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Sample records for plastic wood petroleum

  1. COMPOSITES FROM RECYCLED WOOD AND PLASTICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ultimate goal of this research was to develop technology to convert recycled wood fiber and plastics into durable products that are recyclable and otherwise environmentally friendly. Two processing technologies were used to prepare wood-plastic composites: air-laying and melt...

  2. Composites from wood and plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig Clemons

    2010-01-01

    Composites made from thermoplastics and fillers or reinforcements derived from wood or other natural fibers are a dynamic research area encompassing a wide variety of composite materials. For example, as the use of biopolymers grows, wood and other natural fiber sources are being investigated as renewable sources of fillers and reinforcements to modify performance....

  3. Use of recycled plastics in wood plastic composites - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi Najafi, Saeed

    2013-09-01

    The use of recycled and waste thermoplastics has been recently considered for producing wood plastic composites (WPCs). They have great potential for WPCs manufacturing according to results of some limited researches. This paper presents a detailed review about some essential properties of waste and recycled plastics, important for WPCs production, and of research published on the effect of recycled plastics on the physical and mechanical properties of WPCs.

  4. Strength of anisotropic wood and synthetic materials. [plywood, laminated wood plastics, glass fiber reinforced plastics, polymeric film, and natural wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashkenazi, Y. K.

    1981-01-01

    The possibility of using general formulas for determining the strength of different anisotropic materials is considered, and theoretical formulas are applied and confirmed by results of tests on various nonmetallic materials. Data are cited on the strength of wood, plywood, laminated wood plastics, fiber glass-reinforced plastics and directed polymer films.

  5. Filling behaviour of wood plastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duretek, I.; Lucyshyn, T.; Holzer, C.

    2017-01-01

    Wood plastic composites (WPC) are a young generation of composites with rapidly growing usage within the plastics industry. The advantages are the availability and low price of the wood particles, the possibility of partially substituting the polymer in the mixture and sustainable use of the earth’s resources. The current WPC products on the market are to a large extent limited to extruded products. Nowadays there is a great interest in the market for consumer products in more use of WPC as an alternative to pure thermoplastics in injection moulding processes. This work presents the results of numerical simulation and experimental visualisation of the mould filling process in injection moulding of WPC. The 3D injection moulding simulations were done with the commercial software package Autodesk® Moldflow® Insight 2016 (AMI). The mould filling experiments were conducted with a box-shaped test part. In contrast to unfilled polymers the WPC has reduced melt elasticity so that the fountain flow often does not develop. This results in irregular flow front shapes in the moulded part, especially at high filler content.

  6. Cold-atmospheric pressure plasma polymerization of acetylene on wood flour for improved wood plastics composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekobou, William; Pedrow, Patrick; Englund, Karl; Laborie, Marie-Pierre

    2009-10-01

    Plastic composites have become a large class of construction material for exterior applications. One of the main disadvantages of wood plastic composites resides in the weak adhesion between the polar and hydrophilic surface of wood and the non-polar and hydrophobic polyolefin matrix, hindering the dispersion of the flour in the polymer matrix. To improve interfacial compatibility wood flour can be pretreated with environmentally friendly methods such as cold-atmospheric pressure plasma. The objective of this work is therefore to evaluate the potential of plasma polymerization of acetylene on wood flour to improve the compatibility with polyolefins. This presentation will describe the reactor design used to modify wood flour using acetylene plasma polymerization. The optimum conditions for plasma polymerization on wood particles will also be presented. Finally preliminary results on the wood flour surface properties and use in wood plastic composites will be discussed.

  7. Flammability Properties of Composites of Wood Fiber and Recycled Plastic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Flammability properties of composites of wood fiber and recycled plastic were evaluated by the cone calorimeter and oxygen index chamber. Results were shown as follows: 1) Wood-PVC composite showed worse thermal stability on time to ignition (TTI) and mean heat release rate (MHRR), but better performance on heat release rate (HRR) and mean efficient heat of combustion (MEHC); wood-PP composite had better thermal stability properties, but was worse on other fire performance; 2) Compared with wood-PVC composi...

  8. Moisture Performance of wood-plastic composites reinforced with extracted and delignified wood flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao Chen; Nicole M. Stark; Mandla A. Tshabalala; Jianmin Gao; Yongming Fan

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of using extracted and delignified wood flour on water sorption properties of wood–plastic composites. Wood flour (WF) extraction was performed with three solvent systems: toluene/ethanol (TE), acetone/water (AW), and hot water (HW); delignification was conducted using sodium chlorite/acetic acid solution. A 24 full-factorial...

  9. Effects of Mixing Temperature and Wood Powder Size on Mechanical Properties of Wood Plastic Recycled Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miki, Tsunehisa; Sugimoto, Hiroyuki; Kojiro, Keisuke; Kanayama, Kozo; Yamamoto, Ken

    In this study, wood (cedar) powder ranging from 53 µm to 1 mm sizes, recycled polypropylene (PP) / polyethylene (PE) and acid-modified PP as a compatibilization agent were used to produce a wood-plastic recycled composite (WPRC). For discussing the effects of the wood powder sizes on the mechanical properties of the WPRC, a mixing process of the wood powder and the plastics in a constant wood content of 50% weight was firstly performed by a mixing machine controlled temperature and rotation of mixing blade. And then, to obtain WPRC panels the wood and plastics mixtures were compressed in a mould under a constant pressure and a temperature for a certain holding time. WPRC specimens for mechanical tests were cut from the WPRC panels, and a tensile strength and a size-stability were acquired. The results show that the successful mixing process runs above 180°C, where the mixing torque required compounding keeps constant or slightly increases. The tensile strength of the WPRC increases when the smaller size of wood powder is used for wood/plastic compound under successful mixing conditions. It is shown from thickness change rate of specimens that mixing temperature of wood/plastic compound affects a size stability of the WPRC.

  10. HYGROSCOPICITY OF WOOD PLASTIC COMPOSITES MADE WITH PADOU FLOUR AND POLYPROPYLENE PELLETS

    OpenAIRE

    Moise Emmanuel NZUDJOM SOUOP; Joseph Albert MUKAM FOTSING

    2012-01-01

    The manufacture of objects in wood-plastic composites which is a material already available in many developed countries seems almost unknown in Cameroon since the production factory of objects in wood-plastic composites does not exist up till here. Interested in the study of properties of wood-plastic composites throughconnection of simple plastic and wood, we have oriented our paper in the elaboration, realization and physical characterization of wood-plastic composites with Padou and polypr...

  11. Properties of wood-plastic composites (WPCs) reinforced with extracted and delignified wood flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao Chen; Nicole M. Stark; Mandla A. Tshabalala; Jianmin Gao; Yongming Fan

    2014-01-01

    The water sorption and mechanical properties of wood-plastic composites (WPCs) made of extracted and delignified wood flour (WF) has been investigated. WF was prepared by extraction with the solvent systems toluene/ethanol (TE), acetone/water (AW), and hot water (HW), and its delignification was conducted by means of sodium chlorite/acetic acid (AA) solution. A 2 4...

  12. Decay resistance of wood-plastic composites reinforced with extracted or delignified wood flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca E. Ibach; Yao Chen; Nicole M. Stark; Mandla A. Tshabalala; Yongming Fan; Jianmin Gao

    2014-01-01

    The moisture and decay resistance of wood-plastic composites (WPCs) reinforced with extracted or delignified wood flour (WF) was investigated. Three different extractions were preformed: toluene/ethanol (TE), acetone/water (AW), and hot water (HW). Delignification (DL) was performed using a sodium chlorite/acetic acid solution. All WPCs specimens were made with 50% by...

  13. Weathering Characteristics of Wood Plastic Composites Reinforced with Extracted or Delignified Wood Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Chen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated weathering performance of an HDPE wood plastic composite reinforced with extracted or delignified wood flour (WF. The wood flour was pre-extracted with three different solvents, toluene/ethanol (TE, acetone/water (AW, and hot water (HW, or sodium chlorite/acetic acid. The spectral properties of the composites before and after artificial weathering under accelerated conditions were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, the surface color parameters were analyzed using colorimetry, and the mechanical properties were determined by a flexural test. Weathering of WPC resulted in a surface lightening and a decrease in wood index (wood/HDPE and flexural strength. WPCs that were reinforced with delignified wood flour showed higher ΔL* and ΔE* values, together with lower MOE and MOR retention ratios upon weathering when compared to those with non-extracted control and extracted WF.

  14. Modelling piloted ignition of wood and plastics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blijderveen, M. van; Bramer, E.A.; Brem, G.

    2012-01-01

    To gain insight in the startup of an incinerator, this article deals with piloted ignition. A newly developed model is described to predict the piloted ignition times of wood, PMMA and PVC. The model is based on the lower flammability limit and the adiabatic flame temperature at this limit. The inco

  15. HYGROSCOPICITY OF WOOD PLASTIC COMPOSITES MADE WITH PADOU FLOUR AND POLYPROPYLENE PELLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moise Emmanuel NZUDJOM SOUOP

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The manufacture of objects in wood-plastic composites which is a material already available in many developed countries seems almost unknown in Cameroon since the production factory of objects in wood-plastic composites does not exist up till here. Interested in the study of properties of wood-plastic composites throughconnection of simple plastic and wood, we have oriented our paper in the elaboration, realization and physical characterization of wood-plastic composites with Padou and polypropylene. An injection press available at NYANGONO PLASTIC factory (Yaounde-Cameroon was used to manufacture our wood- plastic composites.The following combinations were used: 1/3 Padou flour and 2/3 plastic; 1/4 Padou flour and 3/4 plastic; 1/5 Padou flour and 4/5 plastic. We found that the composite made of 1/5 Padou flour and 4/5 plastic reaches firstthe hygroscopic saturation point, flowed by the one containing 1/4 of wood and 3/4 of plastic and finally that containing 1/3 of wood and 2/3 of plastic. The moisture content of all the wood-plastic composite made was very low even in a soaked environment enabling us to conclude that these composites will be probably not attacked by fungus and insects.

  16. Wood plastic composites from modified wood. Part 3. Durability of WPCs with bioderived matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westin, M.; Larsson-Brelid, P.; Segerholm, B.K.; Oever, van den M.J.A.

    2008-01-01

    The decay resistance of fully bio-derived wood plastic composites, WPCs, was tested in both laboratory and field tests. The laboratory tests were performed according to modified versions of AWPA E10 (soil-block test) and ENV 807 (tests in three un-sterile soils) and the field tests according to EN 2

  17. Engineering Biodegradable Flame Retardant Wood-Plastic Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linxi

    Wood-plastic composites (WPCs), which are produced by blending wood and polymer materials, have attracted increasing attentions in market and industry due to the low cost and excellent performance. In this research, we have successfully engineered WPC by melt blending Polylactic Acid (PLA) and Poly(butylene adipate-co-terphthalate) (PBAT) with recycled wood flour. The thermal property and flammability of the composite are significantly improved by introducing flame retardant agent resorcinol bis(biphenyl phosphate) (RDP). The mechanical and morphological properties are also investigated via multiple techniques. The results show that wood material has increased toughness and impact resistance of the PLA/PBAT polymer matrix. SEM images have confirmed that PLA and PBAT are immiscible, but the incompatibility is reduced by the addition of wood. RDP is initially dispersed in the blends evenly. It migrates to the surface of the sample after flame application, and serves as a barrier between the fire and underlying polymers and wood mixture. It is well proved in the research that RDP is an efficient flame retardant agent in the WPC system.

  18. Modelling piloted ignition of wood and plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Blijderveen, Maarten; Bramer, Eddy A; Brem, Gerrit

    2012-09-01

    To gain insight in the startup of an incinerator, this article deals with piloted ignition. A newly developed model is described to predict the piloted ignition times of wood, PMMA and PVC. The model is based on the lower flammability limit and the adiabatic flame temperature at this limit. The incoming radiative heat flux, sample thickness and moisture content are some of the used variables. Not only the ignition time can be calculated with the model, but also the mass flux and surface temperature at ignition. The ignition times for softwoods and PMMA are mainly under-predicted. For hardwoods and PVC the predicted ignition times agree well with experimental results. Due to a significant scatter in the experimental data the mass flux and surface temperature calculated with the model are hard to validate. The model is applied on the startup of a municipal waste incineration plant. For this process a maximum allowable primary air flow is derived. When the primary air flow is above this maximum air flow, no ignition can be obtained.

  19. Wood plastic composite using graphene nanoplatelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheshmani, Shabnam; Ashori, Alireza; Fashapoyeh, Marzieh Arab

    2013-07-01

    This article presents the preparation and characterization of wood flour/polypropylene (PP) composites filled with graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs). The effects of GNPs, as reinforcing agent, on the mechanical and physical properties were also investigated. In order to increase the interphase adhesion, maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene (MAPP) was added as a coupling agent to all the composites studied. The morphology of the specimens was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) technique. The results of strength measurements indicated that when 0.8 wt.% GNPs were added, tensile and flexural properties reached their maximum values. At high levels of GNPs loading (3-5 wt.%), increased population of GNPs leads to agglomeration and stress transfer gets blocked. The addition of GNPs filler moderately increased the impact strength of composites. Addition of GNPs decreased the average water uptake and thickness swelling by 35% and 30%, respectively, compared to the control sample (without GNPs). It was observed that the composites filled with GNPs decomposed at higher temperatures compared to the pure PP and control. In all cases, the degradation temperatures shifted to higher values after the addition of GNPs. The improvement of physical and mechanical properties of composites confirmed that GNPs have good reinforcement and the optimum effect of GNPs was achieved at 0.8 wt.%.

  20. ASSESSING DETOXIFICATION AND DEGRADATION OF WOOD PRESERVING AND PETROLEUM WASTES IN CONTAMINATED SOIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was undertaken to evaluate in-situ soil bioremediation processes, including degradation and detoxification, for two types of wood preserving wastes and two types of petroleum refining wastes at high concentrations in an unacclimated soil. The soil solid phase, water so...

  1. Evaluation of bolted connections in wood-plastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnandha, Yudhi; Satyarno, Iman; Awaludin, Ali; Irawati, Inggar Septia; Ihsan, Muhamad; Wijanarko, Felyx Biondy; William, Mahdinur, Fardhani, Arfiati

    2017-03-01

    Wood-plastic composite (WPC) is a relatively new material that consists of sawdust and plastic polymer using the extrusion process. Due to its attributes such as low water content, low maintenance, UV durability and being fungi and termite resistant. Nowadays, WPC has already been produced in Indonesia using sawdust from local wood such as Albizia (Paraserianthes falcataria) and Teak (Tectona grandis). Moreover preliminary studies about the physical and mechanical WPC board from Albizia sawdust and HDPE plastic have been carried out. Based on these studies, WPC has a high shear strength around 25-30 MPa higher than its original wood shear strength. This paper was a part of the research in evaluating WPC as potential sheathing in a shear wall system. Since still little is known about connection behavior in WPC using Indonesian local wood, this study evaluated the connection for both of these two types of wood-plastic composite. WPC board from Albizia sawdust will be projected as shear wall sheathing and WPC stud from Teak sawdust projected to be shear wall frame. For this study, the embedding strength for both WPC was determined according to ASTM D 5764 standard, using two types of bolts (stainless bolt and standard bolt) with several diameters as variation (6 mm, 8 mm, 10 and 12 mm). Hence, dowel-bearing test under fastened condition conducted accordance to ASTM D5652, hereby the yield strength then compared with the prediction yield strength from European Yield Model (EYM). According to both single and double shear connection, it can be concluded that yield strength from the EYM method tended to under-predict the 5% diameter offset yield than the actual yield strength from the test. The yield strength itself increase with the increase of bolt diameter. For single shear connection, the highest yield strength was 12 mm standard bolt around 9732 N, slightly higher than stainless bolt around 9393 N. Whereby for double shear connection, the highest yield strength was

  2. Enhancing anti-microbial properties of wood-plastic composites produced from timber and plastic wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Chen, Season S; Tsang, Daniel C W; Poon, Chi Sun; Ok, Yong Sik

    2017-05-01

    Considering the resource waste and environmental burden for timber and plastic materials ending up at landfills, this study proposed upcycling wood and plastic waste into value-added wood-plastic composites (WPCs), complying with the standard requirements of flexural strength, thickness swelling, water absorption and thermal insulation. Biological deterioration is a major concern of WPCs. Bacterial survival, fungal attack and algal growth of bactericide-treated WPCs were holistically analysed. Melamine resin was adopted for impregnating anti-microbial agents on the surface. All the agents showed excellent bactericidal rate (Escherichia coli), yet poly-diallyl-dimethyl-ammonium chloride (PolyDADMAC) and silver had the lowest minimum inhibitory concentrations. In terms of weight loss and strength reduction due to fungal decay (Coriolus versicolor), PolyDADMAC, silver and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) imparted the highest resistance on the WPCs. Moreover, PolyDADMAC and copper provided the most protection against algal growth (Chlorella vulgaris), and the former presented durable inhibitory effect. This study presents a value-added solution to wood/plastic waste recycling.

  3. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Fine Particulate Matter Emitted from Burning Kerosene, Liquid Petroleum Gas, and Wood Fuels in Household Cookstoves

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study measured polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) composition in particulate matter emissions from residential cookstoves. A variety of fuel and cookstove combinations were examined, including: (i) liquid petroleum gas (LPG), (ii) kerosene in a wick stove, (iii) wood (10%...

  4. MOISTURE SORPTION IN ARTIFICIALLY AGED WOOD-PLASTIC COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kristoffer Segerholm,

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Moisture sorption in wood-plastic composites (WPCs affects their durability and dimensional stability. In certain outdoor exposures, the moisture properties of WPCs are altered due to e.g. cracks induced by swelling and shrinkage of the components, as well as UV degradation or biological attack. The aim of this work was to study the effect of different artificial ageing routes on the moisture sorption properties of WPCs. Extruded WPCs were prepared with either unmodified or acetylated wood and recycled high-density polyethylene (HDPE. The WPC samples were artificially aged involving water soaking, artificial weathering, and white- or brown-rot decay in different combinations. After the ageing, the samples were conditioned in either 65% or 90% relative humidity (RH until equilibrium moisture content was reached. A dynamic moisture sorption analyzer was used to monitor the sorption rate of samples subjected to a climate change from 65% to 90% RH. Scanning electron microscopy was used to study the surface morphology of the aged composites. Results showed that the artificial weathering caused cracking of the HDPE matrix at the composite surface, as well as a wood-matrix debonding, resulting in an increased moisture sorption rate. The WPC samples subjected to white-rot decay showed the highest moisture sorption rate.

  5. Wood-plastic composites using thermomechanical pulp made from oxalic acid-pretreated red pine chips

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.E. Winandy; N.M. Stark; E. Horn

    2008-01-01

    The characteristics and properties of wood fiber is one of many factors of critical importance to the performance of wood-plastic composites. In commercial thermo-mechanical pulping (TMP) of wood chips to produce fibers, high temperatures (>100°C) are used to separate the fibers during TMP refining. These mechanical pressures and temperatures are usually modulated...

  6. Final Report: Development of Renewable Microbial Polyesters for Cost Effective and Energy- Efficient Wood-Plastic Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, David N.; Emerick, Robert W.; England, Alfred B.; Flanders, James P.; Loge, Frank J.; Wiedeman, Katherine A.; Wolcott, Michael P.

    2010-03-31

    In this project, we proposed to produce wood fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites (WFRTCs) using microbial thermoplastic polyesters in place of petroleum-derived plastic. WFRTCs are a rapidly growing product area, averaging a 38% growth rate since 1997. Their production is dependent on substantial quantities of petroleum based thermoplastics, increasing their overall energy costs by over 230% when compared to traditional Engineered Wood Products (EWP). Utilizing bio-based thermoplastics for these materials can reduce our dependence on foreign petroleum. We have demonstrated that biopolymers (polyhydroxyalkanoates, PHA) can be successfully produced from wood pulping waste streams and that viable wood fiber reinforced thermoplastic composite products can be produced from these materials. The results show that microbial polyester (PHB in this study) can be extruded together with wastewater-derived cell mass and wood flour into deck products having performance properties comparable to existing commercial HDPE/WF composite products. This study has thus proven the underlying concept that the microbial polyesters produced from waste effluents can be used to make cost-effective and energy-efficient wood-plastic composites. The cost of purified microbial polyesters is about 5-20 times that of HDPE depending on the cost of crude oil, due to high purification (40%), carbon substrate (40%) and sterilized fermentation (20%) costs for the PHB. Hence, the ability to produce competitive and functional composites with unpurified PHA-biomass mixtures from waste carbon sources in unsterile systems—without cell debris removal—is a significant step forward in producing competitive value-added structural composites from forest products residuals using a biorefinery approach. As demonstrated in the energy and waste analysis for the project, significant energy savings and waste reductions can also be realized using this approach. We recommend that the next step for development of

  7. Toughening of wood plastic composite based on X-PP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meekum, U.; Khongrit, A.

    2016-03-01

    Wood plastic composite(WPC) based on crosslinked polypropylene(X-PP)/wood flour was explored. The peroxide/silane was used as crosslinking system. The sauna incubation under moisture saturated oven was applied to accelerate the competition of the siloxy/moisture networking reaction. There were three parts of the research work; design of experiment, toughening of WPC and the effect of peroxide, silane and PP copolymer on properties of the WPC, respectively. In this published work, the toughness improvement of the composite was focused. Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) and Ethylene propylene diene terpolymer(EPDM) were employed to improve impact strength via blending with x-PP matrix. Composites were compounded into pellets by co-rotational twin screw extruder and test specimens were prepared by injection molding. Sauna incubation at 105°C for 12 hrs in oven chamber was performed to accelerate the final silane condensation crosslink reaction. MFI, impact strength, flexural properties and heat deflection temperature measurement were conducted. Impact strength, HDT and flexural modulus were improved with increasing UHMWPE content, and the optimal values around 5-10 phr of UHMWPE were achieved. Addition of EPDM elastomer to the matrix blends, reduced flexural strength and modulus but increased impact strength. While incorporation of EPDM into the PP/UHMWPE blends was exhibited much higher impact strength than that of the PP/UHMWPE binary blends. Silane crosslinked through sauna treatment improved the impact strength. HDT were also much risen for the crosslinked composite comparing with the non-crosslinked one.

  8. Substitution potentials of recycled HDPE and wood particles from post-consumer packaging waste in Wood-Plastic Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerhuber, Philipp F; Welling, Johannes; Krause, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    The market share of Wood-Plastic Composites (WPC) is small but expected to grow sharply in Europe. This raises some concerns about suitable wood particles needed in the wood-based panels industry in Europe. Concerns are stimulated by the competition between the promotion of wooden products through the European Bioeconomy Strategy and wood as an energy carrier through the Renewable Energy Directive. Cascade use of resources and valorisation of waste are potential strategies to overcome resource scarcity. Under experimental design conditions, WPC made from post-consumer recycled wood and plastic (HDPE) were compared to WPC made from virgin resources. Wood content in the polymer matrix was raised in two steps from 0% to 30% and 60%. Mechanical and physical properties and colour differences were characterized. The feasibility of using cascaded resources for WPC is discussed. Results indicate the technical and economic feasibility of using recycled HDPE from packaging waste for WPC. Based on technical properties, 30% recycled wood content for WPC is feasible, but economic and political barriers of efficient cascading of biomass need to be overcome.

  9. Properties of flat-pressed wood plastic composites containing fire retardants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadir Ayrilmis; Jan. T. Benthien; Heiko Thoemen; Robert H. White

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated physical, mechanical, and fire properties of the flat-pressed wood plastic composites (WPCs) incorporated with various fire retardants (FRs) [5 or 15% by weight (wt)] at 50 wt % of the wood flour (WF). The WPC panels were made from dry-blended WF, polypropylene (PP) with maleic anhydride grafted PP (2 wt %), and FR powder formulations using a...

  10. MECHANICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE OF SODIUM METAPERIODATE-IMPREGNATED PLASTICIZED WOOD (PW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md.Rezaur Rahman

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia, especially the Borneo Island state of Sarawak, has a large variety of tropical wood species. In this study, selected raw tropical wood species namely Artocarpus Elasticus, Artocarpus Rigidus, Xylopia spp., Koompassia Malaccensis, and Eugenia spp. were chemically treated with sodium metaperiodate to convert them into plasticized wood (PW. Manufactured plasticized wood samples were characterized using, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and mechanical testing (modulus of elasticity (MOE, modulus of rupture (MOR, static Young’s modulus (Es, decay resistance, and water absorption. MOE and MOR were calculated using a three-point bending test. Es and decay resistance were calculated using the compression parallel to grain test and the natural laboratory decay test, respectively. The manufactured PW yielded higher MOE, MOR, and Es. PW had a lower water content compared to the untreated wood and had high resistance to decay exposure, with Eugenia spp. having the highest resistance compared to the others.

  11. Rheological Characterisation of the Flow Behaviour of Wood Plastic Composites in Consideration of Different Volume Fractions of Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufer, N.; Hansmann, H.; Koch, M.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the rheological properties of wood plastic composites (WPC) with different polymeric matrices (LDPE, low-density polyethylene and PP, polypropylene) and with different types of wood filler (hardwood flour and softwood flour) have been investigated by means of high pressure capillary rheometry. The volume fraction of wood was varied between 0 and 60 %. The shear thinning behaviour of the WPC melts can be well described by the Ostwald - de Waele power law relationship. The flow consistency index K of the power law shows a good correlation with the volume fraction of wood. Interparticular interaction effects of wood particles can be mathematically taken into account by implementation of an interaction exponent (defined as the ratio between flow exponent of WPC and flow exponent of polymeric matrix). The interaction exponent shows a good correlation with the flow consistency index. On the basis of these relationships the concept of shear-stress-equivalent inner shear rate has been modified. Thus, the flow behaviour of the investigated wood filled polymer melts could be well described mathematically by the modified concept of shear-stress-equivalent inner shear rate. On this basis, the shear thinning behaviour of WPC can now be estimated with good accuracy, taking into account the volume fraction of wood.

  12. Effects of wood fiber surface chemistry on strength of wood-plastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migneault, Sébastien; Koubaa, Ahmed; Perré, Patrick; Riedl, Bernard

    2015-07-01

    Because wood-plastic composites (WPC) strength relies on fiber-matrix interaction at fiber surface, it is likely that fiber surface chemistry plays an important role in WPC strength development. The objective of the present study is to investigate the relationships between fiber surface chemical characteristics and WPC mechanical properties. Different fibers were selected and characterized for surface chemical characteristics using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). WPC samples were manufactured at 40% fiber content and with six different fibers. High density polyethylene was used as matrix and maleated polyethylene (MAPE) was used as compatibility agent. WPC samples were tested for mechanical properties and fiber-matrix interface was observed with scanning electron microscope. It was found WPC strength decreases as the amount of unoxidized carbon (assigned to lignin and extractives) measured with XPS on fiber surface increases. In the opposite case, WPC strength increases with increasing level of oxidized carbon (assigned to carbohydrates) on fiber surface. The same conclusions were found with FTIR where WPC strength decreases as lignin peaks intensity increases. Esterification reaction of fibers with MAPE occurs on polar sites of carbohydrates, such as hydroxyls (Osbnd H). Thus, fibers with carbohydrates-rich surface, such as cellulose pulp, produced stronger WPC samples. Other factors such as mechanical interlocking and fiber morphology interfered with the effects of fiber surface chemistry.

  13. 木塑模具设计%Wood-plastic mould design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑刘波

    2013-01-01

    Considering about wood-plastic floor mould design, schedule, structure and processing points of wood-plastic mould was introduced. Design differences between ordinary PVC foam mould and wood-plastic mould was analyzed. Based on differences between die-head cooling effects analysis, core cold by water instead of air was proposed. Basic parameters of the wood-plastic mould design and manufacturing, formula application and process parameters adjustment was mastered. Thus, improve wood-plastic mould output per unit of energy so as to maximize production efficiency and effectiveness.%从木塑地板模具的设计出发,介绍了木塑模具的方案、结构和加工要点.研究了普通PVC发泡模具与木塑模具的设计不同之处,分析了两者模头冷却效果的不同,从而提出型芯内冷方式由气冷改为水冷.掌握了木塑模具设计制造、配方应用、工艺参数调整等相关基础参数,提高了木塑模具单位能耗产出,从而达到生产效率和效益的最大化.

  14. Development of Wood-Plastic Composite at Dedan Kimathi University of Technology, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madaraka F. Mwema

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Disposal of plastics and other solid wastes has been a major problem in Kenya. Most of these wastes can be recycled through various ways and methods to produce new products. Plastics can be combined with sawdust to develop composite materials for applications such as in building. In this project, a wood-plastic composite (WPC was developed from sawdust and plastic solid wastes. The composite bore the advantages of both wood and plastics which can be applied in various sectors including interior design work and in automotive among others, thereby curbing the problem of garbage accumulation in the environment. The project provides eco-friendly solutions by making best use of the available resources (wood and plastic resins thus, finding sustainable solutions to the problem of limited waste dumping sites and deforestation in the country. The composites were made from PP and HDPE thermoplastics and mahogany sawdust obtained from our wood workshop in Dedan Kimathi University. From the tests carried out and results obtained, it was found that, the composite has more advantages than the individual constituent materials. Water absorption test revealed that all the samples took up water though not as much pronounced as for plain sawdust. Additionally, the rate of water reduction was found to be excellent. They took less time to release the absorbed water to the environment meaning that they can be applied in humid or wet environ. The composite samples were easy to machine since they were easily shaped using a handsaw.

  15. WATER RESISTANCE OF WOOD - PLASTIC COMPOSITES MADE FROM WASTE MATERIALS RESULTED IN THE FURNITURE MANUFACTURING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia COŞEREANU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present innovative wood-plastic composites made from waste materials such as ABS (acrylonitrile butadiene styrene and wood shavings resulted in the furniture manufacturing process. From previous investigations (with regard to physical integrity and compactness of the panels, only mixtures ranging from a ratio of 100% ABS: 0% shavings to 80% ABS: 20% shavings were selected for water resistance testing. Swelling in thickness and water absorption for 2h and 24h were determined for the proposed wood-plastic composites. The results have shown that only a participation of up to 10% of wood shavings in the tested panels conducted to a good performance

  16. Overview of Wood/Plastic Composites%木塑复合材料概述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李东方; 李黎; 李建章

    2013-01-01

      The development course of wood-plastic composite materials is reviewed, the production process and market prospect of wood/plastic composite materials are stated, the study on the raw materials of wood-plastic composite materials, relevant interfacial theory and interface improving methods are introduced, and currently existing problems are pointed out.%  回顾了木塑复合材料的发展历程,阐述了其生产工艺以及市场前景;介绍了木塑复合材料的原料研究、界面理论以及改善界面性能的方法,并指出目前存在的问题。

  17. WATER RESISTANCE OF WOOD - PLASTIC COMPOSITES MADE FROM WASTE MATERIALS RESULTED IN THE FURNITURE MANUFACTURING PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    Camelia COŞEREANU; Dumitru LICA; Ioan CURTU; Mariana-Domnica STANCIU

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present innovative wood-plastic composites made from waste materials such as ABS (acrylonitrile butadiene styrene) and wood shavings resulted in the furniture manufacturing process. From previous investigations (with regard to physical integrity and compactness of the panels), only mixtures ranging from a ratio of 100% ABS: 0% shavings to 80% ABS: 20% shavings were selected for water resistance testing. Swelling in thickness and water absorption for...

  18. Wood plastic composites based on microfibrillar blends of high density polyethylene/poly(ethylene terephthalate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yong; Wu, Qinglin

    2010-05-01

    High-melting-temperature poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) was successfully introduced into wood plastic composites through a two-step reactive extrusion technology. Wood flour was added into pre-prepared PET/high density polyethylene (HDPE) microfibrillar blends (MFBs) in the second extrusion at the temperature for processing HDPE. Addition of 25% in situ formed PET microfibers obviously increased the mechanical properties of HDPE, and more significant enhancement by the in situ formed recycled PET microfibers was observed for the recycled HDPE. Adding 2% E-GMA improved the compatibility between matrix and microfibers in MFBs, resulting further enhanced mechanical properties. The subsequent addition of 40% wood flour did not influence the size and morphology of PET microfibers, and improved the comprehensive mechanical properties of MFBs. The wood flour increased the crystallinity level of HDPE in the compatibilized MFB in which PET phase did not crystallize. The storage modulus of MFB was greatly improved by wood flour.

  19. The current situation of wood plastic composites%塑木复合材料发展现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何阳; 郑德; 黄锐

    2012-01-01

    The current situation of wood plastic composties are introduced, the development of wood plastic composties are analyzed in the future.%介绍了塑木复合材料的发展现状,并对其未来的发展作了分析。

  20. Some exploitation properties of wood plastic composites (WPC), based on high density polyethylene and timber industry waste

    OpenAIRE

    janis kajaks

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: In this study, the influence of wood fiber content (40, 50 and 60 wt.%) and coupling agent concentration (3 and 5 wt.%) on the mechanical properties of wood-plastic composites (WPCs) was investigated. Two types of plastic (high-density-polyethylene (HDPE) and recycled high-density-polyethylene (rHDPE)) were used as polymer matrices for preparing WPC. As reinforcement, prior grinded (fiber length < 0.5 mm) coniferous wood shavings were utilized. Overall trend showed, that by addin...

  1. Microbial enzymes for the recycling of recalcitrant petroleum-based plastics: how far are we?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ren; Zimmermann, Wolfgang

    2017-03-28

    Petroleum-based plastics have replaced many natural materials in their former applications. With their excellent properties, they have found widespread uses in almost every area of human life. However, the high recalcitrance of many synthetic plastics results in their long persistence in the environment, and the growing amount of plastic waste ending up in landfills and in the oceans has become a global concern. In recent years, a number of microbial enzymes capable of modifying or degrading recalcitrant synthetic polymers have been identified. They are emerging as candidates for the development of biocatalytic plastic recycling processes, by which valuable raw materials can be recovered in an environmentally sustainable way. This review is focused on microbial biocatalysts involved in the degradation of the synthetic plastics polyethylene, polystyrene, polyurethane and polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Recent progress in the application of polyester hydrolases for the recovery of PET building blocks and challenges for the application of these enzymes in alternative plastic waste recycling processes will be discussed. © 2017 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Fluidized-Bed Gasification of Plastic Waste, Wood, and Their Blends with Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio Zaccariello

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of fuel composition on gasification process performance was investigated by performing mass and energy balances on a pre-pilot scale bubbling fluidized bed reactor fed with mixtures of plastic waste, wood, and coal. The fuels containing plastic waste produced less H2, CO, and CO2 and more light hydrocarbons than the fuels including biomass. The lower heating value (LHV progressively increased from 5.1 to 7.9 MJ/Nm3 when the plastic waste fraction was moved from 0% to 100%. Higher carbonaceous fines production was associated with the fuel containing a large fraction of coal (60%, producing 87.5 g/kgFuel compared to only 1.0 g/kgFuel obtained during the gasification test with just plastic waste. Conversely, plastic waste gasification produced the highest tar yield, 161.9 g/kgFuel, while woody biomass generated only 13.4 g/kgFuel. Wood gasification showed a carbon conversion efficiency (CCE of 0.93, while the tests with two fuels containing coal showed lowest CCE values (0.78 and 0.70, respectively. Plastic waste and wood gasification presented similar cold gas efficiency (CGE values (0.75 and 0.76, respectively, while that obtained during the co-gasification tests varied from 0.53 to 0.73.

  3. Mechanical and time-dependent behavior of wood-plastic composites subjected to tension and compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott E. Hamel; John C. Hermanson; Steven M. Cramer

    2012-01-01

    The thermoplastics within wood—plastic composites (WPCs) are known to experience significant time-dependent deformation or creep. In some formulations, creep deformation can be twice as much as the initial quasi-static strain in as little as 4 days. While extensive work has been done on the creep behavior of pure polymers, little information is available on the...

  4. Impact of coupling agent on properties of wood-plastic composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Min; LI Shuai

    2007-01-01

    The impact ortwo couphng agents,maleic anhydride (coupling agent 1) and isocyanate (coupling agent 2) on the properties of wood-plastic composites (WPC) was studied.Wood-plastic composites were made with coupling agents 1 and 2 and properties were tested under the condition that the ratio of wood fiber to thermoplastic polymer was 7:3,target density was 0.7 g/cm3,press temperature was 175℃,press time was 8 min,and adding amount of coupling agent 2%.Results show that coupling agent 2 was superior to coupling agent 1 and had great effect on the physical and mechanical properties of WPC.When using the same coupling agent,the impact on their properties varied with different thermoplastic polymers.

  5. Petroleum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, T. R.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This review of petroleum covers: crude oil; fuels, gaseous and liquid; lubricants, oils, and greases; asphalts, bitumens, tars, and pitches; hydrocarbons; physical properties; metals in oil; nonmetallic elements and heterocompounds; and analytical methods and apparatus. (MVL)

  6. Hot water extracted wood fiber for production of wood plastic composites (WPCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel Raul Pelaez-Samaniego; Vikram Yadama; Eini Lowell; Thomas E. Amidon; Timothy L. Chaffee

    2013-01-01

    Undebarked ponderosa pine chips were treated by hot water extraction to modify the chemical composition. In the treated pine (TP) , the mass was reduced by approximately 20%, and the extract was composed mainly of degradation products of hemicelluloses. Wood flour produced from TP and unextracted chips (untreated pine, UP) was blended with high-density polyethylene (...

  7. Chemical characterization of smoke from the production process of wood-plastic composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Shi-fa; Zhang Ai-jun

    2007-01-01

    The chemical composition of unpleasant smell, emitted from the production process of wood-plastic composites using Manchurian ash sawdust (Fraxinus mandschurica Rupr.) and polypropylene powder as the raw material, was investigated. Wood sawdust and polypropylene powder were subjected to heat treatment to 290℃ during 8 min (the conditions were similar to those employed on an industrial scale). The emitted compounds were collected and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The analytical results showed that the unpleasant smell was emitted from the pyrogenation of wood sawdust rather than from the polypropylene powder. Nine types of compounds (hydrocarbons, ethers, phenols, aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, acids and their derivatives, furan and its derivatives, and nitrogen-containing compounds) were collected in the gas phase during heating.Among those 126 components detected by GC-MS, 112 compounds were identified.

  8. Study of Wood Plastic Composites elastic behaviour using full field measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Mbarek, T.; Robert, L.; Hugot, F.; Orteu, J. J.; Sammouda, H.; Graciaa, A.; Charrier, B.

    2010-06-01

    In this study, the mechanical properties and microstructure of HDPE/wood fibre composites are investigated. The four-point bending and tensile behaviour of Wood Plastic Composite (WPC) with or without additive are studied by using full-field strain measurements by 3-D Digital Image Correlation (3-D DIC). A non-linear behaviour is shown. The modulus of elasticity (MOE) is calculated as the tangent at zero strain of a Maxwell-Bingham model fitted onto experimental data. Four-point bending tests are analyzed thanks to the spatial standard deviation of the longitudinal strain field to determine the degree of heterogeneity. Cyclic tensile tests have been performed in order to analyze the damage of the material. Moreover, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) is used to characterize the morphology of the wood fibre/HDPE matrix interface for specimens with maleic anhydride modified polyethylene additive (MAPE).

  9. Study of Wood Plastic Composites elastic behaviour using full field measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciaa A.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the mechanical properties and microstructure of HDPE/wood fibre composites are investigated. The four-point bending and tensile behaviour of Wood Plastic Composite (WPC with or without additive are studied by using full-field strain measurements by 3-D Digital Image Correlation (3-D DIC. A non-linear behaviour is shown. The modulus of elasticity (MOE is calculated as the tangent at zero strain of a Maxwell-Bingham model fitted onto experimental data. Four-point bending tests are analyzed thanks to the spatial standard deviation of the longitudinal strain field to determine the degree of heterogeneity. Cyclic tensile tests have been performed in order to analyze the damage of the material. Moreover, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM is used to characterize the morphology of the wood fibre/HDPE matrix interface for specimens with maleic anhydride modified polyethylene additive (MAPE.

  10. OPPORTUNITIES FOR WOOD PLASTIC COMPOSITE PRODUCTS IN THE U.S. HIGHWAY CONSTRUCTION SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Knowles

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to examine the market potential for wood plastic composite (WPC products in the highway construction sector in place of non-renewable materials (e.g. virgin plastic and steel and preservative-based products (treated wood. State-level transportation officials indicate that the majority of highway construction purchases are conducted by highway construction contractors. Results from a mail survey of highway contractors in eight western U.S. states indicate that a substantial volume of highway construction material may be suitable for substitution with WPCs. Overall, respondents were not familiar with WPC as a material, but compared it favorably with other materials commonly used in the sector. When making purchase decisions, respondents were most concerned with products meeting regulatory specifications, cost, availability, and trust in quality. Attributes related to sustainability, location of manufacture, and content of recycled material were viewed as less important.

  11. Chemical constituent influence on ionizing radiation treatment of a wood-plastic composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Andrew; Smith, Jennifer; Driscoll, Mark; Smith, Leonard; Scott Larsen, L.

    2016-07-01

    A dose range of 0-200 kGy was used to irradiate polyethylene-based wood plastic composite (WPC) specimens. An evaluation of mechanical properties in bending resulted in an increase in ultimate strength, but little effect to stiffness. The bending test results were compared to previous testing in order to examine reproducibility. Hardness tests were also conducted, revealing an increase at a dose range of 0-250 kGy.

  12. WOOD - PLASTIC COMPOSITES FROM WASTE MATERIALS RESULTED IN THE FURNITURE MANUFACTURING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia COŞEREANU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the application of waste materials resulted in the furniture manufacturing process as components for wood-plastic composites. The composites are produced from industrial byproducts, such as shavings and ABS (acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, without coupling agent. The two components are derived from industrial processes of furniture manufacturing: the first one consists of wood residues resulted from planing machine as planer shavings, and the second one from ABS edge banding operation. A wide array of mixtures varying from 100% ABS to 50% ABS: 50% shavings were used to produce eight variants of boards. Density was determined for each board and the method for the determination of ABS particle size distribution by oscillating screen method using sieve apertures up to 4mm was also applied, in order to establish the particle fractions and the distribution of their sizes. Based on ABS properties, several technologies of manufacturing wood-plastic composites from the waste materials were tested and one of them was selected. The results of the first stage analysis, when the physical integrity and the compactness of the panels’ structures were tested, have shown that a maximum proportion of 30% of wood shavings is accepted in the mixture. On the other hand, the low density of the boards and their porous structure recommend further investigations for thermal and sound insulation applications

  13. Synthesis of Petroleum-Based Fuel from Waste Plastics and Performance Analysis in a CI Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Cleetus

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work involves the synthesis of a petroleum-based fuel by the catalytic pyrolysis of waste plastics. Catalytic pyrolysis involves the degradation of the polymeric materials by heating them in the absence of oxygen and in the presence of a catalyst. In the present study different oil samples are produced using different catalysts under different reaction conditions from waste plastics. The synthesized oil samples are subjected to a parametric study based on the oil yield, selectivity of the oil, fuel properties, and reaction temperature. Depending on the results from the above study, an optimization of the catalyst and reaction conditions was done. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of the selected optimized sample was done to find out its chemical composition. Finally, performance analysis of the selected oil sample was carried out on a compression ignition (CI engine. Polythene bags are selected as the source of waste plastics. The catalysts used for the study include silica, alumina, Y zeolite, barium carbonate, zeolite, and their combinations. The pyrolysis reaction was carried at polymer to catalyst ratio of 10 : 1. The reaction temperature ranges between 400°C and 550°C. The inert atmosphere for the pyrolysis was provided by using nitrogen as a carrier gas.

  14. Cutting Forces and Chip Morphology during Wood Plastic Composites Orthogonal Cutting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolei Guo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of chip thickness, rake angle, and edge radius on cutting forces and chip morphology in wood plastic composites (WPCs orthogonal cutting was investigated. Three types of WPCs, Wood flour/polyethylene composite (WFPEC, wood flour/polypropylene composite (WFPPC, and wood flour/polyvinyl chloride composite (WFPVCC, that were tested exhibited different behavior with respect to the machinability aspects. The cutting forces of WFPVCC were the highest, followed by WFPPC and WFPEC. The most significant factor on the parallel cutting force of these three types of WPCs was the chip thickness, which explained more than 90%, contribution of total variation, while rake angle, edge radius, and the interactions between these factors had small contributions. The most significant factor on the normal cutting force of WPCs was also the chip thickness, which accounted for more than 60% of the total variation. The chips produced included long continuous chips, short continuous chips, flake chips, and granule chips when cutting these three types of WPCs.

  15. Properties of plasticized composite films prepared from nanofibrillated cellulose and birch wood xylan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Natanya Majbritt Louie; Blomfeldt, Thomas O. J.; Hedenqvist, Mikael S.

    2012-01-01

    Xylans, an important sub-class of hemicelluloses, represent a largely untapped resource for new renewable materials derived from biomass. As with other carbohydrates, nanocellulose reinforcement of xylans is interesting as a route to new bio-materials. With this in mind, birch wood xylan was comb......Xylans, an important sub-class of hemicelluloses, represent a largely untapped resource for new renewable materials derived from biomass. As with other carbohydrates, nanocellulose reinforcement of xylans is interesting as a route to new bio-materials. With this in mind, birch wood xylan...... was combined with nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) and films were cast with and without glycerol, sorbitol or methoxypolyethylene glycol (MPEG) as plasticizers. Microscopy revealed some NFC agglomeration in the composite films as well as a layered nanocellulose structure. Equilibrium moisture content...

  16. Characteristics of wood-fiber plastic composites made of recycled materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashori, Alireza; Nourbakhsh, Amir

    2009-04-01

    This study investigates the feasibility of using recycled high density polyethylene (rHDPE), polypropylene (rPP) and old newspaper (rONP) fiber to manufacture experimental composite panels. The panels were made through air-forming and hot press. The effects of the fiber and coupling agent concentration on tensile, flexural, internal bond properties and water absorption and thickness swelling of wood-fiber plastic composites were studied. The use of maleated polypropylene as coupling agent improved the compatibility between the fiber and both plastic matrices and mechanical properties of the resultant composites compared well with those of non-coupled ones. Based on the findings in this work, it appears that recycled materials can be used to manufacture value-added panels without having any significant adverse influence on board properties. It was also found that composites with rHDPE provided moderately superior properties, compared with rPP samples.

  17. Wood-plastic composites as promising green-composites for automotive industries!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashori, Alireza

    2008-07-01

    Wood-plastic composite (WPC) is a very promising and sustainable green material to achieve durability without using toxic chemicals. The term WPCs refers to any composites that contain plant fiber and thermosets or thermoplastics. In comparison to other fibrous materials, plant fibers are in general suitable to reinforce plastics due to relative high strength and stiffness, low cost, low density, low CO2 emission, biodegradability and annually renewable. Plant fibers as fillers and reinforcements for polymers are currently the fastest-growing type of polymer additives. Since automakers are aiming to make every part either recyclable or biodegradable, there still seems to be some scope for green-composites based on biodegradable polymers and plant fibers. From a technical point of view, these bio-based composites will enhance mechanical strength and acoustic performance, reduce material weight and fuel consumption, lower production cost, improve passenger safety and shatterproof performance under extreme temperature changes, and improve biodegradability for the auto interior parts.

  18. STRENGTH AND SORPTION PROPERTIES OF BAMBOO (Bambusa vulgaris WOOD-PLASTIC COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babajide Charles FALEMARA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the strength and water sorption properties of plastic composites produced from the sawdust of bamboo and recycled Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE. Three levels of board density (500kg/m3 , 600kg/m3 and 700kg/m3 and three levels of plastic/fibre mixing ratio (1:1, 2:1 and 3:1 were adopted. The thickness swelling (TS, water absorption (WA, tensile strength, modulus of elasticity (MOE and modulus of rupture (MOR were investigated. The sorption properties were measured after 24hour water-soak test exposure. The mean values of the properties ranged from 4.15% to 1.40% for thickness swelling; 31.96% to 4.83% for water absorption; and 2.55Mpa to 6.98Mpa, 5564.11Mpa to 10771.65Mpa and 0.60Mpa to 4.29Mpa for tensile strength, modulus of elasticity and modulus of rupture respectively. The result revealed that as the plastic/fibre mixing ratio and board density increased the tensile strength, MOE and MOR increased, while TS and WA decreased. Strength properties of composites boards produced with the higher production variables had higher strength properties and decreased sorption assessment. Bamboo particles are suitable for the manufacturing of Wood Plastic Composites (WPC using LDPE

  19. The effects of fiber length and fiber loading on the mechanical properties of wood-plastic (polypropylene) composites

    OpenAIRE

    BASIJI, Farshid; SAFDARI, Vahidreza; NOURBAKHSH, Amir; Pilla, Srikanth

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of wood pulp fiber length (short, medium, and long), and fiber loading (27%, 37%, 47%, and 0% [non-reinforced PP]) with 3% maleic anhydride-grafted polypropylene on the mechanical properties of wood-plastic composites (WPCs). Polypropylene and fibers were compounded into pellets using a counter-rotating twin-screw extruder and test specimens were prepared by injection molding. The results show that increases in fiber length and fiber loading significantly incre...

  20. EFFECT OF FIRE RETARDANTS ON SURFACE ROUGHNESS AND WETTABILITY OF WOOD PLASTIC COMPOSITE PANELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadir Ayrilmis

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Surface roughness and wettability of flat-pressed wood plastic composites (WPCs incorporated with various fire retardants (FRs (5, 10, or 15% by weight (wt at 50 wt-% content of the wood flour (WF were investigated. The most common FRs, zinc borate (ZB, magnesium hydroxide (MH, and ammonium polyphosphate (APP, were used in the experiments. The WPC panels were made from dry-blended wood flour (WF, fire retardant (FR powder, and polypropylene (PP powder with maleic anhydride-grafted PP (2 wt-% formulations using a conventional flat-pressing process under laboratory conditions. The contact angle measurements were obtained by using a goniometer connected with a digital camera and computer system. Three roughness measurements, average roughness (Ra, mean peak-to-valley height (Rz, and maximum roughness (Ry, were taken from the WPC panel surface using a fine stylus tracing technique. It was found that the surface smoothness of the WPC panels decreased with increasing content of the FR powder while the wettability increased. The control WPC panel without the FR had the smoothest surface, followed by the WPC panels containing the MH, ZB, and APP, respectively.

  1. Influence of static and cyclic climate condition on bending properties of wood plastic composites (WPC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Wood and natural fiber reinforced plastic composites are established for several fields like decking, transportation and automotive applications. In the last decade, extensive researches were conducted to improve the mechanical properties, such as incorporating additives like maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene (MAH-PP. The major challenge is to keep the properties in face of the environmental influence the parts are exposed to. Therefore it’s necessary to find the hardest impact factor concerning the mechanical properties. Water absorption (static and cyclic of the composites was examined at two different temperatures (23, 50°C. A correlation between duration, kind of conditioning, temperature and modification was established. The results indicate that the coupling agent MAH-PP improved significantly the water resistance of the wood plastic composites under climatic conditions and higher temperature accelerated the rate of water absorption of the composites. The decrease of mechanical properties related to cyclic conditions is partially reversible and therefore the cyclic exposition shows less effects compared to static conditions.

  2. Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unterrainer, Walter

    2014-01-01

    come from? How is it harvested? How is it manufactured and treated ? How are the buildings detailed and protected against weather during construction to keep them dry and make them long-life ? In a period of climate change, forests are the last lungs of the planet to sequestrate CO2. Their global size......Wood – a sustainable building material ? For thousands of years and all over the planet, wood has been used as a building material and exciting architecture has been created in wood. The fantastic structural, physical and aesthetic properties of the material as well as the fact that wood...

  3. Effects of Bio-based Plasticizers on Mechanical and Thermal Properties of PVC/Wood Flour Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhua Xie

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Poly(vinyl chloride/wood flour (WPVC composites with dioctyl phthalate (DOP, dibutyl phthalate (DBP, cardanol acetate (CA, or epoxy fatty acid methyl ester (EFAME were prepared using twin-screw extrusion. The effects of plasticizers on the mechanical, dynamic mechanical, and melt rheological properties of composites and the thermal migration of plasticizers were characterized. The results demonstrated that WPVC/ DBP and WPVC/EFAME composites had better elongation at break; however, composites with bio-based plasticizers exhibited significantly higher impact strength. The morphology indicated that the compatibility between CA and WPVC was poor, while the surface of the composites showed good plasticity with the addition of DBP or EFAME. The PVC matrix with a plasticizer of higher molecular weight exhibited a higher glass transition temperature (Tg. The dynamic rheological test showed that WPVC/EFAME composites had the lowest storage modulus, loss modulus, and complex viscosity, but EFAME migrated more easily from composites than other plasticizers.

  4. Some exploitation properties of wood plastic composites (WPC, based on high density polyethylene and timber industry waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    janis kajaks

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In this study, the influence of wood fiber content (40, 50 and 60 wt.% and coupling agent concentration (3 and 5 wt.% on the mechanical properties of wood-plastic composites (WPCs was investigated. Two types of plastic (high-density-polyethylene (HDPE and recycled high-density-polyethylene (rHDPE were used as polymer matrices for preparing WPC. As reinforcement, prior grinded (fiber length < 0.5 mm coniferous wood shavings were utilized. Overall trend showed, that by adding a wood fiber, flexural properties and microhardness of the composites significantly were enhanced. However, impact strength, water resistance, and fluidity of polymer melts decreased with increase in fiber content. The virgin HDPE-based composites as well as recycled HDPE-based composites, reinforced with fibers from coniferous wood, showed good mechanical properties. Based on the findings in this work, it appears that WPCs based on virgin HDPE, as well as on recycled HDPE, can be used to manufacture value-added panels. Optimal content of wood fibres were 50-60 wt.%.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.3.7283

  5. Thermal Properties of Wood Plastic Composites with High Content of Wood Powder%高填充木塑复合材料热性能的研究*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭勇; 李大纲; 陈玉霞; 李晶晶; 邵旭

    2013-01-01

      Wood plastic composites(WPC) were prepared by mini extrusion equipment with PE-HD as plastic matrix and wood flour as filler. The effects of highly filled wood flour mass fraction on the thermal properties of WPC were studied. The results show that the dimension thermal stability of WPC is improved with increasing the wood flour mass fraction. The glass transition temperatures(Tg) of WPC increase and the glass transition step height of WPS decrease with increasing the wood flour mass fraction. The dimension thermal stability of WPC under Tg is good and tend to a constant when the wood flour mass fractions are 60%~70%, which is benefit to maintaining the mechanical properties of WPC.%  以高密度聚乙烯(PE-HD)为基体,以木粉作为填充料,用微型挤出成型设备制备PE-HD基木塑复合材料(WPC),研究高填充木粉质量分数变化对WPC热性能的影响。结果表明,随着木粉含量的增加,WPC的尺寸热稳定性得到改善,玻璃化转变温度(Tg)相应提高,玻璃化转变台阶高度减小;当木粉质量分数为60%~70%、温度低于Tg时,WPC的尺寸热稳定性较好,并趋于恒定,有利于其保持力学性能。

  6. Research Progress of Modifying Wood Plastic Composites%木塑复合材料改性研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓萌; 马玲玲; 李晶; 解琼玉; 徐殿斗; 杨国胜

    2013-01-01

    The polymer-based and wood-based wood plastic composites were introduced,the emphases were focus on the fabrication process,common chemicals,performance,use in market and existing problems. The development trend of wood plastic composites was expected.%介绍了木材改性中的聚合物基木塑复合材料和木基木塑复合材料,主要关注了聚合物基木塑材料和木基木塑材料的制作工艺、常用化学制剂、性能优势、市场用途及存在问题,并对其发展前景进行了展望。

  7. Effect of Durability Treatment on Moisture Sorption Properties of Wood-Plastic Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiyuan Li

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, water absorption and desorption behaviors of wood-plastic composites (WPCs treated with ultraviolet agents and zinc borate were investigated. Water diffusion characteristics in the composites were analyzed using a one-dimensional diffusion model. The mechanism of water sorption for all composites deviated from Fick’s law of diffusion. Much larger diffusion coefficient values are observed from the desorption process when compared to the absorption process. Measured final equilibrium moisture content and calculated diffusion coefficients varied with sample formulation in a non-consistent manner; this indicated that the durability treatment used in the current study did not negatively affect the water sorption behavior of WPCs. The results of this study help to clarify the effect of durability treatment on the dynamic moisture sorption process of WPCs.

  8. Influence of Ionizing Radiation on the Mechanical Properties of a Wood-Plastic Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Andrew; Smith, Jennifer; Driscoll, Mark; Smith, Leonard; Larsen, L. Scott

    The focus of this study was to examine the potential benefits of irradiating polyethylene (PE)-based wood-plastic composites (WPCs) in order to enhance the mechanical properties of the WPC. The PE-based WPCs were irradiated, post extrusion, at dose levels of 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 kGy with an electron beam (EB). The irradiated WPCs were then evaluated using a third point bending test (ASTM D4761) along with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was found that ultimate strength and modulus of elasticity (MOE) increased with increasing dose level. Examination of the fracture surfaces of polyethylene revealed a distinct difference in failure between irradiated and non-irradiated surfaces.

  9. Characterization of wood plastic composites made from landfill-derived plastic and sawdust: volatile compounds and olfactometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félix, Juliana S; Domeño, Celia; Nerín, Cristina

    2013-03-01

    Application of wood plastic composites (WPCs) obtained from recycled materials initially intended for landfill is usually limited by their composition, mainly focused on release of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which could affect quality or human safety. The study of the VOCs released by a material is a requirement for new composite materials. Characterization and quantification of VOCs of several WPC produced with low density polyethylene (LDPE) and polyethylene/ethylene vinyl acetate (PE/EVA) films and sawdust were carried out, in each stage of production, by solid phase microextraction in headspace mode (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). An odor profile was also obtained by HS-SPME and GC-MS coupled with olfactometry analysis. More than 140 compounds were observed in the raw materials and WPC samples. Some quantified compounds were considered WPC markers such as furfural, 2-methoxyphenol, N-methylphthalimide and 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol. Hexanoic acid, acetic acid, 2-methoxyphenol, acetylfuran, diacetyl, and aldehydes were the most important odorants. None of the VOCs were found to affect human safety for use of the WPC.

  10. Profile extrusion of wood plastic cellular composites and formulation evaluation using compression molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad Rubyet

    Wood Plastic Composites (WPCs) have experienced a healthy growth during the last decade. However, improvement in properties is necessary to increase their utility for structural applications. The toughness of WPCs can be improved by creating a fine cellular structure while reducing the density. Extrusion processing is one of the most economical methods for profile formation. For our study, rectangular profiles were extruded using a twin-screw extrusion system with different grades of HDPE and with varying wood fibre and lubricant contents together with maleated polyethylene (MAPE) coupling agent to investigate their effects on WPC processing and mechanical properties. Work has been done to redesign the extrusion system setup to achieve smoother and stronger profiles. A guiding shaper, submerged in the water, has been designed to guide the material directly through water immediately after exiting the die; instead of passing it through a water cooled vacuum calibrator and then through water. In this way a skin was formed quickly that facilitated the production of smoother profiles. Later on chemical blowing agent (CBA) was used to generate cellular structure in the profile by the same extrusion system. CBA contents die temperatures, drawdown ratios (DDR) and wood fibre contents (WF) were varied for optimization of mechanical properties and morphology. Cell morphology and fibre alignment was characterized by a scanning electron microscope (SEM). A new compression molding system was developed to help in quick evaluation of different material formulations. This system forces the materials to flow in one direction to achieve higher net alignment of fibres during sample preparation, which is the case during profile extrusion. Operation parameters were optimized and improvements in WPC properties were observed compared to samples prepared by conventional hot press and profile extrusion.

  11. EFFECTS OF ETHYLENE VINYL ACETATE CONTENT ON PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF WOOD-PLASTIC COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongfang Li,

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of different ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA contents on the performance of wood plastic composites (WPCs made from poplar wood flour (PWF and high density polyethylene (HDPE, physical properties tests, mechanical properties tests, and scanning electron microscope (SEM tests were employed. The thermal stability and functional groups of PWF treated by EVA were evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, differential thermal analysis (DTA, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, respectively. The results showed that the hardness, water uptake, and thickness swelling of the WPCs was reduced with increasing content of EVA. The MOR and tensile strength of the WPC treated by 15% EVA content were enhanced by 17.48% and 9.97%, respectively, compared with those of the WPC without EVA. TGA results showed that the thermal stability of PWF treated by EVA was improved. FTIR analysis indicated that PWF was reacted and coated with EVA. SEM results showed that gaps and voids hardly existed in the sections of the WPCs treated by EVA. This research suggests that the flexibility and mechanical properties of WPCs could be improved by adding EVA. The best condition of EVA content could be 15%.

  12. Effect of wood acetylation with vinyl acetate and acetic anhydride on the properties of wood-plastic composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilgül Özmen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Chemical modifications of Scots pine (Pinus slyvestris wood flour were performed with vinyl acetate (VA and acetic anhydride (AA in the presence of potassium carbonate as a catalyst. Scots pine wood flour samples were successfully acetylated with VA (19 wt% gain and AA (24 wt% gain. The effect of chemical modification of the Scots pine wood flour with AA and VA on the mechanical properties of wood high-density polyethylene composites (WPC were determined. It was observed that acetylation of wood flour allowed a significant increase in both the mechanical properties and the thermal stability of the WPCs. It was concluded that acetylation of lignocellulosic fibers improves thermal stability, dispersion in the polymer matrix, and compatibility with the polymer matrix.

  13. Characterization of wood plastic composites made from landfill-derived plastic and sawdust: Volatile compounds and olfactometric analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Félix, Juliana S., E-mail: jfelix@unizar.es [Department of Analytical Chemistry, I3A, EINA, University of Zaragoza (UNIZAR), Zaragoza 50018 (Spain); Domeño, Celia, E-mail: cdomeno@unizar.es [Department of Analytical Chemistry, I3A, EINA, University of Zaragoza (UNIZAR), Zaragoza 50018 (Spain); Nerín, Cristina, E-mail: cnerin@unizar.es [Department of Analytical Chemistry, I3A, EINA, University of Zaragoza (UNIZAR), Zaragoza 50018 (Spain)

    2013-03-15

    Graphical abstract: This work details the characterization of VOCs of WPC, produced from residual materials which would have landfills as current destination, and evaluates their odor profile. Highlights: ► More than 140 volatile compounds were identified in raw materials and WPC products. ► Markers were related to the thermal degradation, sawdust or coupling agents. ► WPC prototype showed a characteristic odor profile of burnt, sweet and wax-like. ► Aldehydes, carboxylic acids, ketones and phenols were odor descriptors of WPC. - Abstract: Application of wood plastic composites (WPCs) obtained from recycled materials initially intended for landfill is usually limited by their composition, mainly focused on release of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which could affect quality or human safety. The study of the VOCs released by a material is a requirement for new composite materials. Characterization and quantification of VOCs of several WPC produced with low density polyethylene (LDPE) and polyethylene/ethylene vinyl acetate (PE/EVA) films and sawdust were carried out, in each stage of production, by solid phase microextraction in headspace mode (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). An odor profile was also obtained by HS-SPME and GC–MS coupled with olfactometry analysis. More than 140 compounds were observed in the raw materials and WPC samples. Some quantified compounds were considered WPC markers such as furfural, 2-methoxyphenol, N-methylphthalimide and 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol. Hexanoic acid, acetic acid, 2-methoxyphenol, acetylfuran, diacetyl, and aldehydes were the most important odorants. None of the VOCs were found to affect human safety for use of the WPC.

  14. The Reliability Influence of Wood Powder Contenton on Wood-plastic Composite Material%木粉含量对木塑复合材料可靠性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯莉; 颜军

    2012-01-01

    Wood -plastic composite material reliability have direct relation with its wood and plastic ratio. This paper gets load data from different wood and plastic ratio composite material through the test, use a second order distance method analyzes the different wood and plastic ratio composite material reliability.%木塑复合材料的可靠性与木塑比有直接关系。本文通过试验获得了不同木塑比条件下木塑复合材料的力学性能数据,并运用一次二阶距法分析不同木塑比下复合材料的可靠性。

  15. THE RESISTANCE OF WOOD PLASTIC COMPOSITE TO THE DRY-WOOD TERMITE Cryptotermes cynocephalus Light. AND THE SUBTERRANEAN TERMITE Coptotermes curvignathus Holmgren INFESTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasni Jasni

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Wood  plastic  composites   (WPC were made  by impregnating  monomer   and  vinyl acetate monomer  with addition  of  terbutyl peroxide  catalyst. This laboratory  scale experiment  aimed at looking into  the durability of  WPC polymerized  at varying mixture  ratios between  styrene and vinyl acetate monomers,  compared  to the natural   durability of  the corresponding   wood  treated with impralit CKB.  In this  regard,  wood  samples were dried until 10 % moisture  content,   and then  they were put in the tank under  20 mm Hg vacuum was being released.   Styrene  monomer with vinyl acetate  addition was flown to the tank, and the wood  samples were immersed  in the monomer   for  24 hours.   Furthermore,   the wood  samples  were taken  out,  and  wrapped  with aluminum  foil, and then were   put in the oven for 24 hours at 60° C. The  wraps were opened, and the samples were  conditioned.   The  samples were tested  to dry wood  termite  (Cryptotermes cynocephalus Light.,  and the Subterranean  termite (Coptotermes curvignathus Holmgren..  Investigated factors were (i wood species consisting of sengon, pine, and rubber wood, and (ii ratio of styrene to vinyl acetate. i.e.  90/10;  80/20;  70/30;  and 60/40.   For comparison,  each wood samples  treated with  Impralit  CKB  3% and untreated   (unpolymerized    wood  samples  (a control  were  also prepared.  The  results showed  that polymer  loadings  in the  sengon, pine and rubber  wood were 118 %, 72 % and  44%  respectively. Increasing  of  vinyl acetate  to styrene  tended  to decrease polymer loading,  the addition  of  10% gave 96% polymer  loading,  20% gave 108%,  30% gave 71 %, and 30% gave 38 % respectively.  It appeared that treatment  of styrene with low vinyl acetate additions  (60:40 had resulted  in consecutively  95.67%  and 97.75 % mortality  of  the dry

  16. Comparative effects of pyrolytic products of fiber reinforced plastic and wood shavings on the respiratory variables in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pravin; Deb, Utsab; Gautam, Anshoo; Vijayaraghavan, R; Ratna, Debdatta; Chakraborty, B C

    2010-08-01

    Comparative inhalation toxicity studies of pyrolytic products (smoke) from synthetic polymer, fiberglass reinforced plastic (FRP) and teak wood shavings were carried out in male Swiss albino mice. The breathing pattern and the respiratory variables were monitored using a computer program that recognizes the modifications of the respiratory pattern. Exposure to the smoke from both the polymers caused a concentration dependent decrease in normal breathing and an increase in sensory irritation measure. The acute lethal concentration 50 values for a 15 min static inhalation exposure to the smoke from FRP and teak wood shavings were found to be > 200.00 and 62.99 g/m(3), respectively. Hence the inhalation toxicity of smoke from FRP sample on a mass basis is approximately one-third that of the smoke from teak wood. The concentration of smoke causing 50% respiratory depression of the exposed animals were found to be 6.877 and 0.106 g/m(3) for FRP and teak wood samples, respectively. Thus the sensory irritancy of the smoke from FRP sample is approximately 65 times lesser than the smoke from teak wood. The higher sensory irritancy potential of wood smoke as compared to FRP smoke may be caused by a greater number of submicron particles (size range of 2 micron and less) and greater percentage of gases present in wood smoke as compared to FRP smoke. Thus in case of accidental fires, synthetic polymers like FRP may be a safer choice for structural parts and interiors than the natural wood.

  17. 木塑复合材料老化性能的影响因素%Factors Influencing the Aging Performance of Wood-Plastic Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘惠; 倪梦云; 简伟程; 徐长妍

    2013-01-01

      结合国内外木塑复合材料老化性能的研究进展,概述了塑料、木粉、添加剂和成型工艺四个因素对木塑复合材料老化性能的影响,可为木塑复合材料的生产和利用提供依据。%Based on the research progress in the aging performance of wood-plastic composites at home and abroad, the effect of plastic, wood power, additives and molding process on the aging performance of wood-plastic composites is stated, which provides basis for the production and utilization of wood-plastic composites.

  18. Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unterrainer, Walter

    2014-01-01

    has shrinked by 30% since the preindustrial times and in countries like China (with a historic tradition for wooden architecture) we could observe enormous desertification. What does this mean for the use of wood in modern architecture ? A critical reflection is needed. In too many cases...

  19. Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Green; Robert H. White; Antoni TenWolde; William Simpson; Joseph Murphy; Robert J. Ross; Roland Hernandez; Stan T. Lebow

    2006-01-01

    Wood is a naturally formed organic material consisting essentially of elongated tubular elements called cells arranged in a parallel manner for the most part. These cells vary in dimensions and wall thickness with position in the tree, age, conditions of growth, and kind of tree. The walls of the cells are formed principally of chain molecules of cellulose, polymerized...

  20. Atmospheric pressure cold plasma treatment of cellulose based fillers for wood plastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekobou, William; Englund, Karl; Pedrow, Patrick; Scudiero, Louis

    2011-10-01

    The main challenge of wood plastic composites (WPC) resides in the low interfacial adhesion due to incompatibility between the cellulose based filler that has a polar surface and most common matrixes, polyolefins which are non-polar. Plasma treatment is a promising technique for surface modification and its implementation into the processing of WPC would provide this industry with a versatile and nearly environmentally benign manufacturing tool. Our investigation aims at designing a cold atmospheric pressure plasma reactor for coating fillers with a hydrophobic material prior to compounding with the matrix. Deposition was achieved with our reactor that includes an array of high voltage needles, a grounded metal mesh, Ar as carrier gas and C2H2 as the precursor molecule. Parameters studied have included gas feed rates and applied voltage; FTIR, ESCA, AFM and SEM imaging were used for film diagnostics. We will also report on deposition rate and its dependence on radial and axial position as well as the effects of plasma-polymerized acetylene on the surface free energy of cellulose based substrates.

  1. Quantitative Analysis of Biomass in Three Types of Wood-Plastic Composites by FTIR Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanli Lao

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Biomass content greatly affects the properties of wood-plastic composites (WPCs. Determination of the biomass in WPCs is important for the development of WPCs. In this study, transmission Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy was used for biomass quantification in the following WPCs: Moso bamboo/polypropylene (PP composites, Chinese fir/PP composites, and poplar/PP composites. The bands in the region of 1060 to 1030 cm-1 were considered characteristic of biomass. The peak at 1377 cm-1 was typical of PP. The peak intensities ratios (PIRs of biomass to PP were determined, and the biomass contents were plotted against the PIRs. The achieved coefficients of determination (R2 of the calibration fits exceeded 0.96. The results of validation showed that the range of the relative prediction deviations for biomass within WPC species was lower than ± 5.0%. Additionally, all three WPC species were combined into one data set, and a mixed model was constructed that had a slight decrease in the quality of the correlation (R2 = 0.93. The range of the relative prediction deviations for biomass between WPC species did not exceed ± 9.0%.

  2. Effect of Durability Treatment on Ultraviolet Resistance, Strength, and Surface Wettability of Wood Plastic Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiyuan Li

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A comparative analysis of photostabilizing effects of hindered amine light stabilizers (HALSs, an ultraviolet absorber (UVA, and zinc borate (ZnB on wood plastic composites (WPCs was made in this study to show the influence of the accelerated weathering on the surface degradation and loss of mechanical properties of treated WPCs. The results showed that the UVA was the most effective in preventing composite from being bleached, especially when the aging time was longer than 1000 hours. With the addition of the ultraviolet stabilizers, the contact angles increased, indicating increased water wettability. The contact angle of UVA-containing samples was greater than that of the control and the other samples treated with HALSs and ZnB. Flexural properties of all materials decreased after being weathered under xenon-arc light. Materials treated with UVA had higher retention rates in flexural strength and modulus. The results show that, among the agents used, UVA was the most effective additive in preventing WPCs from ultraviolet degradation.

  3. Application of time-temperature-stress superposition on creep of wood-plastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Feng-Cheng; Lam, Frank; Kadla, John F.

    2013-08-01

    Time-temperature-stress superposition principle (TTSSP) was widely applied in studies of viscoelastic properties of materials. It involves shifting curves at various conditions to construct master curves. To extend the application of this principle, a temperature-stress hybrid shift factor and a modified Williams-Landel-Ferry (WLF) equation that incorporated variables of stress and temperature for the shift factor fitting were studied. A wood-plastic composite (WPC) was selected as the test subject to conduct a series of short-term creep tests. The results indicate that the WPC were rheologically simple materials and merely a horizontal shift was needed for the time-temperature superposition, whereas vertical shifting would be needed for time-stress superposition. The shift factor was independent of the stress for horizontal shifts in time-temperature superposition. In addition, the temperature- and stress-shift factors used to construct master curves were well fitted with the WLF equation. Furthermore, the parameters of the modified WLF equation were also successfully calibrated. The application of this method and equation can be extended to curve shifting that involves the effects of both temperature and stress simultaneously.

  4. INFLUENCE OF IMPACT MODIFIER AND COUPLING AGENT ON IMPACT STRENGTH OF WOOD FLOUR / RECYCLED PLASTIC COMPOSITES

    OpenAIRE

    Saman GHAHRI; Saeed KAZEMI NAJAFI; Mohebby, Behbood

    2014-01-01

    In this research, the improvement of impact strength of wood flour/recycled polypropylene (PP) composites was investigated. The PP (virgin and recycled polypropylene) and wood flour (WF) were compounded at 50% by weight wood flour loading in a counter-rotating twin-screw extruder in the presence MAPP and two types of impact modifiers (ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) and ethylene/propylene/diene terpolymer (EPDM)), to produce wood flour-PP composites specimen. The results showed t...

  5. Innovative use of wood-plastic-composites (WPC) as a core material in the sandwich injection molding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritzer, Elmar; Martin, Yannick

    2016-03-01

    The demand for materials based on renewable raw materials has risen steadily in recent years. With society's increasing interest for climate protection and sustainability, natural-based materials such as wood-plastic-composites (WPC) have gained market share thanks to their positive reputation. Due to advantages over unreinforced plastics such as cost reduction and weight savings it is possible to use WPC in a wide area of application. Additionally, an increase in mechanical properties such as rigidity and strength is achieved by the fibers compared to unreinforced polymers. The combination of plastic and wood combines the positive properties of both components in an innovative material. Despite the many positive properties of wood-plastic-composite, there are also negative characteristics that prevent the use of WPC in many product areas, such as automotive interiors. In particular, increased water intake, which may result in swelling of near-surface particles, increased odor emissions, poor surface textures and distortion of the components are unacceptable for many applications. The sandwich injection molding process can improve this situation by eliminating the negative properties of WPC by enclosing it with a pure polymer. In this case, a layered structure of skin and core material is produced, wherein the core component is completely enclosed by the skin component. The suitability of WPC as the core component in the sandwich injection molding has not yet been investigated. In this study the possibilities and limitations of the use of WPC are presented. The consideration of different fiber types, fiber contents, skin materials and its effect on the filling behavior are the focus of the presented analysis.

  6. 木粉预处理对PP木塑复合料性能影响%Influence of Wood Flour Pretreatment on Properties of PP Wood Plastic Composite Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝智; 尹宏; 伍玉娇; 熊玉竹

    2012-01-01

    Polypropylene (PP) wood plastic composite materials (WPC) was prepared by melt blending . The influence of wood flour content and pretreatment on the mechanical properties and water absorption properties of wood plastic composites was studied. The results show that with the increase of the wood flour content, the flexural strength and flexural modulus of wood plastic composite materials increase obviously. The tensile strength decreases and the impact strength remains. The effect of wood flour by chemical pretreatment on the mechanical properties of the composites is better than by physical pretreatment. With the increase of the wood flour content, the water absorbing rate of wood plastic composite remains below 0.22%, far lower than that of the pure wood.%采用熔融共混法制备了聚丙烯(PP)木塑复合材料(WPC),研究了木粉含量及预处理方式对WPC力学性能、吸水性能的影响.结果表明:随着木粉含量的增大,WPC的弯曲强度和弯曲模量明显上升,拉伸强度有所降低,而冲击强度基本保持不变.木粉经过化学预处理对WPC力学性能的改善比物理预处理要好.从吸水率来看,随着木粉含量的增大,WPC吸水率保持在0.22%以下,远低于纯木材.

  7. 木塑复合材料的关键原材料概况%Overview of Key Raw Materials of Wood/Plastic Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高华; 黄海兵; 吕蕾; 高鹏

    2015-01-01

    介绍了木塑复合材料关键原料植物纤维、塑料和相容剂的概况及特性,在此基础上阐述了国内外近年来各类木塑复合材料的发展现状。%The brief information and features of the key raw materials of wood/plastic composites,i.e. plant fiber,plastics and compatibilizer,are introduced,based on which,the development status of various kinds of wood/plastic composites at home and abroad is summarized.

  8. Modeling the time-dependent flexural response of wood-plastic composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, Scott E.

    Wood-plastic composites (WPCs) are moisture sensitive bimodal anisotropic nonlinear viscoelastic materials, with time and temperature having the greatest effect on mechanical behavior. As WPC producers seek to manufacture structural bending members, such as beams and joists, it is important that the material's time and temperature-dependent mechanical behavior be understood and characterized. The complicated time-dependent behavior means that WPC bending deflections cannot be adequately predicted for even practical design purposes using simple linear-elastic models. Instead, mechanics-based models that incorporate the observed time-dependent and nonlinear responses are necessary. This dissertation presents an experimental and modeling program used to test and characterize the axial and shear behaviors of seven different WPC products (primarily polyethylene and polypropylene) subjected to both quasi-static and creep loading at multiple temperatures. These data were used to develop a mechanics based model that can predict bending deflections of complex sections at any time or temperature. Additionally, a practical design method and standardized test procedures were created for use in typical long-term bending situations. A mechanical model for WPCs must combine time-dependent material characterization with a tool that can simulate mode dependence, temperature dependence, changing neutral axis location, and nonlinear axial stress distributions that vary over the length of a member and evolve with time. Finite-element (FE) modeling was chosen as the most practical way to satisfy these requirements. The model developed in this study uses an FE model with a custom-designed material model. Bending deflection predictions from the model were compared to experimental testing and the model showed some success despite the difficulties created by the material variability. The practical method created for designing WPC structural bending members utilizes four material constants

  9. INFLUENCE OF IMPACT MODIFIER AND COUPLING AGENT ON IMPACT STRENGTH OF WOOD FLOUR / RECYCLED PLASTIC COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saman GHAHRI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the improvement of impact strength of wood flour/recycled polypropylene (PP composites was investigated. The PP (virgin and recycled polypropylene and wood flour (WF were compounded at 50% by weight wood flour loading in a counter-rotating twin-screw extruder in the presence MAPP and two types of impact modifiers (ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA and ethylene/propylene/diene terpolymer (EPDM, to produce wood flour-PP composites specimen. The results showed that the composites containing recycled PP exhibited significantly lower impact strength values than those of containing virgin PP. The addition of MAPP, EVA and EPDM in the specimens increased their impact strength. In the presence of MAPP, higher increase in impact strength of the recycled PP/WF composites was observed due to impact modifiers. Both impact modifiers increased the impact strength of the PP/WF composites but the addition of EVA gave the greatest improvements in impact strength. Although the addition of impact modifiers and MAPP increased the impact strength of composites containing recycled PP, such values were still significantly lower than those of containing virgin PP (not modified with MAPP or impact modifier. The use of impact modifiers decreased the flexural properties of the recycled PP/WF composites

  10. 木塑复合材料热解特性%Pyrolysis characteristics of wood-plastic composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙剑平; 张志军; 王清文; 隋淑娟; 林晓娜

    2015-01-01

    通过热重分析(TGA)和裂解/气质联用(Py-GC/MS)对杨木/高密度聚乙烯(HDPE)木塑复合材料(WPC)进行热解,考察了木粉和聚烯烃塑料热解过程中的相互作用。结果表明:生物质和塑料热解过程中存在明显的协同作用,杨木在较低的温度下即开始发生热解,其提供的自由基参与了聚烯烃热解反应,产生了更多的轻质烃类产物。而聚烯烃分解产生的碳氢化合物向生物质分解产生的自由基提供氢,促进挥发性物质生成,部分抑制了活性自由基进一步聚合结焦,得到了更多的挥发性产物和减少了固体残炭。%Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA)and pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS ) were employed to investigate the pyrolytic behavior and primary pyrolysis product distribution of the pyrolysis of wood-plastic composites (WPC).The mutual effects of poplar wood and high-density polyethylene were detailed discussed during pyrolysis.The results showed that a significant synergistic effect between plastic and biomass was present in the pyrolysis process of WPC.The Py-GC/MS indicated that due to the lower temperature of biomass component decomposition compared with polyolefins,free radicals are formed from biomass pyrolysis and participate in reactions of plastic decomposition, initiating the scission of the synthetic polymer chain and yielding more light paraffins.The TGA indicated that the experimental char yield of WPC was lower than theoretical ones at final pyrolysis temperature.The reason could be that polyolenic polymers provide hydrogen during thermal process with wood biomass and recondensation or recombination of thermal cracking products of biomass is reduced,resulting in the less amount of char production and enhancement of volatile products formation.

  11. 木塑复合材料在室内设计中的应用%The Application of Wood-Plastic Composite in Interior Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘源; 谷岩; 李莹

    2015-01-01

    新型材料在室内的应用逐渐被人们关注。对新型材料应用的探索与研究,有利于室内家居行业的可持续发展,更有助于缓解能源短缺的问题。木塑复合材料作为一种仿木材料,除了具有木材的特征外,还有很多优良性能。文章试从木塑复合材料的形态、色彩、肌理等方面为切入点,探究木塑复合材料在室内设计中的应用。%The application of new materials in interior design gradually draws public attention, therefore, the exploration and study on new materials is good for the sustainable development of the housing industry and is conducive to relieving energy shortage. As a kind of wood-imitation material, wood-plastic composite not only possesses the wood features but also owns many other good qualities. This paper aims to study the application of the wood-plastic composite in interior design based on the form, color, texture and others of the wood-plastic composite.

  12. Review of preliminary results of the project `Co-cracking of plastics and petroleum residues`; Uebersicht zu den ersten Ergebnissen des Projektes Cocracking von Kunststoffen und Erdoelrueckstand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhmann, R.; Koepsel, R.F.; Kuchling, T.; Simanjenkov, V. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Energieverfahrenstechnik und Chemieingenieurwesen

    1998-09-01

    Coprocessing of petroleum residues and plastics is a promising technology, although some problems concerning waste plastics must be clarified prior to its implementation. In general, it can be stated that with a careful choice of operating parameter combinations, oil yields will be higher than for thermal treatment of petroleum residues alone (e.g. a 35% yield increase is achieved by adding 25% of plastics, which is a disproportionately high increase). Waste plastics thus become a valuable material for processing. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das untersuchte Coprocessing von VR und Kunststoffen ist ein erfolgversprechender Weg der Kunststoffverwertung und des tiefen Crackens von Erdoelrueckstand. Die Klaerung der mit Altkunststoffen verbundenen Fragen bedarf weiterer Untersuchungen. Allgemein kann festgestellt werden, dass bei entsprechenden Parameterkombinationen bessere Oelausbeuten erzielt werden als bei der thermischen Behandlung von reinem VR. Ein Beispiel dafuer ist in der Abbildung 10 dargestellt. Durch eine 25%-ige Erhoehung der Einsatzstoffmasse durch Kunststoffzugabe wird eine im Vergleich zu reinem VR um ca. 36% hoehere Oelausbeute erzielt, was einer ueberproportionalen Erhoehung entspricht. Altkunststoff wird bei diesem Prozess unter Nutzung des Wasserstoff-potentials von Polymeren zu einem wertvollen Einsatzstoff. (orig.)

  13. EFFECTIVENESS OF A OIL RESIDUE FROM PETROLEUM ON DIMENSIONAL STABILITY OF Pinus sp. (Pinus AND Mimosa scabrella Bentham (Bracatinga WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Florian da Costa

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In search for alternative uses of a petroliferous oily residue known as “LCO” (Liquid Cycle Oil, its capacity to improve the dimensional stability of the wood was evaluated using Pinus sp. (pinus and Mimosa scabrella Bentham (bracatinga. The LCO was tested in its original composition and also diluted in different proportions into a commercial kerosene. The dimensional stability in the three anatomic axis, volumetric changes, shrinkage and anisotropy coefficients, basic density and 12% relative humidity density changes were evaluated, in different stages during the investigation process. The results show no significant differences in maximum swelling and shrinkage between treated and untreated wood blocks at 5% probability level for both species. However, a reduction in the shrinkage coefficient was observed with the increase of LCO concentration, for both species. In general, pinus showed lowest values in all parameter evaluated. The shrinkage and anisotropy coefficient were higher for bracatinga than pinus, nevertheless, no significant differences were observed between treated and untreated wood blocks. These results indicated that changes between tangential and radial faces were minimal, possible due to a poor penetration of LCO into the cell walls. This result, as a consequence, could be associated with a weak performance of the tested chemical, which could not improve the dimensional stability of wood for both species. The increasing LCO concentrations increased the density of both species at 12% relative humidity. This result could be associated to the presence of part of the chemical remaining in the walls of the cellular lumen and the resiniferous channels. Besides, the external aspect of the treated wood was also other restrictive factor to the use of LCO.

  14. A preliminary study on the preparation of wood-plastic composites from urban wastes generated in Merida, Mexico with potential applications as building materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Estrada, Ricardo H; Martínez-Tapia, Gustavo E; Canché-Escamilla, Gonzalo; González-Chí, Pedro I; Martín-Barrera, Cesar; Duarte-Aranda, Santiago; Guillén-Mallette, Javier; Cupul-Manzano, Carlos V; Martínez-Domínguez, Osvaldo; García-Gómez, Carmen

    2010-09-01

    A preliminary study on the use of wood and plastic wastes generated in Merida, Mexico to assess their potential for the development of building materials is reported. Composites based on recycled, high-density polyethylene (R-HDPE) loaded with wood particles were prepared. The R-HDPE was collected from Merida's Separation Plant, where it was sorted from other residues, either organic or inorganic. Composites based on virgin, high-density polyethylene (V-HDPE) were also prepared to assess the effect of the R-HDPE on the composite's mechanical properties. The wood came from the trims of different varieties of the city's trees that are periodically pruned as part of the cleaning and urbanising programmes implemented by the City Council. A batch of this material was selected at random to incorporate into both the R-HDPE and V-HDPE. Different wood particle sizes were experimented with to obtain extruded composites with contents of 50% and 60% by weight of wood that were characterized under tension and impact. Flat wood-plastic extrudates with reasonable good appearance were also produced at the laboratory level as a first step to find an adequate route to scale-up the process to a pilot level to evaluate the feasibility of producing alternative building materials.

  15. Research Progress for Creep Properties of Wood-plastic Composites%木塑复合材料蠕变性能的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹权福; 邸明伟

    2011-01-01

    The creep characteristic of materials and the reason for poor creep properties of wood-plastic composites were introduced briefly in this paper. And the progresses in development of creep properties for wood-plastic composites were reviewed from two aspects such as the influencing factors of the creep properties for wood-plastic composites including temperature, stress, loading, humidity and the research in creep resistance for wood-plastic composites. The emphases and direction of research on the creep properties of woodplastic composites for the future was also prospected.%简要介绍了材料的蠕变特性以及木塑复合材料蠕变性能较差的原因,并从影响木塑复合材料蠕变性能的温度、应力及加载方式、湿度等因素以及抗蠕变性研究两方面对木塑复合材料蠕变性能的研究进展进行了综述,展望了今后木塑复合材料蠕变性能研究的重点及方向.

  16. An Experimental Study on the Thermal Performance of Phase-Change Material and Wood-Plastic Composites for Building Roofs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Hee Chung

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the usefulness of phase-change material (PCM-based thermal plates fabricated from wood-plastic composites (WPCs in mitigating the urban heat island effect. The thermal performance of plates containing PCMs with two different melting temperatures and with two different albedo levels was evaluated. The results showed that the PCM with a melting temperature of 44 °C maintained lower surface and inner temperatures than the PCM with a melting temperature of 25 °C. Moreover, a higher surface albedo resulted in a lower surface temperature. However, the thermal performance of PCMs with different melting temperatures but the same surface albedo did not differ. Using PCM-based materials in roof finishing materials can reduce surface temperatures and improve thermal comfort.

  17. Thermal expansion behavior of co-extruded wood-plastic composites with glass-fiber reinforced shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runzhou Huang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Coextruded wood-plastic composites (WPCs with glass-fiber (GF filled shells were manufactured, and their thermal expansion behavior was studied. A three-dimensional finite element model (FEM considering differential properties of both shell and core layers was developed to predict the linear coefficient of thermal expansion (LCTE of the material. It was shown that the LCTE values varied with composite structure and composition (i.e., core-shell thicknesses and materials. The use of GF-filled shells helped lower overall composite LCTE values. The imbalance of shell and core LCTE, and their moduli led to complex stress fields within a given composite system. The FEM predicted a trend of LCTE change with varying composite structures, which was in good agreement with the experimental data. This study provides for the first time a finite element modeling technique to optimize raw material composition and composite structure for optimizing thermal expansion behavior of co-extruded WPCs.

  18. The Effect of Ultrafine Magnesium Hydroxide on the Tensile Properties and Flame Retardancy of Wood Plastic Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiping Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of ultrafine magnesium hydroxide (UMH and ordinary magnesium hydroxide (OMH on the tensile properties and flame retardancy of wood plastic composites (WPC were investigated by tensile test, oxygen index tester, cone calorimeter test, and thermogravimetric analysis. The results showed that ultrafine magnesium hydroxide possesses strengthening and toughening effect of WPC. Scanning electron micrograph (SEM of fracture section of samples provided the positive evidence that the tensile properties of UMH/WPC are superior to that of WPC and OMH/WPC. The limited oxygen index (LOI and cone calorimeter test illustrated that ultrafine magnesium hydroxide has stronger flame retardancy and smoke suppression effect of WPC compared to that of ordinary magnesium hydroxide. The results of thermogravimetric analysis implied that ultrafine magnesium hydroxide can improve the char structure which plays an important role in reducing the degradation speed of the inner matrix during combustion process and increases the char residue at high temperature.

  19. On the Effect of Unit-Cell Parameters in Predicting the Elastic Response of Wood-Plastic Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Alavi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on the effect of unit-cell geometrical parameters in predicting elastic properties of a typical wood plastic composite (WPC. The ultimate goal was obtaining the optimal values of representative volume element (RVE parameters to accurately predict the mechanical behavior of the WPC. For each unit cell, defined by a given combination of the above geometrical parameters, finite element simulation in ABAQUS was carried out, and the corresponding stress-strain curve was obtained. A uniaxial test according to ASTM D638-02a type V was performed on the composite specimen. Modulus of elasticity was determined using hyperbolic tangent function, and the results were compared to the sets of finite element analyses. Main effects of RVE parameters and their interactions were demonstrated and discussed, specially regarding the inclusion of two adjacent wood particles within one unit cell of the material. Regression analysis was performed to mathematically model the RVE parameter effects and their interactions over the modulus of elasticity response. The model was finally employed in an optimization analysis to arrive at an optimal set of RVE parameters that minimizes the difference between the predicted and experimental moduli of elasticity.

  20. On Corrosion Resistance Capability of Wood-plastic Composites%木塑复合材料耐腐性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余旺旺

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, using high density polyethylene and wood fiber as the main raw materials, produces 4 types of wood-plastic composites with different contents of wood flour through hot molding process. The effect of wood fiber content on the corrosion resistance of wood-plastic composites was studied by testing mass loss rate, the bending strength and surface morphology before and after corrosion. The results of the research indicates that WPC would be corrupted in the condition of Gloeophyllum trabeum; the higher content of wood fiber, the more severely corrupted of WPC; Gloeophyllum trabeum could easily corrupt the wood fiber from WPC, but not plastic.%以高密度聚乙烯和木粉为主要原料,采用热压成型的方法制备了4种不同木粉含量的木塑复合材料。通过测量复合材料腐蚀前后的质量变化、弯曲强度、表面形貌,研究了木粉含量对木塑复合材料抗菌性能的影响。结果表明:木塑复合材料在密粘褶菌中会发生腐蚀;木粉含量越高,木塑复合材料越容易被腐蚀;腐蚀的主要是木纤维,而塑料不易被腐蚀。

  1. Application of Cross Linking Modified PE in Wood-Plastic Composite Materials%PE交联改性在木塑复合材料中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘淑红; 肖凯成

    2011-01-01

    Wood fiour/HDPE composite (WPC) with 70 % wood flour content as filler,waste HDPE as plastic matrix was prepared by compression method, the application of cross linking modified PE and compatibility technology in wood-plastic composite materials were comparative studied. The results showed that cross linking modified PE could significantly improve the strength of PE plastic matrix. The strength of wood-plastic composite material with the MAPE content of 1% , DCP content of 1.5 % were little less than that with MAPE content of 3 %. SEM analysis indicated that MAPE could improve the interface compatibility between wood flour and plastic, while cross linking modified PE had no help on improving the interface compatibility.%以木粉为填料,废旧 HDPE 为塑料基体,用压制成型法制备了木粉质量含量高达70%的木粉/HDPE复合材料,对比研究PE交联改性技术和MAPE增容技术在木塑复合材料中的应用.结果表明:PE的交联改性可明显提高PE塑料基体的强度,从而可以进一步提高整个复合材料的强度.当MAPE质量含量为l%,DCP质量含量为1.5%时,木塑复合材料的强度可与MAPE质量含量为3%的木塑复合材料相媲美.SEM分析表明:MAPE可以改善木粉与塑料的界面相容性,PE的交联改性对木塑复合材料界面的相容性的改善无贡献.

  2. Some Exploitation Properties of Wood Plastic Hybrid Composites Based on Polypropylene and Plywood Production Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajaks, Janis; Kalnins, Karlis; Uzulis, Sandris; Matvejs, Juris

    2015-12-01

    During the last 20-30 years many researchers have paid attention to the studies of properties of thewood polymer composites (WPC). A lot of works are closely related to investigations of exploitation properties of wood fibres or wood flour containing polyolefine composites [1, 2]. The most useful from wide selection of polyolefines are polypropylenes, but timber industry waste materials comprising lignocellulose fibres are often used as reinforcement of WPC [3-12]. Plywood industry is not an exception - part of waste materials (by-products) are used for heat energy, i.e. burned. In this work we have approbated reinforcing of polypropylene (PP) with one of the plywood industry by-products, such as birch plywood sawdust (PSWD),which containswood fibre fractions with different length [13]. The main fraction (50%) includes fibres with length l = 0.5 - 1 mm. Our previous study [13] has confirmed that PSWD is a promising filler for PP reinforcing. Addition of PSWD up to 40-50 wt.% has increased WPC tensile and flexural modulus, but decreased deformation ability of PP matrix, impact strength, water resistance and fluidity of composite melts. It was shown [13] that modification of the composites with interfacial modifier - coupling agent maleated polypropylene (MAPP content up to 5-7 wt.%) considerably improved all the abovementioned properties. SEM investigations also confirmed positive action of coupling agent on strengthening of adhesion interaction between components wood and PP matrix. Another way how to make better properties of the WPC is to form hybridcomposites [1, 14-24]. Very popular WPC modifiers are nanoparticle additions like organonanoclays, which increase WPC physical-mechanical properties - microhardness, water resistance and diminish barrier properties and combustibility [1, 2, 14-17, 19, 20]. The goal of this study was to investigate organonanoclays influence on plywood production industry by-product birch plywood sawdust (PSWD) containing

  3. Effect of Nanoclay on the Flexural Creep Behavior of Wood/Plastic Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kord, B.; Sheykholeslami, A.; Najafi, A.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of nanoclay on the short-term flexural creep behavior of polypropylene/wood flour composites was investigated. The results obtained showed that the flexural strength and modulus increased with contentt of nanoclay up to 3 phc and then decreased. The fractional deflection and relative creep decreased with increasing content of nanoclay. X-ray diffraction patterns and transmission electron microscopy revealed that the nanocomposites formed were intercalated. Morphological findings testified that the samples containing 3 phc of nanoclay had the highest degree of intercalation and dispersion.

  4. COPPER/CARBON CORE SHELL NANOPARTICLES AS ADDITIVE FOR NATURAL FIBER/WOOD PLASTIC BLENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinglin Wu,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Copper/carbon core/shell nanoparticles (CCCSNs recently have been introduced as an industrial material. In this paper, composites based on high density polyethylene (HDPE, bamboo fiber, CCCSNs, and coupling agent (MAPE were prepared by melt compounding. The influence of CCCSN content on the resulting composites’ mechanical, biological resistance, and thermal properties was investigated. It was found that CCCSNs within the carbon black matrix were processed well with bamboo fiber-plastic blends through mixing and injection molding. The materials enhanced composite strength and modulus-related properties. Composites with CCCSNs and natural fibers reduced heat capacity and thermal diffusivity. Composites with CCCSN materials also enhanced termite and mold performance. Thus, the material can be used as additive for plastics and other polymers to modify strength properties, biological resistance (e.g., mold and stain, and thermal conductivity properties.

  5. Effects of wood fiber surface chemistry on strength of wood–plastic composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Migneault, Sébastien, E-mail: sebastien.migneault@uqat.ca [University of Quebec in Abitibi-Temiscamingue (UQAT), 445 boulevard de l’Université, Rouyn-Noranda, Québec J9X 5E4 (Canada); Koubaa, Ahmed, E-mail: ahmed.koubaa@uqat.ca [UQAT (Canada); Perré, Patrick, E-mail: patrick.perre@ecp.fr [École centrale de Paris, Grande Voie des Vignes, F-92 295 Chatenay-Malabry Cedex (France); Riedl, Bernard, E-mail: Bernard.Riedl@sbf.ulaval.ca [Université Laval, 2425 rue de la Terrasse, Québec City, Québec G1V 0A6 (Canada)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses showed variations of surface chemical characteristics according to fiber origin. • Surface chemical characteristics of fibers could partly explain the differences in mechanical properties of the wood–plastic composites. • Fibers with carbohydrate rich surface led to stronger wood–plastic composites because the coupling between the matrix and fibers using coupling agent is achieved with polar sites mostly available on carbohydrates. • Conversely, lignin or extractives rich surface do not have oxidized functions for the esterification reaction with coupling agent and thus led to wood–plastic composites with lower mechanical properties. • Other factors such as mechanical interlocking and fiber morphology interfere with the effects of fiber surface chemistry. - Abstract: Because wood–plastic composites (WPC) strength relies on fiber-matrix interaction at fiber surface, it is likely that fiber surface chemistry plays an important role in WPC strength development. The objective of the present study is to investigate the relationships between fiber surface chemical characteristics and WPC mechanical properties. Different fibers were selected and characterized for surface chemical characteristics using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). WPC samples were manufactured at 40% fiber content and with six different fibers. High density polyethylene was used as matrix and maleated polyethylene (MAPE) was used as compatibility agent. WPC samples were tested for mechanical properties and fiber-matrix interface was observed with scanning electron microscope. It was found WPC strength decreases as the amount of unoxidized carbon (assigned to lignin and extractives) measured with XPS on fiber surface increases. In the opposite case, WPC strength increases with increasing level of oxidized carbon (assigned to carbohydrates) on fiber surface. The same

  6. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON STRENGTH PROPERTIES OF WOOD PLASTIC BONDED BOARDS PRODUCED FROM COFFEE CHAFF AND CEIBA PENTANDRA SAWDUST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kehinde Sesan AINA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Strength properties of Wood Plastic-bonded Boards (WPBB of 10mm in thickness were produced in this study from two lignocellulosic materials coffee and recycled low density polyethylene (rLDPE as a binder. WPBB were produced from particles of coffee chaff and Ceiba pentandra, at three levels of mixing ratio (1:1, 2:1 and 3:1, and at three levels of board density (500, 600 and 700kgm-3 given the total treatment combinations of 18 respectively. Effects of lignocelluloses particles, mixing ratio (MR and board density (BD on flexural strength properties of the WPBB were investigated. The flexural strength of the WPBB range from 0.25 to 4.79N/mm2 and 891.00 to 16415.87N/mm2 for modulus of rupture (MOR and modulus of elasticity (MOE respectively. The statistically results shows that the main factor and interaction factors were significantly different at P≤0.05 level of probability. It was observed in this study that as the plastic content with density increased, flexural strength of the boards increases. The study showed that WPBB made from coffee chaff particles are stiffer and stronger than WPBBs made from Ceiba pentandra particles. Based on the outcome of the results in this study, coffee chaff could as well be used as filler in the polymer industry to produce stronger biopolymer composite for structural applications. This study would form a baseline strategy for further research efforts on production of composite from agro-residues wastes.

  7. Wood plastic composites from agro-waste materials: Analysis of mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourbakhsh, Amir; Ashori, Alireza

    2010-04-01

    This article presents the application of agro-waste materials (i.e., corn stalk, reed stalk, and oilseed stalk) in order to evaluate and compare their suitability as reinforcement for thermoplastics as an alternative to wood fibers. The effects of fiber loading and CaCO(3) content on the mechanical properties were also studied. Overall trend shows that with addition of agro-waste materials, tensile and flexural properties of the composites are significantly enhanced. Oilseed fibers showed superior mechanical properties due to their high aspect ratio and chemical characteristics. The order of increment in the mechanical properties of the composites is oilseed stalk >corn stalk>reed stalk at all fiber loadings. The tensile and flexural properties of the composite significantly decreased with increasing CaCO(3) content, due to the reduction of interface bond between the fiber and matrix. It can be concluded from this study that the used agro-waste materials are attractive reinforcements from the standpoint of their mechanical properties.

  8. 微发泡木塑复合材料耐腐性能的研究%Research on Decay Resistance of Micro-foamed Wood Plastic Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱远; 姜志宏

    2012-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on nature decay resistance of wood plastic composites (WPCs) with S different wood and plastic ratios. The results showed that nature decay resistance of WPCs was strong, the mass loss rate of specimens decayed increased with wood flour content, but always less than 3,5%. Analysis of variance demonstrated that wood flour content had great effect on mass loss rate of WPCs. Exponential function y = a x exp(x/b)+c could well fit the mean mass loss rate of 5 kinds of WPCs with determination coefficient of 0.92358. Analysis of SEM and DSC showed that wood-rotting fimgi mainly decayed the wood component of the specimens.%研究了5种不同木塑比的木塑复合材料的天然耐腐性能.结果表明:①木塑复合材料的天然耐腐性能为强耐腐等级,受菌侵染后质量损失率随着木粉含量的提高而增大,但均小于3.5%,方差分析表明,木粉含量对试件质量损失率的影响高度显著,指数函数y=a×exp(x/b)+c对5种木塑材料的平均质量损失率拟合结果较好,决定系数R2为0.923 58;②通过SEM和DSC分析,木塑材料受菌侵染后,主要是木质材料受到了破坏.

  9. The Preparation of Woody Wood-Plastic Composites and Its Research Progresses%木塑复合材料的制备及其研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李跃文; 陈兴华

    2008-01-01

    介绍了木质填料的种类、用量、尺寸和塑料的种类对木塑复合材料(Wood-Plastic Composites,WPC)性能的影响,综述了WPC的界面改性、增韧改性、加工改性和成型技术及其研究进展.

  10. On Application Prospects of Wood and Bioifber Plastic Composites%浅谈新型环保材料生态木的应用前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈冠龙

    2013-01-01

    通过工程实例,介绍新型环保生态木和传统建筑材料的差异,以此说明新型环保生态木的优点,以供参考。%Through project cases, this paper shows advantages of wood and biofiber plastic composites(WPC), a kind of new-type environmental material, by comparing with traditional building materials.

  11. 超分散剂对塑木复合材料性能的影响%Effect of Hyper-dispersant on Properties of Plastic Wood Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申欣; 王守荣; 邓德武

    2012-01-01

    Hyper-dispersant (RDH) was synthesized with rosin, diethylenetriamine and 12-hydroxy stearic acid. The effects of RDH on mechanical properties and thermal property of wood-plastic(HDPE) composites added with RDH as modifier were studied. The effects of RDH on mechanical properties, thermal properties of the wood plastic composites were discussed. And the impact fracture surface of wood-plastic composites was observed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that: with the addition of RDH, the impact strength and flexural strength of the wood-plastic composites increase by 35.2% and 21.5% respectively; and the thermal stability and the storage modulus increase, but the loss factor decreases.%以松香,二乙撑三胺和12-羟基硬脂酸为原料,合成了松香超分散剂(RDH).用RDH对高密度聚乙烯塑木复合材料进行改性,研究了RDH对塑木复合材料力学性能,热性能等的影响,并用扫描电镜(SEM)观察复合材料的冲击断面形貌.结果表明:经RDH改性后,塑木复合材料的冲击强度和弯曲强度分别提高了35.2%和21.5%.RDH的加入改善了复合材料的热稳定性,储能模量提高,损耗因子降低.

  12. 阳光环境对木塑地板耐久性能的影响%Impact of Sunshine Environment on Durability of Wood-Plastic Floorings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周吓星; 李大纲; 林巧佳; 陈礼辉

    2011-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the impacts of the sunshine environment on color, bending properties and flexural fatigue behaviors of wood-plastic floorings. The fatigue behaviors were simulated by a six-parameter model. Results showed that the wood-plastic floorings turned yellow, and the modulus of rupture (MOR) reduced by 10.09%-20.27% and the modulus of elastic (MOE) reduced by 7.35%-16.38% 2-6 months after the wood-plastic floorings were exposed to the sunshine environment. The strain of the wood-plastic floorings under the sunshine environment after 2 months was 1.17-1.39 times as much as it was at room temperature. The strain decreased after 4 months due to the decrease in temperature, humidity and ultraviolet intensity, and it was even smaller after 6 months than that at the room temperature. The fatigue behaviors of the wood-plastic floorings are similar to those of plastic and other polymer materials, and they have simple thermal rheological properties and accord with the time-temperature-stress equivalence principle.%研究阳光环境对木塑地板材色、抗弯性能和弯曲疲劳性能的影响,并用六元件模型拟合地板的疲劳性能.结果表明:阳光环境中,木塑地板褪色黄变,2~6个月后,抗弯强度下降10.09%~20.27 %,抗弯弹性模量下降7.35 %~16.38 %.2个月后,材料产生的应变为室温时的1.17 ~1.39 倍;由于温湿度、紫外线和光照强度的降低,4个月后,材料产生的应变开始减小;6个月后,材料产生的应变反而比室温时小.木塑地板的疲劳行为与塑料等高分子材料类似,且具有简单热流变材料特性,符合时间-温度-应力等效原理.

  13. Standard practice for acoustic emission examination of pressurized containers made of fiberglass reinforced plastic with balsa wood cores

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers guidelines for acoustic emission (AE) examinations of pressurized containers made of fiberglass reinforced plastic (FRP) with balsa cores. Containers of this type are commonly used on tank trailers for the transport of hazardous chemicals. 1.2 This practice is limited to cylindrical shape containers, 0.5 m [20 in.] to 3 m [120 in.] in diameter, of sandwich construction with balsa wood core and over 30 % glass (by weight) FRP skins. Reinforcing material may be mat, roving, cloth, unidirectional layers, or a combination thereof. There is no restriction with regard to fabrication technique or method of design. 1.3 This practice is limited to containers that are designed for less than 0.520 MPa [75.4 psi] (gage) above static pressure head due to contents. 1.4 This practice does not specify a time interval between examinations for re-qualification of a pressure container. 1.5 This practice is used to determine if a container is suitable for service or if follow-up NDT is needed before that...

  14. Flat-pressed wood plastic composites from sawdust and recycled polyethylene terephthalate (PET): physical and mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Khandkar-Siddikur; Islam, Md Nazrul; Rahman, Md Mushfiqur; Hannan, Md Obaidullah; Dungani, Rudi; Khalil, Hps Abdul

    2013-01-01

    This study deals with the fabrication of composite matrix from saw dust (SD) and recycled polyethylene terephthalate (PET) at different ratio (w/w) by flat-pressed method. The wood plastic composites (WPCs) were made with a thickness of 6 mm after mixing the saw dust and PET in a rotary type blender followed by flat press process. Physical i.e., density, moisture content (MC), water absorption (WA) and thickness swelling (TS), and mechanical properties i.e., Modulus of Elasticity (MOE) and Modulus of Rupture (MOR) were assessed as a function of mixing ratios according to the ASTM D-1037 standard. WA and TS were measured after 24 hours of immersion in water at 25, 50 and 75°C temperature. It was found that density decreased 18.3% when SD content increased from 40% to 70% into the matix. WA and TS increased when the PET content decreased in the matrix and the testing water temperature increased. MOE and MOR were reached to maximum for the fabricated composites (2008.34 and 27.08 N/mm(2), respectively) when the SD content were only 40%. The results indicated that the fabrication of WPCs from sawdust and PET would technically feasible; however, the use of additives like coupling agents could further enhance the properties of WPCs.

  15. The Effect of PP/HDPE Mixing on Properties of Bamboo/Wood-Plastic Composite%聚丙烯/高密度聚乙烯混炼对竹木塑复合材料性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛正浩; 元庆凯; 田普建; 白天; 李昱辉

    2011-01-01

    Bamboo/wood-plastic composite was prepared by the mixing of PP and HDPE, the mechanical properties and microstructure of composite was studied. The deferent effect between bamboo and wood also be compared. The results showed that bamboo-plastic composite had better tensile strength than wood-plastic composite. The impact strength and bending strength of bamboo-PP composite could be improved by adding HDPE. Bamboo had better compatibility with plastic than wood. For wood-plastic composite,the main failure mode was debonding between wood flour and plastic.%用聚丙烯(PP)、高密度聚乙烯(HDPE)共混制备竹木塑复合材料,研究其对复合材料力学性能和微观结构的影响,同时对比竹粉与木粉对材料性能的影响.结果表明:竹塑复合材料的拉伸强度较高;加入一定量的高密度聚乙烯可以提高聚丙烯/竹粉复合材料的冲击和弯曲强度;竹粉与塑料的相容性比木粉好,木塑复合材料的主要破坏形式是木粉与塑料的脱粘.

  16. Preparation of Cotton Stalk/PE Wood-Plastics Composite%棉花秸秆/聚乙烯木塑材料的制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代少俊

    2011-01-01

    Based on cotton stalk,wood wood-plastics composite were prepared by using common compatibilizer and rare earth containing compatibilizer. Structures of compatibilizers were analyzed by FTIR thermal analysis, effects of compatibilizers on cotton stalk and PE wood-plastics composite were compared. The results showed that addition of cotton stalk in composite by using rare earth containing compatibilizer was 200 portions. Tensile strength, impact strength ,bending strength of wood-plastics composite were higher than pure PE. SEM photographs showed that the compatibilizer could improve compatibility between cotton stalk and PE.%以棉花秸秆为植物纤维来源,采用普通相容剂和含稀土相容剂制备木塑材料,使用红外和热分析对相容剂的结构进行分析,比较两种相容剂对棉花秸秆/聚乙烯木塑材料性能的影响.结果表明:采用含稀土的相容剂制备木塑材料中棉花秸秆粉的添加量可达到200份,而且木塑材料的拉伸强度、冲击强度、弯曲强度均高于纯树脂.扫描电镜照片显示:稀土相容剂可以改善棉花秸秆和PE的相容性.

  17. 木质纤维填料对PE-HD基木塑复合材料热性能的影响%Effect of Wood Fiber Fillers on Thermal Properties of PE-HD Wood Plastic Composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丽梅; 何春霞; 朱方政; 丁建生; 卢圣楼

    2015-01-01

    The PE–HD wood plastic composite were prepared filled with wood flour,bamboo flour,rice husk flour and some assistants by compression molding process. The thermal expansion and decomposition properties of the composites were tested. The results show that the ascending order of the coefficient of linear thermal expansion of PE–HD composites filled with wood fiber fillers is the following:PE–HD/wood flour compositewood flour composite decreases with the increase of wood content and mesh,with 65% and 150 μm wood fiber,the coefficient of linear thermal expansion of PE–HD/wood flour composite is the minimum. The thermal decomposition of PE–HD/wood filler composites are carried out in two steps,the first step is mainly the decomposition of wood fillers,and the second step is mainly the decomposition of PE–HD. The weightlessness starting temperature of PE–HD/wood flour composite is higher than that of PE–HD/bamboo flour composite and PE–HD/rice husk flour composite,and with higher wood content,the decomposition rate and weight loss of the first step of PE–HD/wood flour composites become more greater. The smaller the particle size,the lower the initial decomposition temperature.%分别以木粉、竹粉、稻壳粉三种木质纤维为填料,高密度聚乙烯(PE–HD)为基体,采用模压成型法制备木塑复合材料,对复合材料的热膨胀性能和热失重特性进行了研究。结果表明,三种木质纤维填充PE–HD复合材料的线性热膨胀系数顺序为:PE–HD/木粉复合材料

  18. On Corrosion Resistance Capability of Wood-plastic Composites%基于TMS320DM355的无线视频监控设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖有水

    2012-01-01

    针对无线多点高清视频监控的需要,提出了一种基于TITMS320DM355DSP芯片的无线高清摄像头的设计与实现,重点介绍了它的组网设计架构和软硬件实现流程图。该摄像头采用无线方式传输视频数据,监控摄像头移动灵活易于部署,而且功耗较小。%In this paper, using high density polyethylene and wood fiber as the main raw materials, produces 4 types of wood-plastic composites with different contents of wood flour through hot molding process. The effect of wood fiber content on the corrosion resistance of wood-plastic composites was studied by testing mass loss rate, the bending strength and surface morphology before and after corrosion. The results of the research indicates that WPC would be corrupted in the condition of Gloeophyllum trabeum; the higher content of wood fiber, the more severely corrupted of WPC; Gloeophyllum trabeum could easily corrupt the wood fiber from WPC, but not plastic.

  19. Study on the Application of Plastic Wood Composite Materials in Outdoor Furniture%木塑复合材料家具在户外家具中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨巍巍; 李大纲

    2012-01-01

    Concept of plastic wood and plastic wood furniture was summarized,categories of outdoor furniture in a narrow and broad sense were introduced respectively. Furniture of plastic wood composite materials is characterized by "leisure,natural and concise",dynamic loading is the major connection mode,and traditional mechanical connection is applied. Common damages of plastic wood composite materials and countermeas-ures were concluded,and corresponding resolutions were proposed in view of the existing problems of outdoor plastic wood composite furniture.%概述了木塑及木塑家具的概念,从广义和狭义角度介绍了户外家具的类别,认为木塑复合材料家具的风格主要集中在休闲、自然、简约,而其连接方式主要是动态载荷,采用的是传统的机械连接方式.总结了木塑复合材料常见的破坏情况及相应的处理方法.最后针对木塑复合材料户外家具存在的问题,提出了相应的解决策略.

  20. 木塑复合材料用增容剂研究进展%Advance in Research of Compatibilizer for Wood-Plastic Composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘昊; 许宏武; 刘宛宜; 沈力; 张美秀; 王野

    2015-01-01

    The advance in research of compatibilizer for wood-plastic composite was illustrated,which included the applications of copolymer compatibilizer,coupling compatibilizer and compound compatibilizer. The research prospect of the compatibilizer was expected.%介绍木塑复合材料用增容剂的研究进展,包括共聚型增容剂、偶联剂型增容剂、复合型增容剂的应用情况,并对木塑复合材料增容剂的研究前景进行了展望.

  1. European Wood-plastic Composite Capacities Continue to Grow%欧洲木塑复合材料生产能力持续增长

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周冠武

    2008-01-01

    @@ 芬欧汇川集团计划2008年底启用一新建工厂 芬欧汇川集团(UPM-Kymmene Corporation)是世界领先的木材和纸业跨国公司,总部设在芬兰赫尔辛基,在赫尔辛基证券交易所上市,正计划2008年底启用一家位于德国卡尔斯鲁厄(Karlsruhe)的木塑复合材料(wood-plastics composites,简称WPC)工厂.

  2. Non-Petroleum Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    These include synthetics such as silicone fluids and tung oils, wood-derivative oils such as resin/rosin, animal fats/oil, and seed oils. Many have similar physical properties to petroleum-based, such as water insolubility and formation of slicks.

  3. Resistencia al Impacto y a la Tracción de Materiales Compuestos Plástico-Madera Impact and Tensile Strength of Wood-Plastic Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E Solís

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describe el efecto de harina de madera de dos especies, Pinus radiata D. Don (pino y Nothofagus alpina (raulí, sobre las propiedades mecánicas de materiales compuestos plástico-madera, cuando se incorpora en porcentajes de 10 y 20% en la matriz polimérica. Los materiales termoplásticos utilizados fueron polietileno de alta densidad (HDPE y polipropileno (PP, ambos de origen comercial. Las mezclas se realizaron en un equipo extrusor de laboratorio de tornillo simple y se fabricaron probetas de ensayo para medir la resistencia al impacto Izod y la resistencia a la tracción, con el incremento de madera. El efecto de la incorporación de 10% de madera de raulí aumenta la resistencia a la tracción de los materiales compuestos a base de HDPE y de PP. En este mismo porcentaje, la madera de pino produce también un incremento de la resistencia a la tracción un poco menor. Materiales compuestos con mayor contenido de madera (20% presentan valores menores de resistencia a la tracción. La resistencia al impacto de los materiales compuestos con 10 y 20% de madera de las dos especies disminuye en un alto porcentaje con respecto del polímero puro.This article describes the effect of addition of wood flour from two different species, Pinus radiata D.Don (pino and Nothofagus alpina (raulí on the mechanical properties of wood-plastic composites, using 10 and 20% wood content in the polymer matrix. The thermoplastic materials employed included high density polyethylene (HDPE and polypropylene (PP, both of commercial origin. The mixtures were prepared using a laboratory single-screw extruder, and samples were prepared to determine Izod impact strength and tensile strength as a function of wood content. The tensile strength of HDPE and PP composites increased with 10% raulí wood content. This resistance was somewhat less in samples having the same pine content. Composites with greater wood content (20% present lower tensile strength values. The

  4. 温湿处理环境对木塑复合材弯曲性能的影响%Effect of temperature and soaking environment on the bending resistance of wood-plastic composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟; 董丽君; 贺磊; 孙慧宇; 徐波

    2015-01-01

    The effect of different environment conditions on the property of wood-plastic composites was considered before utilization. In this paper the bending property changes of wood-plastic composite under high/low temperature and soaking environment were discussed, the results will give some references to the production and application of wood-plastic products.%木塑复合材在使用时应考虑不同的环境条件对材料性能的影响,本文研究了不同密度的聚丙烯基木塑复合材经高/低温和浸水处理后材料的弯曲性能的变化情况,为木塑产品的生产和应用提供依据。

  5. Study on Rheology Behavior of Wood-Plastic Composites%木塑复合材料转矩流变性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐冬梅; 张琳; 刘太闯; 袁晓龙; 曾长春

    2013-01-01

    Rheology behaviors of PVC,PP and PE-HD based wood-plastic composites were investigated by torque rheometer. The results show that wood powder content is the primary factor affecting rheology behavior. With the increase of wood powder content,the maximum torsional and equilibrium torque are improved,while fluidity is decreased. Processing fluidity of composite can be improved by adding coupling agent,compatibilizer and lubricant.%用转矩流变仪分别研究了聚氯乙烯、聚丙烯、高密度聚乙烯基木塑复合材料的转矩流变行为。结果表明,木粉用量是影响复合材料流变性的主要因素,随着木粉用量的增加,木塑复合材料的最大扭矩和平衡扭矩都提高,导致体系的流动性变差;采用偶联剂处理木粉和加入增容剂有助于改善体系的流动性;加入润滑剂也有利于熔体的流动。

  6. 耐水木塑地板截面结构特征分析%Characteristics of Cross-Sections of Different Wood-Plastic Flooring Profiles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱宇宏; 徐朝阳; 李大纲; 陈维丹; 吴正元

    2009-01-01

    根据力学理论对目前常见的3种异型木塑地板截面结构进行分析,并结合实际规格尺寸进行相关验算,推导出3种异型木塑地板截面形状惯性矩的计算模型.结果表明:利用计算模型计算的相对误差较小,可在实际中应用.同时分析了3种异型截面结构的木塑地板的优缺点,指出需结合具体的实际情况选择使用.%Wood-plastic flooring is increasing its share in the flooring market due to its excellent performance in water resistance. Hatch, hollow, and solid structural profiles are the most commonly-used wood-plastic flooring profiles. Based on the specifications of their actual sizes, the moments of inertia for different flooring profiles were estimated using a model. Compared with the actual calculated results, it was found that the differences between the actual calculated and their corresponding estimated moments of inertia were negligible.

  7. 木塑复合材料托盘的研究%Study on Development Prospect of the Wood-Plastic-Composite Pallet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵磊; 肖生苓

    2011-01-01

    在对目前国内外托盘材料和产品研究技术综述的基础上,比较木塑复合材料托盘与实木托盘、塑料托盘及钢制托盘的使用性能及特点,论述木塑复合材料托盘的研制工艺和技术难点并指出,以废弃塑料作为基体材料,以木质剩余物纤维作为增强材料,利用挤出方法制作的新型复合材料托盘将成为托盘家族的主力军.%The paper compares the performance and characteristics of the wood-plastic- composite pallet with that of the solid wood, plastic and steel pallets, introduces the processes and technological difficulties in the development of such pallet and points out that this innovated composite material pallet will be the future's most popular type.

  8. IMAGING WOOD PLASTIC COMPOSITES (WPCs: X-RAY COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY, A FEW OTHER PROMISING TECHNIQUES, AND WHY WE SHOULD PAY ATTENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lech Muszyński

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Wood plastic composites are complex, anisotropic, and heterogeneous materials. A key to increasing the share of the WPC materials in the market is developing stronger, highly engineered WPCs characterized by greater structural performance and increased durability. These are achieved by enhanced manufacturing processes, more efficient profile designs, and new formulations providing better interaction between the wood particles and the plastic matrix. Significant progress in this area is hard to imagine without better understanding of the composite performance and internal bond durability on the micro-mechanical level, and reliable modeling based on that understanding. The objective of this paper is to present a brief review of promising material characterization techniques based on advanced imaging technologies and inverse problem methodology, which seem particularly suitable for complex heterogeneous composites. Full-field imaging techniques and specifically X-ray computed tomography (CT combined with numerical modeling tools have a potential to advance the fundamental knowledge on the effect of manufacturing parameters on the micromechanics of such materials and their response to loads and environmental exposure.

  9. 木塑复合材料的光降解与光稳定%Light Degradation and Light Stabilization of Wood-plastic Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗海

    2011-01-01

    The development situation of the wood-plastic composites(WPC) was introduced. The light degradation mechanism of WPC was discussed. In order to ensure the light stability of WPC, the nature and properties of both the wood and plastics must be considered. The possible way for stabilization of WPC were also discussed, and the future development of WPC in China and the world were forecast.%介绍了国内外木塑复合材料的发展现状,分析了木塑复合材料的光降解机理,指出木塑复合材料的光稳定必须综合考虑木材和塑料两方面的因素,对目前木塑复合材料光稳定的可行途径进行了讨论,并展望了国内外木塑复合材料的发展趋势.

  10. Research on Mechanical Properties, Microstructure and Rheological Properties of Wood-plastic Composites%木塑复合材料的力学性能、微观结构与流变性能的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱明源; 易红玲; 林珩; 郑柏存

    2013-01-01

    Wood-plastic composites were prepared with HDPE and wood flour as raw material. The effects of wood content and compatibilizer content on mechanical properties, rheological properties and microstructure of wood-plastic composites were investigated. The results indicated that rigidity, melt viscosity and shear sensitivity of the composites were increased with increasing wood content, but toughness of the composites was decreased. The compatibilizer enhanced interface microstructure, mechanical properties and processing flowability of wood-plastic composites.%以高密度聚乙烯(HDPE)和木粉为原料制备了木塑复合材料.研究了木粉、相容剂含量对木塑复合材料力学性能、流变性能及微观结构的影响.结果表明:木粉含量的增加,可提高复合材料的刚性、熔体黏度以及剪切敏感性,但韧性有所降低;而添加适量的相容剂改善了复合材料的界面微观结构,从而改善了木塑复合材料的力学性能,而且还在一定程度上改善了复合材料的加工流动性.

  11. Environmental analysis of plastic production processes: comparing petroleum-based polypropylene and polyethylene with biologically-based poly-beta-hydroxybutyric acid using life cycle analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, K G; Dennis, J S; von Blottnitz, H; Harrison, S T L

    2007-05-31

    Polymers based on olefins have wide commercial applicability. However, they are made from non-renewable resources and are characterised by difficulty in disposal where recycle and re-use is not feasible. Poly-beta-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) provides one example of a polymer made from renewable resources. Before motivating its widespread use, the advantages of a renewable polymer must be weighed against the environmental aspects of its production. Previous studies relating the environmental impacts of petroleum-based and bio-plastics have centred on the impact categories of global warming and fossil fuel depletion. Cradle-to-grave studies report equivalent or reduced global warming impacts, in comparison to equivalent polyolefin processes. This stems from a perceived CO(2) neutral status of the renewable resource. Indeed, no previous work has reported the results of a life cycle assessment (LCA) giving the environmental impacts in all major categories. This study investigates a cradle-to-gate LCA of PHB production taking into account net CO(2) generation and all major impact categories. It compares the findings with similar studies of polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene (PE). It is found that, in all of the life cycle categories, PHB is superior to PP. Energy requirements are slightly lower than previously observed and significantly lower than those for polyolefin production. PE impacts are lower than PHB values in acidification and eutrophication.

  12. 不同种类木纤维对PE基微孔发泡木塑复合材料的性能影响%The Influence of Different Kinds of Wood Fiber on the Properties of PE based Microcellular Foaming Wood and Plastic Composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛正浩; 石美浓; 陈伟博; 杜晓龙

    2012-01-01

    PE base microporous foam wood fiber/plastic composite was prepared by extrusion, injection molding process. Density , bending strength, tensile strength and impact strength of the PE base microporous foam wood fiber/plastic were researched from different types of wood fiber. The experiment results showed that wood flour filler made of wood-plastic micropore foam composite density was best,the impact strength of bamboo and straw powder were superior to wood powder,and bamboo powder composites had produced the best mechanical properties.%采用挤出、注塑成型工艺制备PE基木纤维/塑料微孔发泡复合材料.从不同木纤维的种类对PE基木纤维/塑料微孔发泡复合材料的密度、冲击强度、弯曲强度、拉伸强度进行研究.实验结果表明:以木粉为填料所制得的木塑微孔发泡复合材料密度最佳;竹粉和秸秆粉的冲击强度都优于木粉,且竹粉所制得的复合材料具有最佳的力学性能.

  13. Influence of Impact Modifier and Coupling Agent on Impact Strength of Wood Flour/Recycled Plastic Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saman GHAHRI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the improvement of impact strength of wood flour/recycled polypropylene (PP composites was investigated. The PP (virgin and recycled polypropylene and wood flour (WF were compounded at 50% by weight wood flour loading in a counter-rotating twin-screw extruder in the presence MAPP and two types of impact modifiers (ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA and ethylene/propylene/diene terpolymer (EPDM, to produce wood flour-PP composites specimen. The results showed that the composites containing recycled PP exhibited significantly lower impact strength values than those of containing virgin PP. The addition of MAPP, EVA and EPDM in the specimens increased their impact strength. In the presence of MAPP, higher increase in impact strength of the recycled PP/WF composites was observed due to impact modifiers. Both impact modifiers increased the impact strength of the PP/WF composites but the addition of EVA gave the greatest improvements in impact strength. Although the addition of impact modifiers and MAPP increased the impact strength of composites containing recycled PP, such values were still significantly lower than those of containing virgin PP (not modified with MAPP or impact modifier. The use of impact modifiers decreased the flexural properties of the recycled PP/WF composites.

  14. 木塑复合材料在家具领域的扩展应用研究%Study on Extended Application of Wood/Plastic Composite Materials in the Furniture Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾淑芳

    2014-01-01

    Wood/plastic composite material is a new material formed through different combination with plastic, with wood or various lignocellulosic as matrix. Through summary of the characteristics and performance of wood/plastic composite material , the problems with its application and extension in the furniture field are pointed out, with improvement measures put forward and the application prospects of wood/plastic composite in the furniture field presented.%木塑复合材料是以木材或各种木质纤维素为基体,与塑料以不同途径复合形成的一种新型材料。通过对木塑复合材料特点、性能的总结,指出其在家具领域应用及推广中存在的问题,并提出改进措施,同时展望了木塑复合材料在家具领域的应用前景。

  15. Dynamic Shear Modulus Prediction of Wood Plastic Composite Materials Based on Gray Neural Network%基于灰色神经网络木塑复合材料动态剪切模量预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦楠; 马莉英; 王琳

    2015-01-01

    Based on the characteristics of wood-plastic composite materials processing technology, this paper designed the wood-plastic composite materials processing experiment under different process conditions, and obtained the mechanical properties under different conditions. Based on gray neural network forecasting model, this paper established the prediction model of wood-plastic composite materials dynamic shear modulus. The results show that this model can predict the wood-plastic composite materials dynamic shear modulus well, and the prediction maximum error is 0.69%, which achieves practical engineering requirements.%基于木塑复合材料加工工艺的特点,设计了不用工艺条件下的木塑复合材料工艺实验,并得到了不同条件下的力学性能。本文在灰色神经网络组合预测模型的基础上,建立了木塑复合材料动态剪切模量的预测模型。结果表明:该模型能够较好地预测出木塑复合材料动态剪切模量,预测最大误差为0.69%,能够达到工程实际要求。

  16. Enhancement of the Mechanical Properties of Basalt Fiber-Wood-Plastic Composites via Maleic Anhydride Grafted High-Density Polyethylene (MAPE Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Lu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the mechanisms, using microscopy and strength testing approaches, by which the addition of maleic anhydride grafted high-density polyethylene (MAPE enhances the mechanical properties of basalt fiber-wood-plastic composites (BF-WPCs. The maximum values of the specific tensile and flexural strengths are achieved at a MAPE content of 5%–8%. The elongation increases rapidly at first and then continues slowly. The nearly complete integration of the wood fiber with the high-density polyethylene upon MAPE addition to WPC is examined, and two models of interfacial behavior are proposed. We examined the physical significance of both interfacial models and their ability to accurately describe the effects of MAPE addition. The mechanism of formation of the Model I interface and the integrated matrix is outlined based on the chemical reactions that may occur between the various components as a result of hydrogen bond formation or based on the principle of compatibility, resulting from similar polarity. The Model I fracture occurred on the outer surface of the interfacial layer, visually demonstrating the compatibilization effect of MAPE addition.

  17. Petroleum geoscience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rasoul Sorkhabi

    2006-01-01

    @@ Successful textbooks educate generations,and in a way define generations of scientists. As science and technology advance,textbooks become old and outdated. Nevertheless, each textbook serves as a foundation for the next, and thus a series of textbooks on a particular subject reflects the evolution of concepts, methods and data on the subject. As I write this review, there are eight textbooks on petroleum geology on my bookshelf: D. Hager's Practical Oil Geology (1915) (the first textbook of its kind); W.H. Emmons' Geology of Petroleum (1921), Cecil Lalicker's Principles of Petroleum Geology (1949); William Russell's Principles of Petroleum Geology (1951); Kenneth Landes' Petroleum Geology (1951); A. I. Levorsen's Geology of Petroleum (2nd ed., 1967); F. K. North's Petroleum Geology (1985); and Richard Selley's Elements of Petroleum Geology (2nd ed., 1998). Petroleum Geoscience by Gluyas and Swarbrick is a welcome addition to this list although its authors do not mention their predecessors.

  18. 电子束辐射制备木塑复合材料的研究%Study on Preparation of Wood-plastic Composite Based on Electron Beam Irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡涛; 李春光; 曾自强; 韩广文

    2016-01-01

    Wood-plastic composites have become an important approach to modify the low-grade and fast-growing wood to the high-grade wood with the excellent perform-ance .The wood-plastic composites were prepared by electron beam irradiation in this paper .The mechanical properties and water absorption of the modified wood were test-ed .The results show that the poplar and China fir can be modified to enhanced wood after impregnated with the modified liquid which contains methyl methacrylate as the main body and irradiated by the electron beam for the total irradiation dose of 50 kGy . The density and the compressive strength parallel to grain of the enhanced wood are improved by 70%-160% compared with the original .The flexural strength and bending elastic modulus increase by 14%-70% ,and water absorption in 24 h decreases from 67%-85% to 11%-25% .The above results indicate that the basic mechanical properties of wood-plastic composites prepared from fast-growing wood such as poplar are close to the level of high-quality mahogany .%木塑复合材料是将低档速生木材改性成为性能优良的中高档木材的重要途径.本研究初步探索了用电子束辐射制备木塑复合材料的工艺,并对改性后木材的力学性能及吸水性进行了测试.结果表明:采用甲基丙烯酸甲酯为主体的改性液浸渍后的杨木和杉木,在总剂量为50 kGy的电子束辐照工艺条件下,可制备出增强改性木材,其密度和顺纹抗压强度较原木材分别提高了70%~160%,抗弯强度和抗弯弹性模量提高了14%~70%,24 h吸水率从67%~85%下降到11%~25%.可见,以杨木等速生木为基材的木塑复合材料的基本力学性能已接近优质红木的水平.

  19. Wood Technology: Techniques, Processes, and Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oatman, Olan

    1975-01-01

    Seven areas of wood technology illustrates applicable techniques, processes, and products for an industrial arts woodworking curriculum. They are: wood lamination; PEG (polyethylene glycol) diffusion processes; wood flour and/or particle molding; production product of industry; WPC (wood-plastic-composition) process; residential construction; and…

  20. Study on Mechanical Properties of PVC Wood-plastic Composite%PVC基木塑复合材料力学性能的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈凡成; 贾润礼; 魏伟

    2011-01-01

    利用胺类改性剂M处理木粉,研究了改性剂M和力学性能改性剂丙烯腈-苯乙烯共聚物(AS)的用量对聚氯乙烯(PVC)基复合材料力学性能的影响.结果表明:随着改性剂M用量的增加,复合材料的拉伸强度、无缺口冲击强度、弯曲强度以及弯曲模量都呈先上升后下降的趋势,且当M用量略大于2%时达到最大值;随着AS用量的增加,复合材料的拉伸强度、弯曲强度及弯曲模量都呈逐渐上升的趋势,无缺口冲击强度呈逐渐下降的趋势,到8%时越于平缓.%The wood flour was treated by amine reagent (modifier M).The effects of content of modifier M and mechanical properties modifier (AS) on the mechanical properties of PVC wood-plastic composites were studied.The results show that with the increase of modifier M content, the tensile strength, non-notched impact strength, flexural strength and flexural modulus of the composites increase at first and then decrease; when the modifier M content is slightly more than 2%, the mechanical properties of the composites are up to the maximum values; with the increase of AS content, the tensile strength, flexural strength and flexural modulus of the composites increase gradually, while the non-notched impact strength decreases gradually, and there is no obvious change when AS content is 8%.

  1. Trends in China’s Wood Plastic Composite Market%我国木塑复合材料产品市场发展动向

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李靖

    2014-01-01

    木塑复合材料的出现可追溯到20世纪早期,用木粉和酚醛树脂复合而成。20世纪中叶以来,木塑复合材料行业进行了大量工作,技术快速发展,许多工厂开始生产木塑复合材料。2010年全球木塑复合材料的总产量达到150万t,目前总产量超过200万t,业已形成中国、北美和欧洲三足鼎立的局面。我国的木塑复合材料产业充满朝气,在激烈的市场竞争中虽然能发挥其特有的优势,但是也受到其劣势的束缚。因此,针对我国木塑复合材料产业发展过程中的优势及劣势,本文从市场发展的角度,提出了发展建议以及未来市场发展动向。%Emergence of wood plastic composite (WPC) materials, initial y produced with wood powders and phenolic resin, can be traced back to the early 20th Century. Since the middle of the 20th Century, the WPC industry has evolved rapidly and many plants started to produce WPC. The global total output of WPC materials reached 1.5 mil ion ton in 2010, the total output to date is more than 2 mil ion ton. There are currently three major players in this industry global y, i.e.:North America, Europe, and China. Chinese wood in dustryisyoung and ful of energy.Although China can leverage its unique advantages in the fierce market competition,itcomeswith certain limits. Therefore, this article put forward reasonable suggestions and predicted future trends of China’s WPC market based on Chinese WPC market’s unique characteristics.

  2. PVC/PE基木塑复合材料性能研究%Study on the Property of PVC/PE Wood-plastics Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宝云; 陈伟; 杨柳; 宋艳江

    2011-01-01

    Using CPE ( chlorinated polyethylene), MAPE ( polyethylene-g-maleic anhydride), and ACR (polyacrylate) as the modifiers, PVC( polyvinyl chloride)/PE(polyethylene) blends and its wood-plastic composites(WPC) were prepared by an open mixing mill, and the sample laminates were prepared by a hot press molding machine. The effect of modifiers and wood-flour on the mechanical property, processing characteristics and dynamic thermal mechanical properties of the PVC/PE and its WPC materials were investigated. The result showed: CPE can improve the mechanical properties of PVC/PE blends dramatically, but the processing properties and storage modulus were decreased. In the same way, MAPE can improve the mechanical properties of PVC/PE WPCS obviously. ACR can improve the processing properties and storage modulus of PVC/PE blends and its' WPCS. On the contrary, wood-flour made the processing properties of WPC decreased evidently, but the storage modulus was improved and loss factor was decreased.%以氯化聚乙烯(CPE)、马来酸酐接枝聚乙烯(MAPE)、聚丙烯酸酯(ACR)为改性剂,采用二辊开炼机制备PVC/PE共混体系及其木塑复合材料(WPC),并采用热压成型的方法制备材料试样.考察了改性剂和木粉对PVC/PE及其WPC力学性能、加工性能及动态热机械性能的影响.结果显示:CPE能够显著提高PVC/PE共混体系的机械性能,使材料加工性能下降,储能模量降低;MAPE则能使PVC木塑复合材料力学性能大幅提高;ACR则能够提高材料的加工性能,使材料储能模量增大;木粉的加入使复合材料加工性能大幅下降,材料储能模量提高,损耗因子下降.

  3. Study of Extruding Processing and Regulating Temperature Property of Phase Change Wood Plastic Composites%自调温相变木塑复合材料挤出工艺与性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建群; 李勇; 王书平

    2015-01-01

    Abatract:The phase change material is added into wood plastic composites, the surface temperature change of the composites along with the time during heating and cooling and the extrusion processing were studied. The results can be summarized as follows:the introdution of the phase change material makes the change of the surface temperature slower and the wood plastic composites possess the ability of storing energy.%将相变材料引入木塑复合材料中,研究了复合材料的挤出工艺以及加热和冷却过程中复合材料表面温度随时间的变化关系,分析得出相变材料的加入减缓了温度的变化速度,使得木塑复合材料具有储能的作用。

  4. Application of Plastic-wood Composite Technology in Domestic Waste Resource%塑木再生技术在生活垃圾资源化中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦彩嫩; 牛红义

    2011-01-01

    探讨塑木再生技术在生活垃圾中废塑料、纸类、木质类成分资源化应用的可行性,分析其应用中的关键技术,并对广州市应用塑木再生技术回收处理生活垃圾中废塑料、纸类及木质类成分提出建议与对策.%Application feasibility and its key technologies for using plastic --wood composite technology to recycle waste plastic, paper and wood in domestic waste were analyzed. Suggestions and countermeasures of the application of the technology in Guangzhou were put forward.

  5. 竹粉用量对呋喃树脂基木塑复合材料性能的影响%Effect of Content of Bamboo Powder on Properties of Furan Resin-based Wood-plastic Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝建淦; 贾润礼; 闫赫

    2012-01-01

    采用呋喃树脂和竹粉作原料,用传统的热压成型方法来制备呋喃树脂基木塑复合材料.研究了竹粉用量对木塑复合材料性能的影响.结果表明:当竹粉用量为40%时,材料各方面的性能达到最佳.%The furan resin-based wood-plastic composites were prepared through hot pressing method with furan resin and bamboo powder as raw material.The effects of bamboo powder content on performances of wood-plastic composites were researched.The results show that: when the bamboo powder content is 40%,the comprehensive performances of composites are the best.

  6. EVAC对PE基木塑微发泡复合材料性能影响的研究%INFLUENCE OF EVAC ON PROPERTIES OF PE BASED WOOD PLASTIC MICRO-FOAMED COMPOSITE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡建臣; 薛平; 祁宗; 丁筠; 金晓明

    2011-01-01

    PE based wood plastic micro-foamed composite was prepared with EVAC as modifier by a conical twin screw extruder. The effect of different EVAC content on the mechanical properties were studied, combined wtth SEM observation of cross-section morphology of composite materials. The results showed that the tensile strength, bending strength and impact strength of the PE based wood plastic micro-foamed composite increased with the increase of EVAC content. EVAC can improve the interfacial compatibilization between the wood flour and polymer, the optimum dosage of EVAC was 12.5% of wood flour content. In addition, this paper discussed the role of EVAC in the micro-foamed process of PE based wood plastic composite.%使用乙烯-乙酸乙烯酯塑料(EVAC)作为改性剂,通过锥形双螺杆成型机制备了聚乙烯(PE)基木塑微发泡复合材料.研究了EVAC用量对复合材料力学性能的影响,并且运用扫描电子显微镜观察了复合材料断面的微观形貌.结果表明,PE基木塑微发泡复合材料的拉伸强度、弯曲强度、冲击强度均随FVAC用量的增加而增大,EVAC可以提高PE/木粉界面之间的相容性,其最佳用量为木粉含量的12.5%.探讨了EVAC在PE基木塑微发泡复合材料微发泡过程中所起的作用.

  7. Study on Water Resistance of Polypropylene/Sisal Fiber Wood-plastic Composites%聚丙烯/剑麻纤维木塑复合材料的耐水性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘婷; 陆绍荣; 黄安民

    2012-01-01

    The PP/SF wood-plastic composites compounding. The effect of water immersion were prepared through masticating and melt of SF on the mechanical properties, thermal properties and micro-structure of the wood-plastic composites was studied. When the SF content was 50%, water immersion time was 8 d, the impact and flexural strengths of the wood-plastic composites decreased sharply, by 33. 74% and 51. 42%, from 9. 88 kJ/m2 and 21. 02 MPa, respectively. The thermal stability of the composites, crystallization rate and degree of crystallinity of PP were also decreased. All these changes were attributed to the water molecules diffused into the wood-plastic composites.%采用熔融共混、热压成型工艺制备聚丙烯(PP)/剑麻纤维(SF)木塑复合材料装饰板,研究了木塑复合材料浸水后力学性能、热性能和微观结构的变化趋势及原因。结果表明,当SF含量为50%(质量分数,下同)、浸水时间为8d时,木塑复合材料的冲击强度和弯曲强度下降幅度最大,分别达9.88kJ/m2和21.02MPa,与未浸水相比,分别下降了33.74%和51.42%;同时,木塑复合材料的热稳定性、PP相的结晶速率及结晶度也有所降低。

  8. Effects of Rice Hull Particle Size and Content on the Mechanical Properties and Visual Appearance of Wood Plastic Composites Prepared from Poly(vinyl chloride)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nawadon Petchwattana; Sirijutaratana Covavisaruch

    2013-01-01

    This research aims to develop Wood Plastic Composites (WPCs) from rice hull and poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC).The influences of the rice hull particle size and content on the mechanical properties and the visual appearance of the WPC decking board were investigated.The experimental results revealed that the impact strength tended to decrease with increasing rice hull content.The composites with larger particle sizes exhibited higher impact strength.Under tensile and flexure load,higher rice hull content induced greater modulus and ultimate strength when the rice hull was applied at less than 60 phr.Beyond this concentration,the modulus and the strength dropped due to the formation of rice hull agglomerates.The smaller particles of the milled rice hull,the greater tendency there was for them to act as a pigment to form a darker shade close that of the rice hull on the composite decking board.The larger particle sizes were 106 μm and beyond simply embedded in the white PVC matrix.

  9. The Comparison of Water Absorption Analysis between Counterrotating and Corotating Twin-Screw Extruders with Different Antioxidants Content in Wood Plastic Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Hafizuddin Ab Ghani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Water absorption is a major concern for natural fibers as reinforcement in wood plastic composites (WPCs. This paper presents a study on the comparison analysis of water absorption between two types of twin-screw extruders, namely, counterrotating and corotating with presence of variable antioxidants content. Composites of mixed fibres between rice husk and saw dust with recycled high-density polyethylene (rHDPE were prepared with two different extruder machines, namely, counterrotating and corotating twin screw, respectively. The contents of matrix (30 wt% and fibres (62 wt% were mixed with additives (8 wt% and compounded using compounder before extruded using both of the machines. Samples were immersed in distilled water according to ASTM D 570-98. From the study, results indicated a significant difference among samples extruded by counterrotating and corotating twin-screw extruders. The counterrotating twin-screw extruder gives the smallest value of water absorption compared to corotating twin-screw extruder. This indicates that the types of screw play an important role in water uptake by improving the adhesion between natural fillers and the polymer matrix.

  10. The Effect of Fire Retardants on the Flammability, Mechanical Properties, and Wettability of Co-Extruded PP-Based Wood-Plastic Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Turku

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, fire retardants (FRs such as aluminum trihydroxide (ATH, zinc borate (ZB, melamine, graphite, and titanium oxide (TiO2 were loaded into the shell layer of a co-extruded polypropylene (PP-based wood-plastic composite (WPC. The incorporated retardants reduced the peak of the heat release rate by 8 to 22%, depending on the type of FR. Other studied parameters, such as ignition time and mass loss rate, were improved after the FR loading. The total heat release decreased slightly (except for the graphite-WPC. The effective heat of combustion was independent of the presence of the FR or, in the case of graphite, slightly increased. Carbon monoxide production increased (ZB, graphite or was not changed significantly (ATH, melamine, and TiO2. It was also observed that the tensile strength improved after the FR loading; however, the tensile modulus decreased, except for the graphite-WPC. The impact strength improved or was independent of the FR loading, as in the case of the sample with ATH. The wettability of the composites decreased with filler loading, except for ZB, which showed the highest water absorption value among the studied composites.

  11. 抗菌剂与抗菌木塑复合材料的研究进展%Research Progress on Antibacterial Agent and Antibacterial Wood-Plastic Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张佳瑶; 徐肖娅; 李晓林; 刘玉涛; 姚雪霞

    2015-01-01

    从无机、有机、高分子和复合抗菌剂4个方面概述了抗菌剂的种类、抗菌机理和研究现状.综述了各种抗菌剂在木塑复合材料中的应用现状,并对抗菌剂在木塑复合材料的应用发展进行了展望,指出研究和应用高效新型复合抗菌剂可以明显改善木塑复合材料的防腐抗菌性能,是提高木塑复合材料综合性能的重要途径之一.%Inorganic, organic, polymer and compounding antibacterial agents were outlined through introduction of the type, mechanism, research status and prospects of the agents. The application status of the antimicrobial agents in wood-plastic composite was reviewed, and the development trend of antibacterial agent used in wood-plastic composites was prospected. The research and application of compounding agent can improve antibacterial property, and is an important approach of enhancing the comprehensive property of wood-plastic composites.

  12. Effect of Main Components on the Linear Thermal Expansion Coefficient of Wood-Plastic Composite%木塑复合材料配方组成对其线性热膨胀系数的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡培鑫; 吕群; 梁梦杰; 来国桥

    2011-01-01

    Wood plastic composites(WPC) were prepared by extrusion with PP, HDPE,POE,EPDM or their blends as a plastic substrate and wood flour as a filler. The effects of the thermal expansion characteristics of the components, the plastic substrate composition and wood flour content in the formulas on the linear thermal expansion coefficient of WPC were studied. The results showed that the order of linear thermal expansion coefficients of main raw materials in WPC was that wood flour < PP < PE < toughening agent and the linear thermal expansion coefficient of WPC increased with increasing the plastic content because that the linear thermal expansion coefficient of the plastic was much greater than wood flour. The linear thermal expansion coefficient of WPC decreased with increasing PP/PE ratio in the formula and increased with increasing the amount of toughening agents EPDM or POE.%以PP、HDPE、POE、EPDM或其共混物作为塑料基体,以木粉作为填充料,用挤出成型法制备了PP/PE基和PP基木塑复合材料(WPC),研究了配方中各组分的热膨胀特性、配方中塑料基体组成变化、以及配方中木粉含量变化等因素对所制得的WPC线性热膨胀系数的影响.结果表明:制备WPC的主要原料线性热膨胀系数的大小顺序为:木粉<聚丙烯<聚乙烯<增韧剂,其中各塑料成分的线性热膨胀系数均远大于木粉,随着WPC中塑料含量增加,WPC的线性热膨胀系数增加;随着配方中PP/PE比值增加,WPC的线性热膨胀系数减小;随着配方中增韧剂EPDM或POE用量增加,WPC的线性热膨胀系数增大.

  13. 木塑复合板材的超声波直角焊接性能试验%Right Angle Ultrasonic Welding Performances of Wood-Plastic Composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周一龙; 赵辉; 祝虹媛

    2012-01-01

    应用超声波焊接技术对木塑复合板材进行了直角焊接试验.木塑复合板材成分为60%的木粉(WF)、36%的聚丙烯(PP)和4%的马来酸酐接枝聚丙烯(MAPP).根据试验数据对不同焊接时间下的直角焊接强度进行了对比,并用扫描电镜观察了焊缝,分析了其连接状况.结果表明:木塑复合板材可以应用超声波焊接技术进行直角连接,并且具有足够强度;在不同的发振时问下,焊件的强度有所不同;当采用合适的发振时间时,焊件的连接性能达到最佳.%Ultrasonic welding technology was applied to right angle welding of wood-plastic composites. The wood-plastic composites were made up of 60% wood-flour ( WF) , 36% polypropylene ( PP) and 4% maleic anhydride grafted PP ( MAPP). Different tensile strengths were tested under different welding time according to the experimental data. Welded joint was observed by scanning electronic microscopy and the connection status was analyzed. Results demonstrate that ultrasonic welding technology can be applied to the right angle welding of wood-plastic composites, exhibiting enough tensile strength. Different tensile strengths were obtained under different vibration time of ultrasonic welding. When the time was proper, the optimal joint performance of welding could be achieved.

  14. Partial transparency of compressed wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Hiroyuki; Sugimori, Masatoshi

    2016-05-01

    We have developed novel wood composite with optical transparency at arbitrary region. Pores in wood cells have a great variation in size. These pores expand the light path in the sample, because the refractive indexes differ between constituents of cell and air in lumen. In this study, wood compressed to close to lumen had optical transparency. Because the condition of the compression of wood needs the plastic deformation, wood was impregnated phenolic resin. The optimal condition for high transmission is compression ratio above 0.7.

  15. Effect of Modified Red Pottery Clay on the Moisture Absorption Behavior and Weatherability of Polyethylene-Based Wood-Plastic Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingde Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Red pottery clay (RPC was modified using a silane coupling agent, and the modified RPC (mRPC was then used to enhance the performance of high-density polyethylene-based wood-plastic composites. The effect of the mRPC content on the performances of the composites was investigated through Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, differential mechanical analysis (DMA and ultraviolet (UV-accelerated aging tests. After adding the mRPC, a moisture adsorption hysteresis was observed. The DMA results indicated that the mRPC effectively enhanced the rigidity and elasticity of the composites. The mRPC affected the thermal gravimetric, leading to a reduction of the thermal degradation rate and a right-shift of the thermal degradation peak; the initial thermal degradation temperature was increased. After 3000 h of UV-accelerated aging, the flexural strength and impact strength both declined. For aging time between 0 and 1000 h, the increase in amplitude of ΔL* (luminescence and ΔE* (color reached a maximum; the surface fading did not became obvious. ΔL* and ΔE* increased more significantly between 1000 and 2000 h. These characterization results indicate that the chromophores of the mRPC became briefly active. However, when the aging times were higher than 2000 h, the photo-degradation reaction was effectively prevented by adding the mRPC. The best overall enhancement was observed for an mRPC mass percentage of 5%, with a storage modulus of 3264 MPa and an increase in loss modulus by 16.8%, the best anti-aging performance and the lowest degree of color fading.

  16. 松香超分散剂含量对塑木复合材料性能影响%Effect of Rosin Hyper-Dispersant on Properties of Wood/Plastic Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申欣; 王守荣; 邓德武; 王亮

    2012-01-01

    A novel of rosin hyper-dlspersant (RDH) was synthesized with abietic, diethylenetriamine and 12-hydroxy stearic acid. The effects of different amount of RDH on mechanical properties, crystallization and compatibility of wood/plastic composites were discussed. The results indicate that the impact strength, flexural strength and flexural modulus of wood/plastic composites increase first, then decrease with increasing of the content of RDH. And it can be also seen that the adhesion between wood flour and HDPE resin is best when RDH mass ratio is 1.0%.%以松香、二乙撑三胺和12-羟基硬脂酸为原料合成了松香超分散剂(RDH),研究不同RDH含量对塑木复合材料的力学性能、结晶性能及相容性的影响.结果表明,随着RDH加入量的增加,塑木复合材料的冲击强度、弯曲强度和弯曲模量都呈先增后减的变化趋势;当RDH质量分数为1.0%时,塑木复合材料的相容性较好.

  17. Controlling mold on wood Pallets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol A. Clausen

    2012-01-01

    THE WOOD PALLET AND CONTAINER INDUSTRY CONSUMES 4.5 billion board feet (BBF) of hardwoods and 1.8 BBF of softwoods for the annual production of 400-500 million solid wood pallets. While alternative materials such as plastic, corrugated paperboard and metal have entered the market, solid wood remains the material of choice for a majority of pallets on the market (more...

  18. Study on Preparation Process and Properties of LDPE/Wood Plastic Composites%LDPE基木塑复合材料制备工艺及性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋艳江; 王宝云; 羊海棠; 朱凤娥

    2012-01-01

    以马来酸酐(MAH)和(或)过氧化二异丙苯(DCP)复合处理木粉(Wood)或预先将MAH和DCP与低密度聚乙烯( LDPE)进行熔融接枝反应,采用挤出混炼和注射成型的方法制备了LDPE基木塑复合材料.考察了MAH、DCP含量及制备工艺等对复合材料加工性能、力学性能及动态热机械性能的影响;并借助扫描电子显微镜分析了其作用机理.结果显示:与先制备的MAH-g-PE相比,直接用MAH和DCP复合处理木粉所制备木粉/LDPE复合材料(木粉质量分数40%)具有更优的力学性能,其冲击强度提高了40%左右,而且加工平衡扭矩仅为前者的1/3;SEM分析表明:前者中木粉存在明显的团聚现象;此外,MAH和DCP均有相对最佳用量,分别为木粉的0.5%和LDPE的0.3% ~0.5%.%Low density polyethylene(LDPE) based wood-plastic composites(WPCs) were prepared by mixing extruding and injection molding in which the wood flour were modified by maleic anhydride(MAH) and (or) dicumyl peroxide(DCP) ,or the resin matrix was melt grafted with MAH with DCP as the initiator.The effects of MAH,DCP,wood flour contents and preparation process on the processibility,mechanical properties and dynamic thermo-mechanical behavior of the composites were investigated.And the effect mechanism was analyzed by SEM.The results showed: compared with the WPC made from MAH-g-LDPE,the composite (wood flour mass fraction: 40 wt%)made from MAH and DCP modified wood flour had the better mechanical properties,the impact strength improved by 40% ,and the balance torque was only 1/3 to the formerone.The SEM results indicated wood-flour was aggregated in the former.The results also showed the MAH and DCP had optimum dosage which were 0.5 wt% to wood flour and 0.3 - 0.5 wt% to LDPE respectively.

  19. Application of Maleic Anhydride/1-Decene Copolymer in Polypropylene Wood Plastic Composite%马来酸酐/1-十烯共聚物在聚丙烯木塑复合材料中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐运祺; 雷影红; 徐睿杰

    2012-01-01

    Maleic anhydride(MAH)/1-decene copolymer was synthesized and characterized by FTIR, 'H-NMR and GPC. The application of this copolymer as compatibilizer in polypropylene(PP) wood plastic composite was discussed. The results show that MAH/1-decenc copolymer can improve the dispersion of wood flour and the compatibility between wood flour and PP, enhance the interracial adhesion of wood plastic composite; when the compatibilizer content is 5 phr, the tensile strength, flexural strength and impact strength of the composite increase by 59.3%, 44.6% and 82.6% respectively.%采用红外光谱、核磁共振氢谱和凝胶渗透色谱表征了自行合成的马来酸酐(MAH)/1-十烯共聚物,探讨了该共聚物作为相容剂在聚丙烯(PP)基木塑复合材料中的应用.结果表明:MAH/1-十烯共聚物可改善木粉在PP中的分散性和相容性,提高PP与木粉间的界面黏合力,进而改善复合材料的力学性能;当相容荆用量为5份时,复合材料的拉伸强度提高了59.3%,弯曲强度提高了44.6%,冲击强度提高了82.6%.

  20. Analysis on the Aging Properties of Wood-plastic Composite Packaging Materials%木塑复合缓冲包装材料老化性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭伟平; 肖生苓

    2012-01-01

    阐述和分析木塑复合缓冲包装材料的主要配方组分(木粉、PVC树脂、偶联剂、增塑剂等)在不同的自然因素的影响下,对其结构、力学性能等的影响,进而为在实验时采用不同组分制作实验材料提供简单参考。其次,简单讲述了人工气候老化试验机的相关类型,以及每一种装置的各自使用事项及优缺点,为在实验时选用何种老化设备提供有力的参考。最后,又列举了人工模拟设备在实验中应注意的相关问题,以避免实验中出现的人为误差而造成实验结果与实际的偏离。%The paper describes and analyzes the impacts of the main formula components(wood powder,PVC resin,coupling agent,plasticizer,etc.) of wood and plastic composite cushion packaging material on its structure and mechanical properties under different conditions.The types and characteristics of the aging test equipment for wood and plastic composites were elaborated which will provide reference for the selection of aging test equlpment.Some related problems while simulating the equipment were put forward to avoid human errors in the experiment.

  1. PETROLEUM GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>20122476 Bao Yunjie ( Wuxi Research Institute of Petroleum Geology,SINOPEC,Wuxi 214151,China );Wang Shuyi Reservoir Diagenesis of 3rd Member of Feixianguan Formation,Jiannan Gas Field ( Petroleum Geology & Experiment,ISSN1001-6112,CN32-1151 / TE,33 ( 6 ), 2011,p.564-568,2 il-lus.,1plate,2tables,10refs. ) Key words:carbonate reservoirs,diagenesis,Chongqing,Hubei Province

  2. 食品包装材料生态化发展下的非石油基降解塑料%Non-Petroleum Based Biodegradable Plastic with the Development of Ecologicalization in Food Packaging Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴宏民; 戴佩燕

    2015-01-01

    目前常用的非石油基降解塑料可分为全淀粉型、化学(人工)合成型和天然高分子(以淀粉为主)与合成高分子共混型3种类型。淀粉基生物降解塑料能完全生物降解,制成的薄膜具有良好的透明度、柔韧性、抗张强度,不溶于水,无毒,故市场占有率高,被广泛应用于食品包装、食品容器和一次性餐饮具等;聚乳酸生物降解塑料力学性能与聚丙烯相似,并具有与聚苯乙烯相似的光泽度、清晰度和加工性,同时具有无毒、无刺激性、强度高、易加工成型和优良的生物相容性等特点,是一种能够真正实现生态和经济双重效益的、发展速度最快的生物降解塑料;聚丁二酸丁二醇酯生物降解塑料综合性能优良,性价比合理,故在食品包装、一次性餐具、药品包装瓶、生物医用高分子材料以及汽车零部件等领域均具有良好的应用前景。非石油基降解塑料作为包装材料是必然趋势,其得到广泛应用的关键在于提高材料的改性技术与控制成本,同时须保证其对人体无毒无害,强调个性化,并注重提高市场接受度。%The current non-petroleum based biodegradable plastics could be divided into three types of starch, chemical (artificial) synthetic and natural polymers (based on starch), and synthetic polymer blend. Starch based biodegrad-able plastics could be completely biodegradable and be made into thin film with the advantages of good transparency, flexibility, tensile strength, water-insoluble and non-toxic features. Therefore the market share of starch based biodegrad-able plastics is big, and it is widely used in food packaging as food containers and disposable tableware. The biodegradable plastic mechanical property of polylactic acid is similar to that of polypropylene, and it has the glossiness, clarity and workability similar to those of poly propylene with characteristics of non

  3. Production and property research for shaped profile of new wood plastic window%新型仿术塑窗异型材的生产和性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王其富; 牛建华; 卓旭明

    2001-01-01

    This paper introduces the side feeding of tinted concentrate, the control ofasynchronous plasticization of PVC raw material and pigment in twin screw extruder, the dosing and process control of shaped profile of new wood plastic window by extruding formation.The property comparison between it and traditional white PVC shaped profile is carried out.%介绍了采用着色母料侧向加料,控制PVC物料与色料在双螺杆挤出机中的不同步塑化,挤出成型新型仿木塑窗异型材的配方及工艺控制,并将它与传统白色PVC塑料异型材进行了性能比较。

  4. 双层共挤木塑复合地板的性能表征%Properties Characterization of Co-Extrusion Wood-Plastic Composite Floor with Double Layers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄东辉

    2013-01-01

    Taking waste plastic,wood powder and addition agent such as antioxidant etc.as raw materials,wood-plastic composite floor with surface layer and core layer was prepared by co-extrusion technology,modification was mainly done for surface layer materials and properties of core layer materials such as weathering resistance etc wasn't considered.Physical,mechanical,low temperature resistance and weathering resistance properties of the floor were tested.The results show that tensile strength of the floor is 23.98 MPa,bending strength and bending elastic modulus are 38.53 MPa and 3 200 MPa,bending failure load is 4 300 N and higher than that of wood-plastic composite floor with single layer (3 300 N),it only declines by 1.3% after cycles of freeze-thaw test.The floor with double layers don't destroy under the drop-weight impact at low temperature,it's water absorption is 0.17%,dimensional change rate after heating is 0.12% and oxidation induction time is 77.5 min which is higher than that of wood-plastic composite floors with single layer (15.4 min),meanwhile,it achieve the requirements of wood-plastic composite floor properties test standards in Japan.The floor with double layers solves the problems that color,weathering resistance,dimension change rate,bending strength performance are fluctuation or bad because of waste recycling batch being unstable,it enlarge the application range of waste plastic and has high performance/price ratio.%以废旧塑料、木粉及抗氧剂等助剂为原料,利用共挤出的方法,制备了带有表层和芯层的木塑复合地板,主要对表层材料进行改性而不考虑芯层材料的耐候等性能,测试了该木塑复合地板的物理力学、抗低温和耐候性能.结果表明,双层共挤制备的木塑复合地板的拉伸强度为23.98 MPa,弯曲强度和弯曲弹性模量分别为38.53 MPa和3 200 MPa,弯曲破坏载荷为4300 N,高于单层挤出的木塑复合地板(3 300 N),且其经循环冻

  5. Interface Characteristics of Wood-hybrid Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUEFenglian; ZHAOGuangjie

    2005-01-01

    In order to understand the current interface characteristics of wood-hybrid composites, this paper starts off from the concept of composite interface and general theory of interface form, then the inner-surface and microstructure of wood and the interface characteristics of composites, such as wood- inorganic, wood-plastic and wood- metal made by electroless plating technique, are concluded and discussed in detail. Meanwhile,on the basis of that, some points of view about how to develop the wood-hybrid composites interface research in the future are also proposed.

  6. British Petroleum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul; Andersen, Christine Bang

    2014-01-01

    The case deals with the rather tumultuous executive leadership changes of British Petroleum (BP) over the past decade from 2005 to 2014 in the wake of two dramatic incidents: The Texas City refinery explosion in 2005 and the explosion of the oil rig Deepwater Horizon in the Mexican Gulf in 2010...

  7. 塑木复合材料用木粉的染色工艺研究%Study on Dyeing Process of Wood Flour of Plastic Wood Composite Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    水平; 丁恩勇

    2013-01-01

    将木粉经阳离子改性剂接枝改性后,利用筛选出的合适的直接耐晒型染料进行染色。染色后的木粉具有较优良的染色性能,上染百分率、染料保留率(水洗染色牢度)均比较理想,同时染色残液补加染料后二次染色的木粉与初始染液染得的木粉色差少。染色残液可循环利用,减少污水的排放,达到环保的要求。%After being modified with cationic grafting agent,the wood flour was dyed with the properly screened direct fast dyes.The dyed wood flour perform excellent dyeing properties,such as good dye uptake,high retention of dyes(ideal color fastness to washing).Furthermore,there is only small color difference of the wood flour between that dyed with the supplemented residue dyebath and that dyed with initial fresh dyebath.The residue dyebath could be recycled to reduce the discharge of sewage,and to meet environmental requirements.

  8. Wood or Laminate?—Psychological Research of Customer Expectations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jiménez, Paul; Dunkl, Anita; Eibel, Kerstin; Denk, Elisabeth; Grote, Vincent; Kelz, Christina; Moser, Maximilian

    2016-01-01

    .... However, when investigating psychological differences, wood is usually compared to carpets, glass, leather, stone, or plastic but is not compared to a visually similar material such as laminate...

  9. Prebiotic Petroleum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mekki-Berrada

    2014-12-01

    This short communication summarizes a global and continuous reflection on the origins of life. "Prebiotic Petroleum" assumes that " the class of most complex molecules of life that may have geochemical and abiotic origin is the class of fatty acids with long aliphatic chains" and proposes a physical process for the formation of liposomes. Developments following the workshop start from the idea that the liposomes also acquire ion exchange channels physically during their forming process.

  10. Wood Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoke is made up of a complex mixture of gases and fine, microscopic particles produced when wood and other organic matter burn. The biggest health threat from wood smoke comes from fine particles (also called particulate matter).

  11. Petroleum and Health Care: Evaluating and Managing Health Care's Vulnerability to Petroleum Supply Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarz, Daniel; Bae, Jaeyong; Pierce, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    Petroleum is used widely in health care—primarily as a transport fuel and feedstock for pharmaceuticals, plastics, and medical supplies—and few substitutes for it are available. This dependence theoretically makes health care vulnerable to petroleum supply shifts, but this vulnerability has not been empirically assessed. We quantify key aspects of petroleum use in health care and explore historical associations between petroleum supply shocks and health care prices. These analyses confirm that petroleum products are intrinsic to modern health care and that petroleum supply shifts can affect health care prices. In anticipation of future supply contractions lasting longer than previous shifts and potentially disrupting health care delivery, we propose an adaptive management approach and outline its application to the example of emergency medical services. PMID:21778473

  12. 不同配方木塑复合材料的力学性能比较与分析%Comparison and Analysis on the Mechanical Properties of Wood-plastic Composite with Different Formulations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    简伟程; 潘惠; 徐长妍

    2012-01-01

    The mechanical properties of four wood-plastic composite materials, including elastic modu lus, bending strength, compression strength were tested, and the results were briefly analyzed. The results showed that the productions of four kinds of formulations had excellent mechanical properties which can meet the demand of outdoor use.%测试了四种配方木塑复合材料的力学性能,包括弹性模量、弯曲强度和抗压强度,并对其结果进行了简要的分析.实验结果表明,四种配方生产的材料力学性能都较为优异,都能符合户外装饰板材的要求.

  13. Antifouling Performance of Wood-Plastic Composite Under Simulated Kitchen Condition%人工模拟厨房条件对塑木复合材耐污染性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊伟; 李大纲

    2011-01-01

    The antifouling performance of wood-plastic composite(WPC) was studied.The results showed that: WPC’s resistance on soy sauce,tea and tobacco stains,and contaminated liquid were generally good;however,the surface gloss was decreased to some extend due to%研究了模拟厨房条件对塑木复合材耐污染性能的影响。结果表明,塑木复合材的耐酱油、耐烟茶液渍污染效果较好;酱油、烟茶液渍对塑木复合材的光泽度有一定的影响;不同材色的塑木复合材的耐污染性能稍有差异。

  14. The Effect of Ultraviolet Light on the "Liquid Wood"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitru, Nedelcu; Sabina, Zǎgan; Ticuta, Negreanu-Pirjol; Remus, Zǎgan; Constantin, Cǎrausu

    2014-08-01

    To preserve resources, the goal is to use biobased materials containing the maximum possible amount of renewable biomass-based derivatives to secure a sustainable future. Bioplastics, biocomposites, biological fibres and related biomaterials will serve as substitutes for materials and products traditionally made from petroleum resources. To support this need, in 1998, Fraunhofer Institute of Chemistry and Tecnaro GmbH Company (founded by Jurgen Pfitzer and Helmut Nagele in Germany) investigated and developed a new compound made of wood components that can be processed as a thermoplastic material. It is well known that bioplastic and biocomposite materials represent another important group of bio-materials that include plastics reinforced with natural fibers and wood-plastic composites (WPCs). The aim of this research is to identify the behavior of "Liquid Wood" after UV irradiation. The materials used were Arbofill Fichte, Arboblend V2 Nature and Arboform L, V3 Nature. The samples were obtained by injection and the experimental study plan followed the Taguchi method with six input parameters and two levels for each of them. Three samples from each material were tested in an ultraviolet environment using different time of exposure in order to establish the material characteristics. After the irradiation process the material did not turn to yellow, which suggests that the composition of the sample liquid timber inhibitors have stability and the number of α-carbonyl (C = O) groups is sufficiently low. After the graphs analyzing can be inferred relatively similar performance of the samples in the first stage both UV and the VIS, indicating that the activity is almost absent. In UV is clearly observed the peak amplitude (maximum absorbance) at different wavelengths (λ). So, in terms of peak intensity the samples follow the order: Arboform L, V3 Nature; Arbofill Fichte and Arboblend V2 Nature.

  15. PETROLEUM GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20110957 Bai Jingru(Engineering Research Centre of Ministry of Education for Comprehensive Utilization of Oil Shale,Northeast Dianli University,Jilin 132012,China);Wang Qing Basic Physicochemical Characteristics of the Huadian Oil Shale Semi-Cokes(Journal of Jilin University,ISSN1671-5888,CN22-1343/P,40(4),2010,p.905-911,5 illus.,8 tables,10 refs.,with English abstract)Key words:oil shale,Jilin Province20110958 Chen Jingyi(Faculty of Resources and Information Technology,China University of Petroleum,Beijing 102249,China);Wang Feiyu Maturity and Genetic Type of Crude Oils in Qikou Sag,Bohai Bay Basin(Xinjiang Petroleum Geology,ISSN1001-3873,CN65-1107/TE,31(3),2010,p.242-244,7 illus.,4 refs.)Key words:crude oil,Bohaiwan Basin Qikou sag is one of the rich-oil areas in Bohai Bay Basin,in which three sets of lacustrine source rocks developed in Tertiary and Paleozoic reservoirs.The geochemical analyses of 59 crude oil and 102 source rock samples from Qikou sag show that the crude oils in Qikou sag belong to mature oil,combined with the biomarkers of n-alkanes,steroid and terpenoid as well as light hydrocarbons index,

  16. Fire case of brick-wood structural lodging with plastic top and numerical simulation analysis%简易塑料顶棚砖木结构出租房火灾调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小芹; 刘涛

    2011-01-01

    介绍了一起带简易塑料顶棚砖木结构出租房火灾的调查走访和现场勘验过程,总结调查工作的成功经验.利用FDS还原火灾事故的过程.结果显示,塑料顶棚大大加快了室内火灾的发展蔓延,室内人员的有效逃生时间缩短2/3以上,很大程度上增加了室内火灾危险性.%This paper described the on-scene interrogation and fire scene proccssing of a brick-wood structural lodging with plastic top fire cast detailedly, and successful experiences were summairized. Numerical simulation technology was Applied to this fire investigation and reconstructed the process of fire accident. It indicated that plastic top greatly accelerated the development and oversprcad of indoor fire. and shartened two-part of the effectual fleeing time for indoor people, and increased the fire fatalness deeply.

  17. 界面改性剂对PE基木塑复合材料性能的影响%Effects of Interfacial Modifiers on Properties of PE Based Wood Plastic Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张克宏; 肖慧

    2012-01-01

    以高密度聚乙烯(HDPE)和木粉为主要原料、马来酸酐接枝聚乙烯(MAPE)和硅烷偶联剂(KH570)为界面改性剂,采用压制成型法制备了PE基木塑复合材料.研究了界面改性剂MAPE和KH570用量对复合材料力学性能的影响,并采用FT-IR和SEM对复合材料的微观结构进行了表征.结果表明:界面改性剂MAPE和KH570可以显著改善木塑复合材料的拉伸强度、冲击强度和弯曲强度,当木粉、HDPE、MAPE、KH570质量比为40∶36∶24∶5时,木塑复合材料的综合力学性能最佳;FT-IR和SEM表明:在界面改性剂MAPE和KH570的作用下,木粉在塑料基体中的分散均匀,相容性提高,并发生了一定程度的化学键合.%The PE based wood-plastic composites(WPC)were prepared via compression molding using high density polyethylene(HDPE) and wood powder as the main raw material,maleic anhydride grafted polyethylene (MAPE) and silane coupling agent(KH-570) as interfacial modifiers.The effects of the content of interfacial modifiers MAPE and KH-570 on the mechanical properties of WPC were investigated.The microstructure of the composites was characterized by means of SEM and FT-IR.The results showed that the MAPE and KH-570 can significantly improve the tensile strength,the impact strength and the flexural strength of WPC.When the mass ratio of wood powder,HDPE,MAPE and KH-570 was 40:36=24:5,WPC had excellent comprehensive mechanical properties.Based on the analysis of FT-IR and SEM,the phenomenon that wood powder dispersed homogeneously in the PE matrix was observed.There were certain extent chemistry linkages between the constituents of WPC.

  18. 杨木纤维几何形态对木塑复合材料性能的影响1)%Effect of Wood Fiber Geometry on the Properties of Wood-Plastic Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高珣; 程万里; 王海刚; 韩广萍; 李卓

    2014-01-01

    Polyethylene ( PE)-based composites were manufactured from the poplar wood fibers with various geometries to inves-tigate the effects of fiber diameter and length to diameter ratio on the mechanical properties of wood-plasticcomposites .The tensile strength, elongationat break, bending properties and impact strength are enhanced with the increaseof fiber diame-ter and then decreased as the fiber diameter further is increased .The tensile strength and elongation at break reach their maximum values at a fiber diameter of 0.29 mm.The bending strength, bending modulus and the impact strength have the maximum values when the fiber diameter is 0.21 mm.%用不同直径的杨木纤维填充聚乙烯基木塑复合材料,研究了木纤维直径和长径比等对木塑复合材料力学性能的影响。结果表明:随着直径的增加,复合材料的拉伸强度、断裂伸长率、弯曲性能、弯曲模量及冲击强度均呈先增加后减少的趋势;拉伸强度、断裂伸长率在直径为0.29 mm时出现最大值,弯曲强度、弯曲模量及冲击强度在直径为0.21 mm时出现最大值。

  19. Effect of Lignocellulose Surface Characteristics on the Mechanical Properties of Wood-plastic Composites%木质纤维表面改性对木塑复合材料力学性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雅丽; 付新; 高锦红; 刘娟

    2014-01-01

    Objective To improve the interfacial compatibility of lignocellulose with thermoplastic plastics, and increase the me-chanical properties of wood-plastic composites. Methods The contact angles of three probe liquids against unmodified and modified corn stover fibers were tested by capillary rise method, and the surface tension and its components of unmodified and modified corn stover fibers were calculated based on the method of Owens-wendt-Kaelble. Results The results showed that the surface tension of the unmodified corn stover fibers was 28. 88 mN/ m and its polar component was 22. 20 mN/ m, while the surface tension of the modified corn stover fibers was 35. 69 mN/ m and its polar component was 3. 51 mN/ m. Conclusion Modified corn stover fibers had better in-terfacial compatibility with thermoplastics, which was also confirmed by the better mechanical properties of wood-plastic composites.%目的:改善木质纤维与热塑性塑料的界面相容性,提高木塑复合材料的力学性能。方法采用毛细管上升法测定不同探测液在未改性玉米秸秆粉和硅烷偶联剂改性玉米秸秆粉表面的接触角,通过Owens 法计算玉米秸秆粉改性前后的表面张力及其分量。结果未改性玉米秸秆粉的表面张力为28.88 mN/ m,极性分量为22.20 mN/ m;而改性玉米秸秆粉的表面张力为35.69 mN/ m,极性分量为3.51 mN/m。结论在与热塑性塑料复合时,改性玉米秸秆粉有更好的界面相容性,其制备的木塑复合材料有更好的力学强度。

  20. Petroleum geophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    The book is compiled from a series of e-learning modules. GeoCLASS is an e-learning system with contents from petroleum geophysics. It is the result of collaboration between professors at the University of Bergen and the University of Oslo, and its material has been used as curriculum in master program courses at these universities for several years. Using a unique feature to GeoCLASS, these advanced scientific topics are presented on multiple levels. The introductions open the door to this vast pool of knowledge, accessible even for high school students. Enter the door, and you enter the modules. Various levels of content are presented, and the more advanced levels can be shielded from the regular user, and only accessed by those with particular interest. The chapters in the book are: Elastic waves; Survey planning; Seismic acquisition; Basic seismic signal theory and processing; Seismic imaging; Seismic attributes; Rock physics; Reservoir monitoring. (AG)

  1. PETROLEUM GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20111769 Bai Yubin(School of Oil and Gas Resources,Xi’an University of Petroleum,Xi’an 710065,China);Zhang Hai Physical Properties and Main Controlling Factors for the Low-Permeability Reservoirs from a Oil Field in the Ordos Basin(Sedimentary Geology and Tethyan Geology,ISSN1009-3850,CN51-1593/P,30(3),2010,p.104-108,4 illus.,2 tables,5 refs.)Key words:low permeability reservoirs,reservoir properties,Ordos BasinThe Chang-2 reservoirs in A oil field in the Ordos Basin dominantly consist of fine-grainded feldspar sandstones which have low porosity and low-permeability,

  2. Do plants modulate biomass allocation in response to petroleum pollution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Ming; Yang, Qiang; Jiang, Li-Fen; Fang, Chang-Ming; Chen, Jia-Kuan; Li, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Biomass allocation is an important plant trait that responds plastically to environmental heterogeneities. However, the effects on this trait of pollutants owing to human activities remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the response of biomass allocation of Phragmites australis to petroleum pollution by a 13CO2 pulse-labelling technique. Our data show that plant biomass significantly decreased under petroleum pollution, but the root–shoot ratio for both plant biomass and 13C increased with increasing petroleum concentration, suggesting that plants could increase biomass allocation to roots in petroleum-polluted soil. Furthermore, assimilated 13C was found to be significantly higher in soil, microbial biomass and soil respiration after soils were polluted by petroleum. These results suggested that the carbon released from roots is rapidly turned over by soil microbes under petroleum pollution. This study found that plants can modulate biomass allocation in response to petroleum pollution. PMID:20484231

  3. Resistance of particleboard panels made of agricultural residues and bonded with synthetic resins or PVC plastic to wood-rotting fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divino Eterno Teixeira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the resistance of three types of particleboard panel to biodeterioration, two of which bonded with synthetic resins and one bonded with PVC plastic. Composite panels were made using sugar cane straw particles as raw material which were bonded together with urea-formaldehyde (UF, tannin-formaldehyde (TANI and PVC plastic (PVC resins. Decay tests were performed following procedures outlined in the ASTM D2017-81/1994 standard, whereby sample specimens were subjected to attack by white rot fungus Trametes versicolor and brown rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum using pine (Pinus sp. and embaúba (Cecropia sp. as reference timber. Panels bonded with PVC resin were rated ‘resistant’ to attack by both fungi while those bonded with UF and TANI resins were rated ‘slightly resistant’ to their attack.

  4. Degradation of Oxo-Biodegradable Plastic by Pleurotus ostreatus

    OpenAIRE

    José Maria Rodrigues da Luz; Sirlaine Albino Paes; Mateus Dias Nunes; Marliane de Cássia Soares da Silva; Maria Catarina Megumi Kasuya

    2013-01-01

    Growing concerns regarding the impact of the accumulation of plastic waste over several decades on the environmental have led to the development of biodegradable plastic. These plastics can be degraded by microorganisms and absorbed by the environment and are therefore gaining public support as a possible alternative to petroleum-derived plastics. Among the developed biodegradable plastics, oxo-biodegradable polymers have been used to produce plastic bags. Exposure of this waste plastic to ul...

  5. Degradation of Oxo-Biodegradable Plastic by Pleurotus ostreatus

    OpenAIRE

    José Maria Rodrigues da Luz; Sirlaine Albino Paes; Mateus Dias Nunes; Marliane de Cássia Soares da Silva; Maria Catarina Megumi Kasuya

    2013-01-01

    Growing concerns regarding the impact of the accumulation of plastic waste over several decades on the environmental have led to the development of biodegradable plastic. These plastics can be degraded by microorganisms and absorbed by the environment and are therefore gaining public support as a possible alternative to petroleum-derived plastics. Among the developed biodegradable plastics, oxo-biodegradable polymers have been used to produce plastic bags. Exposure of this waste plastic to ul...

  6. 纳米纤维素增强木塑复合材料的性能研究%Properties of Wood Plastic Composite Reinforced by Cellulose Nanofibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晶晶; 宋湛谦; 李大纲; 商士斌; 郭勇

    2015-01-01

    The poplar cellulose nanofibers ( CNF ) were extracted from poplar flour and used to reinforce the wood flour/high density polyethylene ( HDPE ) composite by physical pretreatment method and polyethylene oxide ( PEO ) dispersion agent method. Then the wood flour/HDPE/CNF composites were prepared by extruding molding. The effect of dispersion and reinforcement of CNF in the wood flour/HDPE/CNF composites was investigated by a comparioson of two pretreatment methods using compounding method as control . The results indicated that CNF with a diameter of several hundred nanometers could be achieved successfully after the effectively removing of the lignin and hemicellulose of poplar by chemical and mechanical treatments. SEM images showed that an ideal dispersion of CNF in the HDPE matrix of the the wood flour/HDPE/CNF composites could be obtained by using these two pretreatment methods. CNF were entangled with wood flour and HDPE matrix forming a three-dimensional network structure, and the fracture mode of the composites became the ductile fracture. The bending strength and elastic modulus of the wood flour/HDPE/CNF composites prepared with the two pretreatment methods were improved evidently. The bending strengths of the composites by the physical pretreatment method and the PEO dispersion agent method were 43. 3 and 38. 7Mpa,which was increased by 36. 2% and 21. 7% respectively compared to the control 31. 8 MPa. The elastic modulus of the composites were 3 342 and 3 008 MPa with these two pretreatment methods, increasing by 48. 9% and 34. 1%than the control 2 243 MPa. The bending strength and elastic modulus of the composites with the physical pretreatment method were higher than those of the composites with the PEO dispersion agent method. This indicated that the physical pretreatment method was an environmental friendly and effective method.%以杨木粉为原料制备出纳米纤维素( CNF),然后采用物理预处理法和聚氧化乙烯( PEO)分散剂法利

  7. 不同表面处理麦秸秆对木塑复合材料性能的影响%Effects of different surface treatment for wheat straw on performances of wood-plastic composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于旻; 何春霞; 刘军军; 侯人鸾; 薛娇

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve the interfacial bonding strength of wheat straw fibers and polypropylene (PP), the wheat straw fibers were treated by combined treatment. The surfaces of fibers were pretreated by 5 methods, such as NaOH, acetic acid, hot water, steam explosion and microwave, and then compounded by coupling agent treatment. The wheat straw/PP wood-plastic composites were prepared by blending with PP and wheat straw through melt blending and molding. The mechanical properties, water absorption and moisture absorption performance of the PP wood-plastic composites filled with different surface treated wheat straw fibers were investigated. The tensile sections of the composites were observed by the stereo microscope. The results showed that the mechanical properties, water absorption and moisture absorption performance of PP composites filled with combined treated fibers were excellent that the composites filled with coupling agent treated fibers. It was found that the composites with wheat straw treated by NaOH and acetic acid had good mechanical properties and anti-water absorption and anti-moisture absorption performance, followed by the composites with wheat straw fibers treated by hydrothermal and steam explosion. After combined treatment, the surface of wheat straw became rough, so that the interfacial adhesion of straw fibers and PP matrix was improved. The results of this paper had great practical significance on improving the properties of wheat straw/waste PP wood-plastic composite by straw fiber surface treatment.%为提高麦秸秆纤维与聚丙烯(polypropylene,PP)基体的界面结合力,采用复合处理法对麦秸秆纤维进行表面处理:先分别用NaOH、乙酸溶液浸泡、水热处理、蒸汽爆破和微波等方法对麦秸秆纤维进行预处理,再复合偶联剂法处理麦秸秆纤维;用熔融共混、模压成型方法制备麦秸秆/废弃PP木塑复合材料,探讨了麦秸秆不同表面处理方法制备PP木塑复合材料

  8. 木粉酯化改性制备生物基塑料%Modification of Wood Powder by Esterification for the Production of Bio-based Plastic Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杭飞; 罗彦卿; 洪建国

    2015-01-01

    以胡桑枝条木粉为原料制备木质纤维类生物基塑料,木粉先经过球磨预处理后,在二甲亚砜( DMSO)分散介质中,以邻苯二甲酸酐( PA)为改性试剂, 4-二甲氨基吡啶( DMAP)为催化剂对其进行酯化改性,并考察了反应温度、时间和试剂用量对改性产物质量增长率及材料力学性能的影响. 研究结果表明,以木质纤维为原料,可以成功制备注塑级的生物基塑料,实现木质纤维原料全组分的高效利用. 在最佳工艺条件下,经改性制备材料的质量增长率为98. 8%,熔融指数0. 903 g/min,其拉伸和弯曲强度分别达到24. 1和41. 9 MPa,具有较好的热塑性和力学性能.%Mulberry branches wood powder was used as the raw material for preparation of bio-based plastic material. After ball milling,wood powder was first esterified by phthalic anhydride(PA) using 4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP)as the catalyst in dimethyl sulfoxide ( DMSO ) as the dispersion medium. The effects of temperature, time and the weight of reagents on weight percent gain( WPG ) and mechanical property of modified production were studied. The results showed that esterified lignocellulosic material could be used as bio-based plastic injection molding product with whole components. Under the optimum conditions,the mass growth rate and melt index of the modified product were 98. 8% and 0. 903 g/min, respectively, and the modified product was found with good thermoplastic and mechanical properties with the tensile strength of 24. 1 MPa and the flexural strength of 41. 9 MPa.

  9. Effects of Boron Compounds on the Mechanical and Fire Properties of Wood-chitosan and High-density Polyethylene Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Fu Wu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Wood-plastic composites (WPCs represent a growing class of durable, low-maintenance construction materials whose use can decrease dependence on petroleum. High-density polyethylene (HDPE, chitosan (CS, wood flour (WF, boric acid (BA, and borax (BX, as well as maleic anhydride grafted polyethylene (MAPE and polyethylene wax (PE wax, were used to develop a durable wood-plastic composite (WPC using the extrusion method. The effects of boron compounds (3%, 6%, 9%, or 12% by weight BA/BX on the mechanical and fire properties of the WPCs were investigated. Mechanical testing indicated that as the percentage weight of boron compounds increased, the flexural modulus, flexural strength, and tensile strength significantly decreased. Cone calorimeter tests were used to characterize the fire performance of the WPCs, and these results suggested that adding BA/BX compounds to WPCs modestly improved the fire performance. As the percentage weight of BA/BX increased from 3% to 9%, the time to ignition (TTI, heat release rate (HRR, total heat release rate (HRR-Total, smoke production rate (SPR, and specific extinction area (SEA of the WPCs were all reduced.

  10. Wooded areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the management of wooded areas on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge (formerly Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge) between 1992 and 2009.

  11. Petroleum Sector (NAICS 324)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find relevant environmental regulations for the petroleum industry (NAICS 324), including National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)s for petroleum refineries and gasoline dispensing & effluent guidelines for oil and gas extraction

  12. Mechanical Properties of Different Fillers and Different Plastic-Based Wood Plastic Composite%不同填料及不同塑料基木塑复合材料的力学性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱栋君; 何春霞

    2011-01-01

    以稻秸秆粉、稻壳粉、衫木粉、竹粉,PP、PE-HD、PE-LD膜为原材料,采用模压成型工艺制备不同填料及不同塑料基体的木塑复合材料,并对复合材料力学性能进行分析.结果表明:无油墨PP基复合材料的综合力学性能较好,而含油墨PE-LD基复合材料的冲击韧性较好.稻秸秆粉作为填料增强无油墨PP复合材料效果最佳,制得稻秸秆粉/PP综合力学性能较好,而稻壳粉/PP复合材料冲击韧性较好.%Rice straw powder、 rice husk powder、 wood powder、 bamboo powder, PP、 PE-HD、 PE-LD were mainly materials,molding technics had been taken to make several different composite, its mechanical properties was analyzed.The results showed that using PP film which contained no ink to make composite could be better on the mechanical properties, besides,using PE-LD film which contained ink to make composites could be better on the impact toughness.As a kind of filling material,rice straw powder was much better than other materials to make composites.Rice straw powder/PP composite'mechanical properties was best,besides,rice husk powder/PP composites' impact toughness was best.

  13. Investigation of bio-composites using Novolac type liquefied wood resin: effects of liquefaction and fabrication conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui Pan; Chung-Yun Hse; Todd F. Shupe

    2009-01-01

    Wood liquefaction using an organic solvent and an acid catalyst has long been studied as a novel technique to utilize biomass as an alternative to petroleum-based products. Oxalic acid is a weaker organic acid than a mineral acid and wood liquefaction with oxalic acid as a catalyst will result in a higher amount of wood residue than that with a mineral acid....

  14. Petroleum marketing monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data.

  15. Petroleum supply monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blends, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  16. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  17. 硼化合物对WF-PVC热解和燃烧的影响%Influence.of boron compounds on pyrolysis and combustion behaviors of PVC wood-plastics composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白晓艳; 王清文; 张春生; 房轶群

    2012-01-01

    采用热重分析法和锥形量热仪测试方法研究硼化合物Na2B8O13·4H2O和2ZnO.3B2O3 ·3.5H2O对PVC木塑复合材料(WF- PVC)热解和燃烧过程的影响.结果表明:Na2B8 O13·4H2O对WF-PVC热解过程影响较小,2ZnO·3B2O3·3.5H2O使WF-PVC热解过程的残炭量从18.04%提高到27.57%.与未经处理的WF-PVC相比,加入硼化合物均使燃烧过程的总热释放量(THR)和总烟释放量(TSP)降低,其中,2ZnO·3B2O3·3.5H2O使THR和TSP分别降低36.3%和55.8%,阻燃和抑烟效果显著.2ZnO· 3B2O3·3.5H2O在WF-PVC中阻燃作用以凝聚相为主,同时伴随气相中的化学作用;Na2B8O13·4H2O在WF-PVC中为凝聚相作用机理.%effects of Na2O13· 4H2O and 2ZnO · 3B2O3· 3. 5H2O on pyrolysis and combustion behaviors of PVC wood-plastic composite (WF- PVC) were investigated by Thermo-gravimetry analysis CTGA) and Cone calorimeter (CONE) a-nalysis methods. It was showed that Na2B8O13· 4H2O had less effect on pyrolysis of WF-PVC ;the addition of 2ZnO · 3B2O3 · 3. 5 H2O could make residues increase from 18.04% to 27.57%, compared with WF-PVC. The total heat release (THR) and total smoke production (TSP) of PVC wood-plastic composite decreased with the introduction of 2ZnO · 3B2O3 · 3. 5H2O and Na2B8O13 · 4H2O, and they both showed fire-re-tardant and smoke-suppressant effect on the combustion processing ; for the WF- PVC composite containing 2ZnO · 3B2O3 · 3. 5H2O, the total heat release and total smoke production were decreased by 36. 3% and 55. S% respectively. 2ZnO · 3B2O3 · 3.5H2O used for WF-PVC mainly shows the characteristics of condensed phase for flame-retardant and associated with chemical reaction in gas phase. Na2B8O13 · 4H2O shows the characteristics of condensed phase for flame-retardant.

  18. Petroleum marketing annual 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-24

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysis, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the fob and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Annual. For this production, all estimates have been recalculated since their earlier publication in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM). These calculations made use of additional data and corrections that were received after the PMM publication date.

  19. 光氧稳定剂对塑木复合材料性能的影响%Research of Photo-oxidation Stabilizer Effect on Performance of Plastic-wood Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈娟; 靳晓雨

    2011-01-01

    Ultraviolet stabilizer 531 and antioxidant 2246 used as photo-oxidation stabilizer, the properties for bending properties, color change, oxidative induction time, appearance change of plastic-wood composites affected by ultraviolet and oxygen were researched. The test results showed that photo-oxidation stabilizer had less effects on the bending property, but appearance of the composites with photo-oxidation stabilizer blanched inconspicuously, color changed in small content. With the adding amount of the UV stabilizer 531 and antioxidant 2246 respectively 0.3% , the composites upon 300h UV irradiation △E was 5.3, compared with △E = 9.3 of that not adding, decreased 43.0%; oxidative induction time extended from 919s to 1553s.%以紫外光稳定剂531和抗氧剂2246为光氧稳定剂,研究了塑木复合材料受光氧影响时的弯曲性能、色泽变化、氧化诱导期和外观变化.研究表明,经紫外光照射后,光氧稳定剂对材料的弯曲性能影响不大,但添加有光氧稳定剂的材料的表面色泽变化小,发白不明显.在紫外光稳定剂531和抗氧剂2246的添加量分别为0.3%时,材料经300h紫外光照射后ΔE=5.3,较未添加时的AE=9.3,减少了43.0%;氧化诱导期从919s,延长到1553s.

  20. China's Petroleum Consumption and Petroleum Security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Chunguang

    2004-01-01

    Petroleum consumption and petroleum security in China can directly affect the development of national economy. This article briefs the conditions in world's developed countries with respect to oil consumption and strategic oil reserves. Taking into account the quick increase in China's oil consumption this article proposes to increase the oil resources along with consumption reduction and avoidance of risks in order to safeguard China's oil supplies.

  1. New perspectives in plastic biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivan, Alex

    2011-06-01

    During the past 50 years new plastic materials, in various applications, have gradually replaced the traditional metal, wood, leather materials. Ironically, the most preferred property of plastics--durability--exerts also the major environmental threat. Recycling has practically failed to provide a safe solution for disposal of plastic waste (only 5% out of 1 trillion plastic bags, annually produced in the US alone, are being recycled). Since the most utilized plastic is polyethylene (PE; ca. 140 million tons/year), any reduction in the accumulation of PE waste alone would have a major impact on the overall reduction of the plastic waste in the environment. Since PE is considered to be practically inert, efforts were made to isolate unique microorganisms capable of utilizing synthetic polymers. Recent data showed that biodegradation of plastic waste with selected microbial strains became a viable solution. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Petroleum marketing monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PPM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o. b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  3. Petroleum marketing monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  4. Plastic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Plastic Surgery KidsHealth > For Teens > Plastic Surgery Print A A ... forehead lightened with a laser? What Is Plastic Surgery? Just because the name includes the word "plastic" ...

  5. Canadian petroleum history bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cass, D.

    2003-09-27

    The Petroleum History Bibliography includes a list of more than 2,000 publications that record the history of the Canadian petroleum industry. The list includes books, theses, films, audio tapes, published articles, company histories, biographies, autobiographies, fiction, poetry, humour, and an author index. It was created over a period of several years to help with projects at the Petroleum History Society. It is an ongoing piece of work, and as such, invites comments and additions.

  6. 纳米TiO2含量对PVC/稻壳粉木塑复合材料性能的影响%Effects of Nano TiO2 Content on Properties of PVC/Rice Husk Powder Wood-Plastic Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宣博; 陈小丹; 陈佳伟; 刘玉涛; 姚雪霞

    2016-01-01

    Nano TiO2,rice husk powder,poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) and stabilizer and so on were blended according to certain proportion to prepare PVC/rice husk powder wood plastic composites with the extrusion. The effects of nano TiO2 content on the properties of the wood plastic composites were examined. The experimental results show that the mechanical properties,waterproof performance and thermal stability ofthe wood plastic composites first increase then decrease,but surface colors become shallow gradually along with nano TiO2 content increasing. The wood plastic composite which the content of nano TiO2 is 1.00 phr has best comprehensive properties,compared with non-adding nano TiO2 wood plastic composite,the tensile strength,impact strength,and bending strength are increased by 40.6%,62.2% and 19.7% respectively,the water absorption rate for 8 days is reduced from 2.5% to 1.6%,the contact angle is increased from 78.5°to 82.1°,and the content of remaining carbon at 800℃ is increased from 21.1% to 29.5%. The surface color of the wood plastic composites become shallow gradually along with nano TiO2 content increasing.%将纳米TiO2、稻壳粉、聚氯乙烯(PVC)和稳定剂等按一定比例混合,用挤出成型法制备PVC/稻壳粉木塑复合材料。考察纳米TiO2添加量对PVC/稻壳粉木塑复合材料性能的影响。实验结果表明,随着纳米TiO2含量的增加,木塑复合材料的力学性能、防水性能和热稳定性呈现先增加后降低的趋势,但木塑复合材料的表面颜色却随着纳米TiO2含量的增加而逐渐变浅。当纳米TiO2含量为1.00份时,木塑复合材料的综合性能最好,与未添加纳米TiO2的木塑复合材料相比,其拉伸强度、冲击强度和弯曲强度分别提高了40.6%,62.2%和19.7%,8 d的吸水率从2.5%降低为1.6%,表面接触角从78.5°增加到82.1°,800℃时的残炭率从21.1%提高到29.5%。

  7. Selective Laser Sintering of Pine/polyethersulfone (PES) Wood-plastic Composite and Its Process Parameters op-timization%松木粉聚醚砜树脂复合材料的选择性激光烧结成型工艺参数优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慧; 郭艳玲; 姜凯译; 赵德金

    2015-01-01

    用松木粉、聚醚砜树脂粉末按照1∶4的质量比,制备松木粉聚醚砜树脂复合材料;用HRPS-ⅢA型快速成形机,选择性激光烧结加工木塑制件试验;用差示扫描量热仪、傅里叶变换红外光谱仪、扫描电镜,对复合材料的热性能、微观组织结构进行表征。结果表明:当激光功率为8.8 W、扫描速率为1800 mm/s、烧结间距为0.1 mm、单层厚度为0.1 mm时,木塑复合材料的力学性能达到最优值。%Pine/polyethersulfone ( PES) wood-plastic composite was prepared in the mass ratio of 1 ∶4.The experiments of wood-plastic parts were performed by selective laser sintering using the HRPS-ⅢA rapid prototyping machine.The thermal performance and microstructure of composite were characterized by differential scanning calorimeter ( DSC) , fourier trans-form infrared spectrometer ( FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy ( SEM) .The mechanical properties of sintered parts were improved by optimizing process parameters by Minitab software.The mechanical properties of wood plastic composite reached the optimal value under laser power of 8.8 w, scanning speed of 1 800 mm/s, sintered spacing of 0.1 mm, and the layer thickness of 0.1 mm, respectively.

  8. Performances and economy comparison analysis of different fiber reinforced wood-plastic composite formwork%不同纤维增强木塑复合模板性能与经济性对比

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙胜伟; 罗健林; 刘文清; 李秋义; 胡小川; 高嵩; 韩鹏

    2013-01-01

    Employing different surfactants modification,vibromill or ultrasonic treatment dispersion tecnnique,chrysotile asbestos fiber(CAF),polyvinyl alcohol fiber(PVAF),basalt fiber(BF) with different loading was pre-dispersed in water,mixed with the wood flour,and then compounded to the molting polypropylene by a mixing roll,respectively.Subsequently,3 kinds of fiber reinforced wood-plastic composite sheets (CAF/WPC,PVAF/WPC,BF/WPC) were formed by hot-press method.The tensile,flexural,impact and wear-resisting performances of the corresponding composite were studied by dumb-bell sample tensile testing,three-point bending,pendulum impact and rotary abrasion method,respectively,as well as the economy comparison of three sorts of the composite serving as formwork.Results show,the tensile,flexural,impact,wear-resisting properties and single cost saving as formwork of the CAF/WPC,PVAF/WPC,BF/WPC with 10 wt% fiber addition,increases 66.6%,48.4%,36.3%,68.9%,67.33%.33.2%,54.3%,38.8%,81.8%,63.47%.44.2%,24.7%,9.3%,85.6%,60.93%,respectively.Obviously,the quality and cheap CAF addition can bring forth both good improvement on the comprehensive performance of the WPC as formwork,and the least increased cost,which has a good prospect of application in fresh water formwork field.%结合不同表面活性剂改性、振动磨或超声波处理工艺分别将温石棉纤维(CAF)、聚乙烯醇纤维(PVAF)、玄武岩纤维(BF)预分散在水中,与木粉混杂后辊炼到熔融聚丙烯(PP)中,热压成型3种纤维增强木塑复合材料(CAF/WPC、PVAF/WPC、BF/WPC).通过哑铃形试样拉伸法、三点弯曲法、摆锤冲击法、旋转磨耗法分别表征其拉伸、弯曲、冲击和耐磨性能,并对3种材料用作建筑模板的经济性进行对比分析.结果表明,相比于空白WPC,掺有10%(质量百分比)各纤维的CAF/WPC、PVAF/WPC、BF/WPC的拉伸、弯曲、冲击强度、耐磨性能与单次折算节约费分别提高了66.6

  9. Finishes for Wood Decks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Knaebe

    2013-01-01

    Wood decks have become an important part of residential construction. Wood decks can add versatile living space to a home and, with minimal maintenance, provide decades of use. However, wood decks are exposed to high levels of stress from severe weather conditions that shrink and swell the wood. Without proper maintenance, wood decks can develop problems such as checks...

  10. Adhesive properties of water washed cottonseed meal on four types of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    The interest in natural product-based wood adhesives has been steadily increasing due to the environmental and sustainable concerns of petroleum-based adhesives. In this work, we reported our research on the utilization of water washed cottonseed meal (WCM) as wood adhesives. The adhesive strength a...

  11. Method and Key Technology in the Development of the Non-Petroleum Based Food Packaging Biodegradable Plastics%非石油基食品包装生物降解塑料的研制方法及关键技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴宏民; 戴佩燕

    2015-01-01

    Non-petroleum based biodegradable plastic produced from natural polymer (starch, cellulose, chitin, etc.) has significant advantages in the aspects of resource and environment. It has been widely used in the field of food packaging. Modern molecular design methods enabled researchers to get rid of a lot of experimental work required in the original development of new polymer, and find a new shortcut to the modified synthesis which has expedited the develop-ment of new polymer. Modified technology, green synthesis technology and low cost technology of natural high polymer material are three key technologies in the further development of non-petroleum based food packaging biodegradable plastics.%利用天然高分子(淀粉、纤维素、甲壳素等)制作的非石油基生物降解塑料具有显著的资源和环境优势,已被广泛应用于食品包装领域.现代高分子设计方法使科研人员摆脱了开发新聚合物时所需的大量实验工作,寻找到了一条合成改性的新捷径,从而加快了获得新聚合物的速度.天然高分子材料的改性技术、绿色合成技术和低成本技术是进一步发展非石油基食品包装生物降解塑料的三大关键技术.

  12. Evaluation of the mechanical and thermal properties of coffee tree wood flour - polypropylene composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columbian coffee trees are subject to frequent replacement plantings due to disease and local climate changes which makes them an ideal source of wood fibers for wood plastic composites (WPC). Composites of polypropylene (PP) consisting of 25% and 40% by weight of coffee wood flour (CF) and 0% or 5%...

  13. Petroleum Exploration in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Guangding

    2003-01-01

    @@ Over the past 50 years, China has experienced a dramatic turn in its petroleum production. Today, our country is facing the same challenge it met 50 years ago. Therefore, we have to renew our once high vigor to seek more petroleum deposits in order to meet the needs of national develop-ment in the new century.

  14. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographical regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US.

  15. Chapter 8: Soy Properties and Soy Wood Adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart; Michael J. Birkeland

    2014-01-01

    Soy flour has been used for many years as a wood adhesive. Rapid development of petroleum-based infrastructure coupled with advancement of synthetic resin technology resulted in waning usage since the early 1960s. Discovery of using polyamidoamine–epichlorohydrin (PAE) resin as a co-reactant has been effective in increasing the wet bond strength of soy adhesives and...

  16. Soy and cottonseed protein blends as wood adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    As an environmentally friendlier alternative to adhesives from petroleum feedstock, soy proteins are currently being formulated as wood adhesives. Cottonseed proteins have also been found to provide good adhesive properties. In at least some cases, cottonseed proteins appear to form greater shear ...

  17. Petroleum supply monthly, January 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    Data presented describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  18. Petroleum supply monthly, August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This publication the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report, (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. Data presented are divided into Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  19. Petroleum supply monthly, August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This publication the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report, (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. Data presented are divided into Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  20. Petroleum Vapor Intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    One type of vapor intrusion is PVI, in which vapors from petroleum hydrocarbons such as gasoline, diesel, or jet fuel enter a building. Intrusion of contaminant vapors into indoor spaces is of concern.

  1. NAFTA opportunities: Petroleum refining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) creates a more transparent environment for the sale of refined petroleum products to Mexico, and locks in access to Canada's relatively open market for these products. Canada and Mexico are sizable United States export markets for refined petroleum products, with exports of $556 million and $864 million, respectively, in 1992. These markets represent approximately 24 percent of total U.S. exports of these goods.

  2. 棉秆塑木复合材料的制备及性能研究%Study on Preparation and Properties of Cotton Straw Wood-plastics Composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    寇毛; 赵麦群

    2012-01-01

    以棉秆粉和回收聚乙烯为原料、钛酸酯为偶联剂,采用热压法制备了棉秆塑木复合材料,利用正交试验法探讨了棉秆粉含量、热压温度和保温时间对塑木复合材料性能的影响,并通过物理力学性能测试单独考察了棉秆粉含量对塑木复合材料性能的影响.正交试验法的结果表明:棉秆粉含量对复合材料的弯曲强度、弹性模量和吸水率影响最大,热压温度和保温时间对复合材料的弯曲强度和弹性模量影响较大,对吸水率影响不大;当棉秆粉含量为40%、热压温度为160℃、保温时间为10min时,塑木复合材料具有最优的综合性能.物理力学性能测试结果表明;复合材料的弯曲强度和弹性模量随棉秆粉含量的增加均呈现先增大后减小的趋势,在棉秆粉含量为40%时均达到最大值;吸水率随棉秆粉含量的增加而增大.%Taking cotton straw and recycled PE as raw material, titanate as coupling agent, the cotton straw wood-plastics composite (WPC) was prepared by thermal compression. The effects of cotton straw powder content, thermal compression temperature, holding time on the properties of WPC were investigated by orthogonal experiment. The effect of cotton straw powder content on the properties of WPC was studied individually by physical and mechanical property tests. The orthogonal experiment results show that the cotton straw powder content is the most important influencing factor for flexural strength, elastic modulus and water absorption of WPC, the thermal compression temperature and holding time have certain effect on flexural strength and elastic modulus, and have little effect on water absorption; when the cotton straw powder content is 40%, thermal compression temperature is 160℃, holding time is 10 min, the WPC exhibits the best comprehensive properties. The results of physical and mechanical property test show that with the increase of cotton straw powder content, the

  3. Preparation and characterization of reve rsible thermochromism wood-plastic composite%可逆热致变色木塑复合材料的制备及性能表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文斌; 月琴; 徐建锋

    2015-01-01

    为探究木塑复合材料( WPC)的可逆热致变色功能,以原位聚合法合成了表面带有硅烷偶联剂KH550的可逆热致变色结晶紫内酯微胶囊,并将该微胶囊以一定比例添加到WPC中,制备了可逆热致变色WPC,通过力学性能和加热前后表观颜色测定确定微胶囊的最佳添加量。同时,通过动态热机械分析对比了可逆热致变色WPC和普通WPC的动态力学性能。随着微胶囊添加量的增加,可逆热致变色WPC的拉伸强度和弯曲强度先增大后减小,加热前后颜色变化逐渐明显,最后趋于稳定;在动态热机械分析方面,随着温度升高,可逆热致变色WPC和普通WPC的储能模量逐渐降低。和普通WPC相比,加入最佳添加量的微胶囊制备的可逆热致变色WPC在同一温度时的储能模量高于普通WPC,2种WPC的损耗因子峰对应的温度相差很小。结果表明,当微胶囊的添加量为总质量的15%时,可逆热致变色WPC兼具良好的力学性能和可逆热致变色功能,和普通WPC相比,可逆热致变色WPC的界面相容性较好,力学性能优良,且具有与普通WPC相近的玻璃化转变温度,是一种良好性能的功能型WPC。%To investigate reversible thermochromism function of wood-plastic composite ( WPC ) , the reversible thermochromism crystal violet lactone microcapsule with silane coupling agent KH550 grafted on the surface was synthesized by in-situ polymerization process, which was then added to WPC with certain ratio to prepare reversible thermochromism WPC( RT-WPC) .The best dosage was determined through measuring mechanical properties and apparent color before and after heated.Comparison of dynamic mechanical properties between RT-WPC and normal WPC was done by dynamic thermo mechanical analysis.With the increasing of microcapsule dosage, the mechanical properties of RT-WPC increased followed by decreasing, and the color change was more and more

  4. Preparation of maleic anhydride modified cassava lees/PVC wood plastic composites%马来酸酐改性木薯酒糟/PVC木塑复合材料制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃宇奔; 胡华宇; 张燕娟; 覃杏珍; 蒋婷; 杨梅; 黄爱民; 黄祖强; 罗袁伟

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on the preparation of cassava lees/PVC wood plastic composites ( WPC) by solid phase blending modification.Cassava lees/PVC WPC were prepared by hot press molding technology using cassava lees as reinforced material, PVC as polymer matrix, maleic an-hydride as modifier, internal mixer as synchronous mixing equipment, and plate vulcanizing press as plate-pressing machine.The effects of hot press temperature, pressure, time, dosage of maleic an-hydride, etc.on the properties of the composites were investigated, and the feasibility of synchronous modification of cassava lees and PVC by maleic anhydride was also discussed.The results show that under the conditions of cassava lees content 50%, hot press temperature 180 ℃, pressure 6 MPa, time 7.5 min, and the dosage of maleic anhydride of 1%, the bending strength and tensile strength of the cassava lees/PVC composite were 26.1 MPa and 11.1 MPa, respectively, meeting the re-quirements of the basic mechanics indexes of the composites.The addition of calcium zinc compound heat stabilizer could effectively improve the mechanical properties of the composites.With the dosage of heat stabilizer of 0.8%, the bending strength and tensile strength increased by 7.7% and 19.8%, respectively.Our results indicated that cassava lees and PVC could be modified synchronously by maleic anhydride in solid phase process, which improved the adhesion between fiber and polymer matrix and effectively enhanced the mechanical properties of WPC.%为研究固相共混改性法制备木薯酒糟/PVC木塑复合材料的工艺,探讨马来酸酐同步改性木薯酒糟和PVC的可行性,以木薯酒糟为增强原料,PVC为聚合物基体,马来酸酐为改性剂,密炼机为同步混炼设备,平板硫化机为压板机,采用热压成型技术制备酒糟/PVC木塑复合材料,研究热压成型温度、压力、时间、马来酸酐用量等因素对板材力学性能的影响。结果表明:在酒糟填充量50%

  5. Plasticity theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lubliner, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    The aim of Plasticity Theory is to provide a comprehensive introduction to the contemporary state of knowledge in basic plasticity theory and to its applications. It treats several areas not commonly found between the covers of a single book: the physics of plasticity, constitutive theory, dynamic plasticity, large-deformation plasticity, and numerical methods, in addition to a representative survey of problems treated by classical methods, such as elastic-plastic problems, plane plastic flow, and limit analysis; the problem discussed come from areas of interest to mechanical, structural, and

  6. Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stowell, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    This invention is comprised of a polishing compound for plastic materials. The compound includes approximately by approximately by weight 25 to 80 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 12 parts mineral spirits, 50 to 155 parts abrasive paste, and 15 to 60 parts water. Preferably, the compound includes approximately 37 to 42 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, up to 8 parts mineral spirits, 95 to 110 parts abrasive paste, and 50 to 55 parts water. The proportions of the ingredients are varied in accordance with the particular application. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS{trademark}, LEXAN{trademark}, LUCITE{trademark}, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired.

  7. Petroleum Geology of Libya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallett, D. [13 York House, Courtlands, Sheen Road, Richmond, Surrey TW10 5BD (United Kingdom)

    2002-07-01

    Libya has the largest petroleum reserves of any country in Africa and since production began in 1961 over 20 billion barrels of oil have been produced. Libya is scheduled to reach the mid-point of depletion of reserves in 2001 and this provides a timely point at which to review the state of petroleum exploration in Libya. A large amount of data has been published on the geology of Libya, but it is scattered through the literature; much of the older data has been superceded, and several of the key publications, especially those published in Libya, are difficult to find. This book represents the first attempt to produce a comprehensive synthesis of the petroleum geology of Libya. It is based exclusively on published data, supplemented by the author's experience gained during ten years work in Libya. The aim of the book is to systematically review the plate tectonics, structural evolution, stratigraphy, geochemistry, and petroleum systems of Libya, and provides valuable new data on fields, production, and reserves. This volume will provide a ready source of reference to individuals and companies who wish to obtain an overview of the petroleum geology of Libya, and will save them the laborious task of sifting through hundreds of publications to find the data they require. The book includes 148 newly drawn figures.

  8. Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowell, Michael S.

    1995-01-01

    A polishing compound for plastic surfaces. The compound contains by weight approximately 4 to 17 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 6 parts mineral spirits, 2.5 to 15 parts abrasive particles, and 2.5 to 10 parts water. The abrasive is tripoli or a similar material that contains fine particles silica. Preferably, most of the abrasive particles are less than approximately 10 microns, more preferably less than approximately 5 microns in size. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS.TM., LEXAN.TM., LUCITE.TM., polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired.

  9. Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stowell, M.S.

    1993-01-01

    A polishing compound for plastic surfaces is disclosed. The compound contains by weight approximately 4 to 17 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 6 parts mineral spirits, 2.5 to 15 parts abrasive particles, and 2.5 to 10 parts water. The abrasive is tripoli or a similar material that contains colloidal silica. Preferably, most of the abrasive particles are less than approximately 10 microns, more preferably less than approximately 5 microns in size. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS{sup TM}, LEXAN{sup TM}, LUCITE{sup TM}, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired.

  10. CHINA INCREASED PETROLEUM TAX

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mu Xueping

    2005-01-01

    @@ After half a year's gestation and adjustment, the State Administration of Taxation finally set new tax rate of petroleum resources. Notification issued by the Ministry of Finance and the State Administration of Taxation said the petroleum resources tax standard would be lifted nationwide, after the tax rate adjustment, tax on crude oil would be increased to RMB 14-30 yuan per ton and that on natural gas to RMB 7-15 yuan per thousand cubic meters. The new tax rate has been effective nationwide since July 1.

  11. Hangzhou Institute of Petroleum Geology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian Yizhong

    1996-01-01

    @@ Hangzhou Institute of Petroleum Geology (HIPG) is not only the center of petroleum geological research & information, but also the technical supporter of the Exploration Department for frontier areas in South China, subordinate to CNPC.

  12. Petroleum supply monthly, July 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-29

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: Petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  13. Petroleum supply monthly, August 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-26

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  14. Petroleum marketing monthly, June 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in five sections: Summary Statistics; Crude Oil Prices; Prices of Petroleum Products; Volumes of Petroleum Products; and Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Petroleum Products for Local Consumption. The feature article is entitled ``The Second Oxygenated Gasoline Season.`` 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  15. Mechanics of Wood Machining

    CERN Document Server

    Csanády, Etele

    2013-01-01

    Wood is one of the most valuable materials for mankind, and since our earliest days wood materials have been widely used. Today we have modern woodworking machine and tools; however, the raw wood materials available are continuously declining. Therefore we are forced to use this precious material more economically, reducing waste wherever possible. This new textbook on the “Mechanics of Wood Machining” combines the quantitative, mathematical analysis of the mechanisms of wood processing with practical recommendations and solutions. Bringing together materials from many sources, the book contains new theoretical and experimental approaches and offers a clear and systematic overview of the theory of wood cutting, thermal loading in wood-cutting tools, dynamic behaviour of tool and work piece, optimum choice of operational parameters and energy consumption, the wear process of the tools, and the general regularities of wood surface roughness. Diagrams are provided for the quick estimation of various process ...

  16. Conditions of petroleum in Libya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiura, Yasuyuki

    1988-09-01

    As the economy of Libya is, like other OPEC countries, greatly dependent on petroleum, its account is now in the red owing to the recent decrease of petroleum income. Petroleum development in Libya was started in 1955, and more than 3 million barrels of petroleum came to be produced per day in 1970 thanks to the light and low-sulfur quality of the petroleum. As a result of the nationalizing policy of petroleum undertakings after the revolution, the government's participation rate became 60.7% in 1974. The USA began sanction on Libya in 1981 and the export to the USA decreased suddenly, but Libya maintained the export amount of 1 million barrels per day with the exports to Western Europe and with flexible export policies. These flexible policies, in a way, accelerated the adverse development in the market and caused the decrease of petroleum income. The constructions of petroleum factories have been postponed or stopped because of the low petroleum income, and the recent export amount of manufactured petroleum is only about 130,000 barrels per day. libya is, therefore, to push the diversification of undertakings and to develop gas resources and the like in the future. In connection with the diversification of undertakings, Libya is actively pushing into the foreign petroleum markets and joining hands with foreign petroleum companies. (6 figs, 8 tabs)

  17. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1990-06-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly describe (PSM) the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply.'' Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics.

  18. Preparation and interface fusion behaviors of functionalized wood powder/low density polyethylene thermal plastic masterbatch%功能化木粉/低密度聚乙烯热塑母料的制备及界面融合性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙恩惠; 孙丰文; 刘欢欢; 鹿甫坤; 黄红英; 武国峰

    2016-01-01

    以研究功能化木粉/低密度聚乙烯(LDPE)热塑母料的流变及界面融合性为目的,采用超声波辅助碱预处理制备苄基化杨木粉(Wd-Ar),通过熔融共混挤出造粒制备了 Wd-Ar/LDPE热塑母料。研究 Wd-Ar/LDPE热塑母料界面相容性、熔体流动性、热软化点、热融合特性以及表面自由能的变化。结果表明:SEM显示,与未处理木粉(Wd)相比,塑化母料与 LDPE的界面融合性增强;由 XRD结果分析可知热塑母料结晶度减弱,热软化点有所降低,熔体流动速率提高,总表面自由能下降,非极性分量自由能增加;Wd-Ar 可降低与 LDPE 混合物料的平衡扭矩,有效改善复合材料的熔体加工性能、界面融合性及力学性能。当 LDPE含量为20wt%时,Wd-Ar/LDPE复合材料的拉伸强度、拉伸断裂伸长率及弯曲强度分别提高了2.55、4.55和2.27倍,表明 Wd-Ar 与 LDPE 复合材料间的界面黏结性增强。%With the purpose to study the rheological behavior and interface fusion of functionalized wood powder/low density polyethylene (LDPE)thermal plastic masterbatch,benzylation poplar wood powder(Wd-Ar)was syn-thetized after alkali pretreatment with ultrasonic-assisted,then Wd-Ar/LDPE thermal plastic masterbatch were pre-pared by co-blend and extrusion method.The variations on interfacial compatibility,thermal melt flowability,ther-mal softening point,heating fusion features and changes of surface free energy of Wd-Ar/LDPE thermal plastic mas-terbatch were examined.Results show that,compared with that of untreated wood flour (Wd),SEM shows the en-hanced interface integration of plastic masterbatch and LDPE.XRD result analysis shows that crystallinity of ther-mal plastic masterbatch decreases,thermal softening point decreases,melt flow rate improves,total surface free en-ergy decreases,nonpolar component free energy increases.Wd-Ar is more effective in reducing the balance torque of LDPE combined materials,while improving melt

  19. Plastic Jellyfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Christine

    2000-01-01

    Presents an environmental science activity designed to enhance students' awareness of the hazards of plastic waste for wildlife in aquatic environments. Discusses how students can take steps to reduce the effects of plastic waste. (WRM)

  20. SWOT analysis - Chinese Petroleum

    OpenAIRE

    Chunlan Wang; Lei Zhang; Qi Zhong

    2014-01-01

    This article was written in early December 2013, combined with the historical development and the latest data on the Chinese Petroleum carried SWOTanalysis. This paper discusses corporate resources, cost, management and external factors such as the political environment and the market supply and demand, conducted a comprehensive and profound analysis.

  1. Fire retardants for wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlatka Jirouš-Rajković

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Along with many advantages, wood as traditional building material also has some disadvantages. One of them is the flammability. The most usual way to improve the fire performance of wood is by treating it with fire retardants that can be applied to wood composite products during manufacture, pressure impregnated into solid wood or wood products or added as a paint or surface coating. Fire retardants are formulated to control ignition, flame spread on the wood surface and to reduce the amount of heat released from wood. Fire retardants cannot make wood non combustible. According to the European reaction-to-fire “Euroclasses”classification system for construction products, wood treated with fire retardant can meet the requirements of Euroclass B, whereas ordinary wood products typically fall into class D. This article attempts to bring together information related to the burning of wood, fire performance of wood, types of fire retardants and mechanism of fire retardancy. Fire retardant coatings and chemical impregnation by pressure-treating are described separately.

  2. Request for wood samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1977-01-01

    In recent years the wood collection at the Rijksherbarium was greatly expanded following a renewed interest in wood anatomy as an aid for solving classification problems. Staff members of the Rijksherbarium added to the collection by taking interesting wood samples with them from their expeditions (

  3. Research advance in wood composites in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Wood composites can generally be classified in three parts: laminated composites, mixed composites and penetrated composites. Every part has its own characteristic and can be further divided. This paper introduces the history and the state of development of wood composites in China. The research about glue-laminated timber is rare and the industry hardly comes to being. A great of achievements have been obtained in mixed composites and it is well industrialized. Many studies on scrimber have been done and the Chinese researchers are looking for a feasible way to develop the scrimber industry in China. Chinese researchers also spent so much energy in studying wood plastic composites (WPC), but it has not been industrialized due to the high cost.

  4. Gasification of wood in a fluidized bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, L.C. de; Marti, T.; Frankenhaeuser, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    A first series of gasification experiments with our fluidized bed gasifier was performed using clean sawdust as fuel. The installation and the analytical systems were tested in a parametric study in which gasification temperature and equivalence ratio were varied. The data acquired will serve to establish the differences between the gasification of clean wood and the gasification of Altholz (scrapwood) and wood/plastics mixtures. (author) 1 fig., 3 tabs., 5 refs.

  5. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 754 - Petroleum and Petroleum Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Petroleum and Petroleum Products No... SUPPLY CONTROLS Pt. 754, Supp. 1 Supplement No. 1 to Part 754—Petroleum and Petroleum Products This... petroleum (including reconstituted crude petroleum), tar sands and crude shale oil. 2710.0710 Petroleum...

  6. Petroleum supply monthly, October 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  7. Petroleum Supply Monthly, August 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-30

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) district movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics.

  8. Petroleum supply monthly, January 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-15

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  9. Petroleum supply monthly, May 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-27

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum supply annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  10. Petroleum supply monthly, June 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-28

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  11. Petroleum supply monthly, July 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  12. Petroleum Supply Monthly, July 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-28

    Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  13. Inventory of contaminants in waste wood; Inventering av foeroreningar i returtrae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jermer, Joeran; Ekvall, Annika; Tullin, Claes [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden)

    2001-03-01

    Waste wood is increasingly used as fuel in Sweden. It is of Swedish origin as well as imported, mainly from Germany and the Netherlands. The waste wood is contaminated by e.g. paint and wood preservatives and objects of metal, glass, plastics etc. The contaminants may cause technical problems such as deposits and corrosion as well as plugging of air openings. The present study has focussed on potential contaminants in waste wood that could cause problems of technical as well as environmental nature. The major chemical contaminants are surface treatments (paints etc) and wood preservatives. The surface treatments contribute in particular to contaminants of zinc and lead. In some cases zinc has been found to cause severe deposits in the furnaces. Surface treatments also contribute to increased levels of sodium, chlorine, sulphur and nitrogen. Preservative-treated wood is the most important source of increased levels of copper, chromium and arsenic in the waste wood. Waste wood imported from Germany contains less arsenic but the same amount of copper and chromium as Swedish waste wood. The contents of mercury in German waste wood can be expected to be higher than in waste wood of Swedish origin. The fraction consisting of wood-based panels is comparably free from contaminants but as a result of the high contents of adhesives wood-based panels contribute to a higher proportion of nitrogen in waste wood than in forest residues. A great number of non-wood compounds (such as plastics and metals) do also contaminate waste wood. By careful and selective demolition and various sorting procedures most non-wood compounds will be separated from the waste wood. Waste sorting analyses carried out indicate that the waste wood contains approximately 1% non-wood compounds, mainly plastic and metal compounds, glass, dirt, concrete, bricks and gypsum. This may seem to be a small proportion, but if large amounts of waste wood are incinerated the non-wood compounds will inevitably cause

  14. Wood-Based Nanocomposite Derived by in Situ Formation of Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Polymer within Wood via a Sol-Gel Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiaoying; Zhuo, Xiao; Wei, Jie; Zhang, Gang; Li, Yongfeng

    2017-03-15

    Solid wood materials and wood-plastic composites as two kinds of lightweight materials are attracting great interest from academia and industry due to their green and recycling nature. However, the relatively lower specific strength limits their wider applications. In particular, solid wood is vulnerable to moisture and decay fungi in nature, resulting in its poor durability for effectively long-term utilization. Inspired from the porous structure of wood, we propose a new design to build a wood-based nanocomposite with higher specific strength and satisfactory durability by in situ generation of organic-inorganic hybrid polymer within wood via a sol-gel method. The derived composite has 50-1200% improvement of impact toughness, 56-192% improvement of tensile strength, and 110-291% improvement of flexural strength over those of typical wood-plastic composites, respectively; and even 34% improvement of specific tensile strength than that of 36A steel; 208% enhancement of hardness; and 156% enhancement of compression strength than those of compared solid wood, respectively; as well as significantly improved dimensional stability and decay resistance over those of untreated natural wood. Such materials could be potentially utilized as lightweight and high-strength materials for applications in construction and automotive industries. This method could be extended to constitute other inorganic nanomaterials for novel organic-inorganic hybrid polymer within wood.

  15. Petroleum resources assessment 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    This report consists of two articles. (1) Petroleum resources assessment of the Okinawa Trough: The hydrocarbon potential has been evaluated for the Tertiary strata in the northwestern margin of the Okinawa Trough on the basis of the pale-ontological, petrological, geochemical data from two wells (Nikkan 8-9 and JDZ 7-3), and geophysical data. (2) Petroliferous basin analysis in Jinju area (2): Petroleum geological studies such as stratigraphy, sedimentology, petrology and organic geochemistry were carried out in the Gyeongsang Supergroup, Junju area. Based on lithofacies and rock color, the sequence can be divided into seven formations which can be organized into two groups (Sindong Group: Nagdong, Hasandong and Jinju formations in ascending order; Hayang Group: Chilgog, Silla Conglomerate, Haman and Jindong formations). (author). 57 refs.

  16. Efeitos do tipo de poliestireno de alto impacto nas propriedades de compósitos termoplásticos com farinha de resíduo de madeira The effects of the high impact polystyrene morphology on the properties of wood-plastic composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wladimir L. Vianna

    2004-12-01

    molhabilidade do reforço pela resina e as interações reforço-matriz.The technology of wood-plastics composites includes concepts of compatibility and processability, with important challenges to optimize grade formulations, processing and stabilization of the composite system. Owing to the low thermal stability in wood flour processing, commodities such as polyolefins, styrene and polyvinylchloride represent the large majority of the thermoplastics employed in cellulosic composites. High impact polystyrene (HIPS is a versatile thermoplastic as a result of variations in composition and morphology of the rubber dispersed phase in the styrenic matrix. In addition to its relatively low processing temperature, such characteristics make HIPS a suitable polymer for wood-plastic composite applications as an optimum stiffness-toughness balance can be achieved by fine control of HIPS morphological parameters and the composite formulation. In the present study, commercial grades of HIPS with different flow index and particle size distribution were used in the preparation of wood-plastic composites. The mechanical properties and the heat distortion temperatures of the composites are discussed in terms of the HIPS characteristics and the filler content in the composite. By simply applying the rule of mixtures, it was shown that owing to their relatively low specific gravity, the wood waste flour might be cost-effective in replacing mineral fillers or glass fibers in plastic composites with a better performance in terms of specific strength and rigidity. Electron microscopy analysis of fractured surfaces was used to illustrate wood flour dispersion, wettability and matrix-filler interactions.

  17. High-density polyethylene-based composites with pressure-treated wood fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Shang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available High-Density Polyethylene (HDPE-based composites with alkaline copper quaternary (ACQ- and micronized copper quaternary (MCQ-treated wood fibers were manufactured through injection molding. The mechanical properties, water absorption, and biological resistance properties of the fabricated composites with different coupling treatments were investigated. Composites with ACQ- and MCQ-treated wood had mechanical properties comparable with those made of untreated wood. The different coupling agents worked well for the treated wood materials. Similar water absorption behaviors were observed for the HDPE composites containing treated wood and those containing untreated wood. The results of the termite test showed that the composites containing untreated wood had slightly more weight loss. The decay test revealed that the composites containing treated wood had less decay fungal growth on the surfaces, compared with samples from untreated wood, indicating enhanced decay resistance for the composites from the treated material. The stable mechanical properties and improved biological performances of the composites containing treated wood demonstrated the feasibility of making wood-plastic composites with pressure-treated wood materials, and thus offered a practical way to recycle treated wood into value-added composites.

  18. Finishes for Wood Bowls, Butcher Blocks, Other Items Used for Food, and Children's Toys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark T. Knaebe

    2013-01-01

    The durability and beauty of wood make it an attractive material for bowls, butcher blocks, and other items used to serve or prepare food. Wood also tends to be less prone to harbor bacteria than are some other materials such as plastic.

  19. Effect of particle size, coupling agent and DDGS additions on Paulownia wood polypropylene composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mechanical, flexural, thermal, and physical characteristics of wood plastic composites employing Paulownia wood (PP) flour derived from 36-mo-old trees blended with polypropylene (PP) were analyzed. Composites of 25% and 40% w/w of PW and 0-10% by weight of maleated polypropylene (MAPP) were pr...

  20. The Effect of the Coupling Agent on Bamboo/Wood-Plastic Composite Properties%偶联剂对HDPE基竹塑复合材料力学性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈伟博; 葛正浩; 元庆凯; 袁泥娟; 田普建

    2012-01-01

    In order to research the coupling agent varieties and contents influence on the bamboo/plastic composite, the bamboo/plastic composite was made of silane, titanate and MAPE. Results showed that the bamboo/plastic composite which made of silane, titanate and MAPE had higher tensile strength, impact strength and flexural strength. The impact strength of materials would be the highest when MAPE accounts for about 9 % content of the bamboo powder.%采用硅烷、钛酸酯和马来酸酐接枝聚乙烯制备竹塑复合材料,研究偶联剂的种类和含量对竹塑复合材料性能的影响.结果表明:采用硅烷和马来酸酐接枝聚乙烯两种偶联剂制备的复合材料,具有较高的拉伸强度、冲击强度和弯曲强度.马来酸酐接枝聚乙烯的加入量达到竹粉质量含量的9%左右时,材料的冲击强度最高.

  1. Kurumsal Sosyal Sorumluluk Kapsamında Çevre Açıklamaları İle Firma Özellikleri Arasındaki İlişki: Kimya, Petrol, Kauçuk ve Plastik Ürünler Sektöründe Bir Uygulama - Relation Between Company Features And Environmental Statement Within Corporate Social Responsibility: An Application In Chemistry, Petroleum, Rubber And Plastics Products Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şule YILDIZ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to determine the relation between company features and environmental statement amounts in the annual activity reports of companies. To this end, activity reports of 19 companies making business in chemistry, petroleum, rubber and plastic products industry in Borsa Istanbul were inspected with content analysis method for 2008 - 2014. The company features inspected within the research are size, equity profitability, active profitability, debt levels, stock market listing date and date of foundation of companies. In the research, the relation between environmental statement level and related company features were analyzed with panel regression model. According to the results of research, the environmental statement level has positive relation with date of foundation and debt level and it has negative relation with size and stock market listing and it is statistically meaningful. However, no statistically meaningful relation was found between equity profitability and asset profitability and the environmental statement level.

  2. Kurumsal Sosyal Sorumluluk Raporlaması ve Finansal Performans Arasındaki İlişki: Borsa İstanbul’da İşlem Gören Kimya-Petrol-Plastik Sektörü Şirketleri Üzerine Bir Araştırma(The Relationship Between Corporate Social Responsibility and Financial Performance: A Study on BIST Chemical, Petroleum and Plastic Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu BAŞAR

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In today’s World the companies which act according to social responsibility, evaluate their sucess according to economic, environmental and social effects in the long run. For this reason if they operate in the social responsible manner, they think that they will be sucessful. So the information which define the social responsibility activities of companies apart from the financial information tend to increase in the business World. In this study it is aimed to analyse corporate social responsibility and financial performance relationship. Thereby the companies which are BIST Chemical - Petroleum and Plastic sector will be studied between the years 2010-2012 according to the criteria which are determined by GRI (Global Reporting Initiative. In this anaysis firstly the reporting level of the companies according to criteria and then the relationship between the the results and financial performance will be examied.

  3. EVOLUTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT WOOD COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius C. BARBU

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lightweight boards and beams in the wood-based construction and furniture industry are not a new topic. The density reduction of panels using sandwich structure with light cores was confirmed by users like doors or mobile homes more than three decades ago. Today many ways to attain a lighter wooden structure are on offer, partially in industrial application. The first one is the use of light-weight wood species like balsa, lime, pine from southern hemisphere plantations etc. limited by the availability, strength properties, gluability and so on. A second one is the sandwich structure made from hard faces like thick veneer, thin plywood, particleboard or high density thin fiberboard and cores made from honeycomb paper, very light wood species or foams like the polystyrene one. A third way to produce a light structure is to reduce the core drastically, using predesigned skeletons with special shapes and connections to the faces. The engines for these developments are on the one hand the fast growing market of knockdown furniture and on the other hand the increasing costs for energy and raw materials. Additional factors that make weight saving a primary economical objective for most producers are transportation costs, easier handling and higher acceptance among the end users. Moreover, customers demand more for ergonomical solutions regarding packaging. Many patents were generated by researchers and developers for new one-stage production processes for sandwich panels with wood- and impregnated paper-based facings made from veneers, particles or fibres and a core consisting of expandable foams, particles or embedded hard skeletons. These ideas or prototypes could be integrated in existing continuous pressing lines for wood based panels keeping some of the advantages of the continuous production technique in matters of efficiency. Some of the challenges of the light weight wooden structure are the connection in half or final parts, resistance to

  4. China's Strategy of Petroleum Industry Development Urged

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Geng

    2005-01-01

    @@ Editor China National Petroleum Corporation(CNPC), as the No. 1producer and supplier of crude oil and natural gas as well as the No.1 producer and supplier of petroleum smelting and chemical products, has a wide business range covering prospect for petroleum and natural gas, petroleum smelting and chemical production,pipe transmission, sales of smelting and chemical products of petroleum and natural gas, service of petroleum project techniques, petroleum machinery processing and manufacturing, petroleum trade and so on. It has taken a leading role in the production and processing of China's petroleum and natural gas,as well as the market.

  5. Microbial degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varjani, Sunita J

    2017-01-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants are recalcitrant compounds and are classified as priority pollutants. Cleaning up of these pollutants from environment is a real world problem. Bioremediation has become a major method employed in restoration of petroleum hydrocarbon polluted environments that makes use of natural microbial biodegradation activity. Petroleum hydrocarbons utilizing microorganisms are ubiquitously distributed in environment. They naturally biodegrade pollutants and thereby remove them from the environment. Removal of petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants from environment by applying oleophilic microorganisms (individual isolate/consortium of microorganisms) is ecofriendly and economic. Microbial biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants employs the enzyme catalytic activities of microorganisms to enhance the rate of pollutants degradation. This article provides an overview about bioremediation for petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants. It also includes explanation about hydrocarbon metabolism in microorganisms with a special focus on new insights obtained during past couple of years. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Petroleum marketing monthly, September 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum product sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  7. Lignification and tension wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilate, Gilles; Chabbert, Brigitte; Cathala, Bernard; Yoshinaga, Arata; Leplé, Jean-Charles; Laurans, Françoise; Lapierre, Catherine; Ruel, Katia

    2004-01-01

    Hardwood trees are able to reorient their axes owing to tension wood differentiation. Tension wood is characterised by important ultrastructural modifications, such as the occurrence in a number of species, of an extra secondary wall layer, named gelatinous layer or G-layer, mainly constituted of cellulose microfibrils oriented nearly parallel to the fibre axis. This G-layer appears directly involved in the definition of tension wood mechanical properties. This review gathers the data available in the literature about lignification during tension wood formation. Potential roles for lignin in tension wood formation are inferred from biochemical, anatomical and mechanical studies, from the hypotheses proposed to describe tension wood function and from data coming from new research areas such as functional genomics.

  8. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY (3)PETROLEUM GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>20082333 Bai Guoping(Key Laboratory for Hydrocarbon Accumulation of Education Ministry,China University of Petroleum, Beijing 102249,China);Yin Jinyin Petroleum Geological Features and Explo- ration Potential Analyses of North Carnavon Basin,Australia(Petroleum Geology & Ex- periment,ISSN1001—6112,CN32—1151/ TE,29(3),2007,p.253—258,4 illus.,1 table,12 refs.)

  9. Complex geometries in wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette; Riiber Nielsen, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    The versatility of wood constructions and traditional wood joints for the production of non standard elements was in focus of a design based research. Herein we established a seamless process from digital design to fabrication. A first research phase centered on the development of a robust parame...... parametric model and a generic design language a later explored the possibilities to construct complex shaped geometries with self registering joints on modern wood crafting machines. The research was carried out as collaboration with industrial partners....

  10. Geoscience indexing at petroleum abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finnegan, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    Geoscience literature received by Petroleum Abstracts Information System is indexed by Scientist with field experience. The indexing consists of relating concepts produced by the author to a controlled vocabulary used at Petroleum Abstracts. The primary emphasis of selection of the literature at Petroleum Abstracts is petroleum-related, but not petroleum restricted. Geoscience literature indexed at Petroleum Abstracts comprises the following subjects: Geology, Geochemistry, Geophysics, and Mineral Commodities. The depth of indexing attributed to each article does in fact depend on the amount of petroleum-related subject matter in the article. Once the indexing is completed, the abstract is then cut to approximately 150 words. The scientist who indexes at Petroleum Abstracts is not expected to know or remember every detail or concept ever published. But he or she is expected to be able to go to an atlas, dictionary, or any other reference material available and apply the concepts to a controlled vocabulary. This is somewhat of a restriction on scientists, but it is the only way to maintain any kind of consistency in the indexing. Successful searching of the Petroleum Abstracts Information System can be accomplished with an understanding of the indexing strategy and the importance and necessity of referencing the thesauri controlled vocabulary. It may be more time-consuming, but will certainly be more accurate in the retrieval of the information.

  11. Petroleum supply monthly: December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    Data are presented which describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States. Data are presented in two sections: Summary Statistics, presenting a time series of selected petroleum data on a U.S. level, and Detailed Statistics, presenting statistics for the most current month available as well as year to date.

  12. Moisture Transport in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, T.; Hansen, K. K.; Hoffmeyer, P.

    2005-01-01

    Modelling of moisture transport in wood is of great importance as most mechanical and physical properties of wood depend on moisture content. Moisture transport in porous materials is often described by Ficks second law, but several observations indicate that this does not apply very well to wood....... Recently at the Technical University of Denmark, Department of Civil Engineering, a new model for moisture transport in wood has been developed. The model divides the transport into two phases, namely water vapour in the cell lumens and bound water in the cell walls....

  13. Moisture Transport in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, T.; Hansen, K. K.; Hoffmeyer, P.;

    2005-01-01

    Modelling of moisture transport in wood is of great importance as most mechanical and physical properties of wood depend on moisture content. Moisture transport in porous materials is often described by Ficks second law, but several observations indicate that this does not apply very well to wood....... Recently at the Technical University of Denmark, Department of Civil Engineering, a new model for moisture transport in wood has been developed. The model divides the transport into two phases, namely water vapour in the cell lumens and bound water in the cell walls....

  14. 19 CFR 151.47 - Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products. 151.47 Section 151.47 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF... Petroleum and Petroleum Products § 151.47 Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products...

  15. Plastics Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Tommy G.

    This curriculum guide is designed to assist junior high schools industrial arts teachers in planning new courses and revising existing courses in plastics technology. Addressed in the individual units of the guide are the following topics: introduction to production technology; history and development of plastics; safety; youth leadership,…

  16. Enhancing the properties of wood through chemical modification with palmitoyl chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Gowdra K.; Mahadevan, Kittappa M.

    2008-01-01

    Hevea brassiliensis (rubber wood) was esterified with palmitoyl chloride, prepared from the reaction of palmitic acid with thionyl chloride. The weight gain of the wood increased with increasing reaction time and temperature, the esterified wood were evaluated for their photostability and dimensional stability. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), solid-state cross-polarization/magic angle spinning 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (CP/MAS 13C NMR) were used to elucidate the characteristics of wood after esterification. The dimensional stability and photostability of the wood was improved by esterification. This is an important observation since chemical modification of wood with fatty acid chlorides has been found to induce thermo-plasticity into wood.

  17. International petroleum statistics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international oil data. This report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world, in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries.

  18. Petroleum supply monthly, March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-30

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. Most time series include preliminary estimates for one month based on the Weekly Petroleum Supply Reporting System; statistics based on the most recent data from the Monthly Petroleum Supply Reporting System (MPSRS); and statistics published in prior issues of the PSM and PSA. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas -- the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia), five PAD Districts, and 12 Refining Districts. At the US and PAD District level, the total volume and the daily rate of activities are presented. The statistics are developed from monthly survey forms submitted by respondents to the EIA and from data provided from other sources.

  19. Petroleum supply monthly, June 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-28

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures ih the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. Most time series include preliminary estimates for one month based on the Weekly Petroleum Supply Reporting System; statistics based on the most recent data from the Monthly Petroleum Supply Reporting System (MPSRS); and statistics published in prior issues of the PSM and PSA. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas - - the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia), five PAD Districts, and 12 Refining Districts. At the US and PAD District level, the total volume and the daily rate of activities are presented. The statistics are developed from monthly survey forms submitted by respondents to the EIA and from data provided firom other sources.

  20. Degradation of oxo-biodegradable plastic by Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Maria Rodrigues da Luz

    Full Text Available Growing concerns regarding the impact of the accumulation of plastic waste over several decades on the environmental have led to the development of biodegradable plastic. These plastics can be degraded by microorganisms and absorbed by the environment and are therefore gaining public support as a possible alternative to petroleum-derived plastics. Among the developed biodegradable plastics, oxo-biodegradable polymers have been used to produce plastic bags. Exposure of this waste plastic to ultraviolet light (UV or heat can lead to breakage of the polymer chains in the plastic, and the resulting compounds are easily degraded by microorganisms. However, few studies have characterized the microbial degradation of oxo-biodegradable plastics. In this study, we tested the capability of Pleurotus ostreatus to degrade oxo-biodegradable (D2W plastic without prior physical treatment, such as exposure to UV or thermal heating. After 45 d of incubation in substrate-containing plastic bags, the oxo-biodegradable plastic, which is commonly used in supermarkets, developed cracks and small holes in the plastic surface as a result of the formation of hydroxyl groups and carbon-oxygen bonds. These alterations may be due to laccase activity. Furthermore, we observed the degradation of the dye found in these bags as well as mushroom formation. Thus, P. ostreatus degrades oxo-biodegradable plastics and produces mushrooms using this plastic as substrate.

  1. Degradation of oxo-biodegradable plastic by Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Luz, José Maria Rodrigues; Paes, Sirlaine Albino; Nunes, Mateus Dias; da Silva, Marliane de Cássia Soares; Kasuya, Maria Catarina Megumi

    2013-01-01

    Growing concerns regarding the impact of the accumulation of plastic waste over several decades on the environmental have led to the development of biodegradable plastic. These plastics can be degraded by microorganisms and absorbed by the environment and are therefore gaining public support as a possible alternative to petroleum-derived plastics. Among the developed biodegradable plastics, oxo-biodegradable polymers have been used to produce plastic bags. Exposure of this waste plastic to ultraviolet light (UV) or heat can lead to breakage of the polymer chains in the plastic, and the resulting compounds are easily degraded by microorganisms. However, few studies have characterized the microbial degradation of oxo-biodegradable plastics. In this study, we tested the capability of Pleurotus ostreatus to degrade oxo-biodegradable (D2W) plastic without prior physical treatment, such as exposure to UV or thermal heating. After 45 d of incubation in substrate-containing plastic bags, the oxo-biodegradable plastic, which is commonly used in supermarkets, developed cracks and small holes in the plastic surface as a result of the formation of hydroxyl groups and carbon-oxygen bonds. These alterations may be due to laccase activity. Furthermore, we observed the degradation of the dye found in these bags as well as mushroom formation. Thus, P. ostreatus degrades oxo-biodegradable plastics and produces mushrooms using this plastic as substrate.

  2. Degradation of Oxo-Biodegradable Plastic by Pleurotus ostreatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Luz, José Maria Rodrigues; Paes, Sirlaine Albino; Nunes, Mateus Dias; da Silva, Marliane de Cássia Soares; Kasuya, Maria Catarina Megumi

    2013-01-01

    Growing concerns regarding the impact of the accumulation of plastic waste over several decades on the environmental have led to the development of biodegradable plastic. These plastics can be degraded by microorganisms and absorbed by the environment and are therefore gaining public support as a possible alternative to petroleum-derived plastics. Among the developed biodegradable plastics, oxo-biodegradable polymers have been used to produce plastic bags. Exposure of this waste plastic to ultraviolet light (UV) or heat can lead to breakage of the polymer chains in the plastic, and the resulting compounds are easily degraded by microorganisms. However, few studies have characterized the microbial degradation of oxo-biodegradable plastics. In this study, we tested the capability of Pleurotus ostreatus to degrade oxo-biodegradable (D2W) plastic without prior physical treatment, such as exposure to UV or thermal heating. After 45 d of incubation in substrate-containing plastic bags, the oxo-biodegradable plastic, which is commonly used in supermarkets, developed cracks and small holes in the plastic surface as a result of the formation of hydroxyl groups and carbon-oxygen bonds. These alterations may be due to laccase activity. Furthermore, we observed the degradation of the dye found in these bags as well as mushroom formation. Thus, P. ostreatus degrades oxo-biodegradable plastics and produces mushrooms using this plastic as substrate. PMID:23967057

  3. Facts 2011 - The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-15

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Content; Foreword; The petroleum sector - Norway's largest industry; Organisation of Norwegian petroleum activity; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology and industrial development; Environmental considerations in the Norwegian petroleum sector; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  4. Facts 2010 - The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Content; Foreword; The petroleum sector - Norway's largest industry; Organisation of Norwegian petroleum activity; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology and industrial development; Environmental considerations in the Norwegian petroleum sector; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  5. Petroleum resources assessment (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This report consists of 2 subjects. 1) Petroleum resources assessment on the western part of the Kunsan Basin: Palynomorphs including spores, pollen and organic-walled microfossils and calcareous microfossils such as ostracods, charophytes and gastropods were studied for the biostratigraphic work of Kachi-1 and IIH-1Xa wells. Based on available well data, the rifting probably began in the Cretaceous time had continued until Paleocene. It is considered that compressional force immediately after rifting event deformed sedimentary sections. During the period of Paleocene to middle Miocene, the sediments were deposited in stable environment without particular tectonic event. 2) Petroliferous basin analysis in Taegu area (II): The Nakdong and Jinju formations contain abundant black shales, and thermal maturity of the organic matter reached at the final stage of dry gas generation. These formations also contain thick sandstones which can act as a petroleum reservoir. However, reservoir quality of the sandstones is poor (porosity: < 5%; permeability: < 0.001 md). In these sandstones, secondary pores such as dissolution pores and micropores can act as a tight gas reservoir. (author). 56 refs., 24 tabs., 68 figs.

  6. International petroleum statistics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international oil data. This report is published for the use of Members of Congress, Federal agencies, State agencies, industry, and the general public. Publication of this report is in keeping with responsibilities given the Energy Information Administration in Public Law 95-91. The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1985 through 1995.

  7. The History of Petroleum Pollution in Malaysia; Urgent Need for Integrated Prevention Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahyar Sakari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum pollution is known as point and non-point source of contaminations in the environment. A major class of petroleum contaminant is groups of compounds consist of two or more fused benzene rings called polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs that are carcinogenic, mutagenic and toxic. Source identification of petroleum pollution is necessary to prevent pollution entry into the environment. Eight sedimentary cores were obtained from developed and developing areas around Peninsular Malaysia to investigate the historical profile of PAHs, their characteristics and its possible origins. The results showed that the PAHs concentrations varied from very minimum to 2400 ng/g d. w. in average quarter century intervals. Most of the studied locations showed high contribution of PAHs from combusted fuel, coal, biomasses and wood materials except for the southern part of Peninsular Malaysia in which revealed dominance of petroleum products. The findings indicate that PAHs are delivered from different intermediate materials such as asphalt, street dust, vehicular emission and crankcase oil. However, there has been a decline of PAHs input into the marine environment in recent years; petroleum is shown to be a significant cause of marine pollution since the second quarter of 20th century. An overview on sourced materials of petroleum pollution indicates multi-approach necessity toward pollution control, regardless of concentration and possible degradation processes. Various sectors both governmental and non-governmental are needed for prevention and control of petroleum pollution where different sources apparently contribute to the pollution generation process.

  8. PROSPECT FOR CHINA'S PETROLEUM INDUSTRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cha Quanheng

    2001-01-01

    @@ Many people show concerns over the prospect forChina's petroleum industry.They may raise the question about whether the country's resources are on the brink of exhaustion. Such questions should be answered only by the exploration results because petroleum production is based on the reserves.

  9. Genetic classification of petroleum basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demaison, G.; Huizinga, B.J.

    1989-03-01

    Rather than relying on a descriptive geologic approach, this genetic classification is based on the universal laws that control processes of petroleum formation, migration, and entrapment. Petroleum basins or systems are defined as dynamic petroleum-generating and concentrating physico-chemical systems functioning on a geologic space and time scale. A petroleum system results from the combination of a generative subsystem (or hydrocarbon kitchen), essentially controlled by chemical processes, and a migration-entrapment subsystem, controlled by physical processes. The generative subsystem provides a certain supply of petroleum to the basin during a given geologic time span. The migration-entrapment subsystem receives petroleum and distributes it in a manner that can lead either to dispersion and loss or to concentration of the regional charge into economic accumulations. The authors classification scheme for petroleum basins rests on a simple working nomenclature consisting of the following qualifiers: (1) charge factor: undercharged, normally charged, or supercharged, (2) migration drainage factor: vertically drained or laterally drained, and (3) entrapment factor: low impedance or high impedance. Examples chosen from an extensive roster of documented petroleum basins are reviewed to explain the proposed classification.

  10. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY (3)PETROLEUM GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20071077 An Zuoxiang(Petroleum Industry Press,Beijing 100011,China);Ma Ji On Bo- real-Style Petroliferous Domain(Xinjiang Petroleum Geology,ISSN1001-3873,CN65 -1107/TE,26(4),2005,p.432-436,4 illus.,9 refs.,with English abstract) Key words:oil and gas fields

  11. Sinopec International Petroleum Service Corporation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Established in December 2003, Sinopec international Petroleum Service Corporation (SIPSC) is a fullyowned subsidiary of China Petrochemical Corporation (Sinopec Group). The company is mainly engaged in contracting international petroleum service projects and providing technical services, and is responsible for uniform management, coordination and organization of contracted international projects and labor service cooperation performed by Sinopec's upstream subsidiaries.

  12. Petroleum: An energy profile, 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    This report prepared by the Energy Information Administration covers the following topics: petroleum production and end-use sectors; resources and reserves; exploration and production; LPG sources and processing; motor gasoline octane enhancement; constructing pipelines; the strategic petroleum reserve; imports and exports; marketing; district descriptions and maps; and refinery processes and facilities. 33 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. Mineralization of fossil wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buurman, P.

    1972-01-01

    Several pieces of fossil wood have been analyzed with X-ray diffraction and were grouped on the basis of mineralogical composition. Various mineralizations were studied in thin sections and by means of the scanning electron microscope. Wood-opals appear to show a structure preservation that points t

  14. Wood supply and demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince; David B. McKeever

    2011-01-01

    At times in history, there have been concerns that demand for wood (timber) would be greater than the ability to supply it, but that concern has recently dissipated. The wood supply and demand situation has changed because of market transitions, economic downturns, and continued forest growth. This article provides a concise overview of this change as it relates to the...

  15. Heat sterilization of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiping Wang

    2010-01-01

    Two important questions should be considered in heat sterilizing solid wood materials: First, what temperature–time regime is required to kill a particular pest? Second, how much time is required to heat the center of any wood configuration to the kill temperature? The entomology research on the first question has facilitated the development of international standards...

  16. Petroleum marketing monthly, March 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-10

    This report for March 1995, provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly. A glossary is included.

  17. Decision aid tool and design approach for plastic recycling chain integration in the automotive industry

    OpenAIRE

    Maudet-Charbuillet, Carole; Bertoluci, Gwenola

    2012-01-01

    The many uses of plastics in our society are now compromised because of the social and environmental impacts they generate: exhaustion of petroleum resources, waste management... Plastics recycling appears to be one of the best ways to solve these problems. But Plastics Recycling Chains (PRC) are still emerging system. The automotive industry is directly concerned by plastic recycling through the End of Life Vehicles (ELV) directive which compels it to respect recycling rate for their product...

  18. Plastic bronchitis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Singhi, Anil Kumar; Vinoth, Bharathi; Kuruvilla, Sarah; Sivakumar, Kothandam

    2015-01-01

    Plastic bronchitis, a rare but serious clinical condition, commonly seen after Fontan surgeries in children, may be a manifestation of suboptimal adaptation to the cavopulmonary circulation with unfavorable hemodynamics...

  19. Plastic Fishes

    CERN Multimedia

    Trettnak, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    In terms of weight, the plastic pollution in the world’s oceans is estimated to be around 300,000 tonnes. This plastic comes from both land-based and ocean-based sources. A lecture at CERN by chemist Wolfgang Trettnak addressed this issue and highlighted the role of art in raising people’s awareness. The slideshow below gives you a taste of the artworks by Wolfgang Trettnak and Margarita Cimadevila.

  20. Plastic Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    履之

    1994-01-01

    Already ubiquitous in homes and cars, plastic is now appearing inbridges. An academic-industrial consortium based at the University ofCalifornia in San Diego is launching a three-year research program aimed atdeveloping the world’s first plastic highway bridge, a 450-foot span madeentirely from glass-,carbon,and polymer-fiber-reinforced composite mate-rials, the stuff of military aircraft. It will cross Interstate 5 to connect thetwo sides of the school’s campus.

  1. Recycling of plastic: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas; Fruergaard, Thilde; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2009-01-01

    Major greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to plastic waste recycling were evaluated with respect to three management alternatives: recycling of clean, single-type plastic, recycling of mixed/contaminated plastic, and use of plastic waste as fuel in industrial processes. Source-separated plasti...... to a mixture of different plastic types and/or contamination, the plastic should be used for energy utilization. Recycling of plastic waste for substitution of other materials such as wood provided no savings with respect to global warming....

  2. Cord Wood Testing in a Non-Catalytic Wood Stove

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Trojanowski, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wei, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2014-06-30

    EPA Method 28 and the current wood stove regulations have been in-place since 1988. Recently, EPA proposed an update to the existing NSPS for wood stove regulations which includes a plan to transition from the current crib wood fuel to cord wood fuel for certification testing. Cord wood is seen as generally more representative of field conditions while the crib wood is seen as more repeatable. In any change of certification test fuel, there are questions about the impact on measured results and the correlation between tests with the two different fuels. The purpose of the work reported here is to provide data on the performance of a noncatalytic stove with cord wood. The stove selected has previously been certified with crib wood which provides a basis for comparison with cord wood. Overall, particulate emissions were found to be considerably higher with cord wood.

  3. Molecular deformation mechanisms of the wood cell wall material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Kai; Qin, Zhao; Buehler, Markus J

    2015-02-01

    Wood is a biological material with outstanding mechanical properties resulting from its hierarchical structure across different scales. Although earlier work has shown that the cellular structure of wood is a key factor that renders it excellent mechanical properties at light weight, the mechanical properties of the wood cell wall material itself still needs to be understood comprehensively. The wood cell wall material features a fiber reinforced composite structure, where cellulose fibrils act as stiff fibers, and hemicellulose and lignin molecules act as soft matrix. The angle between the fiber direction and the loading direction has been found to be the key factor controlling the mechanical properties. However, how the interactions between theses constitutive molecules contribute to the overall properties is still unclear, although the shearing between fibers has been proposed as a primary deformation mechanism. Here we report a molecular model of the wood cell wall material with atomistic resolution, used to assess the mechanical behavior under shear loading in order to understand the deformation mechanisms at the molecular level. The model includes an explicit description of cellulose crystals, hemicellulose, as well as lignin molecules arranged in a layered nanocomposite. The results obtained using this model show that the wood cell wall material under shear loading deforms in an elastic and then plastic manner. The plastic regime can be divided into two parts according to the different deformation mechanisms: yielding of the matrix and sliding of matrix along the cellulose surface. Our molecular dynamics study provides insights of the mechanical behavior of wood cell wall material at the molecular level, and paves a way for the multi-scale understanding of the mechanical properties of wood.

  4. Thermoplastic starch/wood composites: interfacial interactions and functional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Péter; Renner, Károly; Móczó, János; Fekete, Erika; Pukánszky, Béla

    2014-02-15

    Thermoplastic starch (TPS)/wood composites were prepared from starch plasticized with 36 wt% glycerol. The components were homogenized by dry-blending, extruded and injection molded to tensile bars. Tensile properties, structure, deformation, water adsorption and shrinkage were determined as a function of wood content, which changed between 0 and 40 vol% in 7 steps. The modification of TPS with wood particles improves several properties considerably. Stiffness and strength increases, and the effect is stronger for fibers with larger aspect ratio. Wood fibers reinforce TPS considerably due to poor matrix properties and strong interfacial interactions, the latter resulting in the decreased mobility of starch molecules and in the fracture of large wood particles during deformation. Strong interfacial adhesion leads to smaller water absorption than predicted from additivity, but water uptake remains relatively large even in the presence of wood particles. The shrinkage of injection molded TPS parts is very large, around 10%, and dimensional changes occur on a very long timescale of several hundred hours. Shrinkage decreases to a low level already at 15-20 vol% wood content rendering the composites good dimensional stability.

  5. GREEN PLASTIC: A NEW PLASTIC FOR PACKAGING

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. Pankaj Kumar*, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    This paper gives a brief idea about a new type of plastic called as bio-plastic or green plastic. Plastic is used as a packaging material for various products, but this plastic is made up of non renewable raw materials. There are various disadvantages of using conventional plastic like littering, CO2 production, non-degradable in nature etc. To overcome these problems a new type of plastic is discovered called bio-plastic or green plastic. Bio-plastic is made from renewable resources and also...

  6. World Petroleum Congress Demonstrating Improved Image of China Petroleum Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Wei

    2002-01-01

    @@ On 1-5 September 2002, the 17th World Petroleum Congress was successfully convened in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil with 3000 delegates coming from 59 countries and regions. Representatives from CNPC,Sinopec and CNOOC attended the congress.

  7. Petroleum geology of North Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacGregor, D.S. [ed.] [BP Exploration Operating Co. Ltd., Jakarta (Indonesia); Moody, R.T.J. [ed.] [Moody-Sandman Associates, Kingston (United Kingdom); Clark-Lowes, D.D. [ed.] [University of London (United Kingdom). Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine

    1998-12-31

    North Africa contains some 4% of the world`s remaining oil and gas reserves, and is now one of the most active exploration areas. This volume represents the first attempt at a compilation of the petroleum geology of North Africa, documenting a series of papers collected on the petroleum geology of Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and the western part of Egypt. The main objectives of this book are to increase the level of documentation towards that appropriate for such major petroleum provinces and to facilitate the application of analogues between North African countries and beyond. (author)

  8. Petroleum marketing monthly, November 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-09

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed costs of imported crude oil, and the refiner`s acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  9. Petroleum marketing monthly, October 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-07

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase prices, the f.o b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  10. Petroleum marketing monthly, August 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-07

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. 12 figs., 49 tabs.

  11. Petroleum marketing monthly, February 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-25

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiner`s acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  12. Lasers and petroleum in Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    da Costa, G.; Guerri, G.; Calatroni, J. (Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela). Lab. de Optica Cuantica)

    1978-06-01

    The viscosity of heavy hydrocarbons is one reason why conventional drilling methods are insufficient for petroleum extraction in Venezuela at a depth of 1000 m. The Quantum Optics Laboratory of Simon Bolivar University in Caracas is conducting a search for novel perforation and heating tools for petroleum extraction. Basic research is being carried out using a 10 MW TEA-CO/sub 2/ laser. The laser is not only a research tool but a matter of national interests, as petroleum is Venezuela's main export article.

  13. Petroleum marketing monthly, August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-10

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  14. Development of recycled plastic composites for structural applications from CEA plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, Agrim

    Plastic waste from consumer electronic appliances (CEAs) such as computer and printer parts including Polystyrene (PS), Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS), Polystyrene (PS) and PC/ABS were collected using handheld FTIR Spectrophotometer. The blends of these plastics with High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) are manufactured under special processing conditions in a single screw compounding injection molding machine. The blends are thermoplastics have high stiffness and strength, which may enhance the mechanical properties of HDPE like tensile modulus, ultimate tensile strength, tensile break and tensile yield. These composites have a potential to be used for the future application of recycled plastic lumber, thus replacing the traditional wood lumber.

  15. Facts 2009 - The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Contents: Foreword; The petroleum sector; Norwegian resource management; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology; Environmental considerations; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  16. 76 FR 33782 - Multilayered Wood Flooring From China; Scheduling of the Final Phase of Countervailing Duty and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-09

    ... wood veneers in combination with a core. The core may be composed of hardwood or softwood veneer, particleboard, medium-density fiberboard, high density fiberboard, stone and/or plastic composite, or strips...

  17. Logistics aspects of petroleum pipeline operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. Pienaar

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper identifies, assesses and describes the logistics aspects of the commercial operation of petroleum pipelines. The nature of petroleum-product supply chains, in which pipelines play a role, is outlined and the types of petroleum pipeline systems are described. An outline is presented of the nature of the logistics activities of petroleum pipeline operations. The reasons for the cost efficiency of petroleum pipeline operations are given. The relative modal service effectiveness of petroleum pipeline transport, based on the most pertinent service performance measures, is offered. The segments in the petroleum-products supply chain where pipelines can play an efficient and effective role are identified.

  18. Welding of solid wood

    OpenAIRE

    Ivica Župčić; Goran Mihulja; Andrija Bogner; Ivica Grbac; Ivica @up~i}, Goran Mihulja, Andrija Bogner, Ivica Grbac,; Božidar Hrovat

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the up-to-date knowledge and results of the application of wood welding techniques at the Faculty of Forestry University of Zagreb. Wood welding technologies have been developed as a new way of bonding timber by using high temperature generatedby friction and pressure. Timber is assembled without any adhesives. During the process the surface layer of timber (lignin), which is in direct contact with its counterpart, melts due to high pressure and temperature, which is usual...

  19. PETROLEUM PRODUCTS, PROPERTIES, QUALITY, APPLICATION,

    Science.gov (United States)

    The document contains Chapters 7-10 of a Russian handbook of petroleum products. These chapters discuss drive-train oils, lubricating oils for aviation gas-turbine engines, industrial oils, and insulating oils.

  20. Bio-Based Adhesives and Evaluation for Wood Composites Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Ferdosian

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available There has been a rapid growth in research and innovation of bio-based adhesives in the engineered wood product industry. This article reviews the recent research published over the last few decades on the synthesis of bio-adhesives derived from such renewable resources as lignin, starch, and plant proteins. The chemical structure of these biopolymers is described and discussed to highlight the active functional groups that are used in the synthesis of bio-adhesives. The potentials and drawbacks of each biomass are then discussed in detail; some methods have been suggested to modify their chemical structures and to improve their properties including water resistance and bonding strength for their ultimate application as wood adhesives. Moreover, this article includes discussion of techniques commonly used for evaluating the petroleum-based wood adhesives in terms of mechanical properties and penetration behavior, which are expected to be more widely applied to bio-based wood adhesives to better evaluate their prospect for wood composites application.

  1. Kualitas Fiber Komposit Plastic Dari Kertas Kertas Kardus Dengan Matriks Polietilena (PE)

    OpenAIRE

    Cibro, Reymon Fernando

    2012-01-01

    The research utilizion use cardboard fiber and polyetilena recycle plastic as raw material for fiber plastic composite. That is useful to decreasing the waste of cardboard ang polyetilena plastic, as well as to accomplishes demand of wood. This research aims to evaluate the physical properties (density, moisture content, water absorbtion, thickness swelling) and mechanical properties (modulus of elasticity, modulus of rupture, internal bond, screw holding power) fiber plastic composite fo...

  2. Plastic condoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-01-01

    Only simple equipment, simple technology and low initial capital investment are needed in their manufacture. The condoms can be made by people who were previously unskilled or only semi-skilled workers. Plastic condoms differ from those made of latex rubber in that the nature of the plastic film allows unlimited shelf-life. Also, the plastic has a higher degree of lubricity than latex rubber; if there is a demand for extra lubrication in a particular market, this can be provided. Because the plastic is inert, these condoms need not be packaged in hermetically sealed containers. All these attributes make it possible to put these condoms on the distributors' shelves in developing countries competitively with rubber condoms. The shape of the plastic condom is based on that of the lamb caecum, which has long been used as luxury-type condom. The plastic condom is made from plastic film (ethylene ethyl acrilate) of 0.001 inch (0.0254 mm.) thickness. In addition, a rubber ring is provided and sealed into the base of the condom for retention during coitus. The advantage of the plastic condom design and the equipment on which it is made is that production can be carried out either in labour-intensive economy or with varying degrees of mechanization and automation. The uniform, finished condom if made using previously untrained workers. Training of workers can be done in a matter of hours on the two machines which are needed to produce and test the condoms. The plastic film is provided on a double wound roll, and condom blanks are prepared by means of a heat-sealing die on the stamping machine. The rubber rings are united to the condom blanks on an assembly machine, which consists of a mandrel and heat-sealing equipment to seal the rubber ring to the base of the condom. Built into the assembly machine is a simple air-testing apparatus that can detect the smallest pinhole flaw in a condom. The manufacturing process is completed by unravelling the condom from the assembly

  3. Petroleum Biotechnology. Developments and Perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez-Duhalt, R. [Institute of Biotechnology, National University of Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico); Quintero-Ramirez, R. [Mexican Petroleum Institute, Mexico City (Mexico)] (eds.)

    2004-07-01

    This book deals with the field of petroleum biorefining and biological upgrade of petroleum; it presents a critical review as well as an integrated overview of the potential biochemical processes, bridging the gap between academia and industry. It addresses today's demanding production challenges, taking into account energy efficient and environmentally friendly processes, and also looks at the future possibility of implementing new refinery systems.

  4. Plastic Bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Bruce K

    2016-09-01

    Plastic bronchitis is an uncommon and probably underrecognized disorder, diagnosed by the expectoration or bronchoscopic removal of firm, cohesive, branching casts. It should not be confused with purulent mucous plugging of the airway as seen in patients with cystic fibrosis or bronchiectasis. Few medications have been shown to be effective and some are now recognized as potentially harmful. Current research directions in plastic bronchitis research include understanding the genetics of lymphatic development and maldevelopment, determining how abnormal lymphatic malformations contribute to cast formation, and developing new treatments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Design of Wood/Montmorillonite (MMT) Intercalation NanocompositeCollege of Material Science and Technology, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, P.R.China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lü Wenhua; Zhao Guangjie

    2004-01-01

    Studying new wood composites through nano science and technology (NSC) will develop new compounding theory of wood, and accelerate the combination of new technology, wood science, material science and other disciplines. The compounding of wood and inorganic MMT on nanoscale molecular level has high potential to greatly improve the mechanical properties, fire retardance, abrasion resistance, decay resistance, dimensional stability and other properties of wood. Based on the great achievements of polymer/montmorillonite (MMT) nanocomposites, this paper reviewed nano intercalation compounding methods (i.e. in-situ intercalative polymerization and direct polymer intercalation), and discussed the structure, properties and modification of montmorillonite (MMT). According to the main chemical components and particular structure of wood, the authors discussed the liquefaction and plasticization of wood, compared the dissolvability and meltability between wood and polymer, and then systematically put forward the basic idea, technological processes and schematic diagram to prepare wood/MMT nanocomposites (WMNC). The key technology to prepare WMNC is either to introduce delaminated MMT nanolayers into wood with the help of some intermediate polymers, or to obtain liquefied wood or plasticized wood from the complicated natural composite. It is applicable and effective to realize wood/MMT nanoscale compounding with the help of proper intercalation agent and medium polymer through the proposed "one-step" or "two-step" impregnating processes.

  6. International petroleum statistics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international data. The report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent 12 months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1996; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1996; and OECD trade from 1986 through 1996.

  7. International petroleum statistics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1994; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1994; and OECD trade from 1984 through 1994.

  8. Petroleum geology of Tunisia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burollet, P.F. (CIFEG, Paris (France)); Ferjami, A.B.; Mejri, F. (ETAP, Tunis (Tunisia))

    1990-05-01

    Recent discoveries and important oil shows have proven the existence of hydrocarbons in newly identified depocenters and reservoirs. In general, except for some areas around the producing fields, Tunisia is largely underdrilled. The national company ETAP has decided to release data and to publish a synthesis on the petroleum geology of Tunisia. The geology of Tunisia provides a fine example of the contrast between Alpine folding, which typifies northern Tunisia and the African craton area of the Saharan part. Eastern Tunisia corresponds to an unstable platform forming plains or low hills and extending eastwards to the shallow Pelagian Sea. There are a wide variety of basins: central and northern Tunisia represents a front basin the Saharan Ghadames basin or the Chott trough are sag basins; the Gulf of Gabes was formed as a distension margin the Gulf of Hammamet is a composite basin and several transversal grabens cut across the country, including offshore, and are rift-type basins. All these features are known to be oil prolific throughout the world. Two large fields and many modest-size pools are known in Tunisia. Oil and gas fields in the surrounding countries, namely the Saharan fields of Algeria and Libya the large Bouri field offshore Tripolitania and discoveries in the Italian part of the Straits of Sicily, suggest a corresponding potential in Tunisia. Exposed paleogeographic and structural maps, balanced sections, and examples of fields and traps will support an optimistic evaluation of the future oil exploration in Tunisia.

  9. International petroleum statistics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1084 through 1994.

  10. Mixed plastics recycling technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hegberg, Bruce

    1995-01-01

    Presents an overview of mixed plastics recycling technology. In addition, it characterizes mixed plastics wastes and describes collection methods, costs, and markets for reprocessed plastics products.

  11. Plastic fish

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    In terms of weight, the plastic pollution in the world’s oceans is estimated to be around 300,000 tonnes. This plastic comes from both land-based and ocean-based sources. A lecture at CERN by chemist Wolfgang Trettnak addressed this issue and highlighted the role of art in raising people’s awareness.   Artwork by Wolfgang Trettnak. Packaging materials, consumer goods (shoes, kids’ toys, etc.), leftovers from fishing and aquaculture activities… our oceans and beaches are full of plastic litter. Most of the debris from beaches is plastic bottles. “PET bottles have high durability and stability,” explains Wolfgang Trettnak, a chemist by education and artist from Austria, who gave a lecture on this topic organised by the Staff Association at CERN on 26 May. “PET degrades very slowly and the estimated lifetime of a bottle is 450 years.” In addition to the beach litter accumulated from human use, rivers bring several ki...

  12. Plastic zonnecellen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roggen, Marjolein

    1998-01-01

    De zonnecel van de toekomst is in de maak. Onderzoekers van uiteenlopend pluimage werken eendrachtig aan een plastic zonnecel. De basis is technisch gelegd met een optimale, door invallend licht veroorzaakte, vorming van ladingdragers binnen een composiet van polymeren en buckyballs. Nu is het zaak

  13. Wood for the trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Garbutt

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Our paper focuses on the materiality, cultural history and cultural relations of selected artworks in the exhibition Wood for the trees (Lismore Regional Gallery, New South Wales, Australia, 10 June – 17 July 2011. The title of the exhibition, intentionally misreading the aphorism “Can’t see the wood for the trees”, by reading the wood for the resource rather than the collective wood[s], implies conservation, preservation, and the need for sustaining the originating resource. These ideas have particular resonance on the NSW far north coast, a region once rich in rainforest. While the Indigenous population had sustainable practices of forest and land management, the colonists deployed felling and harvesting in order to convert the value of the local, abundant rainforest trees into high-value timber. By the late twentieth century, however, a new wave of settlers launched a protest movements against the proposed logging of remnant rainforest at Terania Creek and elsewhere in the region. Wood for the trees, curated by Gallery Director Brett Adlington, plays on this dynamic relationship between wood, trees and people. We discuss the way selected artworks give expression to the themes or concepts of productive labour, nature and culture, conservation and sustainability, and memory. The artworks include Watjinbuy Marrawilil’s (1980 Carved ancestral figure ceremonial pole, Elizabeth Stops’ (2009/10 Explorations into colonisation, Hossein Valamanesh’s (2008 Memory stick, and AñA Wojak’s (2008 Unread book (in a forgotten language. Our art writing on the works, a practice informed by Bal (2002, Muecke (2008 and Papastergiadis (2004, becomes a conversation between the works and the themes or concepts. As a form of material excess of the most productive kind (Grosz, 2008, p. 7, art seeds a response to that which is in the air waiting to be said of the past, present and future.

  14. Modified sequential extraction for biochar and petroleum coke: Metal release potential and its environmental implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Gunten, Konstantin; Alam, Md Samrat; Hubmann, Magdalena; Ok, Yong Sik; Konhauser, Kurt O; Alessi, Daniel S

    2017-07-01

    A modified Community Bureau of Reference (CBR) sequential extraction method was tested to assess the composition of untreated pyrogenic carbon (biochar) and oil sands petroleum coke. Wood biochar samples were found to contain lower concentrations of metals, but had higher fractions of easily mobilized alkaline earth and transition metals. Sewage sludge biochar was determined to be less recalcitrant and had higher total metal concentrations, with most of the metals found in the more resilient extraction fractions (oxidizable, residual). Petroleum coke was the most stable material, with a similar metal distribution pattern as the sewage sludge biochar. The applied sequential extraction method represents a suitable technique to recover metals from these materials, and is a valuable tool in understanding the metal retaining and leaching capability of various biochar types and carbonaceous petroleum coke samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Recycling of plastic: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astrup, Thomas; Fruergaard, Thilde; Christensen, Thomas H

    2009-11-01

    Major greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to plastic waste recycling were evaluated with respect to three management alternatives: recycling of clean, single-type plastic, recycling of mixed/contaminated plastic, and use of plastic waste as fuel in industrial processes. Source-separated plastic waste was received at a material recovery facility (MRF) and processed for granulation and subsequent downstream use. In the three alternatives, plastic was assumed to be substituting virgin plastic in new products, wood in low-strength products (outdoor furniture, fences, etc.), and coal or fuel oil in the case of energy utilization. GHG accounting was organized in terms of indirect upstream emissions (e.g. provision of energy, fuels, and materials), direct emissions at the MRF (e.g. fuel combustion), and indirect downstream emissions (e.g. avoided emissions from production of virgin plastic, wood, or coal/oil). Combined, upstream and direct emissions were estimated to be roughly between 5 and 600 kg CO(2)-eq. tonne( -1) of plastic waste depending on treatment at the MRF and CO(2) emissions from electricity production. Potential downstream savings arising from substitution of virgin plastic, wood, and energy fuels were estimated to be around 60- 1600 kg CO(2)-eq. tonne( -1) of plastic waste depending on substitution ratios and CO(2) emissions from electricity production. Based on the reviewed data, it was concluded that substitution of virgin plastic should be preferred. If this is not viable due to a mixture of different plastic types and/or contamination, the plastic should be used for energy utilization. Recycling of plastic waste for substitution of other materials such as wood provided no savings with respect to global warming.

  16. Quantitative Proteomic and Phosphoproteomic Approaches for Deciphering the Signaling Pathway for Tension Wood Formation in Poplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauriat, Mélanie; Leplé, Jean-Charles; Claverol, Stéphane; Bartholomé, Jérôme; Negroni, Luc; Richet, Nicolas; Lalanne, Céline; Bonneu, Marc; Coutand, Catherine; Plomion, Christophe

    2015-08-07

    Trees adjust their growth following forced changes in orientation to re-establish a vertical position. In angiosperms, this adjustment involves the differential regulation of vascular cambial activity between the lower (opposite wood) and upper (tension wood) sides of the leaning stem. We investigated the molecular mechanisms leading to the formation of differential wood types through a quantitative proteomic and phosphoproteomic analysis on poplar subjected to a gravitropic stimulus. We identified and quantified 675 phosphopeptides, corresponding to 468 phosphoproteins, and 3 763 nonphosphorylated peptides, corresponding to 1 155 proteins, in the differentiating xylem of straight-growing trees (control) and trees subjected to a gravitational stimulus during 8 weeks. About 1% of the peptides were specific to a wood type (straight, opposite, or tension wood). Proteins quantified in more than one type of wood were more numerous: a mixed linear model showed 389 phosphopeptides and 556 proteins to differ in abundance between tension wood and opposite wood. Twenty-one percent of the phosphoproteins identified here were described in their phosphorylated form for the first time. Our analyses revealed remarkable developmental molecular plasticity, with wood type-specific phosphorylation events, and highlighted the involvement of different proteins in the biosynthesis of cell wall components during the formation of the three types of wood.

  17. ROMANIAN ACHIEVEMENTS IN PETROLEUM INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Stoicescu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum has been and still remains, in equal measure, a friend and an enemy to humanity: a friend for its use in numerous applications over the years, from the lubrication of cart axles to jet fuel; an enemy for creating permanent conflicts between countries, leading to a global conflagration. This layout has perpetuated for over two millennia, until today.The problem of petroleum has a multitude of aspects: economic, political, financial, social, military, legislative and, last but not least, scientific and technical. It has taken a share of sacrifices, which may not be overlooked, to be rightfully called “black gold.” Subject to continuous development, petroleum is still indispensable to our quotidian life, although attempts have been made to replace it with alternative energy sources due to its negative effects on the planet, which are increasingly visible.The present state of petroleum industry is the result of a continuous labor of many generations of researchers, professors, engineers, technicians, foremen, and workers, especially from petroleum producing countries.  Romania is one of the first petroleum producers and ranked first in Europe and among the first nations worldwide until the end of the 19th century.  During the 20th century, a large number of oil and gas reservoirs were discovered in many countries on all continents; even today Romania still remains an important producer with encouraging perspectives.Romanian contributions to the progress of petroleum industry are noticeable, being appreciated and implemented by the major companies worldwide.  This work intends to present just several of these contributions, some of which are highlighted and highly regarded.

  18. Petroleum resources assessment (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    This report consists of 2 subjects. 1) Petroleum resources assessment of the Kunsan Basin : Kunsan Basin is mainly filled with Cretaceous and Tertiary clastic sediments, and divided into Southwest Sub-basin, Central Sub-basin and Northeast Sub-basin by uplifts and faults developed in the basin. Microfossils were studied for the biostratigraphic works of drill wells in the Kunsan Basin. The microfossils include organic-walled microfossils such as spores, pollen and nonmarine dinoflagellates and calcareous microfossils such as ostracods, charophytes and gastropods. The fossil assemblages of the Kunsan Basin reveal nonmarine environments ranging from alluvial fan to shallow lacustrine and climatic variation between subtropical and cool temperate temperature in the arid/humid alternating conditions. According to the paleontological data, the Kunsan Basin was initiated in the Early Cretaceous and expanded during Paleogene followed by regional erosion at the closing time of Paleogene on which Neogene sediments have been accumulated. The Paleogene strata show laterally irregular thickness in each Epoch due to migrating depocenter. 2) Petroliferous basin analysis in Hapcheon area (I) : The Cretaceous Gyeongsang Supergroup consists of more than 9 Km sequences of sedimentary and volcanic rocks in Hapcheon-Changyong-Euiryong-Haman area and occupies the middle part of the Milyang subbasin. The Supergroup can be divided into three group; Sindong, Hayang and Yuchon groups in ascending order. Based on rock color, the Sindong Group can be subdivided into Nakdong, Hasandong and Jinju Formations. The Hayang Group can be subdivided into Chilgok, Silla Conglomerate, Haman and Jindong Formations. The Chilgok Formation includes basaltic lava and tuffs in the upper part. The Haman Formation has Kusandong tuff (keybed) in the uppermost part in the Changyong area, whereas the tuff is intercalated below the vocaniclastics in the Haman area. (author). 60 refs., 22 tabs., 61 figs.

  19. Petroleum resources assessment (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    On the basis of diverse microfossils such as foraminifers, ostracods, micromulluscs, fossil spores and pollen and calcareous nannofossils derived from 14 drill holes, the sediments are divided into two part, the upper marine part and the lower nonmarine one. Marine part is subdivided into 4 foraminiferal zones and 3 nannofossil zones of Plio-Pleistocene age. In the lower part ranging from Oligocene to Late Miocene 4 palynomoph assemblages are established, which reflect climatic changes fluctuating between subtropical and cool temperate. Some fine sediments occurring in the South Sea continental shelf are rich in organic matter to be hydrocarbon source rock. The organic matter is mainly compared to type 3. However, lower part of the Geobuk-1 and Okdom-1 shows more oil prone geochemical characteristics than other wells. The kerosene is mixture type 1 and type 3 organic matter. The main oil generation zone located between 2,500 m and 3,000 m and gas generation zone from 3,500 m to 4,000 m approximately. Hydrocarbon accumulation could be expected in the trap formed in the period earlier than 10 Ma. as the hydrocarbon started to be expelled at 10 Ma. according to the modeling. Approximately 13,000 Line-km of multichannel seismic data integrated with 14 wells and gravity and magnetic data were analyzed to investigate the structural and stratigraphic evolution of southern part of offshore Korea. The northeast-southwest trending Taiwan-Sinzi Uplift Belt separates the area into two regions with different tectonic features, northwestern and southwestern regions. The potential hydrocarbon traps associated with anticline, tilted fault block, fault, unconformity, and rollover structure exist. This project is consisted of two main subjects. 1) Petroleum resources assessment on the continental shelf basin of the south sea. 2) Petroliferous basin analysis in Taegu area (1). (author). refs., tabs., figs.

  20. Wood or Laminate?—Psychological Research of Customer Expectations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Jiménez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Wood is generally associated with being practical, aesthetic and economy-friendly. Using wood in interior settings also can be based on psychological expectations and assumptions, as wood is attributed as warmer, more homely, more relaxing and more inviting. However, when investigating psychological differences, wood is usually compared to carpets, glass, leather, stone, or plastic but is not compared to a visually similar material such as laminate. The aim of this study is to analyze and compare the various psychological characteristics related to wooden and laminate materials in interior settings. The experimental design was a 2 × 2 design (material, sequence with repeated measures for material. Forty participants were asked to evaluate a framed piece of wood floor and a framed piece of laminate floor regarding technical, practical, and psychological aspects. Further, three questions about one’s purchase decision were asked. The results show that the wooden floor was evaluated significantly better than the laminate floor regarding “materials and processing”, “atmosphere”, and “values and symbolic functions”. For the criterion “health”, a tendency in favor of wood could be found. In addition, the participants would more likely recommend and purchase wooden products and also accept more deficiencies in wooden products.

  1. Plastic Sealed Thermal Expansion Packer for Thermal Recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Li; Jiang Hua

    1995-01-01

    @@ According to the requirements of wellbore heatinsulation technique and selective zonal steaminjection technique in heavy-oil steam-injection recovery process, the Oil Recovery Technique Department of Liaohe Petroleum Exploration and Production Bureau and Shuguang Oil Recovery Plant have cooperatively designed and developed a plastic sealed thermal expansion packer for thermal recovery.

  2. Plastic Surgery Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PSN PSEN GRAFT Contact Us News Plastic Surgery Statistics Plastic surgery procedural statistics from the American Society of Plastic Surgeons. Statistics by Year Print 2016 Plastic Surgery Statistics 2015 ...

  3. Photodegradation of thermally modified wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Kavyashree; Pandey, Krishna K

    2012-12-01

    Natural wood, being biological material, undergoes rapid degradation by ultraviolet (UV) radiations and other environmental factors under outdoor exposure. In order to protect wood from such degradation, the chemical structure of wood is altered by chemical modification or heat treatment. In the present study, heat treated specimens of rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis) were exposed to xenon light source in a weather-o-meter for different periods up to 300 h. Photostability of modified and unmodified wood was evaluated in terms of colour and chemical changes. Light coloured untreated wood became dark upon UV irradiation whereas, dark colour of heat treated wood lightened on UV exposure. CIE lightness parameter (L(*)) decreased for untreated wood whereas its value increased for heat treated wood upon irradiation. Other colour coordinates a(*) and b(*) increased with exposure duration for both untreated and heat treated wood. The overall colour change (ΔE(*)) increased for both untreated and heat treated wood. The Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic studies revealed severe lignin degradation of heat treated wood due to UV light exposure. Colour changes and FTIR measurements indicate that thermal modification of wood was ineffective in restricting light induced colour changes and photodegradation of wood polymers.

  4. Conversion of Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) and Polypropylene (PP) Waste Plastics into Liquid Fuel Using Thermal Cracking Process

    OpenAIRE

    Sarker, Moinuddin; Rashid, Mohammad Mamunor; Rahman, Md. Sadikur; Molla, Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    In every sector of the world today energy is essential. Energy has many forms such as electricity, transportation fuel and so on. A large amount of energy is produced from crude oil, which is used to produce petroleum and petroleum to produce daily usable plastics. The solution to the above mentioned problems can be solved through the utilization of the new develop technology. This new developed technology will remove these hazardous waste plastics from the environment and convert them into e...

  5. Genetic classification of petroleum systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huizinga, B.J. (Chevron Oil Field Research Co., Richmond, CA (United States)); Demaison, G.

    1991-03-01

    The authors genetic classification of petroleum basins is founded on a working nomenclature that consists of combining qualifiers from each of the following three categories: (1) the charge factor (supercharged, normally charged, or undercharged), (2) the migration drainage style (vertically drained or laterally drained), and (3) the entrapment style (high impedance or low impedance). The charge factor is estimated on the basis of the richness and volumetrics of mature source rocks. The source potential index (SPI), which combines source-rock richness and thickness into a single parameter, is a convenient shortcut for comparing the petroleum potential of different source rocks containing dissimilar kerogen types and for rapidly estimating a basin's regional charging capacity. On a global scale, a general correlation exists between the magnitude of SPI and basinwide petroleum reserves. The dominant migration drainage style can be predicted from the structural and stratigraphic framework of a basin. Recognition of the dominant migration style helps to predict the location of zones of petroleum occurrence in relation to the 'hydrocarbon kitchens.' The entrapment style, which is also dependent on the structural framework and the presence of seals, describes the degree of resistance (i.e. impedance) working against dispersion of the petroleum charge. Application of these working concepts should help significantly reduce geologic risk, particularly in new ventures-type exploration.

  6. Precision wood particle feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2013-07-30

    Wood particles having fibers aligned in a grain, wherein: the wood particles are characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L; the L.times.H dimensions define two side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers; the W.times.H dimensions define two cross-grain end surfaces characterized individually as aligned either normal to the grain or oblique to the grain; the L.times.W dimensions define two substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces; and, a majority of the W.times.H surfaces in the mixture of wood particles have end checking.

  7. Fatigue Damage in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clorius, Christian Odin; Pedersen, Martin Bo Uhre; Hoffmeyer, Preben;

    1996-01-01

    An investigation of fatigue failure in wood subjected to load cycles in compression parallel to grain is presented. Fatigue failure is found to depend both on the total time under load and on the number of cycles.Recent accelerated fatigue research on wood is reviewed, and a discrepancy between...... failure explanation under fatigue and static load conditions is observed. In the present study small clear specimens of spruce are taken to failure in square wave formed fatigue loading at a stress excitation level corresponding to 80% of the short term strength. Four frequencies ranging from 0.01 Hz...... to 10 Hz are used. The number of cycles to failure is found to be a poor measure of the fatigue performance of wood. Creep, maximum strain, stiffness and work are monitored throughout the fatigue tests. Accumulated creep is suggested identified with damage and a correlation between stiffness reduction...

  8. Wood for sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegst, Ulrike G K

    2006-10-01

    The unique mechanical and acoustical properties of wood and its aesthetic appeal still make it the material of choice for musical instruments and the interior of concert halls. Worldwide, several hundred wood species are available for making wind, string, or percussion instruments. Over generations, first by trial and error and more recently by scientific approach, the most appropriate species were found for each instrument and application. Using material property charts on which acoustic properties such as the speed of sound, the characteristic impedance, the sound radiation coefficient, and the loss coefficient are plotted against one another for woods. We analyze and explain why spruce is the preferred choice for soundboards, why tropical species are favored for xylophone bars and woodwind instruments, why violinists still prefer pernambuco over other species as a bow material, and why hornbeam and birch are used in piano actions.

  9. Bacterial production of the biodegradable plastics polyhydroxyalkanoates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urtuvia, Viviana; Villegas, Pamela; González, Myriam; Seeger, Michael

    2014-09-01

    Petroleum-based plastics constitute a major environmental problem due to their low biodegradability and accumulation in various environments. Therefore, searching for novel biodegradable plastics is of increasing interest. Microbial polyesters known as polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are biodegradable plastics. Life cycle assessment indicates that PHB is more beneficial than petroleum-based plastics. In this report, bacterial production of PHAs and their industrial applications are reviewed and the synthesis of PHAs in Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 is described. PHAs are synthesized by a large number of microorganisms during unbalanced nutritional conditions. These polymers are accumulated as carbon and energy reserve in discrete granules in the bacterial cytoplasm. 3-hydroxybutyrate and 3-hydroxyvalerate are two main PHA units among 150 monomers that have been reported. B. xenovorans LB400 is a model bacterium for the degradation of polychlorobiphenyls and a wide range of aromatic compounds. A bioinformatic analysis of LB400 genome indicated the presence of pha genes encoding enzymes of pathways for PHA synthesis. This study showed that B. xenovorans LB400 synthesize PHAs under nutrient limitation. Staining with Sudan Black B indicated the production of PHAs by B. xenovorans LB400 colonies. The PHAs produced were characterized by GC-MS. Diverse substrates for the production of PHAs in strain LB400 were analyzed.

  10. Climate accounting for waste management, Phase I and II. Summary: Phase 1: Glass Packaging, Metal packaging, paper, cardboard, plastic and wet organic waste. Phase 2: Wood waste and residual waste from households; Klimaregnskap for avfallshaandtering, Fase I og II. Sammendrag: Fase 1: Glassemballasje, metallemballasje, papir, papp, plastemballasje og vaatorganisk avfall. Fase 2: Treavfall og restavfall fra husholdninger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raadal, Hanne Lerche; Modahl, Ingunn Saur; Lyng, Kari-Anne

    2009-09-15

    Background. On the basis of an increased focus on emissions of greenhouse gases in general, Waste Norway wanted to prepare a climate accounting for waste management in Norway. Oestfoldforskning was engaged to undertake the project. The aim of the project has been to develop a model for the calculation of net greenhouse gas emissions from different waste types of waste glass containers, metal containers, paper, cardboard, plastic, wet organic waste, wood waste and residual waste. The model is based on life cycle methodology and is used to calculate the net greenhouse gas emissions per kg of waste for the various waste management options and waste types, as well as to calculate the net greenhouse gas emissions for waste management for including waste types and quantities of 2006. There is an emphasis on developing a model so that municipalities / waste companies or regions can develop their own climate accounting for waste management in their region, based on site-specific conditions associated with types and amounts of waste, transport distances, type of treatment, exploitation and use of waste generated energy etc. The model can also be used as the basis for the preparation of useful documentation as the basis for information about waste systems utility in general, and as a basis for strategic reviews for Waste Norway and the waste sector in particular. Conclusions: The main conclusions from the project can be summarized as follows: 1. The results of the study clearly shows that to consider only one environmental indicator is too narrow approach to form the basis for decision making for selection of waste management solutions. 2. Net greenhouse gas emissions for waste management varies greatly, both between the different types of waste and treatment methods which are reviewed. The main results of the ranking of management methods in relation to the net greenhouse effect associated with the waste types and treatment methods are as follows: Recycling of materials

  11. Methane from wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, T. F.; Barreto, L.; Kypreos, S.; Stucki, S

    2005-07-15

    The role of wood-based energy technologies in the Swiss energy system in the long-term is examined using the energy-system Swiss MARKAL model. The Swiss MARKAL model is a 'bottom-up' energy-systems optimization model that allows a detailed representation of energy technologies. The model has been developed as a joint effort between the Energy Economics Group (EEG) at Paul Scherrer Institute PSI) and the University of Geneva and is currently used at PSI-EEG. Using the Swiss MARKAL model, this study examines the conditions under which wood-based energy technologies could play a role in the Swiss energy system, the most attractive pathways for their use and the policy measures that could support them. Given the involvement of PSI in the ECOGAS project, especial emphasis is put on the production of bio-SNG from wood via gasification and methanation of syngas and on hydrothermal gasification of woody biomass. Of specific interest as weIl is the fraction of fuel used in passenger cars that could be produced by locally harvested wood. The report is organized as follows: Section 2 presents a brief description of the MARKAL model. Section 3 describes the results of the base case scenario, which represents a plausible, 'middle-of-the-road' development of the Swiss energy system. Section 4 discusses results illustrating the conditions under which the wood-based methanation technology could become competitive in the Swiss energy market, the role of oil and gas prices, subsidies to methanation technologies and the introduction of a competing technology, namely the wood-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. FinaIly, section 5 outlines some conclusions from this analysis. (author)

  12. Plastics and environmental health: the road ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Emily J; Halden, Rolf U

    2013-01-01

    Plastics continue to benefit society in innumerable ways, even though recent public focus on plastics has centered mostly on human health and environmental concerns, including their endocrine-disrupting properties and the long-term pollution they represent. The benefits of plastics are particularly apparent in medicine and public health. Plastics are versatile, cost-effective, require less energy to produce than alternative materials like metal or glass, and can be manufactured to have many different properties. Due to these characteristics, polymers are used in diverse health applications like disposable syringes and intravenous bags, sterile packaging for medical instruments as well as in joint replacements, tissue engineering, etc. However, not all current uses of plastics are prudent and sustainable, as illustrated by the widespread, unwanted human exposure to endocrine-disrupting bisphenol A (BPA) and di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), problems arising from the large quantities of plastic being disposed of, and depletion of non-renewable petroleum resources as a result of the ever-increasing mass production of plastic consumer articles. Using the health-care sector as example, this review concentrates on the benefits and downsides of plastics and identifies opportunities to change the composition and disposal practices of these invaluable polymers for a more sustainable future consumption. It highlights ongoing efforts to phase out DEHP and BPA in the health-care and food industry and discusses biodegradable options for plastic packaging, opportunities for reducing plastic medical waste, and recycling in medical facilities in the quest to reap a maximum of benefits from polymers without compromising human health or the environment in the process.

  13. Plastics and Environmental Health: The Road Ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Emily J.; Halden, Rolf U.

    2013-01-01

    Plastics continue to benefit society in innumerable ways, even though recent public focus on plastics has centered mostly on human health and environmental concerns, including endocrine-disrupting properties and long-term pollution. The benefits of plastics are particularly apparent in medicine and public health. Plastics are versatile, cost-effective, require less energy to produce than alternative materials – such as metal or glass – and can be manufactured to have many different properties. Due to these characteristics, polymers are used in diverse health applications, such as disposable syringes and intravenous bags, sterile packaging for medical instruments as well as in joint replacements, tissue engineering, etc. However, not all current uses of plastics are prudent and sustainable, as illustrated by widespread, unwanted human exposure to endocrine-disrupting bisphenol-A (BPA) and di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), problems arising from the large quantities of plastic being disposed of, and depletion of non-renewable petroleum resources as a result of ever increasing mass-production of plastic consumer articles. By example of the healthcare sector, this review concentrates on benefits and downsides of plastics and identities opportunities to change the composition and disposal practices of these invaluable polymers for a more sustainable future consumption. It highlights ongoing efforts to phase out DEHP and BPA in the healthcare and food industry, and discusses biodegradable options for plastic packaging, opportunities for reducing plastic medical waste, and recycling in medical facilities in the quest to reap a maximum of benefits from polymers without compromising human health or the environment in the process. PMID:23337043

  14. Variation in root wood anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutler, D.F.

    1976-01-01

    Variability in the anatomy of root wood of selected specimens particularly Fraxinus excelsior L. and Acer pseudoplatanus L. in the Kew reference microscope slide collection is discussed in relation to generalised statements in the literature on root wood anatomy.

  15. Variation in root wood anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutler, D.F.

    1976-01-01

    Variability in the anatomy of root wood of selected specimens particularly Fraxinus excelsior L. and Acer pseudoplatanus L. in the Kew reference microscope slide collection is discussed in relation to generalised statements in the literature on root wood anatomy.

  16. Plastic bronchitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Singhi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastic bronchitis, a rare but serious clinical condition, commonly seen after Fontan surgeries in children, may be a manifestation of suboptimal adaptation to the cavopulmonary circulation with unfavorable hemodynamics. They are ominous with poor prognosis. Sometimes, infection or airway reactivity may provoke cast bronchitis as a two-step insult on a vulnerable vascular bed. In such instances, aggressive management leads to longer survival. This report of cast bronchitis discusses its current understanding.

  17. TCP HolyWood

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar Núñez Mori

    2005-01-01

    We introduce a new end-to-end, sender side Transport Control Protocol called TCP HolyWood or in short TCP-HW. In a simulated wired environment, TCP HolyWood outperforms in average throughput, three of the more important TCP protocols ever made, we are talking about TCP Reno, TCP Westwood, and TCP Vegas; and in average jitter to TCP Reno and TCP Vegas too. In addition, according to Jain’s index, our proposal is as fair as TCP Reno, the Standard. Apresentamos um novo Protocolo de Controle de...

  18. Biological Remediation of Petroleum Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhad, Ramesh Chander; Gupta, Rishi

    Large volumes of hazardous wastes are generated in the form of oily sludges and contaminated soils during crude oil transportation and processing. Although many physical, chemical and biological treatment technologies are available for petroleum contaminants petroleum contaminants in soil, biological methods have been considered the most cost-effective. Practical biological remediation methods typically involve direct use of the microbes naturally occurring in the contaminated environment and/or cultured indigenous or modified microorganisms. Environmental and nutritional factors, including the properties of the soil, the chemical structure of the hydrocarbon(s), oxygen, water, nutrient availability, pH, temperature, and contaminant bioavailability, can significantly affect the rate and the extent of hydrocarbon biodegradation hydrocarbon biodegradation by microorganisms in contaminated soils. This chapter concisely discusses the major aspects of bioremediation of petroleum contaminants.

  19. Association models for petroleum applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    2013-01-01

    Thermodynamics plays an important role in many applications in the petroleum industry, both upstream and downstream, ranging from flow assurance, (enhanced) oil recovery and control of chemicals to meet production and environmental regulations. There are many different applications in the oil & gas...... industry, thus thermodynamic data (phase behaviour, densities, speed of sound, etc) are needed to study a very diverse range of compounds in addition to the petroleum ones (CO2, H2S, water, alcohols, glycols, mercaptans, mercury, asphaltenes, waxes, polymers, electrolytes, biofuels, etc) within a very...... extensive range of conditions, up to very high pressures. Actually, the petroleum industry was one of the first industrial sectors which used extensively thermodynamic models and even contributed to the development of several of the most popular and still widely used approaches. While traditional...

  20. Petroleum 1996 - issues and trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    Increasingly, users of the Energy Information Administration`s petroleum data and analytical reports have expressed an interest in a recurring report that takes a broad view of the petroleum sector. What is sought is some perspective on the complex interrelationships that comprise an industry and markets accounting for 40 percent of the energy consumed in the United States and ranging from the drilling rig in the oil field to the pump at the local gasoline station. This report comprehensively examines historical trends, and selectively focuses on major issues and the events they represent. It analyzes different dimensions of the industry and related markets in terms of how they relate to a common theme, in this case, the volatility in petroleum markets.

  1. False "highlighting" with Wood's lamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverberg, Jonathan I; Silverberg, Nanette B

    2014-01-01

    Wood's lamp evaluation is used to diagnose pigmentary disorders. For example, vitiligo typically demonstrates lesional enhancement under Wood's lamp evaluation. Numerous false positive enhancing lesions can be noted in the skin. We describe a 5-year-old Hispanic boy who had painted his face with highlighter, producing enhancing lesions under Wood's lamp. Physicians who use Wood's lamp should be aware that the appearance of markers and highlighter can mimic that of true clinical illnesses.

  2. Low VOC drying of lumber and wood panel products. Progress report No. 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hui Yan; Hooda, Usha; Banerjee, Sujit [and others

    1998-03-01

    Green pine blocks (2x1x 1) were dried to different moisture levels at 120 degrees C. They were immersed in D{sub 2}O (greater than 99% isotopic Content) for different periods at room temperature, and were then cut in halves. One piece from each set was then wrapped in plastic, and microwaved at 110 W, for 30 minutes, with the field being cycled to keep the wood surface at 90-100 degrees C. Fibers taken from just inside the wet surface from five regions along the length of the piece were then analysed by mass spectrometry with a direct insertion probe. The m/e profiles of the three isotopic forms of water, namely H{sub 2}O, HOD, and D{sub 2}O, remained unchanged as the wood was heated inside the spectrometer, indicating that they were bound equally strongly to the wood. The water released from the green wood had the same isotopic composition regardless of whether or not the wood was microwaved (Table 1), indicating that the exchangeable protons in wood were not affected by microwaving. However, as the wood progressively dried, the water released from the microwaved wood was of lower isotopic content, which means that microwaving increases access of the exchangeable protons in wood tissue to water. The only exchangeable protons in dried wood are those sited on hydroxyl groups, and the difference in isotopic exchange is the greatest for dried wood. This must mean that as wood dries, internal hydrogen bonding restricts access of D{sub 2}O to the hydroxyl protons. Presumably the energy transferred to water upon microwaving is sufficient to at least partially overcome this barrier. The effect is akin to the hysteresis that occurs for moisture sorption to green and dried wood. Similar isotope exchange work with D{sub 2}O has been previously conducted to determine the accessibility of cellulose to water.

  3. Petroleum marketing monthly, June 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-10

    This publication is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  4. Subscription of Henan Petroleum welcome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    @@ Henan Petroleum is a publicly-circulated periodical both inside and outside China for reportage of petroleum technology. Its standard international publication number and domestic publication number are ISSN 1006-4095 and CN41-1207/TE. It provides information on geological exploration of oil and natural gas, geophysical prospecting and logging, drilling engineering, development of oil and gas fields, reservoir engineering, oil engineering construction, oil-gas processing and storage,oil machinery, foreign oil science and technology,computer application, technology market, management of oil enterprises and introduction of high and new technology.

  5. Optimization of the Tensile and Flexural Strength of a Wood-PET Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz-Salgado Javier

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The large amount of disposable bottles presently produced makes the search for alternative products that reuse these materials imperative. Wood-plastic composites are sustainable, organic materials, that show potential for the development of environmentally friendly products. This paper presents the optimization of tensile and flexural strength of a wood-plastic composite made ​​from polyethylene-terephthalate, as thermoplastic resin, and sawdust as fiberfill. The goal of this study was to establish the operating conditions that provide the optimum properties of the wood-plastic composites, with minimal variance. The particle size of the fiber filler was taken as a noise factor. The response surface methodology, by contour lines, in a combined design of experiment was applied.

  6. Thermolysis of High-Density Polyethylene to Petroleum Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal degradation of plastic polymers is becoming an increasingly important method for the conversion of plastic materials into valuable chemicals and oil products. In this work, virgin high-density polyethylene (HDPE was chosen as a material for pyrolysis. A simple pyrolysis reactor system has been used to pyrolyse virgin HDPE with an objective to optimize the liquid product yield at a temperature range of 400°C to 550°C. The chemical analysis of the HDPE pyrolytic oil showed the presence of functional groups such as alkanes, alkenes, alcohols, ethers, carboxylic acids, esters, and phenyl ring substitution bands. The composition of the pyrolytic oil was analyzed using GC-MS, and it was found that the main constituents were n-Octadecane, n-Heptadecane, 1-Pentadecene, Octadecane, Pentadecane, and 1-Nonadecene. The physical properties of the obtained pyrolytic oil were close to those of mixture of petroleum products.

  7. PETROLEUM-COLLECTING AND DISPERSING CHEMICALS FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    Films of petroleum origin reflecting sunlight rays hinder absorption of energy by water necessary for life activity of marine inhabitants. Removal of ... However, a part of this petroleum remains on the water surface as slicks. These slicks can.

  8. Jianghan Petroleum Administration Grows Fast in Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Guanghui

    1995-01-01

    @@ Jianghan Petroleum Administration (JHP) is a large,comprehensive enterprise of China National Petroleum Corporation and was classified as "AAA" enterprise in credit rating evaluation by the Industry and Commerce Bank of China.

  9. chromatographic analysis of crude oils and petroleum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    methods to industrial process operations have been discussed, ... petroleum by distillation, crystallization, and solvent extraction, as well as the analysis of the ...... Bland, F.W.; Davidson, R.L. Petroleum Processing Handbook, 4th ed., William ...

  10. Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH): ToxFAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a state: This map displays locations where Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) is known to be present. On ... I get more information? ToxFAQs TM for Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) ( Hidrocarburos Totales de Petróleo (TPH) ) August ...

  11. Petroleum Resins: Separation, Character, and Role in Petroleum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simon Ivar; Speight, James

    2001-01-01

    In petroleum science, the term resin generally implies material that has been eluted from various solid adsorbents, whereas the term maltenes (or petrolenes) indicates a mixture of the resins and oils obtained as filtrates from the asphaltene precipitation. Thus, after the asphaltenes are precipi......In petroleum science, the term resin generally implies material that has been eluted from various solid adsorbents, whereas the term maltenes (or petrolenes) indicates a mixture of the resins and oils obtained as filtrates from the asphaltene precipitation. Thus, after the asphaltenes...... are precipitated, adsorbents are added to the n-pentane solutions of the resins and oils, by which process the resins are adsorbed and subsequently recovered by the use of a more polar solvent, and the oils remain in solution. The resin fraction plays an important role in the stability of petroleum and prevents...... of the fact that the resin fraction is extremely important to the stability of petroleum, there is surprisingly little work reported on the characteristics of the resins. This article summarizes the work that has been carried out in determining the character and properties of the resin constituents...

  12. Wood dust exposure in wood industry and forestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puntarić, Dinko; Kos, Ankica; Smit, Zdenko; Zecić, Zeljko; Sega, Kresimir; Beljo-Lucić, Ruzica; Horvat, Dubravko; Bosnir, Jasna

    2005-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine occupational exposure in Croatian wood processing industry and forest workers to harmful effects of wood dust on the risk of nose, nasal cavity and lung carcinoma. Mass concentrations of respirable particles and total wood dust were measured at two wood processing plants, three woodwork shops, and one lumbering site, where 225 total wood dust samples and 221 respirable particle samples were collected. Wood dust mass concentration was determined by the gravimetric method. Mass concentrations exceeding total wood dust maximal allowed concentration (MAC, 3 mg/m3) were measured for beechwood and oakwood dust in 38% (79/206) of study samples from wood processing facilities (plants and woodwork shops). Mass concentrations of respirable particles exceeding MAC (1 mg/m3) were recorded in 24% (48/202) of samples from wood processing facilities (mean 2.38 +/- 2.08 mg/m3 in plants and 3.6 +/- 2.22 mg/m3 in woodwork shops). Thus, 13% (27/206) of work sites in wood processing facilities failed to meet health criteria according to European guidelines. Launching of measures to reduce wood dust emission to the work area is recommended.

  13. The role of the national petroleum company in petroleum development market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, B.J. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-08-01

    The present century started with the creation of national petroleum companies, and it ends with those national petroleum companies exerting various types of efforts to increase the efficiency of their management. Especially, the efforts of these national petroleum companies are ever intensifying to adapt to new trends in the world petroleum market such as intensified competition, ever-deepening price unstableness, separation of structure between upstream and downstream portions, rapid development of petroleum development technologies, change of political systems and the demise of national borders, ever-increasing consciousness of environmental preservation, etc. Korea cannot be exempt from management rationalization efforts of national petroleum companies. Especially, Korea established its own national petroleum company in order to actively deal with these as its supply system is very weak. Therefore, the national petroleum company should create as many successful petroleum development businesses by actively carrying out petroleum development businesses domestically and overseas in order to establish a stable supply system of petroleum and to support the petroleum development businesses of civilian enterprises more effectively. The national petroleum company must, first of all, replace the bureaucracy with entrepreneurship. Esp., in order to enhance the efficiency of management, short- term outcome should not be emphasized over long-term tenure of petroleum development businesses, and excessive interference of government on the national petroleum company should be excluded. The entrepreneurship of the national petroleum company should be pursued in Positive-sum way, and its public image should be actively promoted through this. 35 refs., 11 figs., 32 tabs.

  14. The role of the national petroleum company in petroleum development market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, B.J. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-08-01

    The present century started with the creation of national petroleum companies, and it ends with those national petroleum companies exerting various types of efforts to increase the efficiency of their management. Especially, the efforts of these national petroleum companies are ever intensifying to adapt to new trends in the world petroleum market such as intensified competition, ever-deepening price unstableness, separation of structure between upstream and downstream portions, rapid development of petroleum development technologies, change of political systems and the demise of national borders, ever-increasing consciousness of environmental preservation, etc. Korea cannot be exempt from management rationalization efforts of national petroleum companies. Especially, Korea established its own national petroleum company in order to actively deal with these as its supply system is very weak. Therefore, the national petroleum company should create as many successful petroleum development businesses by actively carrying out petroleum development businesses domestically and overseas in order to establish a stable supply system of petroleum and to support the petroleum development businesses of civilian enterprises more effectively. The national petroleum company must, first of all, replace the bureaucracy with entrepreneurship. Esp., in order to enhance the efficiency of management, short- term outcome should not be emphasized over long-term tenure of petroleum development businesses, and excessive interference of government on the national petroleum company should be excluded. The entrepreneurship of the national petroleum company should be pursued in Positive-sum way, and its public image should be actively promoted through this. 35 refs., 11 figs., 32 tabs.

  15. 77 FR 56421 - Standards of Performance for Petroleum Refineries; Standards of Performance for Petroleum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... for Petroleum Refineries; Standards of Performance for Petroleum Refineries for Which Construction... CFR Parts 9 and 60 RIN 2060-AN72 Standards of Performance for Petroleum Refineries; Standards of Performance for Petroleum Refineries for Which Construction, Reconstruction, or Modification Commenced After...

  16. 46 CFR 148.04-15 - Petroleum coke, uncalcined; petroleum coke, uncalcined and calcined (mixture).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Petroleum coke, uncalcined; petroleum coke, uncalcined and calcined (mixture). 148.04-15 Section 148.04-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Requirements for Certain Material § 148.04-15 Petroleum coke, uncalcined; petroleum coke, uncalcined and...

  17. Petroleum supply annual 1995: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The {ital Petroleum Supply Annual} contains information on supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. It reflects data collected from the petroleum industry during 1995 through monthly surveys, and it is divided into 2 volumes. This volume contains three sections: summary statistics, detailed statistics, and selected refinery statistics, each with final annual data. (The other volume contains final statistics for each month and replaces data previously published in the {ital Petroleum Supply Monthly}).

  18. Fact sheet. Norwegian petroleum activity 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westgaard, T. [ed.

    1996-02-01

    The present report from the Royal Ministry of Industry and Energy deals with the Norwegian petroleum activity. Main topics are as follow: Historical overview; state organisation of petroleum activities; the economic impact of Norwegian oil and gas; state revenues; mainland activities; petroleum resources; production; marketing situation for petroleum products; environmental aspects; the legal and licence framework; licensing rounds; exploration; fields in production; fields under development; discoveries with development plan under consideration; transportation systems; licence interests; company interests. 36 refs., 24 figs., 15 tabs.

  19. The Second Colloquium on Petroleum Engineering Education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willhite, G.P.; Forney, R.H.

    1993-11-30

    This paper describes findings from the Second Colloquium on Petroleum engineering Education. The purpose of this colloquium was to provide a forum for petroleum engineering educators and representatives from industry and government to explore critical issues facing petroleum engineering education as we move into the 21st Century. It was expected that the colloquium would identify areas where changes are needed in petroleum engineering education, to best prepare students for careers in the oil and gas industry or other, related industries.

  20. Grant Wood: "American Gothic."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Diane M.

    1988-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan which exposes students in grades 10-12 to the visual symbols and historical references contained in Grant Wood's "American Gothic." Includes background information on the artist and the painting, instructional strategies, a studio activity, and evaluation criteria. (GEA)

  1. Wood waste in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, O.; Ribeiro, R. [Biomass Centre for Energy - CBE, Miranda do Corvo (Portugal)

    1997-12-31

    The energy policy of the EC, as well as most of member states points to a sizeable increase of energy production based on renewable energy sources, wood, wood residues, agricultural residues, energy crops including SRF, organic sludges, solid residues, etc. Most recent goals indicate a desirable duplication of today`s percentage by 2010. The reasons for this interest, besides diversification of sources, less dependence on imported fuels, use of endogenous resources, expected decrease of fossil fuel reserves, use of available land, additional employment and income for rural communities, etc., are related to important environmental benefits namely in terms of emissions of hot house gases. Wood waste, resulting from forest operations, cleaning, cultural and final cuttings, and from wood based industries, constitute a special important resource by reason of quality and availability. In addition to this they do not require additional land use and the removal is beneficial. In the run-up to the becoming December`s 1997 `Climate Change Summit` in Kioto, there is mounting pressure on companies to plan on carbon cuts. (author) 6 refs., 1 tab.

  2. Tannins in tropical woods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doat, J.

    1978-01-01

    A preliminary study was made of the chemistry of pyrogallol- and catecholtannins, their general properties and methods of extraction and determination. Three methods of estimation - Lowenthal, powdered hide and spectrophotometry - were compared using two control solutions, four samples of wood and one of bark. Using the empirical powdered hide method, tannins of both types were estimated in wood and bark of various tropical species (some separately and some as a mixture), Moroccan oaks (Quercus suber and Q. ilex), and European oak 9Q. petraea). Further tests were made on the wood and bark of the two mangrove species, Rhizophora mangle and R. racemosa, by subjecting them to successive extraction with a range of solvents. None of the woods tested had as much as the 10% of tannins considered necessary in economic sources. The bark of the two mangroves, of Eucalyptus urophylla and of Prosopis africana had tannin contents over 10% and the latter two species had very favorable tannin/non-tannin ratios. All the tropical species, with the probable exception of E. urophylla, had only catecholtannins. Only the oaks and E. urophylla bark gave positive results when tested for gallotannins.

  3. Identification of coniferous woods

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. Francis Kukachka

    1960-01-01

    The identification of coniferous woods is generally regarded as being more difficult than for the hardwood species. This is due to the fact that conifers are more elemental in their structure and, as a consequence, the number of diagnostic features that may he employed is proportionately smaller. Instructions are given here in the sequential use of primary diagnostic...

  4. FRACTURED PETROLEUM RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas Firoozabadi

    1999-06-11

    different from that of gas displacement processes. The work is of experimental nature and clarifies several misconceptions in the literature. Based on experimental results, it is established that the main reason for high efficiency of solution gas drive from heavy oil reservoirs is due to low gas mobility. Chapter III presents the concept of the alteration of porous media wettability from liquid-wetting to intermediate gas-wetting. The idea is novel and has not been introduced in the petroleum literature before. There are significant implications from such as proposal. The most direct application of intermediate gas wetting is wettability alteration around the wellbore. Such an alteration can significantly improve well deliverability in gas condensate reservoirs where gas well deliverability decreases below dewpoint pressure. Part I of Chapter III studies the effect of gravity, viscous forces, interfacial tension, and wettability on the critical condensate saturation and relative permeability of gas condensate systems. A simple phenomenological network model is used for this study, The theoretical results reveal that wettability significantly affects both the critical gas saturation and gas relative permeability. Gas relative permeability may increase ten times as contact angle is altered from 0{sup o} (strongly liquid wet) to 85{sup o} (intermediate gas-wetting). The results from the theoretical study motivated the experimental investigation described in Part II. In Part II we demonstrate that the wettability of porous media can be altered from liquid-wetting to gas-wetting. This part describes our attempt to find appropriate chemicals for wettability alteration of various substrates including rock matrix. Chapter IV provides a comprehensive treatment of molecular, pressure, and thermal diffusion and convection in porous media Basic theoretical analysis is presented using irreversible thermodynamics.

  5. Resistance and Resilience of Soil Microbial Communities Exposed to Petroleum-Derived Compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Modrzynski, Jakub Jan

    -induced community tolerance (PICT) often develops following chemical stress. Nonetheless, environmental pollution may severely disturb functioning of soil microbial communities, thereby threatening provision of important ecosystem services provided by microorganisms. Pollution with petroleum and petroleum......-derived compounds (PDCs) is a significant environmental problem on a global scale. Research addressing interactions between microorganisms and PDC pollution is dominated by studies of biodegradation, with less emphasis on microbial ecotoxicology. Soil microbial communities are generally considered highly resilient......Functioning of soil microbial communities is generally considered resilient to disturbance, including chemical stress. Activities of soil microbial communities are often sustained in polluted environments due to exceptional plasticity of microbial communities and functional redundancy. Pollution...

  6. Resistance and Resilience of Soil Microbial Communities Exposed to Petroleum-Derived Compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Modrzynski, Jakub Jan

    Functioning of soil microbial communities is generally considered resilient to disturbance, including chemical stress. Activities of soil microbial communities are often sustained in polluted environments due to exceptional plasticity of microbial communities and functional redundancy. Pollution......-induced community tolerance (PICT) often develops following chemical stress. Nonetheless, environmental pollution may severely disturb functioning of soil microbial communities, thereby threatening provision of important ecosystem services provided by microorganisms. Pollution with petroleum and petroleum......-derived compounds (PDCs) is a significant environmental problem on a global scale. Research addressing interactions between microorganisms and PDC pollution is dominated by studies of biodegradation, with less emphasis on microbial ecotoxicology. Soil microbial communities are generally considered highly resilient...

  7. What Next for Wood Construction/Demolition Debris?

    OpenAIRE

    Martin A. Hubbe

    2014-01-01

    Residents in localities throughout the world voluntarily participate in the routine recycling of household wastes, such as paper, metals, and plastics containers. But when a house in their neighborhood gets built or torn down, most of the debris – including wood waste – gets landfilled. Such a waste of material suggests that there are opportunities to add value to these under-utilized resources. The great variability, as well as contamination, pose major challenges. It is recommended that rec...

  8. 21 CFR 172.250 - Petroleum naphtha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Petroleum naphtha. 172.250 Section 172.250 Food and..., Films and Related Substances § 172.250 Petroleum naphtha. Petroleum naphtha may be safely used in food... Naphtha general instructions All glassware should be scrupulously cleaned to remove all organic matter...

  9. 21 CFR 178.3710 - Petroleum wax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADJUVANTS, PRODUCTION AIDS, AND SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3710 Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used as a component of nonfood articles in contact with food, in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Petroleum wax is...

  10. 77 FR 42297 - National Petroleum Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ... National Petroleum Council AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. ] SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the National Petroleum Council. The Federal... Brought Before the National Petroleum Council Adjournment Public Participation: The meeting is open to the...

  11. Unit: Petroleum, Inspection Pack, National Trial Print.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Science Education Project, Toorak, Victoria.

    This is a National Trial Print of a unit on petroleum developed for the Australian Science Education Project. The package contains the teacher's edition of the written material and a script for a film entitled "The Extraordinary Experience of Nicholas Nodwell" emphasizing the uses of petroleum and petroleum products in daily life and…

  12. 78 FR 40131 - National Petroleum Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ... National Petroleum Council AGENCY: Office of Fossil Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of Open Meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the National Petroleum Council. The Federal Advisory... Business Properly Brought Before the National Petroleum Council Adjournment Public Participation: The...

  13. 76 FR 53889 - National Petroleum Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... National Petroleum Council AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy. ACTION: Notice of Open Meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the National Petroleum Council. The Federal Advisory... National, Petroleum Council, Adjournment. Public Participation: The meeting is open to the public. The...

  14. Strategic petroleum reserve annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-15

    Section 165 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (Public Law 94- 163), as amended, requires the Secretary of Energy to submit annual reports to the President and the Congress on activities of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). This report describes activities for the year ending December 31, 1995.

  15. Genetic classification of petroleum systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demaison, G. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States)); Huizinga, B.J. (Chevron Overseas Petroleum Inc., San Ramon, CA (United States))

    1991-10-01

    The authors classification so petroleum systems is founded on a simple working nomenclature that consists of combining qualifiers from each of the following three categories: (1) charge factor, (2) migration drainage style, and (3) entrapment style. The charge factor is estimated on the basis of the richness and volumetrics of mature source rocks. The source potential index (SPI), which combines source-rock richness and thickness into a single parameter, is a convenient shortcut for comparing the petroleum potential of diverse source rocks containing dissimilar kerogen types and for rapidly estimating regional charging capacity. The migration drainage style is determined from the structural and stratigraphic framework of a basin. Vertical-migration drainage, which occurs mainly through faults and fracture systems breaching a seal, is characteristic of petroleum systems contained within rift basins, deltaic sequences, salt-dome provinces, wrench basins, and fold-and-thrust belts. In contrast, lateral-migration drainage sequences, salt-dome provinces, wrench basins, and fold-and-thrust belts. In contrast, lateral-migration drainage is dominant wherever stratigraphically continuous seal-reservoir doublets extend over a very large area in tectonically stable province. The entrapment style, which is also dependent on the structural framework and the presence and effectiveness of seals, describes the degree of resistance working against dispersion of the petroleum charge. Application of these working concepts should help to significantly reduce geologic risk, particularly in news ventures-type exploration.

  16. PETROLEUM BIOREFINING FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John J. Kilbane II

    2002-03-01

    The objective of this project was to isolate and characterize thermophilic bacterial cultures that can be used for the selective removal of nitrogen, sulfur, and/or metals in the biorefining of petroleum. The project was completed on schedule and no major difficulties were encountered. Significant progress was made on multiple topics relevant to the development of a petroleum biorefining process capable of operating at thermophilic temperatures. New cultures capable of selectively cleaving C-N or C-S bonds in molecules relevant to petroleum were obtained, and the genes encoding the enzymes for these unique biochemical reactions were cloned and sequenced. Genetic tools were developed that enable the use of Thermus thermophilus as a host to express any gene of interest, and information was obtained regarding the optimum conditions for the growth of T. thermophilus. The development of a practical biorefining process still requires further research and the future research needs identified in this project include the development of new enzymes and pathways for the selective cleavage of C-N or C-S bonds that have higher specific activities, increased substrate range, and are capable of functioning at thermophilic temperatures. Additionally, there is a need for process engineering research to determine the maximum yield of biomass and cloned gene products that can be obtained in fed-batch cultures using T. thermophilus, and to determine the best configuration for a process employing biocatalysts to treat petroleum.

  17. Phytoremediation of petroleum polluted soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jing; Zhang Zhongzhi; Su Youming; He Wei; He Feng; Song Hongguang

    2008-01-01

    An experimental study of the rhizosphere effect on phytoremediation of petroleum polluted soil was carried out with three species of grasses,namely Pannicum,Eleusine indica (L.) Gaerth,and Tall Fescue.After a period of 150 days,this pot experiment showed that the rhizosphere of these three species accelerated the degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons to different extents.The results showed that the number of microorganisms in the rhizosphere increased by three orders of magnitude.The induction of the plant rhizosphere and the coercion influence of petroleum changed the species and activity of microorganisms.The degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in the rhizosphere was 3-4 times that in unplanted soil.The dehydrogenase activity in the rhizosphere was 1.61-2.20 times that in unplanted soil,but the catalase activity was 0.90-0.93 times that in unplanted soil,and soil moisture content increased by 5% compared with the unplanted soil.

  18. Limited transfer of nitrogen between wood decomposing and ectomycorrhizal mycelia when studied in the field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallander, Håkan; Lindahl, Björn D.; Nilsson, Lars Ola

    2006-01-01

    Transfer of 15N between interacting mycelia of a wood-decomposing fungus (Hypholoma fasciculare) and an ectomycorrhizal fungus (Tomentellopsis submollis) was studied in a mature beech (Fagus sylvatica) forest. The amount of 15N transferred from the wood decomposer to the ectomycorrhizal fungus...... was compared to the amount of 15N released from the wood-decomposing mycelia into the soil solution as 15N-NH4. The study was performed in peat-filled plastic containers placed in forest soil in the field. The wood-decomposing mycelium was growing from an inoculated wood piece and the ectomycorrhizal mycelium...... from an introduced root from a mature tree. The containers were harvested after 41 weeks when physical contact between the two foraging mycelia was established. At harvest, 15N content was analyzed in the peat (total N and 15NH4+) and in the mycorrhizal roots. A limited amount of 15N was transferred...

  19. Discriminant analyzing system for wood wastes using a visible-near-infrared chemometric imaging technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobori, Hikaru; Yonenobu, Hitoshi; Noma, Junichi; Tsuchikawa, Satoru

    2008-08-01

    A new optical system was developed and applied to automated separation of wood wastes, using a combined technique of visible-near-infrared (Vis-NIR) imaging analysis and chemometrics. Three kinds of typical wood wastes were used, i.e., non-treated, impregnated, and plastic-film overlaid wood. The classification model based on soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) was examined using the difference luminance brightness of a sample. Our newly developed system showed a good/promising performance in separation of wood wastes, with an average rate of correct separation of 89%. Hence, it is concluded that the system is efficiently feasible for online monitoring and separation of wood wastes in recycling mills.

  20. Preparation and testing of plant seed meal-based wood adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhongqi; Chapital, Dorselyn C

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the interest in plant seed meal-based products as wood adhesives has steadily increased, as these plant raw materials are considered renewable and environment-friendly. These natural products may serve as alternatives to petroleum-based adhesives to ease environmental and sustainability concerns. This work demonstrates the preparation and testing of the plant seed-based wood adhesives using cottonseed and soy meal as raw materials. In addition to untreated meals, water washed meals and protein isolates are prepared and tested. Adhesive slurries are prepared by mixing a freeze-dried meal product with deionized water (3:25 w/w) for 2 hr. Each adhesive preparation is applied to one end of 2 wood veneer strips using a brush. The tacky adhesive coated areas of the wood veneer strips are lapped and glued by hot-pressing. Adhesive strength is reported as the shear strength of the bonded wood specimen at break. Water resistance of the adhesives is measured by the change in shear strength of the bonded wood specimens at break after water soaking. This protocol allows one to assess plant seed-based agricultural products as suitable candidates for substitution of synthetic-based wood adhesives. Adjustments to the adhesive formulation with or without additives and bonding conditions could optimize their adhesive properties for various practical applications.

  1. Energy cogeneration contributions in the wood quality as civil construction material; Contribuicoes da cogeracao de energia na qualidade da madeira como material de construcao civil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Carlos Roberto de

    1993-07-01

    This work presents the practicable technical alternative for the improvement of solid wood quality used in the building construction. Through the reality of the solid wood Amazon Region's production and actual generation conception; cogeneration, economy and efficiency on the energy application; the alternative displayed proposes the modification on the lay-out production and production process seeking the best quality obtention of the solid wood; the replace of the petroleum derived energetics by biomass (residues) and the introduction on the production site, the solid wood drying process. The production alternatives proposed can contribute for the solid wood production cost reduction, through the fuel economy, the imperfect number piece reduction and transportation cost production reduction. Contributing significantly for the cost/benefit/quality wood relations, enabling its placement of the consuming market on the Northeast, Southeast, South and Middle west Regions and so on the international market with competitive costs. (author)

  2. Nanoscale in Wood, Nanowood and Wood-Inorganic Nanocomposites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Guangjie; Lu Wenhua

    2003-01-01

    In order to introduce nano science and technology (NST) into the research field of wood science and technology, andpromote the research of wood science and wood-inorganic composites to nanoscale, some new concepts, such as the nano space inwood, nano structure units of wood and nanowood are put forward in this paper based on the layer structure of wood cell wall and thepile-up model of its main components. Furthermore, the process of preparing nanowood is discussed, and wood-inorganic nanocom-posites may be operated in three ways with wood (matrix) and inorganic filler phase in 0-2, 0-3 or 2-3 dimensions respectively. Thefollowing results are obtained: (1) The nanoscale voids in wood indicate that wood has inherent space to accommodate nanosizedmaterials, such as nanoparticles, nanotubes and nanosticks; (2) According to the size from top down, the nano structure units in woodcan be classified as: nanolayers, nano CMF (cellulose microfibril) and matrix, nano crystallite units and cellulose chain clusters, andthese can theoretically form nanowood; (3) The preparation of wood-inorganic nanocomposites can be operated on 0-2, 0-3 or 2-3dimensions.

  3. Stresses Analysis of Petroleum Pipe Finite Element under Internal Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Ragbe.M.Abdusslam

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper described the results of a nonlinear static mode within ANSYS of elastic and elastic-plastic behaviour of thin petroleum pipe that is subjected to an internal pressure and therefore a linear stress analysis performed using ANSYS 9.0 finite element software Such an analysis is important because the shape of most structures under internal pressure is cylindrical[1]. In this paper is considered only. Elastic and elastic-plastic finite element analysis is used to predict the principle stresses, effective stress results are compared with those obtained from theatrical equations in order to predict the limit and failure loads for this type of loading also the relationships between redial, hoop stresses and displacement has been used to develop a through understanding. The analysis was completed using ANAYS Version 9.0. (a finite element program for Microsoft Windows NT. The program allows pre-processing, analysis and post-processing stages to be completed within a single application. The program can be used to model a large number of situations including buckling, plastic deformation, forming and stress analysis problems. r mm (In this study ,a thin pipe of internal radiu ri 596 .9 mmand of externalo 609 .6objected to aninternal pressure 2 i  4 .83  / mm which is gradually increased to near the ultimate load that may be sustained by the pipe. The pipe is modelled as an elasto-plastic material using the Von Mises yield criterion which is normally used for metallic materials[2]. The specification of the load in several increments enables the spread of the plasticity to occur gradually and its effect on the stress distribution to be assessed. Key words: finite element analysis, elastic-plastic behavior, thin walled pipe equivalent stress, TWT.

  4. Petroleum supply monthly, October 1990. [Contains Glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-27

    Data presented in this report describes the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. 12 figs., 54 tabs.

  5. Petroleum Supply Monthly, September 1990. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whited, D.; Jacobus, P. (eds.)

    1990-11-28

    Data presented in this PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. 12 figs., 46 tabs.

  6. Petroleum supply monthly, October 1991. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-30

    Data presented in this report describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importer, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics 14 figs., 56 tabs.

  7. The survival of Teredo navalis L. in timber wrapped in TERRAM4000 and a plastic membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Anne Marie; Gregory, D. J.; Botfeldt, Knud Bo

    2014-01-01

    had been confirmed, the blocks were removed and wrapped in either TERRAM4000 (polypropylene and polyethylene) or a proprietary plastic membrane (polyethylene), normally used on fishing piles or piers, as a protection against shipworm in Denmark. An optical oxygen sensor was packed together with each...... plastic materials (TERRAM4000 and a plastic membrane) to stop both initial attack by T. navalis and their effects on wood with active woodborer degradation. Blocks of pinewood were submerged in the southern part of the Kattegat in Denmark, where shipworm is known to be prolific. After settling and attack...... block to measure the amount of available oxygen around the wood. After one week the oxygen level around the test blocks wrapped in the plastic membrane had dropped drastically and lead to the death of all shipworms within the test blocks after one-four weeks. Although no new shipworm attacked the wood...

  8. Lignin-Retaining Transparent Wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Fu, Qiliang; Rojas, Ramiro; Yan, Min; Lawoko, Martin; Berglund, Lars

    2017-09-11

    Optically transparent wood, combining optical and mechanical performance, is an emerging new material for light-transmitting structures in buildings with the aim of reducing energy consumption. One of the main obstacles for transparent wood fabrication is delignification, where around 30 wt % of wood tissue is removed to reduce light absorption and refractive index mismatch. This step is time consuming and not environmentally benign. Moreover, lignin removal weakens the wood structure, limiting the fabrication of large structures. A green and industrially feasible method has now been developed to prepare transparent wood. Up to 80 wt % of lignin is preserved, leading to a stronger wood template compared to the delignified alternative. After polymer infiltration, a high-lignin-content transparent wood with transmittance of 83 %, haze of 75 %, thermal conductivity of 0.23 W mK(-1) , and work-tofracture of 1.2 MJ m(-3) (a magnitude higher than glass) was obtained. This transparent wood preparation method is efficient and applicable to various wood species. The transparent wood obtained shows potential for application in energy-saving buildings. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  9. Compressive Fatigue in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clorius, Christian Odin; Pedersen, Martin Bo Uhre; Hoffmeyer, Preben;

    1999-01-01

    An investigation of fatigue failure in wood subjected to load cycles in compression parallel to grain is presented. Small clear specimens of spruce are taken to failure in square wave formed fatigue loading at a stress excitation level corresponding to 80% of the short term strength. Four...... frequencies ranging from 0.01 Hz to 10 Hz are used. The number of cycles to failure is found to be a poor measure of the fatigue performance of wood. Creep, maximum strain, stiffness and work are monitored throughout the fatigue tests. Accumulated creep is suggested identified with damage and a correlation...... is observed between stiffness reduction and accumulated creep. A failure model based on the total work during the fatigue life is rejected, and a modified work model based on elastic, viscous and non-recovered viscoelastic work is experimentally supported, and an explanation at a microstructural level...

  10. Alaskan North Slope petroleum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magoon, L.B.; Lillis, P.G.; Bird, K.J.; Lampe, C.; Peters, K.E.

    2003-01-01

    Six North Slope petroleum systems are identified, described, and mapped using oil-to-oil and oil-to-source rock correlations, pods of active source rock, and overburden rock packages. To map these systems, we assumed that: a) petroleum source rocks contain 3.2 wt. % organic carbon (TOC); b) immature oil-prone source rocks have hydrogen indices (HI) >300 (mg HC/gm TOC); c) the top and bottom of the petroleum (oil plus gas) window occur at vitrinite reflectance values of 0.6 and 1.0% Ro, respectively; and d) most hydrocarbons are expelled within the petroleum window. The six petroleum systems we have identified and mapped are: a) a southern system involving the Kuna-Lisburne source rock unit that was active during the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous; b) two western systems involving source rock in the Kingak-Blankenship, and GRZ-lower Torok source rock units that were active during the Albian; and c) three eastern systems involving the Shublik-Otuk, Hue Shale and Canning source rock units that were active during the Cenozoic. The GRZ-lower Torok in the west is correlative with the Hue Shale to the east. Four overburden rock packages controlled the time of expulsion and gross geometry of migration paths: a) a southern package of Early Cretaceous and older rocks structurally-thickened by early Brooks Range thrusting; b) a western package of Early Cretaceous rocks that filled the western part of the foreland basin; c) an eastern package of Late Cretaceous and Paleogene rocks that filled the eastern part of the foreland basin; and d) an offshore deltaic package of Neogene rocks deposited by the Colville, Canning, and Mackenzie rivers. This petroleum system poster is part of a series of Northern Alaska posters on modeling. The poster in this session by Saltus and Bird present gridded maps for the greater Northern Alaskan onshore and offshore that are used in the 3D modeling poster by Lampe and others. Posters on source rock units are by Keller and Bird as well as

  11. Overcoming maladaptive plasticity through plastic compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R.J. MORRIS, Sean M. ROGERS

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Most species evolve within fluctuating environments, and have developed adaptations to meet the challenges posed by environmental heterogeneity. One such adaptation is phenotypic plasticity, or the ability of a single genotype to produce multiple environmentally-induced phenotypes. Yet, not all plasticity is adaptive. Despite the renewed interest in adaptive phenotypic plasticity and its consequences for evolution, much less is known about maladaptive plasticity. However, maladaptive plasticity is likely an important driver of phenotypic similarity among populations living in different environments. This paper traces four strategies for overcoming maladaptive plasticity that result in phenotypic similarity, two of which involve genetic changes (standing genetic variation, genetic compensation and two of which do not (standing epigenetic variation, plastic compensation. Plastic compensation is defined as adaptive plasticity overcoming maladaptive plasticity. In particular, plastic compensation may increase the likelihood of genetic compensation by facilitating population persistence. We provide key terms to disentangle these aspects of phenotypic plasticity and introduce examples to reinforce the potential importance of plastic compensation for understanding evolutionary change [Current Zoology 59 (4: 526–536, 2013].

  12. Overcoming maladaptive plasticity through plastic compensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matthew R.J.MORRIS; Sean M.ROGERS

    2013-01-01

    Most species evolve within fluctuating environments,and have developed adaptations to meet the challenges posed by environmental heterogeneity.One such adaptation is phenotypic plasticity,or the ability of a single genotype to produce multiple environmentally-induced phenotypes.Yet,not all plasticity is adaptive.Despite the renewed interest in adaptive phenotypic plasticity and its consequences for evolution,much less is known about maladaptive plasticity.However,maladaptive plasticity is likely an important driver of phenotypic similarity among populations living in different environments.This paper traces four strategies for overcoming maladaptive plasticity that result in phenotypic similarity,two of which involve genetic changes (standing genetic variation,genetic compensation) and two of which do not (standing epigenetic variation,plastic compensation).Plastic compensation is defined as adaptive plasticity overcoming maladaptive plasticity.In particular,plastic compensation may increase the likelihood of genetic compensation by facilitating population persistence.We provide key terms to disentangle these aspects of phenotypic plasticity and introduce examples to reinforce the potential importance of plastic compensation for understanding evolutionary change.

  13. Solution-state NMR analysis of hydroxymethylated resorcinol cured in the presence of crude milled-wood lignin from Acer saccharum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel J. Yelle

    2017-01-01

    Resorcinol-formaldehyde adhesives can reinforce stress fractures that appear from wood surface preparation. Researchers have found that applying the resorcinol-formaldehyde prepolymer, hydroxymethylated resorcinol is thought to plasticize lignin components and stabilize stress fractures through reactions with lignin subunits and hemicelluloses in wood. In this study, a...

  14. On the role of CFRP reinforcement for wood beams stiffness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianasi, A. C.

    2015-11-01

    In recent years, carbon fiber composites have been increasingly used in different ways in reinforcing structural elements. Specifically, the use of composite materials as a reinforcement for wood beams under bending loads requires paying attention to several aspects of the problem such as the number of the composite layers applied on the wood beams. Study consolidation of composites revealed that they are made by bonding fibrous material impregnated with resin on the surface of various elements, to restore or increase the load carrying capacity (bending, cutting, compression or torque) without significant damage of their rigidity. Fibers used in building applications can be fiberglass, aramid or carbon. Items that can be strengthened are concrete, brick, wood, steel and stone, and in terms of structural beams, walls, columns and floors. This paper describes an experimental study which was designed to evaluate the effect of composite material on the stiffness of the wood beams. It proposes a summary of the fundamental principles of analysis of composite materials and the design and use. The type of reinforcement used on the beams is the carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) sheet and plates and also an epoxy resin for bonding all the elements. Structural epoxy resins remain the primary choice of adhesive to form the bond to fiber-reinforced plastics and are the generally accepted adhesives in bonded CFRP-wood connections. The advantages of using epoxy resin in comparison to common wood-laminating adhesives are their gap-filling qualities and the low clamping pressures that are required to form the bond between carbon fiber plates or sheets and the wood beams. Mechanical tests performed on the reinforced wood beams showed that CFRP materials may produce flexural displacement and lifting increases of the beams. Observations of the experimental load-displacement relationships showed that bending strength increased for wood beams reinforced with CFRP composite plates

  15. Norwegian Petroleum Policy; Norsk petroleumspolitikk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froeiland, Ranveig

    1997-12-31

    This presentation discusses the environment, the petroleum fortune and future generations, licence policy, and regional issues. A principal aim for the Norwegian government is to combine the role as a major energy producer with the desire to be a leading country in environmental issues. Norway is now a major oil and gas producer that produces effectively, profitably and more environmentally friendly than other petroleum countries. The MILJOESOK process was started to strengthen the cooperation between Norwegian authorities and the industry in the environmental sector. The emissions of greenhouse gases per unit produced have been reduced. The emissions to sea of oil and chemicals are also being reduced. Another principle aim is that the oil and gas resources should give the highest possible value creation and secure welfare and employment. With the present production level the reserves of oil will last for 15 years and the reserves of gas for 110 years. The state income generated by the petroleum production is expected to peak around the turn of the millennium, then to decline gradually toward 2050. The petroleum fund is established to be a buffer till long into the future. In 2010, the yield from this fund is expected to be twice the amount of oil money used over the state budget today. Compared with the UK, Norway has chosen to exploit the resources in a step by step fashion at a moderate rate. This policy can be seen in the granting of concession. New concessions will be granted at a rate suitable for smoothing out the activity level and strengthening onshore employment. The North Sea, the Norwegian Sea and the Barents Sea are quite different as to mapping and maturity and hence require different concession policies. The new deep-sea fields in the Norwegian Sea offer technological challenges and it is important that offshore activities in this area create opportunities for regional development on land

  16. Recycling of Plastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2011-01-01

    Plastic is produced from fossil oil. Plastic is used for many different products. Some plastic products like, for example, wrapping foil, bags and disposable containers for food and beverage have very short lifetimes and thus constitute a major fraction of most waste. Other plastic products like......, good strength and long durability. Recycling of plastic waste from production is well-established, while recycling of postconsumer plastic waste still is in its infancy. This chapter describes briefly how plastic is produced and how waste plastic is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements...

  17. Ground Wood Fiber Length Distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Lauri Ilmari Salminen; Sari Liukkonen; Alava, Mikko J.

    2014-01-01

    This study considers ground wood fiber length distributions arising from pilot grindings. The empirical fiber length distributions appear to be independent of wood fiber length as well as feeding velocity. In terms of mathematics the fiber fragment distributions of ground wood pulp combine an exponential distribution for high-length fragments and a power-law distribution for smaller lengths. This implies that the fiber length distribution is influenced by the stone surface. A fragmentation-ba...

  18. Dermal uptake of petroleum substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakasa, Ivone; Kezic, Sanja; Boogaard, Peter J

    2015-06-01

    Petroleum products are complex substances comprising varying amounts of linear and branched alkanes, alkenes, cycloalkanes, and aromatics which may penetrate the skin at different rates. For proper interpretation of toxic hazard data, understanding their percutaneous absorption is of paramount importance. The extent and significance of dermal absorption of eight petroleum substances, representing different classes of hydrocarbons, was evaluated. Literature data on the steady-state flux and permeability coefficient of these substances were evaluated and compared to those predicted by mathematical models. Reported results spanned over 5-6 orders of magnitude and were largely dependent on experimental conditions in particular on the type of the vehicle used. In general, aromatic hydrocarbons showed higher dermal absorption than more lipophilic aliphatics with similar molecular weight. The results showed high variation and were largely influenced by experimental conditions emphasizing the need of performing the experiments under "in use" scenario. The predictive models overestimated experimental absorption. The overall conclusion is that, based on the observed percutaneous penetration data, dermal exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons, even of aromatics with highest dermal absorption is limited and highly unlikely to be associated with health risks under real use scenarios. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Corrosion of Fasteners in Wood Treated with Newer Wood Preservatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka

    2013-01-01

    This document compiles recent research findings related to corrosion of metals in preservative treated wood into a single report on corrosion of metals in wood. The research was conducted as part of the Research, Technology and Education portion of the National Historic Covered Bridge Preservation (NHCBP) Program administered by the Federal Highway Administration. The...

  20. World Total Petroleum System Summary Result Data, 2000 World Petroleum Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This shapefile includes arcs and polygons that describe U.S. Geological Survey delineated Total Petroleum Systems of the World. Each petroleum system is defined as a...

  1. Important Step to Rapidly Develop West China Petroleum Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yirong

    1997-01-01

    @@ China National Petroleum Corp.(CNPC) and Japan National Oil Corp. (JNOC),and Japan Energy Corp., Japan Petroleum Exploration Co., Ltd., Indonesia Petroleum Ltd., Sumitomo Corp. signed an agreement of geological survey and a petroleum contract for cooperative exploring petroleum resources for Misalieyi Block of Bachu Uplift in Tarim Basin,respectively in Beijing on July 23, 1997.

  2. Wood pole overhead lines

    CERN Document Server

    Wareing, Brian

    2005-01-01

    This new book concentrates on the mechanical aspects of distribution wood pole lines, including live line working, environmental influences, climate change and international standards. Other topics include statutory requirements, safety, profiling, traditional and probabilistic design, weather loads, bare and covered conductors, different types of overhead systems, conductor choice, construction and maintenance. A section has also been devoted to the topic of lightning, which is one of the major sources of faults on overhead lines. The book focuses on the effects of this problem and the strate

  3. On translation strategies of petroleum technical English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张阳

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays the petroleum energy has achieved the prime competitiveness around the world.Therefore,translation of petroleum technical English leaves a significant impact.This paper has studied the characteristics of the words and the discourse with specific instance.It also summarizes some useful methods such as literal translation and free translation.And strategies in dealing with long sentences and passive voice,therefore it will help the translators with petroleum technological English.

  4. Petroleum Prices, Taxation and Subsidies in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    The current Indian system of effectively subsidised petroleum product prices has significant implications for the emergence of India as a major global energy consumer, for the integrity of India's Central Government budget and for investment in India's growing oil and petroleum sector. This paper is part one of a broader study that looks at the current system of petroleum pricing and the macroeconomic, microeconomic, regional and global effects of this system.

  5. PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF THREE POLYSTYRENE IMPREGNATED INDONESIAN WOOD SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurwati Hadjib

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The disadvantage of  fast-growing species is  that they have inferior physical and mechanical properties. Polystyrene impregnation can be applied to improve physical and mechanical properties. Wood samples, which were dried  until 10% moisture content were put into impregnating tank and vacuum pressured  at 20-mm Hg  for  two hours. During  the gradual release of  vacuum, styrene monomers,  vinyl acetate  monomers  and  terburyl-peroxide catalyst was streamed  into  the tank. Afterwards, the pressure inside the tank was allowed to decrease to 500 mm Hg and kept for 60 minutes. Wood samples which had been impregnated were subsequently immersed in water, then wrapped in aluminum foils and put in the oven for 24 hours at 60°C. The samples were then tested for the polymer loading and their physical and mechanical properties. The results showed that the polymer loadings in wood plastics with the species  of origin (i.e. consecutively sengon, pine and rubber wood were 118%, 72% and 44%, respectively. Impregnation with polystyrene  (copolymer of styrene and vinyl acetate monomers could improve the physical and mechanical properties of wood plastics, i.e.  specific gravity, moisture content, water absorption,  shrinkage/ swelling, compression parallelto the wood grain, MOR and MOE. Greater  use of vinyl acetate decreased physical and mechanical properties.

  6. Wood-related occupations, wood dust exposure, and sinonasal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, R B; Gerin, M; Raatgever, J W; de Bruyn, A

    1986-10-01

    A case-control study was conducted to examine the relations between type of woodworking and the extent of wood dust exposure to the risks for specific histologic types of sinonasal cancer. In cooperation with the major treatment centers in the Netherlands, 116 male patients newly diagnosed between 1978 and 1981 with primary malignancies of epithelial origin of this site were identified for study. Living controls were selected from the municipal registries, and deceased controls were selected from the national death registry. Interviews were completed for 91 (78%) cases and 195 (75%) controls. Job histories were coded by industry and occupation. An index of exposure was developed to classify the extent of occupational exposure to wood dust. When necessary, adjustment was made for age and usual cigarette use. The risk for nasal adenocarcinoma was elevated by industry for the wood and paper industry (odds ratio (OR) = 11.9) and by occupation for those employed in furniture and cabinet making (OR = 139.8), in factory joinery and carpentry work (OR = 16.3), and in association with high-level wood dust exposure (OR = 26.3). Other types of nasal cancer were not found to be associated with wood-related industries or occupations. A moderate excess in risk for squamous cell cancer (OR = 2.5) was associated with low-level wood dust exposure; however, no dose-response relation was evident. The association between wood dust and adenocarcinoma was strongest for those employed in wood dust-related occupations between 1930 and 1941. The risk of adenocarcinoma did not appear to decrease for at least 15 years after termination of exposure to wood dust. No cases of nasal adenocarcinoma were observed in men whose first exposure to wood dust occurred after 1941.

  7. Spores and Pollen in Oil From Igneous Rock Petroleum Pool and Petroleum Origin of Junggar Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江德昕; 杨惠秋

    1994-01-01

    Ninety-six species of fossil spores and pollen referred to 55 genera found in crude oil fromthe Beisantai igneous rock petroleum pool of the southeastern part of the Junggar Basin in Xinjiang have beenstudied.Based on the investigation of the spores and pollen in crude oil,the petroleum source rocks of thepetroliferous province are identified,the petroleum origin theory is discussed and the organic petroleum ori-gin theory is confirmed.

  8. Petroleum supply annual 1994. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-22

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1994 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains four sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, Refinery Capacity, and Oxygenate Capacity each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1994, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Below is a description of each section in Volume 1 of the PSA.

  9. Petroleum supply annual 1993. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1993 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains four sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, Refinery Capacity, and Oxygenate Capacity each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1993, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Below is a description of each section in Volume 1 of the PSA.

  10. Petroleum supply annual, 1997. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1997 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Statistics; each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1997, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. 16 figs., 48 tabs.

  11. PTM Thrives for Onshore Petroleum Industry Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Technology Market Office, CNPC

    1997-01-01

    @@ Since the Law on Technological Contracts was issued, it has been conscientiously carried out by every onshore petroleum enterprise in China. Exchanges of technology have been vigorously carried out among petroleum enterprises,scientific and technological institutes and colleges. Nearly 10 000 technology contracts have been signed, the scientific and technological achievements have been introduced to production and a lot of technological problems in production have been resolved. Therefore, the petroleum technology market (PTM)has played an active role in promoting the development of onshore petroleum industry.

  12. Design Wood Nanocomposites from Polymer Nanocomposites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LVWenhua; ZHAOGuangjie

    2004-01-01

    Researches on wood nanocomposites, which involve nano science and technology, wood science,materials science and other related subjects, have important science signification and promising prospect for the development and study of new wood composites with high appending values and multi-properties. This paper reviewed the conventional wood composites, and then discussed the approaches to prepare wood nanocomposites. Based on the achievements of researches on polymer/montmorillonite (MMT) nanocomposites, the design ideas of preparing nanocomposites of wood and inorganic MMT were systematically put forward. Nano compounding of wood and other materials is an effective approach to greatly improve or modify wood.

  13. Wood gas; Holz gibt Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilgers, Claudia

    2011-06-17

    Sixty years ago, wood gas was even used as a car fuel. Today, this ancient technology is experiencing a renaissance. Small cogeneration plants with wood gasifiers are ideal for renewable and decentral power supply concepts for tomorrow. Until then, there is much pioneering work to do until plants will be ready for serial production.

  14. IMPROVEMENT OF INTERNATIONAL WOOD TRANSPORTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolov A. P.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article gives an example of usage of the tool for round-wood transport planning from the Decision Support System “Forest Logistic Toolset” for com-pare of two approaches to the organization of international wood transportation

  15. Assessing potential sustainable wood yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert F. Powers

    2001-01-01

    Society is making unprecedented demands on world forests to produce and sustain many values. Chief among them is wood supply, and concerns are rising globally about the ability of forests to meet increasing needs. Assessing this is not easy. It requires a basic understanding of the principles governing forest productivity: how wood yield varies with tree and stand...

  16. Preservation of forest wood chips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kofman, P.D.; Thomsen, I.M.; Ohlsson, C.; Leer, E.; Ravn Schmidt, E.; Soerensen, M.; Knudsen, P.

    1999-01-01

    As part of the Danish Energy Research Programme on biomass utilisation for energy production (EFP), this project concerns problems connected to the handling and storing of wood chips. In this project, the possibility of preserving wood chips of the Norway Spruce (Picea Abies) is addressed, and the potential improvements by anaerobic storage are tested. Preservation of wood chips aims at reducing dry matter losses from extensive heating during storage and to reduce production of fungal spores. Fungal spores pose a health hazards to workers handling the chips. Further the producers of wood chips are interested in such a method since it would enable them to give a guarantee for the delivery of homogeneous wood chips also during the winter period. Three different types of wood chips were stored airtight and further one of these was stored in accordance with normal practise and use as reference. The results showed that airtight storage had a beneficial impact on the quality of the chips: no redistribution of moisture, low dry matter losses, unfavourable conditions for microbial activity of most fungi, and the promotion of yeasts instead of fungi with airborne spores. Likewise the firing tests showed that no combustion problems, and no increased risk to the environment or to the health of staff is caused by anaerobic storage of wood chips. In all, the tests of the anaerobic storage method of forest wood chips were a success and a large-scale test of the method will be carried out in 1999. (au)

  17. Moisture transport in coated wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meel, P.A. van; Erich, S.J.F.; Huinink, H.P.; Kopinga, K.; Jong, J. DE; Adan, O.C.G.

    2011-01-01

    Moisture accumulation inside wood causes favorable conditions for decay. Application of a coating alters the moisture sorption of wood and prevents accumulation of moisture. This paper presents the results of a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) study on the influence of a coating on the moisture abso

  18. Reducing Petroleum Consumption from Transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Knittel, Christopher R

    2012-01-01

    The United States consumes more petroleum-based liquid fuel per capita than any other OECD high-income country—30 percent more than the second-highest country (Canada) and 40 percent more than the third-highest (Luxembourg). The transportation sector accounts for 70 percent of U.S. oil consumption and 30 percent of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions. Taking the externalities associated with high U.S. gasoline consumption as largely given, I focus on understanding the policy tools that seek to redu...

  19. Applied bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinchee, R.E.; Kittel, J.A. [eds.] [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Reisinger, H.J. [ed.] [Integrated Science and Technology, Inc., Marietta, GA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This volume is part of a ten volume set of papers derived from the Third International In Situ and On-Site Bioreclamation Symposium which was held in San Diego, California, in April 1995. The purpose of the conference was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on bioremediation. The papers in this volume focus on petroleum hydrocarbon bioremediation, with an emphasis on pilot-scale and field-scale applications. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  20. [Biological effect of wood dust].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewska, A; Wojtczak, J; Bielichowska-Cybula, G; Domańska, A; Dutkiewicz, J; Mołocznik, A

    1993-01-01

    The biological effect of exposure to wood dust depends on its composition and the content of microorganisms which are an inherent element of the dust. The irritant and allergic effects of wood dust have been recognised for a long time. The allergic effect is caused by the wood dust of subtropical trees, e.g. western red cedar (Thuja plicata), redwood (Sequoia sempervirens), obeche (Triplochiton scleroxylon), cocabolla (Dalbergia retusa) and others. Trees growing in the European climate such as: larch (Larix), walnut (Juglans regia), oak (Quercus), beech (Fagus), pine (Pinus) cause a little less pronounced allergic effect. Occupational exposure to irritative or allergic wood dust may lead to bronchial asthma, rhinitis, alveolitis allergica, DDTS (Organic dust toxic syndrome), bronchitis, allergic dermatitis, conjunctivitis. An increased risk of adenocarcinoma of the sinonasal cavity is an important and serious problem associated with occupational exposure to wood dust. Adenocarcinoma constitutes about half of the total number of cancers induced by wood dust. An increased incidence of the squamous cell cancers can also be observed. The highest risk of cancer applies to workers of the furniture industry, particularly those dealing with machine wood processing, cabinet making and carpentry. The cancer of the upper respiratory tract develops after exposure to many kinds of wood dust. However, the wood dust of oak and beech seems to be most carcinogenic. It is assumed that exposure to wood dust can cause an increased incidence of other cancers, especially lung cancer and Hodgkin's disease. The adverse effects of microorganisms, mainly mould fungi and their metabolic products are manifested by alveolitis allergica and ODTS. These microorganisms can induce aspergillomycosis, bronchial asthma, rhinitis and allergic dermatitis.

  1. Utilizing wood wastes as reinforcement in wood cement composite bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nusirat Aderinsola Sadiku

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the research work undertaken to study the properties of Wood Cement Composite Bricks (WCCB from different wood wastes and cement / wood content. The WCBBs with nominal density of 1200 kg m-3 were produced from three tropical wood species and at varying cement and wood content of 2:1, 2.5:1 and 3:1 on a weight to weight basis. The properties evaluated were compressive strength, Ultra Pulse Velocity (UPV, water absorption (WA and thickness swelling (TS. The Compressive strength values ranged from 0.25 to 1.13 N mm-2 and UPV values ranged from 18753 to 49992 m s-1. The mean values of WA after 672 hours (28 days of water soaking of the WCCBs ranged from 9.50% to 47.13% where there were no noticeable change in the TS of the bricks. The observed density (OD ranged from 627 to 1159 kg m-3. A. zygia from the three wood/cement content were more dimensionally stable and better in compressive strength than the other two species where T. scleroxylon had the best performance in terms of UPV. All the properties improved with increasing cement content. WCCBs at 3.0:1 cement/wood content are suitable for structural application such as panelling, ceiling and partitioning

  2. Facts 2011 - The Norwegian petroleum sector; Fakta 2011 - norsk petroleumsverksemd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-15

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Content; Foreword; The petroleum sector - Norway's largest industry; Organisation of Norwegian petroleum activity; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology and industrial development; Environmental considerations in the Norwegian petroleum sector; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  3. Facts 2010 - The Norwegian petroleum sector; Fakta 2010 - norsk petroleumsverksemd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Content; Foreword; The petroleum sector - Norway's largest industry; Organisation of Norwegian petroleum activity; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology and industrial development; Environmental considerations in the Norwegian petroleum sector; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  4. China Petroleum Information Technology Service Center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) is one of the world's leading integrated energy companies. Its business covers a broad spectrum of upstream and downstream activities, oil and gas engineering technical services, and equipment manufacturing and supply.CNPC ranks 9th among the world's top 50 petroleum companies and rates 39th in Global 500.

  5. Brief Introduction of CNPC Sichuan Petroleum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ CNPC Sichuan Petroleum(CSP), a subsidiary company of China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) with annual production value surpassing RMB 10 billion, is specialized in oil and gas field engineering and technical services, equipment manufacturing and supply, and cooperation in oil and gas field development. CSP has also enjoyed the right in doing international business including technologic & economic cooperation and trading.

  6. Petroleum supply annual 1993. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This publication contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1993 through annual and monthly surveys. This second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1993.

  7. 77 FR 2714 - National Petroleum Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY National Petroleum Council AGENCY: Office of Fossil Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of Renewal... that the National Petroleum Council has been renewed for a two-year period, beginning January 12, 2012...

  8. 75 FR 48320 - National Petroleum Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY National Petroleum Council AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the National Petroleum Council. The Federal Advisory...

  9. Primary biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comber, M.I.H.; Den Haan, K.H.; Djemel, N.; Eadsforth, C.V.; King, D.; Paumen, M.L.; Parkerton, T.; Dmytrasz, B.

    2012-12-15

    This report describes primary biodegradation experiments performed to determine the persistence of higher molecular weight petroleum hydrocarbons in seawater. Results from the biodegradation experiments show that the majority of tested petroleum hydrocarbons have half-lives in seawater less than 60 days.

  10. Recycling of Plastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2011-01-01

    Plastic is produced from fossil oil. Plastic is used for many different products. Some plastic products like, for example, wrapping foil, bags and disposable containers for food and beverage have very short lifetimes and thus constitute a major fraction of most waste. Other plastic products like......, for example, gutters, window frames, car parts and transportation boxes have long lifetimes and thus appear as waste only many years after they have been introduced on the market. Plastic is constantly being used for new products because of its attractive material properties: relatively cheap, easy to form......, good strength and long durability. Recycling of plastic waste from production is well-established, while recycling of postconsumer plastic waste still is in its infancy. This chapter describes briefly how plastic is produced and how waste plastic is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements...

  11. Large Fleets Lead in Petroleum Reduction (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proc, H.

    2011-03-01

    Fact sheet describes Clean Cities' National Petroleum Reduction Partnership, an initiative through which large private fleets can receive support from Clean Cities to reduce petroleum consumption.

  12. Non_standard Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin

    Non-Standard elements in architecture bear the promise of a better more specific performance (Oosterhuis 2003). A new understanding of design evolves, which is focusing on open ended approaches, able to negotiate between shifting requirements and to integrate knowledge on process and material......- and machine industry we fabricated a 1:1 demonstrator show casing the potential for performance due to digital fabrication in this sustainable material. The production of a custom made design tool helped not only to explore design variations while keeping up the link to digital production machinery....... Using parametric design tools and computer controlled production facilities Copenhagens Centre for IT and Architecture undertook a practice based research into performance based non-standard element design and mass customization techniques. In close cooperation with wood construction software...

  13. Cooling of wood briquettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adžić Miroljub M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the experimental research of surface temperature of wood briquettes during cooling phase along the cooling line. The cooling phase is an important part of the briquette production technology. It should be performed with care, otherwise the quality of briquettes could deteriorate and possible changes of combustion characteristics of briquettes could happen. The briquette surface temperature was measured with an IR camera and a surface temperature probe at 42 sections. It was found that the temperature of briquette surface dropped from 68 to 34°C after 7 minutes spent at the cooling line. The temperature at the center of briquette, during the 6 hour storage, decreased to 38°C.

  14. Tuning the Mechanical Properties of Tapioca Starch by Plasticizers, Inorganic Fillers and Agrowaste-Based Fillers

    OpenAIRE

    Edwin Azwar; Minna Hakkarainen

    2012-01-01

    Mechanical properties of tapioca starch-based films were tuned by different additives and additive combinations. The additives included plasticizers (glycerol, sorbitol, and citric acid), inorganic fillers (halloysite and kaolin), and agrowaste-based fillers (milled wood flour and rice bran). In addition, new biobased additives were prepared from wood flour and rice bran through liquefaction reaction. Through different additive combinations, starch-based materials with significant differences...

  15. EVALUATION OF PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS ELUTION FROM SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Piekutin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents studies on oil removal from soil by means of water elution with a help of shaking out the contaminants from the soil. The tests were performed on simulated soil samples contaminated with a mixture of petroleum hydrocarbons. The study consisted in recording the time influence and the number of elution cycles to remove contaminants from the soil. The samples were then subject to the determination of petroleum hydrocarbons, aliphatic hydrocarbons, and BTEX compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene. Due to adding various concentrations of petroleum into particular soil samples and applying different shaking times, it was possible to find out the impact of petroleum content and sample shaking duration on the course and possibility of petroleum substances removal by means of elution process.

  16. Bio-based and recycled polymers for cleaner production : an assessment of plastics and fibres

    OpenAIRE

    L. Shen

    2011-01-01

    Today, almost all man-made plastics and fibres are produced from synthetic polymers. Synthetic polymers, made from petroleum which took millions of years to form, have three sustainability challenges: (i) the limited fossil fuel resources, (ii) the environmental impacts caused by non-degradable plastics waste, and (iii) greenhouse gas emissions caused by combusting fossil fuels. To tackle these sustainability challenges, two strategies have been proposed. First, use bio-based polymers to repl...

  17. Bio-based and recycled polymers for cleaner production : an assessment of plastics and fibres

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, L.

    2011-01-01

    Today, almost all man-made plastics and fibres are produced from synthetic polymers. Synthetic polymers, made from petroleum which took millions of years to form, have three sustainability challenges: (i) the limited fossil fuel resources, (ii) the environmental impacts caused by non-degradable plastics waste, and (iii) greenhouse gas emissions caused by combusting fossil fuels. To tackle these sustainability challenges, two strategies have been proposed. First, use bio-based polymers to repl...

  18. Fire Safety Design of Wood Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    2006-01-01

    Lecture Notes on Fire Safety Design of Wood Structures including charring of wood and load bearing capacity of beams, columns, and connections.......Lecture Notes on Fire Safety Design of Wood Structures including charring of wood and load bearing capacity of beams, columns, and connections....

  19. Bioprocessing preservative-treated waste wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara L. Illman; Vina W. Yang; Les. Ferge

    2000-01-01

    Disposal of preservative-treated waste wood is a growing problem worldwide. Bioprocessing the treated wood offers one approach to waste management under certain conditions. One goal is to use wood decay fungi to reduce the volume of waste with an easily managed system in a cost-effective manner. Wood decay fungi were obtained from culture collections in the Mycology...

  20. FIRE INSURANCE AND WOOD SCHOOL BUILDINGS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PURCELL, FRANK X.

    A COMPARISON OF FIRE INSURANCE COSTS OF WOOD, MASONRY, STEEL AND CONCRETE STRUCTURES SHOWS FIRE INSURANCE PREMIMUMS ON WOOD STRUCTURES TEND TO BE HIGHER THAN PREMIUMS ON MASONRY, STEEL AND CONCRETE BUILDINGS, HOWEVER, THE INITIAL COST OF THE WOOD BUILDINGS IS LOWER. DATA SHOW THAT THE SAVINGS ACHIEVED IN THE INITIAL COST OF WOOD STRUCTURES OFFSET…

  1. Characterization of asphalt materials containing bio oil from michigan wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills-Beale, Julian

    The objective of this research is to develop sustainable wood-blend bioasphalt and characterize the atomic, molecular and bulk-scale behavior necessary to produce advanced asphalt paving mixtures. Bioasphalt was manufactured from Aspen, Basswood, Red Maple, Balsam, Maple, Pine, Beech and Magnolia wood via a 25 KWt fast-pyrolysis plant at 500 °C and refined into two distinct end forms - non-treated (5.54% moisture) and treated bioasphalt (1% moisture). Michigan petroleum-based asphalt, Performance Grade (PG) 58-28 was modified with 2, 5 and 10% of the bioasphalt by weight of base asphalt and characterized with the gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), Fourier Transform Infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy and the automated flocculation titrimetry techniques. The GC-MS method was used to characterize the Carbon-Hydrogen-Nitrogen (CHN) elemental ratio whiles the FTIR and the AFT were used to characterize the oxidative aging performance and the solubility parameters, respectively. For rheological characterization, the rotational viscosity, dynamic shear modulus and flexural bending methods are used in evaluating the low, intermediate and high temperature performance of the bio-modified asphalt materials. 54 5E3 (maximum of 3 million expected equivalent standard axle traffic loads) asphalt paving mixes were then prepared and characterized to investigate their laboratory permanent deformation, dynamic mix stiffness, moisture susceptibility, workability and constructability performance. From the research investigations, it was concluded that: 1) levo, 2, 6 dimethoxyphenol, 2 methoxy 4 vinylphenol, 2 methyl 1-2 cyclopentandione and 4-allyl-2, 6 dimetoxyphenol are the dominant chemical functional groups; 2) bioasphalt increases the viscosity and dynamic shear modulus of traditional asphalt binders; 3) Bio-modified petroleum asphalt can provide low-temperature cracking resistance benefits at -18 °C but is susceptible to cracking at -24 °C; 3) Carbonyl and sulphoxide

  2. Potential wood protection strategies using physiological requirements of wood degrading fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sailer, M.F.; Etten, B.D. van

    2004-01-01

    Due to the increasing restrictions in the use of wood preserving biocides a number of potential biocide free wood preserving alternatives are currently assessed. Wood degrading fungi require certain conditions in the wood in order to be able to use wood as a food source. This paper discusses the phy

  3. RHEOLOGICAL BEHAVIOR OF WOOD AND WOOD BASED MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Rodolfo de Melo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The wood, as well as other construction materials, presents changes in this stiffness and strength when submitted to a long time loading. This phenomenon is important in the analyses resistance capacity of structural materials. Mechanically, the wood behaves as aviscous-elastic solid. However, over time, the structural elements submitted to permanent or cyclic loading presents some deformation, which denotes a viscous-elastic behavior. This characteristic is influenced mainly on the intensity and duration of loading. In this study a review of rheological phenomenon is presented, showing up the causes and effects for a better understanding, which is essential for the appropriate and efficient use of the wood and wood composites as structural materials.

  4. COMBUSTION PROPERTIES OF EUCALYPTUS WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalçın ÖRS

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the combustion properties of some impregnation materials (abiotic and biotic factors used for eucalyptus wood in interior or exterior environments were investigated. The experimental samples were prepared from Eucalyptus wood based on ASTM-D-1413-76 Tanalith-CBC, boric acid, borax, vacsol-WR, immersol-WR, polyethylen glycole-400 and ammonium sulphate were used as an impregnation material. The results indicated that, vacuum treatment on Eucalyptus gave the lowest retention value of salts. Compounds containing boron+salt increased fire resistance however water repellents decreased the wood flammability.

  5. Ground Wood Fiber Length Distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauri Ilmari Salminen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study considers ground wood fiber length distributions arising from pilot grindings. The empirical fiber length distributions appear to be independent of wood fiber length as well as feeding velocity. In terms of mathematics the fiber fragment distributions of ground wood pulp combine an exponential distribution for high-length fragments and a power-law distribution for smaller lengths. This implies that the fiber length distribution is influenced by the stone surface. A fragmentation-based model is presented that allows reproduction of the empirical results.

  6. A CONTINUING REVERENCE FOR WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin A. Hubbe

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Our ancestors knew a great deal about wood. They had to in order to do well in life. Wood has played a dominant role in human infrastructure for many generations, and for most of that time woodcraft has depended on the decentralized knowledge passed down among families and guilds. This editorial, while celebrating the knowledge, skills, and insights of the woodworkers of past generations, also calls for a renewed attention to wood’s unique character, including characteristics that today are too often classified as “defects.” We may need to take lessons from generations past to truly derive the best value from wood resources.

  7. Thermochemical pretreatment of underutilized woody biomass for manufacturing wood composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelaez Samaniego, Manuel Raul

    Prescribed fires, one method for reducing hazardous fuel loads from forest lands in the US, are limited by geographical, environmental, and social impacts. Mechanical operations are an alternative type of fuel treatment but these processes are constrained by the difficulty of economically harvesting and/or using large amounts of low-value woody biomass. Adoption and integration of new technologies into existing wood composite facilities offer better utilization of this material. A pretreatment that enables integration of technologies in a typical composite facility will aid with diversification of product portfolio (e.g. wood composites, fuel pellets, liquid fuels, chemicals). Hot water extraction (HWE) is an option for wood pretreatment. This work provides a fundamental understanding of the physicochemical changes to wood resulting from HWE, and how these changes impact processing and performance of composites. Specific objectives were to: 1) review literature on studies related to the manufacture of composites produced with thermally pretreated wood, 2) manufacture wood plastic composites (WPC) and particleboard using HWE wood and evaluate the impacts of pretreatment on product properties, 3) develop an understanding of the effect of HWE on lignin properties, specifically lignin at the cells surface level after migration from cell walls and middle lamella, 4) discern the influence of lignin on the fiber surface on processing WPCs, and, 5) investigate the effect of changing the pretreatment environment (inert gas instead of water) on lignin behavior. Results show that HWE enhances the resistance of both WPCs and particleboard to water with positive or no effect on mechanical properties. Reduction of hemicelluloses and lignin property changes are suggested as the main reasons for enhancing interaction between wood fiber and resins during composite processing. Lignin on the surface of particles after HWE interacts with thermoplastics during WPCs compounding, thus

  8. 77 FR 54930 - Carlyle Plastics and Resins, Formerly Known as Fortis Plastics, A Subsidiary of Plastics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... Employment and Training Administration Carlyle Plastics and Resins, Formerly Known as Fortis Plastics, A... plastic parts. New information shows that Fortis Plastics is now called Carlyle Plastics and Resins. In... of Carlyle Plastics and Resins, formerly known as Fortis Plastics, a subsidiary of...

  9. Our plastic age

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Richard C. Thompson; Shanna H. Swan; Charles J. Moore; Frederick S. vom Saal

    2009-01-01

    Within the last few decades, plastics have revolutionized our daily lives. Globally we use in excess of 260 million tonnes of plastic per annum, accounting for approximately 8 per cent of world oil production...

  10. Weinig plastic in vissenmaag

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foekema, E.M.

    2012-01-01

    Waar de magen van sommige zeevogels vol plastic zitten, lijken vissen in de Noordzee nauwelijks last te hebben van kunststofafval. Onderzoekers die plastic resten zochten in vissenmagen vonden ze in elk geval nauwelijks.

  11. Ear Plastic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ENTCareers Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Plastic Surgery Ear Plastic Surgery Patient Health Information ... they may improve appearance and self-confidence. Can Ear Deformities Be Corrected? Formation of the ear during ...

  12. Plastics disassembly versus bulk recycling: engineering design for end-of-life electronics resource recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Pedro; Stuart, Julie Ann; Grant, Ed

    2003-12-01

    Annual plastic flows through the business and consumer electronics manufacturing supply chain include nearly 3 billion lb of high-value engineering plastics derived from petroleum. The recovery of resource value from this stream presents critical challenges in areas of materials identification and recycling process design that demand new green engineering technologies applied together with life cycle assessment and ecological supply chain analysis to create viable plastics-to-plastics supply cycles. The sustainable recovery of potentially high-value engineering plastics streams requires that recyclers either avoid mixing plastic parts or purify later by separating smaller plastic pieces created in volume reduction (shredding) steps. Identification and separation constitute significant barriers in the plastics-to-plastics recycling value proposition. In the present work, we develop a model that accepts randomly arriving electronic products to study scenarios by which a recycler might identify and separate high-value engineering plastics as well as metals. Using discrete eventsimulation,we compare current mixed plastics recovery with spectrochemical plastic resin identification and subsequent sorting. Our results show that limited disassembly with whole-part identification can produce substantial yields in separated streams of recovered engineering thermoplastics. We find that disassembly with identification does not constitute a bottleneck, but rather, with relatively few workers, can be configured to pull the process and thus decrease maximum staging space requirements.

  13. Biochemical modification of wood components

    OpenAIRE

    Josefsson, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The degradation of cellulose found in wood is one of the most important degradation processes for the carbon flux on earth. The degradation is performed by microorganisms that typically use enzymes. Since the cellulose in wood is crystalline and embedded in other polymers, making it inaccessible and durable, the enzymatic methods of cellulose degradation is also complex. In this thesis, the action of some of these enzymes, called cellulases, have been studied both fundamentally and for indust...

  14. Biodegradability of Plastics

    OpenAIRE

    Yutaka Tokiwa; Calabia, Buenaventurada P.; Charles U. Ugwu; Seiichi Aiba

    2009-01-01

    Plastic is a broad name given to different polymers with high molecular weight, which can be degraded by various processes. However, considering their abundance in the environment and their specificity in attacking plastics, biodegradation of plastics by microorganisms and enzymes seems to be the most effective process. When plastics are used as substrates for microorganisms, evaluation of their biodegradability should not only be based on their chemical structure, but also on their physical ...

  15. Tribology in secondary wood machining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, P.L.; Hawthorne, H.M.; Andiappan, J.

    1998-07-01

    Secondary wood manufacturing covers a wide range of products from furniture, cabinets, doors and windows, to musical instruments. Many of these are now mass produced in sophisticated, high speed numerical controlled machines. The performance and the reliability of the tools are key to an efficient and economical manufacturing process as well as to the quality of the finished products. A program concerned with three aspects of tribology of wood machining, namely, tool wear, tool-wood friction characteristics and wood surface quality characterization, was set up in the Integrated Manufacturing Technologies Institute (IMTI) of the National Research Council of Canada. The studies include friction and wear mechanism identification and modeling, wear performance of surface-engineered tool materials, friction-induced vibration and cutting efficiency, and the influence of wear and friction on finished products. This research program underlines the importance of tribology in secondary wood manufacturing and at the same time adds new challenges to tribology research since wood is a complex, heterogeneous, material and its behavior during machining is highly sensitive to the surrounding environments and to the moisture content in the work piece.

  16. Chemical Recycle of Plastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Fatima

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Various chemical processes currently prevalent in the chemical industry for plastics recycling have been discussed. Possible future scenarios in chemical recycling have also been discussed. Also analyzed are the effects on the environment, the risks, costs and benefits of PVC recycling. Also listed are the various types of plastics and which plastics are safe to use and which not after rcycle

  17. Plastic value chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baxter, John; Wahlstrom, Margareta; Zu Castell-Rüdenhausen, Malin

    2014-01-01

    Optimizing plastic value chains is regarded as an important measure in order to increase recycling of plastics in an efficient way. This can also lead to improved awareness of the hazardous substances contained in plastic waste, and how to avoid that these substances are recycled. As an example...

  18. Research Advances: Paper Batteries, Phototriggered Microcapsules, and Oil-Free Plastic Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Angela G.

    2010-01-01

    Chemists continue to work at the forefront of materials science research. Recent advances include application of bioengineering to produce plastics from renewable biomass instead of petroleum, generation of paper-based batteries, and development of phototriggerable microcapsules for chemical delivery. In this article, the author provides summaries…

  19. Bio-based and recycled polymers for cleaner production : an assessment of plastics and fibres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/310872022

    2011-01-01

    Today, almost all man-made plastics and fibres are produced from synthetic polymers. Synthetic polymers, made from petroleum which took millions of years to form, have three sustainability challenges: (i) the limited fossil fuel resources, (ii) the environmental impacts caused by non-degradable

  20. Plastics Derived from Biological Sources: Present and Future: A Technical and Environmental Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, G.; Patel, M.K.

    2012-01-01

    In the time period 2010 2015, the worldwide annual production of plastics is very likely to surpass 300 million tons,1,2 requiring multiple amounts of petroleum and leading to hundreds of millions of tons ofCO2 in addition to health risks for the public due to the release of other types of

  1. Bio-based and recycled polymers for cleaner production : an assessment of plastics and fibres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, L.

    2011-01-01

    Today, almost all man-made plastics and fibres are produced from synthetic polymers. Synthetic polymers, made from petroleum which took millions of years to form, have three sustainability challenges: (i) the limited fossil fuel resources, (ii) the environmental impacts caused by non-degradable plas

  2. Strategic Petroleum Reserve: Annual/quarterly report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-16

    Section 165 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (Public Law 94-163), as amended, requires the Secretary of Energy to submit annual and quarterly reports to the President and the Congress on activities of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. This report combines the fourth quarter 1993 Quarterly Report with the 1993 Annual Report. Key activities described include appropriations; life extension planning; expansion planning; Strategic Petroleum Reserve oil acquisition; the oil stabilization program; and the refined petroleum product reserve test programs. Sections of this report also describe the program mission; the storage facility development program; environmental compliance; budget and finance; and drawdown and distribution.

  3. Current Status on Onshore Petroleum Internal Audit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Shourong

    1995-01-01

    @@ The onshore petroleum internal audit has been carried out for 10years since it had started from 1985.Up to now, there are 430 independent audit organizations and 1500professional employees. With the development of petroleum audit, the auditing has played an important role in the further reform, managing reinforcement and economic efficiency improvement of petroleum enterprises. Through 10 years efforts, a total direct economic value of 2.2 billion yuan has been achieved by correcting violation and misfeasance and decreasing the capitalized cost.

  4. Petroleum supply annual 1998: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    The ``Petroleum Supply Annual`` (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1998 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Statistics; each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1998, and replaces data previously published in the PSA. The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. 16 figs., 59 tabs.

  5. Petroleum price- Market forces or states intervention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkis, N.

    1995-10-01

    The debate on privatization, deregulation and globalization of petroleum industry makes the question asked to know how to conciliate, in one hand, the necessity to stimulate the private investments and to liberalize exchanges, and in another hand, the necessity to preserve the states rights in fields where they are irreplaceable: supply at middle and long term of world energy needs, safety of this supply, use of petroleum and its income in economic development programmes for exporting countries, big petroleum projects, gas contracts, pipelines and so on.

  6. Petroleum Marketing Monthly, January 1991. [Contains Glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-09

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. 12 figs., 55 tabs.

  7. Norwegian Petroleum Activity 97. Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This report is the official governmental review of the offshore operations on the Norwegian Continental Shelf in 1996. It covers the following topics: (1) Summary, (2) Historical overview, (3) State organization of petroleum activities, (4) The economic impact of Norwegian oil and gas, (5) State revenues, (6) Mainland activities, (7) Petroleum resources, (8) Production, (9) Marketing situation for petroleum products, (10) Environmental aspects, (11) The legal and license framework, (12) Licensing rounds, (13) Exploration, (14) Fields in production, (15) Fields under development, (16) Discoveries with development plan under consideration, (17) Transportation systems, (18) License interests, (19) Company interests, (20) White papers, (21) Useful postal addresses. 24 figs., 16 tabs.

  8. Petroleum marketing monthly, November 1991. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-11-07

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. 12 figs., 53 tabs.

  9. Facts 2009 - The Norwegian petroleum sector; Fakta 2009 - norsk petroleumsverksemd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Contents: Foreword; The petroleum sector; Norwegian resource management; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology; Environmental considerations; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  10. 21 CFR 178.3720 - Petroleum wax, synthetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Petroleum wax, synthetic. 178.3720 Section 178.3720... Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3720 Petroleum wax, synthetic. Synthetic petroleum wax may be... the synthetic petroleum wax meets the definition and specifications prescribed in § 172.888 of this...

  11. Continuously Enlarging Development Space of CNPC Daqing Petroleum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ CNPC Daqing Petroleum, a wholly owned subsidiary of China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) headquartered in Daqing City of Heilongjiang Province in northeast China, is a super-large state-owned enterprise group with business centering on petroleum engineering services such as petroleum exploration and development,petrochemical complex and oilfield construction, and is accelerating its expansion to economic frontiers.

  12. 21 CFR 172.888 - Synthetic petroleum wax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Synthetic petroleum wax. 172.888 Section 172.888... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.888 Synthetic petroleum wax. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in or on foods in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Synthetic petroleum wax is a...

  13. 21 CFR 178.3530 - Isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons, synthetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons, synthetic... hydrocarbons, synthetic. Isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons, synthetic, may be safely used in the production... isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons, produced by synthesis from petroleum gases consist of a mixture of...

  14. Engineering Design Handbook Rotational Molding of Plastic Powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-04-15

    surface finish requirements, shape, and plating bath composition and temperature. Materials include plastics, glass, wax , latex, rubber, wood, plaster...are slightly longer when using PTFE end caps, inasmuch as PTFE is a thermal insulator. Rotolining is a technique for lining hollow metal objects...aluminum, and 1 in. thick PTFE have been employed successfully. To permit resin to flow onto flange faces, end caps must have a raised or machined-out

  15. Effect of Wood Variables on the Properties of Wood Fiber-Polypropylene Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The effect of wood species (Chinese fir and Poplar), wood fiber content (10%, 25%, 40%) and wood fiber sizes (16 to 32 mesh, 32-65 mesh, above 65 mesh) on the properties of the wood fiber-Polypropylene composites were studied in this paper. The results indicate that the effect of wood fiber content and size in composite were more important than that of chosen wood species. Compared with polypropylene without wood fiber, the flexural strength of the composites increased when adding wood fiber into polypr...

  16. Biodegradability of plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokiwa, Yutaka; Calabia, Buenaventurada P; Ugwu, Charles U; Aiba, Seiichi

    2009-08-26

    Plastic is a broad name given to different polymers with high molecular weight, which can be degraded by various processes. However, considering their abundance in the environment and their specificity in attacking plastics, biodegradation of plastics by microorganisms and enzymes seems to be the most effective process. When plastics are used as substrates for microorganisms, evaluation of their biodegradability should not only be based on their chemical structure, but also on their physical properties (melting point, glass transition temperature, crystallinity, storage modulus etc.). In this review, microbial and enzymatic biodegradation of plastics and some factors that affect their biodegradability are discussed.

  17. Plastic value chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baxter, John; Wahlstrom, Margareta; Zu Castell-Rüdenhausen, Malin

    2014-01-01

    Optimizing plastic value chains is regarded as an important measure in order to increase recycling of plastics in an efficient way. This can also lead to improved awareness of the hazardous substances contained in plastic waste, and how to avoid that these substances are recycled. As an example......, plastics from WEEE is chosen as a Nordic case study. The project aims to propose a number of improvements for this value chain together with representatives from Nordic stakeholders. Based on the experiences made, a guide for other plastic value chains shall be developed....

  18. Biodegradability of Plastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Tokiwa

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Plastic is a broad name given to different polymers with high molecular weight, which can be degraded by various processes. However, considering their abundance in the environment and their specificity in attacking plastics, biodegradation of plastics by microorganisms and enzymes seems to be the most effective process. When plastics are used as substrates for microorganisms, evaluation of their biodegradability should not only be based on their chemical structure, but also on their physical properties (melting point, glass transition temperature, crystallinity, storage modulus etc.. In this review, microbial and enzymatic biodegradation of plastics and some factors that affect their biodegradability are discussed.

  19. Journal of CHINA PLASTICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Journal of CHINA PLASTICS was authorized and approved by The State Committee of Science and Technology of China and The Bureau of News Press of China, and published by The China Plastics Processing Industry Association,Beijing Technology and Business University and The Institute of Plastics Processing and Application of Light Industry, distributed worldwide. Since its birth in 1987, CHINA PLASTICS has become a leading magazine in plastics industry in China, a national Chinese core journal and journal of Chinese scientific and technological article statistics. It is covered by CA.

  20. Swelling of acetylated wood in organic liquids

    CERN Document Server

    Obataya, E; Obataya, Eiichi; Gril, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the affinity of acetylated wood for organic liquids, Yezo spruce wood specimens were acetylated with acetic anhydride, and their swelling in various liquids were compared to those of untreated specimens. The acetylated wood was rapidly and remarkably swollen in aprotic organic liquids such as benzene and toluene in which the untreated wood was swollen only slightly and/or very slowly. On the other hand, the swelling of wood in water, ethylene glycol and alcohols remained unchanged or decreased by the acetylation. Consequently the maximum volume of wood swollen in organic liquids was always larger than that in water. The effect of acetylation on the maximum swollen volume of wood was greater in liquids having smaller solubility parameters. The easier penetration of aprotic organic liquids into the acetylated wood was considered to be due to the scission of hydrogen bonds among the amorphous wood constituents by the substitution of hydroxyl groups with hydrophobic acetyl groups.