WorldWideScience

Sample records for plastic water bottles

  1. Gas Property Demonstrations Using Plastic Water Bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Dean J.; Bannon, Stephen J.; Gunter, Molly M.

    2011-01-01

    Plastic water bottles are convenient containers for demonstrations of gas properties illustrating Boyle's law, Charles's law, and Avogadro's law. The contents of iron-based disposable hand warmer packets can be used to remove oxygen gas from the air within an unfilled plastic water bottle.

  2. Effect of bottling and storage on the migration of plastic constituents in Spanish bottled waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guart, Albert; Bono-Blay, Francisco; Borrell, Antonio; Lacorte, Silvia

    2014-08-01

    Bottled water is packaged in either glass or, to a large extent, in plastic bottles with metallic or plastic caps of different material, shape and colour. Plastic materials are made of one or more monomers and several additives that can eventually migrate into water, either during bottle manufacturing, water filling or storage. The main objective of the present study was to carry out a comprehensive assessment of the quality of the Spanish bottled water market in terms of (i) migration of plastic components or additives during bottling and during storage and (ii) evaluation of the effect of the packaging material and bottle format on the migration potential. The compounds investigated were 5 phthalates, diethylhexyl adipate, alkylphenols and bisphenol A. A set of 362 bottled water samples corresponding to 131 natural mineral waters and spring waters sources and 3 treated waters of several commercial brands were analysed immediately after bottling and after one-year storage (a total of 724 samples). Target compounds were detected in 5.6% of the data values, with diethyl hexyl phthalate and bisphenol A being the most ubiquitous compounds detected. The total daily intake was estimated and a comparison with reference values was indicated.

  3. Migration of bisphenol A and nonylphenol from mineral water bottles and disposable plastic containers into water at different temperatures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ali Kazemi; Habibollah Younesi; Nader Bahramifar

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives: bisphenol A and nonylphenol are xenoestrogen materials used as a monomer of plastics in widely volume in the production of plastic materials especially mineral water bottles and disposable plastic containers...

  4. Community challenges when using large plastic bottles for Solar Energy Disinfection of Water (SODIS)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Borde, Preeti; Elmusharaf, Khalifa; McGuigan, Kevin G; Keogh, Michael B

    2016-01-01

    .... The exposure to sunlight is typically carried out in small volume plastic beverage bottles (up to 2 l). Given the water requirements of consumption and basic personal hygiene, this may not always meet the needs of communities...

  5. How consumers of plastic water bottles are responding to environmental policies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orset, Caroline; Barret, Nicolas; Lemaire, Aurélien

    2017-03-01

    Although plastic induces environmental damages, almost all water bottles are made from plastic and the consumption never stops increasing. This study evaluates the consumers' willingness to pay (WTP) for different plastics used for water packaging. Successive messages emphasizing the characteristics of plastic are delivered to consumers allowing explaining the influence of information on the consumers' WTP. We find that information has a manifest effect on the WTP. We show there is a significant premium associated with recycled plastic packaging and biodegradable bioplastic packaging. As there is no consensus on the plastic which is the most or the least dangerous for the environment, we propose different policies for protecting the environment. We discuss about the impact of these policies on consumer's purchasing decisions: switching one plastic packaging for another, or leaving water plastic bottles market. We present the environmental policies that are effective according to the point of view adopted. Choosing between these policies then depends on the priorities of the regulator and pressure of lobbies.

  6. Bottled Water and Fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bottled water and fluoride. Does bottled water contain fluoride? Bottled water products may contain fluoride, depending on ... How can I find out the level of fluoride in bottled water? The FDA does not require ...

  7. Migration of bisphenol A from plastic baby bottles, baby bottle liners and reusable polycarbonate drinking bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubwabo, C; Kosarac, I; Stewart, B; Gauthier, B R; Lalonde, K; Lalonde, P J

    2009-06-01

    Human exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) has recently received special attention. It has been shown that exposure to BPA may occur through the consumption of beverages or foods that have been in contact with polycarbonate (PC) plastic containers or epoxy resins in food packaging. A BPA migration study was conducted using a variety of plastic containers, including polycarbonate baby bottles, non-PC baby bottles, baby bottle liners, and reusable PC drinking bottles. Water was used to simulate migration into aqueous and acidic foods; 10% ethanol solution to simulate migration to low- and high-alcoholic foods; and 50% ethanol solution to simulate migration to fatty foods. By combining solid-phase extraction, BPA derivatization and analysis by GC-EI/MS/MS, a very low detection limit at the ng l(-1) level was obtained. Migration of BPA at 40 degrees C ranged from 0.11 microg l(-1) in water incubated for 8 h to 2.39 microg l(-1) in 50% ethanol incubated for 240 h. Residual BPA leaching from PC bottles increased with temperature and incubation time. In comparison with the migration observed from PC bottles, non-PC baby bottles and baby bottle liners showed only trace levels of BPA. Tests for leachable lead and cadmium were also conducted on glass baby bottles since these represent a potential alternative to plastic bottles. No detectable lead or cadmium was found to leach from the glass. This study indicated that non-PC plastic baby bottles, baby bottle liners and glass baby bottles might be good alternatives for polycarbonate bottles.

  8. Energy implications of bottled water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleick, P. H.; Cooley, H. S.

    2009-01-01

    As bottled water use continues to expand around the world, there is growing interest in the environmental, economical, and social implications of that use, including concerns about waste generation, proper use of groundwater, hydrologic effects on local surface and groundwater, economic costs, and more. A key concern is how much energy is required to produce and use bottled water. This paper estimates the energy footprint required for various phases of bottled water production, transportation, and use. We do not develop a single comprehensive life-cycle energy estimate because of differences among water sources, bottling processes, transportation costs, and other factors, but we quantify key energy inputs necessary for site-specific assessments. We also apply these inputs to three site-specific examples of the energy required from production to the point of use: local bottled water produced and used in Los Angeles, water bottled in the South Pacific and shipped by cargo ship to Los Angeles, and water bottled in France and shipped in various ways to Los Angeles. For water transported short distances, the energy requirements of bottled water are dominated by the energy used to produce the plastic bottles. Long-distance transport, however, can lead to energy costs comparable to, or even larger than, those of producing the bottle. All other energy costs—for processing, bottling, sealing, labeling, and refrigeration—are far smaller than those for the production of the bottle and transportation. These data can be used to generate specific estimates for different sources, treatments, and delivery options.

  9. [Simultaneous determination of 11 bisphenols in plastic bottled drinking water by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Xinlei; Gao, Xia; Hu, Guanghui; Chi, Haitao; Le, Shengfeng; Wang, Wei; Liu, Weili

    2014-09-01

    A sensitive method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 11 bisphenols in plastic bottled drinking water by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The samples were freeze-dried under vacuum and then dissolved with methanol. The separation was performed on a UPLC BEH C18 column (100 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.7 μm) by using 0.1% (v/v) NH3 · H2O and methanol as mobile phases with gradient elution at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min. The electrospray ionization (ESI) source in negative ion mode was used for the analysis of the 11 bisphenols in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The results verified that the standard curves for the 11 bisphenols were obtained with good correlation coefficients (R2) > 0.997 in their concentration ranges. The limits of detection (LOD, S/N = 3) for the 11 bisphenols were in the range of 0.01-1.00 μg/L. The mean recoveries for the 11 bisphenols at three spiked levels (low, middle, high) were 75.3%-102.1% with the relative standard deviations of 1.5%-8.9%. Seven plastic bottled drinking water samples were tested, and no bisphenol was found. The method is accurate, simple, rapid and feasible for the simultaneous determination of bisphenols in plastic bottled drinking water.

  10. A Plastic Bottle in Rectosigmoid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Derakhshanfar

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Evaluation and treatment of foreign bodies in rectum involves careful history and physical examination. The cases of forced introduction of the objects most commonly are , sexual assault , self – introduced for anal eroticism and accidental insertion.Case Report: We describe a case of a patient with rectal impaction following self administration of a plastic bottle for anal sexual gratification. A 49 years old man was admitted in the emergency department with the history of self introduced a bottle into his rectum physical examination and abdominal X-Ray diagnosed the case as impacted foreign body in rectosigmoid. An attempt was made to deliver the bottle through the rectum but because of high lying big bottle in the sigmoid laporotomy was performed and the bottle was removed though a longitudinal incision on sigmoid colon.Conclusion: Retained rectosigmoid foreign bodies have been encountered more frequently and present a dilemma for management and rarely laporotomy for extraction of foreign bodies was performed.

  11. Gas Experiments with Plastic Soda Bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanah, Patrick; Zipp, Arden P.

    1998-01-01

    Describes the use of an inexpensive device consisting of a plastic soda bottle and a modified plastic cap in a range of demonstrations and experimental activities having to do with the behavior of gases. (Author/WRM)

  12. Field comparison of solar water disinfection (SODIS) efficacy between glass and polyethylene terephalate (PET) plastic bottles under sub-Saharan weather conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiimwe, J K; Quilty, B; Muyanja, C K; McGuigan, K G

    2013-12-01

    Concerns about photodegradation products leaching from plastic bottle material into water during solar water disinfection (SODIS) are a major psychological barrier to increased uptake of SODIS. In this study, a comparison of SODIS efficacy using glass and plastic polyethylene terephalate (PET) bottles was carried out under strong real sunlight and overcast weather conditions at Makerere University in central Uganda. Both clear and turbid natural water samples from shallow wells and open dug wells, respectively, were used. Efficacy was determined from the inactivation of a wild strain of Escherichia coli in solar-exposed contaminated water in both glass and PET bottles. The studies reveal no significant difference in SODIS inactivation between glass and PET bottles (95% CI, p > 0.05), for all water samples under the different weather conditions except for clear water under overcast conditions where there was a small but significant difference (95% CI, p = 0.047) with less viable bacterial counts in PET bottles at two intermediate time points but not at the end of the exposure. The results demonstrate that SODIS efficacy in glass under tropical field conditions is comparable to PET plastic. SODIS users in these regions can choose either of reactors depending on availability and preference of the user.

  13. Bottled Water Mania: Americas Misguided Infatuation with Bottled Water over Tap Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    to remove pathogens. There are no requirements for filtration of bottled water. Tap water must be tested for cryptosporidium, giardia, and viruses ...Plastic bottles in landfills can take hundreds of years to decompose, causing a profound environmental impact. The oceans are another victim of

  14. Rapid Drinking Devices Constructed from I.V. Bags and Plastic Squeeze Bottles,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-04-01

    i D-153 652 RAPID DRINKING DEVICES CONSTRUCTED FROM IY BAS AND 1/1 I PLASTIC SQUEEZE BOTTLES (U) A MY RESEARCH INST OF I ENVIRONMENTAL MEDICINE...TITLE (and Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVEREDLf Rapid Drinking Devices Constructed Fram I.V. ( Bags and Plastic Squeeze Bottles 6...running. The primary problem with using a plastic water bottle during a race is that it ~ must be held upright and squeezed tightly while the runner

  15. An evaluation of the migration of antimony from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic used for bottled drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapa-Martínez, C.A.; Hinojosa-Reyes, L.; Hernández-Ramírez, A.; Ruiz-Ruiz, E.; Maya-Treviño, L.; Guzmán-Mar, J.L., E-mail: jorge.guzmanmr@uanl.edu.mx

    2016-09-15

    The leaching of antimony (Sb) from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottling material was assessed in twelve brands of bottled water purchased in Mexican supermarkets by atomic fluorescence spectrometry with a hydride generation system (HG-AFS). Dowex® 1X8-100 ion-exchange resin was used to preconcentrate trace amounts of Sb in water samples. Migration experiments from the PET bottle material were performed in water according to the following storage conditions: 1) temperature (25 and 75 °C), 2) pH (3 and 7) and 3) exposure time (5 and 15 days), using ultrapure water as a simulant for liquid foods. The test conditions were studied by a 2{sup 3} factorial experimental design. The Sb concentration measured in the PET packaging materials varied between 73.0 and 111.3 mg/kg. The Sb concentration (0.28–2.30 μg/L) in all of the PET bottled drinking water samples examined at the initial stage of the study was below the maximum contaminant level of 5 μg/L prescribed by European Union (EU) regulations. The parameters studied (pH, temperature, and storage time) significantly affected the release of Sb, with temperature having the highest positive significant effect within the studied experimental domain. The highest Sb concentration leached from PET containers was in water samples at pH 7 stored at 75 °C for a period of 5 days. The extent of Sb leaching from the PET ingredients for different brands of drinking water can differ by as much as one order of magnitude in experiments conducted under the worst-case conditions. The chronic daily intake (CDI) caused by the release of Sb in one brand exceeded the Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) regulated CDI value of 400 ng/kg/day, with values of 514.3 and 566.2 ng/kg/day for adults and children. Thus, the appropriate selection of the polymer used for the production of PET bottles seems to ensure low Sb levels in water samples. - Highlights: • The PET safety due to the release of Sb was evaluated in Mexican water PET

  16. An evaluation of the migration of antimony from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic used for bottled drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapa-Martínez, C A; Hinojosa-Reyes, L; Hernández-Ramírez, A; Ruiz-Ruiz, E; Maya-Treviño, L; Guzmán-Mar, J L

    2016-09-15

    The leaching of antimony (Sb) from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottling material was assessed in twelve brands of bottled water purchased in Mexican supermarkets by atomic fluorescence spectrometry with a hydride generation system (HG-AFS). Dowex® 1X8-100 ion-exchange resin was used to preconcentrate trace amounts of Sb in water samples. Migration experiments from the PET bottle material were performed in water according to the following storage conditions: 1) temperature (25 and 75°C), 2) pH (3 and 7) and 3) exposure time (5 and 15days), using ultrapure water as a simulant for liquid foods. The test conditions were studied by a 2(3) factorial experimental design. The Sb concentration measured in the PET packaging materials varied between 73.0 and 111.3mg/kg. The Sb concentration (0.28-2.30μg/L) in all of the PET bottled drinking water samples examined at the initial stage of the study was below the maximum contaminant level of 5μg/L prescribed by European Union (EU) regulations. The parameters studied (pH, temperature, and storage time) significantly affected the release of Sb, with temperature having the highest positive significant effect within the studied experimental domain. The highest Sb concentration leached from PET containers was in water samples at pH7 stored at 75°C for a period of 5days. The extent of Sb leaching from the PET ingredients for different brands of drinking water can differ by as much as one order of magnitude in experiments conducted under the worst-case conditions. The chronic daily intake (CDI) caused by the release of Sb in one brand exceeded the Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) regulated CDI value of 400ng/kg/day, with values of 514.3 and 566.2ng/kg/day for adults and children. Thus, the appropriate selection of the polymer used for the production of PET bottles seems to ensure low Sb levels in water samples.

  17. UTILIZATION OF WASTE PLASTIC BOTTLES IN ASPHALT MIXTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAHER BAGHAEE MOGHADDAM

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, large amounts of waste materials are being produced in the world. One of the waste materials is plastic bottle. Generating disposable plastic bottles is becoming a major problem in many countries. Using waste plastic as a secondary material in construction projects would be a solution to overcome the crisis of producing large amount of waste plastics in one hand and improving the structure’s characteristics such as resistance against cracking on the other hand. This study aimed to investigate the effects of adding plastic bottles in road pavement. Marshall properties as well as specific gravity of asphalt mixture containing different percentages of plastic bottles were evaluated. Besides, Optimum Asphalt Content (OAC was calculated for each percentages of plastic bottles used in the mix. The stiffness and fatigue characteristics of mixture were assessed at OAC value. Results showed that the stability and flow values of asphalt mixture increased by adding waste crushed plastic bottle into the asphalt mixture. Further, it was shown that the bulk specific gravity and stiffness of mixtures increased by adding lower amount of plastic bottles; however, adding higher amounts of plastic resulted in lower specific gravity and mix stiffness. In addition, it was concluded that the mixtures containing waste plastic bottles have lower OAC values compared to the conventional mixture, and this may reduce the amount of asphalt binder can be used in road construction projects. Besides, the mixtures containing waste plastic showed significantly greater fatigue resistance than the conventional mixture.

  18. Health beliefs about bottled water: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wernham Aaron GH

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been a consistent rise in bottled water consumption over the last decade. Little is known about the health beliefs held by the general public about bottled water as this issue is not addressed by the existing quantitative literature. The purpose of this study was to improve understanding of the public's health beliefs concerning bottled mineral water, and the extent to which these beliefs and other views they hold, influence drinking habits. Methods A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews, with 23 users of the Munrow Sports Centre on the University of Birmingham campus. Results Health beliefs about bottled water could be classified as general or specific beliefs. Most participants believed that bottled water conferred general health benefits but were unsure as to the nature of these. In terms of specific health beliefs, the idea that the minerals in bottled water conferred a health benefit was the most commonly cited. There were concerns over links between the plastic bottle itself and cancer. Participants believed that bottled water has a detrimental effect on the environment. Convenience, cost and taste were influential factors when making decisions as to whether to buy bottled water; health beliefs were unimportant motivating factors. Conclusion The majority of participants believed that bottled water has some health benefits. However, these beliefs played a minor role in determining bottled water consumption and are unlikely to be helpful in explaining recent trends in bottled water consumption if generalised to the UK population. The health beliefs elicited were supported by scientific evidence to varying extents. Most participants did not feel that bottled water conferred significant, if any, health benefits over tap water.

  19. Radioactivity in French bottled waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loyen, J.; Brassac, A.; Augeray, C.; Fayolle, C.; Gleizes, M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire - IRSN (France)

    2014-07-01

    As IRSN is considered as a reference laboratory for radioactivity measurements, French health ministry and French nuclear safety authority asked IRSN to carry out a study in order to get a fresh and complete status of radiological water quality of French bottled waters. The study was carried out during 12 months in 2012. A total of 142 bottled waters samples were analyzed (75 spring waters and 67 natural mineral waters). The laboratories of IRSN were in charge of: - systematic measurement of radioactivity following requirements of the French health ministry (Circulaire du 13/06/2007) regarding the monitoring and management of sanitary risk linked to the presence of radionuclides in drinking waters (natural mineral waters excepted). - systematic uranium mass concentration determination; - a few radon-222 gas measurements for waters in glass bottles. This study is a flash assessment of radiological characteristics of French bottled waters, at the analysis date for the sample received. It was done in informative way and was not done for regulatory control purposes.. This study has shown that: - all bottled waters analyzed have a tritium activity concentration lower than the quality reference value of 100 Bq/l of the French regulation; - More than 105 bottled waters analyzed (80% of the springs waters and 70% of natural mineral waters received) have a gross alpha activity concentration lower than the guideline value of 0,1 Bq/l of the French regulation; - All bottled waters analyzed have a residual gross beta activity concentration lower than the guideline value of 1 Bq/l of the French regulation; - All bottled waters analyzed have a uranium mass concentration lower than the provisory guideline value of 30 μg/l of the WHO for drinking waters; - radon-222 was only significantly measured once upon 6 glass bottled waters with a value far below the reference value of 100 Bq/l of the future European Directive on drinking waters. For 32 bottled waters with gross alpha

  20. Electrochemical determination of bisphenol A in plastic bottled drinking water and canned beverages using a molecularly imprinted chitosan-graphene composite film modified electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Peihong; Xu, Zhifeng; Kuang, Yunfei

    2014-08-15

    Herein, a novel electrochemical sensor based on an acetylene black paste electrode modified with molecularly imprinted chitosan-graphene composite film for sensitive and selective detection of bisphenol A (BPA) has been developed. Several important parameters controlling the performance of the sensor were investigated and optimised. The imprinted sensor offers a fast response and sensitive BPA quantification. Under the optimal conditions, a linear range from 8.0 nM to 1.0 μM and 1.0 to 20 μM for the detection of BPA was observed with the detection limit of 6.0 nM (S/N=3). Meanwhile, the fabricated sensor showed excellent specific recognition to template molecule among the structural similarities and coexistence substances. Furthermore, this imprinted electrochemical sensor was successfully employed to detect BPA in plastic bottled drinking water and canned beverages.

  1. Stability of Vancomycin 25 mg/mL in Ora-Sweet and Water in Unit-Dose Cups and Plastic Bottles at 4°C and 25°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensom, Mary H H; Decarie, Diane; Lakhani, Anisha

    2010-09-01

    Solutions of vancomycin for oral administration are not available commercially in Canada or the United States but are needed for patients who cannot swallow capsules. To evaluate the stability of vancomycin solutions stored in unit-dose cups and plastic bottles under refrigeration (4°C) and at room temperature (25°C) for up to 75 days. Vancomycin 25 mg/mL in Ora-Sweet vehicle and water (1:1 ratio by volume) was dispensed into opaque blue polyethylene unit-dose cups with aluminum seal (14 replicates) or amber plastic prescription bottles (6 replicates). Seven cups and 3 bottles were refrigerated (4°C), and the remainder of the containers were stored at room temperature (25°C). At the time of preparation and at 15, 30, 40, 50, 63, and 75 days, 3 aliquots were collected from one of the cups and from every bottle and were stored frozen (-85°C) until the time of analysis. Physical characteristics were evaluated at each time point, including measurement of pH and visual assessment of colour and precipitation. After thawing, the samples were analyzed in triplicate by a validated stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography method. A solution was considered stable if 90% of the initial concentration of vancomycin was maintained. No notable changes in colour, taste, or pH were observed in vancomycin solutions stored in the unit-dose cups at 4°C or 25°C or in the plastic bottles stored at 4°C over the 75-day study period. Starting on day 63, a white precipitate was observed in the solutions stored in plastic bottles at 25°C, but there were no notable changes in taste or pH during the 75-day period. The 95% confidence interval of the slope of the curve relating concentration to time, determined by linear regression, indicated that vancomycin solutions stored in cups or bottles at 4°C would maintain at least 93.6% of the initial vancomycin concentration for 75 days and that solutions stored at 25°C would maintain at least 90.0% of the initial

  2. Innovative Design of Plastic Bottle Recycling Box Based on ARM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuedong Xiong

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the problems of on-site plastic bottles recycling and the reuse of waste, the automatic recycling system was developed on the basis of ARM. As the main controller, ARM not only controls the mechanical system of the collector to recover and break plastic bottles, but also communicates with and rewards the user by the automatic reward system through the wireless network. The experimental prototype test results show: post treated fragments of plastic bottles are small, which are convenient to transport and take advantage of; the operation of recovery is easy, and the interface of man-machine interaction is friendly which is easy to expand functions.

  3. 21 CFR 165.110 - Bottled water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottled water. 165.110 Section 165.110 Food and... CONSUMPTION BEVERAGES Requirements for Specific Standardized Beverages § 165.110 Bottled water. (a) Identity—(1) Description. Bottled water is water that is intended for human consumption and that is sealed...

  4. Study on the Plastic Bottle Recycling Based on Evolution Tree for Technical System

    OpenAIRE

    Yuedong Xiong; Huadong Huang

    2014-01-01

    Technical system theory of evolution tree was used in the study of the plastic bottle recycling, and established the evolutionary line of plastic bottle recycling on the basis of the analysis of plastic bottle recycling recovery evolution tree, and summed up a new smart plastic bottle recycling program. The new recovery recovers and smashes the plastic bottles through technical system, and communicates with users through automatically reward system and rewards the latter. The experimental pro...

  5. Newspaper+Water Bottle=?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>这是由日本每日新闻社于201 3年为让更多的日本年轻人发现纸质报纸的价值而展开的营销战役。每日新闻社将报纸与瓶装水结合在一起,形成"News Bottle",即将新闻报道作为瓶装水的标签。其目的是为了在纸质报纸销售量逐年递减的今天,让年轻人更多地接触报纸,激发他们对于纸质报纸的阅读兴趣。每日新闻社通过365天持续更新瓶装水的标签,使人们每天都能在瓶装水上读到最新热点和头条新闻,以此来吸引年轻人的注意力,建立起年轻人与《每日新闻》的互动,最终得到年轻人们的自愿持续关注。每日新闻社还利用AR技术,让人们能通过移动

  6. Newspaper+Water Bottle=?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>这是由日本每日新闻社于2013年为让更多的日本年轻人发现纸质报纸的价值而展开的营销战役。每日新闻社将报纸与瓶装水结合在一起,形成"News Bottle",即将新闻报道作为瓶装水的标签。其目的是为了在纸质报纸销售量逐年递减的今天,让年轻人更多地接触报纸,激发他们对于纸质报纸的阅读兴趣。每日新闻社通过365天持续更新瓶装水的标签,使人们每天都能在瓶装水上读到最新热点和头条新闻,以此来吸引年轻人的注意力,建立起年轻人与《每日新闻》的互

  7. Qualitative Assessment Of Bottled Water In The Middle East

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, S.; Saleem, Abdul

    1996-01-01

    Many brands of bottled water are being produced in the Middle East including the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries. Over fourteen brands of bottled water could be found in the market of Doha. Use of bottled water has kept on increasing in this region. Reasons for the increase in use of bottled water for drinking have been discussed. The raw water source for the bottled water is groundwater. Most of the manufacturers of the bottled water claim bottled water as "Natural Mineral Water...

  8. Raman and AFM study of gamma irradiated plastic bottle sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Yasir; Kumar, Vijay; Sonkawade, R. G.; Dhaliwal, A. S.

    2013-02-01

    In this investigation, the effects of gamma irradiation on the structural properties of plastic bottle sheet are studied. The Plastic sheets were exposed with 1.25MeV 60Co gamma rays source at various dose levels within the range from 0-670 kGy. The induced modifications were followed by micro-Raman and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The Raman spectrum shows the decrease in Raman intensity and formation of unsaturated bonds with an increase in the gamma dose. AFM image displays rough surface morphology after irradiation. The detailed Raman analysis of plastic bottle sheets is presented here, and the results are correlated with the AFM observations.

  9. Consumer exposure to Bisphenol A from plastic bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidabadi, Fatemeh

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a plastic monomer and plasticizer and is a chemical that has one of the highest volume production worldwide, with more than six billion pounds each year. Its' primary use is the production of polycarbonate plastics, epoxy resins used to line metal cans in a host of plastic consumer products such as toys, water pipes, drinking containers, eyeglass lenses, sports safety equipment as well as consumer electronics. Studies have shown that BPA is leached from lacquer coated cans and baby feeding bottles due to hydrolysis of the Polymer during thermal treatment. Studies have also shown that even under normal use BPA may leach from food and beverage containers. For many years Bisphenol A was treated as neutral to human health. The detection of BPA in drinking water and food products has raised the interest of many researches since 1990. Thousands of studies have examined the impact of BPA to determine its effects in laboratory animals. Numerous toxicological and biochemical studies have supported that BPA has estrogenic properties. The effects of exposure to BPA can be harmful to fetus, infants and young children. BPA is used in products where traces of it can be found in every human at higher levels of concentration than that which causes problems in animals. The National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) has defined "low dose" of endocrine disrupting chemicals as doses below no observable adverse effect (NOAE) for specific chemicals. In BPA, this dose is 50 mg/kg of body weight per day. Today there are more than 150 published results describing how low doses of BPA effects animals. A recent study reported that adult female mice, monkeys, and humans metabolized BPA at almost identical rates. Since the level of BPA and other endocrine chemicals appears to be increasing throughout the World, especially where plastics are prevalent, it is extremely important to study the effects of this chemical on man and wildlife. This research effort

  10. Trash + Creativity = Problem Solved: Award Winners Give Plastic Bottles Second Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tech Directions, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Judge Harry T. Roman, an electrical engineer and inventor, has selected the best of the crop in the 2006/2007 Tech Directions Inventors Award Competition. The challenge this year called on students to slow the filling of landfills by devising uses for discarded plastic water, juice, soda, and sports-drink bottles. Judge Roman noted "many common…

  11. EXAMINATION OF BOTTLED WATER FOR NONTUBERCULOUS MYCOBACTERIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to examine bottled water for the presence of nontuberculous mycobacteria as a potential source of infection in AIDS patients. Twenty brands of bottled water commonly used in the Los Angeles area were tested for the presence of nontuberculous mycoba...

  12. The Use of Plastic Lemonade Bottles as Fermenter Reaction Vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, David; Howard, Barry

    1988-01-01

    Describes the construction and uses of a low cost fermenter reaction vessel which is suitable for laboratory growth of microorganisms by continuous and batch cultures from plastic soft drink bottles. Lists materials, discusses modifications that can be made and gives examples of use. (CW)

  13. Chemical migration in drinking water stored in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles: a source of controversy

    OpenAIRE

    Bach, Cristina; Dauchy, Xavier; Chagnon, Marie-Christine; Etienne, Serge

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Due to its chemical inertness and physical properties PET is particularly suitable for food packaging applications, especially for drinking water. More bottled water is consumed than other bottled beverages. This article is a survey and toxicological investigation of chemical compounds, which are able to diffuse from PET bottles to water. The exact detailed chemical composition of plastic materials is known only from information provided by manufacturers. A declaration...

  14. Plastic bottle oscillator as an on-off-type oscillator: Experiments, modeling, and stability analyses of single and coupled systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohira, Masahiro I.; Kitahata, Hiroyuki; Magome, Nobuyuki; Yoshikawa, Kenichi

    2012-02-01

    An oscillatory system called a plastic bottle oscillator is studied, in which the downflow of water and upflow of air alternate periodically in an upside-down plastic bottle containing water. It is demonstrated that a coupled two-bottle system exhibits in- and antiphase synchronization according to the nature of coupling. A simple ordinary differential equation is deduced to interpret the characteristics of a single oscillator. This model is also extended to coupled oscillators, and the model reproduces the essential features of the experimental observations.

  15. Helmholtz Resonance in a Water Bottle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annirudh Balachandran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The resonance that occurs when blowing across the top of a water bottle filled with different volumes of water was studied. It was shown that, contrary to popular belief, a water bottle is not an ideal Helmholtz resonator. Resonance in a water bottle with an extendable neck was then studied to determine how the length of the neck affects the resonance. The results showed that ideal Helmholtz resonance occurs when the neck length was in a middle range, while for no neck a standing wave resonance occurs. For a very long neck the results were inconclusive.

  16. Performance of funnel-shaped plastic bottle for water saving cultivation in extreme arid region%极端干旱区漏斗状塑料瓶的节水栽培性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹林涛; 高斌; 王前道; 曹亦斌

    2012-01-01

    为解决缺水高渗透地区新栽植物难以存活问题,该文通过室内实验与现场试验研究了塑料瓶的节水栽培性能.室内模拟不同的水分散失条件,连续多U定时测试塑料瓶内砂土的含水量,回归分析剩余含水量随时问的变化函数.结果表明:温度越高,水分散失速度越大;由饱和含水量至萎蔫含水量,在室温(22±1)℃下可以间隔9d浇水1次;漏斗状比直筒状瓶有利于延迟水分渗透;砂粒与有机肥比黏粒有利于锁住水分,可用以调节水分散失速度.现场栽植试验(有瓶与无瓶)比较亦证实该方法的有效性.由于漏斗状塑料瓶具有留存水流与延迟渗透的节水功效,有利于缺水或高渗透地区草、灌木植物的栽培.%In order to resolve the plants survival difficulty in high permeability or water-shortage area, the water-saving cultivation by funnel-shaped plastic bottle was studied through laboratory and field tests. Different water losing conditions were simulated in the laboratory to continuously test water content of sandy soil in the plastic bottle every day. Then, the regressive function was built to describe the relationship between remaining water content in sandy soil and time. Testing Results showed that the higher the environment temperature was, the greater the rate of water loss. From the saturated water content to the wilting water content, an interval of watering could be 9 days at room temperature((22±l)°C).The funnel-shaped bottles could delay water loss compared to straight cylinder-shaped bottles. Sand particles combined with organic fertilizers were more facilitated to conserve water than clay soil, and they could be used to adjust the rate of water loss. Field planting tests (with bottles and without bottles) confirmed its water-saving effectiveness. Due to high efficiency of water accumulation and saving, funnel-shaped bottles can benefit plants cultivation in high permeability or water-shortage area.

  17. Performance of Hot Asphalt Mixtures Containing Plastic Bottles as Additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Hakeem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on evaluating the resistance of polymer modified asphalt mixes and the role played by asphalt in the realm of construction is undeniably important. Addition of polymers(PB as additives to asphalt helps to improve the strength and water repellent property of the mix and as well as helps environment in various ways and at the same time, analyzing its lower maintenance activities and service life is most important. The use of inexpensive polymers, in this case, waste polymers has without any doubt proven to be the most convenient way of reducing the cost of construction and at the same time maintaining quality. The main resolve for this research was to establish the effects of the use of plastic bottles on hot asphalt and its mixtures. In order to put this into perspective, varying percentages of asphalt mixtures were calculated and subjected to laboratory tests. The two-factor variance analysis (ANOVA was conducted to determine the significance at various confidence limits. The results indicate that the inclusion of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET had a particularly substantial effect on the properties of asphalt. Consequently, it can encourage the re-utilization of waste in the manufacturing industry in an ecologically friendly and cost-effective way.

  18. Consumer Exposure to Bisphenol A from Plastic Bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidabadi, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a plastic monomer and plasticizer and is a chemical that has one of the highest volume production worldwide, with more than six billion pounds each year. Its primary use is the production of polycarbonate plastics, epoxy resins used to line metal cans in a host of plastic consumer products such as toys, water pipes, drinking…

  19. Quality comparison of tap water vs. bottled water in the industrial city of Yanbu (Saudi Arabia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Maqbool; Bajahlan, Ahmad S

    2009-12-01

    This study was conducted to compare the quality of bottled water with potabilized desalinated tap water. Fourteen brands of local and imported bottled water samples were collected from the local market and analyzed for physicochemical parameters in the Royal Commission Environmental Laboratory. Results were compared with 5-year continuous monitoring data of tap water from different locations in Madinat Yanbu Al-Sinaiyah (MYAS) including storage tanks of desalination plant. Results show that there was no significant difference in the quality of tap water and bottled water. Bacteriological test was never found positive in the 5-year data in tap water. Similarly, physicochemical analysis shows the persistent quality of tap water. Based on hardness analysis, bottled and tap water are categorized as soft water. Trihalomethanes (THMs) study also indicates that traces of disinfection by products (DBPs) are present in both tap and bottled water and are much less than the World Health Organization and Environmental Protection Agency maximum permissible limits. It is also important to note that the tap water distribution network in MAYS is a high-pressure recirculation network and there is no chance to grow bacteria in stagnant water in pipe lines or houses. Recently, the Royal Commission has replaced the whole drinking water network, which was made of asbestos-cemented pipes with glass-reinforced plastic (GRP) pipes, to avoid any asbestos contaminations. Based on these results, it is concluded that drinking water distributed in the city is of very good and persistent quality, comparable with bottled water. Continuous monitoring also guarantees the safe drinking water to the community. Hence, it is the responsibility of the Royal Commission to encourage the peoples in the city to drink tap water as it is as good as bottled water even better than some of the brands and is monitored regularly. It is also much cheaper compared to bottled water and is available round the clock

  20. Comparison of detection threshold values determined using glass sniff bottles and plastic squeeze bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wudarski, Thomas J; Doty, Richard L

    2004-02-01

    Olfactory threshold measures are influenced by such factors as odorant species, diluent type, psychophysical paradigm, and stimulus-presentation procedure. In this study, we compared phenyl ethyl alcohol odor-detection thresholds obtained using 120-ml glass sniff bottles to those obtained using 120-ml plastic squeeze bottles. Although these presentation media are commonly employed in published studies, there has never been a formal comparison of values obtained using them. 10 male and 10 female subjects were tested on two threshold test sessions, one for each type of bottle. Order of sessions was systematically counterbalanced and completed on the same day for a given subject, with a minimum of 30 min. elapsing between sessions. A seven-reversal, single-staircase threshold procedure was employed. Although the threshold values were similar for the two procedures, slightly lower thresholds were obtained using the glass sniff bottles [respective M (SEM) log vol/vol values = -6.61 (.20) and -6.13 (.24)]. These data suggest that, while threshold values using these two presentation procedures can be roughly compared across studies, accurate comparisons may require a slight mathematical adjustment.

  1. Co-leaching of brominated compounds and antimony from bottled water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andra, Syam S; Makris, Konstantinos C; Shine, James P; Lu, Chensheng

    2012-01-01

    A fast-growing bottled water market is occasionally challenged by reports calling for contaminant leaching from water-contact materials (plastics). Our focus was on leaching of antimony (Sb) and brominated compounds expressed by total soluble bromine (Br) measurements, including those of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE). Studies are lacking on concomitant leaching of two or more inorganic plastic constituents from the same bottle. A market-representative basket survey of bottled water was initiated in Boston, USA supermarkets. Bottled water classes sampled were: i) non-carbonated (NCR), ii) carbonated (CR), and iii) non-carbonated and enriched (NCRE). Plastic bottle materials sampled were: polyethylene terephthalate (PET), high-density polyethylene (HDPE), polystyrene (PS), and polycarbonate (PC). Storage conditions for the 31 bottled water samples were: 23°C temperature, no-shaking and 12h/12h light/dark for 60days of equilibration. Average Br and Sb concentrations after 60-days of storage followed the order of NCRPET. Upon quantitative validation of PBDE leaching from certain plastic bottles into water, a revisit to existing PBDE exposure assessment reports will be deemed necessary. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Concentrations of selected trace elements in mineral and spring bottled waters on the Serbian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristić, M; Popović, I; Pocajt, V; Antanasijević, D; Perić-Grujić, A

    2011-01-01

    Eight selected trace elements, which are generally included in regulations, were analyzed in 23 types of bottled waters. Ten mineral and seven spring bottled waters were from the Serbian market and six mineral bottled waters were obtained in different EU countries. For the purpose of comparison, selected tap waters were also analyzed. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used for the analysis of trace elements (arsenic, cadmium, copper, manganese, nickel, lead and antimony). Results were compared with the Serbian regulations for bottled water, EU regulations and guideline values set by the World Health Organization for drinking water. With few exceptions, the trace element levels of most bottled waters were below the guideline values. However, a higher content of antimony was observed in waters from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) containers, indicating a potential leaching of this element from the plastic packaging.

  3. Characteristics of bacterial and fungal growth in plastic bottled beverages under a consuming condition model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Maiko; Ohnishi, Takahiro; Araki, Emiko; Kanda, Takashi; Tomita, Atsuko; Ozawa, Kazuhiro; Goto, Keiichi; Sugiyama, Kanji; Konuma, Hirotaka; Hara-Kudo, Yukiko

    2014-01-01

    Microbial contamination in unfinished beverages can occur when drinking directly from the bottle. Various microorganisms, including foodborne pathogens, are able to grow in these beverages at room temperature or in a refrigerator. In this study, we elucidated the characteristics of microorganism growth in bottled beverages under consuming condition models. Furthermore, we provide insight into the safety of partially consumed bottled beverages with respect to food hygiene. We inoculated microorganisms, including foodborne pathogens, into various plastic bottled beverages and analysed the dynamic growth of microorganisms as well as bacterial toxin production in the beverages. Eight bottled beverage types were tested in this study, namely green tea, apple juice drink, tomato juice, carbonated drink, sport drink, coffee with milk, isotonic water and mineral water, and in these beverages several microorganism types were used: nine bacteria including three toxin producers, three yeasts, and five moulds. Following inoculation, the bottles were incubated at 35°C for 48 h for bacteria, 25°C for 48 h for yeasts, and 25°C for 28 days for moulds. During the incubation period, the number of bacteria and yeasts and visible changes in mould-growth were determined over time. Our results indicated that combinations of the beverage types and microorganism species correlated with the degree of growth. Regarding factors that affect the growth and toxin-productivity of microorganisms in beverages, it is speculated that the pH, static/shaking culture, temperature, additives, or ingredients, such as carbon dioxide or organic matter (especially of plant origin), may be important for microorganism growth in beverages. Our results suggest that various types of unfinished beverages have microorganism growth and can include food borne pathogens and bacterial toxins. Therefore, our results indicate that in terms of food hygiene it is necessary to consume beverages immediately after opening

  4. Bottled water: United States consumers and their perceptions of water quality

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hu, Zhihua; Morton, Lois Wright; Mahler, Robert L

    2011-01-01

    Consumption of bottled water is increasing worldwide. Prior research shows many consumers believe bottled water is convenient and has better taste than tap water, despite reports of a number of water quality incidents with bottled water...

  5. Simultaneous Sterilization With Surface Modification Of Plastic Bottle By Plasma-Based Ion Implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakudo, N.; Ikenaga, N.; Ikeda, F.; Nakayama, Y.; Kishi, Y.; Yajima, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Dry sterilization of polymeric material is developed. The technique utilizes the plasma-based ion implantation which is same as for surface modification of polymers. Experimental data for sterilization are obtained by using spores of Bacillus subtilis as samples. On the other hand we previously showed that the surface modification enhanced the gas barrier characteristics of plastic bottles. Comparing the implantation conditions for the sterilization experiment with those for the surface modification, we find that both sterilization and surface modification are simultaneously performed in a certain range of implantation conditions. This implies that the present bottling system for plastic vessels will be simplified and streamlined by excluding the toxic peroxide water that has been used in the traditional sterilization processes.

  6. Effects of Water Bottle Materials and Filtration on Bisphenol A Content in Laboratory Animal Drinking Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeycutt, Jennifer A; Nguyen, Jenny Q T; Kentner, Amanda C; Brenhouse, Heather C

    2017-05-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is widely used in the polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins that are found in laboratory animal husbandry materials including cages and water bottles. Concerns about BPA exposure in humans has led to investigations that suggest physiologic health risks including disruptions to the endocrine system and CNS. However, the extent of exposure of laboratory animals to BPA in drinking water is unclear. In the first study, we compared the amount of BPA contamination in water stored in plastic bottles used in research settings with that in glass bottles. The amount of BPA that leached into water was measured across several time points ranging from 24 to 96 h by using a BPA ELISA assay. The results showed that considerable amounts of BPA (approximately 0.15 μg/L) leached from polycarbonate bottles within the first 24 h of storage. In the second study, BPA levels were measured directly from water taken from filtered compared with unfiltered taps. We observed significantly higher BPA levels in water from unfiltered taps (approximately 0.40 μg/L) compared with taps with filtration systems (approximately 0.04 μg/L). Taken together, our findings indicate that the use of different types of water bottles and water sources, combined with the use of different laboratory products (food, caging systems) between laboratories, likely contribute to decreased rigor and reproducibility in research. We suggest that researchers consider reporting the types of water bottles used and that animal care facilities educate staff regarding the importance of flushing nonfiltered water taps when filling animal water bottles.

  7. DETERMINATION OF PHTHALATES FROM BOTTLED WATER BY GC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IRINA DUMITRAȘCU

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Determination of phthalates from bottled water by GC-MS. Phthalates are ubiquitous pollutants in the environment, due to their widespread use in the last years. These compounds are used principally as plasticizers, to impact flexibility, workability and durability to polymers but they can also be found in products such as paints, adhesives, inks and cosmetics. Phthalates are not chemically bounded to polymers; hence they are easily released and migrate into foods, beverages and drinking water from the packaging or bottling materials or manufacturing processes. This process accelerates as plastic products age and break down. With respect to their endocrine disrupting potential, phthalates such as benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP, di-butyl phthalate (DBP and di-isobutyl phthalate (DIBP have been found to elicit estrogenic responses in in vitro assays. It is possible that phthalates are a contributory factor to endocrine-mediated adverse effects observed in wildlife and humans over the past few decades. In this experiment we have analyzed the phthalates from different bottled waters purchased from the market. Determination by gas chromatography in combination with mass spectrometry detector (GC–MS in electronic ionization mode (EI with selected-ion monitoring (SIM acquisition method (GC–MS (EI–SIM has been carried out. Methods have been developed for both qualitative and quantitative analysis of phthalates. The base peak (m/z = 149 of all the phthalates was selected for the screening studies. The characteristic ions of each compound were chosen for quantitative studies.

  8. Comparative recovery of microorganisms from BacT/ALERT plastic and glass FA and FN blood culture bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, J A; Heiter, B J; Bourbeau, P P

    2005-07-01

    bioMerieux, Inc., has recently introduced plastic bottles to replace glass bottles for use in the BacT/ALERT blood culture system. We compared the performance of the plastic to the glass bottles in a large clinical evaluation. Two blood cultures were collected from each patient, one using glass FA (aerobic) and FN (anaerobic) bottles and one using plastic FA and FN bottles. Of the 4,040 sets of four bottles collected, 3,110 contained the recommended 8 to 12 ml of blood, yielding 524 microorganisms with 359 judged to be clinically significant. Of the 359 significant organisms, 255 were recovered in either one or two bottles from both pairs of bottles in a set while 56 organisms were recovered only from the glass bottles and 48 were recovered only from the plastic bottles (P, not significant [NS]). Of the 286 significant organisms recovered only in the FA bottles (glass and plastic), 180 were recovered in both bottles, 57 in the plastic bottles only, and 49 in the glass bottles only (P, NS). Of the 303 significant organisms recovered in the FN bottles only (glass and plastic), 212 were recovered in both bottles, 46 in the plastic bottles only, and 45 in the glass bottles only (P, NS). For individual organisms, the only significant difference in recovery was obtained for Escherichia coli, with more isolates recovered in the FN plastic than in the FN glass bottles (P = 0.02). These data suggest that recovery of microorganisms with plastic FA/FN bottles is at least equal to that with glass FA/FN bottles while offering greater safety for users.

  9. Exploring the Gas Chemistry of Old Submarine Technologies Using Plastic Bottles as Reaction Vessels and Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikoshi, Ryo; Takeiri, Fumitaka; Kobayashi, Yoji; Kageyama, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    We describe an activity that is suitable for high school students and makes use of plastic bottles. This activity allows students to familiarize themselves with gas chemistry by introducing technologies that were applied in old submarine systems. Plastic bottles, which are representative of submarines, are used as reaction vessels. Three simple…

  10. Safety of Bottled Water Beverages Including Flavored Water and Nutrient-Added Water Beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Association, bottled water was the second most popular beverage in the U.S. in 2005, with Americans consuming more than 7.5 million gallons of bottled water - an average of 26 gallons per person. Today, only carbonated soft drinks out-sell bottled water. Defining "Bottled ...

  11. Legionella pneumophila in commercial bottled mineral water.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klont, R.R.; Rijs, A.J.M.M.; Warris, A.; Sturm, P.D.J.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Verweij, P.E.

    2006-01-01

    Sixty-eight commercial bottled mineral waters (64 brands, 68 different 'best-before dates') were tested for the presence of bacteria and fungi. Six samples were Legionella antigen positive and six were Legionella pneumophila PCR positive. Two samples were both Legionella antigen and L. pneumophila P

  12. Non-invasive determination of ethanol, propylene glycol and water in a multi-component pharmaceutical oral liquid by direct measurement through amber plastic bottles using Fourier transform near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broad, N W; Jee, R D; Moffat, A C; Eaves, M J; Mann, W C; Dziki, W

    2000-11-01

    Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy was used to quantify rapidly the ethanol (34-49% v/v), propylene glycol (20-35% v/v) and water (11-20% m/m) contents within a multi-component pharmaceutical oral liquid by measurement directly through the amber plastic bottle packaging. Spectra were collected in the range 7302-12,000 cm-1 and calibration models set-up using partial least-squares regression (PLSR) and multiple linear regression. Reference values for the three components were measured using capillary gas chromatography (ethanol and propylene glycol) and Karl Fischer (water) assay procedures. The calibration and test sets consisted of production as well as laboratory batches that were made to extend the concentration ranges beyond the natural production variation. The PLSR models developed gave standard errors of prediction (SEP) of 1.1% v/v for ethanol, 0.9% v/v for propylene glycol and 0.3% m/m for water. For each component the calibration model was validated in terms of: linearity, repeatability, intermediate precision and robustness. All the methods produced statistically favourable outcomes. Ten production batches independent of the calibration and test sets were also challenged against the PLSR models, giving SEP values of 1.3% v/v (ethanol), 1.0% v/v (propylene glycol) and 0.2% m/m (water). NIR transmission spectroscopy allowed all three liquid constituents to be non-invasively measured in under 1 min.

  13. Bottled Water: United States Consumers and Their Perceptions of Water Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Mahler, Robert L.; Lois Wright Morton; Zhihua Hu

    2011-01-01

    Consumption of bottled water is increasing worldwide. Prior research shows many consumers believe bottled water is convenient and has better taste than tap water, despite reports of a number of water quality incidents with bottled water. The authors explore the demographic and social factors associated with bottled water users in the U.S. and the relationship between bottled water use and perceptions of the quality of local water supply. They find that U.S. consumers are more likely to report...

  14. Bottled Water: United States Consumers and Their Perceptions of Water Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Mahler, Robert L.; Lois Wright Morton; Zhihua Hu

    2011-01-01

    Consumption of bottled water is increasing worldwide. Prior research shows many consumers believe bottled water is convenient and has better taste than tap water, despite reports of a number of water quality incidents with bottled water. The authors explore the demographic and social factors associated with bottled water users in the U.S. and the relationship between bottled water use and perceptions of the quality of local water supply. They find that U.S. consumers are more likely to report...

  15. THE HISTORY OF BORSEC MINERAL WATER BOTTLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. B. TOFAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The History of Borsec Mineral Water Bottling. The mineral water springs of Borsec have been known to exist since ancient times. It started as a legend, presented by Orbán Balász, who mentions an author named Salzer. In his „Voyage Diaries in Transylvania”, Salzer recounts the discovery of healing springs in the area, and attributes it, like many other authors, to a Romanian shepherd called Gheorghe, who, suffering from ulcer, returning home one day, drank from one of the Borsec springs. Drinking the sour water, he felt better. Consequently, he remained there for a couple of days, drinking water from the same spot and curing his ailment. Written documents date back from the 16th century, when Bethlen Farkas, in the historical novel „Historia”, recounts that, in 1594, Sigismund Bathory, who resided in Alba Iulia, suffered from nervous exhaustion. His Italian doctor, Bucello, who knew about the curing effects of the Borsec mineral waters, prescribed a treatment using the water from the „Lobogó” spring. The water, transported to the princely estate in large covered barrels, eventually healed Sigismund Bathory. It is easy to see why, at the end of the 16th century, the mineral water of Borsec, with its miracle properties, was well known in Transylvania and at the imperial court of Vienna. The above mentioned spring, used from the 19th century onwards, for spas and for bottling, earned great renown, especially due to the high concentration of CO2 (over 2.5 g/l. The bottled sparkling water, due to its pleasant taste and its chemical stability, is the most sought after table water. This explains why, in most cases, the notion of mineral water is associated with „Borsec”.

  16. Comparative Recovery of Microorganisms from BacT/ALERT Plastic and Glass FA and FN Blood Culture Bottles

    OpenAIRE

    Riley, J. A.; Heiter, B J; Bourbeau, P P

    2005-01-01

    bioMerieux, Inc., has recently introduced plastic bottles to replace glass bottles for use in the BacT/ALERT blood culture system. We compared the performance of the plastic to the glass bottles in a large clinical evaluation. Two blood cultures were collected from each patient, one using glass FA (aerobic) and FN (anaerobic) bottles and one using plastic FA and FN bottles. Of the 4,040 sets of four bottles collected, 3,110 contained the recommended 8 to 12 ml of blood, yielding 524 microorga...

  17. Risk Perceptions of Arsenic in Tap Water and Consumption of Bottled Water

    OpenAIRE

    Jakus, Paul M.; Shaw, W. Douglass; Nguyen, To N.; Walker, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The demand for bottled water has increased rapidly over the past decade, but bottled water is extremely costly compared to tap water. The convenience of bottled water surely matters to consumers, but are others factors at work? This manuscript examines whether purchases of bottled water are associated with the perceived risk of tap water. All of the past studies on bottled water consumption have used simple scale measures of perceived risk that do not correspond to risk measures used by risk ...

  18. Validation of Performance of Plastic versus Glass Bottles for Culturing Anaerobes from Blood in BacT/ALERT SN Medium

    OpenAIRE

    Mirrett, Stanley; Joyce, Maria J.; Reller, L. Barth

    2005-01-01

    To validate performance, we compared the new plastic BacT/ALERT (bioMérieux, Durham, NC) SN bottle to the current glass SN bottle with samples of blood obtained for culture from adults and found them comparable for both recovery and speed of detection of microorganisms. We conclude that the safety advantage of plastic bottles can be achieved without compromising performance.

  19. Validation of performance of plastic versus glass bottles for culturing anaerobes from blood in BacT/ALERT SN medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirrett, Stanley; Joyce, Maria J; Reller, L Barth

    2005-12-01

    To validate performance, we compared the new plastic BacT/ALERT (bioMérieux, Durham, NC) SN bottle to the current glass SN bottle with samples of blood obtained for culture from adults and found them comparable for both recovery and speed of detection of microorganisms. We conclude that the safety advantage of plastic bottles can be achieved without compromising performance.

  20. Solar detoxification plant for a hazardous plastic bottle recycling plant in El Ejido: feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, J.; Malato, S. [CIEMAT, Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA), Tabernas (Spain); Richter, C. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Koeln (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The removal of persistent organic chemicals from water is a pressing ecological problem. Persistent contaminants, such as pesticides, solvents, detergents and a variety of industrial chemicals, are capable of deep penetration into the soil and reach groundwater due to combination of chemical stability, resistance to biodegradation and sufficient water solubility. The Spanish province of Almeria has experienced an important economical growth during the last 20 years due to the installation of a large number of greenhouses, which benefit from the extremely sunny climate for production of vegetables and fruits. Unfortunately, this development is accompanied by an intensive use of a wide variety of pesticides with the subsequent problem of empty plastic bottles. Unitl now these plaguicide containers have usually been burnt or buried. Since the problem has been growing in the last years, a parallel environmental consciousness has been rising in the region concerning the recycling of these pesticide bottles; this process includes washing of the shredded plastic containers, which gives rise to relatively small quantities of water contaminated with toxic and persistent compounds at a concentration level of some hundred mg/l of total organic carbon content. This appears to be a very promising application for TiO{sub 2} - Solar Photocatalytic Detoxification, which provides an adequate solution as there is no clear alternative way to solve the problem. (orig.)

  1. 21 CFR 880.6085 - Hot/cold water bottle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hot/cold water bottle. 880.6085 Section 880.6085... Devices § 880.6085 Hot/cold water bottle. (a) Identification. A hot/cold water bottle is a device intended for medical purposes that is in the form of a container intended to be filled with hot or cold...

  2. Controlled clinical comparison of plastic versus glass bottles of BacT/ALERT PF medium for culturing blood from children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petti, Cathy A; Mirrett, Stanley; Woods, Christopher W; Reller, L Barth

    2005-01-01

    The plastic pediatric BacT/ALERT (bioMérieux, Durham, N.C.) PF (PPF) is a new nonvented aerobic culture medium in a clear plastic bottle designed to prevent breakage. We compared the performance of the new PPF bottle to that of the present glass BacT/ALERT PF bottle for the recovery of microorganisms as well as for the time to detection of growth in samples of blood obtained for culture from children. We found that the PPF and PF bottles were comparable for recovery of microorganisms and that the safety advantage of plastic bottles can be achieved without compromising performance.

  3. Bottled Water: United States Consumers and Their Perceptions of Water Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L. Mahler

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of bottled water is increasing worldwide. Prior research shows many consumers believe bottled water is convenient and has better taste than tap water, despite reports of a number of water quality incidents with bottled water. The authors explore the demographic and social factors associated with bottled water users in the U.S. and the relationship between bottled water use and perceptions of the quality of local water supply. They find that U.S. consumers are more likely to report bottled water as their primary drinking water source when they perceive that drinking water is not safe. Furthermore, those who give lower ratings to the quality of their ground water are more likely to regularly purchase bottle water for drinking and use bottle water as their primary drinking water source.

  4. Heat Transfer in Glass, Aluminum, and Plastic Beverage Bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, William M.; Shevlin, Ryan C.; Soffen, Tanya S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses a controversy regarding the effect of bottle material on the thermal performance of beverage bottles. Experiments and calculations that verify or refute advertising claims and represent an interesting way to teach heat transfer fundamentals are described. Heat transfer coefficients and the resistance to heat transfer offered…

  5. Heat Transfer in Glass, Aluminum, and Plastic Beverage Bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, William M.; Shevlin, Ryan C.; Soffen, Tanya S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses a controversy regarding the effect of bottle material on the thermal performance of beverage bottles. Experiments and calculations that verify or refute advertising claims and represent an interesting way to teach heat transfer fundamentals are described. Heat transfer coefficients and the resistance to heat transfer offered…

  6. 77 FR 25721 - Small Entity Compliance Guide: Bottled Water: Quality Standard: Establishing an Allowable Level...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Small Entity Compliance Guide: Bottled Water: Quality... availability of a guidance for industry entitled ``Bottled Water: Quality Standard: Establishing an Allowable... its bottled water standard of quality regulations by establishing an allowable level for...

  7. Application of automated image analysis to the identification and extraction of recyclable plastic bottles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Edgar SCAVINO; Dzuraidah Abdul WAHAB; Aini HUSSAIN; Hassan BASRI; Mohd Marzuki MUSTAFA

    2009-01-01

    An experimental machine vision apparatus was used to identify and extract recyclable plastic bottles out of a conveyor belt. Color images were taken with a commercially available Webcam, and the recognition was performed by our homemade software, based on the shape and dimensions of object images. The software was able to manage multiple bottles in a single image and was additionally extended to cases involving touching bottles. The identification was fulfilled by comparing the set of measured features with an existing database and meanwhile integrating various recognition techniques such as minimum distance in the feature space, self-organized maps, and neural networks. The recognition system was tested on a set of 50 different bottles and provided so far an accuracy of about 97% on bottle identification. The extraction of the bottles was performed by means of a pneumatic arm, which was activated according to the plastic type; polyethylene-terephthalate (PET) bottles were left on the conveyor belt, while non-PET boules were extracted. The software was designed to provide the best compromise between reliability and speed for real-time applications in view of the commercialization of the system at existing recycling plants.

  8. Filling or draining a water bottle with two holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Rod

    2016-07-01

    Three simple experiments are described using a small water bottle with two holes in the side of the bottle. The main challenge is to predict and then explain the observations, but the arrangements can also be used for quantitative measurements concerning hydrostatic pressure, Bernoulli’s equation, surface tension and bubble formation.

  9. Quality assessment of Romanian bottled mineral water and tap water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M Carstea, Elfrida; Levei, Erika A; Hoaghia, Maria-Alexandra; Savastru, Roxana

    2016-09-01

    This study reports the evaluation of bottled mineral water characteristics using fluorescence spectroscopy (synchronous fluorescence scans and emission spectra) and physico-chemical analyses. Samples from 14 still mineral water brands were compared to 11 tap waters collected from two Romanian cities. Correlation and factor analyses were undertaken to understand the relationships between the individual components. The concentration of major and minor ions showed great variation between the bottled mineral water samples highlighting the diversity of the water intakes, while in the case of tap water the chemical composition was relatively similar for samples collected in the same city. Fluorescence data showed that the mineral water contained low quantities of organic matter. The humic fraction was dominant in all samples, while the microbial fraction was low in most samples. Synchronous fluorescence scans provided more information, regarding the composition of organic matter, compared to emission spectra. The study evidenced the correlation between fluorescence parameters and major elements and highlighted the potential of using fluorescence for qualitative evaluation of the bottled mineral water quality, as a screening method before undertaking complex analyses.

  10. Assessment of Drinking Water Quality from Bottled Water Coolers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Farhadkhani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Drinking water quality can be deteriorated by microbial and toxic chemicals during transport, storage and handling before using by the consumer. This study was conducted to evaluate the microbial and physicochemical quality of drinking water from bottled water coolers.A total of 64 water samples, over a 5-month period in 2012-2013, were collected from free standing bottled water coolers and water taps in Isfahan. Water samples were analyzed for heterotrophic plate count (HPC, temperature, pH, residual chlorine, turbidity, electrical conductivity (EC and total organic carbon (TOC. Identification of predominant bacteria was also performed by sequence analysis of 16S rDNA.The mean HPC of water coolers was determined at 38864 CFU/ml which exceeded the acceptable level for drinking water in 62% of analyzed samples. The HPC from the water coolers was also found to be significantly (P < 0.05 higher than that of the tap waters. The statistical analysis showed no significant difference between the values of pH, EC, turbidity and TOC in water coolers and tap waters. According to sequence analysis eleven species of bacteria were identified.A high HPC is indicative of microbial water quality deterioration in water coolers. The presence of some opportunistic pathogens in water coolers, furthermore, is a concern from a public health point of view. The results highlight the importance of a periodic disinfection procedure and monitoring system for water coolers in order to keep the level of microbial contamination under control.

  11. Radium activity measurements in bottled mineral water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kappke, Jaqueline; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine N.; Denyak, Valeriy; Reque, Marilson, E-mail: sergei@utfpr.edu.br [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Rocha, Paschuk; Rocha, Zildete; Santos, Talita O., E-mail: rochaz@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    This work presents the preliminary results of {sup 226}Ra activity measurements of fifteen samples of bottled mineral water acquired at markets of Curitiba-PR, Brazil. The measurements were performed at the Laboratory of Applied Nuclear Physics of the Federal University of Technology - Parana (UTFPR) in collaboration with the Center of Nuclear Technology Development of Brazilian Nuclear Energy Committee (CNEN). The experimental setup was based on the electronic radon detector RAD7 (Durridge Company, Inc.). The measurements were carried out with a special kit of accessory vessels (vials) RAD7 H{sub 2}O, which allows one to identify the {sup 222}Rn activity concentration in small water samples of 40 mL and 250 mL in the range going from less than 30 pCi/L to greater than 10{sup 5} pCi/L. During each measurement a vial from RAD H{sub 2}O was poured with a sample of water. The air pump, included in the close loop aeration circuit and connected to the vial and RAD7 detector, operated for five minutes to snatch the sample of air maintained above the level of water sample and transporting it from the vial through the system. Evaluation of the concentration of soluble radium ({sup 226}Ra) salts in water and their activity was performed after 30 days when {sup 222}Rn in the water samples reached secular equilibrium. The background measurements were performed using the samples of the distilled water. Considering the importance of background measurements, it was found that the value suggested by user Manual protocol (RAD7) for the case of low activity radon measurements, has to be slightly modified. (author)

  12. Physical, chemical and microbial analysis of bottled drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasikaran, S; Sritharan, K; Balakumar, S; Arasaratnam, V

    2012-09-01

    People rely on the quality of the bottled drinking water, expecting it to be free of microbial contamination and health hazards. To evaluate the quality of bottled drinking water sold in Jaffna peninsula by analysing the physical, chemical and microbial contents and comparing with the recommended Sri Lankan Standard (SLS) values. All bottled water samples sold in Jaffna peninsula were collected. Electrical conductivity, total dissolved solid, pH, calcium, nitrate, total aerobic and anaerobic count, coliform bacterial count and faecal contamination were checked. These are 22 brands of bottled drinking water sold in Jaffna peninsula. The sample had very low electrical conductivity when compared with SLS (750 μS/ cm) and varied from 19 to 253 μS/cm with the mean of 80.53 (±60.92) μS/cm. The pH values of the bottled drinking water brands varied from 4.11 to 7.58 with a mean of 6.2 (±0.75). The total dissolved solid content of the bottled drinking water brands varied from 9 to 123.67 mg/l with a mean of 39.5 (±30.23) mg/l. The calcium content of the bottled drinking water brands varied from 6.48 to 83.77 mg/l with a mean of 49.9 (±25.09) mg/l. The nitrate content of the bottled drinking water brands varied from 0.21 to 4.19 mg/l with the mean of 1.26 (±1.08) mg/l. Aerobic bacterial count varied from 0 to 800 colony forming unit per ml (cfu/ml) with a mean of 262.6 (±327.50) cfu/ml. Among the 22 drinking bottled water brands 14 and 9% of bottled drinking water brands showed fungal and coliform bacterial contaminants respectively. The water brands which contained faecal contamination had either Escherichia coli or Klebsiella spp. The bottled drinking water available for sale do not meet the standards stipulated by SLS.

  13. Rare earth elements in some bottled waters of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorović Maja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-one bottled mineral and spring waters from Serbia were analyzed for 16 inorganic chemical parameters, including lanthanides and yttrium which belong to the group of so-called rare earth elements (REE. REE concentrations in the bottled water samples varied over a broad range, from 5.39 to 1585.82 ng/L. Total concentrations in the bottled water samples were calculated taking into account the classification of lanthanides into heavy (HREE and light (LREE, with yttrium added to the HREE group. The LREE concentrations ranged from 3.62 to 1449.63 ng/L, while those of the HREE were from 0 to 136.19 ng/L. Distinct REE signatures were observed in waters that drained specific rocks. The REE patterns in groundwater from granitic and related rocks showed LREE and HREE enrichment, while groundwater with mafic rock influence exhibited slightly LREE enrichment. Several bottled water samples featured naturally-occurring carbon dioxide, whose solutional capacity contributed to the highest REE concentrations in the analyzed samples. High REE concentrations are also a result of sudden changes in oxidation-reduction conditions, which particularly affect La, Ce and Eu. Aquifers developed in granitic and related rocks (methamorphic and sedimentary rocks constitute favorable environments for HREE in groundwater, corroborated by the occurrence of HREE in bottled water samples. The bottled water samples largely exhibited a negative cerium anomaly and nearly all the samples showed a positive europium anomaly.

  14. Spark Ignition of Combustible Vapor in a Plastic Bottle as a Demonstration of Rocket Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattox, J. R.

    2017-01-01

    I report an innovation that provides a compelling demonstration of rocket propulsion, appropriate for students of physics and other physical sciences. An electrical spark is initiated from a distance to cause the deflagration of a combustible vapor mixed with air in a lightweight plastic bottle that is consequently propelled as a rocket by the…

  15. Potential health impacts of consuming desalinated bottled water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowell, Candace; Kuiper, Nora; Shomar, Basem

    2015-06-01

    This study compared physicochemical properties, anion and carbon content and major and trace elements in desalinated and non-desalinated bottled water available in Qatar, and assessed the potential health risks associated with prolonged consumption of desalinated water. Results indicate that Qatar's population is not at elevated risk of dietary exposure to As (mean = 666 ng/L), Ba (48.0 μg/L), Be (9.27 ng/L), Cd (20.1 ng/L), Cr (874 ng/L), Pb (258 ng/L), Sb (475 ng/L) and U (533 ng/L) from consumption of both desalinated and non-desalinated bottled water types available in the country. Consumers who primarily consume desalinated water brands further minimize risk of exposure to heavy metals as levels were significantly lower than in non-desalinated bottled water. Desalinated bottled water was not a significant contributor to recommended daily intakes for Ca, Mg and F(-) for adults and children and may increase risk of deficiencies. Desalinated bottled water accounted for only 3% of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) adequate intake (AI) for Ca, 5-6% of the recommended daily allowance for Mg and 4% of the AI for F among adults. For children desalinated water contributed 2-3% of the IOM AICa, 3-10% of the RDA(Mg) and 3-9% of the AIF.

  16. Spark Ignition of Combustible Vapor in a Plastic Bottle as a Demonstration of Rocket Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattox, J. R.

    2017-01-01

    I report an innovation that provides a compelling demonstration of rocket propulsion, appropriate for students of physics and other physical sciences. An electrical spark is initiated from a distance to cause the deflagration of a combustible vapor mixed with air in a lightweight plastic bottle that is consequently propelled as a rocket by the release of combustion products, i.e., a "whoosh rocket." My recommendation is that the standard fuel for pedagogical whoosh demonstrations be isopropanol, and the recommended vessel is the 3.8-L high-density polyethylene (HDPE) bottle.

  17. Risk Factors Associated with the Choice to Drink Bottled Water and Tap Water in Rural Saskatchewan

    OpenAIRE

    McLeod, Lianne; Bharadwaj, Lalita; Waldner, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    0.001) or living in the area for £10 years (p = 0.01) were more likely to choose bottled water. Those who reported tap water was not safe to drink were more likely to choose bottled water, an effect greater for those who had no aesthetic complaints (p ≤ 0.001), while those with aesthetic complaints were more likely to choose bottled water if they believed the water was safe (p <

  18. Perceptions of bottled water consumers in three Brazilian municipalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Queiroz, Josiane T Matos; Doria, Miguel de França; Rosenberg, Mark W; Heller, Léo; Zhouri, Andréa

    2013-09-01

    This study presents perceptions of consumers of bottled water in their households in three Brazilian municipalities. Data from interviews were analyzed using the Discourse Collective Subject method. Interviewees spent, on average, the equivalent of 40% of their water bill for the public water supply on the purchase of bottled water. The decision about water consumption in the household was predominantly made by women. Interviewees were particularly concerned with health risks and expressed a strong preference for the safety and organoleptic qualities of bottled water, particularly in cases where the tap water supply did not fully meet the regulated water quality standards. Interviewees were largely unaware of the origin, type, storage, and social and environmental impacts of bottled water. Results highlight the importance of water education efforts among the general population and the key role of women in the processes related to drinking water. The need for gender-specific interventions and the empowerment of women on water issues is noted. Results also strongly support the relevance of ensuring the provision of safe drinking water, from the source to the consumption point, with the trust of consumers.

  19. Organochlorine pesticides residues in bottled drinking water from Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Gilberto; Ortiz, Rutilio; Schettino, Beatriz; Vega, Salvador; Gutiérrez, Rey

    2009-06-01

    This work describes concentrations of organochlorine pesticides in bottled drinking water (BDW) in Mexico City. The results of 36 samples (1.5 and 19 L presentations, 18 samples, respectively) showed the presence of seven pesticides (HCH isomers, heptachlor, aldrin, and p,p'-DDE) in bottled water compared with the drinking water standards set by NOM-127-SSA1-1994, EPA, and World Health Organization. The concentrations of the majority of organochlorine pesticides were within drinking water standards (0.01 ng/mL) except for beta-HCH of BW 3, 5, and 6 samples with values of 0.121, 0.136, and 0.192 ng/mL, respectively. It is important monitoring drinking bottled water for protecting human health.

  20. 40 CFR 141.101 - Use of bottled water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of bottled water. 141.101 Section 141.101 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Use of Non-Centralized Treatment Devices §...

  1. Histogram of Intensity Feature Extraction for Automatic Plastic Bottle Recycling System Using Machine Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzaimah Ramli

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, many recycling activities adopt manual sorting for plastic recycling that relies on plant personnel who visually identify and pick plastic bottles as they travel along the conveyor belt. These bottles are then sorted into the respective containers. Manual sorting may not be a suitable option for recycling facilities of high throughput. It has also been noted that the high turnover among sorting line workers had caused difficulties in achieving consistency in the plastic separation process. As a result, an intelligent system for automated sorting is greatly needed to replace manual sorting system. The core components of machine vision for this intelligent sorting system is the image recognition and classification. In this research, the overall plastic bottle sorting system is described. Additionally, the feature extraction algorithm used is discussed in detail since it is the core component of the overall system that determines the success rate. The performance of the proposed feature extractions were evaluated in terms of classification accuracy and result obtained showed an accuracy of more than 80%.

  2. A survey of the radiological quality of Mexican bottled waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez del R, H.; Davila R, J. I.; Rosales H, M. A.; Mireles G, F.; Pinedo V, J. L., E-mail: hlopezdelrio@hotmail.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98060 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    More bottled drinking water is consumed per capita in Mexico than in any other country in the world. With the purpose of verifying the compliance with Mexican standards for radioactive content of drinking water, the gross alpha and beta activities were measured in 34 brands of bottled water consisting of purified water (19), natural mineral water (12), and mineralized water (3). Electrical conductivity of water samples ranged from 10 to 1465 μS/cm, and mostly high values were for the mineralized water samples. Gross alpha activities ranged from <12.2 to 709.8 mBq/L, while gross beta activities values varied from <26 to 616 mBq/L. All the bottled water samples had radioactivity content below the maximum permissible levels established in the Official Mexican Norm, except for the gross alpha level of one natural mineral water. Based upon these results it can be concluded that, in general, the analyzed bottled waters have acceptable quality with regard to radioactive content of gross alpha and beta activities. (Author)

  3. Cholera in Portugal, 1974. II. Transmission by bottled mineral water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, P A; Rosenberg, M L; Florencia, J; Costa, J B; do Prado Quintino, L; Gangarosa, E J

    1977-04-01

    During a cholera epidemic, Vibrio cholerae was isolated from two springs which supplied mineral water to a spa and to a commercial water bottling plant. Epidemiologic investigation found that cholera attack rates were 10-fold greater among visitors to the spa than among non-visitors. A subsequent matched-pair case-control study which excluded persons who had visted the spa showed that a history of consumption of the bottled non-carbonated water was significantly more common among bacteriologically confirmed cholera cases than among paired controls.

  4. Controlled clinical comparison of plastic and glass bottles of BacT/ALERT FA medium for culturing organisms from blood of adult patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petti, Cathy A; Mirrett, Stanley; Woods, Christopher W; Reller, L Barth

    2005-04-01

    A new, clear-plastic nonvented aerobic FA bottle, designed to prevent breakage, has been developed for the BacT/ALERT blood culture system. We assessed the new plastic FA bottle by comparing its performance with that of the current glass FA bottle for recovery of microorganisms and time to detection of growth in blood samples obtained for culture from adult patients with suspected bloodstream infections. We conclude that the BacT/ALERT plastic and glass FA bottles are comparable for recovery of microorganisms and that the safety advantage of plastic bottles can be achieved without compromising performance.

  5. Plastic Bottle Cutter:能瞬间将塑料瓶变成塑料绳

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    近日法国两名设计者开发了一款Plastic BottleCutter塑料瓶切割器,能瞬间将各种塑料瓶变成可再利用的塑料绳。这款切割器的设计十分简单,由一根木棍及一个可替换的刀片组成。Plastic BottleCutter能将塑料瓶转换成各种宽度的塑料绳,在回收后能重新被用于制造出各种物品,包括扫帚、篮子、门帘等等日常用品。这些塑料绳甚至能被当成汽车拉绳使用。

  6. Photocatalytic Coats in Glass Drinking-Water Bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andren, Anders W.; Armstrong, David E.; Anderson, Marc A.

    2005-01-01

    According to a proposal, the insides of glass bottles used to store drinking water would be coated with films consisting of or containing TiO2. In the presence of ultraviolet light, these films would help to remove bacteria, viruses, and trace organic contaminants from the water.

  7. Fluoride Content of Bottled Drinking Waters in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almulla, Hessa Ibrahim; King, Nigel M; Alnsour, Hamza Mohammad; Sajnani, Anand K

    2016-12-01

    Fluoridation of drinking water has been recognized as one of the most effective ways of achieving community-wide exposure to the caries prevention effects of fluoride (F). A vast majority of people in Qatar use bottled water for drinking. Use of bottled water without knowing the F level may expose children to dental caries risk if the F level is lower than optimal or to dental fluorosis if the F level is too high. The aim of this study was to determine the F concentration of bottled water available in Qatar. A total of 32 brands of bottled water were evaluated. The F concentrations displayed on the labels were recorded. The F ion-selective electrode method was used to measure the F concentration in water samples, and three measurements were taken for every sample to ensure reproducibility. The p value was set at 0.05. The F concentration ranged from 0.06 to 3.0 ppm with a mean value of 0.8 ppm (±0.88). The F levels were provided by the manufacturers on the labels of 60 % of the samples, but this was significantly lower than the measured F levels (p water that was produced in Saudi Arabia had significantly higher levels of F when compared to those produced in other countries (p water. Furthermore, there was a significant disparity between the F levels which were measured and those that were provided on the labels.

  8. Bacteriological quality of bottled drinking water versus municipal tap water in Dharan municipality, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Narayan Dutt; Poudyal, Nimesh; Bhattacharya, Shyamal Kumar

    2016-06-07

    Water-related diseases are of great concern in developing countries like Nepal. Every year, there are countless morbidity and mortality due to the consumption of unsafe drinking water. Recently, there have been increased uses of bottled drinking water in an assumption that the bottled water is safer than the tap water and its use will help to protect from water-related diseases. So, the main objective of this study was to analyze the bacteriological quality of bottled drinking water and that of municipal tap water. A total of 100 samples (76 tap water and 24 bottled water) were analyzed for bacteriological quality and pH. The methods used were spread plate method for total plate count (TPC) and membrane filter method for total coliform count (TCC), fecal coliform count (FCC), and fecal streptococcal count (FSC). pH meter was used for measuring pH. One hundred percent of the tap water samples and 87.5 % of the bottled water samples were found to be contaminated with heterotrophic bacteria. Of the tap water samples, 55.3 % were positive for total coliforms, compared with 25 % of the bottled water. No bottled water samples were positive for fecal coliforms and fecal streptococci, in contrast to 21.1 % and 14.5 % of the tap water samples being contaminated with fecal coliforms and fecal streptococci, respectively. One hundred percent of the tap water samples and 54.2 % of the bottled water samples had pH in the acceptable range. All of the municipal tap water samples and most of the bottled drinking water samples distributed in Dharan municipality were found to be contaminated with one or more than one type of indicator organisms. On the basis of our findings, we may conclude that comparatively, the bottled drinking water may have been safer (than tap water) to drink.

  9. Bottled water, spas, and early years of water chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, William; Landa, Edward R.; Meeks, Lisa

    1995-01-01

    Although hot springs have been used and enjoyed for thousands of years, it was not until the late 1700s that they changed the course of world civilization by being the motivation for development of the science of chemistry. The pioneers of chemistry such as Priestley, Cavendish, Lavoisier, and Henry were working to identify and generate gases, in part, to determine their role in carbonated beverages. In the 18th century, spas in America were developed to follow the traditional activities of popular European spas. However, they were to become a dominant political and economic force in American history on three major points: (1) By far the most important was to provide a place for the leaders of individual colonies to meet and discuss the need for separation from England and the necessity for the Revolutionary War; (2) the westward expansion of the United States was facilitated by the presence of hot springs in many locations that provided the economic justification for railroads and settlement; and (3) the desire for the preservation of hot springs led to the establishment of the National Park Service. Although mineral springs have maintained their therapeutic credibility in many parts of the world, they have not done so in the United States. We suggest that the American decline was prompted by: (1) the establishment of The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine in 1893; (2) enactment of the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1907; and (3) the remarkable achievement of providing safe water supplies for American cities by the end of the 1920s. The current expanding market for bottled water is based in part on bottled water being an alternative beverage Ito alcohol and sweetened drinks and the inconsistent palatability and perceived health hazards of some tap waters.

  10. Stable isotopic composition of bottled mineral waters from Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bădăluţă, Carmen; Nagavciuc, Viorica; Perșoiu, Aurel

    2015-04-01

    Romania has a high potential of mineral waters resources, featuring one of the largest mineral resources at European and global level. In the last decade, due to increased in consumption of bottled water, numerous brands have appeared on the market, with equally numerous and variable sources of provenance. In this study we have analyzed the isotopic composition of bottled mineral waters from Romania in order to determine their source and authenticity. We have analysed 32 carbonated and 24 non-carbonated mineral waters from Romania. and the results were analysed in comparison with stable isotope data from precipitation and river waters. Generally, the isotopic values of the mineral waters follow those in precipitation; however, differences occur in former volcanic regions (due to deep circulation of meteoric waters and increased exchange with host rock and volcanic CO2), as well as in mountainous regions, where high-altitude recharge occurs.

  11. Fluoride and bacterial content of bottled drinking water versus municipal tap water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mythri H

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Water is a divine gift. People quench their thirst without questioning the source of water. But, apprehension about contaminants in municipal water supplies along with increased fear of fluorosis made bottled drinking water as one of the important tradable commodities. Objectives: The objectives of the study were to determine and compare the fluoride and bacterial contents of commercially available bottled drinking water and municipal tap water in Davangere city, Karnataka. Materials and Methods: Fifty samples of 10 categories of bottled drinking water with different batch numbers were purchased and municipal water from different sources were collected. Fluoride levels were determined by an ion-selective electrode. Water was cultured quantitatively and levels of bacteria were calculated as colony-forming units (CFUs per milliliter. Results: Descriptive analysis of water samples for fluoride concentration was in the range of 0.07-0.33 for bottled drinking water, Bisleri showing the highest of 0.33. A comparison of the mean values of microbial count for bottled drinking water with that of municipal tap water showed no statistically significant difference, but was more than the standard levels along with the presence of fungus and maggots. Conclusion: The fluoride concentration was below the optimal level for both municipal tap water and bottled drinking water. CFUs were more than the recommended level in both municipal tap water and bottled drinking water.

  12. 75 FR 16363 - Beverages: Bottled Water; Reopening of the Comment Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...: Bottled Water; Reopening of the Comment Period AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Proposed... 4, 1993 (58 FR 41612), amending the quality standard for bottled water (currently in 21 CFR 165.110(b)). In the 1993 proposed rule, FDA proposed to revise the bottled water quality standard...

  13. Community Responses to the Removal of Bottled Water on a University Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailovich, Katja; Fitzgerald, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aimed to examine the impact of the removal of bottled water on the campus community. This paper presents the findings of a survey conducted at the first Australian university to remove single-use bottled water from sale on a small regional university campus. The removal of bottled water from sale at the university formed part…

  14. What's Wrong with the Tap? Examining Perceptions of Tap Water and Bottled Water at Purdue University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saylor, Amber; Prokopy, Linda Stalker; Amberg, Shannon

    2011-09-01

    The environmental impacts of bottled water prompted us to explore drinking water choices at Purdue University, located in West Lafayette, IN. A random sample of 2,045 Purdue University students, staff, and faculty was invited to participate in an online survey. The survey assessed current behaviors as well as perceived barriers and benefits to drinking tap water versus bottled water. 677 surveys were completed for a response rate of 33.1%. We then conducted qualitative interviews with a purposive sample of university undergraduates ( n = 21) to obtain contextual insights into the survey results and the beliefs of individuals with a variety of drinking water preferences. This study revealed that women drink disproportionately more bottled water then men while undergraduate students drink more than graduate students, staff and faculty. The study also uncovered a widespread belief that recycling eliminates the environmental impacts of bottled water. Important barriers to drinking tap water at Purdue include: perceived risks from tap water and the perceived safety of bottled water, preferring the taste of bottled water, and the convenience of drinking bottled water. The qualitative interviews revealed that drinking water choices can be influenced by several factors—especially whether individuals trust tap water to be clean—but involve varying levels of complexity. The implications of these results for social marketing strategies to promote tap water are discussed.

  15. What's wrong with the tap? Examining perceptions of tap water and bottled water at Purdue University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saylor, Amber; Prokopy, Linda Stalker; Amberg, Shannon

    2011-09-01

    The environmental impacts of bottled water prompted us to explore drinking water choices at Purdue University, located in West Lafayette, IN. A random sample of 2,045 Purdue University students, staff, and faculty was invited to participate in an online survey. The survey assessed current behaviors as well as perceived barriers and benefits to drinking tap water versus bottled water. 677 surveys were completed for a response rate of 33.1%. We then conducted qualitative interviews with a purposive sample of university undergraduates (n = 21) to obtain contextual insights into the survey results and the beliefs of individuals with a variety of drinking water preferences. This study revealed that women drink disproportionately more bottled water then men while undergraduate students drink more than graduate students, staff and faculty. The study also uncovered a widespread belief that recycling eliminates the environmental impacts of bottled water. Important barriers to drinking tap water at Purdue include: perceived risks from tap water and the perceived safety of bottled water, preferring the taste of bottled water, and the convenience of drinking bottled water. The qualitative interviews revealed that drinking water choices can be influenced by several factors-especially whether individuals trust tap water to be clean-but involve varying levels of complexity. The implications of these results for social marketing strategies to promote tap water are discussed.

  16. Chemical compounds and toxicological assessments of drinking water stored in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles: A source of controversy reviewed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Cristina; Dauchy, Xavier; Chagnon, Marie-Christine; Etienne, Serge

    2012-03-01

    A declaration of conformity according to European regulation No. 10/2011 is required to ensure the safety of plastic materials in contact with foodstuffs. This regulation established a positive list of substances that are authorized for use in plastic materials. Some compounds are subject to restrictions and/or specifications according to their toxicological data. Despite this, the analysis of PET reveals some non-intentionally added substances (NIAS) produced by authorized initial reactants and additives. Genotoxic and estrogenic activities in PET-bottled water have been reported. Chemical mixtures in bottled water have been suggested as the source of these toxicological effects. Furthermore, sample preparation techniques, such as solid-phase extraction (SPE), to extract estrogen-like compounds in bottled water are controversial. It has been suggested that inappropriate extraction methods and sample treatment may result in false-negative or positive responses when testing water extracts in bioassays. There is therefore a need to combine chemical analysis with bioassays to carry out hazard assessments. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and antimony are clearly related to migration from PET into water. However, several studies have shown other theoretically unexpected substances in bottled water. The origin of these compounds has not been clearly established (PET container, cap-sealing resins, background contamination, water processing steps, NIAS, recycled PET, etc.). Here, we surveyed toxicological studies on PET-bottled water and chemical compounds that may be present therein. Our literature review shows that contradictory results for PET-bottled water have been reported, and differences can be explained by the wide variety of analytical methods, bioassays and exposure conditions employed.

  17. New absorbent acoustic materials from plastic bottle remnants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    del Rey, R.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the building acoustics field usually fibrous materials are used as sound absorbing materials. Nowadays polyester fiber is one of the most used but the pure chip of polyester has a problem. Polyester is obtained of petroleum and its price was increasing last years. This paper, presents an alternative polyester wool which obtained by PET treatment (recycle of plastic bottle’s. Absorption coefficient values at normal incidence measured in reverberation chamber were compared (new wool obtained by PET method and materials obtained from pure chip of polyester.Furthermore, this paper propound a empiric model that describe the acoustic performance of this new wool. The results have been good. The pure fiber has been replaced by recycle fiber in its manufacture process.

    En el ámbito de acústica de la edificación es común el uso de materiales fibrosos como materiales absorbentes acústicos. Uno de estos materiales cada vez más utilizado es la lana de poliéster. Un problema que presenta el chip virgen de poliéster es que se obtiene del petróleo, cuyo precio no hace más que incrementarse en los últimos años. En este trabajo se presenta una lana de poliéster alternativa, obtenida mediante el tratamiento del PET, a través del conveniente ciclo de reciclado de botellas de plástico. Se comparan valores del coeficiente de absorción; en incidencia normal y en cámara reverberante de los materiales elaborados a partir de chip virgen y de las nuevas lanas obtenidas del PET. Además, se propone un modelo empírico de comportamiento acústico de estas nuevas lanas. Los resultados obtenidos han sido favorables, la fibra virgen ya ha sido sustituida por fibra reciclada en su proceso de fabricación.

  18. A complete life cycle assessment of high density polyethylene plastic bottle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treenate, P.; Limphitakphong, N.; Chavalparit, O.

    2017-07-01

    This study was aimed to determine environmental performances of a lubricant oil bottle made from high density polyethylene and to develop potential measures for reducing its impacts. A complete life cycle assessment was carried out to understand a whole effect on the environment from acquiring, processing, using, and disposing the product. Two scenarios of disposal phase; recycle and incineration: were examined to quantify a lesser degree on environmental impact. The results illustrated that major impacts of the two scenarios were at the same categories with the highest contributor of raw material acquisition and pre-processing. However, all impacts in case of recycling provided a lower point than that in case of incineration, except mineral extraction. Finally, feasible measures for reducing the environmental impact of high density polyethylene plastic bottle were proposed in accordance with 3Rs concept.

  19. Analysis of physical and chemical parameters of bottled drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Rakesh Kumar; Walia, T P S; Lark, B S; Sumanjit

    2006-04-01

    Seventeen different brands of bottled drinking water, collected from different retail shops in Amritsar, were analyzed for different physical and chemical parameters to ascertain their compliability with the prescribed/recommended limits of the World Heath Organization (WHO) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). It was found that the majority of the brands tested were over-treated. Lower values of hardness, total dissolved solids (TDS) and conductance than the prescribed limits of WHO showed that water was deficient in essential minerals. Minerals like magnesium, potassium, calcium and fluoride were present in some cases in such a low concentration that water seemed to be as good as distilled water. Samples showing fluoride lesser than 0.5 mg/l warranted additional sources of fluoride for the people consuming only bottled water for drinking purposes. Zero values for chlorine demand as shown by all the bottled water samples showed that water samples were safe from micro-organisms. In case of heavy metals, only lead had been found to be greater than the limit of 0.015 mg/l as prescribed by WHO and USEPA, in seven out of 17 samples. Lead even at such a low concentration can pose a great health hazard.

  20. Leaching of styrene and other aromatic compounds in drinking water from PS bottles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maqbool Ahmad; Ahmad S.Bajahlan

    2007-01-01

    Bottled water may not be safer, or healthier, than tap water. The present studies have proved that styrene and some other aromatic compounds leach continuously from polystyrene (PS) bottles used locally for packaging. Water sapmles in contact with PS were extracted by a preconcentration technique called as "purge and trap" and analysed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC/MS). Eleven aromatic compounds were identified in these studies. Maximum concentration of styrene in PS bottles was 29.5 μg/L. Apart from styrene, ethyl benzene, toluene and benzene were also quantified but their concentrations were much less than WHO guide line values. All other compounds were in traces. Quality of plastic and storage time were the major factor in leaching of styrene. Concentration of styrene was increased to 69.53 μg/L after one-year storage time. In Styrofoam and PS cups studies, hot water was found to be contaminated with styrene and other aromatic compounds. It was observed that temperature played a major role in the leaching of styrene monomer from Styrofoam cups. Paper cups were found to be safe for hot drinks.

  1. Risk Factors Associated with the Choice to Drink Bottled Water and Tap Water in Rural Saskatchewan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianne McLeod

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study investigated risk factors associated with choices to drink bottled water and tap water in rural Saskatchewan. Of 7,500 anonymous postal questionnaires mailed out, 2,065 responses were analyzed using generalized linear mixed models. Those who reported a water advisory (p < 0.001 or living in the area for £10 years (p = 0.01 were more likely to choose bottled water. Those who reported tap water was not safe to drink were more likely to choose bottled water, an effect greater for those who had no aesthetic complaints (p ≤ 0.001, while those with aesthetic complaints were more likely to choose bottled water if they believed the water was safe (p < 0.001. Respondents who treated their water and did not use a community supply were more likely to choose bottled water (p < 0.001, while those who did not treat their water were more likely to choose bottled water regardless of whether a community supply was used (p < 0.001. A similar pattern of risk factors was associated with a decreased likelihood of consuming tap water daily; however, the use of a community water supply was not significant. Understanding the factors involved in drinking water choices could inform public health education efforts regarding water management in rural areas.

  2. Risk factors associated with the choice to drink bottled water and tap water in rural Saskatchewan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Lianne; Bharadwaj, Lalita; Waldner, Cheryl

    2014-01-30

    A cross-sectional study investigated risk factors associated with choices to drink bottled water and tap water in rural Saskatchewan. Of 7,500 anonymous postal questionnaires mailed out, 2,065 responses were analyzed using generalized linear mixed models. Those who reported a water advisory (p bottled water. Those who reported tap water was not safe to drink were more likely to choose bottled water, an effect greater for those who had no aesthetic complaints (p ≤ 0.001), while those with aesthetic complaints were more likely to choose bottled water if they believed the water was safe (p water and did not use a community supply were more likely to choose bottled water (p water were more likely to choose bottled water regardless of whether a community supply was used (p water daily; however, the use of a community water supply was not significant. Understanding the factors involved in drinking water choices could inform public health education efforts regarding water management in rural areas.

  3. Tap or bottled water: drinking preferences among urban minority children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta-Saenz, Lina; Irigoyen, Matilde; Benavides, Jorge; Mendoza, Maria

    2012-02-01

    The last decade has seen an increasing trend in consumer preference of bottled water over tap water. Little is known what type of water children and adolescents prefer for drinking and what their parents think of their community tap water. The study objective was to assess drinking water preferences, perceptions of the qualities of tap water and bottled water, and fluoride knowledge in an urban pediatric population. We conducted an anonymous survey of a convenience sample of caretakers of children and adolescents at an urban clinic regarding their preferences for tap or bottled water, their perceptions of the quality of tap and bottled water and their knowledge of fluoride. Of the 208 participants (79% African American, 9% Latino), 59% drank tap water, 80% bottled water. Only 17% drank tap water exclusively, 38% drank bottled water exclusively, 42% drank both. We found no significant differences in water preferences across age groups, from infancy to adulthood, or among ethnic groups. Ratings for taste, clarity, purity and safety were significantly higher for bottled water than tap water (P water. We conclude bottled water was preferred over tap water in an urban minority pediatric population. Perceptions of the qualities of water seemed to drive drinking preferences. Public health strategies are needed to increase public awareness of the impact of bottled water consumption on oral health, household budgets and the environment.

  4. Development and application of a non-targeted extraction method for the analysis of migrating compounds from plastic baby bottles by GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onghena, Matthias; van Hoeck, Els; Vervliet, Philippe; Scippo, Marie Louise; Simon, Coraline; van Loco, Joris; Covaci, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, the European Union prohibited the production of polycarbonate (PC) baby bottles due to the toxic effects of the PC monomer bisphenol-A. Therefore, baby bottles made of alternative materials, e.g. polypropylene (PP) or polyethersulphone (PES), are currently marketed. The principal aim of the study was the identification of major compounds migrating from baby bottles using a liquid-liquid extraction followed by GC/MS analysis. A 50% EtOH in water solution was selected as a simulant for milk. After sterilisation of the bottle, three migration experiments were performed during 2 h at 70°C. A non-targeted liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate-n-hexane (1:1) was performed on the simulant samples. Identification of migrants from 24 baby bottles was done using commercially available WILEY and NIST mass spectra libraries. Differences in the migrating compounds and their intensities were observed between the different types of plastics, but also between the same polymer from a different producer. Differences in the migration patterns were perceived as well between the sterilisation and the migrations and within the different migrations. Silicone, Tritan™ and PP exhibited a wide variety of migrating compounds, whereas PES and polyamide (PA) showed a lower amount of migrants, though sometimes in relatively large concentrations (azacyclotridecan-2-one up to 250 µg kg⁻¹). Alkanes (especially in PP bottles), phthalates (dibutylphthalate in one PP bottle (±40 µg kg⁻¹) and one silicone bottle (±25 µg kg⁻¹); diisobutylphthalate in one PP (±10 µg kg⁻¹), silicone (up to ±80 µg kg⁻¹); and Tritan™ bottle (±30 µg kg⁻¹)), antioxidants (Irgafos 168, degradation products of Irganox 1010 and Irganox 1076), etc. were detected for PP, silicone and Tritan™ bottles. Although the concentrations were relatively low, some compounds not authorised by European Union Regulation No. 10/2011, such as 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol (10-100 µg kg⁻¹) or 2

  5. Controlled Clinical Comparison of Plastic and Glass Bottles of BacT/ALERT FA Medium for Culturing Organisms from Blood of Adult Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Petti, Cathy A.; Mirrett, Stanley; Woods, Christopher W.; Reller, L. Barth

    2005-01-01

    A new, clear-plastic nonvented aerobic FA bottle, designed to prevent breakage, has been developed for the BacT/ALERT blood culture system. We assessed the new plastic FA bottle by comparing its performance with that of the current glass FA bottle for recovery of microorganisms and time to detection of growth in blood samples obtained for culture from adult patients with suspected bloodstream infections. We conclude that the BacT/ALERT plastic and glass FA bottles are comparable for recovery ...

  6. Stable hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of bottled waters of the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Gabriel J; Winter, David A; Spero, Howard J; Zierenberg, Robert A; Reeder, Mathew D; Cerling, Thure E; Ehleringer, James R

    2005-01-01

    Bottled and packaged waters are an increasingly significant component of the human diet. These products are regulated at the regional, national, and international levels, and determining the authenticity of marketing and labeling claims represents a challenge to regulatory agencies. Here, we present a dataset of stable isotope ratios for bottled waters sampled worldwide, and consider potential applications of such data for regulatory, forensic and geochemical standardization applications. The hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of 234 samples of bottled water range from -147 per thousand to +15 per thousand and from -19.1 per thousand to +3.0 per thousand, respectively. These values fall within and span most of the normal range for meteoric waters, indicating that these commercially available products represent a source of waters for use as laboratory working standards in applications requiring standardization over a large range of isotope ratios. The measured values of bottled water samples cluster along the global meteoric water line, suggesting that bottled water isotope ratios preserve information about the water sources from which they were derived. Using the dataset, we demonstrate how bottled water isotope ratios provide evidence for substantial evaporative enrichment of water sources prior to bottling and for the marketing of waters derived from mountain and lowland sources under the same name. Comparison of bottled water isotope ratios with natural environmental water isotope ratios demonstrates that on average the isotopic composition of bottled water tends to be similar to the composition of naturally available local water sources, suggesting that in many cases bottled water need not be considered as an isotopically distinct component of the human diet. Our findings suggest that stable isotope ratios of bottled water have the power to distinguish ultimate (e.g., recharge) and proximal (e.g., reservoir) sources of bottled water and constitute a potential

  7. Acetaldehyde in mineral water stored in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles: Odour threshold and quantification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijssen, B.; Kamperman, T.; Jetten, J.

    1996-01-01

    The use of PET bottles for packaging soft drinks and mineral waters is still growing world wide. The production process for these bottles is improving constantly. These improvements are focussed on bottles with better barrier properties, higher inertness and higher heat stability. One of the factors

  8. Acetaldehyde in mineral water stored in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles: Odour threshold and quantification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijssen, B.; Kamperman, T.; Jetten, J.

    1996-01-01

    The use of PET bottles for packaging soft drinks and mineral waters is still growing world wide. The production process for these bottles is improving constantly. These improvements are focussed on bottles with better barrier properties, higher inertness and higher heat stability. One of the factors

  9. Several properties offilament fibers made from recycled bottles of mineral water using melt spinning method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muslim, Ikhwanul; Mardiyati; Basuki, Arif

    2016-01-01

    Waste mineral water bottles made of PET called post-consumer POSTC-PET packaging with recycling code no. 1 can be made into another material other than the bottle by using a mechanical recycling process. In this experiment carried waste recycling process bottled mineral water bottles of PET into filament fibres with the aid of a melt spinning. From the resulting experimental filament fibres diameter of 14-15 microns, obtained the draw ratio is 1/46, 573,5 - 699,8 MPa tensile strength, modulus of elasticity of 2,01 - 2,45GPa, moisture regain of 2,84. Keywords. PET; Bottle; Fiber; Melt; Spinning; Drawing.

  10. Effect of reduced pressure, vibration and orientation to simulate high altitude testing of liquid pharmaceutical glass and plastic bottles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singh, S. Paul; Burgess, Gary; Kremer, Matt; Lockhart, Hugh

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the impact of high-altitude shipments of glass and plastic bottles on package integrity. High altitudes are encountered when trucks travel over mountain passes and when cargo and feeder aircraft transport packages in non-pressurized or partially pressurized cargo holds. This is

  11. Public perception and economic implications of bottled water consumption in underprivileged urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massoud, M A; Maroun, R; Abdelnabi, H; Jamali, I I; El-Fadel, M

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents a comparative assessment of public perception of drinking water quality in two underprivileged urban areas in Lebanon and Jordan with nearly similar cultural and demographic characteristics. It compares the quality of bottled water to the quality of the drinking water supplied through the public network and examines the economic implications of bottled water consumption in the two study areas. Participants' perception of the quality of drinking water provided via the public network was generally negative, and bottled water was perceived to be of better quality in both areas, thus affecting drinking water preferences and consumption patterns. The results reveal that the quality of bottled water is questionable in areas that lack enforcement of water quality standards, thus adding to the burden of an already disadvantaged community. Both areas demonstrated a considerable cost incurred for purchasing bottled water in low income communities reaching up to 26 % of total income.

  12. Predictors of Drinking Water Boiling and Bottled Water Consumption in Rural China: A Hierarchical Modeling Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Alasdair; Zhang, Qi; Luo, Qing; Tao, Yong; Colford, John M; Ray, Isha

    2017-06-20

    Approximately two billion people drink unsafe water. Boiling is the most commonly used household water treatment (HWT) method globally and in China. HWT can make water safer, but sustained adoption is rare and bottled water consumption is growing. To successfully promote HWT, an understanding of associated socioeconomic factors is critical. We collected survey data and water samples from 450 rural households in Guangxi Province, China. Covariates were grouped into blocks to hierarchically construct modified Poisson models and estimate risk ratios (RR) associated with boiling methods, bottled water, and untreated water. Female-headed households were most likely to boil (RR = 1.36, p boiled. Our findings show that boiling is not an undifferentiated practice, but one with different methods of varying effectiveness, environmental impact, and adoption across socioeconomic strata. Our results can inform programs to promote safer and more efficient boiling using electric kettles, and suggest that if rural China's economy continues to grow then bottled water use will increase.

  13. Effect of gamma irradiation on the properties of plastic bottle sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vijay; Ali, Yasir; Sonkawade, R. G.; Dhaliwal, A. S.

    2012-09-01

    In this article, the effects of gamma irradiation on the optical and structural properties of plastic bottle sheets have been studied. Bottle sheets were exposed with 1.25 MeV 60Co γ-ray's source at various dose levels within the range from 0 to 670 kGy. The changes so induced were analyzed by using UV-Vis and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy. UV-Vis spectra show the peaks, their shifting and broadening as a result of gamma irradiation. With increasing γ-dose, the values of the direct and indirect band gap are found to be decreased. These results are in good agreement with the corresponding results published previously for polyethylene terephthalate polymer. We also calculated numbers of carbon atoms per conjugation length. The X-ray diffraction spectra exhibited an increase in peak intensity after gamma irradiation. Furthermore, the percentage crystallinity and crystallite size for pristine and irradiated sample have been calculated. It has been found that both crystallinity and crystallite size increase due to irradiation. In addition, interchain distances, micro strain, inter planar distance, dislocation density and distortion parameters were calculated. The analysis revealed there is the significant decrease in micro strain, dislocation density and distortion parameters with an increase of gamma dose, which is in line with the crystallinity calculation. Moreover, Interchain and Interplanar distances were marginally changed. These results demonstrated the applicability of sheets as a cost-effective dosimeter.

  14. Recycling of polyethylene terephthalate (PET plastic bottle wastes in bituminous asphaltic concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebayo Olatunbosun Sojobi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research sheds light on the concept of eco-friendly road construction which comprises eco-design, eco-extraction, eco-manufacturing, eco-construction, eco-rehabilitation, eco-maintenance, eco-demolition, and socioeconomic empowerment. It also revealed the challenges being faced in its adoption and the benefits derivable from its application. Furthermore, the effects of recycling PET plastic bottle wastes produced in North Central Nigeria in bituminous asphaltic concrete (BAC used in flexible pavement construction were also evaluated. The mix design consists of 60/70 penetration-grade asphaltic concrete (5%, 68% coarse aggregate, 6% fine aggregate, and 21% filler using the dry process at 170°C. The optimum bitumen content (OBC for conventional BAC was obtained as 4% by weight of total aggregates and filler. Polymer-coated aggregate (PCA-modified BAC seems preferable because it has the potential to utilize more plastic wastes with a higher optimum plastic content (OPC of 16.7% by weight of total aggregates and filler compared to that of 9% by weight of OBC achieved by PMB-BAC. For both PMB- and PCA-modified BAC, an increase in air void, void in mineral aggregate, and Marshall stability were observed. Eco-friendly road construction which recycles PET wastes should be encouraged by government considering its potential environmental and economic benefits.

  15. Temporal variation of microbiological and chemical quality of noncarbonated bottled drinking water sold in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herath, A T; Abayasekara, C L; Chandrajith, Rohana; Adikaram, N K B

    2012-03-01

    Use of bottled water in Sri Lanka has increased over the last decade, while new brands of bottled water are often introduced to the market. However, the manufacturers' adherence to bottled water regulations is questionable, raising concerns regarding the quality of bottled water. The objective of the current study was to investigate the microbiological and chemical quality of bottled water in Sri Lanka. Thirty bottled water brands were sampled and their chemical and microbiological parameters were analyzed. Microbiological analysis was carried out within 1 to 3, 3 to 6, 6 to 9, and 9 to 12 mo after the date of manufacture. The results indicated that 63% of brands tested exceeded the levels permitted by the Sri Lanka Standards Institution (SLSI) for presumptive total coliforms (TC) (bottled drinking water. Throughout their shelf life, the counts of TC, FC, and HPC bacteria decreased. Bacteria identified were Klebsiella pneumoniae ssp. pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Pasteurella haemolytica, the most frequently being P. aeruginosa. The dominant fungi identified were Aspergillus sp. and Penicillium sp. Inorganic chemical parameters were within permitted levels for all brands except for initial content of ammonia. The results of this study show the need for the bottling industry to be monitored closely by relevant authorities, in order to provide safe bottled drinking water to consumers in Sri Lanka.

  16. Identification of sources and production processes of bottled waters by stable hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brencic, Mihael; Vreca, Polona

    2006-01-01

    Bottled water is a food product that considerably depends on the environment from which it originates, not only at the place where it is produced, but predominantly on the conditions in the recharge area of the wells captured for bottling. According to their source and the bottling process, bottled waters can be divided into natural and artificially sparkling waters, still and flavoured waters. These waters originate from various parts of the hydrological cycle and their natural origin is reflected in their hydrogen and oxygen stable isotopic compositions (delta(2)H and delta(18)O). A total of 58 domestic and foreign brands and 16 replicates of bottled waters, randomly collected on the Slovene market in September 2004, were analysed for delta(2)H and delta(18)O. The isotopic composition varied between -83 per thousand and -46 per thousand with an average of -66 per thousand for hydrogen, and between -11.9 per thousand and -7.5 per thousand with an average of -9.6 per thousand for oxygen. This investigation helped (1) to determine and test the classification of bottled waters, (2) to determine the natural origin of bottled water, and (3) to indicate differences between the natural and production processes. The production process may influence the isotopic composition of flavoured waters and artificially sparkling waters. No such modification was observed for still and natural sparkling waters. The methods applied, together with hydrological knowledge, can be used for the authentication of bottled waters for regulatory and consumer control applications.

  17. Microbial evaluation of bottled water marketed in North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhawna Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Drinking unsafe and unhygienic water can cause waterborne diseases such as diarrhea and typhoid. The present study describes the microbial evaluation of bottled water sold in North India. The samples were analyzed for total viable count and coliforms and susceptibility to different antibiotics. Though free of coliforms, the samples had a total viable count ranging from 0.01 × 10 [1] cfu/mL to 2.40 × 10 [3] cfu/mL and in 17% of the samples, total viable count was much higher than specified by the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS, Government of India. Among the samples, 6.5% also showed fungal growth. On checking the sensitivity of bacteria isolates to different antibiotics, most of the strains were found to be resistant to a number of antibiotics. It can thus be concluded that the consumption of bottled water with a high viable count and that was bacteria-resistant to different antibiotics may have an effect on the health of the consumers, especially immune-compromised individuals.

  18. Development of a Specialized Pack for Shipping Water Specimens in Glass Bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    AD-R120 514 DEVELOPMENT OF A SPECIALIZED PACK FOR SHIPPING WATER ji’j SPECIMENS IN GLASS BOTTLES (U) AIR FORCE PACKAGING EVALUATION AGENCY WRIGHT...787-4519 immi Commercial (513) 257-4234 DIVIUCINT (W A SPICIALIZED PACK FOR SHIPING MATh SPECIMUS IN GLASS BOTTLS • S I) Air Force Packaging...breakage, during shipment, of glass bottles filled with water specimens. A prototype of the specialized container, employing the proposed Poly-Foam

  19. Measurements of radon and radium activity in bottled mineral water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kappke, Jaqueline; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine N.; Reque, Marilson; Tabuchi, Camila Garcia; Del Claro, Flavia; Perna, Allan Felipe, E-mail: jaquelinekappke@gmail.com [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Deniak, Valeriy [Instituto de Pesquisa Pele Pequeno Principe, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Current work presents the results of further development of optimized experimental protocol for RAD7 instant radon detector (Durridge Company Inc.) usage in low level radon in water measurements and the results concerning Ra-226 activity evaluation in bottled mineral water samples purchased at Brazilian market. With the purpose to achieve the statistically consistent results for the activity levels of 0.1Bq/L for radon (radium) activity in water, present study used modified experimental protocol which consists of: 1) water samples were stored in hermetically sealed glass vials of 250mL during 30 days to guarantee that Rn-222 will reach the secular equilibrium; 2) the measurements were performed using WAT250 protocol of RAD7 detector; 3) with an aim to decrease the background, the cleaning (activated carbon filter) and drying (DRIERITE desiccant) vessels, which have a function to retain the radioactive decay product of Rn-222 and humidity, were connected to a closed air loop of RAD7 permanently by means of valves and taps, which gave a possibility to repeat all sequence of measurements (including background evaluation) three or four times without to open the air loop and disconnect the sample vial with water. Each water sample was submitted to such measurements two or three times. Obtained results presented the level of Ra-226 activity in studied samples of bottled mineral water that varied from 0.007 ± 0.061 Bq/L to 0.145 ± 0.049 Bq/L, which is below the limit of 0,5 Bq/L established by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2011 for drinking water. (author)

  20. Green Fiber Bottle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Didone, Mattia; Tosello, Guido

    their impact on the environment, especially the oceans. For example, the life span of a plastic bottle in the ocean is 500 years, and during its degradation, the plastic is reduced to micro pieces, which causes the starvation of several marine animals. The new bottle is completely made from molded paper pulp...... technologies, the manufacturing technology for the production of the bottle has to offer the possibility of significant energy savings. Molded pulp products are made from wood fibers dispersed in water, and then they are formed, drained and dried. A relatively large quantity of resources (i.e. energy and time......) is consumed during the drying process. It is in this process stage that an innovative way of drying the products can be exploited by using the concept of impulse drying. Impulse drying is an advance drying technique in which water is removed from a wet paper pulp by the combination of mechanical pressure...

  1. Study on the leaching of phthalates from polyethylene terephthalate bottles into mineral water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keresztes, Szilvia; Tatár, Enikő [Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Bioanalytics, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Eötvös Loránd University, H-1117 Budapest, Pázmány Péter sétány 1/A (Hungary); Czégény, Zsuzsanna [Institute of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-1525 Budapest, P.O. Box 17 (Hungary); Záray, Gyula [Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Bioanalytics, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Eötvös Loránd University, H-1117 Budapest, Pázmány Péter sétány 1/A (Hungary); Mihucz, Victor G., E-mail: vigami72@yahoo.es [Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Bioanalytics, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Eötvös Loránd University, H-1117 Budapest, Pázmány Péter sétány 1/A (Hungary)

    2013-08-01

    Carbonated and non-carbonated mineral water samples bottled in 0.5-L, 1.5-L and 2.0-L polyethylene terephthalate (PET) containers belonging to three different water brands commercialized in Hungary were studied in order to determine their phthalate content by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Among the six investigated phthalates, diisobutyl phthalate, di-n-butyl-phthalate, benzyl-butyl phthalate and di(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were determined in non-carbonated samples as follows: < 3.0 ng L{sup −1}–0.2 μg L{sup −1}, < 6.6 ng L{sup −1}–0.8 μg L{sup −1}, < 6.0 ng L{sup −1}–0.1 μg L{sup −1} and < 16.0 ng L{sup −1}–1.7 μg L{sup −1}, respectively. Any of the above-mentioned phthalate esters could be detected in carbonated mineral water samples. DEHP was the most abundant phthalate in the investigated samples. It could be detected after 44 days of storage at 22 °C and its leaching was the most pronounced when samples were stored over 1200 days. Mineral water purchased in PET bottles of 0.5 L had the highest phthalate concentrations compared to those obtained for waters of the identical brand bottled in 1.5-L or 2.0-L PET containers due to the higher surface/volume ratio. No clear trend could be established for phthalate leaching when water samples were kept at higher temperatures (max. 60 °C) showing improper storage conditions. Phthalate determination by pyrolysis–gas chromatography/mass spectrometric measurements in the plastic material as well as in the aqueous phase proved the importance of the quality of PET raw material used for the production of the pre-form (virgin vs. polymer containing recycled PET). - Highlights: • DEHP — most abundant phthalate in bottled mineral water • Temperature and contact surface area influence phthalate leaching. • Phthalate occurrence depends on virgin vs. polymer containing recycled PET. • pH (carbonated vs. non-carbonated samples) affects hydrolysis of phthalate esters.

  2. Microbiological Investigations of ReNu Plastic Bottles and the 2004 to 2006 ReNu With MoistureLoc-Related Worldwide Fusarium Keratitis Event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, John D; Warwar, Ronald E; Elder, B Laurel; Khamis, Harry J

    2016-05-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine whether the contact lens solution RevitaLens Ocutec (containing the antimicrobial agents alexidine and polyquaternium-1) would inhibit Fusarium organisms when heated in ReNu plastic bottles; whether alexidine would inhibit Fusarium organisms when heated in non-ReNu plastic bottles; and whether an alexidine-neutralizing compound leaches from heated ReNu bottles. RevitaLens and an alexidine solution (0.00045%), previously stored in ReNu bottles at room temperature (RT) and 56°C, were incubated with 7 different Fusarium organisms. The alexidine solution was similarly stored in seven non-ReNu plastic bottles and incubated with these same organisms. To determine if an alexidine-neutralizing compound might be leaching from heated ReNu bottles, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) was incubated at RT and 56°C in ReNu bottles, combined with alexidine, and then tested for anti-Fusarium capability. After being heated in ReNu bottles, RevitaLens retained its anti-Fusarium capability, whereas the alexidine solution did not. The alexidine solution heated in seven non-ReNu plastic bottles retained its anti-Fusarium capability. The alexidine solution retained its anti-Fusarium capability when incubated with a PBS solution that had been heated in ReNu bottles, indicating, microbiologically, that an alexidine-neutralizing compound did not leach from the heated ReNu bottle. Alexidine uniquely fails to inhibit Fusarium organisms when heated in a plastic ReNu bottle, but not in seven other plastic bottles, whereas the anti-Fusarium capability of RevitaLens (containing the antimicrobial agents alexidine and polyquaternium-1) is unaffected by heating in a ReNu bottle. There does not seem to be an alexidine-neutralizing compound leaching from heated ReNu bottles. An interaction between alexidine and its heated ReNu bottle may have been a critical factor in the worldwide ReNu with MoistureLoc-related Fusarium keratitis event of 2004 to 2006.

  3. 40 CFR 142.57 - Bottled water, point-of-use, and point-of-entry devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bottled water, point-of-use, and point... Issued by the Administrator § 142.57 Bottled water, point-of-use, and point-of-entry devices. (a) A State may require a public water system to use bottled water, point-of-use devices, or...

  4. Microbes on a Bottle: Substrate, Season and Geography Influence Community Composition of Microbes Colonizing Marine Plastic Debris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberbeckmann, Sonja; Osborn, A Mark; Duhaime, Melissa B

    2016-01-01

    Plastic debris pervades in our oceans and freshwater systems and the potential ecosystem-level impacts of this anthropogenic litter require urgent evaluation. Microbes readily colonize aquatic plastic debris and members of these biofilm communities are speculated to include pathogenic, toxic, invasive or plastic degrading-species. The influence of plastic-colonizing microorganisms on the fate of plastic debris is largely unknown, as is the role of plastic in selecting for unique microbial communities. This work aimed to characterize microbial biofilm communities colonizing single-use poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) drinking bottles, determine their plastic-specificity in contrast with seawater and glass-colonizing communities, and identify seasonal and geographical influences on the communities. A substrate recruitment experiment was established in which PET bottles were deployed for 5-6 weeks at three stations in the North Sea in three different seasons. The structure and composition of the PET-colonizing bacterial/archaeal and eukaryotic communities varied with season and station. Abundant PET-colonizing taxa belonged to the phylum Bacteroidetes (e.g. Flavobacteriaceae, Cryomorphaceae, Saprospiraceae-all known to degrade complex carbon substrates) and diatoms (e.g. Coscinodiscophytina, Bacillariophytina). The PET-colonizing microbial communities differed significantly from free-living communities, but from particle-associated (>3 μm) communities or those inhabiting glass substrates. These data suggest that microbial community assembly on plastics is driven by conventional marine biofilm processes, with the plastic surface serving as raft for attachment, rather than selecting for recruitment of plastic-specific microbial colonizers. A small proportion of taxa, notably, members of the Cryomorphaceae and Alcanivoraceae, were significantly discriminant of PET but not glass surfaces, conjuring the possibility that these groups may directly interact with the PET

  5. Natural activity concentrations in bottled drinking water and consequent doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabadayi, Önder; Gümüs, Hasan

    2012-07-01

    The radioactivity concentrations of nuclides (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K in bottled drinking water from six different manufacturers from Turkey were measured using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. The measurement was done using a coaxial high-purity germanium detector system coupled to Ortec-Dspect jr digital MCA system. The average measured activity concentrations of the nuclides (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K are found to be 0.781, 1.05 and 2.19 Bq l(-1), respectively. The measured activity concentrations have been compared with similar studies from different locations. The annual effective doses for ingestion of radionuclides in the water are found to be 0.0246 mSv for (238)U and 0.169 mSv for (232)Th.

  6. Water Jets from Bottles, Buckets, Barrels, and Vases with Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopac, Vjera

    2015-03-01

    Observation of the water jets flowing from three equidistant holes on the side of a vertical cylindrical bottle is an interesting and widely used didactical experiment illustrating the laws of fluids in motion. In this paper we analyze theoretically and numerically the ranges of the stationary water jets flowing from various rotationally symmetric vessels with holes, and their dependence on the height of the holes above the bottom, on thickness of the block supporting the vessel, and on different shapes of the vessel profile. This investigation was motivated by controversial descriptions and illustrations repeatedly found in physics textbooks and by the fact that previously in the physics teaching literature only the cylindrical vessel was treated.

  7. Identification and quantification of the migration of chemicals from plastic baby bottles used as substitutes for polycarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoneau, C; Van den Eede, L; Valzacchi, S

    2012-01-01

    The results of a study on the analytical identification and quantification of migration of chemicals from plastics baby bottles found in the European Union market made of materials that are now present as substitutes for polycarbonate (PC) are reported. A total of 449 baby bottles with a focus on first age or sets of bottles were purchased from 26 European Union countries, Canada, Switzerland and the USA. From this collection, which contained several duplicates, a total of 277 baby bottles were analysed. The materials included different types of plastic such as PC, polyamide (PA), polyethersulphone (PES), polypropylene (PP), but also silicone, and from the United States a co-polyester marketed under the trade name Tritan™. The bottles were subjected to the conventional migration test for hot fill conditions, i.e. 2 h at 70°C. The simulant used was that specified in European Union legislation (2007/19/EC) for milk, i.e. 50% ethanol. In a first phase 1, migration was conducted since the scope of this investigation was a screening rather than a true compliance testing check. Second and third migrations were performed on selected articles when migrated substances exceeded limits specified in the legislation. In order to verify some materials, a portion of the bottle was cut to run an FT-IR fingerprint to confirm the nature of the polymer. The migration solutions in general showed a low release of substances. Results showed that bottles made of PP and silicones showed a greater number of substances in the migration solutions and in greater quantity. Chemicals from PP included alkanes, which could be found in >65% of the bottles at levels up to 3500 µg kg⁻¹; and benzene derivatives in 17% of the baby bottles and found at levels up to 113 µg kg⁻¹. Some substances were found on a regular basis such as plasticisers, esters and antioxidants (e.g. tris(2,4-di-tert-butylphenyl)phosphate, known as Irgafos 168. Some substances found were not included in the

  8. Glass vs. Plastic: Life Cycle Assessment of Extra-Virgin Olive Oil Bottles across Global Supply Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Accorsi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The environmental impacts of global food supply chains are growing with the need for their measurement and management. This paper explores the operations of a global supply chain for extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO according to a life cycle assessment (LCA methodology. The LCA assessment methodology is applied to determine the environmental impact categories associated with the bottled EVOO life cycle, focusing on packaging decisions. The proposed analysis identifies the greatest environmental stressors of the EVOO supply chain, thereby supporting strategic and operative decisions toward more efficient and environmentally-friendly operations management and packaging choices. This paper quantifies the environmental categories of the impacts of global warming potential, ozone layer depletion, non-renewable energy use, acidification, eutrophication and photochemical smog, for the observed EVOO supply chain, given alternative packaging configurations, i.e., a glass bottle vs. a plastic bottle. The observed system includes the supply of EVOO, the EVOO processing and bottling, the supply of packaging, the distribution of final products to customers, the end-of-life (EOL treatments regarding the management, recycling and the disposal of waste across a global supply chain. The findings from the LCA highlight the potential of PET bottles in reducing the environmental impact of EVOO supply chains and identifies hotspots of discussion for policy-makers, EVOO producers and consumers.

  9. Chemical contamination of soft drinks in sealed plastic bottles by environmental stress cracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Dan; Israelsohn-Azulay, Osnat

    2009-01-01

    A contamination of soft drinks in sealed bottles by organic solvents is reported: closed bottles full of soft drinks were accidentally placed on a cardboard soaked with thinner and the organic fluid subsequently fissured the bottom of the bottles and penetrated into the soft drinks without any apparent leakage of the soft drinks. Experiments were carried out to simulate the process: the penetration of different organic solvents into soft drinks through the bottom of closed bottles was tested. The penetration occurred only when the closed bottles contained carbonated soft drinks (CSD), indicating that inner pressure is a necessary condition for the fissuring of the bottles. This paper discusses environmental stress cracking of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles by organic solvents and migration of chemicals to CSD. Experiments were conducted to determine the conditions in which PET can be permeable to poisoning organic products.

  10. Constructing a Plastic Bottle Wind Turbine as a Practical Aid for Learning about Using Wind Energy to Generate Electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleyard, S. J.

    2009-01-01

    A simple horizontal axis wind turbine can be easily constructed using a 1.5 l PET plastic bottle, a compact disc and a small dynamo. The turbine operates effectively at low wind speeds and has a rotational speed of 500 rpm at a wind speed of about 14 km h[superscript -1]. The wind turbine can be used to demonstrate the relationship between open…

  11. 75 FR 14607 - Small Entity Compliance Guide: Bottled Water: Total Coliform and E. coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ... and E. coli; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food... ``Bottled Water: Total Coliform and E. coli--Small Entity Compliance Guide'' for a final rule published in... are Escherichia coli (E. coli), an indicator of fecal contamination. FDA also amended its bottled...

  12. Migration of bisphenol A into water from polycarbonate baby bottles during microwave heating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ehlert, K.A.; Beumer, C.W.E.; Groot, M.C.E.

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive migration database was established for bisphenol A from polycarbonate baby bottles into water during exposure to microwave heating. Eighteen different brands of polycarbonate baby bottles sold in Europe were collected. Initial residual content of bisphenol A and migration after micro

  13. Migration of bisphenol A into water from polycarbonate baby bottles during microwave heating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ehlert, K.A.; Beumer, C.W.E.; Groot, M.C.E.

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive migration database was established for bisphenol A from polycarbonate baby bottles into water during exposure to microwave heating. Eighteen different brands of polycarbonate baby bottles sold in Europe were collected. Initial residual content of bisphenol A and migration after

  14. The water cycle in a bottle: simulation of a hydrogeological basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebot Castelló, M. R.; Leiva Hevia, S.

    2012-04-01

    THE WATER CYCLE IN A BOTTLE: simulation of a hydrogeological basin Author: Mª Roser Nebot (Institut Manuel Blancafort, La Garriga, Barcelona, Spain) Co-author: Sílvia Leiva Hevia (Institut Llicà d'Amunt, Lliça d'Amunt, Barcelona, Spain) The activity can be implemented in a great range of ages, because it has many different levels of depth. It is based on the construction of an analogical model of a hydrogeological basin using a 5L or 8L empty bottle. There are also other hands-on experiences that can be done in relation to the central one, such as creating a fountain, making a cloud, fog, a breeze… The use of a model that the students have to build and interact with enhances the possibility of cooperative and dialogic learning. The set of activities begins with an introduction to see what the students know about the water cycle and to focus on what they are going to work on. It also makes them think about underground water, which is frequently forgotten when drawing and studying the water cycle. Then, the building of the water cycle simulation from an empty bottle is presented, see http://www.xtec.cat/cirel/pla_le/nottingham/roser_nebot/index.htm (Unit 5). You will also find other activities related to the water cycle at the site. The students build the model, water the soil, and observe infiltration and the formation of a lake. Using a syringe they overexploit the well and dry the lake. By making the students label the underground water level and observe how water percolates through the holes in the aquifer we are making them aware that underground water doesn't circulate in rivers inside underground tunnels, but through the interconnected holes and crevices. Inside the bottle there is a little plant to observe evapotranspiration but, because it is very difficult to see the water droplets in the small plant that is inside the set-up, it is advisable to do a parallel experiment using bigger plants in a pot, covering them with a plastic bag tied around the

  15. Chemical Recycling of Pop Bottles: The Synthesis of Dibenzyl Terephthalate from the Plastic Polyethylene Terephthalate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Craig J.; Exline, Jennifer A.; Warner, Cynthia

    2003-01-01

    A laboratory procedure involving the chemical recycling of the plastic polyethylene terephthalate (PET or PETE) from 2-L pop bottles is described. A transesterification reaction is employed to depolymerize PET. At atmospheric pressure in refluxing benzyl alcohol in the presence of a catalyst, PET is converted to dibenzyl terephthalate in moderate yields. This procedure models an industrial process that involves the transesterification reaction of PET with methanol at high temperature and pressure, conditions not normally accessible in an undergraduate laboratory, to yield dimethyl terephthalate and ethylene glycol. A second method of preparing dibenzyl terephthalate starting with terephthaloyl chloride is also described. The diester from these two approaches is characterized using melting points, TLC, and IR and NMR spectroscopy. This experiment has been used in a general chemistry sequence that has sections on organic chemistry and polymer chemistry, but is also well suited for an introductory organic chemistry laboratory course or a polymer chemistry laboratory course. This lab experiment is part of a larger effort to develop a general chemistry sequence for engineering students using the theme of chemistry and the automobile. Student results are presented.

  16. Determination of Perchlorate in Bottled Water from Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Iannece

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Perchlorate is regarded as an emerging persistent inorganic contaminant. It is widely known that perchlorate is an endocrine disruptor as it competitively inhibits iodide transport in the thyroid gland. As drinking water is the major source of human exposure to perchlorate, its occurrence in commercially available bottled waters purchased in different regions of Italy was investigated. Perchlorate was measured using the rapid, sensitive, and selective LC-ESI-MS/MS (liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry method by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM of the transition 98.8→82.8, which corresponds to the loss of one oxygen atom in the perchlorate ion (ClO4−→ClO3−. The chlorine isotope ratio (35Cl/37Cl was used as a confirmation tool. The limit of quantification (LOQ for this method was 5 ng/L, and the recovery ranged from 94% to 108%. Perchlorate was detected in 44 of the 62 drinking waters tested, with concentrations ranging from <5 to 75 ng/L. These values are similar in magnitude to those reported in drinking water from the USA and do not pose an immediate health concern.

  17. Screening adulteration of polypropylene bottles with postconsumer recycled plastics for oral drug package by near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lan-Gui; Sun, Hui-Min; Jin, Shao-Hong

    2011-11-14

    Adulteration of pharmaceutical packaging containers with postconsumer recycled plastic materials was considerably difficult to identify due to the similar chemical compositions of virgin and recycled plastics. In the present study, near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy coupled with conformity test was proposed to screen the adulteration of pharmaceutical packaging containers. Two kinds of representative screening models were investigated on polypropylene (PP) bottles for oral drug package. The reliability of the screening models was validated through studying the identification reliability, specificity, and robustness of the methods. The minimum spiking level of two modeled adulterants at the proportion of 20% could be detected, and the unqualified sample from a domestic manufacturer was rejected by this developed method. This strategy represents a rapid and promising analytical method for screening the adulteration of pharmaceutical plastic packaging containers with postconsumer recycled plastics.

  18. Determination of dimethyl selenide and dimethyl sulphide compounds causing off-flavours in bottled mineral waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadayol, Marta; Cortina, Montserrat; Guadayol, Josep M; Caixach, Josep

    2016-04-01

    Sales of bottled drinking water have shown a large growth during the last two decades due to the general belief that this kind of water is healthier, its flavour is better and its consumption risk is lower than that of tap water. Due to the previous points, consumers are more demanding with bottled mineral water, especially when dealing with its organoleptic properties, like taste and odour. This work studies the compounds that can generate obnoxious smells, and that consumers have described like swampy, rotten eggs, sulphurous, cooked vegetable or cabbage. Closed loop stripping analysis (CLSA) has been used as a pre-concentration method for the analysis of off-flavour compounds in water followed by identification and quantification by means of GC-MS. Several bottled water with the aforementioned smells showed the presence of volatile dimethyl selenides and dimethyl sulphides, whose concentrations ranged, respectively, from 4 to 20 ng/L and from 1 to 63 ng/L. The low odour threshold concentrations (OTCs) of both organic selenide and sulphide derivatives prove that several objectionable odours in bottled waters arise from them. Microbial loads inherent to water sources, along with some critical conditions in water processing, could contribute to the formation of these compounds. There are few studies about volatile organic compounds in bottled drinking water and, at the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the presence of dimethyl selenides and dimethyl sulphides causing odour problems in bottled waters.

  19. Bottled water: analysis of mycotoxins by LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, A T; Ferreira, J P; Oliveira, B R; Batoréu, M C; Barreto Crespo, M T; Pereira, V J; Bronze, M R

    2015-06-01

    The presence of mycotoxins in food samples has been widely studied as well as its impact in human health, however, information about its distribution in the environment is scarce. An analytical method comprising a solid phase extraction procedure followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis was implemented and validated for the trace analysis of mycotoxins in drinking bottled waters. Limits of quantification achieved for the method were between 0.2ngL(-1) for aflatoxins and ochratoxin, and 2.0ngL(-1) for fumonisins and neosolaniol. The method was applied to real samples. Aflatoxin B2 was the most frequently detected mycotoxin in water samples, with a maximum concentration of 0.48±0.05ngL(-1) followed by aflatoxin B1, aflatoxin G1 and ochratoxin A. The genera Cladosporium, Fusarium and Penicillium were the fungi more frequently detected. These results show that the consumption of these waters does not represent a toxicological risk for an adult.

  20. Measurement of radioactivity in bottled drinking water in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomo, M.; Penalver, A.; Borrull, F. [Unitat de Radioquimica Ambiental i Sanitaria, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Edifici CTT-FURV, Av. Paisos Catalans 18, 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Aguilar, C. [Unitat de Radioquimica Ambiental i Sanitaria, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Edifici CTT-FURV, Av. Paisos Catalans 18, 43007 Tarragona (Spain)], E-mail: carme.aguilar@urv.cat

    2007-10-15

    The radioactive parameters in the Spanish regulations on water intended for human consumption (law decree 140/2003) have been determined in 30 different brands of some of the most common bottled mineral waters produced and consumed in Spain. These waters are not included in this legislation but if their consumption increases, the dose of radiation in the population may also increase. After gross alpha activity, gross beta activity, gross beta without potassium contribution and tritium activity had been determined, only a few samples (16% of the samples analysed) were over the normative limit for gross alpha activity (0.1 Bq/l), whereas all the samples were below the normative limits for the other parameters. For samples with high gross alpha activity values, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 224}Ra were determined. The values were between 0.01 and 1.52 Bq/l, and between 0.01 and 0.38 Bq/l, respectively, so alpha activity should be considered to be of natural origin.

  1. Survey on Heterotrophic Bacterial Contamination in Bottled Mineral Water by Culture Method

    OpenAIRE

    Essmaeel Ghorbanalinezhad; Ghazaleh Saeedi; Delaram Khanjani

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim: This project focuses on the level of heterotrophic baceria in bottled mineral water which could be a health concern for the elderly, infants, pregnant women and immuno-compromised patients. Materials and Methods: Different brands of bottled water samples were selected randomly and evaluated for their bacteriological quality, using different specific culture media and biochemical tests. Water samples were analyzed within 24 hours of their purchase/collection. Samples we...

  2. Assessing bottled water nitrate concentrations to evaluate total drinking water nitrate exposure and risk of birth defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyer, Peter J.; Brender, Jean D.; Romitti, Paul A.; Kantamneni, Jiji R.; Crawford, David; Sharkey, Joseph R.; Shinde, Mayura; Horel, Scott A.; Vuong, Ann M.; Langlois, Peter H.

    2016-01-01

    Previous epidemiologic studies of maternal exposure to drinking water nitrate did not account for bottled water consumption. The objective of this National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS) (USA) analysis was to assess the impact of bottled water use on the relation between maternal exposure to drinking water nitrate and selected birth defects in infants born during 1997–2005. Prenatal residences of 1,410 mothers reporting exclusive bottled water use were geocoded and mapped; 326 bottled water samples were collected and analyzed using Environmental Protection Agency Method 300.0. Median bottled water nitrate concentrations were assigned by community; mothers’ overall intake of nitrate in mg/day from drinking water was calculated. Odds ratios for neural tube defects, limb deficiencies, oral cleft defects, and heart defects were estimated using mixed-effects models for logistic regression. Odds ratios (95% CIs) for the highest exposure group in offspring of mothers reporting exclusive use of bottled water were: neural tube defects [1.42 (0.51, 3.99)], limb deficiencies [1.86 (0.51, 6.80)], oral clefts [1.43 (0.61, 3.31)], and heart defects [2.13, (0.87, 5.17)]. Bottled water nitrate had no appreciable impact on risk for birth defects in the NBDPS. PMID:25473985

  3. Assessing bottled water nitrate concentrations to evaluate total drinking water nitrate exposure and risk of birth defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyer, Peter J; Brender, Jean D; Romitti, Paul A; Kantamneni, Jiji R; Crawford, David; Sharkey, Joseph R; Shinde, Mayura; Horel, Scott A; Vuong, Ann M; Langlois, Peter H

    2014-12-01

    Previous epidemiologic studies of maternal exposure to drinking water nitrate did not account for bottled water consumption. The objective of this National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS) (USA) analysis was to assess the impact of bottled water use on the relation between maternal exposure to drinking water nitrate and selected birth defects in infants born during 1997-2005. Prenatal residences of 1,410 mothers reporting exclusive bottled water use were geocoded and mapped; 326 bottled water samples were collected and analyzed using Environmental Protection Agency Method 300.0. Median bottled water nitrate concentrations were assigned by community; mothers' overall intake of nitrate in mg/day from drinking water was calculated. Odds ratios for neural tube defects, limb deficiencies, oral cleft defects, and heart defects were estimated using mixed-effects models for logistic regression. Odds ratios (95% CIs) for the highest exposure group in offspring of mothers reporting exclusive use of bottled water were: neural tube defects [1.42 (0.51, 3.99)], limb deficiencies [1.86 (0.51, 6.80)], oral clefts [1.43 (0.61, 3.31)], and heart defects [2.13, (0.87, 5.17)]. Bottled water nitrate had no appreciable impact on risk for birth defects in the NBDPS.

  4. Quality Assessment of Various Bottled-Water Andtap-Water in Kirkuk - Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EmanHussein

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to demonstrate the suitability of bottled water used in Kirkuk city - Iraq and Tap water processed by the Directorate of Kirkuk’s water for human consumption, collected 20 type of bottled water ( local made and imported and nine Tap waters sample from different city regions , samples analysis both chemical& physical properties included (PH,Turbidity, E.C., T.D.S, T. Hardness, Alkalinity, T.S.S with measuring elements (Ca+ , Mg+ , Cl- , So4= , Na+&K+ , all data compared with ( IBWA, 2008 & ( IS 470 /2001, bottled water results compare with brand labels . Results showed the existence of discrepancies between the data obtained in vitro with what is listed on brands label , note that many of thebrands did not coverall properties should be known by the consumer for the purpose of safety of use, also the results showed that three regions in Kirkuk city and processed its water by the Water Directorate of Kirkuk is not suitable to drink.

  5. Design and Operation of Equipment to Detect and Remove Water within Used Nuclear Fuel Storage Bottles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.C. Baker; T.M. Pfeiffer; J.C. Price

    2013-09-01

    Inspection and drying equipment has been implemented in a hot cell to address the inadvertent ingress of water into used nuclear fuel storage bottles. Operated with telemanipulators, the system holds up to two fuel bottles and allows their threaded openings to be connected to pressure transducers and a vacuum pump. A prescribed pressure rebound test is used to diagnose the presence of moisture. Bottles found to contain moisture are dried by vaporization. The drying process is accelerated by the application of heat and vacuum. These techniques detect and remove virtually all free water (even water contained in a debris bed) while leaving behind most, if not all, particulates. The extracted water vapour passes through a thermoelectric cooler where it is condensed back to the liquid phase for collection. Fuel bottles are verified to be dry by passing the pressure rebound test.

  6. 塑料啤酒瓶的制造方案%Manufacturing Scheme of Plastic Beer Bottles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方圣行; 胡莹梅

    2001-01-01

    The status and prospect of the material and processing forplastic beer bottle at home and abroad are introduced.The new fruits as well as PACVD techniqne and nano-polymer to improve the barrier property are described.It will be a great foreground that the plastic beer bottle is domestically developed.%介绍了国内外制造塑料啤酒瓶的材料及其加工工艺的现状和发展前景,提出了用PACVD(等离子辅助化学气相沉积)技术与纳米聚合物提高啤酒瓶阻隔性的新成果,指出在国内发展塑料啤酒瓶包装的伟大前景。

  7. Is Your Drinking Water Acidic? A Comparison of the Varied pH of Popular Bottled Waters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wright, Kellie F

    2015-01-01

    .... However, water is not typically categorized as acidic. The purpose of this in-vitro study was to investigate the pH levels of several popular brands of bottled water and compare them to various other acidic beverages...

  8. The photocatalytic enhancement of acrylic and PET solar water disinfection (SODIS) bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, J M; Perez, T M; Arsiaga, E G; Loetscher, L H; Boyd, J E

    2011-01-01

    The solar water disinfection method (SODIS) was modified by the addition of a photocatalytic layer of titania on the interior surface of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and acrylic bottles. Titania was solvent deposited on the interior of commercially available PET bottles, as well as bottles that were constructed from acrylic. Uncoated and titania-coated acrylic bottles removed 3,000,000-5,000,000 colony forming units per milliliter of K12 E. coli from 670 mL of contaminated water in 40 min of solar irradiance. After five hours of sunlight exposure, the concentration of 10 ppm methyl orange (a representative organic water contaminant), was reduced by 61% using the titania-coated acrylic bottles. The concentration of 87 ppb microcystin-LR (a representative algal toxin) was reduced by 70% after 7 hours of sunlight exposure in the titania-coated acrylic bottles. Acrylic is an effective alternative to PET for use in the SODIS method due to its greater UV transparency. The addition of titania to PET and acrylic bottles confers the ability to remove chemical contaminants in addition to inactivating microbiological contaminants.

  9. Multi-generational drinking of bottled low mineral water impairs bone quality in female rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqun Qiu

    Full Text Available Because of reproductions and hormone changes, females are more sensitive to bone mineral loss during their lifetime. Bottled water has become more popular in recent years, and a large number of products are low mineral water. However, research on the effects of drinking bottled low mineral water on bone health is sparse.To elucidate the skeletal effects of multi-generational bottled water drinking in female rats.Rats continuously drank tap water (TW, bottled natural water (bNW, bottled mineralized water (bMW, or bottled purified water (bPW for three generations.The maximum deflection, elastic deflection, and ultimate strain of the femoral diaphysis in the bNW, bMW, and bPW groups and the fracture strain in the bNW and bMW groups were significantly decreased. The tibiae calcium levels in both the bNW and bPW groups were significantly lower than that in the TW group. The tibiae and teeth magnesium levels in both the bNW and bPW groups were significantly lower than those in the TW group. The collagen turnover markers PICP (in both bNW and bPW groups were significantly lower than that in the TW group. In all three low mineral water groups, the 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D levels were significantly lower than those in the TW group.Long-term drinking of low mineral water may disturb bone metabolism and biochemical properties and therefore weaken biomechanical bone properties in females. Drinking tap water, which contains adequate minerals, was found to be better for bone health. To our knowledge, this is the first report on drinking bottled low mineral water and female bone quality on three generation model.

  10. Leaching of heavy metals from water bottle components into the drinking water of rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunamaker, Elizabeth A; Otto, Kevin J; Artwohl, James E; Fortman, Jeffrey D

    2013-01-01

    Providing high-quality, uncontaminated drinking water is an essential component of rodent husbandry. Acidification of drinking water is a common technique to control microbial growth but is not a benign treatment. In addition to its potential biologic effects, acidified water might interact with the water-delivery system, leading to the leaching of heavy metals into the drinking water. The goal of the current study was to evaluate the effects of water acidification and autoclaving on water-bottle assemblies. The individual components of the system (stainless-steel sipper tubes, rubber stoppers, neoprene stoppers, and polysulfone water bottles) were acid-digested and analyzed for cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, magnesium, manganese, selenium, and zinc to quantify the metal composition of each material. In addition the amounts of these metals that leached into tap and acidified water with and without autoclaving were quantified after 1 wk of contact time. On a weight basis, sipper tubes contained the largest quantities of all metals except magnesium and zinc, which were greatest in the neoprene stoppers. Except for cadmium and selenium, all metals had leached into the water after 1 wk, especially under the acidified condition. The quantities of copper, lead, and zinc that leached into the drinking water were the most noteworthy, because the resulting concentrations had the potential to confound animal experiments. On the basis of these findings, we suggest that water-quality monitoring programs include heavy metal analysis at the level of water delivery to animals.

  11. Treatment techniques for the recycling of bottle washing water in the soft drinks industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez Camperos, E; Mijaylova Nacheva, P; Diaz Tapia, E

    2004-01-01

    The soft drink production is an important sector in the manufacturing industry of Mexico. Water is the main source in the production of soft drinks. Wastewater from bottle washing is almost 50% of the total wastewater generated by this industry. In order to reduce the consumption of water, the water of the last bottle rinse can be reused in to the bottle pre-rinse and pre-washing cycles. This work presents the characterization of the final bottle washing rinse discharge and the treatability study for the most appropriate treatment system for recycling. Average characteristics of the final bottle wash rinse were as follows: Turbidity 40.46 NTU, COD 47.7 mg/L, TSS 56 mg/L, TS 693.6 mg/L, electrical conductivity 1,194 microS/cm. The results of the treatability tests showed that the final rinse water can be used in the pre-rinse and pre-washing after removing the totality of the suspended solids, 80% of the COD and 75% of the dissolved solids. This can be done using the following treatment systems: filtration-adsorption-reverse osmosis, or filtration-adsorption-ion exchange. The installation of these treatment techniques in the soft drink industry would decrease bottle washing water consumption by 50%.

  12. Survey on Heterotrophic Bacterial Contamination in Bottled Mineral Water by Culture Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essmaeel Ghorbanalinezhad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: This project focuses on the level of heterotrophic baceria in bottled mineral water which could be a health concern for the elderly, infants, pregnant women and immuno-compromised patients. Materials and Methods: Different brands of bottled water samples were selected randomly and evaluated for their bacteriological quality, using different specific culture media and biochemical tests. Water samples were analyzed within 24 hours of their purchase/collection. Samples were filtered with 0.45 micron and filters were plated in different media. Then media were incubated at 37˚C for 24-48 hours. Results: Morphological study and biochemical tests revealed a number of bacteria in different   brands of  bottled water. Heterotrophic bacteria(Gram positive cocci, Spore forming gram positive bacilli, non spore forming gram positive bacilli, gram negative bacilli, and gram negative coccobacilli; Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas counted in 70% of bottled water samples. There were no cases of fecal contamination or the presence of E.coli. Conclusions: Bottled water is not sterile and contains trace amounts of bacteria naturally present or introduced during processing. Testing drinking water for all possible pathogens is complex, time-consuming, and expensive. If only total coliform bacteria are detected in drinking water, the source is probably environmental. Since the significance of non-pathogenic heterotrophic bacteria in relation to health and diseases is not understood, there is an urgent need to establish a maximum limit for the heterotrophic count in the bottled mineral water. Growth conditions play a critical role in the recovery of heterotrophic bacteria in bottled drinking water.

  13. The bacteriological quality of different brands of bottled water available to consumers in Ile-Ife, south-western Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igbeneghu, Oluwatoyin A; Lamikanra, Adebayo

    2014-11-28

    The upsurge in the demand for bottled water has prompted the interest of many manufacturers in the production of bottled water and very many water bottling companies are therefore involved in its production. These range from large scale multinational companies to medium scale business enterprises, institutional and government business investment companies as well as small scale entrepreneurs. There is however little information on the comparative quality of bottled water brands produced by different classes of water bottling companies in Nigeria. This study was undertaken to determine the bacteriological quality of brands of bottled water available to consumers in Ile-Ife. Forty-three samples of bottled water comprising of three batches each of thirteen bottled water brands and two batches of two brands were purchased and analyzed for total bacterial count, presence of coliform and the presence of other bacterial indicators of drinking water quality. Only 67.4% of the water samples representing the products of 10 companies or 66.7% of the brands had heterotrophic counts within the acceptable limits. Coliforms present in 100 ml of water were detected in 26.7% of the bottled water brands. Other indicator organisms detected included Staphylococci isolated from 27.9% of the samples (33.3% of the brands) and specifically Staphylococcus aureus found in four brands constituting 14% of the samples. Pseudomonas strains were consistently detected in consecutive batches of three brands of the water samples. Bottled water samples produced by the large scale multinational producers were of acceptable bacteriological quality unlike those produced by most small companies. There is need for a greater control of water bottling processes carried out by commercial bottled water producers in Nigeria.

  14. Quality of Sachet Water and Bottled Water in Bolgatanga Municipality of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel O. Oyelude

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the physicochemical and bacteriological characteristics of sachet and bottled water brands on sale in Bolgatanga municipality, Ghana. Turbidity, colour, total dissolved solids, total hardness, calcium ion, magnesium ion, total iron, chloride ion, nitrate ion, phosphate ion and sulphate ion of all samples were within the WHO drinking-water guideline. About fifty percent of the water samples had fluoride ion level ranging from 0.15-0.45 mg/L. These values are below the WHO recommended minimum limit of 0.5 mg/L. Sachet water samples generally possessed good physicochemical characteristics. However, three out of every four sachet water samples were contaminated by coliform bacteria ranging from 12-168 cfu/100 mL. Faecal coliform bacteria ranging from 2-63 cfu/100 mL were detected in more than 60% of the sachet water brands. All the unbranded hand-filled hand-tied sachet water samples without exception were contaminated by faecal coliform bacteria. This is contrary to the recommendation by WHO that faecal coliform bacteria must not be detectable in a 100-mL sample of drinking water. Although two percent of the bottled water samples had pH levels below the minimum level of 6.5 recommended by WHO, the samples generally possessed good physicochemical and bacteriological characteristics. On the average, bottled water samples were of good quality and the sachet water samples were of variable quality. This was probably due to the problem of poor sanitation in Bolgatanga municipality and the fact that sachet water brands are not always produced under scrutinised hygienic conditions.

  15. Detection of bacterial endotoxin in drinking tap and bottled water in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulraheem, Abdulkareem; Mustafa, Seham; Al-Saffar, Nabeel; Shahjahan, Muhammed

    2012-12-01

    This study was carried out to measure and compare the concentration of bacterial endotoxin in a variety of samples from drinking tap and bottled water available in Kuwait by using the Limulus Amoebocyte lysate test. A total of 29 samples were tested. Samples were collected from a variety of locations throughout the six governorates of Kuwait and 23 brands of local and imported bottled water samples were collected from the local market. The concentration of bacterial endotoxin was measured by using the standard Limulus Amoebocyte lysate test, gel clot method. This study showed that measured endotoxin concentrations in tap drinking water varied from 2.4 to 33.8 EU/ml with the average endotoxin concentration of 14.2 EU/ml. While the results of endotoxin concentrations in the bottled water were bottled water is 13.5 % of the average concentration of endotoxin in tap drinking water. This experimental investigation has proved that drinking bottled water has less endotoxin as compared to tap water in Kuwait. It is also demonstrated that the endotoxin concentration did not exceed the acceptable level in drinking tap water.

  16. Applicability study of deuterium excess in bottled water life cycle analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihael Brenčič

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Paper explores the possible use of d‑excess in the investigation of bottled water. Based on the data set from Brencic and Vreca’s paper (2006. Identification of sources and production processes of bottled waters by stable hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios, d‑excess values were statistically analysed and compared among different bottled water groups and different bottlers. The bottled water life cycle in relation to d‑excess values was also theoretically identified. Descriptive statistics and one-way ANOVA showed no significant differences among the groups. Differences were detected in the shape of empirical distributions. Groups of still and flavoured waters have similar shapes, but sparkling waters differed to the others. Two distinctive groups of bottlers could be discerned. The first group is represented by bottlers with a high range of d‑excess (from 7.7 ‰ to 18.6 ‰ with average of 12.0 ‰ exploring waters originating from the aquifers rich in highly mineralised groundwater and relatively high concentrations of CO2 gas. The second group is represented by bottlers using groundwater from relatively shallow aquifers. Their d‑excess values have characteristics similar to the local precipitation (from 7.8 ‰ to 14.3 ‰ with average of 10.3 ‰. More frequent sampling and better knowledge of production phases are needed to improve usage of isotope fingerprint for authentication of bottled waters.

  17. Optimization of fixed titanium dioxide film on PET bottles and visual indicator for water disinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia-Munoz, Manuel Antonio

    Water is perhaps the most important resource that sustains human life. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), almost two billion people do not have access to the required water that is needed to satisfy their daily needs and one billion do not have access to clean sources of water for consumption, most of them living in isolated and poor areas around the globe. Poor quality water increases the risk of cholera, typhoid fever and dysentery, and other water-borne illness making this problem a real crisis that humankind is facing. Several water disinfection technologies have been proposed as solutions for this problem. Solar water disinfection using TiO2 coated PET bottles was the alternative that is studied in this work. This technology does not only inactivate bacteria but also disintegrates organic chemicals that can be present in water. The objectives of this work address the optimization of the TiO 2 coated PET bottles technologies. The improvement on the bottle coating process, using two coats of 10% W/V of TiO2 in a solution of vinegar and sodium bicarbonate to form the TiO2 film, the use of a different indigo carmine (1.25 X 10-1mg/pill) concentration in the pill indicator of contamination, the increase of the disinfection rate through shaking the bottles, degradation under intermittent UV radiation and the effect of bottle size on photocatalytic water disinfection were among the most important findings. A new mathematical model that describes better photocatalytic water disinfection in TiO2 coated bottles and simulates water disinfection under different working conditions was another important achievement. These results can now be used to design a strategy for disseminating this technology in areas where it is required and, in that way, generate the greatest positive impact on the people needing safe drinking water.

  18. New alternatives in construction: earth filled pet bottles

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Valencia, Daniel; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana; López Pérez, Cecilia;; Cortes, Eliana; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana; Froese, Andreas; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACTTwo of the main problems of mankind are the lack of housing and the accumulation of solid waste and garbage thatultimately brings environmental problems. Within this solid waste are plastics such as the PET bottles (for examplesoda bottles). In order to try to solve both problems, since 2001 Eco-Tec Soluciones has pioneered in the constructionof houses and water storage structures with PET bottles filled with rammed earth. Groups GRIME and Estructuras yConstrucción of the Pontificia U...

  19. Is container type the biggest predictor of trace element and BPA leaching from drinking water bottles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowell, Candace; Kuiper, Nora; Preud'Homme, Hugues

    2016-07-01

    The knowledge-base of bottled water leachate is highly contradictory due to varying methodologies and limited multi-elemental and/or molecular analyses; understanding the range of contaminants and their pathways is required. This study determined the leaching potential and leaching kinetics of trace elements, using consistent comprehensive quantitative and semi-quantitative (79 elements total) analyses, and BPA, using isotopic dilution and MEPS pre-concentration with UHPLC-ESI-QTOF. Statistical methods were used to determine confounders and predictors of leaching and human health risk throughout 12days of UV exposure and after exposure to elevated temperature. Various types of water were used to assess the impact of water quality. Results suggest Sb leaching is primarily dependent upon water quality, not container type. Bottle type is a predictor of elemental leaching for Pb, Ba, Cr, Cu, Mn and Sr; BPA was detected in samples from polycarbonate containers. Health risks from the consumption of bottled water increase after UV exposure.

  20. Microbiological quality of water processed and bottled in Zimbabwe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cyanide residues from disused gold mine dumps. There are various ... bottled in Zimbabwe has. African Journal of Health Sciences Volume 9 Number 1-2, January-June 2002 ... metabolism on triple sugar iron (TSI) afar. Bacillus species were ...

  1. Microbiological safety of bottled mineral water in patients susceptible to infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oie, Shigeharu; Matsuzaka, Yuuki; Kiyonaga, Hiroko; Maeda, Kumiko; Kamiya, Akira

    2008-08-01

    We evaluated the microbiological safety of bottled mineral water products commercially available in Japan. Of 10 bottled mineral water products manufactured in Japan, no bacteria or fungi were detected in 9 (90%), but 1 (10%) contained 1.8x10(3) colony-forming units (cfu)/mL. Of 12 bottled mineral water products manufactured in the EU, 11 (91.7%) contained 23-3.5x10(4) cfu/mL. On the other hand, of 5 bottled mineral water products manufactured in North America, 2 (40%) contained 2.3x10(2)-2.5x10(3) cfu/mL. The detected microorganisms were glucose-nonfermentative Gram-negative bacilli such as Brevundimonas vesicularis, Moraxella spp., and Burkholderia cepacia, but Pseudomonas aeruginosa was not detected in any product. For immunocompromised host patients being managed in ultra-clean rooms, the examined bottled mineral water products manufactured in Japan, except 1, were microbiologically safe.

  2. Fluoride Intake through Consumption of Tap Water and Bottled Water in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman van Oyen

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a tendency to align higher levels of fluoride in natural mineral water with the existing higher levels in tap water. Treatment of natural mineral waters could harm the preservation of their natural character. In this study fluoride intake through bottled and tap water consumption in the Belgian adult population was assessed, taking into account regional differences. A deterministic approach was used whereby consumption quantities of tap water and different brands of bottled water were linked with their respective fluoride concentrations. Data from the national food consumption survey (2004 were used and the Nusser methodology was applied to obtain usual intake estimates. Mean intake of fluoride through total water consumption in Flanders was 1.4±0.7 mg/day (97.5th percentile: 3.1 mg/day, while in the Walloon region it was on average 0.9±0.6 mg/day (97.5th percentile: 2.4 mg/day. The probability of exceeding the UL of 7 mg per day via a normal diet was estimated to be low. Consequently, there is no need to revise the existing norms, but higher fluoride concentrations should be more clearly indicated on the labels. Reliable data about total dietary fluoride intake in children, including intake of fluoride via tooth paste and food supplements, are needed.

  3. Fluoride content in bottled drinking waters, carbonated soft drinks and fruit juices in Davangere city, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thippeswamy H

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The regular ingestion of fluoride lowers the prevalence of dental caries. The total daily intake of fluoride for optimal dental health should be 0.05-0.07 mg fluoride/kg body weight and to avoid the risk of dental fluorosis, the daily intake should not exceed a daily level of 0.10 mg fluoride/kg body weight. The main source of fluoride is from drinking water and other beverages. As in other countries, consumption of bottled water, juices and carbonated beverages has increased in our country. Objective: To analyze the fluoride content in bottled water, juices and carbonated soft drinks that were commonly available in Davangere city. Materials and Methods: Three samples of 10 commercially available brands of bottled drinking water, 12 fruit juices and 12 carbonated soft drinks were purchased. Bottled water and carbonated soft drinks were stored at a cold place until fluoride analysis was performed and a clear juice was prepared using different fruits without the addition of water. Then, the fluoride analysis was performed. Results: The mean and standard deviation of fluoride content of bottled water, fruit juices and carbonated soft drinks were measured, which were found to be 0.20 mg (±0.19 F/L, 0.29 mg (±0.06 F/L and 0.22 mg (±0.05 F/L, respectively. Conclusion: In viewing the results of the present study, it can be concluded that regulation of the optimal range of fluoride in bottled drinking water, carbonated soft drinks and fruit juices should be drawn for the Indian scenario.

  4. Fluoride content in bottled drinking waters, carbonated soft drinks and fruit juices in Davangere city, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thippeswamy, H M; Kumar, Nanditha; Anand, S R; Prashant, G M; Chandu, G N

    2010-01-01

    The regular ingestion of fluoride lowers the prevalence of dental caries. The total daily intake of fluoride for optimal dental health should be 0.05-0.07 mg fluoride/kg body weight and to avoid the risk of dental fluorosis, the daily intake should not exceed a daily level of 0.10 mg fluoride/kg body weight. The main source of fluoride is from drinking water and other beverages. As in other countries, consumption of bottled water, juices and carbonated beverages has increased in our country. To analyze the fluoride content in bottled water, juices and carbonated soft drinks that were commonly available in Davangere city. Three samples of 10 commercially available brands of bottled drinking water, 12 fruit juices and 12 carbonated soft drinks were purchased. Bottled water and carbonated soft drinks were stored at a cold place until fluoride analysis was performed and a clear juice was prepared using different fruits without the addition of water. Then, the fluoride analysis was performed. The mean and standard deviation of fluoride content of bottled water, fruit juices and carbonated soft drinks were measured, which were found to be 0.20 mg (±0.19) F/L, 0.29 mg (±0.06) F/L and 0.22 mg (±0.05) F/L, respectively. In viewing the results of the present study, it can be concluded that regulation of the optimal range of fluoride in bottled drinking water, carbonated soft drinks and fruit juices should be drawn for the Indian scenario.

  5. Comparative assessment of genotoxicity of mineral water packed in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and glass bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceretti, Elisabetta; Zani, Claudia; Zerbini, Ilaria; Guzzella, Licia; Scaglia, Mauro; Berna, Vanda; Donato, Francesco; Monarca, Silvano; Feretti, Donatella

    2010-03-01

    The potential migration of genotoxic compounds into mineral water stored in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles was evaluated by an integrated chemical/biological approach using short-term toxicity/genotoxicity tests and chemical analysis. Six commercial brands of still and carbonated mineral water bottled in PET and in glass were stored at 40 degrees C for 10 days in a stove according to the standard EEC total migration test (82/711/EEC), or at room temperature in the dark. After treatment, the samples were analysed using gas-chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to detect volatile and non-volatile compounds, the Microtox test to evaluate potential toxicity of the samples, and three mutagenicity tests -Tradescantia and Allium cepa micronucleus tests and the Comet assay on human leukocytes - to detect their genotoxic activity. GC/MS analysis did not detect phthalates or acetaldehyde in the water samples. The Microtox test found no toxic effects. Mutagenicity tests detected genotoxic properties of some samples in both PET and glass bottles. Statistical analyses showed a positive association between mineral content and mutagenicity (micronuclei in A. cepa and DNA damage in human leukocytes). No clear effect of treatment and PET bottle was found. These results suggest the absence of toxic compounds migrating from PET regardless of time and conditions of storage. In conclusion, bottle material and stove treatment were not associated with the genotoxic properties of the water; the genotoxic effects detected in bottled water may be related to the characteristics of the water (minerals and CO(2) content).

  6. Assessing the Chemical Components of some Iranian Brands of Bottled Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranzadeh M.B.1 PhD,

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims Bottled water is widely used in many countries and more than 100 different brands of bottled water are produced in Iran. The aim of the present research was to assess the chemical compound of some Iranian brands of bottled water and compare them with the mention information on their labels. Instrument & Methods This descriptive study was performed during March to December 2012 on the 16 brands of bottled water produced in Iran. Random sampling (10 samples for each brand was done by buying 1.5liter bottled water with different brands from the supermarkets in Kashan City, Iran. The concentration of Na+, K+, F-, NO3-, SO4-2 and Cl- and the pH of bottled water samples were measured. Data were analyzed by SPSS 16 software using independent T test. Findings The mean concentration of NO3- was 1.70±2.52mg/l, Na+ was 8.44±8.76mg/l, K+ was 0.11±0.53mg/l, SO4-2 was 15.15±12.49mg/l, Cl- was 42.30±33.84mg/l and F- was 1.02±1.88mg/l in all samples of 16 brands of bottled water. The highest concentration of NO3- was seen in brand 12 (9.55±2.76mg/l, Na+ in brand 6 (32.18±12.60mg/l, K+ in brand 13 and 4 (1.86±0.76mg/l, SO4-2 in brand 6 (40.53±8.90mg/l,Cl- in brand 16 (88.73±13.80mg/l, F- in brand 13 (0.63±0.12mg/l. The pH of brand 12 (7.9±0.1 was the highest among the samples. Conclusion The concentrations of Na+, K+, F-, NO3-, SO4-2 and Cl- of the studied Iranian brands of bottled water are not higher than the national and international standards and the pH is in the acceptable range.

  7. Carcinogenic and Non-Carcinogenic Assessment of Phthalates Exposure Through Consumption of Bottled Water During the Storage Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Zare Jeddi

    2015-08-01

    Conclusion: The research showed that the concentration of phthalates in PET-bottled water was extremely low. Consequently, based on the risk assessment results, bottled waters regarding existence of safe for consumers and they phthalates are not considered as public health issue for consumers as phthalates does not have any risk exposure for the consumers.

  8. Influence of minerals on the taste of bottled and tap water: a chemometric approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platikanov, Stefan; Garcia, Veronica; Fonseca, Ignacio; Rullán, Elena; Devesa, Ricard; Tauler, Roma

    2013-02-01

    Chemometric analysis was performed on two sets of sensory data obtained from two separate studies. Twenty commercially-available bottled mineral water samples (from the first study) and twenty-five drinking tap and bottled water samples (from the second study) were blind tasted by trained panelists. The panelists expressed their overall liking of the water samples by rating from 0 (worst flavor) to 10 (best flavor). The mean overall score was compared to the physicochemical properties of the samples. Thirteen different physicochemical parameters were considered in both studies and, additionally, residual chlorine levels were assessed in the second study. Principal component analysis performed on the physicochemical parameters and the panelists' mean scores generated models that explain most of the total data variance. Moreover, partial least squares regression of the panelists' sensory evaluations of the physicochemical data helped elucidate the main features underlying the panelists' ratings. The preferred bottled and tap water samples were associated with moderate (relatively to the parameters mean values) contents of total dissolved solids and with relatively high concentrations of HCO₃⁻, SO₄²⁻, Ca²⁺ and Mg²⁺ as well as with relatively high pH values. High concentrations of Na⁺, K⁺ and Cl⁻ were scored low by many of the panelists, while residual chlorine did not affect the ratings, but did enable the panel to distinguish between bottled mineral water and tap water samples.

  9. Simple Model of a Rolling Water-Filled Bottle on an Inclined Ramp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shihao; Hu, Naiwen; Yao, Tianchen; Chu, Charles; Babb, Simona; Cohen, Jenna; Sangiovanni, Giana; Watt, Summer; Weisman, Danielle; Klep, James; Walecki, Wojciech J.; Walecki, Eve S.; Walecki, Peter S.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate a water-filled bottle rolling down an incline and ask the following question: is a rolling bottle better described by a model ignoring all internal motion where the bottle is approximated by a material point sliding down an incline, or is it better described by a rigid solid cylinder rolling down the incline without skidding? The measurements presented here represent a special case of similar experiments described by K.A. Jackson et al. (see Ref. 1 and references within). There exists also a report by Kagan describing the motion of soda cans rolling on an incline. In our case we investigate motion of the fully filled bottle. We demonstrate that within accuracy of our experiment the motion of the bottle can be described by a simple "frictionless water" model. The analysis of the dynamics of the bodies sliding and rolling on a ramp is a standard component of introductory physics classes, and a required component of the Advanced Placement (AP) Physics curriculum.

  10. MAIN PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF REPUBLIC OF BELARUS IN RESPECT OF ITS ENTRY TO INTERNATIONAL BOTTLED WATER MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Nikitenko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of Belarus has significant reserves of ground fresh and mineral water. Consumption of bottled water in the world has a tendency of steady growth. In this regard, Belarus can increase production and sale of bottled water on the external  and domestic markets as well. The paper  describes main tendencies prevailing on the world market;  it contains an analysis of the normative and legal foundation on regulation of production and sale of bottled water in the Republic and abroad; the paper also estimates the possibilities to increase volume of export water

  11. Training of panellists for the sensory control of bottled natural mineral water in connection with water chemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey-Salgueiro, Ledicia; Gosálbez-García, Aitana; Pérez-Lamela, Concepción; Simal-Gándara, Jesús; Falqué-López, Elena

    2013-11-01

    As bottled mineral water market is increasing in the world (especially in emergent and developed countries), the development of a simple protocol to train a panel to evaluate sensory properties would be a useful tool for natural drinking water industry. A sensory protocol was developed to evaluate bottled natural mineral water (17 still and 10 carbonated trademarks). The tasting questionnaire included 13 attributes for still water plus overall impression and they were sorted by: colour hues, transparency and brightness, odour/aroma and taste/flavour/texture and 2 more for carbonated waters (bubbles and effervescence). The training lasted two months with, at least, 10 sessions, was adequate to evaluate bottled natural mineral water. To confirm the efficiency of the sensory training procedure two sensory groups formed the whole panel. One trained panel (6 persons) and one professional panel (6 sommeliers) and both participated simultaneously in the water tasting evaluation of 3 sample lots. Similar average scores obtained from trained and professional judges, with the same water trademarks, confirmed the usefulness of the training protocol. The differences obtained for trained panel in the first lot confirm the necessity to train always before a sensory procedure. A sensory water wheel is proposed to guide the training in bottled mineral water used for drinking, in connection with their chemical mineral content.

  12. A More Perfect Commodity: Bottled Water, Global Accumulation, and Local Contestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffee, Daniel; Newman, Soren

    2013-01-01

    Bottled water sits at the intersection of debates regarding the social and environmental effects of the commodification of nature and the ways neoliberal globalization alters the provision of public services. Utilizing Polanyi's concept of fictitious commodities and Harvey's work on accumulation by dispossession, this article traces bottled…

  13. A More Perfect Commodity: Bottled Water, Global Accumulation, and Local Contestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffee, Daniel; Newman, Soren

    2013-01-01

    Bottled water sits at the intersection of debates regarding the social and environmental effects of the commodification of nature and the ways neoliberal globalization alters the provision of public services. Utilizing Polanyi's concept of fictitious commodities and Harvey's work on accumulation by dispossession, this article traces bottled…

  14. Concentration of Selected Anions in Bottled Water in the United Arab Emirates

    OpenAIRE

    Abouleish, Mohamed Yehia Z.

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have shown concern over nitrate and nitrite contamination of prepared infant formula used by infants less than six months old, as it may lead to methemoglobinemia and death. One possible source of contamination is through the use of improperly treated drinking water. Contamination of water could result from fertilizers and manure runoff, not fully treated and released human and industrial waste, or from disinfection processes. In the United Arab Emirates (UAE), bottled water i...

  15. Capability of 19-L polycarbonate plastic water cooler containers for efficient solar water disinfection (SODIS): Field case studies in India, Bahrain and Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Mathur, Chandana

    2015-01-01

    The small treated volume (typically ~2 L) associated with polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles that are most frequently used in solar water disinfection (SODIS), is a major obstacle to uptake of this water treatment technology in resource-poor environments. In order to address this problem we have conducted a series of experiments in Spain, Bahrain and India, to assess the efficacy of large volume (19 L) transparent plastic (polycarbonate) water cooler/dispenser containers (WDCs)...

  16. Capability of 19-litre polycarbonate plastic water cooler containers for efficient solar water disinfection (SODIS): field case studies in India, Bahrain and Spain.

    OpenAIRE

    Keogh, Michael B; Castro-Alférez, M; Polo-López, M I; Calderero, I Fernández; Al-Eryani, Y A; Joseph-Titus, C; Sawant, B; R Dhodapkar; Mathur, C; McGuigan, Kevin G; Fernández-Ibáñez, P.

    2015-01-01

    The small treated volume (typically ~2 litres) associated with polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles that are most frequently used in solar water disinfection (SODIS), is a major obstacle to uptake of this water treatment technology in the developing world. In order to address this problem we have conducted a series of experiments in Spain, Bahrain and India, to assess the efficacy of large volume (19 litres) transparent plastic (polycarbonate) water cooler/dispenser containers (WDCs) as S...

  17. MICROBIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION OF BOTTLED MINERAL AND DRINKING WATERS SOLD IN ESKİŞEHİR (TURKEY MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merih KIVANC

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The microbiological quality of bottled natural spring and mineral water, purchased at different markets in Eskişehir (Turkey markets, was investigated. Applying the membrane filtration method, the aliquots of water samples were analyzed for the presence and enumeration of total coliforms, Es- cherichia coli, Enterococcus spp., Aeromonas hydrophila. Aerobic bacteria were counted as Heterotrophic Bacteria Count (HPC ml-¹ by incubation at 22 and 37 ⁰C. While Bacillus species in bottled mineral water samples have also been determined, any bacteria or contamination in bottled drinking water samples have not found.

  18. Potability Assessment of Selected Brands of Bottled Water in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Department of Water Resources Management and Agrometeorology, ... values of water quality parameters were compared to World Health Organization (WHO) standards in drinking water. ..... design and implementation of freshwater,.

  19. Is Your Drinking Water Acidic? A Comparison of the Varied pH of Popular Bottled Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kellie F

    2015-06-01

    Dental professionals continually educate patients on the dangers of consuming acidic foods and beverages due to their potential to contribute to dental erosion and tooth decay. Excess acid in the diet can also lead to acidosis, which causes negative systemic side effects. However, water is not typically categorized as acidic. The purpose of this in-vitro study was to investigate the pH levels of several popular brands of bottled water and compare them to various other acidic beverages. Two different brands of marketed alkaline water (with a pH of 8.8 or higher) were also studied, tested for acidity and described. A pilot in-vitro study was conducted to determine the pH levels of a convenience sample of popular brands of bottled water, tap water and other known acidic beverages in comparison with the pH values reported on the respective manufacturers' website. Each beverage was tested in a laboratory using a calibrated Corning pH meter model 240, and waters were compared to the corresponding company's testified pH value. Waters were also compared and contrasted based on their process of purification. The data was then compiled and analyzed descriptively. The pH values for the tested beverages and bottled waters were found to be predominantly acidic. Ten out of the 14 beverages tested were acidic (pHwaters were neutral (pH=7) and 2 bottled waters were alkaline (pH>7). The majority of waters tested had a more acidic pH when tested in the lab than the value listed in their water quality reports. It is beneficial for the health care provider to be aware of the potential acidity of popular bottled drinking waters and educate patients accordingly. Copyright © 2015 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  20. Concentration of Selected Anions in Bottled Water in the United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Yehia Z. Abouleish

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have shown concern over nitrate and nitrite contamination of prepared infant formula used by infants less than six months old, as it may lead to methemoglobinemia and death. One possible source of contamination is through the use of improperly treated drinking water. Contamination of water could result from fertilizers and manure runoff, not fully treated and released human and industrial waste, or from disinfection processes. In the United Arab Emirates (UAE, bottled water is the major source of drinking water and may be used for the preparation of infant formula. Therefore, in this study, several bottled water brands that are sold on the UAE market, and could be used for preparation of infant formula, were tested for nitrate and nitrite and other anions to show their compatibility with the permissible levels of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA, United States Food and Drug Administration/Code of Federal Regulations (U.S. FDA/CFR, and other international organizations. All the bottled water samples demonstrated nitrate, nitrite, and other anions levels below the permissible levels accepted by U.S. EPA, U.S. FDA/CFR, and other international organizations, except for one sample that showed nitrite levels exceeding the European Commission and Drinking Water Directive (EC/DWD permissible levels. Such study sheds light on the quality of bottled water sold not only in the UAE and the region, but also in other countries, such as France, since some of them are imported. In addition, the results shed light on the effectiveness of the treatment processes and possible sources of infant formula contamination that can affect the health of infants.

  1. Exposure assessment of endocrine disruptors in bottled drinking water of Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhaini, Hassan R; Nassif, Rana M

    2014-09-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a commonly used monomer in various products including bottled water. Numerous studies have reported endocrine adverse effects and neoplasia associated with BPA exposure in animals. However, considerable discrepancies exist among these studies with respect to both the nature of the toxic effects and the threshold dose. In Lebanon, 19-L polycarbonate (PC) bottles of drinking water are widely used in urban areas. The present study aims at assessing BPA human exposure and associated health risks from drinking water in Lebanese. A total of 22 bottled water sources, packaged in PC, were identified from licensed and non-licensed sources. Water samples were analyzed following exposure to sunlight for 72 h. BPA in water was quantified by HPLC, and other potential organic pollutants were screened by GC/MS. Fifty-nine percent of samples showed BPA levels above detection limits (>0.05 ng/mL). The median BPA level was 0.1 ng/mL (range 0.05 to 1.37 ng/mL). The mean BPA level for the total number of samples was 0.169 ng/mL (±0.280). A higher mean BPA level was found in water from licensed companies compared to non-licensed sources, however, not statistically significant. Screening showed the presence of dibutyl-phthalate and dioctyl-phthalate in only two samples. Endocrine disruptors (EDR) are ubiquitous contaminants in bottled water in Lebanon with potential health risk implications. Although estimated exposure levels are below the reference dose (RfD), further studies are needed to quantitate exposure from various sources and to investigate EDR contribution to existing epidemics in the country.

  2. [Fluoride content of bottled natural mineral waters in Spain and prevention of dental caries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraver, Francisco; Vitoria, Isidro; Almerich-Silla, José Manuel; Armijo, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the concentration of fluoride in natural mineral waters marketed in Spain in order to prevent tooth decay without the risk of causing dental fluorosis Descriptive and cross-sectional study during 2012. Natural mineral waters marketed in Spain. Three bottles with different bottling dates of 109 natural mineral waters (97 Spanish and 12 imported brands). Determination of fluoride by ion chromatography Median fluoride concentrations of the natural mineral waters bottled in Spain was 0.22 (range 0.00-4.16; interquartile range:0.37). Most samples (61 brands, 62%) contained less than 0.3mg/L. There are 19 Spanish brands with more than 0.6 mg/L. The median level in imported brands was 0.35 (range 0.10-1.21; interquartile range: 0.23). Only 28 of the 109 brands examined (25.6%) specified the fluoride content on the label. Good correlation was observed between the concentrations indicated and those determined. Fluoride concentrations in natural mineral waters showed high variation. Given the growing consumption of natural mineral waters in Spain, this type of information is important to make proper use of fluoride in the primary prevention of dental caries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. [Physicochemical composition of bottled drinking water marketed in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some, Issa Touridomon; Banao, Issouf; Gouado, Inocent; Tapsoba, Théophile Lincoln

    2009-01-01

    The bottled drinking water marketed in urban areas includes natural mineral water, spring water, and treated drinking water. Their physicochemical qualities depend on the type and quantity of their components and define their safe use. Bottled water is widely consumed in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso), and many brand names exist. Although many publications have examined the microbiological qualities of such water, no study has examined the physicochemical quality of water from Burkina Faso. This study, conducted from March 2005 through January 2006, aimed to assess the physicochemical composition of drinking water sold in Ouagadougou to facilitate better choices and use by consumers. Results showed that all the water analyzed in Ouagadougou is soft (TH water, however, is hard and highly mineralized. French standards do not set limit values for the natural mineral water parameters described above, and much of the water sold in Ouagadougou was natural mineral water. The spring water met potability standards, except for the Montagne d'Arrée brand, which had a pH value of 5.8, below the WHO standards of 6.5 < pH 8.5.

  4. Collaborative validation of a rapid method for efficient virus concentration in bottled water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Anna Charlotte; Perelle, Sylvie; Di Pasquale, Simona

    2011-01-01

    . Three newly developed methods, A, B and C, for virus concentration in bottled water were compared against the reference method D: (A) Convective Interaction Media (CIM) monolithic chromatography; filtration of viruses followed by (B) direct lysis of viruses on membrane; (C) concentration of viruses...... by ultracentrifugation; and (D) concentration of viruses by ultrafiltration, for each methods' (A, B and C) efficacy to recover 10-fold dilutions of HAV and feline calicivirus (FCV) spiked in bottles of 1.5L of mineral water. Within the tested characteristics, all the new methods showed better performance than method D......Enteric viruses, including norovirus (NoV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV), have emerged as a major cause of waterborne outbreaks worldwide. Due to their low infectious doses and low concentrations in water samples, an efficient and rapid virus concentration method is required for routine control...

  5. Quantitative Assessment of Bisphenol A in Multiple Brands of Bottled Drinking Water in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Alimohammadi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bisphenol A (BPA is one of the hazardous materials causing disruption of endocrine pathways. Due to water contamination by this component from multiple sources and the associated health problems, BPA has been the focus of multiple studies. It has been proved that BPA may cause harm because of its impact on estrogenic receptors in human and other organisms. Methods: In this study, the presence of Bisphenol A in bottled drinking water in Iran was evaluated by solid phase extraction (SPE and gas chromatography (GC. Compared to other studies measuring the level of Bisphenol A in milk, surface water, and wastewater, the present study focused on the levels of Bisphenol A in bottled drinking water to determine the safety risk level of BPA as a possible public health issue. Results: The results showed no evidence of BPA at levels above the standard within all analyzed samples. Conclusion: It seems that BPA is a low-risk component in bottled drinking water.

  6. Portable standoff Raman system for fast detection of homemade explosives through glass, plastic, and water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Anupam K.; Sharma, Shiv K.; Acosta, Tayro E.; Porter, John N.; Lucey, Paul G.; Bates, David E.

    2012-06-01

    The University of Hawaii has been developing portable remote Raman systems capable of detecting chemicals in daylight from a safe standoff distance. We present data on standoff detection of chemicals used in the synthesis of homemade explosives (HME) using a portable standoff Raman system utilizing an 8-inch telescope. Data show that good-quality Raman spectra of various hazardous chemicals such as ammonium nitrate, potassium nitrate, potassium perchlorate, sulfur, nitrobenzene, benzene, acetone, various organic and inorganic chemicals etc. could be easily obtained from remote distances, tested up to 120 meters, with a single-pulse laser excitation and with detection time less than 1 μs. The system uses a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG pulsed laser source (532 nm, 100 mJ/pulse, 15 Hz, pulse width 10 ns) capable of firing a single or double pulse. The double-pulse configuration also allows the system to perform standoff LIBS (Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) at 50 m range. In the standoff Raman detection, the doublepulse sequence simply doubles the signal to noise ratio. Significant improvement in the quality of Raman spectra is observed when the standoff detection is made with 1s integration time. The system uses a 50-micron slit and has spectral resolution of 8 cm-1. The HME chemicals could be easily detected through clear and brown glass bottles, PP and HDPE plastic bottles, and also through fluorescent plastic water bottles. Standoff Raman detection of HME chemical from a 10 m distance through non-visible concealed bottles in plastic bubble wrap packaging is demonstrated with 1 s integration time. Possible applications of the standoff Raman system for homeland security and environmental monitoring are discussed.

  7. Fecal indicators and bacterial pathogens in bottled water from Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, W; Yusuf, R; Hasan, I; Ashraf, W; Goonetilleke, A; Toze, S; Gardner, T

    2013-01-01

    Forty-six bottled water samples representing 16 brands from Dhaka, Bangladesh were tested for the numbers of total coliforms, fecal indicator bacteria (i.e., thermotolerant Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp.) and potential bacterial pathogens (i.e., Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella spp., and Shigella spp.). Among the 16 brands tested, 14 (86%), ten (63%) and seven (44%) were positive for total coliforms, E. coil and Enterococcus spp., respectively. Additionally, a further nine (56%), eight (50%), six (37%), and four (25%) brands were PCR positive for A. hydrophila lip, P. aeruginosa ETA, Salmonella spp. invA, and Shigella spp. ipaH genes, respectively. The numbers of bacterial pathogens in bottled water samples ranged from 28 ± 12 to 600 ± 45 (A. hydrophila lip gene), 180 ± 40 to 900 ± 200 (Salmonella spp. invA gene), 180 ± 40 to 1,300 ± 400 (P. aeruginosa ETA gene) genomic units per L of water. Shigella spp. ipaH gene was not quantifiable. Discrepancies were observed in terms of the occurrence of fecal indicators and bacterial pathogens. No correlations were observed between fecal indicators numbers and presence/absence of A. hydrophila lip (p = 0.245), Salmonella spp. invA (p = 0.433), Shigella spp. ipaH gene (p = 0.078), and P. aeruginosa ETA (p = 0.059) genes. Our results suggest that microbiological quality of bottled waters sold in Dhaka, Bangladesh is highly variable. To protect public health, stringent quality control is recommended for the bottled water industry in Bangladesh.

  8. Fecal indicators and bacterial pathogens in bottled water from Dhaka, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty-six bottled water samples representing 16 brands from Dhaka, Bangladesh were tested for the numbers of total coliforms, fecal indicator bacteria (i.e., thermotolerant Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. and potential bacterial pathogens (i.e., Aeromonas hydrophil, Pseudomonas aeruginos, Salmonella spp., and Shigella spp.. Among the 16 brands tested, 14 (86%, ten (63% and seven (44% were positive for total coliforms, E. coil and Enterococcus spp., respectively. Additionally, a further nine (56%, eight (50%, six (37%, and four (25% brands were PCR positive for A. hydrophila lip, P. aeruginosa ETA, Salmonella spp. invA, and Shigella spp. ipaH genes, respectively. The numbers of bacterial pathogens in bottled water samples ranged from 28 ± 12 to 600 ± 45 (A. hydrophila lip gene, 180 ± 40 to 900 ± 200 (Salmonella spp. invA gene, 180 ± 40 to 1,300 ± 400 (P. aeruginosa ETA gene genomic units per L of water. Shigella spp. ipaH gene was not quantifiable. Discrepancies were observed in terms of the occurrence of fecal indicators and bacterial pathogens. No correlations were observed between fecal indicators numbers and presence/absence of A. hydrophila lip (p = 0.245, Salmonella spp. invA (p = 0.433, Shigella spp. ipaH gene (p = 0.078, and P. aeruginosa ETA (p = 0.059 genes. Our results suggest that microbiological quality of bottled waters sold in Dhaka, Bangladesh is highly variable. To protect public health, stringent quality control is recommended for the bottled water industry in Bangladesh.

  9. Fluoride Content of Bottled Drinking Water Available in North West of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Fouladi Fard

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Consumption of bottled waters has received popularity and more acceptances. Fluoride is necessary for human life. But high levels of fluoride can cause some problems for human health such as Fluorosis and teeth and bones problems. The aim of this study is measure the fluoride content in bottled waters consumed in North West of Iran and comparison with the amount listed on their labels and with the drinking water standards. Methods: In this study, 10 brands of bottled water were sampled from markets over the two seasons randomly. Samples were analyzed for fluoride using Ion Chromatography (IC method. Results: Results showed that fluoride concentration in different brands had a significant difference (P <0.05. The concentration of fluoride in samples ranged between 0.04 and 0.32 mg/L. Among analyzed selected brands four brands were observed significant differences with the measured values. Conclusion:  Totally the measured values didn’t match with the values declared on the labels (Reliability coefficient <0. It was revealed that fluoride concentration in all brands was less than the lower range of Iranian national standard (0.7-1.2 mg/lit.

  10. Comparison of different concentration methods for the detection of hepatitis A virus and calicivirus from bottled natural mineral waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Pasquale, S.; Paniconi, M; Auricchio, B

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the efficiency of different recovery methods of viral RNA from bottled water, a comparison was made of 2 positively and 2 negatively charged membranes that were used for absorbing and releasing HAV virus particles during the filtration of viral spiked bottled water. All the 4 membranes......, regardless of charge and pore size, had low level viral recovery. The results show that a considerable number of the virus particles passed through the pores of the membranes instead of being trapped by the electrostatic charges. Two different procedures were then compared using 1.5 L polyethylene bottles...

  11. Bacteriological evaluation of packaged bottled water sold at Jaipur city and its public health significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Tripathi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was carried out to investigate the microbiological quality of packaged drinking water marketed in Jaipur city. Material and Methods: In the present study 'twenty' drinking water samples (15 water bottles and 5 sachets of different brands purchased randomly, were evaluated to access the water quality on the basis of different bacteriological parameters. Result: Out of twenty, 50% samples were found unsatisfactory in standard plate count. Psychrophillic, coliforms, E. coli and staphylococcal counts revealed that 25%, 45%, 20%, and 5% samples respectively were found unfit for human consumption as per Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS of drinking water. On the basis of results of overall microbiological assessment 55% of samples proved to be unfit for consumption. All brands of water sachet (100% had high coliforms count which indicates faecal contamination. Amongst those sachets two brands (40% had presence of E. coli and all the sachet water brands fell below drinking water standards while out of fifteen brands of bottled water 6 samples contained higher microbiological value hence unfit for human consumption. Conclusion: Local brands of packaged drinking water were found unfit for human condumption. So it is suggested that government should intensify the efforts in the monitoring of activities in this rapidly expanding industry with a view to supply potable and wholesome water to the public. [Vet World 2013; 6(1.000: 27-30

  12. Novel spectrophotometric method for the determination of aluminum in soda drinks packed in cans and plastic bottles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francisco, Barbara Bruna A.; Caldas, Luiz Fernando S.; Brum, Daniel M. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Outeiro de Sao Joao Batista s/n, Centro, Niteroi/RJ 24020-141 (Brazil); Cassella, Ricardo J., E-mail: cassella@vm.uff.br [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Outeiro de Sao Joao Batista s/n, Centro, Niteroi/RJ 24020-141 (Brazil)

    2010-09-15

    In the present work, a new spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of aluminum in soda drinks packed in different materials. Reaction among Al(III), phenylfluorone (PF) and cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) in slightly alkaline medium was explored for this purpose. The method was optimized regarding to its chemical parameters in order to establish better conditions in terms of sensitivity and selectivity. The results obtained showed that the concentration of CPC presented remarkable influence on the sensitivity and acted as a sensitizer for the studied system. The possible interferences of some metallic cations were evaluated and the cations Cu(II), Mn(II), and Zn(II) presented noticed interference on the Al(III) signal. So, their interference was eliminated by using EDTA with minimum loss of sensitivity. The results obtained in the determination of total aluminum in soda drinks by the developed methodology were not statistically different from those obtained by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. In the optimized conditions the method presented a linear range of 5-100 {mu}g L{sup -1}. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.81 and 2.7 {mu}g L{sup -1}, respectively. The methodology was successfully applied in the determination of aluminum in 10 samples of soda drinks packed in cans and plastic bottles.

  13. Hydrogeochemical approach to estimate the quality of bottled waters in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćuk Marina D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bottled waters were analyzed for different chemical parameters and activity concentrations of radionuclides. The hydrocarbonate ion was dominant in all samples, while the major cation composition was a combination of Ca-Mg-Na ions. Physicochemical properties of bottled water samples are influenced by underlying geology. The sum of trace element concentrations varied from 79.7 to 9349.7 μg/l. The Dietary Reference Intake (DRI system was applied and contributions of some essential elements were calculated according to age group and gender. Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA grouped bottled water samples into four clusters based on the similarities of the groundwater quality and essential elements concentrations. The origin of radioactivity is natural and could be traced to minerals in felsic igneous rocks. Two brands exhibited elevated beta activity (1.087±0.134 Bq/l; 1.242±0.146 Bq/l. Effective doses were found to be below the reference level of 0.1 mSv/yr. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 43004

  14. Presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in bottled drinking water in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Rutilio Ortiz; Bermudez, Beatriz Schettino; Tolentino, Rey Gutiérrez; Gonzalez, Gilberto Díaz; Vega y León, Salvador

    2010-10-01

    This paper describes the concentrations of seven polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in bottled drinking water samples that were collected over 1 year from Mexico City in two sizes (1.5 and 19 L), using gas chromatography with an electron capture detector. PCBs 28 (0.018-0.042 μg/L), 52 (0.006-0.015 μg/L) and 101 (0.001-0.039 μg/L) were the most commonly found and were present in the majority of the samples. However, total concentrations of PCBs in bottled drinking water (0.035-0.039 μg/L) were below the maximum permissible level of 0.50 μg/L stated in Mexican regulations and probably do not represent a hazard to human health. PCBs were detectable in all samples and we recommend a monitoring program be established to better understand the quality of drinking bottled water over time; this may help in producing solutions for reducing the presence of organic contaminants.

  15. Variations on the "Whoosh" Bottle Alcohol Explosion Demonstration Including Safety Notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortman, John J.; Rush, Andrea C.; Stamper, Jennifer E.

    1999-08-01

    The explosion or burning of methanol, ethanol, n-propanol, and isopropanol in large small-necked bottles when ignited with a match has been studied with respect to the nature of the alcohol, temperature, concentration dilutions with water, oxygen concentration, plastic versus glass bottles, and salts added for color. The various effects are explained in terms of vapor pressures. Safety guidelines are emphasized.

  16. Natural radioactivity in bottled mineral and thermal spring waters of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taskin, Halim; Asliyuksek, Hizir; Bozkurt, Ahmet; Kam, Erol

    2013-12-01

    Radiological assessment of bottled mineral waters and thermal spring waters collected from various natural sources in Turkey was carried out using gross alpha and gross beta counting techniques. For 40 samples of bottled mineral water, the mean gross alpha activity concentration was determined to be 164 mBq l(-1) (min.:7 mBq l(-1); max.: 3042 mBq l(-1)), whereas the gross beta activity concentration was found to be 555 mBq l(-1) (min.: 21 mBq l(-1); max.: 4845 mBq l(-1)). For 24 samples of thermal spring water, the mean gross alpha activity concentration was obtained to be 663 mBq l(-1) (min.: 18 mBq l(-1); max.: 3070 mBq l(-1)). The gross beta activity concentration for these samples, on the other hand, was determined to be 3314 mBq l(-1) (min.: 79 mBq l(-1); max.: 17955 mBq l(-1)). These values lead to the average annual effective doses of 313 µSv for mineral waters and 1805 µSv for thermal spa waters, which are found to be higher than those recommended for drinking waters by the World Health Organization. It should be noted, however, that one will get less dose from mineral waters since the daily consumption is much lower than 2 l that these calculations assume.

  17. Detection of Helicobacter pylori in City Water, Dental Units' Water, and Bottled Mineral Water in Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Reza Bahrami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori infection in human is one of the most common infections worldwide. However, the origin and transmission of this bacterium has not been clearly explained. One of the suggested theories is transmission via water. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence rate of H. pylori in tap water, dental units' water, and bottled mineral water in Iran. In the present study, totally 200 water samples were collected in Isfahan province and tested for H. pylori by cultural method and polymerase chain reaction (PCR by the detection of the ureC (glmM gene. Using cultural method totally 5 cultures were positive. Two out of 50 tap water samples (4%, 2 out of 35 dental units' water (5.8% samples, and 1 out of 40 (2.5% from water cooler in public places were found to be contaminated with H. pylori. H. pylori ureC gene was detected in 14 (7% of water samples including 5 tap water (10%, 4 dental units' water (11.4%, 1 refrigerated water with filtration, and 4 (10% water cooler in public places samples. This may be due to the coccoid form of bacteria which is detected by PCR method.

  18. A novel method for concentrating hepatitis A virus and caliciviruses from bottled water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovač, K; Gutiérrez-Aguirre, I; Banjac, M

    2009-01-01

    amine) monolithic columns were used for binding of HAV and FCV present in previously inoculated 1.5 l bottled water samples. Column bound viruses were eluted from the monolith using 1 M NaCl to a final volume of 15 ml. Elution volume was concentrated further by ultracentrifugation. When the CIM......Human enteric viruses are detected frequently in various types of environmental water samples, such as irrigation water, wastewater, recreational water, ground or subsurface water and even drinking water, constituting a primary source of gastroenteritis or hepatitis outbreaks. Only a few, but still...... infective number of viral particles are normally present in water samples, therefore an efficient virus concentration procedure is essential prior to molecular detection of the viral nucleic acid. In this study, a novel chromatographic technology, Convective Interaction Media®(CIM) monolithic supports, were...

  19. [Moulds and yeasts in bottled water and soft drinks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancasi, E G; Carrillo, L; Benítez Ahrendts, M R

    2006-01-01

    Some damaged cartons of soft drinks and carbonated water were analyzed to detect the microorganisms that caused the damage. The contaminants of sugar used in the production of one of the drinks were also studied. The methods of Déak & Beuchat and Pitt & Hocking were used for the identification of yeasts and moulds, respectively. The agents of the spoilage of soft drinks were Debaryomyces hansenii, Debaryomyces polymorphus, Galactomyces geotrichum, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Mucor circinelloides, Pichia anomala, Pichia jadinii, Pichia subpelliculosa, Rhodotorula glutinis and Zygosaccharomyces bailii. The microorganisms found in sugar were Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus penicilloides, Aspergillus versicolor, Cladosporium sphaerospermum, Mucor racemosus, P. anomala and Rhizopus stolonifer. Paecilomyces fulvus and Penicillium glabrum were observed in carbonated water.

  20. Highly flexible binder-free core-shell nanofibrous electrode for lightweight electrochemical energy storage using recycled water bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, HaoTian H.; Naguib, Hani E.

    2016-08-01

    The creation of a novel flexible nanocomposite fiber with conductive polymer polyaniline (PAni) coating on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate allowed for increased electrochemical performance while retaining ideal mechanical properties such as very high flexibility. Binder-free PAni-wrapped PET (PAni@PET) fiber with a core-shell structure was successfully fabricated through a novel technique. The PET nanofiber substrate was fabricated through an optimized electrospinning method, while the PAni shell was chemically polymerized onto the surface of the nanofibers. The PET substrate can be made directly from recycled PETE1 grade plastic water bottles. The resulting nanofiber with an average diameter of 121 nm ± 39 nm, with a specific surface area of 83.72 m2 g-1, led to better ionic interactions at the electrode/electrolyte interface. The PAni active layer coating was found to be 69 nm in average thickness. The specific capacitance was found to have increased dramatically from pure PAni with carbon binders. The specific capacitance was found to be 347 F g-1 at a relatively high scan rate of 10 mV s-1. The PAni/PET fiber also experienced very little degradation (4.4%) in capacitance after 1500 galvanostatic charge/discharge cycles at a specific current of 1.2 A g-1. The mesoporous structure of the PAni@PET fibrous mat also allowed for tunable capacitance by controlling the pore sizes. This novel fabrication method offers insights for the utilization of recycled PETE1 based bottles as a high performance, low cost, highly flexible supercapacitor device.

  1. Quantitative Determination of Arsenic in Bottled Drinking Water Using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Guţu Claudia

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many studies have been performed in the past few years, to determine arsenic speciation in drinking water, food chain and environment, arsenic being a well-recognized carcinogenic and toxic agent mainly in its inorganic species. The instrumental techniques used for arsenic determination, such as hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HGAAS, graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS, can provide a great sensitivity only on the total amount. Objective: The aim of this study was to develop a simple and rapid method and to analyze the concentration of total inorganic arsenic in bottled drinking water. Methods: Total arsenic was determined in samples from six different types of commercially available bottled drinking water using atomic absorption spectrometry with electrothermal or hydride generation vaporisation. All drinking water samples were acidified with 0.1M nitric acid to match the acidity of the standards. Results: The method was linear within the studied range (1-5 μg/L, R = 0.9943. The quantification limits for arsenic determination were 0.48 μg/L (HGAAS and 0.03 μg/L (GFAAS. The evaluated arsenic content in drinking water was within the accepted limits provided by law. Conclusions: A simple and sensitive method for the quantification of arsenic in drinking water using atomic absorbtion spectroscopy was described, which can be further used in toxicological studies. As an additional advantage, the system is very fast, efficient and environmental friendly

  2. Leaching of antimony from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles into mineral water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keresztes, Szilvia [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, L. Eoetvoes University, H-1117 Budapest, Pazmany Peter setany 1/A (Hungary); Tatar, Eniko; Mihucz, Victor G. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, L. Eoetvoes University, H-1117 Budapest, Pazmany Peter setany 1/A (Hungary); Hungarian Satellite Institute of Trace Elements for UNESCO, H-1117 Budapest, Pazmany Peter setany 1/A (Hungary); Sino-Hungarian Joint Laboratory of Environmental Sciences and Health, H-1117 Budapest, Pazmany Peter setany 1/A (Hungary); Virag, Istvan [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, L. Eoetvoes University, H-1117 Budapest, Pazmany Peter setany 1/A (Hungary); Majdik, Cornelia [Department of Biochemistry and Biochemical Engineering, Babes-Bolyai University, R-3400 Cluj, Str. Arany Janos 11 (Romania); Zaray, Gyula, E-mail: zaray@ludens.elte.hu [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, L. Eoetvoes University, H-1117 Budapest, Pazmany Peter setany 1/A (Hungary); Hungarian Satellite Institute of Trace Elements for UNESCO, H-1117 Budapest, Pazmany Peter setany 1/A (Hungary); Sino-Hungarian Joint Laboratory of Environmental Sciences and Health, H-1117 Budapest, Pazmany Peter setany 1/A (Hungary)

    2009-08-01

    The Sb leaching from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) package material into 10 different brands of still (non-carbonated) and sparkling (carbonated) Hungarian mineral water purchased in supermarkets was investigated by inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry (ICP-SF-MS). The Sb concentration measured in PET package materials varied between 210 and 290 mg/kg. Generally, the Sb concentration of still mineral water was lower than that of sparkling in the case of identical storage time. For modelling improper storage conditions, storage time (10-950 days), temperature (22 {sup o}C-70 {sup o}C), illumination (dark vs. 23 W daylight lamp for 116 h) as well as bottle volume (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 L) were taken into consideration. Under certain extreme light and temperature storage conditions, the Sb concentration of some samples exceeded the concentration value of 2 ng/mL. The extent of Sb leaching from the PET recipients of different brands of mineral water can differ by even one order of magnitude in experiments conducted under the same conditions. Thus, the adequate selection of the polymer used for the production of the PET bottle for the solar water disinfection (SODIS) procedure seems to ensure low Sb levels in the water samples.

  3. Assessing human exposure to phthalic acid and phthalate esters from mineral water stored in polyethylene terephthalate and glass bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montuori, P; Jover, E; Morgantini, M; Bayona, J M; Triassi, M

    2008-04-01

    Phthalic acid and phthalate esters are of growing interest due to their significant usage and potential toxicity. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and glass are both widely used materials for bottled drinking water. In this study, phthalic acid (PhA), bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), diisobutyl phthalate (DiisoBP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) were analysed in a large number of Italian bottled water samples. These samples showed different concentrations of phthalates are nearly 20 times higher in samples bottled in PET than those from glass bottles with total levels of phthalates of 3.52 and 0.19 microg l(-1), respectively. However, the observed levels do not represent a significant exposure pathway when considering the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) reference dose (an estimate of a daily oral exposure to the human population, including sensitive subgroups, that is likely to be without an appreciable risk of deleterious effects during a lifetime). In addition, no significant correlation was found between the phthalate concentrations and the physicochemical properties of the different water samples, apart from the still/sparkling water parameter for the PET samples. In this instance, slightly higher concentrations were observed for the PET bottled still water samples than for the sparkling water samples, although no explanation has been found yet.

  4. Effective Dose of Radon 222 Bottled Water in Different Age Groups Humans: Bandar Abbas City, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhri, Yadolah; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Langarizadeh, Ghazaleh; Zandsalimi, Yahya; Amirhajeloo, Leila Rasouli; Kargosha, Morteza; Moradi, Mahboobeh; Moradi, Bigard; Mirzaei, Maryam

    2015-06-04

    Radon 222 is a natural radioactive element with a half-life of 3.8 days. It is odorless and colorless as well as water-soluble. Consuming waters which contain high concentration of 222Rn would increase the effective dose received by different age groups. It would also be followed by an increased prevalence of cancer. In this research, 72 samples of the most commonly used bottled water in Bandar Abbas were collected in 3 consecutive months, May, June and July of 2013. Concentration 222Rn of was measured by radon-meter model RTM166-2. The effective dose received by the 4 age groups, male and female adults as well as children and infants was estimated using the equation proposed by UNSCEAR. The results revealed that the mean and range concentration of 222Rn in bottled waters were 641±9 Bq/m3 and 0-901 Bq/m3, respectively. The mean concentration of 222Rn in the well-known Marks followed this Zam Zam>Bishe>Koohrng>Dassani>Christal>Polour>Damavand>Sivan. Infants were observed to receive a higher effective dose than children. The highest and lowest effective dose received was found to belong to male adults and children, respectively.

  5. Trace elements and heavy metals in mineral and bottled drinking waters on the Iranian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadiani, Mohammad Rasoul; Dezfooli-Manesh, Shirin; Shoeibi, Shahram; Ziarati, Parisa; Mousavi Khaneghah, Amin

    2015-01-01

    A survey of Iranian waters, sampled from 2010 to 2013, is presented. A total of 128 water samples from 42 different brands of bottled mineral and drinking water were collected and analysed for contamination levels of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg). Determinations were performed using a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer for Pb, Cd and Cu, a hydride vapour generation as well as an Arsenator digital kit (Wagtech WTD, Tyne and Wear, UK) for As and a direct mercury analyser for Hg. Arsenic concentration in six bottled gaseous mineral samples was higher than the related limit. Regardless of these, mean concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu, As and Hg in all types of water samples were 4.50 ± 0.49, 1.08 ± 0.09, 16.11 ± 2.77, 5.80 ± 1.63 and 0.52 ± 0.03 µg L⁻¹, respectively. Values obtained for analysed heavy metals in all samples were permissible according to the limits of national and international standards.

  6. Acid-base balance and hydration status following consumption of mineral-based alkaline bottled water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heil Daniel P

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study sought to determine whether the consumption of a mineral-rich alkalizing (AK bottled water could improve both acid-base balance and hydration status in young healthy adults under free-living conditions. The AK water contains a naturally high mineral content along with Alka-PlexLiquid™, a dissolved supplement that increases the mineral content and gives the water an alkalizing pH of 10.0. Methods Thirty-eight subjects were matched by gender and self-reported physical activity (SRPA, hrs/week and then split into Control (12 women, 7 men; Mean +/- SD: 23 +/- 2 yrs; 7.2 +/- 3.6 hrs/week SRPA and Experimental (13 women, 6 men; 22 +/- 2 yrs; 6.4 +/- 4.0 hrs/week SRPA groups. The Control group consumed non-mineralized placebo bottled water over a 4-week period while the Experimental group consumed the placebo water during the 1st and 4th weeks and the AK water during the middle 2-week treatment period. Fingertip blood and 24-hour urine samples were collected three times each week for subsequent measures of blood and urine osmolality and pH, as well as total urine volume. Dependent variables were analyzed using multivariate repeated measures ANOVA with post-hoc focused on evaluating changes over time within Control and Experimental groups (alpha = 0.05. Results There were no significant changes in any of the dependent variables for the Control group. The Experimental group, however, showed significant increases in both the blood and urine pH (6.23 to 7.07 and 7.52 to 7.69, respectively, a decreased blood and increased urine osmolality, and a decreased urine output (2.51 to 2.05 L/day, all during the second week of the treatment period (P Conclusions Consumption of AK water was associated with improved acid-base balance (i.e., an alkalization of the blood and urine and hydration status when consumed under free-living conditions. In contrast, subjects who consumed the placebo bottled water showed no changes over the

  7. 市售瓶装水的VOCs抽查分析%VOCs Spot Check of Bottled Drinking Water in Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐正生; 程燕; 汤婕

    2012-01-01

    [ Objective ] The aim was to know the quality of bottled drinking water in market, which will provide reference for improving bottled water supervision. [ Method] The VOCs content of bottled drinking water in Hefei City was detected, six brands fifteen kinds of bottled water were selected to analyze VOCs content according to American EPA524. 2. [ Result] Among fifteen bottled water samples, micro chloroform were detected in six samples, micro benzene were detected in two samples. [ Conclusion ] The pollution pathway of bottled drinking water is related with production process, including water source quality, disinfection process, transportation and storage conditions.%[目的]了解市场上瓶装水的质量,为完善对瓶装水的监管提供参考.[方法]检验合肥市零售的瓶装饮用水挥发性有机物(VOCs)含量,抽取了6个品牌共15种规格不同的市售瓶装水,参照美国EPA524.2方法进行VOCs检测分析.[结果]抽查的15种瓶装饮用水样品中,有6种样品检出含有微量三氯甲烷,2种样品检出含微量苯.[结论]市售瓶装饮用水的污染途径应与瓶装水的生产工序相关,包括水源质量、消毒工序、运输以及储存条件等.

  8. Identification of Putative Steroid Receptor Antagonists in Bottled Water: Combining Bioassays and High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Martin; Schlüsener, Michael P.; Ternes, Thomas A.; Oehlmann, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are man-made compounds interfering with hormone signaling and thereby adversely affecting human health. Recent reports provide evidence for the presence of EDCs in commercially available bottled water, including steroid receptor agonists and antagonists. However, since these findings are based on biological data the causative chemicals remain unidentified and, therefore, inaccessible for toxicological evaluation. Thus, the aim of this study is to assess the antiestrogenic and antiandrogenic activity of bottled water and to identify the causative steroid receptor antagonists. We evaluated the antiestrogenic and antiandrogenic activity of 18 bottled water products in reporter gene assays for human estrogen receptor alpha and androgen receptor. Using nontarget high-resolution mass spectrometry (LTQ-Orbitrap Velos), we acquired corresponding analytical data. We combined the biological and chemical information to determine the exact mass of the tentative steroid receptor antagonist. Further MSn experiments elucidated the molecule’s structure and enabled its identification. We detected significant antiestrogenicity in 13 of 18 products. 16 samples were antiandrogenic inhibiting the androgen receptor by up to 90%. Nontarget chemical analysis revealed that out of 24520 candidates present in bottled water one was consistently correlated with the antagonistic activity. By combining experimental and in silico MSn data we identified this compound as di(2-ethylhexyl) fumarate (DEHF). We confirmed the identity and biological activity of DEHF and additional isomers of dioctyl fumarate and maleate using authentic standards. Since DEHF is antiestrogenic but not antiandrogenic we conclude that additional, yet unidentified EDCs must contribute to the antagonistic effect of bottled water. Applying a novel approach to combine biological and chemical analysis this is the first study to identify so far unknown EDCs in bottled water. Notably

  9. Identification of putative steroid receptor antagonists in bottled water: combining bioassays and high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Wagner

    Full Text Available Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs are man-made compounds interfering with hormone signaling and thereby adversely affecting human health. Recent reports provide evidence for the presence of EDCs in commercially available bottled water, including steroid receptor agonists and antagonists. However, since these findings are based on biological data the causative chemicals remain unidentified and, therefore, inaccessible for toxicological evaluation. Thus, the aim of this study is to assess the antiestrogenic and antiandrogenic activity of bottled water and to identify the causative steroid receptor antagonists. We evaluated the antiestrogenic and antiandrogenic activity of 18 bottled water products in reporter gene assays for human estrogen receptor alpha and androgen receptor. Using nontarget high-resolution mass spectrometry (LTQ-Orbitrap Velos, we acquired corresponding analytical data. We combined the biological and chemical information to determine the exact mass of the tentative steroid receptor antagonist. Further MS(n experiments elucidated the molecule's structure and enabled its identification. We detected significant antiestrogenicity in 13 of 18 products. 16 samples were antiandrogenic inhibiting the androgen receptor by up to 90%. Nontarget chemical analysis revealed that out of 24520 candidates present in bottled water one was consistently correlated with the antagonistic activity. By combining experimental and in silico MS(n data we identified this compound as di(2-ethylhexyl fumarate (DEHF. We confirmed the identity and biological activity of DEHF and additional isomers of dioctyl fumarate and maleate using authentic standards. Since DEHF is antiestrogenic but not antiandrogenic we conclude that additional, yet unidentified EDCs must contribute to the antagonistic effect of bottled water. Applying a novel approach to combine biological and chemical analysis this is the first study to identify so far unknown EDCs in bottled water

  10. Assessing arsenic exposure in households using bottled water or point-of-use treatment systems to mitigate well water contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew E; Lincoln, Rebecca A; Paulu, Chris; Simones, Thomas L; Caldwell, Kathleen L; Jones, Robert L; Backer, Lorraine C

    2016-02-15

    There is little published literature on the efficacy of strategies to reduce exposure to residential well water arsenic. The objectives of our study were to: 1) determine if water arsenic remained a significant exposure source in households using bottled water or point-of-use treatment systems; and 2) evaluate the major sources and routes of any remaining arsenic exposure. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 167 households in Maine using one of these two strategies to prevent exposure to arsenic. Most households included one adult and at least one child. Untreated well water arsenic concentrations ranged from arsenic and untreated well water arsenic concentration, while accounting for documented consumption of untreated water and dietary sources. If mitigation strategies were fully effective, there should be no relationship between urinary arsenic and well water arsenic. To the contrary, we found that untreated arsenic water concentration remained a significant (p ≤ 0.001) predictor of urinary arsenic levels. When untreated water arsenic concentrations were arsenic was no longer a significant predictor of urinary arsenic. Time spent bathing (alone or in combination with water arsenic concentration) was not associated with urinary arsenic. A predictive analysis of the average study participant suggested that when untreated water arsenic ranged from 100 to 500 μg/L, elimination of any untreated water use would result in an 8%-32% reduction in urinary arsenic for young children, and a 14%-59% reduction for adults. These results demonstrate the importance of complying with a point-of-use or bottled water exposure reduction strategy. However, there remained unexplained, water-related routes of exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Dispersive solid-phase extraction based on magnetic dummy molecularly imprinted microspheres for selective screening of phthalates in plastic bottled beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Jindong; Wang, Mingyu; Yan, Hongyuan; Yang, Gengliang

    2014-04-02

    A new magnetic dummy molecularly imprinted dispersive solid-phase extraction (MAG-MIM-dSPE) coupled with gas chromatography-FID was developed for selective determination of phthalates in plastic bottled beverages. The new magnetic dummy molecularly imprinted microspheres (MAG-MIM) using diisononyl phthalate as a template mimic were synthesized by coprecipitation coupled with aqueous suspension polymerization and were successfully applied as the adsorbents for MAG-MIM-dSPE to extract and isolate five phthalates from plastic bottled beverages. Validation experiments showed that the MAG-MIM-dSPE method had good linearity at 0.0040-0.40 μg/mL (0.9991-0.9998), good precision (3.1-6.9%), and high recovery (89.5-101.3%), and limits of detection were obtained in a range of 0.53-1.2 μg/L. The presented MAG-MIM-dSPE method combines the quick separation of magnetic particles, special selectivity of MIM, and high extraction efficiency of dSPE, which could potentially be applied to selective screening of phthalates in beverage products.

  12. Determination of nitrate and nitrite exposure and their health risk assessment in 21 brands of bottled waters in Isfahan′s market in 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe Moazeni

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: According to the results of the present study, nitrate and nitrite levels in the studied bottled waters were not found in concentrations considered hazardous in terms of public health. The label values not provide reliable data for consumer. The health risk of bottled water consumers from nitrate and nitrite exposure in Isfahan were in the acceptable range.

  13. Interfacial molecular restructuring of plasticized polymers in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankett, Jeanne M; Lu, Xiaolin; Liu, Yuwei; Seeley, Emily; Chen, Zhan

    2014-10-07

    Upon water contact, phthalate-plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) surfaces are highly unstable because the plasticizer molecules are not covalently bound to the polymer network. As a result, it is difficult to predict how the surface polymer chains and plasticizers may interact with water without directly probing the plastic/water interface in situ. We successfully studied the molecular surface restructuring of 10 wt% and 25 wt% bis 2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP)-plasticized and pure PVC films (deposited on solid substrates) in situ due to water contact using sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy. SFG spectral signals from both the top and the bottom of the plastic film were obtained simultaneously, so a thin-film model spectral analysis was applied to separately identify the molecular changes of plastics at the surface and the plastic/substrate interface in water. It was found that in water both the structures of the plastic surface and the buried plastic/substrate interface changed. After removing the samples from the water and exposing them to air again, the surface structures did not completely recover. Further SFG experiments confirmed that small amounts of DEHP were transferred into the water. The leached DEHP molecules could reorder and permanently transfer to new surfaces through water contact. Our studies indicate that small amounts of phthalates can transfer from surface to surface through water contact in an overall scope of minutes. This study yields vital new information on the molecular surface structures of DEHP plasticized PVC in water, and the transfer behaviors and environmental fate of plasticizers in polymers.

  14. An outbreak of acute gastroenteritis associated with contaminated bottled water in a university – Jiangxi, China, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Zeng

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: On 23 May 2012, a university in Jiangxi, China reported a gastroenteritis outbreak. We investigated the outbreak to identify the agent, source and mode of transmission and to recommend control measures.Methods: A case was defined as any person from the university with onset of diarrhoea (≥3 times/24h from 1 to 31 May 2012. Active case finding was conducted by reviewing university hospital and drug-store records and interviewing students, workers and teachers. We then conducted a case-control study in which we compared food, water and environmental exposure history. Water samples were collected and tested.Results: We identified 417 cases – an attack rate (AR of 4.7% (417/8781 for the university. There were 416 student cases (AR = 5.7% distributed across all 11 colleges, five of which were more heavily affected (AR range = 5.9%–14%. In the case-control study, cases had higher odds of having drunk bottled water (odds ratio [OR] = 4.1; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.7–9.9, and there was a dose–response relationship (X 2 trend = 4.6, P < 0.05. Drinking boiled bottled water was inversely associated with being a case (OR = "0.22," 95% CI = "0.07–0.71." Eating in any of the three university canteens or drinking water from the city water supply was not associated with being a case. Pathogenic Escherichia coli was isolated from two unopened bottled water specimens and from four student cases.Conclusion: This gastroenteritis outbreak was most likely caused by contaminated bottled water. The company in question has been shut down and no further cases have been reported. Increased regulation of bottled water plants and better coordination between different investigators for future outbreaks is recommended.

  15. Measurement of natural radionuclides in Malaysian bottled mineral water and consequent health risk estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priharti, W.; Samat, S. B.; Yasir, M. S. [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    The radionuclides of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K were measured in ten mineral water samples, of which from the radioactivity obtained, the ingestion doses for infants, children and adults were calculated and the cancer risk for the adult was estimated. Results showed that the calculated ingestion doses for the three age categories are much lower than the average worldwide ingestion exposure of 0.29 mSv/y and the estimated cancer risk is much lower than the cancer risk of 8.40 × 10{sup −3} (estimated from the total natural radiation dose of 2.40 mSv/y). The present study concludes that the bottled mineral water produced in Malaysia is safe for daily human consumption.

  16. Measurement of natural radionuclides in Malaysian bottled mineral water and consequent health risk estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priharti, W.; Samat, S. B.; Yasir, M. S.

    2015-09-01

    The radionuclides of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were measured in ten mineral water samples, of which from the radioactivity obtained, the ingestion doses for infants, children and adults were calculated and the cancer risk for the adult was estimated. Results showed that the calculated ingestion doses for the three age categories are much lower than the average worldwide ingestion exposure of 0.29 mSv/y and the estimated cancer risk is much lower than the cancer risk of 8.40 × 10-3 (estimated from the total natural radiation dose of 2.40 mSv/y). The present study concludes that the bottled mineral water produced in Malaysia is safe for daily human consumption.

  17. Hydrocarbons derived from petroleum in bottled drinking water from Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Salvador; Gutiérrez, Rey; Ortiz, Rutilio; Schettino, Beatriz; Ramírez, Maria de Lourdes; Pérez, José Jesus

    2011-06-01

    This paper describes the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHs) derived from petroleum in bottled drinking water samples that were collected over 1 year from Mexico City in two bottle sizes (1.5 and 19 L), all brought in supermarkets. The analysis was by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. -Concentrations of AHs (9.26-1.74 μg/L) were greater than PAHs (20.15-12.78 ng/L). Individual concentrations of PAHs such as fluoranthene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene and benzo(ghi)perylene were comparable with data reported by the World Health Organization (WHO). Total concentrations of PAHs for all samples (BDW1: 12.78 μg/L, BDW2: 16.72 μg/L, BDW3: 14.62 μg/L, BDW4: 20.15 μg/L and BDW5: 13.23 ng/L) were below the maximum permissible European level of 100 ng/L; no regulations exist for AHs although their values were greater than PAHs (BDW1: 3.11 μg/L, BDW2: 8.45 μg/L, BDW3: 1.74 μg/L, BDW4: 4.75 μg/L and BDW5: 9.26 μg/L).

  18. Opportunistic pathogens and elements of the resistome that are common in bottled mineral water support the need for continuous surveillance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Falcone-Dias

    Full Text Available Several differences concerning bacterial species, opportunistic pathogens, elements of the resistome as well as variations concerning the CFU/mL counts were identified in some of the five most marketed bottled mineral water from Araraquara city, São Paulo, Brazil. Two out of five brands tested were confirmed as potential source of opportunistic pathogens, including Mycobacterium gordonae, Ralstonia picketti and Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc. A total of one hundred and six isolates were recovered from four of these bottled mineral water brands. Betaproteobacteria was predominant followed by Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Firmicutes. Ninety percent of the bacteria isolated demonstrated resistance to seventeen of the nineteen antimicrobials tested. These antimicrobials included eight different classes, including 3rd and 4th generation cephalosporins, carbapenems and fluoroquinolones. Multidrug resistant bacteria were detected for fifty-nine percent of isolates in three water brands at counts up to 103 CFU/ml. Of major concern, the two bottled mineral water harboring opportunistic pathogens were also source of elements of the resistome that could be directly transferred to humans. All these differences found among brands highlight the need for continuous bacteriological surveillance of bottled mineral water.

  19. Opportunistic pathogens and elements of the resistome that are common in bottled mineral water support the need for continuous surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone-Dias, Maria Fernanda; Centrón, Daniela; Pavan, Fernando; Moura, Adriana Candido da Silva; Naveca, Felipe Gomes; de Souza, Victor Costa; Farache Filho, Adalberto; Leite, Clarice Queico Fujimura

    2015-01-01

    Several differences concerning bacterial species, opportunistic pathogens, elements of the resistome as well as variations concerning the CFU/mL counts were identified in some of the five most marketed bottled mineral water from Araraquara city, São Paulo, Brazil. Two out of five brands tested were confirmed as potential source of opportunistic pathogens, including Mycobacterium gordonae, Ralstonia picketti and Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc). A total of one hundred and six isolates were recovered from four of these bottled mineral water brands. Betaproteobacteria was predominant followed by Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Firmicutes. Ninety percent of the bacteria isolated demonstrated resistance to seventeen of the nineteen antimicrobials tested. These antimicrobials included eight different classes, including 3rd and 4th generation cephalosporins, carbapenems and fluoroquinolones. Multidrug resistant bacteria were detected for fifty-nine percent of isolates in three water brands at counts up to 103 CFU/ml. Of major concern, the two bottled mineral water harboring opportunistic pathogens were also source of elements of the resistome that could be directly transferred to humans. All these differences found among brands highlight the need for continuous bacteriological surveillance of bottled mineral water.

  20. Endocrine disruptor phthalates in bottled water: daily exposure and health risk assessment in pregnant and lactating women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeddi, Maryam Zare; Rastkari, Noushin; Ahmadkhaniha, Reza; Yunesian, Masud

    2016-09-01

    Over the last decade, the consumption of water bottled in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) has considerably increased, raising concerns over water quality and packaged materials. This study aims to investigate the levels of the anti-androgenic phthalates including bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), and benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), in bottled water and its corresponding health risks in pregnant and lactating women. The phthalate levels were measured in six different brands of bottled water exposed to temperatures ranging between -18 and 40 °C and sunlight for 45 days. The phthalate was quantified using the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In addition, the non-carcinogenic effects were assessed using hazard quotient (HQ) approach, and cumulative health risk assessment was performed on the basis of hazard index (HI) calculation. In order to assess the carcinogenic risk due to the possible carcinogen DEHP (group 2B), the excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR) was used. DEHP and DBP contaminants were detected at different storage conditions in all of the bottled water samples during the storage time. BBP was only detected at high temperature (≥25 °C) and outdoor conditions. The maximum concentrations of all phthalates were observed when water samples were kept at 40 °C. In contrast, storage at freezing conditions had no significant effect on the concentration level of all phthalates. The estimated intake by women was between 0.0021 μg/kg/day for BBP and 0.07 μg/kg/day for DEHP. The highest HQ for phthalate intake via bottled water consumption was much lower than 1 (HQ risk assessment for combined phthalate exposure demonstrated that the HIs for anti-androgenic effect were lower than 1 in all of the conditions. Furthermore, ELCR for DEHP based on the highest detected level was found to be less than 10(-6), which is considered acceptable. Our results prove that the levels of phthalates in bottled water are not a health

  1. MEASUREMENT OF PHTHALATE LEVELS IN HUMAN MILK: CONTRIBUTION FROM PLASTICS IN BREAST PUMPS, STORAGE BOTTLES AND BAGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phthalates are plasticizers used to impart flexibility in products widely used by the general population, including polyvinyl chloride, plastic toys, and medical devices. Some phthalates act as anti-androgens, and prenatal or perinatal exposure to phthalates in laboratory animals...

  2. Impact of temperature and storage duration on the chemical and odor quality of military packaged water in polyethylene terephthalate bottles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greifenstein, Michael, E-mail: Michael.Greifenstein@us.army.mil [Department of Preventive Medicine and Biometrics, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); White, Duvel W., E-mail: duvel.white@us.army.mil [Department of Preventive Medicine and Biometrics, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Stubner, Alex, E-mail: alex.stubner@usuhs.edu [Department of Preventive Medicine and Biometrics, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Hout, Joseph, E-mail: joseph.hout@usuhs.edu [Department of Preventive Medicine and Biometrics, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Whelton, Andrew J., E-mail: ajwhelton@southalabama.edu [Department of Civil Engineering, 3021 Shelby Hall, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL 36688 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The impact of temperature and storage time on military packaged water (MPW) quality was examined at four temperatures (23.0 °C to 60.0 °C) for 120 days. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles were filled in California and Afghanistan with unbuffered water treated by reverse osmosis. The US military's water pH long-term potability standard was exceeded, and US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) and US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) drinking water pH and odor intensity limits were also exceeded. During a 70 day exposure period, Port Hueneme MPW total organic carbon and total trihalomethane levels increased from < 0.25 mg/L to 2.0 ± 0.0 mg/L and < 0.05 μg/L to 51.5 ± 2.1 μg/L, respectively. PET released organic contaminants into MPW and residual disinfectant generated trihalomethane contaminants. After 14 days at 37.7 °C and 60.0 °C, Afghanistan MPW threshold odor number values were 8.0 and 8.6, respectively. Total organic carbon concentration only increased with exposure duration at 60.0 °C. Acetaldehyde and formaldehyde contaminants were not detected likely due to the high method detection limits applied in this study. Phthalate contaminants detected and their maximum levels were butylbenzylphthalate (BBP) 0.43 μg/L, di-n-butylphthalate (DnBP) 0.38 μg/L, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) 0.6 μg/L, and diethylphthalate (DEP) 0.32 μg/L. Antimony was only detected in 60.0 °C Afghanistan MPW on Day 28 and beyond, and its maximum concentration was 3.6 ± 0.3 μg/L. No antimony was found in bottles exposed to lesser temperatures. Environmental health, PET synthesis and bottle manufacturers, and bottle users can integrate results of this work to improve health protective decisions and doctrine. - Highlights: • Temperature and storage time impacted military bottled water quality up to 60 °C. • The chemical quality of water bottled in California and Afghanistan was affected. • Drinking water pH and odor intensity limits were also

  3. Survival and recovery of Aeromonas hydrophila in water: development of methodology for testing bottled water in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, D W; McCormick, J K; Bowen, B

    1994-02-01

    Proposed changes to the Regulations for bottled water in the Food and Drugs Act of Canada include criteria for Aeromonas hydrophila (0 colony-forming units/100 mL water). The development of the methodology used to support these proposed Regulations and the survival of A. hydrophila in inoculated water are described. The methodology used in the isolation of A. hydrophila includes the use of hydrophobic grid membrane filters (HGMF), a resuscitation step on tryptic soy agar, and selective plating on membrane-Aeromonas-trehalose agar and Aeromonas medium. Aeromonas hydrophila proliferated and survived in inoculated water for up to 60 days or longer depending on the other contaminating bacteria. The presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa enhanced the survival of A. hydrophila and enabled this bacteria to survive for more than 60 days.

  4. The occurrence of Aeromonas spp. in the bottled mineral water, well water and tap water from the municipal supplies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise de Oliveira Scoaris

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the occurrence of Aeromonas sp in the bottled mineral water, well water and tap water from the municipal supplies. Positive samples were found for Aeromonas spp. 12.7% from the mineral water, 8.3% from the artesian water and 6.5% from the tap water. The recovery of Aeromonas spp. was significantly higher in the bottled mineral and artesian water than in the tap water from municipal supplies. The occurrence of the Aeromonas spp. did not correlate significantly with the contamination indicator bacteria (i.e. total coliforms in the artesian water samples. However, a significant correlation was found between Aeromonas spp. and total coliforms in the both mineral water and tap water samples. The presence or absence of a correlation between the indicator bacteria and Aeromonas could reflect the occasional appearance of the pathogen in the drinking water and the different rates of survival and recovery of these agents compared with those fecal indicators. The finding that 41.6, 14.8 and 9.0 % of the artesian water, bottled mineral water and tap water, respectively, sampled in the current study failed to meet the Brazilian standard for total coliforms in the drinking water should therefore be of concern.A porcentagem de amostras positivas para Aeromonas foi de 12.7% para água mineral, 8.3% para água de poço artesiano e 6.5% para água do sistema público de abastecimento. O isolamento de Aeromonas spp. foi significativamente maior em água mineral e água de poço artesiano do que em água do sistema público. A ocorrência de Aeromonas spp. não teve correlação significativa com os indicadores de contaminação tradicionalmente utilizados (coliformes totais em amostras de água de poço artesiano. No entanto, esta correlação foi positiva e significativa em água mineral e água do sistema público. A presença ou ausência de correlação entre bactérias indicadoras e a presença de Aeromonas pode refletir o

  5. Determination of barium in bottled drinking water by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fagioli, F.; Locatelli, C.; Lanciotti, E.; Vallone, G.; Mazzotta, D.; Mugelli, A.

    1988-11-01

    In relation to the wide environmental spread of barium and to its cardiovascular effects, barium levels were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry in 60 different brands of bottled water marketed in Italy. Matrix interferences were investigated in order to evaluate the use of an analytical calibration function rather than the much more time consuming addition technique. The barium content ranged from limit of detection C/sub L/ (7.0 ..mu..g/1) up to 660 ..mu..g/1, the median value being 80 ..mu..g/l, while the recovery tests varied between 90 and 110% and the precision of the method (s/sub yx/) was 2.5%.

  6. 储存条件对塑料瓶装大豆油中塑化剂含量影响的研究%Influence of storage condition on the contents of plasticizers in soybean oil packaged in plastic bottle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉兰; 张明明; 朱远坤; 杨书平

    2015-01-01

    The fresh soybean oils were stored respectively in PET plastic bottle and PE plastic bottle, and the influences of storage temperature, storage time and light on the contents of plasticizers in the soybean oil were investigated. The results showed that the contents of DBP and DEHP in soybean oils packaged in PE plastic bottle were obviously higher than those in PET plastic bottle when the storage temperature was above 27℃ and storage time was 20 d. The contents of DPP in soybean oils had no change when the tem-perature didn’t exceed 50℃, while it rose significantly when the temperature was above 50℃. Further-more, when stored at 65℃ for 90 d, the contents of DPP in the soybean oils packaged in PET and PE plastic bottles were up to 1 559. 3 μg/kg and 2 756. 8 μg/kg, respectively. In addition, when stored at 65℃ for 50 d, DMP could be detected in soybean oil packaged in PE plastic bottle, and its contents were 43. 7(50 d),128. 7(70 d),114. 3 μg/kg(90 d). When stored at 50℃ for 90 d, the content of DBP in soybean oil packaged in PE plastic bottle reached 452. 0μg/kg, 1. 5 times as high as the national standard limit for DBP. Compared with the lucifuge storage, light had no influence on DPP and small im-pacts on DBP and DEHP for a short time. Under the same storage temperature and light condition, as storage time prolonging, the content of DBP in soybean oils packaged in PET and PE plastic bottles were on a rise, and the content of DEHP presented a fluctuation trend.%以新鲜大豆油为原料,将其分别盛装于PET材质塑料瓶和PE材质塑料瓶中,研究不同储存温度、储存时间以及光照对大豆油中邻苯二甲酸酯类塑化剂含量变化的影响。结果表明:储存20 d且储存温度高于27℃时PE瓶装大豆油中DBP和DEHP含量明显高于PET瓶装大豆油的;大豆油中DPP含量在储存温度不超过50℃时基本无变化,但储存温度高于50℃时,其含量明显增加。65℃储存90 d后,PET、PE瓶

  7. Tracing atmospheric nitrate in groundwater using triple oxygen isotopes: evaluation based on bottled drinking water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Nakagawa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The stable isotopic compositions of nitrate dissolved in 49 brands of bottled drinking water collected worldwide were measured, to trace the fate of atmospheric nitrate (NO3− atm that had been deposited into subaerial ecosystems, using the 17O anomalies (Δ17O of nitrate as tracers. The use of bottled water enables collection of groundwater recharged at natural, background watersheds. The nitrate in groundwater had small Δ17O values ranging from −0.2‰ to +4.5‰ n = 49. The average Δ17O value and average mixing ratio of atmospheric nitrate to total nitrate in the groundwater samples were estimated to be 0.8‰ and 3.1%, respectively. These findings indicated that the majority of atmospheric nitrate had undergone biological processing before being exported from the surface ecosystem to the groundwater. Moreover, the concentrations of atmospheric nitrate were estimated to range from less than 0.1 μmol L−1 to 8.5 μmol L−1 with higher NO3−atm concentrations being obtained for those recharged in rocky, arid or elevated areas with little vegetation and lower NO3−atm concentrations being obtained for those recharged in forested areas with high levels of vegetation. Additionally, many of the NO3−atm-depleted samples were characterized by elevated δ15N values of more than +10‰. Uptake by plants and/or microbes in forested soils subsequent to deposition and the progress of denitrification within groundwater likely plays a significant role in the removal of NO3−atm.

  8. Tracing atmospheric nitrate in groundwater using triple oxygen isotopes: evaluation based on bottled drinking water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, F.; Suzuki, A.; Daita, S.; Ohyama, T.; Komatsu, D. D.; Tsunogai, U.

    2013-06-01

    The stable isotopic compositions of nitrate dissolved in 49 brands of bottled drinking water collected worldwide were measured, to trace the fate of atmospheric nitrate (NO3- atm) that had been deposited into subaerial ecosystems, using the 17O anomalies (Δ17O) of nitrate as tracers. The use of bottled water enables collection of groundwater recharged at natural, background watersheds. The nitrate in groundwater had small Δ17O values ranging from -0.2‰ to +4.5‰ n = 49). The average Δ17O value and average mixing ratio of atmospheric nitrate to total nitrate in the groundwater samples were estimated to be 0.8‰ and 3.1%, respectively. These findings indicated that the majority of atmospheric nitrate had undergone biological processing before being exported from the surface ecosystem to the groundwater. Moreover, the concentrations of atmospheric nitrate were estimated to range from less than 0.1 μmol L-1 to 8.5 μmol L-1 with higher NO3-atm concentrations being obtained for those recharged in rocky, arid or elevated areas with little vegetation and lower NO3-atm concentrations being obtained for those recharged in forested areas with high levels of vegetation. Additionally, many of the NO3-atm-depleted samples were characterized by elevated δ15N values of more than +10‰. Uptake by plants and/or microbes in forested soils subsequent to deposition and the progress of denitrification within groundwater likely plays a significant role in the removal of NO3-atm.

  9. Adsorbability Study of Plastic Transfusion Bottle and Infusion Set to Diazepam%塑料输液瓶和输液器对地西泮的吸附性考察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏清荣; 梁俊; 曹银

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To study the adsorbability of plastic transfusion bottle and infusion set to diazepam. METHODS:With the reference of plastic-bottled 5% glucose injection,HPLC was used to determine the changes of mass concentration of diazepam adding into plastic-bottled 5% glucose injection at different time;disposable plastic infusion set was connected to simulate intrave-nous infusion and determine the changes of mass concentration of diazepam in the liquid effluent at different time. RESULTS:The mass concentration of diazepam in glass infusion bottles group was higher than in plastic transfusion bottles group. The adsorbabili-ties of solutions showed the strongest at the time of 15-20 min. The mass concentration of the effluent liquid from the glass bottle group was about 80% of the original concentration and plastic bottle group was about 67%. As the time went on,the adsorbability was gradually saturated at 60 min and the concentration rose again;the mass concentration of the effluent liquid from the glass bot-tle group returned to 95%of the original concentration at 80 min and the plastic bottle group was about 75%of the original concen-tration. CONCLUSIONS:Both plastic infusion bottle and infusion set have strong adsorbability to diazepam. It is suggested that the dosage of diazepam should be increased by 25% to 33% while plastic-bottled 5% glucose injection is used as solvent for intrave-nous drip.%目的:考察塑料输液瓶和输液器对地西泮的吸附性。方法:以玻璃瓶装的5%葡萄糖注射液为对照,采用高效液相色谱(HPLC)法测定地西泮加入塑料瓶装的5%葡萄糖注射液后放置不同时间的质量浓度变化;并连接一次性塑料输液器模拟静滴状态,于不同时间收集流出液体测定其中地西泮的质量浓度变化。结果:玻璃瓶组地西泮质量浓度高于塑料瓶组,两组溶液经过输液器15~20 min时吸附性最强,玻璃瓶组流出液体质

  10. Supercritical Water Process for the Chemical Recycling of Waste Plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Motonobu

    2010-11-01

    The development of chemical recycling of waste plastics by decomposition reactions in sub- and supercritical water is reviewed. Decomposition reactions proceed rapidly and selectively using supercritical fluids compared to conventional processes. Condensation polymerization plastics such as PET, nylon, and polyurethane, are relatively easily depolymerized to their monomers in supercritical water. The monomer components are recovered in high yield. Addition polymerization plastics such as phenol resin, epoxy resin, and polyethylene, are also decomposed to monomer components with or without catalysts. Recycling process of fiber reinforced plastics has been studied. Pilot scale or commercial scale plants have been developed and are operating with sub- and supercritical fluids.

  11. Production of Methane and Water from Crew Plastic Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Captain, Janine; Santiago, Eddie; Parrish, Clyde; Strayer, Richard F.; Garland, Jay L.

    2008-01-01

    Recycling is a technology that will be key to creating a self sustaining lunar outpost. The plastics used for food packaging provide a source of material that could be recycled to produce water and methane. The recycling of these plastics will require some additional resources that will affect the initial estimate of starting materials that will have to be transported from earth, mainly oxygen, energy and mass. These requirements will vary depending on the recycling conditions. The degredation products of these plastics will vary under different atmospheric conditions. An estimate of the the production rate of methane and water using typical ISRU processes along with the plastic recycling will be presented.

  12. Arsenic removal from water employing heterogeneous photocatalysis with TiO2 immobilized in PET bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fostier, Anne Hélène; Pereira, Maria do Socorro Silva; Rath, Susanne; Guimarães, José Roberto

    2008-05-01

    Arsenic oxidation (As(III) to As(V)) and As(V) removal from water were assessed by using TiO2 immobilized in PET (polyethylene terephthalate) bottles in the presence of natural sunlight and iron salts. The effect of many parameters was sequentially studied: TiO2 concentration of the coating solution, Fe(II) concentration, pH, solar irradiation time; dissolved organic carbon concentration. The final conditions (TiO2 concentration of the coating solution: 10%; Fe(II): 7.0 mg l(-1); solar exposure time: 120 min) were applied to natural water samples spiked with 500 microg l(-1) As(III) in order to verify the influence of natural water matrix. After treatment, As(III) and total As concentrations were lower than the limit of quantitation (2 microg l(-1)) of the voltammetric method used, showing a removal over 99%, and giving evidence that As(III) was effectively oxidized to As(V). The results obtained demonstrated that TiO2 can be easily immobilized on a PET surface in order to perform As(III) oxidation in water and that this TiO2 immobilization, combined with coprecipitation of arsenic on Fe(III) hydroxides(oxides) could be an efficient way for inorganic arsenic removal from groundwaters.

  13. The Technical Study of Electromagnetic Forming Sealing for the Plastic Bottle%塑料瓶的电磁成形封口研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱春城; 李洪涛

    2000-01-01

    对塑料瓶的电磁成形封接工艺进行研究,通过对放电电压、电容、线圈位置等参数进行调节,得出了优化的封口工艺。试验结果表明:线圈位置,电压对封口效果影响较大。%This paper introduces the research of electromagnetic forming sealing for the plastic bottle. The sealing technology is opimized by adjusting discharge voltage,capacitance、 coil position. The experiments show that coil position and voltage have larger influence to the sealing effect.

  14. Migration of 2-butoxyethyl acetate from polycarbonate infant feeding bottles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens Højslev; Lund, K.H.

    2003-01-01

    An enforcement campaign was carried out to assess the migration of 2-butoxyethyl acetate (2-BEA) from polycarbonate infant feeding bottles intended for repeated use. Migration was measured by three successive migration tests into two of the European Union official food simulants: distilled water...... and 3% acetic acid testing at 40degrees C for 10 days. The Danish Veterinary and Food Administration (DVFA) has assessed that a migration above 0.33 mg for 2-BEA and a group of eight related substances kg(-1) foodstuff from plastics articles used exclusively for infants is unacceptable. Migration of 2......-BEA was found from eight of 12 bottles. However, migration above the target value of 0.33 mg kg(-1) was not observed in the third decisive test from any of the 12 different brands of polycarbonate feeding bottles. A migration of between 0.05 and 0.26 mg kg(-1) from seven of 12 bottles was measured...

  15. BOTTLE MATERIAL AND CLEANSING PROCEDURES OF INFANT FEEDING BOTTLES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Wen-Hui; Chen, Yi-Lang

    2016-01-01

    The cleanliness of feeding bottles is vital for child health. Although machine cleansing of bottles in the food industry has been established, mechanical and manual cleansing methods are highly variable. This study was undertaken to determine the differences in the cleanliness of bottles that were cleaned using various combinations of bottle materials [glass and polypropylene (PP)], rinsing water volumes (1/3, 1/2, and 2/3 capacity of a bottle), and sustained shaking times (5 seconds and 20 seconds). Total organic carbon (TOC) and conductivity measurements were respectively used to evaluate the rinsed quantities of organic and inorganic formula residue from feeding bottles. The results indicated that glass bottles filled with rinsing water to 2/3 of their capacity showed the most efficient cleansing performance. However, the PP bottles exhibited a relatively poor cleansing result, particularly for organic cleanliness. The organic residue tends to accumulate on the PP bottle interior because of the aggregation of compounds with similar properties. The shaking time hardly influenced the cleanliness. The glass bottle was superior to the PP bottle in both organic and inorganic cleanliness, and organic constituents were more difficult to rinse from the bottle than the inorganic constituents were.

  16. Dimensioning of a solar water heater made from PET bottles; Dimensionamento de um aquecedor solar de agua feito com garrafas PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertoleti, Pedro Henrique Fonseca; Souza, Teofilo Miguel de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Centro de Energias Renovaveis

    2008-07-01

    This document show the solar water heater made of PET bottles, a simple-construction solar water heater that try to give us two important solutions, water heating using solar energy and reutilization of the PET bottles left in the nature. Also, it will be showed how to do the dimensioning of it. Based on the showed dimensioning a application / software is developed and after that simulations are made using the application to provide how is the economy if it's used this kind of solar water heater and their environmental contribution by reutilization of the PET bottles abandoned in the nature. For example, in a common home the economy is about 45% of the electricity bill considering that the warmed water is used just to take a shower. So, the conclusion is: the solar water heater made by PET bottles is a very relevant equipment to the use of the solar energy, to useful applications and environmental contribution. (author)

  17. Acanthamoeba T4, T5 and T11 isolated from mineral water bottles in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maschio, Vinicius José; Chies, Fernanda; Carlesso, Ana Maris; Carvalho, Amanda; Rosa, Sayonara Peixoto; Van Der Sand, Sueli Teresinha; Rott, Marilise Brittes

    2015-01-01

    Acanthamoeba is a protist potential pathogen, capable of causing a blinding keratitis in contact lens wearers and disseminated infection, leading to granulomatous amebic encephalitis in immunocompromised individuals. This amoeba is a ubiquitous organism that has been isolated from various domestic water systems, such as cooling towers and hospital water networks. The objective of this work was to investigate the presence of Acanthamoeba in mineral water bottles marketed in Porto Alegre, southern Brazil. Positive samples were further classified at the genotype level after sequencing the ASA.S1 region of 18S rDNA gene. Six of the eight isolates belonged to T5 genotype, one to T4 genotype, and one was T11. Several genotypes have been reported worldwide as causative of pathologies in humans, including genotypes T4, T5 and T11. Overall, the widespread distribution of potentially pathogenic Acanthamoeba strains in the studied source demands more awareness within the public and health professionals, because this pathogen is emerging as a risk for human health worldwide.

  18. An alternative procedure for uranium analysis in drinking water using AQUALIX columns: application to varied French bottled waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvier-Capely, C; Bonthonneau, J P; Dadache, E; Rebière, F

    2014-01-01

    The general population is chronically exposed to uranium ((234)U, (235)U, and (238)U) and polonium ((210)Po) mainly through day-to-day food and beverage intake. The measurement of these naturally-occurring radionuclides in drinking water is important to assess their health impact. In this work the applicability of calix[6]arene-derivatives columns for uranium analysis in drinking water was investigated. A simple and effective method was proposed on a specific column called AQUALIX, for the separation and preconcentration of U from drinking water. This procedure is suitable for routine analysis and the analysis time is considerably shortened (around 4h) by combining the separation on AQUALIX with fast ICP-MS measurement. This new method was tested on different French bottled waters (still mineral water, sparkling mineral water, and spring water). Then, the case of simultaneous presence of uranium and polonium in water was considered due to interferences in alpha spectrometry measurement. A protocol was proposed using a first usual step of spontaneous deposition of polonium on silver disc in order to separate Po, followed by the uranium extraction on AQUALIX column before alpha spectrometry counting.

  19. Snuff Bottle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Chinese snuff bottles are artistic curiosities enjoyed by connoisseurs and collectors alike. In the 17th century, artisans of the Chinese imperial court made several different kinds of snuff bottles with a superior aesthetic. Nowadays, China still

  20. The calcium concentration of public drinking waters and bottled mineral waters in Spain and its contribution to satisfying nutritional needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isidro Vitoria

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A sufficient intake of calcium enables correct bone mineralization. The bioavailability of calcium in water is similar to that in milk. Objective: To determine the concentration of calcium in public drinking water and bottled mineral water. Methods: We used ion chromatography to analyse the calcium concentrations of public drinking waters in a representative sample of 108 Spanish municipalities (21,290,707 people and of 109 natural mineral waters sold in Spain, 97 of which were produced in Spain and 12 of which were imported. Results: The average calcium concentration of public drinking waters was 38.96 ± 32.44 mg/L (range: 0.40159.68 mg/L. In 27 municipalities, the water contained 50-100 mg/L of calcium and in six municipalities it contained over 100 mg/L. The average calcium concentration of the 97 Spanish natural mineral water brands was 39.6 mg/L (range: 0.6-610.1 mg/L. Of these, 34 contained 50-100 mg/L of calcium and six contained over 100 mg/L. Of the 12 imported brands, 10 contained over 50 mg/L. Assuming water consumption is as recommended, water containing 50-100 mg/L of calcium provides 5.4-12.8% of the recommended intake of calcium for children aged one to thirteen, up to 13.6% for adolescents, 5.8-17.6% for adults, and up to 20.8% for lactating mothers. Water with 100-150 mg/L of calcium provides 10-31% of the recommended dietary allowance, depending on the age of the individual. Discussion: Public drinking water and natural mineral water consumption in a third of Spanish cities can be considered an important complementary source of calcium.

  1. Determination of Bromate at Trace Level in Sudanese Bottled Drinking Water Using Ion Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Musa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bromate ion was determined by ion chromatography with spectro-photometric detection after post column reaction with o-dianisidine reagent in acidic medium. IonPac AS19 anion-exchange column was used with 20 mM sodium hydroxide eluent. The eluent from the column was then allowed to react with o-dianisidine at 60 °C. The developed colour of the final product was measured spectrophotometrically at 450 nm. Linearity of the method was checked up to 200 μg/L by using 200 μL sample injection volume and the linear correlation coefficient was 0.9998. The method detection limit was 0.56 μg/L and the precision was 6.2% at 100 μg/L. The spiked recovery for bromate in water samples was 93%. Interferences from some anions eg. nitrate, chloride and nitrite were studied. The method was applied for the determination of bromate ion in ten sudanese bottled drinking water. Bromate was detected in 60% of the samples at concentrations ranged between 5-169 μg/L.

  2. Separation and preconcentration of aluminum in parenteral solutions and bottled mineral water using different analytical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazi, Tasneem G., E-mail: tgkazi@yahoo.com [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Khan, Sumaira, E-mail: skhanzai@gmail.com [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Baig, Jameel A., E-mail: jab_mughal@yahoo.com [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Kolachi, Nida F., E-mail: nidafatima6@gmail.com [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Afridi, Hassan I., E-mail: hassanimranafridi@yahoo.com [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Kandhro, Ghulam A.; Kumar, Sham [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Shah, Abdul Q., E-mail: aqshah07@yahoo.com [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan)

    2009-12-30

    A new method is reported for the separation of aluminum ions [Al(III)] from interfering elements in parenteral and pharmaceutical solutions (PS) and bottled mineral water (BMW) samples, through solid-phase extraction with 2-methyl-8-hydroxyquinoline (quinaldine) adsorbed onto activated silica gel. While the enrichment step of separated Al(III) was carried out by cloud point extraction (CPE) using 8-hydroxyquinoline as complexing reagent, the resulted complex was entrapped in a non-ionic surfactant octylphenoxypolyethoxyethanol (Triton X-114). The enriched Al(III) in sample solutions were determined by spectrofluorometry (SPF) at {lambda}{sub excitation} 370 nm and {lambda}{sub emission} 510 nm, and flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) for comparative purpose. The variables affecting the complexation and extraction steps were studied and optimized. The validity of methodology was checked with certified reference material of water and standard addition method. The enrichment factor and detection limit of Al(III) for the preconcentration of 50 ml of PS and BMW were found to be 100 and 0.25 {mu}g/L, respectively. The proposed method has been applied for the determination of trace amount of Al(III) in PS and BMW samples with satisfactory results. In PS the levels of Al(III) are above than permissible limit (25 {mu}g/L).

  3. Tracing atmospheric nitrate in groundwater using triple oxygen isotopes: evaluation based on bottled drinking water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Tsunogai

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The stable isotopic compositions of nitrate dissolved in 49 types of bottled drinking water collected worldwide were determined, to trace the fate of atmospheric nitrate (NO3atm that had been deposited into subaerial ecosystems, using the 17O anomalies (Δ17O of nitrate as tracers. The use of bottled water enables collection of groundwater recharged at natural, background watersheds. The nitrate in groundwater had small Δ17O values ranging from −0.2‰ to +4.5‰ (n = 49. The average Δ17O value and average mixing ratio of atmospheric nitrate to total nitrate in the groundwater samples were estimated to be 0.8‰ and 3.1%, respectively. These findings indicated that the majority of atmospheric nitrate had undergone biological processing before being exported from the surface ecosystem to the groundwater. Moreover, the concentrations of atmospheric nitrate were estimated to range from less than 0.1 μmol l−1 to 8.5 μmol l−1, with higher NO3atm concentrations being obtained for those recharged in rocky, arid or elevated areas with little vegetation and lower NO3atm concentrations being obtained for those recharged in forested areas with high levels of vegetation. Additionally, many of the NO3atm-depleted samples were characterized by elevated δ15N values of more than +10‰. Uptake by plants and/or microbes in forested soils subsequent to deposition and the progress of denitrification within groundwater likely plays a significant role in the removal of NO3atm.

  4. Physical, chemical, and other data collected using moored bottle casts at the Coastal waters of California from 01 August 1999 to 01 October 1999 (NODC Accession 0000220)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, salinity, physical, chemical, and other data were collected using moored bottle casts in the Coastal Waters of California from the SAMPSON from August...

  5. Water physics and chemistry data from bottle casts from the DELAWARE from 10 May 1967 to 01 June 1967 (NODC Accession 7000769)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water physics and chemistry data were collected from bottle casts from the DELAWARE from 10 May 1967 to 01 June 1967. Data were submitted by the National Marine...

  6. Water physics and chemistry data from bottle casts from the AMIGO as part of the SEAGRANT project from 19 January 1972 to 20 April 1973 (NODC Accession 7400540)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water physics and chemistry data were collected from bottle casts from the AMIGO from 19 January 1972 to 20 April 1973. Data were submitted by the Moss Landing...

  7. Water physics and chemistry data from bottle casts from the CHESAPEAKE L/S and other platforms from 01 January 1957 to 31 December 1957 (NODC Accession 7000291)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water physics and chemistry data were collected from bottle casts from the CHESAPEAKE L/S and other platforms from 01 January 1957 to 31 December 1957. Data were...

  8. Water physics and chemistry data from bottle casts from the CHESAPEAKE L/S and other platforms from 28 November 1955 to 31 December 1956 (NODC Accession 6800101)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water physics and chemistry data were collected from bottle casts from the CHESAPEAKE L/S and other platforms from 28 November 1955 to 31 December 1956. Data were...

  9. Water physics and chemistry data from bottle casts from the AQUALAB from 14 October 1968 to 11 December 1968 (NODC Accession 7100270)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water physics and chemistry data were collected from bottle casts from the AQUALAB from 14 October 1968 to 11 December 1968. Data were submitted by the Southern...

  10. Water physics and chemistry data from bottle casts from the MISS FLETA from the 14 August 1962 to 06 December 1962 (NODC Accession 6900648)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water physics and chemistry data were collected from bottle casts from the MISS FLETA from 14 August 1962 to 06 December 1962. Data were submitted by the Rosenstiel...

  11. Water physics and chemistry data from bottle casts from the MICMAC R/V from the 28 January 1970 to 21 April 1970 (NODC Accession 7100666)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water physics and chemistry data were collected from bottle casts from the MICMAC Stanford R/V from 28 January 1970 to 21 April 1970. Data were submitted by the...

  12. USE OF SINGLE-MINUTE EXCHANGE OF DIE – SMED – AS A STRATEGY TO INCREASE PRODUCTIVITY IN A PLASTIC BOTTLE LABELER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teonas Bartz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The increase in the production and sale of food products stored in plastic containers, which serve different markets, caused the company researched departed in search of new concepts to increase the productivity of production equipment. With the increase of productivity, there is greater flexibility in planning and scheduling of production and exchange of tools. The implementation of the methodology of Single-Minute Exchange of Die – SMED reduces the setup time of equipment, maximizing the period of machine operation. With this the company more flexible production process and can reduce production batches, increasing operating rates, productivity and competitiveness of organizations. In this paper, we present the steps necessary for the implementation of the SMED in a labeling machine for plastic bottles. To this end, there were activities analysis, suggestions for improvements in machinery and procedures, timing of the steps before and after the improvements implemented and analyzes of the times obtained. After that, we obtained a significant reduction in setup time machine studied.

  13. Evaluating localism in the management of post-consumer plastic bottles in Honolulu, Hawai'i: perspectives from industrial ecology and political ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joo Young; Gupta, Clare

    2015-05-01

    Localism or regionalization has become a popular topic in urban design, but recent critics raise the question of whether the local or regional scale is most desirable for industrial ecosystems. As a way to explore the claim that localized metabolism is more sustainable, this study examines the costs and benefits of two differentially scaled strategies for the management of post-consumer polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles originating in the city of Honolulu, Hawai'i: local incineration and trans-continental recycling. We first estimate total environmental impacts of two options using life cycle assessment, and then disaggregate them into local versus non-local impacts to examine the spatial distribution of costs and benefits. We further assess the environmental justification for localized waste management in relation to the broader socio-economic motivations that underlie the way that plastics are managed in Honolulu. In doing so we assess the scale at which waste management is optimized from an environmental standpoint as well as the non-environmental considerations such as security and safety that influence the politics of scale involved in urban metabolic design. By illustrating the trade-offs between a local versus global metabolic pathway for plastic waste, the results from our Honolulu case study are globally relevant for communities interested in sustainable urban design and in particular urban waste management.

  14. Opportunistic pathogens and elements of the resistome that are common in bottled mineral water support the need for continuous surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Fernanda Falcone-Dias; Daniela Centrón; Fernando Pavan; Adriana Candido da Silva Moura; Felipe Gomes Naveca; Victor Costa de Souza; Adalberto Farache Filho; Clarice Queico Fujimura Leite

    2015-01-01

    Several differences concerning bacterial species, opportunistic pathogens, elements of the resistome as well as variations concerning the CFU/mL counts were identified in some of the five most marketed bottled mineral water from Araraquara city, São Paulo, Brazil. Two out of five brands tested were confirmed as potential source of opportunistic pathogens, including Mycobacterium gordonae, Ralstonia picketti and Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc). A total of one hundred and six isolates were r...

  15. Links between purchase location and stable isotope ratios of bottled water, soda, and beer in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesson, Lesley A; Valenzuela, Luciano O; O'Grady, Shannon P; Cerling, Thure E; Ehleringer, James R

    2010-06-23

    This study investigated the impact of purchase location on the stable isotope ratios of beverages by measuring the delta(2)H and delta(18)O values of bottled water, soda, beer, and tap water collected across the contiguous United States. Measured beverage delta(2)H and delta(18)O values generally fit the Global Meteoric Water Line (GMWL), suggesting region-of-origin information is recorded in beverage water. Tap water delta(2)H and delta(18)O values were strongly correlated with the stable isotope ratios of bottled water and soda purchased in the same location. Beer water delta(2)H and delta(18)O values were also correlated with tap water, although not as strongly. Variability in delta(2)H and delta(18)O values among beverages purchased at a single location ranged from 2 to 41 per thousand and from 0.3 to 5.2 per thousand, respectively, but was generally moderate in most locations. It was concluded that the isotopic composition of local tap water is a reasonable proxy for consumers' fluid intake in most U.S. cities.

  16. Chemometric exploration of the abundance of trace metals and ions in desalinated and bottled drinking water in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mudhaf, Humood F; Astel, Aleksander M; Al-Hayan, Mohammad N; Abu-Shady, Abdel-Sattar I

    2014-01-01

    Chemometric exploration of desalinated and bottled water in Kuwait was employed to interpret the spatial variation in the physicochemical parameters. The data set consisted of the concentrations of principal macronutrient elements, ions, trace elements, temperature, pH, electrolytic conductivity, and total dissolved solids measured in indoor, outdoor, and bottled water samples. Quantitative assessment of the Cd, Hg, and Sb contents revealed rare cases of elevated concentrations; however, these concentrations were always below international health agency standards. Two general clusters of similar parameters were discovered in the variables mode and were associated with "natural" water characteristics or "conditions" of the pipeline system. We found that an increase in temperature facilitates the leaching of metals from the metallic equipment in the system. Spatial variation in the water quality was discovered, which indicates that residential areas fed from the Az-Zoor plant are supplied with water that contains lower concentrations of Ca, Cr, Mg, Mo, Ni, Na, TDS, and SO4 (2-) than the desalinated water produced and fed from the Doha plant. However, on the basis of the aluminum concentration in the water, cement mortar lining is assumed to be prevalent in the pipeline systems of the Mubarak Al-Kabeer, Ahmadi, Umm Al-Haiman, and Sorra areas.

  17. Physicochemical properties and the concentration of anions, major and trace elements in groundwater, treated drinking water and bottled drinking water in Najran area, KSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brima, Eid I.

    2017-03-01

    Basic information about major elements in bottled drinking water is provided on product labels. However, more information is needed about trace elements in bottled drinking water and other sources of drinking water to assess its quality and suitability for drinking. This is the first such study to be carried out in Najran city in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). A total of 48 water samples were collected from different sources comprising wells, stations for drinking water treatment and bottled drinking water (purchased from local supermarkets). The concentrations of 24 elements [aluminum (Al), arsenic (As), barium (Ba), calcium (Ca), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), cesium (Cs), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), molydenum (Mo), sodium (Na), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), rubidium (Rb), selenium (Se), strontium (Sr), titanium (Ti), vanadium (V), uranium (U) and zinc (Zn)] were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Anions (chlorine (Cl-), fluoride (F-), sulfate (SO4 2-) and nitrate (NO3 -) were determined by ion chromatography (IC). Electrical conductivity (EC), pH, total dissolved salts (TDS) and total hardness (TH) were also measured. All parameters of treated drinking water and bottled drinking water samples did not exceed the World Health Organization (WHO) 2008, US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA 2009), Gulf Cooperation Council Standardization Organization (GSO) 2008 and Saudi Arabian Standards Organization (SASO) 1984 recommended guidelines. It is noteworthy that groundwater samples were not used for drinking purpose. This study is important to raise public knowledge about drinking water, and to promote public health.

  18. A margin of exposure approach to assessment of non-cancerous risk of diethyl phthalate based on human exposure from bottled water consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare Jeddi, Maryam; Rastkari, Noushin; Ahmadkhaniha, Reza; Yunesian, Masud; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Daryabeygi, Reza

    2015-12-01

    Phthalates may be present in food due to their widespread presence as environmental contaminants or due to migration from food contact materials. Exposure to phthalates is considered to be potentially harmful to human health as well. Therefore, determining the main source of exposure is an important issue. So, the purpose of this study was (1) to measure the release of diethyl phthalate (DEP) in bottled water consumed in common storage conditions specially low temperature and freezing conditions; (2) to evaluate the intake of DEP from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottled water and health risk assessment; and (3) to assess the contribution of the bottled water to the DEP intake against the tolerable daily intake (TDI) values. DEP migration was investigated in six brands of PET-bottled water under different storage conditions room temperature, refrigerator temperature, freezing conditions (40 °C ,0 °C and -18 °C) and outdoor] at various time intervals by magnetic solid extraction (MSPE) using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Eventually, a health risk assessment was conducted and the margin of exposure (MOE) was calculated. The results indicate that contact time with packaging and storage temperatures caused DEP to be released into water from PET bottles. But, when comprising the DEP concentration with initial level, the results demonstrated that the release of phthalates were not substantial in all storage conditions especially at low temperatures (bottled water was much lower than the reference value. However, the lowest MOE was estimated for high water consumers (preschooler > children > lactating women > teenagers > adults > pregnant women), but in all target groups, the MOE was much higher than 1000, thus, low risk is implied. Consequently, PET-bottled water is not a major source of human exposure to DEP and from this perspective is safe for consumption.

  19. Chemical quality of bottled mineral waters from markets of Curitiba-PR-Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éder José dos Santos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Twenty-seven bottled mineral waters from local markets in Curitiba, State of Paraná, Brazil were analyzed for a number of constituents, including: pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids, hardness, HCO3 - and CO 3 2-, as well as Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, NH4 + , F-, Cl-, NO3 -, NO2 - and SO4 2- by ion chromatography (IC; Al, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn, Ni, Sr, V and Zn by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES; Hg by cold vapor generation-ICP OES and As, Pb, Sb and Se by ICP-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS. The obtained limits of quantitation (LOQ were adequate for the determination of all analytes using the various analytical techniques. Results for the analysis of AccuStandard certified reference materials QCS-01-5, QCS-02-R1-5 and TCLP-02-1 as well as spike recoveries to samples show acceptable values, within 90-111 % of expected concentrations with relative standard deviations below 10 %, demonstrating the accuracy of the determinations. Both NO2 - and NO 3 - were above the maximum limits set by Brazilian legislation in two samples, indicating a microbiological contamination. One imported sample presented As (6.1 ± 0.2 µg L-1 near the maximum limit (10 µg L-1 while all other elements of interest were below the values specified by Brazilian legislation. Principal component analysis revealed that four imported samples and one from the Minas Gerais State have the highest mineral concentrations.

  20. Water physics and chemistry data from moored current meter and bottle casts in the Coastal Waters of New Jersey as part of the Mesa New York Bight (MESA - NYB) project, 27 August 1973 - 27 November 1974 (NODC Accession 7600777)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water physics and chemistry data were collected using moored current meter and bottle casts in the Coastal Waters of New Jersey from August 27, 1973 to November 7,...

  1. Water physics and chemistry data from moored current meter and bottle casts in the Coastal Waters of New Jersey as part of the Mesa New York Bight (MESA - NYB) project, 21 May 1963 - 08 July 1975 (NODC Accession 7601561)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water physics and chemistry data were collected using moored current meter and bottle casts in the Coastal Waters of New Jersey from May 21, 1963 to July 8, 1975....

  2. Water physics and chemistry data from moored current meter and bottle casts in the Coastal Waters of New Jersey as part of the Mesa New York Bight (MESA - NYB) project, 08 March 1974 - 13 May 1974 (NODC Accession 7501210)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water physics and chemistry data were collected using moored current meter and bottle casts in the Coastal Waters of New Jersey from March 8, 1974 to May 13, 1974....

  3. Water physics and chemistry data from moored current meter and bottle casts in the Coastal Waters of New Jersey as part of the Mesa New York Bight (MESA - NYB) project, 05 November 1973 to 06 June 1974 (NODC Accession 7500931)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water physics and chemistry data were collected using moored current meter and bottle casts in the Coastal Waters of New Jersey from November 5, 1973 to June 6,...

  4. Water physics and chemistry data from moored current meter and bottle casts in the Coastal Waters of New Jersey as part of the Mesa New York Bight (MESA - NYB) project, 10 April 1978 - 09 August 1978 (NODC Accession 7900249)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water physics and chemistry data were collected using moored current meter and bottle casts in the Coastal Waters of New Jersey from April 10, 1978 to August 9,...

  5. Water physics and chemistry data from moored current meter and bottle casts in the Coastal Waters of New Jersey as part of the Mesa New York Bight (MESA - NYB) project from 12 April 1976 - 13 September 1976 (NODC Accession 7700770)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water physics and chemistry data were collected using moored current meter and bottle casts in the Coastal Waters of New Jersey from April 12, 1976 to September 13,...

  6. Water physics and chemistry data from moored current meter and bottle casts in the Coastal Waters of New Jersey as part of the Mesa New York Bight (MESA - NYB) project, 09 April 1979 - 23 August 1979 (NODC Accession 8100440)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water physics and chemistry data were collected using moored current meter and bottle casts in the Coastal Waters of New Jersey from April 9, 1979 to August 23,...

  7. Assessment of the Quality of Bottled/Sachet Water in the Tarkwa-Nsuaem Municipality (TM of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Nana Asamoah and R. Amorin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at assessing the quality of water from bottled/sachet water in the Tarkwa-Nsuaem Municipality. Tarkwa is an ancient mining town sited in an Equatorial climate in Ghana and experiences high population growth rate as a result of mining activities. Due to this, water resources are under pressure as Ghana Water Company Ltd., (GWCL produces only 55% of the Municipality’s water requirements. The population is skeptical of using other sources of water for domestic purposes because of mining activities. Therefore, majority of the people in the Municipality depend on bottled/sachet water for drinking. This study presents and discusses the results of physicochemical and microbial analyses of six bottled/sachet water samples. The water source of these water producing companies is groundwater. Two sets of samples were collected from each company during the rainy season and the dry season to account for seasonal variations. A representative sample for each company was analyzed by the Chemistry/Bacteria Division of the GWCL, Takoradi for physicochemical parameters including pH, temperature, taste, electrical conductivity, true colour, turbidity total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, total alkalinity, total hardness and coliform bacteria. Metals and anions analysed were Ca, Mn, K, Na, Cr, Cd, Sb, Ba. BO3-, total Fe, Pb, Zn, As, NO3-, NO2- SO4-2, PO4-3, (NH3-N, F-, Cl-, CN-, carbonate hardness and bicarbonate hardness. Bacteria analysed were total Coliforms, Escherichia coli and total Heterotrophic bacteria. The concentrations of most of the investigated parameters in the drinking water samples from Tarkwa Nsuaem Municipality were within the permissible limits of the World Health Organization (WHO/Ghana Standard Board (GSB drinking water quality guidelines except pH, Ba and Cl- contents. The pH of SKFDW and DLFWD were respectively 5.5 and 6.31; acidic and lower than the recommended WHO/GSB guideline of 6.5-8.5. The Ba contents in the

  8. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory; in-bottle acid digestion of whole-water samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, G.L.; Fishman, M. J.; Garbarino, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    Water samples for trace-metal determinations routinely have been prepared in open laboratories. For example, the U.S. Geological Survey method I-3485-85 (Extraction Procedure, for Water- Suspended Sediment) is performed in a laboratory hood on a laboratory bench without any special precautions to control airborne contamination. This method tends to be contamination prone for several trace metals primarily because the samples are transferred, acidified, digested, and filtered in an open laboratory environment. To reduce trace-metal contamination of digested water samples, procedures were established that rely on minimizing sample-transfer steps and using a class-100 clean bench during sample filtration. This new procedure involves the following steps: 1. The sample is acidified with HCl directly in the original water-sample bottle. 2. The water-sample bottle with the cap secured is heated in a laboratory oven. 3. The digestate is filtered in a class-100 laminar-flow clean bench. The exact conditions used (that is, oven temperature, time of heating, and filtration methods) for this digestion procedure are described. Comparisons between the previous U.S Geological Survey open-beaker method I-3485-85 and the new in-bottle procedure for synthetic and field-collected water samples are given. When the new procedure is used, blank concentrations for most trace metals determined are reduced significantly.

  9. Caution on the storage of waters and aqueous solutions in plastic containers for hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangenberg, Jorge E

    2012-11-30

    The choice of containers for storage of aqueous samples between their collection, transport and water hydrogen ((2)H) and oxygen ((18)O) stable isotope analysis is a topic of concern for a wide range of fields in environmental, geological, biomedical, food, and forensic sciences. The transport and separation of water molecules during water vapor or liquid uptake by sorption or solution and the diffusive transport of water molecules through organic polymer material by permeation or pervaporation may entail an isotopic fractionation. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the extent of such fractionation. Sixteen bottle-like containers of eleven different organic polymers, including low and high density polyethylene (LDPE and HDPE), polypropylene (PP), polycarbonate (PC), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), and perfluoroalkoxy-Teflon (PFA), of different wall thickness and size were completely filled with the same mineral water and stored for 659 days under the same conditions of temperature and humidity. Particular care was exercised to keep the bottles tightly closed and prevent loss of water vapor through the seals. Changes of up to +5‰ for δ(2)H values and +2.0‰ for δ(18)O values were measured for water after more than 1 year of storage within a plastic container, with the magnitude of change depending mainly on the type of organic polymer, wall thickness, and container size. The most important variations were measured for the PET and PC bottles. Waters stored in glass bottles with Polyseal™ cone-lined PP screw caps and thick-walled HDPE or PFA containers with linerless screw caps having an integrally molded inner sealing ring preserved their original δ(2)H and δ(18)O values. The carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen stable isotope compositions of the organic polymeric materials were also determined. The results of this study clearly show that for precise and accurate measurements of the water stable isotope composition in aqueous solutions, rigorous sampling and

  10. Yeasts and filamentous fungi in bottled mineral water and tap water from municipal supplies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yamaguchi, Mirian Ueda; Rampazzo, Rita de Cássia Pontello; Yamada-Ogatta, Sueli Fumie; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia; Dias Filho, Benedito Prado

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to analyse the occurrence of yeasts and filamentous fungi in drinking water as well as to investigate their correlation with the indicator bacteria of faecal pollution...

  11. Evaluation of a sticky trap (AedesTraP, made from disposable plastic bottles, as a monitoring tool for Aedes aegypti populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Santos Eloína Maria

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue virus, which is transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes is the most important emerging viral disease, infecting more than 50 million people annually. Currently used sticky traps are useful tools for monitoring and control of A. aegypti, despite differences in efficiency, labor requirements and cost. In the present work, a field assay was carried out to evaluate the performance of a sticky trap (AedesTrap, produced using disposable material, in capturing gravid Aedes spp. females. Additionally, conditions necessary for the improved performance of the device, such as number of traps per site and location (indoors or outdoors were evaluated. Methods During a one year period, traps were placed in a dengue endemic area in 28 day cycles. The trap, named AedesTrap, consisted of a disposable plastic soda bottle coated inside with colophony resin, which served as a sticky substrate. Disposable bottles were donated by restaurants, and traps were made by laboratory staff, reducing the cost of the sticky trap (less than U$3. Mosquito capture in indoor and outdoor areas was compared by placing the traps in laundry room, kitchen or bedroom (indoors and front or back yard (outdoors. The relationship between the number of AedesTraps and quantity of captured mosquitoes was investigated by utilizing one or three traps/site. Results During a 28 day cycle, a single AedesTrap was capable of capturing up to 15 A. aegypti in a house, with a mean capture of 0.5 to 2.63 females per premise. The AedesTrap collected three times more outdoors versus indoors. Similarly, the capability of detecting Aedes spp. infestation, and of capturing females, was three times higher when using three AedesTraps per house, compared with one trap per house. Conclusions AedesTrap was shown to be capable of capturing A. aegypti and other culicidae, providing information on the adult mosquito population, and allowing the identification of areas critically

  12. Burn Injuries Resulting from Hot Water Bottle Use: A Retrospective Review of Cases Presenting to a Regional Burns Unit in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shehab Jabir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Hot water bottles are commonly used to relieve pain and for warmth during the colder months of the year. However, they pose a risk of serious burn injuries. The aim of this study is to retrospectively review all burn injuries caused by hot water bottles presenting to our regional burns unit. Methods. Patients with burns injuries resulting from hot water bottle use were identified from our burns database between the periods of January 2004 and March 2013 and their cases notes reviewed retrospectively. Results. Identified cases involved 39 children (aged 17 years or younger and 46 adults (aged 18 years or older. The majority of burns were scald injuries. The mean %TBSA was 3.07% (SD ± 3.40. Seven patients (8.24% required debridement and skin grafting while 3 (3.60% required debridement and application of Biobrane. One patient (1.18% required local flap reconstruction. Spontaneous rupture accounted for 48.20% of injuries while accidental spilling and contact accounted for 33% and 18.80% of injuries, respectively. The mean time to heal was 28.87 days (SD ± 21.60. Conclusions. This study highlights the typical distribution of hot water bottle burns and the high rate of spontaneous rupture of hot water bottles, which have the potential for significant burn injuries.

  13. Validation of a method to monitor the occurrence of 20 relevant pharmaceuticals and personal care products in 167 bottled waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardy-Fontan, Sophie; Le Diouron, Véronique; Drouin, Catherine; Lalere, Béatrice; Vaslin-Reimann, Sophie; Dauchy, Xavier; Rosin, Christophe

    2017-06-01

    Research on emerging substances in drinking water presents major interest and the possibility of trace contamination has seen increasing concern from the scientific community and the public authorities. More particularly, residues of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in bottled water are a very important issue due to societal concerns and potential media impact. In this context, it has become necessary to carry out reliable monitoring. This requires measurements of high quality with demonstration of accuracy and well-defined uncertainty. In this study, 20 pharmaceutical compounds were targeted for the first time in 167 bottled waters from France and other European countries. An isotope dilution-solid phase extraction-liquid chromatography mass spectrometry method, together with stringent quality control and quality assurance protocols, was developed and validated according to French mandatory standards. Recoveries between 87% and 112% were obtained with coefficient of variation below 20%. Operational limits of quantification (LOQ) were comprised between 5 and 30ngL(-1). Expanded uncertainties (k=2) ranged between 16% and 43% and were below 35% for half of the compounds. The survey showed only four positive quantifications, thereby highlighting the rarity of contamination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Chemometrics-enhanced fiber optic Raman detection, discrimination and quantification of chemical agents simulants concealed in commercial bottles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataly J. Galan-Freyle

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Chemometric techniques such as partial least squares combined with discriminant analysis (PLS–DA and artificial neural networks (ANN analysis were used to enhance the detection, discrimination and quantification of chemical warfare agents simulants. Triethyl phosphate (TEP mixed with commercial products in their original containers was analyzed through the container walls using fiber-optic-coupled Raman spectroscopy. Experiments were performed by employing a custom built optical fiber probe operating at 488 nm. Detection was accomplished using mixtures of the contents of the commercial bottles and water. The bottle materials included green plastic, green glass, clear plastic, clear glass, amber glass and white plastic. To account for the low scattering-peak intensities of some bottle materials, integration times were increased. Short integration times provided no information for amber glass and white plastic. The limits of detection were on the order of 1–5%, depending on bottle materials and contents. Good discrimination was achieved with PLS–DA when models were generated from a dataset originating from the same type of bottle material. ANN performed better when large sets of data were used, discriminating TEP from bottle materials and contents, as well as accurately classifying over 90% of the data.

  15. The Positive and Negative Effects Bottled Water and Counter-Measures%瓶装水的正负效应及对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李米换

    2011-01-01

    This paper tries to analysis the bottled water from bottled water to both positive and negative effects. Meanwhile, China government is suggested that we should refer to the light of foreign advanced technology and environmental protection measures, and for China's bottled water market development give reasonable guide and regulation to speed up resource-saving and environment-friendly society.%从瓶装水的正负效应两方面来分析其瓶装水的市场发展。同时建议我国政府应参照国外先进技术和环保措施.对我国的瓶装水市场的发展予以合理引导和调控,加快资源节约型、环境友好型社会的建设。

  16. Influence of storage temperature and time on the physicochemical and bioactive properties of roselle-fruit juice blends in plastic bottle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mgaya-Kilima, Beatrice; Remberg, Siv Fagertun; Chove, Bernard Elias; Wicklund, Trude

    2014-03-01

    Roselle-fruit juice blends were made from roselle extract and mango, papaya, and guava juices at the ratio of 80:20, 60:40, 40:60, and 20:80, % roselle: fruit juice, respectively. The blends were pasteurized at 82.5°C for 20 min and stored in 100 mL plastic bottles at 28 and 4°C for 6 months. The effects of storage time and temperature on physicochemical and bioactive properties were evaluated. Total soluble solids, pH, and reducing sugars increased significantly (P fruit blends (40% roselle) decreased significantly (P fruit blends (40% roselle) decreased from 58-55% to 43-42% when stored at 28 and 4°C, respectively. TMA losses were 86-65% at 28°C and 75-53% at 4°C while TPC losses were 66-58% at 28°C and 51-22% at 4°C. Loss of antioxidant capacity (FRAP) was 18-46% at 28°C and 17-35% at 4°C. A principal component analysis (PCA) differentiated roselle-juice fruit blends into two clusters with two principle components PC1 and PC2, which explained 97 and 3% (blends stored at ambient temperature) and 96 and 4% (blends stored at refrigerated temperature) of the variation, respectively. PC1 differentiated roselle-guava juice blends which were characterized by vitamin C, TPC, FRAP, and pH, while PC2 from another cluster of roselle-mango and roselle-papaya juice blends and was characterized by TSS, RS, and color parameters (L* a* b*). However, TMA was the main variable with the highest effect on all roselle-fruit juice blends regardless of the storage time and temperature.

  17. Analysis of Phthalic Acid Esters in Plastic Bottled Beverages%塑料瓶装饮料中邻苯二甲酸醋的含量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李荔群; 陈蓉芳; 高强; 厉曙光

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective ] To determine the concentrations of di-ethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in beverages bottled in plastic containers and to analyze the effect of some factors on the concentration of phthalates. [ Methods ] Forty-nine different brands of beverage were selected from the market and gas chromatography was applied to determine the level of phthalates in the beverage. The differences between three sorts of beverages (tea, juice, and dairy drinks) were tested by ANOVA and the effects of storage time and pH value on the concentration of phthalates in beverage were analyzed using Linear Regression Model. [ Results ] DEP wasn't found while the detection rates of DBP and DEHP in samples were 98.0% and 100% respectively with the average concentrations of 0.038 mg/L and 0.071 mg/L respectively. The detection range of DBP and DEHP in tea drinks were 0-0.047 mg/L and 0.045-0.146 mg/L respectively. The highest detection level of DBP in juice drinks was 0.127mg/L, and DEHP was found in the range from 0.060mg/L to 0.371 mg/L. The maximum concentrations of DBP and DEHP in dairy drinks were 0.081 mg/L and 0.089 mg/L respectively, and the minimum concentrations were 0.032 mg/L and 0.033 mg/L respectively. The levels of DBP in juice and dairy drinks were significantly higher than those in tea drinks (p=0.003 and P=0.002). The levels of DEHP in juice drinks were higher than those in tea and dairy drinks (P=0.00l and P=0.002). The fixed multivariate linear model showed that, the logarithms of DBP concentrations of juice and dairy drinks were 0.36 and 0.50 units higher than that of tea drinks, the logarithm of DEHP concentration of juice drinks was 0.47 units higher than that of tea drinks, and the logarithm of DEHP concentration of acid drinks was 0.30 units higher than that of weak acid drinks.[ Conclusion ] It can be concluded that the detection rates of DBP and DEHP in plastic bottled beverages were fairly high and

  18. Application of Emotional Branding Strategy in the Model Development of Sports Brand of The Bottled Water Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Jankovic

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The new economy has brought new meaning to the brand, which is characterized by a brand, but also has a human touch, turning into an emotional brand. Alternative branding strategies put emphasis on brand experience in terms of emotional, holistic and socially responsible. Bottled water has become the world's "liquid gold" in the last 40 years, because it is a natural product, which is made with minimal costs. The paper develops the idea to perform a kind of humanization and the introduction of a new emotional brand of bottled water on the market, which will bear the name "Aqua F.I.F.A" designed label of FIFA international organizations, as well as the roof of the organizers of the most important football events in the world and the label of the national team. This paper will analyze in detail the market opportunities and prospects of introducing a unique sports brand, on the emotional aspect, with the use of effective marketing communication strategy.

  19. Migration of plasticizers phthalates, bisphenol A and alkylphenols from plastic containers and evaluation of risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guart, A; Bono-Blay, F; Borrell, A; Lacorte, S

    2011-05-01

    This study investigates the potential migration of plasticisers, plastic components and additives from several plastic water bottles. Compounds studied were phthalates (dimethyl phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate, benzylbutyl phthalate, bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate), bis(2-ethylhexyl) adipate, octylphenol, 4-nonylphenol and bisphenol A. Polycarbonate (PC), high-density polyethylene (HDPE), low-density polyethylene (LDPE), polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polystyrene (PS) plastics used in the water bottling sector were tested using three kinds of total or specific migration tests: (1) standard method UNE-EN ISO 177; (2) ultrasonic forced extraction; and (3) standard method UNE-EN 13130-1. In addition, bottled waters contained in different plastic materials were analysed to determine the potential migration of target compounds in real conditions. In all cases, samples were solid-phase extracted using Oasis HLB 200 mg cartridges and analysed using GC-MS in scan-acquisition mode. Bisphenol A and 4-nonylphenol were detected in incubated samples, indicating that migration from food plastics can occur at the experimental conditions tested. The total daily intake was calculated according to the levels detected in bottled water and the assessment of the consumers' risk was evaluated taking into consideration toxicological and legislative values.

  20. Plastic mechanism of deformation of garnet-- Water weakening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU; Wen(苏文); CONG; Bolin(从柏林); YOU; Zhendong(游振东); ZHONG; Zengqiu(钟增球); CHEN; Daizhang(陈代章)

    2002-01-01

    The strongly deformed eclogites are well developed in ultra-high pressure jadeite-quartzite zone of the Dabie Mountains, Eastern China, and garnets had been deformed strongly. Observations by transmission electron microscopy identified not only structure of plastic deformation occurring as free dislocation, dislocation loops and dislocation walls, but also clusters of water molecules present in the deformed garnet. Using infrared spectroscopy, two types of hydrous components are identified as the hydroxyl and free-water in the garnet. Based on analysis of microstructure mechanism of deformation in garnets, and experimental data of petrology, the clusters of water molecules were considered to lead strong plastic deformation of garnet by dislocations because of mechanical weakening.

  1. Microbiological assessment of house and imported bottled water by comparison of bacterial endotoxin concentration, heterotrophic plate count, and fecal coliform count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Mayra I; Pérez, Cynthia M; Negrón, Edna L

    2008-03-01

    Consumers increasingly use bottled water and home water treatment systems to avoid direct tap water. According to the International Bottled Water Association (IBWA), an industry trade group, 5 billion gallons of bottled water were consumed by North Americans in 2001. The principal aim of this study was to assess the microbial quality of in-house and imported bottled water for human consumption, by measurement and comparison of the concentration of bacterial endotoxin and standard cultivable methods of indicator microorganisms, specifically, heterotrophic and fecal coliform plate counts. A total of 21 brands of commercial bottled water, consisting of 10 imported and 11 in-house brands, selected at random from 96 brands that are consumed in Puerto Rico, were tested at three different time intervals. The Standard Limulus Amebocyte Lysate test, gel clot method, was used to measure the endotoxin concentrations. The minimum endotoxin concentration in 63 water samples was less than 0.0625 EU/mL, while the maximum was 32 EU/mL. The minimum bacterial count showed no growth, while the maximum was 7,500 CFU/mL. Bacterial isolates like P. fluorescens, Corynebacterium sp. J-K, S. paucimobilis, P. versicularis, A. baumannii, P. chlororaphis, F. indologenes, A. faecalis and P. cepacia were identified. Repeated measures analysis of variance demonstrated that endotoxin concentration did not change over time, while there was a statistically significant (p count over time. In addition, multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that a unit change in the concentration of endotoxin across time was associated with a significant (p count. This analysis evidenced a significant time effect in the average log bacteriological cell count. Although bacterial growth was not detected in some water samples, endotoxin was present. Measurement of Gram-negative bacterial endotoxins is one of the methods that have been suggested as a rapid way of determining bacteriological water quality.

  2. Natural radioactivity of some spring and bottled mineral waters from several central Balkan sites, as a way of their characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SCEPAN S. MILJANIC

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a study of the radioactive content of some spring and bottled mineral waters originating frommetamorphic rock areas was carried out.Ahigh content of radium isotopes (226Ra, 228Ra, was found by radiometric analysis in the spring waters: Studenica (226Ra: 289 mBq/L, ^ibutkovica (226Ra: 92, 4 mBq/L, 228Ra: 610 mBq/L, and Crni Guber (226Ra: 120 mBq/L, 228Ra: 1170 mBq/L. On the other hand, the radiochemical results showed a higher concentration of 238U in the bottled mineral water samples (dissolved uranium concentrations were from 0.21 mBq/L, for "Kopaonik" to 71.5mBq/L fo "Skadarska" than in the spring water samples (dissolved uranium concentrations were very low » 10 mBq/L. The concentrations of all the present naturally occuring radionuclides: 238U, 234U, 232Th, 230Th, 228Th, 228Ra and 226Ra were determined by alpha/gamma spectrometric analysis. The activity ratios 234U/238U, 226Ra/230Th and 228Th/232Th, 228Ra/228Th were calculated and are discussed as an indication of the radioactive disequilibrium in bothe the 238U and 232Th radioactive series. The high contents of radium isotopes with respect to the equilibrium values expected from the respective parents 232Th/(232Th series and 230Th (238U series found in the spring water samples is the main evidence for the existence of significant radioactive disequilibrium in both the radioactive series.

  3. Comparison of Fluoride Levels in Tap and Bottled Water and Reported Use of Fluoride Supplementation in a United States–Mexico Border Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma I. Beamer

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundCompared to the general United States (U.S. population, Arizona counties along the U.S.–Mexico border have a higher prevalence of dental caries, which can be reduced with adequate fluoride exposure. Because of concern regarding local tap water quality, fluoride-free bottled water consumption is common in this region, raising concern that families are not receiving adequate fluoride to promote dental health.ObjectiveTo evaluate the levels of fluoride in tap and bottled water as well as the use of fluoride supplements in an Arizona border community.MethodsLow-income Latino households (n = 90 who report use of bottled water as their primary source of water intake were recruited. Participants completed a questionnaire about their and their children’s dental histories and use of fluoride supplements. Water samples (bottled and tap were collected from a subset of households (n = 30 for analysis of fluoride.ResultsFluoride detection levels were significantly greater (p = 0.02, Fisher’s exact test in tap water (average = 0.49 mg/dL than in bottled water, yet, the majority (22/30 were below the range for optimal dental health (0.7–1.2 mg/L. Concentration of fluoride in the majority (29/30 of bottled water samples was below the quantitative detection limit of 0.4 mg/L. Children were significantly less likely to have dental caries if they received fluoride varnishing treatments (p = 0.01, Fisher’s exact test, lived in households that reported using fluoridated mouthwash (p < 0.001, Fisher’s exact test, their parents received fluoride education (p = 0.01, Fisher’s exact test, and their parents reported visiting a dentist yearly (p < 0.001, Fisher’s exact test. Furthermore, none of the participants reported receiving recommendations from health-care providers about fluoride supplementation or variance in content by the type of water consumed.ConclusionAlthough fluoride was significantly more

  4. Physiological traits of Penicillium glabrum strain LCP 08.5568, a filamentous fungus isolated from bottled aromatized mineral water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevarez, L; Vasseur, V; Le Madec, A; Le Bras, M A; Coroller, L; Leguérinel, I; Barbier, G

    2009-04-15

    Penicillium glabrum is a ubiquitous fungus distributed world wide. This fungus is a frequent contaminant in the food manufacturing industry. Environmental factors such as temperature, water activity and pH have a great influence on fungal development. In this study, a strain of P. glabrum referenced to as LCP 08.5568, has been isolated from a bottle of aromatized mineral water. The effects of temperature, a(w) and pH on radial growth rate were assessed on Czapeck Yeast Agar (CYA) medium. Models derived from the cardinal model with inflection [Rosso et al., 1993 An unexpected correlation between cardinal temperatures of microbial growth highlighted by a new model. J. Theor. Bio. 162, 447-463.] were used to fit the experimental data and determine for each factor, the cardinal parameters (minimum, optimum and maximum). Precise characterisation of the growth conditions for such a fungal contaminant, has an evident interest to understand and to prevent spoilage of food products.

  5. 矿泉水瓶再生设计研究%On the Regeneration Design of Mineral Water Bottle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞军

    2015-01-01

    由于500ml左右矿泉水瓶瓶口具有统一的螺纹规格,其次,瓶体的容量也具有接近统一的标准,这就为矿泉水瓶再生设计的开发提供了必要的前提。市场上关于矿泉水瓶的再生设计多利用矿泉水瓶作为盛水的容器,而没有继续探讨其盛放小型垃圾(瓜子壳,纸屑,铅笔屑等)的功能。本文以绿色设计中延长产品生命周期的理念为原则,以联想法、模仿法及组合法等产品设计方法为指导,推出一款全新的使用矿泉水瓶衍生功能的产品,并着重介绍在本设计进行的过程中得出的新的设计方法:系统化条件下的功能衍生法。通过这款设计来说明现有产品衍生出新的功能的可行性,并总结一定的设计经验与设计方法,为以后进行相关设计奠定理论和方法基础。%500ml mineral water bottle has two characteristics: 1. the standard screw thread,2. the standard capacity. People often use mineral water bottles as containers of water instead of continuing to explore its function to contain small garbage (husk, scraps of paper, scraps, etc.). This thesis abides by the idea of green design and extends the product life, using method of associate, imitation and combination to introduce a new design to use mineral water bottle. From this design, a new design method in the design process is focused on: to explore more derivative functions under the system. Through this design, the feasibility is illustrated to explore more derivative functions, it is important to get more experience and methods to lay the foundation for the related design in the future.

  6. Effects of rooibos tea, bottled water, and a carbohydrate beverage on blood and urinary measures of hydration after acute dehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utter, Alan C; Quindry, John C; Emerenziani, Gian Pietro; Valiente, J Scott

    2010-04-01

    Rooibos tea contains polyphenol antioxidants, including flavonoids and phenolic acids that are potent free radical scavengers and has purported benefits for accelerated rehydration. The objective was to evaluate the effects of three different drinks (rooibos tea, bottled water, and a carbohydrate beverage) on blood and urinary markers of hydration after acute dehydration in collegiate wrestlers. Twenty-three athletes were recruited and followed a randomized, cross-over design with three different study arms comparing the effectiveness of rooibos tea, carbohydrate beverage (6% or 60 grams l(-1)), or bottled water (placebo) in promoting rehydration after a 3% reduction in body mass. Urine specific gravity (U(sg)) urine (U(osm)) and plasma osmolarity (P(osm)), and plasma volume were measured pre- and post dehydration and at 1-h after rehydration. Statistical analyses utilized a 3 (conditions) x 3 (times) repeated measures analysis of variance to test main effects. Significant interaction effects were found for P(osm) and U(osm), both of which remained below basleline after 1-h rehydration in the rooibos tea and water trials. No significant interaction effects were found for either urine U(sg) or plasma volume shift. The findings of this study demonstrate that rooibos tea was no more effective in promoting rehydration than plain water, with significant changes being found for P(osm) and U(osm) in the carbohydrate/electrolyte solution, in collegiate wrestlers after a 3% reduction in body mass and a rehydration period of 1-h when consuming 100% of their body weight loss.

  7. Determination of As, Cd, and Pb in Tap Water and Bottled Water Samples by Using Optimized GFAAS System with Pd-Mg and Ni as Matrix Modifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sezgin Bakırdere

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic, lead, and cadmium were determined in tap and bottled water samples consumed in the west part of Turkey at trace levels. Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS was used in all detections. All of the system parameters for each element were optimized to increase sensitivity. Pd-Mg mixture was selected as the best matrix modifier for As, while the highest signals were obtained for Pb and Cd in the case of Ni used as matrix modifier. Detection limits for As, Cd, and Pb were found to be 2.0, 0.036, and 0.25 ng/mL, respectively. 78 tap water and 17 different brands of bottled water samples were analyzed for their As, Cd, and Pb contents under the optimized conditions. In all water samples, concentration of cadmium was found to be lower than detection limits. Lead concentration in the samples analyzed varied between N.D. and 12.66 ± 0.68 ng/mL. The highest concentration of arsenic was determined as 11.54 ± 2.79 ng/mL. Accuracy of the methods was verified by using a certified reference material, namely, Trace Element in Water, 1643e. Results found for As, Cd, and Pb in reference materials were in satisfactory agreement with the certified values.

  8. Draft environmental impact report. California Department of Water Resources, Bottle Rock geothermal power plant, Lake County, CA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    The California Department of Water Resources (DWR) proposes to construct the Bottle Rock power plant, a 55 MW geothermal power plant, at The Geysers Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA). The plant is projected to begin operation in April of 1983, and will be located in Lake County near the Sonoma County line on approximately 7.2 acres of the Francisco leasehold. The steam to operate the power plant, approximately 1,000,000 pounds/h, will be provided by McCulloch Geothermal Corporation. The power plant's appearance and operation will be basically the same as the units in operation or under construction in the KGRA. The power plant and related facilities will consist of a 55 MW turbine generator, a 1.1 mile (1.81 km) long transmission line, a condensing system, cooling tower, electrical switchyard, gas storage facility, cistern, and an atmospheric emission control system. DWR plans to abate hydrogen sulfide (H/sub 2/S) emissions through the use of the Stretford Process which scrubs the H/sub 2/S from the condenser vent gas stream and catalytically oxides the gas to elemental sulfur. If the Stretford Process does not meet emission limitations, a secondary H/sub 2/S abatement system using hydrogen peroxide/iron catalyst is proposed. The Bottle Rock project and other existing and future geothermal projects in the KGRA may result in cumulative impacts to soils, biological resources, water quality, geothermal steam resources, air quality, public health, land use, recreation, cultural resources, and aesthetics.

  9. The Mediterranean Plastic Soup: synthetic polymers in Mediterranean surface waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suaria, Giuseppe; Avio, Carlo G.; Mineo, Annabella; Lattin, Gwendolyn L.; Magaldi, Marcello G.; Belmonte, Genuario; Moore, Charles J.; Regoli, Francesco; Aliani, Stefano

    2016-11-01

    The Mediterranean Sea has been recently proposed as one of the most impacted regions of the world with regards to microplastics, however the polymeric composition of these floating particles is still largely unknown. Here we present the results of a large-scale survey of neustonic micro- and meso-plastics floating in Mediterranean waters, providing the first extensive characterization of their chemical identity as well as detailed information on their abundance and geographical distribution. All particles >700 μm collected in our samples were identified through FT-IR analysis (n = 4050 particles), shedding for the first time light on the polymeric diversity of this emerging pollutant. Sixteen different classes of synthetic materials were identified. Low-density polymers such as polyethylene and polypropylene were the most abundant compounds, followed by polyamides, plastic-based paints, polyvinyl chloride, polystyrene and polyvinyl alcohol. Less frequent polymers included polyethylene terephthalate, polyisoprene, poly(vinyl stearate), ethylene-vinyl acetate, polyepoxide, paraffin wax and polycaprolactone, a biodegradable polyester reported for the first time floating in off-shore waters. Geographical differences in sample composition were also observed, demonstrating sub-basin scale heterogeneity in plastics distribution and likely reflecting a complex interplay between pollution sources, sinks and residence times of different polymers at sea.

  10. 塑料瓶中双酚A的电化学测定方法研究%Study on Electrochemical Determination of Biphenonl A in Plastic Bottle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余辉; 何凤云; 卞育蓉

    2012-01-01

    The electrochemical behavior of bisphenol A(BPA) at a carbon paste electrode(CPE) modified with a multi-wall carbon nanotubes(MWCNTs) film was studied with cyclic voltammetry(CV). Results showed that the MWCNTs-CPE had a strong electrocatalytic effect on BPA. In phospate buffer solution(PBS) of pH 7.0, BPA exhibited a significant oxidation peak at 0.504 V. Based on this, a sensitive electrochemical method was developed for the determination of BPA in plastic bottle. The experimental parameters, such as the pH of the supporting electrolyte, scan rate and accumulation time were optimized. The defferential pulse current of BPA was linear with its concentration in the range of 5.0 × 10-7-2.0 × 10-5 mol / L ( r=0.995 45 ). The detection limit was 1.0 × 10-7 mol/L at the signal-to-noise of 3. The established methods was applied to determine bisphenol A in plastic cup sample with recovery of 104.4%, and the RSD was 3.9%(n=6).%制备了多壁碳纳米管修饰碳糊电极( MWCNTs/CPE),用循环伏安法(CV)和差分脉冲伏安法(DPV)研究了环境激素双酚A在多壁碳纳米管修饰电极上的电化学行为.结果表明,多壁碳纳米管修饰碳糊电极对双酚A有明显的电催化作用,在pH 7.0的磷酸盐缓冲溶液(PBS)中,双酚A在0.504 V处有1个明显的氧化峰.实验考察了底液的pH值、扫描速度、富集时间等因素的影响.在优化的条件下,双酚A的示差脉冲峰电流与其浓度在5.0×10-7~2.0×10-5范围内呈良好的线性关系(r=0.995 45),检出限为1.0×10-7 mol/L(S/N=3).该法用于实际样品中双酚A含量的测定,回收率为104.4%,测定结果的相对标准偏差为3.9%(n=6).

  11. WATER-BLOWN POLYURETHANE RIGID FOAMS MODIFIED BY CHEMICAL PLASTICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Ming; XU Qiang

    2006-01-01

    Water-blown polyurethane rigid foams are getting more and more attention, because the traditional blowing agent HCFC141b has already been abolished to prevent the ozone layer from destruction. However, the polyurethane rigid foams blown by water have serious defects, i.e. friability and resulting lower adhesion strength. Thus, the purpose of this study is to resolve the problems by chemical plastication. The maleate was added to polyol-premix containing water or to polyisocyanate,with both of which maleate does not react. To prove the reaction when polyol-premix and polyisocyanate were mixed, the model composite was synthesized and analyzed by IR, NMR and ESI (MS). Furthermore, a series of water-blown polyurethane rigid foams added different amount maleate were successfully prepared. By testing impact strength and adhesion strength of the foams, the actual effect of adding maleate was obtained.

  12. 聚丙烯塑料输液瓶拉环盖内面无菌可靠性调查%The asepsis security of the interior covers of polypropylene plastic dropping bottle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐雪芬

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨聚丙烯甥料输液瓶拉环盖内面的无菌可靠性.方法 将聚丙烯塑料输液瓶随机分为2组:对照组42瓶用生理盐水棉签直接采集开启后的聚丙烯塑料输液瓶拉环盖内面样本,实验组42瓶分别用0.5%碘伏、75%乙醇棉签常规消毒开启后的聚丙烯甥料输液瓶拉环盖内面,待干燥后用生理盐水棉签采集样本.所取样本均由主管检验师接种于无菌普通琼脂营养平板.置于37℃恒温培养箱内培养,以观察细菌生长情况.结果 2组细菌生长差异有统计学意义,X2=46.791,P<0.01.结论 聚丙烯塑料输液瓶拉环盖内面必须严格执行常规消毒后方能应用于临床.%Objective To study the asepsis security of the interior cover of polypropylene plastic dropping bottle.Methods The whole samples were divided randomly into two groups,each group included 42 polypropylene plastic dropping bottles,Samples of the control group were collected from the interior covers of dropping bottles wiping with sterile normal saline cotton swabs.Samples of the experimental group were also collected from the interior covers wiping with sterile normal saline cotton swabs aher disinfected by 0.5%iodophors and 75%alcohol respectively.All samples were inoculated on the aseptic plain agar nutrition flat plate.then incubated in 37℃ incubaton to observe the growth of bacteria.Results There Was statistical significance between the two groups in the growth of bacteria,χ2=46.791,P<0.01.Conclusions The interior covers of polypropylene plastic dropping bottle should be disinfected strictly before they are used in clinic.

  13. Water equivalence of some plastic-water phantom materials for clinical proton beam dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Sulaiti, L., E-mail: l.al-sulaiti@surrey.ac.uk [Physics Department, University of Surrey, Guildford (United Kingdom); Radiation Dosimetry Team, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington (United Kingdom); Shipley, D.; Thomas, R. [Radiation Dosimetry Team, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington (United Kingdom); Owen, P. [Physics Department, University of Surrey, Guildford (United Kingdom); Radiation Dosimetry Team, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington (United Kingdom); Kacperek, A. [Douglas Cyclotron, Clatterbridge Centre for Oncology, Wirral (United Kingdom); Regan, P.H. [Physics Department, University of Surrey, Guildford (United Kingdom); Palmans, H. [Radiation Dosimetry Team, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-15

    Plastic-water phantom materials are not exactly water equivalent since they have a different elemental composition and different interaction cross sections for protons than water. Several studies of the water equivalence of plastic-water phantom materials have been reported for photon and electron beams, but none for clinical proton beams. In proton beams, the difference between non-elastic nuclear interactions in plastic-water phantom materials compared to those in water should be considered. In this work, the water equivalence of Plastic Water{sup Registered-Sign} (PW){sup 1}, Plastic Water{sup Registered-Sign} Diagnostic Therapy (PWDT){sup 1} and solid water (WT1){sup 2} phantoms was studied for clinical proton energies of 60 MeV and 200 MeV. This was done by evaluating the fluence correction factor at equivalent depths; first with respect to water and then with respect to graphite by experiment and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations using FLUKA. MC simulations showed that the fluence correction with respect to water was less than 0.5% up to the entire penetration depth of the protons at 60 MeV and less than 1% at 200 MeV up to 20 cm depth for PWDT, PW and WT1. With respect to graphite the fluence correction was about 0.5% for 60 MeV and about 4% for 200 MeV. The experimental results for modulated and un-modulated 60 MeV proton beams showed good agreement with the MC simulated fluence correction factors with respect to graphite deviating less than 1% from unity for the three plastic-water phantoms. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study plastic-water in clinical proton beams by experiment and Monte Carlo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We obtain fluence correction factors for water and graphite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The correction factor for water was close to 1 at 60 MeV and <0.990 at 200 MeV. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The correction factor for graphite was {approx}0.5% at 60 MeV and up to 4% at 200 MeV.

  14. Quantitative determination of perchlorate in bottled water and tea with online solid phase extraction high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shu-Ling; Lo, Chih-Yu; Fuh, Ming-Ren

    2012-07-13

    Due to the similarity in ionic radius, perchlorate has been reported to inhibit the iodide intake in the thyroid gland, which may lead to low heart rate, weight gain, and fatigue. In recent years, the presence of perchlorate in drinking water, surface water, soil, and food supplies in the United States has raised a great concern on establishing the maximum residue limit (MRL) for perchlorate to reduce its possible adverse influence on human health. US EPA currently puts perchlorate on the final third Contamination Candidate List (CCL3) and suggests a health reference level at 4.9 μg L⁻¹. The MRL of perchlorate was therefore set at 5.0 μg L⁻¹ by the authors for method validation. In this study, large volume injection (up to 1-mL) and online solid phase extraction (SPE) were utilized for pre-concentrating perchlorate ions and removing unretained matrix components prior to reversed-phase HPLC analysis using ESI-tandem MS under the negative mode. After eluting perchlorate from online SPE, 0.1% formic acid solution was utilized for isocratic HPLC analysis without any organic solvent. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) and the internal standard, Cl₁₈O₄⁻, were utilized for quantitatively determining perchlorate in bottled water and bottled tea samples. Two linear ranges, 0.05-0.50 μg L⁻¹ and 0.50-10.00 μg L⁻¹, were established to better estimate the residual amounts of perchlorate in bottled water samples with a method detection limit (MDL, signal-to-noise ratio of 3) of 0.01 μg L⁻¹. The linear range was 1.50-10.00 μg L⁻¹ for bottled tea samples with a MDL of 0.5 μg L⁻¹. In addition, the proposed method was further validated based on the EU Commission Decision 2002/657/EC, including within-laboratory reproducibility, decision limit (CCα), and detection capability (CCβ) for bottled water and bottled tea samples. The intra-day/inter-day precision and accuracy as well as within-laboratory reproducibility were determined by calculating

  15. Evaluation of Direct 16S rDNA Sequencing as a Metagenomics-based Approach to Screening Bacteria in Bottled Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Trine; Skånseng, Beate; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    -specific assays, such as PCR, there is a need for generic methods to screen for unknown pathogenic microorganisms in samples. This work presents a metagenomics-based direct-sequencing approach for detecting unknown microorganisms, using Bacillus cereus (as a model organism for B. anthracis) in bottled water...... the presence of Bacillus. The analysis also revealed that background flora in the bottled water varied between the different water types that were included in the study. This method has the potential to be adapted to other biological matrices and bacterial pathogens for fast screening of unknown bacterial......Deliberate or accidental contamination of food, feed, and water supplies poses a threat to human health worldwide. A rapid and sensitive detection technique that could replace the current labor-intensive and time-consuming culture-based methods is highly desirable. In addition to species...

  16. [Simultaneous determination of iodate, chlorite and bromate in bottled drinking water by ion chromatography with post-column reaction and UV detection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yiqi; Wang, Zijian; Xu, Yiping; Ma, Mei

    2007-05-01

    Iodate, chlorite and bromate in bottled water are disinfectant by-products (DBPs) from ozonation. The established methods for simultaneous determination of iodate, chlorite and bromate are mostly based on pre- or post-column chemical reaction in which the target compound was converted to another easily detectable species. However, the procedure suffers from several time-consuming reaction steps that involve multiple chemicals, or where the reagents themselves are toxic. In the present study, a rapid, highly sensitive, precise and accurate method was established, and a post-column reaction with sodium nitrite and acid solution of potassium bromide was employed to enhance sensitivity and to reduce interferences. Under optimized conditions, the method limits for iodate, chlorite and bromate were 0.5, 0.4 microg/L and 0.1 microg/L, respectively. Percentage recoveries of iodate, chlorite and bromate varied from 70.8% to 98.0%, 92.4% to 100% and 93.2% to 104.1% respectively with different spiked water samples. The proposed method was demonstrated for detecting the concentrations of iodate, chlorite and bromate in bottled water produced from different water sources. Results showed that severe bromate contamination was present in bottled mineral water purchased from Beijing supermarket, which used spring water or ground water as the sources.

  17. Snuff bottles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Snuff bottles first appeared in China in the Ming dynasty(1368-1644) and, as their name suggests, were originally indeed used as a container for snuff tobacco, first of all by the Manchu, Mongols and Tibetans. The reason for their popularity at that time is to be found in the customs of those ethnic minorities: because those ethnic groups mainly led a nomadic life that entailed frequent use of hay or firewood.

  18. Breaking beer bottles with cavitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sunny; Fontana, Jake; Palffy-Muhoray, Peter; Shelley, Michael

    2009-03-01

    Hitting the top of a beer bottle, nearly full of water, with an open hand can cause the bottle to break, with the bottom separating from upper section. We have studied this phenomenon using a high-speed camera, and observed the formation, coalescence and collapse of bubbles. The breaking of glass is due to cavitation, typically occurring near the bottom edge. We make numerical estimates of the relevant physical parameters, and compare these with experimental observations.

  19. 定陶县桶装饮用水检测结果分析%Dingtao bottled drinking water test results analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康凤春

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the Dingtao County bottled drinking water passing rate indicators, analysis of the safety of drinking water, according to the reasons, some improvement measures, and improve the hygienic quality of bottled water. Methods According to the national standard of bottled drinking water for the microbial indexes and physiochemical indexes determination;the quality of bottled water and non formal manufacturers and formal manufacturers compared. Results The of 96 bottled drinking water compliance rate was 70%, 29 unqualified water samples, 28 bacteria exceed the standard, 11 conductivity exceed the stan-dard, 5 copies 4 copies of zinc chloride unqualified, unqualified, other indicators are all qualified;non formal manufacturers of un-qualified rate (65%) was significantly higher than that of the regular factory (21%), the two have very significant difference (P<0.01), formal manufacturers of drinking water quality is better than the former. Conclusion The bottled drinking water qualified rate of total bacterial count was low, the qualified rate of informal manufacturers lower. Bottled drinking the county water exists improper handling or re pollution problems in the production process, quality of health is not optimistic, more attention should be paid to the relevant departments and manufacturers, and strengthen supervision and management, and to remind people attention for bottled drinking water.%目的:了解定陶县桶装饮用水指标合格率,分析其饮用水安全性,针对原因,采取改进措施,提高桶装水的卫生质量。方法按国家标准方法对桶装饮用水进行微生物指标和理化指标测定;并将非正规厂家和正规厂家的桶装水质量相比较。结果96份桶装饮用水合格率为70%,29份不合格水样中,28份菌落总数超标,11份电导率超标,5份氯化物不合格,4份锌不合格,其他指标全部合格;非正规厂家的不合格率(65%

  20. Magnetic Bead and Fluorescent Silica Nanoparticles Based Optical Immunodetection of Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B (SEB in Bottled Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva K. RASTOGI

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs are a major cause of food-borne diseases, most commonly SEs assayed immunologically with ELISA. An immunoassay based on fluorescein dye doped silica dioxide nanoparticles (F-SiNPs and magnetic bead (MB is described here for the detection of staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB. F-SiNPs have unique optical properties which make them attractive for biosensing. The water-in-oil (W/O reverse microemulsion method was used for the synthesis of F-SiNPs (~ 95 nm of diameter. The F-SiNPs were characterized using SEM, TEM and FTIR spectroscopy. The detection of SEB is preformed in PBS buffer, and bottled drinking water using sandwich immunoassay format. Target analytes were captured using MBs modified with the antigen-specific “capture” antibody, and detected using F-SiNP labeled secondary antigen-specific antibody. We report a limit of detection down to 1 ng/mL SEB spiked sample in less than 2 hr assay time using fluorocount method. This study demonstrates the bio warfare agent SEB capture by magnetic beads and detection using F-SiNPs.

  1. Stopping the Bottle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more difficult it can be to break the bottle habit. Longer bottle use may lead to cavities or ... is coming later. The next week, eliminate another bottle feeding and provide milk in a cup instead. Try ...

  2. Effects of residual water on microtensile bond strength of one-bottle dentin adhesive systems with different solvent bases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhi-xing; HUANG Cui; ZHENG Tie-li; WANG Sa; CHENG Xiang-rong

    2005-01-01

    Background The wet-bonding technique is recommended for the one-bottle dentin adhesive systems, but the moisture concept varies widely among the instructions of manufacturers as well as among investigators. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different dentin surface moisture on the microtensile bond strength(s) of an ethanol/water-based adhesive system and an acetone-based system to dentin. Methods Forty intact human premolars extracted for orthodontic reasons were used. Superficial occlusal flat dentin surfaces of these premolars were exposed, finished with wet 600-grit silicon carbide paper. Under four wet and dry conditions (overwet, blot dry, one-second dry and desiccated), resin composite was bonded to dentin by using Single Bond (SB) or Prime & Bond NT (PB) according to the manufacturers' instructions. The teeth were longitudinally sectioned in the "x" and "y" directions to obtain bonded beams with a cross-sectional area of 0.81 mm2 with a slow-speed diamond saw. The bonded specimens were tested in tension at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min until failure of the bonds. Failure modes were observed with a scanning electron microscope. The mean bond strengths were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Turkey's test. Results The bond strength of the overwet/SB, blot dry/SB, one-second dry/SB and desiccated/SB groups was 10.87 Mpa, 22.47 Mpa, 24.91 Mpa and 12.99 Mpa, respectively. The bond strength of the overwet/PB, blot dry/PB, one-second dry/PB and desiccated/PB groups was 10.02 Mpa, 20.67 Mpa, 21.82 Mpa and 10.09 Mpa, respectively. For both SB and PB, the blot dry group and one-second dry group revealed significantly higher bond strengths than the overwet and desiccated groups (P<0.05). Conclusions In order to achieve the highest bond strength to dentin, keeping the dentin surface in an appropriately moist condition is critical for the one-bottle dentin adhesive systems with ethanol/water or acetone solvent.

  3. Salt content in ready-to-eat food and bottled spring and mineral water retailed in Novi Sad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trajković-Pavlović Ljiljana B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Salt intake above 5 g/person/day is a strong independent risk factor for hypertension, stroke and cardiovascular diseases. Published studies indicate that the main source of salt in human diet is processed ready-to-eat food, contributing with 65-85% to daily salt intake. Objective. The aim of this paper was to present data on salt content of ready-to-eat food retailed in Novi Sad, Serbia, and contribution of the salt contained in 100 g of food to the recommended daily intake of salt for healthy and persons with cardiovascular disease (CVD risk. Methods. In 1,069 samples of ready-to-eat food, salt (sodium chloride content was calculated based on chloride ion determined by titrimetric method, while in 54 samples of bottled water sodium content was determined using flame-photometry. Food items in each food group were categorized as low, medium or high salt. Average salt content of each food group was expressed as a percentage of recommended daily intake for healthy and for persons with CVD risk. Results. Average salt content (g/100 g ranged from 0.36±0.48 (breakfast cereals to 2.32±1.02 (grilled meat. The vast majority of the samples of sandwiches (91.7%, pizza (80.7%, salami (73.9%, sausages (72.9%, grilled meat (70.0% and hard cheese (69.6% had a high salt profile. Average amount of salt contained in 100 g of food participated with levels ranging from 7.2% (breakfast cereals to 46.4% (grilled meat and from 9.6% to 61.8% in the recommended daily intake for healthy adult and person with CVD risk, respectively. Average sodium content in 100 ml of bottled spring and mineral water was 0.33±0.30 mg and 33±44 mg, respectively. Conclusion. Ready-to-eat food retailed in Novi Sad has high hidden salt content, which could be considered as an important contributor to relatively high salt consumption of its inhabitants.

  4. Impact of plastics on fate and transport of organic contaminants in landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saquing, Jovita M; Saquing, Carl D; Knappe, Detlef R U; Barlaz, Morton A

    2010-08-15

    Factors controlling organic contaminant sorption to common plastics in municipal solid waste were identified. Consumer plastics [drinking water container, prescription drug bottle, soda bottle, disposable cold cup, computer casing, furniture foam, carpet, vinyl flooring, formica sheet] and model polymers [high-density polyethylene (HDPE), medium-density polyethylene, low-density polyethylene, poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)] were characterized by X-ray diffractometry, differential scanning calorimetry, and elemental analysis. The material characterization was used to interpret batch isotherm and kinetic data. K(p) values describing toluene sorption to rubbery or "soft" polymers could be normalized by the amorphous polymer fraction (f(amorphous)) but not by the organic carbon fraction (f(oc)). Diffusion coefficients (D) describing the uptake rate of toluene by rubbery plastics (HDPE, drinking water container, prescription drug bottle) were similar (D approximately 10(-10) cm(2)/s), indicating that pure HDPE can be used as a model for rubbery plastics. Toluene diffusivity was similar among glassy or "hard" plastics (PVC, soda bottle, computer casing, disposable cold cup; D approximately 10(-12) cm(2)/s) but lower than for rubbery plastics. Plastics in landfills are potential sinks of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) because of their higher affinity for HOCs compared to lignocellulosic materials and the slow desorption of HOCs from glassy plastics.

  5. Water physics and chemistry data from moored current meter and bottle casts in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean as part of the North East Monitoring Program (NEMP) project, 03 June 1981 - 09 June 1981 (NODC Accession 8100724)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water physics and chemistry data were collected using moored current meter and bottle casts in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean from June 3, 1981 to June 9, 1981. Data...

  6. Water physics and chemistry data from bottle casts from MULTIPLE SHIPS and other platforms from the NW Atlantic (limit-40 W) from 10 January 1951 to 18 April 1957 (NODC Accession 7200385)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water physics and chemistry data were collected from bottle casts from MULTIPLE SHIPS and other platforms from NW Atlantic (limit-40 W) from 10 January 1951 to 18...

  7. Water physics and chemistry data from moored current meter and bottle casts in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean as part of the North East Monitoring Program (NEMP) project, 27 July 1982 - 02 August 1982 (NODC Accession 8400002)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water physics and chemistry data were collected using moored current meter and bottle casts in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean from July 27, 1982 to August 2, 1982....

  8. Water physics and chemistry data from moored current meter and bottle casts in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean as part of the North East Monitoring Program (NEMP) project, 15 April 1981 - 20 April 1981 (NODC Accession 8100656)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water physics and chemistry data were collected using moored current meter and bottle casts in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean from April 15, 1981 to April 20, 1981....

  9. Water physical and chemical data from current meter and bottle casts from the COLUMBUS ISELIN as part of the Ocean Continental Shelf - Mid Atlantic (OCS - Mid Atlantic) project, 27 October 1975 - 06 November 1975 (NODC Accession 7700454)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water physical and chemical data were collected using current meter and bottle casts from the COLUMBUS ISELIN from October 27, 1975 to November 6, 1975. Data were...

  10. Water physics and chemistry data from moored current meter and bottle casts in the Gulf of Mexico as part of the Brine Disposal project, 04 December 1979 - 11 June 1980 (NODC Accession 8000476)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water physics and chemistry data were collected using moored current meter and bottle casts in the Gulf of Mexico from December 4, 1979 to June 11, 1980. Data were...

  11. Water temperature, meteorological, and other data from bottle casts and other instruments from the South Atlantic, Equatorial Atlantic, and other locations from the STRELOK VITYAZ and other platforms from 02 May 1862 to 11 July 1877 (NODC Accession 0000500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water temperatures, meteorological, and other data were collected bottle casts and other instruments from 02 May 1862 to 11 July 1877. Data were collected from the...

  12. Water physical and chemical data from current meter and bottle casts from the GILLISS as part of the Ocean Continental Shelf - Mid Atlantic (OCS - Mid Atlantic) project, 04 February 1976 - 14 September 1976 (NODC Accession 7700477)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water physical and chemical data were collected using current meter and bottle casts from the GILLISS and other platforms from February 4, 1976 to September 14,...

  13. Water physical and chemical data from current meter and bottle casts from the G.W. PIERCE as part of the Ocean Continental Shelf - Mid Atlantic (OCS - Mid Atlantic) project, 22 October 1975 - 31 October 1975 (NODC Accession 8200067)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water physical and chemical data were collected using current meter and bottle casts from the G.W. PIERCE from October 22, 1975 to October 31, 1975. Data were...

  14. Water physics and chemistry data from moored current meter and bottle casts in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean as part of the North East Monitoring Program (NEMP) project, 02 September 1980 - 06 September 1980 (NODC Accession 8100628)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water physics and chemistry data were collected using moored current meter and bottle casts in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean from September 2, 1980 to September 6,...

  15. Water physics and chemistry data from moored current meter and bottle casts in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean as part of the North East Monitoring Program (NEMP) project, 28 May 1982 - 04 June 1982 (NODC Accession 8300008)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water physics and chemistry data were collected using moored current meter and bottle casts in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean from May 28, 1982 to June 4, 1982. Data...

  16. Water physics and chemistry data from bottle casts from the GERDA as part of the Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science (RSMAS) project from 20 July 1955 to 29 May 1957 (NODC Accession 7000057)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water physics and chemistry data were collected from bottle casts from the GERDA from 20 July 1955 to 29 May 1957. Data were collected as part of the Rosenstiel...

  17. Chemical data from moored current meter, bottle casts, and other instruments in the Coastal Waters of New Jersey as part of the Mesa New York Bight (MESA - NYB) project, 18 May 1978 - 19 October 1978 (NODC Accession 7900280)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical data were collected using moored current meter, bottle casts, and other instruments in the Coastal Waters of New Jersey from May 18, 1978 to October 19,...

  18. Water physics and chemistry data from moored current meter and bottle casts in the New York Bight as part of the North East Monitoring Program (NEMP) project, 10 April 1984 - 31 October 1984 (NODC Accession 8500225)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water physics and chemistry data were collected using moored current meter and bottle casts in the New York Bight from April 10, 1984 to October 31, 1984. Data were...

  19. Water physics and chemistry data from moored current meter and bottle casts in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean as part of the North East Monitoring Program (NEMP) project, 21 April 1980 - 18 July 1980 (NODC Accession 8100501)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water physics and chemistry data were collected using moored current meter and bottle casts in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean from April 21, 1980 to July 18, 1980....

  20. 桶装饮用水质量测评指标权重AHP研究%The Research of AHP in Bottled Drinking Water Quality Evaluation Index Weight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亚东

    2011-01-01

    Through the study of analytic hierarchy process(AHP) of the basic principles and steps and extensive literature on reading at home and abroad,bottled drinking water quality evaluation index weights were studied AHP in this paper.This paper identifies national standards in bottled drinking water which is more important indicators and what factors can cause these indicators exceeded.%通过学习层次分析法(AHP)的基本原理和步骤,阅读国内外大量文献,对桶装饮用水质量测评指标权重AHP进行研究,确定桶装饮用水国家标准中那些指标比较重要,哪些影响因素可以引起这些指标超标。

  1. Evaluation of Chemical and Microbiological Quality in 21 Brands of Iranian Bottled Drinking Waters in 2012: A Comparison Study on Label and Real Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Moazeni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare chemical and microbiological quality of the 21 Iranian bottled drinking waters reported on manufacturer's labeling and standards in 2012. Samples were analyzed for chemical properties K+, F−, SO4 2−, Cl−, Mg2+, Ca2+, and pH. Total and fecal coliform and heterotrophic plate counts of selected samples were analyzed by MPN and HPC tests, respectively, for three months. Finally, the labeled and real contents of the samples were compared. Potassium and sulfate ions about 43 and 52 percent of studied sample contents had values higher than label amounts, respectively. Ca2+, Cl− ions, and pH were about 71, 48, and 67 percent, respectively, less than label values. Total and fecal coliforms had negative results. The mean concentrations and standard deviations for K+, Cl−, pH, Ca2+, Mg2+, SO4 2−, and HPC were 1.13 ± 1.06, 16.39 ± 31.97, 6.6 ± 0.7, 28.35 ± 10.34, 86.58 ± 33.21, 24.17 ± 17.30 mg/L, and 16855 ± 25603 cfu/mL, respectively. Thus, there is possibility of microorganisms’ growth in favorite conditions in bottled water. It was imperative to assess the public health risks in bottled water in Iran.

  2. levels of common ions in bottled mineral waters consumed in addis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    supports industry, produces hydroelectricity, ... wastewater or other organic wastes into surface ... biological and chemical constituents of drinking ..... water during water treatment at the source ..... (1998); b EU/EC = European Community Council Directive 98/83/EC, Parametric Values (1998), c China for the standard.

  3. Concentration of Ra-226 in Malaysian Drinking and Bottled Mineral Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Y. B. Mohd; Jemangin, M. H.; Mahat, R. H.

    2010-07-01

    The concentration of the radionuclide 226Ra was determined in the drinking water which was taken from various sources. It was found that the concentration varies from non-detectable (ND) to highest value of 0.30 Bq per liter. The concentration was found to be high in mineral water as compare with surface water such as domestic pipe water. Some of these values have exceeded the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) of America regulations. The activity concentrations obtained are compared with data from other countries. The estimated annual effective doses from drinking the water are determined. The values obtained range from 0.02 mSv to about 0.06 mSv per year.

  4. The U.S. Military’s Reliance on Bottled Water During Military Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-17

    ran out of water and had to surrender. Their supply lines were cut and they were forced to drink the blood of donkeys and their own urine to survive...technology that can remove enough arsenic content to make water safe to drink, producing approximately 1 liter every 8 minutes. 5) TARDEC is developing...Packaging System." National Driller. http://www.nationaldriller.com/ Articles /Feature_Article/BNP_GUID_9-5-2006 (accessed October 14, 2010). Gleick

  5. Effect of sunlight exposure on the release of intentionally and/or non-intentionally added substances from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles into water: chemical analysis and in vitro toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Cristina; Dauchy, Xavier; Severin, Isabelle; Munoz, Jean-François; Etienne, Serge; Chagnon, Marie-Christine

    2014-11-01

    The effect of sunlight exposure on chemical migration into PET-bottled waters was investigated. Bottled waters were exposed to natural sunlight for 2, 6 and 10 days. Migration was dependent on the type of water. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and Sb migration increased with sunlight exposure in ultrapure water. In carbonated waters, carbon dioxide promoted migration and only formaldehyde increased slightly due to sunlight. Since no aldehydes were detected in non-carbonated waters, we conclude that sunlight exposure has no effect. Concerning Sb, its migration levels were higher in carbonated waters. No unpredictable NIAS were identified in PET-bottled water extracts. Cyto-genotoxicity (Ames and micronucleus assays) and potential endocrine disruption effects (transcriptional-reporter gene assays) were checked in bottled water extracts using bacteria (Salmonella typhimurium) and human cell lines (HepG2 and MDA-MB453-kb2). PET-bottled water extracts did not induce any toxic effects (cyto-genotoxicity, estrogenic or anti-androgenic activity) in vitro at relevant consumer-exposure levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Challenges and Alternatives to Plastics Recycling in the Automotive Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Lindsay Miller; Katie Soulliere; Susan Sawyer-Beaulieu; Simon Tseng; Edwin Tam

    2014-01-01

    Plastics are increasingly a preferred material choice in designing and developing complex, consumer products, such as automobiles, because they are mouldable, lightweight, and are often perceived to be highly recyclable materials. However, actually recycling the heterogeneous plastics used in such durable items is challenging, and presents very different scenarios to how simple products, such as water bottles, are recovered via curbside or container recycling initiatives. While the technolog...

  7. Dental fluorosis: concentration of fluoride in drinking water and consumption of bottled beverages in school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Pérez, N; Torres-Mendoza, N; Borges-Yáñez, A; Irigoyen-Camacho, M E

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify dental fluorosis prevalence and to analyze its association with tap water fluoride concentration and beverage consumption in school children from the city of Oaxaca, who were receiving fluoridated salt. A cross-sectional study was performed on elementary public school children. Dean's Index was applied to assess dental fluorosis. The parents of the children who were studied completed a questionnaire about socio-demographic characteristics and type of beverages consumed by their children. A total of 917 school children participated in this study. Dental fluorosis prevalence was 80.8%. The most frequent fluorosis category was very mild (41.0%), and 16.4% of the children were in the mild category. The mean water fluoride concentration was 0.43 ppm (±0.12). No association was detected between tap water fluoride concentration and fluorosis severity. The multinomial regression model showed an association among the mild fluorosis category and age (OR = 1.25, [95% CI 1.04, 1.50]) and better socio-economic status (OR = 1.78, [95% CI 1.21, 2.60]), controlling for fluoride concentration in water. Moderate and severe fluorosis were associated with soft drink consumption (OR = 2.26, [95% IC 1.01, 5.09]), controlling for age, socio-economic status, and water fluoride concentration. The prevalence of fluorosis was high. Mild fluorosis was associated with higher socio-economic status, while higher fluorosis severity was associated with soft drink consumption.

  8. Feeding Bottles Usage and the Prevalence of Childhood Allergy and Asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hsu, Nai-Yun; Wu, Pei-Chih; Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf

    2012-01-01

    infant formula or complementary foods, family history, parental educational levels, and smoking status, as well as the problem of indoor water damage. This study was the first to reveal the potential risk of using plastic consumer products such as feeding bottles on the reported health status......This study aimed to examine the association between the length of use of feeding bottles or pacifiers during childhood and the prevalence of respiratory and allergic morbidities. A large-scale questionnaire survey was performed in day care centers and kindergartens (with children's ages ranging...... from 2 to 7 years) in southern Taiwan, and a total of 14,862 questionnaires completed by parents were finally recruited for data analysis. Effects of using feeding bottles on children's wheezing/asthma (adjusted OR: 1.05, 95% CI 1.00-1.09), allergic rhinitis (adjusted OR: 1.04, 95% CI 1...

  9. A novel one-step synthesis for carbon-based nanomaterials from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Essawy, Noha A; Konsowa, Abdelaziz H; Elnouby, Mohamed; Farag, Hassan A

    2017-03-01

    Nowadays our planet suffers from an accumulation of plastic products that have the potential to cause great harm to the environment in the form of air, water, and land pollution. Plastic water bottles have become a great problem in the environment because of the large numbers consumed throughout the world. Certain types of plastic bottles can be recycled but most of them are not. This paper describes an economical solvent-free process that converts polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles waste into carbon nanostructure materials via thermal dissociation in a closed system under autogenic pressure together with additives and/or catalyst, which can act as cluster nuclei for carbon nanostructure materials such as fullerenes and carbon nanotubes. This research succeeded in producing and controlling the microstructure of various forms of carbon nanoparticles from the PET waste by optimizing the preparation parameters in terms of time, additives, and amounts of catalyst. Plastic water bottles are becoming a growing segment of the municipal solid waste stream in the world; some are recycled but many are left in landfill sites. Recycling PET bottles waste can positively impact the environment in several ways: for instance, reduced waste, resource conservation, energy conservation, reduced greenhouse gas emissions, and decreasing the amount of pollution in air and water sources. The main novelty of the present work is based on the acquisition of high-value carbon-based nanomaterials from PET waste by a simple solvent-free chemical technique. Thus, the prepared materials are considered to be promising, cheap, eco-friendly materials that may find use in different applications.

  10. A Plastic Menagerie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Mary Jane

    2010-01-01

    Bobble heads had become quite popular, depicting all sorts of sports figures, animals, and even presidents. In this article, the author describes how her fourth graders made bobble head sculptures out of empty plastic drink bottles. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  11. Assessment of carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risk lead in bottled water in different age groups in Bandar Abbas Ciry, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhri, Yadolah; Mohseni, Seyed Mohsen; Jafarzadeh, Saeedeh; Langarizadeh, Ghazaleh; Moradi, Bigard; Zandsalimi, Yahya; Rahimizadeh, Aziz; Mirzaei, Maryam

    2015-01-23

    The presence of heavy metals such as lead in drinking water resources can be dangerous for human because of toxicity and biological accumulation. The consumption of water or food which contains lead in high concentration can lead to prevent from Hemoglobin Synthesis (Anemia) and Kidney diseases. In this present study, the researcher collected 432 samples of bottled water in the popular marks in summer and winter from the surface of Bandar Abbas. The lead concentration was measured by atomic absorption Spectrophotometer in model DR2800 through the Dithizone method. CDI, R and HQ which are caused by lead for adult men, women and children, have been calculated and evaluated through the equations of EPA and WHO. The mean concentration of lead, which is 3.46± 0.47 µg/l, and its range, which is 1.9-17.6 µg/l, are lower than the guideline of WHO (10 µg/l) and MPC of EPA is (15 µg/l). But the 40 samples of the bottled water (9.2%) have the concentration higher than guideline WHO and 8 samples (1.85%) has the concentration higher than the permissible limits of the EPA. CDI in different age groups is as following manner: Children>adult men>adult women. CDI in children is more than twice as much as in the adult men and women. The R of lead for children (24E-7), adult men (11E-7) and for adult women (10E-7) are more than the acceptable level of R in EPA (1E-6) but less than the acceptable level of R in WHO (1E-4). Since HQ of adult men (34E-5), adult women (31E-5) and children (84E-5), is lower than 1, it can be said that the population of Bandar Abbas is in a safe area regarding the HQ of the bottled water's lead.

  12. A method for improving reliability and relevance of LCA reviews: the case of life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of tap and bottled water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantin, Valentina; Scalbi, Simona; Ottaviano, Giuseppe; Masoni, Paolo

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to propose a method for harmonising Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) literature studies on the same product or on different products fulfilling the same function for a reliable and meaningful comparison of their life-cycle environmental impacts. The method is divided in six main steps which aim to rationalize and quicken the efforts needed to carry out the comparison. The steps include: 1) a clear definition of the goal and scope of the review; 2) critical review of the references; 3) identification of significant parameters that have to be harmonised; 4) harmonisation of the parameters; 5) statistical analysis to support the comparison; 6) results and discussion. This approach was then applied to the comparative analysis of the published LCA studies on tap and bottled water production, focussing on Global Warming Potential (GWP) results, with the aim to identify the environmental preferable alternative. A statistical analysis with Wilcoxon's test confirmed that the difference between harmonised GWP values of tap and bottled water was significant. The results obtained from the comparison of the harmonised mean GWP results showed that tap water always has the best environmental performance, even in case of high energy-consuming technologies for drinking water treatments. The strength of the method is that it enables both performing a deep analysis of the LCA literature and obtaining more consistent comparisons across the published LCAs. For these reasons, it can be a valuable tool which provides useful information for both practitioners and decision makers. Finally, its application to the case study allowed both to supply a description of systems variability and to evaluate the importance of several key parameters for tap and bottled water production. The comparative review of LCA studies, with the inclusion of a statistical decision test, can validate and strengthen the final statements of the comparison.

  13. Geographic variation and plasticity to water and nutrients in Pelargonium australe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicotra, Adrienne B; Hermes, Jacob P; Jones, Cynthia S; Schlichting, Carl D

    2007-01-01

    Here, patterns of phenotypic plasticity and trait integration of leaf characteristics in six geographically discrete populations of the perennial herb Pelargonium australe were compared. It was hypothesized that populations would show local adaptation in trait means, but similar patterns of plasticity and trait integration. Further, it was questioned whether phenotypic plasticity was positively correlated with environmental heterogeneity and whether plasticity for water-use traits in particular was adaptive. Seedlings were grown in a glasshouse at six combinations of water and nutrient availability. Leaf anatomical, morphological and gas exchange traits were measured. High amounts of plasticity in leaf traits were found in response to changes in growth conditions and there was evidence of local adaptation among the populations. While there were significant correlations between plasticity and environmental heterogeneity, not all were positive. Notably, patterns of plasticity and trait integration varied significantly among populations. Despite that variation, some of the observed plasticity was adaptive: fitness was correlated with conservative water use when water was limiting. Pelargonium arrived in Australia approximately 5 million yr ago. It is concluded here that high amounts of plasticity, in some cases adaptive, and weak integration among traits may be key to the spread and success of this species.

  14. 桶装水智能配送系统的研究与实现%Research and Implementation of Bottled Water Smart Distribution System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨臣; 王庭有; 李世振

    2011-01-01

    桶装水智能配送系统是一种利用固定电话线将饮水机中水量不足的信号长距离、准确、及时地传到服务端的系统,设计包括饮水机中水量不足的信号采集,以单片机为中心的自动拨号系统以及服务端用户信息管理系统的建立,解决了用户打电话要水的繁琐和服务端送水不及时的问题.%Bottled water smart distribution system is make for drinking water shortage signals over long distances accurately, timely to reach the server system using fixed telephone lines. Design and establishment, including drinking water shortage signal acquisition, the chip-centric services, automatic dialing systems and end information management system, solve the complicated and untimely questions of calling water service and bottled water.

  15. Marine Plastic Pollution in Waters around Australia: Characteristics, Concentrations, and Pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Julia Reisser; Jeremy Shaw; Chris Wilcox; Britta Denise Hardesty; Maira Proietti; Michele Thums; Charitha Pattiaratchi

    2013-01-01

    Plastics represent the vast majority of human-made debris present in the oceans. However, their characteristics, accumulation zones, and transport pathways remain poorly assessed. We characterised and estimated the concentration of marine plastics in waters around Australia using surface net tows, and inferred their potential pathways using particle-tracking models and real drifter trajectories. The 839 marine plastics recorded were predominantly small fragments ("microplastics", median lengt...

  16. MODELING IN THE PROCESSES OF CHOICE OF THE COMPANY DELIVERING BOTTLED WATER BY THE CONSUMERS ON THE BACKGROUND OF REFLEXIVE MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Skitsko

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work the problem of high quality drinking water provision is described and analyzed. It is shown that a person may obtain such water by various ways one of which is bottled water delivery by specialized companies. The existence of numerous players on drinking water market stipulates the occurrence of the number of problems – in particular, the choice of the delivering water company by the consumer and fight of such companies for the consumer. The work proposes to apply a reflexive approach in order to influence the choice of the consumer, which allows the company to make him take the "right" decision. For solving the problem the classical and fuzzy model of reflexive management are described.

  17. Evaluation of direct 16S rDNA sequencing as a metagenomics-based approach to screening bacteria in bottled water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Trine; Skånseng, Beate; Hoorfar, Jeffrey; Löfström, Charlotta

    2013-09-01

    Deliberate or accidental contamination of food, feed, and water supplies poses a threat to human health worldwide. A rapid and sensitive detection technique that could replace the current labor-intensive and time-consuming culture-based methods is highly desirable. In addition to species-specific assays, such as PCR, there is a need for generic methods to screen for unknown pathogenic microorganisms in samples. This work presents a metagenomics-based direct-sequencing approach for detecting unknown microorganisms, using Bacillus cereus (as a model organism for B. anthracis) in bottled water as an example. Total DNA extraction and 16S rDNA gene sequencing were used in combination with principle component analysis and multicurve resolution to study detection level and possibility for identification. Results showed a detection level of 10(5) to 10(6) CFU/L. Using this method, it was possible to separate 2 B. cereus strains by the principal component plot, despite the close sequence resemblance. A linear correlation between the artificial contamination level and the relative amount of the Bacillus artificial contaminant in the metagenome was observed, and a relative amount value above 0.5 confirmed the presence of Bacillus. The analysis also revealed that background flora in the bottled water varied between the different water types that were included in the study. This method has the potential to be adapted to other biological matrices and bacterial pathogens for fast screening of unknown bacterial threats in outbreak situations.

  18. Screening of endocrine-disrupting phenols, herbicides, steroid estrogens, and estrogenicity in drinking water from the waterworks of 35 Italian cities and from PET-bottled mineral water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggioni, Silvia; Balaguer, Patrick; Chiozzotto, Claudia; Benfenati, Emilio

    2013-03-01

    We investigated contamination by endocrine-disrupting chemicals in drinking water from 35 major Italian cities and five popular Italian brands of bottled mineral water. The quality of Italian drinking water was assessed by combing chemical analysis with bioassay to quantify specific estrogenic contaminants and to characterize the actual biological effect of the mixture of chemicals present in drinking water including the contribution of not targeted compounds. The selected contaminants were natural and synthetic steroid estrogens, alkylphenols and bisphenol A, linuron, triazine herbicides, and their metabolites. A specific analytical method was developed based on solid phase extraction of 1 L of water and concentration to 100 μL for quantification by electrospray ionization liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, achieving quantification limits of 0.05-0.36 ng/L for herbicides and 0.64-7.70 ng/L for steroids and phenols. No steroid estrogens were detected in any of the samples, while bisphenol A and nonylphenols were detected in the ranges of 0.82-102.00 and 10.30-84.00 ng/L respectively. Herbicides and their degradation products, when present, were found from slightly above the quantification limits up to 49.91 ng/L, mainly from cities in northern Italy. Chemical analyses were complemented by the performance of a bioassay for the determination of the estrogenic activity in the extracts based on the transactivation of estrogen receptor α-transfected reporter HeLa-ERE-Luciferase-Neomycin cell line. Activity was generally low with maximum estrogenicity of 13.6 pg/L estradiol equivalents.

  19. Design, construction and testing of the CRALF bottle for discrete manual sub-aquatic water sampling; Diseno, contrucccion y prueba de la botella CRALF de muestreo puntual de agua para uso manual en entornos subacuaticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardo Juez, A.; Rodriguez Casals, C.

    2007-07-01

    Due to the absence in the market of an underwater sampling bottle, that can be handled safely and accurately by scuba divers, even in cold water conditions, we hereby present and describe the design of the discrete water sampling bottle CRALF. This is a sturdy and easy-to-operate bottle, even with the thick gloves necessary in cold water dives. Its simple but ingenious design allows its home-made making without using specialized tools, taking advantage of materials available in the general market. Three prototypes have been built and successfully tested in the cold water of the Pyrenes glacial lakes (ibones) of Banos and Sobocos between 20 degree centigree and 2 degree centigree and at depths between 6 m and 12 m. (Author) 18 refs.

  20. Leaching of the plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) from plastic containers and the question of human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erythropel, Hanno C; Maric, Milan; Nicell, Jim A; Leask, Richard L; Yargeau, Viviane

    2014-12-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) is a widely used plasticizer to render poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) soft and malleable. Plasticized PVC is used in hospital equipment, food wrapping, and numerous other commercial and industrial products. Unfortunately, plasticizers can migrate within the material and leach out of it over time, ending up in the environment and, frequently, the human body. DEHP has come under increased scrutiny as its breakdown products are believed to be endocrine disruptors and more toxic than DEHP itself. DEHP and its breakdown products have been identified as ubiquitous environmental contaminants, and daily human exposure is estimated to be in the microgram per kilogram level. The objective of this review is to summarize and comment on published sources of DEHP exposure and to give an overview of its environmental fate. Exposure through bottled water was examined specifically, as this concern is raised frequently, yet only little exposure to DEHP occurs through bottled water, and DEHP exposure is unlikely to stem from the packaging material itself. Packaged food was also examined and showed higher levels of DEHP contamination compared to bottled water. Exposure to DEHP also occurs in hospital environments, where DEHP leaches directly into liquids that passed through PVC/DEHP tubing and equipment. The latter exposure is at considerably higher levels compared to food and bottled water, specifically putting patients with chronic illnesses at risk. Overall, levels of DEHP in food and bottled water were below current tolerable daily intake (TDI) values. However, our understanding of the risks of DEHP exposure is still evolving. Given the prevalence of DEHP in our atmosphere and environment, and the uncertainty revolving around it, the precautionary principle would suggest its phaseout and replacement. Increased efforts to develop viable replacement compounds, which necessarily includes rigorous leaching, toxicity, and impact assessment studies, are

  1. Plastic fish

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    In terms of weight, the plastic pollution in the world’s oceans is estimated to be around 300,000 tonnes. This plastic comes from both land-based and ocean-based sources. A lecture at CERN by chemist Wolfgang Trettnak addressed this issue and highlighted the role of art in raising people’s awareness.   Artwork by Wolfgang Trettnak. Packaging materials, consumer goods (shoes, kids’ toys, etc.), leftovers from fishing and aquaculture activities… our oceans and beaches are full of plastic litter. Most of the debris from beaches is plastic bottles. “PET bottles have high durability and stability,” explains Wolfgang Trettnak, a chemist by education and artist from Austria, who gave a lecture on this topic organised by the Staff Association at CERN on 26 May. “PET degrades very slowly and the estimated lifetime of a bottle is 450 years.” In addition to the beach litter accumulated from human use, rivers bring several ki...

  2. Marine plastic pollution in waters around Australia: characteristics, concentrations, and pathways

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reisser, Julia; Shaw, Jeremy; Wilcox, Chris; Hardesty, Britta Denise; Proietti, Maira; Thums, Michele; Pattiaratchi, Charitha

    2013-01-01

    .... We characterised and estimated the concentration of marine plastics in waters around Australia using surface net tows, and inferred their potential pathways using particle-tracking models and real drifter trajectories...

  3. Marine Plastic Pollution in Waters around Australia: Characteristics, Concentrations, and Pathways: e80466

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Julia Reisser; Jeremy Shaw; Chris Wilcox; Britta Denise Hardesty; Maira Proietti; Michele Thums; Charitha Pattiaratchi

    2013-01-01

    .... We characterised and estimated the concentration of marine plastics in waters around Australia using surface net tows, and inferred their potential pathways using particle-tracking models and real drifter trajectories...

  4. Stopping the Bottle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is coming later. The next week, eliminate another bottle feeding and provide milk in a cup instead. Try to do this when your baby is sitting at the table in a high chair. Generally, the last bottle to stop should be the nighttime bottle. That ...

  5. Occurrence of Cryptosporidial Oocysts and Giardia Cysts in Bottled Mineral Water Commercialized in the City of Campinas, State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RMB Franco

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of bottled mineral water has significantly increased in Brazil so that it is in the interest of public health to determine the parasitological and microbiological status of some brands of Brazilian mineral water available in the town of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil. For this purpose, detection of protozoa by direct immunofluorescence technique and microbiological parameters were determined for each specimen after membrane filtration. Giardia cysts were not present while cryptosporidial oocysts were detected in two samples. The counts of protozoa varied from 0.2 to 0.5 oocysts/l. The detected level of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and heterotrophic bacteria reflected the level of organic enrichment of the water.

  6. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory; comparison of a nitric acid in-bottle digestion procedure to other whole-water digestion procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbarino, John R.; Hoffman, Gerald L.

    1999-01-01

    A hydrochloric acid in-bottle digestion procedure is used to partially digest wholewater samples prior to determining recoverable elements by various analytical methods. The use of hydrochloric acid is problematic for some methods of analysis because of spectral interference. The inbottle digestion procedure has been modified to eliminate such interference by using nitric acid instead of hydrochloric acid in the digestion. Implications of this modification are evaluated by comparing results for a series of synthetic whole-water samples. Results are also compared with those obtained by using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1994) (USEPA) Method 200.2 total-recoverable digestion procedure. Percentage yields that use the nitric acid inbottle digestion procedure are within 10 percent of the hydrochloric acid in-bottle yields for 25 of the 26 elements determined in two of the three synthetic whole-water samples tested. Differences in percentage yields for the third synthetic whole-water sample were greater than 10 percent for 16 of the 26 elements determined. The USEPA method was the most rigorous for solubilizing elements from particulate matter in all three synthetic whole-water samples. Nevertheless, the variability in the percentage yield by using the USEPA digestion procedure was generally greater than the in-bottle digestion procedure, presumably because of the difficulty in controlling the digestion conditions accurately.

  7. Characterization of aqueous alcohol solutions in bottles with THz reflection spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Peter Uhd; Jensen, Jens K.; Møller, Uffe

    2008-01-01

    be classified as either harmless or inflammable. The method operates in reflection mode with the result that liquids opaque to THz radiation can be characterized with little influence of the bottle shape. The method works with plastic bottles as well as glass bottles, with absorption of THz radiation...... by the plastic or the glass being the limiting factor. The reflection mode allows for automatic control of the validity of the measurement. The method will be useful in liquid scanning systems at security checkpoints....

  8. The Dynamic Density Bottle: A Make-and-Take, Guided Inquiry Activity on Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntzleman, Thomas S.

    2015-01-01

    An activity is described wherein students observe dynamic floating and sinking behavior of plastic pieces in various liquids. The liquids and solids are all contained within a plastic bottle; the entire assembly is called a "density bottle". After completing a series of experiments that guides students to think about the relative…

  9. The Dynamic Density Bottle: A Make-and-Take, Guided Inquiry Activity on Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntzleman, Thomas S.

    2015-01-01

    An activity is described wherein students observe dynamic floating and sinking behavior of plastic pieces in various liquids. The liquids and solids are all contained within a plastic bottle; the entire assembly is called a "density bottle". After completing a series of experiments that guides students to think about the relative…

  10. Heterotrimeric G proteins regulate reproductive trait plasticity in response to water availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilson, Sarah E; Assmann, Sarah M

    2010-02-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is the ability of one genotype to display different phenotypes under different environmental conditions. Although variation for phenotypic plasticity has been documented in numerous species, little is known about the genetic mechanisms underlying phenotypic plasticity. Given their widespread roles in hormonal and environmental signaling, we examined whether genes which encode heterotrimeric G proteins are plasticity genes. We grew multiple alleles of heterotrimeric G-protein mutants, together with wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana, under different watering regimes to determine the contributions of G-protein genes to phenotypic plasticity for a number of developmental and reproduction-related traits. G-protein mutations did not affect significantly the amount of phenotypic variation within an environment for any trait, but did affect significantly the amount of phenotypic plasticity for certain traits. AGB1, which encodes the beta subunit of the heterotrimeric G protein in Arabidopsis, is a plasticity gene and regulates reproductive trait plasticity in response to water availability, resulting in increased fitness (defined as seed production) under drought stress.

  11. Superficial View on the Development of Bottled Water Market at Home and Abroad%浅谈国内外瓶装水市场发展情况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓秀琼; 梁洁红; 程朝阳

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the status of the bottled water market, the main brand and the product packing in American, Italy, Japan and China were introduced, the development characters of bottled water were also introduced.%介绍了美国、意大利、日本及中国瓶装水市场情况,主要品牌及产品包装的情况,还介绍了瓶装水产品发展的特点。

  12. Tensile properties and water absorption of zein sheets plasticized with oleic and linoleic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budi Santosa, F X; Padua, G W

    1999-05-01

    Corn zein has been investigated for fabrication of biodegradable packaging materials. Our objective was to investigate the effect of added plasticizers, oleic and linoleic acids, on tensile properties and water absorption of zein sheets. Moldable resins were precipitated from aqueous ethanol dispersions of zein and fatty acids and rolled into sheets of approximately 0.5 mm in thickness. To increase plasticization effects, zein-oleic acid sheets were replasticized by heating them in fatty acid baths. Plasticization resulted in flexible sheets of high clarity, low modulus, and high elongation and toughness, although low tensile strength. Water absorption of zein sheets was lowered by plasticization, attributed in part to reduced mass fraction of zein. Polymerization of linoleic acid may have sealed off pores on sheet surfaces, thus slowing water absorption.

  13. Effect of carbonated beverages, coffee, sports and high energy drinks, and bottled water on the in vitro erosion characteristics of dental enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchens, Michael; Owens, Barry M

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of carbonated and non-carbonated beverages, bottled and tap water, on the erosive potential of dental enamel with and without fluoride varnish protection. Beverages used in this study included: Coca Cola Classic, Diet Coke, Gatorade sports drink, Red Bull high-energy drink, Starbucks Frappuccino coffee drink, Dasani water (bottled), and tap water (control). Enamel surfaces were coated with Cavity Shield 5% sodium fluoride treatment varnish. Twenty-eight previously extracted human posterior teeth free of hypocalcification and caries were used in this study. The coronal portion of each tooth was removed and then sectioned transverse from the buccal to lingual surface using a diamond coated saw blade. The crown sections were embedded in acrylic resin blocks leaving the enamel surfaces exposed. The enamel surfaces were polished using 600 to 2000 grit abrasive paper and diamond paste. Test specimens were randomly distributed to seven beverage groups and comprised 4 specimens per group. Two specimens per beverage group were treated with a fluoride varnish while 2 specimens did not receive fluoride coating. Surface roughness (profilometer) readings were performed at baseline (prior to fluoride treatment and immersion in the beverage) and again, following immersion for 14 days (24 hours/day). The test beverages were changed daily and the enamel specimens were immersed at 37 degrees C. Surface roughness data was evaluated using multiple factor ANOVA at a significance level of pStarBucks coffee, Dasani water, and tap water. Fluoride varnish was not a significant impact factor; however, beverage (type) and exposure time were significant impact variables. Both carbonated and non-carbonated beverages displayed a significant erosive effect on dental enamel; however, fluoride varnish treatments did not demonstrate a significant protective influence on enamel surfaces.

  14. Ramón y Cajal as an Analytical Chemist of Bottled Water? Use (and Misuse of the Great Savant’s Repute by the Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazaros C. Triarhou

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The name of the eminent neurohistologist Santiago Ramón y Cajal (1852-1934 was occasionally mentioned in commercial labels by the Spanish industry advertising mineral waters from natural spring sources and their medical benefits. Concomitantly with his landmark neuroanatomical research, Cajal had served as director of the Alfonso XIII National Institute of Hygiene. In that capacity, his name had to be included in certificates as a mere bureaucratic formality. Cajal had an early interest in bacteriology, and introduced a pioneering chemical vaccine against cholera during the 1885 epidemic in Spain. However, in a letter to the Madrid press, he vehemently denied any involvement with actual chemical analyses or commercial promotion of products such as bottled water, medicinal wines, disinfectants, and even toothpaste. In this episode, we realize that Cajal’s view was absolutely contrary to the impression one might have gathered on the basis of the commercial documents alone.

  15. Dramatic enhancement of solar disinfection (SODIS) of wild Salmonella sp. in PET bottles by H2O2 addition on natural water of Burkina Faso containing dissolved iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciacca, Frédéric; Rengifo-Herrera, Juliàn A; Wéthé, Joseph; Pulgarin, César

    2010-02-01

    Disinfection of surface water containing dissolved iron (0.3 mg L(-1)) at natural neutral pH ( approximately 7.5) was carried out via solar disinfection (SODIS) treatment in PET bottles with H(2)O(2) (10 mg L(-1)). Wild coliforms and Salmonella sp. were monitored for 6 h of sunlight irradiation and 72 h of dark post-treatment period. In our conditions, SODIS treatment could not avoid Salmonella sp. re-growth during dark storage, meanwhile the addition of 10 mg L(-1) of H(2)O(2) showed a strong enhancement of the inactivation rate without any re-growth of both bacteria. Finally, total coliforms (Escherichia coli included) demonstrated to be an inappropriate indicator for monitoring bacterial contamination in water during solar disinfection processes.

  16. DISCARD OF THE PLASTIC BOTTLES AND DETERMINATION OF AUTOMOTIVE LUBRICANT OIL RESIDUES IN RIO CLARO-SP = DESCARTE DE EMBALAGENS E QUANTIFICAÇÃO DO VOLUME DE ÓLEO LUBRIFICANTE RESIDUAL NO MUNICÍPIO DE RIO CLARO-SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edério Dino Bidóia

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Concerns about environment conservation have grown in recent years, mainly in industrialized countries, due to growing awareness in these societies regarding the importance of environment quality as the basis for the preservation of future generations. Thus, rather than viewing the environment as a good to be consumed by the productive sector, it is seen as world heritage of humanity. Although lubricant oil represents a small percentage of the waste generated by humans, its impact is very great. One ton of lubricant oil dumped into water systems is equivalent to the pollution caused by 40,000 inhabitants. Thus, only one liter of oil is able to consume the oxygen of a million liters of water, forming, in few days, a fine layer on the surface of 1000 m2 which blocks the passage of air and light for the aquatic organisms. In this context, a study was carried out to collect empty plastic automotive lubricant oil bottles at various gasoline stations in Rio Claro-SP to verify the final destination and determine the volume of lubricant remaining in the bottles. = As preocupações com a conservação do meio ambiente têm crescido nos últimos anos, principalmente em países industrializados, devido à consciência que tem sido construída nessas sociedades sobre a importância da qualidade ambiental como base para a preservação da vida das futuras gerações. A sua carga poluidora é equivalente a 40.000 habitantes por tonelada de óleo despejada em corpos d’água. Apenas um litro de óleo é capaz de esgotar o oxigênio de um milhão de litros de água, formando, em poucos dias, uma fina camada sobre a superfície de 1.000 m2, o que bloqueia a passagem de ar e luz, impedindo a respiração e a fotossíntese. Neste contexto, foi realizada uma pesquisa nos centros de lubrificação e postos de combustíveis do município de Rio Claro-SP para verificar o destino final das embalagens já utilizadas, teoricamente vazias, e também houve coleta destas

  17. Analysis of the Design Beauty of Evian Bottled Water Packaging%探析依云瓶装水包装的设计之美

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈莹燕

    2012-01-01

    对依云瓶装水的包装设计历程进行了梳理,分析了依云打造品牌的包装策略。在此基础上通过对依云限量版纪念瓶设计的分析和探讨,提出了依云打造品牌包装设计的关键点:坚持品牌策略指导下的包装设计理念,以创意为桥,架设品牌与艺术、时尚之间的联系,建立专属于自己的品牌个性;坚持包装人性化设计的理念。%It summarized the packaging design process of Evian bottled water and analyzed the packaging strategy of Evian brand. Based on these, it gave analysis and discussion about the limited edition commemorative bottles of Evian design, proposed the key points of Evian brand packaging design: one is to adhere to the brand strategy under the guidance of packaging design, make originality as the bridge, set up link between brand, art and fashion, establish own brand personality; two is to insist on the concept of human design packaging.

  18. Processamento e avaliação de estabilidade de bebida isotônica em garrafa plástica Processing and stability evaluation of isotonic drink in plastic bottle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Rodrigues Petrus

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Processou-se uma mistura isotônica com pH 3,4; objetivando-se a produção de uma bebida microbiologicamente estável, prescindindo de refrigeração. A bebida isotônica foi pasteurizada a 85°C/5s em trocador de calor a placas e acondicionada em garrafas de polietileno tereftalato (PET sanificadas por aspersão com solução de ácido peracético 0,3% durante 5s, a 30°C. Foram processados 1 lote com 50mg/L de sorbato de potássio, 1 lote com 100mg/L e 1 lote sem sorbato. Os 3 lotes foram mantidos a 25°C durante 26 semanas, sendo realizadas determinações de pH, sólidos solúveis, acidez total titulável, ácido ascórbico, testes de aceitação sensorial e contagens de microrganismos mesófilos aeróbios totais, bolores e leveduras durante a estocagem. Verificou-se diferença significativa (pThe objective of this work was to obtain an isotonic drink by using pasteurization and packing into aseptic bottles, stable at room temperature, without the addition of chemical preservatives. For the sanitation of the plastic bottles some sanitizers were tested, based on their efficiency to destroy microorganism, maintaining minimum residual hydrogen peroxide, and keeping the drink sensory quality. The isotonic drink (pH 3,40 was thermaly processed in a plate pasteurizer at 85ºC/5s and packed into PET bottles sanitized by spraying peracetic acid at 0.3%/5s at 30ºC. The processed drink contained three different concentrations of potassium sorbate (control, 50 and 100mg/L. The stability of the products were evaluated at 25ºC for 26 weeks by measuring the pH, soluble solids, titrable acidity, ascorbic acid, microbial count, and sensory tests. The sensory evaluation and the count of the total mesophilic aerobic bacteria, moulds and yeast were measured during storage. There was no difference (p<0,05 for the pH, soluble solids and acidity of the processed drinks during the storage period except for the ascorbic acid which reduced to about 30% of the

  19. Plastic compression technology and mold design of HDPE closures for beverage bottles%低磨损HDPE饮料瓶盖压塑成型模具设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗达; 梁文杰

    2013-01-01

    针对传统饮料瓶盖压塑成型模具中存在的内衬套与螺纹型芯采用滑动摩擦结构,摩擦表面容易拉毛、卡死,模具容易磨损等问题,将磨损小、运动阻力小的滚动摩擦技术应用到压塑成型模具中,开展了能否在内衬套与螺纹型芯之间加入一个滚动部件代替原来滑动摩擦的分析,建立了滑动摩擦、滚动摩擦与磨损速度之间的关系,提出了在内衬套与螺纹型芯之间加入一个钢球保持圈,将原来的滑动摩擦改为滚动摩擦的方法,以达到减少磨损、提高模具寿命的目的.在提高模具寿命、瓶盖质量上,对模具的结构、制造技术、经济效益等方面进行了评价.开展了新结构压塑成型模具的设计、制造工作,并在原制盖机上进行了长期试验.研究结果表明,该模具磨损非常小,瓶盖质量比以前更好;且与传统的压塑成型模具相比寿命可提高1倍以上.%Aiming that the sliding friction structure in the inner lining sleeve and the screw thread core of the traditional beverage bottle cap pressing forming mould caused the friction surfaces to nap,blocking,easy wear etc., the rolling friction technology with wear small, small movement resistance was applied to the compression molding mould. Whether a rolling member was inserted between the inner bushing and the screw thread core in place of the original sliding friction was discussed.The relationship between the sliding friction, rolling friction and the wear speed was established, a ball retainer ring was added between the inner bushing and the screw thread core. The original sliding friction was changed into the rolling friction, thereby reducing wear and improving the life of the mould. The mould structure, manufacturing technology, economic benefits etc. were evaluated on the mould life and the cap quality. New structure of compression molding mold was designed and manufactured, and the long term test was developed on the original

  20. Near-infrared spectroscopy for monitoring water permeability of optical coatings on plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, U; Kaiser, N

    1997-02-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy has been applied to determine the water content of plastic lenses. An analytical method is presented for monitoring the water permeability of thin layers on plastic optics by utilizing the reversible moisture absorption of organic polymers. As an example, scratch-resistant and antireflective layers on poly[diethylenglycol-bis(allylcarbonate)] lenses are investigated. The measurements demonstrate the relatively high water barrier of coatings deposited by plasma-ion-assisted deposition compared with classical physical vapor deposition coatings and polysiloxane dip coatings.

  1. Evaluating four measures of water quality in clay pots and plastic safe storage containers in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Jennifer L; Ayers, Tracy L; Knee, Jacqueline; Oremo, Jared; Odhiambo, Aloyce; Faith, Sitnah H; Nyagol, Ronald O; Stauber, Christine E; Lantagne, Daniele S; Quick, Robert E

    2016-11-01

    Household water treatment with chlorine can improve microbiological quality and reduce diarrhea. Chlorination is typically assessed using free chlorine residual (FCR), with a lower acceptable limit of 0.2 mg/L, however, accurate measurement of FCR is challenging with turbid water. To compare potential measures of adherence to treatment and water quality, we chlorinated recently-collected water in rural Kenyan households and measured total chlorine residual (TCR), FCR, oxidation reduction potential (ORP), and E. coli concentration over 72 h in clay and plastic containers. Results showed that 1) ORP served as a useful proxy for chlorination in plastic containers up to 24 h; 2) most stored water samples disinfected by chlorination remained significantly less contaminated than source water for up to 72 h, even in the absence of FCR; 3) TCR may be a useful proxy indicator of microbiologic water quality because it confirms previous chlorination and is associated with a lower risk of E. coli contamination compared to untreated source water; and 4) chlorination is more effective in plastic than clay containers presumably because of lower chlorine demand in plastic. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Water maze learning and hippocampal synaptic plasticity in streptozotocin diabetic rats: effects of insulin treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Biessels, G.J.; Kamal, A.; Urban, I.J.A.; Spruijt, B.M.; Erkelens, D.W.

    1998-01-01

    Streptozotocin-diabetic rats express deficits in water maze learning and hippocampal synaptic plasticity. The present study examined whether these deficits could be prevented and/or reversed with insulin treatment. In addition, the water maze learning deficit in diabetic rats was further characteriz

  3. Determination of Cd,Cu,Pb,Fe,Zn in Bottled Drinking Water through Atomic Absorption Spectrometry Method%原子吸收光谱法对瓶装饮用水中Cd、Cu、Pb、Fe、Zn的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李帅; 沈祥森; 李勇

    2011-01-01

    10 different brands of commercial bottled drinking water for the experimental materials,using graphite furnace atomic absorption and flame atomic absorption spectrometry,the bottled water Cd、Cu、Pb、Fe、Zn five heavy metals were determined to understand the different brand bottled drinking water content of the five heavy metals.The results showed that:The whole bottled water content of the five heavy metals Cd、Cu、Pb、Fe、Zn are up to national standard requirements.%以10种不同品牌的市售瓶装饮用水为研究对象,运用石墨炉原子吸收法和火焰原子吸收法对其Cd、Cu、Pb、Fe、Zn5种重金属元素的含量进行分析,以了解不同品牌的瓶装饮用水中重金属元素的含量情况。研究结果表明:10种市售瓶装饮用水中的Cd、Cu、Pb、Fe、Zn 5种重金属含量均达到国标要求。

  4. Solar Water Heating with Low-Cost Plastic Systems (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-01-01

    Newly developed solar water heating technology can help Federal agencies cost effectively meet the EISA requirements for solar water heating in new construction and major renovations. This document provides design considerations, application, economics, and maintenance information and resources.

  5. Marine plastic pollution in waters around Australia: characteristics, concentrations, and pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisser, Julia; Shaw, Jeremy; Wilcox, Chris; Hardesty, Britta Denise; Proietti, Maira; Thums, Michele; Pattiaratchi, Charitha

    2013-01-01

    Plastics represent the vast majority of human-made debris present in the oceans. However, their characteristics, accumulation zones, and transport pathways remain poorly assessed. We characterised and estimated the concentration of marine plastics in waters around Australia using surface net tows, and inferred their potential pathways using particle-tracking models and real drifter trajectories. The 839 marine plastics recorded were predominantly small fragments ("microplastics", median length = 2.8 mm, mean length = 4.9 mm) resulting from the breakdown of larger objects made of polyethylene and polypropylene (e.g. packaging and fishing items). Mean sea surface plastic concentration was 4256.4 pieces km(-2), and after incorporating the effect of vertical wind mixing, this value increased to 8966.3 pieces km(-2). These plastics appear to be associated with a wide range of ocean currents that connect the sampled sites to their international and domestic sources, including populated areas of Australia's east coast. This study shows that plastic contamination levels in surface waters of Australia are similar to those in the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Maine, but considerably lower than those found in the subtropical gyres and Mediterranean Sea. Microplastics such as the ones described here have the potential to affect organisms ranging from megafauna to small fish and zooplankton.

  6. Marine plastic pollution in waters around Australia: characteristics, concentrations, and pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Reisser

    Full Text Available Plastics represent the vast majority of human-made debris present in the oceans. However, their characteristics, accumulation zones, and transport pathways remain poorly assessed. We characterised and estimated the concentration of marine plastics in waters around Australia using surface net tows, and inferred their potential pathways using particle-tracking models and real drifter trajectories. The 839 marine plastics recorded were predominantly small fragments ("microplastics", median length = 2.8 mm, mean length = 4.9 mm resulting from the breakdown of larger objects made of polyethylene and polypropylene (e.g. packaging and fishing items. Mean sea surface plastic concentration was 4256.4 pieces km(-2, and after incorporating the effect of vertical wind mixing, this value increased to 8966.3 pieces km(-2. These plastics appear to be associated with a wide range of ocean currents that connect the sampled sites to their international and domestic sources, including populated areas of Australia's east coast. This study shows that plastic contamination levels in surface waters of Australia are similar to those in the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Maine, but considerably lower than those found in the subtropical gyres and Mediterranean Sea. Microplastics such as the ones described here have the potential to affect organisms ranging from megafauna to small fish and zooplankton.

  7. Marine Plastic Pollution in Waters around Australia: Characteristics, Concentrations, and Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisser, Julia; Shaw, Jeremy; Wilcox, Chris; Hardesty, Britta Denise; Proietti, Maira; Thums, Michele; Pattiaratchi, Charitha

    2013-01-01

    Plastics represent the vast majority of human-made debris present in the oceans. However, their characteristics, accumulation zones, and transport pathways remain poorly assessed. We characterised and estimated the concentration of marine plastics in waters around Australia using surface net tows, and inferred their potential pathways using particle-tracking models and real drifter trajectories. The 839 marine plastics recorded were predominantly small fragments (“microplastics”, median length = 2.8 mm, mean length = 4.9 mm) resulting from the breakdown of larger objects made of polyethylene and polypropylene (e.g. packaging and fishing items). Mean sea surface plastic concentration was 4256.4 pieces km−2, and after incorporating the effect of vertical wind mixing, this value increased to 8966.3 pieces km−2. These plastics appear to be associated with a wide range of ocean currents that connect the sampled sites to their international and domestic sources, including populated areas of Australia's east coast. This study shows that plastic contamination levels in surface waters of Australia are similar to those in the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Maine, but considerably lower than those found in the subtropical gyres and Mediterranean Sea. Microplastics such as the ones described here have the potential to affect organisms ranging from megafauna to small fish and zooplankton. PMID:24312224

  8. Influence of bottle-feeding on serum bisphenol a levels in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhie, Young-Jun; Nam, Hyo-Kyoung; Oh, Yeon Joung; Kim, Ho-Seong; Lee, Kee-Hyoung

    2014-02-01

    Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), particularly during developmental periods, gives rise to a variety of adverse health outcomes. Bisphenol A (BPA) is a well-known EDC commonly found in plastic products including food and water containers, baby bottles, and metal can linings. This study investigates infant exposure to BPA and the effect of bottle-feeding on serum BPA levels in infants. Serum BPA levels in normal healthy infants 6 to 15 months of age (n=60) were evaluated by a competitive ELISA. BPA was detected in every study sample. Serum BPA levels of bottle-fed infants (n=30) were significantly higher than those of breast-fed infants (n=30) (96.58±102.36 vs 45.53±34.05 pg/mL, P=0.014). There were no significant differences in serum BPA levels between boys (n=31) and girls (n=29). No significant correlations were found between serum BPA levels and age, body weight, birth weight, and gestational age. Bottle-feeding seems to increase the risk of infant exposure to BPA. Establishment of health policies to reduce or prevent BPA exposure in infants is necessary.

  9. Serious eye injuries caused by bottles containing carbonated drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, F; Mester, V; Morris, R; Dalma, J

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To analyse serious eye injuries caused by bottles containing pressurised drinks. Methods: Retrospective review of the databases of US, Hungarian, and Mexican eye injury registries. Results: In the combined database (12 889 injuries), 90 cases (0.7%) were caused by bottle tops or glass splinters. The incidence varied widely: 0.3% (United States), 3.1% (Hungary), and 0.9% (Mexico), as did the agent. Champagne bottle corks were responsible in 20% (United States), 71% (Hungary; p<0.0001), and 0% (Mexico). Most eyes improved, but 26% remained legally blind. Conclusions: The presence of warning labels on champagne bottles appears to reduce cork related eye injuries, as does using plastic bottles and caps. PMID:14693777

  10. Microbial hitchhikers on marine plastic debris: Human exposure risks at bathing waters and beach environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keswani, Anisha; Oliver, David M; Gutierrez, Tony; Quilliam, Richard S

    2016-07-01

    Marine plastic debris is well characterized in terms of its ability to negatively impact terrestrial and marine environments, endanger coastal wildlife, and interfere with navigation, tourism and commercial fisheries. However, the impacts of potentially harmful microorganisms and pathogens colonising plastic litter are not well understood. The hard surface of plastics provides an ideal environment for opportunistic microbial colonisers to form biofilms and might offer a protective niche capable of supporting a diversity of different microorganisms, known as the "Plastisphere". This biotope could act as an important vector for the persistence and spread of pathogens, faecal indicator organisms (FIOs) and harmful algal bloom species (HABs) across beach and bathing environments. This review will focus on the existent knowledge and research gaps, and identify the possible consequences of plastic-associated microbes on human health, the spread of infectious diseases and bathing water quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Estimation of packaged water consumption and associated plastic waste production from household budget surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardrop, Nicola A.; Dzodzomenyo, Mawuli; Aryeetey, Genevieve; Hill, Allan G.; Bain, Robert E. S.; Wright, Jim

    2017-08-01

    Packaged water consumption is growing in low- and middle-income countries, but the magnitude of this phenomenon and its environmental consequences remain unclear. This study aims to quantify both the volumes of packaged water consumed relative to household water requirements and associated plastic waste generated for three West African case study countries. Data from household expenditure surveys for Ghana, Nigeria and Liberia were used to estimate the volumes of packaged water consumed and thereby quantify plastic waste generated in households with and without solid waste disposal facilities. In Ghana, Nigeria and Liberia respectively, 11.3 (95% confidence interval: 10.3-12.4), 10.1 (7.5-12.5), and 0.38 (0.31-0.45) Ml day-1 of sachet water were consumed. This generated over 28 000 tonnes yr-1 of plastic waste, of which 20%, 63% and 57% was among households lacking formal waste disposal facilities in Ghana, Nigeria and Liberia respectively. Reported packaged water consumption provided sufficient water to meet daily household drinking-water requirements for 8.4%, less than 1% and 1.6% of households in Ghana, Nigeria and Liberia respectively. These findings quantify packaged water’s contribution to household water needs in our study countries, particularly Ghana, but indicate significant subsequent environmental repercussions.

  12. Determination of Haloacetic Acids in Bottled and Tap Water Sources by Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction and GC-MS Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen A. Al-shatri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Haloacetic acids are toxic organic pollutants that can be formed as by-products of disinfection of water by chlorination. In this study, we developed a fast and efficient method for the determination of six species of these compounds in water using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by GC-MS analysis. To be suitable for GC analysis, the acidic analytes were derivatized using n-octanol. One-factor-at-a-time optimization was carried out on several factors including temperature, extraction time, amount of catalyst, and dispersive solvent. The optimized conditions were then used to determine calibration parameters. Linearity, as demonstrated by coefficient of determination, ranged between 0.9900 and 0.9966 for the concentration range of 0.05–0.57 µg/L. The proposed method has good repeatability; intraday precision was calculated as %RSD of 2.38–9.34%, while interday precision was 4.69–8.06%. The method was applied to real samples in bottled water and tap water sources. Results indicated that the total concentrations of the analytes in these sources (2.97–5.30 µg/L were far below the maximum contaminant levels set by both the World Health Organization and the United States Environmental Protection Agency. The proposed method compared favorably with methods reported in the literature.

  13. Mitigation of blast loadings on structures by an anti-blast plastic water wall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张力; 陈力; 方秦; 张亚栋

    2016-01-01

    Seven in-situ tests were carried out in far field to study the blast mitigation effect of a kind of water filled plastic wall. Test results show that the mitigation effect of water filled plastic wall is remarkable. The maximum reduction of peak reflected overpressure reaches up to 94.53%, as well as 36.3% of the minimum peak reflected overpressure reduction in the scaled distance ranging from 1.71 m/kg1/3 to 3.42 m/kg1/3. Parametric studies were also carried out. The effects of the scaled gauge height, water/charge scaled distance (the distance between the explosive charge and the water wall), water wall scaled height and water/structure scaled distance (the distance between the water wall and the structure) were systematically investigated and compared with the usual rigid anti-blast wall. It is concluded that these parameters affect the mitigation effects of plastic water wall on blast loadings significantly, which is basically consistent to the trend of usual rigid anti-blast wall. Some formulae are also derived based on the numerical and test results, providing a simple but reliable prediction model to evaluate the peak overpressure of mitigated blast loadings on the structures.

  14. Theoretical and experimental characterization of novel water-equivalent plastics in clinical high-energy carbon-ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, A.; Wellock, N.; Thomas, R.; Homer, M.; Bouchard, H.; Kanai, T.; MacDougall, N.; Royle, G.; Palmans, H.

    2016-11-01

    Water-equivalent plastics are frequently used in dosimetry for experimental simplicity. This work evaluates the water-equivalence of novel water-equivalent plastics specifically designed for light-ion beams, as well as commercially available plastics in a clinical high-energy carbon-ion beam. A plastic- to-water conversion factor {{H}\\text{pl,w}} was established to derive absorbed dose to water in a water phantom from ionization chamber readings performed in a plastic phantom. Three trial plastic materials with varying atomic compositions were produced and experimentally characterized in a high-energy carbon-ion beam. Measurements were performed with a Roos ionization chamber, using a broad un-modulated beam of 11  ×  11 cm2, to measure the plastic-to-water conversion factor for the novel materials. The experimental results were compared with Monte Carlo simulations. Commercially available plastics were also simulated for comparison with the plastics tested experimentally, with particular attention to the influence of nuclear interaction cross sections. The measured H\\text{pl,w}\\exp correction increased gradually from 0% at the surface to 0.7% at a depth near the Bragg peak for one of the plastics prepared in this work, while for the other two plastics a maximum correction of 0.8%-1.3% was found. Average differences between experimental and numerical simulations were 0.2%. Monte Carlo results showed that for polyethylene, polystyrene, Rando phantom soft tissue and A-150, the correction increased from 0% to 2.5%-4.0% with depth, while for PMMA it increased to 2%. Water-equivalent plastics such as, Plastic Water, RMI-457, Gammex 457-CTG, WT1 and Virtual Water, gave similar results where maximum corrections were of the order of 2%. Considering the results from Monte Carlo simulations, one of the novel plastics was found to be superior in comparison with the plastic materials currently used in dosimetry, demonstrating that it is feasible to tailor plastic

  15. Study on Volatile Organic Compounds in Some Bottled Water for Drinking Produced in China%我国部分商品瓶装饮用水中挥发性有机物的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖贤明; 王新明; 刘祖发; 傅家谟

    2001-01-01

    By using a system combining Tekmar 3000 purge and trapconcentrator with HP 5972 GC/MSD,with reference to the US EPA standard test methods,a quantitative analysis on volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in some bottled waters for drinking produced in China was made.The results showed that all of these bottled waters contain a minor amount of VOCs,mostly in the range of 1.0~8.0 μg/L,including halogenated hydrocarbons and BTEX which are carcinogenic and mutagenic chemicals.It was noted that the VOCs in these bottled waters are obviously higher than that in two types of well-known bottled water from France although they are much lower than Chinese national standard of bottled water for drinking.The VOCs in the bottled waters are mainly related to the techniques and their combination to be used to purify the waters,and can be removed by improving these techniques.%应用Tekmar3000吹扫捕集-气相色谱质谱组合分析仪,参照USEPA的标准分析方法,对我国某些商品瓶装饮用水中挥发性有机物进行了定量分析,结果表明,其含量一般在1~8μg/L,其中普遍含有具三致潜力的卤代烃与苯系物。虽然这些毒理性指标均可达到我国瓶装饮用纯净水卫生标准,但与国外优质瓶装饮用水相比,存在明显的差距。瓶装饮用水中挥发性有机物主要与深度处理技术和组合工艺有关,可通过改进这些技术而得以有效控制。

  16. Solar Water Heating with Low-Cost Plastic Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-01-01

    Federal buildings consumed over 392,000 billion Btu of site delivered energy for buildings during FY 2007 at a total cost of $6.5 billion. Earlier data indicate that about 10% of this is used to heat water.[2] Targeting energy consumption in Federal buildings, the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) requires new Federal buildings and major renovations to meet 30% of their hot water demand with solar energy, provided it is cost-effective over the life of the system. In October 2009, President Obama expanded the energy reduction and performance requirements of EISA and its subsequent regulations with his Executive Order 13514.

  17. WATER RESISTANCE OF WOOD - PLASTIC COMPOSITES MADE FROM WASTE MATERIALS RESULTED IN THE FURNITURE MANUFACTURING PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    Camelia COŞEREANU; Dumitru LICA; Ioan CURTU; Mariana-Domnica STANCIU

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present innovative wood-plastic composites made from waste materials such as ABS (acrylonitrile butadiene styrene) and wood shavings resulted in the furniture manufacturing process. From previous investigations (with regard to physical integrity and compactness of the panels), only mixtures ranging from a ratio of 100% ABS: 0% shavings to 80% ABS: 20% shavings were selected for water resistance testing. Swelling in thickness and water absorption for...

  18. The real water consumption behind drinking water: the case of Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niccolucci, V; Botto, S; Rugani, B; Nicolardi, V; Bastianoni, S; Gaggi, C

    2011-10-01

    The real amount of drinking water available per capita is a topic of great interest for human health and the economic and political management of resources. The global market of bottled drinking water, for instance, has shown exponential growth in the last twenty years, mainly due to reductions in production costs and investment in promotion. This paper aims to evaluate how much freshwater is actually consumed when water is drunk in Italy, which can be considered a mature bottled-water market. A Water Footprint (WF) calculation was used to compare the alternatives: bottled and tap water. Six Italian brands of water sold in PET bottles were inventoried, analysed and compared with the public tap water of the city of Siena, as representative of the Italian context. Results showed that more than 3 L of water were needed to provide consumers with 1.50 L of drinking water. In particular, a volume of 1.50 L of PET-bottled water required an extra virtual volume of 1.93 L of water while an extra 2.13 L was necessary to supply the same volume of tap water. These values had very different composition and origin. The WF of tap water was mainly due to losses of water during pipeline distribution and usage, while WF of bottled water was greatly influenced by the production of plastic materials. When the contribution of cooling water was added to the calculation, the WF of bottled water rose from 3.43 to 6.92 L. Different strategies to reduce total water footprint are discussed.

  19. Stress-strain response of plastic waste mixed soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, G L Sivakumar; Chouksey, Sandeep Kumar

    2011-03-01

    Recycling plastic waste from water bottles has become one of the major challenges worldwide. The present study provides an approach for the use plastic waste as reinforcement material in soil. The experimental results in the form of stress-strain-pore water pressure response are presented. Based on experimental test results, it is observed that the strength of soil is improved and compressibility reduced significantly with addition of a small percentage of plastic waste to the soil. The use of the improvement in strength and compressibility response due to inclusion of plastic waste can be advantageously used in bearing capacity improvement and settlement reduction in the design of shallow foundations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Isolamento de amebas de vida livre a partir de água mineral engarrafada Isolation of free-living amoebae from bottled mineral water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homero Coutinho Salazar

    1982-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram isoladas amebas dos gêneros Vahlkampfia, Glaeseria, Acanthamoeba, Filamoeba, Amoeba, Platyamoeba e Hartmanella de dez diferentes marcas de água mineral engarrafadas, servidas no Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brasil. Somente uma das marcas foi negativa para protozoários, enquanto que de todas as outras foram isoladas amebas de vida livre. O significado desses resultados é discutido como um indicador de qualidade da água mineral usada comercialmente, destacando-se o fato de que alguns desses microorganismos são potencialmente patogênicos.Amoebae of the genera Vahlkampfia, Glaeseria, Acanthamoeba, Filamoeba, Amoeba, Platyamoeba and Hartmanella were isolated from ten different brands of bottled mineral water used in Rio de Janeiro. Of these brands, only one was negative after an incubation period of twenty days, while the others were all positive for free living amoebae. The results are discussed as an indicator of the quality of commercially used mineral water and it is stressed that some of these microorganisms are potentially pathogenic.

  1. Separation and determination of copper in bottled water samples by combination of dispersive liquid--liquid microextraction and microsample introduction flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citak, Demirhan; Tuzen, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    A new and simple method for the determination of trace amounts of Cu(II) was developed by combination of dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) preconcentration and microsample introduction flame atomic absorption spectrometry. In this method, ethanol and chloroform were chosen as disperser and extraction solvents, respectively, and 1-nitroso-2-naphthol was used as the complexing agent. The factors affecting the extraction efficiency and determination of Cu(II), including extraction and disperser solvent nature and volume, concentration of the complexing agent, pH of the solution, extraction time, and matrix ions, were investigated. Under optimal conditions, the LOD for Cu(II) was 0.95 microg/L with a preconcentration factor of 70. The RSD was 1.9%. The accuracy of the developed DLLME method was verified by determination of Cu(II) in a certified reference material (NRCC-SLRS-4 river water). The relative error was -3.31%. The developed preconcentration procedure was successfully applied to the analysis of bottled drinking water samples.

  2. Effects of drip irrigation under plastic film with saline water on cotton growth and yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B.; Jin, M.; He, Y.; Zhou, J.; Brusseau, M. L.

    2012-12-01

    To study the influence of different irrigation system for drip irrigation under plastic film with saline water on cotton growth and yields, field experiments at key irrigation experiment station of water resources management division in Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture, Xinjiang, China were set up consist of different irrigation ratio (5250, 4500, 3750, 3000m3/hm2), different irrigation times (24, 12 and 8 times) and different rotation irrigation modes. The results show that: with the larger irrigation ratio, the cotton growth and yields was also better, and the significant influence on cotton growth and yields for irrigation ratio is between 3750-4500 m3/hm2. When the irrigation ratio is smaller (3000m3/hm2), cotton growth and yields for irrigation times of 8 times are higher, When the irrigation ratio is bigger (4500m3/hm2), cotton growth for irrigation times of 12 times are better and its cotton yields are higher correspondingly. According to the growth of cotton, yields and water productivity, the suitable irrigation system of cotton is the irrigation ratio of 4500-3750 m3/ hm2 and the irrigation times of 18 times for drip irrigation under plastic film with saline water. For different rotation drip irrigation experiments with saline water and fresh water, the cotton yields and irrigation water productivity is higher under the disposal of SF (rotation irrigation in first 6 times with saline water irrigation and then 6 times with fresh water irrigation) compared to FS (rotation irrigation in first 6 times with fresh water and then 6 times with saline water) and SSFA (rotation irrigation with twice saline water and once fresh water) compared to SFA (alternative irrigation with saline water and fresh water). Compared to the different alternate irrigation experiments, the cotton yields and water productivity for pure saline water irrigation is higher. In addition, the trend is the larger the irrigation ratio and the higher the yields. It maybe dues to the low

  3. Uses of Water Public Supply Network for Bottling; Utilizacion del agua de la red de abastecimiento publico para embotellarla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Miranda, J. P.

    2009-07-01

    Many authors have referenced that just a small percentage (by 2.5%) of the total water in the world is fresh water, and it is concentrated in a few number of countries or regions. Consequently the problem of demand and consumption of water (so in developed as in developing countries) represent and essential subject, especially in highly populated cities. (Author) 8 refs.

  4. SURVEY OF BOTTLED WATERS FOR PERCHLORATE BY ELECTROSPRAY IONIZATION MASS SPECTROMETRY (ESI-MS) AND ION CHROMATOGRAPHY (IC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchlorate has been identified in ground and surface waters around the US, including some that serve as supplies for drinking water. Because perchlorate salts are used as solid oxidants in rockets and ordnance, water contamination may occur near military or aerospace installatio...

  5. Temperature profile and other data collected using bottle and CTD casts from the ARGO and other platforms from the Coastal Waters of California during the California Cooperative Fisheries Investigation (CALCOFI) project, 16 March 1964 to 20 December 1964 (NODC Accession 7600333)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic Station Data, temperature, and other data were collected using CTD and bottle casts from ARGO and other platforms in the Coastal Waters of California...

  6. Temperature profile and other data collected using bottle and CTD casts from the MELVILLE in the Coastal Waters of California for the International Decade of Ocean Exploration / Geochemical Ocean Section Study (IDOE/GEOSECS) project from 19 May 1979 to 23 May 1979 (NODC Accession 8800233)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic Station Data, temperature, and other data were collected using CTD and bottle casts from MELVILLE from the Coastal Waters of California from May 19,...

  7. Water physical and chemical data from current meter and bottle casts from the H.J.W. FAY and other platforms as part of the Ocean Continental Shelf - Mid Atlantic (OCS - Mid Atlantic) project, 16 May 1977 - 15 September 1977 (NODC Accession 7800386)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water physical and chemical data were collected using current meter and bottle casts from the H.J.W. FAY and other platforms from May 16, 1977 to September 15, 1977....

  8. Water physical, chemical, and benthic organisms data from current meter and bottle casts from the H.J.W. FAY and CAPE HENLOPEN as part of the Ocean Continental Shelf - Mid Atlantic (OCS - Mid Atlantic) project, 03 November 1976 - 15 September 1977 (NODC Accession 7800319)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water physical, chemical, and benthic organisms data were collected using current meter and bottle casts from the H.J.W.FAY and CAPE HENLOPEN from November 3, 1976...

  9. Physical, chemical, and other data from bottle casts from the Coastal Waters of Washington/Oregon from the THOMAS G. THOMPSON as part of the International Decade of Ocean Exploration / Coastal Upwelling Ecosystems Analysis (IDOE/CUEA) from 11 July 1973 to 21 July 1973 (NODC Accession 7601145)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical, chemical, and other data were collected from bottle casts in the Coastal Waters of Washington/Oregon from the THOMAS G. THOMPSON from 11 July 1973 to 21...

  10. Temperature profile and other data collected using bottle and CTD casts from the A. AGASSIZ and other platforms from the Coastal Waters of California during the California Cooperative Fisheries Investigation (CALCOFI) project, 06 January 1965 to 22 June 1968 (NODC Accession 7300970)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic Station Data, temperature, and other data were collected using CTD and bottle casts from A. AGASSIZ and other platforms in the Coastal Waters of...

  11. Temperature profile and other data collected using bottle and CTD casts from the A. AGASSIZ and NOAA Ship DAVID STARR JORDAN from the Coastal Waters of California during the California Cooperative Fisheries Investigation (CALCOFI) project, 03 January 1972 to 16 November 1972 (NODC Accession 8600369)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic Station Data, temperature, and other data were collected using CTD and bottle casts from A. AGASSIZ and other platforms from the Coastal Waters of...

  12. Temperature profile and other data collected using bottle and CTD casts from the ELLEN B. SCRIPPS and other platforms from the Coastal Waters of California during the California Cooperative Fisheries Investigation (CALCOFI) project, 23 January 1983 to 08 December 1983 (NODC Accession 8600371)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic Station Data, temperature, and other data were collected using CTD and bottle casts from ELLEN B. SCRIPPS and other platforms from the Coastal Waters...

  13. Temperature profile and other data collected using bottle and CTD casts from the ALE ANDRO DE HUMBOLDT from the Coastal Waters of California during the California Cooperative Fisheries Investigation (CALCOFI) project, 27 January 1972 to 13 December 1972 (NODC Accession 7501040)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic Station Data, temperature, and other data were collected using CTD and bottle casts from ALE ANDRO DE HUMBOLDT in the Coastal Waters of California from...

  14. Temperature profile and other data collected using bottle and CTD casts from the PROTEUS and other platforms from the Coastal Waters of California during the California Cooperative Fisheries Investigation (CALCOFI) project, 27 August 1969 to 22 April 1974 (NODC Accession 7500074)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic Station Data, temperature, and other data were collected using CTD and bottle casts from PROTEUS and other platforms in the Coastal Waters of...

  15. Triple point of water bottle freezing method based on accurate thermostatic bath%基于精密液体低温槽的水三相点瓶冻制方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱锐; 孙震疆

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduced the freezing and save method of the triple point of water bottle based on accurate thermostatic bath. The freezing process was simple and more security, easy to operate, and not easy to damage the triple point of water bottles. This method has good practical value in the actual testing work.%介绍一种使用精密液体低温槽的水三相点瓶冻制和保存方法。冻制过程简单安全,易于操作,不易损坏水三相点瓶。此种方法冻制水三相点瓶,在实际检测工作中具有较好的实用价值。

  16. Plasticity in leaf-level water relations of tropical rainforest trees in response to experimental drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binks, Oliver; Meir, Patrick; Rowland, Lucy; da Costa, Antonio Carlos Lola; Vasconcelos, Steel Silva; de Oliveira, Alex Antonio Ribeiro; Ferreira, Leandro; Christoffersen, Bradley; Nardini, Andrea; Mencuccini, Maurizio

    2016-07-01

    The tropics are predicted to become warmer and drier, and understanding the sensitivity of tree species to drought is important for characterizing the risk to forests of climate change. This study makes use of a long-term drought experiment in the Amazon rainforest to evaluate the role of leaf-level water relations, leaf anatomy and their plasticity in response to drought in six tree genera. The variables (osmotic potential at full turgor, turgor loss point, capacitance, elastic modulus, relative water content and saturated water content) were compared between seasons and between plots (control and through-fall exclusion) enabling a comparison between short- and long-term plasticity in traits. Leaf anatomical traits were correlated with water relation parameters to determine whether water relations differed among tissues. The key findings were: osmotic adjustment occurred in response to the long-term drought treatment; species resistant to drought stress showed less osmotic adjustment than drought-sensitive species; and water relation traits were correlated with tissue properties, especially the thickness of the abaxial epidermis and the spongy mesophyll. These findings demonstrate that cell-level water relation traits can acclimate to long-term water stress, and highlight the limitations of extrapolating the results of short-term studies to temporal scales associated with climate change.

  17. Water temperature, salinity, nutrients and other variables from bottle casts by R/V MELVILLE From NE Pacific (limit-180) from 19850816 to 19850906 (NODC Accession 8700138)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from thirty five bottle casts from the R/V MELVILLE for the ALCYONE cruise Leg 3 (cruise 275) in NODC standard C100/SD2 format.

  18. Cotton’s Water Demand and Water-Saving Benefits under Drip Irrigation with Plastic Film Mulch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yingyu YAN; Juyan LI

    2016-01-01

    The primary purpose of this research was to give suitable irrigation program according to the growth period and water requirement.A cotton field experiment with mulched drip irrigation was conducted at the National Field Observation and Research Station for Oasis Farmland Ecosystem in Aksu of Xinjiang in 2008.Water balance method was adopted to study the water requirement and water consumption law of cotton under mulched drip irrigation in Tarim Irrigated Area.Statistical analysis of experimental data of irrigation indicates that the relationship between yield of cotton and irrigation presents a quadratic parabola.We fit the model of cotton water production on the basis of field experimental data of cotton.And the analysis on water saving benefit of cotton under mulched drip irrigation was done.Results indicate that water requirements for the irrigated cotton are 543 mm in Tarim Irrigated Area.The water requirements of seedling stage is 252 mm,budding stage is 186 mm,bolling stage is 316 mm and wadding stage is 139 mm.the irrigation amount determines the spatial distribution of soil moisture and water consumption during cotton life cycle.However,water consumption at different growth stages was inconsistent with irrigation.Quantitatively,the water consumed by cotton decreases upon the increase of irrigation amount.From the perspective of water saving,the maximal water use efficiency can reach 3 091 m3/ha.But the highest cotton yield needs 3464 m3/ha irrigation water.In summary,compared to the conventional drip irrigation,a number of benefits in water saving and yield increase were observed when using plastic mulch.At the same amount of irrigation,the cotton yield with plastic mulch was 30.2% higher than conventional approaches,and the efficiency of water utilization increased by30.2%.While at the same yield level,29.3% water was saved by using plastic mulch,and the efficiency increased by 41.5%.

  19. On Brand Differentiation Strategy of Bottled Water through Advertising Slogans%瓶装水品牌利用广告语进行差异化定位的策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄秋尘

    2014-01-01

    Different bottled water brands have similar physical attributes so they should be differentiated by packaging and advertising slogans etc .Advertising slogans play an important role in the brand differentiation of bottled water .Contras-ting slogans of famous bottled water brands at home and abroad , it proves that slogans are helpful in creating USP ( Unique Selling Point ) and establishing special brand relationship .Combined with appropriate advertising strategy , they can create unique brand personality .%瓶装水产品的物理属性相近,因此需要借助广告语等元素进行品牌区隔。纵观国内外著名瓶装水品牌,利用广告语可以创造出独特的卖点,构建独特的品牌关系,还可以配合广告战略创造出独特的品牌性格。

  20. Nitrate and trace elements in municipal and bottled water in Spain Nitrato y elementos traza en agua embotellada y municipal en España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Espejo-Herrera

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To describe levels of nitrate and trace elements in drinking water from the study areas of a multicase-control study of cancer in Spain (MCC-Spain. Methods: A total of 227 tap water samples were randomly collected from 67 municipalities in 11 provinces and the nine most frequently consumed bottled water brands were sampled to measure levels of nitrate, arsenic, nickel, chromium, cadmium, lead, selenium and zinc. Results: The median nitrate level was 4.2mg/l (rangeObjetivos: Determinar las concentraciones de nitrato y de elementos traza en el agua de consumo de las áreas del estudio Multicaso-Control de Cáncer en España (MCC-Spain. Métodos: Se tomaron al azar 227 muestras de agua municipal en 67 municipios de 11 provincias, y 9 muestras de las aguas embotelladas más consumidas, para cuantificar la cantidad presente de nitrato, arsénico, níquel, cromo, cadmio, plomo y zinc. Resultados: La mediana de las cifras de nitrato fue 4,2mg/l (rango<1-29,0, con similares resultados en municipios urbanos y rurales (p=0,86. Los elementos traza fueron incuantificables en el 94% de las muestras de agua municipal. Se observaron diferencias entre áreas para nitrato (p<0,001 y arsénico (p=0,03. Solo el nitrato fue cuantificable en el agua embotellada (rango 2,3-15,6mg/l. Conclusiones: La cantidad de nitrato en el agua municipal difiere entre regiones y es menor que el límite regulatorio en todas las muestras. Los elementos traza son mayormente incuantificables tanto en el agua municipal como en la embotellada.

  1. WATER RESISTANCE OF WOOD - PLASTIC COMPOSITES MADE FROM WASTE MATERIALS RESULTED IN THE FURNITURE MANUFACTURING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia COŞEREANU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present innovative wood-plastic composites made from waste materials such as ABS (acrylonitrile butadiene styrene and wood shavings resulted in the furniture manufacturing process. From previous investigations (with regard to physical integrity and compactness of the panels, only mixtures ranging from a ratio of 100% ABS: 0% shavings to 80% ABS: 20% shavings were selected for water resistance testing. Swelling in thickness and water absorption for 2h and 24h were determined for the proposed wood-plastic composites. The results have shown that only a participation of up to 10% of wood shavings in the tested panels conducted to a good performance

  2. Frequency of use controls chemical leaching from drinking-water containers subject to disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andra, Syam S; Makris, Konstantinos C; Shine, James P

    2011-12-15

    Microbial-, and chemical-based burden of disease associated with lack of access to safe water continues to primarily impact developing countries. Cost-effective health risk-mitigating measures, such as of solar disinfection applied to microbial-contaminated water stored in plastic bottles have been increasingly tested in developing countries adversely impacted by epidemic water-borne diseases. Public health concerns associated with chemical leaching from water packaging materials led us to investigate the magnitude and variability of antimony (Sb) and bromine (Br) leaching from reused plastic containers (polyethylene terephthalate, PET; and polycarbonate, PC) subject to UV and/or temperature-driven disinfection. The overall objective of this study was to determine the main and interactive effects of temperature, UV exposure duration, and frequency of bottle reuse on the extent of leaching of Sb and Br from plastic bottles into water. Regardless of UV exposure duration, frequency of reuse (up to 27 times) was the major factor that linearly increased Sb leaching from PET bottles at all temperatures tested (13-47 °C). Leached Sb concentrations (∼360 ng L(-1)) from the highly reused (27 times) PET bottles (minimal Sb leaching from PC bottles, PET and PC containers (up to ∼15 μg L(-1)) did not pose a consumer health risk either, however, no acceptable daily dose estimates exist for oral ingestion of organo-brominated, or other plasticizers/additives compounds if they were to be found in bottled water at much lower concentrations. Additional research on potential leaching of organic chemicals from water packaging materials is deemed necessary under relevant environmental conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A New Bottle Design Decreases Hypoxemic Episodes during Feeding in Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Jenik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen saturation is lower during bottle feeding than during breastfeeding in preterm infants. Our objective was to compare two different bottle systems in healthy preterm infants before discharge in terms of SpO2 and oral feeding efficiency (rate of milk intake. Infants without supplement oxygen needs were evaluated twice on the same day during two consecutive feeds, by the same nurse. Infants served as their own controls for comparison of two systems of bottles, the order of which was randomized. The new bottle's nipple design mimics mom's breast in shape and feel, and the bottle vents to air when the child sucks on the nipple. The other system was the hospital's standard plastic bottle with silicone nipple. The rate of milk intake was calculated as the total volume transferred minus volume lost divided by time of feeding, mL/min. Thirty-four infants (BW: 1,163±479.1 g were studied at 35.4±1.3 weeks after-conception. SpO2 was significantly higher in infants fed with the new bottle design. Milk intake rate was significantly higher with the new bottle than with the standard bottle design. The new bottle design improves oral feeding performance in preterm infants near to discharge when compared to that of a standard bottle.

  4. A New Bottle Design Decreases Hypoxemic Episodes during Feeding in Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenik, Alejandro; Fustiñana, Carlos; Marquez, Maritza; Mage, David; Fernandez, Gloria; Mariani, Gonzalo

    2012-01-01

    Oxygen saturation is lower during bottle feeding than during breastfeeding in preterm infants. Our objective was to compare two different bottle systems in healthy preterm infants before discharge in terms of SpO(2) and oral feeding efficiency (rate of milk intake). Infants without supplement oxygen needs were evaluated twice on the same day during two consecutive feeds, by the same nurse. Infants served as their own controls for comparison of two systems of bottles, the order of which was randomized. The new bottle's nipple design mimics mom's breast in shape and feel, and the bottle vents to air when the child sucks on the nipple. The other system was the hospital's standard plastic bottle with silicone nipple. The rate of milk intake was calculated as the total volume transferred minus volume lost divided by time of feeding, mL/min. Thirty-four infants (BW: 1, 163 ± 479.1 g) were studied at 35.4 ± 1.3 weeks after-conception. SpO(2) was significantly higher in infants fed with the new bottle design. Milk intake rate was significantly higher with the new bottle than with the standard bottle design. The new bottle design improves oral feeding performance in preterm infants near to discharge when compared to that of a standard bottle.

  5. Immunobiosensor for fast detection of bacteria in water using plastic optical fiber (POF) bended

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Domingos M. C.; Lopes, Rafaela N.; Queiroz, Vanessa M.; Allil, Regina C. S. B.; Werneck, Marcelo M.

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents an immunobiosensor of fast response time to detection of bacteria, made by Plastic Optical Fiber. Probes were tested in U-shaped and Meander-shaped to investigate the best sensitivity, accuracy and repeatability. During calibration was used for sucrose solutions refractive index (RI) from 1.33 to 1.39. This is equivalent to IR range of the water and the highest concentration of bacteria, respectively. Immunobiosensor was able to detecting the presence of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli in water from suspensions of different concentrations of 106 and 104 colonies forming units per millilitre (CFU/mL) in twenty minutes.

  6. 气相色谱-质谱联用法测定瓶装水中邻苯二甲酸酯的含量%Determination of phthalates esters in bottled waters by GC-MS/MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱歆磊; 冯超; 汪国权

    2013-01-01

      Objective To establish a method for determination of phthalates esters in bottled waters by gas chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS), and study the effect of the kinds of packaging materials and storage conditions on the concentration of phthalate esters in bottled water. Methods The bottled waters were cleaned up by SPE column, eluted with dichloromethane, concentrated by vaccum rota-tion evaporimeter, and analyzed by GC-MS/MS. The isotope internal standards were applied to the analysis and quantitation of phthalate esters. Results The method showed a good linearity over the range of 20∼500 ng/mL for 16 compounds of phthalate esters with R2≥0.996. The detection limit was 7.25∼11.93 ng/L. The recoveries were 74%∼106%at the spiked level of 200 ng/mL and 50 ng/mL with relative standard deviation lower than 5%. Phthalate esters were detected in 29 brands of bottled waters sold in Shanghai, and the concentration of DEHP was higher than 20 ng/L. DEHP, DIBP and DBP were detected in 25 brands of bottled waters with the packing material of PET. When stored at high temperature, the concentration of phthalate esters in bottled water raised sharply. Conclusion This method is suitable for the analysis of phthalate esters, and it provides a reference for the risk evaluation of phthalate esters in bottled water.%  目的建立市售瓶装水中邻苯二甲酸酯类化合物的 GC-MS/MS 分析方法,研究包装材料种类、保存条件对瓶装水中邻苯二甲酸酯类化合物浓度的影响。方法样品经固相萃取净化(SPE)、二氯甲烷洗脱,真空浓缩后,采用 GC-MS/MS 对16种邻苯二甲酸酯类化合物进行检测,同位素内标定量。结果16种化合物在20~500 ng/mL浓度范围内,线性关系良好,相关系数R2大于0.996。在200、50 ng/mL两个加标水平下,方法回收率为71%∼109%, RSD小于5%。方法最低检测限在7.25∼11.93 ng/L范围内,市售的29个品牌的

  7. Feeding Bottles Usage and the Prevalence of Childhood Allergy and Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nai-Yun Hsu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the association between the length of use of feeding bottles or pacifiers during childhood and the prevalence of respiratory and allergic morbidities. A large-scale questionnaire survey was performed in day care centers and kindergartens (with children’s ages ranging from 2 to 7 years in southern Taiwan, and a total of 14,862 questionnaires completed by parents were finally recruited for data analysis. Effects of using feeding bottles on children’s wheezing/asthma (adjusted OR: 1.05, 95% CI 1.00–1.09, allergic rhinitis (adjusted OR: 1.04, 95% CI 1.00–1.08, and eczema (adjusted OR: 1.07, 95% CI 1.01–1.2 were found. Moreover, significant dose-dependent relationships were further established after an adjustment for confounders was performed that included children’s ages, gender, gestational age, birth weight, length of breastfeeding, the age when first given infant formula or complementary foods, family history, parental educational levels, and smoking status, as well as the problem of indoor water damage. This study was the first to reveal the potential risk of using plastic consumer products such as feeding bottles on the reported health status of preschool children in Asian countries.

  8. Feeding bottles usage and the prevalence of childhood allergy and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Nai-Yun; Wu, Pei-Chih; Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf; Sundell, Jan; Su, Huey-Jen

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the association between the length of use of feeding bottles or pacifiers during childhood and the prevalence of respiratory and allergic morbidities. A large-scale questionnaire survey was performed in day care centers and kindergartens (with children's ages ranging from 2 to 7 years) in southern Taiwan, and a total of 14,862 questionnaires completed by parents were finally recruited for data analysis. Effects of using feeding bottles on children's wheezing/asthma (adjusted OR: 1.05, 95% CI 1.00-1.09), allergic rhinitis (adjusted OR: 1.04, 95% CI 1.00-1.08), and eczema (adjusted OR: 1.07, 95% CI 1.01-1.2) were found. Moreover, significant dose-dependent relationships were further established after an adjustment for confounders was performed that included children's ages, gender, gestational age, birth weight, length of breastfeeding, the age when first given infant formula or complementary foods, family history, parental educational levels, and smoking status, as well as the problem of indoor water damage. This study was the first to reveal the potential risk of using plastic consumer products such as feeding bottles on the reported health status of preschool children in Asian countries.

  9. Migration of antimony from PET bottles into beverages: determination of the activation energy of diffusion and migration modelling compared with literature data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welle, F; Franz, R

    2011-01-01

    Plastics bottles made from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) are increasingly used for soft drinks, mineral water, juices and beer. In this study a literature review is presented concerning antimony levels found both in PET materials as well as in foods and food simulants. On the other hand, 67 PET samples from the European bottle market were investigated for their residual antimony concentrations. A mean value of 224 ± 32 mg kg(-1) was found, the median was 220 mg kg(-1). Diffusion coefficients for antimony in PET bottle materials were experimentally determined at different temperature between 105 and 150°C. From these data, the activation energy of diffusion for antimony species from the PET bottle wall into beverages and food simulants was calculated. The obtained value of 189 kJ mol(-1) was found to be in good agreement with published data on PET microwave trays (184 kJ mol(-1)). Based on these results, the migration of antimony into beverages was predicted by mathematical migration modelling for different surface/volume ratios and antimony bottle wall concentrations. The results were compared with literature data as well as international legal limits and guidelines values for drinking water and the migration limit set from food packaging legislation. It was concluded that antimony levels in beverages due to migration from PET bottles manufactured according to the state of the art can never reach or exceed the European-specific migration limit of 40 microg kg(-1). Maximum migration levels caused by room-temperature storage even after 3 years will never be essentially higher than 2.5 microg kg(-1) and in any case will be below the European limit of 5 microg kg(-1) for drinking water. The results of this study confirm that the exposure of the consumer by antimony migration from PET bottles into beverages and even into edible oils reaches approximately 1% of the current tolerable daily intake (TDI) established by World Health Organisation (WHO). Having

  10. Reducing Water Vapor Permeability of Poly(lactic acid Film and Bottle through Layer-by-Layer Deposition of Green-Processed Cellulose Nanocrystals and Chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Halász

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Layer-by-layer electrostatic self-assembly technique was applied to improve the barrier properties of poly(lactic acid (PLA films and bottles. The LbL process was carried out by the alternate adsorption of chitosan (CH (polycation and cellulose nanocrystals (CNC produced via ultrasonic treatment. Four bilayers (on each side of chitosan and cellulose nanocrystals caused 29 and 26% improvement in barrier properties in case of films and bottles, respectively. According to the results the LbL process with CH and CNC offered a transparent “green” barrier coating on PLA substrates.

  11. Investigation of overfoaming activities and gushing mechanisms of individual beer ingredients as model substances in bottled carbonated water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydın, Ahmet Alper; Ilberg, Vladimir; Titze, Jean

    2014-08-01

    Researchers in several disciplines are interested in understanding the spontaneous and eruptive overfoaming (gushing) of carbonated beverages, as it is an essential problem of both the brewing and beverage industries. In order to understand the mechanism(s) taking place in gushing beer, several beer ingredients have been investigated as model substances in a much simpler matrix of carbonated water. For this purpose, sinapic acid, vanillic acid, ferulic acid, cinnamic acid and palmitic acid have been chosen as model beer ingredients. Gushing formation of the investigated beer ingredients depends on the degree of stabilized solvated molecular carbon dioxide in water. For this purpose, functional groups capable of forming hydrogen bonds with electronegative oxygen atoms of carbon dioxide are needed. However, the solubility of the substances plays an important role in the abundance of these functional groups in undissociated form to interact with molecular carbon dioxide. The reported data provide valuable insights into the gushing problem and help to understand its formation pathways. Each gushing-positive substance has an individual mechanism related to its structural conformation and solubility level. Therefore possible gushing mechanisms have been proposed with respect to the structural changes in model substances to clarify the differences in observed overfoaming and gushing stability levels. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Monitoring non-carbonated (`still') mineral waters for aerobic colonization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leclerc, H.; Mossel, D.A.A.; Savage, C.

    1985-01-01

    Fifty samples each of two leading brands of French, non-carbonated (‘still’) mineral waters, packed in plastic bottles, were stored in the dark for one month at approximately 20°C to allow marked proliferation of their autotrophic microbial flora. Upon completion of this challenge test 1250 ml per

  13. Mohos y levaduras en agua envasada y bebidas sin alcohol Moulds and yeasts in bottled water and soft drinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Ancasi

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available La aparición esporádica de alteraciones en algunos envases dentro de lotes de aguas carbonatadas y de bebidas con zumos frutales (carbonatadas y no carbonatadas motivó la presente investigación, en la que se determinaron los microorganismos causantes del deterioro observado. También se estudiaron los contaminantes del azúcar utilizado en la elaboración de una de las bebidas analizadas. Se emplearon los métodos de Déak y Beuchat y de Pitt y Hocking para la identificación de levaduras y de mohos, respectivamente. Las levaduras causantes del deterioro de las bebidas fueron Debaryomyces hansenii, Debaryomyces polymorphus, Galactomyces geotrichum, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Mucor circinelloides, Pichia anomala, Pichia jadinii, Pichia subpelliculosa, Rhodotorula glutinis y Zygosaccharomyces bailii. Los mohos y las levaduras encontrados en el azúcar fueron Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus penicilloides, Aspergillus versicolor, Cladosporium sphaerospermum, Mucor racemosus, Pichia anomala y Rhizopus stolonifer. En el agua carbonatada se encontraron los mohos Paecilomyces fulvus y Penicillium glabrum.Some damaged cartons of soft drinks and carbonated water were analyzed to detect the microorganisms that caused the damage. The contaminants of sugar used in the production of one of the drinks were also studied. The methods of Déak & Beuchat and Pitt & Hocking were used for the identification of yeasts and moulds, respectively. The agents of the spoilage of soft drinks were Debaryomyces hansenii, Debaryomyces polymorphus, Galactomyces geotrichum, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Mucor circinelloides, Pichia anomala, Pichia jadinii, Pichia subpelliculosa, Rhodotorula glutinis and Zygosaccharomyces bailii. The microorganisms found in sugar were Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus penicilloides, Aspergillus versicolor, Cladosporium sphaerospermum, Mucor racemosus, P. anomala and Rhizopus stolonifer. Paecilomyces fulvus and Penicillium glabrum were observed in

  14. Determinants of using pacifier and bottle feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccini, Gabriela dos Santos; Benício, Maria Helena D'Aquino; Venancio, Sonia Isoyama

    2014-08-01

    To analyze the factors associated with the use of pacifiers and/or bottle feeding in infants aged under one year. This is a cross-sectional study with 34,366 children and using data from the database of the 2nd Nationwide Survey of Breastfeeding Prevalence performed in the Brazilian capitals and Federal District in 2008. Cluster sampling was used. The questionnaire included questions about the use of artificial nipples in the last 24 hours. The analysis considered three outcomes: exclusive use of pacifier, exclusive use of bottle feeding, and use of artificial nipples (pacifier and bottle feeding). Prevalence ratios were obtained using Poisson regression with robust variance following a hierarchical model. The following factors were associated with exclusive use of the pacifier: mother working outside the home, primiparity, child was not breastfed within the first hour, and child had consumed tea on the first day at home. The following factors were associated with exclusive use of bottle feeding: mother working outside the home, primiparity, low birth weight, child not breastfed within the first hour, and child had consumed milk formula and tea on the first day at home. The following factors were associated with use of artificial nipples (pacifier and bottle feeding): mother working outside the home, primiparity, cesarean delivery, the male gender, low birth weight, born in a hospital not accredited as "baby friendly", required health baby monitoring in the Primary Health Care Unit (PR = 0.91), and child had consumed milk formula, water, or tea on the first day at home. This study identified profiles of exclusive users of pacifiers, bottle feeding, and both. The provided information can guide preventive practices for child health.

  15. Determinants of using pacifier and bottle feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela dos Santos Buccini

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the factors associated with the use of pacifiers and/or bottle feeding in infants aged under one year. METHODS This is a cross-sectional study with 34,366 children and using data from the database of the 2nd Nationwide Survey of Breastfeeding Prevalence performed in the Brazilian capitals and Federal District in 2008. Cluster sampling was used. The questionnaire included questions about the use of artificial nipples in the last 24 hours. The analysis considered three outcomes: exclusive use of pacifier, exclusive use of bottle feeding, and use of artificial nipples (pacifier and bottle feeding. Prevalence ratios were obtained using Poisson regression with robust variance following a hierarchical model. RESULTS The following factors were associated with exclusive use of the pacifier: mother working outside the home, primiparity, child was not breastfed within the first hour, and child had consumed tea on the first day at home. The following factors were associated with exclusive use of bottle feeding: mother working outside the home, primiparity, low birth weight, child not breastfed within the first hour, and child had consumed milk formula and tea on the first day at home. The following factors were associated with use of artificial nipples (pacifier and bottle feeding: mother working outside the home, primiparity, cesarean delivery, the male gender, low birth weight, born in a hospital not accredited as “baby friendly”, required health baby monitoring in the Primary Health Care Unit (PR = 0.91, and child had consumed milk formula, water, or tea on the first day at home. CONCLUSIONS This study identified profiles of exclusive users of pacifiers, bottle feeding, and both. The provided information can guide preventive practices for child health.

  16. 浙江省一起由桶装水所致的诺如病毒胃肠炎暴发调查%A norovirus-borne outbreak caused by contaminated bottled spring water in a school, Zhejiang province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈纪川; 朱保平; 林君芬; 高洁; 姚文婷; 闻栋; 刘光涛; 韩建康; 马会来; 张丽杰

    2011-01-01

    目的 调查浙江省某学校出现多名急性胃肠炎病例的感染来源、传播途径和危险因素.方法 可疑病例定义:2010年4月19-30日,该校学生和教职员工中出现腹泻(≥3次/天)或呕吐者.确诊病例为可疑病例中用RT-PCR方法检出诺如病毒阳性者.开展病例对照研究,以流行高峰期21-23日的220例病例作为病例组,按年级1∶1比例频数匹配,随机抽取同年级无症状的学生作为对照组,比较两组饮用桶装水类型、饮水习惯和饮用量、卫生习惯的差异.结果 该校学生罹患率为20.3%(312/1536),教职员工无病例.98.6%的病例(n=217)和85.5%的对照(n=188)曾饮用过教室桶装水(ORM-H=12.3,95%CI:3.7~40.9);其中47.9%的病例(n=104)和41.5%的对照(n=78)饮用过教室桶装水的冷水(ORM-H=3.8,95%CI:1.5~9.6);47.9%的病例(n=104)和48.4%的对照(n=91)饮用过教室桶装水的冷热混合水(ORM-H=2.8,95%CI:1.1~7.0).未开封的教室桶装水菌落总数和大肠菌群严重超标.3例病例的粪便及1份未开封的教室桶装水标本检出诺如病毒Ⅱ型核酸阳性.桶装水生产厂家属无证非法生产.结论 本次暴发疫情由诺如病毒污染的教室桶装山泉水引起.建议学校停用桶装水、提供开水及非法生产厂家停止生产.%Objective To study a local hospital reported acute gastroenteritis in a boarding school on its source of infection, mode of transmission and risk factors of the infection. Methods A suspected case was defined as who had developed diarrhea (≥3 times/day) or vomiting among teachers or students of the school, during April 19-30, 2010. A confirmed case was from a probable case plus tested positive for norovirus in stool specimens by using RT-PCR. Stool specimens of cases and environmental specimens were collected for laboratory diagnosis. In a ease-control study, we compared exposures to sources of bottled water, consumption of bottled water, and hygienic habits of 220 probable or

  17. Revisiting the fog bottle experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamcharean, C.; Khanchong, C.; Wattanakasiwich, P.

    2016-11-01

    In this article we propose an irreversible adiabatic expansion model, modified from previous work, to explain the fog bottle experiment. Our model divides the phenomenon into five thermodynamic states, and we include in our calculation irreversible work pushing a stopper out of the bottle and heat gain from the condensation of saturated vapour. In the experiment, thermodynamic variables including pressure and temperature as functions of time were measured. The work done in pushing the stopper out was measured and the condensation heat was determined using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation to determine saturated vapour pressure. As a result, fog formation was explained through a phase diagram of water showing the saturated vapour pressure during irreversible adiabatic expansion. Also, state variables (P, V and T) and the entropy change of the real process were compared with the reversible and irreversible adiabatic expansion and our modified process. Using a P-T diagram, we show that the amount of reversible work is always higher than the amount of irreversible work, due to dissipative work. According to our modified model, the dissipative work and the heat transferred from condensation cause irreversibility or {{Δ }}{S}{{t}{{o}}{{t}}{{a}}{{l}}}\\gt 0.

  18. Selective Adsorption on Fluorinated Plastic Enables the Optical Detection of Molecular Pollutants in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanfranco, R.; Giavazzi, F.; Salina, M.; Tagliabue, G.; Di Nicolò, E.; Bellini, T.; Buscaglia, M.

    2016-05-01

    Amorphous fluorinated plastic can be produced with a refractive index similar to that of water, a condition that makes it essentially invisible when immersed in aqueous solutions. Because of this property, even a small amount of adsorbed molecules on the plastic-water interface provides a detectable optical signal. We investigate two distinct substrates made of this material, characterized by different interface areas: a prism and a microporous membrane. We demonstrate that both substrates enable the label-free detection of molecular compounds in water even without any surface functionalization. The adsorption of molecules on the planar surface of the prism provides an increase of optical reflectivity, whereas the adsorption on the internal surface of the microporous membrane yields an increase of scattered light. Despite the different mechanisms, we find a similar optical response upon adsorption. We confirm this result by a theoretical model accounting for both reflection and scattering. We investigate the spontaneous adsorption process for different kinds of molecules: surfactants with different charges, a protein (lysozyme), and a constituent of gasoline (hexane). The measured equilibrium and kinetic constants for adsorption differ by orders of magnitudes among the different classes of molecules. By suitable analytical models, accounting for the effects of mass limitation and transport, we find a simple and general scaling of the adsorption parameters with the molecular size.

  19. Gelatinization and retrogradation phenomena in starch/montmorillonite nanocomposites plasticized with different glycerol/water ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Sandra Camila; Salcedo, Felipe

    2016-10-20

    This study aims to gain insights into the intermolecular interactions present in thermoplastic starch (TPS)/montmorillonite (MMT) nanocomposites prepared using water and/or glycerol as plasticizers. Specifically, the impact of using different glycerol/water proportions on the nature of gelatinization and retrogradation processes is studied. Nanocomposites were characterized by rheometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-rays diffraction (XRD). It is shown that clay tactoids preferentially interact with glycerol molecules rather than starch macromolecules. Consequently, the effects of MMT incorporation strongly depend on the glycerol/water ratio; when a ratio of 0.5 is used minor variations were observed on the starch gelatinization process-although stronger clays-starch interactions were evident-whereas at higher ratios the addition of clays significantly increased the gelatinization temperature, up to values over 100°C. In the gelatinization process of starch in TPS samples having only glycerol as a plasticizer, the leaching of amylose and the melting of amylopectin crystalline domains seem to occur simultaneously. This different gelatinization mechanism produces a TPS having a substantially different morphology, which exhibited reduced retrogradation characteristics.

  20. Study on the replacing time of water-sealed bottle of thoracic cavity drainage patients.%胸腔闭式引流一次性水封瓶更换时间的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱晓艳; 张清媛; 邓艳芳

    2011-01-01

    目的:研究胸腔闭式引流一次性水封瓶更换时间与胸腔感染的相关性,探讨一次性水封瓶的最佳更换时间.方法:对240例行胸腔闭式引流且排除胸腔感染病人,使用随机数字表分为A、B、C、D 4组,每组60例,A组每天更换水封瓶1次,B组每3 d更换1次,C组每周更换1次,D组为使用超过1周至拔管.追踪监测一次性水封瓶内生理盐水和胸腔引流液,有细菌生长则对该病例停止实验,同时对此240例病人的胸腔积液或胸腔引流管前端2 cm进行细菌培养,最后进行统计学分析.结果:一次性水封瓶生理盐水的细菌培养均为阴性,4组水封瓶中胸腔引流液的细菌培养结果阳性16例,共检出细菌6种,各组培养阳性率比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);对此240例病人的胸腔积液和胸腔引流管前端2 cm进行细菌培养,234例无细菌生长,6例细菌培养阳性.结论:在严格无菌操作下,对于胸腔引流管留置时间较长的病人,每周更换1次水封瓶并不会增加胸腔内感染及水封瓶内细菌定植的机会.%Objective : To investigate the relation between the replacing time of water - sealed bottle and the thoracic cavity infections , and determine the optional time for replacement . Methods : 240 patients with closed drainage of pleural cavity and without thoracic infections were randomly divided into 4groups. Group A : replacement of water - sealed bottle every day ; group B : replacement of bottle every 3 days ; group C : replacement of bottle every week ; group D : keeping water - sealed bottle over a week until the removal of chest tube. The normal saline and drainage fluid in the water - sealed bottle was cultured separately. When bacterium was found in the drainage fluid , the thoracic transudate and the fluid at the end of the tube was cultured simultaneously. Results Bacterium was not found in normal saline in the one - off water - sealed hottle. 6 species of hacteria were found from 16

  1. Evaluation of the water-equivalence of plastic materials in low- and high-energy clinical proton beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, A; Shipley, D; Wellock, N; Thomas, R; Bouchard, H; Kacperek, A; Fracchiolla, F; Lorentini, S; Schwarz, M; MacDougall, N; Royle, G; Palmans, H

    2017-05-21

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the water-equivalence of new trial plastics designed specifically for light-ion beam dosimetry as well as commercially available plastics in clinical proton beams. The water-equivalence of materials was tested by computing a plastic-to-water conversion factor, [Formula: see text]. Trial materials were characterized experimentally in 60 MeV and 226 MeV un-modulated proton beams and the results were compared with Monte Carlo simulations using the FLUKA code. For the high-energy beam, a comparison between the trial plastics and various commercial plastics was also performed using FLUKA and Geant4 Monte Carlo codes. Experimental information was obtained from laterally integrated depth-dose ionization chamber measurements in water, with and without plastic slabs with variable thicknesses in front of the water phantom. Fluence correction factors, [Formula: see text], between water and various materials were also derived using the Monte Carlo method. For the 60 MeV proton beam, [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] factors were within 1% from unity for all trial plastics. For the 226 MeV proton beam, experimental [Formula: see text] values deviated from unity by a maximum of about 1% for the three trial plastics and experimental results showed no advantage regarding which of the plastics was the most equivalent to water. Different magnitudes of corrections were found between Geant4 and FLUKA for the various materials due mainly to the use of different nonelastic nuclear data. Nevertheless, for the 226 MeV proton beam, [Formula: see text] correction factors were within 2% from unity for all the materials. Considering the results from the two Monte Carlo codes, PMMA and trial plastic #3 had the smallest [Formula: see text] values, where maximum deviations from unity were 1%, however, PMMA range differed by 16% from that of water. Overall, [Formula: see text] factors were deviating more from unity than [Formula: see text] factors

  2. Spring maize yield, soil water use and water use efficiency under plastic film and straw mulches in the Loess Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen; Liu, Wenzhao; Xue, Qingwu

    2016-12-01

    To compare the soil water balance, yield and water use efficiency (WUE) of spring maize under different mulching types in the Loess Plateau, a 7-year field experiment was conducted in the Changwu region of the Loess Plateau. Three treatments were used in this experiment: straw mulch (SM), plastic film mulch (PM) and conventional covering without mulch (CK). Results show that the soil water change of dryland spring maize was as deep as 300 cm depth and hence 300 cm is recommended as the minimum depth when measure the soil water in this region. Water use (ET) did not differ significantly among the treatments. However, grain yield was significantly higher in PM compared with CK. WUE was significantly higher in PM than in CK for most years of the experiment. Although ET tended to be higher in PM than in the other treatments (without significance), the evaporation of water in the fallow period also decreased. Thus, PM is sustainable with respect to soil water balance. The 7-year experiment and the supplemental experiment thus confirmed that straw mulching at the seedling stage may lead to yield reduction and this effect can be mitigated by delaying the straw application to three-leaf stage.

  3. Physiological plasticity to water flow habitat in the damselfish, Acanthochromis polyacanthus: linking phenotype to performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra A Binning

    Full Text Available The relationships among animal form, function and performance are complex, and vary across environments. Therefore, it can be difficult to identify morphological and/or physiological traits responsible for enhancing performance in a given habitat. In fishes, differences in swimming performance across water flow gradients are related to morphological variation among and within species. However, physiological traits related to performance have been less well studied. We experimentally reared juvenile damselfish, Acanthochromis polyacanthus, under different water flow regimes to test 1 whether aspects of swimming physiology and morphology show plastic responses to water flow, 2 whether trait divergence correlates with swimming performance and 3 whether flow environment relates to performance differences observed in wild fish. We found that maximum metabolic rate, aerobic scope and blood haematocrit were higher in wave-reared fish compared to fish reared in low water flow. However, pectoral fin shape, which tends to correlate with sustained swimming performance, did not differ between rearing treatments or collection sites. Maximum metabolic rate was the best overall predictor of individual swimming performance; fin shape and fish total length were 3.3 and 3.7 times less likely than maximum metabolic rate to explain differences in critical swimming speed. Performance differences induced in fish reared in different flow environments were less pronounced than in wild fish but similar in direction. Our results suggest that exposure to water motion induces plastic physiological changes which enhance swimming performance in A. polyacanthus. Thus, functional relationships between fish morphology and performance across flow habitats should also consider differences in physiology.

  4. Morphological plasticity of root growth under mild water stress increases water use efficiency without reducing yield in maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qian; Zhang, Yulong; Sun, Zhanxiang; Zheng, Jiaming; Bai, Wei; Zhang, Yue; Liu, Yang; Feng, Liangshan; Feng, Chen; Zhang, Zhe; Yang, Ning; Evers, Jochem B.; Zhang, Lizhen

    2017-08-01

    A large yield gap exists in rain-fed maize (Zea mays L.) production in semi-arid regions, mainly caused by frequent droughts halfway through the crop-growing period due to uneven distribution of rainfall. It is questionable whether irrigation systems are economically required in such a region since the total amount of rainfall does generally meet crop requirements. This study aimed to quantitatively determine the effects of water stress from jointing to grain filling on root and shoot growth and the consequences for maize grain yield, above- and below-ground dry matter, water uptake (WU) and water use efficiency (WUE). Pot experiments were conducted in 2014 and 2015 with a mobile rain shelter to achieve conditions of no, mild or severe water stress. Maize yield was not affected by mild water stress over 2 years, while severe stress reduced yield by 56 %. Both water stress levels decreased root biomass slightly but shoot biomass substantially. Mild water stress decreased root length but increased root diameter, resulting in no effect on root surface area. Due to the morphological plasticity in root growth and the increase in root / shoot ratio, WU under water stress was decreased, and overall WUE for both above-ground dry matter and grain yield increased. Our results demonstrate that an irrigation system might be not economically and ecologically necessary because the frequently occurring mild water stress did not reduce crop yield much. The study helps us to understand crop responses to water stress during a critical water-sensitive period (middle of the crop-growing season) and to mitigate drought risk in dry-land agriculture.

  5. Determination of biodegradation rates of water-soluble polymers by three-group-bottles method%3组瓶法测定水溶性高聚物的生物降解率

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴新世; 刘连遵; 孙波; 王菁; 师慈

    2009-01-01

    A three-group-bottles method namely culturing bottle, toxic bottle, and neutral bottle for determining the biode gradability of water-soluble polyaspartie acid-chitosan copolyrner was established and studied from the pretreatment of the remained sample, ehoiee of the analyzing method, and analysis of the testing data, etc. Compared with the routine testing method, the basic determination approach had two advantages at least: on the one hand, it bad more logic by working out the neutral bottle in the test design, and on the other, after the eopolymer was treated by the active sludge for 28 days sim-ultaneously, the maximum degradation rate arrived to 55. 47% by the determination approach, while that was only 47.51% by the latter, which was lower 7.96% than the former.%以水溶性聚天冬氨酸壳聚糖共聚物为研究对象,初步建立了一套以聚合物降解3组瓶即样品瓶、毒性瓶和中性瓶培养为核心内容,包括样品预处理、检测方法选择、结果分析处理等的水溶性高聚物生物降解率测定的基本方法.与常规分析方法相比,一方面本实验方案因增加了中性瓶设计而使得其逻辑性更加严密;另一方面,将聚天冬氨酸壳聚糖共聚物用活性污泥滤液处理28 d,由本实验方案得到的生物降解率为55.47%,而常规方法仅为47.51%,前者比后者约高出7.96%.

  6. Paper versus plastic, water versus carbon and sustainable agriculture in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowling, L. C.

    2011-12-01

    It is increasingly recognized that food and energy security are inextricably linked to climate and climate change, resulting in the so-called climate, energy, food nexus, with the water cycle at its hub. The ability to provide sufficient and consistent energy and food for this generation, while not depleting soil, climate and water resources for future generations involves interconnected feedbacks along the paths of this wheel. In the US corn belt, for example, agricultural water management in the form of subsurface drainage lowers the regional water table to enhance crop production, while at the same time providing a conduit for the more efficient export of nitrate-nitrogen to the Gulf of Mexico and increasing rates of decomposition and subsidence in organic-rich soils. The use of control structures to regulate drainage water has the potential to reduce nitrate and carbon dioxide losses, while at the same time increasing the emissions of other greenhouse gases. Increased biofuels production offers the potential to increase domestic energy security, but at the cost of increased water demand and threats to food security. Just as budding US consumer environmentalists of the last decade struggled with the question of paper versus plastic for bagging their groceries, today's informed consumers are being asked to tacitly choose between water and carbon. The local foods movement encourages consumption of locally-produced foods as a means of reducing carbon emissions associated with food transportation, among other perceived benefits. At the same time, the concept of virtual water trade recognizes that importing the water embedded in production in the form of food can balance a local water deficit. Taking into account the virtual water of food production and carbon emissions of food transportation, the spatial arrangement of the current US crop portfolio minimizes neither water nor carbon footprints. Changes in crop distribution result in trade-offs between the per capita

  7. Occurrence and Multiple Antibiotic Resistance Profiles of Non-fermentative Gram-Negative Microflora in Five Brands of Non-carbonated French Bottled Spring Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary; Defives; Hornez

    2000-05-01

    Five brands of French bottled mineral water were analyzed by heterotrophic plate counts (HPC) and for the presence of multiple antibiotic resistant bacteria. HPC at 22 degrees C were around 10(4) colony forming units ml(-1) on R2A medium. Enumeration on PCA/10, MH, and especially PCA and King B media was less efficient. At 37 degrees C, HPC were two to three orders of magnitude less than at 22 degrees C. Moreover, phenotypic diversity (7 to 15 phenotypes) was optimal on R2A incubated at 22 degrees C. All isolates were identified as non-fermentative Gram-negative rods and 75% were non-identifiable with the API 20NE system. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and fluorescent Pseudomonas were isolated on VIA and CFC selective agar media, respectively. Burkholderia cepacia strains were not isolated on BCSA medium. The species S. maltophilia was found in 33%, 28%, and 11% of sample from springs A, D, and E, respectively. Independent of brand, isolates from HPC media were less efficient to achieve confluent growth in 18 h on MH at 30 or 37 degrees C (0 to 40%) than isolates from selective media (28 to 63%). Seventy percent of the total isolates from dominant microflora (1-5 x 10(3) CFU ml(-1) on HPC media) were resistant against two or four antibiotics. The antibiotics concerned were principally aztreonam, ampicillin, and nalidixic acid. The remaining dominant bacteria showed a 6-9 multiple antibiotic resistant (MAR) pattern. All isolates were susceptible to newer antimicrobial agents. Owing to their low nutrient and temperature requirements, these isolates are unlikely to cause concern to public heath. Fifty percent of strains isolated from selective media (non-dominant microflora, 4-40 CFU l(-1)) showed a 10-18 MAR pattern and 33%, identified as S. maltophilia, a 20-27 MAR pattern. However, minocycline was effective against all isolates. Owing to its low concentration, colonization of human intestine by MAR S. maltophilia is unlikely.

  8. INVESTIGATION OF SPATIOTEMPORAL VARIABILITY AND CONTAMINATION OF PLASTIC MARINE DEBRIS IN QATAR’S COASTAL WATERS

    OpenAIRE

    Abayomi, Oyebamiji Abib

    2015-01-01

    There has been a tremendous proliferation in plastic production in the last five decades due to its low cost and versatile applications. Plastic debris dominates the marine litter globally and has been found in the most pristine environment including the abysmal region of the ocean. Studies show that over 8 million tons of plastics are dumped in the ocean annually. Plastics are persistent in the environment and take several decades to degrade especially in the ocean. Large plastic debris can ...

  9. 测试瓶法用于景观水细菌总数检测%Determination of Total Bacterial Count in Landscape Water by Test-bottle Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜鹃; 陆柱

    2011-01-01

    探讨了采用测试瓶法检测景观水中细菌总数的可行性和操作方法,细菌培养条件为37 c℃下恒温l~2d.平皿计数法和测试瓶法对照试验的数据显示,二者相对误差在10%左右,在景观水的细菌总数测定中可以用测试瓶法代替或者部分代替平皿计数法.测试瓶法可在水体现场进行操作,无需采样保存,检测及时,且能够缩短检测时间、简化操作条件和步骤,节省资源和人工工作量.%The feasibility and operational approach of test-bottle method in determination of total bacterial count in landscape water are discussed. The bacteria are cultured for 1 to 2 d at 37 ℃. The comparison test results of plate count method and test-bottle method show that the relative error between the two methods is about 10%. So the test-bottle method can either replace plate count method or a part of it in determination of total bacterial count in landscape water. This method can be used on site without sample preservation, and it has characteristics of timely determination, short time, simple operational conditions, saving resources and workload.

  10. 淄博市淄川区2008-2010年各类桶装饮用水的卫生状况%Sanitary Status of Various Types of Bottled Drinking Water in Zichuan District of Zibo City during 2008-2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高瑞云

    2011-01-01

    目的 对淄博市淄川区2008-2010年各类桶装饮用水进行采样检测,了解各类桶装饮用水卫生状况,分析存在的问题,提高各类桶装饮用水卫生质量.方法 按照GB 8537-2008、GB 17324-2003、GB 19298-2003,进行采样检测和评价.结果 矿泉水合格率为91.4%,纯净水合格率为88.5%,桶装饮用水合格率为69.7%.结论 淄川区各类桶装饮用水合格率均有待提高,应加强食品安全法执法力度,规范各类桶装饮用水的生产经营,使各类桶装饮用水符合卫生要求.%[ Objective] To sample and test various types of bottled drinking water in Zichuan district of Zibo city during 2008 -2010, learn the sanitary status of bottled drinking water, analyze the problems, so as to improve the sanitary quality of bottled drinking water. [ Methods] The sampling, test and evaluation were conducted according to the Hygienic standard for drinking natural mineral water ( GB 8537 - 2008 ), Hygienic standard for bottled pure drinking water ( GB 17324-2003 ) and the Hygienic standard of bottled water for drinking (GB 19298-2003 ). [Results] The qualified rate of mineral water, pure water and bottled drinking water was 91.4%, 88.5% and 69.7%, respectively. [Conclusion]The qualified rate of various types of bottled drinking water in Zichuan district needs to be improved. It is important to strengthen the enforcement of food safety law, regulate the production and management of various types of bottled drinking water, so as to meet the health requirements.

  11. Robustness of plastic scintillation microspheres in the continuous measurement of different river waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarancón, A; Novella, O; Batlle, M; Pujadas, M; Cros, J; García, J F

    2016-08-01

    Plastic scintillation microspheres (PSm) represent one of the most promising options for monitoring alpha and beta radioactivity in river water. For that reason, a study of the stability of PSm packed into a cell against the continuous flow of river water with different degrees of turbidity was performed over a period of 100h. The results showed that the volume of the cell became stable after 15h of pumping and continued to be stable throughout the 100h of the experiment. During this period of time, the detection efficiency of the PSm, in terms of efficiency*volume, presented mean values of 0.75(3)% for (3)H and 272(11)% for (90)Sr/(90)Y. No dependence on flow time or river water type was observed. The background was also constant for 100h and for the different water types, although (222)Rn should be removed from the water beforehand to prevent its accumulation in the PSm. Since PSm did not present any degradation throughout the whole experiment, PSm can undoubtedly be used for monitoring radioactivity with low reagent consumption, low waste generation and low maintenance costs.

  12. The effect of water availability on plastic responses and biomass allocation in early growth traits of Pinus radiata D. Don

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Espinoza

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The aim of the study was to assess the effect of water availability on plastic responses and biomass allocation in early growth traits of Pinus radiata D. Don.Area of study: Seedlings of 69 families of P. radiata belonging to five different sites in Central Chile, ranging from coastal range to fothills of the Andes, were grown in controlled conditions to evaluate differences in response to watering.Material and methods: The seedlings were subjected to two watering regimes: well-watered treatment, in which seedlings were watered daily, and water stress treatment in which seedlings were subjected to three cyclic water deficits by watering to container capacity on 12 days cycles each. After twenty-eight weeks root collar diameter, height, shoot dry weight (stem + needles, root dry weight, total dry weight, height/diameter ratio and root/shoot ratio were recorded. Patterns and amounts of phenotypic changes, including changes in biomass allocation, were analyzed.Main results: Families from coastal sites presented high divergence for phenotypic changes, allocating more biomass to shoots, and those families from interior sites presented low phenotypic plasticity, allocating more biomass to roots at the expense of shoots. These changes are interpreted as a plastic response and leads to the conclusion that the local landrace of P. radiata in Chile originating from contrasting environments possess distinct morphological responses to water deficit which in turn leads to phenotypic plasticity.Research highlights: Families belonging to sandy soil sites must be considered for tree breeding in dry areas, selecting those with high root: shoot ratio.Key words: early testing; environmental interaction; ontogeny; plasticity index; water stress.

  13. Flexural Toughness of Ring-Shaped Waste Bottle Fiber Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal S. K.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyethylene terephthalate (PET bottles are plastic containers that are typically discarded, and thus, cause environmental pollution. To solve this problem, PET bottles are recycled incorporating with concrete. A ring-shaped PET (RPET fiber are introduced in this study and designed with a special shape to mobilize fiber yielding rather than fiber pullout. Therefore, aim of this paper is to investigate the influence of RPET bottles fibre in terms of toughness strength. The width of RPET fibers is fixed at 5 and 10 mm and the loads were applied to the third points of the specimen. The experiment indicates that RPET-5 and RPET-10 FC presented an increase in the toughness index of I20 on averages of 23.1% and 39.9% respectively, compared to normal specimens. It can conclude that incorporating RPET fiber in concrete presents significant improved of concrete properties.

  14. Preparation of water-resistant antifog hard coatings on plastic substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chao-Ching; Huang, Feng-Hsi; Chang, Hsu-Hsien; Don, Trong-Ming; Chen, Ching-Chung; Cheng, Liao-Ping

    2012-12-11

    A novel water resistant antifog (AF) coating for plastic substrates was developed, which has a special hydrophilic/hydrophobic bilayer structure. The bottom layer, acting both as a mechanical support and a hydrophobic barrier against water penetration, is an organic-inorganic composite comprising colloidal silica embedded in a cross-linked network of dipentaethritol hexaacrylate (DPHA). Atop this layer, an AF coating is applied, which incorporates a superhydrophilic species synthesized from Tween-20 (surfactant), isophorone diisocyanate (coupling agent), and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (monomer). Various methods, e.g., FTIR, SEM, AFM, contact angle, and steam test, were employed to characterize the prepared AF coatings. The results indicated that the size and the continuity of the hydrophilic domains on the top surface increased with increasing added amount of T20, however, at the expense of hardness, adhesiveness, and water resistivity. The optimal T20 content was found to be 10 wt %, at which capacity the resultant AF coating was transparent and wearable (5H, hardness) and could be soaked in water for 7 days at 25 °C without downgrading of its AF capability.

  15. Comparison of Gavage, Water Bottle, and a High-Moisture Diet Bolus as Dosing Methods for Quantitative D-xylose Administration to B6D2F1 (Mus musculus) Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, J. Paul; Lewis, Sherry M.; Moyer, Jerry L.

    1993-01-01

    Gavage, water bottle, and diet incorporation are 3 dosing methods used orally to administer test compounds to rodents. These 3 methods were compared in mice to determine which represented the most quantitative delivery system. For dietary incorporation, a high-moisture bolus form of NIH-31 rodent meal was developed using hydroxypropyl methylcellulose as an autoclave-stable binding agent. A high-moisture bolus were selected to increase the acceptability of the dosed diet and to promote quantitative consumption through reduced wastage. The test compound used was D-xylose, a pentose sugar that may be quantitatively detected, colorimetrically, in urine following oral dosing. Six male and 6 female B6D2FI mice were placed in metabolism cages and dosed with a known quantity of D-xylose by each of the 3 methods. Urine was collected before and after each method of administration and analysed for total D-xylose; the per cent recovery was based upon the amount of D-xylose consumed. Quantitative consumption was apparently greatest for water bottle dosing with an average recovery of 56.0% of the original D-xylose dose. High-moisture bolus incorporation ranked second with 50.0% D-xylose recovery, and gavage was third with 41.0% D-xylose recovery.

  16. Factors of Affecting Health Quality of Bottled Drinking Water and Control Measures%影响瓶装纯净水卫生质量的因素与控制措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李锦利

    2012-01-01

    为提高瓶装饮用纯净水的卫生质量,对影响瓶装饮用纯净水卫生质量的因素和控制措施进行分析,指出加强企业的自身管理,强化食品卫生质量意识,制定完善的卫生管理制度,改进生产工艺、科学规范建厂等是保障其卫生质量最关键的环节.%In order to improve the health quality of bottled drinking water, this paper analyzed factors of affecting its health quality and control measures, pointed out to strengthen the management of the enterprise itself, strengthen the quality of food hygiene awareness, develop a comprehensive health management system, improve production technology, scientifically standardize the building of factory is protect the most critical link of guaranteeing health quality of bottled drinking water.

  17. Water plasticization of extruded material made from meat and bone meal and sodium caseinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Rafael A; Onwulata, Charles I; Ashby, Richard D

    2004-06-16

    Meat and bone meal (MBM) is a high protein agricultural commodity that currently has few applications other than as an animal feed. Unmodified MBM has poor functional properties, due to its low solubility. Our results from pilot plant trials demonstrate that MBM can be extrusion-processed along with sodium caseinate to produce a useful plastic material. We developed this material for use as a dog chew toy. For this application, elastic modulus (stiffness) is a key characteristic. Our results detail the relationship between ambient relative humidity and equilibrium moisture content (MC) in the material. The influence of MC on the glass transition temperature and elastic modulus reflects the plasticization of this material by water. On the basis of a comparison to a commercially available dog chew, the range of stiffness achievable with our material, 0.25-2.50 GPa, encompasses the values appropriate for a dog chew. Our results show that a particular desired stiffness can be maintained by applying an edible moisture barrier to the surface of the material.

  18. Challenges and Alternatives to Plastics Recycling in the Automotive Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Miller

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Plastics are increasingly a preferred material choice in designing and developing complex, consumer products, such as automobiles, because they are mouldable, lightweight, and are often perceived to be highly recyclable materials. However, actually recycling the heterogeneous plastics used in such durable items is challenging, and presents very different scenarios to how simple products, such as water bottles, are recovered via curbside or container recycling initiatives. While the technology exists to recycle plastics, their feasibility to do so from high level consumer or industrial applications is bounded by technological and economical restraints. Obstacles include the lack of market for recyclates, and the lack of cost efficient recovery infrastructures or processes. Furthermore, there is a knowledge gap between manufacturers, consumers, and end-of-life facility operators. For these reasons, end-of-life plastics are more likely to end up down-cycled, or as shredder residue and then landfilled. This paper reviews these challenges and several alternatives to recycling plastics in order to broaden the mindset surrounding plastics recycling to improve their sustainability. The paper focuses on the automotive sector for examples, but discussion can be applied to a wide range of plastic components from similarly complex products.

  19. Challenges and Alternatives to Plastics Recycling in the Automotive Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lindsay; Soulliere, Katie; Sawyer-Beaulieu, Susan; Tseng, Simon; Tam, Edwin

    2014-08-15

    Plastics are increasingly a preferred material choice in designing and developing complex, consumer products, such as automobiles, because they are mouldable, lightweight, and are often perceived to be highly recyclable materials. However, actually recycling the heterogeneous plastics used in such durable items is challenging, and presents very different scenarios to how simple products, such as water bottles, are recovered via curbside or container recycling initiatives. While the technology exists to recycle plastics, their feasibility to do so from high level consumer or industrial applications is bounded by technological and economical restraints. Obstacles include the lack of market for recyclates, and the lack of cost efficient recovery infrastructures or processes. Furthermore, there is a knowledge gap between manufacturers, consumers, and end-of-life facility operators. For these reasons, end-of-life plastics are more likely to end up down-cycled, or as shredder residue and then landfilled. This paper reviews these challenges and several alternatives to recycling plastics in order to broaden the mindset surrounding plastics recycling to improve their sustainability. The paper focuses on the automotive sector for examples, but discussion can be applied to a wide range of plastic components from similarly complex products.

  20. Effectiveness of table top water pitcher filters to remove arsenic from drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnaby, Roxanna; Liefeld, Amanda; Jackson, Brian P; Hampton, Thomas H; Stanton, Bruce A

    2017-10-01

    Arsenic contamination of drinking water is a serious threat to the health of hundreds of millions of people worldwide. In the United States ~3 million individuals drink well water that contains arsenic levels above the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 10μg/L. Several technologies are available to remove arsenic from well water including anion exchange, adsorptive media and reverse osmosis. In addition, bottled water is an alternative to drinking well water contaminated with arsenic. However, there are several drawbacks associated with these approaches including relatively high cost and, in the case of bottled water, the generation of plastic waste. In this study, we tested the ability of five tabletop water pitcher filters to remove arsenic from drinking water. We report that only one tabletop water pitcher filter tested, ZeroWater®, reduced the arsenic concentration, both As(3+) and As(5+), from 1000μg/L to water and its use reduces plastic waste associated with bottled water. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Influence of localized plasticity on oxidation behaviour of austenitic stainless steels under primary water reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cissé, Sarata [CEA Saclay, DEN/DANS/DMN/SEMI, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Laffont, Lydia, E-mail: lydia.laffont@ensiacet.fr [Institut CARNOT, CIRIMAT-ENSIACET, 4 allée Emile Monso, 31030 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Lafont, Marie-Christine [Institut CARNOT, CIRIMAT-ENSIACET, 4 allée Emile Monso, 31030 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Tanguy, Benoit [CEA Saclay, DEN/DANS/DMN/SEMI, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Andrieu, Eric [Institut CARNOT, CIRIMAT-ENSIACET, 4 allée Emile Monso, 31030 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France)

    2013-02-15

    The sensitivity of precipitation-strengthened A286 austenitic stainless steel to stress corrosion cracking was studied by means of slow-strain-rate tests. First, alloy cold working by low cycle fatigue (LCF) was investigated. Fatigue tests under plastic strain control were performed at different strain levels (Δε{sub p}/2 = 0.2%, 0.5%, 0.8% and 2%) to establish correlations between stress softening and the deformation microstructure resulting from the LCF tests. Deformed microstructures were identified through TEM investigations. The interaction between oxidation and localized deformation bands was also studied and it resulted that localized deformation bands are not preferential oxide growth channels. The pre-cycling of the alloy did not modify its oxidation behaviour. However, intergranular oxidation in the subsurface under the oxide layer formed after exposure to PWR primary water was shown.

  2. Yield Traits and Water and Nitrogen Use Efficiencies of Bell Pepper Grown in Plastic-Greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rita Rivelli

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We report the results of a two-year study assessing the effects of nitrogen fertilization and irrigation regimes on yield traits and on water and nitrogen use efficiency of greenhouse-grown bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.. The trials involved the combination of four N doses (0, 100, 200, 300 kg ha-1 with two irrigation regimes (100% restitution of ETc; repeated cycles of water stress starting from fruit set. In the second year, the crop was transplanted one month earlier than in the first year and was mulched with plastic sheeting. The highest yield in both years was obtained by associating 100% restitution of ETc and the N dose of 200 kg ha-1. The marketable yields were 37 and 72 t ha-1 in 1998 and 1999, respectively. Doubling of the yield in the second year was probably due to the earlier transplantation and mulching, confirming the numerous benefits of the latter technique. The water deficit imposed during the late flowering-early fruit set phase had negative effects on the crop, with declines of the marketable yield of up to 44% due to the reduced number and weight of the fruit and the increased waste, mainly peppers with blossom-end rot, cracking, sun-burn and malformations. The peppers grown under water stress were richer in dry matter and soluble solids. The yield declines due to water deficit varied in relation to the N dose, as confirmed by the numerous interactions recorded between irrigation regime and nitrogen level.Without nitrogen fertilization, the quantity and quality of the fruits remained unchanged, while the maximum dose (300 kg ha-1 enhanced the negative effects of the water deficit on the number (-52% and weight (-161% of marketable peppers. Moreover, the waste peppers reached 31% of the total production (by weight, with over 21% affected by blossom-end rot. Water stress led to a drastic reduction of the total above-ground dry biomass (40% and a significant decrease of nitrogen absorption by the plant (54% with preferential

  3. Effects of No-tillage Combined with Reused Plastic Film Mulching on Maize Yield and Irrigation Water Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SU Yong-zhong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted to determine the effects of reused plastic film mulching and no-tillage on maize yield and irriga-tion water productivity(IWP in the marginal oasis in the middle of Hexi Corridor region of northwestern China. The aim is to provide an alternative tillage and cultivation pattern for reducing plastic film pollution, saving cost and increasing income, and improving resource use efficiency. The field experiment was carried out in three soils with different textures and fertility levels. Three treatments for each soil were set up:(1 conventional tillage,winter irrigation, and new plastic mulching cultivation(NM;(2 no tillage, less winter irrigation and reused plastic mulching cultivation (RM;(3 no tillage, less winter irrigation and reused plastic mulching combined with straw mulching (RMS. The results showed that the average daily soil temperature in the two reused plastic mulching treatment(RM and RMS during maize sowing and elongation stage was lower 0.6~1.0℃(5 cm depth and 0.5~0.8℃(15 cm depth than that in the NM. This result suggested that no tillage and reused plastic mulching cultivation still had the effect of increasing soil temperature. Maize grain yield in the RM was reduced by 4.4%~10.6% compared with the conventional cultivation(NM, while the net income increased due to saving in plastic film and tillage ex-penses. There was no significant difference in maize grain yield between the RMS and NM treatment, but the net income in the RMS was in-creased by 12.5%~17.1% than that in the NM. Compared with the NM, the two reused plastic film mulching treatments (RM and RMS decreased the volume of winter irrigation, but maize IWP increased. Soil texture and fertility level affected significantly maize nitrogen uptake and IWP. In the arid oases with the shortage of water resources, cultivation practices of conservation tillage with recycle of plastic film is an ideal option for saving cost and increasing income

  4. Ocular injuries from exploding glass-bottled Coca-Cola® drinks in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro-Egbe CN

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Chinyere Nnenne Pedro-Egbe, Chibuike Sydney Ejimadu, Henrietta NwachukwuDepartment of Ophthalmology, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, NigeriaBackground: Eye injuries and subsequent loss of vision from the glass and caps of exploding pressurized bottled drinks have been well reported, and as a result most developed countries now use mainly plastic bottles. In Nigeria, however, most drinks are still sold in glass bottles and ocular injuries from this source are therefore not uncommon.Aim: To retrospectively analyze ocular injuries resulting from exploding glass-bottled Coca-Cola® and propose ways of eliminating such injuries in future.Setting: Eye Clinic, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.Materials and methods: The medical records of all cases of ocular injury that presented at the Eye Clinic of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital over a 5-year period (January 2006 to December 2010 were retrieved and relevant data including age, sex, occupation, events surrounding bottle explosion, and type of ocular injury sustained were extracted.Results: A total of 426 cases of ocular injuries was seen during the period under review. There were 335 (78.6% males and 91 (21.4% females. Six patients had ocular injury from exploding glass-bottled Coca-Cola®, giving an incidence of 1.4%. The presenting visual acuities (VA were light perception (2 cases, counting fingers (2 cases, and 1 VA of 6/24 and 1 VA of 6/12. There were 4 (66.7% cases of corneoscleral laceration with uveal prolapse and 1 case of total hyphema.Conclusion: Because pressurized glass-bottles can explode with normal handling, legislation to ban the use of glass containers for bottling carbonated drinks will go a long way to reducing ocular morbidity from this source. Plastic bottles should be introduced as an alternative.Keywords: ocular injuries, exploding glass-bottled drink

  5. Application of Count Sampling Inspection in Barrels Acceptance of Bottled Drinking Water Production Enterprise%计数抽样检验在桶装饮用水生产企业桶的验收中的应用探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马闯; 莫树平; 蔡淑珍

    2014-01-01

    The theory and method of count simple plan in the process of quality acceptance of ingredient bottles of bottled water have been introduced in the article. Presenting some examples for specification, the article is supplied to manufacturers in the practice of bottled water production.%本文以GB/T 2828.1—2003为依据,系统地介绍了桶装水原料桶质量验收中的计数抽样方案的理论方法,详细地介绍了抽样方案检索实施步骤,并结合实例进行了说明,可供桶装水生产企业在实践中使用。

  6. Study on Preparation of Water Soluble Polyester Insulation Electrophoretic Coating by Using Waste Polyester Bottle as Raw Material%废聚酯瓶制取水溶性聚酯绝缘电泳漆的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玉滨; 吴津成; 陈文波

    2013-01-01

    Water soluble polyester resin for insulation electrophoretic coating was prepared by using waste polyester bottle as raw materials and a series of chemical reactions. The influence factors such as catalyst, dosage and kinds of polyol and anhydride on water soluble polyester insulation electrophoretic coating were studied.%采用废聚酯瓶为原材料,经一系列化学反应,制得漆包线用水溶性聚酯绝缘电泳漆树脂。考察了催化剂、多元醇和酸酐的种类及用量对水溶性聚酯绝缘电泳漆的影响。

  7. Indications and complications of tube thoracostomy with improvised underwater seal bottles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday A Edaigbini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tube thoracostomy is a lifesaving and frequently performed procedure in hospitals where the expertise and necessary tools are available. Where the ideal drainage receptacle is unavailable, the underwater seal device can be improvised with bottled water plastic can especially in emergency situations. Aims and Objectives: To determine the frequencies of the various indications and complications of tube thoracostomy with improvised underwater seal. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study with a structured proforma was used for assessment over a 3-year period (May 2010-April 2013. The proforma was filled at the time of the procedure by the performing surgeon and patients were followed up with serial chest X-rays until certified cured. A 1.5 L bottled water container was used as the underwater seal receptacle. The data was analysed with SPSS 15 software program. Results: A total of 167 patients were managed. There were 106 (63.5% males and 61 (36.5% females. The mean age was 34.85 ± 16.72 with a range of 1-80 years. The most frequent indication was for malignant/paramalignant effusion, 46 (27.5%. Others were trauma, 44 (26.3%, Parapneumonic effusion, 20 (12%, postthoracotomy 14 (8.4%, empyema thoracis 12 (7.2%, heart disease and tuberculous effusion 11 (6.6% each, pneumothorax 8 (4.8% and misdiagnosis 1 (0.6%. A hundred and one (60.5% of the procedures were performed by registrars, 41 (24.6% by consultants, house officers 15 (9% and senior registrars 10 (6%. The overall complication rate was 16.8% with the more frequent complications been empyema (5.6% and pneumothorax (3.6%. The average duration of tube placement was 13.02 ± 12.362 days and range of 1-110 days. Conclusion : Tube thoracostomy can be a relatively safe procedure with acceptable complication rates even with improvised underwater seal drainage bottles.

  8. Indications and Complications of Tube Thoracostomy with Improvised Underwater Seal Bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edaigbini, Sunday A; Delia, Ibrahim Z; Aminu, Muhammad B; Orogade, Abosede A; Anumenechi, Ndubuisi; Aliyu, Ibrahim D

    2014-01-01

    Background: Tube thoracostomy is a lifesaving and frequently performed procedure in hospitals where the expertise and necessary tools are available. Where the ideal drainage receptacle is unavailable, the underwater seal device can be improvised with bottled water plastic can especially in emergency situations. Aims and Objectives: To determine the frequencies of the various indications and complications of tube thoracostomy with improvised underwater seal. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study with a structured proforma was used for assessment over a 3-year period (May 2010-April 2013). The proforma was filled at the time of the procedure by the performing surgeon and patients were followed up with serial chest X-rays until certified cured. A 1.5 L bottled water container was used as the underwater seal receptacle. The data was analysed with SPSS 15 software program. Results: A total of 167 patients were managed. There were 106 (63.5%) males and 61 (36.5%) females. The mean age was 34.85 ± 16.72 with a range of 1-80 years. The most frequent indication was for malignant/paramalignant effusion, 46 (27.5%). Others were trauma, 44 (26.3%), Parapneumonic effusion, 20 (12%), postthoracotomy 14 (8.4%), empyema thoracis 12 (7.2%), heart disease and tuberculous effusion 11 (6.6%) each, pneumothorax 8 (4.8%) and misdiagnosis 1 (0.6%). A hundred and one (60.5%) of the procedures were performed by registrars, 41 (24.6%) by consultants, house officers 15 (9%) and senior registrars 10 (6%). The overall complication rate was 16.8% with the more frequent complications been empyema (5.6%) and pneumothorax (3.6%). The average duration of tube placement was 13.02 ± 12.362 days and range of 1-110 days. Conclusion: Tube thoracostomy can be a relatively safe procedure with acceptable complication rates even with improvised underwater seal drainage bottles. PMID:25191098

  9. The effect of water availability on plastic responses and biomass allocation in early growth traits of Pinus radiata D. Don

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinoza, S. E.; Magni, C. R.; Martinez, V. A.; Ivkovic, M.

    2013-05-01

    Aim of study: The aim of the study was to assess the effect of water availability on plastic responses and biomass allocation in early growth traits of Pinus radiata D. Don. Area of study: Seedlings of 69 families of P. radiata belonging to five different sites in Central Chile, ranging from coastal range to fothills of the Andes, were grown in controlled conditions to evaluate differences in response to watering. Material and methods: The seedlings were subjected to two watering regimes: well-watered treatment, in which seedlings were watered daily, and water stress treatment in which seedlings were subjected to three cyclic water deficits by watering to container capacity on 12 days cycles each. After twenty-eight weeks root collar diameter, height, shoot dry weight (stem + needles), root dry weight, total dry weight, height/diameter ratio and root/shoot ratio were recorded. Patterns and amounts of phenotypic changes, including changes in biomass allocation, were analyzed. Main results: Families from coastal sites presented high divergence for phenotypic changes, allocating more biomass to shoots, and those families from interior sites presented low phenotypic plasticity, allocating more biomass to roots at the expense of shoots. These changes are interpreted as a plastic response and leads to the conclusion that the local land race of P. radiata in Chile originating from contrasting environments possess distinct morphological responses to water deficit which in turn leads to phenotypic plasticity. Research highlights: Families belonging to sandy soil sites must be considered for tree breeding in dry areas, selecting those with high root: shoot ratio. (Author) 46 refs.

  10. Effect of PVP on the characteristic of modified membranes made from waste PET bottles for humic acid removal [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrul Arahman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possibility of using recycled polymer (waste polyethylene terephthalate [PET] bottles as a membrane material. Furthermore, the effect of the addition of a pore-forming agent and preparation conditions was also observed. Methods: Porous polymeric membranes were prepared via thermally induced phase separation by dissolving recycled PET in phenol. PET polymer was obtained from waste plastic bottles as a new source of polymeric material. For original PET membrane, the casting solution was prepared by dissolving of 20wt% PET in phenol solution. For PET modified membrane, a 5 wt% of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP was added into polymer solution. The solution was cast onto a glass plate at room temperature followed by evaporation before the solidification process. The membranes formed were characterized in terms of morphology, chemical group, and filtration performance. A humic acid solution was used to identify the permeability and the solute rejection of the membranes. Results: The results showed that the recycled PET from waste plastic bottles was applicable to use as a membrane material for a water treatment process. The maximum flux of 97.0 l/m2.hr was obtained from filtration test using PET membrane. The highest rejection of humic acid in a water sample, which reached up to 75.92%, was obtained using the PET/PVP membrane. Conclusions: The recycled PET from waste bottles was successfully used to prepare porous membrane. The membrane was modified by the addition of PVP as a membrane modifying agent. SEM analysis confirmed that the original PET membrane has a rough and large pore structure. The addition of PVP improved the pore density with a narrow pore structure. The PET/PVP membrane conditioned with evaporation was the best in humic acid rejection.

  11. Using water and sanitation as an entry point to fight poverty and respond to HIV/AIDS: the case of Isulabasha small medium enterprise

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Manase, G

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available components; a 2 litre Coca Cola plastic bottle which acts as the water container and a plastic valve fitted at the top of the 2 litre bottle. The Handwashing dispenser can be fitted easily on a strategic position on the wall of the VIP making it easy..., South Africa was remarkably number 55 in the world (i.e. out of 171 countries) based on the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) index which is a measure of economic growth. However, in the same year South Africa ranked number 121 on the Human Development...

  12. Avaliação da concentração de flúor em águas minerais comercializadas no Brasil Evaluation of fluoride content of bottled drinking waters in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita S. Villena

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de flúor sistêmico deve ser controlada em termos de risco/benefício, pois enquanto a subdosagem não trouxer benefício anticárie, a sobredosagem estará associada com fluorose dental. Assim, uma das preocupações é o consumo de águas minerais, o qual tem aumentado nos últimos anos. Deste modo, foi realizado estudo com o objetivo de analisar a concentração de flúor em águas minerais comercializadas no Brasil. Foram analisadas 104 marcas comerciais, de diferentes regiões do País. Utilizou-se eletrodo específico Orion 96-09 e analisador de íons Orion EA 940, previamente calibrados com soluções padrões de flúor. Foram observadas concentrações de flúor variando de 0,0 a 4,4 ppm. Constataram-se: 1 Concentrações significativas de flúor não relatadas pelo produtor; 2 Concentrações de flúor sem significado preventivo anti-cárie, embora o produtor destaque na embalagem "Água Mineral Fluoretada"; 3 Concentrações de flúor capazes de provocar fluorose dental severa, embora o produtor não faça nenhuma referência que o mesmo existe. Conclui-se ser necessário um Sistema de Vigilância Sanitária para o controle de flúor nas águas minerais oferecidas à população brasileira, quer seja em termos de benefício como de risco.The utilization of a systemic fluoride method must be controlled in terms of risks and benefits. The reason for this is that while a small dose will not be effective in preventing dental caries, a larger dose may cause dental fluorosis. Therefore the knowledge of the fluoride concentration found in the bottled mineral waters sold throughout the Brazilian market the consumption of which has increased lately, is of great concern. The objective of the study was the analysis of the concentration of fluoride found in the bottled mineral waters. A hundred and four brands coming from different regions of Brazil were analysed using an Orion 96-09 ion specific electrode and an Orion EA 940

  13. 江门市桶装饮用水二次污染状况及其影响因素%Status of secondary contamination of bottled drinking water and its influencing factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鹰航; 尹本康; 钟瑞美; 赵劲文

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] To understand the status of microbe secondary contamination of bottled drinking water in the use of drinking water supply apparatus and explore its influencing factors,and provide scientific basis for improving the sanitary status of drinking water supply apparatus to decrease secondary contamination.[Methods] A total of 79 ordinary drinking water supply apparatus in use were randomly sampled as the objects of bacteriological investigation,among them,19 drinking water supply apparatus had not been cleaned and another 13 drinking water supply apparatus had been cleaned,and their status of microbe contamination were tracked and observed.[Results] The contamination rates of the water that discharged from cold water valve of 79 drinking water supply apparatus for total bacterial count,mould + yeast and coliform group were 82.3%,34.2% and 10.1%,respectively.thermotolerant coliform bacteria and pathogenic bacteria were not detected.After cleaning,the contamination rates of bottled drinking water showed significant difference as compared with the same apparatus before cleaning(x2 =12.764,P <0.01).[Conclusion]The serious microbe secondary contamination of bottled drinking water that caused by drinking water supply apparatus in use still exists in Jiangmen City.It is very necessary to clean drinking water supply apparatus regularly and appropriately.%目的 了解江门市饮水机在使用过程中对桶装饮用水产生的微生物二次污染状况并对其影响因素进行探讨,为进一步改善饮水机的卫生状况、减少二次污染提供科学依据.方法 随机抽取79台正在使用的普通饮水机进行细菌学调查,并对其中19台污染前情况和13台清洗后进行追踪观察.结果 79台饮水机其冷水阀出水的细菌总数、霉菌+酵母菌和大肠菌群污染率分别为82.3%、34.2%和10.1%,耐热大肠菌群和致病菌未检出;饮水机清洗前后对比其污染率差异有统计学意义(x2=12.764,P

  14. 27 CFR 19.382 - Bottling tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottling tanks. 19.382... Manufacture of Articles Bottling, Packaging, and Removal of Products § 19.382 Bottling tanks. All spirits shall be bottled from tanks listed and certified as accurately calibrated in the notice of...

  15. Phenotypic plasticity and its genetic regulation for yield, nitrogen fixation and δ13C in chickpea crops under varying water regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadras, Victor O; Lake, Lachlan; Li, Yongle; Farquharson, Elizabeth A; Sutton, Tim

    2016-07-01

    We measured yield components, nitrogen fixation, soil nitrogen uptake and carbon isotope composition (δ(13)C) in a collection of chickpea genotypes grown in environments where water availability was the main source of yield variation. We aimed to quantify the phenotypic plasticity of these traits using variance ratios, and to explore their genetic basis using FST genome scan. Fifty-five genes in three genomic regions were found to be under selection for plasticity of yield; 54 genes in four genomic regions for the plasticity of seeds per m(2); 48 genes in four genomic regions for the plasticity of δ(13)C; 54 genes in two genomic regions for plasticity of flowering time; 48 genes in five genomic regions for plasticity of nitrogen fixation and 49 genes in three genomic regions for plasticity of nitrogen uptake from soil. Plasticity of yield was related to plasticity of nitrogen uptake from soil, and unrelated to plasticity of nitrogen fixation, highlighting the need for closer attention to nitrogen uptake in legumes. Whereas the theoretical link between δ(13)C and transpiration efficiency is strong, the actual link with yield is erratic due to trade-offs and scaling issues. Genes associated with plasticity of δ(13)C were identified that may help to untangle the δ(13)C-yield relationship. Combining a plasticity perspective to deal with complex G×E interactions with FST genome scan may help understand and improve both crop adaptation to stress and yield potential.

  16. Evaluation, modelling and optimization of the cleaning process of contaminated plastic food refillables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlieghere, F; De Meulenaer, B; Sekitoleko, P; Estrella Garcia, A A; Huyghebaert, A

    1997-01-01

    In this study several types of bottle materials (glass, PET (polyethylene terephthalate), PC (polycarbonate), HDPE (high density polyethylene), PP (polypropylene) and PVC (polyvinyl chloride)) were evaluated in order to be used as food refillables, comparing the residual chemical contamination after classical caustic washing. Bottles were contaminated with model chemicals (chloroxylenol and d-limonene) and caustic washed with varied process parameters using a simulated laboratory-scale washing procedure. After washing, the chemical-contaminated bottles were filled with water and stored for 28 days at 37 degrees C. The concentrations of the model chemicals in the water after storage were taken as a measure of chemical contamination. The influence of the cleaning parameters (temperature, caustic and commercial additive concentration) was studied using response surface methodology. Washing temperature showed a significant influence on the removal of absorbed chemicals from surfaces compared with the effect of the caustic and especially the additive concentration. Optimization of caustic cleaning for the cleaning process in question led to better cleaning effectiveness, although none of the different washing conditions were able to remove all absorbed chemicals out of the polymeric resins. Commercially available plastic refillables (PET and PC) showed the best chemical rinsability. Glass bottles, however, had in every case the best rinsing characteristics.

  17. Plastic litter accumulation on high-water strandline of urban beaches in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasiri, H B; Purushothaman, C S; Vennila, A

    2013-09-01

    Today, almost every beach on every coastline is threatened by human activities. The inadequate recycling and poor management of waste in developing countries has resulted in considerable quantities of plastic contaminating beaches. Though India has long coastline of 5,420 km along the mainland with 43 % of sandy beaches, data on litter accumulation, particularly the plastics, which are one of the most common and persistent pollutants in marine environment, are scanty. The abundance and distribution of plastic litter was quantitatively assessed in four sandy beaches in Mumbai, India, bimonthly from May 2011 to March 2012. Triplicates of 2 × 2 m (4 m(2)) quadrats were sampled in each beach with a total of 72 quadrats. Overall, average abundance of 11.6 items m(-2) (0.25-282.5 items m(-2)) and 3.24 g m(-2) (0.27-15.53 g m(-2)) plastic litter was recorded in Mumbai beaches. Plastic litter accumulation significantly varied temporally and spatially at p = 0.05. Significantly higher plastic litter accumulation was recorded in Juhu beach. Furthermore, the highest abundance by weight was recorded in November and May numerically. More than 80 % of plastic particles were within the size range of 5-100 mm both by number and weight. Moreover, coloured plastics were predominant with 67 % by number of items and 51 % by weight. Probably, the intense use of beaches for recreation, tourism, and religious activities has increased the potential for plastic contamination in urban beaches in Mumbai.

  18. Morphological change and phenotypic plasticity in native and non-native pumpkinseed sunfish in response to sustained water velocities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavno, S; Fox, M G

    2013-11-01

    Phenotypic plasticity can contribute to the proliferation and invasion success of nonindigenous species by promoting phenotypic changes that increase fitness, facilitate range expansion and improve survival. In this study, differences in phenotypic plasticity were investigated using young-of-year pumpkinseed sunfish from colonies established with lentic and lotic populations originating in Canada (native) and Spain (non-native). Individuals were subjected to static and flowing water treatments for 80 days. Inter- and intra-population differences were tested using ancova and discriminant function analysis, and differences in phenotypic plasticity were tested through a manova of discriminant function scores. Differences between Iberian and North American populations were observed in dorsal fin length, pectoral fin position and caudal peduncle length. Phenotypic plasticity had less influence on morphology than genetic factors, regardless of population origin. Contrary to predictions, Iberian pumpkinseed exhibited lower levels of phenotypic plasticity than native populations, suggesting that canalization may have occurred in the non-native populations during the processes of introduction and range expansion.

  19. Determining the location of buried plastic water pipes from measurements of ground surface vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggleton, J. M.; Brennan, M. J.; Gao, Y.

    2011-09-01

    ‘Mapping the Underworld' is a UK-based project, which aims to create a multi-sensor device that combines complementary technologies for remote buried utility service detection and location. One of the technologies to be incorporated in the device is low-frequency vibro-acoustics, and techniques for detecting buried infrastructure, in particular plastic water pipes, are being investigated. One of the proposed techniques involves excitation of the pipe at some known location with concurrent vibrational mapping of the ground surface in order to infer the location of the remainder of the pipe. In this paper, measurements made on a dedicated pipe rig are reported. Frequency response measurements relating vibrational velocity on the ground to the input excitation were acquired. Contour plots of the unwrapped phase revealed the location of the pipe to within 0.1-0.2 m. Magnitude contour plots revealed the excitation point and also the location of the pipe end. By examining the unwrapped phase gradients along a line above the pipe, it was possible to identify the wave-type within the pipe responsible for the ground surface vibration. Furthermore, changes in the ground surface phase speed computed using this method enabled the location of the end of the pipe to be confirmed.

  20. Evaluation of the Impact of the Plastic BioSand Filter on Health and Drinking Water Quality in Rural Tamale, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumuni K. Osman

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A randomized controlled trial of the plastic BioSand filter (BSF was performed in rural communities in Tamale (Ghana to assess reductions in diarrheal disease and improvements in household drinking water quality. Few studies of household water filters have been performed in this region, where high drinking water turbidity can be a challenge for other household water treatment technologies. During the study, the longitudinal prevalence ratio for diarrhea comparing households that received the plastic BSF to households that did not receive it was 0.40 (95% confidence interval: 0.05, 0.80, suggesting an overall diarrheal disease reduction of 60%. The plastic BSF achieved a geometric mean reduction of 97% and 67% for E. coli and turbidity, respectively. These results suggest the plastic BSF significantly improved drinking water quality and reduced diarrheal disease during the short trial in rural Tamale, Ghana. The results are similar to other trials of household drinking water treatment technologies.

  1. Evaluation of the impact of the plastic BioSand filter on health and drinking water quality in rural Tamale, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauber, Christine E; Kominek, Byron; Liang, Kaida R; Osman, Mumuni K; Sobsey, Mark D

    2012-10-24

    A randomized controlled trial of the plastic BioSand filter (BSF) was performed in rural communities in Tamale (Ghana) to assess reductions in diarrheal disease and improvements in household drinking water quality. Few studies of household water filters have been performed in this region, where high drinking water turbidity can be a challenge for other household water treatment technologies. During the study, the longitudinal prevalence ratio for diarrhea comparing households that received the plastic BSF to households that did not receive it was 0.41 (95% confidence interval: 0.18, 0.92), suggesting an overall diarrheal disease reduction of 59% [corrected]. The plastic BSF achieved a geometric mean reduction of 97% and 67% for E. coli and turbidity, respectively. These results suggest the plastic BSF significantly improved drinking water quality and reduced diarrheal disease during the short trial in rural Tamale, Ghana. The results are similar to other trials of household drinking water treatment technologies.

  2. Sulfur Distribution during Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Lignite, Wheat Straw and Plastic Waste in Sub-Critical Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Baofeng; Huang Yaru; Zhang Jinjun

    2015-01-01

    The distribution and transformation of sulfur in products during hydrothermal liquefaction of lignite, wheat straw and plastic waste in sub-critical water were investigated in an autoclave. The inlfuence of blending ratio, temperature, initial nitrogen pressure, residence time and additives on sulfur distribution was studied systematically. The results showed that most of sulfur existed as organic sulfur and transferred into the residue, and only a small part of sulfur transferred into oil and gas during hydrothermal liquefaction of lignite, wheat straw and plastic waste in sub-critical water. The results also showed that lower temperature (less than 300℃) was favorable for obtaining oil with low sulfur content. It can be also seen from the results that the best condition to obtain the oil with low sulfur content should be implemented at a lignite/wheat straw/plastic waste blending ratio of 5:4:1, an initial nitrogen pressure of 3 MPa and a residence time of 30 minutes. Fur-thermore, the results indicated that adding tourmaline during hydrothermal liquefaction of lignite, wheat straw and plastic waste was beneifcial to production of oil with low sulfur content.

  3. Modeling water flow and nitrate dynamics in a plastic mulch vegetable cultivation system using HYDRUS-2D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipović, Vilim; Romić, Davor; Romić, Marija; Matijević, Lana; Mallmann, Fábio J. K.; Robinson, David A.

    2016-04-01

    Growing vegetables commercially requires intensive management and involves high irrigation demands and input of agrochemicals. Plastic mulch application in combination with drip irrigation is a common agricultural management technique practiced due to variety of benefits to the crop, mostly vegetable biomass production. However, the use of these techniques can result in various impacts on water and nutrient distribution in underlying soil and consequently affect nutrient leaching towards groundwater resources. The aim of this work is to estimate the effect of plastic mulch cover in combination with drip irrigation on water and nitrate dynamics in soil using HYDRUS-2D model. The field site was located in Croatian costal karst area on a Gleysol (WRB). The experiment was designed according to the split-plot design in three repetitions and was divided into plots with plastic mulch cover (MULCH) and control plots with bare soil (CONT). Each of these plots received applications of three levels of nitrogen fertilizer: 70, 140, and 210 kg per ha. All plots were equipped with drip irrigation and cropped with bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Bianca F1). Lysimeters were installed at 90 cm depth in all plots and were used for monitoring the water and nitrate outflow. HYDRUS-2D was used for modeling the water and nitrogen outflow in the MULCH and CONT plots, implementing the proper boundary conditions. HYDRUS-2D simulated results showed good fitting to the field site observed data in both cumulative water and nitrate outflow, with high level of agreement. Water flow simulations produced model efficiency of 0.84 for CONT and 0.56 for MULCH plots, while nitrate simulations showed model efficiency ranging from 0.67 to 0.83 and from 0.70 to 0.93, respectively. Additional simulations were performed with the absence of the lysimeter, revealing faster transport of nitrates below drip line in the CONT plots, mostly because of the increased surface area subjected to precipitation

  4. [Safety verification for reuse of PET and glass bottles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Eiichi; Imai, Toshio; Niimi, Hiroji

    2011-01-01

    In order to verify the safety associated with reusing PET and glass bottles, a challenge test was conducted with five surrogate contaminants: 1,1,1-trichloroethane, chlorobenzene, toluene, benzophenone and phenyl cyclohexane. Bottles were filled with a cocktail solution of these contaminants and stored at 50 °C for 7 days, then washed with water and alkaline solutions. Material and migration tests were conducted at each step. The material test results showed that 430-1,440 µg/g of the contaminants were retained after water washing, and that even after washing with a 3.5% NaOH solution, 225-925 µg/g of the contaminants were retained. The migration tests revealed that 0.095-7.35 µg/mL of the contaminants were eluted. Similar tests were conducted with a soft drink ingredient, limonene. The results revealed that 48 µg/g of limonene was retained even after washing with NaOH solution, and that 0.16 µg/mL of limonene was eluted. Conversely, no contaminants were eluted from glass bottles after washing with the NaOH solution. Thus, from the viewpoint of safety and the preservation of content quality, PET bottles are not considered suitable for reuse when compared with glass bottles.

  5. Water disinfection with solar radiation; Desinfeccion del agua con radiacion solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Alejandra; Cortes, Juana E; Rodriguez, Miriam; Mundo, Alfredo; Vazquez, Sandra [Instituto Mexicano de Tecnologia del Agua, Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico); Estrada, Claudio A [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    Water disinfection by exposure to solar radiation is a low cost and easy application option to rural communities. The treatment of water can be done using plastic bags or plastic bottles of two litters setting on a reflective material. The efficient of the plastic bottles is lower than the one plastic bags, but the plastic bottles have a much better control of the treated water avoiding its recontamination. In order to increase the efficiency of disinfection using plastic bottles, two solar concentrators, using flat mirrors, were designed and built. Effluent water from a treatment plant of residual waters was used for the testing. Several comparison were carried out taking into account the position of the concentrators, the transparency of the bottles and the bags. The results show that using the concentrator that adjust its position to the sun every hour, a 100% disinfection is obtained in 4 hours of direct exposure to the sun rays in a sunny day. The period of time can be reduced up to 2 hours, if instead using transparent bottles, the bottles are black painted at their bottom half. With these results, the basis to design a cheap concentrator of easy construction to be used in rural communities have been settle. [Spanish] La desinfeccion del agua por exposicion a la luz solar fotodesinfeccion es una opcion de bajo costo y facil aplicacion para las comunidades rurales. El tratamiento puede llevarse a cabo utilizando bolsas o botellas de plastico transparente de dos litros de capacidad colocadas sobre un material reflejante. Las botellas son menos eficientes que las bolsas, pero permiten un mejor control del agua tratada evitando su recontaminacion. Para aumentar la eficiencia de la desinfeccion utilizando las botellas, se disenaron y construyeron dos concentradores solares de espejos planos que permitieron disminuir el tiempo de exposicion requerido cuando se utilizan estas. Para las pruebas de desinfeccion se utilizo agua del efluente de una planta de tratamiento

  6. Pollution Causes and Treatment of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa in Bottled Drinking Water%桶装饮用水中铜绿假单胞菌污染原因及处理方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈梦; 周翔; 王爱媛

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa contamination of bottled drinking water cause investigation of a company appear, found water wells contaminated by surface water seepage; iflling line design flaw is backwash source water pollution. At the same error as companies use reverse osmosis water wash turnover barrels produced and rinse the ground and cause cross-contamination; guide enterprises to identify the reason for water, workshops, iflling lines and other contaminated areas with 5% food-grade hydrogen peroxide disinfection , scrapped off water wells unusable. After a comprehensive approach to cleaning and disinfection, re-sample testing showed no contamination of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.%调查某企业桶装饮用水出现铜绿假单胞菌污染的原因,分析发现水源井受到地表渗水污染;灌装线存在设计缺陷被反冲洗水污染。同时由于企业错误使用反渗透产生的废水洗刷周转桶及冲洗地面进而造成交叉污染;查明原因后指导企业对水源、生产车间和灌装线等受到污染的地方用5%食品级双氧水进行消毒处理,报废掉不能用的水源井。全面处理清洗消毒之后,重新取样检测,未发现有铜绿假单胞菌污染。

  7. Do estrogenic compounds in drinking water migrating from plastic pipe distribution system pose adverse effects to human? An analysis of scientific literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ze-Hua; Yin, Hua; Dang, Zhi

    2017-01-01

    With the widespread application of plastic pipes in drinking water distribution system, the effects of various leachable organic chemicals have been investigated and their occurrence in drinking water supplies is monitored. Most studies focus on the odor problems these substances may cause. This study investigates the potential endocrine disrupting effects of the migrating compound 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol (2,4-d-t-BP). The summarized results show that the migration of 2,4-d-t-BP from plastic pipes could result in chronic exposure and the migration levels varied greatly among different plastic pipe materials and manufacturing brands. Based on estrogen equivalent (EEQ), the migrating levels of the leachable compound 2,4-d-t-BP in most plastic pipes were relative low. However, the EEQ levels in drinking water migrating from four out of 15 pipes may pose significant adverse effects. With the increasingly strict requirements on regulation of drinking water quality, these results indicate that some drinking water transported with plastic pipes may not be safe for human consumption due to the occurrence of 2,4-d-t-BP. Moreover, 2,4-d-t-BP is not the only plastic pipe-migrating estrogenic compound, other compounds such as 2-tert-butylphenol (2-t-BP), 4-tert-butylphenol (4-t-BP), and others may also be leachable from plastic pipes.

  8. The HPLC Detection Method of DNOP and DBP in the Beverage of Plastic Bottle Packing%瓶装饮料中DNOP、DBP类增塑剂的液相色谱检测方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王楠; 王伟; 张玉; 葛杭丽; 黎天天

    2012-01-01

    邻苯二甲酸酯类是一类重要的增塑剂,也是环境类激\\素,会影响动物内分泌系统;对人不仅有慢性毒性,致突变、致癌作用,还有生殖、发育毒性.本文研究高效液相色谱检测瓶装饮料中两种邻苯二甲酸酯(DNOP、DBP)的方法.样品经过滤、浓缩后过柱净化、富集,用50℃氮吹仪吹干,甲醇定容后过膜(0.22 μm),在UV 225nm处检测.以ProELUT PLS GLASS 200 mg/6mL小柱作为样品前处理净化柱,结果对DBP的加标回收率在83.4%~93.4%之间,对DBP的加标回收率在80.4%~86.0%之间.本实验条件下DBP和DNOP的仪器检出限均为0.01 μg/mL,说明用液相色谱法检测瓶装饮料中邻苯二甲酸酯类物质含量是可行的.且快速、有效.%Phthalate esters (PAEs) were a class of important plasticizers, and it also were the environmental estrogens, it affects the animal endocrine system. PAEs were not only with chronic toxic, mutagenic, carcinogenic effects to people, but also with reproductive and upgrowth toxicity. This study focused on the method of detection of DNOP and DBP in plastic packing beverage by HPLC. The sample were filtrated and enrichment by clean up column, and nitrogen drying at 50℃, and pass through 0.22 u,m film after fixed volume with methanol, and detected at 225 nm by HPLC. ProELUT PLS G1ASS 200 mg/6 mL as the clean up column, the recovery rate of DBP was 83.4%-93.4%, DNOP was 80.4%~86.0%. The detection limit of instrument was 0.01μg/mL. The results showed that the HPLC method was effective and convenient for the detection of DNOP and DBP in beverage.

  9. Low-density solvent-based vortex-assisted surfactant-enhanced-emulsification liquid-liquid microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the fast determination of phthalate esters in bottled water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yufeng; Lee, Hian Kee

    2013-01-25

    For the first time, a novel low-density solvent-based vortex-assisted surfactant-enhanced-emulsification liquid-liquid microextraction (LDS-VSLLME) was developed for the fast, simple and efficient determination of six phthalate esters (PEs) in bottled water samples followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In the extraction procedure, the aqueous sample solution was injected into a mixture of extraction solvent (toluene) and surfactant (cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide), which were placed in a glass tube with conical bottom, to form an emulsion by the assistance of vortex agitation. After extraction and phase separation by centrifugation, and removal of the spent sample, the toluene extract was collected and analyzed by GC-MS. The addition of surfactant enhanced the dispersion of extraction solvent in aqueous sample and was also favorable for the mass transfer of the analytes from the aqueous sample to the extraction solvent. Moreover, using a relatively less toxic surfactant as the emulsifier agent overcame the disadvantages of traditional organic dispersive solvents that are usually highly toxic and expensive and might conceivably decrease extraction efficiency to some extent since they are not as effective as surfactants themselves in generating an emulsion. With the aid of surfactant and vortex agitation to achieve good organic extraction solvent dispersion, extraction equilibrium was achieved within 1 min, indicating it was a fast sample preparation technique. Another prominent feature of the method was the simple procedure to collect a less dense than water solvent by a microsyringe. After extraction and phase separation, the aqueous sample was removed using a 5-mL syringe, thus leaving behind the extract, which was retrieved easily. This novel method simplifies the use of low-density solvents in DLLME. Under the optimized conditions, the proposed method provided good linearity in the range of 0.05-25 μg/L, low limits of detection (8-25 ng

  10. Discovery Bottles: A Unique Inexpensive Tool for the K-2 Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Sandy

    2008-01-01

    Discover discovery bottles! These wide-mouth plastic containers of any size filled with objects of different kinds can be terrific tools for science explorations and a great way to cultivate science minds in a K-2 science classroom. In addition, the author has found them to be a useful, inexpensive, and engaging way to help students develop skills…

  11. The Exploration of Correlation between the Replacing Interval of Water-seal Bottle and the Thoracic Infections%一次性水封瓶更换时间与胸腔感染之间的相关性探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王正云; 吴西枝

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the correlation between the replacing interval of disposable water-seal bottle and thoracic infections. Methods 404 patients with thoracic closed drainage and without thoracic infections at the beginning participated in this study. Patients were randomly divided into 4 groups according to random number table. Bacterial culture was performed for normal saline and drainage fluid in the water-seal bottle as well as the thoracic transudate or effusion in 2 cm length of the drainage tube end. The results were compared statistically. Results Bacterium was not found in normal saline in the disposable water-seal bottle but was found in 14 drainage fluid specimens from 4 groups and totally 8 kinds of bacterium were found. The bacteria were firstly found in Group A when it was the third time to replace the bottle (on the third day). Group C is the last group to be found bacteria when it was the second time to replace the bottle (on the fourteenth day). No significant difference was found among the four groups (P>0. 05). Bacteria were found in 2 of 404 cases with bacterial culture of thoracic transudate or effusion in 2 cm length of the drainage tube end. The bacteria type of one case was the same with the drainage fluid in the disposable water-seal bottle while the other was different. Conclusion The replacing interval of water-seal bottle has no obvious correlation with thoracic infection and bacterium reproduction in the bottle. To replace the water-seal bottle every 7 days is reasonable for those patients requiring longer chest tube placement.%目的探讨更换一次性水封瓶时间长短与胸腔感染的临床意义。方法对404例行胸腔闭式引流而且排除胸腔感染者使用随机数字表分为4组,同时对404例患者的胸腔内积液或胸腔引流管前端2厘米进行细菌培养[1],最后进行统计学分析。结果一次性水封瓶内生理盐水的细菌培养均为阴性,4组水封瓶中胸腔引流液

  12. 27 CFR 31.232 - Wine bottling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wine bottling. 31.232... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Miscellaneous § 31.232 Wine bottling. Each person desiring to bottle, package, or repackage taxpaid wines must, before carrying on those operations,...

  13. Plasma sterilization of polyethylene terephthalate bottles by pulsed corona discharge at atmospheric pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaoka, Satoshi

    2007-06-01

    A pulsed power supply was used to generate a corona discharge on a polyethylene terephthalate bottle, to conduct plasma sterilization at atmospheric pressure. Before generating such a discharge, minute quantities of water were attached to the inner surface of the bottle and to the surface of a high voltage (HV) electrode inserted into the bottle. Next, high-voltage pulses of electricity were discharged between electrodes for 6.0s, while rotating the bottle. The resulting spore log reduction values of Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus niger on the inner surface of the bottle were 5.5 and 6 or higher, respectively, and those on the HV electrode surface were each 6 or higher for both strains. The presence of the by-products gaseous ozone, hydrogen peroxide, and nitric ions resulting from the electrical discharge was confirmed.

  14. Analysis of water sorption isotherms of amorphous food materials by solution thermodynamics with relevance to glass transition: evaluation of plasticizing effect of water by the thermodynamic parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazaki, Eriko; Tashiro, Akiko; Kumagai, Hitomi; Kumagai, Hitoshi

    2017-04-01

    Relation between the thermodynamic parameters obtained from water sorption isotherms and the degree of reduction in the glass transition temperature (Tg), accompanied by water sorption, was quantitatively studied. Two well-known glassy food materials namely, wheat gluten and maltodextrin were used as samples. The difference between the chemical potential of water in a solution and that of pure water ([Formula: see text]), the difference between the chemical potential of solid in a solution and that of a pure solid ([Formula: see text]), and the change in the integral Gibbs free energy ([Formula: see text]) were obtained by analyzing the water sorption isotherms using solution thermodynamics. The parameter [Formula: see text] correlated well with ΔTg (≡Tg - Tg0; where Tg0 is the glass transition temperature of dry material), which had been taken to be an index of plasticizing effect. This indicates that plasticizing effect of water on foods can be evaluated through the parameter [Formula: see text].

  15. Yield Potential of Soil Water and Its Sustainability for Dryland Spring Maize with Plastic Film Mulch on the Loess Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen; Liu, Wenzhao

    2016-04-01

    Plastic film mulch(PM) is an agronomic measure widely used in the dryland spring maize production system on the Loess Plateau of China. The measure can greatly increase yield of dryland maize due to its significant effects on soil water conservation. Few researches have been done to investigate how the yield potential is impacted by PM. The yield-water use (ET) boundary equation raised by French and Schultz provides a simple approach to calculate crop water limited yield potential and gives a benchmark for farmers in managing their crops. However, method used in building the equation is somewhat arbitrary and has no strict principle, which leads to the uncertainty of equation when it is applied. Though using PM can increase crop yield, it increases soil temperature, promotes crop growth and increases the water transpired by crop, which further leads to high water consumption as compared with crops without PM. This means that PM may lead to the overuse of soil water and hence is unsustainable in a long run. This research is mainly focused on the yield potential and sustainability of PMing for spring maize on the Loess Plateau. A principle that may be utilized by any other researchers was proposed based on French & Schultz's boundary equation and on part of quantile regression theory. We used a data set built by collecting the experimental data from published papers and analyzed the water-limited yield potential of spring maize on the Loess Plateau. Moreover, maize yield and soil water dynamics under PM were investigated by a long-term site field experiment. Results show that on the Loess Plateau, the water limited yield potential can be calculated using the boundary equation y = 60.5×(x - 50), with a platform yield of 15954 kghm-2 after the water use exceeds 314 mm. Without PMing, the water limited yield potential can be estimated by the boundary equation y = 47.5×(x - 62.3) , with a platform yield of 12840 kghm-2 when the water use exceeds 325 mm, which

  16. Analysis on Microorganism Test Results of Bottled Drinking Water in Hnnan Province from 2006 to 2009%2006-2009年湖南省桶装饮用水微生物检验结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建琪; 王岚; 刘运芝; 张林青; 杨烈; 贾华云; 胡旃; 张红

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the microorganisms in bottled drinking water, and to appraise the drinking security. Methods According to the related national standardized methods, the total number of colony, coliform bacteria, pathogenic bacterium, mould and yeast fungus in purified water, drinking water and mineral water were detected by laboratory tests. And then we compared the difference of the qualification ratio of the submitted samples and the sampling inspection samples with SPSS statistic software. Results The total qualification ratio of 147 samples was 65.3% , which was mainly caused by the index of total plate count. The qualification ratios of various drirking water were not equally and the there were statistically significant differences among them (x2 =22.48, P<0.01). The qualification ratio of the submitted samples was 76.5%, which was higher than that (51.5%) of the sampling inspection samples, and the difference was statistically significant (X2 = 101, P<0.05). Conclusions Strengthening the health supervision of bottled drinking water will be benefit to enlighten the quality of drinking water.%目的 了解湖南省桶装饮用水卫生微生物污染状况,分析其饮用安全性. 方法 按国家饮用水检测标准方法对桶装纯净水、饮用水、矿泉水进行菌落总数、大肠菌群、致病菌、霉菌和酵母菌的实验室培养与检测,应用SPSS 15.0统计学软件分析不同饮用水总合格率之间的差异,并对抽检样品与送检样品的合格率进行比较. 结果 147份桶装饮用水合格率为65.3%,不合格指标以菌落总数为主;2006 - 2009年不同饮用水之间总合格率差异有统计学意义(X2=22 48,P<0.01);送检样品合格率为76.5%,高于抽检样品合格率51.5%,差异有统计学意义(X2=10.1,P<0.05).结论 加大力度对桶装纯净水进行卫生监督监测工作,找出关键控制点,是抓好桶装饮用水卫生质量的关键.

  17. Modification of water absorption capacity of a plastic based on bean protein using gamma irradiated starches as additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koeber, E. [Facultad de Ingenieria, Grupo de Ingenieria Bioquimica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Paseo Colon 850, 1063, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Gonzalez, M.E. [Comision Nacional Energia Atomica, Av. Del Libertador 8250, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Gavioli, N. [Facultad de Ingenieria, Grupo de Ingenieria Bioquimica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Paseo Colon 850, 1063, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Salmoral, E.M. [Facultad de Ingenieria, Grupo de Ingenieria Bioquimica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Paseo Colon 850, 1063, Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. E-mail: esalmor@fi.uba.ar

    2007-01-15

    Some properties of a bean protein-starch plastic were modified by irradiation of the starch. Two kinds of starch from bean and cassava were irradiated with doses until 50 kGy before their inclusion in the composite. Water absorption of the resultant product was reduced by 36% and 60% in materials containing bean and cassava starch, respectively. A large decline in the elongation is observed till 10 kGy in both materials, while tensile strength diminished by 11% in the cassava composite.

  18. Plastic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Plastic Surgery KidsHealth > For Teens > Plastic Surgery Print A A ... forehead lightened with a laser? What Is Plastic Surgery? Just because the name includes the word "plastic" ...

  19. Does morphological and anatomical plasticity during the vegetative stage make wheat more tolerant of water deficit stress than rice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadam, Niteen N; Yin, Xinyou; Bindraban, Prem S; Struik, Paul C; Jagadish, Krishna S V

    2015-04-01

    Water scarcity and the increasing severity of water deficit stress are major challenges to sustaining irrigated rice (Oryza sativa) production. Despite the technologies developed to reduce the water requirement, rice growth is seriously constrained under water deficit stress compared with other dryland cereals such as wheat (Triticum aestivum). We exposed rice cultivars with contrasting responses to water deficit stress and wheat cultivars well adapted to water-limited conditions to the same moisture stress during vegetative growth to unravel the whole-plant (shoot and root morphology) and organ/tissue (root anatomy) responses. Wheat cultivars followed a water-conserving strategy by reducing specific leaf area and developing thicker roots and moderate tillering. In contrast, rice 'IR64' and 'Apo' adopted a rapid water acquisition strategy through thinner roots under water deficit stress. Root diameter, stele and xylem diameter, and xylem number were more responsive and varied with different positions along the nodal root under water deficit stress in wheat, whereas they were relatively conserved in rice cultivars. Increased metaxylem diameter and lower metaxylem number near the root tips and exactly the opposite phenomena at the root-shoot junction facilitated the efficient use of available soil moisture in wheat. Tolerant rice 'Nagina 22' had an advantage in root morphological and anatomical attributes over cultivars IR64 and Apo but lacked plasticity, unlike wheat cultivars exposed to water deficit stress. The key traits determining the adaptation of wheat to dryland conditions have been summarized and discussed. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  20. 地埋式瓶灌初步研究--一种提高低水头自压式灌溉灌水均匀度的新方法%A Preliminary Study of Underground Bottle Irrigation:A New Method that can Increase the Irrigation Uniformity of Low Water Head Gravitational Irrigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马璠; 董立国; 蔡进军; 许浩; 张源润

    2013-01-01

    为了解决半干旱黄土丘陵沟壑区集雨节灌系统在自压灌溉方式下灌水均匀度低的问题,提出了一种提高低水头自压式灌溉的灌水均匀度的新方法--地埋式瓶灌,对该灌溉方法的原理进行了阐述,并在风干、疏松的黏壤土中对该方法的地下渗灌环节进行了初步研究。结果表明,地埋式瓶灌能在渗灌瓶周围形成一个土壤含水量相对均匀的椭球形湿润土体,灌水5L后1~2天,水分水平扩散至距瓶身10~15 cm处,竖直向下扩散至距瓶底16~23 cm处,湿润土体内平均土壤含水量约17%,灌溉水不会发生深层渗漏。另外,湿润土体的形状、范围,以及湿润土体内土壤含水量等与渗灌瓶开孔方式之间的关系并不强,这便于渗灌瓶在田间的布设。研究提出的地埋式瓶灌方法,原理简单,适宜性强,在半干旱黄土丘陵沟壑区林果业生产中具有广阔的应用前景。%In order to resolve the problem of low irrigation uniformity of rainwater harvesting and gravitational irrigation systems, this study advanced a new method that could increase the irrigation uniformity of low water head gravitational irrigation: underground bottle irrigation, demonstrated the principle of this method, and conducted a preliminary research on the underground step of this method in air dried, loose soil. The results showed that: underground bottle irrigation could form an ellipsoidal wet soil body which had relatively even distributed soil water content around the bottle. 1-2 days after 5 L water was irrigated, water spread horizontally to 10-15 cm from the bottle and vertically to 16-23 cm from bottom of the bottle. The average water content in the wet soil body was about 17%. The irrigation water wouldn’t percolate to deep soil layers. Moreover, the characteristics of the wet soil body and the dill method of irrigation bottle were not well related, which was convenient for arrangement of

  1. Association of drinking-water source and use characteristics with urinary antimony concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makris, Konstantinos C; Andra, Syam S; Herrick, Lisa; Christophi, Costas A; Snyder, Shane A; Hauser, Russ

    2013-03-01

    Environmental factors, such as storage time, frequency of bottle reuse and temperature, have been shown to facilitate antimony (Sb) leaching from water- and food-packaging materials. The globally escalating consumption of water packaged in Sb-containing bottles, such as that of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), could increase human daily Sb doses. This study set out to investigate the relationship between drinking-water source, use characteristics, and urinary Sb concentrations (U-Sb) accompanied with survey responses of a healthy (n=35) Cypriot participant pool. One spot urine sample was collected during administration of questionnaire, while a second spot urine sample was collected from the same individual about 7 days later. Urinary and water Sb concentrations were measured with an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Survey responses showed that bottled water summed over various volumes and plastic types, such as polycarbonate and PET contributed to an average 61% of daily water consumption. Water sources such as tap, mobile stations (explained in a following section), and well water contributed to 24%, 14%, and 2% of an individual's daily water consumption pattern, respectively. Average daily potable water use of both bottled and tap water by individuals consisted of 65% drinking-water, while the remaining 35% was water used for preparing cold and hot beverages, such as, tea, coffee, and juices. A significant (P=0.02) association between per capita water consumption from PET bottles and urinary creatinine-unadjusted concentrations was observed, but this relationship did not remain after inclusion of covariates in a multivariate regression model. In the creatinine-adjusted regression model, only gender (female) was a significant (P<0.01) predictor of U-Sb, after adjusting for several covariates. It is proposed that consumption data collection on various water uses and sources among individuals could perhaps decrease the uncertainty associated with

  2. Microbiologicals characteristics of Tenerife island's bottled waters; Caracteristicas microbiologicas de las aguas de bebida envasada de la isla de Tenerife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardisson de la Torre, A.; Arco del Aguilar, A. L.; Galvan Gonzalez, M. A.; Pinero Sicicila, L. M.; Fernandez Molina, J. C.; Caballero Mesa, A. M.

    2001-07-01

    An exhaustive control of the sanitary quality of water is becoming more and more necessary. Therefore, in this study we are pretending to determine the degree of adequacy to the present technical and sanitary regulations by analyzing different water samples produced by companies located on Tenerife. Microbiological parameters have been studied, such as: aerobic bacteria recounts at 37 degree centigree and at 20-22 degree centigree, total Coliforms investigation, E, coli, faecalis Streptococcus, sulphite reducers Clostridium, Pseudomas aeruginosa and Salmonella. The results show the presence of Pseudomonas in two of the water samples and the presence of sulphite reducers Clostridum in one of the samples. (Author) 10 refs.

  3. Evaluation of the Impact of the Plastic BioSand Filter on Health and Drinking Water Quality in Rural Tamale, Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Mumuni K. Osman; Stauber, Christine E.; Byron Kominek; Liang, Kaida R.; Sobsey, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    A randomized controlled trial of the plastic BioSand filter (BSF) was performed in rural communities in Tamale (Ghana) to assess reductions in diarrheal disease and improvements in household drinking water quality. Few studies of household water filters have been performed in this region, where high drinking water turbidity can be a challenge for other household water treatment technologies. During the study, the longitudinal prevalence ratio for diarrhea comparing households that received th...

  4. Plastic Fibre Reinforced Soil Blocks as a Sustainable Building Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, C. K. Subramania; Nambiar, E. K. Kunhanandan; Abraham, Benny Mathews

    2012-10-01

    Solid waste management, especially the huge quantity of waste plastics, is one of the major environmental concerns nowadays. Their employability in block making in the form of fibres, as one of the methods of waste management, can be investigated through a fundamental research. This paper highlights the salient observations from a systematic investigation on the effect of embedded fibre from plastic waste on the performance of stabilised mud blocks. Stabilisation of the soil was done by adding cement, lime and their combination. Plastic fibre in chopped form from carry bags and mineral water bottles were added (0.1% & 0.2% by weight of soil) as reinforcement. The blocks were tested for density, and compressive strength, and observed failure patterns were analysed. Blocks with 0.1% of plastic fibres showed an increase in strength of about 3 to 10%. From the observations of failure pattern it can be concluded that benefits of fibre reinforcement includes both improved ductility in comparison with raw blocks and inhibition of crack propogation after its initial formation.

  5. Application of silicone based elastomers for manufacturing of Green Fiber Bottle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saxena, Prateek; Bissacco, Giuliano

    Due to ever-increasing demand of sustainable products, eco-friendly packaging solutions are finding their importance in the paper packaging industry. Green Fiber Bottle (GFB) is an alternative to plastic, glass and metal based packaging for beverages. The tool concept for manufacturing of paper...... bottle uses a silicone based elastomer as the core. The expansion of core in the tool resists shrinkage of paper during drying as well as helps in obtaining good fiber compaction. The feasibility of the tool concept in the production of GFB is discussed in this work....

  6. Novel Gas Barrier SiOC Coating to PET Bottles through a Hot Wire CVD Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Nakaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to enhance the gas barrier enhancement of plastic containers such as poly(ethylene terephthalate bottles, a novel method was found using a hot wire CVD technique, where tantalum wire is heated and exposed to a gas flow of vinyl silane. The resultant SiOC thin film was confirmed to characteristically contain Si-Si bonds in its surface and demonstrate a remarkably and highly practical decrease of the permeation of various gas through poly(ethylene terephthalate bottles.

  7. Natural mineral bottled waters available on the Polish market as a source of minerals for the consumers. Part 2: The intake of sodium and potassium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gątarska, Anna; Ciborska, Joanna; Tońska, Elżbieta

    Natural mineral waters are purchased and consumed according to consumer preferences and possible recommendations. The choice of appropriate water should take into account not only the general level of mineralization but also the content of individual components, including electrolytes such as sodium and potassium. Sodium is necessary to ensure the proper physiological functions of the body. It is defined as a health risk factor only when its excessive intake occurs. Potassium acts antagonistically towards sodium and calcium ions, contributes to a reduction of the volume of extracellular fluids and at the same time reduces muscle tension and permeability of cell membranes. The demand for sodium and potassium is of particular importance in people expending significant physical effort, where an increased electrolyte supply is recommended. The aim of the study was to estimate the content of sodium and potassium in natural mineral waters available in the Polish market and to evaluate the intake of those components with the commercially available mineral waters by different groups of consumers at the assumed volume of their consumption. The research material consisted of natural mineral waters of forty various brands available on the Polish market. The examined products were either produced in Poland or originated in other European countries. Among the products under examination, about 30% of the waters were imported from Lithuania, Latvia, the Czech Republic, France, Italy and Germany. A sample for analyses consisted of two package units of the examined water from different production lots. Samples for research were collected at random. The study was conducted with the same samples in in which calcium and magnesium content was determined, which was the subject of the first part of the study. The content of sodium and potassium was determined using the emission technique (acetylene-air flame), with the use of atomic absorption spectrometer – ICE 3000 SERIES – THERMO

  8. Survey of trace elements (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Co, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, and Si) in retail samples of flavoured and bottled waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, M F; Ramos, S; Oliva-Teles, M T; Delerue-Matos, C; Sales, M G F; Oliveira, M B P P

    2009-01-01

    Concentrations of eleven trace elements (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Co, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, and Si) were measured in 39 (natural and flavoured) water samples. Determinations were performed using graphite furnace electrothermetry for almost all elements (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Co, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Si). For Se determination hydride generation was used, and cold vapour generation for Hg. These techniques were coupled to atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The trace element content of still or sparkling natural waters changed from brand to brand. Significant differences between natural still and natural sparkling waters (p differences between flavoured and natural waters. The concentration of each element was compared with the presence of flavours, preservatives, acidifying agents, fruit juice and/or sweeteners, according to the labelled composition. It was shown that flavoured waters generally increase the trace element content. The addition of preservatives and acidifying regulators had a significant influence on Mn, Co, As and Si contents (p difference in Mn, Co, Se and Si content.

  9. Critical material attributes (CMAs) of strip films loaded with poorly water-soluble drug nanoparticles: I. Impact of plasticizer on film properties and dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krull, Scott M; Patel, Hardik V; Li, Meng; Bilgili, Ecevit; Davé, Rajesh N

    2016-09-20

    Recent studies have demonstrated polymer films to be a promising platform for delivery of poorly water-soluble drug particles. However, the impact of critical material attributes, for example plasticizer, on the properties of and drug release from such films has yet to be investigated. In response, this study focuses on the impact of plasticizer and plasticizer concentration on properties and dissolution rate of polymer films loaded with poorly water-soluble drug nanoparticles. Glycerin, triacetin, and polyethylene glycol were selected as film plasticizers. Griseofulvin was used as a model Biopharmaceutics Classification System class II drug and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose was used as a film-forming polymer. Griseofulvin nanoparticles were prepared via wet stirred media milling in aqueous suspension. A depression in film glass transition temperature was observed with increasing plasticizer concentration, along with a decrease in film tensile strength and an increase in film elongation, as is typical of plasticizers. However, the type and amount of plasticizer necessary to produce strong yet flexible films had no significant impact on the dissolution rate of the films, suggesting that film mechanical properties can be effectively manipulated with minimal impact on drug release. Griseofulvin nanoparticles were successfully recovered upon redispersion i