WorldWideScience

Sample records for plastic water bottles

  1. Are consumers concerned about plastic water bottles environmental impact?

    OpenAIRE

    Caroline Orset; Nicolas Barret; Aurélien Lemaire

    2015-01-01

    Although plastic induces environmental damages, almost all water bottles are made from plastic. However, these damages are more or less significant according to the plastic used. This study evaluates the consumers' willingness to pay (WTP) for different plastics used for water packaging. Successive messages emphasizing the characteristics of plastic are delivered to participants allowing explaining information influence on the consumers' WTP. We find that information has a significant effect ...

  2. Thermophysical characteristics of plastic bottles as an element of water heat accumulators in solar greenhouses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalimov, A. G.; Khairiddinov, B. Eh.; Kim, V. D.; Khalimov, G. G.

    2012-01-01

    This article considers the thermophysical and granulometric characteristics of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic bottles filled with water. The given figures allow one to conduct calculations of thermal plastic bottles as heat storage elements for solar greenhouses. (author)

  3. Endocrine disruptors in bottled mineral water: total estrogenic burden and migration from plastic bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Martin; Oehlmann, Jörg

    2009-05-01

    Food consumption is an important route of human exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals. So far, this has been demonstrated by exposure modeling or analytical identification of single substances in foodstuff (e.g., phthalates) and human body fluids (e.g., urine and blood). Since the research in this field is focused on few chemicals (and thus missing mixture effects), the overall contamination of edibles with xenohormones is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the integrated estrogenic burden of bottled mineral water as model foodstuff and to characterize the potential sources of the estrogenic contamination. In the present study, we analyzed commercially available mineral water in an in vitro system with the human estrogen receptor alpha and detected estrogenic contamination in 60% of all samples with a maximum activity equivalent to 75.2 ng/l of the natural sex hormone 17beta-estradiol. Furthermore, breeding of the molluskan model Potamopyrgus antipodarum in water bottles made of glass and plastic [polyethylene terephthalate (PET)] resulted in an increased reproductive output of snails cultured in PET bottles. This provides first evidence that substances leaching from plastic food packaging materials act as functional estrogens in vivo. Our results demonstrate a widespread contamination of mineral water with xenoestrogens that partly originates from compounds leaching from the plastic packaging material. These substances possess potent estrogenic activity in vivo in a molluskan sentinel. Overall, the results indicate that a broader range of foodstuff may be contaminated with endocrine disruptors when packed in plastics.

  4. Antimony leaching from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic used for bottled drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerhoff, Paul; Prapaipong, Panjai; Shock, Everett; Hillaireau, Alice

    2008-02-01

    Antimony is a regulated contaminant that poses both acute and chronic health effects in drinking water. Previous reports suggest that polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastics used for water bottles in Europe and Canada leach antimony, but no studies on bottled water in the United States have previously been conducted. Nine commercially available bottled waters in the southwestern US (Arizona) were purchased and tested for antimony concentrations as well as for potential antimony release by the plastics that compose the bottles. The southwestern US was chosen for the study because of its high consumption of bottled water and elevated temperatures, which could increase antimony leaching from PET plastics. Antimony concentrations in the bottled waters ranged from 0.095 to 0.521 ppb, well below the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 6 ppb. The average concentration was 0.195+/-0.116 ppb at the beginning of the study and 0.226+/-0.160 ppb 3 months later, with no statistical differences; samples were stored at 22 degrees C. However, storage at higher temperatures had a significant effect on the time-dependent release of antimony. The rate of antimony (Sb) release could be fit by a power function model (Sb(t)=Sb 0 x[Time, h]k; k=8.7 x 10(-6)x[Temperature ( degrees C)](2.55); Sb 0 is the initial antimony concentration). For exposure temperatures of 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, and 85 degrees C, the exposure durations necessary to exceed the 6 ppb MCL are 176, 38, 12, 4.7, 2.3, and 1.3 days, respectively. Summertime temperatures inside of cars, garages, and enclosed storage areas can exceed 65 degrees C in Arizona, and thus could promote antimony leaching from PET bottled waters. Microwave digestion revealed that the PET plastic used by one brand contained 213+/-35 mgSb/kg plastic; leaching of all the antimony from this plastic into 0.5L of water in a bottle could result in an antimony concentration of 376 ppb. Clearly, only a small

  5. Estrogenic activity, selected plasticizers and potential health risks associated with bottled water in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aneck-Hahn, Natalie H; Van Zijl, Magdalena C; Swart, Pieter; Truebody, Barry; Genthe, Bettina; Charmier, Jessica; Jager, Christiaan De

    2018-04-01

    Potential endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are present in bottled water from various countries. In South Africa (SA), increased bottled water consumption and concomitant increases in plastic packaging create important consequences for public health. This study aimed to screen SA bottled water for estrogenic activity, selected target chemicals and assessing potential health risks. Ten bottled water brands were exposed to 20 °C and 40 °C over 10 days. Estrogenic activity was assessed using the recombinant yeast estrogen screen (YES) and the T47D-KBluc reporter gene assay. Solid phase extracts of samples were analyzed for bis(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA), selected phthalates, bisphenol-A (BPA), 4-nonylphenol (4-NP), 17β-estradiol (E 2 ), estrone (E 1 ), and ethynylestradiol (EE 2 ) using gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry. Using a scenario-based health risk assessment, human health risks associated with bottled water consumption were evaluated. Estrogenic activity was detected at 20 °C (n = 2) and at 40 °C (n = 8). Estradiol equivalent (EEq) values ranged from 0.001 to 0.003 ng/L. BPA concentrations ranged from 0.9 ng/L to 10.06 ng/L. Although EEqs and BPA concentrations were higher in bottled water stored at 40 °C compared to 20 °C, samples posed an acceptable risk for a lifetime of exposure. Irrespective of temperature, bottled water from SA contained chemicals with acceptable health risks.

  6. PROFILE OF PLASTIC WATER BOTTLES WASTES PROCESSING BUSINESS UNIT FOR WASTE PICKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herijanto P.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Used plastic water bottles waste pickers can be categorized as one of the informal sector’s component. They work for themselves by picking up used water bottles and selling them to the waste collectors. The problem to be solved in this research is How the Most Appropriate Used Plastic Water Bottles Business Model for Waste Pickers Is that enables them to be categorized as formal sector. From the result of the interview with 120 waste pickers, 96 results were qualified to be analyzed. The interview was located in several waste collectors, which were visited by waste pickers at certain hours. The data were analyzed descriptively based on six business aspects. Specifically for production facilities, Quality Function Deployment (QFD and Value Engineering (VE analysis were performed. The results of the analysis indicate that the business is practicable for waste pickers and has the potential to enable them run a formal business sector.

  7. Recycling plastic bottles in a creative way

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlin, Suzana

    2016-01-01

    Beside other plastic products, plastic bottles represent a true environmental disaster in the last few years. We assume that hardly anyone asks what happens after they drink that last drop of water out of it. Just like most municipal waste, a plastic bottle can be reused, recycled, burned or deposited into landfill. When the Environment Protection Act is not respected, plastic bottle ends up in the nature, very often in the sea, where it decomposes very slowly and has negative influence on th...

  8. Community challenges when using large plastic bottles for Solar Energy Disinfection of Water (SODIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Borde

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Communities living in developing countries as well as populations affected by natural or man-made disasters can be left at great risk from water related diseases, especially those spread through the faecal-oral route. Conventional water treatments such as boiling and chlorination can be effective but may prove costly for impoverished communities. Solar water disinfection (SODIS has been shown to be a cheap and effective way for communities to treat their water. The exposure to sunlight is typically carried out in small volume plastic beverage bottles (up to 2 l. Given the water requirements of consumption and basic personal hygiene, this may not always meet the needs of communities. Recent work has shown 19-L plastic water dispenser containers to be effective SODIS reactors, comparable in efficacy to PET bottles. In this paper we outline the need for studying SODIS in large volumes and discuss 4 main associated challenges. Discussion Apart from clean water needed for consumption, access to adequate water is essential for sanitation and hygiene. Contamination of treated water through unwashed hands or vessels contributes heavily to the spread of water borne pathogens in communities. Traditional water treatments such as boiling and chlorination can be effective but may prove financially burdensome for low income communities. SODIS in large vessels could be used as a simple method to meet water requirements in low income and disaster affected populations. However, there have been some concerns associated with the conventional SODIS method; we identify the main ones to be: (1 cold or cloudy weather; (2 the fear of leaching in plastic bottles; (3 water turbidity, and; (4 community acceptance. Summary The application of SODIS in large bottles like WDCs has the potential to be an efficient and cost effective method of disinfecting water, either for consumption until more rigorous water treatments can be put in place, or for

  9. Energy implications of bottled water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleick, P H; Cooley, H S

    2009-01-01

    As bottled water use continues to expand around the world, there is growing interest in the environmental, economical, and social implications of that use, including concerns about waste generation, proper use of groundwater, hydrologic effects on local surface and groundwater, economic costs, and more. A key concern is how much energy is required to produce and use bottled water. This paper estimates the energy footprint required for various phases of bottled water production, transportation, and use. We do not develop a single comprehensive life-cycle energy estimate because of differences among water sources, bottling processes, transportation costs, and other factors, but we quantify key energy inputs necessary for site-specific assessments. We also apply these inputs to three site-specific examples of the energy required from production to the point of use: local bottled water produced and used in Los Angeles, water bottled in the South Pacific and shipped by cargo ship to Los Angeles, and water bottled in France and shipped in various ways to Los Angeles. For water transported short distances, the energy requirements of bottled water are dominated by the energy used to produce the plastic bottles. Long-distance transport, however, can lead to energy costs comparable to, or even larger than, those of producing the bottle. All other energy costs-for processing, bottling, sealing, labeling, and refrigeration-are far smaller than those for the production of the bottle and transportation. These data can be used to generate specific estimates for different sources, treatments, and delivery options.

  10. A Plastic Bottle in Rectosigmoid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Derakhshanfar

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Evaluation and treatment of foreign bodies in rectum involves careful history and physical examination. The cases of forced introduction of the objects most commonly are , sexual assault , self – introduced for anal eroticism and accidental insertion.Case Report: We describe a case of a patient with rectal impaction following self administration of a plastic bottle for anal sexual gratification. A 49 years old man was admitted in the emergency department with the history of self introduced a bottle into his rectum physical examination and abdominal X-Ray diagnosed the case as impacted foreign body in rectosigmoid. An attempt was made to deliver the bottle through the rectum but because of high lying big bottle in the sigmoid laporotomy was performed and the bottle was removed though a longitudinal incision on sigmoid colon.Conclusion: Retained rectosigmoid foreign bodies have been encountered more frequently and present a dilemma for management and rarely laporotomy for extraction of foreign bodies was performed.

  11. Bottled Water Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Table of Contents Bottled water basics ....................................... pg.2 Advice for people with severely compromised immune systems (Sidebar) ............................. pg2 Know what you’re buying .............................. pg.3 Taste considerations ........................................ pg.4 Bottled water terms (Sidebar) ..................... pg.4 Begin by reading the ...

  12. Field comparison of solar water disinfection (SODIS) efficacy between glass and polyethylene terephalate (PET) plastic bottles under sub-Saharan weather conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiimwe, J K; Quilty, B; Muyanja, C K; McGuigan, K G

    2013-12-01

    Concerns about photodegradation products leaching from plastic bottle material into water during solar water disinfection (SODIS) are a major psychological barrier to increased uptake of SODIS. In this study, a comparison of SODIS efficacy using glass and plastic polyethylene terephalate (PET) bottles was carried out under strong real sunlight and overcast weather conditions at Makerere University in central Uganda. Both clear and turbid natural water samples from shallow wells and open dug wells, respectively, were used. Efficacy was determined from the inactivation of a wild strain of Escherichia coli in solar-exposed contaminated water in both glass and PET bottles. The studies reveal no significant difference in SODIS inactivation between glass and PET bottles (95% CI, p > 0.05), for all water samples under the different weather conditions except for clear water under overcast conditions where there was a small but significant difference (95% CI, p = 0.047) with less viable bacterial counts in PET bottles at two intermediate time points but not at the end of the exposure. The results demonstrate that SODIS efficacy in glass under tropical field conditions is comparable to PET plastic. SODIS users in these regions can choose either of reactors depending on availability and preference of the user.

  13. An evaluation of the migration of antimony from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic used for bottled drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapa-Martínez, C.A.; Hinojosa-Reyes, L.; Hernández-Ramírez, A.; Ruiz-Ruiz, E.; Maya-Treviño, L.; Guzmán-Mar, J.L., E-mail: jorge.guzmanmr@uanl.edu.mx

    2016-09-15

    The leaching of antimony (Sb) from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottling material was assessed in twelve brands of bottled water purchased in Mexican supermarkets by atomic fluorescence spectrometry with a hydride generation system (HG-AFS). Dowex® 1X8-100 ion-exchange resin was used to preconcentrate trace amounts of Sb in water samples. Migration experiments from the PET bottle material were performed in water according to the following storage conditions: 1) temperature (25 and 75 °C), 2) pH (3 and 7) and 3) exposure time (5 and 15 days), using ultrapure water as a simulant for liquid foods. The test conditions were studied by a 2{sup 3} factorial experimental design. The Sb concentration measured in the PET packaging materials varied between 73.0 and 111.3 mg/kg. The Sb concentration (0.28–2.30 μg/L) in all of the PET bottled drinking water samples examined at the initial stage of the study was below the maximum contaminant level of 5 μg/L prescribed by European Union (EU) regulations. The parameters studied (pH, temperature, and storage time) significantly affected the release of Sb, with temperature having the highest positive significant effect within the studied experimental domain. The highest Sb concentration leached from PET containers was in water samples at pH 7 stored at 75 °C for a period of 5 days. The extent of Sb leaching from the PET ingredients for different brands of drinking water can differ by as much as one order of magnitude in experiments conducted under the worst-case conditions. The chronic daily intake (CDI) caused by the release of Sb in one brand exceeded the Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) regulated CDI value of 400 ng/kg/day, with values of 514.3 and 566.2 ng/kg/day for adults and children. Thus, the appropriate selection of the polymer used for the production of PET bottles seems to ensure low Sb levels in water samples. - Highlights: • The PET safety due to the release of Sb was evaluated in Mexican water PET

  14. An evaluation of the migration of antimony from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic used for bottled drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapa-Martínez, C.A.; Hinojosa-Reyes, L.; Hernández-Ramírez, A.; Ruiz-Ruiz, E.; Maya-Treviño, L.; Guzmán-Mar, J.L.

    2016-01-01

    The leaching of antimony (Sb) from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottling material was assessed in twelve brands of bottled water purchased in Mexican supermarkets by atomic fluorescence spectrometry with a hydride generation system (HG-AFS). Dowex® 1X8-100 ion-exchange resin was used to preconcentrate trace amounts of Sb in water samples. Migration experiments from the PET bottle material were performed in water according to the following storage conditions: 1) temperature (25 and 75 °C), 2) pH (3 and 7) and 3) exposure time (5 and 15 days), using ultrapure water as a simulant for liquid foods. The test conditions were studied by a 2 3 factorial experimental design. The Sb concentration measured in the PET packaging materials varied between 73.0 and 111.3 mg/kg. The Sb concentration (0.28–2.30 μg/L) in all of the PET bottled drinking water samples examined at the initial stage of the study was below the maximum contaminant level of 5 μg/L prescribed by European Union (EU) regulations. The parameters studied (pH, temperature, and storage time) significantly affected the release of Sb, with temperature having the highest positive significant effect within the studied experimental domain. The highest Sb concentration leached from PET containers was in water samples at pH 7 stored at 75 °C for a period of 5 days. The extent of Sb leaching from the PET ingredients for different brands of drinking water can differ by as much as one order of magnitude in experiments conducted under the worst-case conditions. The chronic daily intake (CDI) caused by the release of Sb in one brand exceeded the Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) regulated CDI value of 400 ng/kg/day, with values of 514.3 and 566.2 ng/kg/day for adults and children. Thus, the appropriate selection of the polymer used for the production of PET bottles seems to ensure low Sb levels in water samples. - Highlights: • The PET safety due to the release of Sb was evaluated in Mexican water PET

  15. Management of PET plastic bottles waste through recycling Khartoum state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadlalla, N. B. I.

    2010-10-01

    This study been carried out to assess the general waste management in Khartoum State and effectively manage the PET plastic bottles by identifying practical means and introducing recycling as cleaner production tool to achieve sustainable development goals. The information data were gathered during the period June-July 2010 through questionnaires, interview, meeting and visits to various sites, in addition to the official information and documents collected from reliable sources, mainly Sudan Central Bank, customs authorities, Ministry of Industry, soft drink and water bottling factories. The data were presented in tables, graphs and charts by applying windows excel program and also applying e view package for the future forecast. Analysis of data shows a rising consumption in PET bottles and the forecasted PET consumption in year 2015 estimated to be 60000 Tons, twice the estimate in the year 2010. This situation will create serious environmental problems that require much more effort to be exerted by all stake holders to book for scientific and practical solutions for the disposal of plastic waste through recycling. Based on the analysis and findings recommendations have been made that ensure on recycling of PET plastic bottles by mechanical method that depends mainly on collection, segregation, cleaning and processing. Further studies and researches on other recycling methods have been recommended in the future. (Author)

  16. UTILIZATION OF WASTE PLASTIC BOTTLES IN ASPHALT MIXTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAHER BAGHAEE MOGHADDAM

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, large amounts of waste materials are being produced in the world. One of the waste materials is plastic bottle. Generating disposable plastic bottles is becoming a major problem in many countries. Using waste plastic as a secondary material in construction projects would be a solution to overcome the crisis of producing large amount of waste plastics in one hand and improving the structure’s characteristics such as resistance against cracking on the other hand. This study aimed to investigate the effects of adding plastic bottles in road pavement. Marshall properties as well as specific gravity of asphalt mixture containing different percentages of plastic bottles were evaluated. Besides, Optimum Asphalt Content (OAC was calculated for each percentages of plastic bottles used in the mix. The stiffness and fatigue characteristics of mixture were assessed at OAC value. Results showed that the stability and flow values of asphalt mixture increased by adding waste crushed plastic bottle into the asphalt mixture. Further, it was shown that the bulk specific gravity and stiffness of mixtures increased by adding lower amount of plastic bottles; however, adding higher amounts of plastic resulted in lower specific gravity and mix stiffness. In addition, it was concluded that the mixtures containing waste plastic bottles have lower OAC values compared to the conventional mixture, and this may reduce the amount of asphalt binder can be used in road construction projects. Besides, the mixtures containing waste plastic showed significantly greater fatigue resistance than the conventional mixture.

  17. Comparison of solidification of floating drop and homogenous liquid-liquid microextractions for the extraction of two plasticizers from the water kept in PET-bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamini, Yadollah; Ghambarian, Mahnaz; Khalili-Zanjani, Mohammad Reza; Faraji, Mohammad; Shariati, Shahab

    2009-09-01

    Two approaches based on solidification of floating drop microextraction (SFDME) and homogenous liquid-liquid microextraction (HLLE) were compared for the extraction and preconcentration of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA) from the mineral water samples. In SFDME, a floated drop of the mixture of acetophenone/1-undecanol (1:8) was exposed on the surface of the aqueous solution and extraction was permitted to occur. In HLLE, a homogenous ternary solvent system was used by water/methanol/chloroform and the phase separation phenomenon occurred by salt addition. Under the optimal conditions, the LODs for the two target plasticizers (DEHA and DEHP), obtained by SFDME-GC-FID and HLLE-GC-FID, were ranged from 0.03 to 0.01 microg/L and 0.02 to 0.01 microg/L, respectively. HLLE provided higher preconcentration factors (472.5- and 551.2-fold) within the shorter extraction time as well as better RSDs (4.5-6.9%). While, in SFDME, high preconcentration factors in the range of 162-198 and good RSDs in the range of 5.2-9.6% were obtained. Both methods were applied for the analysis of two plasticizers in different water samples and two target plasticizers were found in the bottled mineral water after the expiring time and the boiling water was exposed to a polyethylene vial.

  18. Radioactivity in French bottled waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loyen, J.; Brassac, A.; Augeray, C.; Fayolle, C.; Gleizes, M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire - IRSN (France)

    2014-07-01

    As IRSN is considered as a reference laboratory for radioactivity measurements, French health ministry and French nuclear safety authority asked IRSN to carry out a study in order to get a fresh and complete status of radiological water quality of French bottled waters. The study was carried out during 12 months in 2012. A total of 142 bottled waters samples were analyzed (75 spring waters and 67 natural mineral waters). The laboratories of IRSN were in charge of: - systematic measurement of radioactivity following requirements of the French health ministry (Circulaire du 13/06/2007) regarding the monitoring and management of sanitary risk linked to the presence of radionuclides in drinking waters (natural mineral waters excepted). - systematic uranium mass concentration determination; - a few radon-222 gas measurements for waters in glass bottles. This study is a flash assessment of radiological characteristics of French bottled waters, at the analysis date for the sample received. It was done in informative way and was not done for regulatory control purposes.. This study has shown that: - all bottled waters analyzed have a tritium activity concentration lower than the quality reference value of 100 Bq/l of the French regulation; - More than 105 bottled waters analyzed (80% of the springs waters and 70% of natural mineral waters received) have a gross alpha activity concentration lower than the guideline value of 0,1 Bq/l of the French regulation; - All bottled waters analyzed have a residual gross beta activity concentration lower than the guideline value of 1 Bq/l of the French regulation; - All bottled waters analyzed have a uranium mass concentration lower than the provisory guideline value of 30 μg/l of the WHO for drinking waters; - radon-222 was only significantly measured once upon 6 glass bottled waters with a value far below the reference value of 100 Bq/l of the future European Directive on drinking waters. For 32 bottled waters with gross alpha

  19. 21 CFR 165.110 - Bottled water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottled water. 165.110 Section 165.110 Food and... CONSUMPTION BEVERAGES Requirements for Specific Standardized Beverages § 165.110 Bottled water. (a) Identity—(1) Description. Bottled water is water that is intended for human consumption and that is sealed in...

  20. Innovative Design of Plastic Bottle Recycling Box Based on ARM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuedong Xiong

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the problems of on-site plastic bottles recycling and the reuse of waste, the automatic recycling system was developed on the basis of ARM. As the main controller, ARM not only controls the mechanical system of the collector to recover and break plastic bottles, but also communicates with and rewards the user by the automatic reward system through the wireless network. The experimental prototype test results show: post treated fragments of plastic bottles are small, which are convenient to transport and take advantage of; the operation of recovery is easy, and the interface of man-machine interaction is friendly which is easy to expand functions.

  1. Bottled Water and Fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Private Wells Infant Formula Fluorosis Public Health Service Recommendation Water Operators & Engineers Water Fluoridation Additives Shortages of Fluoridation Additives Drinking Water Pipe Systems CDC-Sponsored Water Fluoridation Training Links to Other ...

  2. Assessment of metal contaminations leaching out from recycling plastic bottles upon treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiaoliang; Shi, Honglan; Adams, Craig D; Ma, Yinfa

    2010-08-01

    Heavy metal contaminants in environment, especially in drinking water, are always of great concern due to their health impact. Due to the use of heavy metals as catalysts during plastic syntheses, particularly antimony, human exposure to metal release from plastic bottles has been a serious concern in recent years. The aim and scope of this study were to assess metal contaminations leaching out from a series of recycling plastic bottles upon treatments. In this study, leaching concentrations of 16 metal elements were determined in 21 different types of plastic bottles from five commercial brands, which were made of recycling materials ranging from no. 1 to no. 7. Several sets of experiments were conducted to study the factors that could potentially affect the metal elements leaching from plastic bottles, which include cooling with frozen water, heating with boiling water, microwave, incubating with low-pH water, outdoor sunlight irradiation, and in-car storage. Heating and microwave can lead to a noticeable increase of antimony leaching relative to the controls in bottle samples A to G, and some even reached to a higher level than the maximum contamination level (MCL) of the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) regulations. Incubation with low-pH water, outdoor sunlight irradiation, and in-car storage had no significant effect on antimony leaching relative to controls in bottle samples A to G, and the levels of antimony leaching detected were below 6 ppb which is the MCL of USEPA regulations. Cooling had almost no effect on antimony leaching based on our results. For the other interested 15 metal elements (Al, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, As, Se, Mo, Ag, Cd, Ba, Tl, Pb), no significant leaching was detected or the level was far below the MCL of USEPA regulations in all bottle samples in this study. In addition, washing procedure did contribute to the antimony leaching concentration for polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles. The difference of antimony leaching

  3. Consumer exposure to Bisphenol A from plastic bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidabadi, Fatemeh

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a plastic monomer and plasticizer and is a chemical that has one of the highest volume production worldwide, with more than six billion pounds each year. Its' primary use is the production of polycarbonate plastics, epoxy resins used to line metal cans in a host of plastic consumer products such as toys, water pipes, drinking containers, eyeglass lenses, sports safety equipment as well as consumer electronics. Studies have shown that BPA is leached from lacquer coated cans and baby feeding bottles due to hydrolysis of the Polymer during thermal treatment. Studies have also shown that even under normal use BPA may leach from food and beverage containers. For many years Bisphenol A was treated as neutral to human health. The detection of BPA in drinking water and food products has raised the interest of many researches since 1990. Thousands of studies have examined the impact of BPA to determine its effects in laboratory animals. Numerous toxicological and biochemical studies have supported that BPA has estrogenic properties. The effects of exposure to BPA can be harmful to fetus, infants and young children. BPA is used in products where traces of it can be found in every human at higher levels of concentration than that which causes problems in animals. The National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) has defined "low dose" of endocrine disrupting chemicals as doses below no observable adverse effect (NOAE) for specific chemicals. In BPA, this dose is 50 mg/kg of body weight per day. Today there are more than 150 published results describing how low doses of BPA effects animals. A recent study reported that adult female mice, monkeys, and humans metabolized BPA at almost identical rates. Since the level of BPA and other endocrine chemicals appears to be increasing throughout the World, especially where plastics are prevalent, it is extremely important to study the effects of this chemical on man and wildlife. This research effort

  4. Life cycle assessment of bottled water: A case study of Green2O products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Naomi; Frago, Jessica; Mu, Dongyan

    2018-03-01

    This study conducted a full life cycle analysis of bottled water on four types of bottles: ENSO, PLA (corn based), recycled PET, and regular (petroleum based) PET, to discern which bottle material is more beneficial to use in terms of environmental impacts. PET bottles are the conventional bottles used that are not biodegradable and accumulate in landfills. PLA corn based bottles are derived from an organic substance and are degradable under certain environmental conditions. Recycled PET bottles are purified PET bottles that were disposed of and are used in a closed loop system. An ENSO bottle contains a special additive which is designed to help the plastic bottle degrade after disposed of in a landfill. The results showed that of all fourteen impact categories examined, the recycled PET and ENSO bottles were generally better than the PLA and regular PET bottles; however, the ENSO had the highest impacts in the categories of global warming and respiratory organics, and the recycled PET had the highest impact in the eutrophication category. The life cycle stages that were found to have the highest environmental impacts were the bottle manufacturing stage and the bottled water distribution to storage stage. Analysis of the mixed bottle material based on recycled PET resin and regular PET resin was discussed as well, in which key impact categories were identified. The PLA bottle contained extremely low impacts in the carcinogens, respiratory organics and global warming categories, yet it still contained the highest impacts in seven of the fourteen categories. Overall, the results demonstrate that the usage of more sustainable bottles, such as biodegradable ENSO bottles and recycled PET bottles, appears to be a viable option for decreasing impacts of the bottled water industry on the environment. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Bottled Water Everywhere: Keeping it Safe

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that taps an aquifer—layers of porous rock, sand, and earth that contain water—which is under ... it to be labeled as “purified water.” Ensuring Quality and Safety Federal quality standards for bottled water ...

  6. Performance of Hot Asphalt Mixtures Containing Plastic Bottles as Additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Hakeem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on evaluating the resistance of polymer modified asphalt mixes and the role played by asphalt in the realm of construction is undeniably important. Addition of polymers(PB as additives to asphalt helps to improve the strength and water repellent property of the mix and as well as helps environment in various ways and at the same time, analyzing its lower maintenance activities and service life is most important. The use of inexpensive polymers, in this case, waste polymers has without any doubt proven to be the most convenient way of reducing the cost of construction and at the same time maintaining quality. The main resolve for this research was to establish the effects of the use of plastic bottles on hot asphalt and its mixtures. In order to put this into perspective, varying percentages of asphalt mixtures were calculated and subjected to laboratory tests. The two-factor variance analysis (ANOVA was conducted to determine the significance at various confidence limits. The results indicate that the inclusion of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET had a particularly substantial effect on the properties of asphalt. Consequently, it can encourage the re-utilization of waste in the manufacturing industry in an ecologically friendly and cost-effective way.

  7. Consumer Exposure to Bisphenol A from Plastic Bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidabadi, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a plastic monomer and plasticizer and is a chemical that has one of the highest volume production worldwide, with more than six billion pounds each year. Its primary use is the production of polycarbonate plastics, epoxy resins used to line metal cans in a host of plastic consumer products such as toys, water pipes, drinking…

  8. 76 FR 64810 - Beverages: Bottled Water Quality Standard; Establishing an Allowable Level for di(2-ethylhexyl...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    .... FDA 1993-N-0259 (Formerly Docket No. 1993N-0085)] Beverages: Bottled Water Quality Standard... evidence from two studies puts previous concerns to rest concerning the effects of DEHP consumption in... increase costs for consumers for beverages packaged in plastic bottles. However, this rule does not...

  9. Quality Assurance for Iraqi Bottled Water Specifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May George Kassir

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this research the specifications of Iraqi drinking bottled water brands are investigated throughout the comparison between local brands, Saudi Arabia and the World Health Organization (WHO for bottled water standard specifications. These specifications were also compared to that of Iraqi Tap Water standards. To reveal variations in the specifications for Iraqi bottled water, and above mentioned standards some quality control tools are conducted for more than 33% of different bottled water brands (of different origins such as spring, purified,..etc in Iraq by investigating the selected quality parameters registered on their marketing labels. Results employing Minitab software (ver. 16 to generate X bar, and Pareto chart. It was found from X bar charts that the quality parameters of some drinking bottled water brands are not within Iraqi standards set by the “Central Agency for Standardization and Quality Control” such as pH values, Fe, Na, and Mg concentrations. While the comparison of previously mentioned standard specifications through radar chart many important issues are detected such as the absence of lower limits the whole bottled water quality parameters such as for Na and Mg also the radar chart shows that Iraqi bottled and tap water specifications are almost equal in their quality values. Also the same chart pictured the limited range of Iraqi specifications compared to that of Saudi Arabia, and WHO and the need to introduce other water specifications such as K, Na, etc. This confirms the need to improve Iraqi bottled water specifications since it was introduced on 2000. These results also highlighted the weakness of quality assurance activities since only 33 % of the investigated companies registered the whole water quality specifications as shown in Pareto chart. Other companies do not register any quality characteristics. Also certain companies should be stopped due to non-conforming specifications, yet these companies are

  10. Calcite precipitates in Slovenian bottled waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanič, Tamara Ferjan; Miler, Miloš; Brenčič, Mihael; Gosar, Mateja

    2017-06-01

    Storage of bottled waters in varying ambient conditions affects its characteristics. Different storage conditions cause changes in the initial chemical composition of bottled water which lead to the occurrence of precipitates with various morphologies. In order to assess the relationship between water composition, storage conditions and precipitate morphology, a study of four brands of Slovenian bottled water stored in PET bottles was carried out. Chemical analyses of the main ions and measurements of the physical properties of water samples were performed before and after storage of water samples at different ambient conditions. SEM/EDS analysis of precipitates was performed after elapsed storage time. The results show that the presence of Mg 2+ , SO 4 2- , SiO 2 , Al, Mn and other impurities such as K + , Na + , Ba and Sr in the water controlled precipitate morphology by inhibiting crystal growth and leading to elongated rhombohedral calcite crystal forms which exhibit furrowed surfaces and calcite rosettes. Different storage conditions, however, affected the number of crystallization nuclei and size of calcite crystals. Hollow calcite spheres composed of cleavage rhombohedrons formed in the water with variable storage conditions by a combination of evaporation and precipitation of water droplets during high temperatures or by the bubble templating method.

  11. Characteristics of bacterial and fungal growth in plastic bottled beverages under a consuming condition model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Maiko; Ohnishi, Takahiro; Araki, Emiko; Kanda, Takashi; Tomita, Atsuko; Ozawa, Kazuhiro; Goto, Keiichi; Sugiyama, Kanji; Konuma, Hirotaka; Hara-Kudo, Yukiko

    2014-01-01

    Microbial contamination in unfinished beverages can occur when drinking directly from the bottle. Various microorganisms, including foodborne pathogens, are able to grow in these beverages at room temperature or in a refrigerator. In this study, we elucidated the characteristics of microorganism growth in bottled beverages under consuming condition models. Furthermore, we provide insight into the safety of partially consumed bottled beverages with respect to food hygiene. We inoculated microorganisms, including foodborne pathogens, into various plastic bottled beverages and analysed the dynamic growth of microorganisms as well as bacterial toxin production in the beverages. Eight bottled beverage types were tested in this study, namely green tea, apple juice drink, tomato juice, carbonated drink, sport drink, coffee with milk, isotonic water and mineral water, and in these beverages several microorganism types were used: nine bacteria including three toxin producers, three yeasts, and five moulds. Following inoculation, the bottles were incubated at 35°C for 48 h for bacteria, 25°C for 48 h for yeasts, and 25°C for 28 days for moulds. During the incubation period, the number of bacteria and yeasts and visible changes in mould-growth were determined over time. Our results indicated that combinations of the beverage types and microorganism species correlated with the degree of growth. Regarding factors that affect the growth and toxin-productivity of microorganisms in beverages, it is speculated that the pH, static/shaking culture, temperature, additives, or ingredients, such as carbon dioxide or organic matter (especially of plant origin), may be important for microorganism growth in beverages. Our results suggest that various types of unfinished beverages have microorganism growth and can include food borne pathogens and bacterial toxins. Therefore, our results indicate that in terms of food hygiene it is necessary to consume beverages immediately after opening

  12. Insulated Containers for Bottled Water (ICB)-Performance Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-21

    Plastic   Wrapped  Cordura  Rubberized traction pad  PE  Plastic   Liner  No  Yes  Yes  No  Safe Tie‐Down  Capability  Yes  Yes  Yes  No  Easy Access...mounted Soldiers. The ICBs are lighter, require less storage space, and have more effective tie-down characteristics than coolers often used to carry...bottled water in vehicles. The performance of the ICBs and a commonly used cooler was assessed to determine whether the easier-to-stow ICBs would be as

  13. Bacteriological quality of bottled water sold on the Ghanaian market ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacteriological quality of bottled water sold on the Ghanaian market. ... Consumption of bottled water is increasing rapidly in developing countries especially among ... limits set by WHO guidelines and therefore safe for human consumption.

  14. Effects of Water Bottle Materials and Filtration on Bisphenol A Content in Laboratory Animal Drinking Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeycutt, Jennifer A; Nguyen, Jenny Q T; Kentner, Amanda C; Brenhouse, Heather C

    2017-05-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is widely used in the polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins that are found in laboratory animal husbandry materials including cages and water bottles. Concerns about BPA exposure in humans has led to investigations that suggest physiologic health risks including disruptions to the endocrine system and CNS. However, the extent of exposure of laboratory animals to BPA in drinking water is unclear. In the first study, we compared the amount of BPA contamination in water stored in plastic bottles used in research settings with that in glass bottles. The amount of BPA that leached into water was measured across several time points ranging from 24 to 96 h by using a BPA ELISA assay. The results showed that considerable amounts of BPA (approximately 0.15 μg/L) leached from polycarbonate bottles within the first 24 h of storage. In the second study, BPA levels were measured directly from water taken from filtered compared with unfiltered taps. We observed significantly higher BPA levels in water from unfiltered taps (approximately 0.40 μg/L) compared with taps with filtration systems (approximately 0.04 μg/L). Taken together, our findings indicate that the use of different types of water bottles and water sources, combined with the use of different laboratory products (food, caging systems) between laboratories, likely contribute to decreased rigor and reproducibility in research. We suggest that researchers consider reporting the types of water bottles used and that animal care facilities educate staff regarding the importance of flushing nonfiltered water taps when filling animal water bottles.

  15. DETERMINATION OF PHTHALATES FROM BOTTLED WATER BY GC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IRINA DUMITRAȘCU

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Determination of phthalates from bottled water by GC-MS. Phthalates are ubiquitous pollutants in the environment, due to their widespread use in the last years. These compounds are used principally as plasticizers, to impact flexibility, workability and durability to polymers but they can also be found in products such as paints, adhesives, inks and cosmetics. Phthalates are not chemically bounded to polymers; hence they are easily released and migrate into foods, beverages and drinking water from the packaging or bottling materials or manufacturing processes. This process accelerates as plastic products age and break down. With respect to their endocrine disrupting potential, phthalates such as benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP, di-butyl phthalate (DBP and di-isobutyl phthalate (DIBP have been found to elicit estrogenic responses in in vitro assays. It is possible that phthalates are a contributory factor to endocrine-mediated adverse effects observed in wildlife and humans over the past few decades. In this experiment we have analyzed the phthalates from different bottled waters purchased from the market. Determination by gas chromatography in combination with mass spectrometry detector (GC–MS in electronic ionization mode (EI with selected-ion monitoring (SIM acquisition method (GC–MS (EI–SIM has been carried out. Methods have been developed for both qualitative and quantitative analysis of phthalates. The base peak (m/z = 149 of all the phthalates was selected for the screening studies. The characteristic ions of each compound were chosen for quantitative studies.

  16. Property of filler-loaded magnetic ferrite from plastic waste bottle used to treat municipal domestic sewage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ru-Jin; Gong, Li-Ying; Zhu, Hai-Dong; Liu, Qiao; Xu, Li-Xia; Lu, Lu; Yang, Qi-Zhi

    2018-06-01

    The present work investigates the properties of self-made magnetic filler from plastic waste bottle and explores a new technology approach of waste plastic resource utilization. The magnetic filler was prepared by air plasma modification and loading magnetic ferrite on the plastic strip from waste plastic bottle. The surface properties of magnetic filler were characterized by Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), contact angle system and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR). AFM images of original and modified plastic strip showed that low-temperature plasma treatment markedly increased the surface roughness of plastic strip. The mean roughness (Ra) of plastic strip rose from 1.116 to 5.024 nm. FTIR spectra indicated that a lot of polar oxygenic groups were introduced onto the surface of plastic by plasma modification. Modification by low-temperature plasma increased the hydrophilicity of plastic strip surface. When treatment time is 40 s, water contact angle of plastic strip surface reduced from 78.2° of original plastic strip to 25.3°. When used in bioreactor, magnetic filler had very favorable microenvironment for microorganism growth. Magnetic filler was more efficient for removing chemical oxygen demand (COD) and [Formula: see text] in sewage than nonmagnetic filler. The resource utilization of plastic wastes will become reality if the magnetic filler is applied widely.

  17. Plutonium solution storage in plastic bottles: Operational experience and safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conner, W.V.

    1995-01-01

    Computer spread sheet models were developed to gain a better understanding of the factors that lead to pressurization and failure of plastic bottles containing plutonium solutions. These models were developed using data obtained from the literature on gas generation rates for plutonium solutions. Leak rates from sealed plastic bottles were obtained from bottle leak tests conducted at Rocky Flats. Results from these bottle leak tests showed that narrow mouth four liter bottles will seal much better than wide mouth four liter bottles. The gas generation rate and leak rate data were used to develop models for predicting the rate of pressurization and maximum pressures expected in sealed bottles of plutonium solution containing various plutonium and acid concentrations. The computer models were used to develop proposed time limits for storing or transporting plutonium solutions in sealed plastic bottles. For plutonium solutions containing 1.5 g/l plutonium, storage in sealed bottles should not be allowed. However, transportation of higher concentration plutonium solution in sealed bottles is required, and safe transportation times of 1 shift to 6 days are proposed

  18. Bottled Water: United States Consumers and Their Perceptions of Water Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Zhihua; Morton, Lois Wright; Mahler, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    Consumption of bottled water is increasing worldwide. Prior research shows many consumers believe bottled water is convenient and has better taste than tap water, despite reports of a number of water quality incidents with bottled water. The authors explore the demographic and social factors associated with bottled water users in the U.S. and the relationship between bottled water use and perceptions of the quality of local water supply. They find that U.S. consumers are more likely to report...

  19. 21 CFR 880.6085 - Hot/cold water bottle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hot/cold water bottle. 880.6085 Section 880.6085... Devices § 880.6085 Hot/cold water bottle. (a) Identification. A hot/cold water bottle is a device intended for medical purposes that is in the form of a container intended to be filled with hot or cold water...

  20. Radioactivity in bottled waters sold in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davila Rangel, J.I.; Lopez del Rio, H.; Mireles Garcia, F.; Quirino Torres, L.L.; Villalba, M.L.; Colmenero Sujo, L.; Montero Cabrera, M.E.

    2002-01-01

    Measurements of gross alpha and beta activities were made on 21 domestic and international brands of bottled (purified and mineral) water sold in the Mexican market to assess its radiological quality. Alpha and beta activities were determined using a liquid-scintillation detector with pulse-shape analysis feature. All the purified water had values of beta activity lower than the limit for potable drinking water (1.0 Bq/l), while three brands surpassed the limit of alpha activity (0.1 Bq/l). The limit for alpha radioactivity content was exceed by three mineral waters; the results show a correlation between radioactivity content and mineral salts, which are related with the origin and treatment of the waters

  1. Using waste plastic bottles as additive for stone mastic asphalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadinia, Esmaeil; Zargar, Majid; Karim, Mohamed Rehan; Abdelaziz, Mahrez; Shafigh, Payam

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The PET increased the stiffness level of the mixture improving its resistance level against permanent deformation. → The effects of waste PET on Marshall Stability, air void and bulk specific gravity of the mixture are significant. → The appropriate amount of PET was found to be 6% by weight of bitumen. -- Abstract: Currently, polymer modified asphalt mixture is a relatively costly mixture for paving roads. One way to reduce the cost of such constructions and rendering them more convenient is by using inexpensive polymers, i.e. waste polymers. The main purpose of this research is to determine the effect of incorporating waste plastic bottles (Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET)) on the engineering properties of stone mastic asphalt (SMA) mixture. The volumetric and mechanical properties of asphalt mixes that include various percentages of PET (0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10%) were calculated and assessed with laboratory tests. The appropriate amount of PET was found to be 6% by weight of bitumen. The outcomes were statistically analysed and the determination of the significance at certain confidence limits was performed with the two factor variance analysis (ANOVA). Moreover, some studies conducted on polyethylene modified asphalt mixture have also been taken into consideration in this paper. The results show that the addition of PET has a significant positive effect on the properties of SMA and it can promote the re-use of waste material in industry in an environmentally friendly and economical way.

  2. Plastic Bottles Waste Utilization as Modifier for Asphalt Mixture Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Hakeem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastic Bottles was used as the polymeric waste to investigate performance of asphalt mixture Aggregates obtained from Margalla, Burhan and Karak quarries. 12 samples were prepared for conventional asphalt mixtures and 48 samples were prepared for PB modified asphalt mixture of each quarries at various proportions of PB waste. The PB used for modification according to wet process are 15%, 20%, 25% and 30% by weight of Optimum Bitumen Content (OBC. OBC of 4.2 % was concluded for conventional asphalt mixtures. The stability and flow values of the conventional and modified Asphalt Mixture were compared. The average Stability of the modified Margalla asphalt mixtures when 15% PB was used was much higher as compared to conventional asphalt mixtures. But when PB was used beyond 15%, the Marshall stability showed a decreasing trend for Margalla aggregates, increasing trend for Karak aggregates and decreasing trend for Burhan aggregates. This decline in stability is attributed to a decline in interlocking of aggregates due to lubricating effect. The corresponding flow for the Modified asphalt mixtures first showed a decreasing trend for Margalla aggregates at 15% PB modification but beyond 15%, an increasing trend in flow as compared to conventional asphalt mixtures The decrease in flow or increase in Marshall Stability is attributed to improvement in interlocking and decline in flow or stability is attributed to a decline in interlocking offered by binder and PB coated aggregate particles in modified asphalt.

  3. Bottles to trees: Plastic beverage bottles as an alternative nursery growing container for reforestation in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurram, Safiullah; Burney, Owen T.; Morrissey, Robert C.

    2017-01-01

    Reforestation is needed globally to help restore degraded sites, combat desertification, protect watersheds, and provide forest products. This involves planting forest tree seedlings grown in local nurseries, but technologies to produce quality seedlings are lacking in developing countries. Modern nursery containers used to propagate seedlings have internal-surface barriers (ribs or ridges) or side-slits to prevent root spiraling. These are cost prohibitive or unavailable in developing countries and so polybags (plastic bags) are more commonly used, despite their tendency to produce seedlings with deformed root systems that have less potential to establish on field sites. Discarded plastic bottles, which are readily available worldwide, may be a feasible alternative for seedling propagation. We conducted two experiments to assess the potential of repurposed plastic beverage bottles to grow quality trees: 1) Container Comparison–to evaluate Arizona walnut (Juglans major [Toor.] Heller) and Afghan pine (Pinus eldarica Medw.) seedling root and shoot development in two plastic bottle types compared to modern nursery containers and polybags, and 2) Bottle Modification–to examine the effects of root spiraling prevention techniques (side-slits, internal-ridges, and control) and container opacity (green, black, and clear) on Afghan pine seedling morphological attributes. Nursery growth and first-year seedling field performance were evaluated for both experiments. In experiment one, seedlings of both species had fewer spiraled roots in bottle containers compared to polybags. Arizona walnut had more fibrous root systems in polybags, while Afghan pine root system fibrosity was greatest in bottle containers. First-year field performance of both species was not affected by container type. In experiment two, less spiraled roots occurred in containers with air-slits and interior-ridges compared to the control. The effects of container opacity on seedling morphology were

  4. Quality assessment of sachet and bottled water sold in Gboko ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality of selected sachet and bottled water produced and sold within Gboko town, Benue State was investigated to determine their Shelf life. Eight brands of sachet water and four brands of bottled water samples were collected from different manufacturers within 24 hours and stored at ambient temperature.

  5. Heat Transfer in Glass, Aluminum, and Plastic Beverage Bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, William M.; Shevlin, Ryan C.; Soffen, Tanya S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses a controversy regarding the effect of bottle material on the thermal performance of beverage bottles. Experiments and calculations that verify or refute advertising claims and represent an interesting way to teach heat transfer fundamentals are described. Heat transfer coefficients and the resistance to heat transfer offered…

  6. Labeling practices of water bottling firms and its public health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Bottled water labels enable the consumers to choose brands that can best fit to their needs and preferences. Anything inaccurate, however, may pose serious public health risks, especially to vulnerable individuals. In Ethiopia, regular monitoring of bottled water quality and labelling practices is still lacking.

  7. Quality characteristics of commercial bottled water sold in Owerri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality characteristics of commercial bottled water sold in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria were investigated to determine their physical, chemical and bacteriological content. The four brands of bottled water investigated were Mevok ®, Ozonized April ®, Lacrystal ® and Eva ®. The mean turbidity value of all the samples were ...

  8. Accessories modifying based on plastic waste of shampoo bottle as home economic product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyowati, Erna; Sukesi, Siti

    2018-03-01

    Plastic is a waste that can not decompose by the soil and if its left without a good handling can pollute the environment. Plastic waste needs processing by the recycle bottles principle. Shampoo bottle is one of plastic waste with high density polyethylene type (HDPE). One of the innovation to recycling shampoo bottles waste into the new products whichbeneficially and aestheticallyform by engineered the buns accesories. Accessories are one of the tools used by most women, in the form of trinkets or ornaments which ajusted to the trend to beautify the look. Accessories from shampoo bottle waste can be obtained from household waste, beauty salon and the beauty program study by inculcating human beings' behavior by transforming waste into blessing while also increasing family income. Technique of making its by compiling through improvement of panelist team. The goal of this research is to engineering theaccessories based on shampoo bottle waste as home economics. The method are using experiment, observation and documentation, analysis using descriptive. The results obtained from the overall sensory test averaged at 93%, while the favored test averaged at 85.5%. The product can be ordered according to the desired design, but it takes a long time. Therefore accessories engineering from shampoo bottles waste-based can be used as home economics. The production of shampoo bottles waste-based accessories should improved its quality and quantity, to be marketed through the community, by the cooperation with accessories and bun craftsmen.

  9. COST EVALUATION OF AUTOMATED AND MANUAL POST- CONSUMER PLASTIC BOTTLE SORTING SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project evaluates, on the basis of performance and cost, two Automated BottleSort® sorting systems for post-consumer commingled plastic containers developed by Magnetic Separation Systems. This study compares the costs to sort mixed bales of post-consumer plastic at these t...

  10. Demonstration of Hydrostatic Paradox with Plastic Bottles and LabQuest Vernier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodejška, Cenek

    2018-01-01

    This work focuses on the experimental demonstration of the hydrostatic paradox using simple tools in the form of plastic bottles and plastic syringes with a thread. For the evaluation of the results obtained the data logger Lab Quest Vernier was used. The construction of the device is presented in the first part of this paper. The second part…

  11. Filling or Draining a Water Bottle with Two Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Rod

    2016-01-01

    Three simple experiments are described using a small water bottle with two holes in the side of the bottle. The main challenge is to predict and then explain the observations, but the arrangements can also be used for quantitative measurements concerning hydrostatic pressure, Bernoulli's equation, surface tension and bubble formation.

  12. Investigation of Antimony Leaching from Bottles (PET into the Bottled Waters in Fars Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Noshadi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET is the most common material used in manufacturing mineral water bottles. Antimony trioxide (Sb2O3 used to form the PET containers may pollute water with their ingredients. In this research, graphite furnance atomic absorption spectrometry was used to investigate the effects of storage time (1 to 8 weeks, storage temperature (-20 to 80 °C, pH (6.3 to 8.3, exposure to sunlight, and UV radiation on leaching antimony from PET bottles into the mineral water of 15 bottled water brands available in Fars Province. Concentrations of antimony in the first and second weeks were lower than the maximum standard limit (5 ppb recommended by Iranian regulations. Antimony concentration in one sample (brand A rose above the standard limit after four weeks and in 3 samples (brands A, F, and J with antimony concentrations of 5.48, 5.08, and 5.06 µg/L, respectively exceeded the standard limit after 8 weeks. Sunlight, UV radiation, changes in pH, and storage at temperatures of -20 ℃, 60 ℃, and 80℃ were also found to increase antimony concentrations to levels above the maximum standard limit. Clearly, storing bottled mineral water in ambient conditions may lead to the release of antimony into bottled water, which is a serious threat to public health.

  13. Radium activity measurements in bottled mineral water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappke, Jaqueline; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine N.; Denyak, Valeriy; Reque, Marilson; Rocha, Paschuk; Rocha, Zildete; Santos, Talita O.

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the preliminary results of 226 Ra activity measurements of fifteen samples of bottled mineral water acquired at markets of Curitiba-PR, Brazil. The measurements were performed at the Laboratory of Applied Nuclear Physics of the Federal University of Technology - Parana (UTFPR) in collaboration with the Center of Nuclear Technology Development of Brazilian Nuclear Energy Committee (CNEN). The experimental setup was based on the electronic radon detector RAD7 (Durridge Company, Inc.). The measurements were carried out with a special kit of accessory vessels (vials) RAD7 H 2 O, which allows one to identify the 222 Rn activity concentration in small water samples of 40 mL and 250 mL in the range going from less than 30 pCi/L to greater than 10 5 pCi/L. During each measurement a vial from RAD H 2 O was poured with a sample of water. The air pump, included in the close loop aeration circuit and connected to the vial and RAD7 detector, operated for five minutes to snatch the sample of air maintained above the level of water sample and transporting it from the vial through the system. Evaluation of the concentration of soluble radium ( 226 Ra) salts in water and their activity was performed after 30 days when 222 Rn in the water samples reached secular equilibrium. The background measurements were performed using the samples of the distilled water. Considering the importance of background measurements, it was found that the value suggested by user Manual protocol (RAD7) for the case of low activity radon measurements, has to be slightly modified. (author)

  14. Evaluating radon loss from water during storage in standard PET, bio-based PET, and PLA bottles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucchetti, Carlo; De Simone, Gabriele; Galli, Gianfranco; Tuccimei, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polylactic acid (PLA) bottles were tested to evaluate radon loss from water during 15 days of storage. PET bottles (lower surface/volume-ratio vials) lost 0.4–7.1% of initial radon, whereas PLA bottles lost 3.7% of it. PET bottles with volume of 0.5 L, lower surface/weight ratio, and hence higher thickness display proportionally reduced radon loss. Corrections for dissolved radium are needed during analyses. Formulas for calculating degassing efficiency and water interference on electrostatic collections are developed. - Highlights: • Radon loss from water during storage in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polylactic acid (PLA) bottles was evaluated. • Surface/volume ratio and thickness of plastic materials were studied. • A correction for dissolved radium concentration was applied to estimate gas loss. • Proper corrections for degassing efficiency of aerators were developed. • The interference of H 2 O on radon daughter electrostatic collection was quantified.

  15. Running Mechanics and Metabolic Responses with Water Bottles and Bottle Belt Holders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Heather K; Zdziarski, Laura A; Fallgatter, Kyle; Negron, Giorgio; Chen, Cong; Leavitt, Trevor; Horodyski, MaryBeth; Wasser, Joseph G; Vincent, Kevin R

    2018-01-18

    This study determined whether differential kinematics, kinetics, rates of energy use and cardiopulmonary responses occurred during running with water bottles and bottle belt holders compared to running only. Trained runners (N=42; 27.2±6.4 yr) ran on an instrumented treadmill for four conditions in a randomized order: 1) control run (CON); 2) hand-held full water bottle (FULL, 16.9 fluid oz; 454 g); 3) hand-held half-full water bottle (HALF, 8.4 fluid oz.; 227 g); and 4) waist-worn bottle belt holder (BELT; hydration belt; 676 g). Gas exchange was measured using a portable gas analyzer. Kinetic and kinematic responses were determined via standard 3D videographic techniques. Interactions of limb side (right, left) by study condition (CON, FULL, HALF, BELT) were tested for rates of oxygen use and energy expenditure, and kinematic and kinetic parameters. No significant limb side × condition interactions existed for rates of oxygen use or energy expenditure. A significant interaction occurred with sagittal elbow flexion (pwater by hand or on the waist does not significantly change kinematics of running motion, rates of oxygen use and energy expenditure or cardiopulmonary measures over short durations. Runners are likely making adjustments to joint moments and powers that preserve balance and protect the lower extremity joints while maintaining the rates of oxygen use and energy expenditure.

  16. Physical, chemical and microbial analysis of bottled drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasikaran, S; Sritharan, K; Balakumar, S; Arasaratnam, V

    2012-09-01

    People rely on the quality of the bottled drinking water, expecting it to be free of microbial contamination and health hazards. To evaluate the quality of bottled drinking water sold in Jaffna peninsula by analysing the physical, chemical and microbial contents and comparing with the recommended Sri Lankan Standard (SLS) values. All bottled water samples sold in Jaffna peninsula were collected. Electrical conductivity, total dissolved solid, pH, calcium, nitrate, total aerobic and anaerobic count, coliform bacterial count and faecal contamination were checked. These are 22 brands of bottled drinking water sold in Jaffna peninsula. The sample had very low electrical conductivity when compared with SLS (750 μS/ cm) and varied from 19 to 253 μS/cm with the mean of 80.53 (±60.92) μS/cm. The pH values of the bottled drinking water brands varied from 4.11 to 7.58 with a mean of 6.2 (±0.75). The total dissolved solid content of the bottled drinking water brands varied from 9 to 123.67 mg/l with a mean of 39.5 (±30.23) mg/l. The calcium content of the bottled drinking water brands varied from 6.48 to 83.77 mg/l with a mean of 49.9 (±25.09) mg/l. The nitrate content of the bottled drinking water brands varied from 0.21 to 4.19 mg/l with the mean of 1.26 (±1.08) mg/l. Aerobic bacterial count varied from 0 to 800 colony forming unit per ml (cfu/ml) with a mean of 262.6 (±327.50) cfu/ml. Among the 22 drinking bottled water brands 14 and 9% of bottled drinking water brands showed fungal and coliform bacterial contaminants respectively. The water brands which contained faecal contamination had either Escherichia coli or Klebsiella spp. The bottled drinking water available for sale do not meet the standards stipulated by SLS.

  17. Quality status of bottled water brands in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahlown, M. A.; Tahir, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    The (PCRWR) has carried out a study to evaluate the quality of mineral water brands available in the market owing to demand of general public and consumer associations. Twenty one brands of bottled water were collected from Islamabad and Rawalpindi. Each water sample was analyzed for 24 aesthetic, physico-chemical and bacteriological water quality parameters by adopting standard analytical methods. It was observed that only 10 out of 21 brands (47.62%) were fit for drinking purpose. The remaining eleven brands (52.38%), including one imported brand, were found unsafe for human consumption. It was also concluded that present situation of water quality of bottled water is due to lack of legislation for water quality control. Hence there is a dire need for a legal organization to monitor and regulate the quality issues of bottled water industry. (author)

  18. Spark Ignition of Combustible Vapor in a Plastic Bottle as a Demonstration of Rocket Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattox, J. R.

    2017-01-01

    I report an innovation that provides a compelling demonstration of rocket propulsion, appropriate for students of physics and other physical sciences. An electrical spark is initiated from a distance to cause the deflagration of a combustible vapor mixed with air in a lightweight plastic bottle that is consequently propelled as a rocket by the…

  19. Natural radioactivity in bottled mineral water available in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.B.; Ralph, B.J.; Wilks, M.J.

    1981-08-01

    The levels of naturally-occurring radioactive elements in bottled mineral water, commercially available in Australia, have been assessed. The survey concentrated upon 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 210 Pb, radionuclides which have a high toxicity in drinking water. Detectable levels of 226 Ra were found to range from 0.02Bq/1 to 0.32Bq/1 in locally-bottled water and from 0.02Bq/1 to 0.44Bq/1 in imported brands. 210 Pb levels were found to be generally very low ( 228 Ra content of bottled water will have a similar distribution to that of 226 Ra. Concentrations of 228 Ra in excess of 0.7Bq/1 were measured in a number of samples. The radiological health implications of the consumption of bottled mineral water are discussed with reference to existing drinking water standards and also in terms of radiation exposure and the increased risk to health. It was concluded that, although some brands of water contain radioactivity in excess of the drinking-water limits recommended by Australian and overseas authorities, the annual radiation dose to an individual will be below the dose-equivalent limits recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for life-long exposure. The increased risk of radiation-induced fatal disease due to the consumption of bottled mineral water is estimated to be less than 10 -5 and is therefore negligible

  20. Preconcentration and Determination of Antimony in Drinking Water Bottled by Modified Nano-Alumina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mohammad Zakizade

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Antimony trioxide (Sb2O3 has been utilized as a catalyst in polyethylene terephtalate (PET production, and the studies conducted on the bottled water has demonstrated that antimony can be leached from PET bottles into drinking water. Methods: In this study, a simple method was applied in order to determine the trace amount of antimony in bottled drinking water based on preconcentration /solid phase extraction. The nano alumina modified with Schiff base ligand was used in regard with Sb preconcentration. The experiments were performed in a continuous system and HCI was used as eluent of Sb ion. Several chemical and flow variables were optimized for a quantitative preconcentration and determination of Sb ion. The atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to determine Sb ion concentration. In order to study the keeping conditions on the leaching of Sb ion from PET plastic, drinking water bottles were kept in different conditions(room temperature, sunny light and -18˚C. Results: The calibration graph was linear in the range of 0.5 to 15.0 ppm Sb with detection limit of 0.055 ppm. The flow rate of sample was optimized in range of 1.0-9.0 mLmin-1 and Sb ion can be quantitatively eluted at 90 Vsample: Veluent retio. Conclusion: The study results revealed that the modified nano alumina is an effective sorbent in regard with absorbing Sb ion from water and HCI 1M can be used as an appropriate eluent. Maximum leaching of Sb ion is observed when the bottled drinking water was exposed to the sun light. Keywords: Antimony; Bottled drinking water; Modified alumina; Preconcentration

  1. Organochlorine pesticides residues in bottled drinking water from Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Gilberto; Ortiz, Rutilio; Schettino, Beatriz; Vega, Salvador; Gutiérrez, Rey

    2009-06-01

    This work describes concentrations of organochlorine pesticides in bottled drinking water (BDW) in Mexico City. The results of 36 samples (1.5 and 19 L presentations, 18 samples, respectively) showed the presence of seven pesticides (HCH isomers, heptachlor, aldrin, and p,p'-DDE) in bottled water compared with the drinking water standards set by NOM-127-SSA1-1994, EPA, and World Health Organization. The concentrations of the majority of organochlorine pesticides were within drinking water standards (0.01 ng/mL) except for beta-HCH of BW 3, 5, and 6 samples with values of 0.121, 0.136, and 0.192 ng/mL, respectively. It is important monitoring drinking bottled water for protecting human health.

  2. 40 CFR 141.101 - Use of bottled water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of bottled water. 141.101 Section 141.101 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Use of Non-Centralized Treatment Devices § 141.101...

  3. Screening of hormone-like activities in bottled waters available in Southern Spain using receptor-specific bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Real, Macarena; Molina-Molina, José-Manuel; Jiménez-Díaz, Inmaculada; Arrebola, Juan Pedro; Sáenz, José-María; Fernández, Mariana F; Olea, Nicolás

    2015-01-01

    Bottled water consumption is a putative source of human exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Research has been conducted on the presence of chemicals with estrogen-like activity in bottled waters and on their estrogenicity, but few data are available on the presence of hormonal activities associated with other nuclear receptors (NRs). The aim of this study was to determine the presence of endocrine activities dependent on the activation of human estrogen receptor alpha (hERa) and/or androgen receptor (hAR) in water in glass or plastic bottles sold to consumers in Southern Spain. Hormone-like activities were evaluated in 29 bottled waters using receptor-specific bioassays based on reporter gene expression in PALM cells [(anti-)androgenicity] and cell proliferation assessment in MCF-7 cells [(anti-)estrogenicity] after optimized solid phase extraction (SPE). All of the water samples analyzed showed hormonal activity. This was estrogenic in 79.3% and anti-estrogenic in 37.9% of samples and was androgenic in 27.5% and anti-androgenic in 41.3%, with mean concentrations per liter of 0.113pM 17β-estradiol (E2) equivalent units (E2Eq), 11.01pM anti-estrogen (ICI 182780) equivalent units (ICI 182780Eq), 0.33pM methyltrienolone (R1881) equivalent units (R1881Eq), and 0.18nM procymidone equivalent units (ProcEq). Bottled water consumption contributes to EDC exposure. Hormone-like activities observed in waters from both plastic and glass bottles suggest that plastic packaging is not the sole source of contamination and that the source of the water and bottling process may play a role, among other factors. Further research is warranted on the cumulative effects of long-term exposure to low doses of EDCs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A survey of the radiological quality of Mexican bottled waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez del R, H.; Davila R, J. I.; Rosales H, M. A.; Mireles G, F.; Pinedo V, J. L., E-mail: hlopezdelrio@hotmail.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98060 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    More bottled drinking water is consumed per capita in Mexico than in any other country in the world. With the purpose of verifying the compliance with Mexican standards for radioactive content of drinking water, the gross alpha and beta activities were measured in 34 brands of bottled water consisting of purified water (19), natural mineral water (12), and mineralized water (3). Electrical conductivity of water samples ranged from 10 to 1465 μS/cm, and mostly high values were for the mineralized water samples. Gross alpha activities ranged from <12.2 to 709.8 mBq/L, while gross beta activities values varied from <26 to 616 mBq/L. All the bottled water samples had radioactivity content below the maximum permissible levels established in the Official Mexican Norm, except for the gross alpha level of one natural mineral water. Based upon these results it can be concluded that, in general, the analyzed bottled waters have acceptable quality with regard to radioactive content of gross alpha and beta activities. (Author)

  5. A survey of the radiological quality of Mexican bottled waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez del R, H.; Davila R, J. I.; Rosales H, M. A.; Mireles G, F.; Pinedo V, J. L.

    2013-10-01

    More bottled drinking water is consumed per capita in Mexico than in any other country in the world. With the purpose of verifying the compliance with Mexican standards for radioactive content of drinking water, the gross alpha and beta activities were measured in 34 brands of bottled water consisting of purified water (19), natural mineral water (12), and mineralized water (3). Electrical conductivity of water samples ranged from 10 to 1465 μS/cm, and mostly high values were for the mineralized water samples. Gross alpha activities ranged from <12.2 to 709.8 mBq/L, while gross beta activities values varied from <26 to 616 mBq/L. All the bottled water samples had radioactivity content below the maximum permissible levels established in the Official Mexican Norm, except for the gross alpha level of one natural mineral water. Based upon these results it can be concluded that, in general, the analyzed bottled waters have acceptable quality with regard to radioactive content of gross alpha and beta activities. (Author)

  6. Speciation of inorganic antimony in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottled water using hydride generation atomic absorption spectrophotometry (HG-AAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markwo, Ali

    2015-07-01

    Antimony (Sb) is a regulated drinking water contaminant that has been found to leach from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic containers into the waters stored in them. The common inorganic species of antimony in water are Sb(III) and Sb(V), with the former being more toxic and the latter being more soluble. In order to assess the extent to which waters stored in PET bottles are contaminated with inorganic Sb and to further examine the effect of typical storage conditions on migration rates, speciation analysis of inorganic Sb using hydride generation atomic absorption spectrophotometry (HG-AAS) was undertaken on selected PET plastic bottled waters marketed in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana. Six brands of PET plastic bottled waters were obtained at source on the day of packaging, and analyses undertaken on samples of the waters stored in the plastic containers at intervals of four weeks for twelve weeks, under three carefully chosen storage conditions distinctive of bottled water usage. Selected physicochemical properties of samples of the waters stored in the plastic containers and total Sb of samples of the plastic containers were also determined to discover the effect of some physical properties and certain major ions, and the influence of the different quality PET plastic types on Sb migration respectively. The study revealed amounts of total Sb in the PET plastic containers of the 6 brands ranging from 123.46 mg/kg to 146.45 mg/kg. The selected physicochemical properties of the waters stored in the PET plastic containers considered were pH (6.78 – 7.43), Ca2+ (1.61 – 12.39 mg/L), Mg2+ (1.00 – 4.96 mg/L), HCO3− (6.18 – 55.41 mg/L) and TDS (8.70 – 70.40 mg/L)). PET bottled waters of 5 out of the 6 brands contained Sb (initial total Sb ranging from 1.11 – 14.65 μg/L) before storage. Total Sb concentrations of the waters stored in the plastic containers were observed to increase with storage time under all the three storage conditions for

  7. THE ANALYSIS OF THE THREAT OF REUSING PET BOTTLES FOR THE STORAGE OF DRINKING WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuilov A. M.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. According to a sociological survey of about 86% of Kharkiv (Ukraine residents reuse PET bottles for a drinking water storing. This type of reuse of PET bottles isn't safe and the results of numerous research unequivocally confirm this assertion. The largest hazard of plastic bottles reuse for drinking water storage is biological film on the internally surface of bottle. This biofilm may contain pathogenic microorganisms which can migrate from biofilm to fresh water. Human, who drinking contaminated water, may drink microorganisms in common with this water. It's very dangerous, because the numerous strains of pathogens may migration in water and infect from gastric-bowel tract to the humans. Scientists from National technical university "Kharkiv polytechnic institute" in common with experts from Mechnikov institute of microbiology and immunology explored this problem and devised the apparatus, which can destroy a biofilm on polymer or another surface. Materials & Methods. The tested apparatus was the electrical device consisting of a block with electrodes, an electronic control, a water pump and a sprinkler for spraying the disinfectant. The electrode was made of 925˚ silver (sterling silver. Water for the preparation of a disinfectant was tap water and wasn't treated additionally. The sprinkler for spraying the disinfectant was placed in the neck of the infected bottle. Disinfectant solution was sprayed inside the bottle for 4 seconds. The water pressure was about 1.5 atmospheres. After that, the sprinkler was removed and the disinfectant was drained. A smear for microbiological composition was taken from three parts of the bottle - the neck, the middle part and the bottom. Growth of microorganisms and their detections was fixed by classic microbiological methods. Results & Discussion. In the article the scheme of the most probable and widespread way of infection of PET-bottles by pathogens and the way of minimization of this

  8. Fluoride Content of Bottled Drinking Waters in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almulla, Hessa Ibrahim; King, Nigel M; Alnsour, Hamza Mohammad; Sajnani, Anand K

    2016-12-01

    Fluoridation of drinking water has been recognized as one of the most effective ways of achieving community-wide exposure to the caries prevention effects of fluoride (F). A vast majority of people in Qatar use bottled water for drinking. Use of bottled water without knowing the F level may expose children to dental caries risk if the F level is lower than optimal or to dental fluorosis if the F level is too high. The aim of this study was to determine the F concentration of bottled water available in Qatar. A total of 32 brands of bottled water were evaluated. The F concentrations displayed on the labels were recorded. The F ion-selective electrode method was used to measure the F concentration in water samples, and three measurements were taken for every sample to ensure reproducibility. The p value was set at 0.05. The F concentration ranged from 0.06 to 3.0 ppm with a mean value of 0.8 ppm (±0.88). The F levels were provided by the manufacturers on the labels of 60 % of the samples, but this was significantly lower than the measured F levels (p < 0.0001). Moreover, bottled water that was produced in Saudi Arabia had significantly higher levels of F when compared to those produced in other countries (p < 0.05). There was a wide variation in the F levels in the different brands of bottled water. Furthermore, there was a significant disparity between the F levels which were measured and those that were provided on the labels.

  9. Bottled drinking water: Water contamination from bottle materials (glass, hard PET, soft PET), the influence of colour and acidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimann, Clemens; Birke, Manfred; Filzmoser, Peter

    2010-01-01

    A test comparing concentrations of 57 chemical elements (Ag, Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Bi, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Dy, Er, Eu, Fe, Ga, Gd, Ge, Hf, Ho, I, K, La, Li, Lu, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nb, Nd, Ni, Pb, Pr, Rb, Sb, Se, Sm, Sn, Sr, Ta, Tb, Te, Th, Ti, Tl, Tm, U, V, W, Y, Yb, Zn and Zr) determined by inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry (ICP-QMS) in 294 samples of the same bottled water (predominantly mineral water) sold in the European Union in glass and PET bottles demonstrates significant (Wilcoxon rank sum test, α = 0.05) differences in median concentrations for Sb, Ce, Pb, Al, Zr, Ti, Th, La, Pr, Fe, Zn, Nd, Sn, Cr, Tb, Er, Gd, Bi, Sm, Y, Lu, Dy, Yb, Tm, Nb and Cu. Antimony has a 21x higher median value in bottled water when sold in PET bottles (0.33 vs. 0.016 μg/L). Glass contaminates the water with Ce (19x higher than in PET bottles), Pb (14x), Al (7x), Zr (7x), Ti, Th (5x), La (5x), Pr, Fe, Zn, Nd, Sn, Cr, Tb (2x), Er, Gd, Bi, Sm, Y, Lu, Yb, Tm, Nb and Cu (1.4x). Testing an additional 136 bottles of the same water sold in green and clear glass bottles demonstrates an important influence of colour, the water sold in green glass shows significantly higher concentrations in Cr (7.3x, 1.0 vs. 0.14 μg/L), Th (1.9x), La, Zr, Nd, Ce (1.6x), Pr, Nb, Ti, Fe (1.3x), Co (1.3x) and Er (1.1x). One hundred and twenty-six bottles of three different materials (glass, hard PET and soft PET) in 5 principal colours (clear, light and dark green and blue, brown) were subsequently washed and then filled with high purity water (18.2 MΩ cm). A portion of the bottles where left at the original average pH of the water (pH 6.5) while the remaining bottles were acidified to pH 3.5 with HNO 3 . Concentrations of the same 57 elements as above were determined after 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 15, 30, 56, 80 and 150 days of leaching. Results substantiate the observations from the direct comparison of the same water sold in different bottle types (colour). For most elements leaching is

  10. Water Jets from Bottles, Buckets, Barrels, and Vases with Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopac, Vjera

    2015-01-01

    Observation of the water jets flowing from three equidistant holes on the side of a vertical cylindrical bottle is an interesting and widely used didactical experiment illustrating the laws of fluids in motion. In this paper we analyze theoretically and numerically the ranges of the stationary water jets flowing from various rotationally symmetric…

  11. Insulated Containers For Bottled Water (ICB)- Performance Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-21

    WATER STOWAGE PROTOTYPES BOTTLED WATER HIGH TEMPERATURE WEIGHT EJECTION CONTAINERS ...Soldiers are ineffectively mounting commercially  available  coolers and they,  as well as the bottles they  contain , are becoming projectile hazards... container  (shown in Figure 15). The tie‐down procedures were determined by a professional  rigger; a video of the procedures is  available  from NSRDEC

  12. Platelets in blood stored in untreated and siliconed glass bottles and plastic bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissmeyer-Nielsen, F.; Madsen, C. B.; Nedergaard, Jytte

    1961-01-01

    Platelet survival was determined using untreated and siliconed glass bottles and plastic bags (Fenwal) for collecting and storing blood. The platelets were tagged in vivo with P32 in six polycythaemic patients undergoing treatment with P32. The results showed that fresh ACD blood collected in untreated glass, siliconed glass, and plastic gave the same recovery of platelets in the recipients. The use of EDTA (Fenwal formula) as anticoagulant gave results inferior to those obtained with blood using ACD as anticoagulant. Even after storage up to 24 hours in untreated glass bottles (ordinary bank blood) a satisfactory recovery of platelets was observed. After storage for 72 hours the recovery was less but not negligible. PMID:14456481

  13. Bottled water, spas, and early years of water chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, William; Landa, Edward R.; Meeks, Lisa

    1995-01-01

    Although hot springs have been used and enjoyed for thousands of years, it was not until the late 1700s that they changed the course of world civilization by being the motivation for development of the science of chemistry. The pioneers of chemistry such as Priestley, Cavendish, Lavoisier, and Henry were working to identify and generate gases, in part, to determine their role in carbonated beverages. In the 18th century, spas in America were developed to follow the traditional activities of popular European spas. However, they were to become a dominant political and economic force in American history on three major points: (1) By far the most important was to provide a place for the leaders of individual colonies to meet and discuss the need for separation from England and the necessity for the Revolutionary War; (2) the westward expansion of the United States was facilitated by the presence of hot springs in many locations that provided the economic justification for railroads and settlement; and (3) the desire for the preservation of hot springs led to the establishment of the National Park Service. Although mineral springs have maintained their therapeutic credibility in many parts of the world, they have not done so in the United States. We suggest that the American decline was prompted by: (1) the establishment of The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine in 1893; (2) enactment of the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1907; and (3) the remarkable achievement of providing safe water supplies for American cities by the end of the 1920s. The current expanding market for bottled water is based in part on bottled water being an alternative beverage Ito alcohol and sweetened drinks and the inconsistent palatability and perceived health hazards of some tap waters.

  14. Evaluation of Microbial Quality of Bottled Water in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Alimohammadi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Because of population growth, limited access to fresh water resources, the need to use bottled water, controlling microbial quality of  bottled water is important. Materials and Methods: Microbiological quality of 24 brands of bottled water available in the town markets of Iran was studied Random. Samples were collected in summer and autumn, 2012. In each season, we collected two samples for each brand. In order to analyze Total coliforms, E-Coli, and HPC, MPN and Plate Count Methods were used. Data analysis was processed by SPSS software. Results: Total coliforms were 2 MPN/100CC in two brands S18 and S20. Increased HPC levels were also observed in all brands. pH level of 6% from bottled waters were higher than the standard. Average of turbidity was 0.232 and 0.228 at the autumn and summer, respectively. Conclusion: the heterotrophic microorganisms were present in 100% of the samples. Total coliforms were also found in 12% of the samples. None of the samples contained E-Coli.

  15. Influence of bottled water packaging attributes on consumers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to identify the influence of bottled water packaging attributes on consumers' purchase decision. The research focused in Addis Ababa (Ethiopia). The study used color, graphic design, size, printed information and shape of packaging as independent variables and consumers' purchase ...

  16. Plastic pollutants in water environment

    OpenAIRE

    Mrowiec Bożena

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, wide applications of plastics result in plastic waste being present in the water environment in a wide variety of sizes. Plastic wastes are in water mainly as microplastics (the size range of 1 nm to < 5 mm). Microplastics have been recognized as an emerging threat, as well as ecotoxicological and ecological risk for water ecosystems. In this review are presented some of the physicochemical properties of plastic materials that determine their toxic effect on the aquatic environment....

  17. Community Responses to the Removal of Bottled Water on a University Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailovich, Katja; Fitzgerald, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aimed to examine the impact of the removal of bottled water on the campus community. This paper presents the findings of a survey conducted at the first Australian university to remove single-use bottled water from sale on a small regional university campus. The removal of bottled water from sale at the university formed part…

  18. What's Wrong with the Tap? Examining Perceptions of Tap Water and Bottled Water at Purdue University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saylor, Amber; Prokopy, Linda Stalker; Amberg, Shannon

    2011-09-01

    The environmental impacts of bottled water prompted us to explore drinking water choices at Purdue University, located in West Lafayette, IN. A random sample of 2,045 Purdue University students, staff, and faculty was invited to participate in an online survey. The survey assessed current behaviors as well as perceived barriers and benefits to drinking tap water versus bottled water. 677 surveys were completed for a response rate of 33.1%. We then conducted qualitative interviews with a purposive sample of university undergraduates ( n = 21) to obtain contextual insights into the survey results and the beliefs of individuals with a variety of drinking water preferences. This study revealed that women drink disproportionately more bottled water then men while undergraduate students drink more than graduate students, staff and faculty. The study also uncovered a widespread belief that recycling eliminates the environmental impacts of bottled water. Important barriers to drinking tap water at Purdue include: perceived risks from tap water and the perceived safety of bottled water, preferring the taste of bottled water, and the convenience of drinking bottled water. The qualitative interviews revealed that drinking water choices can be influenced by several factors—especially whether individuals trust tap water to be clean—but involve varying levels of complexity. The implications of these results for social marketing strategies to promote tap water are discussed.

  19. New absorbent acoustic materials from plastic bottle remnants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    del Rey, R.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the building acoustics field usually fibrous materials are used as sound absorbing materials. Nowadays polyester fiber is one of the most used but the pure chip of polyester has a problem. Polyester is obtained of petroleum and its price was increasing last years. This paper, presents an alternative polyester wool which obtained by PET treatment (recycle of plastic bottle’s. Absorption coefficient values at normal incidence measured in reverberation chamber were compared (new wool obtained by PET method and materials obtained from pure chip of polyester.Furthermore, this paper propound a empiric model that describe the acoustic performance of this new wool. The results have been good. The pure fiber has been replaced by recycle fiber in its manufacture process.

    En el ámbito de acústica de la edificación es común el uso de materiales fibrosos como materiales absorbentes acústicos. Uno de estos materiales cada vez más utilizado es la lana de poliéster. Un problema que presenta el chip virgen de poliéster es que se obtiene del petróleo, cuyo precio no hace más que incrementarse en los últimos años. En este trabajo se presenta una lana de poliéster alternativa, obtenida mediante el tratamiento del PET, a través del conveniente ciclo de reciclado de botellas de plástico. Se comparan valores del coeficiente de absorción; en incidencia normal y en cámara reverberante de los materiales elaborados a partir de chip virgen y de las nuevas lanas obtenidas del PET. Además, se propone un modelo empírico de comportamiento acústico de estas nuevas lanas. Los resultados obtenidos han sido favorables, la fibra virgen ya ha sido sustituida por fibra reciclada en su proceso de fabricación.

  20. Macro and microelements in bottled and tap waters of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Tanja M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative analysis between bottled and tap waters as well as its comparison with current Serbian regulations, European Union Directives and World Health Organization standard are shown in this paper. Thirteen bottled waters and fourteen tap waters from the territory of Serbia were analyzed in the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR laboratory in Berlin, for the purpose of the “Geochemistry of European Bottled Water“ project conducted by EuroGeo Survey Geochemistry (EGS. Macrocomponents (main cations and anions of ground waters usually reflect on lithogeochemistry of the aquifer, while microcomponents indicate the circulation of ground water through the different lithological environment. Analyzed bottled waters could be classified as those with low mineral content (M<500 mg/L if HCO3 anion and Ca and Mg cations were the prevailing ones, or mineral (M>500 mg/L with prevailing HCO3 anion and Na cation. Waters with low mineral content were mainly from limestone and dolomite, while mineral waters mainly originated from magmatic and metamorphic rocks. Higher content of Cs, Li, Ge, Rb and F in bottled waters indicates the importance of the magmatic intrusions influence on their chemical composition. In some waters higher content of B, I, NH4, as well as of Tl and W has been observed which can be attributed to water’s circulation through different lithological complexes. Tap water was mostly obtained from groundwater (from Neogen and alluvial aquifers and karst springs with rest being those of rivers and surface accumulations. Tap waters from Central Serbia were with low mineral content, with prevailing HCO3 anion and Ca and Mg cations, while waters from Vojvodina, the northern province of Serbia, were with higher mineralization, HCO3-Na. Chemical analyses of the sampled tap waters showed good quality, with exception of waters from the cities of Senta and Zrenjanin in Vojvodina. High values of B (1170 and 895 g/L, As

  1. A complete life cycle assessment of high density polyethylene plastic bottle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treenate, P.; Limphitakphong, N.; Chavalparit, O.

    2017-07-01

    This study was aimed to determine environmental performances of a lubricant oil bottle made from high density polyethylene and to develop potential measures for reducing its impacts. A complete life cycle assessment was carried out to understand a whole effect on the environment from acquiring, processing, using, and disposing the product. Two scenarios of disposal phase; recycle and incineration: were examined to quantify a lesser degree on environmental impact. The results illustrated that major impacts of the two scenarios were at the same categories with the highest contributor of raw material acquisition and pre-processing. However, all impacts in case of recycling provided a lower point than that in case of incineration, except mineral extraction. Finally, feasible measures for reducing the environmental impact of high density polyethylene plastic bottle were proposed in accordance with 3Rs concept.

  2. Energy Globe 2004 - Plastic bottles for a human life; Plastikflaschen fuer ein Menschenleben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This short article takes a look at how the Swiss Aquatic Research Centre EAWAG won a special prize for its simple method of providing people suffering from lack of clean drinking water in the aftermath of the tsunami catastrophe in south-east Asia. The method involves filling PET-bottles with water and placing them for a period of six hours in the sun, preferably on hot corrugated iron. In this way, contaminated water can be made potable.

  3. Economic Impact of Imposing Excise Tax on Plastic Bottles of Drinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Mardanugraha

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This research simulates the effect of imposing excise tax on plastic container of drinks towards economic performance of beverage industry in Indonesia and governmentâ˘A ´Zs tax revenue. The results showed that by imposing excise tax on plastic cups and plastic bottles the government would lose tax revenue from value added tax (PPN and corporate income tax (PPh badan more than they gain additional revenue from excise tax. Hence, imposing excise tax on drink containers should serve a clear purpose and an undeniable reason. This paper recommends the government to develop proper excise infrastructure to extend the goods or services to be taxed. This paper also recommends the required stages for extending the excise tax.

  4. Culture -independent Pathogenic Bacterial Communities in Bottled Mineral Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdy A. Hassan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Bottled mineral water (BMW is an alternative to mains water and consider it to be better and safer. Access to safe BMW from the bacteria involving potential health hazard is essential to health. Cultivation-independent technique PCR-based single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP for genetic profiling of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes was performed using Com primer set targeting the 16S rRNA genes for detection of pathogenic bacteria in bottled mineral water from the final product of six factories for bottled mineral drinking water in Wadi El-natron region- Egypt. These factories use often ozone technology to treat large quantities of water because of its effectiveness in purifying and conditioning water. A total of 27 single products were isolated from the profiles by PCR re-amplification and cloning. Sequence analysis of 27 SSCP bands revealed that the 16S rRNA sequences were clustered into seven operational taxonomic units (OTUs and the compositions of the communities of the six samples were all common. The results showed that most communities from phyla Alphaproteobacteria and certainly in the Sphingomonas sp. Culture-independent approaches produced complementary information, thus generating a more accurate view for the bacterial community in the BMW, particularly in the disinfection step, as it constitutes the final barrier before BMW distribution to the consumer

  5. Natural radioactivity in Brazilian bottled mineral waters and consequent doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, J. de; Paci Mazzilli, B.; Costa, P. da; Akiko Tanigava, P.

    2001-01-01

    The natural activity concentration levels of 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 210 Pb were analyzed in 17 brands of bottled mineral waters commercially available in the Southeast region of Brazil. Concentrations up to 647 mBq x l -1 and 741 mBq x l -1 were observed for 226 Ra and 228 Ra, whereas 210 Pb concentrations reached 85 mBq x l -1 . Average committed effective doses of 1.3 x 10 -2 mSv x y -1 for 226 Ra, 3.4 x 10 -2 mSv x y -1 for 228 Ra and 9.4 x 10 -3 mSv x y -1 for 210 Pb were estimated for the ingestion of these waters. A collective dose of 90 manSv was evaluated, considering the annual production of the bottled mineral waters analyzed in this study. (author)

  6. Concentration of Nitrate in Bottled Drinking Water in Qom, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saberi Bidgoli

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: The global consumption of bottled water is growing with substantial growth in sales volumes on every continent. The highest growth rates are occurring in Asia and South America. Biological and chemical monitoring of these waters is necessary. The aim of current study was determination of nitrate concentration in bottled drinking water in Qom, Iran in 2012. Materials & Methods: A cross-sectional study carried out in Qom, Iran. First of all, 18 most frequent brands of bottled drinking waters were purchased in June 2012 randomly. Then concentration of nitrate was measured according to the spectrophotometric method. In next step, experiment data were analyzed by Excel Software and P value was obtained by statistical calculations. Finally data were comprised with written nitrate concentration on labels and recommended permissible values . Results: The median nitrate concentration was 2.1 mg/L with the minimum 0.8 mg/L and maximum 8.1 mg/L. In 66.7 % of the samples, the measured nitrate concentrations were less than the written nitrate concentrations and in 33.3% of samples, the nitrate concentration was higher. The statistical calculation proved the significant difference between the median of written nitrate concentration on the label and investigated nitrate concentration (P value > 0.05. Conclusions: It be concluded that the measured nitrate concentration in all of the water samples is below the recommended permissible level.

  7. Risk Factors Associated with the Choice to Drink Bottled Water and Tap Water in Rural Saskatchewan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianne McLeod

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study investigated risk factors associated with choices to drink bottled water and tap water in rural Saskatchewan. Of 7,500 anonymous postal questionnaires mailed out, 2,065 responses were analyzed using generalized linear mixed models. Those who reported a water advisory (p < 0.001 or living in the area for £10 years (p = 0.01 were more likely to choose bottled water. Those who reported tap water was not safe to drink were more likely to choose bottled water, an effect greater for those who had no aesthetic complaints (p ≤ 0.001, while those with aesthetic complaints were more likely to choose bottled water if they believed the water was safe (p < 0.001. Respondents who treated their water and did not use a community supply were more likely to choose bottled water (p < 0.001, while those who did not treat their water were more likely to choose bottled water regardless of whether a community supply was used (p < 0.001. A similar pattern of risk factors was associated with a decreased likelihood of consuming tap water daily; however, the use of a community water supply was not significant. Understanding the factors involved in drinking water choices could inform public health education efforts regarding water management in rural areas.

  8. Safety of Bottled Water Beverages Including Flavored Water and Nutrient-Added Water Beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Food Resources for You Consumers FDA Regulates the Safety of Bottled Water Beverages Including Flavored Water and Nutrient-Added Water Beverages ... addition, the flavorings and nutrients added to these beverages must comply with all applicable FDA safety requirements and they must be identified in the ...

  9. Fluoride Content of Bottled Waters in Hong Kong and Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mulla, Hessa I; Anthonappa, Robert P; King, Nigel M

    2016-01-01

    To determine the F concentration of bottled waters that was available in Hong Kong and Qatar. The F concentrations of bottled waters collected from Hong Kong (n=81) and Qatar (n=32) were analysed. The F ion selective electrode method was used to measure the F concentration in the samples. Three measurements were obtained for every sample to ensure reproducibility and appropriate statistical analyses were employed. Qatar group: F concentrations ranged from 0.06 ppm to 3.0 ppm with a mean value of 0.8 ppm. The F concentrations displayed on the labels of the samples (60%) were significantly lower than the measured F concentration (p Qatar. The F concentrations displayed on the labels were not consistent with the measured F concentrations.

  10. Plastic pollutants in water environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrowiec Bożena

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, wide applications of plastics result in plastic waste being present in the water environment in a wide variety of sizes. Plastic wastes are in water mainly as microplastics (the size range of 1 nm to < 5 mm. Microplastics have been recognized as an emerging threat, as well as ecotoxicological and ecological risk for water ecosystems. In this review are presented some of the physicochemical properties of plastic materials that determine their toxic effect on the aquatic environment. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs are mentioned as one of main sources of microplastics introduced into fresh water, and rivers are the pathways for the transportation of the pollutants to seas and oceans. But, effluents from tertiary wastewater treatment facilities can contain only minimally microplastic loads. The issue of discharge reduction of plastic pollutants into water environment needs activities in the scope of efficient wastewater treatment, waste disposal, recycling of plastic materials, education and public involvement.

  11. The radioactivity of bottled mineral waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrakova, M.; Babarikova, F.; Belanova, A.

    2005-01-01

    Mineral waters with increased contents of minerals (total mineralization ranging from 1000 to 4000 mg.dm -3 ) can also contain increased concentrations of natural radionuclides. For this reason it is necessary to monitor radioactivity of mineral and thermal springs. Hundreds of springs which are used for drinking purposes are spread in many regions all over Slovakia. In our laboratory we determined these radionuclides in mineral waters: total alpha, total beta, volume activity 222 Rn, concentration of U nat , volume 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 210 Po. From values of determined volume activities of radionuclides we calculated total effective dose from reception mineral waters. By calculation of effective dose we supposed consumption of mineral water 150 dm 3 .year -1 (0.4 dm 3 .day -1 ) for adults (according to UNSCEAR). Conversion factors are initiated in the regulation of Ministry of Health of Slovak Republic (MZ SR No.12/2001). (authors)

  12. Acetaldehyde in mineral water stored in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles: Odour threshold and quantification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijssen, B.; Kamperman, T.; Jetten, J.

    1996-01-01

    The use of PET bottles for packaging soft drinks and mineral waters is still growing world wide. The production process for these bottles is improving constantly. These improvements are focussed on bottles with better barrier properties, higher inertness and higher heat stability. One of the factors

  13. Natural radionuclides in Austrian bottled mineral waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriele Wallner; Tania Jabbar

    2010-01-01

    All commercially available mineral waters of Austrian origin were investigated with regard to the natural radionuclides 228 Ra, 226 Ra, 210 Pb, 210 Po, 238 U and 234 U. From 1 to 1.5 L of sample the nuclides were extracted and measured sequentially: the radium isotopes as well as 210 Pb were measured by liquid scintillation counting after separation on a membrane loaded with element-selective particles (Empore Radium Disks), 210 Po was determined by α-particle spectroscopy after spontaneous deposition onto a copper planchette and uranium was determined also by α-particle spectroscopy after anion separation and microprecipitation with NdF 3 . The calculated committed effective doses for adults, teens and babies were compared to the total indicative dose of 0.1 mSv/year given in the EC Drinking Water Directive. The dominant portion of the committed effective dose was due to 228 Ra. Highly mineralised waters showed also higher 226 Ra and 228 Ra levels. (author)

  14. An unusual case of organophosphate intoxication of a worker in a plastic bottle recycling plant: an important reminder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C L; Chuang, H Y; Chang, C Y; Liu, S T; Wu, M T; Ho, C K

    2000-11-01

    A young man was sent to our emergency unit because he had suffered from vomiting and cold sweating for 2 days. At the time he was admitted, he had no acute abdominal pains or gastrointestinal symptoms, and a physical examination revealed nothing but a faster heart rate and moist, flushing skin. The patient had worked for 6 years at a plastic bottle-recycling factory, but none of his co-workers had the same symptoms. Nevertheless, because the plant also recycled pesticide bottles, we suspected organophosphate pesticide intoxication. The patient's plasma acetylcholinesterase level was checked, revealing 1498.6 microU/L (normal range: 2,000-5, 000) on the first day and 1,379 microU/L on the second day. Upon questioning, the patient recalled that one of his shoe soles had been damaged and that his foot had been wet from walking all day in rain collected on the factory floor on the day that his symptoms first occurred. We conducted a study in the change of preshift and postshift acetylcholinesterase levels among six of his co-workers on a rainy day. We used the Wilcoxon signed rank test to compare the preshift and postshift plasma acetylcholinesterase levels; no significant difference was revealed (p = 0.600), leaving contamination via the damaged shoe sole suspect. We reviewed the literature on organophosphate intoxication; pesticide bottle-recycling factories were reported to be at a low risk of organophosphate toxicity in the working environment. However, because the potential risk of intoxication is still present, protective equipment such as clothing, gloves, and water-proof shoes should be worn, and employees should be educated on the potential risks.

  15. Perceptions on the use of bottled water in restaurants in Harare's Central Business District (CBD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juba, Olivia Sakhile; Tanyanyiwa, Vincent Itai

    2018-06-01

    Bottled water use continues to expand worldwide and in the last two decades, a significant number of consumers have shifted from tap water to bottled water due to Cryptosporidium outbreaks. Bottled water consumption has increased in Harare due to erratic tap water supplies. Since 2011, forty bottled water brands have been banned because of failure to meet safety and quality standards due to contamination, unsuitable packaging, and wrong labelling. Nevertheless, the bottled water industry continues to thrive as local authorities fail to adequately purify municipal water. The study assessed the perceptions on drinking bottled water in restaurants within Harare's CBD. Demographic and social factors associated with bottled water users were established and the role and influence of stakeholders in bottling and distribution of water documented. A field survey through the administration of questionnaires to fifty restaurant users was carried out to assess the perceptions of people on the use of bottled water in terms of its safety and potential health benefits. Key informant interviews were conducted using a semi-structured interview with ten local water bottling companies as well as representatives from the Environmental Management Agency (EMA) and Standards Association of Zimbabwe (SAZ). Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis. Standard descriptive statistics were generated, with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Consumers used bottled water as their primary drinking water source when they perceived that tap water was not safe. Perceptions of purity of water, bottled water convenience, and tap water unavailability seemed to determine consumption patterns among users. Females in the 18-48 age groups were more likely to think that bottled water was cleaner, safer, tasted better and was more convenient than tap water. Consumers regularly purchased bottled water for drinking and used bottled water as their primary drinking water

  16. Recycling of polyethylene terephthalate (PET plastic bottle wastes in bituminous asphaltic concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebayo Olatunbosun Sojobi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research sheds light on the concept of eco-friendly road construction which comprises eco-design, eco-extraction, eco-manufacturing, eco-construction, eco-rehabilitation, eco-maintenance, eco-demolition, and socioeconomic empowerment. It also revealed the challenges being faced in its adoption and the benefits derivable from its application. Furthermore, the effects of recycling PET plastic bottle wastes produced in North Central Nigeria in bituminous asphaltic concrete (BAC used in flexible pavement construction were also evaluated. The mix design consists of 60/70 penetration-grade asphaltic concrete (5%, 68% coarse aggregate, 6% fine aggregate, and 21% filler using the dry process at 170°C. The optimum bitumen content (OBC for conventional BAC was obtained as 4% by weight of total aggregates and filler. Polymer-coated aggregate (PCA-modified BAC seems preferable because it has the potential to utilize more plastic wastes with a higher optimum plastic content (OPC of 16.7% by weight of total aggregates and filler compared to that of 9% by weight of OBC achieved by PMB-BAC. For both PMB- and PCA-modified BAC, an increase in air void, void in mineral aggregate, and Marshall stability were observed. Eco-friendly road construction which recycles PET wastes should be encouraged by government considering its potential environmental and economic benefits.

  17. Measurements of radon and radium activity in bottled mineral water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kappke, Jaqueline; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine N.; Reque, Marilson; Tabuchi, Camila Garcia; Del Claro, Flavia; Perna, Allan Felipe, E-mail: jaquelinekappke@gmail.com [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Deniak, Valeriy [Instituto de Pesquisa Pele Pequeno Principe, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Current work presents the results of further development of optimized experimental protocol for RAD7 instant radon detector (Durridge Company Inc.) usage in low level radon in water measurements and the results concerning Ra-226 activity evaluation in bottled mineral water samples purchased at Brazilian market. With the purpose to achieve the statistically consistent results for the activity levels of 0.1Bq/L for radon (radium) activity in water, present study used modified experimental protocol which consists of: 1) water samples were stored in hermetically sealed glass vials of 250mL during 30 days to guarantee that Rn-222 will reach the secular equilibrium; 2) the measurements were performed using WAT250 protocol of RAD7 detector; 3) with an aim to decrease the background, the cleaning (activated carbon filter) and drying (DRIERITE desiccant) vessels, which have a function to retain the radioactive decay product of Rn-222 and humidity, were connected to a closed air loop of RAD7 permanently by means of valves and taps, which gave a possibility to repeat all sequence of measurements (including background evaluation) three or four times without to open the air loop and disconnect the sample vial with water. Each water sample was submitted to such measurements two or three times. Obtained results presented the level of Ra-226 activity in studied samples of bottled mineral water that varied from 0.007 ± 0.061 Bq/L to 0.145 ± 0.049 Bq/L, which is below the limit of 0,5 Bq/L established by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2011 for drinking water. (author)

  18. Measurements of radon and radium activity in bottled mineral water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappke, Jaqueline; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine N.; Reque, Marilson; Tabuchi, Camila Garcia; Del Claro, Flavia; Perna, Allan Felipe; Deniak, Valeriy

    2013-01-01

    Current work presents the results of further development of optimized experimental protocol for RAD7 instant radon detector (Durridge Company Inc.) usage in low level radon in water measurements and the results concerning Ra-226 activity evaluation in bottled mineral water samples purchased at Brazilian market. With the purpose to achieve the statistically consistent results for the activity levels of 0.1Bq/L for radon (radium) activity in water, present study used modified experimental protocol which consists of: 1) water samples were stored in hermetically sealed glass vials of 250mL during 30 days to guarantee that Rn-222 will reach the secular equilibrium; 2) the measurements were performed using WAT250 protocol of RAD7 detector; 3) with an aim to decrease the background, the cleaning (activated carbon filter) and drying (DRIERITE desiccant) vessels, which have a function to retain the radioactive decay product of Rn-222 and humidity, were connected to a closed air loop of RAD7 permanently by means of valves and taps, which gave a possibility to repeat all sequence of measurements (including background evaluation) three or four times without to open the air loop and disconnect the sample vial with water. Each water sample was submitted to such measurements two or three times. Obtained results presented the level of Ra-226 activity in studied samples of bottled mineral water that varied from 0.007 ± 0.061 Bq/L to 0.145 ± 0.049 Bq/L, which is below the limit of 0,5 Bq/L established by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2011 for drinking water. (author)

  19. The switch to refillable bottled water in Indonesia: a serious health risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komarulzaman, A.; Jong, E. de; Smits, J.P.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the consumption of refillable bottled water has increased considerably in emerging countries. However, the quality of this water is often questionable, as authorities lack the capacity to properly check refilling depots. Given that refillable bottled water not only replaces

  20. Impact of temperature and storage time on the migration of antimony from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) containers into bottled water in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Otoum, Fatima; Al-Ghouti, Mohammad A; Costa, Ozeas S; Khraisheh, Majeda

    2017-11-12

    Prosperity in Qatar and the consequent stresses on water resources resulted in a sustainable increase in the bottled drinking water market. Reports on health concerns and possible migration of chemicals from the plastic material into the water have driven the current investigation. This study aims to address the extent of antimony (Sb) leaching from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) water bottles subject to temperature variations (24-50 °C) due to Qatar's hot climate and improper storage conditions. A representative basket including 66 different imported and locally produced water bottles was considered. The concentrations of Sb in bottled water ranged from 0.168 to 2.263 μg/L at 24 °C and from 0.240 to 6.110 μg/L at 50 °C. Antimony concentrations in PET bottles at 24 °C was significantly lower than those at 50 °C (p = 0.0142), indicating that the temperature was a principal factor affecting the release of Sb from the plastic into the water. Although the detected Sb amounts were below the guidelines endorsed by WHO and Qatar (standard 5 μg/L) at 24 °C, the concentration measured at 50 °C was higher than the recommended WHO values (6.11 μg/L).

  1. The switch to refillable bottled water in Indonesia: a serious health risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarulzaman, Ahmad; de Jong, Eelke; Smits, Jeroen

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, the consumption of refillable bottled water has increased considerably in emerging countries. However, the quality of this water is often questionable, as authorities lack the capacity to properly check refilling depots. Given that refillable bottled water not only replaces unimproved water sources, but also better-quality sources, like piped and branded bottled water, its increasing use poses a major health risk. We investigate the motives behind the decision to switch to refillable bottled water in Indonesia. Findings indicate that this switch is driven by lifestyle motives, as well as by cost and availability considerations. It is mostly the young affluent households who switch from piped and 'other' sources to refillable bottled water. In rural areas, the tendency to make this switch is negatively affected by availability problems and the higher price of refillable bottled water. Availability and cost also influence the switch from branded bottled to refillable bottled water, but here it is the poorer households who have a higher propensity to switch. Further exploration of the lifestyle motive and affordability issues, as well as better monitoring of the refilling depots, are needed to improve the quality of drinking water in Indonesia and other emerging countries.

  2. Study on the leaching of phthalates from polyethylene terephthalate bottles into mineral water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keresztes, Szilvia; Tatár, Enikő; Czégény, Zsuzsanna; Záray, Gyula; Mihucz, Victor G.

    2013-01-01

    Carbonated and non-carbonated mineral water samples bottled in 0.5-L, 1.5-L and 2.0-L polyethylene terephthalate (PET) containers belonging to three different water brands commercialized in Hungary were studied in order to determine their phthalate content by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Among the six investigated phthalates, diisobutyl phthalate, di-n-butyl-phthalate, benzyl-butyl phthalate and di(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were determined in non-carbonated samples as follows: −1 –0.2 μg L −1 , −1 –0.8 μg L −1 , −1 –0.1 μg L −1 and −1 –1.7 μg L −1 , respectively. Any of the above-mentioned phthalate esters could be detected in carbonated mineral water samples. DEHP was the most abundant phthalate in the investigated samples. It could be detected after 44 days of storage at 22 °C and its leaching was the most pronounced when samples were stored over 1200 days. Mineral water purchased in PET bottles of 0.5 L had the highest phthalate concentrations compared to those obtained for waters of the identical brand bottled in 1.5-L or 2.0-L PET containers due to the higher surface/volume ratio. No clear trend could be established for phthalate leaching when water samples were kept at higher temperatures (max. 60 °C) showing improper storage conditions. Phthalate determination by pyrolysis–gas chromatography/mass spectrometric measurements in the plastic material as well as in the aqueous phase proved the importance of the quality of PET raw material used for the production of the pre-form (virgin vs. polymer containing recycled PET). - Highlights: • DEHP — most abundant phthalate in bottled mineral water • Temperature and contact surface area influence phthalate leaching. • Phthalate occurrence depends on virgin vs. polymer containing recycled PET. • pH (carbonated vs. non-carbonated samples) affects hydrolysis of phthalate esters

  3. Study on the leaching of phthalates from polyethylene terephthalate bottles into mineral water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keresztes, Szilvia; Tatár, Enikő [Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Bioanalytics, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Eötvös Loránd University, H-1117 Budapest, Pázmány Péter sétány 1/A (Hungary); Czégény, Zsuzsanna [Institute of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-1525 Budapest, P.O. Box 17 (Hungary); Záray, Gyula [Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Bioanalytics, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Eötvös Loránd University, H-1117 Budapest, Pázmány Péter sétány 1/A (Hungary); Mihucz, Victor G., E-mail: vigami72@yahoo.es [Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Bioanalytics, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Eötvös Loránd University, H-1117 Budapest, Pázmány Péter sétány 1/A (Hungary)

    2013-08-01

    Carbonated and non-carbonated mineral water samples bottled in 0.5-L, 1.5-L and 2.0-L polyethylene terephthalate (PET) containers belonging to three different water brands commercialized in Hungary were studied in order to determine their phthalate content by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Among the six investigated phthalates, diisobutyl phthalate, di-n-butyl-phthalate, benzyl-butyl phthalate and di(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were determined in non-carbonated samples as follows: < 3.0 ng L{sup −1}–0.2 μg L{sup −1}, < 6.6 ng L{sup −1}–0.8 μg L{sup −1}, < 6.0 ng L{sup −1}–0.1 μg L{sup −1} and < 16.0 ng L{sup −1}–1.7 μg L{sup −1}, respectively. Any of the above-mentioned phthalate esters could be detected in carbonated mineral water samples. DEHP was the most abundant phthalate in the investigated samples. It could be detected after 44 days of storage at 22 °C and its leaching was the most pronounced when samples were stored over 1200 days. Mineral water purchased in PET bottles of 0.5 L had the highest phthalate concentrations compared to those obtained for waters of the identical brand bottled in 1.5-L or 2.0-L PET containers due to the higher surface/volume ratio. No clear trend could be established for phthalate leaching when water samples were kept at higher temperatures (max. 60 °C) showing improper storage conditions. Phthalate determination by pyrolysis–gas chromatography/mass spectrometric measurements in the plastic material as well as in the aqueous phase proved the importance of the quality of PET raw material used for the production of the pre-form (virgin vs. polymer containing recycled PET). - Highlights: • DEHP — most abundant phthalate in bottled mineral water • Temperature and contact surface area influence phthalate leaching. • Phthalate occurrence depends on virgin vs. polymer containing recycled PET. • pH (carbonated vs. non-carbonated samples) affects hydrolysis of phthalate esters.

  4. An unusual case of organophosphate intoxication of a worker in a plastic bottle recycling plant: an important reminder.

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, C L; Chuang, H Y; Chang, C Y; Liu, S T; Wu, M T; Ho, C K

    2000-01-01

    A young man was sent to our emergency unit because he had suffered from vomiting and cold sweating for 2 days. At the time he was admitted, he had no acute abdominal pains or gastrointestinal symptoms, and a physical examination revealed nothing but a faster heart rate and moist, flushing skin. The patient had worked for 6 years at a plastic bottle-recycling factory, but none of his co-workers had the same symptoms. Nevertheless, because the plant also recycled pesticide bottles, we suspected...

  5. Water Vapor Permeation in Plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Paul E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kouzes, Richard T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Polyvinyl toluene (PVT) and polystyrene (PS) (referred to as “plastic scintillator”) are used for gamma ray detectors. A significant decrease in radiation detection performance has been observed in some PVT-based gamma-ray detectors in systems in outdoor environments as they age. Recent studies have revealed that plastic scintillator can undergo an environmentally related material degradation that adversely affects gamma ray detection performance under certain conditions and histories. A significant decrease in sensitivity has been seen in some gamma-ray detectors in some systems as they age. The degradation of sensitivity of plastic scintillator over time is due to a variety of factors, and the term “aging” is used to encompass all factors. Some plastic scintillator samples show no aging effects (no significant change in sensitivity over more than 10 years), while others show severe aging (significant change in sensitivity in less than 5 years). Aging effects arise from weather (variations in heat and humidity), chemical exposure, mechanical stress, light exposure, and loss of volatile components. The damage produced by these various causes can be cumulative, causing observable damage to increase over time. Damage may be reversible up to some point, but becomes permanent under some conditions. The objective of this report is to document the phenomenon of permeability of plastic scintillator to water vapor and to derive the relationship between time, temperature, humidity and degree of water penetration in plastic. Several conclusions are documented about the properties of water permeability of plastic scintillator.

  6. 226Ra and natural uranium in egyptian bottled mineral waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgy, R.H.

    2000-01-01

    Concentration levels of 226 Ra and natural uranium have been analysed bottled mineral water commercially available in egypt. 226 Ra was determined by applying a chemical procedure in which Ra was coprecipitated with Ba as sulphate. The precipitate was then dissolved with EDTA and then measured by liquid scintillation system, after mixing with a scintillation cocktail. Natural uranium was determined by applying a chemical procedure for uranium extraction using MIBK and then measured using laser fluorimeter system. The concentration values obtained were compared with concentrations reported by other countries and with reference values accepted for drinking water. Based on the consumption rate and the measured concentrations, the collective committed effective doses were calculated. In addition, Ca, Mg and Na were measured using Icp system and compared with some worldwide values

  7. A microbiological study of bottled mineral water marketed in Ludhiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, M; Kaur, H

    2006-01-01

    The microbiological quality of bottled mineral water marketed in Ludhiana was examined, Twenty three brands were analyzed for presumptive coliform count by multiple tube tests, and E. coli count was confirmed by Eijkman test. Bacterial and fungal loads were tested by membrane filtration test. Out of 23 only one sample (4.4%) showed the presumptive coliform count to be 460 most probable number (MPN)l 1 00ml,and 1 was found to be positive when tested by Eijkman test for Ecoli. In the membrane filtration test three samples (13%) showed more than two types of bacteria. Different types of bacteria isolated included Bacillus sp (19/23). Pseudomonas spp (13123), Ecoli, Klebsiella sp and S.albus one each Fungi was isolated from five of twenty three. (22%) samples. Only one brand of mineral water was unfit for human consumption. The rest of the samples were contaminated with non pathogenic flora.

  8. Effect of temperature on the release of intentionally and non-intentionally added substances from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles into water: chemical analysis and potential toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Cristina; Dauchy, Xavier; Severin, Isabelle; Munoz, Jean-François; Etienne, Serge; Chagnon, Marie-Christine

    2013-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of temperature on the release of PET-bottle constituents into water and to assess the potential health hazard using in vitro bioassays with bacteria and human cell lines. Aldehydes, trace metals and other compounds found in plastic packaging were analysed in PET-bottled water stored at different temperatures: 40, 50, and 60°C. In this study, temperature and the presence of CO2 increased the release of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and antimony (Sb). In parallel, genotoxicity assays (Ames and micronucleus assays) and transcriptional-reporter gene assays for estrogenic and anti-androgenic activity were performed on bottled water extracts at relevant consumer exposure levels. As expected, and in accordance with the chemical formulations specified for PET bottles, neither phthalates nor UV stabilisers were present in the water extracts. However, 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol, a degradation compound of phenolic antioxidants, was detected. In addition, an intermediary monomer, bis(2-hydroxyethyl)terephthalate, was found but only in PET-bottled waters. None of the compounds are on the positive list of EU Regulation No. 10/2011. However, the PET-bottled water extracts did not induce any cytotoxic, genotoxic or endocrine-disruption activity in the bioassays after exposure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. 77 FR 25721 - Small Entity Compliance Guide: Bottled Water: Quality Standard: Establishing an Allowable Level...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ...] Small Entity Compliance Guide: Bottled Water: Quality Standard: Establishing an Allowable Level for di(2... ``Bottled Water: Quality Standard: Establishing an Allowable Level for di(2- ethylhexyl)phthalate--Small... an allowable level for di(2- ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP). This final rule is effective April 16, 2012...

  10. 75 FR 14607 - Small Entity Compliance Guide: Bottled Water: Total Coliform and E. coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ...] Small Entity Compliance Guide: Bottled Water: Total Coliform and E. coli; Availability AGENCY: Food and... the availability of a guidance for industry entitled ``Bottled Water: Total Coliform and E. coli... determine whether any of the coliform organisms are Escherichia coli (E. coli), an indicator of fecal...

  11. Random survey of the microbial quality of bottled water in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Random survey of the microbial quality of bottled water in South Africa. Marthie M Ehlers, Walda B Van Zyl, Dobromir N Pavlov, Etienne E Muller. Abstract. Due to the increased demand and consumption of bottled water in South Africa, there has been a growing concern about the microbiological quality of this product.

  12. Random survey of the microbial quality of bottled water in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total and faecal coliform bacteria, enterococci, C. perfringens, bacteriophages or enteric viruses were not detected in any of the ten bottled water samples analysed. It can be concluded that the microbial quality of eight of the ten selected bottled water samples analysed was within the acceptable limits set by the SABS ...

  13. Temporal variation of microbiological and chemical quality of noncarbonated bottled drinking water sold in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herath, A T; Abayasekara, C L; Chandrajith, Rohana; Adikaram, N K B

    2012-03-01

    Use of bottled water in Sri Lanka has increased over the last decade, while new brands of bottled water are often introduced to the market. However, the manufacturers' adherence to bottled water regulations is questionable, raising concerns regarding the quality of bottled water. The objective of the current study was to investigate the microbiological and chemical quality of bottled water in Sri Lanka. Thirty bottled water brands were sampled and their chemical and microbiological parameters were analyzed. Microbiological analysis was carried out within 1 to 3, 3 to 6, 6 to 9, and 9 to 12 mo after the date of manufacture. The results indicated that 63% of brands tested exceeded the levels permitted by the Sri Lanka Standards Institution (SLSI) for presumptive total coliforms (TC) (ammonia. The results of this study show the need for the bottling industry to be monitored closely by relevant authorities, in order to provide safe bottled drinking water to consumers in Sri Lanka. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. Identification and quantification of the migration of chemicals from plastic baby bottles used as substitutes for polycarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoneau, C; Van den Eede, L; Valzacchi, S

    2012-01-01

    The results of a study on the analytical identification and quantification of migration of chemicals from plastics baby bottles found in the European Union market made of materials that are now present as substitutes for polycarbonate (PC) are reported. A total of 449 baby bottles with a focus on first age or sets of bottles were purchased from 26 European Union countries, Canada, Switzerland and the USA. From this collection, which contained several duplicates, a total of 277 baby bottles were analysed. The materials included different types of plastic such as PC, polyamide (PA), polyethersulphone (PES), polypropylene (PP), but also silicone, and from the United States a co-polyester marketed under the trade name Tritan™. The bottles were subjected to the conventional migration test for hot fill conditions, i.e. 2 h at 70°C. The simulant used was that specified in European Union legislation (2007/19/EC) for milk, i.e. 50% ethanol. In a first phase 1, migration was conducted since the scope of this investigation was a screening rather than a true compliance testing check. Second and third migrations were performed on selected articles when migrated substances exceeded limits specified in the legislation. In order to verify some materials, a portion of the bottle was cut to run an FT-IR fingerprint to confirm the nature of the polymer. The migration solutions in general showed a low release of substances. Results showed that bottles made of PP and silicones showed a greater number of substances in the migration solutions and in greater quantity. Chemicals from PP included alkanes, which could be found in >65% of the bottles at levels up to 3500 µg kg⁻¹; and benzene derivatives in 17% of the baby bottles and found at levels up to 113 µg kg⁻¹. Some substances were found on a regular basis such as plasticisers, esters and antioxidants (e.g. tris(2,4-di-tert-butylphenyl)phosphate, known as Irgafos 168. Some substances found were not included in the

  15. Microbes on a Bottle: Substrate, Season and Geography Influence Community Composition of Microbes Colonizing Marine Plastic Debris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberbeckmann, Sonja; Osborn, A Mark; Duhaime, Melissa B

    2016-01-01

    Plastic debris pervades in our oceans and freshwater systems and the potential ecosystem-level impacts of this anthropogenic litter require urgent evaluation. Microbes readily colonize aquatic plastic debris and members of these biofilm communities are speculated to include pathogenic, toxic, invasive or plastic degrading-species. The influence of plastic-colonizing microorganisms on the fate of plastic debris is largely unknown, as is the role of plastic in selecting for unique microbial communities. This work aimed to characterize microbial biofilm communities colonizing single-use poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) drinking bottles, determine their plastic-specificity in contrast with seawater and glass-colonizing communities, and identify seasonal and geographical influences on the communities. A substrate recruitment experiment was established in which PET bottles were deployed for 5-6 weeks at three stations in the North Sea in three different seasons. The structure and composition of the PET-colonizing bacterial/archaeal and eukaryotic communities varied with season and station. Abundant PET-colonizing taxa belonged to the phylum Bacteroidetes (e.g. Flavobacteriaceae, Cryomorphaceae, Saprospiraceae-all known to degrade complex carbon substrates) and diatoms (e.g. Coscinodiscophytina, Bacillariophytina). The PET-colonizing microbial communities differed significantly from free-living communities, but from particle-associated (>3 μm) communities or those inhabiting glass substrates. These data suggest that microbial community assembly on plastics is driven by conventional marine biofilm processes, with the plastic surface serving as raft for attachment, rather than selecting for recruitment of plastic-specific microbial colonizers. A small proportion of taxa, notably, members of the Cryomorphaceae and Alcanivoraceae, were significantly discriminant of PET but not glass surfaces, conjuring the possibility that these groups may directly interact with the PET

  16. Microbes on a Bottle: Substrate, Season and Geography Influence Community Composition of Microbes Colonizing Marine Plastic Debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, A. Mark

    2016-01-01

    Plastic debris pervades in our oceans and freshwater systems and the potential ecosystem-level impacts of this anthropogenic litter require urgent evaluation. Microbes readily colonize aquatic plastic debris and members of these biofilm communities are speculated to include pathogenic, toxic, invasive or plastic degrading-species. The influence of plastic-colonizing microorganisms on the fate of plastic debris is largely unknown, as is the role of plastic in selecting for unique microbial communities. This work aimed to characterize microbial biofilm communities colonizing single-use poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) drinking bottles, determine their plastic-specificity in contrast with seawater and glass-colonizing communities, and identify seasonal and geographical influences on the communities. A substrate recruitment experiment was established in which PET bottles were deployed for 5–6 weeks at three stations in the North Sea in three different seasons. The structure and composition of the PET-colonizing bacterial/archaeal and eukaryotic communities varied with season and station. Abundant PET-colonizing taxa belonged to the phylum Bacteroidetes (e.g. Flavobacteriaceae, Cryomorphaceae, Saprospiraceae—all known to degrade complex carbon substrates) and diatoms (e.g. Coscinodiscophytina, Bacillariophytina). The PET-colonizing microbial communities differed significantly from free-living communities, but from particle-associated (>3 μm) communities or those inhabiting glass substrates. These data suggest that microbial community assembly on plastics is driven by conventional marine biofilm processes, with the plastic surface serving as raft for attachment, rather than selecting for recruitment of plastic-specific microbial colonizers. A small proportion of taxa, notably, members of the Cryomorphaceae and Alcanivoraceae, were significantly discriminant of PET but not glass surfaces, conjuring the possibility that these groups may directly interact with the

  17. Microbes on a Bottle: Substrate, Season and Geography Influence Community Composition of Microbes Colonizing Marine Plastic Debris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Oberbeckmann

    Full Text Available Plastic debris pervades in our oceans and freshwater systems and the potential ecosystem-level impacts of this anthropogenic litter require urgent evaluation. Microbes readily colonize aquatic plastic debris and members of these biofilm communities are speculated to include pathogenic, toxic, invasive or plastic degrading-species. The influence of plastic-colonizing microorganisms on the fate of plastic debris is largely unknown, as is the role of plastic in selecting for unique microbial communities. This work aimed to characterize microbial biofilm communities colonizing single-use poly(ethylene terephthalate (PET drinking bottles, determine their plastic-specificity in contrast with seawater and glass-colonizing communities, and identify seasonal and geographical influences on the communities. A substrate recruitment experiment was established in which PET bottles were deployed for 5-6 weeks at three stations in the North Sea in three different seasons. The structure and composition of the PET-colonizing bacterial/archaeal and eukaryotic communities varied with season and station. Abundant PET-colonizing taxa belonged to the phylum Bacteroidetes (e.g. Flavobacteriaceae, Cryomorphaceae, Saprospiraceae-all known to degrade complex carbon substrates and diatoms (e.g. Coscinodiscophytina, Bacillariophytina. The PET-colonizing microbial communities differed significantly from free-living communities, but from particle-associated (>3 μm communities or those inhabiting glass substrates. These data suggest that microbial community assembly on plastics is driven by conventional marine biofilm processes, with the plastic surface serving as raft for attachment, rather than selecting for recruitment of plastic-specific microbial colonizers. A small proportion of taxa, notably, members of the Cryomorphaceae and Alcanivoraceae, were significantly discriminant of PET but not glass surfaces, conjuring the possibility that these groups may directly interact

  18. [A norovirus-borne outbreak caused by contaminated bottled spring water in a school, Zhejiang province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ji-chuan; Lin, Jun-fen; Gao, Jie; Yao, Wen-ting; Wen, Dong; Liu, Guang-tao; Han, Jian-kang; Ma, Hui-lai; Zhang, Li-jie; Zhu, Bao-ping

    2011-08-01

    To study a local hospital reported acute gastroenteritis in a boarding school on its source of infection, mode of transmission and risk factors of the infection. A suspected case was defined as who had developed diarrhea (≥ 3 times/day) or vomiting among teachers or students of the school, during April 19 - 30, 2010. A confirmed case was from a probable case plus tested positive for norovirus in stool specimens by using RT-PCR. Stool specimens of cases and environmental specimens were collected for laboratory diagnosis. In a case-control study, we compared exposures to sources of bottled water, consumption of bottled water, and hygienic habits of 220 probable or confirmed cases from April 21 - 23 in the peak of the outbreak, together with another 220 controls, with frequency-matched by school grade. 20.3% of the 1536 students but none of the teachers developed the disease. 98.6% of the cases (n = 217) and 85.5% (n = 188) of the controls had drunk bottled water in the classroom (OR(M-H) = 12.3, 95%CI: 3.7 - 40.9). 47.9% (n = 104) of the cases and 41.5% (n = 78) of the controls had drunk unboiled bottled water in classroom (OR(M-H) = 3.8, 95%CI: 1.5 - 9.6). 47.9% (n = 104) of the cases and 48.4% (n = 91) of the controls had drunk bottled mixed water (boiled and unboiled) in the classroom (OR(M-H) = 2.8, 95%CI: 1.1 - 7.0). Stool specimens from 3 cases and one bottle of uncovered bottled water in classroom showed positive of having norovirus genotype II. Coliforms was cultured much higher rates than standard deviations in the bottled water. The factory making the bottled water was not licensed or having strict disinfection facilities. Bottled spring water contaminated by norovirus was responsible for this outbreak.

  19. Glass vs. Plastic: Life Cycle Assessment of Extra-Virgin Olive Oil Bottles across Global Supply Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Accorsi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The environmental impacts of global food supply chains are growing with the need for their measurement and management. This paper explores the operations of a global supply chain for extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO according to a life cycle assessment (LCA methodology. The LCA assessment methodology is applied to determine the environmental impact categories associated with the bottled EVOO life cycle, focusing on packaging decisions. The proposed analysis identifies the greatest environmental stressors of the EVOO supply chain, thereby supporting strategic and operative decisions toward more efficient and environmentally-friendly operations management and packaging choices. This paper quantifies the environmental categories of the impacts of global warming potential, ozone layer depletion, non-renewable energy use, acidification, eutrophication and photochemical smog, for the observed EVOO supply chain, given alternative packaging configurations, i.e., a glass bottle vs. a plastic bottle. The observed system includes the supply of EVOO, the EVOO processing and bottling, the supply of packaging, the distribution of final products to customers, the end-of-life (EOL treatments regarding the management, recycling and the disposal of waste across a global supply chain. The findings from the LCA highlight the potential of PET bottles in reducing the environmental impact of EVOO supply chains and identifies hotspots of discussion for policy-makers, EVOO producers and consumers.

  20. Determination of Perchlorate in Bottled Water from Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Iannece

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Perchlorate is regarded as an emerging persistent inorganic contaminant. It is widely known that perchlorate is an endocrine disruptor as it competitively inhibits iodide transport in the thyroid gland. As drinking water is the major source of human exposure to perchlorate, its occurrence in commercially available bottled waters purchased in different regions of Italy was investigated. Perchlorate was measured using the rapid, sensitive, and selective LC-ESI-MS/MS (liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry method by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM of the transition 98.8→82.8, which corresponds to the loss of one oxygen atom in the perchlorate ion (ClO4−→ClO3−. The chlorine isotope ratio (35Cl/37Cl was used as a confirmation tool. The limit of quantification (LOQ for this method was 5 ng/L, and the recovery ranged from 94% to 108%. Perchlorate was detected in 44 of the 62 drinking waters tested, with concentrations ranging from <5 to 75 ng/L. These values are similar in magnitude to those reported in drinking water from the USA and do not pose an immediate health concern.

  1. Migration of bisphenol A into water from polycarbonate baby bottles during microwave heating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ehlert, K.A.; Beumer, C.W.E.; Groot, M.C.E.

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive migration database was established for bisphenol A from polycarbonate baby bottles into water during exposure to microwave heating. Eighteen different brands of polycarbonate baby bottles sold in Europe were collected. Initial residual content of bisphenol A and migration after

  2. Constructing a Plastic Bottle Wind Turbine as a Practical Aid for Learning about Using Wind Energy to Generate Electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleyard, S. J.

    2009-01-01

    A simple horizontal axis wind turbine can be easily constructed using a 1.5 l PET plastic bottle, a compact disc and a small dynamo. The turbine operates effectively at low wind speeds and has a rotational speed of 500 rpm at a wind speed of about 14 km h[superscript -1]. The wind turbine can be used to demonstrate the relationship between open…

  3. The Tensile Strenght Properties Effect Of Rice-Husk Ash As On The Composite Of Plastic Drinking Bottle Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maulida

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Rice-husk ash has a potential to be filler in composite. The study on rice-husk ash utilitation as afiller in polyethylene terephthalate PET matrix of plastic drinking bottle waste was conducted in order to find the ratio of rice-husk ask and PET matrix that would result the best tensile strength which was characterized by using scenning electron microscopy SEM. In this study the PET of plastic drinking bottle waste firstly was cut into smaller pieces and was extruded with the temperature of 265 o C. Then it was mixed with rice-husk ash on ratio of PET plastic drinking bottle waste and rice-husk ash of 955 9010 and 8515. After that it was extruded at temperature of 265 o C before it was pressed by hot press at temperature of 265 o C for five minutes. The highest tensile strength was achieved at 3462 MPa with elongation at break a round 14375 and youngs modulus of 34882 MPa for the ratio of 8515.

  4. White HDPE bottles as source of serious contamination of water samples with Ba and Zn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann, Clemens; Grimstvedt, Andreas; Frengstad, Bjørn; Finne, Tor Erik

    2007-03-15

    During a recent study of surface water quality factory new white high-density polyethylene (HDPE) bottles were used for collecting the water samples. According to the established field protocol of the Geological Survey of Norway the bottles were twice carefully rinsed with water in the field prior to sampling. Several blank samples using milli-Q (ELGA) water (>18.2 MOmega) were also prepared. On checking the analytical results the blanks returned values of Ag, Ba, Sr, V, Zn and Zr. For Ba and Zn the values (c. 300 microg/l and 95 microg/l) were about 10 times above the concentrations that can be expected in natural waters. A laboratory test of the bottles demonstrated that the bottles contaminate the samples with significant amounts of Ba and Zn and some Sr. Simple acid washing of the bottles prior to use did not solve the contamination problem for Ba and Zn. The results suggest that there may exist "clean" and "dirty" HDPE bottles depending on manufacturer/production process. When collecting water samples it is mandatory to check bottles regularly as a possible source of contamination.

  5. Determination of dimethyl selenide and dimethyl sulphide compounds causing off-flavours in bottled mineral waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadayol, Marta; Cortina, Montserrat; Guadayol, Josep M; Caixach, Josep

    2016-04-01

    Sales of bottled drinking water have shown a large growth during the last two decades due to the general belief that this kind of water is healthier, its flavour is better and its consumption risk is lower than that of tap water. Due to the previous points, consumers are more demanding with bottled mineral water, especially when dealing with its organoleptic properties, like taste and odour. This work studies the compounds that can generate obnoxious smells, and that consumers have described like swampy, rotten eggs, sulphurous, cooked vegetable or cabbage. Closed loop stripping analysis (CLSA) has been used as a pre-concentration method for the analysis of off-flavour compounds in water followed by identification and quantification by means of GC-MS. Several bottled water with the aforementioned smells showed the presence of volatile dimethyl selenides and dimethyl sulphides, whose concentrations ranged, respectively, from 4 to 20 ng/L and from 1 to 63 ng/L. The low odour threshold concentrations (OTCs) of both organic selenide and sulphide derivatives prove that several objectionable odours in bottled waters arise from them. Microbial loads inherent to water sources, along with some critical conditions in water processing, could contribute to the formation of these compounds. There are few studies about volatile organic compounds in bottled drinking water and, at the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the presence of dimethyl selenides and dimethyl sulphides causing odour problems in bottled waters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Preference for tap, bottled, and recycled water: Relations to PTC taste sensitivity and personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Daniel; Gauvain, Mary; Z Reisz; Arthur, Isaac; Story, S Drew

    2018-02-01

    This study investigated people's preferences for different water sources and factors that predict such preferences using a blind taste test. Water preferences of 143 participants for one name-brand bottled water, one groundwater-sourced tap water, and one indirect potable reuse (IDR) water were assessed. For predictors of water preference, we measured each participant's PTC taste sensitivity and assessed two personality traits (Neuroticism, Openness to Experience). We also explored participants' descriptions of each water source. Results indicate a preference for water treated with Reverse Osmosis (RO) (bottled and IDR water) over groundwater-sourced water, which had higher pH levels and lower concentrations of Ca and HCO 3 - . PTC taste sensitivity did not predict preferences, while Openness to Experience and Neuroticism predicted preference for IDR water. Positive relations between Openness to Experience and preferences for bottled and IDR water were moderated by gender and were stronger among females. Participants described water primarily by its taste and texture. Findings suggest that (1) tap water treated by RO is equally preferable to some bottled water, (2) personality traits may affect water preferences, and (3) prior findings of gender differences in preferences for bottled water may reflect personality characteristics. Efforts to increase acceptance for sustainable water alternatives, such as IDR, may be more successful by assuring consumers about taste and addressing personality traits that encourage or inhibit use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Predictors of Drinking Water Boiling and Bottled Water Consumption in Rural China: A Hierarchical Modeling Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Alasdair; Zhang, Qi; Luo, Qing; Tao, Yong; Colford, John M; Ray, Isha

    2017-06-20

    Approximately two billion people drink unsafe water. Boiling is the most commonly used household water treatment (HWT) method globally and in China. HWT can make water safer, but sustained adoption is rare and bottled water consumption is growing. To successfully promote HWT, an understanding of associated socioeconomic factors is critical. We collected survey data and water samples from 450 rural households in Guangxi Province, China. Covariates were grouped into blocks to hierarchically construct modified Poisson models and estimate risk ratios (RR) associated with boiling methods, bottled water, and untreated water. Female-headed households were most likely to boil (RR = 1.36, p water, or use electric kettles if they boiled. Our findings show that boiling is not an undifferentiated practice, but one with different methods of varying effectiveness, environmental impact, and adoption across socioeconomic strata. Our results can inform programs to promote safer and more efficient boiling using electric kettles, and suggest that if rural China's economy continues to grow then bottled water use will increase.

  8. Assessing bottled water nitrate concentrations to evaluate total drinking water nitrate exposure and risk of birth defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyer, Peter J; Brender, Jean D; Romitti, Paul A; Kantamneni, Jiji R; Crawford, David; Sharkey, Joseph R; Shinde, Mayura; Horel, Scott A; Vuong, Ann M; Langlois, Peter H

    2014-12-01

    Previous epidemiologic studies of maternal exposure to drinking water nitrate did not account for bottled water consumption. The objective of this National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS) (USA) analysis was to assess the impact of bottled water use on the relation between maternal exposure to drinking water nitrate and selected birth defects in infants born during 1997-2005. Prenatal residences of 1,410 mothers reporting exclusive bottled water use were geocoded and mapped; 326 bottled water samples were collected and analyzed using Environmental Protection Agency Method 300.0. Median bottled water nitrate concentrations were assigned by community; mothers' overall intake of nitrate in mg/day from drinking water was calculated. Odds ratios for neural tube defects, limb deficiencies, oral cleft defects, and heart defects were estimated using mixed-effects models for logistic regression. Odds ratios (95% CIs) for the highest exposure group in offspring of mothers reporting exclusive use of bottled water were: neural tube defects [1.42 (0.51, 3.99)], limb deficiencies [1.86 (0.51, 6.80)], oral clefts [1.43 (0.61, 3.31)], and heart defects [2.13, (0.87, 5.17)]. Bottled water nitrate had no appreciable impact on risk for birth defects in the NBDPS.

  9. Effect of waste plastic bottles on the stiffness and fatigue properties of modified asphalt mixes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modarres, Amir; Hamedi, Hamidreza

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • PET reduced the mix stiffness at both temperatures of 5 and 25 °C. • PET improved the fatigue behavior at both testing temperatures. • At more than 210 microstrain, adding temperature resulted in higher fatigue life. • SBS modified mixes showed better fatigue behavior than PET modified ones. • Overall PET had comparable effects to SBS on the stiffness and fatigue behavior. - Abstract: Nowadays, the use of recycled waste materials as modifier additives in asphalt mixes could have several economic and environmental benefits. The main purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of waste plastic bottles (Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET)) on the stiffness and specially fatigue properties of asphalt mixes at two different temperatures of 5 and 20 °C. Likewise, the effect of PET was compared to styrene butadiene styrene (SBS) which is a conventional polymer additive which has been vastly used to modify asphalt mixes. Different PET contents (2–10% by weight of bitumen) were added directly to mixture as the method of dry process. Then the resilient modulus and fatigue tests were performed on cylindrical specimens with indirect tensile loading procedure. Overall, the mix stiffness reduced by increasing the PET content. Although stiffness of asphalt mix initially increased by adding lower amount of PET. Based on the results of resilient modulus test, the stiffness of PET modified mix was acceptable and warranted the proper deformation characteristics of these mixes at heavy loading conditions. At both temperatures, PET improved the fatigue behavior of studied mixes. PET modified mixes revealed comparable stiffness and fatigue behavior to SBS at 20 °C. However, at 5 °C the fatigue life of SBS modified mixes was to some extent higher than that of PET modified ones especially at higher strain levels of 200 microstrain

  10. Multi-generational drinking of bottled low mineral water impairs bone quality in female rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqun Qiu

    Full Text Available Because of reproductions and hormone changes, females are more sensitive to bone mineral loss during their lifetime. Bottled water has become more popular in recent years, and a large number of products are low mineral water. However, research on the effects of drinking bottled low mineral water on bone health is sparse.To elucidate the skeletal effects of multi-generational bottled water drinking in female rats.Rats continuously drank tap water (TW, bottled natural water (bNW, bottled mineralized water (bMW, or bottled purified water (bPW for three generations.The maximum deflection, elastic deflection, and ultimate strain of the femoral diaphysis in the bNW, bMW, and bPW groups and the fracture strain in the bNW and bMW groups were significantly decreased. The tibiae calcium levels in both the bNW and bPW groups were significantly lower than that in the TW group. The tibiae and teeth magnesium levels in both the bNW and bPW groups were significantly lower than those in the TW group. The collagen turnover markers PICP (in both bNW and bPW groups were significantly lower than that in the TW group. In all three low mineral water groups, the 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D levels were significantly lower than those in the TW group.Long-term drinking of low mineral water may disturb bone metabolism and biochemical properties and therefore weaken biomechanical bone properties in females. Drinking tap water, which contains adequate minerals, was found to be better for bone health. To our knowledge, this is the first report on drinking bottled low mineral water and female bone quality on three generation model.

  11. Concentration of ions in selected bottled water samples sold in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aris, Ahmad Zaharin; Kam, Ryan Chuan Yang; Lim, Ai Phing; Praveena, Sarva Mangala

    2013-03-01

    Many consumers around the world, including Malaysians, have turned to bottled water as their main source of drinking water. The aim of this study is to determine the physical and chemical properties of bottled water samples sold in Selangor, Malaysia. A total of 20 bottled water brands consisting of `natural mineral (NM)' and `packaged drinking (PD)' types were randomly collected and analyzed for their physical-chemical characteristics: hydrogen ion concentration (pH), electrical conductivity (EC) and total dissolved solids (TDS), selected major ions: calcium (Ca), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg) and sodium (Na), and minor trace constituents: copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) to ascertain their suitability for human consumption. The results obtained were compared with guideline values recommended by World Health Organization (WHO) and Malaysian Ministry of Health (MMOH), respectively. It was found that all bottled water samples were in accordance with the guidelines set by WHO and MMOH except for one sample (D3) which was below the pH limit of 6.5. Both NM and PD bottled water were dominated by Na + K > Ca > Mg. Low values for EC and TDS in the bottled water samples showed that water was deficient in essential elements, likely an indication that these were removed by water treatment. Minerals like major ions were present in very low concentrations which could pose a risk to individuals who consume this water on a regular basis. Generally, the overall quality of the supplied bottled water was in accordance to standards and guidelines set by WHO and MMOH and safe for consumption.

  12. Treatment techniques for the recycling of bottle washing water in the soft drinks industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez Camperos, E; Mijaylova Nacheva, P; Diaz Tapia, E

    2004-01-01

    The soft drink production is an important sector in the manufacturing industry of Mexico. Water is the main source in the production of soft drinks. Wastewater from bottle washing is almost 50% of the total wastewater generated by this industry. In order to reduce the consumption of water, the water of the last bottle rinse can be reused in to the bottle pre-rinse and pre-washing cycles. This work presents the characterization of the final bottle washing rinse discharge and the treatability study for the most appropriate treatment system for recycling. Average characteristics of the final bottle wash rinse were as follows: Turbidity 40.46 NTU, COD 47.7 mg/L, TSS 56 mg/L, TS 693.6 mg/L, electrical conductivity 1,194 microS/cm. The results of the treatability tests showed that the final rinse water can be used in the pre-rinse and pre-washing after removing the totality of the suspended solids, 80% of the COD and 75% of the dissolved solids. This can be done using the following treatment systems: filtration-adsorption-reverse osmosis, or filtration-adsorption-ion exchange. The installation of these treatment techniques in the soft drink industry would decrease bottle washing water consumption by 50%.

  13. Survey on Heterotrophic Bacterial Contamination in Bottled Mineral Water by Culture Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essmaeel Ghorbanalinezhad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: This project focuses on the level of heterotrophic baceria in bottled mineral water which could be a health concern for the elderly, infants, pregnant women and immuno-compromised patients. Materials and Methods: Different brands of bottled water samples were selected randomly and evaluated for their bacteriological quality, using different specific culture media and biochemical tests. Water samples were analyzed within 24 hours of their purchase/collection. Samples were filtered with 0.45 micron and filters were plated in different media. Then media were incubated at 37˚C for 24-48 hours. Results: Morphological study and biochemical tests revealed a number of bacteria in different   brands of  bottled water. Heterotrophic bacteria(Gram positive cocci, Spore forming gram positive bacilli, non spore forming gram positive bacilli, gram negative bacilli, and gram negative coccobacilli; Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas counted in 70% of bottled water samples. There were no cases of fecal contamination or the presence of E.coli. Conclusions: Bottled water is not sterile and contains trace amounts of bacteria naturally present or introduced during processing. Testing drinking water for all possible pathogens is complex, time-consuming, and expensive. If only total coliform bacteria are detected in drinking water, the source is probably environmental. Since the significance of non-pathogenic heterotrophic bacteria in relation to health and diseases is not understood, there is an urgent need to establish a maximum limit for the heterotrophic count in the bottled mineral water. Growth conditions play a critical role in the recovery of heterotrophic bacteria in bottled drinking water.

  14. An Investigation into the Effects of Temperature and Storage Time on Military Packaged Water in Afghanistan - The Liberation and Migration of Potential Contaminants from Expeditionary Water Packaging System Polyethylene Terephthalate Water Bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-29

    soil ,  with  inhalation  being  the  predominant  route  of  entry  into  the   body.    Drinking  water...DEHP   concentrations   vanish   when   bottles   were   placed   outdoors   in   direct   sunlight   and   at   higher...Recycling  Plastic  Bottles  upon  Treatments."  Environmental  Science   Pollution  Research  17:  

  15. The bacteriological quality of different brands of bottled water available to consumers in Ile-Ife, south-western Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igbeneghu, Oluwatoyin A; Lamikanra, Adebayo

    2014-11-28

    The upsurge in the demand for bottled water has prompted the interest of many manufacturers in the production of bottled water and very many water bottling companies are therefore involved in its production. These range from large scale multinational companies to medium scale business enterprises, institutional and government business investment companies as well as small scale entrepreneurs. There is however little information on the comparative quality of bottled water brands produced by different classes of water bottling companies in Nigeria. This study was undertaken to determine the bacteriological quality of brands of bottled water available to consumers in Ile-Ife. Forty-three samples of bottled water comprising of three batches each of thirteen bottled water brands and two batches of two brands were purchased and analyzed for total bacterial count, presence of coliform and the presence of other bacterial indicators of drinking water quality. Only 67.4% of the water samples representing the products of 10 companies or 66.7% of the brands had heterotrophic counts within the acceptable limits. Coliforms present in 100 ml of water were detected in 26.7% of the bottled water brands. Other indicator organisms detected included Staphylococci isolated from 27.9% of the samples (33.3% of the brands) and specifically Staphylococcus aureus found in four brands constituting 14% of the samples. Pseudomonas strains were consistently detected in consecutive batches of three brands of the water samples. Bottled water samples produced by the large scale multinational producers were of acceptable bacteriological quality unlike those produced by most small companies. There is need for a greater control of water bottling processes carried out by commercial bottled water producers in Nigeria.

  16. Community Response to Impaired Drinking Water Quality: Evidence from Bottled Water Sales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaire, M.; Zheng, S.; Lall, U.

    2017-12-01

    Drinking water contaminants pose a harm to public health. When confronted with elevated contaminate levels, individuals can take averting actions to reduce exposure, such as bottled water purchases. This study addresses a problem of national interest given that 9 to 45 million people have been affected by drinking water quality violations in each of the past 34 years. Moreover, few studies address averting behavior and avoidance costs due to water quality violations. This study assesses how responses might differ across baseline risk of impaired water quality and demographics of service area. We match a panel of weekly supermarket sales data with geocoded violations data for 67 counties in the Southeast from 2006-2015. We estimate the change in bottled water sales due to drinking water violations using a fixed effects model. Observing market behavior also allows us to calculate the cost of these averting actions. Critical findings from this study contribute to understanding how communities respond to water quality violations. We find that violations have considerable effects on bottled water consumption. Sales increase 8.1 percent due to violations related to microorganisms and 31.2 percent due to Tier 1 violations, which pose an immediate health risk. In addition, we calculate a national cost of averting actions of $26 million for microorganism violations from 2006-2015, which represents a lower-bound estimate. Averting costs vary considerably across the U.S. and some counties bear a particularly large burden, such as in California and Texas. Overall, this study provides insight into how averting behavior differs across contaminant type, water utility characteristics, and community demographics. Such knowledge can aid public health agencies, water systems, and environmental regulators to direct assistance to communities most in need.

  17. Applicability study of deuterium excess in bottled water life cycle analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihael Brenčič

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Paper explores the possible use of d‑excess in the investigation of bottled water. Based on the data set from Brencic and Vreca’s paper (2006. Identification of sources and production processes of bottled waters by stable hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios, d‑excess values were statistically analysed and compared among different bottled water groups and different bottlers. The bottled water life cycle in relation to d‑excess values was also theoretically identified. Descriptive statistics and one-way ANOVA showed no significant differences among the groups. Differences were detected in the shape of empirical distributions. Groups of still and flavoured waters have similar shapes, but sparkling waters differed to the others. Two distinctive groups of bottlers could be discerned. The first group is represented by bottlers with a high range of d‑excess (from 7.7 ‰ to 18.6 ‰ with average of 12.0 ‰ exploring waters originating from the aquifers rich in highly mineralised groundwater and relatively high concentrations of CO2 gas. The second group is represented by bottlers using groundwater from relatively shallow aquifers. Their d‑excess values have characteristics similar to the local precipitation (from 7.8 ‰ to 14.3 ‰ with average of 10.3 ‰. More frequent sampling and better knowledge of production phases are needed to improve usage of isotope fingerprint for authentication of bottled waters.

  18. Relieving Dry Mouth: Varying Levels of pH Found in Bottled Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Bailey Jean; Spencer, Angela; Haywood, Van; Konchady, Gayathri

    2017-07-01

    It is estimated that 30% of people older than 60 years suffer from hyposalivation or dry mouth. Drinking water frequently has been recommended as a safe, non-pharmacologic way to combat hyposalivation. The saliva in patients with dry mouth is acidic. Beverages consumed daily may have an erosive potential on teeth. The pH and the mineral content of the beverage determine its erosive potential. An acidic beverage, therefore, may have harmful effects on mineralized tooth structures, causing erosion of enamel, dentin, and cementum. Because bottled water is both convenient and easily available, the authors tested the pH of eight common brands of bottled water. (One brand included two different bottle types, for a total of nine bottled waters tested.) To standardize the pH electrode, pH buffers of 4.7 and 10 were used. The pH was measured using the Denver Instruments basic pH meter. Six recordings were used for each brand and then averaged to report the pH. Two of the bottled water samples tested were below the critical level of 5.2 pH to 5.5 pH, the level at which erosion of enamel occurs. Six of the samples tested were below the critical pH of 6.8, at which erosion of root dentin occurs. The authors conclude that both patients and clinicians incorrectly presume bottled water to be innocuous. Clinicians should be cognizant of the erosive potential of different brands of bottled water to both educate patients and to recommend water with neutral or alkaline pH for patients with symptoms of dry mouth to prevent further deterioration and demineralization of tooth structure.

  19. Optimization of fixed titanium dioxide film on PET bottles and visual indicator for water disinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia-Munoz, Manuel Antonio

    Water is perhaps the most important resource that sustains human life. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), almost two billion people do not have access to the required water that is needed to satisfy their daily needs and one billion do not have access to clean sources of water for consumption, most of them living in isolated and poor areas around the globe. Poor quality water increases the risk of cholera, typhoid fever and dysentery, and other water-borne illness making this problem a real crisis that humankind is facing. Several water disinfection technologies have been proposed as solutions for this problem. Solar water disinfection using TiO2 coated PET bottles was the alternative that is studied in this work. This technology does not only inactivate bacteria but also disintegrates organic chemicals that can be present in water. The objectives of this work address the optimization of the TiO 2 coated PET bottles technologies. The improvement on the bottle coating process, using two coats of 10% W/V of TiO2 in a solution of vinegar and sodium bicarbonate to form the TiO2 film, the use of a different indigo carmine (1.25 X 10-1mg/pill) concentration in the pill indicator of contamination, the increase of the disinfection rate through shaking the bottles, degradation under intermittent UV radiation and the effect of bottle size on photocatalytic water disinfection were among the most important findings. A new mathematical model that describes better photocatalytic water disinfection in TiO2 coated bottles and simulates water disinfection under different working conditions was another important achievement. These results can now be used to design a strategy for disseminating this technology in areas where it is required and, in that way, generate the greatest positive impact on the people needing safe drinking water.

  20. Yeasts and filamentous fungi in bottled mineral water and tap water from municipal supplies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian Ueda Yamaguchi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to analyse the occurrence of yeasts and filamentous fungi in drinking water as well as to investigate their correlation with the indicator bacteria of faecal pollution. Yeasts were detected in 36.6% and 11.6% of the bottled mineral on water dispensers and tap water samples from municipal system, respectively. Twenty-one (35.0% of bottled mineral water and two (3.3% of tap water samples were positive for filamentous fungi. For bottled mineral water 12 (20.0% of 60 samples were positive for total coliform, compared with 3(5.0%out of 60 samples from tap water. The mineral water from dispensers was more contaminated than tap water. Strains belonging to the genera Candida identified to the species level were C. parapsilosis, C. glabrata and C. albicans. Thus, bottled mineral water from water dispensers and tap water could be considered a possible transmission route for filamentous fungi and yeasts, and could constitute a potential health hazard, mainly to immunocompromised indivuals.O principal objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a prevalência de leveduras e fungos filamentosos em água potável, bem como investigar suas correlações com bactérias indicadoras de contaminação fecal. Leveduras foram detectadas em 36,6% e 11,6% das amostras de água mineral de garrafão em dispensadores de água e água de torneira do sistema municipal, respectivamente. Vinte e uma (35,5% das amostras de água mineral de garrafão e duas (3,3% das amostras de água de torneira foram positivas para fungos filamentosos. Para água mineral de garrafão, 12 (20.0% das 60 amostras foram positivas para coliforme total, comparado com 3 (5.0% das 60 amostras de água de torneira. A água coletada de garrafões de água mineral dos dispensadores foi marcadamente mais contaminada que as amostras de água de torneira. Candida spp identificadas ao nível de espécie foram C. parapsilosis, C. glabrata e C. albicans. Como está sendo

  1. A survey of the microbiological quality of bottled water sold in Peshawar city of north west frontier province of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alizai, M.N.; Abid, H.; Ali, J.; Ibrahim, M.

    2010-01-01

    Nine brands of domestic bottled water purchased from various locations of Peshawar City were microbiological analysed with in three hours of collection for the test (i.e.) Total Coliforms, Total Fecal Coliform, E,coli and Total Plant Count. The results indicated that 33.3% of bottled water was within the acceptable limit set by World Health Organization (WHO) and Pakistan Standard Quality Control Authority (PSQCA) guideline whereas 66.6% bottled water samples were unsafe for human consumption. (author)

  2. Physicochemical and bacteriological quality of bottled drinking water in three sites of Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biadglegne, Fantahun; Tessema, Belay; Kibret, Mulugeta; Abera, Bayeh; Huruy, Kahsay; Anagaw, Belay; Mulu, Andargachew

    2009-10-01

    The consumption of bottled drinking water is becoming increasing in Ethiopia. As a result there has been a growing concern about the chemical, physical and bacteriological quality of this product. Studies on the chemical, physical and bacteriological quality of bottled water is quite scarce in Ethiopia. This study was therefore aimed to assess the physicochemical and bacteriological qualities of three factories of bottled drinking water products produced in Amhara region. A Laboratory based comparative study was conducted to evaluate the physicochemical and bacteriological quality of three factories of bottled drinking water produced in Amhara region. Analysis on the quality of bottled drinking water from the sources, wholesalers and retailers were made with World Health Organization and Quality and Standards Authority of Ethiopia recommendations. Triplicate samples from three types of bottled drinking water were randomly collected and analyzed from June, 2006 to December, 2006. A total of 108 commercial bottled drinking water samples were analyzed. The result showed that except pH of factory A all the physicochemical parameters analyzed were with in the recommended limits. The pH value of factory A tested from sources is 5.3 and from wholesalers and retailers is 5.5 and 5.3, respectively, which is below the normal value set by World Health Organization (6.5-8.0) and Quality and Standards Authority of Ethiopia (6.0-8.5). Our analyses also demonstrated that 2 (16.7%) of the samples tested from sources and 1 (8.3%) from wholesalers of factory B were contaminated with total coliforms, where as 2 (16.7%) samples from retailers were also contaminated with total coliforms. On the other hand, 1 (8.3%) of the samples tested from wholesalers and 2 (16.7%) of the samples tested from retailers of factory A were also contaminated with total coliforms. Total coliforms were not detected from all samples of factory C, fecal coliforms were not also isolated from all samples

  3. A survey of the inorganic chemistry of bottled mineral waters from the British Isles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smedley, Pauline L.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Bottled waters from the UK have major-ion compositions that broadly reflect the compositions of groundwaters abstracted directly from the corresponding host aquifers. → Many trace elements differ in composition from in situ groundwaters due to post-abstraction modifying processes. → All parameters analysed comply with European and national limits for drinking water and with WHO guideline values; elements that most closely approach the limits include U, Ba. → Bottled water compositions clearly show the influence of contamination with Sb from PET bottles, although concentrations do not exceed drinking-water limits. - Abstract: The inorganic chemistry of 85 samples of bottled natural mineral waters and spring waters has been investigated from 67 sources across the British Isles (England, Wales, Scotland, Northern Ireland, Republic of Ireland). Sources include boreholes, springs and wells. Waters are from a diverse range of aquifer lithologies and are disproportionately derived from comparatively minor aquifers, the most represented being Lower Palaeozoic (10 sources), Devonian Sandstone (10 sources) and Carboniferous Limestone (9 sources). The waters show correspondingly variable major-ion compositions, ranging from Ca-HCO 3 , through mixed-cation-mixed-anion to Na-HCO 3 types. Concentrations of total dissolved solids are mostly low to very low (range 58-800 mg/L). All samples analysed in the study had concentrations of inorganic constituents well within the limits for compliance with European and national standards for bottled waters. Concentrations of NO 3 -N reached up to half the limit of 11.3 mg/L, although 62% of samples had concentrations 10 μg/L, both being from the Welsh Devonian Sandstone. The highest observed U concentration was 13.6 μg/L. Solute concentrations in waters contained in glass bottles compared with waters in PET showed slightly though significantly higher concentrations of Al, Ce, Cu, La, Nd, Mn, Sn, W, Zn and

  4. Fluoride Intake through Consumption of Tap Water and Bottled Water in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman van Oyen

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a tendency to align higher levels of fluoride in natural mineral water with the existing higher levels in tap water. Treatment of natural mineral waters could harm the preservation of their natural character. In this study fluoride intake through bottled and tap water consumption in the Belgian adult population was assessed, taking into account regional differences. A deterministic approach was used whereby consumption quantities of tap water and different brands of bottled water were linked with their respective fluoride concentrations. Data from the national food consumption survey (2004 were used and the Nusser methodology was applied to obtain usual intake estimates. Mean intake of fluoride through total water consumption in Flanders was 1.4±0.7 mg/day (97.5th percentile: 3.1 mg/day, while in the Walloon region it was on average 0.9±0.6 mg/day (97.5th percentile: 2.4 mg/day. The probability of exceeding the UL of 7 mg per day via a normal diet was estimated to be low. Consequently, there is no need to revise the existing norms, but higher fluoride concentrations should be more clearly indicated on the labels. Reliable data about total dietary fluoride intake in children, including intake of fluoride via tooth paste and food supplements, are needed.

  5. Investigating the Concentration of Heavy Metals in Bottled Water and Comparing with its Standard: Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossien Salmani

    2017-09-01

    Results: Brand No. 1, the concentration of zinc ion was larger in Brand 2 while in Brand No. 2 had larger copper, nickel, and aluminum ions. The results indicated that the concentration of the measured metal ions were below the allowable limit of drinking water standard across all of the studied samples. Conclusion: Based on the obtained results from the investigated parameters, it can be concluded that the bottled water of both brands poses no health issue and is drinkable. Considering the changes in the concentration of ions and the increasing trend of consumption of bottled waters, their monitoring and qualitative control of pollutants are very crucial in terms of public health.

  6. Determination of water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of HDPE bottles for pharmaceutical products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yisheng; Li, Yanxia

    2008-06-24

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of experimental conditions for measuring the water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) bottles using a steady-state sorption method. Bottles were filled with desiccant, closed with caps and heat induction sealed, and then stored in stability chambers at controlled temperature and relative humidity. Weight gain of the bottles was determined every 1 or 2 weeks until a linear weight gain profile was obtained. WVTR of the bottles was determined from the slope of the linear portion of the weight gain versus time profile. The effects of desiccants and temperature/humidity were studied. Results show that, with a sufficient amount of anhydrous calcium chloride in bottles, a negligibly low and sufficiently constant headspace humidity is maintained, and a steady-state permeation rate is achieved. For all 8 sizes of bottles used in this study, steady-state was achieved in 1 or 2 weeks after the experiment was started. This method provided reproducible WVTR data for HDPE bottles. Apparent moisture permeability of all 8 sizes of bottles was (2.3+/-0.3)x10(-7), (2.6+/-0.2)x10(-7), and (3.4+/-0.2)x10(-7)cm(2)/s at 25 degrees C, 30 degrees C, 40 degrees C, respectively. Moisture permeability determined from the current study was similar to data reported in the literature, indicating that the steady-state weight gain method can be used to obtain reliable WVTR of containers for pharmaceutical products.

  7. SmartStuff: A case study of a smart water bottle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanov, Emil; Nallathimmareddygari, Vindhya R; Pryor, Jonathan E

    2016-08-01

    The rapid growth of Internet of Things (IoT) and miniature wearable biosensors have generated new opportunities for personalized eHealth and mHealth services. Smart objects equipped with physiological sensors can provide robust monitoring of activities of daily living and context for wearable physiological sensors. We present a case study of an intelligent water bottle that can precisely measure the amount of liquid in the bottle, monitor activity using inertial sensors, and physiological parameters using a touch and photoplethysmographic sensor. We evaluate two system configurations: a smart water bottle integrated into a personal body sensor network and a cloud based device. This paper presents system organization and the results from preliminary field testing of the prototype device.

  8. Thermal Jacket Design Using Cellulose Aerogels for Heat Insulation Application of Water Bottles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai M. Duong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Thermal jacket design using eco-friendly cellulose fibers from recycled paper waste is developed in this report. Neoprene as an outmost layer, cellulose aerogels in the middle and Nylon as an innermost layer can form the best sandwiched laminate using the zigzag stitching method for thermal jacket development. The temperature of the ice slurry inside the water bottle covered with the designed thermal jackets remains at 0.1 °C even after 4 h, which is the average duration of an outfield exercise. Interestingly, the insulation performance of the designed thermal jackets is much better than the commercial insulated water bottles like FLOE bottles and is very competition to that of vacuum flasks for a same period of 4 h and ambient conditions.

  9. Comparison of different concentration methods for the detection of hepatitis A virus and calicivirus from bottled natural mineral waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Pasquale, S.; Paniconi, M; Auricchio, B

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the efficiency of different recovery methods of viral RNA from bottled water, a comparison was made of 2 positively and 2 negatively charged membranes that were used for absorbing and releasing HAV virus particles during the filtration of viral spiked bottled water. All the 4 membrane...

  10. Changes in Isotopic Composition of Bottled Natural Waters Due to Different Storage Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferjan, T. [Geological Survey of Slovenia, Department of Hydrogeology, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Brencic, M. [Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, Department of Geology, and Geological Survey of Slovenia, Department of Hydrogeology, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Vreca, P. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Department of Environmental Sciences, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2013-07-15

    To establish the influence of environmental conditions on processes affecting the stable isotopic composition of bottled water during storage, various brands of bottled water were exposed for 2 years in different conditions. Selected low mineralized natural mineral water of one particular brand stored in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles was placed at three different locations with different physical conditions (temperature, relative humidity, air pressure, exposure to sunlight). For comparison, bottles of three other low mineralized natural mineral water brands, each from a different aquifer source, were placed in parallel at one of the locations. Each location was characterized by temperature, relative humidity and air pressure measurements. pH, conductivity and stable isotopic composition of oxygen, hydrogen and carbon in dissolved inorganic carbon ({delta}{sup 18}O, {delta}{sup 2}H, {delta}{sup 13}C{sub DIC}) were measured in regular intervals for nearly two years. Preliminary results from each location show noticeable changes in isotopic composition as well as the physical parameters of water with time of storage.

  11. Estimates concentrations in bottled 222Rn of the dose due to mineral waters in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assadi, M. R.; Esmaealnejad, M.; Rahmatinejad, Z.

    2006-01-01

    Radon is a radionuclide that has the main role in exposure. Radon in water causes exposure in whole body but the largest dose being received by the stomach, as EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) estimates that radon in drinking water causes about 168 cancer deaths per year: 89 p ercent f rom lung cancer caused by breathing released to the indoor air from water and 11 p ercent f rom stomach cancer caused by consuming water containing radon. Now days the consumption of bottled mineral waters has become very popular. As is known, some kinds of mineral waters contain naturally occurring radionuclides in higher concentration than the usual drinking (tap) water. Surveys and reports on radon in most surface waters is low compared with radon level in groundwater and mineral water. In our work, the concentration of Rn(222) was determined in some bottled mineral waters available in Iran , and in next step the dose contribution ; due to ingestion ; for 1 l d -1 bottled mineral water consumption.

  12. Predicting consumer preferences for mineral composition of bottled and tap water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platikanov, Stefan; Hernández, Alejandra; González, Susana; Luis Cortina, Jose; Tauler, Roma; Devesa, Ricard

    2017-01-01

    The overall liking for taste of water was correlated with the mineral composition of selected bottled and tap waters. Sixty-nine untrained volunteers assessed and rated twenty-five different commercial bottled and tap waters from. Water samples were physicochemical characterised by analysing conductivity, pH, total dissolved solids (TDS) and major anions and cations: HCO 3 - , SO 4 2- , Cl - , NO 3 - , Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , Na + , and K + . Residual chlorine levels were also analysed in the tap water samples. Globally, volunteers preferred waters rich in calcium bicarbonate and sulfate, rather than in sodium chloride. This study also demonstrated that it was possible to accurately predict the overall liking by a Partial Least Squares regression using either all measured physicochemical parameters or a reduced number of them. These results were in agreement with previously published results using trained panellists. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Measurement of the 226Ra-concentration in bottled Austrian mineral waters and table beverages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedmann, H.; Hernegger, F.

    1978-01-01

    226 Ra being regarded nowadays as a toxic trace element, a systementic examination of bottled Austrian mineral waters and table beverages has been carried out. Only in one case was the maximum allowable concentration of 3.3 pCi/l, a value set up by the WHO, clearly exceeded. (orig.) [de

  14. MAIN PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF REPUBLIC OF BELARUS IN RESPECT OF ITS ENTRY TO INTERNATIONAL BOTTLED WATER MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Nikitenko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of Belarus has significant reserves of ground fresh and mineral water. Consumption of bottled water in the world has a tendency of steady growth. In this regard, Belarus can increase production and sale of bottled water on the external  and domestic markets as well. The paper  describes main tendencies prevailing on the world market;  it contains an analysis of the normative and legal foundation on regulation of production and sale of bottled water in the Republic and abroad; the paper also estimates the possibilities to increase volume of export water

  15. Plastic crystal phases of simple water models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aragones, J. L.; Vega, C.

    2009-01-01

    We report the appearance of two plastic crystal phases of water at high pressure and temperature using computer simulations. In one of them the oxygen atoms form a body centered cubic structure (bcc) and in the other they form a face centered cubic structure (fcc). In both cases the water molecules were able to rotate almost freely. We have found that the bcc plastic crystal transformed into a fcc plastic crystal via a Martensitic phase transition when heated at constant pressure. We have performed the characterization and localization in the phase diagram of these plastic crystal phases for the SPC/E, TIP4P, and TIP4P/2005 water potential models. For TIP4P/2005 model free energy calculations were carried out for the bcc plastic crystal and fcc plastic crystal using a new method (which is a slight variation of the Einstein crystal method) proposed for these types of solid. The initial coexistence points for the SPC/E and TIP4P models were obtained using Hamiltonian Gibbs–Duhem integration. For all of these models these two plastic crystal phases appear in the high pressure and temperature region of the phase diagram. It would be of interest to study if such plastic crystal phases do indeed exist for real water. This would shed some light on the question of whether these models can describe satisfactorily the high pressure part of the phase diagram of water, and if not, where and why they fail.

  16. Training of panellists for the sensory control of bottled natural mineral water in connection with water chemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey-Salgueiro, Ledicia; Gosálbez-García, Aitana; Pérez-Lamela, Concepción; Simal-Gándara, Jesús; Falqué-López, Elena

    2013-11-01

    As bottled mineral water market is increasing in the world (especially in emergent and developed countries), the development of a simple protocol to train a panel to evaluate sensory properties would be a useful tool for natural drinking water industry. A sensory protocol was developed to evaluate bottled natural mineral water (17 still and 10 carbonated trademarks). The tasting questionnaire included 13 attributes for still water plus overall impression and they were sorted by: colour hues, transparency and brightness, odour/aroma and taste/flavour/texture and 2 more for carbonated waters (bubbles and effervescence). The training lasted two months with, at least, 10 sessions, was adequate to evaluate bottled natural mineral water. To confirm the efficiency of the sensory training procedure two sensory groups formed the whole panel. One trained panel (6 persons) and one professional panel (6 sommeliers) and both participated simultaneously in the water tasting evaluation of 3 sample lots. Similar average scores obtained from trained and professional judges, with the same water trademarks, confirmed the usefulness of the training protocol. The differences obtained for trained panel in the first lot confirm the necessity to train always before a sensory procedure. A sensory water wheel is proposed to guide the training in bottled mineral water used for drinking, in connection with their chemical mineral content. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Stochastic Optimization in The Power Management of Bottled Water Production Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoro, Budi; Nababan, Esther; Mawengkang, Herman

    2018-01-01

    This paper review a model developed to minimize production costs on bottled water production planning through stochastic optimization. As we know, that planning a management means to achieve the goal that have been applied, since each management level in the organization need a planning activities. The built models is a two-stage stochastic models that aims to minimize the cost on production of bottled water by observing that during the production process, neither interfernce nor vice versa occurs. The models were develop to minimaze production cost, assuming the availability of packing raw materials used considered to meet for each kind of bottles. The minimum cost for each kind production of bottled water are expressed in the expectation of each production with a scenario probability. The probability of uncertainly is a representation of the number of productions and the timing of power supply interruption. This is to ensure that the number of interruption that occur does not exceed the limit of the contract agreement that has been made by the company with power suppliers.

  18. Tap versus bottled water consumption: The influence of social norms, affect and image on consumer choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etale, Anita; Jobin, Marilou; Siegrist, Michael

    2018-02-01

    What drives consumers to choose bottled water instead of tap water where the latter is safe, accessible, costs far less, and in spite of its environmental impacts? This research investigates the influence of hitherto unexplored psychological drivers in an attempt to generate a more holistic understanding of the phenomenon, and strategies for designing more effective consumption reduction campaigns. Using data from an internet survey of Swiss and German respondents (N = 849) we investigated the role of, social norms, affect and image on water consumption. Results suggest that these psychological factors play a role in water consumption choice. Convenience was the only contextual predictor - the inconvenience of transporting bottled water has a negative effect on its consumption, and a positive effect on tap water consumption. Although concern about the effect of bottled water on the environment was not a significant predictor of tap water consumption, we found that for some people, a link exists between environmental concern and consumption choice. Ways through which consumers may be more effectively influenced towards environmentally-friendly consumption are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. MICROBIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION OF BOTTLED MINERAL AND DRINKING WATERS SOLD IN ESKİŞEHİR (TURKEY MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merih KIVANC

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The microbiological quality of bottled natural spring and mineral water, purchased at different markets in Eskişehir (Turkey markets, was investigated. Applying the membrane filtration method, the aliquots of water samples were analyzed for the presence and enumeration of total coliforms, Es- cherichia coli, Enterococcus spp., Aeromonas hydrophila. Aerobic bacteria were counted as Heterotrophic Bacteria Count (HPC ml-¹ by incubation at 22 and 37 ⁰C. While Bacillus species in bottled mineral water samples have also been determined, any bacteria or contamination in bottled drinking water samples have not found.

  20. Is Your Drinking Water Acidic? A Comparison of the Varied pH of Popular Bottled Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kellie F

    2015-06-01

    Dental professionals continually educate patients on the dangers of consuming acidic foods and beverages due to their potential to contribute to dental erosion and tooth decay. Excess acid in the diet can also lead to acidosis, which causes negative systemic side effects. However, water is not typically categorized as acidic. The purpose of this in-vitro study was to investigate the pH levels of several popular brands of bottled water and compare them to various other acidic beverages. Two different brands of marketed alkaline water (with a pH of 8.8 or higher) were also studied, tested for acidity and described. A pilot in-vitro study was conducted to determine the pH levels of a convenience sample of popular brands of bottled water, tap water and other known acidic beverages in comparison with the pH values reported on the respective manufacturers' website. Each beverage was tested in a laboratory using a calibrated Corning pH meter model 240, and waters were compared to the corresponding company's testified pH value. Waters were also compared and contrasted based on their process of purification. The data was then compiled and analyzed descriptively. The pH values for the tested beverages and bottled waters were found to be predominantly acidic. Ten out of the 14 beverages tested were acidic (pHwaters were neutral (pH=7) and 2 bottled waters were alkaline (pH>7). The majority of waters tested had a more acidic pH when tested in the lab than the value listed in their water quality reports. It is beneficial for the health care provider to be aware of the potential acidity of popular bottled drinking waters and educate patients accordingly. Copyright © 2015 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  1. quality assessment of sachet and bottled water soldin gboko, benue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    Water is an essential part of human nutrition, both directly as ... The effect of storage on the quality of sachet water produced within Port ... WHO limits for drinking water quality, except for pH. ... Sample. Source. K1. Barna Sachet Water. K2. Fresh life Sachet Water. K3 ..... The high iron content may be because, the treatment.

  2. Concentration of Selected Anions in Bottled Water in the United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Yehia Z. Abouleish

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have shown concern over nitrate and nitrite contamination of prepared infant formula used by infants less than six months old, as it may lead to methemoglobinemia and death. One possible source of contamination is through the use of improperly treated drinking water. Contamination of water could result from fertilizers and manure runoff, not fully treated and released human and industrial waste, or from disinfection processes. In the United Arab Emirates (UAE, bottled water is the major source of drinking water and may be used for the preparation of infant formula. Therefore, in this study, several bottled water brands that are sold on the UAE market, and could be used for preparation of infant formula, were tested for nitrate and nitrite and other anions to show their compatibility with the permissible levels of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA, United States Food and Drug Administration/Code of Federal Regulations (U.S. FDA/CFR, and other international organizations. All the bottled water samples demonstrated nitrate, nitrite, and other anions levels below the permissible levels accepted by U.S. EPA, U.S. FDA/CFR, and other international organizations, except for one sample that showed nitrite levels exceeding the European Commission and Drinking Water Directive (EC/DWD permissible levels. Such study sheds light on the quality of bottled water sold not only in the UAE and the region, but also in other countries, such as France, since some of them are imported. In addition, the results shed light on the effectiveness of the treatment processes and possible sources of infant formula contamination that can affect the health of infants.

  3. Stability of Hydromorphone-Ketamine Solutions in Glass Bottles, Plastic Syringes, and IV Bags for Pediatric Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensom, Mary H H; Decarie, Diane; Leung, Karen; Montgomery, Carolyne

    2009-03-01

    To evaluate the stability of mixtures of hydromorphone and ketamine in 0.9% sodium chloride (normal saline [NS]) after storage for up to 7 days at room temperature (25°C). The stability of 3 standard mixtures of hydromorphone and ketamine (hydromorphone 0.2 mg/mL + ketamine 0.2 mg/mL, hydromorphone 0.2 mg/mL + ketamine 0.6 mg/mL, and hydromorphone 0.2 mg/mL + ketamine 1.0 mg/mL) in NS was studied. Portions of each mixture were transferred to 3 brown glass bottles (100 mL), 3 plastic syringes (50 mL), and 3 IV bags (50 mL), which were then stored at room temperature (25°C). Physical characteristics, including pH, colour, and precipitation, were evaluated daily. Three 1.5-mL samples were collected from each bottle, syringe, and IV bag at baseline, at 24, 48, and 72 hours, and on day 7. Samples were analyzed in triplicate by a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography method. Solutions were considered stable if they maintained 90% of the initial concentration of each drug. Samples from syringes and IV bags were subjected to standard sterility testing by incubation for 5 days in an enriched culture media. No notable changes in pH or colour were observed, and no precipitation occurred in any of the solutions. All formulations maintained more than 90% of the initial concentration of each drug on day 7. No bacterial growth was observed in any of the samples tested. Mixtures of hydromorphone and ketamine were stable for up 7 days at 25°C, and the sterility of the preparations was maintained. Because stability alone does not guarantee efficacy, it is recommended that clinical studies be conducted to evaluate the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of these formulations.

  4. Heavy Metals in Spring and Bottled Drinking Waters of Sibylline Mountains National Park (Central Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annibaldi, Anna; Illuminati, Silvia; Truzzi, Cristina; Scarponi, Giuseppe

    2018-02-01

    Heavy metal concentrations (cadmium, lead, and copper) in spring, tap, and bottled waters of the Sibylline Mountains National Park (central Italy) were investigated using square wave anodic stripping voltammetry from 2004 to 2011. The mean (±SD) concentrations detected (1.3 ± 0.4 ng L -1 cadmium, 14 ± 6 ng L -1 lead, and 0.16 ± 0.10 μg L -1 copper) were below the limits stipulated by Italian and European legislation for drinking and natural mineral water. In the three studied areas of the park (Mount Bove north, Mount Bove south, and springs of River Nera) with very few exceptions, both mineral waters bottled in the area and aqueduct waters from public fountains had approximately the same metal concentrations as did the spring waters from which they were derived. Conversely, substantially higher metal concentrations were found at some sites in private houses, which may be due to release of metals from old metal pipes. At the time of this study, waters of Sibylline Mountains National Park were of good quality, and no influence of the bottling process on heavy metal concentrations was found.

  5. Collaborative validation of a rapid method for efficient virus concentration in bottled water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Anna Charlotte; Perelle, Sylvie; Di Pasquale, Simona

    2011-01-01

    . Three newly developed methods, A, B and C, for virus concentration in bottled water were compared against the reference method D: (A) Convective Interaction Media (CIM) monolithic chromatography; filtration of viruses followed by (B) direct lysis of viruses on membrane; (C) concentration of viruses......Enteric viruses, including norovirus (NoV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV), have emerged as a major cause of waterborne outbreaks worldwide. Due to their low infectious doses and low concentrations in water samples, an efficient and rapid virus concentration method is required for routine control...... by ultracentrifugation; and (D) concentration of viruses by ultrafiltration, for each methods' (A, B and C) efficacy to recover 10-fold dilutions of HAV and feline calicivirus (FCV) spiked in bottles of 1.5L of mineral water. Within the tested characteristics, all the new methods showed better performance than method D...

  6. Hazards of Healthy Living: Bottled Water and Salad Vegetables as Risk Factors for Campylobacter Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, C. Donald; Salmon, Roland L.

    2003-01-01

    Campylobacter is the most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, yet the etiology of this infection remains only partly explained. In a retrospective cohort study, we compared 213 sporadic campylobacter case-patients with 1,144 patients with negative fecal samples. Information was obtained on food history, animal contact, foreign travel, leisure activities, medical conditions, and medication use. Eating chicken, eating food from a fried chicken outlet, eating salad vegetables, drinking bottled water, and direct contact with cows or calves were all independently associated with infection. The population-attributable fractions for these risk factors explained nearly 70% of sporadic campylobacter infections. Eating chicken is a well-established risk factor, but consuming salad and bottled water are not. The association with salad may be explained by cross-contamination of food within the home, but the possibility that natural mineral water is a risk factor for campylobacter infection could have wide public health implications. PMID:14609455

  7. Bottled, filtered, and tap water use in Latino and non-Latino children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Wendy L; Knochel, Miguel L; Byington, Carrie L; Young, Paul C; Hoff, Charles J; Buchi, Karen F

    2007-05-01

    To describe bottled, filtered, and tap water consumption and fluoride use among pediatric patients; to analyze differences between ethnic and socioeconomic groups; and to describe the frequency of physician-parent discussions regarding water consumption. Convenience sample survey. An urban public health clinic. Parents attending a public health clinic. The primary outcome measure was the prevalence of tap, filtered, and bottled water use. The secondary outcome measures were supplemental fluoride use and the percentage of patients reporting discussions of water consumption with their physician. A total of 216 parents (80.5% Latino and 19.5% non-Latino) completed the survey. Of the parents, 30.1% never drank tap water and 41.2% never gave it to their children. Latino parents were less likely than non-Latino parents to drink tap water (odds ratio, 0.26; 95% confidence interval, 0.10-0.67) and less likely to give tap water to their children (odds ratio, 0.32; 95% confidence interval, 0.15-0.70). More Latinos believed that tap water would make them sick (odds ratio, 5.63; 95% confidence interval, 2.17-14.54). Approximately 40% of children who never drank tap water were not receiving fluoride supplements. Of the lowest-income families (water to their children. Of the parents surveyed, 82.5% reported that their child's physician had never discussed the type of water they should use. Many Latino families avoid drinking tap water because they fear it causes illness. Unnecessary use of bottled and filtered water is costly and may result in adverse dental health outcomes. Physicians should provide guidance to families regarding the safety, low cost, and dental health benefits of drinking tap water.

  8. Is container type the biggest predictor of trace element and BPA leaching from drinking water bottles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowell, Candace; Kuiper, Nora; Preud'Homme, Hugues

    2016-07-01

    The knowledge-base of bottled water leachate is highly contradictory due to varying methodologies and limited multi-elemental and/or molecular analyses; understanding the range of contaminants and their pathways is required. This study determined the leaching potential and leaching kinetics of trace elements, using consistent comprehensive quantitative and semi-quantitative (79 elements total) analyses, and BPA, using isotopic dilution and MEPS pre-concentration with UHPLC-ESI-QTOF. Statistical methods were used to determine confounders and predictors of leaching and human health risk throughout 12days of UV exposure and after exposure to elevated temperature. Various types of water were used to assess the impact of water quality. Results suggest Sb leaching is primarily dependent upon water quality, not container type. Bottle type is a predictor of elemental leaching for Pb, Ba, Cr, Cu, Mn and Sr; BPA was detected in samples from polycarbonate containers. Health risks from the consumption of bottled water increase after UV exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Bacteriological Quality and Essential Elements in Bottled Water in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The bacteriological examination of different commercially packaged water in Nsukka Metropolis was examined. The level of essential mineral elements and organic acids in the water were also evaluated to determine their conformity with the standards. Materials and Methods: Eleven (11) water samples (S1 ...

  10. Microbiological Investigation of Bottled Waters From Different Suppliers From Istanbul

    OpenAIRE

    Kimiran Erdem, Ayten; Gürün, Sevan; Zeybek, Zuhal; Dogruoz, Nihal; Cotuk, Aysin

    2010-01-01

    Some pathogenic bacteria found in drinking water may cause infections in many countries. The control of these infections is done by water treatment. It's very important to monitor faecal and total coliform bacteria for the examination of microbiologic quality of drinking water. In addition, the determination of total mesophilic aerobic bacteria growing in 22 - 37 ºC is also used in measure of bacterial pollution.       &n...

  11. Hydrogeochemical approach to estimate the quality of bottled waters in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćuk Marina D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bottled waters were analyzed for different chemical parameters and activity concentrations of radionuclides. The hydrocarbonate ion was dominant in all samples, while the major cation composition was a combination of Ca-Mg-Na ions. Physicochemical properties of bottled water samples are influenced by underlying geology. The sum of trace element concentrations varied from 79.7 to 9349.7 μg/l. The Dietary Reference Intake (DRI system was applied and contributions of some essential elements were calculated according to age group and gender. Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA grouped bottled water samples into four clusters based on the similarities of the groundwater quality and essential elements concentrations. The origin of radioactivity is natural and could be traced to minerals in felsic igneous rocks. Two brands exhibited elevated beta activity (1.087±0.134 Bq/l; 1.242±0.146 Bq/l. Effective doses were found to be below the reference level of 0.1 mSv/yr. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 43004

  12. Presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in bottled drinking water in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Rutilio Ortiz; Bermudez, Beatriz Schettino; Tolentino, Rey Gutiérrez; Gonzalez, Gilberto Díaz; Vega y León, Salvador

    2010-10-01

    This paper describes the concentrations of seven polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in bottled drinking water samples that were collected over 1 year from Mexico City in two sizes (1.5 and 19 L), using gas chromatography with an electron capture detector. PCBs 28 (0.018-0.042 μg/L), 52 (0.006-0.015 μg/L) and 101 (0.001-0.039 μg/L) were the most commonly found and were present in the majority of the samples. However, total concentrations of PCBs in bottled drinking water (0.035-0.039 μg/L) were below the maximum permissible level of 0.50 μg/L stated in Mexican regulations and probably do not represent a hazard to human health. PCBs were detectable in all samples and we recommend a monitoring program be established to better understand the quality of drinking bottled water over time; this may help in producing solutions for reducing the presence of organic contaminants.

  13. Composite material making from empty fruit bunches of palm oil (EFB) and Ijuk (Arengapinnata) using plastic bottle waste as adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rihayat, T.; Salim, S.; Audina, N.; Khan, N. S. P.; Zaimahwati; Sami, M.; Yunus, M.; Salisah, Z.; Alam, P. N.; Saifuddin; Yusuf, I.

    2018-03-01

    Reviewed from the current technological required a new methods to capable offering a high profit value without overriding the quality. The development of composite technology is now beginning to shift from traditional composite materials based petroleum to natural fibers composite. In the present study, aim to made specimens using natural fibers in form of EFB as a composite reinforcedment with Polyethylene Terephtalate (PET) derived from Plastic bottles waste as matrix with mixed composition parameters and time-tolerance in the mixing process to build a biocomposite material. The characterization of mechanical properties includes tensile test (ASTM D638-01) and bending test (ASTM D790-02) followed by thermal analysis using Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), and morphological analysis using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The analysis effect of EFB, Ijuk and PET mixtures on the composite matrix is very influential with mechanical properties characterization, including tensile test and bending strength. The results demonstrated that from the sample named : 50 : 25: 25, hybrid composites showed improved properties such as tensile strength of 167 MPa while the 90:05:05 based composites exhibited tensile strength values of 30 MPa, respectively. In term the flexural test the best result of composition on the properties with 10 minutes duration time its load value 7,5 Mpa for 80:10:10.

  14. Novel spectrophotometric method for the determination of aluminum in soda drinks packed in cans and plastic bottles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francisco, Barbara Bruna A.; Caldas, Luiz Fernando S.; Brum, Daniel M. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Outeiro de Sao Joao Batista s/n, Centro, Niteroi/RJ 24020-141 (Brazil); Cassella, Ricardo J., E-mail: cassella@vm.uff.br [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Outeiro de Sao Joao Batista s/n, Centro, Niteroi/RJ 24020-141 (Brazil)

    2010-09-15

    In the present work, a new spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of aluminum in soda drinks packed in different materials. Reaction among Al(III), phenylfluorone (PF) and cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) in slightly alkaline medium was explored for this purpose. The method was optimized regarding to its chemical parameters in order to establish better conditions in terms of sensitivity and selectivity. The results obtained showed that the concentration of CPC presented remarkable influence on the sensitivity and acted as a sensitizer for the studied system. The possible interferences of some metallic cations were evaluated and the cations Cu(II), Mn(II), and Zn(II) presented noticed interference on the Al(III) signal. So, their interference was eliminated by using EDTA with minimum loss of sensitivity. The results obtained in the determination of total aluminum in soda drinks by the developed methodology were not statistically different from those obtained by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. In the optimized conditions the method presented a linear range of 5-100 {mu}g L{sup -1}. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.81 and 2.7 {mu}g L{sup -1}, respectively. The methodology was successfully applied in the determination of aluminum in 10 samples of soda drinks packed in cans and plastic bottles.

  15. Analysis of polyethylene terephthalate PET plastic bottle jointing system using finite element method (FEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, N. A.; Rosli, Muhamad Farizuan; Effendi, M. S. M.; Abdullah, Mohamad Hariri

    2017-09-01

    For almost all injection molding applications of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) plastic was analyzed the strength, durability and stiffness of properties by using Finite Element Method (FEM) for jointing system of wood furniture. The FEM was utilized for analyzing the PET jointing system for Oak and Pine as wood based material of furniture. The difference pattern design of PET as wood jointing furniture gives the difference value of strength furniture itself. The results show the wood specimen with grooves and eclipse pattern design PET jointing give lower global estimated error is 28.90%, compare to the rectangular and non-grooves wood specimen of global estimated error is 63.21%.

  16. Labeling practices of water bottling firms and its public health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    unhcc

    in water treatment methods affect the quality of the products. ..... Unspecified parameters: In spite of intensive promotion about the .... decision-making bodies and researchers. Hence .... Perceived Quality and Purchase Intention. 2011. (M.

  17. Potability Assessment of Selected Brands of Bottled Water in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Department of Water Resources Management and Agrometeorology,. University of ... of high quality that could be consumed without risk of .... samples D, E & F values fall below the standard and .... Bertram and Balance (1996), when sulphate.

  18. Ultimate resources of drinking water in the event of a major pollution crisis: the role of bottled water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collin, J.J.; Comte, J.P.; Daum, J.R.; Lopoukhine, M.; Mesny, M.

    1995-01-01

    In the event of a serious and widespread pollution incident - on the level of the ''Chernobyl cloud'' - most of the drinking water resources in France could be contaminated : surface water immediately, ground water in a few days... or a few months. Therefore on the initiative of the Ministry of the Environment's Director for Defence, a study has been initiated as to what might be qualified as ''final emergency resources''. An inventory and map of protected resources have been prepared. In this context it seems reasonable to show bottled water as a resource meeting the necessary protection criteria. However it seems that these criteria are not all, nor always, relevant for defining a ''ultimate emergency resource'' not contaminated by a major incident. This article outlines a typology of situations and defines the main criteria necessary for bottled water to be able to constitute an ultimate resource

  19. Determination of trace elements in bottled water in Greece by instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soupioni, M.J.; Symeopoulos, B.D.; Papaefthymiou, H.V.

    2006-01-01

    Four different bottled water brands sold in Greece in the winter of 2001-2002 were analyzed for a wide range of chemical elements, using neutron activation analysis (NAA). The elements Na and Br were determined instrumentally (INAA), whereas the other metals and trace elements radiochemically (RNAA). The results indicated that the mean level of all the elements determined in the samples were well within the European Union (EU) directive on drinking water and accomplish the drinking water standards of the World Health Organisation (WHO) as well as of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). (author)

  20. Environmental impact of an Italian wine bottle: Carbon and water footprint assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonamente, Emanuele; Scrucca, Flavio; Rinaldi, Sara; Merico, Maria Cleofe; Asdrubali, Francesco; Lamastra, Lucrezia

    2016-08-01

    The food sector represents one of the major impacting sectors from an environmental point of view and, among all the products, wine emerges as one of the most studied by the literature. Single-issue approaches are commonly used, but a more comprehensive analysis is desirable, since a single indicator does not properly track the pressure on the environment. This paper presents a combined carbon and water footprint assessment, with a cradle to grave approach, for a protected designation of origin Italian red wine, and suggests a correlation among the two indicators across the life cycle phases. A total CF equal to 1.07±0.09kgCO2eq/bottle and a total WF equal to 580±30l/bottle were calculated for the studied product and a direct proportionality was found between the total CF and the sum of WFgrey(indirect) and WFblue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Assessment of 226Ra, 228Ra and 40K contents in the Egyptian bottled natural water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Afifi, E.M.; Hilal, M.A.; Khalifa, S.M.; Aly, H.F.

    2004-01-01

    The activity concentrations of 2 26Ra, 2 28Ra and 4 0 and k in different brands of the bottled egyptian natural water of different origins obtained from four regions, have been analyzed nondestructively by gamma- ray spectrometry. The study covers nine brands of natural water commonly used mainly for drinking in egypt. The results showed, concentrations up to 184, 156 and 1700 mBq I - 1 for 2 26Ra, 2 28Ra and 4 0K, respectively, in one brand of the natural water from water from Siwa oasis. Whereas, lower activity concentrations of 2 26Ra and 2 28Ra were found in one brand of these natural waters from El sadat region. The activity concentration of 4 0K was found to be in the background range in the brands from El sadat, kafr El arbein and beilbeis regions. The committed effective doses reached 1.9 x 10 - 2 m Sy Y - 1 for ingestion of 2 26Ra and 2 28Ra for one liter per day, respectively, which are lower than the standard permissible limit by the WHO and IAEA. However, it is recommended to moderate drinking of bottled natural water to avoid the accumulation effect of radioactive nuclides especially radium

  2. Quantitative Determination of Arsenic in Bottled Drinking Water Using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Guţu Claudia

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many studies have been performed in the past few years, to determine arsenic speciation in drinking water, food chain and environment, arsenic being a well-recognized carcinogenic and toxic agent mainly in its inorganic species. The instrumental techniques used for arsenic determination, such as hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HGAAS, graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS, can provide a great sensitivity only on the total amount. Objective: The aim of this study was to develop a simple and rapid method and to analyze the concentration of total inorganic arsenic in bottled drinking water. Methods: Total arsenic was determined in samples from six different types of commercially available bottled drinking water using atomic absorption spectrometry with electrothermal or hydride generation vaporisation. All drinking water samples were acidified with 0.1M nitric acid to match the acidity of the standards. Results: The method was linear within the studied range (1-5 μg/L, R = 0.9943. The quantification limits for arsenic determination were 0.48 μg/L (HGAAS and 0.03 μg/L (GFAAS. The evaluated arsenic content in drinking water was within the accepted limits provided by law. Conclusions: A simple and sensitive method for the quantification of arsenic in drinking water using atomic absorbtion spectroscopy was described, which can be further used in toxicological studies. As an additional advantage, the system is very fast, efficient and environmental friendly

  3. Natural uranium and 226Ra in bottled potable waters of Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bomben, Ana M.; Palacios, Miguel A.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the results obtained of the measurement of the natural uranium and 226 Ra concentrations carried out on 345 drinking water samples coming from different provinces of Argentina. The samples were collected from tap water systems and private wells. Six bottled mineral waters samples, selected from those most extensively consumed, were also analyzed. The natural uranium concentration was determined by a fluorimetric procedure and 226 Ra by the 222 Rn emanation technique and liquid scintillation counting. Values ranging from 0,03 to 50 μg L -1 of natural uranium and concentrations up to 22 mBq L -1 were found in the drinking water samples analyzed. Natural uranium concentrations from 0,04 to 3,8 μg L -1 and 226 Ra concentrations up to 2,4 mBq L -1 were measured in the bottled mineral waters samples. Based on the water intake rate and the measured concentrations of both radionuclides analyzed, an annual collective effective dose of 1,5 man Sv and an average committed effective dose of 0,5 μSv a -1 , were calculated for the City of Buenos Aires inhabitants. (author)

  4. Portable standoff Raman system for fast detection of homemade explosives through glass, plastic, and water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Anupam K.; Sharma, Shiv K.; Acosta, Tayro E.; Porter, John N.; Lucey, Paul G.; Bates, David E.

    2012-06-01

    The University of Hawaii has been developing portable remote Raman systems capable of detecting chemicals in daylight from a safe standoff distance. We present data on standoff detection of chemicals used in the synthesis of homemade explosives (HME) using a portable standoff Raman system utilizing an 8-inch telescope. Data show that good-quality Raman spectra of various hazardous chemicals such as ammonium nitrate, potassium nitrate, potassium perchlorate, sulfur, nitrobenzene, benzene, acetone, various organic and inorganic chemicals etc. could be easily obtained from remote distances, tested up to 120 meters, with a single-pulse laser excitation and with detection time less than 1 μs. The system uses a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG pulsed laser source (532 nm, 100 mJ/pulse, 15 Hz, pulse width 10 ns) capable of firing a single or double pulse. The double-pulse configuration also allows the system to perform standoff LIBS (Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) at 50 m range. In the standoff Raman detection, the doublepulse sequence simply doubles the signal to noise ratio. Significant improvement in the quality of Raman spectra is observed when the standoff detection is made with 1s integration time. The system uses a 50-micron slit and has spectral resolution of 8 cm-1. The HME chemicals could be easily detected through clear and brown glass bottles, PP and HDPE plastic bottles, and also through fluorescent plastic water bottles. Standoff Raman detection of HME chemical from a 10 m distance through non-visible concealed bottles in plastic bubble wrap packaging is demonstrated with 1 s integration time. Possible applications of the standoff Raman system for homeland security and environmental monitoring are discussed.

  5. Ancient water bottle use and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure among California Indians: a prehistoric health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholts, Sabrina B; Smith, Kevin; Wallin, Cecilia; Ahmed, Trifa M; Wärmländer, Sebastian K T S

    2017-06-23

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are the main toxic compounds in natural bitumen, a fossil material used by modern and ancient societies around the world. The adverse health effects of PAHs on modern humans are well established, but their health impacts on past populations are unclear. It has previously been suggested that a prehistoric health decline among the native people living on the California Channel Islands may have been related to PAH exposure. Here, we assess the potential health risks of PAH exposure from the use and manufacture of bitumen-coated water bottles by ancient California Indian societies. We replicated prehistoric bitumen-coated water bottles with traditional materials and techniques of California Indians, based on ethnographic and archaeological evidence. In order to estimate PAH exposure related to water bottle manufacture and use, we conducted controlled experiments to measure PAH contamination 1) in air during the manufacturing process and 2) in water and olive oil stored in a completed bottle for varying periods of time. Samples were analyzed with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) for concentrations of the 16 PAHs identified by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as priority pollutants. Eight PAHs were detected in concentrations of 1-10 μg/m 3 in air during bottle production and 50-900 ng/L in water after 2 months of storage, ranging from two-ring (naphthalene and methylnaphthalene) to four-ring (fluoranthene) molecules. All 16 PAHs analyzed were detected in olive oil after 2 days (2 to 35 μg/kg), 2 weeks (3 to 66 μg/kg), and 2 months (5 to 140 μg/kg) of storage. For ancient California Indians, water stored in bitumen-coated water bottles was not a significant source of PAH exposure, but production of such bottles could have resulted in harmful airborne PAH exposure.

  6. Trace elements and heavy metals in mineral and bottled drinking waters on the Iranian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadiani, Mohammad Rasoul; Dezfooli-Manesh, Shirin; Shoeibi, Shahram; Ziarati, Parisa; Mousavi Khaneghah, Amin

    2015-01-01

    A survey of Iranian waters, sampled from 2010 to 2013, is presented. A total of 128 water samples from 42 different brands of bottled mineral and drinking water were collected and analysed for contamination levels of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg). Determinations were performed using a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer for Pb, Cd and Cu, a hydride vapour generation as well as an Arsenator digital kit (Wagtech WTD, Tyne and Wear, UK) for As and a direct mercury analyser for Hg. Arsenic concentration in six bottled gaseous mineral samples was higher than the related limit. Regardless of these, mean concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu, As and Hg in all types of water samples were 4.50 ± 0.49, 1.08 ± 0.09, 16.11 ± 2.77, 5.80 ± 1.63 and 0.52 ± 0.03 µg L⁻¹, respectively. Values obtained for analysed heavy metals in all samples were permissible according to the limits of national and international standards.

  7. Radon and radium concentrations in bottled waters: An estimate of ingestion doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duenas, C.; Fernandez, M.C.; Carretero, J.; Liger, E.

    1997-01-01

    Concentration levels of Ra-226 and Rn-222 have been analysed in most of the bottled waters commercially available in Spain. Concentrations up to about 600 Bq/m 3 with a geometric mean of 12 Bq/m 3 were observed for Ra-226. For Rn-222 a geometric mean of 1200 Bq/m 3 with values ranging from 52000 to 1400 Bq/m 3 were measured. Doses resulting from the consumption of these waters were calculated. The effective dose equivalents due to the intake of Ra-226 present in these waters are expected to range from about 102 to 2 μSv·y -1 . Dose equivalents to the stomach due to Rn-222 intake through water consumption are estimated to reach values around 30 μSv·y -1 . (author)

  8. Acid-base balance and hydration status following consumption of mineral-based alkaline bottled water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heil Daniel P

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study sought to determine whether the consumption of a mineral-rich alkalizing (AK bottled water could improve both acid-base balance and hydration status in young healthy adults under free-living conditions. The AK water contains a naturally high mineral content along with Alka-PlexLiquid™, a dissolved supplement that increases the mineral content and gives the water an alkalizing pH of 10.0. Methods Thirty-eight subjects were matched by gender and self-reported physical activity (SRPA, hrs/week and then split into Control (12 women, 7 men; Mean +/- SD: 23 +/- 2 yrs; 7.2 +/- 3.6 hrs/week SRPA and Experimental (13 women, 6 men; 22 +/- 2 yrs; 6.4 +/- 4.0 hrs/week SRPA groups. The Control group consumed non-mineralized placebo bottled water over a 4-week period while the Experimental group consumed the placebo water during the 1st and 4th weeks and the AK water during the middle 2-week treatment period. Fingertip blood and 24-hour urine samples were collected three times each week for subsequent measures of blood and urine osmolality and pH, as well as total urine volume. Dependent variables were analyzed using multivariate repeated measures ANOVA with post-hoc focused on evaluating changes over time within Control and Experimental groups (alpha = 0.05. Results There were no significant changes in any of the dependent variables for the Control group. The Experimental group, however, showed significant increases in both the blood and urine pH (6.23 to 7.07 and 7.52 to 7.69, respectively, a decreased blood and increased urine osmolality, and a decreased urine output (2.51 to 2.05 L/day, all during the second week of the treatment period (P Conclusions Consumption of AK water was associated with improved acid-base balance (i.e., an alkalization of the blood and urine and hydration status when consumed under free-living conditions. In contrast, subjects who consumed the placebo bottled water showed no changes over the

  9. Microbes on a bottle: substrate, season and geography influence community composition of microbes colonizing marine plastic debris

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, Dee A.; Oberbeckmann, Sonja; Osborn, A. Mark; Duhaime, Melissa B.

    2016-01-01

    Plastic debris pervades in our oceans and freshwater systems and the potential ecosystem-level impacts of this anthropogenic litter require urgent evaluation. Microbes readily colonize aquatic plastic debris and members of these biofilm communities are speculated to include pathogenic, toxic, invasive or plastic degrading-species. The influence of plastic-colonizing microorganisms on the fate of plastic debris is largely unknown, as is the role of plastic in selecting for unique microbial com...

  10. Theoretical and Experimental Analysis of the Physics of Water Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrio-Perotti, R.; Blanco-Marigorta, E.; Fernandez-Francos, J.; Galdo-Vega, M.

    2010-01-01

    A simple rocket can be made using a plastic bottle filled with a volume of water and pressurized air. When opened, the air pressure pushes the water out of the bottle. This causes an increase in the bottle momentum so that it can be propelled to fairly long distances or heights. Water rockets are widely used as an educational activity, and several…

  11. Radiation dose to the Malaysian populace via the consumption of bottled mineral water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Nasir, Noor Liyana Mohd; Zakirin, Nur Syahira; Kassim, Hasan Abu; Asaduzzaman, Khandoker; Bradley, D. A.; Zulkifli, M. Y.; Hayyan, Adeeb

    2017-11-01

    Due to the geological makeup of the various water bodies, mineral- and groundwater can be expected to contain levels of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) exceeding that of tap and surface water. Acknowledging mineral water to form a vital component of the intake in maintaining the healthy life of an individual, it nevertheless remains important to study the associated radiological implications of NORM content, especially in regard to the consumption of bottled mineral water, the presence of which is prevalent in modern urban society. In present study, various brands of bottled mineral waters that are commonly available in Malaysia were obtained from local markets, the presence of NORM subsequently being assessed by HPGe γ-ray spectrometry. The activity concentrations of the radionuclides of particular interest, 226Ra, 232Th and 40K, were found to be within the respective ranges of 1.45±0.28‒3.30±0.43, 0.65±0.18‒3.39±0.38 and 21.12±1.74‒25.31±1.84 Bq/L. The concentrations of 226Ra, of central importance in radiological risk assessment, exceed the World Health Organisation (WHO, 2011) recommended maximum permissible limit of 1.0 Bq/L; for all three radionuclides taken together, the annual effective doses are greater than the WHO recommended limit of 0.1 mSv/y, a matter of especial concern for those in the developmental stages of life.

  12. Measurement of natural radionuclides in Malaysian bottled mineral water and consequent health risk estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priharti, W.; Samat, S. B.; Yasir, M. S. [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    The radionuclides of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K were measured in ten mineral water samples, of which from the radioactivity obtained, the ingestion doses for infants, children and adults were calculated and the cancer risk for the adult was estimated. Results showed that the calculated ingestion doses for the three age categories are much lower than the average worldwide ingestion exposure of 0.29 mSv/y and the estimated cancer risk is much lower than the cancer risk of 8.40 × 10{sup −3} (estimated from the total natural radiation dose of 2.40 mSv/y). The present study concludes that the bottled mineral water produced in Malaysia is safe for daily human consumption.

  13. Measurement of natural radionuclides in Malaysian bottled mineral water and consequent health risk estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priharti, W.; Samat, S. B.; Yasir, M. S.

    2015-09-01

    The radionuclides of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were measured in ten mineral water samples, of which from the radioactivity obtained, the ingestion doses for infants, children and adults were calculated and the cancer risk for the adult was estimated. Results showed that the calculated ingestion doses for the three age categories are much lower than the average worldwide ingestion exposure of 0.29 mSv/y and the estimated cancer risk is much lower than the cancer risk of 8.40 × 10-3 (estimated from the total natural radiation dose of 2.40 mSv/y). The present study concludes that the bottled mineral water produced in Malaysia is safe for daily human consumption.

  14. Hydrocarbons derived from petroleum in bottled drinking water from Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Salvador; Gutiérrez, Rey; Ortiz, Rutilio; Schettino, Beatriz; Ramírez, Maria de Lourdes; Pérez, José Jesus

    2011-06-01

    This paper describes the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHs) derived from petroleum in bottled drinking water samples that were collected over 1 year from Mexico City in two bottle sizes (1.5 and 19 L), all brought in supermarkets. The analysis was by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. -Concentrations of AHs (9.26-1.74 μg/L) were greater than PAHs (20.15-12.78 ng/L). Individual concentrations of PAHs such as fluoranthene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene and benzo(ghi)perylene were comparable with data reported by the World Health Organization (WHO). Total concentrations of PAHs for all samples (BDW1: 12.78 μg/L, BDW2: 16.72 μg/L, BDW3: 14.62 μg/L, BDW4: 20.15 μg/L and BDW5: 13.23 ng/L) were below the maximum permissible European level of 100 ng/L; no regulations exist for AHs although their values were greater than PAHs (BDW1: 3.11 μg/L, BDW2: 8.45 μg/L, BDW3: 1.74 μg/L, BDW4: 4.75 μg/L and BDW5: 9.26 μg/L).

  15. Opportunistic pathogens and elements of the resistome that are common in bottled mineral water support the need for continuous surveillance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Falcone-Dias

    Full Text Available Several differences concerning bacterial species, opportunistic pathogens, elements of the resistome as well as variations concerning the CFU/mL counts were identified in some of the five most marketed bottled mineral water from Araraquara city, São Paulo, Brazil. Two out of five brands tested were confirmed as potential source of opportunistic pathogens, including Mycobacterium gordonae, Ralstonia picketti and Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc. A total of one hundred and six isolates were recovered from four of these bottled mineral water brands. Betaproteobacteria was predominant followed by Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Firmicutes. Ninety percent of the bacteria isolated demonstrated resistance to seventeen of the nineteen antimicrobials tested. These antimicrobials included eight different classes, including 3rd and 4th generation cephalosporins, carbapenems and fluoroquinolones. Multidrug resistant bacteria were detected for fifty-nine percent of isolates in three water brands at counts up to 103 CFU/ml. Of major concern, the two bottled mineral water harboring opportunistic pathogens were also source of elements of the resistome that could be directly transferred to humans. All these differences found among brands highlight the need for continuous bacteriological surveillance of bottled mineral water.

  16. Opportunistic pathogens and elements of the resistome that are common in bottled mineral water support the need for continuous surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone-Dias, Maria Fernanda; Centrón, Daniela; Pavan, Fernando; Moura, Adriana Candido da Silva; Naveca, Felipe Gomes; de Souza, Victor Costa; Farache Filho, Adalberto; Leite, Clarice Queico Fujimura

    2015-01-01

    Several differences concerning bacterial species, opportunistic pathogens, elements of the resistome as well as variations concerning the CFU/mL counts were identified in some of the five most marketed bottled mineral water from Araraquara city, São Paulo, Brazil. Two out of five brands tested were confirmed as potential source of opportunistic pathogens, including Mycobacterium gordonae, Ralstonia picketti and Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc). A total of one hundred and six isolates were recovered from four of these bottled mineral water brands. Betaproteobacteria was predominant followed by Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Firmicutes. Ninety percent of the bacteria isolated demonstrated resistance to seventeen of the nineteen antimicrobials tested. These antimicrobials included eight different classes, including 3rd and 4th generation cephalosporins, carbapenems and fluoroquinolones. Multidrug resistant bacteria were detected for fifty-nine percent of isolates in three water brands at counts up to 103 CFU/ml. Of major concern, the two bottled mineral water harboring opportunistic pathogens were also source of elements of the resistome that could be directly transferred to humans. All these differences found among brands highlight the need for continuous bacteriological surveillance of bottled mineral water.

  17. Impact of temperature and storage duration on the chemical and odor quality of military packaged water in polyethylene terephthalate bottles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greifenstein, Michael, E-mail: Michael.Greifenstein@us.army.mil [Department of Preventive Medicine and Biometrics, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); White, Duvel W., E-mail: duvel.white@us.army.mil [Department of Preventive Medicine and Biometrics, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Stubner, Alex, E-mail: alex.stubner@usuhs.edu [Department of Preventive Medicine and Biometrics, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Hout, Joseph, E-mail: joseph.hout@usuhs.edu [Department of Preventive Medicine and Biometrics, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Whelton, Andrew J., E-mail: ajwhelton@southalabama.edu [Department of Civil Engineering, 3021 Shelby Hall, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL 36688 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The impact of temperature and storage time on military packaged water (MPW) quality was examined at four temperatures (23.0 °C to 60.0 °C) for 120 days. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles were filled in California and Afghanistan with unbuffered water treated by reverse osmosis. The US military's water pH long-term potability standard was exceeded, and US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) and US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) drinking water pH and odor intensity limits were also exceeded. During a 70 day exposure period, Port Hueneme MPW total organic carbon and total trihalomethane levels increased from < 0.25 mg/L to 2.0 ± 0.0 mg/L and < 0.05 μg/L to 51.5 ± 2.1 μg/L, respectively. PET released organic contaminants into MPW and residual disinfectant generated trihalomethane contaminants. After 14 days at 37.7 °C and 60.0 °C, Afghanistan MPW threshold odor number values were 8.0 and 8.6, respectively. Total organic carbon concentration only increased with exposure duration at 60.0 °C. Acetaldehyde and formaldehyde contaminants were not detected likely due to the high method detection limits applied in this study. Phthalate contaminants detected and their maximum levels were butylbenzylphthalate (BBP) 0.43 μg/L, di-n-butylphthalate (DnBP) 0.38 μg/L, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) 0.6 μg/L, and diethylphthalate (DEP) 0.32 μg/L. Antimony was only detected in 60.0 °C Afghanistan MPW on Day 28 and beyond, and its maximum concentration was 3.6 ± 0.3 μg/L. No antimony was found in bottles exposed to lesser temperatures. Environmental health, PET synthesis and bottle manufacturers, and bottle users can integrate results of this work to improve health protective decisions and doctrine. - Highlights: • Temperature and storage time impacted military bottled water quality up to 60 °C. • The chemical quality of water bottled in California and Afghanistan was affected. • Drinking water pH and odor intensity limits were also

  18. Using an interactive water bottle to target fluid adherence in pediatric kidney transplant recipients: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullgren, Kristin A; Scholl, Penny; Kidwell, Kelley M; Hmiel, S Paul

    2015-02-01

    Hydration is important post-renal transplant to maintain adequate renal perfusion and graft function. Adherence to fluid recommendations is challenging given barriers to staying hydrated. There are no studies of adherence to fluid intake recommendations following pediatric renal transplant. Through this pilot study, we sought to determine whether the use of a commercially available interactive water bottle would lead to better adherence to recommended fluid intake and improved kidney functioning post-transplant relative to standard of care. Participants included 32 youth ages 7-19 ≥1 month post-kidney transplant randomized to the intervention (HydraCoach(®) water bottle) or standard education control group. Laboratory records were reviewed for serum chemistries (Na, BUN, creatinine) at baseline and one-month follow-up, and participants recorded daily fluid intake for 28 days. Those in the intervention group were significantly more likely to meet or exceed their fluid target, but this did not translate into better kidney functioning. Participants in the intervention group largely reported satisfaction with the water bottle and were likely to continue its use. While an interactive water bottle providing real-time feedback may be a promising intervention to help pediatric kidney transplant patients meet fluid goals, it did not appear to impact kidney function. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. MEASUREMENT OF PHTHALATE LEVELS IN HUMAN MILK: CONTRIBUTION FROM PLASTICS IN BREAST PUMPS, STORAGE BOTTLES AND BAGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phthalates are plasticizers used to impart flexibility in products widely used by the general population, including polyvinyl chloride, plastic toys, and medical devices. Some phthalates act as anti-androgens, and prenatal or perinatal exposure to phthalates in laboratory animals...

  20. Water Quality Evaluation of PET Bottled Water by Mineral Balance in the Northeast Asian Region: A Case Study of South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houri, Daisuke; Koo, Chung Mo

    2015-09-01

    The past few years have seen a demand for drinking water in contemporary society with a focus on safety and taste. Mineral water is now marketed as a popular commercial product and, partly due to health concerns, the production. For the study, a comparison was carried out of water samples from 9 types of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottled water sold in South Korea as well as from tap water in the cities of Seoul and Chuncheon. These were compared with samples of Japanese PET bottled water in order to determine shared commonalities and identify individual characteristics. To evaluate water quality objectively, we quantified the elements contained in the water samples. Samples were assessed not with the usual sensory evaluation but with the evaluation approach advocated by Hashimoto et al. which employs the Water Index of Taste and the Water Index of Health. The levels of water quality obtained were compared with the "Prerequisites for Tasty Water" and the "Standards for Tasty Water" devised for city water. The PET Bottled water varieties analyzed in this study-Seoksu, Icis, Bong Pyong, Soon Soo 100, Dong Won Saem Mul, GI JANG SOO and DIAMOND-showed the Water Index of Taste ≥ 2.0 and the Water Index of Health ≥ 5.2, which we classified as tasty/healthy water. SamDaSoo and NamiNeral can be classified as tasty water due to their values of the Water Index of Taste ≥ 2.0 and the Water Index of Health water studied here fulfills the "Water Index of Taste," "Water Index of Health," "Standard for Tasty Water" and "Prerequisites for Tasty Water" that Japanese people value for city water. We can conclude that bottled water which meets water quality requirements will be considered good-tasting by a majority of people.

  1. 210Pb and 210Po Determination in Bottled Water Available on the Croatian Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogic, M.; Rozmaric Macefat, M.; Benedik, Lj.; Strok, M.

    2011-01-01

    An alpha emitting radionuclide 210Po and beta emitting radionuclide 210Pb are decay products of 238U. Due to their nuclear properties they are considered as radionuclides with the highest radiotoxicity and contribute significantly to the internal dose to the population received by drinking water. For radiological impact assessment 210Pb and 210Po must be measured routinely and accurately, with low detection limits. The aim of our study was determination of activity concentrations of 210Pb and 210Po in bottled drinking and mineral waters available on Croatian market. For their determination a procedure for their simultaneous separation from the water samples was used. After addition of 209Po tracer and lead carrier, radionuclides were preconcentrated from large volume by MnO 2 and their separation from interfering elements by Sr resin was done. 210Po source for alpha-particle spectrometric measurement was prepared by selfdeposition on silver disc, while lead was precipitated as lead sulphate and the beta activity of its daughter 210Bi was counted on a beta proportional counter. The results obtained show that values for activity concentrations of 210Pb and 210Po in all examined waters are in accordance with allowed activity concentration according to the European Commission Recommendation 2001/928/Euratom and Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality, published by WHO in 2006. (author)

  2. Uranium, radium and 40K isotopes in bottled mineral waters from Outer Carpathians, Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlowska, B.; Walencik, A.; Dorda, J.; Przylibski, T.A.

    2007-01-01

    Radioactivity content in commercially bottled mineral waters from Outer Carpathians was investigated on the basis of 28 samples. Activity concentration results for radium isotopes 226,228 Ra, uranium isotopes 234,238 U and isotopic ratios 234 U/ 238 U were determined. The correlations between investigated isotopes and calculated potassium 40 K ions dissolved in water were carried out. The results show a correlation between TDS (total dissolved solids) values and dissolved radionuclides. High correlation coefficients were observed between total radium content and 40 K. The isotopic ratio of 234 U/ 238 U varies in the range from 1.6 to 7 in all investigated waters which means that there is no radioactive equilibrium between the parent nuclide 238 U and its daughter 234 U. The effective radiation dose coming from studied radium and uranium radionuclides consumed with mineral water from the Outer Carpathians obtained by a statistical Pole is equal to 4.3μSv/year (58 l/year water consumption) and do not exceed the permissible limit equal to 100μSv/year. Assuming 0.5 l consumption per day, i.e. 182.5 l/year, the effective dose is equal to 13.4μSv/year, what is still below the unit

  3. The occurrence of Aeromonas spp. in the bottled mineral water, well water and tap water from the municipal supplies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise de Oliveira Scoaris

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the occurrence of Aeromonas sp in the bottled mineral water, well water and tap water from the municipal supplies. Positive samples were found for Aeromonas spp. 12.7% from the mineral water, 8.3% from the artesian water and 6.5% from the tap water. The recovery of Aeromonas spp. was significantly higher in the bottled mineral and artesian water than in the tap water from municipal supplies. The occurrence of the Aeromonas spp. did not correlate significantly with the contamination indicator bacteria (i.e. total coliforms in the artesian water samples. However, a significant correlation was found between Aeromonas spp. and total coliforms in the both mineral water and tap water samples. The presence or absence of a correlation between the indicator bacteria and Aeromonas could reflect the occasional appearance of the pathogen in the drinking water and the different rates of survival and recovery of these agents compared with those fecal indicators. The finding that 41.6, 14.8 and 9.0 % of the artesian water, bottled mineral water and tap water, respectively, sampled in the current study failed to meet the Brazilian standard for total coliforms in the drinking water should therefore be of concern.A porcentagem de amostras positivas para Aeromonas foi de 12.7% para água mineral, 8.3% para água de poço artesiano e 6.5% para água do sistema público de abastecimento. O isolamento de Aeromonas spp. foi significativamente maior em água mineral e água de poço artesiano do que em água do sistema público. A ocorrência de Aeromonas spp. não teve correlação significativa com os indicadores de contaminação tradicionalmente utilizados (coliformes totais em amostras de água de poço artesiano. No entanto, esta correlação foi positiva e significativa em água mineral e água do sistema público. A presença ou ausência de correlação entre bactérias indicadoras e a presença de Aeromonas pode refletir o

  4. Impact of temperature and storage duration on the chemical and odor quality of military packaged water in polyethylene terephthalate bottles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greifenstein, Michael; White, Duvel W.; Stubner, Alex; Hout, Joseph; Whelton, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    The impact of temperature and storage time on military packaged water (MPW) quality was examined at four temperatures (23.0 °C to 60.0 °C) for 120 days. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles were filled in California and Afghanistan with unbuffered water treated by reverse osmosis. The US military's water pH long-term potability standard was exceeded, and US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) and US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) drinking water pH and odor intensity limits were also exceeded. During a 70 day exposure period, Port Hueneme MPW total organic carbon and total trihalomethane levels increased from 37.7 °C, consume bottled water within 14 days of packaging

  5. Effects of storage temperature and time of antimony release from PET bottles into drinking water in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Fei; Lei, Kun; Li, Zicheng; Liu, Qing; Wei, Zhanliang; An, Lihui; Qi, Hongli; Cui, Song

    2018-01-01

    Antimony (Sb) concentrations were measured in 10 brands of PET bottled drinking water available in supermarkets in China. To simulate general storage habits based on market research, these PET bottles with drinking water were stored for 4 weeks in a lab or a car trunk during the summer. Although the PET package material of brand A had the lowest Sb level (142.71 ± 29.81 μg/g), it showed a significant increase in Sb concentrations when stored in both the car trunk and the lab. There was significant release of Sb from the PET bottles into the water following 24 h of incubation at ≥ 40 °C (40, 50, 60, and 70 °C), especially at 70 °C. The potential health risk of Sb release from PET bottles was calculated based on daily intake values and determined to be acceptable for consumers under normal storage conditions.

  6. Water Quality Assessment of Selected Domestic Water Sources

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nwokem et al.

    @yahoo.com ... were collected in clean sterilized plastic bottles in the rainy ... centers often depend on the water vendors for domestic water supply ... MATERIALS AND METHODS .... water balance problems for individual aquatic organisms.

  7. Benthic plastic debris in marine and fresh water environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Patricia L

    2015-08-01

    This review provides a discussion of the published literature concerning benthic plastic debris in ocean, sea, lake, estuary and river bottoms throughout the world. Although numerous investigations of shoreline, surface and near-surface plastic debris provide important information on plastic types, distribution, accumulation, and degradation, studies of submerged plastic debris have been sporadic in the past and have become more prominent only recently. The distribution of benthic debris is controlled mainly by combinations of urban proximity and its association with fishing-related activities, geomorphology, hydrological conditions, and river input. High density plastics, biofouled products, polymers with mineral fillers or adsorbed minerals, and plastic-metal composites all have the potential to sink. Once deposited on the bottoms of water basins and channels, plastics are shielded from UV light, thus slowing the degradation process significantly. Investigations of the interactions between benthic plastic debris and bottom-dwelling organisms will help shed light on the potential dangers of submerged plastic litter.

  8. Determination of thermotolerant coliforms present in coconut water produced and bottled in the Northeast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandbergue Santos Pereira

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Coconut water is considered to be a natural isotonic drink and its marketing is gradually increasing. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of the coconut water produced and bottled in the Northeast of Brazil. Products form ten industries from different states in the Northeast of Brazil were analyzed. The most probable number (MPN method was used to quantify the coliforms. Samples showing positive for coliforms were seeded on ChromAgar Orient plates and the bacteria identified from isolated colonies using the automated system Vitek 2 (BioMérieux, according to the manufacturer's instructions for the preparation of the inoculum, incubation, reading and interpretation. The samples showed thermotolerant coliform counts between 6.0×102 and 2.6×104 MPN/100 mL. The presence of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Morganella morganii and Providencia alcalifaciens was observed. The implementation of preventive methods and monitoring of the water quality by the industries is required.

  9. Dimensioning of a solar water heater made from PET bottles; Dimensionamento de um aquecedor solar de agua feito com garrafas PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertoleti, Pedro Henrique Fonseca; Souza, Teofilo Miguel de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Centro de Energias Renovaveis

    2008-07-01

    This document show the solar water heater made of PET bottles, a simple-construction solar water heater that try to give us two important solutions, water heating using solar energy and reutilization of the PET bottles left in the nature. Also, it will be showed how to do the dimensioning of it. Based on the showed dimensioning a application / software is developed and after that simulations are made using the application to provide how is the economy if it's used this kind of solar water heater and their environmental contribution by reutilization of the PET bottles abandoned in the nature. For example, in a common home the economy is about 45% of the electricity bill considering that the warmed water is used just to take a shower. So, the conclusion is: the solar water heater made by PET bottles is a very relevant equipment to the use of the solar energy, to useful applications and environmental contribution. (author)

  10. An alternative procedure for uranium analysis in drinking water using AQUALIX columns: application to varied French bottled waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvier-Capely, C; Bonthonneau, J P; Dadache, E; Rebière, F

    2014-01-01

    The general population is chronically exposed to uranium ((234)U, (235)U, and (238)U) and polonium ((210)Po) mainly through day-to-day food and beverage intake. The measurement of these naturally-occurring radionuclides in drinking water is important to assess their health impact. In this work the applicability of calix[6]arene-derivatives columns for uranium analysis in drinking water was investigated. A simple and effective method was proposed on a specific column called AQUALIX, for the separation and preconcentration of U from drinking water. This procedure is suitable for routine analysis and the analysis time is considerably shortened (around 4h) by combining the separation on AQUALIX with fast ICP-MS measurement. This new method was tested on different French bottled waters (still mineral water, sparkling mineral water, and spring water). Then, the case of simultaneous presence of uranium and polonium in water was considered due to interferences in alpha spectrometry measurement. A protocol was proposed using a first usual step of spontaneous deposition of polonium on silver disc in order to separate Po, followed by the uranium extraction on AQUALIX column before alpha spectrometry counting. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Physical, chemical, and other data collected using moored bottle casts at the Coastal waters of California from 01 August 1999 to 01 October 1999 (NODC Accession 0000220)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, salinity, physical, chemical, and other data were collected using moored bottle casts in the Coastal Waters of California from the SAMPSON from August...

  12. Water physics and chemistry data from bottle casts from FIXED PLATFORM from 26 April 1972 to 06 December 1972 (NODC Accession 7400880)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water physics and chemistry data were collected from bottle casts from MULTIPLE SHIPS from 26 April 1972 to 06 December 1972. Data were submitted by Edgerton,...

  13. Water physics and chemistry data from bottle casts from the ASTOR and other platforms from 03 January 1958 to 17 November 1961 (NODC Accession 6800201)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water physics and chemistry data were collected from bottle casts from the ASTOR and other platforms from 03 January 1958 to 17 November 1961. Data were submitted by...

  14. Water physics and chemistry data from bottle casts from the BLUE FIN from 1976-02-26 to 1976-05-26 (NODC Accession 7800050)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water physics and chemistry data were collected from bottle casts from the BLUE FIN from 26 February 1976 to 26 May 1976. Data were submitted by the Skidaway...

  15. Water physics and chemistry data from bottle casts from the TAGE from 08 May 1969 to 30 December 1969 (NODC Accession 7100605)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water physics and chemistry data were collected from bottle casts from the TAGE from 08 May 1969 to 30 December 1969. Data were submitted by the Stanford University;...

  16. Water physics and chemistry data from bottle casts from the MAURY and other platforms from 01 July 1949 to 13 August 1982 (NODC Accession 8500022)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water physics and chemistry data were collected from bottle casts from the MAURY and other platforms from 01 July 1949 to 13 August 1982. Data were submitted by...

  17. Application of Emotional Branding Strategy in the Model Development of Sports Brand of The Bottled Water Market

    OpenAIRE

    Marija Jankovic

    2017-01-01

    The new economy has brought new meaning to the brand, which is characterized by a brand, but also has a human touch, turning into an emotional brand. Alternative branding strategies put emphasis on brand experience in terms of emotional, holistic and socially responsible. Bottled water has become the world's "liquid gold" in the last 40 years, because it is a natural product, which is made with minimal costs. The paper develops the idea to perform a kind of humanization and the introduction o...

  18. Development of Syringe/Bottle Hybrids for Sampling Slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, C.J.

    1998-01-01

    A convenient and effective sample bottle system based on simple modifications of disposable plastic syringes and bottles has been devised and tested for slurry samples. Syringe/ bottle hybrids (hereafter referred to as syringe bottles) have the convenience of regular flat-bottom bottles with screw cap closures. In addition, the syringe imparts a sliding and adjustable bottom to the bottle that forces the entire contents from the bottle. The system was designed especially to collect samples for high temperature work-ups of DWPF slurry samples. The syringe bottles together with fixed-bottom sample vial inserts would provide the DWPF with convenient and reliable methods for dealing with slurry samples

  19. Molecular and biochemical characterization of Pseudomonas putida isolated from bottled uncarbonated mineral drinking water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasić S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas putida belongs to a group of opportunistic pathogens that can cause disease in people with weakened or damaged immune systems. Some strains have medical significance, and for most ingestion is not the primary route of infection. If water used by predisposed subjects is contaminated by P. putida, they may become ill. The aim of this work was the biochemical and molecular characterization of strain ST3 of P. putida isolated from non-carbonated bottled drinking water from Jakov Do 4 on Mt. Vlasina. Characterization of P. putida was performed to assess the risk to human health of the indigenous strains present in the water. Biochemical characterization of strains was performed using the manual identification system ID 32 GN (BioMérieux. Identification was obtained using the database identification software ATB System (Bio-Mérieux. Molecular characterization was performed by PCR amplification and 16S rDNA “thermal cycling sequencing”. Biochemical identification of the strain ST3 was accurate (Id = 99.8%. Comparing the sequences obtained for strain ST3 with NCBI gene bank sequences for 16S rRNA, the highest similarity of our strain (96% identity with a strain of P. putida, designated as biotype A (gi|18076625|emb|AJ308311.1|.PPU308311 isolated in New Zealand, was obtained. While comparison with the NCBI collection of all deposited sequences showed that the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain ST3 has very high homology, it is not identical, indicating indirectly that strain ST3 is an indigenous strain.

  20. USE OF SINGLE-MINUTE EXCHANGE OF DIE – SMED – AS A STRATEGY TO INCREASE PRODUCTIVITY IN A PLASTIC BOTTLE LABELER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teonas Bartz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The increase in the production and sale of food products stored in plastic containers, which serve different markets, caused the company researched departed in search of new concepts to increase the productivity of production equipment. With the increase of productivity, there is greater flexibility in planning and scheduling of production and exchange of tools. The implementation of the methodology of Single-Minute Exchange of Die – SMED reduces the setup time of equipment, maximizing the period of machine operation. With this the company more flexible production process and can reduce production batches, increasing operating rates, productivity and competitiveness of organizations. In this paper, we present the steps necessary for the implementation of the SMED in a labeling machine for plastic bottles. To this end, there were activities analysis, suggestions for improvements in machinery and procedures, timing of the steps before and after the improvements implemented and analyzes of the times obtained. After that, we obtained a significant reduction in setup time machine studied.

  1. Evaluating localism in the management of post-consumer plastic bottles in Honolulu, Hawai'i: perspectives from industrial ecology and political ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joo Young; Gupta, Clare

    2015-05-01

    Localism or regionalization has become a popular topic in urban design, but recent critics raise the question of whether the local or regional scale is most desirable for industrial ecosystems. As a way to explore the claim that localized metabolism is more sustainable, this study examines the costs and benefits of two differentially scaled strategies for the management of post-consumer polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles originating in the city of Honolulu, Hawai'i: local incineration and trans-continental recycling. We first estimate total environmental impacts of two options using life cycle assessment, and then disaggregate them into local versus non-local impacts to examine the spatial distribution of costs and benefits. We further assess the environmental justification for localized waste management in relation to the broader socio-economic motivations that underlie the way that plastics are managed in Honolulu. In doing so we assess the scale at which waste management is optimized from an environmental standpoint as well as the non-environmental considerations such as security and safety that influence the politics of scale involved in urban metabolic design. By illustrating the trade-offs between a local versus global metabolic pathway for plastic waste, the results from our Honolulu case study are globally relevant for communities interested in sustainable urban design and in particular urban waste management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Risk assessment from intake of Naturally Occuring Radioactive Materials in some bottled drinking water on the Ghanaian market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portuphy, M. O.

    2015-07-01

    Activity concentrations of the Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORMs) in some bottled water brands were analyzed using gamma spectrometry. 40 K activity concentrations were in the range of 3.57-5.47Bq/L, the highest occurring in brand L9. Similarly 232 Th activity concentrations were in the range of 0.30-0.56 Bq/L with the highest occurring in brand L8. 226 Ra was identified in eleven brands with the remaining five below detection limit. The highest value (0.53Bq/L) occurred in brand L9. Comparison of the mean concentrations showed significant differences at (α=0.05) between the various brands of bottled water. Estimated committed effective doses were generally below 0.1mSv/a for all age groups with the exception of children <1yr. Estimated lifetime cancer and hereditary risk was done using the ICRP risk assessment methodology. Relationship between Activity concentrations and some physicochemical parameters were established using scatter graphs. The significant one was the conductivity parameter and how estimated activity concentrations tend to correlate (Jobbàgy et al, 2013). Trace elements and heavy metals were analysed using titrimetry, UV-VIS spectroscopy and atomic absorption spectroscopy. Their levels were below recommended and conventional levels. Conclusively bottled water brands analyzed were therefore radiologically safe. (au)

  3. Production of Methane and Water from Crew Plastic Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Captain, Janine; Santiago, Eddie; Parrish, Clyde; Strayer, Richard F.; Garland, Jay L.

    2008-01-01

    Recycling is a technology that will be key to creating a self sustaining lunar outpost. The plastics used for food packaging provide a source of material that could be recycled to produce water and methane. The recycling of these plastics will require some additional resources that will affect the initial estimate of starting materials that will have to be transported from earth, mainly oxygen, energy and mass. These requirements will vary depending on the recycling conditions. The degredation products of these plastics will vary under different atmospheric conditions. An estimate of the the production rate of methane and water using typical ISRU processes along with the plastic recycling will be presented.

  4. 120 MeV Ni Ion beam induced modifications in poly (ethylene terephthalate) used in commercial bottled water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Vijay; Sonkawade, R. G.; Ali, Yasir; Dhaliwal, A. S.

    2012-01-01

    We report the effects of heavy ion irradiation on the optical, structural, and chemical properties of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film used in commercial bottled water. PET bottles were exposed with 120 MeV Ni ions at fluences varying from 3 x 10 10 to 3 x 10 12 ion/cm 2 . The modifications so induced were analyzed by using UV-Vis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Substantial decrease in optical band gap is observed with the increase in ion fluence. In the FTIR spectra, most of bands are decreased due the degradation of the molecular structure. XRD measurements show the decrease in peak intensity, which reflects the loss of crystallinity after irradiation.

  5. Chemical quality of bottled mineral waters from markets of Curitiba-PR-Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éder José dos Santos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Twenty-seven bottled mineral waters from local markets in Curitiba, State of Paraná, Brazil were analyzed for a number of constituents, including: pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids, hardness, HCO3 - and CO 3 2-, as well as Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, NH4 + , F-, Cl-, NO3 -, NO2 - and SO4 2- by ion chromatography (IC; Al, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn, Ni, Sr, V and Zn by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES; Hg by cold vapor generation-ICP OES and As, Pb, Sb and Se by ICP-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS. The obtained limits of quantitation (LOQ were adequate for the determination of all analytes using the various analytical techniques. Results for the analysis of AccuStandard certified reference materials QCS-01-5, QCS-02-R1-5 and TCLP-02-1 as well as spike recoveries to samples show acceptable values, within 90-111 % of expected concentrations with relative standard deviations below 10 %, demonstrating the accuracy of the determinations. Both NO2 - and NO 3 - were above the maximum limits set by Brazilian legislation in two samples, indicating a microbiological contamination. One imported sample presented As (6.1 ± 0.2 µg L-1 near the maximum limit (10 µg L-1 while all other elements of interest were below the values specified by Brazilian legislation. Principal component analysis revealed that four imported samples and one from the Minas Gerais State have the highest mineral concentrations.

  6. Spatial and seasonal variation in diversity and structure of microbial biofilms on marine plastics in Northern European waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberbeckmann, Sonja; Loeder, Martin G J; Gerdts, Gunnar; Osborn, A Mark

    2014-11-01

    Plastic pollution is now recognised as a major threat to marine environments and marine biota. Recent research highlights that diverse microbial species are found to colonise plastic surfaces (the plastisphere) within marine waters. Here, we investigate how the structure and diversity of marine plastisphere microbial community vary with respect to season, location and plastic substrate type. We performed a 6-week exposure experiment with polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles in the North Sea (UK) as well as sea surface sampling of plastic polymers in Northern European waters. Scanning electron microscopy revealed diverse plastisphere communities comprising prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and sequencing analysis revealed that plastisphere microbial communities on PET fragments varied both with season and location and comprised of bacteria belonging to Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria and members of the eukaryotes Bacillariophyceae and Phaeophyceae. Polymers sampled from the sea surface mainly comprised polyethylene, polystyrene and polypropylene particles. Variation within plastisphere communities on different polymer types was observed, but communities were primarily dominated by Cyanobacteria. This research reveals that the composition of plastisphere microbial communities in marine waters varies with season, geographical location and plastic substrate type. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Physicochemical properties and the concentration of anions, major and trace elements in groundwater, treated drinking water and bottled drinking water in Najran area, KSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brima, Eid I.

    2017-03-01

    Basic information about major elements in bottled drinking water is provided on product labels. However, more information is needed about trace elements in bottled drinking water and other sources of drinking water to assess its quality and suitability for drinking. This is the first such study to be carried out in Najran city in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). A total of 48 water samples were collected from different sources comprising wells, stations for drinking water treatment and bottled drinking water (purchased from local supermarkets). The concentrations of 24 elements [aluminum (Al), arsenic (As), barium (Ba), calcium (Ca), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), cesium (Cs), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), molydenum (Mo), sodium (Na), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), rubidium (Rb), selenium (Se), strontium (Sr), titanium (Ti), vanadium (V), uranium (U) and zinc (Zn)] were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Anions (chlorine (Cl-), fluoride (F-), sulfate (SO4 2-) and nitrate (NO3 -) were determined by ion chromatography (IC). Electrical conductivity (EC), pH, total dissolved salts (TDS) and total hardness (TH) were also measured. All parameters of treated drinking water and bottled drinking water samples did not exceed the World Health Organization (WHO) 2008, US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA 2009), Gulf Cooperation Council Standardization Organization (GSO) 2008 and Saudi Arabian Standards Organization (SASO) 1984 recommended guidelines. It is noteworthy that groundwater samples were not used for drinking purpose. This study is important to raise public knowledge about drinking water, and to promote public health.

  8. Water physics and chemistry data from moored current meter and bottle casts in the Coastal Waters of New Jersey as part of the Mesa New York Bight (MESA - NYB) project, 09 April 1979 - 23 August 1979 (NODC Accession 8100440)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water physics and chemistry data were collected using moored current meter and bottle casts in the Coastal Waters of New Jersey from April 9, 1979 to August 23,...

  9. Evaluation of a sticky trap (AedesTraP, made from disposable plastic bottles, as a monitoring tool for Aedes aegypti populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Santos Eloína Maria

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue virus, which is transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes is the most important emerging viral disease, infecting more than 50 million people annually. Currently used sticky traps are useful tools for monitoring and control of A. aegypti, despite differences in efficiency, labor requirements and cost. In the present work, a field assay was carried out to evaluate the performance of a sticky trap (AedesTrap, produced using disposable material, in capturing gravid Aedes spp. females. Additionally, conditions necessary for the improved performance of the device, such as number of traps per site and location (indoors or outdoors were evaluated. Methods During a one year period, traps were placed in a dengue endemic area in 28 day cycles. The trap, named AedesTrap, consisted of a disposable plastic soda bottle coated inside with colophony resin, which served as a sticky substrate. Disposable bottles were donated by restaurants, and traps were made by laboratory staff, reducing the cost of the sticky trap (less than U$3. Mosquito capture in indoor and outdoor areas was compared by placing the traps in laundry room, kitchen or bedroom (indoors and front or back yard (outdoors. The relationship between the number of AedesTraps and quantity of captured mosquitoes was investigated by utilizing one or three traps/site. Results During a 28 day cycle, a single AedesTrap was capable of capturing up to 15 A. aegypti in a house, with a mean capture of 0.5 to 2.63 females per premise. The AedesTrap collected three times more outdoors versus indoors. Similarly, the capability of detecting Aedes spp. infestation, and of capturing females, was three times higher when using three AedesTraps per house, compared with one trap per house. Conclusions AedesTrap was shown to be capable of capturing A. aegypti and other culicidae, providing information on the adult mosquito population, and allowing the identification of areas critically

  10. Evaluation of a sticky trap (AedesTraP), made from disposable plastic bottles, as a monitoring tool for Aedes aegypti populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Santos, Eloína Maria Mendonça; de Melo-Santos, Maria Alice Varjal; de Oliveira, Claudia Maria Fontes; Correia, Juliana Cavalcanti; de Albuquerque, Cleide Maria Ribeiro

    2012-09-07

    Dengue virus, which is transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes is the most important emerging viral disease, infecting more than 50 million people annually. Currently used sticky traps are useful tools for monitoring and control of A. aegypti, despite differences in efficiency, labor requirements and cost. In the present work, a field assay was carried out to evaluate the performance of a sticky trap (AedesTrap), produced using disposable material, in capturing gravid Aedes spp. females. Additionally, conditions necessary for the improved performance of the device, such as number of traps per site and location (indoors or outdoors) were evaluated. During a one year period, traps were placed in a dengue endemic area in 28 day cycles. The trap, named AedesTrap, consisted of a disposable plastic soda bottle coated inside with colophony resin, which served as a sticky substrate. Disposable bottles were donated by restaurants, and traps were made by laboratory staff, reducing the cost of the sticky trap (less than U$3). Mosquito capture in indoor and outdoor areas was compared by placing the traps in laundry room, kitchen or bedroom (indoors) and front or back yard (outdoors). The relationship between the number of AedesTraps and quantity of captured mosquitoes was investigated by utilizing one or three traps/site. During a 28 day cycle, a single AedesTrap was capable of capturing up to 15 A. aegypti in a house, with a mean capture of 0.5 to 2.63 females per premise. The AedesTrap collected three times more outdoors versus indoors. Similarly, the capability of detecting Aedes spp. infestation, and of capturing females, was three times higher when using three AedesTraps per house, compared with one trap per house. AedesTrap was shown to be capable of capturing A. aegypti and other culicidae, providing information on the adult mosquito population, and allowing the identification of areas critically infested by mosquitoes. Low requirements for skilled labor

  11. Identification of Bottled Zam Zam Water in Malaysian Market using Hydrogen and Oxygen Stable Isotobe Ratios (δ2H and δ18O)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roslanzairi Mostapa; Abdul Kadir Ishak; Kamaruzaman Mohamad; Rohaimah Demanah

    2014-01-01

    The water drawn from the well of Zam Zam is believed by the adherents of Islam to be blessed and capable of treating a variety of ailments. The water originates from a well in an alluvium area, located in Mecca, Saudi Arabia and has been in use since 4000 years ago. Due to the religious significance of the water drawn from this well, bottled versions are very popular among Malaysians. Unfortunately, this disproportionate popularity may entice some unscrupulous dealers to engage in fraudulent behaviour, such as selling ordinary water purported to be Zam Zam water. This unethical practice might very well pose a physical and economical hazard to consumers. Therefore, for the purpose of this preliminary study, five samples of Zam Zam bottled water from different brands were purchased and analyzed using Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer (IRMS). For comparison purpose, four samples of zam zam water from Mecca, and two more types of water samples originating from Malaysian were also analyzed, namely, bottled drinking water and tap water. The sources of these water samples are from groundwater and surface water (river), respectively. Results of hydrogen (ε 2 H) and oxygen (ε 18 O) isotope ratios of zam zam water from mecca are in the range of -13.62 % to -10.60 %, and -2.17 % to 0.06 %, respectively, while the hydrogen (ε 2 H) and oxygen (δ 18 O) isotope ratios of five samples from the bottled Zam Zam water are within the range of -50.74 % to -7.95 % to -5.39 %, respectively. The results from the measured values of all the water samples, and might be immensely useful for the purpose of regulatory monitoring of bottled water products. (author)

  12. Application of Emotional Branding Strategy in the Model Development of Sports Brand of The Bottled Water Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Jankovic

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The new economy has brought new meaning to the brand, which is characterized by a brand, but also has a human touch, turning into an emotional brand. Alternative branding strategies put emphasis on brand experience in terms of emotional, holistic and socially responsible. Bottled water has become the world's "liquid gold" in the last 40 years, because it is a natural product, which is made with minimal costs. The paper develops the idea to perform a kind of humanization and the introduction of a new emotional brand of bottled water on the market, which will bear the name "Aqua F.I.F.A" designed label of FIFA international organizations, as well as the roof of the organizers of the most important football events in the world and the label of the national team. This paper will analyze in detail the market opportunities and prospects of introducing a unique sports brand, on the emotional aspect, with the use of effective marketing communication strategy.

  13. Plastic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong Gi Hyeon

    1987-04-01

    This book deals with plastic, which includes introduction for plastic, chemistry of high polymers, polymerization, speciality and structure of a high molecule property of plastic, molding, thermosetting plastic, such as polyethylene, polyether, polyamide and polyvinyl acetyl, thermal plastic like phenolic resins, xylene resins, melamine resin, epoxy resin, alkyd resin and poly urethan resin, new plastic like ionomer and PPS resin, synthetic laminated tape and synthetic wood, mixed materials in plastic, reprocessing of waste plastic, polymer blend, test method for plastic materials and auxiliary materials of plastic.

  14. Influence of storage temperature and time on the physicochemical and bioactive properties of roselle-fruit juice blends in plastic bottle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mgaya-Kilima, Beatrice; Remberg, Siv Fagertun; Chove, Bernard Elias; Wicklund, Trude

    2014-01-01

    Roselle-fruit juice blends were made from roselle extract and mango, papaya, and guava juices at the ratio of 80:20, 60:40, 40:60, and 20:80, % roselle: fruit juice, respectively. The blends were pasteurized at 82.5°C for 20 min and stored in 100 mL plastic bottles at 28 and 4°C for 6 months. The effects of storage time and temperature on physicochemical and bioactive properties were evaluated. Total soluble solids, pH, and reducing sugars increased significantly (P roselle-fruit blends (40% roselle) decreased significantly (P roselle-fruit blends (40% roselle) decreased from 58–55% to 43–42% when stored at 28 and 4°C, respectively. TMA losses were 86–65% at 28°C and 75–53% at 4°C while TPC losses were 66–58% at 28°C and 51–22% at 4°C. Loss of antioxidant capacity (FRAP) was 18–46% at 28°C and 17–35% at 4°C. A principal component analysis (PCA) differentiated roselle-juice fruit blends into two clusters with two principle components PC1 and PC2, which explained 97 and 3% (blends stored at ambient temperature) and 96 and 4% (blends stored at refrigerated temperature) of the variation, respectively. PC1 differentiated roselle-guava juice blends which were characterized by vitamin C, TPC, FRAP, and pH, while PC2 from another cluster of roselle-mango and roselle-papaya juice blends and was characterized by TSS, RS, and color parameters (L* a* b*). However, TMA was the main variable with the highest effect on all roselle-fruit juice blends regardless of the storage time and temperature. PMID:24804077

  15. A margin of exposure approach to assessment of non-cancerous risk of diethyl phthalate based on human exposure from bottled water consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare Jeddi, Maryam; Rastkari, Noushin; Ahmadkhaniha, Reza; Yunesian, Masud; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Daryabeygi, Reza

    2015-12-01

    Phthalates may be present in food due to their widespread presence as environmental contaminants or due to migration from food contact materials. Exposure to phthalates is considered to be potentially harmful to human health as well. Therefore, determining the main source of exposure is an important issue. So, the purpose of this study was (1) to measure the release of diethyl phthalate (DEP) in bottled water consumed in common storage conditions specially low temperature and freezing conditions; (2) to evaluate the intake of DEP from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottled water and health risk assessment; and (3) to assess the contribution of the bottled water to the DEP intake against the tolerable daily intake (TDI) values. DEP migration was investigated in six brands of PET-bottled water under different storage conditions room temperature, refrigerator temperature, freezing conditions (40 °C ,0 °C and -18 °C) and outdoor] at various time intervals by magnetic solid extraction (MSPE) using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Eventually, a health risk assessment was conducted and the margin of exposure (MOE) was calculated. The results indicate that contact time with packaging and storage temperatures caused DEP to be released into water from PET bottles. But, when comprising the DEP concentration with initial level, the results demonstrated that the release of phthalates were not substantial in all storage conditions especially at low temperatures ( children > lactating women > teenagers > adults > pregnant women), but in all target groups, the MOE was much higher than 1000, thus, low risk is implied. Consequently, PET-bottled water is not a major source of human exposure to DEP and from this perspective is safe for consumption.

  16. Caution on the storage of waters and aqueous solutions in plastic containers for hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangenberg, Jorge E

    2012-11-30

    The choice of containers for storage of aqueous samples between their collection, transport and water hydrogen ((2)H) and oxygen ((18)O) stable isotope analysis is a topic of concern for a wide range of fields in environmental, geological, biomedical, food, and forensic sciences. The transport and separation of water molecules during water vapor or liquid uptake by sorption or solution and the diffusive transport of water molecules through organic polymer material by permeation or pervaporation may entail an isotopic fractionation. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the extent of such fractionation. Sixteen bottle-like containers of eleven different organic polymers, including low and high density polyethylene (LDPE and HDPE), polypropylene (PP), polycarbonate (PC), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), and perfluoroalkoxy-Teflon (PFA), of different wall thickness and size were completely filled with the same mineral water and stored for 659 days under the same conditions of temperature and humidity. Particular care was exercised to keep the bottles tightly closed and prevent loss of water vapor through the seals. Changes of up to +5‰ for δ(2)H values and +2.0‰ for δ(18)O values were measured for water after more than 1 year of storage within a plastic container, with the magnitude of change depending mainly on the type of organic polymer, wall thickness, and container size. The most important variations were measured for the PET and PC bottles. Waters stored in glass bottles with Polyseal™ cone-lined PP screw caps and thick-walled HDPE or PFA containers with linerless screw caps having an integrally molded inner sealing ring preserved their original δ(2)H and δ(18)O values. The carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen stable isotope compositions of the organic polymeric materials were also determined. The results of this study clearly show that for precise and accurate measurements of the water stable isotope composition in aqueous solutions, rigorous sampling and

  17. Microbiological assessment of house and imported bottled water by comparison of bacterial endotoxin concentration, heterotrophic plate count, and fecal coliform count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Mayra I; Pérez, Cynthia M; Negrón, Edna L

    2008-03-01

    Consumers increasingly use bottled water and home water treatment systems to avoid direct tap water. According to the International Bottled Water Association (IBWA), an industry trade group, 5 billion gallons of bottled water were consumed by North Americans in 2001. The principal aim of this study was to assess the microbial quality of in-house and imported bottled water for human consumption, by measurement and comparison of the concentration of bacterial endotoxin and standard cultivable methods of indicator microorganisms, specifically, heterotrophic and fecal coliform plate counts. A total of 21 brands of commercial bottled water, consisting of 10 imported and 11 in-house brands, selected at random from 96 brands that are consumed in Puerto Rico, were tested at three different time intervals. The Standard Limulus Amebocyte Lysate test, gel clot method, was used to measure the endotoxin concentrations. The minimum endotoxin concentration in 63 water samples was less than 0.0625 EU/mL, while the maximum was 32 EU/mL. The minimum bacterial count showed no growth, while the maximum was 7,500 CFU/mL. Bacterial isolates like P. fluorescens, Corynebacterium sp. J-K, S. paucimobilis, P. versicularis, A. baumannii, P. chlororaphis, F. indologenes, A. faecalis and P. cepacia were identified. Repeated measures analysis of variance demonstrated that endotoxin concentration did not change over time, while there was a statistically significant (p bacterial count over time. In addition, multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that a unit change in the concentration of endotoxin across time was associated with a significant (p bacterial growth was not detected in some water samples, endotoxin was present. Measurement of Gram-negative bacterial endotoxins is one of the methods that have been suggested as a rapid way of determining bacteriological water quality.

  18. Migration of toxicants from plastics into drinking water during storage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, migration of toxicants, such as, manufacturing additives and previously adsorbed materials into drinking water stored inside plastic containers was investigated. The study considered virgin containers as well as those previously used to store sulphuric acid, calcium hypochlorite, methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) and ...

  19. Determination of As, Cd, and Pb in Tap Water and Bottled Water Samples by Using Optimized GFAAS System with Pd-Mg and Ni as Matrix Modifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sezgin Bakırdere

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic, lead, and cadmium were determined in tap and bottled water samples consumed in the west part of Turkey at trace levels. Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS was used in all detections. All of the system parameters for each element were optimized to increase sensitivity. Pd-Mg mixture was selected as the best matrix modifier for As, while the highest signals were obtained for Pb and Cd in the case of Ni used as matrix modifier. Detection limits for As, Cd, and Pb were found to be 2.0, 0.036, and 0.25 ng/mL, respectively. 78 tap water and 17 different brands of bottled water samples were analyzed for their As, Cd, and Pb contents under the optimized conditions. In all water samples, concentration of cadmium was found to be lower than detection limits. Lead concentration in the samples analyzed varied between N.D. and 12.66 ± 0.68 ng/mL. The highest concentration of arsenic was determined as 11.54 ± 2.79 ng/mL. Accuracy of the methods was verified by using a certified reference material, namely, Trace Element in Water, 1643e. Results found for As, Cd, and Pb in reference materials were in satisfactory agreement with the certified values.

  20. Draft environmental impact report. California Department of Water Resources, Bottle Rock geothermal power plant, Lake County, CA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    The California Department of Water Resources (DWR) proposes to construct the Bottle Rock power plant, a 55 MW geothermal power plant, at The Geysers Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA). The plant is projected to begin operation in April of 1983, and will be located in Lake County near the Sonoma County line on approximately 7.2 acres of the Francisco leasehold. The steam to operate the power plant, approximately 1,000,000 pounds/h, will be provided by McCulloch Geothermal Corporation. The power plant's appearance and operation will be basically the same as the units in operation or under construction in the KGRA. The power plant and related facilities will consist of a 55 MW turbine generator, a 1.1 mile (1.81 km) long transmission line, a condensing system, cooling tower, electrical switchyard, gas storage facility, cistern, and an atmospheric emission control system. DWR plans to abate hydrogen sulfide (H/sub 2/S) emissions through the use of the Stretford Process which scrubs the H/sub 2/S from the condenser vent gas stream and catalytically oxides the gas to elemental sulfur. If the Stretford Process does not meet emission limitations, a secondary H/sub 2/S abatement system using hydrogen peroxide/iron catalyst is proposed. The Bottle Rock project and other existing and future geothermal projects in the KGRA may result in cumulative impacts to soils, biological resources, water quality, geothermal steam resources, air quality, public health, land use, recreation, cultural resources, and aesthetics.

  1. A novel method for concentrating hepatitis A virus and caliciviruses from bottled water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovač, K; Gutiérrez-Aguirre, I; Banjac, M

    2009-01-01

    Human enteric viruses are detected frequently in various types of environmental water samples, such as irrigation water, wastewater, recreational water, ground or subsurface water and even drinking water, constituting a primary source of gastroenteritis or hepatitis outbreaks. Only a few, but still...

  2. Determination of barium in natural waters by ICP-OES technique. Part II: Assessment of human exposure to barium in bottled mineral and spring waters produced in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garboś, Sławomir; Swiecicka, Dorota

    2013-01-01

    A method of the classification of natural mineral and spring waters and maximum admissible concentration (MAC) levels of metals present in such types of waters are regulated by Commission Directive 2003/40/EC, Directive 2009/54/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council and Ordinance of Minister of Health of 30 March 2011 on the natural mineral waters, spring waters and potable waters. MAC of barium in natural mineral and spring waters was set at 1.0 mg/l, while World Health Organization determined the Ba guideline value in water intended for human consumption at the level of 0.7 mg/l. The aims of the study were: the determination of barium in natural mineral and spring waters (carbonated, non-carbonated and medium-carbonated waters) produced and bottled on the area of Poland, and assessment of human exposure to this metal presents in the above-mentioned types of waters. The study concerning barium determinations in 23 types of bottled natural mineral waters and 15 types of bottled spring waters (bought in Polish retail outlets) was conducted in 2010. The analyses were performed by validated method of determination of barium in water based on inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, using modern internal quality control scheme. Concentrations of barium determined in natural mineral and spring waters were in the ranges from 0.0136 mg/l to 1.12 mg/l and from 0.0044 mg/l to 0.43 mg/l, respectively. Only in the single case of natural mineral water the concentration of barium (1.12 mg/l), exceeded above-mentioned MAC for this metal, which is obligatory in Poland and the European Union - 1.0 mg/l. The long-term monitoring of barium concentration in another natural mineral water (2006 - 2010), in which incidental exceeding MAC was observed in 2006, was conducted. All measured barium concentrations in this water were lower than 1.0 mg/l and therefore, it is possible to state that the proper method of mixing waters taken from six independent

  3. Study of the influence of storage conditions on the quality and migration levels of antimony in polyethylene terephthalate-bottled water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payán, Luis; Poyatos, M Teresa; Muñoz, Lucía; La Rubia, M Dolores; Pacheco, Rafael; Ramos, Natividad

    2017-06-01

    The main objectives of this study are to determine the presence of antimony in water stored in polyethylene terephthalate bottles and the influence of temperature and time over the migration levels. For this purpose, Sb determination was carried out in water at different experimental conditions: storage for one to three weeks at 25 to 80 ℃; long-term (six months) storage at room temperature between 16 and 24 ℃ and storage in car during summer which is a common consumer's habit. In addition, water quality analysis was developed after different time-temperature storage conditions. All the samples at the end of their storage conditions were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The limit of detection and quantification were 0.50 and 0.80 µg/L, respectively. The results for the bottled water stored during six months indicated that the average Sb concentration was 0.332 ± 0.015 µg/L. This value is below the European maximum permissible migration level of 5 µg/L. With regard to the newly bottled water, no Sb was detected at the initial time for all temperatures studied. However, the Sb concentration in water increased with both time and temperature. The levels of Sb started exceeding the European limits when the samples were stored at 60 ℃ for two weeks.

  4. Green Fiber Bottle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Didone, Mattia; Tosello, Guido

    has to have an inner coating barrier. The most reliable solution proposed is to coat the inner walls with silicon dioxide, which is not biodegradable but rather environmentally inert. To enhance the environmental footprint and sustainability of the bottle, and to be competitive with the existing...... technologies, the manufacturing technology for the production of the bottle has to offer the possibility of significant energy savings. Molded pulp products are made from wood fibers dispersed in water, and then they are formed, drained and dried. A relatively large quantity of resources (i.e. energy and time......) is consumed during the drying process. It is in this process stage that an innovative way of drying the products can be exploited by using the concept of impulse drying. Impulse drying is an advance drying technique in which water is removed from a wet paper pulp by the combination of mechanical pressure...

  5. Development of water radiocontamination monitor using a plastic scintillator detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesquita, C.H. de; Madi Filho, T.; Hamada, M.M.

    1990-01-01

    An alpha, beta and gamma radiation water monitor was developed using a plastic scintillator detector with a sensitivity level of 15 bplastic scintillator detector with a sensitivity level of 15 Bq.L -1 and a counting efficiency of 25% for 131 I. It was proposed to be used in the radiation monitoring program of the research reactor swimming-pool of Sao Paulo. A simplified design and some properties of this monitor are presented. (author) [pt

  6. Magnetic Bead and Fluorescent Silica Nanoparticles Based Optical Immunodetection of Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B (SEB in Bottled Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva K. RASTOGI

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs are a major cause of food-borne diseases, most commonly SEs assayed immunologically with ELISA. An immunoassay based on fluorescein dye doped silica dioxide nanoparticles (F-SiNPs and magnetic bead (MB is described here for the detection of staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB. F-SiNPs have unique optical properties which make them attractive for biosensing. The water-in-oil (W/O reverse microemulsion method was used for the synthesis of F-SiNPs (~ 95 nm of diameter. The F-SiNPs were characterized using SEM, TEM and FTIR spectroscopy. The detection of SEB is preformed in PBS buffer, and bottled drinking water using sandwich immunoassay format. Target analytes were captured using MBs modified with the antigen-specific “capture” antibody, and detected using F-SiNP labeled secondary antigen-specific antibody. We report a limit of detection down to 1 ng/mL SEB spiked sample in less than 2 hr assay time using fluorocount method. This study demonstrates the bio warfare agent SEB capture by magnetic beads and detection using F-SiNPs.

  7. Barriers and benefits to desired behaviors for single use plastic items in northeast Ohio's Lake Erie basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolotta, Jill F; Hardy, Scott D

    2018-02-01

    Given the growing saliency of plastic marine debris, and the impact of plastics on beaches and aquatic environments in the Laurentian Great Lakes, applied research is needed to support municipal and nongovernmental campaigns to prevent debris from reaching the water's edge. This study addresses this need by examining the barriers and benefits to positive behavior for two plastic debris items in northeast Ohio's Lake Erie basin: plastic bags and plastic water bottles. An online survey is employed to gather data on the use and disposal of these plastic items and to solicit recommendations on how to positively change behavior to reduce improper disposal. Results support a ban on plastic bags and plastic water bottles, with more enthusiasm for a bag ban. Financial incentives are also seen as an effective way to influence behavior change, as are location-specific solutions focused on education and outreach. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. levels of common ions in bottled mineral waters consumed in addis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    ment, cancer, organ damage, nervous system damage, and in ... consumed in any desired amount without adverse effect on ... drinking water which practically costs much .... mg/L) in 100 mL volumetric flask and working .... water and the lowest was in tap water sample. The ... blood pressure and a long list of degenerative.

  9. Salt Content in Ready-to-Eat Food and Bottled Spring and Mineral Water Retailed in Novi Sad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paplović, Ljiljana B Trajković; Popović, Milka B; Bijelović, Sanja V; Velicki, Radmila S; Torović, Ljilja D

    2015-01-01

    Salt intake above 5 g/person/day is a strong independent risk factor for hypertension, stroke and cardiovascular diseases. Published studies indicate that the main source of salt in human diet is processed ready-to-eat food, contributing with 65-85% to daily salt intake. The aim of this paper was to present data on salt content of ready-to-eat food retailed in Novi Sad, Serbia, and contribution of the salt contained in 100 g of food to the recommended daily intake of salt for healthy and persons with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. In 1,069 samples of ready-to-eat food, salt (sodium chloride) content was calculated based on chloride ion determined by titrimetric method, while in 54 samples of bottled water sodium content was determined using flame-photometry. Food items in each food group were categorized as low, medium or high salt. Average salt content of each food group was expressed as a percentage of recommended daily intake for healthy and for persons with CVD risk. Average salt content (g/100 g) ranged from 0.36 ± 0.48 (breakfast cereals) to 2.32 ± 1.02 (grilled meat). The vast majority of the samples of sandwiches (91.7%), pizza (80.7%), salami (73.9%), sausages (72.9%), grilled meat (70.0%) and hard cheese (69.6%) had a high salt profile. Average amount of salt contained in 100 g of food participated with levels ranging from 7.2% (breakfast cereals) to 46.4% (grilled meat) and from 9.6% to 61.8% in the recommended daily intake for healthy adult and person with CVD risk, respectively. Average sodium content in 100 ml of bottled spring and mineral water was 0.33 ± 0.30 mg and 33 ± 44 mg, respectively. Ready-to-eat food retailed in Novi Sad has high hidden salt content, which could be considered as an important contributor to relatively high salt consumption of its inhabitants.

  10. Water-equivalent plastic scintillation detectors for radiotherapy dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beddar, A.S.

    1995-01-01

    Plastic scintillation dosimetry is a promising new method of measuring absorbed dose for high energy radiotherapy beams. The theory behind this concept will be presented along with the many advantages that it offers over conventional dosimetry. A variety of plastic scintillation detector systems have been recently developed for photon and electron dosimetry. These new water-equivalent detectors use small to miniature plastic scintillators. Their attractive feature lies in their use for field mapping in water, particularly for small fields, high dose gradient regions, and near inhomogeneous interfaces, or for in-vivo insertions. The physical characteristics and the dosimetric properties of these scintillators will be presented, discussed, and compared to the commonly used detectors in radiation dosimetry. The system first used successfully for multi-purpose radiotherapy field mapping, as well as other systems, will be described. The technical challenges of the design of these detectors including the optical coupling to small fibers will be discussed. One of the limitations, at the present time, is the radiation-induced light produced in the optical fibers that are used to transmit the signal to the photodetectors. The mechanisms of these spurious effects will be identified and discussed with emphasis on signal-to-noise improvements

  11. The Mediterranean Plastic Soup: synthetic polymers in Mediterranean surface waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suaria, Giuseppe; Avio, Carlo G.; Mineo, Annabella; Lattin, Gwendolyn L.; Magaldi, Marcello G.; Belmonte, Genuario; Moore, Charles J.; Regoli, Francesco; Aliani, Stefano

    2016-11-01

    The Mediterranean Sea has been recently proposed as one of the most impacted regions of the world with regards to microplastics, however the polymeric composition of these floating particles is still largely unknown. Here we present the results of a large-scale survey of neustonic micro- and meso-plastics floating in Mediterranean waters, providing the first extensive characterization of their chemical identity as well as detailed information on their abundance and geographical distribution. All particles >700 μm collected in our samples were identified through FT-IR analysis (n = 4050 particles), shedding for the first time light on the polymeric diversity of this emerging pollutant. Sixteen different classes of synthetic materials were identified. Low-density polymers such as polyethylene and polypropylene were the most abundant compounds, followed by polyamides, plastic-based paints, polyvinyl chloride, polystyrene and polyvinyl alcohol. Less frequent polymers included polyethylene terephthalate, polyisoprene, poly(vinyl stearate), ethylene-vinyl acetate, polyepoxide, paraffin wax and polycaprolactone, a biodegradable polyester reported for the first time floating in off-shore waters. Geographical differences in sample composition were also observed, demonstrating sub-basin scale heterogeneity in plastics distribution and likely reflecting a complex interplay between pollution sources, sinks and residence times of different polymers at sea.

  12. Liquid chromatographic determination of the cyanobacterial toxin beta-n-methylamino-L-alanine in algae food supplements, freshwater fish, and bottled water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Peter M; Niedzwiadek, Barbara; Rawn, Dorothea F K; Lau, Ben P-Y

    2009-08-01

    Beta-N-Methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) is a neurotoxin originally found in cycad seeds and now known to be produced by many species of freshwater and marine cyanobacteria. We developed a method for its determination in blue-green algae (BGA) food supplements, freshwater fish, and bottled water by using a strong cation-exchange, solid-phase extraction column for cleanup after 0.3 M trichloroacetic acid extraction of BGA supplements and fish. Bottled water was applied directly onto the solid-phase extraction column. For analysis of carbonated water, sonication and pH adjustment to 1.5 were needed. To determine protein-bound BMAA, the protein pellet left after extraction of the BGA supplement and fish was hydrolyzed by boiling with 6 M hydrochloric acid; BMAA was cleaned up on a C18 column and a strong cation-exchange, solid-phase extraction column. Determination of BMAA was by liquid chromatography of the fluorescent derivative formed with 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate. The method was validated by recovery experiments using spiking levels of 1.0 to 10 microg/g for BGA supplements, 0.5 to 5.0 microg/g for fish, and 0.002 microg/g for bottled water; mean recoveries were in the range of 67 to 89% for BGA supplements and fish, and 59 to 92% for bottled water. Recoveries of BMAA from spiked extracts of hydrolyzed protein from BGA supplements and fish ranged from 66 to 83%. The cleanup developed provides a useful method for surveying foods and supplements for BMAA and protein-bound BMAA.

  13. The Moderating Role of Risk Perception on The Relationship Between Satisfaction and Repurchase Intention of Bottled Water in Nigeria: A Research Proposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahid N. Abdul

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been a surge of bottled water consumption globally to date. This phenomenon requires investigation on why consumers intend to repeat purchase the product. While past literature has applied Oliver’s expectation disconfirmation theory (EDT to explain the link between customer satisfactions (CS and repurchase intention (RI, other studies have reported conflicting findings. Thus, this study argues that risk perception (RP should be added as a moderating variable between CS-RI which should improve our understanding of the RI behaviour in the context of EDT, bottled water consumption, policy and marketing strategy research. A new framework is proposed to explain the role of RP in EDT, with the aim of stimulating further enquiry.

  14. Water physics and chemistry data from bottle casts from the GERDA as part of the Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science (RSMAS) project from 20 July 1955 to 29 May 1957 (NODC Accession 7000057)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water physics and chemistry data were collected from bottle casts from the GERDA from 20 July 1955 to 29 May 1957. Data were collected as part of the Rosenstiel...

  15. Water physics and chemistry data from moored current meter and bottle casts in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean as part of the North East Monitoring Program (NEMP) project, 1980-09-02 to 1980-09-06 (NODC Accession 8100628)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water physics and chemistry data were collected using moored current meter and bottle casts in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean from September 2, 1980 to September 6,...

  16. Water physical and chemical data from current meter and bottle casts from the COLUMBUS ISELIN as part of the Ocean Continental Shelf - Mid Atlantic (OCS - Mid Atlantic) project, 1975-10-27 to 1975-11-06 (NODC Accession 7700454)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water physical and chemical data were collected using current meter and bottle casts from the COLUMBUS ISELIN from October 27, 1975 to November 6, 1975. Data were...

  17. Water physical and chemical data from current meter and bottle casts from the GILLISS as part of the Ocean Continental Shelf - Mid Atlantic (OCS - Mid Atlantic) project, 1976-02-04 to 1976-09-14 (NODC Accession 7700477)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water physical and chemical data were collected using current meter and bottle casts from the GILLISS and other platforms from February 4, 1976 to September 14,...

  18. Water physics and chemistry data from moored current meter and bottle casts in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean as part of the North East Monitoring Program (NEMP) project, 1982-05-28 to 1982-06-04 (NODC Accession 8300008)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water physics and chemistry data were collected using moored current meter and bottle casts in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean from May 28, 1982 to June 4, 1982. Data...

  19. Water physics and chemistry data from moored current meter and bottle casts in the Gulf of Mexico as part of the Brine Disposal project, 1980-11-20 to 1981-03-16 (NODC Accession 8100530)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water physics and chemistry data were collected using moored current meter and bottle casts in the Gulf of Mexico from November 20, 1980 to March 16, 1981. Data were...

  20. Water physics and chemistry data from bottle casts from the AMIGO as part of the SEAGRANT project from 1972-01-19 to 1973-04-20 (NODC Accession 7400540)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water physics and chemistry data were collected from bottle casts from the AMIGO from 19 January 1972 to 20 April 1973. Data were submitted by the Moss Landing...

  1. An outbreak of hospital-acquired Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection caused by contaminated bottled water in intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckmanns, T; Oppert, M; Martin, M; Amorosa, R; Zuschneid, I; Frei, U; Rüden, H; Weist, K

    2008-05-01

    This study describes an outbreak of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections caused by contaminated bottled still water (BSW) in six intensive care units (ICUs) of a German university hospital. Clinical and environmental samples from these units were cultured and genotyped by amplified fragment-length polymorphism and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis. Microbiological results were reviewed on a weekly basis to determine the number of P. aeruginosa infections and colonisations of ICU patients. Clinical specimens from 19 ICU patients--15 infections and four colonisations--yielded the same strain of P. aeruginosa. Furthermore, four of 103 environmental samples also yielded P. aeruginosa. However, only a P. aeruginosa strain isolated from unopened BSW was genetically identical to the P. aeruginosa strain isolated from the patients. In the 42-week period before the outbreak, the mean weekly number of new ICU patients infected or colonised with P. aeruginosa was 46.9 (95% CI 40.7-53.1)/1000 bed-days. During the 6-week period of the outbreak, the weekly number of new patients with P. aeruginosa was 88.9 (95% CI 54.3-122.2)/1000 bed-days. This number returned to the previous level after removal of the BSW. Thus, the microbiological and epidemiological findings revealed that the outbreak was related to BSW contaminated with P. aeruginosa. It was concluded that all untested BSW should be removed from ICUs.

  2. Water equivalence of some plastic-water phantom materials for clinical proton beam dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Sulaiti, L.; Shipley, D.; Thomas, R.; Owen, P.; Kacperek, A.; Regan, P.H.; Palmans, H.

    2012-01-01

    Plastic-water phantom materials are not exactly water equivalent since they have a different elemental composition and different interaction cross sections for protons than water. Several studies of the water equivalence of plastic-water phantom materials have been reported for photon and electron beams, but none for clinical proton beams. In proton beams, the difference between non-elastic nuclear interactions in plastic-water phantom materials compared to those in water should be considered. In this work, the water equivalence of Plastic Water ® (PW) 1 , Plastic Water ® Diagnostic Therapy (PWDT) 1 and solid water (WT1) 2 phantoms was studied for clinical proton energies of 60 MeV and 200 MeV. This was done by evaluating the fluence correction factor at equivalent depths; first with respect to water and then with respect to graphite by experiment and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations using FLUKA. MC simulations showed that the fluence correction with respect to water was less than 0.5% up to the entire penetration depth of the protons at 60 MeV and less than 1% at 200 MeV up to 20 cm depth for PWDT, PW and WT1. With respect to graphite the fluence correction was about 0.5% for 60 MeV and about 4% for 200 MeV. The experimental results for modulated and un-modulated 60 MeV proton beams showed good agreement with the MC simulated fluence correction factors with respect to graphite deviating less than 1% from unity for the three plastic-water phantoms. - Highlights: ► We study plastic-water in clinical proton beams by experiment and Monte Carlo. ► We obtain fluence correction factors for water and graphite. ► The correction factor for water was close to 1 at 60 MeV and <0.990 at 200 MeV. ► The correction factor for graphite was ∼0.5% at 60 MeV and up to 4% at 200 MeV.

  3. Evaluation of HDPE water sample bottles and PVC sampler tubing used in herbicide dissipation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. B. Fischer; J. L. Michael; H. L. Gibbs

    2009-01-01

    The recovery of six herbicides (triclopyr, triclopyr ester, sulfometuron methyl, metsulfuron methyl, imazapyr, and hexazinone) was evaluated in two stream water samples, one from Weogufka Creek in the Alabama Piedmont and one from a stagnant stream in the Escambia Experimental Forest near Florida. Simulated field study conditions were...

  4. Oscillations in a half-empty bottle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourges, Andréane; Chardac, Amélie; Caussarieu, Aude; Plihon, Nicolas; Taberlet, Nicolas

    2018-02-01

    When a half-empty bottle of water is pushed to roll on a flat surface, the oscillations of the fluid inside the bottle induce an overall jerky motion. These velocity fluctuations of the bottle are studied through simple laboratory experiments accessible to undergraduate students and can help them to grasp fundamental concepts in mechanics and hydrodynamics. We first demonstrate through an astute experiment that the rotation of the fluid and the bottle is decoupled. The equations of motion are then derived using a mechanical approach, while the hydrodynamics of the fluid motion is explained. Finally, the theory is tested against two benchmark experiments.

  5. A method for improving reliability and relevance of LCA reviews: the case of life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of tap and bottled water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantin, Valentina; Scalbi, Simona; Ottaviano, Giuseppe; Masoni, Paolo

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to propose a method for harmonising Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) literature studies on the same product or on different products fulfilling the same function for a reliable and meaningful comparison of their life-cycle environmental impacts. The method is divided in six main steps which aim to rationalize and quicken the efforts needed to carry out the comparison. The steps include: 1) a clear definition of the goal and scope of the review; 2) critical review of the references; 3) identification of significant parameters that have to be harmonised; 4) harmonisation of the parameters; 5) statistical analysis to support the comparison; 6) results and discussion. This approach was then applied to the comparative analysis of the published LCA studies on tap and bottled water production, focussing on Global Warming Potential (GWP) results, with the aim to identify the environmental preferable alternative. A statistical analysis with Wilcoxon's test confirmed that the difference between harmonised GWP values of tap and bottled water was significant. The results obtained from the comparison of the harmonised mean GWP results showed that tap water always has the best environmental performance, even in case of high energy-consuming technologies for drinking water treatments. The strength of the method is that it enables both performing a deep analysis of the LCA literature and obtaining more consistent comparisons across the published LCAs. For these reasons, it can be a valuable tool which provides useful information for both practitioners and decision makers. Finally, its application to the case study allowed both to supply a description of systems variability and to evaluate the importance of several key parameters for tap and bottled water production. The comparative review of LCA studies, with the inclusion of a statistical decision test, can validate and strengthen the final statements of the comparison. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All

  6. Panel Board From Coconut Fibre And Pet Bottle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngadiman, Norhayati; Kaamin, Masiri; Abd. Kadir, Aslila; Sahat, Suhaila; Zaini, Aziza; Raihana Nor Zentan, Siti; Ain Ahmad, Nur; Amran, Wan Haizatul Aisyhah Wan

    2018-03-01

    The rate of global deforestation and its impact on the environment has led particle board manufacture to search for alternative feedstock, especially in countries where wood is less available compared to other cellulosic natural product. Based on the properties of coconut fibre and PET bottle, these two materials can be recycle as raw material for manufacture of panel board. As for this study, the coconut fibre were used as the filler and PET bottle as outer lining of the panel board. Two types of coconut fibre were used which are grinding and un-grinding coconut fibre. At first, the coconut fibre are undergoes softening, grinding, drying and sieving process, while PET bottle was cleaning, shredding, sieving before compacted using hydraulic hot press machine. There are four types of testing that been carried out which are swelling, water absorption, Modulus of Elasticity (MOE) and Modulus of Rupture (MOR). The result show the conventional board has the highest value for MOE test, so it's indicate that the conventional board is less strength from the coconut fibre board. As for water absorption test, the average water absorption of coconut fibre based panel board is less than conventional board. Overall, the coconut fibre board is better than conventional panel board because coconut fibre board are less swelling, has low water absorption, high modulus of rupture and low modulus of elasticity. Based on the finding, this coconut fibre panel board has potential as a stronger and long-lasting panel board than the conventional board in the market. Other than that, the panel also have their own aesthetic value since the recycled plastic bottle used as outer lining is colourful and giving aesthetic value.

  7. Panel Board From Coconut Fibre And Pet Bottle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngadiman Norhayati

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The rate of global deforestation and its impact on the environment has led particle board manufacture to search for alternative feedstock, especially in countries where wood is less available compared to other cellulosic natural product. Based on the properties of coconut fibre and PET bottle, these two materials can be recycle as raw material for manufacture of panel board. As for this study, the coconut fibre were used as the filler and PET bottle as outer lining of the panel board. Two types of coconut fibre were used which are grinding and un-grinding coconut fibre. At first, the coconut fibre are undergoes softening, grinding, drying and sieving process, while PET bottle was cleaning, shredding, sieving before compacted using hydraulic hot press machine. There are four types of testing that been carried out which are swelling, water absorption, Modulus of Elasticity (MOE and Modulus of Rupture (MOR. The result show the conventional board has the highest value for MOE test, so it’s indicate that the conventional board is less strength from the coconut fibre board. As for water absorption test, the average water absorption of coconut fibre based panel board is less than conventional board. Overall, the coconut fibre board is better than conventional panel board because coconut fibre board are less swelling, has low water absorption, high modulus of rupture and low modulus of elasticity. Based on the finding, this coconut fibre panel board has potential as a stronger and long-lasting panel board than the conventional board in the market. Other than that, the panel also have their own aesthetic value since the recycled plastic bottle used as outer lining is colourful and giving aesthetic value.

  8. Stopping the Bottle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... difficult it can be to break the bottle habit. Longer bottle use may lead to cavities or ... Drinks for Kids Toddlers at the Table: Avoiding Power Struggles View more About Us Contact Us Partners ...

  9. Turning of wood plastic composites by water jet and abrasive water jet

    OpenAIRE

    Hutyrová, Z.; Ščučka, J. (Jiří); Hloch, S. (Sergej); Hlaváček, P. (Petr); Zeleňák, M. (Michal)

    2015-01-01

    The paper deals with the verification of suitability of water jet and abrasive water jet application for the disintegration of rotating samples of wood plastic composites (WPCs) with diameter d=36 mm. The influence of selected technological factors (traverse speed of cutting head v [mm/ min] and size of abrasive particles [MESH]) on the topography of resulting surfaces has in particular been studied. Surface topography and quality have been assessed using the methods of optical and co...

  10. Interactive baby feeding bottle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    An interactive baby bottle with an electronic unit is disclosed. The electronic unit comprises a sensor unit configured to sense the heart beat of a person bottle feeding a baby and an actuator unit configured to transmit the sensed heart beat to the baby. The disclosed interactive baby bottle can

  11. Water physics and chemistry data from moored current meter and bottle casts in the Coastal Waters of New Jersey as part of the Marine EcoSystems Analysis - New York Bight (MESA - NYB) project, 1973-08-27 to 1974-11-27 (NODC Accession 7600777)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water physics and chemistry data were collected using moored current meter and bottle casts in the Coastal Waters of New Jersey from August 27, 1973 to November 7,...

  12. Water physics and chemistry data from moored current meter and bottle casts in the Coastal Waters of New Jersey as part of the Mesa New York Bight (MESA - NYB) project, 1974-03-08 to 1974-05-13 (NODC Accession 7501210)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water physics and chemistry data were collected using moored current meter and bottle casts in the Coastal Waters of New Jersey from March 8, 1974 to May 13, 1974....

  13. Water physics and chemistry data from moored current meter and bottle casts in the Coastal Waters of New Jersey as part of the Mesa New York Bight (MESA - NYB) project, 1963-05-21 to 1975-07-08 (NODC Accession 7601561)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water physics and chemistry data were collected using moored current meter and bottle casts in the Coastal Waters of New Jersey from May 21, 1963 to July 8, 1975....

  14. Water physics and chemistry data from moored current meter and bottle casts in the Coastal Waters of New Jersey as part of the Mesa New York Bight (MESA - NYB) project, 1975-01-15 to 1975-12-08 (NODC Accession 7700136)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water physics and chemistry data were collected using moored current meter and bottle casts in the Coastal Waters of New Jersey from January 15, 1975 to December 8,...

  15. A Plastic Menagerie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Mary Jane

    2010-01-01

    Bobble heads had become quite popular, depicting all sorts of sports figures, animals, and even presidents. In this article, the author describes how her fourth graders made bobble head sculptures out of empty plastic drink bottles. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  16. Natural mineral bottled waters available on the Polish market as a source of minerals for the consumers. Part 1. Calcium and magnesium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gątarska, Anna; Tońska, Elżbieta; Ciborska, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Natural mineral waters may be an essential source of calcium, magnesium and other minerals. In bottled waters, minerals occur in an ionized form which is very well digestible. However, the concentration of minerals in underground waters (which constitute the material for the production of bottled waters) varies. In view of the above, the type of water consumed is essential. The aim of the study was to estimate the calcium and magnesium contents in products available on the market and to evaluate calcium and magnesium consumption with natural mineral water by different consumer groups with an assumed volume of the consumed product. These represented forty different brands of natural mineral available waters on Polish market. These waters were produced in Poland or other European countries. Among the studied products, about 30% of the waters were imported from Lithuania, Latvia, Czech Republic, France, Italy and Germany. The content of calcium and magnesium in mineral waters was determined using flame atomic absorption spectrometry in an acetylene-air flame. Further determinations were carried out using atomic absorption spectrometer--ICE 3000 SERIES-THERMO-England, equipped with a GLITE data station, background correction (a deuterium lamp) as well as other cathode lamps. Over half of the analysed natural mineral waters were medium-mineralized. The natural mineral waters available on the market can be characterized by a varied content of calcium and magnesium and a high degree of product mineralization does not guarantee significant amounts of these components. Among the natural mineral waters available on the market, only a few feature the optimum calcium-magnesium proportion (2:1). Considering the mineralization degree of the studied products, it can be stated that the largest percentage of products with significant calcium and magnesium contents can be found in the high-mineralized water group. For some natural mineral waters, the consumption of 1 litre daily may

  17. Method of determining local distribution of water or aqueous solutions penetrated into plastics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krejci, M.; Joks, Z.

    1983-01-01

    Penetrating water is labelled with tritium and the distribution is autoradiographically monitored. The discovery consists in that the plastic with the penetrating water or aqueous solution is cooled with liquid nitrogen and under the stream of liquid nitrogen the plastic is cut and exposed on the autoradiographic film in the freezer at temperatures from -15 to -30 degC. The autoradiogram will show the distribution of water in the whole area of the section. The described method may be used to detect water distribution also in filled plastics. (J.P.)

  18. Turning of wood plastic composites by water jet and abrasive water jet

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hutyrová, Z.; Ščučka, Jiří; Hloch, Sergej; Hlaváček, Petr; Zeleňák, Michal

    -, September 2015 (2015), s. 1-9 ISSN 0268-3768 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1406 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : wood plastic composite * water jet * size of abrasive particles * surface quality * traverse speed Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools Impact factor: 1.568, year: 2015 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00170-015-7831-6

  19. Turning of wood plastic composites by water jet and abrasive water jet

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hutyrová, Z.; Ščučka, Jiří; Hloch, Sergej; Hlaváček, Petr; Zeleňák, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 84, 5-8 (2016), s. 1615-1623 ISSN 0268-3768 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1406; GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : wood plastic composite * water jet * turning * traverse speed * size of abrasive particles Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools Impact factor: 2.209, year: 2016 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00170-015-7831-6

  20. Alkaline Depolymerization of Polyethylene Terephthalate Plastic Waste

    OpenAIRE

    Ammar F. Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Depolymerization reaction is considered one of the most significant ways of converting waste polyethylene terephthalate in to terephthalic acid. The water polyethylene terephthalate bottle waste was collected from different places in Baghdad. The collection step shows that there is plenty amount of polyethylene terephthalate suitable to be an important source of terephthalic acid production.PET plastic waste conversion to terephthalic acid by depolymerization process was examined. The effect ...

  1. Effect of carbonated beverages, coffee, sports and high energy drinks, and bottled water on the in vitro erosion characteristics of dental enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchens, Michael; Owens, Barry M

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of carbonated and non-carbonated beverages, bottled and tap water, on the erosive potential of dental enamel with and without fluoride varnish protection. Beverages used in this study included: Coca Cola Classic, Diet Coke, Gatorade sports drink, Red Bull high-energy drink, Starbucks Frappuccino coffee drink, Dasani water (bottled), and tap water (control). Enamel surfaces were coated with Cavity Shield 5% sodium fluoride treatment varnish. Twenty-eight previously extracted human posterior teeth free of hypocalcification and caries were used in this study. The coronal portion of each tooth was removed and then sectioned transverse from the buccal to lingual surface using a diamond coated saw blade. The crown sections were embedded in acrylic resin blocks leaving the enamel surfaces exposed. The enamel surfaces were polished using 600 to 2000 grit abrasive paper and diamond paste. Test specimens were randomly distributed to seven beverage groups and comprised 4 specimens per group. Two specimens per beverage group were treated with a fluoride varnish while 2 specimens did not receive fluoride coating. Surface roughness (profilometer) readings were performed at baseline (prior to fluoride treatment and immersion in the beverage) and again, following immersion for 14 days (24 hours/day). The test beverages were changed daily and the enamel specimens were immersed at 37 degrees C. Surface roughness data was evaluated using multiple factor ANOVA at a significance level of pStarBucks coffee, Dasani water, and tap water. Fluoride varnish was not a significant impact factor; however, beverage (type) and exposure time were significant impact variables. Both carbonated and non-carbonated beverages displayed a significant erosive effect on dental enamel; however, fluoride varnish treatments did not demonstrate a significant protective influence on enamel surfaces.

  2. Marine plastic pollution in waters around Australia: characteristics, concentrations, and pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Reisser, Julia Wiener; Shaw, Jeremy; Wilcox, Chris; Hardesty, Britta Denise; Proietti, Maíra Carneiro; Thums, Michele; Pattiaratchi, Charitha

    2013-01-01

    Plastics represent the vast majority of human-made debris present in the oceans. However, their characteristics, accumulation zones, and transport pathways remain poorly assessed. We characterised and estimated the concentration of marine plastics in waters around Australia using surface net tows, and inferred their potential pathways using particle-tracking models and real drifter trajectories. The 839 marine plastics recorded were predominantly small fragments ("microplastics", median lengt...

  3. The Dynamic Density Bottle: A Make-and-Take, Guided Inquiry Activity on Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntzleman, Thomas S.

    2015-01-01

    An activity is described wherein students observe dynamic floating and sinking behavior of plastic pieces in various liquids. The liquids and solids are all contained within a plastic bottle; the entire assembly is called a "density bottle". After completing a series of experiments that guides students to think about the relative…

  4. Drinking water quality from the aspect of element concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, M.; Shinohara, A.; Sekine, M.; Hiraishi, S.

    2006-01-01

    Drinking water in developed countries is usually treated by the water-purification system, while in developing countries untreated natural water such as well water, river water, rain water, or pond water are used. On the other hand, many kinds of mineral water bottled in plastic containers are sold as drinking water with or without gas in urban areas in many countries. Seawater under hundreds meters from the surface is also bottled and sold as drinking water with advertising good mineral balance. Various element concentrations in water samples for drinking were analyzed, and then it was considered the effects of elements on human health. (author)

  5. Plastic fish

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    In terms of weight, the plastic pollution in the world’s oceans is estimated to be around 300,000 tonnes. This plastic comes from both land-based and ocean-based sources. A lecture at CERN by chemist Wolfgang Trettnak addressed this issue and highlighted the role of art in raising people’s awareness.   Artwork by Wolfgang Trettnak. Packaging materials, consumer goods (shoes, kids’ toys, etc.), leftovers from fishing and aquaculture activities… our oceans and beaches are full of plastic litter. Most of the debris from beaches is plastic bottles. “PET bottles have high durability and stability,” explains Wolfgang Trettnak, a chemist by education and artist from Austria, who gave a lecture on this topic organised by the Staff Association at CERN on 26 May. “PET degrades very slowly and the estimated lifetime of a bottle is 450 years.” In addition to the beach litter accumulated from human use, rivers bring several ki...

  6. Plastic solid waste utilization technologies: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Arun Kumar; Shivashankar, Murugesh; Majumder, Suman

    2017-11-01

    Plastics are used in more number of applications in worldwide and it becomes essential part of our daily life. In Indian cities and villages people use the plastics in buying vegetable as a carry bag, drinking water bottle, use of plastic furniture in home, plastics objects uses in kitchen, plastic drums in packing and storage of the different chemicals for industrial use, use plastic utensils in home and many more uses. After usage of plastics it will become part of waste garbage and create pollution due to presence of toxic chemicals and it will be spread diseases and give birth to uncontrolled issues in social society. In current scenario consumption of plastic waste increasing day by day and it is very difficult to manage the plastic waste. There are limited methodologies available for reutilization of plastic waste again. Such examples are recycling, landfill, incineration, gasification and hydrogenation. In this paper we will review the existing methodologies of utilization of plastic waste in current scenario

  7. Speciation of antimony in polyethylene terephthalate bottles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.R.; Ablett, J.; Shotyk, W.S.; Naftel, S.; Northrup, P.

    2010-01-01

    Antimony contamination has been reported in drinking water from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles. Micro-X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis has been used to identify the distribution and chemical form of residual antimony used as a catalyst in the manufacture of PET bottles. The results are consistent with clusters of Sb(III) having dimensions of the order of tens of micrometers, clearly showing the ability of synchrotron radiation analyses to both map elemental distribution and determine oxidation state.

  8. Processamento e avaliação de estabilidade de bebida isotônica em garrafa plástica Processing and stability evaluation of isotonic drink in plastic bottle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Rodrigues Petrus

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Processou-se uma mistura isotônica com pH 3,4; objetivando-se a produção de uma bebida microbiologicamente estável, prescindindo de refrigeração. A bebida isotônica foi pasteurizada a 85°C/5s em trocador de calor a placas e acondicionada em garrafas de polietileno tereftalato (PET sanificadas por aspersão com solução de ácido peracético 0,3% durante 5s, a 30°C. Foram processados 1 lote com 50mg/L de sorbato de potássio, 1 lote com 100mg/L e 1 lote sem sorbato. Os 3 lotes foram mantidos a 25°C durante 26 semanas, sendo realizadas determinações de pH, sólidos solúveis, acidez total titulável, ácido ascórbico, testes de aceitação sensorial e contagens de microrganismos mesófilos aeróbios totais, bolores e leveduras durante a estocagem. Verificou-se diferença significativa (pThe objective of this work was to obtain an isotonic drink by using pasteurization and packing into aseptic bottles, stable at room temperature, without the addition of chemical preservatives. For the sanitation of the plastic bottles some sanitizers were tested, based on their efficiency to destroy microorganism, maintaining minimum residual hydrogen peroxide, and keeping the drink sensory quality. The isotonic drink (pH 3,40 was thermaly processed in a plate pasteurizer at 85ºC/5s and packed into PET bottles sanitized by spraying peracetic acid at 0.3%/5s at 30ºC. The processed drink contained three different concentrations of potassium sorbate (control, 50 and 100mg/L. The stability of the products were evaluated at 25ºC for 26 weeks by measuring the pH, soluble solids, titrable acidity, ascorbic acid, microbial count, and sensory tests. The sensory evaluation and the count of the total mesophilic aerobic bacteria, moulds and yeast were measured during storage. There was no difference (p<0,05 for the pH, soluble solids and acidity of the processed drinks during the storage period except for the ascorbic acid which reduced to about 30% of the

  9. Low Abundance of Plastic Fragments in the Surface Waters of the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Martí, Elisa

    2017-11-08

    The floating plastic debris along the Arabian coast of the Red Sea was sampled by using surface-trawling plankton nets. A total of 120 sampling sites were spread out over the near-shore waters along 1,500 km of coastline during seven cruises performed during 2016 and 2017. Plastic debris, dominated by millimeter-sized pieces, was constituted mostly of fragments of rigid objects (73%) followed by pieces of films (17%), fishing lines (6%), and foam (4%). These fragments were mainly made up by polyethylene (69%) and polypropylene (21%). Fibers, likely released from synthetic textiles, were ubiquitous and abundant, although were analyzed independently due to the risk of including non-plastic fibers and airborne contamination of samples in spite of the precautions taken. The plastic concentrations (excluding possible plastic fibers) contrasts with those found in other semi-closed seas, such as the neighboring Mediterranean. They were relatively low all over the Red Sea ( < 50,000 items km; mean ± SD = 3,546 ± 8,154 plastic item km, 1.1 ± 3.0 g km) showing no clear spatial relationship with the distribution of coastal population. Results suggests a low plastic waste input from land as the most plausible explanation for this relative shortage of plastic in the surface waters of the Red Sea; however, the additional intervention of particular processes of surface plastic removal by fish or the filtering activity of the extensive coral reefs along the coastline cannot be discarded. In addition, our study highlights the relevance of determining specific regional conversion rates of mismanaged plastic waste to marine debris, accounting for the role of near-shore activities (e.g., beach tourism, recreational navigation), in order to estimate plastic waste inputs into the ocean.

  10. Low Abundance of Plastic Fragments in the Surface Waters of the Red Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Martí

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The floating plastic debris along the Arabian coast of the Red Sea was sampled by using surface-trawling plankton nets. A total of 120 sampling sites were spread out over the near-shore waters along 1,500 km of coastline during seven cruises performed during 2016 and 2017. Plastic debris, dominated by millimeter-sized pieces, was constituted mostly of fragments of rigid objects (73% followed by pieces of films (17%, fishing lines (6%, and foam (4%. These fragments were mainly made up by polyethylene (69% and polypropylene (21%. Fibers, likely released from synthetic textiles, were ubiquitous and abundant, although were analyzed independently due to the risk of including non-plastic fibers and airborne contamination of samples in spite of the precautions taken. The plastic concentrations (excluding possible plastic fibers contrasts with those found in other semi-closed seas, such as the neighboring Mediterranean. They were relatively low all over the Red Sea (<50,000 items km−2; mean ± SD = 3,546 ± 8,154 plastic item km−2, 1.1 ± 3.0 g km−2 showing no clear spatial relationship with the distribution of coastal population. Results suggests a low plastic waste input from land as the most plausible explanation for this relative shortage of plastic in the surface waters of the Red Sea; however, the additional intervention of particular processes of surface plastic removal by fish or the filtering activity of the extensive coral reefs along the coastline cannot be discarded. In addition, our study highlights the relevance of determining specific regional conversion rates of mismanaged plastic waste to marine debris, accounting for the role of near-shore activities (e.g., beach tourism, recreational navigation, in order to estimate plastic waste inputs into the ocean.

  11. Water diffusion reveals networks that modulate multiregional morphological plasticity after repetitive brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Mitsunari; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Mima, Tatsuya

    2014-03-25

    Repetitive brain stimulation protocols induce plasticity in the stimulated site in brain slice models. Recent evidence from network models has indicated that additional plasticity-related changes occur in nonstimulated remote regions. Despite increasing use of brain stimulation protocols in experimental and clinical settings, the neural substrates underlying the additional effects in remote regions are unknown. Diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) probes water diffusion and can be used to estimate morphological changes in cortical tissue that occur with the induction of plasticity. Using DWI techniques, we estimated morphological changes induced by application of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the left primary motor cortex (M1). We found that rTMS altered water diffusion in multiple regions including the left M1. Notably, the change in water diffusion was retained longest in the left M1 and remote regions that had a correlation of baseline fluctuations in water diffusion before rTMS. We conclude that synchronization of water diffusion at rest between stimulated and remote regions ensures retention of rTMS-induced changes in water diffusion in remote regions. Synchronized fluctuations in the morphology of cortical microstructures between stimulated and remote regions might identify networks that allow retention of plasticity-related morphological changes in multiple regions after brain stimulation protocols. These results increase our understanding of the effects of brain stimulation-induced plasticity on multiregional brain networks. DWI techniques could provide a tool to evaluate treatment effects of brain stimulation protocols in patients with brain disorders.

  12. Plastic and non-plastic variation in growth of newly established clones of Scirpus (Bolboschoenus) maritimus L. grown at different water depths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clevering, O.A.; Hundscheid, M.P.J.

    1998-01-01

    The importance of plastic responses to water depth as compared to non-plastic (developmental) changes in ramet (consisting of a culm e.g., stem with leaves, rhizome spacers and - tuber, and roots) characteristics of newly established clones of the emergent macrophyte Scirpus maritimus L. was

  13. Microfouling communities from pelagic and benthic marine plastic debris sampled across Mediterranean coastal waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Masó

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study used scanning electron microscopy to characterize the organisms colonizing marine plastic debris collected from pelagic and benthic habitats across Mediterranean coastal waters of Greece, Italy and Spain. A total of 42 fragments of plastic were collected during the COMSOM experimental cruise, 16 from the seafloor and 26 from surface waters. The results showed that diatoms were the most abundant organisms on both pelagic and benthic plastics. The diatom Ceratoneis closterium, frequently observed on surface plastics (73%, is a harmful microalgae associated with mucilage events in the Mediterranean. The abundance of marine plastic in coastal and oceanic waters may provide new habitats that offer an easy substrate for these invasive organisms. Furthermore, the colonization of these new environments might reduce the success of life strategies, or drive the organisms out of their essential habitat by dispersion and rafting phenomena. The results of the present work highlight the need to increase our knowledge of the consequences of colonization of plastics introduced into the marine environment, and the need to raise awareness of the potential impacts of debris accumulation on biodiversity of marine ecosystems.

  14. Migration of 2-butoxyethyl acetate from polycarbonate infant feeding bottles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens Højslev; Lund, K.H.

    2003-01-01

    An enforcement campaign was carried out to assess the migration of 2-butoxyethyl acetate (2-BEA) from polycarbonate infant feeding bottles intended for repeated use. Migration was measured by three successive migration tests into two of the European Union official food simulants: distilled water......-BEA was found from eight of 12 bottles. However, migration above the target value of 0.33 mg kg(-1) was not observed in the third decisive test from any of the 12 different brands of polycarbonate feeding bottles. A migration of between 0.05 and 0.26 mg kg(-1) from seven of 12 bottles was measured...

  15. Solar Water Heating with Low-Cost Plastic Systems (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-01-01

    Newly developed solar water heating technology can help Federal agencies cost effectively meet the EISA requirements for solar water heating in new construction and major renovations. This document provides design considerations, application, economics, and maintenance information and resources.

  16. Frequency of use controls chemical leaching from drinking-water containers subject to disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andra, Syam S; Makris, Konstantinos C; Shine, James P

    2011-12-15

    Microbial-, and chemical-based burden of disease associated with lack of access to safe water continues to primarily impact developing countries. Cost-effective health risk-mitigating measures, such as of solar disinfection applied to microbial-contaminated water stored in plastic bottles have been increasingly tested in developing countries adversely impacted by epidemic water-borne diseases. Public health concerns associated with chemical leaching from water packaging materials led us to investigate the magnitude and variability of antimony (Sb) and bromine (Br) leaching from reused plastic containers (polyethylene terephthalate, PET; and polycarbonate, PC) subject to UV and/or temperature-driven disinfection. The overall objective of this study was to determine the main and interactive effects of temperature, UV exposure duration, and frequency of bottle reuse on the extent of leaching of Sb and Br from plastic bottles into water. Regardless of UV exposure duration, frequency of reuse (up to 27 times) was the major factor that linearly increased Sb leaching from PET bottles at all temperatures tested (13-47 °C). Leached Sb concentrations (∼360 ng L(-1)) from the highly reused (27 times) PET bottles (minimal Sb leaching from PC bottles, water at much lower concentrations. Additional research on potential leaching of organic chemicals from water packaging materials is deemed necessary under relevant environmental conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Separation and determination of copper in bottled water samples by combination of dispersive liquid--liquid microextraction and microsample introduction flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citak, Demirhan; Tuzen, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    A new and simple method for the determination of trace amounts of Cu(II) was developed by combination of dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) preconcentration and microsample introduction flame atomic absorption spectrometry. In this method, ethanol and chloroform were chosen as disperser and extraction solvents, respectively, and 1-nitroso-2-naphthol was used as the complexing agent. The factors affecting the extraction efficiency and determination of Cu(II), including extraction and disperser solvent nature and volume, concentration of the complexing agent, pH of the solution, extraction time, and matrix ions, were investigated. Under optimal conditions, the LOD for Cu(II) was 0.95 microg/L with a preconcentration factor of 70. The RSD was 1.9%. The accuracy of the developed DLLME method was verified by determination of Cu(II) in a certified reference material (NRCC-SLRS-4 river water). The relative error was -3.31%. The developed preconcentration procedure was successfully applied to the analysis of bottled drinking water samples.

  18. Uses of Water Public Supply Network for Bottling; Utilizacion del agua de la red de abastecimiento publico para embotellarla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Miranda, J. P.

    2009-07-01

    Many authors have referenced that just a small percentage (by 2.5%) of the total water in the world is fresh water, and it is concentrated in a few number of countries or regions. Consequently the problem of demand and consumption of water (so in developed as in developing countries) represent and essential subject, especially in highly populated cities. (Author) 8 refs.

  19. Using LiDAR to as a Potential Method for Detection Plastics in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, G.; Neal, A.; Mielke, R.; Bookhagen, B.

    2010-12-01

    We conducted a series of experiments using Light Detection and Range (LiDAR) technology as an innovative way to detect the presence of plastics in water. The purpose of this study was to determine if LiDAR technology is a feasible, non-intrusive alternative to dredging in the ocean to determine the amount of plastics in the ocean. We used a tripod mounted RIEGL LMS-Z420i terrestrial LiDAR 3-D scanner and the associated operating software RiSCAN Pro. The terrestrial LiDAR is an optical remote sensing technology that measures the reflection of near infared light to find the range of a distant target that is most commonly used to create high precision digital elevation models of terrestrial surfaces. In theory, water should absorb the near infared light, while the plastics should reflect the light. The experiments consisted of different scale models of plastic pellets in water, ranging from a small plastic dish to a large tank to test the range of the LiDAR in different salt and fresh water mediums.

  20. Effects of Sunlight Exposure on the Quality Parameters of Bottled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    microbial population (total coliform) of the bottled water with increasing exposure to sunlight was observed. ... safe drinking water which has led to the tremendous ... degradation under high temperature (Bach et al., ..... Solar and photocatalytic.

  1. Marine plastic pollution in waters around Australia: characteristics, concentrations, and pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Reisser

    Full Text Available Plastics represent the vast majority of human-made debris present in the oceans. However, their characteristics, accumulation zones, and transport pathways remain poorly assessed. We characterised and estimated the concentration of marine plastics in waters around Australia using surface net tows, and inferred their potential pathways using particle-tracking models and real drifter trajectories. The 839 marine plastics recorded were predominantly small fragments ("microplastics", median length = 2.8 mm, mean length = 4.9 mm resulting from the breakdown of larger objects made of polyethylene and polypropylene (e.g. packaging and fishing items. Mean sea surface plastic concentration was 4256.4 pieces km(-2, and after incorporating the effect of vertical wind mixing, this value increased to 8966.3 pieces km(-2. These plastics appear to be associated with a wide range of ocean currents that connect the sampled sites to their international and domestic sources, including populated areas of Australia's east coast. This study shows that plastic contamination levels in surface waters of Australia are similar to those in the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Maine, but considerably lower than those found in the subtropical gyres and Mediterranean Sea. Microplastics such as the ones described here have the potential to affect organisms ranging from megafauna to small fish and zooplankton.

  2. Marine Plastic Pollution in Waters around Australia: Characteristics, Concentrations, and Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisser, Julia; Shaw, Jeremy; Wilcox, Chris; Hardesty, Britta Denise; Proietti, Maira; Thums, Michele; Pattiaratchi, Charitha

    2013-01-01

    Plastics represent the vast majority of human-made debris present in the oceans. However, their characteristics, accumulation zones, and transport pathways remain poorly assessed. We characterised and estimated the concentration of marine plastics in waters around Australia using surface net tows, and inferred their potential pathways using particle-tracking models and real drifter trajectories. The 839 marine plastics recorded were predominantly small fragments (“microplastics”, median length = 2.8 mm, mean length = 4.9 mm) resulting from the breakdown of larger objects made of polyethylene and polypropylene (e.g. packaging and fishing items). Mean sea surface plastic concentration was 4256.4 pieces km−2, and after incorporating the effect of vertical wind mixing, this value increased to 8966.3 pieces km−2. These plastics appear to be associated with a wide range of ocean currents that connect the sampled sites to their international and domestic sources, including populated areas of Australia's east coast. This study shows that plastic contamination levels in surface waters of Australia are similar to those in the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Maine, but considerably lower than those found in the subtropical gyres and Mediterranean Sea. Microplastics such as the ones described here have the potential to affect organisms ranging from megafauna to small fish and zooplankton. PMID:24312224

  3. Marine plastic pollution in waters around Australia: characteristics, concentrations, and pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisser, Julia; Shaw, Jeremy; Wilcox, Chris; Hardesty, Britta Denise; Proietti, Maira; Thums, Michele; Pattiaratchi, Charitha

    2013-01-01

    Plastics represent the vast majority of human-made debris present in the oceans. However, their characteristics, accumulation zones, and transport pathways remain poorly assessed. We characterised and estimated the concentration of marine plastics in waters around Australia using surface net tows, and inferred their potential pathways using particle-tracking models and real drifter trajectories. The 839 marine plastics recorded were predominantly small fragments ("microplastics", median length = 2.8 mm, mean length = 4.9 mm) resulting from the breakdown of larger objects made of polyethylene and polypropylene (e.g. packaging and fishing items). Mean sea surface plastic concentration was 4256.4 pieces km(-2), and after incorporating the effect of vertical wind mixing, this value increased to 8966.3 pieces km(-2). These plastics appear to be associated with a wide range of ocean currents that connect the sampled sites to their international and domestic sources, including populated areas of Australia's east coast. This study shows that plastic contamination levels in surface waters of Australia are similar to those in the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Maine, but considerably lower than those found in the subtropical gyres and Mediterranean Sea. Microplastics such as the ones described here have the potential to affect organisms ranging from megafauna to small fish and zooplankton.

  4. Microbial hitchhikers on marine plastic debris: Human exposure risks at bathing waters and beach environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keswani, Anisha; Oliver, David M; Gutierrez, Tony; Quilliam, Richard S

    2016-07-01

    Marine plastic debris is well characterized in terms of its ability to negatively impact terrestrial and marine environments, endanger coastal wildlife, and interfere with navigation, tourism and commercial fisheries. However, the impacts of potentially harmful microorganisms and pathogens colonising plastic litter are not well understood. The hard surface of plastics provides an ideal environment for opportunistic microbial colonisers to form biofilms and might offer a protective niche capable of supporting a diversity of different microorganisms, known as the "Plastisphere". This biotope could act as an important vector for the persistence and spread of pathogens, faecal indicator organisms (FIOs) and harmful algal bloom species (HABs) across beach and bathing environments. This review will focus on the existent knowledge and research gaps, and identify the possible consequences of plastic-associated microbes on human health, the spread of infectious diseases and bathing water quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Utilization of water soluble plastics for radiological control within nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.J.; Deltete, C.P.; Homyk, W.A.; Kasprzak, L.; Robinson, P.J.

    1989-01-01

    The utilization of plastic products for radioactive contamination control within nuclear power facilities currently results in relatively large volumes of waste requiring disposal as low-level radioactive waste. The utilization of a polymer resin product that possesses comparable physical attributes to currently utilized plastic materials, but which is water soluble, has significant potential to reduce the volume of plastic waste requiring disposal as radwaste. Such a volume reduction will reduce overall plant )ampersand M costs, reduce the overall waste volume allocation utilization, and improve the regulatory perception of any plant realizing a volume reduction through plastic source minimization. This potential reduction in waste volume (and associated availability of the Low-level Waste Policy Amendments Act disposal allocation for other purposes), combined with potential economic benefits summarized above, has led to the undertaking of a detailed evaluation, presented in this paper

  6. Extensive tissue-specific transcriptomic plasticity in maize primary roots upon water deficit

    OpenAIRE

    Opitz, Nina; Marcon, Caroline; Paschold, Anja; Malik, Waqas Ahmed; Lithio, Andrew; Brandt, Ronny; Piepho, Hans-Peter; Nettleton, Dan; Hochholdinger, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Water deficit is the most important environmental constraint severely limiting global crop growth and productivity. This study investigated early transcriptome changes in maize (Zea mays L.) primary root tissues in response to moderate water deficit conditions by RNA-Sequencing. Differential gene expression analyses revealed a high degree of plasticity of the water deficit response. The activity status of genes (active/inactive) was determined by a Bayesian hierarchical model. In total, 70% o...

  7. Environmental and economic aspects of water kiosks: case study of a medium-sized Italian town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torretta, Vincenzo

    2013-05-01

    The consumption of bottled water in Italy began in the 1970s. Since then, this usage has grown considerably, also as a result of changes in habits. The environmental impact as a result of the water production chain is very significant; it would be considered, for example, the use of plastic bottles, the consumption of oil in the production of the bottles, the emission of air from the vehicles that transport the bottles, non-recycled plastic packaging, etc. In this study, considering the comparison between two situations, use of bottled water and use of water kiosk (WK), an environmental and economic impact evaluation has been done. The study considered the production of a WK in a town with 9000 inhabitants, which supplies controlled, still and sparkling water, with an organoleptic quality higher than tap water coming from the aqueduct. In particular, taking into consideration the environmental aspects, specific attention was paid both to CO2 emissions and PET bottle waste reduction. The economic impact evaluation was carried out from the consumer's point of view. In order to provide a supply service that was economically sustainable, a calculation was done with the aim of determining a specific fee for the supplied water. Moreover, a comparison has been made between quality parameters achieved with the analysis of water from aqueducts with the limits established in the Italian legislation and the parameters of several Italian water brands. The study has the aim at considering the opportunity to follow a different people's habits, closer to the concept of sustainability, reducing the environmental charge related to the realization, transport and consumption of plastic water bottles without significant reduction of the quality of the service and with convenient and interesting economic implications. In fact the results of the study show that the alternative of WKs is more efficient in economic and environmental terms respect to the use of bottled water. Copyright

  8. Environmental and economic aspects of water kiosks: Case study of a medium-sized Italian town

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torretta, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    The consumption of bottled water in Italy began in the 1970s. Since then, this usage has grown considerably, also as a result of changes in habits. The environmental impact as a result of the water production chain is very significant; it would be considered, for example, the use of plastic bottles, the consumption of oil in the production of the bottles, the emission of air from the vehicles that transport the bottles, non-recycled plastic packaging, etc. In this study, considering the comparison between two situations, use of bottled water and use of water kiosk (WK), an environmental and economic impact evaluation has been done. The study considered the production of a WK in a town with 9000 inhabitants, which supplies controlled, still and sparkling water, with an organoleptic quality higher than tap water coming from the aqueduct. In particular, taking into consideration the environmental aspects, specific attention was paid both to CO 2 emissions and PET bottle waste reduction. The economic impact evaluation was carried out from the consumer’s point of view. In order to provide a supply service that was economically sustainable, a calculation was done with the aim of determining a specific fee for the supplied water. Moreover, a comparison has been made between quality parameters achieved with the analysis of water from aqueducts with the limits established in the Italian legislation and the parameters of several Italian water brands. The study has the aim at considering the opportunity to follow a different people’s habits, closer to the concept of sustainability, reducing the environmental charge related to the realization, transport and consumption of plastic water bottles without significant reduction of the quality of the service and with convenient and interesting economic implications. In fact the results of the study show that the alternative of WKs is more efficient in economic and environmental terms respect to the use of bottled water

  9. Environmental and economic aspects of water kiosks: Case study of a medium-sized Italian town

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torretta, Vincenzo, E-mail: vincenzo.torretta@uninsubria.it [Department of Science and High Technology, Insubria University of Varese, Via G.B. Vico, 46, I-21100 Varese (Italy)

    2013-05-15

    The consumption of bottled water in Italy began in the 1970s. Since then, this usage has grown considerably, also as a result of changes in habits. The environmental impact as a result of the water production chain is very significant; it would be considered, for example, the use of plastic bottles, the consumption of oil in the production of the bottles, the emission of air from the vehicles that transport the bottles, non-recycled plastic packaging, etc. In this study, considering the comparison between two situations, use of bottled water and use of water kiosk (WK), an environmental and economic impact evaluation has been done. The study considered the production of a WK in a town with 9000 inhabitants, which supplies controlled, still and sparkling water, with an organoleptic quality higher than tap water coming from the aqueduct. In particular, taking into consideration the environmental aspects, specific attention was paid both to CO{sub 2} emissions and PET bottle waste reduction. The economic impact evaluation was carried out from the consumer’s point of view. In order to provide a supply service that was economically sustainable, a calculation was done with the aim of determining a specific fee for the supplied water. Moreover, a comparison has been made between quality parameters achieved with the analysis of water from aqueducts with the limits established in the Italian legislation and the parameters of several Italian water brands. The study has the aim at considering the opportunity to follow a different people’s habits, closer to the concept of sustainability, reducing the environmental charge related to the realization, transport and consumption of plastic water bottles without significant reduction of the quality of the service and with convenient and interesting economic implications. In fact the results of the study show that the alternative of WKs is more efficient in economic and environmental terms respect to the use of bottled water.

  10. Temperature profile and other data collected using bottle and CTD casts from the A. AGASSIZ and other platforms from the Coastal Waters of California during the California Cooperative Fisheries Investigation (CALCOFI) project, 10 July 1969 to 26 October 1988 (NODC Accession 9000096)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic Station Data, temperature, and other data were collected using CTD and bottle casts from A. AGASSIZ and other platforms from the Coastal Waters of...

  11. Temperature profile and other data collected using bottle and CTD casts from the A. AGASSIZ and NOAA Ship DAVID STARR JORDAN from the Coastal Waters of California during the California Cooperative Fisheries Investigation (CALCOFI) project, 03 January 1972 to 16 November 1972 (NODC Accession 8600369)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic Station Data, temperature, and other data were collected using CTD and bottle casts from A. AGASSIZ and other platforms from the Coastal Waters of...

  12. Physical, chemical, and other data from bottle casts from the Coastal Waters of Washington/Oregon from the THOMAS G. THOMPSON as part of the International Decade of Ocean Exploration / Coastal Upwelling Ecosystems Analysis (IDOE/CUEA) from 1973-07-11 to 1973-07-21 (NODC Accession 7601145)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical, chemical, and other data were collected from bottle casts in the Coastal Waters of Washington/Oregon from the THOMAS G. THOMPSON from 11 July 1973 to 21...

  13. Water physical and chemical data from current meter and bottle casts from the G.W. PIERCE as part of the Ocean Continental Shelf - Mid Atlantic (OCS - Mid Atlantic) project, 1975-10-22 to 1975-10-31 (NODC Accession 8200067)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water physical and chemical data were collected using current meter and bottle casts from the G.W. PIERCE from October 22, 1975 to October 31, 1975. Data were...

  14. Temperature profile and other data collected using bottle and CTD casts from the ARGO and other platforms from the Coastal Waters of California during the California Cooperative Fisheries Investigation (CALCOFI) project, 1964-03-16 to 1964-12-20 (NODC Accession 7600333)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic Station Data, temperature, and other data were collected using CTD and bottle casts from ARGO and other platforms in the Coastal Waters of California...

  15. Chemical data from moored current meter, bottle casts, and other instruments in the Coastal Waters of New Jersey as part of the Mesa New York Bight (MESA - NYB) project, 1978-05-18 to 1978-10-19 (NODC Accession 7900280)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical data were collected using moored current meter, bottle casts, and other instruments in the Coastal Waters of New Jersey from May 18, 1978 to October 19,...

  16. Water physical and chemical data from current meter and bottle casts from the H.J.W. FAY and other platforms as part of the Ocean Continental Shelf - Mid Atlantic (OCS - Mid Atlantic) project, 1977-05-16 to 1977-09-15 (NODC Accession 7800386)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water physical and chemical data were collected using current meter and bottle casts from the H.J.W. FAY and other platforms from May 16, 1977 to September 15, 1977....

  17. Water physical, chemical, and benthic organisms data from current meter and bottle casts from the H.J.W. FAY and CAPE HENLOPEN as part of the Ocean Continental Shelf - Mid Atlantic (OCS - Mid Atlantic) project, 03 November 1976 - 15 September 1977 (NODC Accession 7800319)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water physical, chemical, and benthic organisms data were collected using current meter and bottle casts from the H.J.W.FAY and CAPE HENLOPEN from November 3, 1976...

  18. Temperature profile and other data collected using bottle and CTD casts from the A. AGASSIZ and other platforms from the Coastal Waters of California during the California Cooperative Fisheries Investigation (CALCOFI) project, 1965-01-06 to 1968-06-22 (NODC Accession 7300970)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic Station Data, temperature, and other data were collected using CTD and bottle casts from A. AGASSIZ and other platforms in the Coastal Waters of...

  19. Temperature profile and other data collected using bottle and CTD casts from the PROTEUS and other platforms from the Coastal Waters of California during the California Cooperative Fisheries Investigation (CALCOFI) project, 1969-08-27 to 1974-04-22 (NODC Accession 7500074)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic Station Data, temperature, and other data were collected using CTD and bottle casts from PROTEUS and other platforms in the Coastal Waters of...

  20. Temperature profile and other data collected using bottle and CTD casts from the ELLEN B. SCRIPPS and other platforms from the Coastal Waters of California during the California Cooperative Fisheries Investigation (CALCOFI) project, 23 January 1983 to 08 December 1983 (NODC Accession 8600371)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic Station Data, temperature, and other data were collected using CTD and bottle casts from ELLEN B. SCRIPPS and other platforms from the Coastal Waters...

  1. Temperature profile and other data collected using bottle and CTD casts from the MELVILLE in the Coastal Waters of California for the International Decade of Ocean Exploration / Geochemical Ocean Section Study (IDOE/GEOSECS) project from 19 May 1979 to 23 May 1979 (NODC Accession 8800233)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic Station Data, temperature, and other data were collected using CTD and bottle casts from MELVILLE from the Coastal Waters of California from May 19,...

  2. Nitrate and trace elements in municipal and bottled water in Spain Nitrato y elementos traza en agua embotellada y municipal en España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Espejo-Herrera

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To describe levels of nitrate and trace elements in drinking water from the study areas of a multicase-control study of cancer in Spain (MCC-Spain. Methods: A total of 227 tap water samples were randomly collected from 67 municipalities in 11 provinces and the nine most frequently consumed bottled water brands were sampled to measure levels of nitrate, arsenic, nickel, chromium, cadmium, lead, selenium and zinc. Results: The median nitrate level was 4.2mg/l (rangeObjetivos: Determinar las concentraciones de nitrato y de elementos traza en el agua de consumo de las áreas del estudio Multicaso-Control de Cáncer en España (MCC-Spain. Métodos: Se tomaron al azar 227 muestras de agua municipal en 67 municipios de 11 provincias, y 9 muestras de las aguas embotelladas más consumidas, para cuantificar la cantidad presente de nitrato, arsénico, níquel, cromo, cadmio, plomo y zinc. Resultados: La mediana de las cifras de nitrato fue 4,2mg/l (rango<1-29,0, con similares resultados en municipios urbanos y rurales (p=0,86. Los elementos traza fueron incuantificables en el 94% de las muestras de agua municipal. Se observaron diferencias entre áreas para nitrato (p<0,001 y arsénico (p=0,03. Solo el nitrato fue cuantificable en el agua embotellada (rango 2,3-15,6mg/l. Conclusiones: La cantidad de nitrato en el agua municipal difiere entre regiones y es menor que el límite regulatorio en todas las muestras. Los elementos traza son mayormente incuantificables tanto en el agua municipal como en la embotellada.

  3. Solar Water Heating with Low-Cost Plastic Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-01-01

    Federal buildings consumed over 392,000 billion Btu of site delivered energy for buildings during FY 2007 at a total cost of $6.5 billion. Earlier data indicate that about 10% of this is used to heat water.[2] Targeting energy consumption in Federal buildings, the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) requires new Federal buildings and major renovations to meet 30% of their hot water demand with solar energy, provided it is cost-effective over the life of the system. In October 2009, President Obama expanded the energy reduction and performance requirements of EISA and its subsequent regulations with his Executive Order 13514.

  4. The real water consumption behind drinking water: the case of Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niccolucci, V; Botto, S; Rugani, B; Nicolardi, V; Bastianoni, S; Gaggi, C

    2011-10-01

    The real amount of drinking water available per capita is a topic of great interest for human health and the economic and political management of resources. The global market of bottled drinking water, for instance, has shown exponential growth in the last twenty years, mainly due to reductions in production costs and investment in promotion. This paper aims to evaluate how much freshwater is actually consumed when water is drunk in Italy, which can be considered a mature bottled-water market. A Water Footprint (WF) calculation was used to compare the alternatives: bottled and tap water. Six Italian brands of water sold in PET bottles were inventoried, analysed and compared with the public tap water of the city of Siena, as representative of the Italian context. Results showed that more than 3 L of water were needed to provide consumers with 1.50 L of drinking water. In particular, a volume of 1.50 L of PET-bottled water required an extra virtual volume of 1.93 L of water while an extra 2.13 L was necessary to supply the same volume of tap water. These values had very different composition and origin. The WF of tap water was mainly due to losses of water during pipeline distribution and usage, while WF of bottled water was greatly influenced by the production of plastic materials. When the contribution of cooling water was added to the calculation, the WF of bottled water rose from 3.43 to 6.92 L. Different strategies to reduce total water footprint are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A New Bottle Design Decreases Hypoxemic Episodes during Feeding in Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Jenik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen saturation is lower during bottle feeding than during breastfeeding in preterm infants. Our objective was to compare two different bottle systems in healthy preterm infants before discharge in terms of SpO2 and oral feeding efficiency (rate of milk intake. Infants without supplement oxygen needs were evaluated twice on the same day during two consecutive feeds, by the same nurse. Infants served as their own controls for comparison of two systems of bottles, the order of which was randomized. The new bottle's nipple design mimics mom's breast in shape and feel, and the bottle vents to air when the child sucks on the nipple. The other system was the hospital's standard plastic bottle with silicone nipple. The rate of milk intake was calculated as the total volume transferred minus volume lost divided by time of feeding, mL/min. Thirty-four infants (BW: 1,163±479.1 g were studied at 35.4±1.3 weeks after-conception. SpO2 was significantly higher in infants fed with the new bottle design. Milk intake rate was significantly higher with the new bottle than with the standard bottle design. The new bottle design improves oral feeding performance in preterm infants near to discharge when compared to that of a standard bottle.

  6. Determination of uranium isotopes (235U, 238U) and trace elements (Cd, Pb, Cu and As) in bottled drinking water by Icp-SFMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lara A, N.; Hernandez M, H.; Romero G, E. T.; Kuri de la C, A.; Perez B, M. A.

    2016-09-01

    In the present work we propose an optimized method for the quantification of uranium isotopes ( 235 U, 2 38 U) and the elements Cd, Pb, Cu and As in bottled water for drinking at trace levels of concentration. Based on the multi-element detection capability, the high sensitivity and resolution that the Mass Spectrometry with Magnetic Sector with Inductively Coupled Plasma Source (Icp-SFMS) technique offers; the high, medium and low resolution analysis conditions for the elements under study were established and optimized using and Element 2/Xr equipment and the 23 multi-elemental Certified Reference Material (CRM). The analysis method was validated using the standard reference material Nist 1643d and CRM mono-elemental s as external standards for the quantification of the analytes. Samples, targets and CRM were acidified with 2% of HNO 3 and analyzed without pretreatment under the established analysis conditions. The results obtained show concentrations of 235 U, 238 U, 111 Cd, 208 Pb, 63 Cu and 75 As in the range of μg L -1 , the linearity obtained from the calibration curves for each element has correlation coefficients < 0.99 in all cases, the accuracy of the method in terms of percent relative standard deviation (RSD %) was less than 5%, the mean recovery rate of Nist 1643d ranged from 96.46% to 101.12%. The optimization of the method guarantees the stability and calibration of the equipment throughout the analysis, as well as the ability to resolve interferences. In conclusion, the method proposed using Icp-SFMS offers the advantages of being fast and simple for the multi-elemental analysis in water at trace levels, with low limits of quantification and detection, with good linearity, accuracy, precision and reproducibility to a degree of reliability of 95%. (Author)

  7. assessment of heavy metals concentrations in the surface water

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    (1L) plastic bottles were used in collecting the water samples, which were then digested using nitric acid (HNO3). The digested ... Water pollution in Nigeria occurs in both rural and urban areas. ... The World Bank studies (World. Bank, 1990) ...

  8. Stress-strain response of plastic waste mixed soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, G L Sivakumar; Chouksey, Sandeep Kumar

    2011-03-01

    Recycling plastic waste from water bottles has become one of the major challenges worldwide. The present study provides an approach for the use plastic waste as reinforcement material in soil. The experimental results in the form of stress-strain-pore water pressure response are presented. Based on experimental test results, it is observed that the strength of soil is improved and compressibility reduced significantly with addition of a small percentage of plastic waste to the soil. The use of the improvement in strength and compressibility response due to inclusion of plastic waste can be advantageously used in bearing capacity improvement and settlement reduction in the design of shallow foundations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Shape plasticity in response to water velocity in the freshwater blenny Salaria fluviatilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporte, M; Claude, J; Berrebi, P; Perret, P; Magnan, P

    2016-03-01

    A non-random association between an environmental factor and a given trait could be explained by directional selection (genetic determinism) and by phenotypic plasticity (environmental determinism). A previous study showed a significant relationship between morphology and water velocity in Salaria fluviatilis that conformed to functional expectations. The objective of this study was to test whether this relationship could be explained by phenotypic plasticity. Salaria fluviatilis from a Corsican stream were placed in four experimental channels with different water velocities (0, 10, 20 and 30 cm s(-1)) to test whether there was a morphological response associated with this environmental factor. After 28 days, fish shape changed in response to water velocity without any significant growth. Fish in higher water velocities exhibited a more slender body shape and longer anal and caudal fins. These results indicate a high degree of morphological plasticity in riverine populations of S. fluviatilis and suggest that the previous relationship between morphology and water velocity observed in the field may largely be due to an environmental determinism. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  10. Reducing Water Vapor Permeability of Poly(lactic acid Film and Bottle through Layer-by-Layer Deposition of Green-Processed Cellulose Nanocrystals and Chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Halász

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Layer-by-layer electrostatic self-assembly technique was applied to improve the barrier properties of poly(lactic acid (PLA films and bottles. The LbL process was carried out by the alternate adsorption of chitosan (CH (polycation and cellulose nanocrystals (CNC produced via ultrasonic treatment. Four bilayers (on each side of chitosan and cellulose nanocrystals caused 29 and 26% improvement in barrier properties in case of films and bottles, respectively. According to the results the LbL process with CH and CNC offered a transparent “green” barrier coating on PLA substrates.

  11. Mohos y levaduras en agua envasada y bebidas sin alcohol Moulds and yeasts in bottled water and soft drinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Ancasi

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available La aparición esporádica de alteraciones en algunos envases dentro de lotes de aguas carbonatadas y de bebidas con zumos frutales (carbonatadas y no carbonatadas motivó la presente investigación, en la que se determinaron los microorganismos causantes del deterioro observado. También se estudiaron los contaminantes del azúcar utilizado en la elaboración de una de las bebidas analizadas. Se emplearon los métodos de Déak y Beuchat y de Pitt y Hocking para la identificación de levaduras y de mohos, respectivamente. Las levaduras causantes del deterioro de las bebidas fueron Debaryomyces hansenii, Debaryomyces polymorphus, Galactomyces geotrichum, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Mucor circinelloides, Pichia anomala, Pichia jadinii, Pichia subpelliculosa, Rhodotorula glutinis y Zygosaccharomyces bailii. Los mohos y las levaduras encontrados en el azúcar fueron Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus penicilloides, Aspergillus versicolor, Cladosporium sphaerospermum, Mucor racemosus, Pichia anomala y Rhizopus stolonifer. En el agua carbonatada se encontraron los mohos Paecilomyces fulvus y Penicillium glabrum.Some damaged cartons of soft drinks and carbonated water were analyzed to detect the microorganisms that caused the damage. The contaminants of sugar used in the production of one of the drinks were also studied. The methods of Déak & Beuchat and Pitt & Hocking were used for the identification of yeasts and moulds, respectively. The agents of the spoilage of soft drinks were Debaryomyces hansenii, Debaryomyces polymorphus, Galactomyces geotrichum, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Mucor circinelloides, Pichia anomala, Pichia jadinii, Pichia subpelliculosa, Rhodotorula glutinis and Zygosaccharomyces bailii. The microorganisms found in sugar were Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus penicilloides, Aspergillus versicolor, Cladosporium sphaerospermum, Mucor racemosus, P. anomala and Rhizopus stolonifer. Paecilomyces fulvus and Penicillium glabrum were observed in

  12. Determinants of using pacifier and bottle feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela dos Santos Buccini

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the factors associated with the use of pacifiers and/or bottle feeding in infants aged under one year. METHODS This is a cross-sectional study with 34,366 children and using data from the database of the 2nd Nationwide Survey of Breastfeeding Prevalence performed in the Brazilian capitals and Federal District in 2008. Cluster sampling was used. The questionnaire included questions about the use of artificial nipples in the last 24 hours. The analysis considered three outcomes: exclusive use of pacifier, exclusive use of bottle feeding, and use of artificial nipples (pacifier and bottle feeding. Prevalence ratios were obtained using Poisson regression with robust variance following a hierarchical model. RESULTS The following factors were associated with exclusive use of the pacifier: mother working outside the home, primiparity, child was not breastfed within the first hour, and child had consumed tea on the first day at home. The following factors were associated with exclusive use of bottle feeding: mother working outside the home, primiparity, low birth weight, child not breastfed within the first hour, and child had consumed milk formula and tea on the first day at home. The following factors were associated with use of artificial nipples (pacifier and bottle feeding: mother working outside the home, primiparity, cesarean delivery, the male gender, low birth weight, born in a hospital not accredited as “baby friendly”, required health baby monitoring in the Primary Health Care Unit (PR = 0.91, and child had consumed milk formula, water, or tea on the first day at home. CONCLUSIONS This study identified profiles of exclusive users of pacifiers, bottle feeding, and both. The provided information can guide preventive practices for child health.

  13. Plasticity in leaf-level water relations of tropical rainforest trees in response to experimental drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binks, Oliver; Meir, Patrick; Rowland, Lucy; da Costa, Antonio Carlos Lola; Vasconcelos, Steel Silva; de Oliveira, Alex Antonio Ribeiro; Ferreira, Leandro; Christoffersen, Bradley; Nardini, Andrea; Mencuccini, Maurizio

    2016-07-01

    The tropics are predicted to become warmer and drier, and understanding the sensitivity of tree species to drought is important for characterizing the risk to forests of climate change. This study makes use of a long-term drought experiment in the Amazon rainforest to evaluate the role of leaf-level water relations, leaf anatomy and their plasticity in response to drought in six tree genera. The variables (osmotic potential at full turgor, turgor loss point, capacitance, elastic modulus, relative water content and saturated water content) were compared between seasons and between plots (control and through-fall exclusion) enabling a comparison between short- and long-term plasticity in traits. Leaf anatomical traits were correlated with water relation parameters to determine whether water relations differed among tissues. The key findings were: osmotic adjustment occurred in response to the long-term drought treatment; species resistant to drought stress showed less osmotic adjustment than drought-sensitive species; and water relation traits were correlated with tissue properties, especially the thickness of the abaxial epidermis and the spongy mesophyll. These findings demonstrate that cell-level water relation traits can acclimate to long-term water stress, and highlight the limitations of extrapolating the results of short-term studies to temporal scales associated with climate change. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  14. Feeding bottles usage and the prevalence of childhood allergy and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Nai-Yun; Wu, Pei-Chih; Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf; Sundell, Jan; Su, Huey-Jen

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the association between the length of use of feeding bottles or pacifiers during childhood and the prevalence of respiratory and allergic morbidities. A large-scale questionnaire survey was performed in day care centers and kindergartens (with children's ages ranging from 2 to 7 years) in southern Taiwan, and a total of 14,862 questionnaires completed by parents were finally recruited for data analysis. Effects of using feeding bottles on children's wheezing/asthma (adjusted OR: 1.05, 95% CI 1.00-1.09), allergic rhinitis (adjusted OR: 1.04, 95% CI 1.00-1.08), and eczema (adjusted OR: 1.07, 95% CI 1.01-1.2) were found. Moreover, significant dose-dependent relationships were further established after an adjustment for confounders was performed that included children's ages, gender, gestational age, birth weight, length of breastfeeding, the age when first given infant formula or complementary foods, family history, parental educational levels, and smoking status, as well as the problem of indoor water damage. This study was the first to reveal the potential risk of using plastic consumer products such as feeding bottles on the reported health status of preschool children in Asian countries.

  15. Feeding Bottles Usage and the Prevalence of Childhood Allergy and Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nai-Yun Hsu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the association between the length of use of feeding bottles or pacifiers during childhood and the prevalence of respiratory and allergic morbidities. A large-scale questionnaire survey was performed in day care centers and kindergartens (with children’s ages ranging from 2 to 7 years in southern Taiwan, and a total of 14,862 questionnaires completed by parents were finally recruited for data analysis. Effects of using feeding bottles on children’s wheezing/asthma (adjusted OR: 1.05, 95% CI 1.00–1.09, allergic rhinitis (adjusted OR: 1.04, 95% CI 1.00–1.08, and eczema (adjusted OR: 1.07, 95% CI 1.01–1.2 were found. Moreover, significant dose-dependent relationships were further established after an adjustment for confounders was performed that included children’s ages, gender, gestational age, birth weight, length of breastfeeding, the age when first given infant formula or complementary foods, family history, parental educational levels, and smoking status, as well as the problem of indoor water damage. This study was the first to reveal the potential risk of using plastic consumer products such as feeding bottles on the reported health status of preschool children in Asian countries.

  16. Plastics and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avenas, P.

    1996-01-01

    Synthetic organic polymers, such as plastics, PVC, polyamides etc are considered less ecological than natural materials such as wood. Other artificial materials such as metals, glass or biodegradable plastics have also a better image than petroleum products. This short paper demonstrates that the manufacturing or the transport of every material uses energy and that the complete energy balance sheet of a plastic bottle, for instance, is more favourable than the one of a glass bottle. Plastic materials are also easily valorized and recycled and part of the energy spent during manufacturing can be recovered during incineration for district heating. During the life-cycle of such a synthetic material, the same petroleum quantity can be used twice which leads to less negative effects on the environment. Finally, the paper focusses on the problem of biodegradable materials which are not degradable when buried under several meters of wastes and which are a nuisance to recycling. (J.S.)

  17. Phenotypic plasticity in plants of Lippia dulcis (verbenaceae) subjected to water deficit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villamizar Cujar, Javier Mauricio; Rodriguez Lopez, Nelson Facundo; Tezara Fernandez, Wilmer

    2012-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity (FP) is one of the mechanisms by which plants can respond to environmental heterogeneity by adjusting their morphology and physiology. This study tested and quantified the FP of Lippia dulcis plants in response to water availability in soil (low, medium and high), on morphologic and biomass allocation traits during the vegetative ontogeny (days 39, 45, 59 and 66). We hypothesized that in response to water availability, a higher FP should be expected in morphological compared to biomass allocation traits. The leaf mass fraction, leaf area ratio, branch length, number of leaves and root mass/leaf mass ratio, showed the largest capacity of plastic adjustment in the L. dulcis plants to water deficit, whereas the specific leaf area represented the trait with the lowest FP along vegetative ontogeny. The magnitude and pattern of FP changed depending on trait, water availability and ontogenic development. Contrary to our hypothesis the morphological traits and biomass allocation traits showed equivalent FP. The models of optimum allocation and optimum foraging are not mutually exclusive under water deficit. L. dulcis changed its pattern of biomass allocation, leaf and root morphology and as an adaptive advantage optimized the balance between organs involved in water acquisition and use. L. dulcis showed a remarkable ability to avoid water deficit.

  18. Solar water disinfection (SODIS): A review from bench-top to roof-top

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    McGuigan, KG

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Solar water disinfection (SODIS) has been known for more than 30 years. The technique consists of placing water into transparent plastic or glass containers (normally 2 L PET beverage bottles) which are then exposed to the sun. Exposure times vary...

  19. Data on thermal conductivity, water vapour permeability and water absorption of a cementitious mortar containing end-of-waste plastic aggregates

    OpenAIRE

    Di Maio, Luciano; Coppola, Bartolomeo; Courard, Luc; Michel, Frédéric; Incarnato, Loredana; Scarfato, Paola

    2018-01-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled “Hygro-thermal and durability properties of a lightweight mortar made with foamed plastic waste aggregates ” (Coppola et al., 2018). This article focuses the attention on thermal conductivity, water vapour permeability and water absorption of a lightweight cementitious mortar containing foamed end-of-waste plastic aggregates, produced via foam extrusion process. Thermal conductivity, water vapour permeability ...

  20. Clinical prototype of a plastic water-equivalent scintillating fiber dosimeter array for QA applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacroix, Frederic; Archambault, Louis; Gingras, Luc; Guillot, Mathieu; Beddar, A. Sam; Beaulieu, Luc

    2008-01-01

    A clinical prototype of a scintillating fiber dosimeter array for quality assurance applications is presented. The array consists of a linear array of 29 plastic scintillation detectors embedded in a water-equivalent plastic sheet coupled to optical fibers used to guide optical photons to a charge coupled device (CCD) camera. The CCD is packaged in a light-tight, radiation-shielded housing designed for convenient transport. A custom designed connector is used to ensure reproducible mechanical positioning of the optical fibers relative to the CCD. Profile and depth dose characterization measurements are presented and show that the prototype provides excellent dose measurement reproducibility (±0.8%) in-field and good accuracy (±1.6% maximum deviation) relative to the dose measured with an IC10 ionization chamber

  1. Volatile organic components migrating from plastic pipes (HDPE, PEX and PVC) into drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skjevrak, Ingun; Due, Anne; Gjerstad, Karl Olav; Herikstad, Hallgeir

    2003-04-01

    High-density polyethylene pipes (HDPE), crossbonded polyethylene pipes (PEX) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipes for drinking water were tested with respect to migration of volatile organic components (VOC) to water. The odour of water in contact with plastic pipes was assessed according to the quantitative threshold odour number (TON) concept. A major migrating component from HDPE pipes was 2,4-di-tert-butyl-phenol (2,4-DTBP) which is a known degradation product from antioxidants such as Irgafos 168(R). In addition, a range of esters, aldehydes, ketones, aromatic hydrocarbons and terpenoids were identified as migration products from HDPE pipes. Water in contact with HDPE pipes was assessed with respect to TON, and values > or =4 were determined for five out of seven brands of HDPE pipes. The total amount of VOC released to water during three successive test periods were fairly constant for the HDPE pipes. Corresponding migration tests carried out for PEX pipes showed that VOC migrated in significant amounts into the test water, and TON >/=5 of the test water were observed in all tests. Several of the migrated VOC were not identified. Oxygenates predominated the identified VOC in the test water from PEX pipes. Migration tests of PVC pipes revealed few volatile migrants in the test samples and no significant odour of the test water.

  2. Flexural Toughness of Ring-Shaped Waste Bottle Fiber Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal S. K.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyethylene terephthalate (PET bottles are plastic containers that are typically discarded, and thus, cause environmental pollution. To solve this problem, PET bottles are recycled incorporating with concrete. A ring-shaped PET (RPET fiber are introduced in this study and designed with a special shape to mobilize fiber yielding rather than fiber pullout. Therefore, aim of this paper is to investigate the influence of RPET bottles fibre in terms of toughness strength. The width of RPET fibers is fixed at 5 and 10 mm and the loads were applied to the third points of the specimen. The experiment indicates that RPET-5 and RPET-10 FC presented an increase in the toughness index of I20 on averages of 23.1% and 39.9% respectively, compared to normal specimens. It can conclude that incorporating RPET fiber in concrete presents significant improved of concrete properties.

  3. Microgrooved plasmonic bottle microresonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Nasir, M. N.; Ding, M.; Murugan, G. S.; Zervas, M. N.

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate an enhancement to SPW cavity through the incorporation of high-Q WGM bottle microresonator (BMR) with surface microgrooves. A standard BMR fabricated through the “soften-and-compress” technique with initial length of 280 μm, bottle diameter of 187 μm and stem diameter of 125 μm was utilized in the experiment for supporting WGMs. Thin gold film was deposited on top of the BMR for generating SPWs. 21 microgrooves was then inscribed on the metal surface of the BMR along the azimuthal direction with 10 μm length, 485 nm width, 6 μm depth and pitch of 1.5 μm. Due to surface curvature, the gold film only covered half of the BMR with a characteristic meniscus shape and maximum thickness of 30 nm. The meniscus provides appropriately tapered metal edges that facilitate the adiabatic transformation of BMR WGMs to SPWs and vice-versa. Lorentzian shape-line fit performed on the TM excited resonances show that plasmonic Q values in excess of 4000 could be achieved from such structure with ∼ 25% coupling efficiency.

  4. Analysis of {sup 210}Pb in water samples with plastic scintillation resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lluch, E.; Barrera, J. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Barcelona, Martí i Franqués, 1-11, E-08028, Barcelona (Spain); Tarancón, A., E-mail: alex.tarancon@ub.edu [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Barcelona, Martí i Franqués, 1-11, E-08028, Barcelona (Spain); Bagán, H. [Department of Pure and Applied Biochemistry, Lund University, Getingevägen 60, Hus II, 22100 SE, Lund (Sweden); García, J.F. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Barcelona, Martí i Franqués, 1-11, E-08028, Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-10-12

    {sup 210}Pb is a radioactive lead isotope present in the environment as member of the {sup 238}U decay chain. Since it is a relatively long-lived radionuclide (T{sub 1/2} = 22.2 years), its analysis is of interest in radiation protection and the geochronology of sediments and artwork. Here, we present a method for analysing {sup 210}Pb using plastic scintillation resins (PSresins) packaged in solid-phase extraction columns (SPE cartridge). The advantages of this method are its selectivity, the low limit of detection, as well as reductions in the amount of time and reagents required for analysis and the quantity of waste generated. The PSresins used in this study were composed of a selective extractant (4′,4″(5″)-Di-tert-butyldicyclohexano-18-crown-6 in 1-octanol) covering the surface of plastic scintillation microspheres. Once the amount of extractant (1:1/4) and medium of separation (2 M HNO{sub 3}) were optimised, PSresins in SPE cartridges were calibrated with a standard solution of {sup 210}Pb. {sup 210}Pb could be fully separated from its daughters, {sup 210}Bi and {sup 210}Po, with a recovery value of 91(3)% and detection efficiency of 44(3)%. Three spiked water samples (one underground and two river water samples) were analysed in triplicates with deviations lower than 10%, demonstrating the validity of the PS resin method for {sup 210}Pb analysis. - Highlights: • A plastic scintillation resin for selective analysis of {sup 210}Pb has been developed. • A commercial SPE cartridge has been use for separation and scintillation counting. • {sup 210}Pb separation from {sup 210}Bi and {sup 210}Po is achieved with a 91(3)% of recovery. • The method is valid for analysis of {sup 210}Pb in river water samples.

  5. Linking plant functional trait plasticity and the large increase in forest water use efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrotheodoros, Theodoros; Pappas, Christoforos; Molnar, Peter; Burlando, Paolo; Keenan, Trevor F.; Gentine, Pierre; Gough, Christopher M.; Fatichi, Simone

    2017-09-01

    Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations are expected to enhance photosynthesis and reduce stomatal conductance, thus increasing plant water use efficiency. A recent study based on eddy covariance flux observations from Northern Hemisphere forests showed a large increase in inherent water use efficiency (IWUE). Here we used an updated version of the same data set and robust uncertainty quantification to revisit these contemporary IWUE trends. We tested the hypothesis that the observed IWUE increase could be attributed to interannual trends in plant functional traits, potentially triggered by environmental change. We found that IWUE increased by 1.3% yr-1, which is less than previously reported but still larger than theoretical expectations. Numerical simulations with the Tethys-Chloris ecosystem model using temporally static plant functional traits cannot explain this increase. Simulations with plant functional trait plasticity, i.e., temporal changes in model parameters such as specific leaf area and maximum Rubisco capacity, match the observed trends in IWUE. Our results show that trends in plant functional traits, equal to 1.0% yr-1, can explain the observed IWUE trends. Thus, at decadal or longer time scales, trait plasticity could potentially influence forest water, carbon, and energy fluxes with profound implications for both the monitoring of temporal changes in plant functional traits and their representation in Earth system models.

  6. Selective Adsorption on Fluorinated Plastic Enables the Optical Detection of Molecular Pollutants in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanfranco, R.; Giavazzi, F.; Salina, M.; Tagliabue, G.; Di Nicolò, E.; Bellini, T.; Buscaglia, M.

    2016-05-01

    Amorphous fluorinated plastic can be produced with a refractive index similar to that of water, a condition that makes it essentially invisible when immersed in aqueous solutions. Because of this property, even a small amount of adsorbed molecules on the plastic-water interface provides a detectable optical signal. We investigate two distinct substrates made of this material, characterized by different interface areas: a prism and a microporous membrane. We demonstrate that both substrates enable the label-free detection of molecular compounds in water even without any surface functionalization. The adsorption of molecules on the planar surface of the prism provides an increase of optical reflectivity, whereas the adsorption on the internal surface of the microporous membrane yields an increase of scattered light. Despite the different mechanisms, we find a similar optical response upon adsorption. We confirm this result by a theoretical model accounting for both reflection and scattering. We investigate the spontaneous adsorption process for different kinds of molecules: surfactants with different charges, a protein (lysozyme), and a constituent of gasoline (hexane). The measured equilibrium and kinetic constants for adsorption differ by orders of magnitudes among the different classes of molecules. By suitable analytical models, accounting for the effects of mass limitation and transport, we find a simple and general scaling of the adsorption parameters with the molecular size.

  7. Evaluation of some water - equivalent plastics as phantom materials for electron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihailescu, D.; Borcia, C.

    2005-01-01

    In the International Code of Practice for Dosimetry TRS-398 published by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), water is recommended as the reference medium for the determination of absorbed dose for high-energy electron beams. Plastic phantoms may be used under certain circumstances (electron energy below 10 MeV, R 50 2 ) for electron beam dosimetry. In this case, a depth-scaling factor is required for the conversion of depth in solid phantoms to depth in water. A fluence-scaling factor is also necessary for converting ionization chamber readings in plastic phantom to readings in water. The aim of this paper is to calculate, using Monte Carlo simulations, the depth-scaling factors c pl and fluence-scaling factors h pl of some commercially available water substitute solid phantoms in order to evaluate their water equivalency. Two sets of calculations were performed: one for electron pencil beams and another for 10 x 10 cm 2 parallel beams, both of which are normally incident on water and solid phantoms. We used only mono-energetic beams of 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 MeV. The results were compared with TRS-398 recommended values. In the case of pencil beams, we found that by applying the TRS-398 protocol, unacceptable uncertainties (up to 10%) were introduced in the dose distribution calculations. By contrast, TRS-398 can safely be used for 10 x 10 cm 2 beams (reference beams). In this case, uncertainties lower than 1% were obtained, what was in agreement with other published data. (authors)

  8. factors influencing the consumption and standards of bottled

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BARTH EKWUEME

    concern about the safety and quality of tap water in many cities and ... for the upper class markets. Most of the ... copying what is happening in the western world (Bullers,. 2002). ... bottled water and is the manufacturing of the water regulated?

  9. Extensive tissue-specific transcriptomic plasticity in maize primary roots upon water deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opitz, Nina; Marcon, Caroline; Paschold, Anja; Malik, Waqas Ahmed; Lithio, Andrew; Brandt, Ronny; Piepho, Hans-Peter; Nettleton, Dan; Hochholdinger, Frank

    2016-02-01

    Water deficit is the most important environmental constraint severely limiting global crop growth and productivity. This study investigated early transcriptome changes in maize (Zea mays L.) primary root tissues in response to moderate water deficit conditions by RNA-Sequencing. Differential gene expression analyses revealed a high degree of plasticity of the water deficit response. The activity status of genes (active/inactive) was determined by a Bayesian hierarchical model. In total, 70% of expressed genes were constitutively active in all tissues. In contrast, deficit-responsive genes (1915) were consistently regulated in all tissues, while >75% (1501 genes) were specifically regulated in a single root tissue. Water deficit-responsive genes were most numerous in the cortex of the mature root zone and in the elongation zone. The most prominent functional categories among differentially expressed genes in all tissues were 'transcriptional regulation' and 'hormone metabolism', indicating global reprogramming of cellular metabolism as an adaptation to water deficit. Additionally, the most significant transcriptomic changes in the root tip were associated with cell wall reorganization, leading to continued root growth despite water deficit conditions. This study provides insight into tissue-specific water deficit responses and will be a resource for future genetic analyses and breeding strategies to develop more drought-tolerant maize cultivars. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  10. Study on elastic-plastic fracture toughness test in high temperature water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Yasufumi

    2016-01-01

    Structural integrity of internal components in light water reactors is important for the safety of operation and service lifetime. Fracture toughness is important parameter for structural integrity assessment of nuclear power plant. In general, fracture toughness of materials which compose the components in light water reactor is obtained with fracture toughness tests in air although some components are subjected to high temperature water because of the difficulty of fracture toughness test in high temperature water. However, the effects of high temperature water and hydrogen on fracture behavior of the structural materials in nuclear power plant such as low alloy steel, cast austenitic stainless steel, and Ni base alloy are concerned recently. In this study, elastic-plastic fracture toughness test of low alloy steel in simulated BWR water environment was studied. Fracture toughness test in high temperature water with original clip gage and normalization data reduction technique was established. The difference of fracture toughness J_Q tested in air between using elastic unload compliance method and normalization data reduction technique was also discussed. As a result, obtained value with normalization data reduction technique tended to be higher than the value with elastic unload compliance. (author)

  11. Spring maize yield, soil water use and water use efficiency under plastic film and straw mulches in the Loess Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen; Liu, Wenzhao; Xue, Qingwu

    2016-12-01

    To compare the soil water balance, yield and water use efficiency (WUE) of spring maize under different mulching types in the Loess Plateau, a 7-year field experiment was conducted in the Changwu region of the Loess Plateau. Three treatments were used in this experiment: straw mulch (SM), plastic film mulch (PM) and conventional covering without mulch (CK). Results show that the soil water change of dryland spring maize was as deep as 300 cm depth and hence 300 cm is recommended as the minimum depth when measure the soil water in this region. Water use (ET) did not differ significantly among the treatments. However, grain yield was significantly higher in PM compared with CK. WUE was significantly higher in PM than in CK for most years of the experiment. Although ET tended to be higher in PM than in the other treatments (without significance), the evaporation of water in the fallow period also decreased. Thus, PM is sustainable with respect to soil water balance. The 7-year experiment and the supplemental experiment thus confirmed that straw mulching at the seedling stage may lead to yield reduction and this effect can be mitigated by delaying the straw application to three-leaf stage.

  12. Evaluation of Plastic Household Biosand Filter (BSF) In Combination with Solar Disinfection (SODIS) For Water Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, G.; Haydar, S.; Bari, A. J.; Anis, M.; Asif, Z.; Aziz, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Efficiency of a household plastic biosand filter (BSF) for the removal of turbidity and fecal contamination was evaluated. Water of river Ravi was used as influent. Water filtered through BSF was further treated using Solar Disinfection (SODIS). The study was conducted for raw water with low pollution level (total coliforms <500 MPN/100 ml) and high pollution level (total coliforms between 500-20,000 MPN/100 ml). The average value of turbidity removal by BSF was 94.5 percentage with 0.9 NTU as average turbidity of effluent. For raw water with low pollution level, the BSF was able to achieve a maximum of 2.2 log10 unit reduction (99.4 percentage) for total coliforms (39 MPN/100 mL in effluent) and 1.95 log10 unit reduction (98.5 percentage) for fecal coliforms (9 MPN/100 mL in effluent). While for raw water with high pollution level, the maximum removal of 1.5 log10 unit (97.5 percentage) for total coliforms (1430 MPN/100 mL in effluent) and 1.8 log10 units (98.4 percentage) for fecal coliforms (387 MPN/100 mL in effluent) was achieved in BSF. To make the effluent fit for drinking it was further treated using SODIS, which rendered the BSF effluent fit for drinking with zero fecal coliforms count (for full sunny and partially cloudy conditions). Newly proposed plastic BSF could be a good replacement of already used concrete household BSF (used in more than 63 countries) being cheaper in cost and lighter in weight by 85 percentage and 80 percentage, respectively than the concrete BSF. (author)

  13. Physiological Plasticity to Water Flow Habitat in the Damselfish, Acanthochromis polyacanthus: Linking Phenotype to Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binning, Sandra A.; Ros, Albert F. H.; Nusbaumer, David; Roche, Dominique G.

    2015-01-01

    The relationships among animal form, function and performance are complex, and vary across environments. Therefore, it can be difficult to identify morphological and/or physiological traits responsible for enhancing performance in a given habitat. In fishes, differences in swimming performance across water flow gradients are related to morphological variation among and within species. However, physiological traits related to performance have been less well studied. We experimentally reared juvenile damselfish, Acanthochromis polyacanthus, under different water flow regimes to test 1) whether aspects of swimming physiology and morphology show plastic responses to water flow, 2) whether trait divergence correlates with swimming performance and 3) whether flow environment relates to performance differences observed in wild fish. We found that maximum metabolic rate, aerobic scope and blood haematocrit were higher in wave-reared fish compared to fish reared in low water flow. However, pectoral fin shape, which tends to correlate with sustained swimming performance, did not differ between rearing treatments or collection sites. Maximum metabolic rate was the best overall predictor of individual swimming performance; fin shape and fish total length were 3.3 and 3.7 times less likely than maximum metabolic rate to explain differences in critical swimming speed. Performance differences induced in fish reared in different flow environments were less pronounced than in wild fish but similar in direction. Our results suggest that exposure to water motion induces plastic physiological changes which enhance swimming performance in A. polyacanthus. Thus, functional relationships between fish morphology and performance across flow habitats should also consider differences in physiology. PMID:25807560

  14. Morphological plasticity of root growth under mild water stress increases water use efficiency without reducing yield in maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qian; Zhang, Yulong; Sun, Zhanxiang; Zheng, Jiaming; Bai, Wei; Zhang, Yue; Liu, Yang; Feng, Liangshan; Feng, Chen; Zhang, Zhe; Yang, Ning; Evers, Jochem B.; Zhang, Lizhen

    2017-08-01

    A large yield gap exists in rain-fed maize (Zea mays L.) production in semi-arid regions, mainly caused by frequent droughts halfway through the crop-growing period due to uneven distribution of rainfall. It is questionable whether irrigation systems are economically required in such a region since the total amount of rainfall does generally meet crop requirements. This study aimed to quantitatively determine the effects of water stress from jointing to grain filling on root and shoot growth and the consequences for maize grain yield, above- and below-ground dry matter, water uptake (WU) and water use efficiency (WUE). Pot experiments were conducted in 2014 and 2015 with a mobile rain shelter to achieve conditions of no, mild or severe water stress. Maize yield was not affected by mild water stress over 2 years, while severe stress reduced yield by 56 %. Both water stress levels decreased root biomass slightly but shoot biomass substantially. Mild water stress decreased root length but increased root diameter, resulting in no effect on root surface area. Due to the morphological plasticity in root growth and the increase in root / shoot ratio, WU under water stress was decreased, and overall WUE for both above-ground dry matter and grain yield increased. Our results demonstrate that an irrigation system might be not economically and ecologically necessary because the frequently occurring mild water stress did not reduce crop yield much. The study helps us to understand crop responses to water stress during a critical water-sensitive period (middle of the crop-growing season) and to mitigate drought risk in dry-land agriculture.

  15. Morphological plasticity of root growth under mild water stress increases water use efficiency without reducing yield in maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Cai

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A large yield gap exists in rain-fed maize (Zea mays L. production in semi-arid regions, mainly caused by frequent droughts halfway through the crop-growing period due to uneven distribution of rainfall. It is questionable whether irrigation systems are economically required in such a region since the total amount of rainfall does generally meet crop requirements. This study aimed to quantitatively determine the effects of water stress from jointing to grain filling on root and shoot growth and the consequences for maize grain yield, above- and below-ground dry matter, water uptake (WU and water use efficiency (WUE. Pot experiments were conducted in 2014 and 2015 with a mobile rain shelter to achieve conditions of no, mild or severe water stress. Maize yield was not affected by mild water stress over 2 years, while severe stress reduced yield by 56 %. Both water stress levels decreased root biomass slightly but shoot biomass substantially. Mild water stress decreased root length but increased root diameter, resulting in no effect on root surface area. Due to the morphological plasticity in root growth and the increase in root ∕ shoot ratio, WU under water stress was decreased, and overall WUE for both above-ground dry matter and grain yield increased. Our results demonstrate that an irrigation system might be not economically and ecologically necessary because the frequently occurring mild water stress did not reduce crop yield much. The study helps us to understand crop responses to water stress during a critical water-sensitive period (middle of the crop-growing season and to mitigate drought risk in dry-land agriculture.

  16. Ocular injuries from exploding glass-bottled Coca-Cola® drinks in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro-Egbe CN

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Chinyere Nnenne Pedro-Egbe, Chibuike Sydney Ejimadu, Henrietta NwachukwuDepartment of Ophthalmology, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, NigeriaBackground: Eye injuries and subsequent loss of vision from the glass and caps of exploding pressurized bottled drinks have been well reported, and as a result most developed countries now use mainly plastic bottles. In Nigeria, however, most drinks are still sold in glass bottles and ocular injuries from this source are therefore not uncommon.Aim: To retrospectively analyze ocular injuries resulting from exploding glass-bottled Coca-Cola® and propose ways of eliminating such injuries in future.Setting: Eye Clinic, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.Materials and methods: The medical records of all cases of ocular injury that presented at the Eye Clinic of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital over a 5-year period (January 2006 to December 2010 were retrieved and relevant data including age, sex, occupation, events surrounding bottle explosion, and type of ocular injury sustained were extracted.Results: A total of 426 cases of ocular injuries was seen during the period under review. There were 335 (78.6% males and 91 (21.4% females. Six patients had ocular injury from exploding glass-bottled Coca-Cola®, giving an incidence of 1.4%. The presenting visual acuities (VA were light perception (2 cases, counting fingers (2 cases, and 1 VA of 6/24 and 1 VA of 6/12. There were 4 (66.7% cases of corneoscleral laceration with uveal prolapse and 1 case of total hyphema.Conclusion: Because pressurized glass-bottles can explode with normal handling, legislation to ban the use of glass containers for bottling carbonated drinks will go a long way to reducing ocular morbidity from this source. Plastic bottles should be introduced as an alternative.Keywords: ocular injuries, exploding glass-bottled drink

  17. Determination of mercury in discharge water from plastic manufactory by neutron activation analysis and copper powder adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houng-Huei, L [National Tsing Hua University Hsinchu, Taiwan (Republic of China)

    1979-02-28

    Through copper powder adsorption, neutron activation analysis was used to determine the mercury in discharge water from a plastic manufactory where the water samples were taken from various discharge ditches. The experimental results showed that waste water from mercury cells contained 1.7x10/sup -9/ approximately 8.19x10/sup -6/ g Hg/ml while water samples taken from other areas did not show significant mercury level and were below the limit of detection.

  18. Effects of No-tillage Combined with Reused Plastic Film Mulching on Maize Yield and Irrigation Water Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    SU Yong-zhong; ZHANG Ke; LIU Ting-na; WANG Ting

    2016-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to determine the effects of reused plastic film mulching and no-tillage on maize yield and irriga-tion water productivity(IWP) in the marginal oasis in the middle of Hexi Corridor region of northwestern China. The aim is to provide an alternative tillage and cultivation pattern for reducing plastic film pollution, saving cost and increasing income, and improving resource use efficiency. The field experiment was carried out in three soils with different texture...

  19. Bottle & Can Recycling in Denmark: addressing issues and optimizing the recycling rate

    OpenAIRE

    Carnevale, Alessandro; Larsen, Lucas; Tetens, Simon W.

    2015-01-01

    The research is conducted in the landscape of environmental care and consumer behaviour. This paper explores the different dynamics revolving around the recycling of plastic bottles and aluminium cans in Denmark. The aim is to shed light on the possible impediments people might encounter when attempting to hand back their deposit marked bottle to the allocated facilities as well as illuminating what the main forces involved in encouraging or inhibiting people from recycling are. The ultimate ...

  20. Recovery of Pu from PVC vials and bottles used for sample storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purohit, Paru; Bhide, M.K.; Kulkarni, M.J.; Kumar, Mithlesh; Adya, V.C.; Hon, N.S.; Kadam, R.M.; Nathaniel, Newton; Natarajan, V.

    2011-01-01

    Plutonium in the form of oxide is stored in plastic vials and bottles during its analysis for trace metal as say. Due to radiation damage and moisture, small amount of oxide samples were found to be adhering to surface of vials/ bottles. This required methods for safe disposal. Methods involving wet chemical and dry cleaning procedures were evaluated for effective removal of sticking α active plutonium oxide powder from these vials for their safe disposal. Dry cleaning method for removal of plutonium activity was found to be effective method for disposal of storage vial, while wet chemical method was found to be more suitable for removal of plutonium from damaged PVC bottles. (author)

  1. 27 CFR 4.26 - Estate bottled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... bottled. (a) Conditions for use. The term Estate bottled may be used by a bottling winery on a wine label only if the wine is labeled with a viticultural area appellation of origin and the bottling winery: (1... owned or controlled by the winery within the boundaries of the labeled viticultural area; (3) crushed...

  2. Indications and complications of tube thoracostomy with improvised underwater seal bottles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday A Edaigbini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tube thoracostomy is a lifesaving and frequently performed procedure in hospitals where the expertise and necessary tools are available. Where the ideal drainage receptacle is unavailable, the underwater seal device can be improvised with bottled water plastic can especially in emergency situations. Aims and Objectives: To determine the frequencies of the various indications and complications of tube thoracostomy with improvised underwater seal. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study with a structured proforma was used for assessment over a 3-year period (May 2010-April 2013. The proforma was filled at the time of the procedure by the performing surgeon and patients were followed up with serial chest X-rays until certified cured. A 1.5 L bottled water container was used as the underwater seal receptacle. The data was analysed with SPSS 15 software program. Results: A total of 167 patients were managed. There were 106 (63.5% males and 61 (36.5% females. The mean age was 34.85 ± 16.72 with a range of 1-80 years. The most frequent indication was for malignant/paramalignant effusion, 46 (27.5%. Others were trauma, 44 (26.3%, Parapneumonic effusion, 20 (12%, postthoracotomy 14 (8.4%, empyema thoracis 12 (7.2%, heart disease and tuberculous effusion 11 (6.6% each, pneumothorax 8 (4.8% and misdiagnosis 1 (0.6%. A hundred and one (60.5% of the procedures were performed by registrars, 41 (24.6% by consultants, house officers 15 (9% and senior registrars 10 (6%. The overall complication rate was 16.8% with the more frequent complications been empyema (5.6% and pneumothorax (3.6%. The average duration of tube placement was 13.02 ± 12.362 days and range of 1-110 days. Conclusion : Tube thoracostomy can be a relatively safe procedure with acceptable complication rates even with improvised underwater seal drainage bottles.

  3. Reproductive Plasticity of an Invasive Insect Pest, Rice Water Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yunshang; Ao, Yan; Jiang, Mingxing

    2017-12-05

    Reproductive plasticity is a key determinant of species invasiveness. However, there are a limited number of studies addressing this issue in exotic insects. The rice water weevil Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), which is native to North America, is one of the most invasive insect pests in east Asia. In this study, we investigated the reproductive status of first-generation females (progeny of overwintered weevils) from five geographic regions in southern and northern China in the field, and reproductive status and ovipositional features of females provided with suitable host plants in the laboratory after collection. Under field conditions, a proportion of females oviposited, while the rest remained in diapause from all three southern regions investigated, but reproductive development did not take place in females from the two northern regions, where the weevil produces only one generation per year. However, when fed host plants in the laboratory, females from all regions laid eggs. They typically had a very short ovipositional period (3-6 d on average on rice at a temperature of 27°C), laid a low number of eggs, and did not die soon after oviposition; this was different from common reproductive females. We concluded that first-generation L. oryzophilus females, which largely enter diapause after emergence, are highly plastic in their reproductive performance and are ready to reproduce under favorable conditions. Our results indicate the significance of their reproductive plasticity for geographic spread and population development. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Effect of PVP on the characteristic of modified membranes made from waste PET bottles for humic acid removal [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrul Arahman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possibility of using recycled polymer (waste polyethylene terephthalate [PET] bottles as a membrane material. Furthermore, the effect of the addition of a pore-forming agent and preparation conditions was also observed. Methods: Porous polymeric membranes were prepared via thermally induced phase separation by dissolving recycled PET in phenol. PET polymer was obtained from waste plastic bottles as a new source of polymeric material. For original PET membrane, the casting solution was prepared by dissolving of 20wt% PET in phenol solution. For PET modified membrane, a 5 wt% of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP was added into polymer solution. The solution was cast onto a glass plate at room temperature followed by evaporation before the solidification process. The membranes formed were characterized in terms of morphology, chemical group, and filtration performance. A humic acid solution was used to identify the permeability and the solute rejection of the membranes. Results: The results showed that the recycled PET from waste plastic bottles was applicable to use as a membrane material for a water treatment process. The maximum flux of 97.0 l/m2.hr was obtained from filtration test using PET membrane. The highest rejection of humic acid in a water sample, which reached up to 75.92%, was obtained using the PET/PVP membrane. Conclusions: The recycled PET from waste bottles was successfully used to prepare porous membrane. The membrane was modified by the addition of PVP as a membrane modifying agent. SEM analysis confirmed that the original PET membrane has a rough and large pore structure. The addition of PVP improved the pore density with a narrow pore structure. The PET/PVP membrane conditioned with evaporation was the best in humic acid rejection.

  5. Migration of Phthalates from Plastic Containers into Soft Drinks and Mineral Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna Bošnir

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the level of phthalate migration from plastic containers to soft drinks and mineral water and to identify a possible relationship between the amount and type of phthalate migration, type of preservative used, and the pH of the sample. The analysis included 45 samples of products packed in containers made from polyethylene terephthalate. The samples were divided into 5 groups: group 1 (N=9, soft drinks preserved with orthophosphoric acid; group 2 (N=14, soft drinks preserved with Na-benzoate; group 3 (N=5, soft drinks preserved with K-sorbate; group 4 (N=8, soft drinks preserved with a combination of Na-benzoate and K-sorbate; and group 5 (N=9, mineral water without preservatives. The samples were analyzed by the method of gas chromatography, with a detection limit of 0.005 μg/L. The mean pool phthalate level and mean pH value were 91.67 μg/L and 2.82±0.30 in group 1; 116.93 μg/L and 2.75±0.32 in group 2; 819.40 μg/L and 2.88±0.15 in group 3; 542.63 μg/L and 2.82±0.54 in group 4; and 20.22 μg/L and 5.82±1.26 in group 5, respectively. The highest rate of migration to soft drinks was recorded for dimethyl phthalate, ranging from 53.51 to 92.73 %, whereas dibutyl phthalate and diethylhexyl phthalate showed highest rate of migration to the mineral water (56.04 and 43.42 %, respectively. The highest level of phthalate migration from plastic containers to soft drinks was found in the products preserved with K-sorbate. The rate of phthalate migration appears to be influenced also by the drink pH, i.e. the lower the pH value, the greater the phthalate migration. Dimethyl phthalate showed highest migration to preserved drinks as an acidic medium, which might stimulate modification in the composition of plastic containers according to the type and composition of the product. Additional studies in a greater number of samples are needed. Although the phthalate levels measured in these samples pose no risk for

  6. Water utilization of vegetables grown under plastic greenhouse conditions in Ankara using neutron probe technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halitligil, M.B.; Kislal, H.; Sirin, H.; Sirin, C.; Kilicaslan, A.

    2004-01-01

    In order to find suitable varieties of tomato, pepper and cucumber for plastic greenhouse conditions in Ankara and ensure both higher yields and lower NO 3 leaching greenhouse experiments were conducted for three years. In the first year (2001) of the experiment four different varieties from each vegetable, namely, Tomato (Ecem F 1 , 9920 F 1 , 2116 F 1 and Yazg1 F 1 ), Cucumber (Hizir F 1 , Rapido, Hana, and Luna) and Pepper (1245 F 1 , 730 F 1 , Serademre 8 and 710 F 1 ) had been grown in the plastic greenhouse using drip irrigation-fertilization system. Yazg1 F 1 variety for tomato, Hizir F 1 variety for cucumber and Serademre 8 variety for pepper were chosen to be suitable varieties to grow in the plastic greenhouse conditions in Ankara. One access tube in each N 3 and N 0 treatment plots of tomato, cucumber and pepper in 2002 and 2003 experiments were installed for the soil moisture determinations at 30, 60 and 90 cm depths. Readings with the neutron probe were taken before planting and after harvest for the water consumption calculations using the water balance approach and the WUE was calculated on the basis of the ratio of dry matter weight to the amount of water consumed. Tensiometer and suction cups were installed at 15, 30, 45 and 60 cm depths only to N 1 , N 2 and N 3 treatments plots of each vegetable in 2002 and 2003. Tensiometer readings were taken just before irrigation. Also, soil solution samples from suction cups were taken at final harvest and NO 3 determinations were done with RQFLEX nitrate test strips. Significantly higher yields and WUE values were obtained when the same amount of N fertilizer is applied through fertigation compared to the treatment where N fertilizer applied to the soil then drip irrigated. The nitrate concentrations of the soil solution increased as the N rates increased and no NO 3 had been found in the soil solution taken from 75 cm soil depth, indicating that no leaching of N fertilizer occurred beyond 75 cm soil depth

  7. Water utilization of vegetables grown under plastic greenhouse conditions in Ankara using neutron probe technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halitligil, M.B.; Kislal, H.; Sirin, H.; Sirin, C.; Kilicaslan, A.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: In order to find suitable varieties of tomato, pepper and cucumber for plastic greenhouse conditions in Ankara and ensure both higher yields and lower NO 3 leaching greenhouse experiments were conducted for three years. In the first year (2001) of the experiment four different varieties from each vegetable, namely, Tomato (Ecem F 1 , 9920 F 1 , 2116 F 1 and Yazg1 F 1 ), Cucumber (Hizir F 1 , Rapido, Hana, and Luna) and Pepper (1245 F 1 , 730 F 1 , Serademre 8 and 710 F 1 ) had been grown in the plastic greenhouse using drip irrigation-fertiligation system. Yazg1 F 1 variety for tomato, Hizir F 1 variety for cucumber and Serademre 8 variety for pepper were chosen to be suitable varieties to grow in the plastic greenhouse conditions in Ankara. One access tube in each N 3 and N 0 treatment plots of tomato, cucumber and pepper in 2002 and 2003 experiments were installed for the soil moisture determinations at 30, 60 and 90 cm depths. Readings with the neutron probe were taken before planting and after harvest for the water consumption calculations using the water balance approach and the WUE was calculated on the basis of the ratio of dry matter weight to the amount of water consumed. Tensiometer and suction cups were installed at 15, 30, 45 and 60 cm depths only to N 1 , N 2 and N 3 treatments plots of each vegetable in 2002 and 2003. Tensiometer readings were taken just before irrigation. Also, soil solution samples from suction cups were taken at final harvest and NO 3 determinations were done with RQFLEX nitrate test strips. Significantly higher yields and WUE values were obtained when the same amount of N fertilizer is applied through fertigation compared to the treatment where N fertilizer applied to the soil then drip irrigated. The nitrate concentrations of the soil solution increased as the N rates increased and no NO 3 had been found in the soil solution taken from 75 cm soil depth, indicating that no leaching of N fertilizer occurred beyond 75 cm

  8. Pipes of glassfiber reinforced plastics and prestressed concrete for hot-water transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmeling, P.; Roseen, R.

    1980-06-01

    The report constitutes stage 2-3 of a project for the evaluation of pipes made from glass reinforced plastics and prestressed concrete. This stage was made possible through funds from the Swedish National Board for Energy Source Development and the participation of three industrial firms. Experimental pipes of large dimensions (O.D. 0.5 m) were tested at elevated temperatures and pressures. The glass reinforced plastic tubes showed in general an acceptable short term strength at 100-110 degree C. Further long term testing is needed in order to predict the life time; their manufacture requires a strictrly controlled process. The pipes made from prestressed concrete were tested at 95 and 110 degree C for more than a year with good results, and their resistence to thermal shocks was shown to be acceptable. Long term stress relaxation of the EPDM rubber for the joints was measured at 125 and 110 degree C. The best rubbers can be used for 3 years at 110 degree C and a compression of 35 percent, a longer life time is most probable but cannot be foreseen until results from continued testing have been collected. It was demonstrated that the relaxation rate is lowered in water with low oxygen contents. (author)

  9. Influence of Localized Plasticity on IASCC Sensitivity of Austenitic Stainless Steels under PWR Primary Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cissé, Sarata; Tanguy, Benoit; Laffont, Lydia; Lafont, Marie-Christine; Guerre, Catherine; Andrieu, Eric

    The sensibility of precipitation-strengthened A286 austenitic stainless steel to Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) is studied by means of Slow Strain Rate Tests (SSRT). First, alloy cold working by Low Cycle Fatigue (LCF) is investigated. Fatigue tests under plastic strain control are performed at different strain levels (Δ ɛp/2=0.2%, 0.5% and 0.8%) in order to establish correlation between stress softening and deformation microstructure resulting from LCF tests. Deformed microstructures have been identified through TEM investigations. Three states of cyclic behaviour for precipitation-strengthened A286 have been identified: hardening, cyclic softening and finally saturation of softening. It is shown that the A286 alloy cyclic softening is due to microstructural features such as defects — free deformation bands resulting from dislocations motion along family plans , that swept defects or γ' precipitates and lead to deformation localization. In order to quantify effects of plastic localized deformation on intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of the A286 alloy in PWR primary water, slow strain rate tests are conducted. For each cycling conditions, two specimens at a similar stress level are tested: the first containing free precipitate deformation bands, the other not significant of a localized deformation state. SSRT tests are still in progress.

  10. Effectiveness of table top water pitcher filters to remove arsenic from drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnaby, Roxanna; Liefeld, Amanda; Jackson, Brian P; Hampton, Thomas H; Stanton, Bruce A

    2017-10-01

    Arsenic contamination of drinking water is a serious threat to the health of hundreds of millions of people worldwide. In the United States ~3 million individuals drink well water that contains arsenic levels above the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 10μg/L. Several technologies are available to remove arsenic from well water including anion exchange, adsorptive media and reverse osmosis. In addition, bottled water is an alternative to drinking well water contaminated with arsenic. However, there are several drawbacks associated with these approaches including relatively high cost and, in the case of bottled water, the generation of plastic waste. In this study, we tested the ability of five tabletop water pitcher filters to remove arsenic from drinking water. We report that only one tabletop water pitcher filter tested, ZeroWater®, reduced the arsenic concentration, both As 3+ and As 5+ , from 1000μg/L to water and its use reduces plastic waste associated with bottled water. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Achievement report for fiscal 2000 on development of technology related to new recycled products. Research and development of simultaneous recovery of chlorine contained in waste plastics and alkali contained in waste glass bottles; 2000 nendo shinki recycle seihin nado kanren gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Hai plastic gan'yu enso to hai glass bin gan'yu alkali no doji kaishu ni kakawaru kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Researches have been made on a technology to have alkali contained in waste glass bottles reacted with chlorine contained in waste plastics to separate and remove salt, and reuse the residues as a resource for cement raw material. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 2000. In the research, glass powder pulverized to 5 to 10 {mu} m, calcium carbonate, iron oxide, and alumina were used to prepare raw material for the ordinary Portland cement. Vinyl chloride pulverized to 3 mm was added into this cement raw material so that chlorine-alkali equivalent ration will be 1.0, and the material was sintered in a rotary kiln at 800 to 1,400 degrees C. As a result, it was discovered that salt is produced from the alkali in glass and the chlorine in vinyl chloride, whereas the produced salt volatilizes when heated to 1,200 degrees C or higher, and clinker containing low chlorine and alkali can be produced. The test result reveals that the control range of the chlorine and alkali ratio is from 1.0 to 1.1. The remaining problems are measures against carbon monoxide and dioxin contained in the exhaust gas, and treatment of dust containing salt. (NEDO)

  12. Challenges and Alternatives to Plastics Recycling in the Automotive Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Miller

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Plastics are increasingly a preferred material choice in designing and developing complex, consumer products, such as automobiles, because they are mouldable, lightweight, and are often perceived to be highly recyclable materials. However, actually recycling the heterogeneous plastics used in such durable items is challenging, and presents very different scenarios to how simple products, such as water bottles, are recovered via curbside or container recycling initiatives. While the technology exists to recycle plastics, their feasibility to do so from high level consumer or industrial applications is bounded by technological and economical restraints. Obstacles include the lack of market for recyclates, and the lack of cost efficient recovery infrastructures or processes. Furthermore, there is a knowledge gap between manufacturers, consumers, and end-of-life facility operators. For these reasons, end-of-life plastics are more likely to end up down-cycled, or as shredder residue and then landfilled. This paper reviews these challenges and several alternatives to recycling plastics in order to broaden the mindset surrounding plastics recycling to improve their sustainability. The paper focuses on the automotive sector for examples, but discussion can be applied to a wide range of plastic components from similarly complex products.

  13. Challenges and Alternatives to Plastics Recycling in the Automotive Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lindsay; Soulliere, Katie; Sawyer-Beaulieu, Susan; Tseng, Simon; Tam, Edwin

    2014-01-01

    Plastics are increasingly a preferred material choice in designing and developing complex, consumer products, such as automobiles, because they are mouldable, lightweight, and are often perceived to be highly recyclable materials. However, actually recycling the heterogeneous plastics used in such durable items is challenging, and presents very different scenarios to how simple products, such as water bottles, are recovered via curbside or container recycling initiatives. While the technology exists to recycle plastics, their feasibility to do so from high level consumer or industrial applications is bounded by technological and economical restraints. Obstacles include the lack of market for recyclates, and the lack of cost efficient recovery infrastructures or processes. Furthermore, there is a knowledge gap between manufacturers, consumers, and end-of-life facility operators. For these reasons, end-of-life plastics are more likely to end up down-cycled, or as shredder residue and then landfilled. This paper reviews these challenges and several alternatives to recycling plastics in order to broaden the mindset surrounding plastics recycling to improve their sustainability. The paper focuses on the automotive sector for examples, but discussion can be applied to a wide range of plastic components from similarly complex products. PMID:28788167

  14. Corrosion mechanism of a Ni-based alloy in supercritical water: Impact of surface plastic deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payet, Mickaël; Marchetti, Loïc; Tabarant, Michel; Chevalier, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The dissolution of Ni and Fe cations occurs during corrosion of Ni-based alloys in SCW. • The nature of the oxide layer depends locally on the alloy microstructure. • The corrosion mechanism changes when cold-work increases leading to internal oxidation. - Abstract: Ni–Fe–Cr alloys are expected to be a candidate material for the generation IV nuclear reactors that use supercritical water at temperatures up to 600 °C and pressures of 25 MPa. The corrosion resistance of Alloy 690 in these extreme conditions was studied considering the surface finish of the alloy. The oxide scale could suffer from dissolution or from internal oxidation. The presence of a work-hardened zone reveals the competition between the selective oxidation of chromium with respect to the oxidation of nickel and iron. Finally, corrosion mechanisms for Ni based alloys are proposed considering the effects of plastically deformed surfaces and the dissolution.

  15. Low Abundance of Plastic Fragments in the Surface Waters of the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Martí , Elisa; Martin, Cecilia; Có zar, André s; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2017-01-01

    the relevance of determining specific regional conversion rates of mismanaged plastic waste to marine debris, accounting for the role of near-shore activities (e.g., beach tourism, recreational navigation), in order to estimate plastic waste inputs

  16. Ocular injuries from exploding glass-bottled Coca-Cola® drinks in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro-Egbe, Chinyere Nnenne; Ejimadu, Chibuike Sydney; Nwachukwu, Henrietta

    2011-01-01

    Eye injuries and subsequent loss of vision from the glass and caps of exploding pressurized bottled drinks have been well reported, and as a result most developed countries now use mainly plastic bottles. In Nigeria, however, most drinks are still sold in glass bottles and ocular injuries from this source are therefore not uncommon. To retrospectively analyze ocular injuries resulting from exploding glass-bottled Coca-Cola® and propose ways of eliminating such injuries in future. Eye Clinic, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. The medical records of all cases of ocular injury that presented at the Eye Clinic of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital over a 5-year period (January 2006 to December 2010) were retrieved and relevant data including age, sex, occupation, events surrounding bottle explosion, and type of ocular injury sustained were extracted. A total of 426 cases of ocular injuries was seen during the period under review. There were 335 (78.6%) males and 91 (21.4%) females. Six patients had ocular injury from exploding glass-bottled Coca-Cola®, giving an incidence of 1.4%. The presenting visual acuities (VA) were light perception (2 cases), counting fingers (2 cases), and 1 VA of 6/24 and 1 VA of 6/12. There were 4 (66.7%) cases of corneoscleral laceration with uveal prolapse and 1 case of total hyphema. Because pressurized glass-bottles can explode with normal handling, legislation to ban the use of glass containers for bottling carbonated drinks will go a long way to reducing ocular morbidity from this source. Plastic bottles should be introduced as an alternative.

  17. Influence of Transformation Plasticity on the Distribution of Internal Stress in Three Water-Quenched Cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Qin, Shengwei; Zhang, Jiazhi; Wang, Ying; Rong, Yonghua; Zuo, Xunwei; Chen, Nailu

    2017-10-01

    Based on the hardenability of three medium carbon steels, cylinders with the same 60-mm diameter and 240-mm length were designed for quenching in water to obtain microstructures, including a pearlite matrix (Chinese steel mark: 45), a bainite matrix (42CrMo), and a martensite matrix (40CrNiMo). Through the combination of normalized functions describing transformation plasticity (TP), the thermo-elasto-plastic constitutive equation was deduced. The results indicate that the finite element simulation (FES) of the internal stress distribution in the three kinds of hardenable steel cylinders based on the proposed exponent-modified (Ex-Modified) normalized function is more consistent with the X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements than those based on the normalized functions proposed by Abrassart, Desalos, and Leblond, which is attributed to the fact that the Ex-Modified normalized function better describes the TP kinetics. In addition, there was no significant difference between the calculated and measured stress distributions, even though TP was taken into account for the 45 carbon steel; that is, TP can be ignored in FES. In contrast, in the 42CrMo and 40CrNiMo alloyed steels, the significant effect of TP on the residual stress distributions was demonstrated, meaning that TP must be included in the FES. The rationality of the preceding conclusions was analyzed. The complex quenching stress is a consequence of interactions between the thermal and phase transformation stresses. The separated calculations indicate that the three steels exhibit similar thermal stress distributions for the same water-quenching condition, but different phase transformation stresses between 45 carbon steel and alloyed steels, leading to different distributions of their axial and tangential stresses.

  18. Yield Traits and Water and Nitrogen Use Efficiencies of Bell Pepper Grown in Plastic-Greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Candido

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We report the results of a two-year study assessing the effects of nitrogen fertilization and irrigation regimes on yield traits and on water and nitrogen use efficiency of greenhouse-grown bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.. The trials involved the combination of four N doses (0, 100, 200, 300 kg ha-1 with two irrigation regimes (100% restitution of ETc; repeated cycles of water stress starting from fruit set. In the second year, the crop was transplanted one month earlier than in the first year and was mulched with plastic sheeting. The highest yield in both years was obtained by associating 100% restitution of ETc and the N dose of 200 kg ha-1. The marketable yields were 37 and 72 t ha-1 in 1998 and 1999, respectively. Doubling of the yield in the second year was probably due to the earlier transplantation and mulching, confirming the numerous benefits of the latter technique. The water deficit imposed during the late flowering-early fruit set phase had negative effects on the crop, with declines of the marketable yield of up to 44% due to the reduced number and weight of the fruit and the increased waste, mainly peppers with blossom-end rot, cracking, sun-burn and malformations. The peppers grown under water stress were richer in dry matter and soluble solids. The yield declines due to water deficit varied in relation to the N dose, as confirmed by the numerous interactions recorded between irrigation regime and nitrogen level.Without nitrogen fertilization, the quantity and quality of the fruits remained unchanged, while the maximum dose (300 kg ha-1 enhanced the negative effects of the water deficit on the number (-52% and weight (-161% of marketable peppers. Moreover, the waste peppers reached 31% of the total production (by weight, with over 21% affected by blossom-end rot. Water stress led to a drastic reduction of the total above-ground dry biomass (40% and a significant decrease of nitrogen absorption by the plant (54% with preferential

  19. Proteomic plasticity of two Eucalyptus genotypes under contrasted water regimes in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedon, Frank; Villar, Emilie; Vincent, Delphine; Dupuy, Jean-William; Lomenech, Anne-Marie; Mabialangoma, André; Chaumeil, Philippe; Barré, Aurélien; Plomion, Christophe; Gion, Jean-Marc

    2012-04-01

    Water deficit affects tree growth and limits wood production. In an attempt to identify the molecular triggers of adaptation mechanisms to water deficit in Eucalyptus, we investigated protein expression patterns of two ecophysiologically contrasted Eucalyptus genotypes. They were grown in the field in either natural conditions or irrigated for 7 weeks during the dry season in the Republic of Congo. At the phenotypic level, genotype (G), treatment (T) and/or G × T interaction effects were observed for above- and below-ground biomass-related traits. At the molecular level, changes in protein abundance were recorded in leaves (acidic pH 4-7, and basic pH 7-11, proteomes) and stems (acidic proteome) using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). One third of the detected protein spots displayed significant G, T and/or G × T effects, and 158 of them were identified by tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. Thus, several proteins whose molecular plasticity was genetically controlled (i.e. G × T effect) were revealed, highlighting adaptive mechanisms to water deficit specific to each genotype, namely cell wall modification, cell detoxification and osmoregulation. Transcript abundances corresponding to G × T proteins were also investigated by quantitative RT-PCR. These proteins represent relevant targets to improve drought resistance in this ecologically and economically important forest tree genus. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Effects of No-tillage Combined with Reused Plastic Film Mulching on Maize Yield and Irrigation Water Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SU Yong-zhong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted to determine the effects of reused plastic film mulching and no-tillage on maize yield and irriga-tion water productivity(IWP in the marginal oasis in the middle of Hexi Corridor region of northwestern China. The aim is to provide an alternative tillage and cultivation pattern for reducing plastic film pollution, saving cost and increasing income, and improving resource use efficiency. The field experiment was carried out in three soils with different textures and fertility levels. Three treatments for each soil were set up:(1 conventional tillage,winter irrigation, and new plastic mulching cultivation(NM;(2 no tillage, less winter irrigation and reused plastic mulching cultivation (RM;(3 no tillage, less winter irrigation and reused plastic mulching combined with straw mulching (RMS. The results showed that the average daily soil temperature in the two reused plastic mulching treatment(RM and RMS during maize sowing and elongation stage was lower 0.6~1.0℃(5 cm depth and 0.5~0.8℃(15 cm depth than that in the NM. This result suggested that no tillage and reused plastic mulching cultivation still had the effect of increasing soil temperature. Maize grain yield in the RM was reduced by 4.4%~10.6% compared with the conventional cultivation(NM, while the net income increased due to saving in plastic film and tillage ex-penses. There was no significant difference in maize grain yield between the RMS and NM treatment, but the net income in the RMS was in-creased by 12.5%~17.1% than that in the NM. Compared with the NM, the two reused plastic film mulching treatments (RM and RMS decreased the volume of winter irrigation, but maize IWP increased. Soil texture and fertility level affected significantly maize nitrogen uptake and IWP. In the arid oases with the shortage of water resources, cultivation practices of conservation tillage with recycle of plastic film is an ideal option for saving cost and increasing income

  1. Plastic in surface waters of the Inside Passage and beaches of the Salish Sea in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Wallace; Murphy, Anne G

    2015-08-15

    We summarize results of two independent studies on plastic pollution in the marine environment that overlap in time and space. One study evaluated the abundance of anthropogenic debris on 37 sandy beaches bordering the Salish Sea in Washington State while the other characterized plastic debris in surface waters of the Salish Sea and the Inside Passage to Skagway, Alaska. Both studies concluded that foam, primarily expanded polystyrene was the dominant pollutant. Plastic was found in surface waters the full length of the Inside Passage but was concentrated near harbors. At the wrack line, an average square meter of Washington's 1180km of sandy beaches in the Salish Sea had 61 pieces of anthropogenic debris weighing approximately 5g. The total loading for the entire 1m wide band is estimated to be 72,000,000 pieces and 5.8metric tons. Most anthropogenic debris on beaches is generated within the region. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The effect of water availability on plastic responses and biomass allocation in early growth traits of Pinus radiata D. Don

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinoza, S. E.; Magni, C. R.; Martinez, V. A.; Ivkovic, M.

    2013-05-01

    Aim of study: The aim of the study was to assess the effect of water availability on plastic responses and biomass allocation in early growth traits of Pinus radiata D. Don. Area of study: Seedlings of 69 families of P. radiata belonging to five different sites in Central Chile, ranging from coastal range to fothills of the Andes, were grown in controlled conditions to evaluate differences in response to watering. Material and methods: The seedlings were subjected to two watering regimes: well-watered treatment, in which seedlings were watered daily, and water stress treatment in which seedlings were subjected to three cyclic water deficits by watering to container capacity on 12 days cycles each. After twenty-eight weeks root collar diameter, height, shoot dry weight (stem + needles), root dry weight, total dry weight, height/diameter ratio and root/shoot ratio were recorded. Patterns and amounts of phenotypic changes, including changes in biomass allocation, were analyzed. Main results: Families from coastal sites presented high divergence for phenotypic changes, allocating more biomass to shoots, and those families from interior sites presented low phenotypic plasticity, allocating more biomass to roots at the expense of shoots. These changes are interpreted as a plastic response and leads to the conclusion that the local land race of P. radiata in Chile originating from contrasting environments possess distinct morphological responses to water deficit which in turn leads to phenotypic plasticity. Research highlights: Families belonging to sandy soil sites must be considered for tree breeding in dry areas, selecting those with high root: shoot ratio. (Author) 46 refs.

  3. Detour factors in water and plastic phantoms and their use for range and depth scaling in electron-beam dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Varea, J.M.; Andreo, P.; Tabata, T.

    1996-01-01

    Average penetration depths and detour factors of 1-50 MeV electrons in water and plastic materials have been computed by means of analytical calculation, within the continuous-slowing-down approximation and including multiple scattering, and using the Monte Carlo codes ITS and PENELOPE. Results are compared to detour factors from alternative definitions previously proposed in the literature. Different procedures used in low-energy electron-beam dosimetry to convert ranges and depths measured in plastic phantoms into water-equivalent ranges and depths are analysed. A new simple and accurate scaling method, based on Monte Carlo-derived ratios of average electron penetration depths and thus incorporating the effect of multiple scattering, is presented. Data are given for most plastics used in electron-beam dosimetry together with a fit which extends the method to any other low-Z plastic material. A study of scaled depth - dose curves and mean energies as a function of depth for some plastics of common usage shows that the method improves the consistency and results of other scaling procedures in dosimetry with electron beams at therapeutic energies. (author)

  4. Comparison and Analysis of Lithium Bromide-water Absorption Chillers Using Plastic Heat Transfer Tubes and Traditional Lithium Bromide-water Absorption Chillers

    OpenAIRE

    Xue-dong Zhang

    2010-01-01

    There are extensive applications of lithium bromide-water absorption chillers in industry, but the heat exchangers corrosion and refrigerating capacity loss are very difficult to be solved. In this paper, an experiment was conducted by using plastic heat transfer tubes instead of copper tubes. As an example, for a lithium bromide-water absorption chiller of refrigerating capacity of 35kW, the correlative performance of the lithium bromide-water absorption chiller using pl...

  5. Effect of textured eye drop bottles on the photostability of pranoprofen 0.1% ophthalmic solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwatsuka, Kinya; Inada, Katsuhiro; Ueoka, Hiroki; Otsuka, Tadashi; Maeda, Masaki; Yamaguchi, Masazumi; Yasueda, Shin-ichi

    2015-01-01

    Ophthalmic solutions are usually filled in a plastic bottle due to its durability and disposability. In Japan, photostability is one of the concerns for the quality control because an eye drop bottle must be a transparent container. The present work studied the effect of textured eye drop bottles on its light blocking to improve the photostability of ophthalmic solutions. We investigated the photostability of Pranoprofen ophthalmic solution filled in a variety of textured eye drop bottles. Pranoprofen content was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography and surface structure of textured eye drop bottles was evaluated by transmittance, calculated average roughness (Ra) and haze intensity. We observed that eye drop bottle which had greater than Ra value of 1.0 µm and haze intensity 62% clearly showed photostability improvement. This report is the first one which shows that photostability of ophthalmic solution is improved by using textured eye drop bottle. Moreover, this approach is a simple and effective method to improve the photostability. This method is available for not only various ophthalmic applications but also other liquid pharmaceuticals or food products.

  6. Plastic-Film Mulching for Enhanced Water-Use Efficiency and Economic Returns from Maize Fields in Semiarid China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Wei, Ting; Cai, Tie; Ali, Shahzad; Han, Qingfang; Ren, Xiaolong; Jia, Zhikuan

    2017-01-01

    Film mulch has gradually been popularized to increase water availability to crops for improving and stabilizing agricultural production in the semiarid areas of Northwest China. To find more sustainable and economic film mulch methods for alleviating drought stress in semiarid region, it is necessary to test optimum planting methods in same cultivation conditions. A field experiment was conducted during 2013 and 2014 to evaluate the effects of different plastic film mulch methods on soil water, soil temperature, water use efficiency (WUE), yield and revenue. The treatments included: (i) the control, conventional flat planting without plastic film mulch (CK); (ii) flat planting with maize rows (60 cm spacing) on plastic film mulch (70 cm wide); (iii) furrow planting of maize (60 cm spacing), separated by consecutive plastic film-mulched ridges (each 50 cm wide and 15 cm tall); (iv) furrow planting of maize (60 cm spacing), separated by alternating large and small plastic film-mulched ridges (large ridges: 70 cm wide and 15 cm tall, small ridges 50 cm wide and 10 cm tall); and (v) furrow-flat planting of maize (60 cm spacing) with a large plastic film-mulched ridge (60 cm wide and 15 cm tall) alternating with a flat without plastic film-mulched space (60 cm wide). Topsoil temperature (5-25 cm) was significantly ( p plastic film mulch than the control (CK), and resulted in greater soil water storage (0-200 cm) up to 40 days after planting. Maize grain yield and WUE were significantly ( p < 0.05) higher with the furrow planting methods (consecutive film-mulched ridges and alternating film-mulched ridges) than the check in both years. Maize yield was, on average, 29% ( p < 0.05) greater and 28% ( p < 0.05) greater with these furrow planting methods, while the average WUE increased by 22.8% ( p < 0.05) with consecutive film-mulched ridges and 21.1% ( p < 0.05) with alternating film-mulched ridges. The 2-year average net income increased by 1559, 528, and 350 Chinese Yuan

  7. Developmental plasticity of cutaneous water loss and lipid composition in stratum corneum of desert and mesic nestling house sparrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Garcia, Agustí; Williams, Joseph B

    2008-10-07

    Intercellular lipids of the stratum corneum (SC), the outer layer of the epidermis, form a barrier to water vapor diffusion through the skin. Previously, we measured cutaneous water loss (CWL) and lipid composition of the SC of adult house sparrows from two populations, one living in the deserts of Saudi Arabia and another living in mesic Ohio. Adult desert house sparrows had a lower CWL, a lower proportion of free fatty acids, and a higher proportion of ceramides and cerebrosides in the SC compared with mesic sparrows. In this study, we investigated developmental plasticity of CWL and lipid composition of the SC in desert and mesic nestling house sparrows reared in low and high humidity and compared our results with previous work on adults. We measured CWL of nestlings and analyzed the lipid composition of the SC using thin-layer chromatography. We showed that nestling house sparrows from both localities had higher CWL than adults in their natural environment, a result of major modifications of the lipid composition of the SC. The expression of plasticity in CWL seems to be a response to opposed selection pressures, thermoregulation and water conservation, at different life stages, on which regulation of CWL plays a crucial role. Desert nestlings showed a greater degree of plasticity in CWL and lipid composition of the SC than did mesic nestlings, a finding consistent with the idea that organisms exposed to more environmental stress ought to be more plastic than individuals living in more benign environments.

  8. Plastic litter accumulation on high-water strandline of urban beaches in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasiri, H B; Purushothaman, C S; Vennila, A

    2013-09-01

    Today, almost every beach on every coastline is threatened by human activities. The inadequate recycling and poor management of waste in developing countries has resulted in considerable quantities of plastic contaminating beaches. Though India has long coastline of 5,420 km along the mainland with 43 % of sandy beaches, data on litter accumulation, particularly the plastics, which are one of the most common and persistent pollutants in marine environment, are scanty. The abundance and distribution of plastic litter was quantitatively assessed in four sandy beaches in Mumbai, India, bimonthly from May 2011 to March 2012. Triplicates of 2 × 2 m (4 m(2)) quadrats were sampled in each beach with a total of 72 quadrats. Overall, average abundance of 11.6 items m(-2) (0.25-282.5 items m(-2)) and 3.24 g m(-2) (0.27-15.53 g m(-2)) plastic litter was recorded in Mumbai beaches. Plastic litter accumulation significantly varied temporally and spatially at p = 0.05. Significantly higher plastic litter accumulation was recorded in Juhu beach. Furthermore, the highest abundance by weight was recorded in November and May numerically. More than 80 % of plastic particles were within the size range of 5-100 mm both by number and weight. Moreover, coloured plastics were predominant with 67 % by number of items and 51 % by weight. Probably, the intense use of beaches for recreation, tourism, and religious activities has increased the potential for plastic contamination in urban beaches in Mumbai.

  9. Factors influencing the consumption and standards of bottled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus, a number of companies and industries in Kenya and other developed countries have come up with bottled/packaged drinking water for sale to a wide range of consumers particularly those in urban areas. The objectives ... The brand choices were influenced by price, availability and media advertisements. More than ...

  10. Green fiber bottle: Towards a sustainable package

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Didone, Mattia; Tosello, Guido; Howard, Thomas J.

    The Green Fiber Bottle is a fully biodegradable bottle made from molded paper pulp.Its development depends on the establishment of the manufacturing technology. Impulse drying, an innovative way of drying, has the potential to improve significantly the manufacturing process of the Green Fiber Bot...... Bottle, towards a sustainable packaging...

  11. The Effect of Wind Velocity on the Cooling Rate of Water

    OpenAIRE

    Shrey Aryan

    2016-01-01

    The effect of wind velocity on the cooling rate of water was investigated by blowing air horizontally over the surface of water contained in a plastic water-bottle cap. The time taken for the temperature to fall to the average of the surrounding and initial temperatures was recorded at different values of wind velocity. It was observed that on increasing the wind velocity, the time taken to achieve average temperature not only decreased but also remained the same after a certain point.

  12. From Blogs to Bottle Caps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edinger, Ted

    2012-01-01

    There is a wonderful community of art educators connecting a once-isolated profession through blogging. Art educators around the world are sharing ideas and communicating with their peers through this amazing resource. In this article, the author describes the bottle cap mural at Tulip Grove Elementary School which was inspired by this exchange of…

  13. Water disinfection with solar radiation; Desinfeccion del agua con radiacion solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Alejandra; Cortes, Juana E; Rodriguez, Miriam; Mundo, Alfredo; Vazquez, Sandra [Instituto Mexicano de Tecnologia del Agua, Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico); Estrada, Claudio A [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    Water disinfection by exposure to solar radiation is a low cost and easy application option to rural communities. The treatment of water can be done using plastic bags or plastic bottles of two litters setting on a reflective material. The efficient of the plastic bottles is lower than the one plastic bags, but the plastic bottles have a much better control of the treated water avoiding its recontamination. In order to increase the efficiency of disinfection using plastic bottles, two solar concentrators, using flat mirrors, were designed and built. Effluent water from a treatment plant of residual waters was used for the testing. Several comparison were carried out taking into account the position of the concentrators, the transparency of the bottles and the bags. The results show that using the concentrator that adjust its position to the sun every hour, a 100% disinfection is obtained in 4 hours of direct exposure to the sun rays in a sunny day. The period of time can be reduced up to 2 hours, if instead using transparent bottles, the bottles are black painted at their bottom half. With these results, the basis to design a cheap concentrator of easy construction to be used in rural communities have been settle. [Spanish] La desinfeccion del agua por exposicion a la luz solar fotodesinfeccion es una opcion de bajo costo y facil aplicacion para las comunidades rurales. El tratamiento puede llevarse a cabo utilizando bolsas o botellas de plastico transparente de dos litros de capacidad colocadas sobre un material reflejante. Las botellas son menos eficientes que las bolsas, pero permiten un mejor control del agua tratada evitando su recontaminacion. Para aumentar la eficiencia de la desinfeccion utilizando las botellas, se disenaron y construyeron dos concentradores solares de espejos planos que permitieron disminuir el tiempo de exposicion requerido cuando se utilizan estas. Para las pruebas de desinfeccion se utilizo agua del efluente de una planta de tratamiento

  14. Plasma sterilization of polyethylene terephthalate bottles by pulsed corona discharge at atmospheric pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaoka, Satoshi

    2007-06-01

    A pulsed power supply was used to generate a corona discharge on a polyethylene terephthalate bottle, to conduct plasma sterilization at atmospheric pressure. Before generating such a discharge, minute quantities of water were attached to the inner surface of the bottle and to the surface of a high voltage (HV) electrode inserted into the bottle. Next, high-voltage pulses of electricity were discharged between electrodes for 6.0s, while rotating the bottle. The resulting spore log reduction values of Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus niger on the inner surface of the bottle were 5.5 and 6 or higher, respectively, and those on the HV electrode surface were each 6 or higher for both strains. The presence of the by-products gaseous ozone, hydrogen peroxide, and nitric ions resulting from the electrical discharge was confirmed.

  15. Alkaline Depolymerization of Polyethylene Terephthalate Plastic Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar F. Abbas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Depolymerization reaction is considered one of the most significant ways of converting waste polyethylene terephthalate in to terephthalic acid. The water polyethylene terephthalate bottle waste was collected from different places in Baghdad. The collection step shows that there is plenty amount of polyethylene terephthalate suitable to be an important source of terephthalic acid production.PET plastic waste conversion to terephthalic acid by depolymerization process was examined. The effect of ethylene glycol amount, reaction time (up to 90 minutes and reaction temperature (from 70 to 170° C on the polyethylene terephthalate conversion was obtained.The kinetic study shows that the ordination of the depolymerization reaction of PET is first order irreversible reaction with 31103.5 J/mole activation energy.A 97.9 % terephthalic acid purity has been obtained by purification with N, N-dimethylformamide.

  16. Alkaline Depolymerization of Polyethylene Terephthalate Plastic Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar S. Abbas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Depolymerization reaction is considered one of the most significant ways of converting waste polyethylene terephthalate in to terephthalic acid. The water polyethylene terephthalate bottle waste was collected from different places in Baghdad. The collection step shows that there is plenty amount of polyethylene terephthalate suitable to be an important source of terephthalic acid production. PET plastic waste converting to terephthalic acid by depolymerization process was examined. The effect of ethylene glycol amount, reaction time (up to 90 minutes and reaction temperature (from 70 to 170° C on the polyethylene terephthalate conversion was obtained. The kinetic study shows that the ordination of the depolymerization reaction of PET is first order irreversible reaction with 31103.5 J/mole activation energy. A 97.9 % terephthalic acid purity has been obtained by purification with N, N-dimethylformamide. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA

  17. Developmental plasticity of shell morphology of quagga mussels from shallow and deep-water habitats of the Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyer, Suzanne M; Hermanson, John C; Lee, Carol Eunmi

    2010-08-01

    The invasive zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) has quickly colonized shallow-water habitats in the North American Great Lakes since the 1980s but the quagga mussel (Dreissena bugensis) is becoming dominant in both shallow and deep-water habitats. While quagga mussel shell morphology differs between shallow and deep habitats, functional causes and consequences of such difference are unknown. We examined whether quagga mussel shell morphology could be induced by three environmental variables through developmental plasticity. We predicted that shallow-water conditions (high temperature, food quantity, water motion) would yield a morphotype typical of wild quagga mussels from shallow habitats, while deep-water conditions (low temperature, food quantity, water motion) would yield a morphotype present in deep habitats. We tested this prediction by examining shell morphology and growth rate of quagga mussels collected from shallow and deep habitats and reared under common-garden treatments that manipulated the three variables. Shell morphology was quantified using the polar moment of inertia. Of the variables tested, temperature had the greatest effect on shell morphology. Higher temperature (approximately 18-20 degrees C) yielded a morphotype typical of wild shallow mussels regardless of the levels of food quantity or water motion. In contrast, lower temperature (approximately 6-8 degrees C) yielded a morphotype approaching that of wild deep mussels. If shell morphology has functional consequences in particular habitats, a plastic response might confer quagga mussels with a greater ability than zebra mussels to colonize a wider range of habitats within the Great Lakes.

  18. Experimental characterisation of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) bottle Eco-bricks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taaffe, Jonathan; O’Sullivan, Seán; Rahman, Muhammad Ekhlasur; Pakrashi, Vikram

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Characterisation of a novel “Eco-brick” by recycling PET bottles and plastic waste. • Eco-bricks have properties for possible uses in construction. • Consistent manufacturing of Eco-bricks demonstrated to be possible. • Weight of Eco-bricks has a nearly linear relationship with mechanical strength. • Light passage and sound reduction potential of Eco-bricks shown to be good. - Abstract: This paper addresses the issue of recycling waste plastic by considering the feasibility of use of Eco-bricks for constructional purposes. The Eco-bricks are formed by packing plastic within Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) bottles. Guidelines were provided for the construction of Eco-bricks. Experiments were carried out to characterise some of the properties of these bricks. Compression test, sound insulation assessment and light transmission were considered in this regard and compared with traditional construction materials and conditions. Possible applications of Eco-bricks were discussed. The paper presents the first attempt to characterise these bricks and the results encourage future use of them to a significantly wider extent and for various purposes

  19. Plastic-Film Mulching for Enhanced Water-Use Efficiency and Economic Returns from Maize Fields in Semiarid China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Peng; Wei, Ting; Cai, Tie; Ali, Shahzad; Han, Qingfang; Ren, Xiaolong; Jia, Zhikuan

    2017-01-01

    Film mulch has gradually been popularized to increase water availability to crops for improving and stabilizing agricultural production in the semiarid areas of Northwest China. To find more sustainable and economic film mulch methods for alleviating drought stress in semiarid region, it is necessary to test optimum planting methods in same cultivation conditions. A field experiment was conducted during 2013 and 2014 to evaluate the effects of different plastic film mulch methods on soil wate...

  20. Social perceptions of single-use plastic consumption of the Balinese population

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez Murcia Martin, Javier

    2015-01-01

    The island of Bali has suffered from an increasing amount of single-use plastics being littered into the environment during the past few years. This research aims to determine the social perceptions of plastic bags and bottles in particular, through consumption habits, the degree of awareness of environmental impacts and the willingness to reduce their consumption. The methodology is based on a survey approach and literature review contrasting the characteristics of plastic bottles and bags, ...

  1. Do estrogenic compounds in drinking water migrating from plastic pipe distribution system pose adverse effects to human? An analysis of scientific literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ze-Hua; Yin, Hua; Dang, Zhi

    2017-01-01

    With the widespread application of plastic pipes in drinking water distribution system, the effects of various leachable organic chemicals have been investigated and their occurrence in drinking water supplies is monitored. Most studies focus on the odor problems these substances may cause. This study investigates the potential endocrine disrupting effects of the migrating compound 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol (2,4-d-t-BP). The summarized results show that the migration of 2,4-d-t-BP from plastic pipes could result in chronic exposure and the migration levels varied greatly among different plastic pipe materials and manufacturing brands. Based on estrogen equivalent (EEQ), the migrating levels of the leachable compound 2,4-d-t-BP in most plastic pipes were relative low. However, the EEQ levels in drinking water migrating from four out of 15 pipes may pose significant adverse effects. With the increasingly strict requirements on regulation of drinking water quality, these results indicate that some drinking water transported with plastic pipes may not be safe for human consumption due to the occurrence of 2,4-d-t-BP. Moreover, 2,4-d-t-BP is not the only plastic pipe-migrating estrogenic compound, other compounds such as 2-tert-butylphenol (2-t-BP), 4-tert-butylphenol (4-t-BP), and others may also be leachable from plastic pipes.

  2. Raising of geo ecological safety of engineering collectors: the new method of assessment of water tightness of reinforced concrete blocks with basalt plastic lining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyapidevskaya Olga

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents analytics ways to estimation and assessment of water tightness of reinforced concrete blocks with basalt plastic lining for increasing geo ecological safety of engineering collectors. It is proved the advisability of application basalt plastic lining instead secondary protection of concrete with hydraulic seal. The results of estimation filtration coefficient and assessment of water tightness of basalt plastic lining of engineering collectors are represented. It is carried out comparative analysis of filtration coefficient and water tightness data of basalt plastic lining and secondary protection. The geo ecological effect is proved at the expense of application of new materials and reducing breakdown events with collectors that may lead pollution of ground and subsoil water with sewage.

  3. Predict the glass transition temperature and plasticization of β-cyclodextrin/water binary system by molecular dynamics simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guohui; Zhao, Tianhai; Wan, Jie; Liu, Chengmei; Liu, Wei; Wang, Risi

    2015-01-12

    The glass transition temperature, diffusion behavior and plasticization of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), and three amorphous β-CD/water mixtures (3%, 5% and 10% [w/w] water, respectively) were investigated by molecular dynamics simulation, which were performed using Condensed-phase Optimized Molecular Potentials for Atomistic Simulation Studies (COMPASS) force field and isothermal-isobaric ensembles. The specific volumes of four amorphous cells were obtained as a function of temperature. The glass transition temperatures (T(g)) were estimated to be 334.25 K, 325.12 K, 317.32 K, and 305.41 K for amorphous β-CD containing 0%, 3%, 5% and 10% w/w water, respectively, which compares well with the values observed in published literature. The radial distribution function was computed to elucidate the intermolecular interactions between amorphous β-CD and water, which acts as a plasticizer. These results indicate that the hydrogen bond interactions of oxygen in hydroxyl ions was higher than oxygen in acetal groups in β-CD amorphous mixtures with that in water, due to less accessibility of ring oxygens to the surrounding water molecules. The mobility of water molecules was investigated over various temperature ranges, including the rubbery and glassy phases of the β-CD/water mixtures, by calculating the diffusion coefficients and the fractional free volume. In β-CD amorphous models, the higher mobility of water molecules was observed at temperatures above Tg, and almost no change was observed at temperatures below T(g). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Natural mineral bottled waters available on the Polish market as a source of minerals for the consumers. Part 2: The intake of sodium and potassium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gątarska, Anna; Ciborska, Joanna; Tońska, Elżbieta

    Natural mineral waters are purchased and consumed according to consumer preferences and possible recommendations. The choice of appropriate water should take into account not only the general level of mineralization but also the content of individual components, including electrolytes such as sodium and potassium. Sodium is necessary to ensure the proper physiological functions of the body. It is defined as a health risk factor only when its excessive intake occurs. Potassium acts antagonistically towards sodium and calcium ions, contributes to a reduction of the volume of extracellular fluids and at the same time reduces muscle tension and permeability of cell membranes. The demand for sodium and potassium is of particular importance in people expending significant physical effort, where an increased electrolyte supply is recommended. The aim of the study was to estimate the content of sodium and potassium in natural mineral waters available in the Polish market and to evaluate the intake of those components with the commercially available mineral waters by different groups of consumers at the assumed volume of their consumption. The research material consisted of natural mineral waters of forty various brands available on the Polish market. The examined products were either produced in Poland or originated in other European countries. Among the products under examination, about 30% of the waters were imported from Lithuania, Latvia, the Czech Republic, France, Italy and Germany. A sample for analyses consisted of two package units of the examined water from different production lots. Samples for research were collected at random. The study was conducted with the same samples in in which calcium and magnesium content was determined, which was the subject of the first part of the study. The content of sodium and potassium was determined using the emission technique (acetylene-air flame), with the use of atomic absorption spectrometer – ICE 3000 SERIES – THERMO

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE-PLASTIC

    OpenAIRE

    Sunita Shakle

    2017-01-01

    Polythene is the most common plastic, the annual global production is approximately 60 million tones, and its primary use is in packing. Plastic bags pollute soil and waters and kill thousands of marine generalize plastic bags are not biodegradable they clog water ways, spoil the land scape and end up in landfills. Where they may take 1000 year or more to break down into ever smaller particals that continue to pollution the soil and water.

  6. Combined toxicity of mercury and plastic wastes to crustacean and gastropod inhabiting the waters in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu-Olayan, A H; Thomas, B V

    2015-11-01

    The present study determined total mercury (T-Hg) in crustacean Portunus pelagicus (blue crab) and mollusc Tapes sulcarius (Furrowed Venus: Cockle) following suspected rise in beach plastic wastes and their effect on marine organisms. Live samples were collected from beaches representing six Kuwait Governorate areas and exposed to toxicity (96hr) and bio accumulation tests for 180 d with inclusion of plastic wastes and environmental conditions simulated in laboratory. Results revealed high T-Hg concentrations in T sulcarius (1.44ng l(-1)) compared to P. pelagicus (1.03ng l(-1)) during winter than summer, with bio accumulation factor (BAF) > 1 labelled these species as hyper-accumulators. Significantly, combination of T-Hg concentrations from plastic wastes and in seawater validated the possibilities of detrimental effects of other marine lives besides deteriorating the aesthetic values of scenic beaches and likelihood of invasive species in such coastal areas.

  7. Assessment of the microbial integrity, sensu G.S. Wilson, of piped and bottled drinking water in the condition as ingested.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossel, David A A; Struijk, Corry B

    2004-05-01

    The second half of the 20th century witnessed substantial progress in the assurance and verification of microbiological integrity, i.e., safety and sensory quality, of drinking water. Enteropathogenic agents, such as particular viruses and protozoa, not previously identified as transmitted by industrially provided water supplies, were demonstrated to cause disease outbreaks, when ingested with piped water. The potential harm posed by carry-over of orally toxic metabolites of organisms, producing 'algal' (cyanophytic) blooms, was considered. In addition, earlier observations on the colonization of attenuated drinking water bodies by a variety of oligotrophic Gram-negative bacteria were confirmed and extended. This new evidence called for updating both water purification technologies and analytical methodology, serving to verify that goals had been attained. For the former purpose, the hazard analysis empowering control of critical practices (HACCP) strategy, introduced about 1960 in industrial food processing, was successfully adopted. Elimination, devitalization or barrier technologies for the more recently identified water-borne pathogens were elaborated, taking account of the hazard of production of chlorinated compounds with alleged adverse health effects. Biofilm formation throughout water distribution networks was brought under control by strict limitation of concentrations of compounds, assimilable by oligotrophic bacteria. Upon acknowledging that direct detection tests for pathogens were futile, because of their most sporadic and erratic distribution, Schardinger's marker organism concept was anew embraced, rigorously revised and substantially enlarged. Misleading designations, like searches for 'faecal coliforms' were replaced by boundary testing for Escherichia coli and appropriate Enterococcus spp. In addition, though still to be perfected, detection protocols for relevant bacteriophages or index viruses and, to a certain extent, also for spores of

  8. Survey of trace elements (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Co, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, and Si) in retail samples of flavoured and bottled waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, M F; Ramos, S; Oliva-Teles, M T; Delerue-Matos, C; Sales, M G F; Oliveira, M B P P

    2009-01-01

    Concentrations of eleven trace elements (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Co, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, and Si) were measured in 39 (natural and flavoured) water samples. Determinations were performed using graphite furnace electrothermetry for almost all elements (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Co, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Si). For Se determination hydride generation was used, and cold vapour generation for Hg. These techniques were coupled to atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The trace element content of still or sparkling natural waters changed from brand to brand. Significant differences between natural still and natural sparkling waters (p element was compared with the presence of flavours, preservatives, acidifying agents, fruit juice and/or sweeteners, according to the labelled composition. It was shown that flavoured waters generally increase the trace element content. The addition of preservatives and acidifying regulators had a significant influence on Mn, Co, As and Si contents (p < 0.05). Fruit juice can also be correlated to the increase of Co and As. Sweeteners did not provide any significant difference in Mn, Co, Se and Si content.

  9. Analysis of water sorption isotherms of amorphous food materials by solution thermodynamics with relevance to glass transition: evaluation of plasticizing effect of water by the thermodynamic parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazaki, Eriko; Tashiro, Akiko; Kumagai, Hitomi; Kumagai, Hitoshi

    2017-04-01

    Relation between the thermodynamic parameters obtained from water sorption isotherms and the degree of reduction in the glass transition temperature (T g ), accompanied by water sorption, was quantitatively studied. Two well-known glassy food materials namely, wheat gluten and maltodextrin were used as samples. The difference between the chemical potential of water in a solution and that of pure water ([Formula: see text]), the difference between the chemical potential of solid in a solution and that of a pure solid ([Formula: see text]), and the change in the integral Gibbs free energy ([Formula: see text]) were obtained by analyzing the water sorption isotherms using solution thermodynamics. The parameter [Formula: see text] correlated well with ΔT g (≡T g  - T g0 ; where T g0 is the glass transition temperature of dry material), which had been taken to be an index of plasticizing effect. This indicates that plasticizing effect of water on foods can be evaluated through the parameter [Formula: see text].

  10. Evaluation of Using Waste of Bottles in Concrete as Sustainable Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainab Hasan Abdulabbas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the current study attention was focused on effects of using wastes of plastic and glass of juices and soft drink bottles in concrete, and the optimum percent's of the wastes were detected giving the best properties of concrete. Total number of concrete mixes was (12, which have different wastes additions details. These mixes included: three mixes have plastic fibers (1, 2, 3% by cement weight, three mixes have glass with ratios of (10, 15, 20% as a replacement of sand volume, three mixes have pieces of plastic bottle caps with ratios of (15, 20, 25% as a replacement of gravel volume. The mix that has the optimum properties in these three groups, was selected to merge these types of wastes in one mix. Therefore, two additional mixes were prepared; one mix contains addition of 2% plastic fibers and 15% glass; and the other mix contains 20% plastic bottle caps and 15% glass, in addition to the reference mix without any waste additions. The achieved tests comprise; compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, flexural strength, ultrasonic pulse velocity, density, absorption and fire resistance. Tests results give good indications about using these waste in concrete; when two types of wastes are added to the mixes (plastic fiber with glass C11 or pieces of bottle caps and glass C12 the compressive strength is improved noticeably, the residual compressive strength is about (75% and 83% with total ratio of wastes about 35% at age of 7 and 28 days, respectively, in mix C12, and (76 .7% and 70.5% with total ratio of wastes about 17% at age of 7 and28 days, respectively, in mix C11.

  11. Charge Transfer Resistance and Differential Capacity of the Plasticized PVC Membrane/Water Interface

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Langmaier, Jan; Stejskalová, Květoslava; Samec, Zdeněk

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 521, 1/2 (2002), s. 81-86 ISSN 0022-0728 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4040902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : impedance * PVC plasticized membrane * ion transfer kinetics Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 2.027, year: 2002

  12. Evaluation of Direct 16S rDNA Sequencing as a Metagenomics-based Approach to Screening Bacteria in Bottled Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Trine; Skånseng, Beate; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Deliberate or accidental contamination of food, feed, and water supplies poses a threat to human health worldwide. A rapid and sensitive detection technique that could replace the current labor-intensive and time-consuming culture-based methods is highly desirable. In addition to species...... 2 B. cereus strains by the principal component plot, despite the close sequence resemblance. A linear correlation between the artificial contamination level and the relative amount of the Bacillus artificial contaminant in the metagenome was observed, and a relative amount value above 0.5 confirmed...

  13. Experimental Study of a Thermosyphon Solar Water Heater Coupled to a Fibre-Reinforced Plastic (FRP) Storage Tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nwosu, P. N.; Oparaku, O. U.; Okonkwo, W. I.; Unachukwu, G. O.; Agbiogwu, D.

    2011-01-01

    The thermal performance of the thermosyphon solar water heater was analyzed to show its applicability in a tropical climate using data of cloudy, sunny and hazy days. The average daily efficiency of the parallel-connected module, ranged between 35 and 40%. Also, an analysis of the temperature storage characteristics of a novel fibre-reinforced plastic (FRP) storage tank was undertaken. The inlet andoutlet positions were determined using the recommendation of Simon and Wenxian [1]: the optional position for the inlet/outlet was around the very top/bottom of the tank. The obtained results showed that the coupled FRP tank substantially retained and delivered the stored hot water during off-sunshine hours with minimal losses, and stratification occurred in the tank as a result. In view of the thermal performance, FRP materials can be efficiently employed in the design of solar hot water storage tanks. (authors)

  14. Chemistry with Inexpensive Materials: Spray Bottles and Plastic Bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoltewicz, Susan

    1993-01-01

    Presents eight chemistry activities that are interesting and involve simple, easily available materials. Topics include mystery writing, valentine hearts, flame tests, evaporation race, buoyancy versus mass, determination of relative masses of gases, mole sample container, and cold and hot packs. (DDR)

  15. Modification of water absorption capacity of a plastic based on bean protein using gamma irradiated starches as additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeber, E.; Gonzalez, M.E.; Gavioli, N.; Salmoral, E.M.

    2007-01-01

    Some properties of a bean protein-starch plastic were modified by irradiation of the starch. Two kinds of starch from bean and cassava were irradiated with doses until 50 kGy before their inclusion in the composite. Water absorption of the resultant product was reduced by 36% and 60% in materials containing bean and cassava starch, respectively. A large decline in the elongation is observed till 10 kGy in both materials, while tensile strength diminished by 11% in the cassava composite

  16. Application of plastic scintillation detector in the construction of a monitoring system of radioactive contamination in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgado, Mario Monteiro; Moraes, Marco Antonio P.V. de; Madi Filho, Tufic

    1996-01-01

    Plastic scintillation detector system has been set up and used gamma ray radiation monitoring purpose in water. In order to determine its relative efficiency characteristics, several conventional solids gamma source has been used in the energy from 60 keV to 133 keV. The efficiency variation in this interval was from 31.8% to 13.2%, respectively and at 661.6 keV was 21.3 % +-0.86%. The sensibility of the system has been determined for use a 131 I radioactive solution as 41.25 kBq/m 3 . (author)

  17. Will bottle-grade PET demand lure fiber-grade capacity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coeyman, M.

    1993-01-01

    As demand for bottle-grade polyethylene terephthalate (PET) continues strong and new capacity hastens to meet it, some industry observers wonder if conversions to bottle-grade from fiber-grade capacity will become an industry trend. Taiwan's Nan Ya Plastics was recently said to be considering such a switch, but company sources say it has no such plans. Peter Driscoll, senior partner at PCI Fibres ampersand Raw Materials (Crawley, UK), says that while it is true that demand for the bottle-grade material remains unsatisfied, he doubts that many conversions will take place. You must remember, says Driscoll, that it is not always possible to switch, and that even where it is possible there are limitations

  18. 27 CFR 31.232 - Wine bottling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... The decanting of wine by caterers or other retail dealers for table or room service, banquets, and... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wine bottling. 31.232... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Miscellaneous § 31.232 Wine bottling. Each person...

  19. The effects of adding waste plastic fibers on some properties of roller compacted concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abed Adil

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An attempt to produce of roller compacted concrete (RCC improved by adding waste plastic fibers (WPFs resulting from cutting the PET beverage bottles was recorded in this study. The method which is used for production of RCC is an approved design method for ACI committee (5R-207,1980[1]. WPF was added by volumetric percentages ranging between (0.5 to 2 % and reference concrete mix was produced for comparison reason. Many tests were conducted on the models produced by rolling compacted concrete like compressive strength, flexural strength, modulus of elasticity, dry density, water absorption and ultrasonic pulse velocity. The analysis of the results showed that the use of plastic waste fibers (1% had led to improvement in the properties of each of the compressive strength and flexural strength compared with reference concrete. Results also showed that the addition of these, fibers increase water absorption and reduce the speed of Ultrasonic pulse velocity.

  20. A pilot study comparing opaque, weighted bottles with conventional, clear bottles for infant feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Alison K; Pollack Golen, Rebecca

    2015-02-01

    It is hypothesized that the visual and weight cues afforded by bottle-feeding may lead mothers to overfeed in response to the amount of liquid in the bottle. The aim of the present pilot study was to test this hypothesis by comparing mothers' sensitivity and responsiveness to infant cues and infants' intakes when mothers use opaque, weighted bottles (that remove visual and weight cues) compared to conventional, clear bottles to feed their infants. We also tested the hypothesis that mothers' pressuring feeding style would moderate the effect of bottle type. Formula-feeding dyads (N = 25) visited our laboratory on two separate days. Mothers fed their infants from a clear bottle one day and an opaque, weighted bottle on the other; bottle-order was counterbalanced across the two days. Infant intake was assessed by weighing each bottle before and after the feeding. Maternal sensitivity and responsiveness to infant cues was objectively assessed using the Nursing Child Assessment Feeding Scale. Mothers were significantly more responsive to infant cues when they used opaque compared to clear bottles (p = .04). There was also a trend for infants to consume significantly less formula when fed from opaque compared to clear bottles (p = .08). Mothers' pressuring feeding style moderated the effect of bottle type on maternal responsiveness to infant cues (p = .02) and infant intake (p = .03). Specifically, mothers who reported higher levels of pressuring feeding were significantly more responsive to their infants' cues (p = .02) and fed their infants significantly less formula when using opaque versus clear bottles (p = .01); no differences were seen for mothers who reported lower levels of pressuring feeding. This study highlights a simple, yet effective intervention for improving the bottle-feeding practices of mothers who have pressuring feeding styles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of ground calcite/water heavy media cyclone suspensions for production of residual plastic concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gent, Malcolm; Sierra, Héctor Muñiz; Menéndez, Mario; de Cos Juez, Francisco Javier

    2018-01-01

    Viable recycled residual plastic (RP) product(s) must be of sufficient quality to be reusable as a plastic or source of hydrocarbons or fuel. The varied composition and large volumes of such wastes usually requires a low cost, high through-put recycling method(s) to eliminate contaminants. Cyclone separation of plastics by density is proposed as a potential method of achieving separations of specific types of plastics. Three ground calcite separation medias of different grain size distributions were tested in a cylindrical cyclone to evaluate density separations at 1.09, 1.18 and 1.27 g/cm 3 . The differences in separation recoveries obtained with these medias by density offsets produced due to displacement of separation media solid particles within the cyclone caused by centrifugal settling is evaluated. The separation density at which 50% of the material of that density is recovered was found to increase from 0.010 to 0.026 g/cm 3 as the separation media density increased from 1.09 to 1.27 g/cm 3 . All separation medias were found to have significantly low Ep 95 values of 0.012-0.033 g/cm 3 . It is also demonstrated that the presence of an excess content of 75%) resulted in reduced separation efficiencies. It is shown that the optimum separations were achieved when the media density offset was 0.03-0.04 g/cm 3 . It is shown that effective heavy media cyclone separations of RP denser than 1.0 g/cm 3 can produce three sets of mixed plastics containing: PS and ABS/SAN at densities of >1.0-1.09 g/cm 3 ; PC, PMMA at a density of 1.09-1.18 g/cm 3 ; and PVC and PET at a density of >1.27 g/cm 3 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. FE-Analysis of Stretch-Blow Moulded Bottles Using an Integrative Process Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopmann, C.; Michaeli, W.; Rasche, S.

    2011-05-01

    The two-stage stretch-blow moulding process has been established for the large scale production of high quality PET containers with excellent mechanical and optical properties. The total production costs of a bottle are significantly caused by the material costs. Due to this dominant share of the bottle material, the PET industry is interested in reducing the total production costs by an optimised material efficiency. However, a reduced material inventory means decreasing wall thicknesses and therewith a reduction of the bottle properties (e.g. mechanical properties, barrier properties). Therefore, there is often a trade-off between a minimal bottle weight and adequate properties of the bottle. In order to achieve the objectives Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) techniques can assist the designer of new stretch-blow moulded containers. Hence, tools such as the process simulation and the structural analysis have become important in the blow moulding sector. The Institute of Plastics Processing (IKV) at RWTH Aachen University, Germany, has developed an integrative three-dimensional process simulation which models the complete path of a preform through a stretch-blow moulding machine. At first, the reheating of the preform is calculated by a thermal simulation. Afterwards, the inflation of the preform to a bottle is calculated by finite element analysis (FEA). The results of this step are e.g. the local wall thickness distribution and the local biaxial stretch ratios. Not only the material distribution but also the material properties that result from the deformation history of the polymer have significant influence on the bottle properties. Therefore, a correlation between the material properties and stretch ratios is considered in an integrative simulation approach developed at IKV. The results of the process simulation (wall thickness, stretch ratios) are transferred to a further simulation program and mapped on the bottles FE mesh. This approach allows a local

  3. CE with a boron-doped diamond electrode for trace detection of endocrine disruptors in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Damien J; Zhou, Lin; Luong, John H T; Glennon, Jeremy D

    2013-07-01

    Off-line SPE and CE coupled with electrochemical detection have been used for the determination of bisphenol A (BPA), bisphenol F, 4-ethylphenol, and bisphenol A diglycidyl ether in bottled drinking water. The use of boron-doped diamond electrode as an electrochemical detector in amperometric mode that provides a favorable analytical performance for detecting these endocrine-disrupting compounds, such as lower noise levels, higher peak resolution with enhanced sensitivity, and improved resistance against electrode passivation. The oxidative electrochemical detection of the endocrine-disrupting compounds was accomplished by boron-doped diamond electrode poised at +1.4 V versus Ag/AgCl without electrode pretreatment. An off-line SPE procedure (Bond Elut® C18 SPE cartridge) was utilized to extract and preconcentrate the compounds prior to separation and detection. The minimum concentration detectable for all four compounds ranged from 0.01 to 0.06 μM, having S/N equal to three. After exposing the plastic bottle water container under sunlight for 7 days, the estimated concentration of BPA in the bottled drinking water was estimated to be 0.03 μM. This proposed approach has great potential for rapid and effective determination of BPA content present in water packaging of plastic bottles that have been exposed to sunlight for an extended period of time. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Automatic Leak Detection in Buried Plastic Pipes of Water Supply Networks by Means of Vibration Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Martini, Alberto; Troncossi, Marco; Rivola, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    The implementation of strategies for controlling water leaks is essential in order to reduce losses affecting distribution networks of drinking water. This paper focuses on leak detection by using vibration monitoring techniques. The long-term goal is the development of a system for automatic early detection of burst leaks in service pipes. An experimental campaign was started to measure vibrations transmitted along water pipes by real burst leaks occurring in actual water supply networks. Th...

  5. Heat and mass transfer during the warming of a bottle of beer - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v32i2.8273

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, Cláudio Vinicius Barbosa; UEM; Righetto, Aderson Roberto; Universidade Estadual de Maringá; Souza, Leonardo César de; Universidade Estadual de Maringá; Paraíso, Paulo Roberto; UEM; Jorge, Luiz Mario de Matos; UEM

    2010-01-01

    The warming of a bottle of beer during a Friday evening happy hour directly involves transport phenomena, such as mass transfer due to condensation of air humidity on the bottle surface and heat transfer from the ambient to the bottle, which occurs by free convection and water condensation. Both processes happen simultaneously and are directly associated with the heat and mass transfer coefficients involved, which are affected by the ambient humidity and temperature. Several runs were made in...

  6. Concentração de flúor em águas engarrafadas comercializadas no município de São Paulo Fluoride concentration in bottled water on the market in the municipality of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Henrique da Costa Grec

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a concentração de flúor na água engarrafada comercializada, comparando-a aos valores impressos no rótulo da embalagem. Foram coletadas 229 amostras de água das 35 marcas disponíveis em diversos supermercados, mercearias e lanchonetes de grande circulação nas diferentes regiões do município de São Paulo, em 2006. A concentração de flúor foi determinada por análise em duplicata, utilizando o eletrodo íon-específico. A concentração de flúor variou entre 0,01 e 2,04 mg/l, com diferenças significantes entre os valores estipulados nos rótulos e os encontrados com a análise. Esses resultados reforçam a importância do controle dos níveis de flúor na água engarrafada por parte da vigilância sanitária.The objective of the study was to evaluate the fluoride concentration in bottled water available on the market, in comparison with the values printed on the bottle label. Two hundred and twenty-nine water samples were collected from 35 brands available in several supermarkets, grocery stores and snack bars with high turnover in different regions of the municipality of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, in 2006. Fluoride concentrations were determined by duplicate analysis using an ion-specific electrode. The fluoride concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 2.04 mg/l, with significant differences between the values stipulated on labels and those found in the analyses. These results emphasize the importance of controls over fluoride levels in bottled water enforced by the sanitary surveillance agency.

  7. 27 CFR 24.308 - Bottled or packed wine record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottled or packed wine... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.308 Bottled or packed wine record. A proprietor who bottles, packs, or receives bottled or packed beverage wine in bond shall...

  8. 27 CFR 24.256 - Bottle aging wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottle aging wine. 24.256... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine Bottling, Packing, and Labeling of Wine § 24.256 Bottle aging wine. Wine bottled or packed and stored for the purpose of aging need...

  9. Theoretical Analysis and Experimental Study on the Coating Removal from Passenger-Vehicle Plastics for Recycling by Using Water Jet Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongshen; Chen, Ming

    2015-11-01

    The recovery and utilization of automotive plastics are a global concern because of the increasing number of end-of-life vehicles. In-depth studies on technologies for the removal of coatings from automotive plastics can contribute to the high value-added levels of the recycling and utilization of automotive plastic. The liquid waste generated by removing chemical paint by using traditional methods is difficult to handle and readily produces secondary pollution. Therefore, new, clean, and highly efficient techniques of paint removal must be developed. In this article, a method of coating removal from passenger-vehicle plastics was generated based on high-pressure water jet technology to facilitate the recycling of these plastics. The established technology was theoretically analyzed, numerically simulated, and experimentally studied. The high-pressure water jet equipment for the removal of automotive-plastic coatings was constructed through research and testing, and the detailed experiments on coating removal rate were performed by using this equipment. The results showed that high-pressure water jet technology can effectively remove coatings on the surfaces of passenger-vehicle plastics. The research also revealed that the coating removal rate increased as jet pressure ( P) increased and then decreased when jet moving speed ( Vn) increased. The rate decreased as the distance from nozzle to work piece ( S nw ) and the nozzle angle ( Φ) increased. The mathematical model for the rate of removal of coatings from bumper surfaces by water jet was derived based on the experiment data and can effectively predict coating removal rate under different operating conditions.

  10. Removal of compounds used as plasticizers and herbicides from water by means of gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera-Utrilla, José; Daiem, Mahmoud M. Abdel; Sánchez-Polo, Manuel; Ocampo-Pérez, Raúl; López-Peñalver, Jesús J.; Velo-Gala, Inmaculada; Mota, Antonio J.

    2016-01-01

    Gamma radiation has been used to induce the degradation of compounds used as plasticizers and herbicides such as phthalic acid (PA), bisphenol A (BPA), diphenolic acid (DPA), 2,4-dichlorophenoxy-acetic acid (2,4-D), and 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) in aqueous solution, determining the dose constants, removal percentages, and radiation-chemical yields. The reaction rate constants of hydroxyl radical (HO"·), hydrated electron (e_a_q"−) and hydrogen atom (H"·) with these pollutants were also obtained by means of competition kinetics, using 3-aminopyridine and atrazine as reference compounds. The results indicated that the elimination of these pollutants with gamma radiation mainly follows the oxidative pathway through reaction with HO"· radicals. The degradation by-products from the five pollutants were determined, detecting that the hydroxylation of the corresponding parent compounds was the main chemical process in the degradation of the pollutants. Moreover, a high decrease in the chemical oxygen demand has been observed for all pollutants. As expected, the degradation by-products generated by the irradiation of PA, BPA and DPA showed a lower toxicity than the parent compounds, however, in the case of 2,4-D and MCPA irradiation, interestingly, their by-products were more toxic than the corresponding original compounds. - Highlights: • Degradation of plasticizers and herbicides using gamma radiation was studied. • Dose constants, removal percentages, and radiation-chemical yields were determined. • The reaction rate constants of HO"·, e_a_q"−, H"· with the pollutants were determined. • The elimination of the pollutants mainly followed the oxidative pathway. • The evolution of chemical oxygen demand and toxicity was analyzed.

  11. Removal of compounds used as plasticizers and herbicides from water by means of gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera-Utrilla, José, E-mail: jrivera@ugr.es [Inorganic Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, University of Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain); Daiem, Mahmoud M. Abdel [Environmental Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Zagazig University, 44519 Zagazig (Egypt); Sánchez-Polo, Manuel [Inorganic Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, University of Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain); Ocampo-Pérez, Raúl [Center of Research and Postgraduate Studies, Faculty of Chemical Science, Autonomous University of San Luis Potosí, Av. Dr. M. Nava No.6, San Luis Potosí SLP 78210 (Mexico); López-Peñalver, Jesús J.; Velo-Gala, Inmaculada; Mota, Antonio J. [Inorganic Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, University of Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain)

    2016-11-01

    Gamma radiation has been used to induce the degradation of compounds used as plasticizers and herbicides such as phthalic acid (PA), bisphenol A (BPA), diphenolic acid (DPA), 2,4-dichlorophenoxy-acetic acid (2,4-D), and 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) in aqueous solution, determining the dose constants, removal percentages, and radiation-chemical yields. The reaction rate constants of hydroxyl radical (HO{sup ·}), hydrated electron (e{sub aq}{sup −}) and hydrogen atom (H{sup ·}) with these pollutants were also obtained by means of competition kinetics, using 3-aminopyridine and atrazine as reference compounds. The results indicated that the elimination of these pollutants with gamma radiation mainly follows the oxidative pathway through reaction with HO{sup ·} radicals. The degradation by-products from the five pollutants were determined, detecting that the hydroxylation of the corresponding parent compounds was the main chemical process in the degradation of the pollutants. Moreover, a high decrease in the chemical oxygen demand has been observed for all pollutants. As expected, the degradation by-products generated by the irradiation of PA, BPA and DPA showed a lower toxicity than the parent compounds, however, in the case of 2,4-D and MCPA irradiation, interestingly, their by-products were more toxic than the corresponding original compounds. - Highlights: • Degradation of plasticizers and herbicides using gamma radiation was studied. • Dose constants, removal percentages, and radiation-chemical yields were determined. • The reaction rate constants of HO{sup ·}, e{sub aq}{sup −}, H{sup ·} with the pollutants were determined. • The elimination of the pollutants mainly followed the oxidative pathway. • The evolution of chemical oxygen demand and toxicity was analyzed.

  12. Dynamic Measurements of Plastic Deformation in a Water-Filled Aluminum Tube in Response to Detonation of a Small Explosives Charge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Sandusky

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiments have been conducted to benchmark computer code calculations for the dynamic interaction of explosions in water with structures. Aluminum cylinders with a length slightly more than twice their diameter were oriented vertically, sealed on the bottom by a thin plastic sheet, and filled with distilled water. An explosive charge suspended in the center of the tube plastically deformed but did not rupture the wall. Tube wall velocity, displacement, and strain were directly measured. The agreement among the three sets of dynamic data and the agreement of the terminal displacement measurements with the residual deformation were excellent.

  13. Influence of white plastic and water replacement rates on pomegranate orchard phenology, fruit yield and quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currently, 98% of domestic commercial pomegranate fruit (Punica granatum L.) are produced in California on over 13,000 ha. In 2013, a pomegranate orchard, established in 2010 with a density of 558 trees/ha, was irrigated at water replacement rates of 35, 50 and 100% based on rainfall, tree water r...

  14. Genetic control of plasticity in root morphology and anatomy of rice in response to water deficit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kadam, Niteen N.; Tamilselvan, Anandhan; Lawas, Lovely M.F.; Quinones, Cherryl; Bahuguna, Rajeev N.; Thomson, Michael J.; Dingkuhn, Michael; Muthurajan, Raveendran; Struik, Paul C.; Yin, Xinyou; Jagadish, Krishna S.V.

    2017-01-01

    Elucidating the genetic control of rooting behavior under water-deficit stress is essential to breed climate-robust rice (Oryza sativa) cultivars. Using a diverse panel of 274 indica genotypes grown under control and water-deficit conditions during vegetative growth, we phenotyped 35 traits, mostly

  15. A pilot study comparing opaque, weighted bottles with conventional, clear bottles for infant feeding

    OpenAIRE

    Ventura, Alison K.; Golen, Rebecca Pollack

    2014-01-01

    Compared to breast-fed infants, bottle-fed infants consume greater volumes and gain more weight during infancy. It is hypothesized that the visual and weight cues afforded by bottle-feeding may lead mothers to overfeed in response to the amount of liquid in the bottle. The aim of the present pilot study was to test this hypothesis by comparing mothers’ sensitivity and responsiveness to infant cues and infants’ intakes when mothers use opaque, weighted bottles (that remove visual and weight cu...

  16. GLOBEC NEP Rosette Bottle Data (2002)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — GLOBEC (GLOBal Ocean ECosystems Dynamics) NEP (Northeast Pacific) Rosette Bottle Data from New Horizon Cruise (NH0207: 1-19 August 2002). Notes: Physical data...

  17. Bottle appeal drifts across the Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbesmeyer, Curtis; Ingraham, W. James, Jr.; McKinnon, Richard; Okubo, Akira; Wang, Dong-Ping; Strickland, Richard; Willing, Peter

    Pacific drift currents were used by a group of oceanographers to estimate the path of a drift bottle that was found on a beach of Barkley Sound in Vancouver Island by Richard Strickland on June 10, 1990. The Chinese rice wine bottle, which remained unopened until December 18, 1991, contained six leaflets, one appealing for the release of China's well-known dissident, Wei Jingsheng. The bottle was one of thousands set adrift as part of a propaganda effort from the islands of Quemoy and Matsu off mainland China shortly after Wei was sentenced in 1979 to 15 years in prison (see Figure 1 for locations). Wei was in poor health and still in prison when the bottle made its way across the Pacific Ocean.

  18. Plastic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Plastic Surgery KidsHealth / For Teens / Plastic Surgery What's in ... her forehead lightened with a laser? What Is Plastic Surgery? Just because the name includes the word " ...

  19. Does plasticity in plant physiological traits explain the rapid increase in water use efficiency? An ecohydrological modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrotheodoros, Theodoros; Fatichi, Simone; Pappas, Christoforos; Molnar, Peter; Burlando, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    The rise of atmospheric CO2 concentration is expected to stimulate plant productivity by enhancing photosynthesis and reducing stomatal conductance and thus increasing plant water use efficiency (WUE) worldwide. An analysis of eddy covariance flux tower data from 21 forested ecosystems across the north hemisphere detected an unexpectedly large increase in WUE (Keenan et al, 2013), which was six times larger than the increase found by most previous studies based on controlled experiments (e.g., FACE), leaf-scale analyses, and numerical modelling. This increase could be solely attributed to the increase in atmospheric CO2 since other confounding factors were ruled out. Here, we investigate the potential contribution of plant plasticity, reflected in the temporal adjustment of major plant physiological traits, on changes in WUE using the ecohydrological model Tethys and Chloris (T&C). We hypothesize that the increase in WUE can be attributed to small variations in plant physiological traits, undetectable through observations, eventually triggered by the atmospheric CO2 increase. Data from the 21 sites in the above mentioned study are used to force the model. Simulation results with and without plasticity in the physiological traits (i.e., model parameters in our numerical experiments) are compared with the observed trends in WUE. We test several plant adaptation strategies in being effective in explaining the observed increase in WUE using a multifactorial numerical experiment in which we perturb in a systematic way selected plant parameters. Keenan, T. F., Hollinger, D. Y., Bohrer, G., Dragoni, D., Munger, J. W., Schmid, H. P., and Richardson, A. D. (2013). Increase in forest water-use efficiency as atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations rise. Nature, 499(7458), 324-7.

  20. Comparative life cycle assessment and life cycle costing of four disposal scenarios for used polyethylene terephthalate bottles in Mauritius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foolmaun, Rajendra Kumar; Ramjeeawon, Toolseeram

    2012-09-01

    The annual rise in population growth coupled with the flourishing tourism industry in Mauritius has lead to a considerable increase in the amount of solid waste generated. In parallel, the disposal of non-biodegradable wastes, especially plastic packaging and plastic bottles, has also shown a steady rise. Improper disposal of used polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles constitutes an eyesore to the environmental landscape and is a threat to the flourishing tourism industry. It is of utmost importance, therefore, to determine a suitable disposal method for used PET bottles which is not only environmentally efficient but is also cost effective. This study investigated the environmental impacts and the cost effectiveness of four selected disposal alternatives for used PET bottles in Mauritius. The four disposal routes investigated were: 100% landfilling; 75% incineration with energy recovery and 25% landfilling; 40% flake production (partial recycling) and 60% landfilling; and 75% flake production and 25% landfilling. Environmental impacts of the disposal alternatives were determined using ISO standardized life cycle assessment (LCA) and with the support of SimaPro 7.1 software. Cost effectiveness was determined using life cycle costing (LCC). Collected data were entered into a constructed Excel-based model to calculate the different cost categories, Net present values, damage costs and payback periods. LCA and LCC results indicated that 75% flake production and 25% landfilling was the most environmentally efficient and cost-effective disposal route for used PET bottles in Mauritius.

  1. Americium behaviour in plastic vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legarda, F.; Herranz, M.; Idoeta, R.; Abelairas, A.

    2010-01-01

    The adsorption of 241 Am dissolved in water in different plastic storage vessels was determined. Three different plastics were investigated with natural and distilled waters and the retention of 241 Am by these plastics was studied. The same was done by varying vessel agitation time, vessel agitation speed, surface/volume ratio of water in the vessels and water pH. Adsorptions were measured to be between 0% and 70%. The adsorption of 241 Am is minimized with no water agitation, with PET or PVC plastics, and by water acidification.

  2. Americium behaviour in plastic vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legarda, F.; Herranz, M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Idoeta, R., E-mail: raquel.idoeta@ehu.e [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Abelairas, A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    The adsorption of {sup 241}Am dissolved in water in different plastic storage vessels was determined. Three different plastics were investigated with natural and distilled waters and the retention of {sup 241}Am by these plastics was studied. The same was done by varying vessel agitation time, vessel agitation speed, surface/volume ratio of water in the vessels and water pH. Adsorptions were measured to be between 0% and 70%. The adsorption of {sup 241}Am is minimized with no water agitation, with PET or PVC plastics, and by water acidification.

  3. Americium behaviour in plastic vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legarda, F; Herranz, M; Idoeta, R; Abelairas, A

    2010-01-01

    The adsorption of (241)Am dissolved in water in different plastic storage vessels was determined. Three different plastics were investigated with natural and distilled waters and the retention of (241)Am by these plastics was studied. The same was done by varying vessel agitation time, vessel agitation speed, surface/volume ratio of water in the vessels and water pH. Adsorptions were measured to be between 0% and 70%. The adsorption of (241)Am is minimized with no water agitation, with PET or PVC plastics, and by water acidification. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Automatic Leak Detection in Buried Plastic Pipes of Water Supply Networks by Means of Vibration Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Martini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of strategies for controlling water leaks is essential in order to reduce losses affecting distribution networks of drinking water. This paper focuses on leak detection by using vibration monitoring techniques. The long-term goal is the development of a system for automatic early detection of burst leaks in service pipes. An experimental campaign was started to measure vibrations transmitted along water pipes by real burst leaks occurring in actual water supply networks. The first experimental data were used for assessing the leak detection performance of a prototypal algorithm based on the calculation of the standard deviation of acceleration signals. The experimental campaign is here described and discussed. The proposed algorithm, enhanced by means of proper signal filtering techniques, was successfully tested on all monitored leaks, thus proving effective for leak detection purpose.

  5. Plasticity of skin water permeability and skin thickness in the amphibious mangrove rivulus Kryptolebias marmoratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffell, Quentin; Turko, Andy J; Wright, Patricia A

    2018-03-01

    The skin of amphibious fishes is a multipurpose organ, important for gas and ion exchange and nitrogen excretion when fish are out of water (emersed). We tested the hypothesis that skin permeability is altered to maintain water balance through changes in water permeability and skin thickness during salinity acclimation and/or when fish emerse, using the euryhaline, amphibious fish Kryptolebias marmoratus as a model. We first recorded the behaviour of fish out of water to determine which part of the cutaneous surface was in contact with the substrate. Fish spent about 70% of their time on their ventral surface when out of water. Osmotic permeability of the skin was assessed in fish acclimated to 0.3 or 45‰ using 3 H 2 O fluxes in an in vitro micro-Ussing chamber setup. In freshwater-acclimated fish, 3 H 2 O influx across the skin was significantly higher compared to hypersaline-acclimated fish, with no significant changes in efflux. Prolonged emersion (7 days) resulted in an increase in skin 3 H 2 O influx, but not efflux in fish acclimated to a moist 45‰ substrate. In a separate experiment, dorsal epidermal skin thickness increased while the ventral dermis thickness decreased in fish emersed for over a week. However, there was no link between regional skin thickness and water flux in our experiments. Taken together, these findings suggest that K. marmoratus alter skin permeability to maximize water uptake while emersed in hypersaline conditions, adjustments that probably help them survive months of emersion during the dry season when drinking to replace water loss is not possible.

  6. A Molecularly Imprinted Polymer on a Plasmonic Plastic Optical Fiber to Detect Perfluorinated Compounds in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunzio Cennamo

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel Molecularly Imprinted Polymer (MIP able to bind perfluorinated compounds, combined with a surface plasmon resonance (SPR optical fiber platform, is presented. The new MIP receptor has been deposited on a D-shaped plastic optical fiber (POF covered with a photoresist buffer layer and a thin gold film. The experimental results have shown that the developed SPR-POF-MIP sensor makes it possible to selectively detect the above compounds. In this work, we present the results obtained with perfluorooctanoate (PFOA compound, and they hold true when obtained with a perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFAs mixture sample. The sensor’s response is the same for PFOA, perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS or PFA contaminants in the C4–C11 range. We have also tested a sensor based on a non-imprinted polymer (NIP on the same SPR in a D-shaped POF platform. The limit of detection (LOD of the developed chemical sensor was 0.13 ppb. It is similar to the one obtained by the configuration based on a specific antibody for PFOA/PFOS exploiting the same SPR-POF platform, already reported in literature. The advantage of an MIP receptor is that it presents a better stability out of the native environment, very good reproducibility, low cost and, furthermore, it can be directly deposited on the gold layer, without modifying the metal surface by functionalizing procedures.

  7. Plastic Response of Tracheids in Pinus pinaster in a Water-Limited Environment: Adjusting Lumen Size instead of Wall Thickness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carvalho

    Full Text Available The formation of wood results from cambial activity and its anatomical properties reflect the variability of environmental conditions during the growing season. Recently, it was found that wood density variations in conifers growing under cold-limited environment result from the adjustment of cell wall thickness (CWT to temperature. Additionally, it is known that intra-annual density fluctuations (IADFs are formed in response to precipitation after the summer drought. Although IADFs are frequent in Mediterranean conifers no study has yet been conducted to determine if these structures result from the adjustment of lumen diameter (LD or CWT to soil water availability. Our main objective is to investigate the intra-ring variation of wood anatomical features (LD and CWT in Pinus pinaster Ait. growing under a water-limited environment. We compared the tracheidograms of LD and CWT for the years 2010-2013 in P. pinaster growing in the west coast of Portugal. Our results suggest a close association between LD and soil moisture content along the growing season, reinforcing the role of water availability in determining tracheid size. Compared with CWT, LD showed a higher intra- and inter-annual variability suggesting its strong adjustment value to variations in water availability. The formation of a latewood IADF appears to be predisposed by higher rates of cell production in spring and triggered by early autumn precipitation. Our findings reinforce the crucial role of water availability on cambial activity and wood formation in Mediterranean conifers, and emphasize the high plasticity of wood anatomical features under Mediterranean climate.

  8. Plastic Response of Tracheids in Pinus pinaster in a Water-Limited Environment: Adjusting Lumen Size instead of Wall Thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Ana; Nabais, Cristina; Vieira, Joana; Rossi, Sergio; Campelo, Filipe

    2015-01-01

    The formation of wood results from cambial activity and its anatomical properties reflect the variability of environmental conditions during the growing season. Recently, it was found that wood density variations in conifers growing under cold-limited environment result from the adjustment of cell wall thickness (CWT) to temperature. Additionally, it is known that intra-annual density fluctuations (IADFs) are formed in response to precipitation after the summer drought. Although IADFs are frequent in Mediterranean conifers no study has yet been conducted to determine if these structures result from the adjustment of lumen diameter (LD) or CWT to soil water availability. Our main objective is to investigate the intra-ring variation of wood anatomical features (LD and CWT) in Pinus pinaster Ait. growing under a water-limited environment. We compared the tracheidograms of LD and CWT for the years 2010-2013 in P. pinaster growing in the west coast of Portugal. Our results suggest a close association between LD and soil moisture content along the growing season, reinforcing the role of water availability in determining tracheid size. Compared with CWT, LD showed a higher intra- and inter-annual variability suggesting its strong adjustment value to variations in water availability. The formation of a latewood IADF appears to be predisposed by higher rates of cell production in spring and triggered by early autumn precipitation. Our findings reinforce the crucial role of water availability on cambial activity and wood formation in Mediterranean conifers, and emphasize the high plasticity of wood anatomical features under Mediterranean climate.

  9. Bottled vs. Canned Beer: Do They Really Taste Different?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Barnett

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available People often say that beer tastes better from a bottle than from a can. However, one can ask how reliable this perceived difference is across consumers. And, if reliable, one can further ask whether it is a purely psychological phenomenon (associated with the influence of packaging on taste perception, or whether instead it reflects some more mundane physico-chemical interaction between the packaging material (or packing procedure/process and the contents. Two experiments were conducted in order to address these questions. In the main experiment, 151 participants at the 2016 Edinburgh Science Festival were served a special ‘craft beer’ in a plastic cup. The beer was either poured from a bottle or can (a between-participants experimental design was used. The participants were encouraged to pick up the packaging in order to inspect the label before tasting the beer. The participants rated the perceived taste, quality, and freshness of the beer, as well as their likelihood of purchase, and estimated the price. All of the beer came from the same batch (specifically a Session IPA from Barney’s Brewery in Edinburgh. None of the participants were familiar with this particular craft brew. Nevertheless, those who evaluated the beer from the bottle rated it as tasting better than those who rated the beer served from the can. Having demonstrated such a perceptual difference (in terms of taste, we then went on to investigate whether people would prefer one packaging format over the other when the beer from bottle and can was served blind to a new group of participants (i.e., when the participants did not know the packaging material. The participants in this control study (n = 29 were asked which beer they preferred. Alternatively, they could state that the two samples tasted the same. No sign of a consistent preference was obtained under such blind tasting conditions. Explanations for the psychological impact of the packaging format, in terms of

  10. Elastic-Plastic Numerical Analysis of Tunnel Stability Based on the Closest Point Projection Method Considering the Effect of Water Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan-ping Song

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the tunnel stability at various static water pressures and determine the mechanical properties and deformation behavior of surrounding rock, a modified effective stress formula was introduced into a numerical integration algorithm of elastic-plastic constitutive equation, that is, closest point projection method (CPPM. Taking the effects of water pressure and seepage into account, a CPPM-based formula was derived and a CPPM algorithm based on Drucker-Prager yield criterion considering the effect of pore water pressure was provided. On this basis, a CPPM-based elastic-plastic numerical analysis program considering pore water pressure was developed, which can be applied in the engineering of tunnels and other underground structures. The algorithm can accurately take the effects of groundwater on stability of surrounding rock mass into account and it can show the more pronounced effect of pore water pressure on stress, deformation, and the plastic zone in a tunnel. The stability of water flooding in Fusong tunnel was systematically analyzed using the developed program. The analysis results showed that the existence of groundwater seepage under tunnel construction will give rise to stress redistribution in the surrounding rock mass. Pore water pressure has a significant effect on the surrounding rock mass.

  11. Factors controlling plasticity of leaf morphology in Robinia pseudoacacia L. II: the impact of water stress on leaf morphology of seedlings grown in a controlled environment chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.T. Tyree

    2012-01-01

    Context. The cause of morphological plasticity of leaves within the crowns of tall trees still debated. Whether it is driven by irradiance or hydraulic constraints is inconclusive. In a previous study, we hypothesized that water stress caused between-site and within-tree morphological variability in mature Robinia trees.

  12. Effects of Different Water and Super Plasticizer Amount, Pre-Setting and Curing Regimes on the Behavior of Reactive Powder Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Dashti Rahmatabadi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Reactive Powder Concrete (RPC is an ultra high performance concrete which has superior mechanical and physical properties. The RPC is composed of cement and very fine powders such as crushed quartz (100–600 μm and silica fume with very low water/binder ratio (W/B (less than 0.20 and Super Plasticizer (SP. The RPC has a very high compressive and tensile strength with better durability properties than current high performance concretes. Application of very low water/binder ratio with a high dosage of super plasticizer, different heat curing processes and pre-setting pressure improve mechanical and physical properties of RPC. In this study, the RPC is composed of available materials in Iran. Two different mixing proportions, different water/binder ratios for preparation of samples, different super plasticizer dosages, five different (0, 25, 50, 100 and 150 MPa pre-setting pressure and 7 different curing regimes were used in samples preparation and experiments. Results showed that appropriate water/binder ratio and super plasticizer dosage, higher temperature and pre-setting pressure increase the workability, density and compressive strength of compositions.

  13. Improvement studies on emission and combustion characteristics of DICI engine fuelled with colloidal emulsion of diesel distillate of plastic oil, TiO2 nanoparticles and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karisathan Sundararajan, Narayanan; Ammal, Anand Ramachandran Bhagavathi

    2018-04-01

    Experimentation was conducted on a single cylinder CI engine using processed colloidal emulsions of TiO 2 nanoparticle-water-diesel distillate of crude plastic diesel oil as test fuel. The test fuel was prepared with plastic diesel oil as the principal constituent by a novel blending technique with an aim to improve the working characteristics. The results obtained by the test fuel from the experiments were compared with that of commercial petro-diesel (CPD) fuel for same engine operating parameters. Plastic oil produced from high density polyethylene plastic waste by pyrolysis was subjected to fractional distillation for separating plastic diesel oil (PDO) that contains diesel range hydrocarbons. The blending process showed a little improvement in the field of fuel oil-water-nanometal oxide colloidal emulsion preparation due to the influence of surfactant in electrostatic stabilization, dielectric potential, and pH of the colloidal medium on the absolute value of zeta potential, a measure of colloidal stability. The engine tests with nano-emulsions of PDO showed an increase in ignition delay (23.43%), and decrease in EGT (6.05%), BSNO x (7.13%), and BSCO (28.96%) relative to PDO at rated load. Combustion curve profiles, percentage distribution of compounds, and physical and chemical properties of test fuels ascertains these results. The combustion acceleration at diffused combustion phase was evidenced in TiO 2 emulsion fuels under study.

  14. Application of biotests for the characterization of exposure pathways for endocrine disrupters from plastics; Anwendung von Biotests zur Charakterisierung der Expositionspfade fuer Umwelthormone aus Kunststoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Martin; Oehlmann, Joerg [Frankfurt Univ., Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Abteilung Aquatische Oekotoxikologie

    2011-12-15

    The present project aims to characterise the exposure pathways for endocrine disruptors from plastic materials. A bioassay-based approach was employed to investigate and characterise the endocrine activity. Migration studies with food packaging and plastic preforms document the leaching of estrogen-like compounds from several types of plastic in the Yeast Estrogen Screen and the E-Screen. Additionally, anti-estrogenic activity was predominant in many samples. The detection of complex migration profiles provides evidence for the leaching of several, diverse-acting endocrine disruptors. Moreover, extracts of plastic food packaging exhibited agonistic activity on the estrogen receptor, retinoid X receptor, and vitamin D receptor. A theoretical exposure assessment for marine molluscs implies that endocrine disruptors from plastic might induce relevant effect in the environment. Within the exemplary investigation of bottled mineral water, 60% of the products were characterised as significantly estrogenic using the YES and E-Screen. These in vitro data point to the plastic packaging being one source of estrogenic contamination. An in vivo study employing the estrogen-sensitive model organism Potamopyrgus antipodarum supports this hypothesis. By using several analytical techniques (GC-MS, LC-MS/MS) we identified several well-known endocrine disruptors in bottled water and the plastic material, e.g. numerous phthalates and phenols. Moreover, potent antagonists of the estrogen and androgen receptor were extracted from bottled water. In a non-target analysis (Orbitrap-MS) a compound with the exact mass of 363.1992 [M+H{sup +}] correlated highly significantly with the biological activity. On the basis of the methods optimised and applied within the project we elaborated a set of aspects that are crucial for the applicability of bioassays to characterise the endocrine activity of complex samples. Employing a bioassay-based approach we provide evidence for the presence and

  15. Pyrolysis of plastic waste using alumina-pumice as catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warnijati, S.; Agra, I.B.; Wibowo, W.

    2000-01-01

    Efforts to convert plastic waste to liquid fuel have been carried out, but the yield was not so promising yet. Various catalysts have been studied to drive the product more to the liquid fuel. In this study, alumina-pumice produced from cheap local materials, was used as catalyst. Solid polyethylene plastic waste was melted in a feed compartment surrounding the tube reactor, and the vapor flowed downward through the catalyst bed which was supported by small glass marbles. Air and water coolers were used to cool and condense the product. Liquid and uncondensable gas were collected in receivers and bottle filled with brine, respectively. The physical properties of a specific liquid product were tested according to the ASTM methods. Liquid and gas products increased with time and temperature, and the rate of liquid and gas formations followed first order reaction. Using 100 g of plastic waste and 40 g of catalyst, the favorable time and temperature of pyrolysis were 105 minutes and 653-673 K, respectively. Under this condition, 86 - 87 % of liquid, 45 - 53 mL/g of gas, and 1% of solid residue were obtained. The quantity of liquid product was higher than the previous work (which was just 70-75 %) and its physical properties were between those of kerosene and diesel oil. The gross heating value of the liquid was 49 796.03 J/g, and the gas burnt with yellow flame and some soot. (Author)

  16. Hot water extracted wood fiber for production of wood plastic composites (WPCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel Raul Pelaez-Samaniego; Vikram Yadama; Eini Lowell; Thomas E. Amidon; Timothy L. Chaffee

    2013-01-01

    Undebarked ponderosa pine chips were treated by hot water extraction to modify the chemical composition. In the treated pine (TP) , the mass was reduced by approximately 20%, and the extract was composed mainly of degradation products of hemicelluloses. Wood flour produced from TP and unextracted chips (untreated pine, UP) was blended with high-density polyethylene (...

  17. Water Vapor Permeation of Metal Oxide/Polymer Coated Plastic Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numata, Yukihiro; Oya, Toshiyuki; Kuwahara, Mitsuru; Ito, Katsuya

    Barrier performance to water vapor permeation of ceramic coated layers deposited on flexible polymer films is of great interest to food packaging, medical device packaging and flat panel display industries. In this study, a new type film in which a ceramic layer is deposited on a polymer coated film was proposed for lower water vapor permeation. It is important how to control interfacial properties between each layer and film for good barrier performance. Several kinds of polymer coated materials were prepared for changing surface free energy of the films before and after depositing the ceramic layer. The ceramic layer, which is composed of mixed material of SiO2 and Al2O3, was adopted under the same conditions. The following results were obtained; 1) Water vapor permeation is not related to the surface energy of polymer coated films, 2) After depositing the ceramic layer, however, a strong correlation is observed between the water vapor permeation and surface free energy. 3) The phenomenon is considered that the polarity of the polymer layers plays a key role in changing the structure of ceramic coated layers.

  18. [Plasticity of memory in the brain of white rats after long-term exposure to titanium in drinking water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szuliński, S; Strusiński, A

    2001-01-01

    The experiment was conducted on male white rats from breeding base of the National Institute of Hygiene: WIS own breeding. During sixteen months the drinking water with TiCl3 in concentrations 5 and 25 mg/l, what is equivalent respectively 0.45 and 2.25 mg per 1 kg of daily weight of rats, was given the animals. After 3 and 15 months of exposure the rats were taught to differentiate and remember sight effects. The investigation of each cluster of rats, living previously in the same cage, was going non-stop by 24 hours for 5 days. The training was carried on in the special adopted cages making possible to record all correct and incorrect attempts in day long cycle. Percentage indicator, the ratio of mistakes to all number of the attempts, was used for assessment the training effectiveness in each group and the result in intoxicated group were compared with control group. During the whole time of exposition the supplying drinking water with TiCl3 in concentrations 5 and 25 mg/l has not caused changes in rats confirming possibility to evoke disorders of brain memory plasticity.

  19. Simple tecniques of radiation protection for radon monitoring in air and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napolitano, C.M.; Oliveira Sampa, M.H. de; Palacios, E.

    1978-01-01

    Simple techniques for 'in situ' radon concentration measurements in air and water using a scintillation chamber are discussed. The chamber was constructed with a comercial 'Pyrex' erlenmeyer flask by uniformely coating with powdered ZnS:Ag all the flask's internal surface, except its base. For air monitoring, the sample is introduced into the scintillation chamber and when the radioactive equilibrium between radon and its daughters of short half life is reached, the chamber is placed into a light-tight box that has a photomultiplier connected to a counting system. For water monitoring, the sample is placed in a plastic bottle and the bottle connected with a scintillation chamber for 5 hours. Afterwards, the gas of the chamber is counted and radon concentration in water is determined through the counting rate observed in the gaseous phase. The detection limits of these techniques in air and water monitoring were 7pCi/l and 1,5pCi/l [pt

  20. Plasticity theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lubliner, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    The aim of Plasticity Theory is to provide a comprehensive introduction to the contemporary state of knowledge in basic plasticity theory and to its applications. It treats several areas not commonly found between the covers of a single book: the physics of plasticity, constitutive theory, dynamic plasticity, large-deformation plasticity, and numerical methods, in addition to a representative survey of problems treated by classical methods, such as elastic-plastic problems, plane plastic flow, and limit analysis; the problem discussed come from areas of interest to mechanical, structural, and

  1. Beer bottle whistling: a stochastic Hopf bifurcation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boujo, Edouard; Bourquard, Claire; Xiong, Yuan; Noiray, Nicolas

    2017-11-01

    Blowing in a bottle to produce sound is a popular and yet intriguing entertainment. We reproduce experimentally the common observation that the bottle ``whistles'', i.e. produces a distinct tone, for large enough blowing velocity and over a finite interval of blowing angle. For a given set of parameters, the whistling frequency stays constant over time while the acoustic pressure amplitude fluctuates. Transverse oscillations of the shear layer in the bottle's neck are clearly identified with time-resolved particle image velocimetry (PIV) and proper orthogonal decomposition (POD). To account for these observations, we develop an analytical model of linear acoustic oscillator (the air in the bottle) subject to nonlinear stochastic forcing (the turbulent jet impacting the bottle's neck). We derive a stochastic differential equation and, from the associated Fokker-Planck equation and the measured acoustic pressure signals, we identify the model's parameters with an adjoint optimization technique. Results are further validated experimentally, and allow us to explain (i) the occurrence of whistling in terms of linear instability, and (ii) the amplitude of the limit cycle as a competition between linear growth rate, noise intensity, and nonlinear saturation. E. B. and N. N. acknowledge support by Repower and the ETH Zurich Foundation.

  2. Energy recycling of plastic and rubber wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, R.

    2003-01-01

    Major areas for applications of plastics and rubbers are building and construction, packaging, transportation, automobiles, furniture, house wares, appliances, electrical and electronics. Approximately 20% of all the plastics produced are utilized by the building and construction industry/sup (1-3)/. Categories of polymers mostly used in the above industries include poly (vinyl chloride), polypropylene, polyethylene, polystyrene phenolics, acrylics and urethanes. Tyres and tubes are almost exclusively made up of rubbers. One third of total consumption of plastics finds applications, like films, bottles and packaging, in food-products that have a maximum life-span of two years, after which these find way to waste dumps. As the polymer industry in Pakistan is set to grow very rapidly in the near future the increase in utilization of plastic products in synchronous with the advent of computers and information technology. About 0.60 Kg per capita of waste generated daily in Lahore /(7.14)/ contains considerable quantity of plastics. (AB)

  3. Theoretical Framework for Plastic Waste Management in Ghana through Extended Producer Responsibility: Case of Sachet Water Waste

    OpenAIRE

    Quartey, Ebo; Tosefa, Hero; Danquah, Kwasi; Obrsalova, Ilona

    2015-01-01

    Currently, use and disposal of plastic by consumers through waste management activities in Ghana not only creates environmental problems, but also reinforces the notion of a wasteful society. The magnitude of this problem has led to increasing pressure from the public for efficient and practical measures to solve the waste problem. This paper analyses the impact of plastic use and disposal in Ghana. It emphasizes the need for commitment to proper management of the impacts of plastic waste and...

  4. The effects of plastic film mulching on maize growth and water use in dry and rainy years in Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jie; Li, Congfeng; Liu, Huitao; Zhou, Peilu; Tao, Zhiqiang; Wang, Pu; Meng, Qingfeng; Zhao, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Plastic film mulching (PM) has been widely used to improve maize (Zea mays L.) yields and water use efficiency (WUE) in Northeast China, but the effects of PM in a changing climate characterized by highly variable precipitation are not well understood. Six site-year field experiments were conducted in the dry and rainy years to investigate the effects of PM on maize growth, grain yield, and WUE in Northeast China. Compared to crops grown without PM treatment (control, CK), PM significantly increased the grain yield by 15-26% in the dry years, but no significant yield increase was observed in the rainy years. Yield increase in the dry years was mainly due to a large increase in dry matter accumulation pre-silking compared to the CK, which resulted from a greater dry matter accumulation rate due to the higher topsoil temperature and water content. As a result, the WUE of the crops that underwent PM (3.27 kg m(-3)) treatment was also increased by around 16% compared to the CK, although the overall evapotranspiration was similar between the two treatments. In the rainy years, due to frequent precipitation and scant sunshine, the topsoil temperature and water content in the field that received PM treatment was improved only at some stages and failed to cause higher dry matter accumulation, except at the 8th leaf stage. Consequently, the grain yield and WUE were not improved by PM in the rainy years. In addition, we found that PM caused leaf senescence at the late growth stage in both dry and rainy years. Therefore, in practice, PM should be applied cautiously, especially when in-season precipitation is taken into account.

  5. Detection of bottled explosives by near infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itozaki, Hideo; Sato-Akaba, Hideo

    2013-10-01

    Bottled liquids are not allowed through the security gate in the airport, because liquid explosives have been used by the terrorists. However, passengers have a lot of trouble if they cannot bring their own bottles. For example, a mother would like to carry her own milk in the airplane for her baby. Therefore the detection technology of liquid explosives should be developed as soon as possible. This paper shows that near infrared spectroscopy can detect bottled explosives quickly. The transmission method cannot deal with milk in the sense of liquid inspection. Here we examined the reflection method to the test of milk. The inspection method with light cannot make test for the metal can. We also use ultrasonic method to check metal can simultaneously in order to expand test targets.

  6. Potassium methyl siliconate-treated pulp fibers and their effects on wood plastic composites: Water sorption and dimensional stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng Piao; Zhiyong Cai; Nicole M. Stark; Charles J. Monlezun

    2013-01-01

    Potassium methyl siliconate (PMS) was investigated as a new nano modifier of wood fiber and wood flour to improve the compatibility between the fiber/flour and the plastic matrix in fiber reinforced plastic composites. Before injection molding, bleached and brown pulp fibers and mixed species wood flour were pretreated in PMS solutions. The morphology of the treated...

  7. The effects of resonances on time delay estimation for water leak detection in plastic pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Fabrício C. L.; Brennan, Michael J.; Joseph, Phillip F.; Gao, Yan; Paschoalini, Amarildo T.

    2018-04-01

    In the use of acoustic correlation methods for water leak detection, sensors are placed at pipe access points either side of a suspected leak, and the peak in the cross-correlation function of the measured signals gives the time difference (delay) between the arrival times of the leak noise at the sensors. Combining this information with the speed at which the leak noise propagates along the pipe, gives an estimate for the location of the leak with respect to one of the measurement positions. It is possible for the structural dynamics of the pipe system to corrupt the time delay estimate, which results in the leak being incorrectly located. In this paper, data from test-rigs in the United Kingdom and Canada are used to demonstrate this phenomenon, and analytical models of resonators are coupled with a pipe model to replicate the experimental results. The model is then used to investigate which of the two commonly used correlation algorithms, the Basic Cross-Correlation (BCC) function or the Phase Transform (PHAT), is more robust to the undesirable structural dynamics of the pipe system. It is found that time delay estimation is highly sensitive to the frequency bandwidth over which the analysis is conducted. Moreover, it is found that the PHAT is particularly sensitive to the presence of resonances and can give an incorrect time delay estimate, whereas the BCC function is found to be much more robust, giving a consistently accurate time delay estimate for a range of dynamic conditions.

  8. Study on heat transfer coefficients during cooling of PET bottles for food beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liga, Antonio; Montesanto, Salvatore; Mannella, Gianluca A.; La Carrubba, Vincenzo; Brucato, Valerio; Cammalleri, Marco

    2016-08-01

    The heat transfer properties of different cooling systems dealing with Poly-Ethylene-Terephthalate (PET) bottles were investigated. The heat transfer coefficient (Ug) was measured in various fluid dynamic conditions. Cooling media were either air or water. It was shown that heat transfer coefficients are strongly affected by fluid dynamics conditions, and range from 10 W/m2 K to nearly 400 W/m2 K. PET bottle thickness effect on Ug was shown to become relevant under faster fluid dynamics regimes.

  9. Emergency Disinfection of Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    How to boil and disinfect water to kill most disease-causing microorganisms during emergency situations where regular water service has been interrupted and local authorities recommend using only bottled water, boiled water, or disinfected water.

  10. Marine microplastics - Method development for detection of plastic particles from sea water down to 10 μm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenz, Robin; Enders, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    During the past few years and especially in 2014, plastic pollution has gained a lot of media attention and public awareness is rising. Management plans and policies start to adopt strategies for mitigating effects and reducing entry of marine litter and beached plastic. Strangled seals or plastic...... ingesting seabirds are perceived easily by the broad public through emotionally charged photographs and personal experiences on beaches all around the globe. Monitoring programs, beach clean-ups, source elimination, and societal changes such as local bans of single-use plastic bags or outphasing...... on the bottom of the food web, whose existence and importance we are rarely aware of. There are chances for severe impacts in plastic accumulating ocean gyres which are of oligotrophic nature and consequently low food availability. So far the concentrations, biological impact and the fate of disintegrating...

  11. Using Virtual Reality in K-12 Education: A Simulation of Shooting Bottle Rockets for Distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Nippert

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Typically, it is often more challenging to shoot bottle rockets for distance instead of shooting them straight up and measuring altitude, as is often done.Using a device made from pipe and wood to launch bottle rockets and control the launch angle creates a much more interesting problem for students who are attempting to optimize launch conditions.Plans are presented for a launcher that allow students to adjust the launch angle. To help embellish the exercise, we supplement the bottle rocket with a model using virtual reality and a photorealistic simulation of the launch that allows the students to appreciate the optimization problems associated with water and air pressure and launch angle. Our usage data indicates that students easily adapt to the virtual reality simulation and use our simulation for intuitive experiments on their own to optimize launch conditions.

  12. Disposal of post-consumer polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles: comparison of five disposal alternatives in the small island state of Mauritius using a life cycle assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foolmaun, Rajendra Kumar; Ramjeeawon, Toolseeram

    2012-01-01

    Used polyethylene terephthalate bottles (PET) dumped indiscriminately onto bare lands and water bodies constitute an eyesore. This problem is viewed as a serious impediment to the flourishing tourism industry in Mauritius. Currently, over 100 million PET bottles are generated annually and the only fully operational disposal route is through the sole sanitary landfill. There is no formal segregation of waste and therefore used PET bottles are disposed of commingled with domestic waste. Despite a satisfactory waste collection system, a considerable amount of used PET bottles unfortunately end up in water bodies and on bare lands. An appreciable amount of PET bottles is now being collected separately for flake production prior to export to South Africa. This paper investigated the environmental impact of five waste management scenarios (100% landfill; 100% incineration with energy recovery; 50% incineration and 50% landfill; 34% flake production and 66% landfill; 100% flake production) for used PET bottles in Mauritius. Comparison of the five scenarios was based on the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology described in ISO 14040 and ISO 14044. SimaPro 7.1 software was used to analyse the data. Comparison of the five scenarios showed that the highest environmental impacts occurred when 100% of used PET bottles were sent to the landfill. The comparison also indicated that there were least impacts on the environment when all used PET bottles were incinerated with energy recovery.

  13. 27 CFR 19.749 - Bottling and packaging record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottling and packaging record. 19.749 Section 19.749 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Account § 19.749 Bottling and packaging record. The bottling and packaging record shall be prepared and...

  14. Electrochemical Characterisation of Bio-Bottle-Voltaic (BBV) Systems Operated with Algae and Built with Recycled Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateson, Peter; Fleet, Jack E H; Riseley, Anthony S; Janeva, Elena; Marcella, Anastasia S; Farinea, Chiara; Kuptsova, Maria; Conde Pueyo, Núria; Howe, Christopher J; Bombelli, Paolo; Parker, Brenda M

    2018-04-17

    Photobioelectrochemical systems are an emerging possibility for renewable energy. By exploiting photosynthesis, they transform the energy of light into electricity. This study evaluates a simple, scalable bioelectrochemical system built from recycled plastic bottles, equipped with an anode made from recycled aluminum, and operated with the green alga Chlorella sorokiniana . We tested whether such a system, referred to as a bio-bottle-voltaic (BBV) device, could operate outdoors for a prolonged time period of 35 days. Electrochemical characterisation was conducted by measuring the drop in potential between the anode and the cathode, and this value was used to calculate the rate of charge accumulation. The BBV systems were initially able to deliver ~500 mC·bottle −1 ·day −1 , which increased throughout the experimental run to a maximum of ~2000 mC·bottle −1 ·day −1 . The electrical output was consistently and significantly higher than that of the abiotic BBV system operated without algal cells (~100 mC·bottle −1 ·day −1 ). The analysis of the rate of algal biomass accumulation supported the hypothesis that harvesting a proportion of electrons from the algal cells does not significantly perturb the rate of algal growth. Our finding demonstrates that bioelectrochemical systems can be built using recycled components. Prototypes of these systems have been displayed in public events; they could serve as educational toolkits in schools and could also offer a solution for powering low-energy devices off-grid.

  15. THE APPLICATION OF WASTE PLASTICS IN ROAD CONSTRUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    MR. YASHODHAN ARVIND JAGTAP; DIGVIJAY PRAMOD BHOSALE

    2017-01-01

    Disposal of plastic waste in the environment is considered to be a big problem because it is very low in biodegradability and its presence is large. Chocolate, chocolate, chips, handbags, cold drink bottles and other plastic packaging can cause major environmental and economic problems. They consume a lot of energy and other natural resources and exhaust the environment in various ways. In recent years, the use of industrial waste to replace a part of conventional concrete aggregate is being ...

  16. Inbreeding and adaptive plasticity: an experimental analysis on predator-induced responses in the water flea Daphnia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swillen, Ine; Vanoverbeke, Joost; De Meester, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have emphasized that inbreeding depression (ID) is enhanced under stressful conditions. Additionally, one might imagine a loss of adaptively plastic responses which may further contribute to a reduction in fitness under environmental stress. Here, we quantified ID in inbred families of the cyclical parthenogen Daphnia magna in the absence and presence of fish predation risk. We test whether predator stress affects the degree of ID and if inbred families have a reduced capacity to respond to predator stress by adaptive phenotypic plasticity. We obtained two inbred families through clonal selfing within clones isolated from a fish pond. After mild purging under standardized conditions, we compared life history traits and adaptive plasticity between inbred and outbred lineages (directly hatched from the natural dormant egg bank of the same pond). Initial purging of lineages under standardized conditions differed among inbred families and exceeded that in outbreds. The least purged inbred family exhibited strong ID for most life history traits. Predator-induced stress hardly affected the severity of ID, but the degree to which the capacity for adaptive phenotypic plasticity was retained varied strongly among the inbred families. The least purged family overall lacked the capacity for adaptive phenotypic plasticity, whereas the family that suffered only mild purging exhibited a potential for adaptive plasticity that was comparable to the outbred population. We thus found that inbred offspring may retain the capacity to respond to the presence of fish by adaptive phenotypic plasticity, but this strongly depends on the parental clone engaging in selfing. PMID:26257883

  17. Invasive submerged freshwater macrophytes are more plastic in their response to light intensity than to the availability of free CO2 in air-equilibrated water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eller, Franziska; Alnoee, Anette B.; Boderskov, Teis

    2015-01-01

    1. The future increase in the atmospheric CO2 concentration is likely to affect the growth and performance of submerged freshwater macrophytes because of higher concentrations of free CO2 in the water at air equilibrium. We measured the plastic responses to free CO2 and light for several traits...... in all four species. 4. As the growth and photosynthesis of the four invasive bicarbonate users were only slightly affected by the CO2 availability in air-equilibrated water, the future rise in atmospheric CO2 is unlikely to exacerbate their invasive behaviour and may even reduce their competitiveness...... compensation point, and with higher concentrations of photosynthetic pigments and quantum yield. The bicarbonate uptake capacity was generally highest at the high light intensity and high concentrations of free CO2. Plasticity indices for light intensity were consistently higher than for CO2 availability...

  18. Utilization of plastic detector for pool water radioactivity control of IEA-R1 reactor. Examination of fuel element irradiation behaviour fabricated at IPEN/CNEN-SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berretta, J.R.; Mesquita, C.H. de; Madi Filho, T.

    1989-01-01

    For the examination of fuel element irradiation behavior that were fabricated at IPEN/CNEN/SP Metalurgical Departament, it was provided a detection system for pool water radioactivity measurements. This system uses a plastic scintillator detector produced at IPEN/CNEN-SP Health Physics Department, with dimensions and shape apropriated for such work. The detection system shows a sensibility of 4.125x10 -2 dps/cm 3 and 20% of efficiency for 131 I radiations. (author) [pt

  19. The Effect of Wind Velocity on the Cooling Rate of Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrey Aryan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of wind velocity on the cooling rate of water was investigated by blowing air horizontally over the surface of water contained in a plastic water-bottle cap. The time taken for the temperature to fall to the average of the surrounding and initial temperatures was recorded at different values of wind velocity. It was observed that on increasing the wind velocity, the time taken to achieve average temperature not only decreased but also remained the same after a certain point.

  20. Shipping container for a bottle of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soldan, D.W.

    1975-01-01

    A shipping container for a bottle of radioactive material comprises a can having a cavity therein for receiving the bottle, a screw cap for the can and the cavity, and an annular bottle retainer extending downwardly in the cavity from its upper end having an outwardly extending flange at its upper end clamped between the cap and the upper end of the cavity and an inwardly extending flange at its lower end receiving the neck of the bottle. The cap carries a sponge to absorb spillage from the bottle. (U.S.)

  1. The Role of Epibionts of Bacteria of the Genus Pseudoalteromonas and Cellular Proteasomes in the Adaptive Plasticity of Marine Cold-Water Sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchuk, O I; Lavrov, A I; Finoshin, A D; Gornostaev, N G; Georgiev, A A; Abaturova, S B; Mikhailov, V S; Lyupina, Yu V

    2018-03-01

    It was found that cells of different color morphs of the cold-water marine sponges Halichondria panicea (Pallas, 1766) of the class Demospongiae differ in the content of epibionts of bacteria of the genus Pseudoalteromonas. The sponge cells with elevated levels of epibionts of bacteria of the genus Pseudoalteromonas showed an increased expression of Hsp70 proteins but had a reduced level of the proteasomal catalytic beta 5 subunit, which was accompanied by a change in their activity. Probably, epibionts of bacteria of the genus Pseudoalteromonas may affect the ubiquitin-proteasome system in the cells of cold-water marine sponges and, thereby, ensure their adaptive plasticity.

  2. Plastic ingestion by Masked booby, Sula dactylatra Lesson, 1831, on Biological Reserve of Rocas Atoll, RN, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erich de Freitas Mariano

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Plastic particles are one of the most common pollutants in the marine environment and it is reaching regions with low human population density. These particles are frequently ingested by many marine organisms, causing digestive problems, which may lead to the weakening and death of the animal. In a research on the feeding of 631-masked boobies, Sula dactylatra from the Biological Reserve of Atol das Rocas, plastic particles were found in stomach contents of four adults. The artifacts found were made of transperant plastic, a piece of label of a mineral water bottle, two pieces of black plastic and a small hard and red piece. The flow of fishing and tourism boats on the Atol das Rocas Biological Reserve may be the source of origin of the plastic parts in both the stomach contents and those found on the islands of the reserve, which suggests that anthropogenic behaviour has already reached isolated areas which should have a high degree of biodiversity protection. Several measures can be taken to avoid deleterious events in the marine biota, but there is great difficulty in avoiding waste dumping from fishing and tourism ships/boats, in addition to that, there are many materials from the mainland, which requires an increase in awareness and supervision.

  3. Old Wine in New Bottles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warner, J.F.; Hoogesteger van Dijk, J.D.; Hidalgo, Jean Pablo

    2017-01-01

    Despite a widely embraced ecological turn and strident critique of megastructures in the 1990s, construction of large infrastructure has been reignited worldwide. While Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) and River Basin Management (RBM) have at least discursively held sway as the dominant

  4. A study of radon 222 permeation through plastic membranes. Application to a method of radon measurement in water and saturated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labed, V.

    1991-04-01

    In order to improve the BARASOL R device and to use it in water-saturated soils and in pressure constraint conditions, we have studied radon 222 permeation through plastic membranes. While the permeation process usually takes place between two media being in the same state, most often gaseous, the present study describes the transfer of radon 222 from the water to the air via a membrane. Polypropylene membranes have been tested with an experimental set-up by monitoring the evolution of radon concentrations in water and in air. The permeation coefficient and the activation energy were calculated in various conditions. With a second experimental set-up, we have tested the polyethylene membrane which has been adapted on the BARASOL. In these conditions, we have shown that it is possible to measure radon in water at concentrations around 10 3 Bq.m -3 [fr

  5. Study of the influence of the protective covering from contamination on the radiopharmaceutical bottle in measurement of activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuahara, L.T.; Correa, E.L.; Potiens, M.P.A

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to determine the influence of the use of a plastic covering on the bottle used to supply radiopharmaceuticals to analyze the feasibility of its use at the time of manufacture, in order to avoid contamination in the activity meter well chamber. For that were held several measured with liquid 137 Cs source with and without this envelope and the activity meters of the calibration laboratory. Tests showed a small variation in the percentage of measures with the plastic covering, value considerably low, which will not cause injury in providing radiopharmaceuticals for the Service Nuclear Medicine

  6. Theoretical Framework for Plastic Waste Management in Ghana through Extended Producer Responsibility: Case of Sachet Water Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebo Tawiah Quartey

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently, use and disposal of plastic by consumers through waste management activities in Ghana not only creates environmental problems, but also reinforces the notion of a wasteful society. The magnitude of this problem has led to increasing pressure from the public for efficient and practical measures to solve the waste problem. This paper analyses the impact of plastic use and disposal in Ghana. It emphasizes the need for commitment to proper management of the impacts of plastic waste and effective environmental management in the country. Sustainable Solid Waste Management (SSWM is a critical problem for developing countries with regards to climate change and greenhouse gas emission, and also the general wellbeing of the populace. Key themes of this paper are producer responsibility and management of products at end of life. The paper proposes two theatrical recovery models that can be used to address the issue of sachet waste in Ghana.

  7. Theoretical Framework for Plastic Waste Management in Ghana through Extended Producer Responsibility: Case of Sachet Water Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quartey, Ebo Tawiah; Tosefa, Hero; Danquah, Kwasi Asare Baffour; Obrsalova, Ilona

    2015-01-01

    Currently, use and disposal of plastic by consumers through waste management activities in Ghana not only creates environmental problems, but also reinforces the notion of a wasteful society. The magnitude of this problem has led to increasing pressure from the public for efficient and practical measures to solve the waste problem. This paper analyses the impact of plastic use and disposal in Ghana. It emphasizes the need for commitment to proper management of the impacts of plastic waste and effective environmental management in the country. Sustainable Solid Waste Management (SSWM) is a critical problem for developing countries with regards to climate change and greenhouse gas emission, and also the general wellbeing of the populace. Key themes of this paper are producer responsibility and management of products at end of life. The paper proposes two theatrical recovery models that can be used to address the issue of sachet waste in Ghana. PMID:26308016

  8. Theoretical Framework for Plastic Waste Management in Ghana through Extended Producer Responsibility: Case of Sachet Water Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quartey, Ebo Tawiah; Tosefa, Hero; Danquah, Kwasi Asare Baffour; Obrsalova, Ilona

    2015-08-20

    Currently, use and disposal of plastic by consumers through waste management activities in Ghana not only creates environmental problems, but also reinforces the notion of a wasteful society. The magnitude of this problem has led to increasing pressure from the public for efficient and practical measures to solve the waste problem. This paper analyses the impact of plastic use and disposal in Ghana. It emphasizes the need for commitment to proper management of the impacts of plastic waste and effective environmental management in the country. Sustainable Solid Waste Management (SSWM) is a critical problem for developing countries with regards to climate change and greenhouse gas emission, and also the general wellbeing of the populace. Key themes of this paper are producer responsibility and management of products at end of life. The paper proposes two theatrical recovery models that can be used to address the issue of sachet waste in Ghana.

  9. Environmental risk and influence of chemicals from plastic materials on children’s health – the challenge also for paediatricians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Rudkowski

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemicals artificially synthesized and leaching into a common environment are a toxicological risk particularly in prenatal period and in early childhood. The risk exists due to the contact with xenogenic substances from maternal breast milk and other food, polluted air and water, plastic materials, cosmetics. All endocrine and neurological disruptors (EDC pass across placenta, then can cause hormonal, neurological or metabolic disorders mainly due to estrogenic action. Bisphenol A is one of endocrine disruptors leaching from polychlorobiphenyl plastic (PCB, present commonly in baby polycarbonate bottles. Phtalates like DEHP, DOP, DINP, DIDP, DIPB, DBP or BBP are used as plasticizers making plastics softer and more flexible. Flame retardants f, ex, PBDE (polybrominated diphenyleter are added to polyurethane foams, and HBCD (hexabromocyclododecane is a compound of polystyrene electric insulation. Perfluorinated compounds (PFC are some hundreds substancies and mostly used is PFOS (Perfluoroacetate sulphonate and PFOA (perfluoroacetic acid repelling water, grease and dirt; they are used as impregnating and cleaning agents, and PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylen known as Teflon or Goretex. The toxicity of xenogens for experimental animals is confirmed., but a harmful effect on humans is still discussed what is based only on epidemiological but not experimental studies. Epidemiological studies link human EDC exposure with hormonal, neurological and behavioural distorders f.ex. early maturation of girls, obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes, and likely weakening of postvaccinal immunity. The awareness on environmental risks is essential for rationale behaviour diminishing the exposition and also being an important element of contemporary health promotion

  10. Recall campaign for gas bottles and banks

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    The previous contract with gas supplier Carbagas ended on 31 March 2015. Gas bottles and banks are not a property of CERN. According to the contract terms, they can remain on CERN sites without any extra costs until 30 September 2015.    If you are using Carbagas containers (bottles and/or banks) for gas purchased between 1 April 2010 and 31 March 2015, multiple options exist: Return them to the closest gas point. Purchase them on the following basis:     Rent them on the following basis: 12 CHF/month for bottles, 144 CHF/month for banks. The recall campaign has been going on for several months already: we would like to thank everyone who has already replied to it. If you haven’t answered yet, there is still time. If you know of unused or abandoned Carbagas containers, please don’t hesitate to contact us. Thank you i...

  11. Baby bottle steam sterilizers for disinfecting home nebulizers inoculated with non-tuberculous mycobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towle, D; Callan, D A; Lamprea, C; Murray, T S

    2016-03-01

    Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTMb), present in environmental water sources, can contribute to respiratory infection in patients with chronic pulmonary disease. Contaminated nebulizers are a potential source of respiratory infection. Treatment with baby bottle steam sterilizers disinfects home nebulizers inoculated with bacterial pathogens but whether this method works for disinfection of NTMb is unclear. Baby bottle steam sterilization was compared with vigorous water washing for disinfecting home nebulizers inoculated with NTMb mixed with cystic fibrosis sputum. No NTMb was recovered from any nebulizers after steam treatment whereas viable NTMb grew after water washing, demonstrating that steam sterilization effectively disinfects NTMb-inoculated nebulizers. Copyright © 2015 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Plastics: Friend or foe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O P Gupta

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastics has been playing a very significant role in our life. Being light weight, inexpensive and heving good insulating properties it is being used in all aspects of life, from clothes to contact lenses and from mobile phones to automobiles as well as in medical equipments, However it is not biodegradable, and while degrading to fragments it gets converted in to microplastics and nanoplastics The plastic waste is being recognized as an environmental hazard, since these micr- and nanoplastics find way from landfills to water and foods, It is said that we are not only using, but we are eating, drinking and even braething the plastics. These microplastics in body release certain hazardous chemicals and found to be disrupting functions of certain endocrine organs. Whether the rising prevalence of Diabetes, thyroid disorders or infirtility etc., are realated to the plastics?

  13. Estudo do efeito do envelhecimento sob radiação UV no transporte de água em filmes de PET reciclados de bebidas carbonatadas Study of the UV ageing effect on water transport through PET films recycled from beverage bottles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel B. Vichessi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho descreve um estudo sobre o efeito do envelhecimento sob radiação UV no transporte de água em filmes planos de PET reciclados de garrafas de bebidas carbonatadas. A partir do formalismo termodinâmico utilizando a relação de Eyring e os resultados de coeficientes de permeabilidade, foram determinadas a entropia e a entalpia de ativação para o transporte da água. Estas funções representadas num gráfico de efeito de compensação termodinâmica permitiram correlacionar a degradação do material, avaliada via espectroscopia na região do infravermelho com transformada de Fourier, com o transporte de água. Foram analisados os possíveis efeitos da presença de estabilizantes, pigmentos e história de processamento.This work describes a study about the UV ageing effect on water transport through PET film sheets recycled from beverage bottles. Using a thermodynamic formalism based on the Eyring relationship and results of water permeability coefficient, it is possible to determine the entropy and enthalpy of activation for the water transport process. These functions were correlated using the compensation thermodynamic plot and correlations were made between the degradation of the PET samples, measured by FTIR, and transport properties. Also, possible effects from the presence of stabilizers, pigments and processing history were analyzed.

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging used for the evaluation of water presence in wood plastic composite boards exposed to exterior conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek Gnatowski; Rebecca Ibach; Mathew Leung; Grace Sun

    2014-01-01

    Two wood plastic composite (WPC) boards, one experimental and one commercial, were exposed to exterior conditions and evaluated non-destructively using a clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) unit for moisture content (MC) and distribution. The experimental board was exposed in Vancouver, British Columbia, for more than 8 years, and the commercial board was exposed...

  15. Recycling of PET bottles as fine aggregate in concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigione, Mariaenrica

    2010-06-01

    An attempt to substitute in concrete the 5% by weight of fine aggregate (natural sand) with an equal weight of PET aggregates manufactured from the waste un-washed PET bottles (WPET), is presented. The WPET particles possessed a granulometry similar to that of the substituted sand. Specimens with different cement content and water/cement ratio were manufactured. Rheological characterization on fresh concrete and mechanical tests at the ages of 28 and 365days were performed on the WPET/concretes as well as on reference concretes containing only natural fine aggregate in order to investigate the influence of the substitution of WPET to the fine aggregate in concrete. It was found that the WPET concretes display similar workability characteristics, compressive strength and splitting tensile strength slightly lower that the reference concrete and a moderately higher ductility. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Recycling of PET bottles as fine aggregate in concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frigione, Mariaenrica

    2010-01-01

    An attempt to substitute in concrete the 5% by weight of fine aggregate (natural sand) with an equal weight of PET aggregates manufactured from the waste un-washed PET bottles (WPET), is presented. The WPET particles possessed a granulometry similar to that of the substituted sand. Specimens with different cement content and water/cement ratio were manufactured. Rheological characterization on fresh concrete and mechanical tests at the ages of 28 and 365 days were performed on the WPET/concretes as well as on reference concretes containing only natural fine aggregate in order to investigate the influence of the substitution of WPET to the fine aggregate in concrete. It was found that the WPET concretes display similar workability characteristics, compressive strength and splitting tensile strength slightly lower that the reference concrete and a moderately higher ductility.

  17. Biochemical monitoring of sweet fruit flavoured glass bottled soft drinks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watto, M.H.S.; Kazi, T.G.; Bhanger, M.I.; Jakhrani, M.A.; Iqbal, J.; Porgar, A.S.

    2000-01-01

    Fruit flavored glass bottled soft drinks are widely used in developing countries including Pakistan. People suffer greatly both in terms of health and economy if soft drinks are contaminated with microbes and toxic metals. Samples of sixteen different brands of soft drinks were analyzed for microbial and trace elemental study. Microbial study included identification of different coliforms like E. coli, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella, Shigella, Enterobacter, Klebsiela, and total Coliforms. Only seven samples were found to be free from investigated microbes. Contamination in other samples was probably due to improper handling and storage and could be dangerous to human health. Fifteen trace and toxic elements were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry following improved ash digestion method. The level of Al, Fe, Na, K, Ni, Pb and Cd was found to be higher in investigated samples than the international safety limits of WHO. Other elements investigated in all the samples were below the WHO maximum allowable concentration for drinking water. (author)

  18. Design and performance of a vacuum-bottle solid-state calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bracken, D.S.; Biddle, R.; Cech, R.

    1997-01-01

    EG and G Mound Applied Technologies calorimetry personnel have developed a small, thermos-bottle solid-state calorimeter, which is now undergoing performance testing at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The thermos-bottle solid-state calorimeter is an evaluation prototype for characterizing the heat output of small heat standards and other homogeneous heat sources. The current maximum sample size is 3.5 in. long with a diameter of 0.8 in. The overall size of the thermos bottle and thermoelectric cooling device is 9.25 in. high by 3.75 in. diameter and less than 3 lb. Coupling this unit with compact electronics and a laptop computer makes this calorimeter easily hand carried by a single individual. This compactness was achieved by servo controlling the reference temperature below room temperature and replacing the water bath used in conventional calorimeter design with the thermos-bottle insulator. Other design features will also be discussed. The performance of the calorimeter will be presented

  19. Ocular injuries from carbonated soft drink bottle explosions.

    OpenAIRE

    Al Salem, M; Sheriff, S M

    1984-01-01

    Sixteen cases of ocular injuries serious enough to require admission to Ibn-Sina Hospital, Kuwait, Arabian Gulf, due to explosion of glass bottles of carbonated soft drinks are reported over a period of 14 months from the beginning of July 1981 to the end of August 1982. Prevalence was much greater in the summer months and among children. Explosions of bottles without prior agitation occurred in 11 cases (68.7%). High environmental temperature and defective bottles were the most important pre...

  20. Water Flow Experiments

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    year undergraduate student at Ashoka University,. Sonipat, Haryana. This article studies how the height of water varies with time when water ... Experiment using a one-bottle system with a small bore tube at- tached to .... restricting free flow.