calcification and overall fitness. The underlying mechanism remains unclear but may be attributed to mineralogical plasticity, which modifies the energetic cost of calcification. To test the hypothesis that mineralogical plasticity enables the maintenance of shell growth and functionality under OA conditions, we assessed the biological performance of a gastropod (respiration rate, feeding rate, somatic growth, and shell growth of Austrocochlea constricta) and analyzed its shell mechanical and geochemical properties (shell hardness, elastic modulus, amorphous calcium carbonate, calcite to aragonite ratio, and magnesium to calcium ratio). Despite minor metabolic depression and no increase in feeding rate, shell growth was faster under OA conditions, probably due to increased precipitation of calcite and trade-offs against inner shell density. In addition, the resulting shell was functionally suitable for increasingly "corrosive" oceans, i.e., harder and less soluble shells. We conclude that mineralogical plasticity may act as a compensatory mechanism to maintain overall performance of calcifying organisms under OA conditions and could be a cornerstone of calcifying organisms to acclimate to and maintain their ecological functions in acidifying oceans.

  17. Reciprocal osmotic challenges reveal mechanisms of divergence in phenotypic plasticity in the killifish Fundulus heteroclitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Reid S; Galvez, Fernando; Whitehead, Andrew

    2015-04-15

    The killifish Fundulus heteroclitus is an estuarine species with broad physiological plasticity, enabling acclimation to diverse stressors. Previous work suggests that freshwater populations expanded their physiology to accommodate low salinity environments; however, it is unknown whether this compromises their tolerance to high salinity. We used a comparative approach to investigate the mechanisms of a derived freshwater phenotype and the fate of an ancestral euryhaline phenotype after invasion of a freshwater environment. We compared physiological and transcriptomic responses to high- and low-salinity stress in fresh and brackish water populations and found an enhanced plasticity to low salinity in the freshwater population coupled with a reduced ability to acclimate to high salinity. Transcriptomic data identified genes with a conserved common response, a conserved salinity-dependent response and responses associated with population divergence. Conserved common acclimation responses revealed stress responses and alterations in cell-cycle regulation as important mechanisms in the general osmotic response. Salinity-specific responses included the regulation of genes involved in ion transport, intracellular calcium, energetic processes and cellular remodeling. Genes diverged between populations were primarily those showing salinity-specific expression and included those regulating polyamine homeostasis and the cell cycle. Additionally, when populations were matched with their native salinity, expression patterns were consistent with the concept of 'transcriptomic resilience', suggesting local adaptation. These findings provide insight into the fate of a plastic phenotype after a shift in environmental salinity and help to reveal mechanisms allowing for euryhalinity. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. Effect of elastic and plastic tensile mechanical loading on the magnetic properties of NGO electrical steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leuning, N., E-mail: nora.leuning@iem.rwth-aachen.de [Institute of Electrical Machines, RWTH Aachen University, D-52062 Aachen (Germany); Steentjes, S. [Institute of Electrical Machines, RWTH Aachen University, D-52062 Aachen (Germany); Schulte, M.; Bleck, W. [Steel Institute, RWTH Aachen University, D-52072 Aachen (Germany); Hameyer, K. [Institute of Electrical Machines, RWTH Aachen University, D-52062 Aachen (Germany)

    2016-11-01

    The magnetic properties of non-grain-oriented (NGO) electrical steels are highly susceptible to mechanical stresses, i.e., residual, external or thermal ones. For rotating electrical machines, mechanical stresses are inevitable and originate from different sources, e.g., material processing, machine manufacturing and operating conditions. The efficiency and specific losses are largely altered by different mechanical stress states. In this paper the effect of tensile stresses and plastic deformations on the magnetic properties of a 2.9 wt% Si electrical steel are studied. Particular attention is paid to the effect of magnetic anisotropy, i.e., the influence of the direction of applied mechanical stress with respect to the rolling direction. Due to mechanical stress, the induced anisotropy has to be evaluated as it is related to the stress-dependent magnetostriction constant and the grain alignment. - Highlights: • A detailed look at magnetic anisotropy of FeSi NGO electrical steel. • Study of magnetic behavior under elastic as well as plastic tensile stresses. • Correlation of magnetic behavior with microscopic deformation mechanisms. • Discussion of detrimental and beneficial effects of external stresses. • Loss separation at different polarizations and frequencies under increasing stress.

  19. Effect of elastic and plastic tensile mechanical loading on the magnetic properties of NGO electrical steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leuning, N.; Steentjes, S.; Schulte, M.; Bleck, W.; Hameyer, K.

    2016-01-01

    The magnetic properties of non-grain-oriented (NGO) electrical steels are highly susceptible to mechanical stresses, i.e., residual, external or thermal ones. For rotating electrical machines, mechanical stresses are inevitable and originate from different sources, e.g., material processing, machine manufacturing and operating conditions. The efficiency and specific losses are largely altered by different mechanical stress states. In this paper the effect of tensile stresses and plastic deformations on the magnetic properties of a 2.9 wt% Si electrical steel are studied. Particular attention is paid to the effect of magnetic anisotropy, i.e., the influence of the direction of applied mechanical stress with respect to the rolling direction. Due to mechanical stress, the induced anisotropy has to be evaluated as it is related to the stress-dependent magnetostriction constant and the grain alignment. - Highlights: • A detailed look at magnetic anisotropy of FeSi NGO electrical steel. • Study of magnetic behavior under elastic as well as plastic tensile stresses. • Correlation of magnetic behavior with microscopic deformation mechanisms. • Discussion of detrimental and beneficial effects of external stresses. • Loss separation at different polarizations and frequencies under increasing stress.

  20. Mechanisms of the plastic deformation of uranium alloys at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Poac, P.; Nomine, A.M.; Miannay, D.

    1976-01-01

    The mechanical characteristics of the bcc binary alloys U-6Mo, U-8Mo, U-10Mo, U-12Mo and bcc ternary alloys U-8Mo-1Ti, U-10Mo-1Ti, U-10Mo-1Zr, stressed in compression, were determined between -196 deg C and + 450 deg C. The plastic flow shear stress in non-dependent on temperature above 300 deg C. At lower temperature shear stress is highly activated, except for the alloy U-6Mo and U-12Mo. Athermal shear stress above 300 deg C is due to the hardening of the solid solution described by Mott and Nabarro. In the thermal range, the recombination of the dissociated dislocations controls the plastic deformation [fr

  1. Solar cell contact pull strength as a function of pull-test temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, R. K.; Berman, P. A.

    1972-01-01

    Four types of solar cell contacts were given pull-strength tests at temperatures between -173 and +165 C. Contacts tested were: (1) solder-coated titanium-silver contacts on n-p cells, (2) palladium-containing titanium-silver contacts on n-p cells, (3) titanium-silver contacts on 0.2-mm-thick n-p cells, and (4) solder-coated electroless-nickel-plated contacts on p-n cells. Maximum pull strength was demonstrated at temperatures significantly below the air mass zero cell equilibrium temperature of +60 C. At the lowest temperatures, the chief failure mechanism was silicon fracture along crystallographic planes; at the highest temperatures, it was loss of solder strength. In the intermediate temperatures, many failure mechanisms operated. Pull-strength tests give a good indication of the suitability of solar cell contact systems for space use. Procedures used to maximize the validity of the results are described.

  2. Plasticity mechanisms in ultrafine grained freestanding aluminum thin films revealed by in-situ transmission electron microscopy nanomechanical testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idrissi, Hosni; Kobler, Aaron; Amin-Ahmadi, Behnam; Schryvers, Dominique; Coulombier, Michael; Pardoen, Thomas; Galceran, Montserrat; Godet, Stéphane; Raskin, Jean-Pierre; Kübel, Christian

    2014-01-01

    In-situ bright field transmission electron microscopy (TEM) nanomechanical tensile testing and in-situ automated crystallographic orientation mapping in TEM were combined to unravel the elementary mechanisms controlling the plasticity of ultrafine grained Aluminum freestanding thin films. The characterizations demonstrate that deformation proceeds with a transition from grain rotation to intragranular dislocation glide and starvation plasticity mechanism at about 1% deformation. The grain rotation is not affected by the character of the grain boundaries. No grain growth or twinning is detected

  3. Plasticity mechanisms in ultrafine grained freestanding aluminum thin films revealed by in-situ transmission electron microscopy nanomechanical testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idrissi, Hosni, E-mail: hosni.idrissi@ua.ac.be [EMAT, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Institute of Mechanics, Materials and Civil Engineering, Université catholique de Louvain, Place Sainte Barbe 2, B-1348 Louvain-La-Neuve (Belgium); Kobler, Aaron [Institute of Nanotechnology (INT) and Karlsruhe Nano Micro Facility (KNMF), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology - KIT, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Joint Research Laboratory Nanomaterials (KIT and TUD) at Technische Universität Darmstadt (TUD), Petersenstr. 32, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Amin-Ahmadi, Behnam; Schryvers, Dominique [EMAT, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Coulombier, Michael; Pardoen, Thomas [Institute of Mechanics, Materials and Civil Engineering, Université catholique de Louvain, Place Sainte Barbe 2, B-1348 Louvain-La-Neuve (Belgium); Galceran, Montserrat; Godet, Stéphane [Matters and Materials Department, Université Libre de Bruxelles, 50 Av. FD Roosevelt CP194/03, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Raskin, Jean-Pierre [Information and Communications Technologies, Electronics and Applied Mathematics (ICTEAM), Microwave Laboratory, Université catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Kübel, Christian [Institute of Nanotechnology (INT) and Karlsruhe Nano Micro Facility (KNMF), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology - KIT, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2014-03-10

    In-situ bright field transmission electron microscopy (TEM) nanomechanical tensile testing and in-situ automated crystallographic orientation mapping in TEM were combined to unravel the elementary mechanisms controlling the plasticity of ultrafine grained Aluminum freestanding thin films. The characterizations demonstrate that deformation proceeds with a transition from grain rotation to intragranular dislocation glide and starvation plasticity mechanism at about 1% deformation. The grain rotation is not affected by the character of the grain boundaries. No grain growth or twinning is detected.

  4. STRENGTH ANALYSIS METHODS OF CIRCULAR PULL BROACH COGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmin MIRIŢOIU

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A very big importance in a pull broach designing is represented by its mechanic computation, which trots out the pull broach resistance on various blank tooling, pull broach productivity and also the loadings which is subdued to and the stresses that appear during the chipping process. The pull broach geometric complexity leads to one difficulty concerning the resistance computing methods application (and implicitly, simplifying assumptions application. This present study presents a resistance computing of pull broach cogs, which dresses a circular hole trotting out more methods which can be used in this computing, and the teoretic aspects are then trotted out by an example of a numerical computation for a particular case.

  5. Elucidating the atomistic mechanisms underpinning plasticity in Li-Si nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xin; Gouissem, Afif; Guduru, Pradeep R.; Sharma, Pradeep

    2017-10-01

    Amorphous lithium-silicon (a-Li-Si), especially in nanostructure form, is an attractive high-capacity anode material for next-generation Li-ion batteries. During cycles of charging and discharging, a-Li-Si undergoes substantive inelastic deformation and exhibits microcracking. The mechanical response to repeated lithiation-delithiation eventually results in the loss of electrical contact and consequent decrease of capacity, thus underscoring the importance of studying the plasticity of a-Li-Si nanostructures. In recent years, a variety of phenomenological continuum theories have been introduced that purport to model plasticity and the electro-chemo-mechanical behavior of a-Li-Si. Unfortunately, the micromechanisms and atomistic considerations underlying plasticity in Li-Si material are not yet fully understood and this impedes the development of physics-based constitutive models. Conventional molecular dynamics, although extensively used to study this material, is grossly inadequate to resolve this matter. As is well known, conventional molecular dynamics simulations can only address phenomena with characteristic time scales of (at most) a microsecond. Accordingly, in such simulations, the mechanical behavior is deduced under conditions of very high strain rates (usually, 108s-1 or even higher). This limitation severely impacts a realistic assessment of rate-dependent effects. In this work, we attempt to circumvent the time-scale bottleneck of conventional molecular dynamics and provide novel insights into the mechanisms underpinning plastic deformation of Li-Si nanostructures. We utilize an approach that allows imposition of slow strain rates and involves the employment of a new and recently developed potential energy surface sampling method—the so-called autonomous basin climbing—to identify the local minima in the potential energy surface. Combined with other techniques, such as nudged elastic band, kinetic Monte Carlo and transition state theory, we assess

  6. Testing plastic deformations of materials in the introductory undergraduate mechanics laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romo-Kröger, C M

    2012-01-01

    Normally, a mechanics laboratory at the undergraduate level includes an experiment to verify compliance with Hooke's law in materials, such as a steel spring and an elastic rubber band. Stress-strain curves are found for these elements. Compression in elastic bands is practically impossible to achieve due to flaccidity. A typical experiment for the complete loading-unloading cycle is to subject a tubular object to torsion. This paper suggests simple experiments for studying properties concerning elasticity and plasticity in elements of common use, subjected to stretching or compression, and also torsion reinforcing. The experiments use plastic binders, rubber bands and metal springs under a moderate load. This paper discusses an experiment with an original device to measure torsion deformations as a function of applied torques, which permitted construction of the hysteresis cycle for a rubber hose and various tubes. Another experiment was designed to define the temporal recovery of a plastic spring with initial stretching. A simple mathematical model was developed to explain this phenomenon. (paper)

  7. Is phenotypic plasticity a key mechanism for responding to thermal stress in ants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oms, Cristela Sánchez; Cerdá, Xim; Boulay, Raphaël

    2017-06-01

    Unlike natural selection, phenotypic plasticity allows organisms to respond quickly to changing environmental conditions. However, plasticity may not always be adaptive. In insects, body size and other morphological measurements have been shown to decrease as temperature increases. This relationship may lead to a physiological conflict in ants, where larger body size and longer legs often confer better thermal resistance. Here, we tested the effect of developmental temperature (20, 24, 28 or 32 °C) on adult thermal resistance in the thermophilic ant species Aphaenogaster senilis. We found that no larval development occurred at 20 °C. However, at higher temperatures, developmental speed increased as expected and smaller adults were produced. In thermal resistance tests, we found that ants reared at 28 and 32 °C had half-lethal temperatures that were 2 °C higher than those of ants reared at 24 °C. Thus, although ants reared at higher temperatures were smaller in size, they were nonetheless more thermoresistant. These results show that A. senilis can exploit phenotypic plasticity to quickly adjust its thermal resistance to local conditions and that this process is independent of morphological adaptations. This mechanism may be particularly relevant given current rapid climate warming.

  8. Reversible adaptive plasticity: A mechanism for neuroblastoma cell heterogeneity and chemo-resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina eChakrabarti

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We describe a novel form of tumor cell plasticity characterized by reversible adaptive plasticity in murine and human neuroblastoma. Two cellular phenotypes were defined by their ability to exhibit adhered, anchorage dependent (AD or sphere forming, anchorage independent (AI growth. The tumor cells could transition back and forth between the two phenotypes and the transition was dependent on the culture conditions. Both cell phenotypes exhibited stem-like features such as expression of nestin, self-renewal capacity and mesenchymal differentiation potential. The AI tumorspheres were found to be more resistant to chemotherapy and proliferated slower in vitro compared to the AD cells. Identification of specific molecular markers like MAP2, β-catenin and PDGFRβ enabled us to characterize and observe both phenotypes in established mouse tumors. Irrespective of the phenotype originally implanted in mice, tumors grown in vivo show phenotypic heterogeneity in molecular marker signatures and are indistinguishable in growth or histologic appearance. Similar molecular marker heterogeneity was demonstrated in primary human tumor specimens. Chemotherapy or growth factor receptor inhibition slowed tumor growth in mice and promoted initial loss of AD or AI heterogeneity, respectively. Simultaneous targeting of both phenotypes led to further tumor growth delay with emergence of new unique phenotypes. Our results demonstrate that neuroblastoma cells are plastic, dynamic and may optimize their ability to survive by changing their phenotype. Phenotypic switching appears to be an adaptive mechanism to unfavorable selection pressure and could explain the phenotypic and functional heterogeneity of neuroblastoma.

  9. Reversible Adaptive Plasticity: A Mechanism for Neuroblastoma Cell Heterogeneity and Chemo-Resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakrabarti, Lina; Abou-Antoun, Thamara; Vukmanovic, Stanislav; Sandler, Anthony D., E-mail: asandler@childrensnational.org [The Joseph E. Robert Center for Surgical Care, Children’s National Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States); The Sheikh Zayed Institute for Pediatric Surgical Innovation, Children’s National Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States)

    2012-08-02

    We describe a novel form of tumor cell plasticity characterized by reversible adaptive plasticity in murine and human neuroblastoma. Two cellular phenotypes were defined by their ability to exhibit adhered, anchorage dependent (AD) or sphere forming, anchorage independent (AI) growth. The tumor cells could transition back and forth between the two phenotypes and the transition was dependent on the culture conditions. Both cell phenotypes exhibited stem-like features such as expression of nestin, self-renewal capacity, and mesenchymal differentiation potential. The AI tumorspheres were found to be more resistant to chemotherapy and proliferated slower in vitro compared to the AD cells. Identification of specific molecular markers like MAP2, β-catenin, and PDGFRβ enabled us to characterize and observe both phenotypes in established mouse tumors. Irrespective of the phenotype originally implanted in mice, tumors grown in vivo show phenotypic heterogeneity in molecular marker signatures and are indistinguishable in growth or histologic appearance. Similar molecular marker heterogeneity was demonstrated in primary human tumor specimens. Chemotherapy or growth factor receptor inhibition slowed tumor growth in mice and promoted initial loss of AD or AI heterogeneity, respectively. Simultaneous targeting of both phenotypes led to further tumor growth delay with emergence of new unique phenotypes. Our results demonstrate that neuroblastoma cells are plastic, dynamic, and may optimize their ability to survive by changing their phenotype. Phenotypic switching appears to be an adaptive mechanism to unfavorable selection pressure and could explain the phenotypic and functional heterogeneity of neuroblastoma.

  10. Starch behaviors and mechanical properties of starch blend films with different plasticizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen Vu, Hoang Phuong; Lumdubwong, Namfone

    2016-12-10

    The main objective of the study was to gain insight into structural and mechanical starch behaviors of the plasticized starch blend films. Mechanical properties and starch behaviors of cassava (CS)/and mungbean (MB) (50/50, w/w) starch blend films containing glycerol (Gly) or sorbitol (Sor) at 33% weight content were investigated. It was found that tensile strength TS and %E of the Gly-CSMB films were similar to those of MB films; but%E of all Sor-films was identical. TS of plasticized films increased when AM content and crystallinity increased. When Sor was substituted for Gly, crystallinity of starch films and their TS increased. The CSMB and MB films had somewhat a similar molecular profile and comparable mechanical properties. Therefore, it was proposed the starch molecular profile containing amylopectin with high M¯w, low M¯w of amylose, and the small size of intermediates may impart the high TS and%E of starch films. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Species-Specific Mechanisms of Neuron Subtype Specification Reveal Evolutionary Plasticity of Amniote Brain Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadashi Nomura

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Highly ordered brain architectures in vertebrates consist of multiple neuron subtypes with specific neuronal connections. However, the origin of and evolutionary changes in neuron specification mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we report that regulatory mechanisms of neuron subtype specification are divergent in developing amniote brains. In the mammalian neocortex, the transcription factors (TFs Ctip2 and Satb2 are differentially expressed in layer-specific neurons. In contrast, these TFs are co-localized in reptilian and avian dorsal pallial neurons. Multi-potential progenitors that produce distinct neuronal subtypes commonly exist in the reptilian and avian dorsal pallium, whereas a cis-regulatory element of avian Ctip2 exhibits attenuated transcription suppressive activity. Furthermore, the neuronal subtypes distinguished by these TFs are not tightly associated with conserved neuronal connections among amniotes. Our findings reveal the evolutionary plasticity of regulatory gene functions that contribute to species differences in neuronal heterogeneity and connectivity in developing amniote brains. : Neuronal heterogeneity is essential for assembling intricate neuronal circuits. Nomura et al. find that species-specific transcriptional mechanisms underlie diversities of excitatory neuron subtypes in mammalian and non-mammalian brains. Species differences in neuronal subtypes and connections suggest functional plasticity of regulatory genes for neuronal specification during amniote brain evolution. Keywords: Ctip2, Satb2, multi-potential progenitors, transcriptional regulation, neuronal connectivity

  12. Dislocation-mediated strain hardening in tungsten: Thermo-mechanical plasticity theory and experimental validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terentyev, Dmitry; Xiao, Xiazi; Dubinko, A.; Bakaeva, A.; Duan, Huiling

    2015-12-01

    A self-consistent thermo-mechanical model to study the strain-hardening behavior of polycrystalline tungsten was developed and validated by a dedicated experimental route. Dislocation-dislocation multiplication and storage, as well dislocation-grain boundary (GB) pinning were the major mechanisms underlying the evolution of plastic deformation, thus providing a link between the strain hardening behavior and material's microstructure. The microstructure of the polycrystalline tungsten samples has been thoroughly investigated by scanning and electron microscopy. The model was applied to compute stress-strain loading curves of commercial tungsten grades, in the as-received and as-annealed states, in the temperature range of 500-1000 °C. Fitting the model to the independent experimental results obtained using a single crystal and as-received polycrystalline tungsten, the model demonstrated its capability to predict the deformation behavior of as-annealed samples in a wide temperature range and applied strain. The relevance of the dislocation-mediated plasticity mechanisms used in the model have been validated using transmission electron microscopy examination of the samples deformed up to different amounts of strain. On the basis of the experimental validation, the limitations of the model are determined and discussed.

  13. Effect of the Addition of Carbon Nanomaterials on Electrical and Mechanical Properties of Wood Plastic Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingli Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Wood Plastic Composites (WPCs are a new generation of green composites that could optimize the use of harvested trees and increase the entire value chain. In this study, the electrical and mechanical properties of WPCs containing carbon blacks (CB, flake graphite (FG and carbon nanotubes (CNTs have been investigated. The electrical property of WPCs is improved significantly owing to the introduction of these carbon nanomaterial fillers. The volume and surface resistivity values of the investigated composites all obviously decreased with the increase in filler content, especially CNTs, which displayed the most satisfactory results. Based on a series of laboratory experiments carried out to investigate the mechanical performance, it can be concluded that the addition of the carbon nanomaterial fillers decreases the mechanical properties of WPCs slightly with the increase in filler content because of the weak interfacial interactions between the fillers and polymer matrix.

  14. Implications of recent developments in the plastic fracture mechanics field to the PCI stress corrosion problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.

    1980-01-01

    Fractographic observations on irradiated Zircaloy cladding stress corrosion fracture surfaces are considered against the background of recent developments in the plastic fracture mechanics field. Dimples have been observed on the fracture surfaces of failed cladding, even though the cracks in metallographic sections are tight, i.e., crack propagation is associated with a low crack tip opening angle. This result is interpreted as providing evidence for an environmentally assisted ductile mode of fracture. The presence of this fracture mode forms the basis of an argument, which adds further support for the view that power ramp stress corrosion cladding failures are caused by stress concentrations that produce stress gradients in the cladding. (orig.)

  15. Mechanical properties of concrete reinforced with recycled HDPE plastic fibres\\ud

    OpenAIRE

    Pešić, Ninoslav; Živanović, Stana; Garcia, Reyes; Papastergiou, Panos

    2016-01-01

    This work investigates potential engineering benefits of the pioneering application of simply extruded recycled high-density polyethylene (HDPE) plastic fibres in structural concrete. Mechanical and serviceability properties of concrete are studied through the testing of seven series of specimens: one made of the plain concrete and, for each of the two fibre diameters View the MathML source and View the MathML source, three series with 0.40%, 0.75% and 1.25% volume fraction of fibres. While t...

  16. Application of SolidWorks Plastic in the Training in Mechanical Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ivanova Bakalova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. In this article is presented an example of the application of SolidWorks the training in mechanical engineering. The main features of the design of the parts intended for injection molding are mentioned. SolidWorks allows all these recommendations to be implemented when creating the details. The text explains the simulation settings that are made in SolidWorks Plastics when simulating injection molding. Through a specific example referred to how to make an analysis of the results obtained.

  17. Mechanical behavior of fiber/matrix interfaces in CFRP sheets subjected to plastic deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamiya Ryuta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP is increasing markedly, partially in the aviation industry, but it has been considered that CFRP sheets cannot be formed by press-forming techniques owing to the low ductility of CFRP. Since the mechanical characteristics of CFRP are dominated by the microscale structure, it is possible to improve its formability by optimizing the material structure. Therefore, to improve the formability, the interaction between the carbon fibers and the matrix must be clarified. In this study, microscale analyses were conducted by a finite-element model with cohesive zone elements.

  18. Three-dimensional elastic--plastic stress and strain analyses for fracture mechanics: complex geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellucci, H.J.

    1975-11-01

    The report describes the continuation of research into capability for three-dimensional elastic-plastic stress and strain analysis for fracture mechanics. A computer program, MARC-3D, has been completed and was used to analyze a cylindrical pressure vessel with a nozzle insert. A method for generating crack tip elements was developed and a model was created for a cylindrical pressure vessel with a nozzle and an imbedded flaw at the inside nozzle corner. The MARC-3D program was again used to analyze this flawed model. Documentation for the use of the MARC-3D computer program has been included as an appendix

  19. Determination of mechanical properties of some glass fiber reinforced plastics suitable to Wind Turbine Blade construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steigmann, R.; Savin, A.; Goanta, V.; Barsanescu, P. D.; Leitoiu, B.; Iftimie, N.; Stanciu, M. D.; Curtu, I.

    2016-08-01

    The control of wind turbine's components is very rigorous, while the tower and gearbox have more possibility for revision and repairing, the rotor blades, once they are deteriorated, the defects can rapidly propagate, producing failure, and the damages can affect large regions around the wind turbine. This paper presents the test results, performed on glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP) suitable to construction of wind turbine blades (WTB). The Young modulus, shear modulus, Poisson's ratio, ultimate stress have been determined using tensile and shear tests. Using Dynamical Mechanical Analysis (DMA), the activation energy for transitions that appear in polyester matrix as well as the complex elastic modulus can be determined, function of temperature.

  20. Some comment on the use of J criterion in elastic plastic fracture mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, R.L.

    1978-01-01

    In Post Yield Fracture Mechanics, several criteria have been proposed for the onset of crack propagation, one of the most popular being the J 1 integral criterion. This is only well established for elastic materials, where it can be shown that J 1 is not path dependent, and that J 1 is equal to the variation of potential energy with crack length. Extension is easy for material exhibiting deformation type plasticity, but there is no proof of path independence for flow-type plastic material. Experimental results are often given as a proof of J 1 criterion validity, but a critical analysis shows that important assumptions are made in the use of the test results. The main assumption is that the received work, known as strain energy, is not dependent on the loading history and is only dependent on the mechanical state. The study of the J 1 path dependence is the main point of the J 1 criteria validation. A general method to assess path dependence can be founded on the 'defect vector' (or driving force) concept. The space-density of defect is given by j = grad W - σ grad (W = strain-energy, σ stress tensor, epsilon strain tensor). It is shown that the virtual translation delta a of the defect vectors inside a volume, lead to a virtual work variation given by J 1 delta a and that J 1 is the resultant of all the defect vectors included in the volume surrounded by the integration surface. Using these results the path independence conditions are examined. Some numerical results are given for incremental processes such as plasticity or creep, and where the loading path is radial (proportional) and monotonic, no appreciable path variations found. Finally the results of direct applications of J 1 criterion to real structures are examined. (author)

  1. Plastic deformation mechanism of polycrystalline copper foil shocked with femtosecond laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Y.X.; Feng, Y.Y.; Lian, Z.C.; Hua, Y.Q.

    2014-01-01

    Plastic deformation mechanism of polycrystalline copper foil shocked with femtosecond (fs) laser has been characterized through optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Experiments of ns laser shocking copper (Cu) and fs laser shocking aluminum (Al) were also conducted for comparison. Dislocations arranged in multiple forms, profuse twins and stacking faults (SFs) coexist in the fs laser shocked copper. At small strain condition, dislocation slip is the dominant deformation mode and small amount of SFs act as complementary mechanism. With strain increasing, profuse twins and SFs form to accommodate the plastic deformation. Furthermore, new formed SFs incline to locate around the old ones because the dislocation densities there are more higher. So there is a high probability for new SFs overlapping on old ones to form twins, or connecting old ones to lengthen them, which eventually produce the phenomena that twins connect with each other or twins connect with SFs. Strain greatly influences the dislocation density. Twins and SFs are more dependent on strain rate and shock pressure. Medium stacking fault energy (SFE) of copper helps to extend partial dislocations and provides sources for forming SFs and twins.

  2. Dislocation mechanisms for plastic flow of nickel in the temperature range 4.2-1200K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sastry, D.H.; Tangri, K.

    1975-01-01

    The temperature ranges of thermal and athermal deformation behaviour of nickel are identified by employing the temperature-dependence of flow-stress and strain-rate cycling data. The results are used to present a unified view of dislocation mechanisms of glide encompassing the two thermally activated and the intermediate athermal regimes of plastic flow. In the low-temperature thermally activated region (<250K) the strain rate is found to be controlled by the repulsive intersection of glide and forest dislocations, in accordance with current ideas. The athermal stress in this region can be attributed mainly to the presence of strong attractive junctions which are overcome by means of Orowan bowing, a small contribution also coming from the elastic interactions between dislocations. The values of activation area and activation energy obtained in the high-temperature region (<750K) negate the operation of a diffusion-controlled mechanism. Instead, the data support a thermal activation model involving unzipping of the attractive junctions. The internal (long-range) stress contribution here results solely from the elastic interactions between dislocations. This view concerning the high-temperature plastic flow is further supported by the observation that the Cottrell-Stokes law is obeyed over large strains in the range 750-1200K. (author)

  3. Mechanical Properties of High Performance Concrete Containing Waste Plastic as Aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulkader Ismail Al-Hadithi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The world's population growth and the increasing demand for new infrastructure facilities and buildings , present us with the vision of a higher resources consumption, specially in the form of more durable concrete such as High Performance Concrete (HPC . Moreover , the growth of the world pollution by plastic waste has been tremendous. The aim of this research is to investigate the change in mechanical properties of HPC with added waste plastics in concrete. For this purpose 2.5%, 5% and 7.5% in volume of natural fine aggregate in the HPC mixes were replaced by an equal volume of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET waste , got by shredded PET bottles. The mechanical properties (compressive, splitting tensile, and flexural strength evaluated at the ages of (7 ,28, 56 and 91 days while the static modulus of elasticity tested at (28 and 91 days . The results indicated that HPC containing PET-aggregate presented lower compressive strength and static elasticity . The splitting strength displayed an arising trend at the initial stages, however, they have a tendency to decrease after a while. On the other hand, flexural strength results gave better modulus of rapture at all ages of curing , as compared with reference concrete specimens.

  4. Irradiated recycled plastic as a concrete additive for improved chemo-mechanical properties and lower carbon footprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Carolyn E; Kupwade-Patil, Kunal; Ortega, Michael; Soriano, Carmen; Büyüköztürk, Oral; White, Anne E; Short, Michael P

    2018-01-01

    Concrete production contributes heavily to greenhouse gas emissions, thus a need exists for the development of durable and sustainable concrete with a lower carbon footprint. This can be achieved when cement is partially replaced with another material, such as waste plastic, though normally with a tradeoff in compressive strength. This study discusses progress toward a high/medium strength concrete with a dense, cementitious matrix that contains an irradiated plastic additive, recovering the compressive strength while displacing concrete with waste materials to reduce greenhouse gas generation. Compressive strength tests showed that the addition of high dose (100kGy) irradiated plastic in multiple concretes resulted in increased compressive strength as compared to samples containing regular, non-irradiated plastic. This suggests that irradiating plastic at a high dose is a viable potential solution for regaining some of the strength that is lost when plastic is added to cement paste. X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Backscattered Electron Microscopy (BSE), and X-ray microtomography explain the mechanisms for strength retention when using irradiated plastic as a filler for cement paste. By partially replacing Portland cement with a recycled waste plastic, this design may have a potential to contribute to reduced carbon emissions when scaled to the level of mass concrete production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Characteristic of bioplastic’s physical and mechanical (Study on Tapioca Concentration and Composition Mixture of Plasticizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Admadi Harsojuwono

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to (1 the effect of the concentration of starch and  ratio mixture of plasticizer to the physical and mechanical characteristics of bioplastics (2 determine the concentration of starch and plasticizer RATIO mixture  that results in physical and mechanical characteristics of bio plastics best. The experiment was conducted using a factorial randomized block design. The first factor is the concentration of tapioca consisting of 3 levels 4%, 5% and 6% (w / w. The second factor is the   mixture plasticizer ratio  of glycerol and sorbitol   consisting of 5 levels ie (100: 0%, (95: 5%, (90:10%, (85:15%, (80:20% b / b. Each combination of treatments classified into 2 time  processing bio plastics, so there are 30 experimental units. Variables observed water content, elongation at break, tensile strength and Young's modulus . The data obtained were analyzed of variant and  test of Duncan's. The results showed that the concentration of tapioca and  mixture plasticizer had no effect on water content but significant effect on the elongation at break, tensile strength and Young's modulus. The concentration of starch 6% with a ratio of mixture of plasticizers glycerol: sorbitol ( 100: 0 produces the best characteristics of bioplastics with water content of 3.98%, elongation at break of 18.75%, the tensile strength of 930 MPa and a Young's modulus of 50 MPa.

  6. Corrosion mechanism of a Ni-based alloy in supercritical water: Impact of surface plastic deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payet, Mickaël; Marchetti, Loïc; Tabarant, Michel; Chevalier, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The dissolution of Ni and Fe cations occurs during corrosion of Ni-based alloys in SCW. • The nature of the oxide layer depends locally on the alloy microstructure. • The corrosion mechanism changes when cold-work increases leading to internal oxidation. - Abstract: Ni–Fe–Cr alloys are expected to be a candidate material for the generation IV nuclear reactors that use supercritical water at temperatures up to 600 °C and pressures of 25 MPa. The corrosion resistance of Alloy 690 in these extreme conditions was studied considering the surface finish of the alloy. The oxide scale could suffer from dissolution or from internal oxidation. The presence of a work-hardened zone reveals the competition between the selective oxidation of chromium with respect to the oxidation of nickel and iron. Finally, corrosion mechanisms for Ni based alloys are proposed considering the effects of plastically deformed surfaces and the dissolution.

  7. Effects of mechanical and chemical processes on the degradation of plastic beach debris on the island of Kauai, Hawaii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, David A; Corcoran, Patricia L

    2010-01-01

    Plastic debris is accumulating on the beaches of Kauai at an alarming rate, averaging 484 pieces/day in one locality. Particles sampled were analyzed to determine the effects of mechanical and chemical processes on the breakdown of polymers in a subtropical setting. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicates that plastic surfaces contain fractures, horizontal notches, flakes, pits, grooves, and vermiculate textures. The mechanically produced textures provide ideal loci for chemical weathering to occur which further weakens the polymer surface leading to embrittlement. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results show that some particles have highly oxidized surfaces as indicated by intense peaks in the lower wavenumber region of the spectra. Our textural analyses suggest that polyethylene has the potential to degrade more readily than polypropylene. Further evaluation of plastic degradation in the natural environment may lead to a shift away from the production and use of plastic materials with longer residence times.

  8. Integration of Plasticity Mechanisms within a Single Sensory Neuron of C. elegans Actuates a Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, Josh D; Calvo, Ana C; Liu, Ping; Almoril-Porras, Agustin; Aljobeh, Ahmad; Torruella-Suárez, María Luisa; Ren, Ivy; Cook, Nathan; Greenwood, Joel; Luo, Linjiao; Wang, Zhao-Wen; Samuel, Aravinthan D T; Colón-Ramos, Daniel A

    2018-01-17

    Neural plasticity, the ability of neurons to change their properties in response to experiences, underpins the nervous system's capacity to form memories and actuate behaviors. How different plasticity mechanisms act together in vivo and at a cellular level to transform sensory information into behavior is not well understood. We show that in Caenorhabditis elegans two plasticity mechanisms-sensory adaptation and presynaptic plasticity-act within a single cell to encode thermosensory information and actuate a temperature preference memory. Sensory adaptation adjusts the temperature range of the sensory neuron (called AFD) to optimize detection of temperature fluctuations associated with migration. Presynaptic plasticity in AFD is regulated by the conserved kinase nPKCε and transforms thermosensory information into a behavioral preference. Bypassing AFD presynaptic plasticity predictably changes learned behavioral preferences without affecting sensory responses. Our findings indicate that two distinct neuroplasticity mechanisms function together through a single-cell logic system to enact thermotactic behavior. VIDEO ABSTRACT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Gradient plasticity for thermo-mechanical processes in metals with length and time scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voyiadjis, George Z.; Faghihi, Danial

    2013-03-01

    A thermodynamically consistent framework is developed in order to characterize the mechanical and thermal behavior of metals in small volume and on the fast transient time. In this regard, an enhanced gradient plasticity theory is coupled with the application of a micromorphic approach to the temperature variable. A physically based yield function based on the concept of thermal activation energy and the dislocation interaction mechanisms including nonlinear hardening is taken into consideration in the derivation. The effect of the material microstructural interface between two materials is also incorporated in the formulation with both temperature and rate effects. In order to accurately address the strengthening and hardening mechanisms, the theory is developed based on the decomposition of the mechanical state variables into energetic and dissipative counterparts which endowed the constitutive equations to have both energetic and dissipative gradient length scales for the bulk material and the interface. Moreover, the microstructural interaction effect in the fast transient process is addressed by incorporating two time scales into the microscopic heat equation. The numerical example of thin film on elastic substrate or a single phase bicrystal under uniform tension is addressed here. The effects of individual counterparts of the framework on the thermal and mechanical responses are investigated. The model is also compared with experimental results.

  10. Plasticity of the MAPK signaling network in response to mechanical stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea M Pereira

    Full Text Available Cells display versatile responses to mechanical inputs and recent studies have identified the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK cascades mediating the biological effects observed upon mechanical stimulation. Although, MAPK pathways can act insulated from each other, several mechanisms facilitate the crosstalk between the components of these cascades. Yet, the combinatorial complexity of potential molecular interactions between these elements have prevented the understanding of their concerted functions. To analyze the plasticity of the MAPK signaling network in response to mechanical stress we performed a non-saturating epistatic screen in resting and stretched conditions employing as readout a JNK responsive dJun-FRET biosensor. By knocking down MAPKs, and JNK pathway regulators, singly or in pairs in Drosophila S2R+ cells, we have uncovered unexpected regulatory links between JNK cascade kinases, Rho GTPases, MAPKs and the JNK phosphatase Puc. These relationships have been integrated in a system network model at equilibrium accounting for all experimentally validated interactions. This model allows predicting the global reaction of the network to its modulation in response to mechanical stress. It also highlights its context-dependent sensitivity.

  11. Friction riveting as an alternative mechanical fastening to join engineering plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardi, Francesco; Conte, Romina; Bentrovato, Renato; Simeoli, Giorgio; Russo, Pietro; Ambrogio, Giuseppina

    2018-05-01

    Friction Rivecting is a quite new joining process to connect multi-material structures. In brief, a metallic rivet is dipped rotating inside matrixes, usually made of plastics, increasing its original diameter. The use of high-performance plastics is more suitable being their higher mechanical and thermal properties important to avoid material degradation and to allow strong part connections. High-speed friction welding system has been usually used to perform the process. In the work here proposed, the joints have been achieved by means of a traditional milling machine and the attention has been focused on a widely used engineering plastic, i.e. polyamide 6 (PA6) with and without glass fiber reinforcement. A specific speed multiplier has been attached into the mandrel of the used machine to increase the reachable rotational speed. Moreover, rivets made of Titanium Grade 2 and of an Aluminum Alloy, the AA-6060, are utilized. The influence that the heating and the forging length can have on the quality of the obtained junctions, considering a fixed joining depth, has been tested and investigated. The performed connections have been judged by tensile tests, which were set to quantify the maximum strength of the joints for a transverse speed of 1,0 mm/min. Barreling effect can be observed close to the tip, which loses the initial shape of a cylinder characterized by straight vertical walls. Finally, the possible degradation of the polymer, due to temperature increment, has been also evaluated close to the working zone. According to that, it has to be highlighted that the process needs a heating balance, which is necessary to get sound joints. The compromise has, on one side, to allow the rivet penetration and deformation, and on the other side, to avoid the degradation of the polymer, which would affect its properties and a proper rivet deformation.

  12. Analysis of temperature profiles and the mechanism of silicon substrate plastic deformation under epitaxial growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirkurbanov, H.A.; Sazhnev, S.V.; Timofeev, V.N.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Thermal treatment of silicon wafers holds one of the major place in the manufacturing of semi-conductor devices. Thermal treatment includes wafer annealing, thermal oxidation, epitaxial growing etc. Quality of wafers in the high-temperature processes (900-1200 deg C) is estimated by the density of structural defects, including areas of plastic deformation, which are shown as the slip lines appearance. Such areas amount to 50-60 % of total wafer surface. The plastic deformation is caused by the thermal stresses. Experimental and theoretical researches allowed to determine thermal balance and to construct a temperature profiles throughout the plate surface. Thermal stresses are caused by temperature drop along the radius of a wafer and at the basic peripheral ring. The threshold temperature drop between center f a wafer and its peripherals (ΔT) for slip lines appearance, amounts to 15-17 deg. C. At the operating temperature of 900-1200 deg. C and ΔT>20 deg. C, the stresses reach the silicon yield point. According to the results of the researches of structure and stress profiles in a wafer, the mechanism of slip lines formation has been constructed. A source of dislocations is the rear broken layer of thickness 8-10 microns, formed after polishing. The micro-fissures with a density 10 5 -10 6 cm -2 are the sources of dislocations. Dislocations move on a surface of a wafer into a slip plane (111). On a wafer surface with orientation (111) it is possible to allocate zones where the tangential stress vector is most favorably directed with respect to a slip plane leaving on a surface, i.e. the shift stresses are maximal in the slip plane. The way to eliminate plastic deformation is to lower the temperature drop to a level of <15 deg. C and elimination of the broken layer in wafer

  13. Short-term plasticity as a neural mechanism supporting memory and attentional functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jääskeläinen, Iiro P; Ahveninen, Jyrki; Andermann, Mark L; Belliveau, John W; Raij, Tommi; Sams, Mikko

    2011-11-08

    Based on behavioral studies, several relatively distinct perceptual and cognitive functions have been defined in cognitive psychology such as sensory memory, short-term memory, and selective attention. Here, we review evidence suggesting that some of these functions may be supported by shared underlying neuronal mechanisms. Specifically, we present, based on an integrative review of the literature, a hypothetical model wherein short-term plasticity, in the form of transient center-excitatory and surround-inhibitory modulations, constitutes a generic processing principle that supports sensory memory, short-term memory, involuntary attention, selective attention, and perceptual learning. In our model, the size and complexity of receptive fields/level of abstraction of neural representations, as well as the length of temporal receptive windows, increases as one steps up the cortical hierarchy. Consequently, the type of input (bottom-up vs. top down) and the level of cortical hierarchy that the inputs target, determine whether short-term plasticity supports purely sensory vs. semantic short-term memory or attentional functions. Furthermore, we suggest that rather than discrete memory systems, there are continuums of memory representations from short-lived sensory ones to more abstract longer-duration representations, such as those tapped by behavioral studies of short-term memory. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Adaptive transgenerational plasticity in plants: case studies, mechanisms, and implications for natural populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob J. Herman

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Plants respond to environmental conditions not only by plastic changes to their own development and physiology, but also by altering the phenotypes expressed by their offspring. This transgenerational plasticity was initially considered to entail only negative effects of stressful parental environments, such as production of smaller seeds by resource- or temperature-stressed parent plants, and was therefore viewed as environmental noise. Recent evolutionary ecology studies have shown that in some cases, these inherited environmental effects can include specific growth adjustments that are functionally adaptive to the parental conditions that induced them, which can range from contrasting states of controlled laboratory environments to the complex habitat variation encountered by natural plant populations. Preliminary findings suggest that adaptive transgenerational effects can be transmitted by means of diverse mechanisms including changes to seed provisioning and biochemistry, and epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation that can persist across multiple generations. These non-genetically inherited adaptations can influence the ecological breadth and evolutionary dynamics of plant taxa and promote the spread of invasive plants. Interdisciplinary studies that join mechanistic and evolutionary ecology approaches will be an important source of future insights.

  15. Adaptive transgenerational plasticity in plants: case studies, mechanisms, and implications for natural populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Jacob J; Sultan, Sonia E

    2011-01-01

    Plants respond to environmental conditions not only by plastic changes to their own development and physiology, but also by altering the phenotypes expressed by their offspring. This transgenerational plasticity was initially considered to entail only negative effects of stressful parental environments, such as production of smaller seeds by resource- or temperature-stressed parent plants, and was therefore viewed as environmental noise. Recent evolutionary ecology studies have shown that in some cases, these inherited environmental effects can include specific growth adjustments that are functionally adaptive to the parental conditions that induced them, which can range from contrasting states of controlled laboratory environments to the complex habitat variation encountered by natural plant populations. Preliminary findings suggest that adaptive transgenerational effects can be transmitted by means of diverse mechanisms including changes to seed provisioning and biochemistry, and epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation that can persist across multiple generations. These non-genetically inherited adaptations can influence the ecological breadth and evolutionary dynamics of plant taxa and promote the spread of invasive plants. Interdisciplinary studies that join mechanistic and evolutionary ecology approaches will be an important source of future insights.

  16. Localization of Presynaptic Plasticity Mechanisms Enables Functional Independence of Synaptic and Ectopic Transmission in the Cerebellum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine L. Dobson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the cerebellar molecular layer parallel fibre terminals release glutamate from both the active zone and from extrasynaptic “ectopic” sites. Ectopic release mediates transmission to the Bergmann glia that ensheathe the synapse, activating Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors and glutamate transporters. Parallel fibre terminals exhibit several forms of presynaptic plasticity, including cAMP-dependent long-term potentiation and endocannabinoid-dependent long-term depression, but it is not known whether these presynaptic forms of long-term plasticity also influence ectopic transmission to Bergmann glia. Stimulation of parallel fibre inputs at 16 Hz evoked LTP of synaptic transmission, but LTD of ectopic transmission. Pharmacological activation of adenylyl cyclase by forskolin caused LTP at Purkinje neurons, but only transient potentiation at Bergmann glia, reinforcing the concept that ectopic sites lack the capacity to express sustained cAMP-dependent potentiation. Activation of mGluR1 caused depression of synaptic transmission via retrograde endocannabinoid signalling but had no significant effect at ectopic sites. In contrast, activation of NMDA receptors suppressed both synaptic and ectopic transmission. The results suggest that the signalling mechanisms for presynaptic LTP and retrograde depression by endocannabinoids are restricted to the active zone at parallel fibre synapses, allowing independent modulation of synaptic transmission to Purkinje neurons and ectopic transmission to Bergmann glia.

  17. Mechanisms of Neuroplasticity and Ethanol’s Effects on Plasticity in the Striatum and Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovinger, David M.; Kash, Thomas L.

    2015-01-01

    Long-lasting changes in synaptic function (i.e., synaptic plasticity) have long been thought to contribute to information storage in the nervous system. Although synaptic plasticity mainly has adaptive functions that allow the organism to function in complex environments, it is now clear that certain events or exposure to various substances can produce plasticity that has negative consequences for organisms. Exposure to drugs of abuse, in particular ethanol, is a life experience that can activate or alter synaptic plasticity, often resulting in increased drug seeking and taking and in many cases addiction. Two brain regions subject to alcohol’s effects on synaptic plasticity are the striatum and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), both of which have key roles in alcohol’s actions and control of intake. The specific effects depend on both the brain region analyzed (e.g., specific subregions of the striatum and BNST) and the duration of ethanol exposure (i.e., acute vs. chronic). Plastic changes in synaptic transmission in these two brain regions following prolonged ethanol exposure are thought to contribute to excessive alcohol drinking and relapse to drinking. Understanding the mechanisms underlying this plasticity may lead to new therapies for treatment of these and other aspects of alcohol use disorder. PMID:26259092

  18. Strategies to improve the mechanical properties of starch-based materials: plasticization and natural fibers reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lopez-Gil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable polymers are starting to be introduced as raw materials in the food-packaging market. Nevertheless, their price is very high. Starch, a fully biodegradable and bioderived polymer is a very interesting alternative due to its very low price. However, the use of starch as the polymer matrix for the production of rigid food packaging, such as trays, is limited due to its poor mechanical properties, high hidrophilicity and high density. This work presents two strategies to overcome the poor mechanical properties of starch. First, the plasticization of starch with several amounts of glycerol to produce thermoplastic starch (TPS and second, the production of biocomposites by reinforcing TPS with promising fibers, such as barley straw and grape waste. The mechanical properties obtained are compared with the values predicted by models used in the field of composites; law of mixtures, Kerner-Nielsen and Halpin-Tsai. To evaluate if the materials developed are suitable for the production of food-packaging trays, the TPS-based materials with better mechanical properties were compared with commercial grades of oil-based polymers, polypropylene (PP and polyethylene-terphthalate (PET, and a biodegradable polymer, polylactic acid (PLA.

  19. Geometrical foundations of continuum mechanics an application to first- and second-order elasticity and elasto-plasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Steinmann, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This book illustrates the deep roots of the geometrically nonlinear kinematics of generalized continuum mechanics in differential geometry. Besides applications to first- order elasticity and elasto-plasticity an appreciation thereof is particularly illuminating for generalized models of continuum mechanics such as second-order (gradient-type) elasticity and elasto-plasticity.   After a motivation that arises from considering geometrically linear first- and second- order crystal plasticity in Part I several concepts from differential geometry, relevant for what follows, such as connection, parallel transport, torsion, curvature, and metric for holonomic and anholonomic coordinate transformations are reiterated in Part II. Then, in Part III, the kinematics of geometrically nonlinear continuum mechanics are considered. There various concepts of differential geometry, in particular aspects related to compatibility, are generically applied to the kinematics of first- and second- order geometrically nonlinear con...

  20. Sensitivity of using blunt and sharp crack models in elastic-plastic fracture mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Y.C.; Kennedy, J.M.; Marchertas, A.H.

    1985-01-01

    J-integral values are calculated for both the blunt (smeared) crack and the sharp (discrete) crack models in elastic-plastic fracture mechanics problems involving metallic materials. A sensitivity study is performed to show the relative strengths and weaknesses of the two cracking models. It is concluded that the blunt crack model is less dependent on the orientation of the mesh. For the mesh which is in line with the crack direction, however, the sharp crack model is less sensitive to the mesh size. Both models yield reasonable results for a properly discretized finite-element mesh. A subcycling technique is used in this study in the explicit integration scheme so that large time steps can be used for the coarse elements away from the crack tip. The savings of computation time by this technique are reported. 6 refs., 9 figs

  1. Elastic-plastic mechanical constitutive description for rock salt triaxial compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butcher, B.M.

    1981-06-01

    A model for the time-independent part of the mechanical deformation of rock salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Site in southeastern New Mexico is presented. A recently published creep model was first used to correct conventional triaxial compression data for time-dependent deformation. The experimental data was from tests at a loading rate of approximately 11.9 N/s, 23 0 C, and confining pressures from 0 to -20.7 MPa. The corrected time-independent curves were then used to determine material constants for the model. Generalization to a three-dimensional plasticity-failure theory using a general constitutive relation proposed by Rudnicki and Rice was also performed. 7 figures, 3 tables

  2. Functional neurological symptom disorder (conversion disorder): A role for microglial-based plasticity mechanisms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Chris P; Baguley, Ian J

    2018-02-01

    Functional Neurological Symptom Disorder (FND) is a relatively common neurological condition, accounting for approximately 3-6% of neurologist referrals. FND is considered a transient disorder of neuronal function, sometimes linked to physical trauma and psychological stress. Despite this, chronic disability is common, for example, around 40% of adults with motor FND have permanent disability. Building on current theoretical models, this paper proposes that microglial dysfunction could perpetuate functional changes within acute motor FND, thus providing a pathophysiological mechanism underlying the chronic stage of the motor FND phenotypes seen clinically. Core to our argument is microglia's dual role in modulating neuroimmunity and their control of synaptic plasticity, which places them at a pathophysiological nexus wherein coincident physical trauma and psychological stress could cause long-term change in neuronal networks without producing macroscopic structural abnormality. This model proposes a range of hypotheses that are testable with current technologies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Plastic and Neuroprotective Mechanisms Involved in the Therapeutic Effects of Cannabidiol in Psychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alline C. Campos

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Beneficial effects of cannabidiol (CBD have been described for a wide range of psychiatric disorders, including anxiety, psychosis, and depression. The mechanisms responsible for these effects, however, are still poorly understood. Similar to clinical antidepressant or atypical antipsychotic drugs, recent findings clearly indicate that CBD, either acutely or repeatedly administered, induces plastic changes. For example, CBD attenuates the decrease in hippocampal neurogenesis and dendrite spines density induced by chronic stress and prevents microglia activation and the decrease in the number of parvalbumin-positive GABA neurons in a pharmacological model of schizophrenia. More recently, it was found that CBD modulates cell fate regulatory pathways such as autophagy and others critical pathways for neuronal survival in neurodegenerative experimental models, suggesting the potential benefit of CBD treatment for psychiatric/cognitive symptoms associated with neurodegeneration. These changes and their possible association with CBD beneficial effects in psychiatric disorders are reviewed here.

  4. Severe plastic deformation effect on structure and mechanical properties of Al-Mg-Li system alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolobov, Yu.R.; Najdenkin, E.V.; Dudarev, E.F.; Bakach, G.P.; Pochivalov, Yu.I.; Girsova, N.V.; Ivanov, M.B.

    2002-01-01

    The study on the structural-phase states and mechanical properties of the industrial aluminium alloys Al - 5.5% Mg - 2.2% Li - 0.12% Zr, percent by weight and Al - 5% Mg - 2.2% Li -0.12% Zr - 0.2% Sc percent by weight, obtained by the impact of the intensive plastic deformation, is carried out in comparison with the initial polycrystalline state. It is established that the homogeneous ultrafine-grained structure with the second phase particles, located primarily by the grain boundaries, is formed in the studied samples by the above-mentioned treatment. Such a character of the structure leads to the shift of the temperature-velocity interval of the superplastic properties to the area of lower temperatures and higher deformation velocities [ru

  5. Physico-mechanical and chemical screening of packaging plastics and laminates for food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabalar, Patrick Jay E.; Laurio, Christian D.

    2014-03-01

    Evaluation of selected commercially-available packaging plastics and laminated plastics i.e., PET12/PE50, PET12/CPS40, Laminaed PET/PE, VMPET12/PE70, Nylon/PE, Nylon15/PE50, PET/Foil/PE, PlainPET/FOIL7/PE100, and OPP20/Foil6.5/PE40, are conducted by employing methods for determining physico-mechanical properties and performing chemical analyses to assess the suitability for food irradiation at 10kGy. Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IR-MS0 is also performed to measure isotopic ratio changes of 18 O/ 16 O and 2 H/ 1 H to determine raqdiolysis on water in contact with the packaging materials. IR-MS suggests that PET/FOIL PE and OPP 20/Foil 6.5/PE40 in δ 18 O%o after irradiation has significantly increased. Tensile strength and Young's modulus are obtained to assess physical changes between irradiated samples. Data showed that PET12/CPS40 have the highet tensile strength 60.2 MPa and Young's modulus (141.80GPa) value, after irradiation and has no significant difference to their non irradiated samples. Other packaging materials with the same result are OPP20/FOIL6.5/PE40, PET12/PE50 and NYLON50/PE. Residual test gives information on the extent of leaching or radiolytic byproduct evolved upon irradiation. Based on the result, all packaging plastics and laminates passess the overall migration test since residues did not significanty migrated. Chemical screening includes GPC and GC-MS analyses in determining the possible radiolytic by-products that liberate upon rdiation of the samples s well as determining the components that is already present prior to irradiation. Based on the comparison of the chromatograms ofGPC for both samples of VMPET12/PE70 and OPP20/Foil6.5/PE40, radiation has small effect on the yield of radiolytic leachates aside from increasing the abundance of the componenet that is already present prior to irradiation. GC-MS results suggest that PET/FOIL/PE produced volatile compounds before and after irradiation namely 3,3-Dimethylheptane (8

  6. Structural plasticity mediates distinct GAP-dependent GTP hydrolysis mechanisms in Rab33 and Rab5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Soneya; Acharya, Abhishek; Prakash, Balaji

    2017-12-01

    The classical GTP hydrolysis mechanism, as seen in Ras, employs a catalytic glutamine provided in cis by the GTPase and an arginine supplied in trans by a GTPase activating protein (GAP). The key idea emergent from a large body of research on small GTPases is that GTPases employ a variety of different hydrolysis mechanisms; evidently, these variations permit diverse rates of GTPase inactivation, crucial for temporal regulation of different biological processes. Recently, we unified these variations and argued that a steric clash between active site residues (corresponding to positions 12 and 61 of Ras) governs whether a GTPase utilizes the cis-Gln or the trans-Gln (from the GAP) for catalysis. As the cis-Gln encounters a steric clash, the Rab GTPases employ the so-called dual finger mechanism where the interacting GAP supplies a trans-Gln for catalysis. Using experimental and computational methods, we demonstrate how the cis-Gln of Rab33 overcomes the steric clash when it is stabilized by a residue in the vicinity. In effect, this demonstrates how both cis-Gln- and trans-Gln-mediated mechanisms could operate in the same GTPase in different contexts, i.e. depending on the GAP that regulates its action. Interestingly, in the case of Rab5, which possesses a higher intrinsic GTP hydrolysis rate, a similar stabilization of the cis-Gln appears to overcome the steric clash. Taken together with the mechanisms seen for Rab1, it is evident that the observed variations in Rab and their GAP partners allow structural plasticity, or in other words, the choice of different catalytic mechanisms. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  7. Temperature dependent mechanical properties and thermal activation plasticity of nanocrystalline and coarse grained Ni-18.75 at.% Fe alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabachnikova, E D; Podolskiy, A V; Smirnov, S N; Psaruk, I A; Liao, P K

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical properties of Ni-18.75 at.% Fe in coarse grained (average grain size 15 gm) and nanocrystalline (average grain size 22 nm) states were studied in uniaxial compression in the temperature range 4.2-350 K. Temperature dependences of the flow stress, strain rate sensitivity and activation volume of plastic deformation were measured. The thermal activation analysis of the experimental data has been fulfilled for the the plastic deformation value of 2 %. It was shown that plastic deformation in temperature range from 35 to 350 K in both studied structural states has the thermally activated type. Comparative analysis of low temperature thermal activation plastic deformation was carried out for the alloy in coarse grained and nanocrystalline states. Empirical estimates of parameters of the dislocation interaction with local barriers and internal stress value estimates were obtained for the both studied structural states. Analysis of the results indicates that different mechanisms control the thermal activation plasticity of the Ni-18.75 at.% Fe alloy in coarse grained and nanocrystalline states. Possible mechanisms, which control plactisity of the studied states, are disscussed

  8. Morphology and mechanical properties of PA12/plasticized starch blends prepared by high-shear extrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teyssandier, F.; Cassagnau, P.; Gérard, J.F.; Mignard, N.; Mélis, F.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► High shear rate processing was found to greatly impact PA12/starch blend morphologies. ► The morphology was observed to be stable under subsequent processing conditions. ► The mechanical properties of the blends under high-shear rate were greatly improved. ► Polymer blend preparation via high-shear processing has proved to be very effective. ► Finally, polymer blends with improved mechanical properties were obtained. - Abstract: PA12/plasticized starch blends (PA12/TPS) were prepared by high-shear twin screw extruder. The morphology development and the mechanical properties of the blends were investigated as a function of the apparent shear rate. High-shear processing has proved to be an efficient method to finely disperse thermoplastic starch in polyamide 12 matrix. Blends containing TPS domains with a size at the nano-scale (R n ∼ 150 nm) homogeneously dispersed in PA12 matrix were obtained. From a modeling point of view, the variation of the droplet radius is closer to the Wu's predictions compared to the Serpe's predictions. From the basic hypothesis of these models, it can be then assumed that compatibilization between both phases occurs during the blend processing. Furthermore, this morphology of the blends has been proved to be stable after a reprocessing step in an internal mixer most likely due to either strong hydrogen bonds between the hydroxyl groups of starch and amide groups of polyamide 12 or to potentially cross reactions between macroradicals accounting for in situ formation of graft copolymers with the potential function of compatibilizers. Mechanical properties of the blends were found to be strongly dependent on the shear rate parameter of blend processing as the mechanical properties increase with shear rate. In agreement to the blend morphology, the elongation at break of the blends was greatly improved attesting of a good adhesion between both phases.

  9. Mechanisms of plastic deformation (cyclic and monotonous) of Inconel X750

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randrianarivony, H.

    1992-01-01

    Plastic deformation mechanisms under cyclic or monotonous solicitations, are analysed in function of Inconel X750 initial macrostructure. Two heat treated Inconel (first one is treated at 1366 K one hour, air cooled, aged at 977 K 20 hours, and air cooled, the second alloy is aged at 1158 K 24 hours, air cooled, aged at 977 K 20 hours, and air cooled), are characterized respectively by a fine and uniform precipitation of the γ' phase (approximative formulae: Ni 3 (Al,Ti)), and by a bimodal distribution of γ' precipitates. In both alloys, dislocations pairs (characteristic of a shearing by antiphase wall creation) are observed, and the crossing mechanism of the γ' precipitates by creation of overstructure pile defects is the same. But, glissile loops dislocations are less numerous than dislocations pairs in the first alloy, involving denser bands structure for this alloy (dislocations loops are always observed around γ' precipitates). Some comportment explications of Inconel X750 in PWR medium are given. (A.B.). refs., figs., tabs

  10. Mathematical and Simulation Modelling of Moisture Diffusion Mechanism during Plastic IC Packages Disassembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Mou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Reuse of plastic IC packages disassembled from printed circuit boards (PCBs has significant environmental benefits and economic value. The interface delamination caused by moisture diffusion is the main failure mode of IC packages during the disassembling process, which greatly reduces the reusability and reliability of disassembled IC packages. Exploring moisture diffusion mechanism is a prerequisite to optimize prebaking processes before disassembling that is an effective way to avoid the interface delamination. To this end, a computational model with variable boundary conditions is developed based on the different combination state of water in IC packages. The distribution characteristics and mechanism of moisture diffusion behavior are analyzed including the humidity distribution field and the relation among baking temperature, water loss rate, and baking time during baking process, and then the results are validated by FEA simulation based on the improved definition of relative moisture concentration. Baking under variable temperature is proposed and compared with the baking process and baking efficiency under constant temperature to find out the optimized baking parameters. Finally, a set of curves which indicate the relation between baking energy consumption and temperature are determined under actual industrial baking experiments, which could be used as references to develop industrial standards for PCB disassembling process.

  11. Continuum mechanics through the ages from the renaissance to the twentieth century : from hydraulics to plasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Maugin, Gérard A

    2016-01-01

    Mixing scientific, historic and socio-economic vision, this unique book complements two previously published volumes on the history of continuum mechanics from this distinguished author. In this volume, Gérard A. Maugin looks at the period from the renaissance to the twentieth century and he includes an appraisal of the ever enduring competition between molecular and continuum modelling views. Chapters trace early works in hydraulics and fluid mechanics not covered in the other volumes and the author investigates experimental approaches, essentially before the introduction of a true concept of stress tensor. The treatment of such topics as the viscoelasticity of solids and plasticity, fracture theory, and the role of geometry as a cornerstone of the field, are all explored. Readers will find a kind of socio-historical appraisal of the seminal contributions by our direct masters in the second half of the twentieth century. The analysis of the teaching and research texts by Duhem, Poincaré and Hilbert on cont...

  12. EFFECTS OF ETHYLENE VINYL ACETATE CONTENT ON PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF WOOD-PLASTIC COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongfang Li,

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of different ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA contents on the performance of wood plastic composites (WPCs made from poplar wood flour (PWF and high density polyethylene (HDPE, physical properties tests, mechanical properties tests, and scanning electron microscope (SEM tests were employed. The thermal stability and functional groups of PWF treated by EVA were evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, differential thermal analysis (DTA, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, respectively. The results showed that the hardness, water uptake, and thickness swelling of the WPCs was reduced with increasing content of EVA. The MOR and tensile strength of the WPC treated by 15% EVA content were enhanced by 17.48% and 9.97%, respectively, compared with those of the WPC without EVA. TGA results showed that the thermal stability of PWF treated by EVA was improved. FTIR analysis indicated that PWF was reacted and coated with EVA. SEM results showed that gaps and voids hardly existed in the sections of the WPCs treated by EVA. This research suggests that the flexibility and mechanical properties of WPCs could be improved by adding EVA. The best condition of EVA content could be 15%.

  13. Mechanical and microstructural aspects of severe plastic deformation of austenitic steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodak, K.; Pawlicki, J.; Tkocz, M.

    2012-05-01

    The paper presents the effects of severe plastic deformation by multiple compression in the orthogonal directions on the microstructure and the mechanical properties of austenitic steel. Several deformation variants were conducted with different number of passes. FEM simulations were performed in order to evaluate the actual values of the effective strain in the examined, central parts of the compressed samples. The deformed microstructure was investigated by means of the scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) supported by the electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD). X-ray phase analysis was performed to evaluate the martensite volume fraction. The mechanical properties were determined by means of the digital image correlation method and hardness testing. It is shown that the applied forming technique leads to strong grain refinement in the austenitic steel. Moreover, deformation induces the martensitic γ- α' transformation. The microstructural changes cause an improvement in the strength properties. The material exhibits the ultimate tensile strength of 1560 MPa and the yield stress of 1500 MPa after reaching the effective strain of 10.

  14. Mechanical and microstructural aspects of severe plastic deformation of austenitic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodak, K; Pawlicki, J; Tkocz, M

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the effects of severe plastic deformation by multiple compression in the orthogonal directions on the microstructure and the mechanical properties of austenitic steel. Several deformation variants were conducted with different number of passes. FEM simulations were performed in order to evaluate the actual values of the effective strain in the examined, central parts of the compressed samples. The deformed microstructure was investigated by means of the scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) supported by the electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD). X-ray phase analysis was performed to evaluate the martensite volume fraction. The mechanical properties were determined by means of the digital image correlation method and hardness testing. It is shown that the applied forming technique leads to strong grain refinement in the austenitic steel. Moreover, deformation induces the martensitic γ– α' transformation. The microstructural changes cause an improvement in the strength properties. The material exhibits the ultimate tensile strength of 1560 MPa and the yield stress of 1500 MPa after reaching the effective strain of 10.

  15. Studies on the mechanical behavior of rock anchors. ; Results of in-situ pull-out tests. Rock anchor no rikigaku kyodo ni kansuru kenkyu. ; Gen prime ichi shiken ni okeru anchor no kyodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arimoto, K.; Ebisu, S.; Nakagawa, M.; Usui, M.; Someya, T.; Machida, N. (Okumura Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-10-31

    The rock anchor method is planned to apply to some permanent structures but since this method was developed for temporary structures, the clarification of the transferring mechanism of force from an anchor to a rockmass, the fracture mechanism and the development of the dynamic model have not been established. This paper arranged the data obtained by a full-scale, in-situ pulling out test of a rock anchor as the first step to understand the dynamic behavior and analyzed by paying attetion to the modulus of deformation of the rockmass where the anchor was embedded to elucidate the affecting degree of rockmass modulus of deformation, the embedded length and the tendon diameter on the dynamic behavior of the anchor. The rock anchor behavior could be expressed accurately by applying a theoretical solution derived by the balancing condition of forces at the boundary face. Especially, when the rockmass is uniform and the fracture occurrs at the interface between the tendon and grout, this approach can express the fracture with the accuracy similar to that made by the finite element method. 6 refs., 11 figs.,1 tab.

  16. A critical review on the application of elastic-plastic fracture mechanics to nuclear pressure vessel and piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarth, D.A.; Kim, Y.J.; Vanderglas, M.L.

    1985-10-01

    A comprehensive literature survey on the application of Elastic-Plastic Fracture Mechanics to the assessment of the structural integrity of nuclear pressure vessels and piping is presented. In particular, the J-integral/Tearing Modulus (J/T) approach and the Failure Assessment Diagram (FAD) are covered in detail because of their general suitability for use in Ontario Hydro. (25 refs.)

  17. Mechanical and barrier properties of starch-based films plasticized with two- or three component deep eutectic solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdanowicz, Magdalena; Johansson, Caisa

    2016-10-20

    The aim of this work was to prepare two- and three-components deep eutectic solvents (DES) and investigate their potential as starch plasticizers. Starch/DES films were prepared via casting method. Mechanical properties, water vapor- and oxygen transmission rates were measured; additionally contact angle and moisture sorption were determined and FTIR analysis was applied on the films. Native potato starch and hydroxypropylated and oxidized starch (HOPS) with common plasticizers (e.g. polyols, urea) and DES were studied. Moreover, influence of three methods of DES introduction and concentration of plasticizer on the films properties were compared. HOPS films were prepared by two methods: as non-cured and cured samples. Some of DESs containing citrate anion exhibited crosslinking ability of polysaccharide matrix. Non-cured HOPS/DES films exhibited more favourable mechanical and barrier properties than cured analogue films. Samples prepared with unmodified potato starch had higher mechanical and barrier properties than films made with HOPS. Starch-based films plasticized with novel DESs with parallel crosslinking activity exhibited satisfactory mechanical and barrier properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Concerning the problem of the plastic deformation mechanism changeover in neutron-irradiated metals and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolesnikov, A.N.; Krasnoselov, V.A.; Prokhorov, V.I.

    1982-01-01

    With a phenomenological model of plastic deformation instability as a basis, an analysis was made of the neutron irradition effects on the characteristics of strength and plasticity vs. structural parameters and radiation damage morphology. It was demonstrated that the enchanced plasticity in the initial stage of neutron irradiation has to do with the solid solution disintegration. Introduction of indestructible strengthening barriers enhances the stress-resistance of the neck-formation by 1.22 times. The ''big grain'' effect is observable during the deformation channel production only. Both the deformation twinning and deformation-induced martensite transformation raise the plastic flow stability

  19. Microstructure Evolution and Mechanical Behavior of a Hot-Rolled High-Manganese Dual-Phase Transformation-Induced Plasticity/Twinning-Induced Plasticity Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Liming; Shan, Mokun; Zhang, Daoda; Wang, Huanrong; Wang, Wei; Shan, Aidang

    2017-05-01

    The microstructures and deformation behavior were studied in a high-temperature annealed high-manganese dual-phase (28 vol pct δ-ferrite and 72 vol pct γ-austenite) transformation-induced plasticity/twinning-induced plasticity (TRIP/TWIP) steel. The results showed that the steel exhibits a special Lüders-like yielding phenomenon at room temperature (RT) and 348 K (75 °C), while it shows continuous yielding at 423 K, 573 K and 673 K (150 °C, 300 °C and 400 °C) deformation. A significant TRIP effect takes place during Lüders-like deformation at RT and 348 K (75 °C) temperatures. Semiquantitative analysis of the TRIP effect on the Lüders-like yield phenomenon proves that a softening effect of the strain energy consumption of strain-induced transformation is mainly responsible for this Lüders-like phenomenon. The TWIP mechanism dominates the 423 K (150 °C) deformation process, while the dislocation glide controls the plasticity at 573 K (300 °C) deformation. The delta-ferrite, as a hard phase in annealed dual-phase steel, greatly affects the mechanical stability of austenite due to the heterogeneous strain distribution between the two phases during deformation. A delta-ferrite-aided TRIP effect, i.e., martensite transformation induced by localized strain concentration of the hard delta-ferrite, is proposed to explain this kind of Lüders-like phenomenon. Moreover, the tensile curve at RT exhibits an upward curved behavior in the middle deformation stage, which is principally attributed to the deformation twinning of austenite retained after Lüders-like deformation. The combination of the TRIP effect during Lüders-like deformation and the subsequent TWIP effect greatly enhances the ductility in this annealed high-manganese dual-phase TRIP/TWIP steel.

  20. Inter- and intragranular plasticity mechanisms in ultrafine-grained Al thin films: An in situ TEM study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mompiou, F.; Legros, M.; Boé, A.; Coulombier, M.; Raskin, J.-P.; Pardoen, T.

    2013-01-01

    The nature of the elementary deformation mechanisms in small-grained metals has been the subject of numerous recent studies. In the submicron range, mechanisms other than intragranular dislocation mechanisms, such as grain boundary (GB)-based mechanisms, are active and can explain the deviations from the Hall–Petch law. Here, we report observations performed during in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) tensile tests on initially dislocation-free Al thin films with a mean grain size around 250 nm prepared by microfabrication techniques. Intergranular plasticity is activated at the onset of plasticity. It consists of the motion of dislocations in the GB plane irrespective of the GB character. Surface imperfections, such as GB grooves, are supposed to trigger intergranular plasticity. At larger deformations, the motion of the intergranular dislocations leads to GB sliding and eventually cavitation. In the meantime, GB stress-assisted migration and dislocation emission inside the grain from GB sources have also been observed. The observation of these different mechanisms during the deformation provides an important insight into the understanding of the mechanical properties of metallic thin films.

  1. Multi-scale approach of plasticity mechanisms in irradiated austenitic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogaret, Th.

    2007-12-01

    The plasticity in irradiated metals is characterized by the localization of the deformation in clear bands, defect free, formed by the dislocation passage. We investigated the clear band formation thanks to a multi-scale approach. Molecular dynamics simulations show that screw dislocations mainly un-fault and absorb the defects as helical turns, are strongly pinned by the helical turns and are remitted in new glide planes when they unpin whereas edge dislocations mainly shear the defects for moderate stresses and can drag the helical turns. The interaction mechanisms were implemented into the discrete dislocation dynamics code in order to study the clear band formation at the micron scale. As dislocations are issued from grain boundaries, we consider a dislocation source located on a box border that emits dislocations when the dislocation nucleation stress is reached. The hardening was seen mainly due to the screw dislocations that are strongly pinned by helical turns. Edge dislocations are less pinned and glide on long distances, letting long screw dislocation segments. As more dislocations are emitted, screw dislocation pile-ups form and this permits the unpinning of screw dislocations. They unpin by activating dislocation segments in new glide planes, which broadens the clear band. When the segments activate, they create edge parts that sweep the screw dislocation lines by dragging away the super-jogs towards the box borders where they accumulate, which clears the band. (author)

  2. Elastic-plastic fracture mechanics for nuclear pressure vessels: a preliminary appraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, G.T.; Broek, D.; Marschall, C.W.; Rosenfield, A.R.; Rybicki, E.F.; Schmueser, D.W.; Stonesifer, R.B.; Kanninen, M.F.

    1978-01-01

    A research program directed at assessing the margin of safety of flawed nuclear pressure vessels near and beyond general yielding is described. The program has the general objective of developing an elastic-plastic fracture mechanics methodology. The approach is based on the use of finite element models together with experimental results to identify criteria appropriate for the onset of crack extension and for stable crack growth. A number of criteria beyond the conventional LEFM R curve are being evaluated. These include the critical values of the J-integral, its derivative, the crack tip opening angle, the average crack opening angle, a generalized energy release rate, its components and a crack tip force. The optimum fracture criterion for nuclear vessels is being determined by systematic measurements of load extension curves, strain distribution, crack opening displacement, stable crack growth and instability on 'toughness scaled' model materials. Computations have been performed for center cracked panels of a model material (2219-T87 aluminium) for full shear failure. (author)

  3. Strain-rate dependent plasticity in thermo-mechanical transient analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, Y.R.; Sharabi, M.N.

    1980-01-01

    The thermo-mechanical transient behavior of fuel element cladding and other reactor components is generally governed by the strain-rate properties of the material. Relevant constitutive modeling requires extensive material data in the form of strain-rate response as function of true-stress, temperature, time and environmental conditions, which can then be fitted within a theoretical framework of an inelastic constitutive model. In this paper, we present a constitutive formulation that deals continuously with the entire strain-rate range and has the desirable advantage of utilizing existing material data. The derivation makes use of strain-rate sensitive stress-strain curve and strain-rate dependent yield surface. By postulating a strain-rate dependent on Mises yield function and a strain-rate dependent kinematic hardening rule, we are able to derive incremental stress-strain relations that describe the strain-rate behavior in the entire deformation range spanning high strain-rate plasticity and creep. The model is sufficiently general as to apply to any materials and loading histories for which data is available. (orig.)

  4. The finite element part of the LAMCAL program. Elastic-plastic fracture mechanics applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamain, L.G.; Blanckenburg, J.F.G.

    1982-01-01

    The elastic-plastic FEM code described in this report is the third part of the Lamcal program of which the two other parts for mesh generating and plotting were presented previously. Also this part uses the dynamic core storage. All variables and problem defining data are stored in one common array-SPACE. If all three parts are used together, the same common-SPACE is reused in each part. The lay-out of the complete program is given. J-integral evaluation and plotting can be done immediately in the FE run or afterwards in a post processing run. Post processing is done within the FEM part with a reduced core space. Originally developed as a general code, the use of the present version is mainly focussed on research in the field of the fracture mechanics. Several J-integral routines are available as well as crack growth modelling by node release or stiffness reduction, energy calculations, crack tip elements, etc. In this report the theory is discussed and some sample problems are given. The theory is presented in two parts, the general FEM and the more specific EPFM theory. For the sample problems, a choice has been made to show the accuracy of the program under more or less severe loading conditions

  5. Energy requirements of tire pulling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksen, Per M; Mamen, Asgeir

    2017-10-01

    We have investigated the effect using walking poles and pulling tires at 4 and 6 km·h-1 (1.11 and 1.67 m·s-1) speeds on oxygen uptake (V̇O2) and heart rate. Eleven subjects, 6 males, with a mean (SD) age of 25.2 (6.9) years participated in field tests involving walking without poles, walking with poles and tire pulling with poles. Increasing the load caused the largest increases in energy demand, more than 4 MET. Speed increase also caused substantial energy increase, approximately 4 MET. Increasing the inclination only modestly increased the oxygen uptake, approximately 2 MET. In both level walking and uphill walking, using poles marginally increased oxygen uptake compared to working without poles. Pulling one tire (12.5 kg) required an oxygen uptake of 27 (4) mL·kg-1·min-1 at 4 km·h-1 and 0% inclination. Adding one more tire (6 kg) drove the oxygen uptake further up to 39 (4) mL·kg-1·min-1. This is close to the requirement of level running at 10.5 km·h-1. Pulling both tires at 6 km·h-1 and 5% inclination required a V̇O2 of 54 (6) mL·kg-1·min-1, equal to running uphill at 5% inclination and 12.5 km·h-1 speed. Heart rate rose comparably with oxygen uptake. At 4 km·h-1 and 0% inclination the increase was 29 bpm, from 134 (21) to 163 (22) bpm when going from pulling one tire to two tires. In the hardest exercise, 6 km·h-1 and 5% inclination, heart rate reached 174 (14) bpm. The study showed that tire pulling even at slow speeds has an energy requirement that is so large that the activity may be feasible as endurance training.

  6. The wiring of developing sensory circuits - from patterned spontaneous activity to mechanisms of synaptic plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Helen Leighton

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to accurately process incoming sensory stimuli, neurons must be organized into functional networks, with both genetic and environmental factors influencing the precise arrangement of connections between cells. Teasing apart the relative contributions of molecular guidance cues, spontaneous activity and visual experience during this maturation is on-going. During development of the sensory system, the first, rough organization of connections is created by molecular factors. These connections are then modulated by the intrinsically generated activity of neurons, even before the senses have become operational. Spontaneous waves of depolarisations sweep across the nervous system, placing them in a prime position to strengthen correct connections and weaken others, shaping synapses into a useful network. A large body of work now supports the idea that, rather than being a mere side-effect of the system, spontaneous activity actually contains information which readies the nervous system so that, as soon as the senses become active, sensory information can be utilized by the animal. An example is the neonatal mouse. As soon as the eyelids first open, neurons in the cortex respond to visual information without the animal having previously encountered structured sensory input (Cang et al., 2005a; Ko et al., 2013; Rochefort et al., 2011; Zhang et al., 2012. In vivo imaging techniques have advanced considerably, allowing observation of the natural activity in the brain of living animals down to the level of the individual synapse. New (optogenetic methods make it possible to subtly modulate the spatio-temporal properties of activity, aiding our understanding of how these characteristics relate to the function of spontaneous activity. Such experiments have had a huge impact on our knowledge by permitting direct testing of ideas about the plasticity mechanisms at play in the intact system, opening up a provocative range of fresh questions. Here, we

  7. Crack formation mechanisms during micro and macro indentation of diamond-like carbon coatings on elastic-plastic substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, N.B.; Fischer-Cripps, A.C.; Swain, M.V.

    1998-01-01

    of cracking and the fracture mechanisms taking place. In the study various diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings deposited onto stainless steel and tool steel were investigated. Results primarily for one DLC system will be presented here. (C) 1998 Published by Elsevier Science S.A. All rights reserved.......In the present study crack formation is investigated on both micro and macro scale using spherical indenter tips. in particular, systems consisting of elastic coatings that are well adhered to elastic-plastic substrates are studied. Depth sensing indentation is used on the micro scale and Rockwell...... indentation on the macro scale. The predominant driving force for coating failure and crack formation during indentation is plastic deformation of the underlying substrate. The aim is to relate the mechanisms creating both delamination and cohesive cracking on both scales with fracture mechanical models...

  8. Epoxidized Vegetable Oils Plasticized Poly(lactic acid Biocomposites: Mechanical, Thermal and Morphology Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buong Woei Chieng

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Plasticized poly(lactic acid PLA with epoxidized vegetable oils (EVO were prepared using a melt blending method to improve the ductility of PLA. The plasticization of the PLA with EVO lowers the Tg as well as cold-crystallization temperature. The tensile properties demonstrated that the addition of EVO to PLA led to an increase of elongation at break, but a decrease of tensile modulus. Plasticized PLA showed improvement in the elongation at break by 2058% and 4060% with the addition of 5 wt % epoxidized palm oil (EPO and mixture of epoxidized palm oil and soybean oil (EPSO, respectively. An increase in the tensile strength was also observed in the plasticized PLA with 1 wt % EPO and EPSO. The use of EVO increases the mobility of the polymeric chains, thereby improving the flexibility and plastic deformation of PLA. The SEM micrograph of the plasticized PLA showed good compatible morphologies without voids resulting from good interfacial adhesion between PLA and EVO. Based on the results of this study, EVO may be used as an environmentally friendly plasticizer that can improve the overall properties of PLA.

  9. Push-pull quinoidal porphyrins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Martin J; Blake, Iain M; Clegg, William; Anderson, Harry L

    2018-05-01

    A family of push-pull quinoidal porphyrin monomers has been prepared from a meso-formyl porphyrin by bromination, thioacetal formation, palladium-catalyzed coupling with malononitrile and oxidation with DDQ. Attempts at extending this synthesis to a push-pull quinoidal/cumulenic porphyrin dimer were not successful. The crystal structures of the quinoidal porphyrins indicate that there is no significant contribution from singlet biradical or zwitterionic resonance forms. The crystal structure of an ethyne-linked porphyrin dimer shows that the torsion angle between the porphyrin units is only about 3°, in keeping with crystallographic results on related compounds, but contrasting with the torsion angle of about 35° predicted by computational studies. The free-base quinoidal porphyrin monomers form tightly π-stacked layer structures, despite their curved geometries and bulky aryl substituents.

  10. Adaptive Transgenerational Plasticity in Plants: Case Studies, Mechanisms, and Implications for Natural Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Herman, Jacob J.; Sultan, Sonia E.

    2011-01-01

    Plants respond to environmental conditions not only by plastic changes to their own development and physiology, but also by altering the phenotypes expressed by their offspring. This transgenerational plasticity was initially considered to entail only negative effects of stressful parental environments, such as production of smaller seeds by resource- or temperature-stressed parent plants, and was therefore viewed as environmental noise. Recent evolutionary ecology studies have shown that in ...

  11. Transgenerational plasticity as an important mechanism affecting response of clonal species to changing climate

    OpenAIRE

    M?nzbergov?, Zuzana; Hadincov?, V?roslava

    2017-01-01

    Abstract In spite of the increasing number of studies on the importance of transgenerational plasticity for species response to novel environments, its effects on species ability to respond to climate change are still largely unexplored. We study the importance of transgenerational plasticity for response of a clonal species Festuca rubra. Individuals from four natural populations representing two levels of temperature and two levels of precipitation were cultivated in four growth chambers th...

  12. Influence of ionizing radiation and use of plasticizers on the mechanical properties and barrier properties of biodegradable films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponce, Patricia; Parra, Duclerc F.; Carr, Laura G.; Sato, Juliana S.; Lugao, Ademar B.

    2005-01-01

    This work reports the influence of radiation and plasticizers on the barrier properties [water vapour permeability (WVP)] and mechanical properties (tensile strength and elongation) of edible films made of starch. These films were prepared with 4 g of starch/100 mL of water; 2-10 g polyethylene glycol (PEG)/100 g starch; and at natural pH. Tensile strength and percentage elongation were measured using a Mechanical Universal Testing Machine Instron 4400R and the water vapour permeability was determined according to ASTM E96-80 (ASTM, 1989). The mechanical properties of starch films are influenced by the plasticizer concentration. An increase in PEG content showed a considerable increase in elongation percentage and a decrease in the tensile strength of the films, also increase the permeability of the films in water. After irradiation, the barrier properties [water vapour permeability (WVP)] and mechanical properties (tensile strength and elongation) of the films were improved due to chemical reactions among polymer molecules. The films were irradiated at room temperature with gamma radiation. Irradiated starch cassava films with polyethylene glycol (PEG) as plasticizer have good flexibility and low water permeability, which indicate potential application as edible films (author)

  13. ECM remodeling and its plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jingchen; Jones, Christopher A. R.; Cibula, Matthew; Mao, Xiaoming; Sander, Leonard M.; Levine, Herbert; Sun, Bo

    The mechanical interactions between cells and Extracellular Matrix (ECM) are of great importance in many cellular processes. These interactions are reciprocal, i.e. contracting cells pull and reorganize the surrounding matrix, while the remodeled matrix feeds back to regulate cell activities. Recent experiments show in collagen gels with densely distributed cells, aligned fiber bundles are formed in the direction between neighboring cells. Fibers flow into the center region between contracting cell pairs in this process, which causes the concentration of fibers in the fiber bundles to become significantly enhanced. Using an extended lattice-based model, we show that viscoelasticity plays an essential role in ECM remodeling and contributes to the enhanced concentration in fiber bundles. We further characterize ECM plasticity within our model and verify our results with rheometer experiments.

  14. Atomic scale numerical simulation study of elementary mechanisms of plasticity in aluminium and copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslanides, Antoine

    1998-01-01

    This study deals with elementary mechanisms of plasticity, such as the dissociation of a perfect edge dislocation into Shockley partials, the annihilation of dislocation dipoles and the interaction between a dislocation and an interface (free surface and grain boundary). Dislocation core effects are expected to influence crucially these interactions. A deeper understanding of these situations is thus achieved by resorting to an atomistic numerical approach, the application of the elastic theory of dislocations being no longer justified. Two FCC metals are considered: aluminium and copper, with respectively a small and a large dissociation width. An empirical potential for aluminium was designed to study the perfect as well as the dissociated states of the dislocation. The results are compared to the ones obtained with the interaction model for copper, for both the edge and the screw characters. The obtained core radius value ensures the continuity between the atomic and the elastic treatments. The calculations concerning edge dislocation dipole configurations show that there exists a critical distance between the glide planes of the two constitutive dislocations under which a spontaneous recombination occurs. We then compute the variation of the excess energy associated to the gradual approach of an edge dislocation toward the free surface of a crystal. An estimation of the energy required for the introduction of a dislocation in a thin film is obtained. The study of the interaction between a dislocation and a tilt grain boundary shows that the dislocation is absorbed in the interface, the stress required for its extraction being rather large. Finally, by proceeding to the simulation of a tensile test, we demonstrate that the surface steps constitute favoured sites for the nucleation of the dislocations. (author) [fr

  15. Exercise impacts brain-derived neurotrophic factor plasticity by engaging mechanisms of epigenetic regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Pinilla, F; Zhuang, Y; Feng, J; Ying, Z; Fan, G

    2011-02-01

    We have evaluated the possibility that the action of voluntary exercise on the regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a molecule important for rat hippocampal learning, could involve mechanisms of epigenetic regulation. We focused the studies on the Bdnf promoter IV, as this region is highly responsive to neuronal activity. We have found that exercise stimulates DNA demethylation in Bdnf promoter IV, and elevates levels of activated methyl-CpG-binding protein 2, as well as BDNF mRNA and protein in the rat hippocampus. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that exercise increases acetylation of histone H3, and protein assessment showed that exercise elevates the ratio of acetylated :total for histone H3 but had no effects on histone H4 levels. Exercise also reduces levels of the histone deacetylase 5 mRNA and protein implicated in the regulation of the Bdnf gene [N.M. Tsankova et al. (2006)Nat. Neurosci., 9, 519-525], but did not affect histone deacetylase 9. Exercise elevated the phosphorylated forms of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and cAMP response element binding protein, implicated in the pathways by which neural activity influences the epigenetic regulation of gene transcription, i.e. Bdnf. These results showing the influence of exercise on the remodeling of chromatin containing the Bdnf gene emphasize the importance of exercise on the control of gene transcription in the context of brain function and plasticity. Reported information about the impact of a behavior, inherently involved in the daily human routine, on the epigenome opens exciting new directions and therapeutic opportunities in the war against neurological and psychiatric disorders. © 2010 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2010 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Mechanisms of large strain, high strain rate plastic flow in the explosively driven collapse of Ni-Al laminate cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olney, K L; Chiu, P H; Nesterenko, V F; Higgins, A; Serge, M; Weihs, T P; Fritz, G; Stover, A; Benson, D J

    2014-01-01

    Ni-Al laminates have shown promise as reactive materials due to their high energy release through intermetallic reaction. In addition to the traditional ignition methods, the reaction may be initiated in hot spots that can be created during mechanical loading. The explosively driven thick walled cylinder (TWC) technique was performed on two Ni-Al laminates composed of thin foil layers with different mesostructues: concentric and corrugated. These experiments were conducted to examine how these materials accommodate large plastic strain under high strain rates. Finite element simulations of these specimens with mesostuctures digitized from the experimental samples were conducted to provide insight into the mesoscale mechanisms of plastic flow. The dependence of dynamic behaviour on mesostructure may be used to tailor the hot spot formation and therefore the reactivity of the material system.

  17. Elastic-Plastic Nonlinear Response of a Space Shuttle External Tank Stringer. Part 2; Thermal and Mechanical Loadings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Warren, Jerry E.; Elliott, Kenny B.; Song, Kyongchan; Raju, Ivatury S.

    2012-01-01

    Elastic-plastic, large-deflection nonlinear thermo-mechanical stress analyses are performed for the Space Shuttle external tank s intertank stringers. Detailed threedimensional finite element models are developed and used to investigate the stringer s elastic-plastic response for different thermal and mechanical loading events from assembly through flight. Assembly strains caused by initial installation on an intertank panel are accounted for in the analyses. Thermal loading due to tanking was determined to be the bounding loading event. The cryogenic shrinkage caused by tanking resulted in a rotation of the intertank chord flange towards the center of the intertank, which in turn loaded the intertank stringer feet. The analyses suggest that the strain levels near the first three fasteners remain sufficiently high that a failure may occur. The analyses also confirmed that the installation of radius blocks on the stringer feet ends results in an increase in the stringer capability.

  18. Mechanical characteristics of plastic base Ports and impact on flushing efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiffant, Gérard; Flaud, Patrice; Royon, Laurent; Burnet, Espérie; Merckx, Jacques

    2017-01-01

    Three types of totally implantable venous access devices, Ports, are currently in use: titanium, plastic (polyoxymethylene, POM), and mixed (titanium base with a POM shell). Physics theory suggests that the interaction between a non-coring needle (NCN, made of stainless steel) and a plastic base would lead to the stronger material (steel) altering the more malleable material (plastic). To investigate whether needle impacts can alter a plastic base's surface, thus potentially reducing flushing efficacy. A Port made of POM was punctured 200 times with a 19-gauge NCN. Following the existing guidelines, the needle tip pricked the base with each puncture. The Port's base was then examined using a two-dimensional optical instrument, and a bi-dimensional numerical simulation using COMSOL ® was performed to investigate potential surface irregularities and their impact on fluid flow. Each needle impact created a hole (mean depth, 0.12 mm) with a small bump beside it (mean height, 0.02 mm) the Reynolds number Re k ≈10. A numerical simulation of the one hole/bump set showed that the flushing efficacy was 60% that of flushing along a flat surface. In clinical practice, the number of times a Port is punctured depends on patient and treatment characteristics, but each needle impact on the plastic base may increase the risk of decreased flushing effectiveness. Therefore, the more a plastic Port is accessed, the greater the risk of microorganisms, blood products, and medication accumulation. Multiple needle impacts created an irregular surface on the Port's base, which decreased flushing efficacy. Clinical investigation is needed to determine whether plastic base Ports are associated with an increased risk of Port infection and occlusion compared to titanium base Ports.

  19. Numerical Simulation and Experimental Investigation of the Viscoelastic Heating Mechanism in Ultrasonic Plasticizing of Amorphous Polymers for Micro Injection Molding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingyan Jiang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic plasticizing of polymers for micro-injection molding has been proposed and studied for its unique potential in materials and energy-saving. In our previous work, we have demonstrated the characteristics of the interfacial friction heating mechanism in ultrasonic plasticizing of polymer granulates. In this paper, the other important heating mechanism in ultrasonic plasticizing, i.e., viscoelastic heating for amorphous polymer, was studied by both theoretical modeling and experimentation. The influence mechanism of several parameters, such as the initial temperature of the polymer, the ultrasonic frequency, and the ultrasonic amplitude, was investigated. The results from both numerical simulation and experimentation indicate that the heat generation rate of viscoelastic heating can be significantly influenced by the initial temperature of polymer. The glass transition temperature was found to be a significant shifting point in viscoelastic heating. The heat generation rate is relatively low at the beginning and can have a steep increase after reaching glass transition temperature. In comparison with the ultrasonic frequency, the ultrasonic amplitude has much greater influence on the heat generation rate. In light of the quantitative difference in the viscoelastic heating rate, the limitation of the numerical simulation was discussed in the aspect of the assumptions and the applied mathematical models.

  20. Plastic deformation and failure mechanisms in nano-scale notched metallic glass specimens under tensile loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Tanmay; Chauniyal, Ashish; Singh, I.; Narasimhan, R.; Thamburaja, P.; Ramamurty, U.

    2018-02-01

    In this work, numerical simulations using molecular dynamics and non-local plasticity based finite element analysis are carried out on tensile loading of nano-scale double edge notched metallic glass specimens. The effect of acuteness of notches as well as the metallic glass chemical composition or internal material length scale on the plastic deformation response of the specimens are studied. Both MD and FE simulations, in spite of the fundamental differences in their nature, indicate near-identical deformation features. Results show two distinct transitions in the notch tip deformation behavior as the acuity is increased, first from single shear band dominant plastic flow localization to ligament necking, and then to double shear banding in notches that are very sharp. Specimens with moderately blunt notches and composition showing wider shear bands or higher material length scale characterizing the interaction stress associated with flow defects display profuse plastic deformation and failure by ligament necking. These results are rationalized from the role of the interaction stress and development of the notch root plastic zones.

  1. Micro-mechanisms of Surface Defects Induced on Aluminum Alloys during Plastic Deformation at Elevated Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gali, Olufisayo A.

    Near-surface deformed layers developed on aluminum alloys significantly influence the corrosion and tribological behavior as well as reduce the surface quality of the rolled aluminum. The evolution of the near-surface microstructures induced on magnesium containing aluminum alloys during thermomechanical processing has been investigated with the aim generating an understanding of the influence of individual forming parameters on its evolution and examine the microstructure of the roll coating induced on the mating steel roll through material transfer during rolling. The micro-mechanisms related to the various features of near-surface microstructure developed during tribological conditions of the simulated hot rolling process were identified. Thermomechanical processing experiments were performed with the aid of hot rolling (operating temperature: 550 to 460 °C, 4, 10 and 20 rolling pass schedules) and hot forming (operating temperature: 350 to 545 °C, strain rate: 4 x 10-2 s-1) tribo-simulators. The surface, near-surface features and material transfer induced during the elevated temperature plastic deformation were examined and characterized employing optical interferometry, SEM/EDS, FIB and TEM. Near-surface features characterized on the rolled aluminum alloys included; cracks, fractured intermetallic particles, aluminum nano-particles, oxide decorated grain boundaries, rolled-in oxides, shingles and blisters. These features were related to various individual rolling parameters which included, the work roll roughness, which induced the formation of shingles, rolling marks and were responsible for the redistribution of surface oxide and the enhancements of the depth of the near-surface damage. The enhanced stresses and strains experienced during rolling were related to the formation and propagation of cracks, the nanocrystalline structure of the near-surface layers and aluminum nano-particles. The mechanism of the evolution of the near-surface microstructure were

  2. Influence of Cellulose on the Mechanical and Thermal Stability of ABS Plastic Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Crews

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Microcrystalline cellulose was explored as possible biodegradable fillers in the fabrication of ABS plastic composites. TGA indicates that upon inclusion of cellulose microcrystals the thermal stability of the ABS plastics was improved significantly when compared to the neat ABS plastic counterparts. Furthermore, inclusion of extracted cellulose from plant biomass showed a higher thermal stability with maximum decomposition temperatures around 131.95°C and 124.19°C for cellulose from cotton and Hibiscus sabdariffa, respectively, when compared to that of the purchased cellulose. In addition, TMA revealed that the average CTE value for the neat ABS and 1 : 1 ratio of cellulose to ABS fabricated in this study was significantly lower than the reported CTE (ca. 73.8 μm/m°C.

  3. Mechanical characteristics of plastic base Ports and impact on flushing efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiffant G

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gérard Guiffant,1 Patrice Flaud,1 Laurent Royon,1 Espérie Burnet,2 Jacques Merckx1–3 1University Paris Diderot, Biofluidic Group, UMR CNRS, 2Pulmonary Department and Adult Cystic Fibrosis Centre, Cochin Hospital, 3University Teaching Hospital, Necker-Enfants Malades, Paris, France Background: Three types of totally implantable venous access devices, Ports, are currently in use: titanium, plastic (polyoxymethylene, POM, and mixed (titanium base with a POM shell. Physics theory suggests that the interaction between a non-coring needle (NCN, made of stainless steel and a plastic base would lead to the stronger material (steel altering the more malleable material (plastic. Objectives: To investigate whether needle impacts can alter a plastic base’s surface, thus potentially reducing flushing efficacy. Study design and methods: A Port made of POM was punctured 200 times with a 19-gauge NCN. Following the existing guidelines, the needle tip pricked the base with each puncture. The Port’s base was then examined using a two-dimensional optical instrument, and a bi-dimensional numerical simulation using COMSOL® was performed to investigate potential surface irregularities and their impact on fluid flow. Results: Each needle impact created a hole (mean depth, 0.12 mm with a small bump beside it (mean height, 0.02 mm the Reynolds number Rek≈10. A numerical simulation of the one hole/bump set showed that the flushing efficacy was 60% that of flushing along a flat surface. Discussion: In clinical practice, the number of times a Port is punctured depends on patient and treatment characteristics, but each needle impact on the plastic base may increase the risk of decreased flushing effectiveness. Therefore, the more a plastic Port is accessed, the greater the risk of microorganisms, blood products, and medication accumulation. Conclusions: Multiple needle impacts created an irregular surface on the Port’s base, which decreased flushing efficacy

  4. Mechanism of Notch Pathway Activation and Its Role in the Regulation of Olfactory Plasticity in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Kidd

    Full Text Available The neural plasticity of sensory systems is being increasingly recognized as playing a role in learning and memory. We have previously shown that Notch, part of an evolutionarily conserved intercellular signaling pathway, is required in adult Drosophila melanogaster olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs for the structural and functional plasticity of olfactory glomeruli that is induced by chronic odor exposure. In this paper we address how long-term exposure to odor activates Notch and how Notch in conjunction with chronic odor mediates olfactory plasticity. We show that upon chronic odor exposure a non-canonical Notch pathway mediates an increase in the volume of glomeruli by a mechanism that is autonomous to ORNs. In addition to activating a pathway that is autonomous to ORNs, chronic odor exposure also activates the Notch ligand Delta in second order projection neurons (PNs, but this does not appear to require acetylcholine receptor activation in PNs. Delta on PNs then feeds back to activate canonical Notch signaling in ORNs, which restricts the extent of the odor induced increase in glomerular volume. Surprisingly, even though the pathway that mediates the increase in glomerular volume is autonomous to ORNs, nonproductive transsynaptic Delta/Notch interactions that do not activate the canonical pathway can block the increase in volume. In conjunction with chronic odor, the canonical Notch pathway also enhances cholinergic activation of PNs. We present evidence suggesting that this is due to increased acetylcholine release from ORNs. In regulating physiological plasticity, Notch functions solely by the canonical pathway, suggesting that there is no direct connection between morphological and physiological plasticity.

  5. Station Program Note Pull Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Upon commencement of my internship, I was in charge of maintaining the CoFR (Certificate of Flight Readiness) Tool. The tool acquires data from existing Excel workbooks on NASA's and Boeing's databases to create a new spreadsheet listing out all the potential safety concerns for upcoming flights and software transitions. Since the application was written in Visual Basic, I had to learn a new programming language and prepare to handle any malfunctions within the program. Shortly afterwards, I was given the assignment to automate the Station Program Note (SPN) Pull process. I developed an application, in Python, that generated a GUI (Graphical User Interface) that will be used by the International Space Station Safety & Mission Assurance team here at Johnson Space Center. The application will allow its users to download online files with the click of a button, import SPN's based on three different pulls, instantly manipulate and filter spreadsheets, and compare the three sources to determine which active SPN's (Station Program Notes) must be reviewed for any upcoming flights, missions, and/or software transitions. Initially, to perform the NASA SPN pull (one of three), I had created the program to allow the user to login to a secure webpage that stores data, input specific parameters, and retrieve the desired SPN's based on their inputs. However, to avoid any conflicts with sustainment, I altered it so that the user may login and download the NASA file independently. After the user has downloaded the file with the click of a button, I defined the program to check for any outdated or pre-existing files, for successful downloads, to acquire the spreadsheet, convert it from a text file to a comma separated file and finally into an Excel spreadsheet to be filtered and later scrutinized for specific SPN numbers. Once this file has been automatically manipulated to provide only the SPN numbers that are desired, they are stored in a global variable, shown on the GUI, and

  6. The Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Yellowness Index (Y I) and Mechanical Properties in Plastic Food Packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanhindarto, Rindy P.; I, Dian

    2002-01-01

    An experiment has been done for measuring the yellowness index (Yi) and mechanical properties at food packaging material was caused by gamma irradiation. The samples were obtained from the manufacture. There were three of samples with types of poly acrylonitrile copolymer, PVdC laminated biaxially oriented polypropylene and poly vinyl chloride films. Samples were irradiated at ambient temperature by gamma rays with the doses of 0 up to 100 kGy. Yellowness Index (Yi) of sample was carried out by using chromameter Hunter Lab system. while mechanical properties measuring by stragraph. The purpose of the present experiment was the yellowness index (Yi) and mechanical properties of food packaging material after and before the irradiation. The effects of I year storage on irradiated and unirradiated samples were also investigated. The results showed that best of three samples of plastic food packaging was poly acrylonitrile copolymer film because the Yellowness Index (Yi) and mechanical properties of poly acrylonitrile copolymer did not give any measurable change on the plastic treated by irradiation up to 100 kGy. Storage for 1 year gave some measurable changes of e Yellowness Index (Yi) and mechanical properties on all the samples examined

  7. Analytic examination of mechanism for compressive residual stress introduction with low plastic strain using peening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi, Ryo; Hato, Hisamitsu; Miyazaki, Katsumasa; Yoshikubo, Fujio

    2016-01-01

    Our goal for this study was to understand the cause of the differences in surface properties between surfaces processed using water jet peening (WJP) and shot peening (SP) and to examine the compressive residual stress introduction process with low plastic strain using SP. The dynamic behaviors of stress and strain in surfaces during these processes were analyzed through elasto-plastic calculations using a finite-element method program, and the calculated results were compared with measured results obtained through experiments. Media impacting a surface results in a difference in the hardness and microstructure of the processed surface. During SP, a shot deforms the surface locally with stress concentration in the early stages of the impact, while shock waves deform the surface evenly throughout the wave passage across the surface during WJP. A shot with a larger diameter creates a larger impact area on the surface during shot impact. Thus, SP with a large-diameter shot suppresses the stress concentration under the same kinetic energy condition. As the shot diameter increases, the equivalent plastic strain decreases. On the other hand, the shot is subject to size restriction since the calculated results indicate the compressive residual stress at the surface decreased and occasionally became almost zero as the shot diameter increased. Thus, compressive residual stress introduction with low plastic strain by using SP is considered achievable by using shots with a large diameter and choosing the appropriate peening conditions. (author)

  8. Tailoring dislocation structures and mechanical properties of nanostructured metals produced by plastic deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Xiaoxu

    2009-01-01

    The presence of a dislocation structure associated with low-angle dislocation boundaries and interior dislocations is a common and characteristic feature in nanostructured metals produced by plastic deformation, and plays an important role in determining both the strength and ductility...

  9. Stability and photodegradation mechanisms of conjugated polymer/fullerene plastic solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neugebauer, H.; Brabec, C.; Hummelen, J.C.; Sariciftci, N.S.

    2000-01-01

    Degradation studies of poly(2-methoxy-5-(3',7'-dimethyloctyloxy)-1,4-phenylene-vinylene) (MDMO-PPV), fullerenes ((6,6)-phenyl C-61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and C-60), and mixtures, which are the photoactive components in plastic solar cells, are shown. The degradation processes of the

  10. Elastic-plastic analysis of fracture mechanics test specimens. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talja, H.; Wallin, K.

    1984-12-01

    This is second part of the report of the research program 'Comparisons between computational and experimental elastic-plastic results' started at the Technical Research Centre of Finland in 1981. The first part of the research program was reported earlier and contained a two dimensional linear elastic finite element analysis of four specimen geometries (CT, RCT, ASTM-3P and Charpy-V) and testing and elastic-plastic analysis of the specimen (EGF71; 1TCT, material A 542). In this report the second part of the program containing the testing and 2-D elastic-plastic analyses of five specimens is described. The four specimen geometries mentioned above and two different materials (stainless steel AISI 304 and ferrite pressure vessel steel A533B) are considered. The following comparisons are presented in the report: load vs. load displacement curves, J-integral, crack opening displacement (COD), J vs. COD and the size of the plastic zone. The agreement between the computational and experimental results is quite good. Complete agreement can be achieved only with 3-dimensional calculation models. (author)

  11. Plasticity of Cancer Cell Invasion-Mechanisms and Implications for Therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhorst, V. Te; Friedl, P.

    2016-01-01

    Cancer cell migration is a plastic and adaptive process integrating cytoskeletal dynamics, cell-extracellular matrix and cell-cell adhesion, as well as tissue remodeling. In response to molecular and physical microenvironmental cues during metastatic dissemination, cancer cells exploit a versatile

  12. Foot placement strategy in pushing and pulling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tzu-Hsien

    2018-01-01

    Pushing and pulling tasks are very common in daily and industrial workplaces. They are one major source of musculoskeletal complaints. This study aimed to examine the foot placement strategy while pushing and pulling. Thirteen young males and ten young females were recruited as participants. A two (pushing and pulling) by four (48 cm, 84 cm, 120 cm, and 156 cm) factorial design was used. Exertion direction and exertion height significantly affected foot placement strategy. Pushing task needed more anteroposterior space than pulling task. The percentages of female/male for trailing foot position ranged from 77% to 90% (pushing) and from 80% to 93% (pulling) across the exertion heights. Practitioners should provide an anteroposterior space approximately to 70% body stature for workers to exert their maximum pulling and pushing strengths.

  13. Mechanical evolution of transpression zones affected by fault interactions: Insights from 3D elasto-plastic finite element models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabavi, Seyed Tohid; Alavi, Seyed Ahmad; Mohammadi, Soheil; Ghassemi, Mohammad Reza

    2018-01-01

    The mechanical evolution of transpression zones affected by fault interactions is investigated by a 3D elasto-plastic mechanical model solved with the finite-element method. Ductile transpression between non-rigid walls implies an upward and lateral extrusion. The model results demonstrate that a, transpression zone evolves in a 3D strain field along non-coaxial strain paths. Distributed plastic strain, slip transfer, and maximum plastic strain occur within the transpression zone. Outside the transpression zone, fault slip is reduced because deformation is accommodated by distributed plastic shear. With progressive deformation, the σ3 axis (the minimum compressive stress) rotates within the transpression zone to form an oblique angle to the regional transport direction (∼9°-10°). The magnitude of displacement increases faster within the transpression zone than outside it. Rotation of the displacement vectors of oblique convergence with time suggests that transpression zone evolves toward an overall non-plane strain deformation. The slip decreases along fault segments and with increasing depth. This can be attributed to the accommodation of bulk shortening over adjacent fault segments. The model result shows an almost symmetrical domal uplift due to off-fault deformation, generating a doubly plunging fold and a 'positive flower' structure. Outside the overlap zone, expanding asymmetric basins subside to 'negative flower' structures on both sides of the transpression zone and are called 'transpressional basins'. Deflection at fault segments causes the fault dip fall to less than 90° (∼86-89°) near the surface (∼1.5 km). This results in a pure-shear-dominated, triclinic, and discontinuous heterogeneous flow of the transpression zone.

  14. Mechanisms of Plastic and Fracture Instabilities for Alloy Development of Fusion Materials. Final Project Report for period July 15, 1998 - July 14, 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghoniem, N. M.

    2003-07-14

    The main objective of this research was to develop new computational tools for the simulation and analysis of plasticity and fracture mechanisms of fusion materials, and to assist in planning and assessment of corresponding radiation experiments.

  15. Mechanisms of Plastic and Fracture Instabilities for Alloy Development of Fusion Materials. Final Project Report for period July 15, 1998 - July 14, 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghoniem, N.M.

    2003-01-01

    The main objective of this research was to develop new computational tools for the simulation and analysis of plasticity and fracture mechanisms of fusion materials, and to assist in planning and assessment of corresponding radiation experiments

  16. Self-Induced Backaction Optical Pulling Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tongtong; Cao, Yongyin; Wang, Lin; Nie, Zhongquan; Cao, Tun; Sun, Fangkui; Jiang, Zehui; Nieto-Vesperinas, Manuel; Liu, Yongmin; Qiu, Cheng-Wei; Ding, Weiqiang

    2018-03-01

    We achieve long-range and continuous optical pulling in a periodic photonic crystal background, which supports a unique Bloch mode with the self-collimation effect. Most interestingly, the pulling force reported here is mainly contributed by the intensity gradient force originating from the self-induced backaction of the object to the self-collimation mode. This force is sharply distinguished from the widely held conception of optical tractor beams based on the scattering force. Also, this pulling force is insensitive to the angle of incidence and can pull multiple objects simultaneously.

  17. Localization of plastic yield and fracture mechanism in high-strength niobium alloy with ultra-fine particles of non-metallic phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyumentsev, A.N.; Gonchikov, V.Ch.; Korotaev, A.D.; Pinzhin, Yu.P.; Tyumentseva, S.F.

    1989-01-01

    The regularities of localization of plastic flow in high-strength dispersion-strengthened niobium alloy are studied. On the basis of investigations of the microstructure of strain localization zones the mechanism of stability losses of plastic flow including, the processes of diffusion of nonequilibrium vacancies in fields of nonuniform stresses, is proposed. The role of diffuse strain mechanisms during reorientation of the crystalline lattice is discussed. The regularities of fracture of high-strength alloy under conditions of rotational-shift instability of plastic flow are investigated

  18. Research on geometrical model and mechanism for metal deformation based on plastic flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, H P; Li, X; Rui, Z Y

    2015-01-01

    Starting with general conditions of metal plastic deformation, it analyses the relation between the percentage spread and geometric parameters of a forming body with typical machining process are studied. A geometrical model of deforming metal is set up according to the characteristic of a flowing metal particle. Starting from experimental results, the effect of technological parameters and friction between workpiece and dies on plastic deformation of a material were studied and a slippage deformation model of mass points within the material was proposed. Finally, the computing methods for strain and deformation energy and temperature rise are derived from homogeneous deformation. The results can be used to select technical parameters and compute physical quantities such as strain, deformation energy, and temperature rise. (paper)

  19. Mechanics of granular-frictional-visco-plastic fluids in civil and mining engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alehossein, H.; Qin, Z.

    2013-10-01

    The shear stress generated in mine backfill slurries and fresh concrete contains both velocity gradient dependent and frictional terms, categorised as frictional viscous plastic fluids. This paper discusses application of the developed analytical solution for flow rate as a function of pressure and pressure gradient in discs, pipes and cones for such frictional Bingham-Herschel-Bulkley fluids. This paper discusses application of this continuum fluid model to industrial materials like mine and mineral slurries, backfills and fresh concrete tests.

  20. Mechanical strength model for plastic bonded granular materials at high strain rates and large strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Browning, R.V.; Scammon, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    Modeling impact events on systems containing plastic bonded explosive materials requires accurate models for stress evolution at high strain rates out to large strains. For example, in the Steven test geometry reactions occur after strains of 0.5 or more are reached for PBX-9501. The morphology of this class of materials and properties of the constituents are briefly described. We then review the viscoelastic behavior observed at small strains for this class of material, and evaluate large strain models used for granular materials such as cap models. Dilatation under shearing deformations of the PBX is experimentally observed and is one of the key features modeled in cap style plasticity theories, together with bulk plastic flow at high pressures. We propose a model that combines viscoelastic behavior at small strains but adds intergranular stresses at larger strains. A procedure using numerical simulations and comparisons with results from flyer plate tests and low rate uniaxial stress tests is used to develop a rough set of constants for PBX-9501. Comparisons with the high rate flyer plate tests demonstrate that the observed characteristic behavior is captured by this viscoelastic based model. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  1. Robust characteristics method for modelling multiphase visco-elasto-plastic thermo-mechanical problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerya, Taras V.; Yuen, David A.

    2007-08-01

    We have extended our previous 2D method [Gerya, T.V., Yuen, D.A., 2003. Characteristics-based marker-in-cell method with conservative finite-differences schemes for modeling geological flows with strongly variable transport properties. Phys. Earth Planet. Interiors 140, 295-320], which is a combination of conservative finite-differences with marker-in-cell techniques to include the effects of visco-elasto-plastic rheology, self-gravitation and a self-consistently derived evolving curvilinear planetary surface. This code is called I2ELVIS and can solve a new class of computationally challenging problems in geodynamics, such as shear localization with large strains, crustal intrusion emplacement of magmas, bending of realistic visco-elasto-plastic plates and core-formation by vigorous shell tectonics activities related to a global Rayleigh-Taylor instability of a metal layer formed around silicate-rich lower density (primordial) core during planetary accretion. We discuss in detail the computational strategy required the rheological constraints to be satisfied at each time step and spatial location. We show analytical benchmarks and examples drawn from comparing between numerical and analogue experiments in structural geology, subducting slab bending with a visco-elasto-plastic rheology and equilibrium spherical configurations from self-gravitation. We have also tested possibilities of future applications by addressing 3D geometries based on multigrid method and including inertial effects in the momentum equation with tracers in order to simulate meteoritic impact events and eventually earthquake instabilities.

  2. Mechanism for optimization of signal-to-noise ratio of dopamine release based on short-term bidirectional plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Cunha, Claudio; McKimm, Eric; Da Cunha, Rafael M; Boschen, Suelen L; Redgrave, Peter; Blaha, Charles D

    2017-07-15

    Repeated electrical stimulation of dopamine (dopamine) fibers can cause variable effects on further dopamine release; sometimes there are short-term decreases while in other cases short-term increases have been reported. Previous studies have failed to discover what factors determine in which way dopamine neurons will respond to repeated stimulation. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate what determines the direction and magnitude of this particular form of short-term plasticity. Fixed potential amperometry was used to measure dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens in response to two trains of electrical pulses administered to the ventral tegmental area of anesthetized mice. When the pulse trains were of equal magnitude we found that low magnitude stimulation was associated with short-term suppression and high magnitude stimulation with short-term facilitation of dopamine release. Secondly, we found that the magnitude of the second pulse train was critical for determining the sign of the plasticity (suppression or facilitation), while the magnitude of the first pulse train determined the extent to which the response to the second train was suppressed or facilitated. This form of bidirectional plasticity might provide a mechanism to enhance signal-to-noise ratio of dopamine neurotransmission. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Mechanisms of translation control underlying long-lasting synaptic plasticity and the consolidation of long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, Emanuela; Huynh, Thu N; Klann, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The complexity of memory formation and its persistence is a phenomenon that has been studied intensely for centuries. Memory exists in many forms and is stored in various brain regions. Generally speaking, memories are reorganized into broadly distributed cortical networks over time through systems level consolidation. At the cellular level, storage of information is believed to initially occur via altered synaptic strength by processes such as long-term potentiation. New protein synthesis is required for long-lasting synaptic plasticity as well as for the formation of long-term memory. The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a critical regulator of cap-dependent protein synthesis and is required for numerous forms of long-lasting synaptic plasticity and long-term memory. As such, the study of mTORC1 and protein factors that control translation initiation and elongation has enhanced our understanding of how the process of protein synthesis is regulated during memory formation. Herein we discuss the molecular mechanisms that regulate protein synthesis as well as pharmacological and genetic manipulations that demonstrate the requirement for proper translational control in long-lasting synaptic plasticity and long-term memory formation. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of gamma ray irradiation on the radiation resistance, dielectric and mechanical properties of polyvinylchloride containing plasticizer and stabilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, B.H.; Lee, J.I.; Kang, D.Y.

    1977-01-01

    To investigate the properties of radiation resistance together with dielectric and mechanical relaxation behaviors of polyvinylchloride exposed to several different doses under the gamma ray of cobalt-60 source, experiments were carried out using the specimens prepared by mixing dibutyl-tin-dilaurate and dibutyl-tin-dimaleate as stabilizers with or without adding dioctylphthalate as a plasticizer. The origin of the absorption band at 1540-1640 cm -1 on infrared spectrum seemed to be RCOO - ion obtained from the ionization of the stabilizer, and this peak could be useful as a measure of radiation resistance on polyvinylchloride. Addition of increasing plasticizer to polyvinylchloride exhibited increasing radiation resistance and the reason for the result might be attributable to aromatic resonance adsorption of radiation energy by the dioctylphthalate. On dose dependent dielectric characteristics, nonplastized specimen showed peak at about 10 Mrad and that the peak disappeared on the plastification of specimens. Such phenomena might be explainable in considering the statistical distribution of scissored chain molecular segments as well as the plastification process of the plasticizer to polyvinylchloride chain molecules. (author)

  5. Experimental Investigations on the Pull-Out Behavior of Tire Strips Reinforced Sands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li-Hua; Chen, Yan-Jun; Ferreira, Pedro Miguel Vaz; Liu, Yong; Xiao, Heng-Lin

    2017-06-27

    Waste tires have excellent mechanical performance and have been used as reinforcing material in geotechnical engineering; however, their interface properties are poorly understood. To further our knowledge, this paper examines the pull-out characteristics of waste tire strips in a compacted sand, together with uniaxial and biaxial geogrids also tested under the same conditions. The analysis of the results shows that the interlocking effect and pull-out resistance between the tire strip and the sand is very strong and significantly higher than that of the geogrids. In the early stages of the pull-out test, the resistance is mainly provided by the front portion of the embedded tire strips, as the pull-out test continues, more and more of the areas towards the end of the tire strips are mobilized, showing a progressive failure mechanism. The deformations are proportional to the frictional resistance between the tire-sand interface, and increase as the normal stresses increase. Tire strips of different wear intensities were tested and presented different pull-out resistances; however, the pull-out resistance mobilization patterns were generally similar. The pull-out resistance values obtained show that rubber reinforcement can provide much higher pull-out forces than the geogrid reinforcements tested here, showing that waste tires are an excellent alternative as a reinforcing system, regardless of the environmental advantages.

  6. Molecular and Neuronal Plasticity Mechanisms in the Amygdala-Prefrontal Cortical Circuit: Implications for Opiate Addiction Memory Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura G Rosen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The persistence of associative memories linked to the rewarding properties of drugs of abuse is a core underlying feature of the addiction process. Opiate class drugs in particular, possess potent euphorigenic effects which, when linked to environmental cues, can produce drug-related ‘trigger’ memories that may persist for lengthy periods of time, even during abstinence, in both humans and other animals. Furthermore, the transitional switch from the drug-naïve, non-dependent state to states of dependence and withdrawal, represents a critical boundary between distinct neuronal and molecular substrates associated with opiate-reward memory formation. Identifying the functional molecular and neuronal mechanisms related to the acquisition, consolidation, recall and extinction phases of opiate-related reward memories is critical for understanding, and potentially reversing, addiction-related memory plasticity characteristic of compulsive drug-seeking behaviors. The mammalian prefrontal cortex (PFC and basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA share important functional and anatomical connections that are involved importantly in the processing of associative memories linked to drug reward. In addition, both regions share interconnections with the mesolimbic pathway’s ventral tegmental area (VTA and nucleus accumbens (NAc and can modulate dopamine (DA transmission and neuronal activity associated with drug-related DAergic signaling dynamics. In this review, we will summarize research from both human and animal modelling studies highlighting the importance of neuronal and molecular plasticity mechanisms within this circuitry during critical phases of opiate addiction-related learning and memory processing. Specifically, we will focus on two molecular signaling pathways known to be involved in both drug-related neuroadaptations and in memory-related plasticity mechanisms; the extracellular-signal-regulated kinase system (ERK and the Ca2+/calmodulin

  7. Plasticity of the MAPK signaling network in response to mechanical stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereira, Andrea M; Tudor, Cicerone; Pouille, Philippe-Alexandre; Shekhar, Shashank; Kanger, Johannes S; Subramaniam, Vinod; Martín-Blanco, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Cells display versatile responses to mechanical inputs and recent studies have identified the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades mediating the biological effects observed upon mechanical stimulation. Although, MAPK pathways can act insulated from each other, several mechanisms

  8. Pentiptycene-based polyurethane with enhanced mechanical properties and CO2-plasticization resistance for thin film gas separation membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pournaghshband Isfahani, Ali; Sadeghi, Morteza; Wakimoto, Kazuki; Shrestha, Binod Babu; Bagheri, Rouhollah; Sivaniah, Easan; Ghalei, Behnam

    2018-04-30

    Development of thin film composite (TFC) membranes offers an opportunity to achieve the permeability/selectivity requirements for optimum CO2 separation performance. However, the durability and performance of thin film gas separation membranes are mostly challenged by weak mechanical properties and high CO2 plasticization. Here, we designed new polyurethane (PU) structures with bulky aromatic chain extenders that afford preferred mechanical properties for ultra-thin film formation. An improvement of about 1500% in Young's modulus and 600% in hardness was observed for pentiptycene-based PUs compared to typical PU membranes. Single (CO2, H2, CH4, and N2) and mixed (CO2/N2 and CO2/CH4) gas permeability tests were performed on the PU membranes. The resulting TFC membranes showed a high CO2 permeance up to 1400 GPU (10-6 cm3(STP) cm-2s-1 cmHg-1) and the CO2/N2 and CO2/H2 selectivities of about 22 and 2.1, respectively. The enhanced mechanical properties of pentiptycene-based PUs results in high performance thin membranes with the similar selectivity of the bulk polymer. The thin film membranes prepared from pentiptycene-based PUs also showed a two-fold enhanced plasticization resistance compared to non-pentiptycene containing PU membranes.

  9. Multiaxial mechanical properties and constitutive modeling of human adipose tissue: a basis for preoperative simulations in plastic and reconstructive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Gerhard; Eder, Maximilian; Kovacs, Laszlo; Pathak, Heramb; Bonitz, Lars; Mueller, Christoph; Regitnig, Peter; Holzapfel, Gerhard A

    2013-11-01

    A preoperative simulation of soft tissue deformations during plastic and reconstructive surgery is desirable to support the surgeon's planning and to improve surgical outcomes. The current development of constitutive adipose tissue models, for the implementation in multilayer computational frameworks for the simulation of human soft tissue deformations, has proved difficult because knowledge of the required mechanical parameters of fat tissue is limited. Therefore, for the first time, human abdominal adipose tissues were mechanically investigated by biaxial tensile and triaxial shear tests. The results of this study suggest that human abdominal adipose tissues under quasi-static and dynamic multiaxial loadings can be characterized as a nonlinear, anisotropic and viscoelastic soft biological material. The nonlinear and anisotropic features are consequences of the material's collagenous microstructure. The aligned collagenous septa observed in histological investigations causes the anisotropy of the tissue. A hyperelastic model used in this study was appropriate to represent the quasi-static multiaxial mechanical behavior of fat tissue. The constitutive parameters are intended to serve as a basis for soft tissue simulations using the finite element method, which is an apparent method for obtaining promising results in the field of plastic and reconstructive surgery. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Mechanical energy losses in plastically deformed and electron plus neutron irradiated high purity single crystalline molybdenum at elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zelada, Griselda I. [Laboratorio de Materiales, Escuela de Ingenieria Electrica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Ingenieria y Agrimensura, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Avda. Pellegrini 250, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Lambri, Osvaldo Agustin [Laboratorio de Materiales, Escuela de Ingenieria Electrica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Ingenieria y Agrimensura, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Avda. Pellegrini 250, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Instituto de Fisica Rosario - CONICET, Member of the CONICET& #x27; s Research Staff, Avda. Pellegrini 250, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Bozzano, Patricia B. [Laboratorio de Microscopia Electronica, Unidad de Actividad Materiales, Centro Atomico Constituyentes, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Avda. Gral. Paz 1499, 1650 San Martin (Argentina); Garcia, Jose Angel [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada II, Facultad de Ciencias y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Apdo. 644, 48080 Bilbao, Pais Vasco (Spain)

    2012-10-15

    Mechanical spectroscopy (MS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies have been performed in plastically deformed and electron plus neutron irradiated high purity single crystalline molybdenum, oriented for single slip, in order to study the dislocation dynamics in the temperature range within one third of the melting temperature. A damping peak related to the interaction of dislocation lines with both prismatic loops and tangles of dislocations was found. The peak temperature ranges between 900 and 1050 K, for an oscillating frequency of about 1 Hz. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. Correlation of substructure with mechanical properties of plastically deformed reactor structural materials. Progress report, January 1, 1974--December 31, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moteff, J.

    1976-01-01

    Ratio of the subgrain boundary dislocations to those contributing to creep deformation was found to be independent of applied stress and creep strain after the steady-state creep stage is reached. The observed cell or subgrain sizes are correlated with flow stress in Type 304 ss, and the deformation rate-stress relation obeys the equation epsilon =β lambda 3 (sigma/sub T//E)/sub n/ exp (-Q/sub c//RT), where lambda = subgrain size, sigma/sub T/ = effective true stress, E = Young modulus, and Q/sub c/ = 85 kcal/mole. Well-developed subgrains were observed in TEM on 304 ss tested in creep at 704 0 C. Role of twin boundary-grain boundary intersections in microcracking behavior of 304 ss deformed in slow tension and creep at 650 0 C was investigated. Grain shape analysis show that intragranular deformation becomes more predominant in the grains with the larger intercept distances, and that grain boundary sliding becomes important as the strain rate decreases. RT mechanical properties of austenitic ss are enhanced by subgrains formed during high-temperature deformation. The substructural development during high-temperature low-cycle fatigue of 304 ss was studied using TEM. Fatigue properties of Incoloy 800 tested in bend and push-pull modes are being compared. Effects of hold time on fatigue substructure and fracture of 304 ss are being studied. 31 figures, 53 references

  12. August A. Pulle. 1878-1955

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanjouw, J.

    1955-01-01

    On the 28th of February 1955 Prof. Dr A. A. Pulle died at Utrecht after a long and painful illness. August Adriaan Pulle was born on the 10th of January 1878 at Arnhem, where he also attended the primary and the secundary school. During the later years at the high school his interest in plants was

  13. Transgenerational plasticity as an important mechanism affecting response of clonal species to changing climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münzbergová, Zuzana; Hadincová, Věroslava

    2017-07-01

    In spite of the increasing number of studies on the importance of transgenerational plasticity for species response to novel environments, its effects on species ability to respond to climate change are still largely unexplored. We study the importance of transgenerational plasticity for response of a clonal species Festuca rubra . Individuals from four natural populations representing two levels of temperature and two levels of precipitation were cultivated in four growth chambers that simulate the temperature and precipitation of origin of the populations (maternal phase). Each population was represented in each growth chamber. After 6 months, single young ramets of these plants were reshuffled among the growth chambers and let to grow for additional 2 months (offspring phase). The results show that transgenerational effects (i.e., maternal phase conditions) significantly modify species response to novel climates, and the direction and intensity of the response depend on the climate of origin of the plants. For traits related to recourse acquisition, the conditions of maternal phase, either alone or in interaction mainly with climate of origin, had stronger effect than the conditions of cultivation. Overall, the maternal climate interacted more intensively with the climate of origin than with the offspring climate. The direction of the effect of the maternal climate was of different directions and intensities depending on plant origin and trait studied. The data demonstrated strong significant effects of conditions during maternal phase on species response to novel climates. These transgenerational affects were, however, not adaptive. Still, transgenerational plasticity may be an important driver of species response to novel conditions across clonal generations. These effects thus need to be carefully considered in future studies exploring species response to novel climates. This will also have strong effects on species performance under increasingly variable

  14. Incorporating plastic collapse into the linear elastic fracture mechanics methodology in determining crack propagation lifetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasgow, B.B.; Wolfer, W.G.

    1986-01-01

    Crack growth can result in a breech of a pressure boundary causing coolant loss or in total structural failure. This paper discusses brittle and plastic failure in terms of a unified structural model called the Two Criteria model. The model takes into account the flow stress of the material as well as the fracture toughness. Our results indicate that for fusion reactor first wall structures, ferritic steel is better able to resist crack propagation and subsequent structural failure than 316 stainless steel under the same wall loadings and geometry

  15. Mechanisms of strain accommodation in plastically-deformed zircon under simple shear deformation conditions during amphibolite-facies metamorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovaleva, Elizaveta; Klötzli, Urs; Wheeler, John; Habler, Gerlinde

    2018-02-01

    This study documents the strain accommodation mechanisms in zircon under amphibolite-facies metamorphic conditions in simple shear. Microstructural data from undeformed, fractured and crystal-plastically deformed zircon crystals are described in the context of the host shear zone, and evaluated in the light of zircon elastic anisotropy. Our work challenges the existing model of zircon evolution and shows previously undescribed rheological characteristics for this important accessory mineral. Crystal-plastically deformed zircon grains have axis oriented parallel to the foliation plane, with the majority of deformed grains having axis parallel to the lineation. Zircon accommodates strain by a network of stepped low-angle boundaries, formed by switching between tilt dislocations with the slip systems {010} and {110} and rotation axis [001], twist dislocations with the rotation axis [001], and tilt dislocations with the slip system {001} and rotation axis [010]. The slip system {110} is newly described for zircon. Most misorientation axes in plastically-deformed zircon grains are parallel to the XY plane of the sample and have [001] crystallographic direction. Such behaviour of strained zircon lattice is caused by elastic anisotropy that has a direct geometric control on the rheology, deformation mechanisms and dominant slip systems in zircon. Young's modulus and P wave velocity have highest values parallel to zircon [001] axis, indicating that zircon is elastically strong along this direction. Poisson ratio and Shear modulus demonstrate that zircon is also most resistant to shearing along [001]. Thus, [001] axis is the most common rotation axis in zircon. The described zircon behaviour is important to take into account during structural and geochronological investigations of (poly)metamorphic terrains. Geometry of dislocations in zircon may help reconstructing the geometry of the host shear zone(s), large-scale stresses in the crust, and, possibly, the timing of

  16. Oil pulling: A traditional method on the edge of evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Mythri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oil pulling is an ancient, traditional folk remedy that has been practiced for centuries in India and southern Asia as a holistic Ayurvedic technique. The practice of oil pulling involves placing a tablespoon of an edible oil (e.g. sesame, olive, sunflower, coconut inside the mouth, and swishing or “pulling” the oil through the teeth and oral cavity for anywhere from 1–5 minutes to up to 20 minutes or longer. Materials and Methods: Articles related to oil pulling were collected by using oil pulling as Keyword in Google and Medline. Out of the 21 related articles published till 2016, 6 articles with the proper study designs were used for analysis. Results: The studies were unreliable for many reasons, including the misinterpretation of results due to small sample size and improper study design. Conclusion: Though the promoters claim it as one of the best method to be as adjuvant to mechanical control methods, scientific evidences are lacking.

  17. Neuron-specific chromatin remodeling: a missing link in epigenetic mechanisms underlying synaptic plasticity, memory, and intellectual disability disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel-Ciernia, Annie; Wood, Marcelo A

    2014-05-01

    Long-term memory formation requires the coordinated regulation of gene expression. Until recently nucleosome remodeling, one of the major epigenetic mechanisms for controlling gene expression, had been largely unexplored in the field of neuroscience. Nucleosome remodeling is carried out by chromatin remodeling complexes (CRCs) that interact with DNA and histones to physically alter chromatin structure and ultimately regulate gene expression. Human exome sequencing and gene wide association studies have linked mutations in CRC subunits to intellectual disability disorders, autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia. However, how mutations in CRC subunits were related to human cognitive disorders was unknown. There appears to be both developmental and adult specific roles for the neuron specific CRC nBAF (neuronal Brg1/hBrm Associated Factor). nBAF regulates gene expression required for dendritic arborization during development, and in the adult, contributes to long-term potentiation, a form of synaptic plasticity, and long-term memory. We propose that the nBAF complex is a novel epigenetic mechanism for regulating transcription required for long-lasting forms of synaptic plasticity and memory processes and that impaired nBAF function may result in human cognitive disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Microscopic mechanism on the evolution of plasticity in nanolamellar γ-Ni/Ni_5Zr eutectic composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maity, T.; Singh, A.; Dutta, A.; Das, J.

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of microstructure and the mechanical properties of a series of (Ni_0_._9_1_2Zr_0_._0_8_8)_1_0_0_-_xAl_x (0≤x≤4) eutectic composites, constitute of γ-Ni and Ni_5Zr nanolamellar phases, have been presented. Al dissolves in γ-Ni phase preferentially, decreases its hardness and refines the microstructure. Strain rate jump test was performed in order to investigate the rate sensitivity. It has been found that activation volume increases from 39b"3 to 46b"3 upon Al addition. The strain rate sensitivity of the composites has been estimated to be ~0.008. The scanning and transmission electron microscopic studies have confirmed that dislocation meditated flow in nano-lamellar phases dominates the plastic deformation mechanism. Analysis based on Stroh's pile-up model suggests that the required shear stress for slip decreases and that for cleavage crack nucleation increases around a dislocation pile-up at the lamellae interface, upon Al addition. The nano-lamellar Ni_5Zr strengthen the composite, whereas, dislocation slip endorses the global plasticity of high strength Ni-Zr-(Al) nanoeutectic composites.

  19. Effect of Palm Oil Bio-Based Plasticizer on the Morphological, Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Poly(Vinyl Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kar Min Lim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Flexible poly(vinyl chloride (PVC was fabricated using a palm oil-based alkyd as a co-plasticizer to di-octyl phthalate (DOP and di-isononyl phthalate (DiNP. The effects of the incorporation of the palm oil-based alkyd on morphological, thermal and mechanical properties of PVC compounds were studied. Results showed the incorporation of the alkyd enhanced the mechanical and thermal properties of the PVC compounds. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR results showed that the polar –OH and –C=O groups of alkyd have good interaction with the –C–Cl group in PVC via polar interaction. The morphological results showed good incorporation of the plasticizers with PVC. Improved tensile strength, elastic modulus, and elongation at break were observed with increasing amount of the alkyd, presumably due to chain entanglement of the alkyd with the PVC molecules. Thermogravimetric analysis results confirmed that the alkyd has improved the thermostability of the PVC compounds.

  20. Effect of crystallinity and plasticizer on mechanical properties and tissue integration of starch-based materials from two botanical origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasquez, Diego; Pavon-Djavid, Graciela; Chaunier, Laurent; Meddahi-Pellé, Anne; Lourdin, Denis

    2015-06-25

    The application of starch-based materials for biomedical purposes has attracted significant interest due to their biocompatibility. The physical properties and crystal structure of materials based on potato starch (PS) and amylomaize starch (AMS) were studied under physiological conditions. PS plasticized with 20% glycerol presented the best mechanical properties with an elastic modulus of 1.6MPa and a weak swelling, remaining stable for 30 days. The in vitro cell viability of 3T3 cells after contact with extracts from PS and AMS with 20% glycerol is 72% and 80%, respectively. PS presented good tissue integration and no significant inflammation or foreign body response after 30 days intra-muscular implantation in a rat model, contrary to AMS. It was shown that glycerol plasticization favors a fast B-type crystallization of PS materials, enhancing their mechanical strength and durability, and making them a good candidate for bioresorbable and biocompatible materials for implantable medical devices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of combined extrusion parameters on mechanical properties of basalt fiber-reinforced plastics based on polypropylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashtannik, P. I.; Ovcharenko, V. G.; Boot, Yu. A.

    1997-11-01

    Basalt fibers are efficient reinforcing fillers for polypropylene because they increase both the mechanical and the tribotechnical properties of composites. Basalt fibers can compete with traditional fillers (glass and asbestos fibers) of polypropylene with respect to technological, economic, and toxic properties. The effect of technological parameters of producing polypropylene-based basalt fiber-reinforced plastics (BFRPs) by combined extrusion on their mechanical properties has been investigated. The extrusion temperature was found to be the main parameter determining the mechanical properties of the BFRPs. With temperature growth from 180 to 240°C, the residual length of the basalt fibers in the composite, as well as the adhesive strength of the polymer-fiber system, increased, while the composite defectiveness decreased. The tensile strength and elastic modulus increased from 35 to 42 MPa and 3.2 to 4.2 GPa, respectively. At the same time, the growth in composite solidity led to its higher brittleness. Thus, a higher temperature of extrusion allows us to produce materials which can be subjected to tensile and bending loads, while the materials produced at a lower temperature of extrusion are impact stable. The effect of the gap size between the extruder body and moving disks on the mechanical properties of the BFRPs is less significant than that of temperature. An increase of the gap size from 2 to 8 mm improves the impregnation quality of the fibers, but the extruder productivity diminishes. The possibility of controling the properties of reinforced polypropylene by varying the technological parameters of combined extrusion is shown. The polypropylene-based BFRPs produced by the proposed method surpass the properties of glass and asbestos fiber-reinforced plastics.

  2. Comparative assessment of the microhardness and plastic degradation mechanism of deposited modulated coatings on mild steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayomi, O. S. I.; Anawe, P. A. L.; Inegbenebor, A. O.; Udoye, N. E.

    2018-05-01

    Zinc based coatings modified with aluminium and tin inclusions were electrodeposited in chloride zinc sulfate electrolytes containing a metallic powder of titanium. It was found that presence of these particulates is suitable to obtain ZnAlSn-Ti composites coating that could help increase the microhardnesss characteristics and wear properties. The hardness and wear properties of the deposited coatings were examined with diamond base micro-hardness tester and CETR reciprocating sliding tester respectively. The structural properties were examined with the help of scanning electron microscope. It was observed that structural coating surface impact on the hardness propagation with increases from 33.4 to 299 kgf mm-2 (HVN40), and shows a considerably higher wear resistance from 2.351g/min to 0.002g/min. It is obvious that plastic deformation of the working steel structure is dependent on protective coating and the concentration of the individual particulate.

  3. Elastic-plastic fracture mechanics analysis of a pressure vessel with an axial outer surface flaw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurich, D.

    1988-04-01

    Elastic-plastic finite element analyses of a test vessel (steel 1.6310=20 MnMoNi 55) with a semi-elliptical axial outer surface crack have been performed. The variations of J and CTOD along the crack front and the stresse state in the vicinity of the crack are presented. The applicability of approaches to determine J is examined. The FE results are compared with the experimental data. The results are analyzed with respect to the validity of J-controlled crack growth. It will be shown that the local ductile crack growth and, especially, the 'canoe effect' for a semi-elliptical crack can only be described correctly if local J R -curves are used which account for the varying triaxiality of the stress state along the crack front. (orig./HP) [de

  4. Mechanisms operating during plastic deformation of metals under concurrent production of cascades and dislocations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinkaus, H.; Singh, Bachu Narain

    Recent in-reactor tensile tests (IRTs) on pure copper have revealed a deformation behaviour which is significantly different from that observed in post-irradiation tensile tests (PITs). In IRTs, the material deforms uniformly and homogeneously without yield drop and plastic instability as commonly...... observed in PITs. An increase in the pre-yield dose results in an increase in the level of hardening over the whole test periods and a decrease in the uniform elongation suggesting that the materials “remember” the impact of the pre-yield damage level. These features are modelled in terms of the decoration...... and deformation, moving dislocations are decorated by the sweeping of matrix loops. The interaction of dislocations with loops and between loops is discussed as a function of the relevant parameters. On this basis, the kinetics of decoration is treated in terms of fluxes of loops to and reactions with each other...

  5. Influence of plasticity mismatch and porosity on mechanical behavior of nanoscale Ag/W multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, S.P.; Zong, R.L.; Zeng, F.; Gao, Y.; Pan, F.

    2007-01-01

    Ag/W multilayers with periodicity ranging from 15 to 200 nm were deposited by direct current magnetron sputtering. The microstructure, hardness and elastic modulus were investigated by X-ray diffraction, Rutherford backscattering, X-ray fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy and nanoindentation. The results show that multilayers with periodicity less than 50 nm have columnar porous structure, which leads to low modulus and brittle fracture. Multilayers with periodicity larger than 50 nm have continuous laminated structure, and they are relatively ductile. All the multilayers have abnormal low hardness far less than a rule of mixture value, which has been attributed to porous structure and the deformation localization due to the plasticity mismatch between Ag and W

  6. Effects of Stress Concentration on the Mechanical Properties of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Naito

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical properties of conventional CFRP plates with small holes were investigated systematically. Those artificial holes are considered to be rivet connection between CFRP and other materials. The machining holes were employed with different number (n=0-5 and different mode, e.g., parallel (Sample A, 45 degree (Sample B and perpendicular (Sample C against the loading direction. To understand the mechanical properties of the CFRP plates clearly, tensile tests and failure analysis were conducted experimentally. Excellent mechanical properties were obtained for Sample A, compared to the other ones. This is due to the different size of the cross-section area in the specimen. With increasing the number of rivet hole, the mechanical properties were lineally decreasing. Such mechanical properties were analyzed by direct observation using a high speed camera, i.e., in-situ measurement of deformation during the tensile loading was carried

  7. Social plasticity relies on different neuroplasticity mechanisms across the brain social decision-making network in zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda C Teles

    2016-02-01

    results indicate that social plasticity relies on multiple neuroplasticity mechanisms across the SDMN, and that there is not a single neuromolecular module underlying this type of behavioural flexibility.

  8. Social Plasticity Relies on Different Neuroplasticity Mechanisms across the Brain Social Decision-Making Network in Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teles, Magda C; Cardoso, Sara D; Oliveira, Rui F

    2016-01-01

    indicate that social plasticity relies on multiple neuroplasticity mechanisms across the SDMN, and that there is not a single neuromolecular module underlying this type of behavioral flexibility.

  9. Social Plasticity Relies on Different Neuroplasticity Mechanisms across the Brain Social Decision-Making Network in Zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teles, Magda C.; Cardoso, Sara D.; Oliveira, Rui F.

    2016-01-01

    indicate that social plasticity relies on multiple neuroplasticity mechanisms across the SDMN, and that there is not a single neuromolecular module underlying this type of behavioral flexibility. PMID:26909029

  10. The Effect of Carbon Nanotubes on the Mechanical Properties of Wood Plastic Composites by Selective Laser Sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhe Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Wood-plastic composites (WPCs made by selective laser sintering (SLS approach of 3D printing offer many advantages over single polymer materials, such as low cost, sustainability, and better sintering accuracy. However, WPCs made via SLS are too weak to have widespread applications. In order to increase the mechanical properties of WPCs, a novel type of WPCs containing 0, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.15 wt % carbon nanotubes (CNT, 14 wt % wood fibers, 86 wt % polyether sulfone (PES was manufactured via SLS. The experimental results showed that the addition of small amount of CNTs can significantly increase the mechanical properties of the wood/PES composite material. The tensile strength, bending strength, and elasticity modulus were 76.3%, 227.9%, and 128.7% higher with 0.1 wt % CNTs than those without CNTs. The mechanical properties of specimens first increased and then decreased with the addition of CNTs. The SEM results of the specimens’ fracture morphology indicate that the preferable bonding interfaces between wood flour grains and PES grains were achieved by adding CNTs to the composites. There are two reasons why the composites possessed superior mechanical properties: CNTs facilitate the laser sintering process of WPCs due to their thermal conductivities, and CNTs directly reinforce WPCs.

  11. Fine grained 304 ASS processed by a severe plastic deformation and subsequent annealing; microstructure and mechanical properties evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salout, Shima Ahmadzadeh; Shirazi, Hasan; Nili-Ahmadabadi, Mahmoud

    2018-01-01

    The current research is an attempt to study the effect of a novel severe plastic deformation technique so called "repetitive corrugation and straightening by rolling" (RCSR) and subsequent annealing on the microstructure and mechanical properties of AISI type 304 austenitic stainless steel. In this study, RCSR process was carried out at 200 °C on the 304 austenitic stainless steel (above Md30 temperature that is about 50 °C for this stainless steel) in order to avoid the formation of martensite phase when a high density of dislocations was introduced into the austenite phase and also high density of mechanical twins was induced in the deformed 304 austenitic stainless steel. Because of relationship between deformation temperature, stacking fault energy (SFE) and mechanisms of deformation. Thereafter subsequently, annealing treatment was applied into deformed structure in order to refine the microstructure of 304 stainless s teel. The specimens were examined by means of optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), tensile and micro-hardness tests. The results indicate that by increasing the cycles of RCSR process (increasing applied strain), further mechanical twins are induced, the hardness and in particular, the yield stress of specimens have been increased.

  12. Influence of Severe Plastic Deformation on Mechanical Properties and Structure of Aluminium Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Hilšer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted to analysis of ECAP (Equal Channel Angular Pressing method, which uses a high degree of deformation to achieve a very fine-grained structure of formed material. Utilization of The ECAP technology enables attainment of required properties of selected materials by using of severe plastic deformation (SPD methods. In the experimental part the influence of the number of passes through forming tool with classical geometry (angle of 90° between channels was studied to achieve maximum hardening (expressed by deformation resistance and achieved value of hardness HV10. Also the metallographic analysis (detection of achieved grain refinement was carried out. From comparison of results achieved at both alloys it can be stated that for given forming by ECAP method the EN AW-8006 alloy is preferable, because higher strength degree was obtained by achieving of very fine grained structure. When using the same method of forming by ECAP method the EN AW-2024 alloy has lower hardening and structure refinement.

  13. Application of elastic and elastic-plastic fracture mechanics methods to surface flaws

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Donald E.; Ernst, Hugo A.; Newman, James C., Jr.

    Fuel tanks that are a part of the External Tank assembly for the Space Shuttle are made of relatively thin 2219-T87 aluminum plate. These tanks contain about 917 m of fusion weld seam, all of which is nondestructively inspected for flaws and all those found are repaired. The tanks are subsequently proof-tested to a pressure that is sufficiently severe to cause weld metal yielding in a few local regions of the weld seam. The work undertaken in the present project was to develop a capability to predict flaw growth from undetected surface flaws that are assumed to be located in the highly stressed regions. The technical challenge was to develop R-curve prediction capability for surface cracks in specimens that contain the flaws of unusual sizes and shapes deemed to be of interest. The test techniques developed and the elastic-plastic analysis concepts adopted are presented. The flaws of interest were quite small surface cracks that were narrow-deep ellipses that served to exacerbate the technical difficulties involved.

  14. Mechanisms of nanoclay-enhanced plastic foaming processes: effects of nanoclay intercalation and exfoliation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Anson; Wijnands, Stephan F. L.; Kuboki, Takashi; Park, Chul B., E-mail: park@mie.utoronto.ca [University of Toronto, Microcellular Plastics Manufacturing Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering (Canada)

    2013-08-15

    The foaming behaviors of high-density polypropylene-nanoclay composites with intercalated and exfoliated nanoclay particles blown with carbon dioxide were examined via in situ observation of the foaming processes in a high-temperature/high-pressure view-cell. The intercalated nanoclay particles were 300-600 nm in length and 50-200 nm in thickness, while the exfoliated nanoclay particles were 100-200 nm in length and 1 nm in thickness. Contrary to common belief, it was discovered that intercalated nanoclay yielded higher cell density than exfoliated nanoclay despite its lower particle density. This was attributed to the higher tensile stresses generated around the larger and stiffer intercalated nanoclay particles, which led to increase in supersaturation level for cell nucleation. Also, the coupling agent used to exfoliate nanoclay would increase the affinity between polymer and surface of nanoclay particles. Consequently, the critical work needed for cell nucleation would be increased; pre-existing microvoids, which could act as seeds for cell nucleation, were also less likely to exist. Meanwhile, exfoliated nanoclay had better cell stabilization ability to prevent cell coalescence and cell coarsening. This investigation clarifies the roles of nanoclay in plastic foaming processes and provides guidance for the advancement of polymer nanocomposite foaming technology.

  15. 2D co-ordinate transformation based on a spike timing-dependent plasticity learning mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, QingXiang; McGinnity, Thomas Martin; Maguire, Liam; Belatreche, Ammar; Glackin, Brendan

    2008-11-01

    In order to plan accurate motor actions, the brain needs to build an integrated spatial representation associated with visual stimuli and haptic stimuli. Since visual stimuli are represented in retina-centered co-ordinates and haptic stimuli are represented in body-centered co-ordinates, co-ordinate transformations must occur between the retina-centered co-ordinates and body-centered co-ordinates. A spiking neural network (SNN) model, which is trained with spike-timing-dependent-plasticity (STDP), is proposed to perform a 2D co-ordinate transformation of the polar representation of an arm position to a Cartesian representation, to create a virtual image map of a haptic input. Through the visual pathway, a position signal corresponding to the haptic input is used to train the SNN with STDP synapses such that after learning the SNN can perform the co-ordinate transformation to generate a representation of the haptic input with the same co-ordinates as a visual image. The model can be applied to explain co-ordinate transformation in spiking neuron based systems. The principle can be used in artificial intelligent systems to process complex co-ordinate transformations represented by biological stimuli.

  16. Import-push or Export-pull?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäkel, Ina Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    predictions regarding the export market and the role of product differentiation. Empirical results for a sample of Danish manufacturing industries confirm the import- "push" hypothesis as well as the export- "pull" hypothesis, but also reveal differences across industries. The selection effect of trade...... is mainly driven by the "import-push" if product differentiation is high, whereas it is driven by the "export-pull" if goods are homogeneous....

  17. Import-push or Export-pull?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäkel, Ina Charlotte

    predictions regarding the export market and the role of product differentiation. Empirical results for a sample of Danish manufacturing industries confirm the import-"push" hypothesis as well as the export-"pull" hypothesis, but also reveal differences across industries. The selection effect of trade...... is mainly driven by the "import-push" if product differentiation is high, whereas it is driven by the "export-pull" if goods are homogeneous....

  18. Effects of Stress Concentration on the Mechanical Properties of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic

    OpenAIRE

    Ryo Naito; Mitsuhiro Okayasu; Daisuke Fukuyama

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical properties of conventional CFRP plates with small holes were investigated systematically. Those artificial holes are considered to be rivet connection between CFRP and other materials. The machining holes were employed with different number (n=0-5) and different mode, e.g., parallel (Sample A), 45 degree (Sample B) and perpendicular (Sample C) against the loading direction. To understand the mechanical properties of the CFRP plates clearly, tensile tests and failure analysis were c...

  19. Determination of structural and mechanical properties, diffractometry, and thermal analysis of chitosan and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC films plasticized with sorbitol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Rotta

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the structural, mechanical, diffractometric, and thermal parameters of chitosan-hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC films plasticized with sorbitol were studied. Solutions of HPMC (2% w/v in water and chitosan (2% w/v in 2% acetic acid solution were prepared. The concentration of sorbitol used was 10% (w/w to both polymers. This solutions were mixed at different proportions (100/0; 70/30; 50/50; 30/70, and 0/100 of chitosan and HPMC, respectively, and 20 mL was cast in Petri dishes for further analysis of dried films. The miscibility of polymers was assessed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electronic microscopy (SEM, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA. The results obtained indicate that the films are not fully miscible at a dry state despite the weak hydrogen bonding between the polymer functional groups.

  20. A Nanoindentation Study of the Plastic Deformation and Fracture Mechanisms in Single-Crystalline CaFe2As2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frawley, Keara G.; Bakst, Ian; Sypek, John T.; Vijayan, Sriram; Weinberger, Christopher R.; Canfield, Paul C.; Aindow, Mark; Lee, Seok-Woo

    2018-04-01

    The plastic deformation and fracture mechanisms in single-crystalline CaFe2As2 has been studied using nanoindentation and density functional theory simulations. CaFe2As2 single crystals were grown in a Sn-flux, resulting in homogeneous and nearly defect-free crystals. Nanoindentation along the [001] direction produces strain bursts, radial cracking, and lateral cracking. Ideal cleavage simulations along the [001] and [100] directions using density functional theory calculations revealed that cleavage along the [001] direction requires a much lower stress than cleavage along the [100] direction. This strong anisotropy of cleavage strength implies that CaFe2As2 has an atomic-scale layered structure, which typically exhibits lateral cracking during nanoindentation. This special layered structure results from weak atomic bonding between the (001) Ca and Fe2As2 layers.

  1. Friction Pull Plug and Material Configuration for Anti-Chatter Friction Pull Plug Weld

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littell, Justin Anderson (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A friction pull plug is provided for use in forming a plug weld in a hole in a material. The friction pull plug includes a shank and a series of three frustoconical sections. The relative sizes of the sections assure that a central one of the sections defines the initial contact point between the hole's sides. The angle defined by the central one of the sections reduces or eliminates chatter as the plug is pulled into the hole.

  2. Pull-in and wrinkling instabilities of electroactive dielectric actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Tommasi, D; Puglisi, G; Zurlo, G; Saccomandi, G

    2010-01-01

    We propose a model to analyse the insurgence of pull-in and wrinkling failures in electroactive thin films. We take into consideration both cases of voltage and charge control, the role of pre-stretch and the size of activated regions, which are all crucial factors in technological applications of electroactive polymers (EAPs). Based on simple geometrical and material assumptions we deduce an explicit analytical description of these phenomena, allowing a clear physical interpretation of different failure mechanisms such as the occurrence of pull-in and wrinkling. Despite our simple assumptions, the comparison with experiments shows a good qualitative and, interestingly, quantitative agreement. In particular our model shows, in accordance with experiments, the existence of different optimal pre-stretch values, depending on the choice of the actuating parameter of the EAP.

  3. Pull-in and wrinkling instabilities of electroactive dielectric actuators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Tommasi, D; Puglisi, G; Zurlo, G [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile e Ambientale, Politecnico di Bari, 70125 Bari (Italy); Saccomandi, G [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Universita degli Studi di Perugia, 06125 Perugia (Italy)

    2010-08-18

    We propose a model to analyse the insurgence of pull-in and wrinkling failures in electroactive thin films. We take into consideration both cases of voltage and charge control, the role of pre-stretch and the size of activated regions, which are all crucial factors in technological applications of electroactive polymers (EAPs). Based on simple geometrical and material assumptions we deduce an explicit analytical description of these phenomena, allowing a clear physical interpretation of different failure mechanisms such as the occurrence of pull-in and wrinkling. Despite our simple assumptions, the comparison with experiments shows a good qualitative and, interestingly, quantitative agreement. In particular our model shows, in accordance with experiments, the existence of different optimal pre-stretch values, depending on the choice of the actuating parameter of the EAP.

  4. Effect of stacking sequence on mechanical properties neem wood veneer plastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamadhu, M.; Kumar, G. C. Mohan; Jeyaraj, P.

    2018-04-01

    This study investigates the effect of wood veneer stacking sequence on mechanical properties of neem wood polymer composite (WPC) experimentally. Wood laminated samples were fabricated by conventional hand layup technique in a mold and cured under pressure at room temperature and then post cured at elevated temperature. Initially, the tensile, flexural, and impact test were conducted to understand the effect of weight fraction of fiber on mechanical properties. The mechanical properties have increased with the weight fraction of fiber. Moreover the stacking sequence of neem wood plays an important role. As it has a significant impact on the mechanical properties. The results indicated that 0°/0° WPC shows highest mechanical properties as compared to other sequences (90°/90°, 0°/90°, 45°/90°, 45°/45°). The Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) Analysis were carried out to identify chemical compounds both in raw neem wood and neem wood epoxy composite. The microstructure raw/neat neem wood and the interfacial bonding characteristics of neem wood composite investigated using Scanning electron microscopy images.

  5. Effect of reduction of area on microstructure and mechanical properties of twinning-induced plasticity steel during wire drawing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Joong-Ki; Son, Il-Heon; Yoo, Jang-Yong; Zargaran, A.; Kim, Nack J.

    2015-09-01

    The effect of reduction of area (RA), 10%, 20%, and 30%, during wire drawing on the inhomogeneities in microstructure and mechanical properties along the radial direction of Fe-Mn-Al-C twinning-induced plasticity steel has been investigated. After wire drawing, the deformation texture developed into the major and minor duplex fiber texture. However, the texture became more pronounced in both center and surface areas as the RA per pass increased. It also shows that a larger RA per pass resulted in a higher yield strength and smaller elongation than a smaller RA per pass at all strain levels. Although inhomogeneities in microstructure and mechanical properties along the radial direction decreased with increasing RA per pass, there existed an optimum RA per pass for maximum drawing limit. Insufficient penetration of strain from surface to center at small RA per pass (e.g., 10%) and high friction and unsound metal flow at large RA per pass (e.g., 30%) all resulted in heterogeneous microstructure and mechanical properties along the radial direction of drawn wire. On the other hand, 20% RA per pass improved the drawing limit by about 30% as compared to the 10% and 30% RAs per pass.

  6. Quantifying the Mechanical Properties of Materials and the Process of Elastic-Plastic Deformation under External Stress on Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Valíček

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper solves the problem of the nonexistence of a new method for calculation of dynamics of stress-deformation states of deformation tool-material systems including the construction of stress-strain diagrams. The presented solution focuses on explaining the mechanical behavior of materials after cutting by abrasive waterjet technology (AWJ, especially from the point of view of generated surface topography. AWJ is a flexible tool accurately responding to the mechanical resistance of the material according to the accurately determined shape and roughness of machined surfaces. From the surface topography, it is possible to resolve the transition from ideally elastic to quasi-elastic and plastic stress-strain states. For detecting the surface structure, an optical profilometer was used. Based on the analysis of experimental measurements and the results of analytical studies, a mathematical-physical model was created and an exact method of acquiring the equivalents of mechanical parameters from the topography of surfaces generated by abrasive waterjet cutting and external stress in general was determined. The results of the new approach to the construction of stress-strain diagrams are presented. The calculated values agreed very well with those obtained by a certified laboratory VÚHŽ.

  7. Mechanical and degradation properties of biodegradable Mg strengthened poly-lactic acid composite through plastic injection molding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Muhammad Shoaib; Bai, Jing; Wan, Xiaofeng; Chu, Chenglin; Xue, Feng; Ding, Hongyan; Zhou, Guanghong

    2017-01-01

    Full biodegradable magnesium alloy (AZ31) strengthened poly-lactic acid (PLA) composite rods for potential application for bone fracture fixation were prepared by plastic injection process in this work. Their surface/interfacial morphologies, mechanical properties and vitro degradation were studied. In comparison with untreated Mg rod, porous MgO ceramic coating on Mg surface formed by Anodizing (AO) and micro-arc-oxidation (MAO)treatment can significantly improve the interfacial binding between outer PLA cladding and inner Mg rod due to the micro-anchoring action, leading to better mechanical properties and degradation performance of the composite rods.With prolonging immersion time in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution until 8weeks, the MgO porous coating were corroded gradually, along with the disappearance of original pores and the formation of a relatively smooth surface. This resulted in a rapidly reduction in mechanical properties for corresponding composite rods owing to the weakening of interfacial binding capacity. The present results indicated that this new PLA-clad Mg composite rods show good potential biomedical applications for implants and instruments of orthopedic inner fixation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Neuroimmune mechanisms of stress: sex differences, developmental plasticity, and implications for pharmacotherapy of stress-related disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deak, Terrence; Quinn, Matt; Cidlowski, John A; Victoria, Nicole C; Murphy, Anne Z; Sheridan, John F

    2015-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed profound growth in studies examining the role of fundamental neuroimmune processes as key mechanisms that might form a natural bridge between normal physiology and pathological outcomes. Rooted in core concepts from psychoneuroimmunology, this review utilizes a succinct, exemplar-driven approach of several model systems that contribute significantly to our knowledge of the mechanisms by which neuroimmune processes interact with stress physiology. Specifically, we review recent evidence showing that (i) stress challenges produce time-dependent and stressor-specific patterns of cytokine/chemokine expression in the CNS; (ii) inflammation-related genes exhibit unique expression profiles in males and females depending upon individual, cooperative or antagonistic interactions between steroid hormone receptors (estrogen and glucocorticoid receptors); (iii) adverse social experiences incurred through repeated social defeat engage a dynamic process of immune cell migration from the bone marrow to brain and prime neuroimmune function and (iv) early developmental exposure to an inflammatory stimulus (carageenin injection into the hindpaw) has a lasting influence on stress reactivity across the lifespan. As such, the present review provides a theoretical framework for understanding the role that neuroimmune mechanisms might play in stress plasticity and pathological outcomes, while at the same time pointing toward features of the individual (sex, developmental experience, stress history) that might ultimately be used for the development of personalized strategies for therapeutic intervention in stress-related pathologies.

  9. Quantifying the Mechanical Properties of Materials and the Process of Elastic-Plastic Deformation under External Stress on Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valíček, Jan; Harničárová, Marta; Öchsner, Andreas; Hutyrová, Zuzana; Kušnerová, Milena; Tozan, Hakan; Michenka, Vít; Šepelák, Vladimír; Mitaľ, Dušan; Zajac, Jozef

    2015-01-01

    The paper solves the problem of the nonexistence of a new method for calculation of dynamics of stress-deformation states of deformation tool-material systems including the construction of stress-strain diagrams. The presented solution focuses on explaining the mechanical behavior of materials after cutting by abrasive waterjet technology (AWJ), especially from the point of view of generated surface topography. AWJ is a flexible tool accurately responding to the mechanical resistance of the material according to the accurately determined shape and roughness of machined surfaces. From the surface topography, it is possible to resolve the transition from ideally elastic to quasi-elastic and plastic stress-strain states. For detecting the surface structure, an optical profilometer was used. Based on the analysis of experimental measurements and the results of analytical studies, a mathematical-physical model was created and an exact method of acquiring the equivalents of mechanical parameters from the topography of surfaces generated by abrasive waterjet cutting and external stress in general was determined. The results of the new approach to the construction of stress-strain diagrams are presented. The calculated values agreed very well with those obtained by a certified laboratory VÚHŽ. PMID:28793645

  10. Mechanical Sensors and Plastic Syringes to Verify the Gas Laws without Neglecting Friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onorato, P.; Mascheretti, P.; De Ambrosis, A.

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments are proposed to study Boyle's law and the pressure law in a school laboratory. The peculiar feature of the experiments is that the value of the pressure and of the volume are obtained respectively by means of a force and a position sensor, thus allowing students to connect, in an experimental context, mechanics variables, such as…

  11. Testing Plastic Deformations of Materials in the Introductory Undergraduate Mechanics Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo-Kroger, C. M.

    2012-01-01

    Normally, a mechanics laboratory at the undergraduate level includes an experiment to verify compliance with Hooke's law in materials, such as a steel spring and an elastic rubber band. Stress-strain curves are found for these elements. Compression in elastic bands is practically impossible to achieve due to flaccidity. A typical experiment for…

  12. Mechanisms operating during plastic deformation of metals under concurrent production of cascades and dislocations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trinkaus, H. [Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany); Singh, B.N. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Materials Research Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)

    2008-04-15

    Recent in-reactor tensile tests (IRTs) on pure copper have revealed a deformation behaviour which is significantly different from that observed in post-irradiation tensile tests (PITs). In IRTs, the material deforms uniformly and homogeneously without yield drop and plastic instability as commonly observed in PITs. An increase in the pre-yield dose results in an increase in the level of hardening over the whole test periods and a decrease in the uniform elongation suggesting that the materials 'remember' the impact of the pre-yield damage level. These features are modelled in terms of the decoration of dislocations with glissile dislocation loops. During pre-yield irradiation, dislocation decoration is due to the one-dimensional (1D) diffusion of cascade induced self-interstitial (SIA) clusters and their trapping in the stress field of the static grown-in dislocations. During post-yield irradiation and deformation, moving dislocations are decorated by the sweeping of matrix loops. The interaction of dislocations with loops and between loops is discussed as a function of the relevant parameters. On this basis, the kinetics of decoration is treated in terms of fluxes of loops to and reactions with each other in a conceived 2D space of decoration. In this space, loop coalescence, alignment and mutual blocking reactions are characterised by appropriate reaction cross sections. In the kinetic equations for 'dynamic decoration' under deformation, the evolution of the dislocation density is taken into account. Simple solutions of the kinetic equations are discussed. The apparent memory of the system for the pre-yield dose is identified as the result of simultaneous and closely parallel transient evolutions of the cascade damage and the dislocations up to the end of the IRTs. The contributions of dislocation decoration to yield and flow stresses are attributed to the interaction of dislocations with aligned loops temporarily or permanently immobilized

  13. Mechanisms operating during plastic deformation of metals under concurrent production of cascades and dislocations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinkaus, H.; Singh, B.N.

    2008-04-01

    Recent in-reactor tensile tests (IRTs) on pure copper have revealed a deformation behaviour which is significantly different from that observed in post-irradiation tensile tests (PITs). In IRTs, the material deforms uniformly and homogeneously without yield drop and plastic instability as commonly observed in PITs. An increase in the pre-yield dose results in an increase in the level of hardening over the whole test periods and a decrease in the uniform elongation suggesting that the materials 'remember' the impact of the pre-yield damage level. These features are modelled in terms of the decoration of dislocations with glissile dislocation loops. During pre-yield irradiation, dislocation decoration is due to the one-dimensional (1D) diffusion of cascade induced self-interstitial (SIA) clusters and their trapping in the stress field of the static grown-in dislocations. During post-yield irradiation and deformation, moving dislocations are decorated by the sweeping of matrix loops. The interaction of dislocations with loops and between loops is discussed as a function of the relevant parameters. On this basis, the kinetics of decoration is treated in terms of fluxes of loops to and reactions with each other in a conceived 2D space of decoration. In this space, loop coalescence, alignment and mutual blocking reactions are characterised by appropriate reaction cross sections. In the kinetic equations for 'dynamic decoration' under deformation, the evolution of the dislocation density is taken into account. Simple solutions of the kinetic equations are discussed. The apparent memory of the system for the pre-yield dose is identified as the result of simultaneous and closely parallel transient evolutions of the cascade damage and the dislocations up to the end of the IRTs. The contributions of dislocation decoration to yield and flow stresses are attributed to the interaction of dislocations with aligned loops temporarily or permanently immobilized by other loops or

  14. Effect of addition of butyl benzyl phthalate plasticizer and zinc oxide nanoparticles on mechanical properties of cellulose acetate butyrate/organoclay biocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putra, B. A. P.; Juwono, A. L.; Rochman, N. T.

    2017-07-01

    Plastics as packaging materials and coatings undergo increasing demands globally each year. This pose a serious problem to the environment due to its difficulty to degrade. One solution to addressing the problem of plastic wastes is the use of bioplastics. According to the European Organization Bioplastic, one of the biodegradable plastics is derivative of cellulose. To improve mechanical properties of bioplastic, biocomposites are made with the addition of certain additives and fillers. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of butyl benzyl phthalate plasticizer (BBP) and ZnO nanoparticles addition on mechanical properties of cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) / organoclay biocomposite. ZnO nanoparticles synthesized from commercial ZnO precursor by using sol-gel size reduction method. ZnO was dissolved in a solution of citric acid in the ratio 1:1 to 1:5 to form zinc citrate. Zinc citrate then decomposed by calcination at temperature of 600oC. ZnO nanoparticles with an average size of 44.4 nm is obtained at a ratio of 1: 2. The addition of ZnO nanoparticles and BBP plasticizer was varied to determine the effect on the mechanical properties of biocomposite. The addition of 10 - 15 %wt ZnO nanoparticles and 30 - 40 %wt BBP plasticizer was studied to determine the effect on the tensile strength, elongation, and modulus elasticity of the biocomposites. Biocomposite films were made by using solution casting method with acetone as solvent. The addition of plasticizer BBP and ZnO nanoparticles by 30% and 10% made biocomposite has a tensile strength of 2.223 MPa.

  15. MODIFICATION OF RESIN EDT-69N FOR THE PURPOSE OF MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF PLASTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. Краля

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The epoxy matrix EDT-69N it is one of license matrix which applies by aviation industry in theCommonwealth of Independent States. This matrix created according to the standards NLGS-3 with a glanceto requirements of a self-damping. A self-damping achieved by a mixing of resin UP-631 in a recipe of amatrix EDT-69N. It led to a increasing of matrix cost and a decreasing of the physical-mechanical properties.According to current standards AP-25 the matrix EDT-69N does not ensure the compliances by requirementsof combustibility, fume evolution and toxicity of combustion products. That is why a pressing problem ofmodification of matrix EDT-69N appears for the purpose of increasing of the physical-mechanical andtechnologic properties in the prejudice of requirement of combustibility.

  16. Effect of boron compounds on physical, mechanical, and fire properties of injection molded wood plastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadir Ayrilmis; Turgay Akbulut; Turker Dundar; Robert H. White; Fatih Mengeloglu; Zeki Candan; Umit Buyuksari; Erkan Avci

    2011-01-01

    Physical, mechanical, and fire properties of the injection-molded wood flour/polypropylene composites (WPCs) incorporated with different levels of boron compounds, borax/boric acid (BX/BA) (0.5:0.5 wt %) and zinc borate (ZB) (4, 8, or 12 wt %) were investigated. The effect of the coupling agent loading (2, 4, or 6 wt %), maleic anhydride-grafted PP (MAPP), on the...

  17. Mechanisms of visual memory formation in bees: About immediate early genes and synaptic plasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Sommerlandt, Frank M. J.

    2016-01-01

    Animals form perceptual associations through processes of learning, and retain that information through mechanisms of memory. Honeybees and bumblebees are classic models for insect perception and learning, and despite their small brains with about one million neurons, they are organized in highly social colonies and possess an astonishing rich behavioral repertoire including navigation, communication and cognition. Honeybees are able to harvest hundreds of morphologically divergent flower typ...

  18. Optimisation by plastic deformation of structural and mechanical uranium alloys properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prunier, Claude.

    1981-08-01

    Structural and mechanical properties evolution of rich and poor uranium alloys are investigated. Good usual properties are obtained with few metallic additions with a limited effect giving a fine and isotrope grain structure. Amelioration is observed with heat treatment from β and γ phases high temperature range. However, dynamic recrystallisation, related to hot working, is the better phenomena to maximize the usual mechanical and structural properties. So high temperature behaviour of rich and poor uranium alloys in α, β and γ crystalline structure is studied: - dynamic recrystallisation phenomena begins only in α, and β phases high temperature range; - high strength and brittle β phase shows a very large ductility above 700 deg C. Recrystallisation is a thermal actived phenomena localised at grain boundary, dependant with alloys concentration and crystalline structure. β phase activation energy and deformation rate for dynamic recrystallisation beginning are most important, than α and γ phases in relation with quadratic structure complexity. Both temperature and deformation rate are the main dynamic recrystallisation factors. Optimal usual mechanical and structural properties obtained by hot working (forging, milling) are sensible to hydrogen embrittlement [fr

  19. Plastic condoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-01-01

    Only simple equipment, simple technology and low initial capital investment are needed in their manufacture. The condoms can be made by people who were previously unskilled or only semi-skilled workers. Plastic condoms differ from those made of latex rubber in that the nature of the plastic film allows unlimited shelf-life. Also, the plastic has a higher degree of lubricity than latex rubber; if there is a demand for extra lubrication in a particular market, this can be provided. Because the plastic is inert, these condoms need not be packaged in hermetically sealed containers. All these attributes make it possible to put these condoms on the distributors' shelves in developing countries competitively with rubber condoms. The shape of the plastic condom is based on that of the lamb caecum, which has long been used as luxury-type condom. The plastic condom is made from plastic film (ethylene ethyl acrilate) of 0.001 inch (0.0254 mm.) thickness. In addition, a rubber ring is provided and sealed into the base of the condom for retention during coitus. The advantage of the plastic condom design and the equipment on which it is made is that production can be carried out either in labour-intensive economy or with varying degrees of mechanization and automation. The uniform, finished condom if made using previously untrained workers. Training of workers can be done in a matter of hours on the two machines which are needed to produce and test the condoms. The plastic film is provided on a double wound roll, and condom blanks are prepared by means of a heat-sealing die on the stamping machine. The rubber rings are united to the condom blanks on an assembly machine, which consists of a mandrel and heat-sealing equipment to seal the rubber ring to the base of the condom. Built into the assembly machine is a simple air-testing apparatus that can detect the smallest pinhole flaw in a condom. The manufacturing process is completed by unravelling the condom from the assembly

  20. Periodic pulling of the drift instability in a thermal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrams, R.H. Jr.

    1970-01-01

    The primary objective of this thesis is to show that a mode of oscillation in a plasma can be represented by a van der Pol oscillator. The results of an experiment performed on a drift wave in a Q-machine are interpreted in terms of a mechanism developed by Lashinsky. The mechanism, called periodic pulling, predicts a specific kind of spectrum for certain experimental conditions when a van der Pol oscillator is perturbed by a small signal. The observed spectrum, along with other observations, lends credence to the van der Pol oscillator model of a plasma mode

  1. Mechanisms of plastic deformation in highly cross-linked UHMWPE for total hip components--the molecular physics viewpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yasuhito; Shishido, Takaaki; Yamamoto, Kengo; Masaoka, Toshinori; Kubo, Kosuke; Tateiwa, Toshiyuki; Pezzotti, Giuseppe

    2015-02-01

    Plastic deformation is an unavoidable event in biomedical polymeric implants for load-bearing application during long-term in-vivo service life, which involves a mass transfer process, irreversible chain motion, and molecular reorganization. Deformation-induced microstructural alterations greatly affect mechanical properties and durability of implant devices. The present research focused on evaluating, from a molecular physics viewpoint, the impact of externally applied strain (or stress) in ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) prostheses, subjected to radiation cross-linking and subsequent remelting for application in total hip arthroplasty (THA). Two different types of commercial acetabular liners, which belong to the first-generation highly cross-linked UHMWPE (HXLPE), were investigated by means of confocal/polarized Raman microprobe spectroscopy. The amount of crystalline region and the spatial distribution of molecular chain orientation were quantitatively analyzed according to a combined theory including Raman selection rules for the polyethylene orthorhombic structure and the orientation distribution function (ODF) statistical approach. The structurally important finding was that pronounced recrystallization and molecular reorientation increasingly appeared in the near-surface regions of HXLPE liners with increasing the amount of plastic (compressive) deformation stored in the microstructure. Such molecular rearrangements, occurred in response to external strains, locally increase surface cross-shear (CS) stresses, which in turn trigger microscopic wear processes in HXLPE acetabular liners. Thus, on the basis of the results obtained at the molecular scale, we emphasize here the importance of minimizing the development of irrecoverable deformation strain in order to retain the pristine and intrinsically high wear performance of HXLPE components. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cortical plasticity as a mechanism for storing Bayesian priors in sensory perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köver, Hania; Bao, Shaowen

    2010-05-05

    Human perception of ambiguous sensory signals is biased by prior experiences. It is not known how such prior information is encoded, retrieved and combined with sensory information by neurons. Previous authors have suggested dynamic encoding mechanisms for prior information, whereby top-down modulation of firing patterns on a trial-by-trial basis creates short-term representations of priors. Although such a mechanism may well account for perceptual bias arising in the short-term, it does not account for the often irreversible and robust changes in perception that result from long-term, developmental experience. Based on the finding that more frequently experienced stimuli gain greater representations in sensory cortices during development, we reasoned that prior information could be stored in the size of cortical sensory representations. For the case of auditory perception, we use a computational model to show that prior information about sound frequency distributions may be stored in the size of primary auditory cortex frequency representations, read-out by elevated baseline activity in all neurons and combined with sensory-evoked activity to generate a perception that conforms to Bayesian integration theory. Our results suggest an alternative neural mechanism for experience-induced long-term perceptual bias in the context of auditory perception. They make the testable prediction that the extent of such perceptual prior bias is modulated by both the degree of cortical reorganization and the magnitude of spontaneous activity in primary auditory cortex. Given that cortical over-representation of frequently experienced stimuli, as well as perceptual bias towards such stimuli is a common phenomenon across sensory modalities, our model may generalize to sensory perception, rather than being specific to auditory perception.

  3. Mechanical and morphological characterization of novel vinyl plastisols with epoxidized linseed oil as natural-based plasticizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenollar, O.; Balart, R.; Sanchez-Nacher, L.; Garcia-Sanoguera, D.; Boronat, T.

    2010-01-01

    Poly(vinyl chloride)(PVC) is one of the most commonly used plastics in the current market due to its low cost and versatility in processing, combined with its satisfactory physical and chemical properties. However, there is an important problem associated to the use of plasticized PVC. This problem is regarding to the toxicity of the most common plasticized used like DOP, DEHP, DINP, due to its possible migration. This problem limits the use of the plasticized PVC in the industry. In this work we have used epoxidized linseed oil (ELO) as a non toxic plasticizer for PVC. This type of natural oil is characterized by acting as both plasticizer and stabilizer of PVC. With this purpose, ELO have been added to PVC. The processing conditions (temperature and time of curing) are vital to determine the final properties of the material. A study of the processing conditions shows the adequate temperature and time to achieve the optimum properties.

  4. Effect of large plastic deformation on microstructure and mechanical properties of a TWIP steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanushkevich, Z; Belyakov, A; Kaibyshev, R; Molodov, D

    2014-01-01

    The effect of cold rolling on the microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of a cold rolled Fe-0.3C-17Mn-1.5AI TWIP steel was studied. The plate samples were cold rolled with reductions of 20, 40, 60 and 80%. The structural changes were associated with the development of deformation twinning and shear bands. The average spacing between twin boundaries in the transverse section of the rolled plates decreased from ∼190 to 36 nm with an increase in the rolling reduction from 20 to 40%. Upon further rolling to 80% reduction the twin spacing remained at about 30 nm. The cold rolling resulted in significant increase in strength as revealed by tensile tests at an ambient temperature. The offset yield stress approached 1440 MPa, and the ultimate tensile strength increased to 1630 MPa after rolling reduction of 80%. Such significant strengthening was attributed to the development of specific structure consisting of deformation nanotwins with high dislocation density

  5. INFLUENCE OF COCONUT SHELL ADDITION ON PHYSICO-MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF WOOD PLASTIC COMPOSITES1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éverton Hillig

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In this study, composites with three types of thermoplastic matrix and cellulosic material in a proportion of 40% were produced. The three thermoplastic matrices were high density polyethylene (HDPE, polypropylene (PP and low density polyethylene (LDPE, and the cellulosic materials were pure wood flour (Pinus taeda L or a mixture of wood flour and coconut shell flour (Cocus nucifera L in equal ratios. The objective was to evaluate the influence of addition of coconut shell on the physico-mechanical properties (density, strength and rigidity and the distribution of the cellulosic material in the thermoplastic matrix of the manufactured composites. It was found that the composites had a satisfactory distribution of wood flour in thermoplastic matrices, but the addition of coconut shell promoted bubble formation in the resulting pieces and, thus, interfered with the material properties. The use of a coupling agent promoted interfacial adhesion (cellulose - thermoplastic matrix, which was better in high density polyethylene composites, followed by polypropylene and low density polyethylene. In general, the coconut shell addition caused a decrease of all properties compared to composites made with Loblolly Pine. In addition, the interactions between thermoplastic type and cellulosic matrix type have been statistically confirmed, which caused variations in the studied properties

  6. Biodegradable blends of urea plasticized thermoplastic starch (UTPS) and poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL): Morphological, rheological, thermal and mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Ana Carolina; Carmona, Vitor Brait; Simão, José Alexandre; Capparelli Mattoso, Luiz Henrique; Marconcini, José Manoel

    2017-07-01

    Biodegradable blends of urea plasticized thermoplastic starch (UTPS) and poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) were prepared in a co-rotating twin screw extruder. The UTPS and PCL content varied in a range of 25wt%. The materials were characterized by capillary rheometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), termogravimetry (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and tensile tests. Capillary rheometry showed better interaction between UTPS and PCL at 110°C than at 130°C. SEM showed immiscibility of all blends and good dispersion of UTPS in PCL matrix up to 50wt%. However, a co-continuous morphology was found for UTPS/PCL 75/25. Thermal analysis showed that introducing PCL in UTPS, increased T onset due to higher thermal stability of PCL, and blends presented an intermediate behavior of neat polymers. The presence of PCL in blends improved significantly the mechanical properties of neat UTPS. Because they are totally biodegradable, these blends can be vehicles for controlled or slow release of nutrients to the soil while degraded. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of ionizing radiation on physicochemical and mechanical properties of commercial monolayer and multilayer semirigid plastics packaging materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goulas, A.E.; Riganakos, K.A.; Kontominas, M.G.

    2004-01-01

    Tensile testing, overall migration tests and sensory tests were used to evaluate the effects of gamma irradiation (5-60 kGy) on six commercial semirigid packaging materials. The monolayer and multilayer materials in sheet or bottle form were: polystyrene (PS), polypropylene (PP), polyvinyl chloride/high-density polyethylene (PVC/HDPE), polyethylene terepthalate (PET), HDPE/polyamide (HDPE/PA) and HDPE. In terms of mechanical strength, PET was the most radiation-resistant material, while the HDPE monolayer and multilayer showed some degradation after 60 kGy. PS was slightly affected after 30 kGy, whereas PP was severely degraded and became very brittle. Generally, there was no change in overall migration at lower doses; at higher doses migration from PP tended to increase, while migration from HDPE/PVC tended to decrease. Odor and taste transfer as well as discoloration were observed with most plastics, especially at higher doses, and it is concluded that these tests are a sensitive and important quality control tool for evaluating irradiated packaging materials

  8. Flat-pressed wood plastic composites from sawdust and recycled polyethylene terephthalate (PET): physical and mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Khandkar-Siddikur; Islam, Md Nazrul; Rahman, Md Mushfiqur; Hannan, Md Obaidullah; Dungani, Rudi; Khalil, Hps Abdul

    2013-01-01

    This study deals with the fabrication of composite matrix from saw dust (SD) and recycled polyethylene terephthalate (PET) at different ratio (w/w) by flat-pressed method. The wood plastic composites (WPCs) were made with a thickness of 6 mm after mixing the saw dust and PET in a rotary type blender followed by flat press process. Physical i.e., density, moisture content (MC), water absorption (WA) and thickness swelling (TS), and mechanical properties i.e., Modulus of Elasticity (MOE) and Modulus of Rupture (MOR) were assessed as a function of mixing ratios according to the ASTM D-1037 standard. WA and TS were measured after 24 hours of immersion in water at 25, 50 and 75°C temperature. It was found that density decreased 18.3% when SD content increased from 40% to 70% into the matix. WA and TS increased when the PET content decreased in the matrix and the testing water temperature increased. MOE and MOR were reached to maximum for the fabricated composites (2008.34 and 27.08 N/mm(2), respectively) when the SD content were only 40%. The results indicated that the fabrication of WPCs from sawdust and PET would technically feasible; however, the use of additives like coupling agents could further enhance the properties of WPCs.

  9. Mechanical properties and plasticity size effect of Fe-6%Cr irradiated by Fe ions and by neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardie, C.D., E-mail: chris.hardie@ukaea.uk [EURATOM/CCFE Association, Culham Centre for Fusion Energy (CCFE), Abingdon, Oxfordshire, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Odette, G.R.; Wu, Y. [UCSB Department of Mechanical Engineering, 2343 Engineering II Building, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-5070 (United States); Akhmadaliev, S. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, D-01328 Dresden (Germany); Roberts, S.G. [EURATOM/CCFE Association, Culham Centre for Fusion Energy (CCFE), Abingdon, Oxfordshire, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2016-12-15

    The mechanical behaviour of Fe6%Cr in the un-irradiated, self-ion irradiated and neutron irradiated conditions was measured and compared. Irradiations were performed to the same dose and at the same temperature but to very different damage rates for both methods. The materials were tested using nanoindentation and micromechanical testing, and compared with microstructural observations from Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Atom Probe Tomography (APT) reported elsewhere. Irradiated and un-irradiated micro-cantilevers with a wide range of dimensions were used to study the interrelationships between irradiation hardening and size effects in small-scale plasticity. TEM and APT results identified that the dislocation loop densities were ∼2.9 × 10{sup 22}m{sup −3} for the neutron irradiated material and only 1.4 × 10{sup 22}m{sup −3} for the ion irradiated material. Cr segregation to loops was only found for the neutron-irradiated material. The nanoindentation hardness increase due to neutron irradiation was 3 GPa and that due to ion irradiation 1 GPa. The differences between the effects of the two irradiation types are discussed, taking into account inconsistencies in damage calculations, and the differences in PKA spectra, dose rate and transmutation products for the two irradiation types.

  10. Evaluation of the physical, mechanical and biological properties of the combined wood-plastic in Nothofagus Pumilio wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedetto Acuna, Andres

    2010-01-01

    In this project he studied the physical, mechanical and biological properties of wood-plastic combinations (WPC) in timber Nothofagus pumilio (Lenga) impregnated with the monomer methyl methacrylate (MMA), trying to get a hold and maximum penetration into the wood . It was used for impregnation method fills the cell (Bethell). To achieve the polymerization, the MMA once absorbed by the specimens under study are irradiated with gamma rays at a dose of 25 kGy, ensuring a high percentage of final polymerization, which fluctuated between 55.09% and 84.48%. The tests applied to the specimens were moisture content, dimensional stability, density, compression perpendicular to grain, compression parallel to grain to grain compression 'new' Janka hardness, shear parallel to grain, static bending and termites. In general, except for the static bending test, the WPC had an increase in their property, being the tests of hardness, density and water absorption which achieved higher profits, increasing their properties at 104%, 79% and 75% respectively compared to untreated specimens. From the economic viewpoint, the production of an inch Lenga timber has a cost of $ 19,805, so it may be feasible marketing both domestically and internationally (author)

  11. UK pulls out of plans for ILC

    CERN Multimedia

    Durrani, Matin

    2007-01-01

    "A funding crisis at one of the UK's leading research councils has forced the country to pull out of plans for the International Linear Collider (ILC). The science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) says in a report published today that it does not see "a practicable path towards the realization of this facility as currently conceived on a reasonable timescale". (1 page)

  12. Plastic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Plastic Surgery KidsHealth / For Teens / Plastic Surgery What's in ... her forehead lightened with a laser? What Is Plastic Surgery? Just because the name includes the word " ...

  13. Non local approach in crystalline plasticity: study of mechanical behaviour of AISI 316LN stainless steel during low cycle fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, J.

    2011-01-01

    If fatigue crack initiation is currently quite well understood for pure single crystals, its comprehension and prediction in cases of polycrystal alloys such as AISI 316LN stainless steel remain complicated. Experimentally our study focuses on the characterisation of the mechanical behaviour and on the study at different scales of the phenomenon leading to low cycle fatigue crack initiation in 316LN stainless steel. For straining amplitudes of?e/2 = 0,3 and 0,5%, the cyclic softening observed during testing has been related to the organisation of dislocations in band structures. These bands, formed due to the activation of slip systems having the greatest Schmid's factor, carry the most part of the deformation. Their emergence at free surfaces leads to the formation of intrusions and extrusions which help cracks initiate and spread. Numerically we worked on the mesoscopic scale, proposing a new model of crystalline plasticity. This model integrates geometrically necessary dislocations (GND) directly computed from the lattice curvature. Implemented in the finite element code Abaqus TM and Cast3m TM , it is based on single crystal finite deformations laws proposed by Peirce et al. (1983) and Teodosiu et al. (1993). Extended for polycrystals by Hoc (2001) and Erieau (2003), it has been improved by the introduction of GND (Acharya and Bassani, 2000). The simulations performed on different types of aggregates (2D/3D) have shown that taking GND into account enables:- the prediction of the grain size effect on a macroscopic and on a local scale,- a finer computation of local stress field.The influence of the elasticity and interaction matrices on the values and the evolution of the isotropic and kinematic mean stresses has been shown. The importance of boundary conditions on computed mechanical fields could also be pointed out. (author)

  14. Pull the plug on stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryer, Bruce; McCraty, Rollin; Childre, Doc

    2003-07-01

    Stress is rampant, stress is growing, and stress hurts the bottom line. A 1999 study of 46,000 workers revealed that health care costs are 147% higher for those who are stressed or depressed, independent of other health issues. But what exactly is stress? It usually refers to our internal reaction to negative, threatening, or worrisome situations--a looming performance report, say, or interactions with a dismissive colleague. Accumulated over time, negative stress can depress you, burn you out, make you sick, or even kill you--because it's both an emotional and a physiological habit. Of course, many companies understand the negative impact of cumulative stress and offer programs to help employees counteract it. The problem is that employees in the greatest need of help often don't seek it. Since 1991, the authors have studied the physiological impact of stress on performance, at both the individual and organizational levels. Their goal largely has been to decode the underlying mechanics of stress. They've sought not only to understand how stress works on a person's mind, heart, and other bodily systems but also to discover the precise emotional, mental, and physiological levers that can counteract it. After working with more than 50,000 workers and managers in more than 100 organizations, the authors have found that learning to manage stress is easier than most people think. They have devised a scientifically based system of tools, techniques, and technologies that organizations can use to reduce employee stress and boost overall health and performance. In this article, they use the story of someone they call Nigel, a senior executive with whom they've worked, to describe how these techniques reduce stress in the real world.

  15. Elastic-Plastic Fracture Mechanics Analyses for Circumferential Part-Through Surface Cracks at the Interface Between elbows and Pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Tae Kwang; Oh, Chang Kyun; Kim, Yun Jae; Kim, Jong Sung; Jin, Tae Eun

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents plastic limit loads and approximate J-integral estimates for circumferential part-through surface crack at the interface between elbows and pipes. Based on finite element limit analyses using elastic-perfectly plastic materials, plastic limit moments under in-plane bending are obtained and it is found that they are similar those for circumferential part-through surface cracks in the center of elbow. Based on present FE results, closed-form limit load solutions are proposed. Welds are not explicitly considered and all materials are assumed to be homogeneous. And the method to estimate the elastic-plastic J-integral for circumferential part-through surface cracks at the interface between elbows and straight pipes is proposed based on the reference stress approach, which was compared with corresponding solutions for straight pipes

  16. Elastic-Plastic Fracture Mechanics Analyses For circumferential Part-through Surface Cracks At The Interface Between Elbows and Pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Tae Kwang; Kim, Yun Jae; Oh, Chang Kyun; Kim, Jong Sung; Jin, Tae Eun

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents plastic limit loads and approximate J-integral estimates for circumferential part-through surface crack at the interface between elbows and pipes. Based on finite element limit analyses using elastic-perfectly plastic materials, plastic limit moments under in-plane bending are obtained and it is found that they are similar those for circumferential part-through surface cracks in the center of elbow. Based on present FE results, closed-form limit load solutions are proposed. Welds are not explicitly considered and all materials are assumed to be homogeneous. And the method to estimate the elastic-plastic J-integral for circumferential part-through surface cracks at the interface between elbows and straight pipes is proposed based on the reference stress approach, which was compared with corresponding solutions for straight pipes

  17. Nanostructural morphology of plasticized wheat gluten and modified potato starch composites: relationship to mechanical and barrier properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muneer, Faraz; Andersson, Mariette; Koch, Kristine; Menzel, Carolin; Hedenqvist, Mikael S; Gällstedt, Mikael; Plivelic, Tomás S; Kuktaite, Ramune

    2015-03-09

    In the present study, we were able to produce composites of wheat gluten (WG) protein and a novel genetically modified potato starch (MPS) with attractive mechanical and gas barrier properties using extrusion. Characterization of the MPS revealed an altered chain length distribution of the amylopectin fraction and slightly increased amylose content compared to wild type potato starch. WG and MPS of different ratios plasticized with either glycerol or glycerol and water were extruded at 110 and 130 °C. The nanomorphology of the composites showed the MPS having semicrystalline structure of a characteristic lamellar arrangement with an approximately 100 Å period observed by small-angle X-ray scattering and a B-type crystal structure observed by wide-angle X-ray scattering analysis. WG has a structure resembling the hexagonal macromolecular arrangement as reported previously in WG films. A larger amount of β-sheets was observed in the samples 70/30 and 30/70 WG-MPS processed at 130 °C with 45% glycerol. Highly polymerized WG protein was found in the samples processed at 130 °C versus 110 °C. Also, greater amounts of WG protein in the blend resulted in greater extensibility (110 °C) and a decrease in both E-modulus and maximum stress at 110 and 130 °C, respectively. Under ambient conditions the WG-MPS composite (70/30) with 45% glycerol showed excellent gas barrier properties to be further explored in multilayer film packaging applications.

  18. Contribution to the numerical study of concrete behaviour and of reinforced concrete structures submitted to coupled thermal and mechanical solicitations: a damageable thermo-elasto-plastic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nechnech, W.

    2000-12-01

    The aim of this research is the development of an Finite Element model for the analysis of reinforced concrete structures under thermal, mechanical loadings or any combination of them. An available synthesis of results on the concrete behavior under thermal solicitation is exposed. The different behavior of concrete that can be founded notably in thermo-mechanical analysis (Damage, unilateral phenomenon, thermo-mechanical interaction,...) are underlined. The various families of modeling are analyzed thereafter while underlining the important aspects of the behavior that each one can re-transcribe. A new thermo-plastic damage model for plain concrete subjected to combined thermal and cyclic loading is developed using the concept of plastic-work-hardening and stiffness degradation in continuum damage mechanics. Two damage variables are used: the first one for mechanical action and the second one for thermal action. Further, thermo-mechanical interaction strains have been introduced to describe the influence of mechanical loading on the physical process of thermal expansion of concrete. The constitutive relations for elastoplastic responses are decoupled from the degradation damage responses by using the effective stress concept. This method provides advantages in the numerical implementation. A simple and thermodynamically consistent scalar degradation model is introduced to simulate the effect of damage on elastic stiffness and its recovery during crack opening and closing. Efficient computational algorithms for the proposed model are subsequently explored and performance of this model is demonstrated with numerical examples. (author)

  19. Customized Pull Systems for Single-Product Flow Lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaury, E.G.A.; Kleijnen, J.P.C.; Pierreval, H.

    1998-01-01

    Traditionally pull production systems are managed through classic control systems such as Kanban, Conwip, or Base stock, but this paper proposes ‘customized’ pull control. Customization means that a given production line is managed through a pull control system that in principle connects each stage

  20. RF Bead Pull Measurements of the DQW

    CERN Document Server

    Jaume, Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    This report was written within the framework of the CERN Summer Student Program. It is focused on the Radio Frequency study of the Double Quarter Wave Crab Cavity [1] considered for the crab-crossing scheme of the LHC Luminosity upgrade [2]. HFSS simulation [3] and Bead-Pull Measurements technique were used for the characterization of the higher-order terms of the main deflecting mode.

  1. Friction Pull Plug Welding in Aluminum Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke, Shane A.; Bradford, Vann

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has recently invested much time and effort into the process development of Friction Pull Plug Welding (FPPW). FPPW, is a welding process similar to Friction Push Plug Welding in that, there is a small rotating part (plug) being spun and simultaneously pulled (forged) into a larger part. These two processes differ, in that push plug welding requires an internal reaction support, while pull plug welding reacts to the load externally. FPPW was originally conceived as a post proof repair technique for the Space Shuttle fs External Tank. FPPW was easily selected as the primary weld process used to close out the termination hole on the Constellation Program's ARES I Upper Stage circumferential Self-Reacting Friction Stir Welds (SR-FSW). The versatility of FPPW allows it to also be used as a repair technique for both SR-FSW and Conventional Friction Stir Welds. To date, all MSFC led development has been concentrated on aluminum alloys (2195, 2219, and 2014). Much work has been done to fully understand and characterize the process's limitations. A heavy emphasis has been spent on plug design, to match the various weldland thicknesses and alloy combinations. This presentation will summarize these development efforts including weld parameter development, process control, parameter sensitivity studies, plug repair techniques, material properties including tensile, fracture and failure analysis.

  2. Elasto-plastic bond mechanics of embedded fiber optic sensors in concrete under uniaxial tension with strain localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingbin; Li, Guang; Wang, Guanglun

    2003-12-01

    Brittleness of the glass core inside fiber optic sensors limits their practical usage, and therefore they are coated with low-modulus softer protective materials. Protective coatings absorb a portion of the strain, and hence part of the structural strain is sensed. The study reported here corrects for this error through development of a theoretical model to account for the loss of strain in the protective coating of optical fibers. The model considers the coating as an elasto-plastic material and formulates strain transfer coefficients for elastic, elasto-plastic and strain localization phases of coating deformations in strain localization in concrete. The theoretical findings were verified through laboratory experimentation. The experimental program involved fabrication of interferometric optical fiber sensors, embedding within mortar samples and tensile tests in a closed-loop servo-hydraulic testing machine. The elasto-plastic strain transfer coefficients were employed for correction of optical fiber sensor data and results were compared with those of conventional extensometers.

  3. Evolution of plastic deformation and its effect on mechanical properties of laser additive repaired Ti64ELI titanium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhuang; Chen, Jing; Tan, Hua; Lin, Xin; Huang, Weidong

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, laser additive manufacturing (LAM) technology with powder feeding has been employed to fabricate 50%LAMed specimens (i.e. the volume fraction of the laser deposited zone was set to 50%). With aid of the 3D-DIC technique, the tensile deformation behavior of 50%LAMed Ti64ELI titanium alloy was investigated. The 50%LAMed specimen exhibits a significant characteristic of strength mismatch due to the heterogeneous microstructure. The tensile fracture of 50%LAMed specimen occurs in WSZ (wrought substrate zone), but the tensile strength is slightly higher and the plastic elongation is significantly lower than that of the wrought specimen. The 3D-DIC results shows that the 50%LAMed specimen exhibits a characteristic of dramatic plastic strain heterogeneity and the maximal strain is invariably concentrated in WSZ. The ABAQUS simulation indicates that, the LDZ (laser deposited zone) can constrain the plastic deformation of the WSZ and biaxial stresses develop at the interface after yielding.

  4. Influence of severe plastic deformation obtained by warm rolling on microstructure and mechanical properties of the ferritic stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Luana Alves; Campos, Wagner Reis Costa; Vilela, Jefferson José, E-mail: luana_alves_barbosa@hotmail.com, E-mail: wrrc@cdtn.br, E-mail: jjv@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Miqueletti, Estevesson Ferreira; Mazzer, Eric Marchezini; Santos, Dagoberto B., E-mail: estevess@demet.ufmg.br, E-mail: marchezini@demet.ufmg.br, E-mail: dsantos@demet.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Generation IV reactors require research on new materials. For example, materials that will be used in the reactor vessel must be resistant to creep and have high toughness. Grain refining is a technique used to improve toughness. This grain refinement can be achieved by severe plastic deformation. In this work, the stainless steel 409 was used to simulate the EUROFER one type of ODS steel. The rolling process was applied to make the severe plastic deformation. The rolling was performed at 600°C which corresponds to the warm working condition in the absence of dynamic recrystallization. The rolling schedule studied allowed a logarithmic strain accumulation of 3.16. The rolled sheet had a yield stress of 822 MPa and a hardness of 302 HV. The grains became quite elongated characteristic of a severe plastic deformation. The recrystallization temperature of the rolled sheet was approximately 500°C. It was obtained by heat treatment and hardness measurement. (author)

  5. Influence of severe plastic deformation obtained by warm rolling on microstructure and mechanical properties of the ferritic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, Luana Alves; Campos, Wagner Reis Costa; Vilela, Jefferson José; Miqueletti, Estevesson Ferreira; Mazzer, Eric Marchezini; Santos, Dagoberto B.

    2017-01-01

    Generation IV reactors require research on new materials. For example, materials that will be used in the reactor vessel must be resistant to creep and have high toughness. Grain refining is a technique used to improve toughness. This grain refinement can be achieved by severe plastic deformation. In this work, the stainless steel 409 was used to simulate the EUROFER one type of ODS steel. The rolling process was applied to make the severe plastic deformation. The rolling was performed at 600°C which corresponds to the warm working condition in the absence of dynamic recrystallization. The rolling schedule studied allowed a logarithmic strain accumulation of 3.16. The rolled sheet had a yield stress of 822 MPa and a hardness of 302 HV. The grains became quite elongated characteristic of a severe plastic deformation. The recrystallization temperature of the rolled sheet was approximately 500°C. It was obtained by heat treatment and hardness measurement. (author)

  6. The mechanism of coking pressure generation I: Effect of high volatile matter coking coal, semi-anthracite and coke breeze on coking pressure and plastic coal layer permeability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiji Nomura; Merrick Mahoney; Koichi Fukuda; Kenji Kato; Anthony Le Bas; Sid McGuire [Nippon Steel Corporation, Chiba (Japan). Environment and Process Technology Center

    2010-07-15

    One of the most important aspects of the cokemaking process is to control and restrain the coking pressure since excessive coking pressure tends to lead to operational problems and oven wall damage. Therefore, in order to understand the mechanism of coking pressure generation, the permeability of the plastic coal layer and the coking pressure for the same single coal and the same blended coal were measured and the relationship between them was investigated. Then the 'inert' (pressure modifier) effect of organic additives such as high volatile matter coking coal, semi-anthracite and coke breeze was studied. The coking pressure peak for box charging with more uniform bulk density distribution was higher than that for top charging. It was found that the coking pressure peaks measured at different institutions (NSC and BHPBilliton) by box charging are nearly the same. The addition of high volatile matter coking coal, semi-anthracite and coke breeze to a low volatile matter, high coking pressure coal greatly increased the plastic layer permeability in laboratory experiments and correspondingly decreased the coking pressure. It was found that, high volatile matter coking coal decreases the coking pressure more than semi-anthracite at the same plastic coal layer permeability, which indicates that the coking pressure depends not only on plastic coal layer permeability but also on other factors. Coking pressure is also affected by the contraction behavior of the coke layer near the oven walls and a large contraction decreases the coal bulk density in the oven center and hence the internal gas pressure in the plastic layer. The effect of contraction on coking pressure needs to be investigated further. 33 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Synaptic Plasticity in the Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis: Underlying Mechanisms and Potential Ramifications for Reinstatement of Drug- and Alcohol-Seeking Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Nicholas A; Winder, Danny G

    2018-06-13

    The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is a component of the extended amygdala that shows significant changes in activity and plasticity through chronic exposure to drugs and stress. The region is critical for stress- and cue-induced reinstatement of drug-seeking behaviors and is thus a candidate region for the plastic changes that occur in abstinence that prime addicted patients for reinstatement behaviors. Here, we discuss the various forms of long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) in the rodent BNST and highlight the way that these changes in excitatory transmission interact with exposure to alcohol and other drugs of abuse, as well as other stressors. In addition, we highlight potential areas for future research in this area, including investigating input- and cell-specific bidirectional changes in activity. As we continue to accrue foundational knowledge in the mechanisms and effects of plasticity in the BNST, molecular targets and treatment strategies that are relevant to reinstatement behaviors will also begin to emerge. Here, we briefly discuss the effects of catecholamine receptor modulators on synaptic plasticity in the BNST due to the role of norepinephrine in LTD and dopamine on the short-term component of LTP as well as the role that signaling at these receptors plays in reinstatement of drug- and alcohol-seeking behaviors. We hope that insights gained on the specific changes in plasticity that occur within the BNST during abstinence from alcohol and other drugs of abuse will provide insight into the biological underpinnings of relapse behavior in human addicts and inform future treatment modalities for addiction that tackle this complex biological problem.

  8. Investigation of the thermo-mechanical behavior of neutron-irradiated Fe-Cr alloys by self-consistent plasticity theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Xiazi [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex System, Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); CAPT, HEDPS and IFSA Collaborative Innovation Center of MoE, BIC-ESAT, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Terentyev, Dmitry [Structural Material Group, Institute of Nuclear Materials Science, SCK CEN, Mol (Belgium); Yu, Long [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex System, Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Bakaev, A. [Structural Material Group, Institute of Nuclear Materials Science, SCK CEN, Mol (Belgium); Jin, Zhaohui [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Duan, Huiling, E-mail: hlduan@pku.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex System, Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); CAPT, HEDPS and IFSA Collaborative Innovation Center of MoE, BIC-ESAT, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2016-08-15

    The thermo-mechanical behavior of non-irradiated (at 223 K, 302 K and 573 K) and neutron irradiated (at 573 K) Fe-2.5Cr, Fe-5Cr and Fe-9Cr alloys is studied by a self-consistent plasticity theory, which consists of constitutive equations describing the contribution of radiation defects at grain level, and the elastic-viscoplastic self-consistent method to obtain polycrystalline behaviors. Attention is paid to two types of radiation-induced defects: interstitial dislocation loops and solute rich clusters, which are believed to be the main sources of hardening in Fe-Cr alloys at medium irradiation doses. Both the hardening mechanism and microstructural evolution are investigated by using available experimental data on microstructures, and implementing hardening rules derived from atomistic data. Good agreement with experimental data is achieved for both the yield stress and strain hardening of non-irradiated and irradiated Fe-Cr alloys by treating dislocation loops as strong thermally activated obstacles and solute rich clusters as weak shearable ones. - Highlights: • A self-consistent plasticity theory is proposed for irradiated Fe-Cr alloys. • Both the irradiation-induced hardening and plastic flow evolution are studied. • Dislocation loops and solute rich clusters are considered as the main defects. • Numerical results of the proposed model match with corresponding experimental data.

  9. Selectively Encrypted Pull-Up Based Watermarking of Biometric data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinde, S. A.; Patel, Kushal S.

    2012-10-01

    Biometric authentication systems are becoming increasingly popular due to their potential usage in information security. However, digital biometric data (e.g. thumb impression) are themselves vulnerable to security attacks. There are various methods are available to secure biometric data. In biometric watermarking the data are embedded in an image container and are only retrieved if the secrete key is available. This container image is encrypted to have more security against the attack. As wireless devices are equipped with battery as their power supply, they have limited computational capabilities; therefore to reduce energy consumption we use the method of selective encryption of container image. The bit pull-up-based biometric watermarking scheme is based on amplitude modulation and bit priority which reduces the retrieval error rate to great extent. By using selective Encryption mechanism we expect more efficiency in time at the time of encryption as well as decryption. Significant reduction in error rate is expected to be achieved by the bit pull-up method.

  10. Pull-pull position control of dual motor wire rope transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Quan; Jiao, Zongxia; Yan, Liang; Yu, Qian; Shang, Yaoxing

    2016-08-01

    Wire rope transmission is very efficient because of the small total moving object mass. The wire rope could only transmit pulling force. Therefore it has to be kept in a tightened state during transmission; in high speed applications the dynamic performance depends on the rope's stiffness, which can be adjusted by the wire rope tension. To improve the system dynamic performance output, this paper proposes a novel pull-pull method based on dual motors connected by wire ropes, for precise, high speed position control applications. The method can regulate target position and wire rope tension simultaneously. Wire ropes remain in a pre-tightening state at all times, which prevents the influence of elasticity and reduces the position tracking error in the changing direction process. Simulations and experiments were conducted; the results indicate that both position precision and superior dynamic performance can be synchronously achieved. The research is relevant to space craft precision pointing instruments.

  11. J-integral elastic plastic fracture mechanics evaluation of the stability of cracks in nuclear reactor pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, M.P.; McMeeking, R.M.; Parks, D.M.

    1980-06-01

    Contributions were made toward developing a new methodology to assess the stability of cracks in pressure vessels made from materials that exhibit a significant increase in toughness during the early increments of crack growth. It has a wide range of validity from linear elastic to fully plastic behavior

  12. On a solvability of hydro-mechanical problem based on contact problem with visco-plastic friction in Bingham rheology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nedoma, Jiří; Tomášek, Luboš

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 218, č. 1 (2008), s. 116-124 ISSN 0377-0427 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : visco-plasticity * Bingham rheology * contact problems with friction * variational inequalities * FEM * geomechanics * hydromechanics Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.048, year: 2008

  13. Theory of a new elastic-plastic-viscous model and its application to the nuclear fuel mechanical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, A.

    1977-01-01

    A new elastic-plastic-viscous model is described. The model is one of the multiple integral type, and has been included in a numerical code to predict the behaviour of a nuclear fuel of cylindrical form. Some features of this code are also described. (author)

  14. Methods for an investigation of the effect of material components on the mechanical characteristics of glass-fiber-reinforced plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willax, H. O.

    1980-01-01

    The materials used in the production of glass reinforced plastics are discussed. Specific emphasis is given to matrix polyester materials, the reinforcing glass materials, and aspects of specimen preparation. Various methods of investigation are described, giving attention to optical impregnation and wetting measurements and the gravimetric determination of the angle of contact. Deformation measurements and approaches utilizing a piezoelectric device are also considered.

  15. Theory of a new elastic-plastic-viscous model and its application to the nuclear fuel mechanical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, A.

    1977-01-01

    In this work a new elastic-plastic-viscous model is described. The model is one of the multiple integral type, and has been included in a numerical code to predict the behaviour of a nuclear fuel of cylindrical form. Some features of this code are also described. (Author) 91 refs

  16. Structural and mechanical behaviour of severe plastically deformed high purity aluminium sheets processed by constrained groove pressing technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satheesh Kumar, S.S.; Raghu, T.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • High purity aluminium sheets constrained groove pressed up to plastic strain of 5.8. • Microstructural evolution studied by TEM and X-ray diffraction profile analysis. • Ultrafine grained structure with grain size ∼900 nm achieved in sheets. • Yield strength increased by 5.3 times and tensile strength doubled after first pass. • Enhanced deformation homogeneity seen with increased accumulated plastic strain. - Abstract: High purity aluminium sheets (∼99.9%) are subjected to intense plastic straining by constrained groove pressing method successfully up to 5 passes thereby imparting an effective plastic strain of 5.8. Transmission electron microscopy studies of constrained groove pressed sheets divulged significant grain refinement and the average grain sizes obtained after five pass is estimated to be ∼0.9 μm. In addition to that, microstructural evolution of constrained groove pressed sheets is characterized by X-ray diffraction peak profile analysis employing Williamson–Hall method and the results obtained fairly concur with electron microscopy findings. The tensile behaviour evolution with increased straining indicates substantial improvement of yield strength by ∼5.3 times from 17 MPa to 90 MPa during first pass corroborated to grain refinement observed. Marginal increase in strengths is noticed during second pass followed by minor drop in strengths attributed to predominance of dislocation recovery is noticed in subsequent passes. Quantitative assessment of degree of deformation homogeneity using microhardness profiles reveal relatively better strain homogeneity at higher number of passes

  17. Effect of honeybee stinger and its microstructured barbs on insertion and pull force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Jintian; Song, Zhenhua; Wang, Jiarui; Chen, Keyun; Li, Jiyu; Xu, Shujia; Ren, Lei; Chen, Zhipeng; Jin, Dianwen; Jiang, Lelun

    2017-04-01

    Worker honeybee is well-known for its stinger with microscopic backward-facing barbs for self-defense. The natural geometry of the stinger enables painless penetration and adhesion in the human skin to deliver poison. In this study, Apis cerana worker honeybee stinger and acupuncture microneedle (as a barbless stinger) were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The insertion and pull process of honeybee stinger into rabbit skin was performed by a self-developed mechanical loading equipment in comparison with acupuncture needle. In order to better understand the insertion and pull mechanisms of the stinger and its barbs in human multilayer skin, a nonlinear finite element method (FEM) was conducted. Experimental results showed that the average pull-out force of the stinger was 113.50mN and the average penetration force was only 5.75mN. The average penetration force of the stinger was about one order of magnitude smaller than that of an acupuncture microneedle while the average pull-out force was about 70 times larger than that of an acupuncture microneedle. FEM results showed that the stress concentrations were around the stinger tip and its barbs during the insertion process. The barbs were jammed in and torn the skin during the pull process. The insertion force of the stinger was greatly minimized due to its ultrasharp stinger tip and barbs while the pull force was seriously enhanced due to the mechanical interlocking of the barbs in the skin. These excellent properties are mainly a result of optimal geometry evolved by nature. Such finding may provide an inspiration for the further design of improved tissue adhesives and micro-needles for painless transdermal drug delivery and bio-signal recording. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Plasticity characteristic obtained by indentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mil'man, Yu.V.; Chugunova, S.I.; Goncharova, I.V.

    2011-01-01

    Methods for determination plasticity characteristic δH in the measurement of hardness and nanohardness are considered. Parameter δH characterizes the plasticity of a material by the part of plastic deformation in the total elastic-plastic deformation. The value of δH is defined for metals with different types of crystal lattice, covalent and partially covalent crystals, intermetallics, metallic glasses and quasicrystals. It is discussed the dependence of the plasticity characteristic δH on structural factors and temperature. Parameter δH allows to analyze and compare the plasticity of materials which are brittle at standard mechanical tests. The combination of hardness H, as the strength characteristic, and the plasticity characteristic δH makes possible the better characterization of mechanical behavior of materials than only the hardness H. The examples of plasticity characteristic δH application are represented.

  19. Application of microdynamics and lattice mechanics to problems in plastic flow and fracture. Final report, 1 April 1973--31 March 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilello, J.C.; Liu, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    Progress in an investigation of the application of microdynamics and lattice mechanics to the problems in plastic flow and fracture is described. The research program consisted of both theoretical formulations and experimental measurements of a number of intrinsic material parameters in bcc metals and alloys including surface energy, phonon-dispersion curves for dislocated solids, dislocation-point defect interaction energy, slip initiation and microplastic flow behavior. The study has resulted in an improved understanding in the relationship among the experimentally determined fracture surface energy, the intrinsic cohesive energy between atomic planes, and the plastic deformation associated with the initial stages of crack propagation. The values of intrinsic surface energy of tungsten, molybdenum, niobium and niobium-molybdenum alloys, deduced from the measurements, serve as a starting point from which fracture toughness of these materials in engineering service may be intelligently discussed

  20. Pulling an intruder from a granular material: a novel depinning experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yue

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional impact experiments by Clark et al. [2] identified the source of inertial drag to be caused by ‘collisions’ with a latent force network, leading to large fluctuations of the force experienced by the impactor. These collisions provided the major drag on an impacting intruder until the intruder was nearly at rest. As a complement, we consider controlled pull-out experiments where a buried intruder is pulled out of a material, starting from rest. This provides a means to better understand the non-inertial part of the drag force, and to explore the mechanisms associated with the force fluctuations. To some extent, the pull out process is a time reversed version of the impact process. In order to visualize this pulling process, we use 2D photoelastic disks from which circular intruders of different radii are pulled out. We present results about the dynamics of the intruder and the structures of the force chains inside the granular system as captured by slow and high speed imaging.

  1. Positioning of microtubule organizing centers by cortical pushing and pulling forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavin, Nenad; Ma Rui; Jülicher, Frank; Laan, Liedewij; Dogterom, Marileen

    2012-01-01

    Positioning of microtubule (MT) organizing centers with respect to the confining geometry of cells depends on pushing and/or pulling forces generated by MTs that interact with the cell cortex (Dogterom et al 2005 Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 17 67–74). How, in living cells, these forces lead to proper positioning is still largely an open question. Recently, it was shown by in vitro experiments using artificial microchambers that in a square geometry, MT asters center more reliably by a combination of pulling and pushing forces than by pushing forces alone (Laan et al 2012a Cell 148 502–14). These findings were explained by a physical description of aster mechanics that includes slipping of pushing MT ends along chamber boundaries. In this paper, we extend that theoretical work by studying the influence of the shape of the confining geometry on the positioning process. We find that pushing and pulling forces can have centering or off-centering behavior in different geometries. Pushing forces center in a one-dimensional and a square geometry, but lead to off-centering in a circle if slipping is sufficiently pronounced. Pulling forces, however, do not center in a one-dimensional geometry, but improve centering in a circle and a square. In an elongated stadium geometry, positioning along the short axis depends mainly on pulling forces, while positioning along the long axis depends mainly on pushing forces. Our theoretical results suggest that different positioning strategies could be used by different cell types. (paper)

  2. The Pull Model as the E-Commerce Strategy For Business-To-Consumer Sites

    OpenAIRE

    Guillermo Reyes González; Ralf Eder Lange

    2013-01-01

    One of the solutions to stabilize the bullwhip effect is to provide the supply chain with the adequate mechanisms to make the information flow upstream (to the supplier) and downstream (to the consumer). This has led the e-commerce companies to implement a distribution model known as the Pull Model. This paper provides a literature review of the main characteristics of the Pull model and a comparison with the E-Commerce strategies and benefitsJournal: Revista de Administración, Finanzas y Eco...

  3. Some aspects of fracture assessment diagrams, plastic zone size corrections and contour integrals in post-yield fracture mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainsworth, R.A.

    1981-03-01

    The CEGB failure assessment route is briefly described and is shown to be consistent with a plastic zone size correction method. Modifications to the assessment route which have recently been suggested for describing the effects of thermal and residual stresses are examined. It is shown that the plastic zone size correction method may be used to include local thermal and residual stresses in the assessment route in a simple manner. The assessment route is compared with finite-element solutions for a thermal stress problem and with strip-yield model solutions for a residual stress problem. In using finite-element solutions there are different contour integral methods available for calculating a post-yield fracture parameter. The J-integral of Rice and the J*-integral of Blackburn are examined and compared and the appropriate parameter is identified. (author)

  4. The crystallography of carbide-free bainites in thermo-mechanically processed low Si transformation-induced plasticity steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereloma, Elena V. [School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2522 (Australia); Electron Microscopy Centre, University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2500 (Australia); Al-Harbi, Fayez [School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2522 (Australia); Gazder, Azdiar A., E-mail: azdiar@uow.edu.au [Electron Microscopy Centre, University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2500 (Australia)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • First EBSD study comparing ferrite in granular bainite and bainitic laths in two TRIP steels. • Both TRIP steels (base and with Nb–Ti additions) subjected to the same TMP schedule. • Crystallography of the ferrite in the 2 bainites studied using the K–S orientation relationship. • Variants in GB associated with self-accommodation. • BF variant selection linked to RA plastic accommodation and limited volume. - Abstract: Carbide-free bainites are important microstructural constituents in bainitic, nanobainitic and transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) steels. A comparison of the crystallography of ferrite in granular bainite and bainitic ferrite lath morphologies, both of which were simultaneously present in a base and a Nb–Ti containing TRIP steel, has been carried out using electron back-scattering diffraction. Ferrite in granular bainite was characterised by the realisation of nearly all 24 variants of the Kurdjumov–Sachs orientation relationship; which in turn was associated with the self-accommodation of the transformation strain. On the other hand, bainitic ferrite comprised a mostly parallel lath structure between thick interlayers of retained austenite and exhibited variant selection such that one or more crystallographic packets are not realised and sometimes only 1–2 variants formed in a crystallographic packet. The variant selection in bainitic ferrite laths was associated with: (i) the plastic accommodation of transformation strain by retained austenite and, (ii) the limited available volume for its formation.

  5. Correlation of plastic deformation induced intermittent electromagnetic radiation characteristics with mechanical properties of Cu-Ni alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Ranjana; Lal, Shree P.; Misra, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents experimental results on intermittent electromagnetic radiation during plastic deformation of Cu-Ni alloys under tension and compression modes of deformation. On the basis of the nature of electromagnetic radiation signals, oscillatory or exponential, results show that the compression increases the viscous coefficient of Cu-Ni alloys during plastic deformation. Increasing the percentage of solute atoms in Cu-Ni alloys makes electromagnetic radiation strength higher under tension. The electromagnetic radiation emission occurs at smaller strains under compression showing early onset of plastic deformation. This is attributed to the role of high core region tensile residual stresses in the rolled Cu-Ni alloy specimens in accordance with the Bauschinger effect. The distance between the apexes of the dead metal cones during compression plays a significant role in electromagnetic radiation parameters. The dissociation of edge dislocations into partials and increase in internal stresses with increase in solute percentage in Cu-Ni alloys under compression considerably influences the electromagnetic radiation frequency.

  6. The crystallography of carbide-free bainites in thermo-mechanically processed low Si transformation-induced plasticity steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereloma, Elena V.; Al-Harbi, Fayez; Gazder, Azdiar A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • First EBSD study comparing ferrite in granular bainite and bainitic laths in two TRIP steels. • Both TRIP steels (base and with Nb–Ti additions) subjected to the same TMP schedule. • Crystallography of the ferrite in the 2 bainites studied using the K–S orientation relationship. • Variants in GB associated with self-accommodation. • BF variant selection linked to RA plastic accommodation and limited volume. - Abstract: Carbide-free bainites are important microstructural constituents in bainitic, nanobainitic and transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) steels. A comparison of the crystallography of ferrite in granular bainite and bainitic ferrite lath morphologies, both of which were simultaneously present in a base and a Nb–Ti containing TRIP steel, has been carried out using electron back-scattering diffraction. Ferrite in granular bainite was characterised by the realisation of nearly all 24 variants of the Kurdjumov–Sachs orientation relationship; which in turn was associated with the self-accommodation of the transformation strain. On the other hand, bainitic ferrite comprised a mostly parallel lath structure between thick interlayers of retained austenite and exhibited variant selection such that one or more crystallographic packets are not realised and sometimes only 1–2 variants formed in a crystallographic packet. The variant selection in bainitic ferrite laths was associated with: (i) the plastic accommodation of transformation strain by retained austenite and, (ii) the limited available volume for its formation

  7. Pull-production in repetitive remanufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCaskey, D.W. Jr.

    1992-09-01

    In the past, production activity control practices in most repetitive remanufacturing facilities resembled those used in intermittent production operations. These operations were characterized by large amounts of work-in-process (WIP), frequent work stoppages due to part shortages, excessive overtime, low product velocity, informal scheduling between dependent operations, low employee and management moral, and a lot of wasted time, material, labor, and space. Improvement in production activity control (PAC) methods for repetitive remanufactures has been hampered by uncertainty in: supply of incoming assets, configuration of assets, process times to refurbish assets, and yields in reclamation processes. collectively these uncertainties make shop floor operations seem uncontrollable. However, one United States Army depot has taken on the challenge. Through management supported, cross-functional teams, the Tooele Army Depot has designed and implemented pull-production systems for two of its major products, with several others to follow. This article presents a generalized version of Tooele`s pull-production system and highlights design characteristics which are specific to remanufacturing applications.

  8. Pull-production in repetitive remanufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCaskey, D.W. Jr.

    1992-09-01

    In the past, production activity control practices in most repetitive remanufacturing facilities resembled those used in intermittent production operations. These operations were characterized by large amounts of work-in-process (WIP), frequent work stoppages due to part shortages, excessive overtime, low product velocity, informal scheduling between dependent operations, low employee and management moral, and a lot of wasted time, material, labor, and space. Improvement in production activity control (PAC) methods for repetitive remanufactures has been hampered by uncertainty in: supply of incoming assets, configuration of assets, process times to refurbish assets, and yields in reclamation processes. collectively these uncertainties make shop floor operations seem uncontrollable. However, one United States Army depot has taken on the challenge. Through management supported, cross-functional teams, the Tooele Army Depot has designed and implemented pull-production systems for two of its major products, with several others to follow. This article presents a generalized version of Tooele's pull-production system and highlights design characteristics which are specific to remanufacturing applications.

  9. Dynamic mechanical and molecular weight measurements on polymer bonded explosives from thermally accelerated aging tests. III. Kraton block copolymer binder and plasticizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caley, L.E.; Hoffman, D.M.

    1981-01-01

    The dynamic mechanical properties and molecular weight distribution of two experimental polymer bonded explosives, X-0287 and X-0298, maintained at 23, 60, and 74 0 C for 3 years were examined. X-0287 is 97% 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazacyclooctane explosive, 1.8% Kraton G-1650, and 1.2% B 2 was 170. X-0298 is 97.4% explosive, 1.4% Kraton G-1650, and 1.2% Cenco Hi-vac oil. The relaxation associated with the Kraton rubber block glass transition is observed in both X-0287 and X-0298. In the unaged X-0298 it occurs at -59 0 C and in the aged explosive at 50 0 C. This is caused by migration of the oil plasticizer out of the explosive. In X-0287 the Kraton rubber block T/sub g/ is weak and broad due to the presence of the wax plasticizer. X-0287 has a second broad relaxation associated with the melting of the wax from 10 to 65 0 C. The molecular weight of the Kraton binder decreased with increasing accelerated aging temperature. The oil plasticizer had no stabilizing effect, but below its melting point the wax reduced Kraton chain scission considerably. The simple random chain scission model predicted a 20.5 year use-life for X-0298, but X-0287 was stabilized against degradation below the wax melting point

  10. Non-slipping domains of a pulled spool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, Clemens; Vaterlaus, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated the pulled spool by considering pulling angles up to 360 ∘ . Our focus was on downward pulling forces with pulling angles in the range of 180 ∘ to 360 ∘ . In this range we have found a domain of pulling angles where the spool never starts to slip independent of the strength of the pulling force. The size of the domain depends on the static friction coefficient and on the moment of inertia of the spool. The non-slipping domain is mainly formed around the critical angle where the static friction force becomes zero. For low static friction the non-slipping domain decays into two different domains. We have determined the limiting angles of the non-slipping domains and explored the transitions from a single domain to two separated domains in parameter space. (paper)

  11. Investigation of Mechanical Properties and Plastic Deformation Behavior of (Ti45Cu40Zr10Ni5100−xAlx Metallic Glasses by Nanoindentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanping Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Al addition on mechanical properties and plastic deformation behavior of (Ti45Cu40Zr10Ni5100−xAlx (x = 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 amorphous alloy ribbons have been investigated by nanoindentation. The hardness and elastic modulus do not simply increase with the increase of Al content. The alloy with 8 at.% Al exhibits the highest hardness and elastic modulus. The serrations or pop-in events are strongly dependent on the loading rate and alloy composition.

  12. Fracture mechanics analysis of reactor pressure vessel under pressurized thermal shock - The effect of elastic-plastic behavior and stainless steel cladding -

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, Jae Hwang; Kang, Ki Ju; Jhung, Myung Jo

    2002-01-01

    Performed here is an assessment study for deterministic fracture mechanics analysis of a pressurized thermal shock (PTS). The PTS event means an event or transient in pressurized water reactors (PWRs) causing severe overcooling (thermal shock) concurrent with or followed by significant pressure in the reactor vessel. The problems consisting of two transients and 10 cracks are solved and maximum stress intensity factors and maximum allowable nil-ductility reference temperatures are calculated. Their results are compared each other to address the general characteristics between transients, crack types and analysis methods. The effects of elastic-plastic material behavior and clad coating on the inner surface are explored

  13. Fecal incontinence after single-stage Soave's pull-through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Vol 8, No 1 (2012) > ... Demographic, clinical data, preoperative investigations, operative records, postoperative ... Keywords: fecal continence, Hirschsprung's disease, Soave's operation, transanal endorectal pull-through ...

  14. Static Pull Testing of a New Type of Large Deformation Cable with Constant Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Tao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new type of energy-absorbing cable, Constant-Resistance Large Deformation cable (CRLD cable with three different specifications, has been recently developed and tested. An effective cable should occupy the ability of absorbing deformation energy from these geodisaster loads and additionally must be able to yield with the sliding mass movements and plastic deformation over large distances at high displacement rates. The new cable mainly consists of constant-resistance casing tube and frictional cone unit that transfers the load from the slope. When experiencing a static or dynamic load and especially the load exceeding the constant resistance force (CR-F, a static friction force derived from the movement of frictional cone unit in casing tube of CRLD cable, the frictional cone unit will move in the casing tube along the axis and absorb deformation energy, accordingly. In order to assess the performance of three different specified cables in situ, a series of field static pull tests have been performed. The results showed that the first type of CRLD cable can yield 2000 mm displacement while acting 850 kN static pull load, which is superior to that of other two types, analyzing based on the length of the displacement and the level of static pull load.

  15. Push-Pull Laser-Atomic Oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jau, Y.-Y.; Happer, W.

    2007-01-01

    A vapor of alkali-metal atoms in the external cavity of a semiconductor laser, pumped with a time-independent injection current, can cause the laser to self-modulate at the 'field-independent 0-0 frequency' of the atoms. Push-pull optical pumping by the modulated light drives most of the atoms into a coherent superposition of the two atomic sublevels with an azimuthal quantum number m=0. The atoms modulate the optical loss of the cavity at the sharply defined 0-0 hyperfine frequency. As in a maser, the system is not driven by an external source of microwaves, but a very stable microwave signal can be recovered from the modulated light or from the modulated voltage drop across the laser diode. Potential applications for this new phenomenon include atomic clocks, the production of long-lived coherent atomic states, and the generation of coherent optical combs

  16. Dietary variation and mechanical properties of articular cartilage in the temporomandibular joint: implications for the role of plasticity in mechanobiology and pathobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravosa, Matthew J; Kane, Robert J

    2017-10-01

    Due to their nature as tissue composites, skeletal joints pose an additional challenge in terms of evaluating the functional significance of morphological variation in their bony and cartilaginous components in response to altered loading conditions. Arguably, this complexity requires more direct means of investigating joint plasticity and performance than typically employed to analyze macro- and micro-anatomical phenomena. To address a significant gap in our understanding of the plasticity of the mammalian temporomandibular joint (TMJ), we investigated the histology and mechanical properties of condylar articular cartilage in rabbits subjected to long-term variation in diet-induced masticatory stresses, specifically cyclical loading. Three cohorts of male weanlings were raised for six months on different diets until adulthood. Following euthanasia, the TMJ condyles on one side were dissected away, fixed, decalcified, dehydrated, embedded and sectioned. Safranin O staining was employed to identify variation in proteoglycan content, which in turn was used to predict patterns of articular cartilage stiffness in contralateral condylar specimens for each treatment group. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was used to quantify diet-induced changes in chondrocyte hypertrophy and cellularity. Mechanical tests document significant decreases in articular cartilage stiffness corresponding to patterns of extracellular matrix relative protein abundance in rabbits subjected to greater cyclical loading. This indicates that TMJs routinely subjected to higher masticatory stresses due to a challenging diet eventually develop postnatal decreases in the ability to counter compressive loads during postcanine biting and chewing. These findings provide novel information regarding TMJ performance, with broader implications about the costs and benefits of phenotypic plasticity as well as implications for how such biological processes affect connective tissue mechanobiology and pathobiology

  17. Enhanced mechanical properties of single walled carbon nanotube-borosilicate glass composite due to cushioning effect and localized plastic flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujan Ghosh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A borosilicate glass composite has been fabricated incorporating Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes (SWCNT in the glass matrix by melt-quench technique. Hardness and the fracture toughness of the composite, were found to increase moderately with respect to the base glass. Interestingly one can observe accumulation of SWCNT bundles around the crack zone though no such accumulation was observed in the crack free indentation zone. The enhanced hardness of the composite was discussed by correlating the cushioning as well as toughening behavior of the agglomerated SWCNT bundles. On the other hand enhanced plastic flow was proposed to be the prime reason for the accumulation of SWCNT bundles around the crack, which increases the toughness of the composite by reducing the crack length. Moreover to ascertain the enhanced plasticity of the composite than that of the glass we calculated the recovery resistance of glass and the composite where recovery resistance of composite was found to be higher than that of the glass.

  18. The Effect of Adding PET (Polyethylen Terephthalate) Plastic Waste on SCC (Self-Compacting Concrete) to Fresh Concrete Behavior and Mechanical Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswatama W, K.; Suyoso, H.; Meyfa U, N.; Tedy, P.

    2018-01-01

    To study the effect PET waste plastics on SCC then PET plastic waste content for SCC is made into 2.5%; 5%; 7.5%; and 10%. As reference concrete is made SCC with 0% PET level. The results on all fresh concrete test items indicate that for all PET waste levels made are meeting the criteria as SCC. The effect of adding PET to fresh concrete behavior on all test items shows that the filling ability and passing ability of concrete work increases with increasing of PET. However, the increase in PET will decrease its mechanical properties. The result of heat test shows that the mechanical properties of concrete (compressive strength, splitting, and elastic modulus) after heating at 250°C temperature has not changed, while at 600°C has significant capacity decline. To clarify the differences between SCC before and after heating, microstructure analysis was done in the form of photo magnification of specimen using SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope).

  19. In situ neutron diffraction study of the plastic deformation mechanisms of B2 ordered intermetallic alloys: NiAl, CuZn, and CeAg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollmershauser, J.A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400745, 116 Engineer' s Way, Charlottesville, VA 22904-04745 (United States); Kabra, S. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Agnew, S.R. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400745, 116 Engineer' s Way, Charlottesville, VA 22904-04745 (United States)], E-mail: sra4p@virginia.edu

    2009-01-15

    The internal stress developments of B2 compounds NiAl, CuZn, and CeAg are examined using in situ neutron diffraction. CeAg is a representative of a newly discovered class of fully ordered and ductile B2 compounds. Using polycrystal plasticity modeling to interpret the results, it is revealed that the internal stress evolution of CeAg is nearly identical to that of NiAl, indicating that they share a common primary mechanism of plastic deformation, i.e., <1 0 0>{l_brace}0 1 1{r_brace} 'cube' slip. This result reinforces the dilemma previously observed for rare-earth alloys CuY, AgY, and CuDy, since cube slip provides insufficient independent slip systems to accommodate large-scale homogenous polycrystalline deformation. There is no evidence in the diffraction data of either mechanical twinning or stress-induced phase transformation. The activity of bcc-type <1 1 1>{l_brace}11-bar0{r_brace} slip at high stresses is confirmed and a lower bound for the critical resolved shear stress is quantified.

  20. Effect of severe plastic deformation on microstructure and mechanical properties of magnesium and aluminium alloys in wide range of strain rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skripnyak, Vladimir; Skripnyak, Evgeniya; Skripnyak, Vladimir; Vaganova, Irina; Skripnyak, Nataliya

    2013-06-01

    Results of researches testify that a grain size have a strong influence on the mechanical behavior of metals and alloys. Ultrafine grained HCP and FCC metal alloys present higher values of the spall strength than a corresponding coarse grained counterparts. In the present study we investigate the effect of grain size distribution on the flow stress and strength under dynamic compression and tension of aluminium and magnesium alloys. Microstructure and grain size distribution in alloys were varied by carrying out severe plastic deformation during the multiple-pass equal channel angular pressing, cyclic constrained groove pressing, and surface mechanical attrition treatment. Tests were performed using a VHS-Instron servo-hydraulic machine. Ultra high speed camera Phantom V710 was used for photo registration of deformation and fracture of specimens in range of strain rates from 0,01 to 1000 1/s. In dynamic regime UFG alloys exhibit a stronger decrease in ductility compared to the coarse grained material. The plastic flow of UFG alloys with a bimodal grain size distribution was highly localized. Shear bands and shear crack nucleation and growth were recorded using high speed photography.

  1. Experimental investigation on transformation, reorientation and plasticity of Ni47Ti44Nb9 SMA under biaxial thermal–mechanical loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xiang; Peng, Xianghe; Chen, Bin; Han, Jia; Zeng, Zhongmin; Hu, Ning

    2015-01-01

    The constitutive behavior of shape memory alloy (SMA) Ni 47 Ti 44 Nb 9 specimens subjected to different thermal–mechanical loading histories was investigated experimentally. This involved the application of strain by different proportional or non-proportional paths in the biaxial ϵ−γ plane at −60 °C (M s + 30 °C), the interaction between stress-induced martensitic transformation, reorientation and plastic deformation, temperature-induced reverse martensitic transformation and strain recovery. The results show that the equivalent stress–strain curves, as well as the pure shear and pure tensile curves, depend strongly on the thermal–mechanical loading history. For specimens deformed previously to the same equivalent strains by different paths, the equivalent recovery strains after unloading are similar, as are the spans between the reverse transformation start and final temperatures. The activated martensite variants depend strongly on loading history. The recovery of the axial strain component and that of the shear strain component due to reverse transformation occur synchronously and develop along the shortest path in the ϵ−γ plane. The results may provide some new and useful information on the effects of transformation, plasticity and loading paths for further studies and applications of such materials. (paper)

  2. Correlation between residual stress and plastic strain amplitude during low cycle fatigue of mechanically surface treated austenitic stainless steel AISI 304 and ferritic-pearlitic steel SAE 1045

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikitin, I. [Institute of Materials Engineering, University of Kassel, 34125 Kassel, Hessen (Germany)], E-mail: Ivan.Nikitin@infineon.com; Besel, M. [Institute of Materials Engineering, University of Kassel, 34125 Kassel, Hessen (Germany)

    2008-09-15

    Mechanical surface treatments such as deep rolling are known to affect the near-surface microstructure and induce, e.g. residual stresses and/or increase the surface hardness. It is well known that, e.g. compressive residual stress states usually increase the lifetime under fatigue loading. The stress relaxation behaviour and the stability of the residual stress during fatigue loading depend on the mechanical surface treatment method. In this paper three different surface treatments are used and their effects on the low cycle fatigue behaviour of austenitic stainless steel (AISI 304) and ferritic-pearlitic steel (SAE 1045) are investigated. X-ray diffraction is applied for the non-destructive evaluation of the stress state and the microstructure. It is found that consecutive deep rolling and annealing as well as high temperature deep rolling produce more stable near-surface stress states than conventional deep rolling at room temperature. The plastic strain amplitudes during fatigue loading are measured and it is shown that they correlate well with the induced residual stress and its relaxation, respectively. Furthermore, Coffin-Manson plots are presented which clearly show the correlation between the plastic strain amplitude and the fatigue lifetime.

  3. Plastic Logic quits e-reader market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perks, Simon

    2012-07-01

    A UK firm spun out from the University of Cambridge that sought to be a world leader in flexible organic electronic circuits and displays has pulled out of the competitive e-reader market as it struggles to find a commercial outlet for its technology. Plastic Logic announced in May that it is to close its development facility in Mountain View, California, with the loss of around 40 jobs.

  4. Affective and Sensory Correlates of Hair Pulling in Pediatric Trichotillomania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, Suzanne A.; Tolin, David F.; Franklin, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Hair pulling in pediatric populations has not received adequate empirical study. Investigations of the affective and sensory states contributing to the etiology and maintenance of hair pulling may help to elucidate the classification of trichotillomania (TTM) as an impulse control disorder or obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorder. The current…

  5. Workload balancing capability of pull systems in MTO production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Germs, R.; Riezebos, J.

    2010-01-01

    Pull systems focusing on throughput time control and applicable in situations with high variety and customisation are scarce. This paper compares three unit-based pull systems that can cope with such situations: POLCA, CONWIP and m-CONWIP. These systems control the shop floor throughput time of

  6. Pushing and pulling in relation to musculoskeletal complaints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoozemans, M. J M; Van Der Beek, Allard J.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.

    2000-01-01

    The first cross-sectional analyses are presented of a longitudinal study regarding the relationship between pushing and pulling and musculoskeletal disorders. Workers exposed to pushing and pulling and workers who had administrative tasks received a questionnaire. A significant association between

  7. Frobenius Pull Backs of Vector Bundles in Higher Dimensions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We prove that for a smooth projective variety of arbitrary dimension and for a vector bundle over , the Harder–Narasimhan filtration of a Frobenius pull back of is a refinement of the Frobenius pull back of the Harder–Narasimhan filtration of , provided there is a lower bound on the characteristic (in terms of rank of ...

  8. Laparoscopically assisted anorectal pull-through for rectovestibular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laparoscopically assisted anorectal pull-through for rectovestibular fistula. Taha Alkhatrawi, Radi Elsherbini, Waheed Alturkistani. Abstract. Purpose Laparoscopically assisted anorectal pull-through (LAARP) has been described as an alternative to posterior sagittal anorectoplasty for the surgical treatment of rectourethral ...

  9. Pull-Through Capacity in Plywood and OSB

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch-Andersen, Jørgen; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    The characteristic pull-through capacity of heads of nails and screws is needed to determine the rope effect for laterally loaded fasteners used to fix sheathing to timberframes. There is no values given in EN 1995 (Eurocode 5) but data for the pull through capacity of nail and screw heads has be...

  10. Optical pulling and pushing forces exerted on silicon nanospheres with strong coherent interaction between electric and magnetic resonances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongfeng; Panmai, Mingcheng; Peng, Yuanyuan; Lan, Sheng

    2017-05-29

    We investigated theoretically and numerically the optical pulling and pushing forces acting on silicon (Si) nanospheres (NSs) with strong coherent interaction between electric and magnetic resonances. We examined the optical pulling and pushing forces exerted on Si NSs by two interfering waves and revealed the underlying physical mechanism from the viewpoint of electric- and magnetic-dipole manipulation. As compared with a polystyrene (PS) NS, it was found that the optical pulling force for a Si NS with the same size is enlarged by nearly two orders of magnitude. In addition to the optical pulling force appearing at the long-wavelength side of the magnetic dipole resonance, very large optical pushing force is observed at the magnetic quadrupole resonance. The correlation between the optical pulling/pushing force and the directional scattering characterized by the ratio of the forward to backward scattering was revealed. More interestingly, it was found that the high-order electric and magnetic resonances in large Si NSs play an important role in producing optical pulling force which can be generated by not only s-polarized wave but also p-polarized one. Our finding indicates that the strong coherent interaction between the electric and magnetic resonances existing in nanoparticles with large refractive indices can be exploited to manipulate the optical force acting on them and the correlation between the optical force and the directional scattering can be used as guidance. The engineering and manipulation of optical forces will find potential applications in the trapping, transport and sorting of nanoparticles.

  11. Casing pull tests for directionally drilled environmental wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staller, G.E.; Wemple, R.P.; Layne, R.R.

    1994-11-01

    A series of tests to evaluate several types of environmental well casings have been conducted by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and it's industrial partner, The Charles Machine Works, Inc. (CMW). A test bed was constructed at the CMW test range to model a typical shallow, horizontal, directionally drilled wellbore. Four different types of casings were pulled through this test bed. The loads required to pull the casings through the test bed and the condition of the casing material were documented during the pulling operations. An additional test was conducted to make a comparison of test bed vs actual wellbore casing pull loads. A directionally drilled well was emplaced by CMW to closely match the test bed. An instrumented casing was installed in the well and the pull loads recorded. The completed tests are reviewed and the results reported

  12. Tracer gas evaluations of push-pull ventilation system performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojima, Jun

    2009-01-01

    A push-pull ventilation system is effective for hazardous material exhaustion. Although a push-pull ventilation system has advantages over a local exhaust hood, some laborious adjustments are required. The pertinence of the adjustments is uncertain because it is difficult to evaluate the performance of a push-pull ventilation system quantitatively. In this study, a measurement of the capture efficiency of a push-pull ventilation system was carried out by means of a tracer gas method. The capture efficiency decreased to 39.3-78.5% when blockage material, a dummy worker and a cross draft, were set in the ventilation zone, but the efficiency was 95.1-97.9% when the cross draft was stopped. The results suggest that the uniform flow of a push-pull ventilation system will detour a blockage and the performance of the system will not be reduced unless a cross draft disturbs the uniform flow.

  13. Casing pull tests for directionally drilled environmental wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staller, G.E.; Wemple, R.P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Layne, R.R. [Charles Machine Works, Inc., Perry, OK (United States)

    1994-11-01

    A series of tests to evaluate several types of environmental well casings have been conducted by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and it`s industrial partner, The Charles Machine Works, Inc. (CMW). A test bed was constructed at the CMW test range to model a typical shallow, horizontal, directionally drilled wellbore. Four different types of casings were pulled through this test bed. The loads required to pull the casings through the test bed and the condition of the casing material were documented during the pulling operations. An additional test was conducted to make a comparison of test bed vs actual wellbore casing pull loads. A directionally drilled well was emplaced by CMW to closely match the test bed. An instrumented casing was installed in the well and the pull loads recorded. The completed tests are reviewed and the results reported.

  14. Pushing, pulling and manoeuvring an industrial cart: a psychophysiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giagloglou, Evanthia; Radenkovic, Milan; Brankovic, Sasa; Antoniou, Panagiotis; Zivanovic-Macuzic, Ivana

    2017-09-18

    One of the most frequent manual occupational tasks involves the pushing and pulling of a cart. Although several studies have associated health risks with pushing and pulling, the effects are not clear since occupational tasks have social, cognitive and physical components. The present work investigates a real case of a pushing and pulling occupational task from a manufacturing company. The study initially characterizes the case in accordance with Standard No. ISO 11228-2:2007 as low risk. An experiment with 14 individuals during three modalities of pushing and pulling was performed in order to further investigate the task with the application of electrophysiology. At the end, a simple questionnaire was given. The results show electrophysiological differences among the three modalities of pushing and pulling, with a major difference between action with no load and fully loaded with a full range of motions on the cart to handle.

  15. Young entrepreneurs pushed by necessity and pulled by opportunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheraghi, Maryam

    2017-01-01

    The vocational choice to be an entrepreneur is made in a social context of institutions in society, which channel, regulate, enable and constrain life, with pushes and pulls. The necessity to make a living may push the entrepreneur, or an opportunity for business may pull the entrepreneur to start....... The push by necessity and pull by opportunity are exerted by institutions in society such as its economy and culture. The purpose here is to account for how young entrepreneurs' experiences of opportunity-pull and necessity-push are influenced by society's economic wealth and culture, as traditional versus...... secular-rational culture and as survival versus self-expression culture. - A sample of 41,281 young entrepreneurs in 93 countries was surveyed in Global Entrepreneurship Monitor. - Analyses show that young entrepreneurs' experience of opportunity-pull rather than necessity-push is not distinctly...

  16. Performance of molded plastic scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gen, N.S.; Leman, V.E.; Solomonov, V.M.

    1989-01-01

    The performance of molded plastic scintillators is studied. The plastic scintillators studied were formed by transfer molding and intrusion from a scintillation composition consisting of polystyrene and a standard system of luminescent additives: 2 mass % of paraterphenyl + 0.06 mass % 1,4-di-/2-[5-phenyloxazoyly]/benzene and a plasticizer. The combined effect of mechanical load and temperature was studied. The effect of radiation on molded plastic scintillators was studied using gamma radiation from a 60 Co source. The studies show that the main operating characteristics of molded plastic scintillators are on a par with those of polymerized plastic scintillators. At the same time, molded plastic scintillators are superior in thermal stability at temperatures below the glass transition temperature and with respect to their working temperature range

  17. Erythropoietin Restores Long-Term Neurocognitive Function Involving Mechanisms of Neuronal Plasticity in a Model of Hyperoxia-Induced Preterm Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Hoeber

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral white and grey matter injury is the leading cause of an adverse neurodevelopmental outcome in prematurely born infants. High oxygen concentrations have been shown to contribute to the pathogenesis of neonatal brain damage. Here, we focused on motor-cognitive outcome up to the adolescent and adult age in an experimental model of preterm brain injury. In search of the putative mechanisms of action we evaluated oligodendrocyte degeneration, myelination, and modulation of synaptic plasticity-related molecules. A single dose of erythropoietin (20,000 IU/kg at the onset of hyperoxia (24 hours, 80% oxygen in 6-day-old Wistar rats improved long-lasting neurocognitive development up to the adolescent and adult stage. Analysis of white matter structures revealed a reduction of acute oligodendrocyte degeneration. However, erythropoietin did not influence hypomyelination occurring a few days after injury or long-term microstructural white matter abnormalities detected in adult animals. Erythropoietin administration reverted hyperoxia-induced reduction of neuronal plasticity-related mRNA expression up to four months after injury. Thus, our findings highlight the importance of erythropoietin as a neuroregenerative treatment option in neonatal brain injury, leading to improved memory function in adolescent and adult rats which may be linked to increased neuronal network connectivity.

  18. Joining by plastic deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mori, Ken-ichiro; Bay, Niels; Fratini, Livan

    2013-01-01

    As the scale and complexity of products such as aircraft and cars increase, demand for new functional processes to join mechanical parts grows. The use of plastic deformation for joining parts potentially offers improved accuracy, reliability and environmental safety as well as creating opportuni......As the scale and complexity of products such as aircraft and cars increase, demand for new functional processes to join mechanical parts grows. The use of plastic deformation for joining parts potentially offers improved accuracy, reliability and environmental safety as well as creating...

  19. Plastic dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Shiro; Matsuda, Kohji.

    1988-01-01

    The report outlines major features and applications of plastic dosimeters. Some plastic dosimeters, including the CTA and PVC types, detect the response of the plastic material itself to radiations while others, such as pigment-added plastic dosimeters, contain additives as radiation detecting material. Most of these dosimeters make use of color centers produced in the dosimeter by radiations. The PMMA dosimeter is widely used in the field of radiation sterilization of food, feed and medical apparatus. The blue cellophane dosimeter is easy to handle if calibrated appropriately. The rad-color dosimeter serves to determine whether products have been irradiated appropriately. The CTA dosimeter has better damp proofing properties than the blue cellophane type. The pigment-added plastic dosimeter consists of a resin such as nylon, CTA or PVC that contains a dye. Some other plastic dosimeters are also described briefly. Though having many advantages, these plastic dosimeter have disadvantages as well. Some of their major disadvantages, including fading as well as large dependence on dose, temperature, humidity and anviroment, are discussed. (Nogami, K.)

  20. Meristem maintenance, auxin, jasmonic and abscisic acid pathways as a mechanism for phenotypic plasticity in Antirrhinum majus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Julia; Alcantud-Rodriguez, Raquel; Toksöz, Tugba; Egea-Cortines, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    Plants grow under climatic changing conditions that cause modifications in vegetative and reproductive development. The degree of changes in organ development i.e. its phenotypic plasticity seems to be determined by the organ identity and the type of environmental cue. We used intraspecific competition and found that Antirrhinum majus behaves as a decoupled species for lateral organ size and number. Crowding causes decreases in leaf size and increased leaf number whereas floral size is robust and floral number is reduced. Genes involved in shoot apical meristem maintenance like ROA and HIRZ, cell cycle (CYCD3a; CYCD3b, HISTONE H4) or organ polarity (GRAM) were not significantly downregulated under crowding conditions. A transcriptomic analysis of inflorescence meristems showed Gene Ontology enriched pathways upregulated including Jasmonic and Abscisic acid synthesis and or signalling. Genes involved in auxin synthesis such as AmTAR2 and signalling AmANT were not affected by crowding. In contrast, AmJAZ1, AmMYB21, AmOPCL1 and AmABA2 were significantly upregulated. Our work provides a mechanistic working hypothesis where a robust SAM and stable auxin signalling enables a homogeneous floral size while changes in JA and ABA signalling maybe responsible for the decreased leaf size and floral number.

  1. Elastic-plastic fracture mechanics analysis of a pressure vessel with an axial outer surface flaw. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brocks, W.; Kuenecke, G.

    1989-06-01

    Continuing preceding investigations, a further elastic-plastic finite element analysis of a test vessel with a semi-elliptical axial outer surface crack has been performed. The variations of J and CTOD along the crack front and the stress state in the vicinity of the crack are presented. The applicability of analytical approaches to determine J is examined. The FE results are used to analyze the experimental data with respect to the validity of J-controlled crack growth. Local J R -curves of the surface flaw are compared with J R -curves of various specimens of different geometries. Again, it became evident that the local ductile crack growth and, especially, the developing 'canoe shape' of the surface crack cannot be described by a single resistance curve which is assumed to be a material property. A method described in a previous report to predict the ductile crack growth by using local J R -curves which depend on the triaxiality of the stress state did not result in a satisfactory outcome, in the present case. The presumed reasons will be discussed. (orig.) [de

  2. Plastics and beaches: A degrading relationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corcoran, Patricia L.; Biesinger, Mark C.; Grifi, Meriem

    2009-01-01

    Plastic debris in Earth's oceans presents a serious environmental issue because breakdown by chemical weathering and mechanical erosion is minimal at sea. Following deposition on beaches, plastic materials are exposed to UV radiation and physical processes controlled by wind, current, wave and tide action. Plastic particles from Kauai's beaches were sampled to determine relationships between composition, surface textures, and plastics degradation. SEM images indicated that beach plastics feature both mechanically eroded and chemically weathered surface textures. Granular oxidation textures were concentrated along mechanically weakened fractures and along the margins of the more rounded plastic particles. Particles with oxidation textures also produced the most intense peaks in the lower wavenumber region of FTIR spectra. The textural results suggest that plastic debris is particularly conducive to both chemical and mechanical breakdown in beach environments, which cannot be said for plastics in other natural settings on Earth

  3. THE EFFECT OF PLASTICIZER CONTENT AND DISACCHARIDE TYPE ON THE MECHANICAL, BARRIER AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF BOVINE GELATIN-BASED FILMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PEDRO GUERRERO1

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Gelatins are regarded as alternative raw materials to prepare films for food packaging. However, the improvement of their mechanical and water barrier properties is necessary in order to obtain useful materials in service conditions. To improve these functional properties, two strategies have been carried out in this work. First, glycerol was added as plasticizer to increase the flexibility of the films. Second, lactose or sucrose was added to react with gelatin and increase water resistance of gelatin-based films. Commercial gelatin, glycerol and lactose or sucrose were employed in this work and processing of the films was carried out by solution casting. All gelatin films obtained were transparent and flexible. Moreover, the hydrophobic character of the films was increased and the film solubility was decreased by the addition of glycerol and disaccharides. As was observed via FTIR, the changes were due to the interactions between gelatin and glycerol and Maillard reaction between gelatin and disaccharides.

  4. Dynamical heterogeneities and mechanical non-linearities: Modeling the onset of plasticity in polymer in the glass transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masurel, R J; Gelineau, P; Lequeux, F; Cantournet, S; Montes, H

    2017-12-27

    In this paper we focus on the role of dynamical heterogeneities on the non-linear response of polymers in the glass transition domain. We start from a simple coarse-grained model that assumes a random distribution of the initial local relaxation times and that quantitatively describes the linear viscoelasticity of a polymer in the glass transition regime. We extend this model to non-linear mechanics assuming a local Eyring stress dependence of the relaxation times. Implementing the model in a finite element mechanics code, we derive the mechanical properties and the local mechanical fields at the beginning of the non-linear regime. The model predicts a narrowing of distribution of relaxation times and the storage of a part of the mechanical energy --internal stress-- transferred to the material during stretching in this temperature range. We show that the stress field is not spatially correlated under and after loading and follows a Gaussian distribution. In addition the strain field exhibits shear bands, but the strain distribution is narrow. Hence, most of the mechanical quantities can be calculated analytically, in a very good approximation, with the simple assumption that the strain rate is constant.

  5. Mechanical Behavior of UO2 at Sub-grain Length Scales: Quantification of Elastic, Plastic and Creep Properties via Microscale Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peralta, Pedro

    2018-04-16

    Techniques were developed to measure properties at sub-grain scales using depleted Uranium Oxide (d-UO2) samples heat-treated to obtain different grain sizes and oxygen stoichiometries, through three main tasks: 1) sample processing and characterization, 2) microscale and conventional testing and 3) modeling. Grain size and crystallography were characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), in conjunction with Electron Backscattering Diffraction (EBSD) and Electron Channeling Contrast Imaging (ECCI). Grains were then carefully selected based on their crystallographic orientations to perform ex-situ micromechanical tests with samples machined via Focused Ion Beam (FIB), with emphasis on micro-cantilever bending. These experiments were performed under controlled atmospheres, to insure stoichiometry control, at temperatures up to 700 °C and allowed measurements involving elastic (effective Young’s modulus), plastic (critical resolved shear stresses) and creep (creep strain rates) behavior. Conventional compression experiments were performed simultaneously to compare with the ex-situ measurements and study potential size effects. Modeling was implemented using anisotropic elasticity and inelastic constitutive relations for plasticity and creep based on kinematics and kinetics of dislocation glide that account for the effects of crystal orientation, and stress. The models will be calibrated and validated using the experimental data. This project provided insight on correlations among stoichiometry, crystallography and mechanical behavior in advanced oxide fuels, provided valuable experimental data to validate and calibrate mesoscale fuel performance codes and also a framework to measure sub-grain scale mechanical properties that should be suitable for use with irradiated samples due to small volumes required. The goals and metrics of the ongoing study of thermo-mechanical behavior in depleted uranium dioxide (d-UO2) outlined in this project have been

  6. Plasticity and innovation of regulatory mechanisms underlying seed oil content mediated by duplicated genes in the palaeopolyploid soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dajian; Zhao, Meixia; Li, Shuai; Sun, Lianjun; Wang, Weidong; Cai, Chunmei; Dierking, Emily C; Ma, Jianxin

    2017-06-01

    Many plants have undergone whole genome duplication (WGD). However, how regulatory networks underlying a particular trait are reshaped in polyploids has not been experimentally investigated. Here we show that the regulatory pathways modulating seed oil content, which involve WRINKLED1 (WRI1), LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1), and LEC2 in Arabidopsis, have been modified in the palaeopolyploid soybean. Such modifications include functional reduction of GmWRI1b of the GmWRI1a/GmWRI1b homoeologous pair relevant to WRI1, complementary non-allelic dosage effects of the GmLEC1a/GmLEC1b homoeologous pair relevant to LEC1, pseudogenization of the singleton GmLEC2 relevant to LEC2, and the rise of the LEC2-like function of GmABI3b, contrasting to its homoeolog GmABI3a, which maintains the ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 3 (ABI3)-like function in modulating seed maturation and dormancy. The function of GmABI3b in modulating seed oil biosynthesis was fulfilled by direct binding to a RY (CATGCA) cis-regulatory element in the GmWRI1a promoter, which was absent in the GmWRI1b promoter, resulting in reduction of the GmWRI1b expression. Nevertheless, the three regulators each exhibited similar intensities of purifying selection to their respective duplicates since these pairs were formed by a WGD event that is proposed to have occurred approximately 13 million years ago (mya), suggesting that the differentiation in spatiotemporal expression between the duplicated genes is more likely to be the outcome of neutral variation in regulatory sequences. This study thus exemplifies the plasticity, dynamics, and novelty of regulatory networks mediated by WGD. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Biomechanical study of the final push-pull in archery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroyer, P; Van Hoecke, J; Helal, J N

    1993-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse archery performance among eight archers of different abilities by means of displacement pull-hand measurements during the final push-pull phase of the shoot. The archers showed an irregular displacement negatively related to their technical level. Displacement signal analysis showed high power levels in both the 0-5 Hz and 8-12 Hz ranges. The latter peak corresponds to electromyographic tremor observed during a prolonged push-pull effort. The results are discussed in relation to some potentially helpful training procedures such as biofeedback and strength conditioning.

  8. Analytical Model for Hook Anchor Pull-Out

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Ulfkjær, Jens Peder; Adamsen, Peter

    1995-01-01

    A simple analytical model for the pull-out of a hook anchor is presented. The model is based on a simplified version of the fictitious crack model. It is assumed that the fracture process is the pull-off of a cone shaped concrete part, simplifying the problem by assuming pure rigid body motions...... allowing elastic deformations only in a layer between the pull-out cone and the concrete base. The derived model is in good agreement with experimental results, it predicts size effects and the model parameters found by calibration of the model on experimental data are in good agreement with what should...

  9. Analytical Model for Hook Anchor Pull-out

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Ulfkjær, J. P.; Adamsen, P.

    A simple analytical model for the pull-out of a hook anchor is presented. The model is based on a simplified version of the fictitious crack model. It is assumed that the fracture process is the pull-off of a cone shaped concrete part, simplifying the problem by assuming pure rigid body motions...... allowing elastic deformations only in a layer between the pull-out cone and the concrete base. The derived model is in good agreement with experimental results, it predicts size effects and the model parameters found by calibration of the model on experimental data are in good agreement with what should...

  10. PLASTIC SURGERY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Sefako Makgatho Health Science University, ... We report on a pilot study on the use of a circumareolar excision and the use of .... and 1 gynecomastia patient) requested reduction in NAC size.

  11. Plastic Fishes

    CERN Multimedia

    Trettnak, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    In terms of weight, the plastic pollution in the world’s oceans is estimated to be around 300,000 tonnes. This plastic comes from both land-based and ocean-based sources. A lecture at CERN by chemist Wolfgang Trettnak addressed this issue and highlighted the role of art in raising people’s awareness. The slideshow below gives you a taste of the artworks by Wolfgang Trettnak and Margarita Cimadevila.

  12. THE EFFECT OF SEVERE PLASTIC DEFORMATION ON THE MICROSTRUCTURE AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF AS-CAST AZ31

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Khani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of microstructure and mechanical properties of a magnesium cast alloy (AZ31 processed by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP at two different temperatures were investigated. The as-cast alloy with an average grain size of 360  was significantly refined to about 5  after four ECAP passes at 543 K. Grain refinement was achieved through dynamic recrystallization (DRX during the ECAP process in which the formation of necklace-type structure and bulging of original grain boundaries would be the main mechanisms. ECAP processing at lower temperature resulted in finer recrystallized grains and also a more homogenous microstructure. The mechanical behavior was investigated at room temperature by tensile tests. The obtained results showed that the ECAP processing can basically improve both strength and ductility of the cast alloy. However, the lower working temperature led to higher yield and ultimate strength of the alloy.

  13. Dislocation-based plasticity and strengthening mechanisms in sub-20 nm lamellar structures in pearlitic steel wire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaodan; Hansen, Niels; Godfrey, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The tensile properties and the deformation microstructure of pearlitic steel (0.8 wt % C) have been quantified in wires drawn to strains in the range from 3.7 to 5.4, having a flow stress in the range from 3.5 to 4.5 GPa. With increasing strain the interlamellar spacing (ILS) decreases from about...... mechanism in the wire and three strengthening mechanisms are applied: boundary strengthening, dislocation strengthening and solid solution hardening with their relative contributions to the total flow stress which change as the strain is increased. Based on linear additivity good correspondence between...

  14. Effectiveness of organoclays as compatibilizers for multiphase polymer blends – A sustainable route for the mechanical recycling of co-mingled plastics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Causa, Andrea; Acierno, Domenico; Filippone, Giovanni; Mistretta, Maria Chiara

    2014-01-01

    We prepare and characterize multiphase systems in which small amounts of recycled polymer, namely polyethylene terephtalate (PET) ground from waste bottles, are dispersed in a co-continuous blend of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and polypropylene (PP). Some of such ternary systems are also filled with plate-like clay nanoparticles with different polarities, in order to assess their influence on the morphology and mechanical behaviour of the blends. On the basis of preliminary wettability considerations and inspections by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the PET is found to preferentially locate within the PP phase. Such a positioning is desirable in order to minimize the presence of multiple interfaces, which is one of the major issues in the recycling process of co-mingles plastics. By means of SEM, dynamic-mechanical analysis and tensile tests we show that the addition of a filler with low polarity, which locates at the PET-matrix interface, has relevant implications on the structure and properties of the ternary systems, refining their morphology at the micro-scale and enhancing their high-temperature mechanical behaviour

  15. Application of a Microstructure-Based ISV Plasticity Damage Model to Study Penetration Mechanics of Metals and Validation through Penetration Study of Aluminum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangqing Dou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A developed microstructure-based internal state variable (ISV plasticity damage model is for the first time used for simulating penetration mechanics of aluminum to find out its penetration properties. The ISV damage model tries to explain the interplay between physics at different length scales that governs the failure and damage mechanisms of materials by linking the macroscopic failure and damage behavior of the materials with their micromechanical performance, such as void nucleation, growth, and coalescence. Within the continuum modeling framework, microstructural features of materials are represented using a set of ISVs, and rate equations are employed to depict damage history and evolution of the materials. For experimental calibration of this damage model, compression, tension, and torsion straining conditions are considered to distinguish damage evolutions under different stress states. To demonstrate the reliability of the presented ISV model, that model is applied for studying penetration mechanics of aluminum and the numerical results are validated by comparing with simulation results yielded from the Johnson-Cook model as well as analytical results calculated from an existing theoretical model.

  16. Effectiveness of organoclays as compatibilizers for multiphase polymer blends – A sustainable route for the mechanical recycling of co-mingled plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Causa, Andrea; Acierno, Domenico; Filippone, Giovanni [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, dei Materiali e della Produzione Industriale, Università di Napoli Federico II, Piazzale V. Tecchio, 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Mistretta, Maria Chiara [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Ambientale, Aerospaziale, dei Materiali, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, ed. 6, 90128 Palermo (Italy)

    2014-05-15

    We prepare and characterize multiphase systems in which small amounts of recycled polymer, namely polyethylene terephtalate (PET) ground from waste bottles, are dispersed in a co-continuous blend of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and polypropylene (PP). Some of such ternary systems are also filled with plate-like clay nanoparticles with different polarities, in order to assess their influence on the morphology and mechanical behaviour of the blends. On the basis of preliminary wettability considerations and inspections by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the PET is found to preferentially locate within the PP phase. Such a positioning is desirable in order to minimize the presence of multiple interfaces, which is one of the major issues in the recycling process of co-mingles plastics. By means of SEM, dynamic-mechanical analysis and tensile tests we show that the addition of a filler with low polarity, which locates at the PET-matrix interface, has relevant implications on the structure and properties of the ternary systems, refining their morphology at the micro-scale and enhancing their high-temperature mechanical behaviour.

  17. Enhancement of the Mechanical Properties of Basalt Fiber-Wood-Plastic Composites via Maleic Anhydride Grafted High-Density Polyethylene (MAPE Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Lu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the mechanisms, using microscopy and strength testing approaches, by which the addition of maleic anhydride grafted high-density polyethylene (MAPE enhances the mechanical properties of basalt fiber-wood-plastic composites (BF-WPCs. The maximum values of the specific tensile and flexural strengths are achieved at a MAPE content of 5%–8%. The elongation increases rapidly at first and then continues slowly. The nearly complete integration of the wood fiber with the high-density polyethylene upon MAPE addition to WPC is examined, and two models of interfacial behavior are proposed. We examined the physical significance of both interfacial models and their ability to accurately describe the effects of MAPE addition. The mechanism of formation of the Model I interface and the integrated matrix is outlined based on the chemical reactions that may occur between the various components as a result of hydrogen bond formation or based on the principle of compatibility, resulting from similar polarity. The Model I fracture occurred on the outer surface of the interfacial layer, visually demonstrating the compatibilization effect of MAPE addition.

  18. Enhancement of the Mechanical Properties of Basalt Fiber-Wood-Plastic Composites via Maleic Anhydride Grafted High-Density Polyethylene (MAPE) Addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinxiang; Wang, Yong; Gu, Chenglong; Liu, Jianxun; Liu, Yufu; Li, Min; Lu, Yun

    2013-06-18

    This study investigated the mechanisms, using microscopy and strength testing approaches, by which the addition of maleic anhydride grafted high-density polyethylene (MAPE) enhances the mechanical properties of basalt fiber-wood-plastic composites (BF-WPCs). The maximum values of the specific tensile and flexural strengths are achieved at a MAPE content of 5%-8%. The elongation increases rapidly at first and then continues slowly. The nearly complete integration of the wood fiber with the high-density polyethylene upon MAPE addition to WPC is examined, and two models of interfacial behavior are proposed. We examined the physical significance of both interfacial models and their ability to accurately describe the effects of MAPE addition. The mechanism of formation of the Model I interface and the integrated matrix is outlined based on the chemical reactions that may occur between the various components as a result of hydrogen bond formation or based on the principle of compatibility, resulting from similar polarity. The Model I fracture occurred on the outer surface of the interfacial layer, visually demonstrating the compatibilization effect of MAPE addition.

  19. Fluoroscopy-Guided Removal of Pull-Type Gastrostomy Tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlers, Christopher M.; Schneider, Jens; Lachmann, Ricarda; Herber, Sascha; Dueber, Christoph; Pitton, Michael B.

    2008-01-01

    These case reports demonstrate a radiologic interventional technique for removal of pull-type gastrostomy tubes. This approach proved to be a safe and efficient procedure in two patients. The procedure may be applicable in situations where endoscopic attempts fail.

  20. Initial atomic coherences and Ramsey frequency pulling in fountain clocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerginov, Vladislav; Nemitz, Nils; Weyers, Stefan

    2014-09-01

    In the uncertainty budget of primary atomic cesium fountain clocks, evaluations of frequency-pulling shifts of the hyperfine clock transition caused by unintentional excitation of its nearby transitions (Rabi and Ramsey pulling) have been based so far on an approach developed for cesium beam clocks. We re-evaluate this type of frequency pulling in fountain clocks and pay particular attention to the effect of initial coherent atomic states. We find significantly enhanced frequency shifts caused by Ramsey pulling due to sublevel population imbalance and corresponding coherences within the state-selected hyperfine component of the initial atom ground state. Such shifts are experimentally investigated in an atomic fountain clock and quantitative agreement with the predictions of the model is demonstrated.

  1. GREEN PLASTIC: A NEW PLASTIC FOR PACKAGING

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. Pankaj Kumar*, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    This paper gives a brief idea about a new type of plastic called as bio-plastic or green plastic. Plastic is used as a packaging material for various products, but this plastic is made up of non renewable raw materials. There are various disadvantages of using conventional plastic like littering, CO2 production, non-degradable in nature etc. To overcome these problems a new type of plastic is discovered called bio-plastic or green plastic. Bio-plastic is made from renewable resources and also...

  2. Reliability of Plastic Slabs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    1989-01-01

    In the paper it is shown how upper and lower bounds for the reliability of plastic slabs can be determined. For the fundamental case it is shown that optimal bounds of a deterministic and a stochastic analysis are obtained on the basis of the same failure mechanisms and the same stress fields....

  3. High-Cycle, Push–Pull Fatigue Fracture Behavior of High-C, Si–Al-Rich Nanostructured Bainite Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Ji, Honghong

    2017-01-01

    The high-cycle, push–pull fatigue fracture behavior of high-C, Si–Al-rich nanostructured bainitic steel was studied through the measurement of fatigue limits, a morphology examination and phase composition analysis of the fatigue fracture surface, as well as fractography of the fatigue crack propagation. The results demonstrated that the push–pull fatigue limits at 107 cycles were estimated as 710–889 MPa, for the samples isothermally transformed at the temperature range of 220–260 °C through data extrapolation, measured under the maximum cycle number of 105. Both the interior inclusion and the sample surface constituted the fatigue crack origins. During the fatigue crack propagation, a high amount of secondary cracks were formed in almost parallel arrangements. The apparent plastic deformation occurred in the fracture surface layer, which induced approximately all retained austenite to transform into martensite. PMID:29286325

  4. High-Cycle, Push–Pull Fatigue Fracture Behavior of High-C, Si–Al-Rich Nanostructured Bainite Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The high-cycle, push–pull fatigue fracture behavior of high-C, Si–Al-rich nanostructured bainitic steel was studied through the measurement of fatigue limits, a morphology examination and phase composition analysis of the fatigue fracture surface, as well as fractography of the fatigue crack propagation. The results demonstrated that the push–pull fatigue limits at 107 cycles were estimated as 710–889 MPa, for the samples isothermally transformed at the temperature range of 220–260 °C through data extrapolation, measured under the maximum cycle number of 105. Both the interior inclusion and the sample surface constituted the fatigue crack origins. During the fatigue crack propagation, a high amount of secondary cracks were formed in almost parallel arrangements. The apparent plastic deformation occurred in the fracture surface layer, which induced approximately all retained austenite to transform into martensite.

  5. Mechanical properties of thin silicon films deposited on glass and plastic substrates studied by depth sensing indentation technique

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buršíková, V.; Sládek, P.; Sťahel, P.; Buršík, Jiří

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 352, 9-20 (2006), s. 1242-1245 ISSN 0022-3093 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA106/05/0274; GA ČR(CZ) GA202/05/0777 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : amorphous semiconductors * silicon * mechanical properties Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.362, year: 2006

  6. Push and pull strategies: applications for health care marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsley, B R

    1987-08-01

    As health care markets mature and expand, strategies available in other industries become useful. This article examines how traditional push-pull strategies apply to health care. Marketers using a push strategy recognize that the sale of their services or goods is dependent upon the endorsement of a middleman and promote their product through the middleman. Those using a pull strategy market directly to the consumer. In this article, the author outlines the advantages and disadvantages of using each strategy.

  7. Abiotic degradation of plastic films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ángeles-López, Y. G.; Gutiérrez-Mayen, A. M.; Velasco-Pérez, M.; Beltrán-Villavicencio, M.; Vázquez-Morillas, A.; Cano-Blanco, M.

    2017-01-01

    Degradable plastics have been promoted as an option to mitigate the environmental impacts of plastic waste. However, there is no certainty about its degradability under different environmental conditions. The effect of accelerated weathering (AW), natural weathering (NW) and thermal oxidation (TO) on different plastics (high density polyethylene, HDPE; oxodegradable high density polyethylene, HDPE-oxo; compostable plastic, Ecovio ® metalized polypropylene, PP; and oxodegradable metalized polypropylene, PP-oxo) was studied. Plastics films were exposed to AW per 110 hours; to NW per 90 days; and to TO per 30 days. Plastic films exposed to AW and NW showed a general loss on mechanical properties. The highest reduction in elongation at break on AW occurred to HDPE-oxo (from 400.4% to 20.9%) and was higher than 90% for HDPE, HDPE-oxo, Ecovio ® and PP-oxo in NW. No substantial evidence of degradation was found on plastics exposed to TO. Oxo-plastics showed higher degradation rates than their conventional counterparts, and the compostable plastic was resistant to degradation in the studied abiotic conditions. This study shows that degradation of plastics in real life conditions will vary depending in both, their composition and the environment.

  8. Pulled elbow in infancy: diagnostic role of imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scapinelli, Raffaele; Borgo, Andrea

    2005-01-01

    Purpose. Pulled elbow is a common injury in infancy. Typically the child, after a sudden pull, refuses to use the arm. The history and clinical findings are sufficient to make the diagnosis, and radiography or ultrasonography are not necessary. When imaging procedures are performed, a few small signs are useful to confirm the diagnosis of pulled elbow. Materials and methods. The authors reviewed the radiographic and ultrasonographic signs reported to be suggestive of pulled elbow (increased radio-condylar distance, increased radio-coronoid distance, proximal radio-ulnar diastasis, deviation of the radio-condylar line) and attempted to confirm their presence in children affected by this trauma. Results. Increased radio-condylar and radio-coronoid distance were present in 8 of 8 cases: proximal radio-ulnar diastasis and deviation of the radio-condylar line were inconsistently present. Ultrasonography gave contradictory results. Conclusions. In typical cases of pulled elbow, radiography or ultrasonography are not necessary for diagnosis and treatment. imaging procedures are recommended only in the case of non typical history, in the presence of deformity or traumatic skin lesions and in children over six years of age. Increased radio-coronoid distance on the affected side is the most frequent and visible sign, which can confirm the diagnosis of pulled elbow. Increased radio-condylar distance is also present, but it is not easy to visualize. Proximal radio-ulnar diastasis and deviation of the radio-condylar line are inconstant. Ultrasonography is difficult to standardize [it

  9. Durability of wood plastic composites manufactured from recycled plastic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Turku

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of accelerated weathering, xenon-arc light and freeze-thaw cycling on wood plastic composites extruded from a recycled plastic was studied. The results showed that, in general, weathering had a stronger impact on samples made from plastic waste compared to a sample made from virgin material. After weathering, the mechanical properties, tensile and flexural, were reduced by 2–30%, depending on the plastic source. Wettability of the samples was shown to play a significant role in their stability. Chemical analysis with infrared spectroscopy and surface observation with a scan electron microscope confirmed the mechanical test results. Incorporation of carbon black retained the properties during weathering, reducing the wettability of the sample, diminishing the change of mechanical properties, and improving color stability. Keywords: Environmental science, Mechanical engineering, Materials science

  10. Microstructure, plastic deformation and strengthening mechanisms of an Al–Mg–Si alloy with a bimodal grain structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakoori Oskooie, M.; Asgharzadeh, H.; Kim, H.S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Al6063 with bimodal grain structures was fabricated by a powder metallurgy route. • The bimodal alloys showed a reasonable ductility together with a high strength. • Grain boundary strengthening was reduced at higher fraction of coarse grains. • The enhanced tensile ductility was attributed to crack blunting and delamination. - Abstract: Al6063 alloys with bimodal grain size distributions comprised of ultrafine-grained (UFG) and coarse-grained (CG) regions were produced via mechanical milling followed by hot extrusion. High-energy planetary ball milling for 22.5 h with a rotational speed of 350 rpm was employed for the synthesis of nanocrystalline Al6063 powders. The as-milled Al6063 powders were mixed with 15, 30, and 45 vol.% of the unmilled powders and then the powder mixtures were consolidated via extrusion at 450 °C with an extrusion ratio of 9:1. The microstructure of the bimodal extrudates was investigated using optical microscope, transmission electron microscope (TEM) and field emission scanning electron microscope equipped with an electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) detector. The deformation behavior was investigated by means of uniaxial tensile tests. The bimodal Al6063 exhibited balanced mechanical properties, including high yield stress and ultimate tensile strength resulting from the UFG regions together with reasonable ductility attained from the CG areas. The fracture surfaces demonstrated a ductile fracture mode, in which the dimple size was correlated with the grain structure. The strengthening mechanisms are discussed based on the dislocation models and the functions of the CGs in the deformation behavior and ductility enhancement of bimodal Al6063 are explored

  11. Plastic deformation to enhance plasma-assisted nitriding: On surface contamination induced by Surface Mechanical Attrition Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samih, Youssef; Novelli, Marc; Bolle, Bernard; Allain, Nathalie; Fundenberger, Jean-Jacques; Marcos, Grégory; Czerwiec, Thierry; Grosdidier, Thierry; Thiriet, Tony

    2014-01-01

    The Surface Mechanical Attrition Treatment is a recent technique leading to the formation of nanostructured layers by the repeated action of impacting balls. While several communications have revealed possible contamination of the SMATed surfaces, the nature of this surface contamination was analyzed in the present contribution for the treatment of an AISI 316L stainless steel. It is shown, by a combination of Transmission Electron Microscopy and Glow Discharge – Optical Emission Spectrometry, that the surface was alloyed with Ti, Al and V coming from the sonotrode that is used to move the balls as well as Zr coming from the zirshot® balls themselves

  12. Plastic deformation to enhance plasma-assisted nitriding: On surface contamination induced by Surface Mechanical Attrition Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samih, Youssef; Novelli, Marc; Thiriet, Tony; Bolle, Bernard; Allain, Nathalie; Fundenberger, Jean-Jacques; Marcos, Grégory; Czerwiec, Thierry; Grosdidier, Thierry

    2014-08-01

    The Surface Mechanical Attrition Treatment is a recent technique leading to the formation of nanostructured layers by the repeated action of impacting balls. While several communications have revealed possible contamination of the SMATed surfaces, the nature of this surface contamination was analyzed in the present contribution for the treatment of an AISI 316L stainless steel. It is shown, by a combination of Transmission Electron Microscopy and Glow Discharge - Optical Emission Spectrometry, that the surface was alloyed with Ti, Al and V coming from the sonotrode that is used to move the balls as well as Zr coming from the zirshot® balls themselves.

  13. Comparison of mechanical properties of multi-walled carbon nanotube and graphene nanosheet/polyethylene oxide composites plasticized with lithium triflate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurkane, A.; Gaidukov, S.

    2017-10-01

    A strong engineering interest in nanostructured conducting polymers and its composite materials have been widely used to build various sensor devices, electronic interconnect devices, fuel cells and batteries. Preparation of polymeric nano-composites with finely controlled structure, especially, at nano-scale, is still one of the most perspective modification ways of the properties of polymeric composites. Multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/polyethylene oxide (PEO) and graphene nanosheets (GR)/PEO composites and composite of MWCNT/GR/PEO were prepared by solution casting and hot-pressing method. Composites were plasticized by 5% of Lithium triflate (LiTrifl), which play role of additional ion source in conducting polymer composite. Mechanical tensile tests were performed to evaluate nanoparticles influence on the mechanical strength of the conductive polymer composite materials. Difference of tensile tests of prepared composition can be seen from tensile tests data curves. The results of tensile tests indicated that the nanoparticles can provide PEO/5%LiTrifl composite with stiffening effects at rather low filler content (at least 0.05% by volume).

  14. Current Concept and Update of the Macrophage Plasticity Concept: Intracellular Mechanisms of Reprogramming and M3 Macrophage “Switch” Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malyshev, Igor; Malyshev, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages play a key role in immunity. In this review, we consider the traditional notion of macrophage plasticity, data that do not fit into existing concepts, and a hypothesis for existence of a new switch macrophage phenotype. Depending on the microenvironment, macrophages can reprogram their phenotype toward the proinflammatory M1 phenotype or toward the anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype. Macrophage reprogramming involves well-coordinated changes in activities of signalling and posttranslational mechanisms. Macrophage reprogramming is provided by JNK-, PI3K/Akt-, Notch-, JAK/STAT-, TGF-β-, TLR/NF-κB-, and hypoxia-dependent pathways. Posttranscriptional regulation is based on micro-mRNA. We have hypothesized that, in addition to the M1 and M2 phenotypes, an M3 switch phenotype exists. This switch phenotype responds to proinflammatory stimuli with reprogramming towards the anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype or, contrarily, it responds to anti-inflammatory stimuli with reprogramming towards the proinflammatory M1 phenotype. We have found signs of such a switch phenotype in lung diseases. Understanding the mechanisms of macrophage reprogramming will assist in the selection of new therapeutic targets for correction of impaired immunity. PMID:26366410

  15. Effect of Hybrid Talc-Basalt Fillers in the Shell Layer on Thermal and Mechanical Performance of Co-Extruded Wood Plastic Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Runzhou; Mei, Changtong; Xu, Xinwu; Kärki, Timo; Lee, Sunyoung; Wu, Qinglin

    2015-12-08

    Hybrid basalt fiber (BF) and Talc filled high density polyethylene (HDPE) and co-extruded wood-plastic composites (WPCs) with different BF/Talc/HDPE composition levels in the shell were prepared and their mechanical, morphological and thermal properties were characterized. Incorporating BFs into the HDPE-Talc composite substantially enhanced the thermal expansion property, flexural, tensile and dynamic modulus without causing a significant decrease in the tensile and impact strength of the composites. Strain energy estimation suggested positive and better interfacial interactions of HDPE with BFs than that with talc. The co-extruded structure design improved the mechanical properties of WPC due to the protective shell layer. The composite flexural and impact strength properties increased, and the thermal expansion decreased as BF content increased in the hybrid BF/Talc filled shells. The cone calorimetry data demonstrated that flame resistance of co-extruded WPCs was improved with the use of combined fillers in the shell layer, especially with increased loading of BFs. The combined shell filler system with BFs and Talc could offer a balance between cost and performance for co-extruded WPCs.

  16. OPTICAL PULLING FORCES IN “NANOPARTICLES DIMER IN THE STRUCTURED FIELD” SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Sukhov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject area of this research is optical pulling forces as one of the manifestations of light mechanical action on material objects. In particular, we investigated optical forces acting on a dimer composed of nanoparticles with a small radius as compared to wavelength. The calculation of Lorentz optical forces was carried out by solving self-consistent system of equations, which made it possible to calculate electromagnetic fields in every point of the structure. We worked out analytic formula, representing the dependence of optical force on the parameters of dimer system and structured radiation made up of two crossing plane waves. For the first time we showed that dimer consisting of two equal dipolar particles can experience an optical pulling force (“negative radiation pressure” in the field of two crossing plane waves. It is shown that the increase of photons momentum (the projection of photons momentum on the direction of structured light propagation after scattering is responsible for this negative radiation pressure. The corresponding scattering diagram showed the increase of forward scattering, that is the conformation of the considered mechanism of pulling forces origination. Our findings would be very useful for increasing capabilities of optical manipulation of nano- and micro-particles.

  17. Effect of ionizing radiation on physicochemical and mechanical properties of commercial multilayer coextruded flexible plastics packaging materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goulas, A.E.; Riganakos, K.A.; Kontominas, M.G.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of gamma radiation (doses: 5, 10 and 30 kGy) on mechanical properties, gas and water vapour permeability and overall migration values into distilled water, 3% aqueous acetic acid and iso-octane was studied for a series of commercial multilayer flexible packaging materials based on coextruded polypropylene (PP), ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVOH), low-density polyethylene (LDPE), linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE), polyamide (PA) and Ionomer. The results showed that radiation doses of 5 and 10 kGy induced no statistically significant differences (p>0.05) in all polymer properties examined. A dose of 30 kGy induced differences (p<0.05) in the mechanical properties of PA/LDPE, LDPE/EVOH/LDPE and LDPE/PA/Ionomer films. In addition, the same dose induced differences (p<0.05) in the overall migration from Ionomer/EVOH/LDPE and LDPE/PA/Ionomer films into 3% acetic acid and iso-octane and in the overall migration from PP/EVOH/LDPE-LLDPE into iso-octane. Differences recorded, are discussed in relation to food irradiation applications of respective packaging materials

  18. Using Metaheuristic and Fuzzy System for the Optimization of Material Pull in a Push-Pull Flow Logistics Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Mehrsai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Alternative material flow strategies in logistics networks have crucial influences on the overall performance of the networks. Material flows can follow push, pull, or hybrid systems. To get the advantages of both push and pull flows in networks, the decoupling-point strategy is used as coordination mean. At this point, material pull has to get optimized concerning customer orders against pushed replenishment-rates. To compensate the ambiguity and uncertainty of both dynamic flows, fuzzy set theory can practically be applied. This paper has conceptual and mathematical parts to explain the performance of the push-pull flow strategy in a supply network and to give a novel solution for optimizing the pull side employing Conwip system. Alternative numbers of pallets and their lot-sizes circulating in the assembly system are getting optimized in accordance with a multi-objective problem; employing a hybrid approach out of meta-heuristics (genetic algorithm and simulated annealing and fuzzy system. Two main fuzzy sets as triangular and trapezoidal are applied in this technique for estimating ill-defined waiting times. The configured technique leads to smoother flows between push and pull sides in complex networks. A discrete-event simulation model is developed to analyze this thesis in an exemplary logistics network with dynamics.

  19. Effect of ionizing radiation on physicochemical and mechanical properties of commercial multilayer coextruded flexible plastics packaging materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulas, Antonios E.; Riganakos, Kyriakos A.; Kontominas, Michael G.

    2003-12-01

    The effect of gamma radiation (doses: 5, 10 and 30 kGy) on mechanical properties, gas and water vapour permeability and overall migration values into distilled water, 3% aqueous acetic acid and iso-octane was studied for a series of commercial multilayer flexible packaging materials based on coextruded polypropylene (PP), ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVOH), low-density polyethylene (LDPE), linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE), polyamide (PA) and Ionomer. The results showed that radiation doses of 5 and 10 kGy induced no statistically significant differences ( p>0.05) in all polymer properties examined. A dose of 30 kGy induced differences ( pfilms. In addition, the same dose induced differences ( pfilms into 3% acetic acid and iso-octane and in the overall migration from PP/EVOH/LDPE-LLDPE into iso-octane. Differences recorded, are discussed in relation to food irradiation applications of respective packaging materials.

  20. Effect of the yarn pull-out velocity of shear thickening fluid-impregnated Kevlar fabric on the coefficient of friction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aikarami, Sh [Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kordani, N. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, University of Mazandaran, Mazandaran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadough, Vanini A. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Amiri, H. [Technical Campus, Tehran South Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran(Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    This study explains the yarn pull-out process behavior of woven fabrics in relation to their mechanical properties. Empirical research on the relationship between the yarn pull-out behavior and fabric properties are evaluated, along with a detailed comparison of friction between the fabric fibers in static and dynamic modes. Samples are tested in three modes, namely, neat, dissolved liquid, and silica particle- based Shear thickening fluid (STF)-treated fabric. Accordingly, the presence of STF increases friction between the fabrics and the warp and weft yarns, as well as prevents the displacement of the yarns. Increased friction also leads to an increase in the energy absorption of the yarn pull-out process. In this research, the pull-out test has been performed at three different velocities: 50, 250 and 500 mm/min. Results show that increases in the pull-out velocity increase the pull-out force of the neat and dissolved liquid samples. By contrast, the behavior is completely opposite in the STF-treated sample. Comparing the yarn pull-out values indicates that the STF-treated samples have the highest value, which is approximately three times higher than that of the neat sample.

  1. Effect of the yarn pull-out velocity of shear thickening fluid-impregnated Kevlar fabric on the coefficient of friction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aikarami, Sh; Kordani, N.; Sadough, Vanini A.; Amiri, H.

    2016-01-01

    This study explains the yarn pull-out process behavior of woven fabrics in relation to their mechanical properties. Empirical research on the relationship between the yarn pull-out behavior and fabric properties are evaluated, along with a detailed comparison of friction between the fabric fibers in static and dynamic modes. Samples are tested in three modes, namely, neat, dissolved liquid, and silica particle- based Shear thickening fluid (STF)-treated fabric. Accordingly, the presence of STF increases friction between the fabrics and the warp and weft yarns, as well as prevents the displacement of the yarns. Increased friction also leads to an increase in the energy absorption of the yarn pull-out process. In this research, the pull-out test has been performed at three different velocities: 50, 250 and 500 mm/min. Results show that increases in the pull-out velocity increase the pull-out force of the neat and dissolved liquid samples. By contrast, the behavior is completely opposite in the STF-treated sample. Comparing the yarn pull-out values indicates that the STF-treated samples have the highest value, which is approximately three times higher than that of the neat sample

  2. Step-wise pulling protocols for non-equilibrium dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Van Anh

    The fundamental laws of thermodynamics and statistical mechanics, and the deeper understandings of quantum mechanics have been rebuilt in recent years. It is partly because of the increasing power of computing resources nowadays, that allow shedding direct insights into the connections among the thermodynamics laws, statistical nature of our world, and the concepts of quantum mechanics, which have not yet been understood. But mostly, the most important reason, also the ultimate goal, is to understand the mechanisms, statistics and dynamics of biological systems, whose prevailing non-equilibrium processes violate the fundamental laws of thermodynamics, deviate from statistical mechanics, and finally complicate quantum effects. I believe that investigations of the fundamental laws of non-equilibrium dynamics will be a frontier research for at least several more decades. One of the fundamental laws was first discovered in 1997 by Jarzynski, so-called Jarzynski's Equality. Since then, different proofs, alternative descriptions of Jarzynski's Equality, and its further developments and applications have been quickly accumulated. My understandings, developments and applications of an alternative theory on Jarzynski's Equality form the bulk of this dissertation. The core of my theory is based on stepwise pulling protocols, which provide deeper insight into how fluctuations of reaction coordinates contribute to free-energy changes along a reaction pathway. We find that the most optimal pathways, having the largest contribution to free-energy changes, follow the principle of detailed balance. This is a glimpse of why the principle of detailed balance appears so powerful for sampling the most probable statistics of events. In a further development on Jarzynski's Equality, I have been trying to use it in the formalism of diagonal entropy to propose a way to extract useful thermodynamic quantities such temperature, work and free-energy profiles from far

  3. Constraints on the evolution of phenotypic plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murren, Courtney J; Auld, Josh R.; Callahan, Hilary S

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is ubiquitous and generally regarded as a key mechanism for enabling organisms to survive in the face of environmental change. Because no organism is infinitely or ideally plastic, theory suggests that there must be limits (for example, the lack of ability to produce...... an optimal trait) to the evolution of phenotypic plasticity, or that plasticity may have inherent significant costs. Yet numerous experimental studies have not detected widespread costs. Explicitly differentiating plasticity costs from phenotype costs, we re-evaluate fundamental questions of the limits...... to the evolution of plasticity and of generalists vs specialists. We advocate for the view that relaxed selection and variable selection intensities are likely more important constraints to the evolution of plasticity than the costs of plasticity. Some forms of plasticity, such as learning, may be inherently...

  4. Magical Engineering Plastic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Gwang Ung

    1988-01-15

    This book introduces engineering plastic about advantage of engineering plastic, plastic material from processing method, plastic shock, plastic until now, background of making of engineering plastic, wonderful engineering plastic science such as a high molecule and molecule, classification of high molecule, difference between metal and high molecule, heat and high molecule materials, and property of surface, engineering plastic of dream like from linseed oil to aramid, small dictionary of engineering plastic.

  5. Magical Engineering Plastic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gwang Ung

    1988-01-01

    This book introduces engineering plastic about advantage of engineering plastic, plastic material from processing method, plastic shock, plastic until now, background of making of engineering plastic, wonderful engineering plastic science such as a high molecule and molecule, classification of high molecule, difference between metal and high molecule, heat and high molecule materials, and property of surface, engineering plastic of dream like from linseed oil to aramid, small dictionary of engineering plastic.

  6. Hyperoxia-induced developmental plasticity of the hypoxic ventilatory response in neonatal rats: contributions of glutamate-dependent and PDGF-dependent mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavis, Ryan W; DeAngelis, Kathryn J; Horowitz, Terry C; Reedich, Lisa M; March, Ryan J

    2014-01-15

    Rats reared in hyperoxia exhibit a sustained (vs. biphasic) hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) at an earlier age than untreated, Control rats. Given the similarity between the sustained HVR obtained after chronic exposure to developmental hyperoxia and the mature HVR, it was hypothesized that hyperoxia-induced plasticity and normal maturation share common mechanisms such as enhanced glutamate and nitric oxide signaling and diminished platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) signaling. Rats reared in 21% O2 (Control) or 60% O2 (Hyperoxia) from birth until 4-5 days of age were studied after intraperitoneal injection of drugs targeting these pathways. Hyperoxia rats receiving saline showed a sustained HVR to 12% O2, but blockade of NMDA glutamate receptors (MK-801) restored the biphasic HVR typical of newborn rats. Blockade of PDGF-β receptors (imatinib) had no effect on the pattern of the HVR in Hyperoxia rats, although it attenuated ventilatory depression during the late phase of the HVR in Control rats. Neither nitric oxide synthase inhibitor used in this study (nNOS inhibitor I and l-NAME) altered the pattern of the HVR in Control or Hyperoxia rats. Drug-induced changes in the biphasic HVR were not correlated with changes in metabolic rate. Collectively, these results suggest that developmental hyperoxia hastens the transition from a biphasic to sustained HVR by upregulating glutamate-dependent mechanisms and downregulating PDGF-dependent mechanisms, similar to the changes underlying normal postnatal maturation of the biphasic HVR. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Mixed plastics recycling technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hegberg, Bruce

    1995-01-01

    Presents an overview of mixed plastics recycling technology. In addition, it characterizes mixed plastics wastes and describes collection methods, costs, and markets for reprocessed plastics products.

  8. Pervasive plastic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-05-01

    Human manipulation of hydrocarbons — as fuel and raw materials for modern society — has changed our world and the indelible imprint we will leave in the rock record. Plastics alone have permeated our lives and every corner of our planet.

  9. Plastic fish

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    In terms of weight, the plastic pollution in the world’s oceans is estimated to be around 300,000 tonnes. This plastic comes from both land-based and ocean-based sources. A lecture at CERN by chemist Wolfgang Trettnak addressed this issue and highlighted the role of art in raising people’s awareness.   Artwork by Wolfgang Trettnak. Packaging materials, consumer goods (shoes, kids’ toys, etc.), leftovers from fishing and aquaculture activities… our oceans and beaches are full of plastic litter. Most of the debris from beaches is plastic bottles. “PET bottles have high durability and stability,” explains Wolfgang Trettnak, a chemist by education and artist from Austria, who gave a lecture on this topic organised by the Staff Association at CERN on 26 May. “PET degrades very slowly and the estimated lifetime of a bottle is 450 years.” In addition to the beach litter accumulated from human use, rivers bring several ki...

  10. Plastic deformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sitter, de L.U.

    1937-01-01

    § 1. Plastic deformation of solid matter under high confining pressures has been insufficiently studied. Jeffreys 1) devotes a few paragraphs to deformation of solid matter as a preface to his chapter on the isostasy problem. He distinguishes two properties of solid matter with regard to its

  11. KOMPARASI SISTEM MANUFAKTUR PUSH DAN PULL MELALUI PENDEKATAN SIMULASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Wibisono

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Manufacturing systems that are often classified as push and pull often invite question: "How far do the differences between those two systems exist?" Many researches have been carried out but succinct answer to the above question is always difficult to reach. The difficulty roots from the variety of definition of the push and pull systems itself and also from the variety of complexity of a manufacturing system. This paper attempts to study the differences in performance between push and pull systems in a relatively simple model that consists of 4 serial processors with buffers located between these processors. Variations being modelled is on the setting of the system's load (high and low and the buffer size with performance being measured include machine utilization, number of outputs and mean flow time of jobs. The approach used is simulation using ProModel software as the tool. From the experiments it can be derived that buffer size turns out to be a very critical factor in system performance. Moreover, it is also proved that when the buffer size is large, push and pull systems do not differ significantly. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Sistem manufaktur yang umumnya dikategorikan menjadi sistem push dan pull sering mengundang pertanyaan: "Seberapa jauh perbedaan dari kedua sistem tersebut ada?" Banyak penelitian telah dilakukan namun jawaban yang lugas atas pertanyaan tersebut sulit diperoleh. Kesulitan ini umumnya berakar dari beragamnya definisi sistem push dan pull itu sendiri serta variasi dari kompleksitas suatu sistem manufaktur. Makalah ini mencoba melihat perbedaan antara kinerja sistem push dan pull dalam suatu model sederhana yang terdiri dari 4 prosesor serial dengan buffer yang diletakkan di antara masing-masing prosesor tersebut. Variasi yang dilakukan adalah pada setting beban kerja sistem (padat dan ringan dan ukuran buffer dengan kinerja yang diukur adalah utilisasi mesin, jumlah output dan rata-rata waktu tinggal job

  12. Caloric restriction increases learning consolidation and facilitates synaptic plasticity through mechanisms dependent on NR2B subunits of the NMDA receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontán-Lozano, Angela; Sáez-Cassanelli, José Luis; Inda, Mari Carmen; de los Santos-Arteaga, Mercedes; Sierra-Domínguez, Sergio Antonio; López-Lluch, Guillermo; Delgado-García, José María; Carrión, Angel Manuel

    2007-09-19

    One of the main focal points of aging research is the search for treatments that will prevent or ameliorate the learning and memory deficiencies associated with aging. Here we have examined the effects of maintaining mature mice on a long-term intermittent fasting diet (L-IFD). We found that L-IFD enhances learning and consolidation processes. We also assessed the long-term changes in synaptic efficiency in these animals. L-IFD mice showed an increase in low-theta-band oscillations, paired-pulse facilitation, and facilitation of long-term synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus with respect to mice fed ad libitum. In addition, we found an increase in the expression of the NMDA receptor subunit NR2B in some brain areas of L-IFD mice. Specific antagonism of this subunit in the hippocampus reversed the beneficial effects of L-IFD. These data provide a molecular and cellular mechanism by which L-IFD may enhance cognition, ameliorating some aging-associated cognitive deficits.

  13. Cambrian origin of the CYP27C1-mediated vitamin A1-to-A2 switch, a key mechanism of vertebrate sensory plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morshedian, Ala; Toomery, Matthew B.; Pollock, Gabriel E.; Frederiksen, Rikard; Enright, Jennifer; McCormick, Stephen; Cornwall, M. Carter; Fain, Gordon L.; Corbo, Joseph C.

    2017-01-01

    The spectral composition of ambient light varies across both space and time. Many species of jawed vertebrates adapt to this variation by tuning the sensitivity of their photoreceptors via the expression of CYP27C1, an enzyme that converts vitamin A1 into vitamin A2, thereby shifting the ratio of vitamin A1-based rhodopsin to red-shifted vitamin A2-based porphyropsin in the eye. Here, we show that the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), a jawless vertebrate that diverged from jawed vertebrates during the Cambrian period (approx. 500 Ma), dynamically shifts its photoreceptor spectral sensitivity via vitamin A1-to-A2 chromophore exchange as it transitions between photically divergent aquatic habitats. We further show that this shift correlates with high-level expression of the lamprey orthologue of CYP27C1, specifically in the retinal pigment epithelium as in jawed vertebrates. Our results suggest that the CYP27C1-mediated vitamin A1-to-A2 switch is an evolutionarily ancient mechanism of sensory plasticity that appeared not long after the origin of vertebrates.

  14. Activity-dependent shedding of the NMDA receptor glycine binding site by matrix metalloproteinase 3: a PUTATIVE mechanism of postsynaptic plasticity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Pauly

    Full Text Available Functional and structural alterations of clustered postsynaptic ligand gated ion channels in neuronal cells are thought to contribute to synaptic plasticity and memory formation in the human brain. Here, we describe a novel molecular mechanism for structural alterations of NR1 subunits of the NMDA receptor. In cultured rat spinal cord neurons, chronic NMDA receptor stimulation induces disappearance of extracellular epitopes of NMDA receptor NR1 subunits, which was prevented by inhibiting matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs. Immunoblotting revealed the digestion of solubilized NR1 subunits by MMP-3 and identified a fragment of about 60 kDa as MMPs-activity-dependent cleavage product of the NR1 subunit in cultured neurons. The expression of MMP-3 in the spinal cord culture was shown by immunoblotting and immunofluorescence microscopy. Recombinant NR1 glycine binding protein was used to identify MMP-3 cleavage sites within the extracellular S1 and S2-domains. N-terminal sequencing and site-directed mutagenesis revealed S542 and L790 as two putative major MMP-3 cleavage sites of the NR1 subunit. In conclusion, our data indicate that MMPs, and in particular MMP-3, are involved in the activity dependent alteration of NMDA receptor structure at postsynaptic membrane specializations in the CNS.

  15. Activity-dependent shedding of the NMDA receptor glycine binding site by matrix metalloproteinase 3: a PUTATIVE mechanism of postsynaptic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, Thorsten; Ratliff, Miriam; Pietrowski, Eweline; Neugebauer, Rainer; Schlicksupp, Andrea; Kirsch, Joachim; Kuhse, Jochen

    2008-07-16

    Functional and structural alterations of clustered postsynaptic ligand gated ion channels in neuronal cells are thought to contribute to synaptic plasticity and memory formation in the human brain. Here, we describe a novel molecular mechanism for structural alterations of NR1 subunits of the NMDA receptor. In cultured rat spinal cord neurons, chronic NMDA receptor stimulation induces disappearance of extracellular epitopes of NMDA receptor NR1 subunits, which was prevented by inhibiting matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Immunoblotting revealed the digestion of solubilized NR1 subunits by MMP-3 and identified a fragment of about 60 kDa as MMPs-activity-dependent cleavage product of the NR1 subunit in cultured neurons. The expression of MMP-3 in the spinal cord culture was shown by immunoblotting and immunofluorescence microscopy. Recombinant NR1 glycine binding protein was used to identify MMP-3 cleavage sites within the extracellular S1 and S2-domains. N-terminal sequencing and site-directed mutagenesis revealed S542 and L790 as two putative major MMP-3 cleavage sites of the NR1 subunit. In conclusion, our data indicate that MMPs, and in particular MMP-3, are involved in the activity dependent alteration of NMDA receptor structure at postsynaptic membrane specializations in the CNS.

  16. A proposal for evaluation method of crack growth due to cyclic overload for piping materials based on an elastic-plastic fracture mechanics parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Yoshihito; Katsuyama, Jinya; Onizawa, Kunio; Li, Yinsheng; Sugino, Hideharu

    2011-01-01

    The magnitude of Niigata-ken Chuetsu-Oki earthquake in 2007 was beyond the assumed one provided in seismic design. Therefore it becomes an important issue to evaluate the crack growth behaviors due to the cyclic overload like large earthquake. Fatigue crack growth is usually evaluated by Paris's law using the range of stress intensity factor (ΔK). However, ΔK is inappropriate in a loading condition beyond small scale yielding. In this study, the crack growth behaviors for piping materials were investigated based on an elastic-plastic fracture mechanics parameter, J-integral. It was indicated that the crack growth due to the cyclic overload beyond small scale yielding could be the sum of fatigue and ductile crack growth. The retardation effect of excessive loading on the crack growth was observed after the loading. The modified Wheeler model using J-integral has been proposed for the prediction of retardation effect. Finally, an evaluation method for crack growth behaviors due to the cyclic overload is suggested. (author)

  17. Effect of heat treatment and plastic deformation on the structure and the mechanical properties of nitrogen-bearing 04N9Kh2A steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinov, V. M.; Bannykh, O. A.; Lukin, E. I.; Kostina, M. V.; Blinov, E. V.

    2014-11-01

    The effect of the conditions of heat treatment and plastic deformation on the structure and the mechanical properties of low-carbon martensitic nickel steel (9 wt % Ni) with an overequilibrium nitrogen content is studied. The limiting strain to failure of 04N9Kh2A steel is found to be 40% at a rolling temperature of 20°C and 80% at a rolling temperature of 900°C. Significant strengthening of the steel (σ0.2 = 1089 MPa) is obtained after rolling at a reduction of 40% at 20°C. The start and final temperatures of the α → γ transformation on heating and those of the γ → α transformation on cooling are determined by dilatometry. The specific features of the formation of the steel structure have been revealed as functions of the annealing and tempering temperatures. Electron-microscopic studies show that, after quenching from 850°C and tempering at 600°C for 1 h, the structure contains packet martensite with thin interlayers of retained austenite between martensite crystals. The strength of the nitrogen-bearing 04N9Kh2A steel after quenching from 850 and 900°C, cooling in water, and subsequent tempering at 500°C for 1 h is significantly higher than that of carboncontaining 0H9 steel used in cryogenic engineering.

  18. Modification of carbon fabrics by radio-frequency capacitive discharge at low pressure to regulate mechanical properties of carbon fiber reinforced plastics based on it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garifullin, A R; Krasina, I V; Skidchenko, E A; Shaekhov, M F; Tikhonova, N V

    2017-01-01

    To increase the values of mechanical properties of carbon fiber (CF) composite materials used in sports equipment production the method of radio-frequency capacitive (RFC) low-pressure plasma treatment in air was proposed. Previously it was found that this type of modification allows to effectively regulate the surface properties of fibers of different nature. This treatment method differs from the traditional ones by efficiency and environmental friendliness as it does not require the use of aggressive, environmentally hazardous chemicals. In this paper it was established that RFC low-pressure air plasma treatment of carbon fabrics enhances the interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP). As a result of experimental studies of CF by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy method it was proved that after radio-frequency capacitive plasma treatment at low pressure in air the oxygen-containing functional groups is grafted on the surface. These groups improve adhesion at the interface “matrix-fiber”. (paper)

  19. Oil pulling and importance of traditional medicine in oral health maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseem, Mustafa; Khiyani, Muhammad Faheem; Nauman, Hiba; Zafar, Muhammad Sohail; Shah, Altaf H; Khalil, Hesham S

    2017-01-01

    Dental diseases have detrimental effects on the functionality and quality of life of individuals. In addition, a strong relationship has been established between various oral and systemic diseases. In fact, the prevention and treatment of dental caries and periodontal disease have been shown to reduce the risk of diabetes and heart disease significantly. This goes beyond the role of oral health as a means to identify early manifestations of systemic diseases in the oral cavity. It highlights the necessity of maintaining an optimal oral hygiene to significantly modify the risk factors for serious systemic diseases. The use of oil pulling can be frequently found in ancient medical text and is supported by recent studies for its efficacy and long-term use for maintaining and improving oral health. This article provides an overview on the concept of oil pulling or oil swishing, its mechanism of action and a summary of the evidence available, which highlights the role of oil pulling in specific oral diseases. The goal of this review is to highlight the ancient procedure that has the potential to be used as an adjunct to conventional chemical means of dental plaque control, such as mouth rinses. Incorporating oil swishing as a component of daily oral hygiene can significantly improve oral and general health, specifically in lower socioeconomic groups and rural communities that may have interrupted access to health-care services and dental products such as dentifrices and mouth washes due to various factors; availability and affordability being the most important.

  20. plastic waste recycling

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Ahmed

    incinerators is increasing around the world. Discarded plastic products ... Agency (EPA) estimated that the amount of plastics throw away is. 50 % greater in the ... The waste plastics were identified using the Society of the Plastic. Industry (SPI) ...

  1. Pulling cylindrical particles using a soft-nonparaxial tractor beam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novitsky, Andrey; Ding, Weiqiang; Wang, Maoyan

    2017-01-01

    In order to pull objects towards the light source a single tractor beam inevitably needs to be strongly nonparaxial. This stringent requirement makes such a tractor beam somewhat hypothetical. Here we reveal that the cylindrical shape of dielectric particles can effectively mitigate the nonparaxi......In order to pull objects towards the light source a single tractor beam inevitably needs to be strongly nonparaxial. This stringent requirement makes such a tractor beam somewhat hypothetical. Here we reveal that the cylindrical shape of dielectric particles can effectively mitigate...... the nonparaxiality requirements, reducing the incidence angle of the partial plane waves of the light beam down to 45 degrees and even to 30 degrees for respectively dipole and dipole-quadrupole objects. The optical pulling force attributed to the interaction of magnetic dipole and magnetic quadrupole moments...... and sorting of targeted particles....

  2. Pulling a polymer with anisotropic stiffness near a sticky wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabbara, R; Owczarek, A L

    2012-01-01

    We solve exactly a two-dimensional partially directed walk model of a semi-flexible polymer that has one end tethered to a sticky wall, while a pulling force away from the adsorbing surface acts on the free end of the walk. This model generalizes a number of previously considered adsorption models by incorporating individual horizontal and vertical stiffness effects, in competition with a variable pulling angle. A solution to the corresponding generating function is found by means of the kernel method. While the phases and related phase transitions are similar in nature to those found previously the analysis of the model in terms of its physical variables highlights various novel structures in the shapes of the phase diagrams and related behaviour of the polymer. We review the results of previously considered sub-cases, augmenting these findings to include analysis with respect to the model’s physical variables—namely, temperature, pulling force, pulling angle away from the surface, stiffness strength and the ratio of vertical to horizontal stiffness potentials, with our subsequent analysis for the general model focusing on the effect that stiffness has on this pulling angle range. In analysing the model with stiffness we also pay special attention to the case where only vertical stiffness is included. The physical analysis of this case reveals behaviour more closely resembling that of an upward pulling force acting on a polymer than it does of a model where horizontal stiffness acts. The stiffness–temperature phase diagram exhibits re-entrance for low temperatures, previously only seen for three-dimensional or co-polymer models. For the most general model we delineate the shift in the physical behaviour as we change the ratio of vertical to horizontal stiffness between the horizontal-only and the vertical-only stiffness regimes. We find that a number of distinct physical characteristics will only be observed for a model where the vertical stiffness dominates

  3. INTERSESSION RELIABILITY OF UPPER EXTREMITY ISOKINETIC PUSH-PULL TESTING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemann, Bryan L; Davis, Sarah E; Huet, Kevin; Davies, George J

    2016-02-01

    Based on the frequency pushing and pulling patterns are used in functional activities, there is a need to establish an objective method of quantifying the muscle performance characteristics associated with these motions, particularly during the later stages of rehabilitation as criteria for discharge. While isokinetic assessment offers an approach to quantifying muscle performance, little is known about closed kinetic chain (CKC) isokinetic testing of the upper extremity (UE). To determine the intersession reliability of isokinetic upper extremity measurement of pushing and pulling peak force and average power at slow (0.24 m/s), medium (0.43 m/s) and fast (0.61 m/s) velocities in healthy young adults. The secondary purpose was to compare pushing and pulling peak force (PF) and average power (AP) between the upper extremity limbs (dominant, non-dominant) across the three velocities. Twenty-four physically active men and women completed a test-retest (>96 hours) protocol in order to establish isokinetic UE CKC reliability of PF and AP during five maximal push and pull repetitions at three velocities. Both limb and speed orders were randomized between subjects. High test-retest relative reliability using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC2, 1) were revealed for PF (.91-.97) and AP (.85-.95) across velocities, limbs and directions. PF typical error (% coefficient of variation) ranged from 6.1% to 11.3% while AP ranged from 9.9% to 26.7%. PF decreased significantly (p pushing were significantly greater than pulling at all velocities, however the push-pull differences in PF became less as velocity increased. There were no significant differences identified between the dominant and nondominant limbs. Isokinetically derived UE CKC push-pull PF and AP are reliable measures. The lack of limb differences in healthy normal participants suggests that clinicians can consider bilateral comparisons when interpreting test performance. The increase in pushing PF and

  4. A demonstration of NIOSH push-pull ventilation criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, M K

    1987-03-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a study performed on an actual chrome plating tank in order to validate criteria for push-pull ventilation systems developed by Huebener and Hughes at NIOSH. Validation of the criteria was made by taking area industrial hygiene samples for hexavalent and total chrome at ten locations around the plating tank. The sampling was performed during actual production runs or while the tank was operating with a dummy load. The sampling data are summarized. The data show that the push-pull system, operating at Huebener's criteria, could control emissions to below the current standards and guidelines. Conclusions and recommendations are included.

  5. Push-pull optical pumping of pure superposition states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jau, Y.-Y.; Miron, E.; Post, A.B.; Kuzma, N.N.; Happer, W.

    2004-01-01

    A new optical pumping method, 'push-pull pumping', can produce very nearly pure, coherent superposition states between the initial and the final sublevels of the important field-independent 0-0 clock resonance of alkali-metal atoms. The key requirement for push-pull pumping is the use of D1 resonant light which alternates between left and right circular polarization at the Bohr frequency of the state. The new pumping method works for a wide range of conditions, including atomic beams with almost no collisions, and atoms in buffer gases with pressures of many atmospheres

  6. 14 mrad Extraction Line Optics for Push-Pull

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosochkov, Y.; Moffeit, K.; Seryi, A.; Morse, W.; Parker, B.

    2007-01-01

    The ILC design is based on a single Interaction Region (IR) with 14 mrad crossing angle and two detectors in the 'push-pull' configuration, where the detectors can alternately occupy the Interaction Point (IP). Consequently, the IR optics must be compatible with different size detectors designed for different distance L* between the IP and the nearest quadrupole. This paper presents the push-pull optics for the ILC extraction line compatible with L*= 3.5 m to 4.5 m, and the simulation results of extraction beam loss at 500 GeV CM with detector solenoid

  7. Multiscale Modeling of Polycrystalline NiTi Shape Memory Alloy under Various Plastic Deformation Conditions by Coupling Microstructure Evolution and Macroscopic Mechanical Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Li; Jiang, Shuyong; Zhou, Tao; Tu, Jian; Shi, Laixin; Chen, Qiang; Yang, Mingbo

    2017-10-13

    Numerical modeling of microstructure evolution in various regions during uniaxial compression and canning compression of NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA) are studied through combined macroscopic and microscopic finite element simulation in order to investigate plastic deformation of NiTi SMA at 400 °C. In this approach, the macroscale material behavior is modeled with a relatively coarse finite element mesh, and then the corresponding deformation history in some selected regions in this mesh is extracted by the sub-model technique of finite element code ABAQUS and subsequently used as boundary conditions for the microscale simulation by means of crystal plasticity finite element method (CPFEM). Simulation results show that NiTi SMA exhibits an inhomogeneous plastic deformation at the microscale. Moreover, regions that suffered canning compression sustain more homogeneous plastic deformation by comparison with the corresponding regions subjected to uniaxial compression. The mitigation of inhomogeneous plastic deformation contributes to reducing the statistically stored dislocation (SSD) density in polycrystalline aggregation and also to reducing the difference of stress level in various regions of deformed NiTi SMA sample, and therefore sustaining large plastic deformation in the canning compression process.

  8. Multiscale Modeling of Polycrystalline NiTi Shape Memory Alloy under Various Plastic Deformation Conditions by Coupling Microstructure Evolution and Macroscopic Mechanical Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Hu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Numerical modeling of microstructure evolution in various regions during uniaxial compression and canning compression of NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA are studied through combined macroscopic and microscopic finite element simulation in order to investigate plastic deformation of NiTi SMA at 400 °C. In this approach, the macroscale material behavior is modeled with a relatively coarse finite element mesh, and then the corresponding deformation history in some selected regions in this mesh is extracted by the sub-model technique of finite element code ABAQUS and subsequently used as boundary conditions for the microscale simulation by means of crystal plasticity finite element method (CPFEM. Simulation results show that NiTi SMA exhibits an inhomogeneous plastic deformation at the microscale. Moreover, regions that suffered canning compression sustain more homogeneous plastic deformation by comparison with the corresponding regions subjected to uniaxial compression. The mitigation of inhomogeneous plastic deformation contributes to reducing the statistically stored dislocation (SSD density in polycrystalline aggregation and also to reducing the difference of stress level in various regions of deformed NiTi SMA sample, and therefore sustaining large plastic deformation in the canning compression process.

  9. Developmental plasticity: Friend or foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, Karin B

    2017-01-01

    Developmental plasticity - the concept that adaptation to changing and unfavorable environmental conditions are possible but may come at the price of compromised health potentials - has evolutionary grounding as it facilitates survival but dissents with fundamental evolutionary principles in that it may advance the lesser fit. It is an important cornerstone of the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD). Unlike evolutionary adaptation developmental plasticity may be short-lived and restricted to one or few generations and inheritance is uncertain. Potential mechanisms include epigenetic modifications adopted in utero which may not transmit to the next generation; future insights may allow adjustments of the outcomes of developmental plasticity.

  10. Post-uniform elongation and tensile fracture mechanisms of Fe-18Mn-0.6C-xAl twinning-induced plasticity steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Ha-Young; Lee, Sang-Min; Nam, Jae-Hoon; Lee, Seung-Joon; Fabrègue, Damien; Park, Myeong-heom; Tsuji, Nobuhiro; Lee, Young-Kook

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to elucidate the complicated interrelationship between necking, post-uniform elongation (e_p_u), strain rate sensitivity (SRS), fracture mechanism and Al concentration in Fe-18Mn-0.6C-xAl twinning-induced plasticity steels. Many tensile tests were conducted for in- and ex-situ observations of necking, fracture surfaces, crack propagation and the density and size of micro-voids with the assistance of a high-speed camera and X-ray tomographic equipment. The addition of Al increased e_p_u, SRS and reduction ratios in dimension of the neck part of tensile specimens, and also changed fracture mode from quasi-cleavage to ductile fracture at the edge part. The quasi-cleavage surface of Al-free specimen was induced by edge and side cracks occurring along grain boundary junctions and twin boundaries within the edges and side surfaces where local deformation bands meet. The ductile-fracture surface of 1.5 %Al-added specimen was formed by the coalescence of micro-voids. While the side-to-middle crack propagation occurred in Al-free and 1 %Al-added specimens due to side cracks, the middle-to-side crack propagation was observed in 1.5 %Al-added specimen. The Al-free specimen had the larger size of the 20 largest voids compared to the 1.5 %Al-added specimen despite its lower void density and local strain due to the accelerated growth of voids near the tips of side cracks. Evaluating the negligible e_p_u of Al-free specimen by SRS is not deemed to be reasonable due to its inappreciable necking and side cracks. The improvement of e_p_u in 1.5 %Al-added specimen is primarily due to disappearance of edge and side cracks.

  11. Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Pull-Out Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saabye Ottesen, N

    1981-01-01

    A specific pull-out test used to determine in-situ concrete compressive strength is analyzed. This test consists of a steel disc that is extracted from the structure. The finite element analysis considers cracking as well as strain hardening and softening in the pre- and post-failure region...

  12. Stability and servo-control of the crystal pulling process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, T.H.

    1990-11-01

    The paper analyzes why the crystal pulling process needs servo-control, and how it can be implemented. Special emphasis is put on the fundamental question of inherent stability, and how to interpret the signal from a balance when the weighing method is used for cystal diameter detection. 15 refs., 13 figs

  13. Pick-N-Pull Auto Dismantlers, Kansas City, LLC Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA is providing notice of a proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against Pick-N-Pull Auto Dismantlers, Kansas City, LLC, a subsidiary of Schnitzer Steel Industries, Inc., for alleged violations at its facilities at 8012 East Truman Rd., Kansas C

  14. Push an pull forces in the building and construction industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.; Windhorst, Judith; Hoozemans, M. J M; Van Der Beek, Allard J.; Van der Molen, Henk F.

    2000-01-01

    Push and pull activities are increasing in the building and construction industry. These activities can be assumed as one of the risk factors for the development of low back and upper extremity complaints. For a risk evaluation, besides the frequency and the duration of the activities, information

  15. Those who pull a rose of sharon off

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byeong Yeong

    2011-06-01

    The contents of this book are going over the U. S. policy on nuclear issue, to bloom a rose of sharon, people who pull a rose of sharon off discharge out of appointment and participation into administration and trial on election law, over the farm hardship period, the story about development of nuclear energy. The report and the contract and the related articles.

  16. Non-paraxial beam to push and pull microparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novitsky, Andrey; Qiu, C.-W.

    2011-01-01

    We discuss a feasibility of the pulling (backward) force acting on a spherical microparticle in a non-paraxial Bessel beam. The effect can be explained by the strong interaction of particle's multipoles or by the conservation of momentum in the system “photons-particle.” It is remarkable that the...

  17. Accelerator structure bead pull measurement at SLAC

    CERN Document Server

    Lewandowski, J R; Miller, R H; Wang, J W

    2004-01-01

    Microwave measurement and tuning of accelerator structures are important issues for the current and next generation of high energy physics machines. Application of these measurements both before and after high power processing can reveal information about the structure but may be misinterpreted if measurement conditions are not carefully controlled. For this reason extensive studies to characterize the microwave measurements at have been made at SLAC. For the beadpull a reproducible measurement of less than 1 degree of phase accuracy in total phase drift is needed in order to resolve issues such as phase changes due to structure damage during high power testing. Factors contributing to measurement errors include temperature drift, mechanical vibration, and limitations of measurement equipment such as the network analyzer. Results of this continuing effort will be presented.

  18. Lithospheric-scale centrifuge models of pull-apart basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corti, Giacomo; Dooley, Tim P.

    2015-11-01

    We present here the results of the first lithospheric-scale centrifuge models of pull-apart basins. The experiments simulate relative displacement of two lithospheric blocks along two offset master faults, with the presence of a weak zone in the offset area localising deformation during strike-slip displacement. Reproducing the entire lithosphere-asthenosphere system provides boundary conditions that are more realistic than the horizontal detachment in traditional 1 g experiments and thus provide a better approximation of the dynamic evolution of natural pull-apart basins. Model results show that local extension in the pull-apart basins is accommodated through development of oblique-slip faulting at the basin margins and cross-basin faults obliquely cutting the rift depression. As observed in previous modelling studies, our centrifuge experiments suggest that the angle of offset between the master fault segments is one of the most important parameters controlling the architecture of pull-apart basins: the basins are lozenge shaped in the case of underlapping master faults, lazy-Z shaped in case of neutral offset and rhomboidal shaped for overlapping master faults. Model cross sections show significant along-strike variations in basin morphology, with transition from narrow V- and U-shaped grabens to a more symmetric, boxlike geometry passing from the basin terminations to the basin centre; a flip in the dominance of the sidewall faults from one end of the basin to the other is observed in all models. These geometries are also typical of 1 g models and characterise several pull-apart basins worldwide. Our models show that the complex faulting in the upper brittle layer corresponds at depth to strong thinning of the ductile layer in the weak zone; a rise of the base of the lithosphere occurs beneath the basin, and maximum lithospheric thinning roughly corresponds to the areas of maximum surface subsidence (i.e., the basin depocentre).

  19. Modelling the behaviour of the push-pull gel dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosi, S.G.; Davies, J.B.; Gorjiara, T.; Baldock, C.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Recent development of a gel dosimeter based on the radiobleaching pigment, genipin, allows development of a new 3D optically scanned gel dosimeter-the p ush-pull g el. This gel would contain two spectrally complementary pigments, one which darkens with dose and another (e.g. genipin) which bleaches. The two pigments deal separately with the high and low dose ends of the dosimeter's dynamic range. The bleaching pigment would be optimised for high sensitivity and the darkening pigment for low. Employing dual pigments, optimised independently, relaxes the need for compromise between sensitivity at low dose and accuracy at high dose. Such a gel, after exposure, would be read using two successive optical CT scans, at two different wavelengths. The reduction in sensitivity of the darkening pigment (allowed by the use of push-pull) would reduce the occurrence of regions of high optical attenuation which can generate optical CT artefacts. Simulated optical CT reconstructions of the optical density map (Fig. La) scanned at the darkening pigment wavelength of a hypothetical push-pull gel, confirms the reduction in susceptibility to artefacts. Fig. I b shows a profile through the map with no stray light added. The centre of the profile in Fig. I d shows a cupping artefact produced by 10 ppm of stray light. The similarity of Fig. Ic and b show that a 30% sensitivity reduction allowed by push-pull, renders the artefact negligible. This paper presents the results of' these simulations of a push-pull gel scanned using optical CT and also some results of experiments with genipin gel. (author)

  20. Magnetic characterization of superparamagnetic nanoparticles pulled through model membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Allison L; Wassel, Ronald A; Mondalek, Fadee; Chen, Kejian; Dormer, Kenneth J; Kopke, Richard D

    2007-01-04

    To quantitatively compare in-vitro and in vivo membrane transport studies of targeted delivery, one needs characterization of the magnetically-induced mobility of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION). Flux densities, gradients, and nanoparticle properties were measured in order to quantify the magnetic force on the SPION in both an artificial cochlear round window membrane (RWM) model and the guinea pig RWM. Three-dimensional maps were created for flux density and magnetic gradient produced by a 24-well casing of 4.1 kilo-Gauss neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) disc magnets. The casing was used to pull SPION through a three-layer cell culture RWM model. Similar maps were created for a 4 inch (10.16 cm) cube 48 MGOe NdFeB magnet used to pull polymeric-nanoparticles through the RWM of anesthetized guinea pigs. Other parameters needed to compute magnetic force were nanoparticle and polymer properties, including average radius, density, magnetic susceptibility, and volume fraction of magnetite. A minimum force of 5.04 x 10(-16) N was determined to adequately pull nanoparticles through the in-vitro model. For the guinea pig RWM, the magnetic force on the polymeric nanoparticles was 9.69 x 10-20 N. Electron microscopy confirmed the movement of the particles through both RWM models. As prospective carriers of therapeutic substances, polymers containing superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were succesfully pulled through the live RWM. The force required to achieve in vivo transport was significantly lower than that required to pull nanoparticles through the in-vitro RWM model. Indeed very little force was required to accomplish measurable delivery of polymeric-SPION composite nanoparticles across the RWM, suggesting that therapeutic delivery to the inner ear by SPION is feasible.

  1. Studies of elastic-plastic instabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo

    1999-01-01

    Analyses of plastic instabilities are reviewed, with focus on results in structural mechanics as well as continuum mechanics. First the basic theories for bifurcation and post-bifurcation behavior are briefly presented. Then, localization of plastic flow is discussed, including shear band formati...

  2. Patching It Up, Pulling It Forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon E. Pierce

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available An important reason for making any software open source is to encourage code and other community contributions, resulting in more diverse developer communities coalescing around valuable software efforts. We believe the full picture of open developer communities is underappreciated by scientific and cyberinfrastructure open source software efforts. Free and open source licensing is popular in scientific and cyberinfrastructure software, and Web-based tools for source code management (such as GitHub and Bitbucket are in common use, but community building efforts and associated governance models that foster these communities need improvement. We propose here a simple mechanism to address this problem: developers should be given incentives to submit patches and to make other measurable contributions to code bases that they use but are not otherwise connected to, and projects should be given incentives to accept these outside contributions. As an example implementation, we outline a contest system with small monetary rewards for individuals and recognition for both individuals and projects. The goal is to change the mindset of scientific and cyberinfrastructure developers, converting them from passive downstream users to active contributors. We hypothesize that this easily measurable concrete action will contribute to the sustainability of many projects and also create a more flexible scientific workforce. Building this effort on currently available, federally funded software will establish a foundation of public data that can be used to verify our hypothesis. More broadly, the effort will demonstrate the benefits for scientific and cyberinfrastructure projects that adopt workable governance models that are already well established in the broader open source software ecosystem.

  3. Evaluation of pull production control strategies under uncertainty: An integrated fuzzy AHP-TOPSIS approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aydin Torkabadi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Just-In-Time (JIT production has continuously been considered by industrial practitioners and researchers as a leading strategy for the yet popular Lean production. Pull Production Control Policies (PPCPs are the major enablers of JIT that locally control the level of inventory by authorizing the production in each station. Aiming to improve the PPCPs, three authorization mechanisms: Kanban, constant-work-in-process (ConWIP, and a hybrid system, are evaluated by considering uncertainty. Design/methodology/approach: Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM methods are successful in evaluating alternatives with respect to several objectives. The proposed approach of this study applies the fuzzy set theory together with an integrated Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP and a Technique for Order Performance by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS method. Findings: The study finds that hybrid Kanban-ConWIP pull production control policies have a better performance in controlling the studied multi-layer multi-stage manufacturing and assembly system. Practical implications: To examine the approach a real case from automobile electro mechanical part production industry is studied. The production system consists of multiple levels of manufacturing, feeding a multi-stage assembly line with stochastic processing times to satisfy the changing demand. Originality/value: This study proposes the integrated Kanban-ConWIP hybrid pull control policies and implements several alternatives on a multi-stage and multi-layer manufacturing and assembly production system. An integrated Fuzzy AHP TOPSIS method is developed to evaluate the alternatives with respect to several JIT criteria.

  4. Water Vapor Permeation in Plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Paul E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kouzes, Richard T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Polyvinyl toluene (PVT) and polystyrene (PS) (referred to as “plastic scintillator”) are used for gamma ray detectors. A significant decrease in radiation detection performance has been observed in some PVT-based gamma-ray detectors in systems in outdoor environments as they age. Recent studies have revealed that plastic scintillator can undergo an environmentally related material degradation that adversely affects gamma ray detection performance under certain conditions and histories. A significant decrease in sensitivity has been seen in some gamma-ray detectors in some systems as they age. The degradation of sensitivity of plastic scintillator over time is due to a variety of factors, and the term “aging” is used to encompass all factors. Some plastic scintillator samples show no aging effects (no significant change in sensitivity over more than 10 years), while others show severe aging (significant change in sensitivity in less than 5 years). Aging effects arise from weather (variations in heat and humidity), chemical exposure, mechanical stress, light exposure, and loss of volatile components. The damage produced by these various causes can be cumulative, causing observable damage to increase over time. Damage may be reversible up to some point, but becomes permanent under some conditions. The objective of this report is to document the phenomenon of permeability of plastic scintillator to water vapor and to derive the relationship between time, temperature, humidity and degree of water penetration in plastic. Several conclusions are documented about the properties of water permeability of plastic scintillator.

  5. Plastic scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreeshchev, E.A.; Kilin, S.F.; Kavyrzina, K.A.

    1978-01-01

    A plastic scintillator for ionizing radiation detectors with high time resolution is suggested. To decrease the scintillation pulse width and to maintain a high light yield, the 4 1 , 4 5 -dibromo-2 1 , 2 5 , 5 1 , 5 5 -tetramethyl-n-quinquiphenyl (Br 2 Me 4 Ph) in combination with n-terphenyl (Ph 3 ) or 2, 5-diphenyloxadiazol-1, 3, 4 (PPD) is used as a luminescent addition. Taking into consideration the results of a special study, it is shown, that the following ratio of ingradients is the optimum one: 3-4 mass% Ph 3 or 4-7 mas% PPD + 2-5 mass% Br 2 Me 4 Ph + + polymeric base. The suggested scintillator on the basis of polystyrene has the light yield of 0.23-0.26 arbitrary units and the scintillation pulse duration at half-height is 0.74-0.84 ns

  6. Elastic-plastic FEM-analysis of a nozzle corner crack and discussion of the results by some fracture mechanics concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurich, D.; Brocks, W.; Noack, D.; Veith, H.

    1981-01-01

    From a three-dimensional elastic-plastic stress-distortion analysis according to the finite element method (FEM) for a straight inner edge crack at room temperature in a nozzle of the intermediate vessel ZB 2 made of 22 NiMoCr 37 steel, the results obtained for stresses and strains in the ligament before the crack front, the crack opening profile, and the propagation of the plastic zone as a function of internal pressure until through-plastifying of the ligament are shown and explained. (orig.) [de

  7. On the theory of critical currents and flux flow in superconductors by the mechanism of plastic deformation of the flux-line lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, D.O.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper the author will discuss how the nature of the stress state in the flux-line lattice (FLL) of superconductors arises from the distribution, density, geometry, and strength of pinning centers. Under certain conditions this stress causes the onset of plastic deformation in the FLL for values of the current density below that required for flux-flow by general depinning. He will describe an analytic framework, based on a theory of plasticity of the FLL, which describes the flux-flow characteristics, including the possibility of thermally-activated flow and flux creep

  8. Push-pull alkenes: structure and p-electron distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ERICH KLEINPETER

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Push-pull alkenes are substituted alkenes with one or two electron-donating substituents on one end of C=C double bond and with one or two electron-accepting substituents at the other end. Allowance for p-electron delocalization leads to the central C=C double bond becoming ever more polarized and with rising push-pull character, the p-bond order of this double bond is reduced and, conversely, the corresponding p-bond orders of the C–Don and C–Acc bonds are accordingly increased. This push-pull effect is of decisive influence on both the dynamic behavior and the chemical reactivity of this class of compounds and thus it is of considerable interest to both determine and to quantify the inherent push-pull effect. Previously, the barriers to rotation about the C=C, C–Don and/or C–Acc partial double bonds (DG±, as determined by dynamic NMR spectroscopy or the 13C chemical shift difference of the polarized C=C partial double bond (DdC=C were employed for this purpose. However, these parameters can have serious limitations, viz. the barriers can be immeasurable on the NMR timescale (either by being too high or too low; heavily-biased conformers are present, etc. or DdC=C behaves in a non-additive manner with respect to the combination of the four substituents. Hence, a general parameter to quantify the push-pull effect is not yet available. Ab initio MO calculations on a collection of compounds, together with NBO analysis, provided valuable information on the structure, bond energies, electron occupancies and bonding/antibonding interactions. In addition to DG±C=C (either experimentally determined or theoretically calculated and DdC=C, the bond length of the C=C partial double bond was also examined and it proved to be a reliable parameter to quantify the push-pull effect. Equally so, the quotient of the occupation numbers of the antibonding andbonding p orbitals of the central C=C partial double bond ( p*C=C/ pC=C could also be employed for

  9. Neuromodulation, development and synaptic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foehring, R C; Lorenzon, N M

    1999-03-01

    We discuss parallels in the mechanisms underlying use-dependent synaptic plasticity during development and long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) in neocortical synapses. Neuromodulators, such as norepinephrine, serotonin, and acetylcholine have also been implicated in regulating both developmental plasticity and LTP/LTD. There are many potential levels of interaction between neuromodulators and plasticity. Ion channels are substrates for modulation in many cell types. We discuss examples of modulation of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels and Ca(2+)-dependent K+ channels and the consequences for neocortical pyramidal cell firing behaviour. At the time when developmental plasticity is most evident in rat cortex, the substrate for modulation is changing as the densities and relative proportions of various ion channels types are altered during ontogeny. We discuss examples of changes in K+ and Ca2+ channels and the consequence for modulation of neuronal activity.

  10. Benchtop-magnetic resonance imaging (BT-MRI) characterization of push-pull osmotic controlled release systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaterre, Vincent; Metz, Hendrik; Ogorka, Joerg; Gurny, Robert; Loggia, Nicoletta; Mäder, Karsten

    2009-01-05

    The mechanism of drug release from push-pull osmotic systems (PPOS) has been investigated by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) using a new benchtop apparatus. The signal intensity profiles of both PPOS layers were monitored non-invasively over time to characterize the hydration and swelling kinetics. The drug release performance was well-correlated to the hydration kinetics. The results show that (i) hydration and swelling critically depend on the tablet core composition, (ii) high osmotic pressure developed by the push layer may lead to bypassing the drug layer and incomplete drug release and (iii) the hydration of both the drug and the push layers needs to be properly balanced to efficiently deliver the drug. MRI is therefore a powerful tool to get insights on the drug delivery mechanism of push-pull osmotic systems, which enable a more efficient optimization of such formulations.

  11. Toxicological Threats of Plastic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plastics pose both physical (e.g., entanglement, gastrointestinal blockage, reef destruction) and chemical threats (e.g., bioaccumulation of the chemical ingredients of plastic or toxic chemicals sorbed to plastics) to wildlife and the marine ecosystem.

  12. Strike-slip pull-apart process and emplacement of Xiangshan uranium-producing volcanic basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Aijin; Guo Lingzhi; Shu Liangshu

    2001-01-01

    Xiangshan volcanic basin is one of the famous uranium-producing volcanic basins in China. Emplacement mechanism of Xiangshan uranium-producing volcanic basin is discussed on the basis of the latest research achievements of deep geology in Xiangshan area and the theory of continental dynamics. The study shows that volcanic activity in Xiangshan volcanic basin may be divided into two cycles, and its emplacement is controlled by strike-ship pull-apart process originated from the deep regional faults. Volcanic apparatus in the first cycle was emplaced in EW-trending structure activated by clockwise strike-slipping of NE-trending deep fault, forming the EW-trending fissure-type volcanic effusion belt. Volcanic apparatus in the second cycle was emplaced at junction points of SN-trending pull-apart structure activated by sinistral strike-slipping of NE-trending deep faults and EW-trending basement faults causing the center-type volcanic magma effusion and extrusion. Moreover, the formation mechanism of large-rich uranium deposits is discussed as well

  13. Energy Harvesting from Upper-Limb Pulling Motions for Miniaturized Human-Powered Generators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Jeongjin; Ryu, Mun-ho; Yang, Yoonseok

    2015-07-03

    The human-powered self-generator provides the best solution for individuals who need an instantaneous power supply for travel, outdoor, and emergency use, since it is less dependent on weather conditions and occupies less space than other renewable power supplies. However, many commercial portable self-generators that employ hand-cranking are not used as much as expected in daily lives although they have enough output capacity due to their intensive workload. This study proposes a portable human-powered generator which is designed to obtain mechanical energy from an upper limb pulling motion for improved human motion economy as well as efficient human-mechanical power transfer. A coreless axial-flux permanent magnet machine (APMM) and a flywheel magnet rotor were used in conjunction with a one-way clutched power transmission system in order to obtain effective power from the pulling motion. The developed prototype showed an average energy conversion efficiency of 30.98% and an average output power of 0.32 W with a maximum of 1.89 W. Its small form factor (50 mm × 32 mm × 43.5 mm, 0.05 kg) and the substantial electricity produced verify the effectiveness of the proposed method in the utilization of human power. It is expected that the developed generator could provide a mobile power supply.

  14. Energy Harvesting from Upper-Limb Pulling Motions for Miniaturized Human-Powered Generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeongjin Yeo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The human-powered self-generator provides the best solution for individuals who need an instantaneous power supply for travel, outdoor, and emergency use, since it is less dependent on weather conditions and occupies less space than other renewable power supplies. However, many commercial portable self-generators that employ hand-cranking are not used as much as expected in daily lives although they have enough output capacity due to their intensive workload. This study proposes a portable human-powered generator which is designed to obtain mechanical energy from an upper limb pulling motion for improved human motion economy as well as efficient human-mechanical power transfer. A coreless axial-flux permanent magnet machine (APMM and a flywheel magnet rotor were used in conjunction with a one-way clutched power transmission system in order to obtain effective power from the pulling motion. The developed prototype showed an average energy conversion efficiency of 30.98% and an average output power of 0.32 W with a maximum of 1.89 W. Its small form factor (50 mm × 32 mm × 43.5 mm, 0.05 kg and the substantial electricity produced verify the effectiveness of the proposed method in the utilization of human power. It is expected that the developed generator could provide a mobile power supply.

  15. New laparoscopic peritoneal pull-through vaginoplasty technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravin Mhatre

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many reconstructive surgical procedures have been described for vaginal agenesis. Almost all of them are surgically challenging, multi-staged, time consuming or leave permanent scars on abdomen or skin retrieval sites. Aim: A new simple technique using laparoscopic peritoneal pull-through in creation of neo vagina has been described. Material and Methods: Total of thirty six patients with congenital absence of vagina (MRKH syndrome were treated with laparoscopic peritoneal pull through technique of Dr. Mhatre between 2003 till 2012. The author has described 3 different techniques of peritoneal vaginoplasty. Results: This technique has given excellent results over a period of one to seven years of follow-up. The peritoneal lining changes to stratified squamous epithelium resembling normal vagina and having acidic Ph. Conclusion: Apart from giving excellent normal vaginal function, as the ovary became accessible per vaginum three patients underwent ovum retrieval and pregnancy using surrogate mother, thus making this a fertility enhancing procedure.

  16. Comparative Study of Chemical, Mechanical, Thermal, and Barrier Properties of Poly(Lactic Acid Plasticized with Epoxidized Soybean Oil and Epoxidized Palm Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee Bond Tee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To investigate epoxidized palm oil’s (EPO potential as plasticizer for poly(lactic acid (PLA, its plasticizing effect was compared with commercialized epoxidized soybean oil (ESO. The plasticizers were respectively melt-compounded into PLA at 3, 5, 10, and 15 wt.%. As it was aimed for the blends to be characterized towards packaging appropriate for food products, they were hot-pressed into ~0.3-mm sheets, which is the approximate thickness of clamshell packaging. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR confirmed the plasticizers’ compatibility with PLA. At similar loadings, EPO was superior in reinforcing elongation at break (EAB, thermal, and barrier properties of PLA. The ductility of PLA was notably improved to 50.0% with addition of 3 wt.% of EPO. From thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, PLA/EPO5 improved PLA’s thermal stability, while all PLA/ESO blends reported reduced thermal stability. From differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, the increase in crystallinity and the shifts in enthalpy of fusions in all plasticized blends denoted facilitation of PLA to form thermally stable α-form crystals. The addition of EPO enabled PLA to become highly impermeable to oxygen, which can extend its potential in packaging extensive range of oxygen sensitive food.

  17. Future application of Czochralski crystal pulling for silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlcok, J. H.

    1985-08-01

    Czochralski (Cz) crystal pulling has been the predominant method used for preparing silicon single crystal for the past twenty years. The fundamental technology used has changed little. However, great strides have been made in learning how to make the crystals bigger and of better quality at ever increasing productivity rates. Currently charge sizes of 50 kg of polycrystal silicon are being used for production and crystals up to ten inches in diameter have been grown without major difficulty. The largest material actually being processed in silicon wafer form is 150 mm (6 inches) in diameter. Growing of crystals in a magnetic field has proved to be particularly useful for microscopic impurity control. Major developments in past years on equipment for Cz crystal pulling have included the automatic growth control of the diameter as well as the starting core of the crystal, the use of magnetic fields and around the crystal puller to supress convection, various recharging schemes for dopant control and the use of continuous liquid feed in the crystal puller. The latter, while far from being a reliable production process, is ideal in concept for major improvement in Cz crystal pulling. The Czochralski process will maintain its dominance of silicon crystal production for many years.

  18. The string-pulling paradigm in comparative psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Ivo F; Osvath, Mathias

    2015-05-01

    String pulling is one of the most widely used paradigms in comparative psychology. First documented 2 millennia ago, it has been a well-established scientific paradigm for a century. More than 160 bird and mammal species have been tested in over 200 studies with countless methodological variations. The paradigm can be used to address a wide variety of issues on animal cognition; for example, what animals understand about contact and connection as well as whether they rely on perceptual feedback, grasp the functionality of strings, generalize across conditions, apply their knowledge flexibly, and possess insight. Mammals are typically tested on a horizontal configuration, birds on a vertical one, making the studies difficult to compare; in particular, pulling a string vertically requires better coordination and attention. A species' performance on the paradigm is often influenced by its ecology, especially concerning whether limbs are used for foraging. Many other factors can be of importance and should be considered. The string-pulling paradigm is easy to administer, vary, and apply to investigate a wide array of cognitive abilities. Although it can be and has been used to compare species, divergent methods and unclear reporting have limited its comparative utility. With increasing research standards, the paradigm is expected to become an even more fundamental tool in comparative psychology. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Directional preference in dogs: Laterality and "pull of the north".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adámková, Jana; Svoboda, Jan; Benediktová, Kateřina; Martini, Sabine; Nováková, Petra; Tůma, David; Kučerová, Michaela; Divišová, Michaela; Begall, Sabine; Hart, Vlastimil; Burda, Hynek

    2017-01-01

    Laterality is a well described phenomenon in domestic dogs. It was shown that dogs, under calm Earth's magnetic field conditions, when marking their home ranges, tend to head about north- or southwards and display thus magnetic alignment. The question arises whether magnetic alignment might be affected or even compromised by laterality and vice versa. We tested the preference of dogs to choose between two dishes with snacks that were placed left and right, in different compass directions (north and east, east and south, south and west or west and north) in front of them. Some dogs were right-lateral, some left-lateral but most of them were ambilateral. There was a preference for the dish placed north compared to the one placed east of the dog ("pull of the north"). This effect was highly significant in small and medium-sized breeds but not in larger breeds, highly significant in females, in older dogs, in lateralized dogs but less significant or not significant in males, younger dogs, or ambilateral dogs. Laterality and "pull of the north" are phenomena which should be considered in diverse tasks and behavioral tests with which dogs or other animals might be confronted. The interaction and possible conflict between lateralization and "pull of the north" might be also considered as a reason for shifted magnetic alignment observed in different animal species in different contexts.

  20. Directional preference in dogs: Laterality and "pull of the north"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adámková, Jana; Svoboda, Jan; Benediktová, Kateřina; Martini, Sabine; Nováková, Petra; Tůma, David; Kučerová, Michaela; Divišová, Michaela; Begall, Sabine; Hart, Vlastimil

    2017-01-01

    Laterality is a well described phenomenon in domestic dogs. It was shown that dogs, under calm Earth's magnetic field conditions, when marking their home ranges, tend to head about north- or southwards and display thus magnetic alignment. The question arises whether magnetic alignment might be affected or even compromised by laterality and vice versa. We tested the preference of dogs to choose between two dishes with snacks that were placed left and right, in different compass directions (north and east, east and south, south and west or west and north) in front of them. Some dogs were right-lateral, some left-lateral but most of them were ambilateral. There was a preference for the dish placed north compared to the one placed east of the dog ("pull of the north"). This effect was highly significant in small and medium-sized breeds but not in larger breeds, highly significant in females, in older dogs, in lateralized dogs but less significant or not significant in males, younger dogs, or ambilateral dogs. Laterality and “pull of the north” are phenomena which should be considered in diverse tasks and behavioral tests with which dogs or other animals might be confronted. The interaction and possible conflict between lateralization and "pull of the north" might be also considered as a reason for shifted magnetic alignment observed in different animal species in different contexts. PMID:28945773

  1. Hirschsprung's disease: problems with transition-zone pull-through.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, S I; Squire, B R; Stringer, M D; Batcup, G; Crabbe, D C

    2000-12-01

    It is generally accepted that if surgery for Hirschsprung's disease is to be successful, ganglionic bowel must be anastomosed to the lower rectum or anal canal. Above the aganglionic distal bowel lies a transition zone (TZ) where more subtle abnormalities of innervation are apparent. The significance of this transition zone in respect to the functional outcome of surgery has received little attention. The aim of this study was to identify the incidence of transition zone pull-through (TZPT) in a cohort of children who underwent surgery for Hirschsprung's disease, to identify the reasons why TZPTs occurred, and to identify the functional consequences. The authors report the long-term outcome of these children with emphasis on bowel function and the results of subsequent surgery. A Retrospective study was conducted of children treated at a single institution from 1979 through 1994. TZPT patients were subject to detailed review of surgical records and histopathologic material. Thirteen children were identified with a TZPT. In 12 cases, histopathologic errors contributed to the TZPT: in 5 cases this was caused by single point biopsies missing an asymmetrical TZ, whereas in 7 cases the histopathologic features of the TZ were not recognized. In 1 case the TZPT was caused by surgical error. As a consequence of the TZPT 7 children underwent repeat pull-through. One child is fully continent, one has daytime fecal continence, and 2 others are incontinent. Two children have permanent stomas. One child is clean with antegrade colonic washouts. Repeat pull-throughs were not attempted in 6 children. Two children have achieved full continence, 2 have permanent stomas, 1 is clean with antegrade colonic washouts, and 1 child receives regular suppositories. Transition zone pull-throughs occurred because of a combination of surgical and histopathologic errors. The transition zone may follow an asymmetric course around the circumference of the bowel and may be missed if single

  2. Compensatory plasticity: time matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latifa eLazzouni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Plasticity in the human and animal brain is the rule, the base for development, and the way to deal effectively with the environment for making the most efficient use of all the senses. When the brain is deprived of one sensory modality, plasticity becomes compensatory: the exception that invalidates the general loss hypothesis giving the opportunity of effective change. Sensory deprivation comes with massive alterations in brain structure and function, behavioural outcomes, and neural interactions. Blind individuals do as good as the sighted and even more, show superior abilities in auditory, tactile and olfactory processing. This behavioural enhancement is accompanied with changes in occipital cortex function, where visual areas at different levels become responsive to non-visual information. The intact senses are in general used more efficiently in the blind but are also used more exclusively. New findings are disentangling these two aspects of compensatory plasticity. What is due to visual deprivation and what is dependent on the extended use of spared modalities? The latter seems to contribute highly to compensatory changes in the congenitally blind. Short term deprivation through the use of blindfolds shows that cortical excitability of the visual cortex is likely to show rapid modulatory changes after few minutes of light deprivation and therefore changes are possible in adulthood. However, reorganization remains more pronounced in the congenitally blind. Cortico-cortical pathways between visual areas and the areas of preserved sensory modalities are inhibited in the presence of vision, but are unmasked after loss of vision or blindfolding as a mechanism likely to drive cross-modal information to the deafferented visual cortex. Plasticity in the blind is also accompanied with neurochemical and morphological changes; both intrinsic connectivity and functional coupling at rest are altered but are likewise dependent on different sensory

  3. Coupling effect of waste automotive engine oil in the preparation of wood reinforced LDPE plastic composites for panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maame Adwoa Bentumah Animpong

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrated the formulation of wood plastic composite (WPC materials with flexural strength of 13.69 ± 0.09 MPa for applications in outdoor fencing using municipal waste precursors like low density polyethylene (LDPE plastics (54.0 wt. %, sawn wood dust with particle size between 64 and 500 μm derived from variable hardwood species (36.0 wt. % and used automotive engine oil (10 wt. %. The WPC panels were prepared by pre-compounding, extruding at a screw auger torque of 79.8 Nm and pressing through a rectangular mould of dimension 132 mm × 37 mm × 5 mm at temperature 150 °C. The efficacy of black waste oil, as a coupling agent, was demonstrated by the absence of voids and pull-outs on microscopic examination using scanning electron microscopy. No hazardous substances were exhaled during thermo-gravimetric mass spectrometry analysis. The percentage crystallinity of the LDPE in the as-prepared material determined by differential scanning calorimetry was 11.3%. Keywords: Wood plastic composites, Low density polyethylene, Wood dust, Physical, Thermal and mechanical properties

  4. [Design on tester of pull-out force for orthodontic micro implant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, He; Wu, Pei; Wang, Huiyuan; Chen, Yan; Bao, Xuemei

    2013-09-01

    A special device for measuring the pull-out force of orthodontic micro implant was designed, which has the characteristics of simple construction and easy operation, and can be used to detect the pull-out-force of orthodontic micro implant. The tested data was stored and analyzed by a computer, and as the results, the pull-out-force curve, maximum pull-out force as well as average pull-out force were outputted, which was applied in analyzing or investigating the initial stability and immediate loading property of orthodontic micro implant.

  5. The Prism Plastic Calorimeter (PPC)

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This proposal supports two goals: \\\\ \\\\ First goal:~~Demonstrate that current, widely used plastic technologies allow to design Prism Plastic Calorimeter~(PPC) towers with a new ``liquid crystal'' type plastic called Vectra. It will be shown that this technique meets the requirements for a LHC calorimeter with warm liquids: safety, hermeticity, hadronic compensation, resolution and time response. \\\\ \\\\ Second goal:~~Describe how one can design a warm liquid calorimeter integrated into a LHC detector and to list the advantages of the PPC: low price, minimum of mechanical structures, minimum of dead space, easiness of mechanical assembly, accessibility to the electronics, possibility to recirculate the liquid. The absorber and the electronic being outside of the liquid and easily accessible, one has maximum flexibility to define them. \\\\ \\\\ The R&D program, we define here aims at showing the feasibility of these new ideas by building nine towers of twenty gaps and exposing them to electron and hadron beams.

  6. Psychophysical basis for maximum pushing and pulling forces: A review and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Arun; Waters, Thomas; Kapellusch, Jay; Karwowski, Waldemar

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this paper was to perform a comprehensive review of psychophysically determined maximum acceptable pushing and pulling forces. Factors affecting pushing and pulling forces are identified and discussed. Recent studies show a significant decrease (compared to previous studies) in maximum acceptable forces for males but not for females when pushing and pulling on a treadmill. A comparison of pushing and pulling forces measured using a high inertia cart with those measured on a treadmill shows that the pushing and pulling forces using high inertia cart are higher for males but are about the same for females. It is concluded that the recommendations of Snook and Ciriello (1991) for pushing and pulling forces are still valid and provide reasonable recommendations for ergonomics practitioners. Regression equations as a function of handle height, frequency of exertion and pushing/pulling distance are provided to estimate maximum initial and sustained forces for pushing and pulling acceptable to 75% male and female workers. At present it is not clear whether pushing or pulling should be favored. Similarly, it is not clear what handle heights would be optimal for pushing and pulling. Epidemiological studies are needed to determine relationships between psychophysically determined maximum acceptable pushing and pulling forces and risk of musculoskeletal injuries, in particular to low back and shoulders.

  7. High Tensile Strength of Engineered β-Solenoid Fibrils via Sonication and Pulling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zeyu; Parker, Amanda S; Peralta, Maria D R; Ravikumar, Krishnakumar M; Cox, Daniel L; Toney, Michael D

    2017-11-07

    We present estimates of ultimate tensile strength (UTS) for two engineered β-solenoid protein mutant fibril structures (spruce budworm and Rhagium inquisitor antifreeze proteins) derived from sonication-based measurements and from force pulling molecular dynamics simulations, both in water. Sonication experiments generate limiting scissioned fibrils with a well-defined length-to-width correlation for the mutant spruce budworm protein and the resultant UTS estimate is 0.66 ± 0.08 GPa. For fibrils formed from engineered R. inquisitor antifreeze protein, depending upon geometry, we estimate UTSs of 3.5 ± 3.2-5.5 ± 5.1 GPa for proteins with interfacial disulfide bonds, and 1.6 ± 1.5-2.5 ± 2.3 GPa for the reduced form. The large error bars for the R. inquisitor structures are intrinsic to the broad distribution of limiting scission lengths. Simulations provide pulling velocity-dependent UTSs increasing from 0.2 to 1 GPa in the available speed range, and 1.5 GPa extrapolated to the speeds expected in the sonication experiments. Simulations yield low-velocity values for the Young's modulus of 6.0 GPa. Without protein optimization, these mechanical parameters are similar to those of spider silk and Kevlar, but in contrast to spider silk, these proteins have a precisely known sequence-structure relationship. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Recycling of Plastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2011-01-01

    Plastic is produced from fossil oil. Plastic is used for many different products. Some plastic products like, for example, wrapping foil, bags and disposable containers for food and beverage have very short lifetimes and thus constitute a major fraction of most waste. Other plastic products like...

  9. Introduction to Computational Plasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, P

    2006-01-01

    The focus of the book on computational plasticity embodies techniques of relevance not only to academic researchers, but also of interest to industrialists engaged in the production of components using bulk or sheet forming processes. Of particular interest is the guidance on how to create modules for use with the commercial system Abaqus for specific types of material behaviour. The book is in two parts, the first of which contains six chapters, starting with microplasticity, but predominantly on continuum plasticity. The first chapter on microplasticty gives a brief description of the grain structure of metals and the existence of slip systems within the grains. This provides an introduction to the concept of incompressibility during plastic deformation, the nature of plastic yield and the importance of the critically resolved shear stress on the slip planes (Schmid's law). Some knowledge of the notation commonly used to describe slip systems is assumed, which will be familiar to students of metallurgy, but anyone with a more general engineering background may need to undertake additional reading to understand the various descriptions. Chapter two introduces one of several yield criteria, that normally attributed to von Mises (though historians of mechanics might argue over who was first to develop the theory of yielding associated with strain energy density), and its two or three-dimensional representation as a yield surface. The expansion of the yield surface during plastic deformation, its translation due to kinematic hardening and the Bauschinger effect in reversed loading are described with a direct link to the material stress-strain curve. The assumption, that the increment of strain is normal to the yield surface, the normality principle, is introduced. Uniaxial loading of an elastic-plastic material is used as an example in which to develop expressions to describe increments in stress and strain. The full presentation of numerous expressions, tensors and

  10. Cyclic Plastic Deformation and Welding Simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Horn, C.H.L.J.

    2003-01-01

    One of the concerns of a fitness for purpose analysis is the quantification of the relevant material properties. It is known from experiments that the mechanical properties of a material can change due to a monotonic plastic deformation or a cyclic plastic deformation. For a fitness for purpose

  11. Mechanical Properties of Composite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuhiro Okayasu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An examination has been made of the mechanical and failure properties of several composite materials, such as a short and a long carbon fiber reinforced plastic (short- and long-CFRP and metal based composite material. The short CFRP materials were used for a recycled CFRP which fabricated by the following process: the CFRP, consisting of epoxy resin with carbon fiber, is injected to a rectangular plate cavity after mixing with acrylonitrile butadiene styrene resin with different weight fractions of CFRP. The fatigue and ultimate tensile strength (UTS increased with increasing CFRP content. These correlations, however, break down, especially for tensile strength, as the CFPR content becomes more than 70%. Influence of sample temperature on the bending strength of the long-CFRP was investigated, and it appears that the strength slightly degreases with increasing the temperature, due to the weakness in the matrix. Broken fiber and pull-out or debonding between the fiber and matrix were related to the main failure of the short- and long-CFRP samples. Mechanical properties of metal based composite materials have been also investigated, where fiber-like high hardness CuAl2 structure is formed in aluminum matrix. Excellent mechanical properties were obtained in this alloy, e.g., the higher strength and the higher ductility, compared tothe same alloy without the fiber-like structure. There are strong anisotropic effects on the mechanical properties due to the fiber-like metal composite in a soft Al based matrix.

  12. A review of plastic waste biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ying; Yanful, Ernest K; Bassi, Amarjeet S

    2005-01-01

    With more and more plastics being employed in human lives and increasing pressure being placed on capacities available for plastic waste disposal, the need for biodegradable plastics and biodegradation of plastic wastes has assumed increasing importance in the last few years. This review looks at the technological advancement made in the development of more easily biodegradable plastics and the biodegradation of conventional plastics by microorganisms. Additives, such as pro-oxidants and starch, are applied in synthetic materials to modify and make plastics biodegradable. Recent research has shown that thermoplastics derived from polyolefins, traditionally considered resistant to biodegradation in ambient environment, are biodegraded following photo-degradation and chemical degradation. Thermoset plastics, such as aliphatic polyester and polyester polyurethane, are easily attacked by microorganisms directly because of the potential hydrolytic cleavage of ester or urethane bonds in their structures. Some microorganisms have been isolated to utilize polyurethane as a sole source of carbon and nitrogen source. Aliphatic-aromatic copolyesters have active commercial applications because of their good mechanical properties and biodegradability. Reviewing published and ongoing studies on plastic biodegradation, this paper attempts to make conclusions on potentially viable methods to reduce impacts of plastic waste on the environment.

  13. Synaptic plasticity in drug reward circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winder, Danny G; Egli, Regula E; Schramm, Nicole L; Matthews, Robert T

    2002-11-01

    Drug addiction is a major public health issue worldwide. The persistence of drug craving coupled with the known recruitment of learning and memory centers in the brain has led investigators to hypothesize that the alterations in glutamatergic synaptic efficacy brought on by synaptic plasticity may play key roles in the addiction process. Here we review the present literature, examining the properties of synaptic plasticity within drug reward circuitry, and the effects that drugs of abuse have on these forms of plasticity. Interestingly, multiple forms of synaptic plasticity can be induced at glutamatergic synapses within the dorsal striatum, its ventral extension the nucleus accumbens, and the ventral tegmental area, and at least some of these forms of plasticity are regulated by behaviorally meaningful administration of cocaine and/or amphetamine. Thus, the present data suggest that regulation of synaptic plasticity in reward circuits is a tractable candidate mechanism underlying aspects of addiction.

  14. In-straw cryoprotectant dilution of IVP bovine blastocysts vitrified in hand-pulled glass micropipettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, A D; Forell, F; Feltrin, C; Rodrigues, J L

    2007-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of two ethylene glycol-based vitrification solutions on in vitro and in vivo survival after in-straw cryoprotectant dilution of vitrified in vitro-produced bovine embryos. Day-7 expanded blastocysts were selected according to diameter (> or = 180 microm) and osmotic characteristics and randomly assigned to one of three groups (i) VSa: vitrification in 40% EG+17.1% SUC+0.1% PVA; (ii) VSb: vitrification in 20% EG+20% DMSO; (iii) control: non-vitrified embryos. Vitrification was performed in hand-pulled glass micropipettes (GMP) and cryoprotectant dilution in 0.25 ml straws after warming in a plastic tube. Embryo viability was assessed by re-expansion and hatching rates after 72 h of IVC and by pregnancy rates after direct transfer of vitrified embryos. No differences in re-expansion rates were observed between vitrified groups after 24 h in culture (VSa=84.5%; VSb=94.8%). However, fewer VSa embryos (55.2%, Pstraw cryoprotectant dilution and direct embryo transfer.

  15. Damage Tolerance Assessment of Friction Pull Plug Welds in an Aluminum Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Preston; Burkholder, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Friction stir welding is a solid state welding process used in the fabrication of cryogenic propellant tanks. Self-reacting friction stir welding is one variation of the friction stir weld process being developed for manufacturing tanks. Friction pull plug welding is used to seal the exit hole that remains in a circumferential self-reacting friction stir weld. A friction plug weld placed in a self-reacting friction stir weld results in a non-homogenous weld joint where the initial weld, plug weld, their respective heat affected zones and the base metal all interact. The welded joint is a composite plastically deformed material system with a complex residual stress field. In order to address damage tolerance concerns associated with friction plug welds in safety critical structures, such as propellant tanks, nondestructive inspection and proof testing may be required to screen hardware for mission critical defects. The efficacy of the nondestructive evaluation or the proof test is based on an assessment of the critical flaw size. Test data relating residual strength capability to flaw size in an aluminum alloy friction plug weld will be presented.

  16. N -annulated perylene-based push-pull-type sensitizers

    KAUST Repository

    Qi, Qingbiao; Wang, Xingzhu; Fan, Li; Zheng, Bin; Zeng, Wangdong; Luo, Jie; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Wang, Qing; Wu, Jishan

    2015-01-01

    Alkoxy-wrapped N-annulated perylene (NP) was synthesized and used as a rigid and coplanar π-linker for three push-pull type metal-free sensitizers QB1-QB3. Their optical and electrochemical properties were tuned by varying the structure of acceptor. These new dyes were applied in Co(II)/(III) based dye-sensitized solar cells, and power conversion efficiency up to 6.95% was achieved, indicating that NP could be used as a new building block for the design of high-performance sensitizers in the future.

  17. N -annulated perylene-based push-pull-type sensitizers

    KAUST Repository

    Qi, Qingbiao

    2015-02-06

    Alkoxy-wrapped N-annulated perylene (NP) was synthesized and used as a rigid and coplanar π-linker for three push-pull type metal-free sensitizers QB1-QB3. Their optical and electrochemical properties were tuned by varying the structure of acceptor. These new dyes were applied in Co(II)/(III) based dye-sensitized solar cells, and power conversion efficiency up to 6.95% was achieved, indicating that NP could be used as a new building block for the design of high-performance sensitizers in the future.

  18. Plastics disassembly versus bulk recycling: engineering design for end-of-life electronics resource recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Pedro; Stuart, Julie Ann; Grant, Ed

    2003-12-01

    Annual plastic flows through the business and consumer electronics manufacturing supply chain include nearly 3 billion lb of high-value engineering plastics derived from petroleum. The recovery of resource value from this stream presents critical challenges in areas of materials identification and recycling process design that demand new green engineering technologies applied together with life cycle assessment and ecological supply chain analysis to create viable plastics-to-plastics supply cycles. The sustainable recovery of potentially high-value engineering plastics streams requires that recyclers either avoid mixing plastic parts or purify later by separating smaller plastic pieces created in volume reduction (shredding) steps. Identification and separation constitute significant barriers in the plastics-to-plastics recycling value proposition. In the present work, we develop a model that accepts randomly arriving electronic products to study scenarios by which a recycler might identify and separate high-value engineering plastics as well as metals. Using discrete eventsimulation,we compare current mixed plastics recovery with spectrochemical plastic resin identification and subsequent sorting. Our results show that limited disassembly with whole-part identification can produce substantial yields in separated streams of recovered engineering thermoplastics. We find that disassembly with identification does not constitute a bottleneck, but rather, with relatively few workers, can be configured to pull the process and thus decrease maximum staging space requirements.

  19. Avalanches and plastic flow in crystal plasticity: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanikolaou, Stefanos; Cui, Yinan; Ghoniem, Nasr

    2018-01-01

    Crystal plasticity is mediated through dislocations, which form knotted configurations in a complex energy landscape. Once they disentangle and move, they may also be impeded by permanent obstacles with finite energy barriers or frustrating long-range interactions. The outcome of such complexity is the emergence of dislocation avalanches as the basic mechanism of plastic flow in solids at the nanoscale. While the deformation behavior of bulk materials appears smooth, a predictive model should clearly be based upon the character of these dislocation avalanches and their associated strain bursts. We provide here a comprehensive overview of experimental observations, theoretical models and computational approaches that have been developed to unravel the multiple aspects of dislocation avalanche physics and the phenomena leading to strain bursts in crystal plasticity.

  20. In situ neutron diffraction and polycrystal plasticity modeling of a Mg–Y–Nd–Zr alloy: Effects of precipitation on individual deformation mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnew, S.R.; Mulay, R.P.; Polesak, F.J.; Calhoun, C.A.; Bhattacharyya, J.J.; Clausen, B.

    2013-01-01

    In situ neutron diffraction compression tests were performed on Mg–Y–Nd–Zr alloy WE43, in the solution heat-treated, peak- and over-aged conditions. The flow curves and internal strain evolutions were modeled using polycrystal plasticity simulation, with the inclusion of an elastic phase to account for the presence of precipitates. The results reveal that prismatic plate-shaped precipitates strongly impede basal slip; the critical resolved shear strength (CRSS) of basal slip increases from 12 to 37 MPa, an increase of over 200%. However, hard deformation modes such as non-basal slip of 〈a〉 dislocations are required for macroscopic yielding. These hard modes are not as strongly affected by aging, with CRSS values which increase from 78 to 92 MPa, an increase of only 18%. The results of the study are consistent with recent modeling of the relative Orowan strengthening of individual deformation modes and the superposition of various strengthening effects (solid solution and precipitation). This finding helps to explain why the age-hardening response of Mg–Y–Nd–Zr alloys is not exceptional. It is concluded that future precipitation-strengthened alloy and process design strategies should focus on promoting high number densities of particles. The effect of aging upon twinning is surprising. The most age-hardened material exhibits more twinning than the solutionized material. To model this behavior using polycrystal plasticity, the critical stress to activate twinning (especially the strain hardening thereof) must be decreased

  1. Simulation of push-pull inverter using wide bandgap devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-badri, Mustafa; Matin, Mohammed A.

    2016-09-01

    This paper discusses the use of wide bandgap devices (SiC-MOSFET) in the design of a push-pull inverter which provides inexpensive low power dc-ac inverters. The parameters used were 1200V SiC MOSFET(C2M0040120D) made by power company ROHM. This modeling was created using parameters that were provided from a device datasheet. The spice model is provided by this company to study the effect of adding this component on push-pull inverter ordinary circuit and compared results between SiC MOSFET and silicon MOSFET (IRFP260M). The results focused on Vout and Vmos stability as well as on output power and MOSFET power loss because it is a very crucial aspect on DC-AC inverter design. These results are done using the National Instrument simulation program (Multisim 14). It was found that power loss is better in the 12 and 15 vdc inverter. The Vout in the SIC MOSFET circuit shows more stability in the high current low resistance load in comparison to the Silicon MOSFET circuit and this will improve the overall performance of the circuit.

  2. HOM identification by bead pulling in the Brookhaven ERL cavity

    CERN Document Server

    Hahn, H; Jain, Puneet; Johnson, Elliott C; Xu, Wencan

    2014-01-01

    Exploratory measurements of the Brookhaven Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) cavity at superconducting temperature produced a long list of high order modes (HOMs). The niobium 5-cell cavity is terminated at each end with HOM ferrite dampers that successfully reduce the Q-factors to levels required to avoid beam break up (BBU) instabilities. However, a number of un-damped resonances with Q≥106 were found at 4 K and their mode identification forms the focus of this paper. The approach taken here consists of bead pulling on a copper (Cu) replica of the ERL cavity with dampers involving various network analyzer measurements. Several different S21 transmission measurements are used, including those taken from the fundamental input coupler to the pick-up probe across the cavity, others between beam-position monitor probes in the beam tubes, and also between probes placed into the cells. The bead pull technique suitable for HOM identification with a metallic needle or dielectric bead is detailed. This paper presents the...

  3. Lessons learned from tubes pulled from French steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berge, Ph.; Boursier, J.M.; Dallery, D.; De Keroulas, F.; Rouillon, Y.

    1998-01-01

    Since 1981, the Chinon Hot Laboratory has completed more than 380 metallurgical examinations of pulled French steam generator tubes. Electricite de France decided to perform such investigations from the very outset of the French nuclear program, in order to contribute to nuclear power plant safety. The main reasons for withdrawing tubes are to evaluate the degradation, to validate non destructive examination (NDE) techniques, to gain a better understanding of cracking phenomena, and to ensure that the criteria on which plugging operations are based remain conservative. Considerable experience has been accumulated in the field of primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC), OD (secondary) side corrosion, leak and burst tests, and various tube plugging techniques. This paper focuses on the PWSCC phenomenon and on the secondary side corrosion process, and in particular, attempts to correlate French data from pulled tubes with the results of fundamental R and D studies. Finally, within the framework of the Nuclear Power Plant Safety and Maintenance Policy, all these results are discussed in terms of optimization of the field inspection of tube bundles and plugging criteria. (author)

  4. Recycling of plastics in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thienen, N. von; Patel, M.

    1999-01-01

    This article deals with the waste management of post-consumer plastics in Germany and its potential to save fossil fuels and reduce CO 2 emissions. Since most experience is available for packaging, the paper first gives an overview of the legislative background and the material flows for this sector. Then recycling and recovery processes for plastics waste from all sectors are assessed in terms of their contribution to energy saving and CO 2 abatement. Practically all the options studied show a better performance than waste treatment in an average incinerator which has been chosen as the reference case. High ecological benefits can be achieved by mechanical recycling if virgin polymers are substituted. The paper then presents different scenarios for managing plastic waste in Germany in 1995: considerable savings can be made by strongly enhancing the efficiency of waste incinerators. Under these conditions the distribution of plastics waste among mechanical recycling, feedstock recycling and energy recovery has a comparatively mall impact on the overall results. The maximum savings amount to 74 PJ of energy, i.e, 9% of the chemical sector energy demand in 1995 and 7.0 Mt CO 2 , representing 13% of the sector's emissions. The assessment does not support a general recommendation of energy recovery due to the large difference between the German average and the best available municipal waste-to-energy facilities and also due to new technological developments in the field of mechanical recycling

  5. Exercise and plasticize the brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mala, Hana; Wilms, Inge

    Neuroscientific studies continue to shed light on brain’s plasticity and its innate mechanisms to recover. The recovery process includes re-wiring of the existing circuitry, establishment of new connections, and recruitment of peri-lesional and homologous areas in the opposite hemisphere....... The plasticity of the brain can be stimulated and enhanced through training, which serves as a fundamental element of neurorehabilitative strategies. For instance, intensive cognitive and physical training promote the activation of processes that may help the brain to adapt to new conditions and needs. However...... neurorehabilitation is to understand and define how to stimulate the injured brain to elicit the desired adaptation. Research focuses on uncovering specific elements relevant for training planning and execution in order to create an environment that stimulates and maximizes the exploitation of the brain’s plastic...

  6. Assesing tree-root & soil interaction using pull-out test apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, J.; Corcoran, M. K.; Kala, R.; Leavell, D.

    2011-12-01

    . When the test begins the load cell and displacement transducers immediately started recording the measurements, and the measurements are stored on a laptop computer. The hydraulic pump controls the rate of loading for a relatively slow pulling displacement rate of 0.08 in./sec. Failure occurred when the root breaks or was pulled out of the soil. Maximum forces and root failure location were noted, as well as any additional observations during and after the test. In the ERDC tests, root diameters (root with bark) ranged between 0.7 and 2.33 in., the pullout force was between 86 and 3513 lb, and the pullout stress was between 56 and 2645 psi. ERDC recorded three different types of tree-root failures: pure root tensile failure, bonding between root and soil failure, and a combination of the two. In tensile failure, a root breaks abruptly and the force versus displacement curve usually shows a steep slope, and there is no residual strength. In a bonding failure, the force versus displacement curve shows a gentler slope, and there is residual strength. A combined failure mode may also occur. For pullout tests conducted for the ERDC research, the combined mode failure was the most prevalent failure mechanism.

  7. Size-dependent pull-in instability of electrostatically actuated microbeam-based MEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Binglei; Zhou, Shenjie; Zhao, Junfeng; Chen, Xi

    2011-01-01

    We present a size-dependent model for electrostatically actuated microbeam-based MEMS using strain gradient elasticity theory. The normalized pull-in voltage is shown to increase nonlinearly with the decrease of the beam height, and the size effect becomes prominent if the beam thickness is on the order of microns or smaller (i.e. when the beam dimension is comparable to the material length scale parameter). Very good agreement is found between the present model and available experimental data. The study may be helpful to characterize the mechanical properties of small size MEMS, or guide the design of microbeam-based devices for a wide range of potential applications. (technical note)

  8. Finding the Cell Center by a Balance of Dynein and Myosin Pulling and Microtubule Pushing: A Computational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jie; Burakov, Anton; Rodionov, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    The centrosome position in many types of interphase cells is actively maintained in the cell center. Our previous work indicated that the centrosome is kept at the center by pulling force generated by dynein and actin flow produced by myosin contraction and that an unidentified factor that depends on microtubule dynamics destabilizes position of the centrosome. Here, we use modeling to simulate the centrosome positioning based on the idea that the balance of three forces—dyneins pulling along microtubule length, myosin-powered centripetal drag, and microtubules pushing on organelles—is responsible for the centrosome displacement. By comparing numerical predictions with centrosome behavior in wild-type and perturbed interphase cells, we rule out several plausible hypotheses about the nature of the microtubule-based force. We conclude that strong dynein- and weaker myosin-generated forces pull the microtubules inward competing with microtubule plus-ends pushing the microtubule aster outward and that the balance of these forces positions the centrosome at the cell center. The model also predicts that kinesin action could be another outward-pushing force. Simulations demonstrate that the force-balance centering mechanism is robust yet versatile. We use the experimental observations to reverse engineer the characteristic forces and centrosome mobility. PMID:20980619

  9. Technology and trend management at the interface of technology push and market pull

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maier, Maximilian; Hofmann, Maximilian; Brem, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Technology push and market pull innovation strategies are playing an important role for the effective management of ideas, technologies, and trends. The coexistence of these two approaches led to many debates and the focus switched several times from putting more effort into technology push aspects...... to fostering market pull approaches in the last decades. Still, there is no in-depth exploration of the interface of technology push and market pull and only few conceptual models are dealing with the connection between technology push and market pull in particular. Therefore, this study puts an exploratory...... focus on the innovation management processes of a global outdoor manufacturer with a special emphasis on the interface between technology push and market pull. From the case findings and our literature we conceptualise a non-linear innovation model that systematically integrates market pull...

  10. Plasticity characteristic obtained by indentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milman, Yu V

    2008-01-01

    A dimensionless parameter δ H = ε p /ε t (where ε p and ε t are the average values of plastic and total deformation of material on the contact area indenter-specimen) may be used as the plasticity characteristic of materials, which made it possible to characterize the plasticity of materials that are brittle in standard mechanical tests. δ H may be calculated from the values of microhardness HM, Young's modulus E and Poisson's ratio ν. In instrumented indentation the plasticity characteristic δ A = A p /A t (A p and A t are the work of plastic and total deformation during indentation) may be calculated. δ A ∼ δ H for materials with δ H > 0.5, i.e. for all metals and the majority of ceramic materials. In this case, the theoretical equation δ A ∼ δ H = 1-10.2 · (1 - ν - 2ν 2 )(HM/E) is satisfied in experiments with the Berkovich indenter. The influence of the temperature and structural parameters (dislocation density and grain size including nanostructured materials) on δ H is discussed

  11. Identification of 6H-SiC polar faces with pull-off force of atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan, Di; Song, Youting; Yang, Junwei; Chen, Hongxiang [Research & development Center for Functional Crystals, Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Guo, Liwei, E-mail: lwguo@iphy.ac.cn [Research & development Center for Functional Crystals, Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Chen, Xiaolong, E-mail: chenx29@iphy.ac.cn [Research & development Center for Functional Crystals, Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing (China)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • A new method is proposed and demonstrated to distinguish the polar faces of 6H-SiC by pull-off forces which are clearly different on the Si-face and the C-face of 6H-SiC. • The reliability of this method is confirmed on 6H-SiC samples treated with different surface processing procedures. • The essence of different pull-off forces on different polar faces of 6H-SiC is that the surface energies between them are obviously different. • Theoretical calculations are consistent with our experimental results. - Abstract: Distinguishing SiC (0001) Si-face from SiC (000-1) C-face without any damages is extremely important because the two polar faces have different physical and chemical properties which seriously influence the quality of a homoepitaxy or heteroepitaxy thin film on it. Here, a convenient and nondestructive detection method is developed to distinguish the Si-face and C-face of a (0001) oriented SiC wafer by employing a pull-off force measurement using atomic force microscopy. It is found that the pull-off force from a Si-face of 6H-SiC is about two times of that from a C-face, no matter it is a two-face chemical mechanical polishing or etched 6H-SiC wafer. The method developed here is suitable to identify polar faces of materials only if the two polar faces having different surface energy.

  12. New polyvinylchloride plasticizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAZITOVA Aliya Karamovna

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the main large-capacity polymers of modern chemical industry is polyvinylchloride (PVC. Polyvinylchloride is characterized by many useful engineering properties – chemical firmness in different environments, good electric properties, etc. It explains immensely various use of materials on the basis of PVC in different engineering industries. It is cable, building, light industries, mechanical engineering and automotive industry where PVC is widely applied. One of the reasons why PVC production is dramatically growing is that there is no yet other polymer which could be subjected to such various modifying as it is done with PVC. However under normal temperature this polymer is fragile and isn't elastic that limits the field of its application. Rapid growth of production of polyvinylchloride is explained by its ability to modify properties, due to introduction of special additives when processing. Introduction of plasticizers – mostlly esters of organic and inorganic acids – into PVC allows significant changing properties of polymer. Plasticizers facilitate process of receiving polymeric composition, increase flexibility and elasticity of the final polymeric product due to internal modification of polymeric molecule.

  13. Optical pulling force and conveyor belt effect in resonator-waveguide system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intaraprasonk, Varat; Fan, Shanhui

    2013-09-01

    We present the theoretical condition and actual numerical design that achieves an optical pulling force in resonator-waveguide systems, where the direction of the force on the resonator is in the opposite direction to the input light in the waveguide. We also show that this pulling force can occur in conjunction with the lateral optical equilibrium effect, such that the resonator is maintained at the fixed distance from the waveguide while experiencing the pulling force.

  14. Wood-plastic combination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaudy, R.

    1978-02-01

    A review on wood-plastic combinations is given including the production (wood and plastic component, radiation hardening, curing), the obtained properties, present applications and prospects for the future of these materials. (author)

  15. DESIGNERS’ KNOWLEDGE IN PLASTICS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Kaare

    2013-01-01

    The Industrial designers’ knowledge in plastics materials and manufacturing principles of polymer products is very important for the innovative strength of the industry, according to a group of Danish plastics manufacturers, design students and practicing industrial designers. These three groups ...

  16. Method to measure the force to pull and to break pin bones of fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaban, Murat O; Jie, Hubert; Yin Yee, Yin; Alçiçek, Zayde

    2015-02-01

    A texture measurement device was modified to measure the force required to pull pin bones from King salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), snapper (Pagrus auratus), and kahawai (Arripis trutta). Pulled bones were also subjected to tension to measure the breaking force. For all fish, the pulling force depended on the size of the fish, and on the length of the pin bone (P bones. For example, fresh small salmon (about 1500 g whole) required 600 g on average to pull pin bones, and large fish (about 3700 g whole) required 850 g. Longer bones required greater pulling force. The breaking force followed the same trend. In general, the breaking force was greater than the pulling force. This allows the removal of the bones without breaking them. There was no statistically significant (P > 0.05) difference between the forces (both pulling and breaking) from fresh and frozen/thawed samples, although in general frozen/thawed samples required less force to pull. With the quantification of pulling and breaking forces for pin bones, it is possible to design and build better, "more intelligent" pin bone removal equipment. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Characterization and evaluation physical properties biodegradable plastic composite from seaweed (Eucheuma cottonii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deni, Glar Donia; Dhaningtyas, Shalihat Afifah; Fajar, Ibnu; Sudarno

    2015-12-01

    The characterization and evaluation of biodegradable plastic composed of a mixture PVA - carrageenan - chitosan was conducted in this study. Obtained data were then compared to commercial biodegradable plastic. Characteristic of plastic was mechanical tested such as tensile - strength and elongation. Plastic degradation was studied using composting method for 7 days and 14 days. The results showed that the increase carrageenan will decrease tensile-strength and elongation plastic composite. In addition, increase carrageenan would increase the degraded plastics composite.

  18. Pulling G Human Responses to High and Low Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Seedhouse, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Formula 1 racing drivers, figher pilots, astronauts - G forces are an integral part of their lives - How do racing drivers sustain high G loads and not pass out? - What accelerative forces are unleashed when a fighter pilot ejects from a high-performance jet? - What is it like being launched into space and what are the effects on astronauts living in zero G on board the International Space Station? - How do aircraft simulate zero G? Pulling G gives a unique insight into how G forces affect people working inthe high and low G environments. It examines the risks of high and low acceleration and explains the physiology of surviving in these environments. The history of G-related research is described, together with present-day and future development of methods to cope with the effects of increased and reduced G.

  19. Haldia complex in doubt as Tata pulls out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alperowicz, N.

    1993-01-01

    The Tata Tea group (Calcutta) intends to pull out of Haldia Petrochemicals, casting a shadow on India's second major petrochemical project. Late last year Shell withdrew from National Organic Chemical Industries (Nocil; Bombay), throwing Nocil's plans into disarray. Tata - copromoting Halida with the West Bengal government - cites escalating costs as the main reason for its decision. The Haldia project was revised in 1990 to have annual capacities for 300,000 m.t. of ethylene, 100,000 m.t. of high-density polyethylene (HDPE), 160,000 m.t. of linear low-density polyethylene, and 150,000 m.t. of polypropylene (PP). The cost was frozen at Rs30 billion, but the exchange rate shifted and the petrochemical markets suffered a downturn. Lummus Crest has been shortlisted to supply the ethylene plant, with Mitsui for HDPE and Himont for PP

  20. Free energy profiles from single-molecule pulling experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummer, Gerhard; Szabo, Attila

    2010-12-14

    Nonequilibrium pulling experiments provide detailed information about the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of molecules. We show that unperturbed free energy profiles as a function of molecular extension can be obtained rigorously from such experiments without using work-weighted position histograms. An inverse Weierstrass transform is used to relate the system free energy obtained from the Jarzynski equality directly to the underlying molecular free energy surface. An accurate approximation for the free energy surface is obtained by using the method of steepest descent to evaluate the inverse transform. The formalism is applied to simulated data obtained from a kinetic model of RNA folding, in which the dynamics consists of jumping between linker-dominated folded and unfolded free energy surfaces.