WorldWideScience

Sample records for plastic sheet coated

  1. Final Rule to Reduce Toxic Air Pollutants from Surface Coating of Plastic Parts and Products Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains an August 2004 fact sheet with information regarding the final NESHAP for Surface Coating of Plastic Parts and Products. This document provides a summary of the information for the information for this regulation.

  2. Effect of elastic-plastic behavior of coating layer on drawability and frictional characteristic of galvannealed steel sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seong Won; Lee, Jung Min; Joun, Man Soo; Kim, Dong Hwan

    2016-01-01

    During a galvannealed sheet metal forming, the failures of coating layers (powdering, flaking and cracking) frequently affect the strain state of sheets and deteriorate the frictional characteristic between sheets and tools. Two FE-models in this study were suggested to investigate the effects of the mechanical behavior of coating layers on the formability and friction of the coated steel sheets in FE analysis; the first is one-layer model to express the coated sheet as one stress-strain curve and the second is a multiple-layer model which is composed of substrates and coating layers, separately. First, the frictional properties and the formability of the coated sheets were experimentally investigated using a cup deep-drawing trial. After, the drawing process was simulated by FE analysis of the two models. In the multiplelayer model, the mechanical behavior of the coating is defined as a stress-strain curve which was determined using the nanoindentation test of the coating, its FE analysis and artificial neural network method. The result showed that the multiple-layer model provides more accuracy predictions of drawing loads than the one-layer model in the FE analysis, compared to the actual cup drawing test.

  3. Effect of elastic-plastic behavior of coating layer on drawability and frictional characteristic of galvannealed steel sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seong Won; Lee, Jung Min [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Joun, Man Soo [Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Hwan [International University of Korea, Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    During a galvannealed sheet metal forming, the failures of coating layers (powdering, flaking and cracking) frequently affect the strain state of sheets and deteriorate the frictional characteristic between sheets and tools. Two FE-models in this study were suggested to investigate the effects of the mechanical behavior of coating layers on the formability and friction of the coated steel sheets in FE analysis; the first is one-layer model to express the coated sheet as one stress-strain curve and the second is a multiple-layer model which is composed of substrates and coating layers, separately. First, the frictional properties and the formability of the coated sheets were experimentally investigated using a cup deep-drawing trial. After, the drawing process was simulated by FE analysis of the two models. In the multiplelayer model, the mechanical behavior of the coating is defined as a stress-strain curve which was determined using the nanoindentation test of the coating, its FE analysis and artificial neural network method. The result showed that the multiple-layer model provides more accuracy predictions of drawing loads than the one-layer model in the FE analysis, compared to the actual cup drawing test.

  4. Nano-Ceramic Coated Plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Junghyun

    2013-01-01

    Plastic products, due to their durability, safety, and low manufacturing cost, are now rapidly replacing cookware items traditionally made of glass and ceramics. Despite this trend, some still prefer relatively expensive and more fragile ceramic/glassware because plastics can deteriorate over time after exposure to foods, which can generate odors, bad appearance, and/or color change. Nano-ceramic coatings can eliminate these drawbacks while still retaining the advantages of the plastic, since the coating only alters the surface of the plastic. The surface coating adds functionality to the plastics such as self-cleaning and disinfectant capabilities that result from a photocatalytic effect of certain ceramic systems. These ceramic coatings can also provide non-stick surfaces and higher temperature capabilities for the base plastics without resorting to ceramic or glass materials. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) are the candidates for a nano-ceramic coating to deposit on the plastics or plastic films used in cookware and kitchenware. Both are wide-bandgap semiconductors (3.0 to 3.2 eV for TiO2 and 3.2 to 3.3 eV for ZnO), so they exhibit a photocatalytic property under ultraviolet (UV) light. This will lead to decomposition of organic compounds. Decomposed products can be easily washed off by water, so the use of detergents will be minimal. High-crystalline film with large surface area for the reaction is essential to guarantee good photocatalytic performance of these oxides. Low-temperature processing (nano-ceramic coatings (TiO2, ZnO) on plastic materials (silicone, Teflon, PET, etc.) that can possess both photocatalytic oxide properties and flexible plastic properties. Processing cost is low and it does not require any expensive equipment investment. Processing can be scalable to current manufacturing infrastructure.

  5. Ice sheets on plastically-yielding beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Ian

    2016-11-01

    Many fast flowing regions of ice sheets are underlain by a layer of water-saturated sediments, or till. The rheology of the till has been the subject of some controversy, with laboratory tests suggesting almost perfectly plastic behaviour (stress independent of strain rate), but many models adopting a pseudo-viscous description. In this work, we consider the behaviour of glaciers underlain by a plastic bed. The ice is treated as a viscous gravity current, on a bed that allows unconstrained slip above a critical yield stress. This simplified description allows rapid sliding, and aims to investigate 'worst-case' scenarios of possible ice-sheet disintegration. The plastic bed results in an approximate ice-sheet geometry that is primarily controlled by force balance, whilst ice velocity is determined from mass conservation (rather than the other way around, as standard models would hold). The stability of various states is considered, and particular attention is given to the pace at which transitions between unstable states can occur. Finally, we observe that the strength of basal tills depends strongly on pore pressure, and combine the model with a description of subglacial hydrology. Implications for the present-day ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica will be discussed. Funding: ERC Marie Curie FP7 Career Integration Grant.

  6. Sol-gel antireflective coating on plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Carol S.; Reed, Scott T.

    1990-01-01

    An antireflection film made from a reliquified sol-gel hydrolyzation, condensation polymeric reaction product of a silicon, alkoxides and/or metal alkoxides, or mixtures thereof. The film is particularly useful for coating plastics.

  7. The elasto plastic fracture mechanics in ductile metal sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.A.; Malik, M.N.; Naeem, A.; Haq, A.U.; Atkins, A.G.

    1999-01-01

    The crack initiation of propagation in ductile metal sheets are caused by various micro and macro changes taking place due to material properties, applied loads, shape of the indenter (tool geometry) and the environmental conditions. These microstructural failures are directly related to the atomic bonding, crystal lattices, grain boundary status, material flaws in matrix, inhomogeneities and anisotropy in the metal sheets. The Elasto-Plastic related energy based equations are applied to these Rigid Plastic materials to determine the onset of fracture in metal forming. The combined stress and strain criterion of a critical plastic work per unit volume is no more considered as a universal ductile fracture criterion, rather a critical plastic work per unit volume dependence on all sort of stresses (hydrostatic) are the required features for the sheet metal failure (fracture). In this present study, crack initiation and propagation are related empirically with fracture toughness and the application of the theory in industry to save energy. (author)

  8. Zinc coated sheet steel for press hardening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari, Zahra N.

    Galvanized steels are of interest to enhance corrosion resistance of press-hardened steels, but concerns related to liquid metal embrittlement have been raised. The objective of this study was to assess the soak time and temperature conditions relevant to the hot-stamping process during which Zn penetration did or did not occur in galvanized 22MnB5 press-hardening steel. A GleebleRTM 3500 was used to heat treat samples using hold times and temperatures similar to those used in industrial hot-stamping. Deformation at both elevated temperature and room temperature were conducted to assess the coating and substrate behavior related to forming (at high temperature) and service (at room temperature). The extent of alloying between the coating and substrate was assessed on undeformed samples heat treated under similar conditions to the deformed samples. The coating transitioned from an α + Gamma1 composition to an α (bcc Fe-Zn) phase with increased soak time. This transition likely corresponded to a decrease in availability of Zn-rich liquid in the coating during elevated temperature deformation. Penetration of Zn into the substrate sheet in the undeformed condition was not observed for any of the processing conditions examined. The number and depth of cracks in the coating and substrate steel was also measured in the hot-ductility samples. The number of cracks appeared to increase, while the depth of cracks appeared to decrease, with increasing soak time and increasing soak temperature. The crack depth appeared to be minimized in the sample soaked at the highest soak temperature (900 °C) for intermediate and extended soak times (300 s or 600 s). Zn penetration into the substrate steel was observed in the hot-ductility samples soaked at each hold temperature for the shortest soak time (10 s) before being deformed at elevated temperature. Reduction of area and elongation measurements showed that the coated sample soaked at the highest temperature and longest soak time

  9. Ni-Flash-Coated Galvannealed Steel Sheet with Improved Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, D.; Dutta, M.; Venugopalan, T.

    2016-11-01

    In the last several years, automobile industries have increasingly focused on galvannealed (GA) steel sheet due to their superior properties such as weldability, paintability and corrosion protection. To improve the properties further, different coatings on GA have been reported. In this context, an electroplating process (flash coating) of bright and adherent Ni plating was developed on GA steel sheet for covering the GA defects and enhancing the performances such as weldability, frictional behavior, corrosion resistance and phosphatability. For better illustration, a comparative study with bare GA steel sheet has also been carried out. The maximum electroplating current density of 700 A/m2 yielded higher cathode current efficiency of 95-98%. The performances showed that Ni-coated (coating time 5-7 s) GA steel sheet has better spot weldability, lower dynamic coefficient of friction (0.07 in lubrication) and three times more corrosion resistance compared to bare GA steel sheet. Plate-like crystal of phosphate coating with size of 10-25 µm was obtained on the Ni-coated GA. The main phase in the phosphate compound was identified as hopeite (63.4 wt.%) along with other phases such as spencerite (28.3 wt.%) and phosphophyllite (8.3 wt.%).

  10. Plastic anisotropy of straight and cross rolled molybdenum sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oertel, C.-G.; Huensche, I.; Skrotzki, W.; Knabl, W.; Lorich, A.; Resch, J.

    2008-01-01

    The microstructure, texture and mechanical properties of molybdenum sheets produced by different rolling processes were investigated by orientation imaging in the scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction and tensile tests, respectively. For comparable recrystallization degree of the sheets investigated, straight rolling with low reduction ratio produces α-fiber textures with a maximum at {100} . At higher rolling degrees the maximum shifts to {112} . Cross rolling increases the rotated cube component {100} . The strong differences in the texture measured are reflected in the plastic anisotropy characterized by differences in the yield stress and Lankford parameter which were measured along directions in the rolling plane at angles of 0 deg., 45 deg. and 90 deg. with the rolling direction. The Taylor-Bishop-Hill theory is used successfully to qualitatively explain the plastic anisotropy

  11. Influence of Polyaniline Coated Kenaf Fiber on Kenaf Paper Sheet

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah Hisham Nur Syafiqah; Abd Razak Saiful Izwan; Mat Nayan Nadirul Hasraf; Wan Abdul Rahman Wan Aizan

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the properties of newly developed electrically conductive natural fiber paper sheet made up of kenaf fiber (KF) incorporated with polyaniline coated kenaf fiber (KF-PANI). This study proposed on dispersion of conductive filler in different amount (wt %) into kenaf pulp for developing different electrical conductivity. The conductive sheet (KF/KF-PANI) revealed a percolation concentration at 25 wt% of KF-PANI. Its scanning electron micrograph showed good paper formation with...

  12. Influence of Polyaniline Coated Kenaf Fiber on Kenaf Paper Sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Hisham Nur Syafiqah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the properties of newly developed electrically conductive natural fiber paper sheet made up of kenaf fiber (KF incorporated with polyaniline coated kenaf fiber (KF-PANI. This study proposed on dispersion of conductive filler in different amount (wt % into kenaf pulp for developing different electrical conductivity. The conductive sheet (KF/KF-PANI revealed a percolation concentration at 25 wt% of KF-PANI. Its scanning electron micrograph showed good paper formation with no significant damages.

  13. Tests on coatings made of plastic wraps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radomil, M; Boubela, L

    1980-01-01

    Testing is a necessity to evaluate the quality of plastic wrappings used as pipe coatings. Many foreign producers indicate the quality of their products by specifying the physical properties of either insulating wraps (their fracture propagation, water-vapor penetrability, electrical resistance, etc.) or the primer with reference to a relevant foreign standard. In principle, therefore none of the insulating materials available are proved with regard to the actual operating properties of the entire insulating system - the corresponding primer and the laminated polyethylene wrap. Because of the need for total system testing, the Fuel Research Institute cooperated with Transitni Plynovod in determining the optimum system to recommend for insulation mechanically applied in the field.

  14. Deformation limits of polymer coated metal sheets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Den Bosch, M.J.W.J.P.; Schreurs, P.J.G; Geers, M.G.D.

    2005-01-01

    Polymer coated metals are increasingly used by the packaging and automotive industry. During industrial deformation processes (drawing, roll-forming, bending etc.) the polymer-metal laminate is highly deformed at high deformation rates. These forming conditions can affect the mechanical integrity

  15. Mathematical approach in galvanized steel sheet coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, A.; Andres, L.J.; Gonzalez, I.; Fernandez, B.; Puente, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    A short review of the kinetics models for the formation of Fe-Zn alloy phases in the galvannealing process is presented. It will focus on the continuous process which is often used by the automotive industry. A first mathematical approach of the kinetics growth of the δ phase has been done using a continuous hot-dipping process simulator which resembles the conditions of the galvannealing process in production lines. Hold time and the galvannealing temperature as well as the weight of the coating were varied. The preliminary results of the iron content and proportion of δ phase in the coating are in agreement with the results obtained by other authors. (Author) 16 refs

  16. 77 FR 32998 - Tin- and Chromium-Coated Steel Sheet From Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ...-Coated Steel Sheet From Japan Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five... order on tin- and chromium-coated steel sheet from Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or... USITC Publication 4325 (May 2012), entitled Tin- and Chromium-Coated Steel Sheet from Japan...

  17. Comparison of Corrosion Behavior of Electrochemically Deposited Nano-Cobalt-Coated Ni Sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Al-Aqeeli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion behavior of nano-coblat-coated Ni sheet was compared with pure Ni and 20% Fe-Ni alloy sheet using potentiodynamic polarization and linear polarization technique in 0.1 M NaCl solution at room temperature. Results showed that corrosion resistance properties of nano-Co-coated Ni sheet were almost same as that of pure Ni sheet, however corrosion resistance of 20% Fe-Ni sheet was decreased significantly. Pitting potential of 20% Fe-Ni sheet was subsequently decreased as compared to pure Ni sheet as well as nano-cobalt-coated Ni sheet. SEM/EDS analysis of the corroded surfaces showed that both pure Ni and nano-coblat-coated Ni sheet did not show any appreciable corrosion however significant corrosion was observed in the case of 20% Fe-Ni sheet.

  18. Antireflection coatings on plastics deposited by plasma ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the ophthalmic industry, plastic lenses are rapidly displacing glass lenses ... Moreover, the plasma polymerization process allows deposition of optical films at room temperature, essential for plastics. ... Bulletin of Materials Science | News.

  19. The influence of maltodextrins on the structure and properties of compression-molded starch plastic sheets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soest, van J.J.G.; Kortleve, P.M.

    1999-01-01

    Starch plastic sheets were prepared by compression molding of starch-based plastic granulates. The granulates were prepared by extrusion processing of mixtures of granular potato starch and several maltodextrins (5% w/w) in the presence of glycerol and water as plasticizers and lecithin as melt flow

  20. Surface Coating of Plastic Parts for Business Machines (Industrial Surface Coating): New Source Performance Standards (NSPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn more about the new source performance standards (NSPS) for surface coating of plastic parts for business machines by reading the rule summary and history and finding the code of federal regulations as well as related rules.

  1. Antireflection coatings on plastics deposited by plasma ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    Antireflection coatings (ARCs) are deposited on the surfaces of optical elements like spectacle lenses to increase light transmission and improve their performance. In the ophthalmic .... silica layer (Zajickova et al 1998, 2001; Benitez et al. 2000; Kuhr et al 2003 .... by the contact angle of a water drop on the surface. Due to its ...

  2. Chemically-modified graphene sheets as an active layer for eco-friendly metal electroplating on plastic substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Joon-Suk; Hwang, Taeseon; Nam, Gi-Yong; Hong, Jung-Pyo; Bae, Ah-Hyun; Son, Sang-Ik; Lee, Geun-Ho; Sung, Hak kyung; Choi, Hyouk Ryeol; Koo, Ja Choon; Nam, Jae-Do

    2012-01-01

    Eco-friendly nickel (Ni) electroplating was carried out on a plastic substrate using chemically modified graphene sheets as an active and conductive layer to initiate electroplating without using conventional pre-treatment or electroless metal-seeding processes. A graphene oxide (GO) solution was self-assembled on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film followed by evaporation to give GO layers (thickness around 6.5 μm) on PET (GO/PET) film. Then, the GO/PET film was chemically and thermally reduced to convert the GO layers to reduced graphene oxide (RGO) layers on the PET substrate. The RGO-coated PET (RGO/PET) film showed the sheet resistance of 100 Ω per square. On RGO/PET film, Ni electroplating was conducted under the constant-current condition and the entire surface of the PET film was completely metalized with Ni without any voids.

  3. Electron beam processed plasticized epoxy coatings for surface protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Mervat S.; Mohamed, Heba A.; Kandile, Nadia G.; Said, Hossam M.; Mohamed, Issa M.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: · Coating formulations with EA 70%, HD 20%, and castor oil 10% under 1 Mrad pass -1 irradiation dose showed the best adhesion and passed bending tests. · The prepared EP-SF-An adduct improve anti-corrosion properties of coatings without any significant effect on physical, mechanical and chemical properties of the cured film. The optimum amount of aniline adduct as corrosion inhibitor was found to be 0.4 g for 100 g of coating formulation. · The corrosion inhibition efficiency of the prepared adduct competed the commercial efficiency. - Abstract: Epoxy acrylate oligomer (EA) was plasticized by adding different plasticizers such as epoxidized soybean oil, glycerol and castor oil and cured by electron beam (EB). Different irradiation doses (1, 2.5 and 5 Mrad pass -1 ) were used in the curing process. The effect of both different irradiation doses and plasticizers on the end use performance properties of epoxy acrylate coating namely, pencil hardness, bending test, adhesion test, acid and alkali resistance test were studied. It was observed that incorporation of castor oil in epoxy acrylate diluted by 1,6-hexanediol diacrylate (HD) monomer with a ratio (EA 70%, HD 20%, castor oil 10%) under 1 Mrad pass -1 irradiation dose improved the physical, chemical and mechanical properties of cured films than the other plasticizer. Sunflower free fatty acid was epoxidized in situ under well established conditions. The epoxidized sunflower free fatty acids (ESFA) were subjected to react with aniline in sealed ampoules under inert atmosphere at 140 deg. C. The produced adducts were added at different concentrations to epoxy acrylate coatings under certain EB irradiation dose and then evaluated as corrosion inhibitors for carbon steel surfaces in terms of weight loss measurements and corrosion resistance tests. It was found that, addition of 0.4 g of aniline adduct to 100 g epoxy acrylate formula may give the best corrosion protection for carbon steel and compete the

  4. The Effects of Plastic Anisotropy in Warm and Hot Forming of Magnesium Sheet Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taleff, Eric M.; Antoniswamy, Aravindha R.; Carpenter, Alexander J.; Yavuz, Emre

    Mg alloy sheet materials often exhibit plastic anisotropy at room temperature as a result of the limited slip systems available in the HCP lattice combined with a commonly strong basal texture. Less well studied is plastic anisotropy developed at the elevated temperatures associated with warm and hot forming. At these elevated temperatures, particularly above 200°C, the activation of additional slip systems significantly increases ductility. However, plastic anisotropy is also induced at elevated temperatures by a strong crystallographic texture, and it can require an accounting in material constitutive models to achieve accurate forming simulations. The type and degree of anisotropy under these conditions depend on both texture and deformation mechanism. The current understanding of plastic anisotropy in Mg AZ31B and ZEK100 sheet materials at elevated temperatures is reviewed in this article. The recent construction of material forming cases is also reviewed with strategies to account for plastic anisotropy in forming simulations.

  5. Interfacial delamination in polymer coated metal sheet : a numerical-experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bosch, M.

    2007-01-01

    An increasing amount of products are nowadays made of polymer coated metal sheet. Polymer coated metal has several advantages compared to traditionally Sn (tin) coated metal, such as costs savings and a more environmental friendly production process. Beverage and food cans are formed by draw-redraw

  6. Deformation and damage mechanisms of zinc coatings on hot-dip galvanized steel sheets: Part II. Damage modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisot, Rodolphe; Forest, Samuel; Pineau, André; Grillon, François; Demonet, Xavier; Mataigne, Jean-Michel

    2004-03-01

    Zinc-based coatings are widely used for protection against corrosion of steel-sheet products in the automotive industry. The objective of the present article is to investigate the damage modes at work in three different microstructures of a zinc coating on an interstitial-free steel substrate under tension, planestrain tension, and expansion loading. Plastic-deformation mechanisms are addressed in the companion article. Two main fracture mechanisms, namely, intergranular cracking and transgranular cleavage fracture, were identified in an untempered cold-rolled coating, a tempered cold-rolled coating, and a recrystallized coating. No fracture at the interface between the steel and zinc coating was observed that could lead to spalling, in the studied zinc alloy. A complex network of cleavage cracks and their interaction with deformation twinning is shown to develop in the material. An extensive quantitative analysis based on systematic image analysis provides the number and cumulative length of cleavage cracks at different strain levels for the three investigated microstructures and three loading conditions. Grain refinement by recrystallization is shown to lead to an improved cracking resistance of the coating. A model for crystallographic cleavage combining the stress component normal to the basal plane and the amount of plastic slip on the basal slip systems is proposed and identified from equibiaxial tension tests and electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) analysis of the cracked grains. This analysis requires the computation of the nonlinear stress-strain response of each grain using a crystal-plasticity constitutive model. The model is then applied successfully to other loading conditions and is shown to account for the preferred orientations of damaged grains observed in the case of plane-strain tension.

  7. FeCoNi coated glass fibers in composite sheets for electromagnetic absorption and shielding behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joonsik; Jung, Byung Mun; Lee, Sang Bok; Lee, Sang Kwan; Kim, Ki Hyeon

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the electromagnetic (EM) absorption and shield of magnetic composite sheet, we prepared the FeCoNi coated glass fibers filled in composite sheet. The FeCoNi was coated by electroless plating on glass fiber as a filler. The coated FeCoNi found that consist of mixtures of bcc and fcc phase. The magnetization and coercivity of coated FeCoNi are about 110 emu/g and 57 Oe, respectively. The permittivity and permeability of the FeCoNi composite sheet were about 21 and 1, respectively. Power absorption increased 95% with the increment of frequency up to 10 GHz. Inter-decoupling of this composite sheet showed maximum 30 dB at around 5.3 GHz, which is comparable to that of a conductive Cu foil. Shielding effectiveness (SE) was measured by using rectangular waveguide method. SE of composite obtained about 37 dB at X-band frequency region.

  8. Plastic Deformation Characteristics Of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Sheets At Elevated Temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jingee; Lee, Jongshin; You, Bongsun; Choi, Seogou; Kim, Youngsuk

    2007-01-01

    Using lightweight materials is the emerging need in order to reduce the vehicle's energy consumption and pollutant emissions. Being a lightweight material, magnesium alloys are increasingly employed in the fabrication of automotive and electronic parts. Presently, magnesium alloys used in automotive and electronic parts are mainly processed by die casting. The die casting technology allows the manufacturing of parts with complex geometry. However, the mechanical properties of these parts often do not meet the requirements concerning the mechanical properties (e.g. endurance strength and ductility). A promising alternative can be forming process. The parts manufactured by forming could have fine-grained structure without porosity and improved mechanical properties such as endurance strength and ductility. Because magnesium alloy has low formability resulted form its small slip system at room temperature it is usually formed at elevated temperature. Due to a rapid increase of usage of magnesium sheets in automotive and electronic industry it is necessary to assure database for sheet metal formability and plastic yielding properties in order to optimize its usage. Especially, plastic yielding criterion is a critical property to predict plastic deformation of sheet metal parts in optimizing process using CAE simulation. Von-Mises yield criterion generally well predicts plastic deformation of steel sheets and Hill'1979 yield criterion predicts plastic deformation of aluminum sheets. In this study, using biaxial tensile test machine yield loci of AZ31 magnesium alloy sheet were obtained at elevated temperature. The yield loci ensured experimentally were compared with the theoretical predictions based on the Von-Mises, Hill, Logan-Hosford, and Barlat model

  9. Plastic behaviour of zircoloy-4 sheets in function of the temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordonez, S.; Marxsen, A.; Pochettino, A.; Vedoya, P.

    1988-01-01

    In order to the knowledge of plastic deformation mechanisms in Zry-4 thin sheets at high temperature and the effects that the interaction sample-oxidizing atmosphere induces on these mechanisms, a systematic study of the mechanical behaviour of the material in the temperature range 400 ' 0 C and under different oxidations contitions is present. (author) [pt

  10. Radiation grafting of hydrophilic monomers on to plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) sheets: Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalliyana Krishnan, V.; Jayakrishnan, A.; Francis, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    Medical-grade plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC) sheets were surface modified using gamma-radiation grafting of a combination of hydrophilic monomers based on 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and N-vinyl pyrrolidone (NVP). The properties of the modified surfaces were evaluated using contact angle measurements, phase-contrast photomicroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Surface energy calculations indicated that the surfaces became highly hydrophilic when grafted with even a 1% (v/v) solution of HEMA-NVP combination in the presence of 0.005 M CuSO 4 . Migration of the plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl phthalate) from the grafted sheets was examined in hydrocarbon solvents such as n-hexane, n-heptane and n-octane and in extractant media such as cotton seed oil and polyethylene glycol-400 (PEG-400). The migration was found to be 0 C over a period of 5 h. Accelerated leaching studies in cotton seed oil and PEG-400 demonstrated that virtually no plasticizer migrated out in the former over a period of 96 h whereas the rate of migration in the latter medium showed only a mild reduction. The migration behaviour was Fickian in nature for grafted sheets. The method described may be useful as a simple, versatile technique for preventing plasticizer migration from plasticized PVC for medical applications. (author)

  11. Corrosion Behavior of Brazed Zinc-Coated Structured Sheet Metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nikitin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Arc brazing has, in comparison to arc welding, the advantage of less heat input while joining galvanized sheet metals. The evaporation of zinc is reduced in the areas adjacent to the joint and improved corrosion protection is achieved. In the automotive industry, lightweight design is a key technology against the background of the weight and environment protection. Structured sheet metals have higher stiffness compared to typical automobile sheet metals and therefore they can play an important role in lightweight structures. In the present paper, three arc brazing variants of galvanized structured sheet metals were validated in terms of the corrosion behavior. The standard gas metal arc brazing, the pulsed arc brazing, and the cold metal transfer (CMT® in combination with a pulsed cycle were investigated. In experimental climate change tests, the influence of the brazing processes on the corrosion behavior of galvanized structured sheet metals was investigated. After that, the corrosion behavior of brazed structured and flat sheet metals was compared. Because of the selected lap joint, the valuation of damage between sheet metals was conducted. The pulsed CMT brazing has been derived from the results as the best brazing method for the joining process of galvanized structured sheet metals.

  12. Desorption modeling of hydrophobic organic chemicals from plastic sheets using experimentally determined diffusion coefficients in plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hwang; Byun, Da-Eun; Kim, Ju Min; Kwon, Jung-Hwan

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate rate of migration from plastic debris, desorption of model hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs) from polyethylene (PE)/polypropylene (PP) films to water was measured using PE/PP films homogeneously loaded with the HOCs. The HOCs fractions remaining in the PE/PP films were compared with those predicted using a model characterized by the mass transfer Biot number. The experimental data agreed with the model simulation, indicating that HOCs desorption from plastic particles can generally be described by the model. For hexachlorocyclohexanes with lower plastic-water partition coefficients, desorption was dominated by diffusion in the plastic film, whereas desorption of chlorinated benzenes with higher partition coefficients was determined by diffusion in the aqueous boundary layer. Evaluation of the fraction of HOCs remaining in plastic films with respect to film thickness and desorption time showed that the partition coefficient between plastic and water is the most important parameter influencing the desorption half-life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Influence of uncoated and coated plastic waste coarse aggregates to concrete compressive strength

    OpenAIRE

    Purnomo Heru; Pamudji Gandjar; Satim Madsuri

    2017-01-01

    The use of plastic waste as coarse aggregates in concrete is part of efforts to reduce environmental pollution. In one hand the use of plastic as aggregates can provide lighter weight of the concrete than concrete using natural aggregates, but on the other hand bond between plastic coarse aggregates and hard matrix give low concrete compressive strength. Improvement of the bond between plastic coarse aggregate and hard matrix through a sand coating to plastic coarse aggregate whole surface is...

  14. Experimental Investigation into Suitable Process Conditions for Plastic Injection Molding of Thin-Sheet Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyi-Cheng Chen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study performs an experimental investigation into the effects of the process parameters on the surface quality of injection molded thin-sheet thermoplastic components. The investigations focus specifically on the shape, number and position of the mold gates, the injection pressure and the injection rate. It can be seen that the gravity force entering point improved filling of the cavity for the same forming time and injection pressure. Moreover, it shows the same injection pressure and packing time, the taper-shape gate yields a better surface appearance than the sheet-shape gate. The experimental results provide a useful source of reference in suitable the process conditions for the injection molding of thin-sheet plastic components.

  15. Numerical modelling in friction lap joining of aluminium alloy and carbon-fiber-reinforced-plastic sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, A.; Bang, H. S.; Bang, H. S.

    2018-05-01

    Multi-material combinations of aluminium alloy and carbon-fiber-reinforced-plastics (CFRP) have gained attention in automotive and aerospace industries to enhance fuel efficiency and strength-to-weight ratio of components. Various limitations of laser beam welding, adhesive bonding and mechanical fasteners make these processes inefficient to join metal and CFRP sheets. Friction lap joining is an alternative choice for the same. Comprehensive studies in friction lap joining of aluminium to CFRP sheets are essential and scare in the literature. The present work reports a combined theoretical and experimental study in joining of AA5052 and CFRP sheets using friction lap joining process. A three-dimensional finite element based heat transfer model is developed to compute the temperature fields and thermal cycles. The computed results are validated extensively with the corresponding experimentally measured results.

  16. 75 FR 70205 - Certain Coated Paper Suitable for High-Quality Print Graphics Using Sheet-Fed Presses From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-560-823] Certain Coated Paper... paper suitable for high-quality print graphics using sheet-fed presses (certain coated paper) from... duty investigation of certain coated paper from Indonesia. See Certain Coated Paper Suitable for High...

  17. Mechanisms of oxygen permeation through plastic films and barrier coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilski, Stefan; Wipperfürth, Jens; Jaritz, Montgomery; Kirchheim, Dennis; Dahlmann, Rainer; Hopmann, Christian; Mitschker, Felix; Awakowicz, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Oxygen and water vapour permeation through plastic films in food packaging or other applications with high demands on permeation are prevented by inorganic barrier films. Most of the permeation occurs through small defects (<3 µ m) in the barrier coating. The defects were visualized by etching with reactive oxygen in a capacitively coupled plasma and subsequent SEM imaging. In this work, defects in SiO x -coatings deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) are investigated and the mass transport through the polymer is simulated in a 3D approach. Calculations of single defects showed that there is no linear correlation between the defect area and the resulting permeability. The influence of adjacent defects in different distances was observed and led to flow reduction functions depending on the defect spacing and defect area. A critical defect spacing where no interaction between defects occurs was found and compared to other findings. According to the superposition principle, the permeability of single defects was added up and compared to experimentally determined oxygen permeation. The results showed the same trend of decreasing permeability with decreasing defect densities. (paper)

  18. 75 FR 70289 - Certain Coated Paper Suitable For High-Quality Print Graphics Using Sheet-Fed Presses From China...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ...)] Certain Coated Paper Suitable For High-Quality Print Graphics Using Sheet-Fed Presses From China and... paper suitable for high-quality print graphics using sheet-fed presses (``certain coated paper'') from... paper industry is materially injured by reason of imports of the subject merchandise from China and...

  19. Friction and lubrication modelling in sheet metal forming: Influence of lubrication amount, tool roughness and sheet coating on product quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hol, J.; Wiebenga, J. H.; Carleer, B.

    2017-09-01

    In the stamping of automotive parts, friction and lubrication play a key role in achieving high quality products. In the development process of new automotive parts, it is therefore crucial to accurately account for these effects in sheet metal forming simulations. This paper presents a selection of results considering friction and lubrication modelling in sheet metal forming simulations of a front fender product. For varying lubrication conditions, the front fender can either show wrinkling or fractures. The front fender is modelled using different lubrication amounts, tool roughness’s and sheet coatings to show the strong influence of friction on both part quality and the overall production stability. For this purpose, the TriboForm software is used in combination with the AutoForm software. The results demonstrate that the TriboForm software enables the simulation of friction behaviour for varying lubrication conditions, i.e. resulting in a generally applicable approach for friction characterization under industrial sheet metal forming process conditions.

  20. Field evaluation of ZeroFly--an insecticide incorporated plastic sheeting against malaria vectors & its impact on malaria transmission in tribal area of northern Orissa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S K; Upadhyay, A K; Haque, M A; Tyagi, P K; Mohanty, S S; Mittal, P K; Dash, A P

    2009-10-01

    Insecticide incorporated plastic sheeting is a new technology to control mosquitoes in emergency shelter places and also temporary habitations in different locations. Therefore, field studies were conducted to assess the efficacy of ZeroFly plastic sheeting treated with deltamethrin on prevailing disease vectors Anopheles culicifacies and An. fluviatilis and its impact on malaria transmission in one of the highly endemic areas of Orissa. The study was conducted in Birkera block of Sundargarh district, Orissa state. The study area comprised 3 villages, which were randomized as ZeroFly plastic sheet, untreated plastic sheet and no sheet area. ZeroFly plastic sheets and untreated plastic sheets were fixed in study and control villages respectively covering all the rooms in each household. Longitudinal studies were conducted on the bioefficacy with the help of cone bioassays, monitoring of the mosquito density through hand catch, floor sheet and exit trap collections and fortnightly domiciliary active surveillance in all the study villages. In ZeroFly plastic sheeting area, there was a significant reduction of 84.7 per cent in the entry rate of total mosquitoes in comparison to pre-intervention phase. There was 56.2 per cent immediate mortality in total mosquitoes in houses with ZeroFly sheeting. The overall feeding success rate of mosquitoes in the trial village was only 12.5 per cent in comparison to 49.7 and 51.1 per cent in villages with untreated plastic sheet and no sheet respectively. There was a significant reduction of 65.0 and 70.5 per cent in malaria incidence in ZeroFly plastic sheeting area as compared to untreated plastic sheet and no sheet area respectively. Our study showed that introduction of ZeroFly plastic sheets in a community-based intervention programme is operationally feasible to contain malaria especially in the high transmission difficult areas.

  1. Recent Trends of Coated Sheet Steels for Automotive use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Manbeen

    2012-01-01

    Recent issues in the automotive industries are, improvement of fuel efficiency according to the worldwide CO 2 regulation, passenger safety through enhanced crash worthiness, superior design and cost reduction due to price fluctuation of raw material. To meet these demands, steelmaking companies are developing advanced high strength steel and new process technologies such as hydroforming, TWB(Tailor Welded Blank), hot stamping and so on. In addition, eco-friendly and high corrosion resistant coating technologies are getting more attention to comply with the environmental regulations. In this paper, reviews and prospects of recent coating technologies for automotive use are presented

  2. Up-scalable sheet-to-sheet production of high efficiency perovskite module and solar cells on 6-in. substrate using slot die coating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Giacomo, Francesco; Shanmugam, Santhosh; Fledderus, Henri; Bruijnaers, Bardo J.; Verhees, Wiljan J.H.; Dorenkamper, Maarten S.; Veenstra, Sjoerd C.; Qiu, Weiming; Gehlhaar, Robert; Merckx, Tamara; Aernouts, Tom; Andriessen, Ronn; Galagan, Yulia

    2018-01-01

    Scalable sheet-to-sheet slot die coating processes have been demonstrated for perovskite solar cells and modules. The processes have been developed on 6 in. × 6 in. glass/ITO substrates for two functional layers: the perovskite photo-active layer and the Spiro-OMeTAD hole transport layer. Perovskite

  3. Crystal Plasticity Finite Element Analysis of Loading-Unloading Behaviour in Magnesium Alloy Sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hama, Takayuki; Fujimoto, Hitoshi; Takuda, Hirohiko

    2010-01-01

    Magnesium alloy sheets exhibit strong inelastic response during unloading. In this study crystal plasticity finite element analysis of loading-unloading behaviour during uniaxial tension in a rolled magnesium alloy sheet was carried out, and the mechanism of this inelastic response was examined in detail in terms of macroscopic and mesoscopic deformations. The unloading behaviour obtained by the simulation was in good agreement with the experiment in terms of variation with stress of instantaneous tangent modulus during unloading. Variations of activities of each family of slip systems during the deformation showed that the activation of basal slip systems is the largest during unloading, and the slip direction during unloading is opposite from during loading. These results indicated that one of the factors of the inelastic behaviour during unloading is the fact that the basal slip systems are easily activated during unloading because of their low strengths.

  4. Mechanical behavior of fiber/matrix interfaces in CFRP sheets subjected to plastic deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamiya Ryuta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP is increasing markedly, partially in the aviation industry, but it has been considered that CFRP sheets cannot be formed by press-forming techniques owing to the low ductility of CFRP. Since the mechanical characteristics of CFRP are dominated by the microscale structure, it is possible to improve its formability by optimizing the material structure. Therefore, to improve the formability, the interaction between the carbon fibers and the matrix must be clarified. In this study, microscale analyses were conducted by a finite-element model with cohesive zone elements.

  5. Evaluation of indigenously developed plastic scintillator sheet detector for surface radioactive contamination monitoring application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahani, R.M.; Chaudhary, H.S.; Mahala, V.K.; Senwar, K.R.; Meena, J.P.

    2018-01-01

    Radioactive contamination may be caused by release of radioactivity in the environment due to accident at nuclear plant/reactor or spillage of loose radioactive materials in a laboratory. The protection of workers from potentially hazardous radiations emitted by the contaminants is a matter of prime concern. The detection of such radiations requires a monitoring system capable of measuring the level of radioactivity at the contaminated site. Plastic scintillators are widely used for large area radiation monitoring due to the ease of preparation in different shape and sizes. These detectors are sensitive to beta and gamma radiation therefore can be used for monitoring of beta and gamma contamination. In this paper, performance results of indigenously developed plastic scintillator sheet of area 800 cm 2 are reported

  6. 75 FR 70206 - Certain Coated Paper Suitable for High-Quality Print Graphics Using Sheet-Fed Presses From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-560-824] Certain Coated Paper... paper suitable for high-quality print graphics using sheet-fed presses (certain coated paper) from... Department published its final determination in the countervailing duty investigation of certain coated paper...

  7. Mechanisms of oxygen permeation through plastic films and barrier coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilski, Stefan; Wipperfürth, Jens; Jaritz, Montgomery; Kirchheim, Dennis; Mitschker, Felix; Awakowicz, Peter; Dahlmann, Rainer; Hopmann, Christian

    2017-10-01

    Oxygen and water vapour permeation through plastic films in food packaging or other applications with high demands on permeation are prevented by inorganic barrier films. Most of the permeation occurs through small defects (visualized by etching with reactive oxygen in a capacitively coupled plasma and subsequent SEM imaging. In this work, defects in SiO x -coatings deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) are investigated and the mass transport through the polymer is simulated in a 3D approach. Calculations of single defects showed that there is no linear correlation between the defect area and the resulting permeability. The influence of adjacent defects in different distances was observed and led to flow reduction functions depending on the defect spacing and defect area. A critical defect spacing where no interaction between defects occurs was found and compared to other findings. According to the superposition principle, the permeability of single defects was added up and compared to experimentally determined oxygen permeation. The results showed the same trend of decreasing permeability with decreasing defect densities.

  8. Study on Plastic Coated Overburnt Brick Aggregate as an Alternative Material for Bituminous Road Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipankar Sarkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are different places in India where natural stone aggregates are not available for constructional work. Plastic coated OBBA can solve the problem of shortage of stone aggregate to some extent. The engineers are always encouraged to use locally available materials. The present investigation is carried out to evaluate the plastic coated OBBA as an alternative material for bituminous road construction. Shredded waste plastics are mixed with OBBA in different percentages as 0.38, 0.42, 0.46, 0.50, 0.54, and 0.60 of the weight of brick aggregates. Marshall Method of mix design is carried out to find the optimum bitumen content of such bituminous concrete mix prepared by plastic coated OBBA. Bulk density, Marshall Stability, flow, Marshall Quotient, ITS, TSR, stripping, fatigue life, and deformations have been determined accordingly. Marshall Stability value of 0.54 percent of plastic mix is comparatively higher than the other mixes except 0.60 percent of plastic mix. Test results are within the prescribed limit for 0.54 percent of plastic mix. There is a significant reduction in rutting characteristics of the same plastic mix. The fatigue life of the mix is also significantly higher. Thus plastic coated OBBA is found suitable in construction of bituminous concrete road.

  9. Influence of uncoated and coated plastic waste coarse aggregates to concrete compressive strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purnomo Heru

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of plastic waste as coarse aggregates in concrete is part of efforts to reduce environmental pollution. In one hand the use of plastic as aggregates can provide lighter weight of the concrete than concrete using natural aggregates, but on the other hand bond between plastic coarse aggregates and hard matrix give low concrete compressive strength. Improvement of the bond between plastic coarse aggregate and hard matrix through a sand coating to plastic coarse aggregate whole surface is studied. Sand used to coat the plastic aggregates are Merapi volcanic sand which are taken in Magelang. Three mixtures of polypropylene (PP coarse plastic aggregates, Cimangkok river sand as fine aggregates, water and Portland Cement Composite with a water-cement ratio of 0.28, 0.3 and 0.35 are conducted. Compression test are performed on concrete cylindrical specimens with a diameter of 10 cm and a height of 20 cm. The results in general show that concrete specimens using plastic aggregates coated with sand have higher compressive strength compared to those of concrete specimens using plastic aggregates without sand coating. The bond improvement is indirectly indicated by the betterment of concrete compressive strength.

  10. GRINDING OF SURFACES WITH COATINGS FORMED BY ELECTROMAGNETIC FACING WITH SURFACE PLASTIC DEFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zh. A. Mrochek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents investigation results on machining of surfaces having a coating formed by electromagnetic facing with surface plastic deformation and using abrasive and diamond wheels having a porous metal binder with orientated drains.

  11. Chromate-free Hybrid Coating for Corrosion Protection of Electrogalvanized Steel Sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Duhwan; Kwon, Moonjae; Kim, Jongsang

    2012-01-01

    Both electrogalvanized and hot-dip galvanized steel sheets have been finally produced via organic-inorganic surface coating process on the zinc surface to enhance corrosion resistance and afford additional functional properties. Recently, POSCO has been developed a variety of chromate-free coated steels that are widely used in household, construction and automotive applications. New organic-inorganic hybrid coating solutions as chromate alternatives are comprised of surface modified silicate with silane coupling agent and inorganic corrosion inhibitors as an aqueous formulation. In this paper we have prepared new type of hybrid coatings and evaluated quality performances such as corrosion resistance, spot weldability, thermal tolerance, and paint adhesion property etc. The electrogalvanized steels with these coating solutions exhibit good anti-corrosion property compared to those of chromate coated steels. Detailed components composition of coating solutions and experimental results suggest that strong binding between organic-inorganic hybrid coating layer and zinc surface plays a key role in the advanced quality performances

  12. Investigations of surface coatings to reduce memory effect in plastic scintillator detectors used for radioxenon detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaeckberg, L.; Fay, A.; Jogi, I.; Biegalski, S.; Boman, M.; Elmgren, K.; Fritioff, T.; Johansson, A.; Martensson, L.; Nielsen, F.; Ringbom, A.; Rooth, M.; Sjoestrand, H.; Klintenberg, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this work Al 2 O 3 and SiO 2 coatings are tested as Xe diffusion barriers on plastic scintillator substrates. The motivation is improved beta-gamma coincidence detection systems, used to measure atmospheric radioxenon within the verification regime of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. One major drawback with the current setup of these systems is that the radioxenon tends to diffuse into the plastic scintillator material responsible for the beta detection, resulting in an unwanted memory effect. Here, coatings with thicknesses between 20 and 900 nm have been deposited onto plastic scintillators, and investigated using two different experimental techniques. The results show that all tested coatings reduce the Xe diffusion into the plastic. The reduction is observed to increase with coating thickness for both coating materials. The 425 nm Al 2 O 3 coating is the most successful one, presenting a diffusion reduction of a factor 100, compared to uncoated plastic. In terms of memory effect reduction this coating is thus a viable solution to the problem in question.

  13. Investigations of surface coatings to reduce memory effect in plastic scintillator detectors used for radioxenon detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bläckberg, L.; Fay, A.; Jõgi, I.; Biegalski, S.; Boman, M.; Elmgren, K.; Fritioff, T.; Johansson, A.; Mårtensson, L.; Nielsen, F.; Ringbom, A.; Rooth, M.; Sjöstrand, H.; Klintenberg, M.

    2011-11-01

    In this work Al2O3 and SiO2 coatings are tested as Xe diffusion barriers on plastic scintillator substrates. The motivation is improved beta-gamma coincidence detection systems, used to measure atmospheric radioxenon within the verification regime of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. One major drawback with the current setup of these systems is that the radioxenon tends to diffuse into the plastic scintillator material responsible for the beta detection, resulting in an unwanted memory effect. Here, coatings with thicknesses between 20 and 900 nm have been deposited onto plastic scintillators, and investigated using two different experimental techniques. The results show that all tested coatings reduce the Xe diffusion into the plastic. The reduction is observed to increase with coating thickness for both coating materials. The 425 nm Al2O3 coating is the most successful one, presenting a diffusion reduction of a factor 100, compared to uncoated plastic. In terms of memory effect reduction this coating is thus a viable solution to the problem in question.

  14. Change and anisotropy of elastic modulus in sheet metals due to plastic deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishitsuka, Yuki; Arikawa, Shuichi; Yoneyama, Satoru

    2015-03-01

    In this study, the effect of the plastic deformation on the microscopic structure and the anisotropy of the elastic modulus in the cold-rolled steel sheet (SPCC) is investigated. Various uniaxial plastic strains (0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, and 10%) are applied to the annealed SPCC plates, then, the specimens for the tensile tests are cut out from them. The elastic moduli in the longitudinal direction and the transverse direction to the direction that are pre-strained are measured by the tensile tests. Cyclic tests are performed to investigate the effects of the internal friction caused by the movable dislocations in the elastic deformation. Also, the movable dislocations are quantified by the boundary tracking for TEM micrographs. In addition, the behaviors of the change of the elastic modulus in the solutionized and thermal aged aluminum alloy (A5052) are measured to investigate the effect on the movable dislocations with the amount of the depositions. As a result in SPCC, the elastic moduli of the 0° and 90° directions decrease more than 10% as 10% prestrain applied. On the other hand, the elastic modulus shows the recovery behavior after the strain aging and the annealing. The movable dislocation and the internal friction show a tendency to increase as the plastic strain increases. The marked anisotropy is not observed in the elastic modulus and the internal friction. The elastic modulus in A5052 with many and few depositions decreases similarly by the plastic deformation. From the above, the movable dislocations affect the elastic modulus strongly without depending on the deposition amount. Moreover, the elastic modulus recovers after the plastic deformation by reducing the effects of them with the strain aging and the heat treatment.

  15. Characterisation of organic thin film coatings on automobile steel sheets by photothermal methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orth, T. [Salzgitter Mannesmann Forschung GmbH, Duisburg (Germany); Fluegge, W. [Salzgitter Mannesmann Forschung GmbH, Salzgitter (Germany); Gibkes, J. [Ruhr-Univ. Bochum (Germany). AG FestKoerperSpektroskopie

    2006-07-01

    In the nineties, the first generation of organic thin film coatings for corrosion protection of zinc-coated thin sheet steel have been introduced. The coating typically consists of a suspension of small zinc particles, embedded in a polymer matrix. In the scope of quality control, the characterisation of the resulting layer structure is of great interest, comprising not only a constant layer thickness and a local homogeneity of the coating, but also the depth distribution of the particles within the layer. Especially the latter parameter does have a direct influence on the spot weldability of the steel sheets. The present work shows, how photothermal methods like modulated infrared radiometry and photoacoustics can be used for a successful depth profiling of the thin film coatings. The sample surface is periodically heated using an intensitymodulated laser beam, and a thermal wave is induced in the layer system. By variation of the modulation frequency of the laser beam, the thermal diffusion length and, as a consequence, the penetration depth of the thermal wave can be adjusted. By a suitable evaluation of the amplitude and phase lag signals as a function of the modulation frequency, accurate depth profiling has been realized which can be used for a very reliable prediction of the welding properties of the product. In the first investigations, artificial samples with well defined extreme distributions of the particles have been analyzed, and in a second step, an evaluation strategy has been developed for real production samples. (orig.)

  16. Phase analysis of fume during arc weld brazing of steel sheets with protective coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Matusiak

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of research of the phase identification and of the quantitative phase analysis of fume generated during Cold Metal Transfer (CMT, ColdArc and Metal Inert Gas / Metal Active Gas (MIG / MAG weld brazing. Investigations were conducted for hot - dip coated steel sheets with zinc (Zn and zinc-iron (Zn - Fe alloy coatings. Arc shielding gases applied during the research-related tests were Ar + O2, Ar + CO2, Ar + H2 and Ar + CO2 + H2 gas mixtures. The analysis of the results covers the influence of the chemical composition of shielding gas on the chemical composition of welding fume.

  17. Microstructure evolution of a dissimilar junction interface between an Al sheet and a Ni-coated Cu sheet joined by magnetic pulse welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoi, Takaomi, E-mail: itoi@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chiba University, 1-33, Yayoi-cho, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Mohamad, Azizan Bin; Suzuki, Ryo [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chiba University, 1-33, Yayoi-cho, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Okagawa, Keigo [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan College of Industrial Technology, 1-10-40 Higashi ohi, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 140-0011 (Japan)

    2016-08-15

    An Al sheet and a Ni-coated Cu sheet were lap joined by using magnetic pulse welding (MPW). Tensile tests were performed on the joined sheets, and a good lap joint was achieved at a discharge energy of > 0.9 kJ. The weld interface exhibited a wavy morphology and an intermediate layer along the weld interface. Microstructure observations of the intermediate layer revealed that the Ni coating region consisted of a Ni–Al binary amorphous alloy and that the Al sheet region contained very fine Al nanograins. Ni fragments indicative of unmelted residual Ni from the coating were also observed in parts of the intermediate layer. Formation of these features can be attributed to localize melting and a subsequent high rate cooling of molten Al and Ni confined to the interface during the MPW process. In the absence of an oxide film, atomic-scale bonding was also achieved between the intermediate layer and the sheet surfaces after the collision. MPW utilises impact energy, which affects the sheet surfaces. From the obtained results, good lap joint is attributed to an increased contact area, the anchor effect, work hardening, the absence of an oxide film, and suppressed formation of intermetallic compounds at the interface. - Highlights: •Good lap joint of an Al sheet and a Ni-coated Cu sheet was achieved by using magnetic pulse welding. •A Ni–Al binary amorphous alloy was formed as an intermediate layer at weld interface. •Atomic-scale bonding was achieved between the intermediate layer and the sheet surfaces.

  18. Effects of surface coatings on the light collection in plastic scintillators used for radioxenon detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bläckberg, L; Klintenberg, M; Sjöstrand, H; Ringbom, A

    2012-01-01

    Atomic layer deposition coatings are under investigation to reduce the diffusion of radioxenon into plastic scintillators. This paper investigates the impact of such surface coating on the light collection efficiency in a cylindrical geometry. A high and uniform light collection efficiency is important to preserve detector resolution. Monte Carlo simulations and measurements have been carried out to study the influence of coating thickness, refractive index and surface quality. It was found that it is important to achieve a smooth coating and good optical match between the refractive indices of the coating and the plastic scintillator. Taking into account these considerations, the detector under study could be coated without a significant degradation of its resolution.

  19. Thin-Sheet zinc-coated and carbon steels laser welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecas, P.; Gouveia, H.; Quintino, L.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a research on CO 2 laser welding of thin-sheet carbon steels (Zinc-coated and uncoated), at several thicknesses combinations. Laser welding has an high potential to be applied on sub-assemblies welding before forming to the automotive industry-tailored blanks. The welding process is studied through the analysis of parameters optimization, metallurgical quality and induced distortions by the welding process. The clamping system and the gas protection system developed are fully described. These systems allow the minimization of common thin-sheet laser welding defects like misalignment, and zinc-coated laser welding defects like porous and zinc ventilation. The laser welding quality is accessed by DIN 8563 standard, and by tensile, microhardness and corrosion test. (Author) 8 refs

  20. Barrier and mechanical properties of plasticized and cross-linked nanocellulose coatings for paper packaging applications

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera, M. A. (Martha A.); Mathew, A. P. (Aji P.); Oksman, K. (Kristiina)

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Barrier, mechanical and thermal properties of porous paper substrates dip-coated with nanocellulose (NC) were studied. Sorbitol plasticizer was used to improve the toughness, and citric acid cross-linker to improve the moisture stability of the coatings. In general, the addition of sorbitol increased the barrier properties, maximum strength and toughness as well as the thermal stability of the samples when compared to the non-modified NC coatings. The barrier properties significan...

  1. Structural and mechanical behaviour of severe plastically deformed high purity aluminium sheets processed by constrained groove pressing technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satheesh Kumar, S.S.; Raghu, T.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • High purity aluminium sheets constrained groove pressed up to plastic strain of 5.8. • Microstructural evolution studied by TEM and X-ray diffraction profile analysis. • Ultrafine grained structure with grain size ∼900 nm achieved in sheets. • Yield strength increased by 5.3 times and tensile strength doubled after first pass. • Enhanced deformation homogeneity seen with increased accumulated plastic strain. - Abstract: High purity aluminium sheets (∼99.9%) are subjected to intense plastic straining by constrained groove pressing method successfully up to 5 passes thereby imparting an effective plastic strain of 5.8. Transmission electron microscopy studies of constrained groove pressed sheets divulged significant grain refinement and the average grain sizes obtained after five pass is estimated to be ∼0.9 μm. In addition to that, microstructural evolution of constrained groove pressed sheets is characterized by X-ray diffraction peak profile analysis employing Williamson–Hall method and the results obtained fairly concur with electron microscopy findings. The tensile behaviour evolution with increased straining indicates substantial improvement of yield strength by ∼5.3 times from 17 MPa to 90 MPa during first pass corroborated to grain refinement observed. Marginal increase in strengths is noticed during second pass followed by minor drop in strengths attributed to predominance of dislocation recovery is noticed in subsequent passes. Quantitative assessment of degree of deformation homogeneity using microhardness profiles reveal relatively better strain homogeneity at higher number of passes

  2. 75 FR 29364 - Certain Coated Paper Suitable for High-Quality Print Graphics Using Sheet-Fed Presses From China...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-25

    ... sheet-fed presses; coated on one or both sides with kaolin (China or other clay), calcium carbonate... of 80 or higher; weighing not more than 340 grams per square meter; whether gloss grade, satin grade...

  3. Chitosan coatings crosslinked with genipin for corrosion protection of AZ31 magnesium alloy sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Y Pozzo, Ludmila; da Conceição, Thiago F; Spinelli, Almir; Scharnagl, Nico; Pires, Alfredo T N

    2018-02-01

    In this study, coatings of chitosan crosslinked with genipin were prepared on sheets of AZ31 magnesium alloy and their corrosion protection properties were characterized by means of potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The coatings were also characterized by means of FTIR and XPS. It was observed that the crosslinking process decreases the corrosion current and shifts the corrosion potential of the alloy to less negative values. The EIS analysis demonstrated that the crosslinking process increases the maximum impedance after short and long exposure times. The superior performance of the crosslinked coatings is related to a lower degree of swelling, as observed in the swelling tests carried out on free-standing films. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. 76 FR 58536 - Tin- and Chromium-Coated Steel Sheet From Japan; Notice of Commission Determination To Conduct a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-860 (Second Review)] Tin- and Chromium... Concerning the Antidumping Duty Order on Tin- and Chromium-Coated Steel Sheet From Japan AGENCY: United.... 1675(c)(5)) to determine whether revocation of the antidumping duty order on tin- and chromium-coated...

  5. Research progress of fabricating polyvinyl alcohol coating on plastic microsphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Lin; Chen Sufen; Liu Meifang; Zhang Zhanwen; Yao Hong; Li Bo; Liu Yiyang

    2012-01-01

    In the procedures of designing polystyrene-polyvinyl alcohol-CH (carbon and hydrogen elements) (PS-PVA-CH) triple-layer microspheres, there are many methods such as drop-tower technique, emulsion micro-encapsulation, dip (spin) coating, interfacial polycondensation, and spraying technique to prepare the PVA coating. Drop-tower technique, emulsion micro-encapsulation and dip (spin) coating are most-commonly used. The advantages, disadvantages and the research progress of the three methods are summarized in this paper. Emulsion micro-encapsulation is suitable for preparing double-layer microspheres of sizes smaller then 500 μm, with high survival ratio and good quality. However, the preparation process is easily influenced by artificial factors. Small-sized double-layer microspheres can also be prepared by the drop-tower technique, and the preparation period is short. But there are still some problems such as the difficulty in designing the droplet generator, uneven PVA coating and the difficulty in preparing large-sized microspheres. Dip (spin) coating technique can be used to prepare PS-PVA microspheres with sizes larger than 1000 μm, but the spread of PVA coating is affected by many factors in this method, and the prepared PVA coating is too thin and not uniform. (authors)

  6. Surface coatings as xenon diffusion barriers on plastic scintillators : Improving Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty verification

    OpenAIRE

    Bläckberg, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    This thesis investigates the ability of transparent surface coatings to reduce xenon diffusion into plastic scintillators. The motivation for the work is improved radioxenon monitoring equipment, used with in the framework of the verification regime of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. A large part of the equipment used in this context incorporates plastic scintillators which are in direct contact with the radioactive gas to be detected. One problem with such setup is that radioxenon...

  7. Thin film transistors on plastic substrates with reflective coatings for radiation protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Jesse D [Fairfield, CA; Theiss, Steven D [Woodbury, MN; Carey, Paul G [Mountain View, CA; Smith, Patrick M [San Ramon, CA; Wickbold, Paul [Walnut Creek, CA

    2006-09-26

    Fabrication of silicon thin film transistors (TFT) on low-temperature plastic substrates using a reflective coating so that inexpensive plastic substrates may be used in place of standard glass, quartz, and silicon wafer-based substrates. The TFT can be used in large area low cost electronics, such as flat panel displays and portable electronics such as video cameras, personal digital assistants, and cell phones.

  8. Development and application of a dry ultramicrotomy technique for the preparation of galvanneal sheet coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, M P; Veillette, R; L'Espérance, G

    1995-07-01

    The formability of galvanneal steel sheets used in the automotive industry is influenced by the presence and distribution of brittle and difficult to distinguish Zn-Fe intermetallics in the coating. Characterization of these intermetallics requires a high spatial resolution technique such as analytical transmission electron microscopy (ATEM). Sample preparation by ion milling is impossible due to iron redeposition, and traditional ultramicrotomy using water affects the coating chemistry. A technique based on dry ultramicrotomy has therefore been developed. To optimize the technique, different parameters (knife angle, cutting medium, thickness setting on the ultramicrotome, cutting speed) have been investigated for the preparation of galvanneal coatings and pure A1 sections. Results show that dry cutting does not affect the coating chemistry but shortens the life of the knife. Knife quality (cleanliness, sharpness and absence of defects) is a major factor to obtain good dry sections. The best results for the more ductile pure A1 are obtained with a 35 degrees knife whilst for the harder galvanneal coating it is recommended to use a 55 degrees knife. These results suggest that the sectioning mechanism for the harder material involves more a cleavage-fracture mechanism whilst a greater amount of shear is involved when sectioning relatively ductile A1. The optimum parameters for sectioning galvanneal coatings are established and results obtained by parallel electron energy loss spectrum imaging and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry in the TEM are given. This study shows that with a good control of all the sectioning parameters it is possible to obtain good sections repeatedly and rapidly.

  9. Progress in coating and radiation curing of metal and plastic objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayenknecht, H.

    1983-01-01

    The manyfold problems with one or multi-layered coatings on metal and plastic surfaces as adhesion and coat compound are the reasons for a rather slow progress of industrial applications of both radiation curing technologies (UV and EBC). Important reasons for this seemed to result from the fact that the manyfold offers of radiation sources were not optimum adapted to the chemistry of the coating materials. It was pointed out that tensions due to film contraction during polymerization process are the main reasons for insufficient adhesion. This presentation is an attempt to clarify both points of view

  10. Implementation of TiAIN and CrN coatings and ion implantation in the modern plastics moulding industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bienk, E.J.; Mikkelsen, N.J.

    1997-01-01

    Two methods of surface improvement widely used in the modern plastics industry are compared, with a view to improving productivity and product quality. Ion implantation of plastics and physical vapour deposition coatings both offer surface engineering advantages. Each method is described and evaluated with reference to plastics moulding. TiAIN coatings are used to protect hard bulk materials, subjected to evenly distributed loads. The more ductile CrN coatings are used for softer materials which give less support to the coatings. (UK)

  11. Plastic coating on paper by electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ametani, Kazuo; Tsuchiya, Mitsuaki; Sawai, Takeshi

    1984-01-01

    It has been known long since that the resin system of unsaturated polyester and vinylmonomer mixture cures by irradiation. Ford of USA for the first time industrialized the radiation curing reaction of resins for the coating of automobile parts. Thereafter, accompanying the development and technical advance of the low energy electron beam irradiation apparatus which is suitable to surface treatment such as coating and easy to handle and the development of resins, the electron beam curing method has become to be utilized for coating hardboard and wooden doors, coating automobile tire rims, adhering printing papers and others. The electron beam curing method has advantage such as energy conservation, resource saving and little pollution because solvent is not used, high production rate and small floor space. In glossing industry, for the purpose of developing the techniques to apply electron beam curing method to glazed paper production, the selection of the composition of resins suitable to glazed papers, the irradiating condition and the properties of cured films were examined. The films withstanding bending can be obtained at low dose with urethane group, ester group or the combination of monomers. (Kako, I.)

  12. Electrochemical reduction of nitroaromatic compounds by single sheet iron oxide coated electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Li-Zhi, E-mail: lizhi@plen.ku.dk [Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Thorvaldsensvej 40, DK–1871 Frederiksberg C (Denmark); Hansen, Hans Christian B. [Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Thorvaldsensvej 40, DK–1871 Frederiksberg C (Denmark); Bjerrum, Morten Jannik [Department of Chemistry, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 5, DK–2100 København Ø (Denmark)

    2016-04-05

    Highlights: • Composite layers of single sheet iron oxides were coated on indium tin oxide electrodes. • Single sheet iron oxide is an electro-catalyst for reduction of nitroaromatic compounds in aqueous solution. • The reduction is well explained by a diffusion layer model. • The charge properties of the nitrophenols have an important influence on reduction. • Low-cost iron oxide based materials are promising electro-catalyst for water treatment. - Abstract: Nitroaromatic compounds are substantial hazard to the environment and to the supply of clean drinking water. We report here the successful reduction of nitroaromatic compounds by use of iron oxide coated electrodes, and demonstrate that single sheet iron oxides formed from layered iron(II)-iron(III) hydroxides have unusual electrocatalytic reactivity. Electrodes were produced by coating of single sheet iron oxides on indium tin oxide electrodes. A reduction current density of 10 to 30 μA cm{sup −2} was observed in stirred aqueous solution at pH 7 with concentrations of 25 to 400 μM of the nitroaromatic compound at a potential of −0.7 V vs. SHE. Fast mass transfer favors the initial reduction of the nitroaromatic compound which is well explained by a diffusion layer model. Reduction was found to comprise two consecutive reactions: a fast four-electron first-order reduction of the nitro-group to the hydroxylamine-intermediate (rate constant = 0.28 h{sup −1}) followed by a slower two-electron zero-order reduction resulting in the final amino product (rate constant = 6.9 μM h{sup −1}). The zero-order of the latter reduction was attributed to saturation of the electrode surface with hydroxylamine-intermediates which have a more negative half-wave potential than the parent compound. For reduction of nitroaromatic compounds, the SSI electrode is found superior to metal electrodes due to low cost and high stability, and superior to carbon-based electrodes in terms of high coulombic efficiency and

  13. Comparative assessment of the microhardness and plastic degradation mechanism of deposited modulated coatings on mild steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayomi, O. S. I.; Anawe, P. A. L.; Inegbenebor, A. O.; Udoye, N. E.

    2018-05-01

    Zinc based coatings modified with aluminium and tin inclusions were electrodeposited in chloride zinc sulfate electrolytes containing a metallic powder of titanium. It was found that presence of these particulates is suitable to obtain ZnAlSn-Ti composites coating that could help increase the microhardnesss characteristics and wear properties. The hardness and wear properties of the deposited coatings were examined with diamond base micro-hardness tester and CETR reciprocating sliding tester respectively. The structural properties were examined with the help of scanning electron microscope. It was observed that structural coating surface impact on the hardness propagation with increases from 33.4 to 299 kgf mm-2 (HVN40), and shows a considerably higher wear resistance from 2.351g/min to 0.002g/min. It is obvious that plastic deformation of the working steel structure is dependent on protective coating and the concentration of the individual particulate.

  14. Study of CW Nd-Yag laser welding of Zn-coated steel sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabbro, Remy; Coste, Frederic; Goebels, Dominique; Kielwasser, Mathieu

    2006-01-01

    The welding of Zn-coated steel thin sheets is a great challenge for the automotive industry. Previous studies have defined the main physical processes involved. For non-controlled conditions, the zinc vapour expelled from the interface of the two sheets violently expands inside the keyhole and expels the melt pool. When using CO 2 lasers, we have previously shown that an elongated laser spot produces an elongated keyhole, which is efficient for suppressing this effect. We have adopted a similar approach for CW Nd : Yag laser welding and we observe that an elongated spot is not necessary for achieving good weld seams. Several diagnostics were used in order to understand these interesting results. High-speed video camera visualizations of the top and the bottom of the keyhole during the process show the dynamics of the keyhole hydrodynamic behaviour. It appears that the role of the reflected beam on the front keyhole wall for generating a characteristic rear wall deformation is crucial for an efficient stabilization of the process. Our dynamic keyhole modelling, which includes ray tracing, totally confirms this interpretation and explains the results for very different experimental conditions (effect of welding speed, laser intensity, variable sheet thickness, laser beam intensity distribution) that will be presented

  15. Development of Electrically Conductive Transparent Coatings for Acrylic Plastic

    Science.gov (United States)

    1952-12-01

    after drying, but increased to 4,000 megoihms/square after 16 hours. 4. Polyacrylic-polyamine Cop-lyrrvrs Aqueous solutions of polymethacrylic acid ...methacrylic acid -methyl methaerylate copolymer re•I. The composite material, i. e., the acrylic and applied coating, retains essentially all the original...ation in 5%, NaOH solution for 5 minutes, rinsed in distilled water, immersed with agitation in 1516 nitric acid for 3 minutes and finally rinsed well

  16. New developments in ophthalmic coatings on plastic lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eigenmann, H. P.; Lobsiger, W.; Suter, R.

    1998-02-01

    The origin of vision aids such as eyeglasses, magnifying glasses, telescopes and so forth lies in the distant past and cannot be dated with precision. However, such aids certainly came into use at different times in different cultures. Early portraits and other pictures prove to a certainty, however, that remarkable well-made spectacles were in use by the end of the Middle Ages. Glass was employed for optical lenses from the very beginning, and quality improved continuously with advances in glassmaking and polishing techniques. Starting around 1970, this continuing development received new impetus from the introduction of plastics as a new material for ophthalmic lenses. Rapid progress in plastics chemistry had epoch-making effects on lens technology, and today a wide variety of materials such as CR39, PMMA and polycarbonates, with refractive indices ranging from 1.52 to 1.65, are used for this purpose. Eyeglasses have long been important on other grounds than vision correction; people wear them as adornment, because they are fashionable, to express their personality, and for other reasons. This dramatic history shows no signs of coming to an end, and more innovations are definitely ahead.

  17. 76 FR 77013 - Tin- and Chromium-Coated Steel Sheet From Japan; Scheduling of a Full Five-Year Review Concerning...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-860 (Second Review)] Tin- and Chromium-Coated Steel Sheet From Japan; Scheduling of a Full Five-Year Review Concerning the Antidumping Duty... order on tin- and chromium-coated steel sheet from Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or...

  18. 76 FR 31633 - Tin- and Chromium-Coated Steel Sheet from Japan; Institution of a Five-Year Review Concerning the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-860 (Second Review)] Tin- and Chromium... Tin- and Chromium-Coated Steel Sheet from Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission... the antidumping duty order on tin- and chromium-coated steel sheet from Japan would be likely to lead...

  19. Contact Behavior of Composite CrTiSiN Coated Dies in Compressing of Mg Alloy Sheets under High Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hard coatings have been adopted in cutting and forming applications for nearly two decades. The major purpose of using hard coatings is to reduce the friction coefficient between contact surfaces, to increase strength, toughness and anti-wear performance of working tools and molds, and then to obtain a smooth work surface and an increase in service life of tools and molds. In this report, we deposited a composite CrTiSiN hard coating, and a traditional single-layered TiAlN coating as a reference. Then, the coatings were comparatively studied by a series of tests. A field emission SEM was used to characterize the microstructure. Hardness was measured using a nano-indentation tester. Adhesion of coatings was evaluated using a Rockwell C hardness indentation tester. A pin-on-disk wear tester with WC balls as sliding counterparts was used to determine the wear properties. A self-designed compression and friction tester, by combining a Universal Testing Machine and a wear tester, was used to evaluate the contact behavior of composite CrTiSiN coated dies in compressing of Mg alloy sheets under high pressure. The results indicated that the hardness of composite CrTiSiN coating was lower than that of the TiAlN coating. However, the CrTiSiN coating showed better anti-wear performance. The CrTiSiN coated dies achieved smooth surfaces on the Mg alloy sheet in the compressing test and lower friction coefficient in the friction test, as compared with the TiAlN coating.

  20. Contact Behavior of Composite CrTiSiN Coated Dies in Compressing of Mg Alloy Sheets under High Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, T S; Yao, S H; Chang, Y Y; Deng, J H

    2018-01-08

    Hard coatings have been adopted in cutting and forming applications for nearly two decades. The major purpose of using hard coatings is to reduce the friction coefficient between contact surfaces, to increase strength, toughness and anti-wear performance of working tools and molds, and then to obtain a smooth work surface and an increase in service life of tools and molds. In this report, we deposited a composite CrTiSiN hard coating, and a traditional single-layered TiAlN coating as a reference. Then, the coatings were comparatively studied by a series of tests. A field emission SEM was used to characterize the microstructure. Hardness was measured using a nano-indentation tester. Adhesion of coatings was evaluated using a Rockwell C hardness indentation tester. A pin-on-disk wear tester with WC balls as sliding counterparts was used to determine the wear properties. A self-designed compression and friction tester, by combining a Universal Testing Machine and a wear tester, was used to evaluate the contact behavior of composite CrTiSiN coated dies in compressing of Mg alloy sheets under high pressure. The results indicated that the hardness of composite CrTiSiN coating was lower than that of the TiAlN coating. However, the CrTiSiN coating showed better anti-wear performance. The CrTiSiN coated dies achieved smooth surfaces on the Mg alloy sheet in the compressing test and lower friction coefficient in the friction test, as compared with the TiAlN coating.

  1. Thin-Film Coated Plastic Wrap for Food Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Yu Wu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the antimicrobial property and food package capability of polymethylpentene (PMP substrate with silicon oxdie (SiOx and organic silicon (SiCxHy stacked layers deposited by an inductively coupled plasma chemical vapor deposition system were investigated. The experimental results show that the stacked pair number of SiOx/SiCxHy on PMP is limited to three pairs, beyond which the films will crack and cause package failure. The three-pair SiOx/SiCxHy on PMP shows a low water vapor transmission rate of 0.57 g/m2/day and a high water contact angle of 102°. Three-pair thin-film coated PMP demonstrates no microbe adhesion and exhibits antibacterial properties within 24 h. Food shelf life testing performed at 28 °C and 80% humidity reports that the three-pair thin-film coated PMP can enhance the food shelf-life to 120 h. The results indicate that the silicon-based thin film may be a promising material for antibacterial food packaging applications to extend the shelf-life of food products.

  2. Steel Protective Coating Based on Plasticized Epoxy Acrylate Formulation Cured by Electron Beam Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, M.S.; Said, H.M.; Mohamed, I.M.; Mohamed, H.A.; Kandile, N.G.

    2011-01-01

    Electron beam (EB) was used to cure coatings based on epoxy acrylate oligomer (EA) and different plasticizers such as epoxidized soybean oil, glycerol and castor oil. The effect of irradiation doses (10, 25, 50 kGy) on the curing epoxy acrylate formulations containing plasticizers was studied. In the addition, the effect of the different plasticizers on the end use performance properties of epoxy acrylate coatings such as hardness, bending, adhesion, acid and alkali resistance tests were investigated. It was observed that the incorporation of castor oil in epoxy acrylate, diluted by 1,6 hexandiol diacrylate monomer (HD) with a ratio (EA 70%, HD 20%, castor oil 10%) under the dose 10 kGy improved the physical, chemical and mechanical properties of cured films than the other plasticizers. On the other hand, sunflower free fatty acids were epoxidized in-situ under well established conditions and then was subjected to react with aniline in sealed ampoules under inert atmosphere at 140 degree C. The produced adduct was added at different concentrations to epoxy acrylate coatings under certain EB irradiation dose and then evaluated as corrosion inhibitors for carbon steel surfaces in terms of weight loss measurements and corrosion resistance tests. It was observed that the formula containing 0.4 gm of aniline adduct / 100 gm epoxy acrylate resin gave the best corrosion protection for carbon steel

  3. Nanosecond multi-pulse laser milling for certain area removal of metal coating on plastics surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kai; Jia, Zhenyuan; Ma, Jianwei; Liu, Wei; Wang, Ling

    2014-12-01

    Metal coating with functional pattern on engineering plastics surface plays an important role in industry applications; it can be obtained by adding or removing certain area of metal coating on engineering plastics surface. However, the manufacturing requirements are improved continuously and the plastic substrate presents three-dimensional (3D) structure-many of these parts cannot be fabricated by conventional processing methods, and a new manufacturing method is urgently needed. As the laser-processing technology has many advantages like high machining accuracy and constraints free substrate structure, the machining of the parts is studied through removing certain area of metal coating based on the nanosecond multi-pulse laser milling. To improve the edge quality of the functional pattern, generation mechanism and corresponding avoidance strategy of the processing defects are studied. Additionally, a prediction model for the laser ablation depth is proposed, which can effectively avoid the existence of residual metal coating and reduces the damage of substrate. With the optimal machining parameters, an equiangular spiral pattern on copper-clad polyimide (CCPI) is machined based on the laser milling at last. The experimental results indicate that the edge of the pattern is smooth and consistent, the substrate is flat and without damage. The achievements in this study could be applied in industrial production.

  4. 75 FR 70203 - Certain Coated Paper Suitable for High-Quality Print Graphics Using Sheet-Fed Presses From the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... Error Memo. In addition, one of the ministerial errors affected the calculation of the labor rate, which... quality print graphics using sheet-fed presses; coated on one or both sides with kaolin (china or other...; whether gloss grade, satin grade, matte grade, dull grade, or any other grade of finish; whether or not...

  5. 75 FR 30370 - Certain Coated Paper Suitable For High-Quality Print Graphics Using Sheet-Fed Presses from the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... using sheet-fed presses; coated on one or both sides with kaolin (China or other clay), calcium... brightness level of 80 or higher;\\2\\ weighing not more than 340 grams per square meter; whether gloss grade... typically is referred to as [revaps]cover,' to distinguish it from [revaps]text.''' \\2\\ One of the key...

  6. 75 FR 75663 - Certain Coated Paper Suitable for High-Quality Print Graphics Using Sheet-Fed Presses From the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-06

    ... suitable for high quality print graphics using sheet-fed presses; coated on one or both sides with kaolin... square meter; whether gloss grade, satin grade, matte grade, dull grade, or any other grade of finish... distinguish it from `text.' \\2\\ One of the key measurements of any grade of paper is brightness. Generally...

  7. Nondestructive Evaluation of Friction Stir-Welded Aluminum Alloy to Coated Steel Sheet Lap Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, H.; Kumar, A.; Rajkumar, K. V.; Saravanan, T.; Jayakumar, T.; Pal, Tapan Kumar

    2015-11-01

    Dissimilar lap joints of aluminum sheet (AA 6061) of 2 mm thickness and zinc-coated steel sheet of 1 mm thickness were produced by friction stir welding with different combinations of rotational speed and travel speed. Ultrasonic C- and B-scanning, and radiography have been used in a complementary manner for detection of volumetric (cavity and flash) and planar (de bond) defects as the defects are in micron level. Advanced ultrasonic C-scanning did not provide any idea about the defects, whereas B-scanning cross-sectional image showed an exclusive overview of the micron-level defects. A digital x-ray radiography methodology is proposed for quality assessment of the dissimilar welds which provide three-fold increase in signal-to-noise ratio with improved defect detection sensitivity. The present study clearly shows that the weld tool rotational speed and travel speed have a decisive role on the quality of the joints obtained by the friction stir welding process. The suitability of the proposed NDE techniques to evaluate the joint integrity of dissimilar FSW joints is thus established.

  8. ELASTO-PLASTIC DEFORMATION OF COMPOSITE POWDERS WITH LAYERED CARBON AND CARBIDE-FORMING ELEMENT COATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Kovalevsky

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Coating structure formation under magnetron spraying of titanium and carbon cathodes and combined cathodes, namely cobalt (EP 131 – nickel, tungsten – carbon have been investigated under conditions of carbide separate synthesis within the temperature range of 650–1200 °C. Usage of cobalt and nickel particles as matrix material leads to their rapid thermal expansion under heating during sintering process in the dilatometer. Subsequent plastic deformation of sintered samples provides obtaining a composite powder material that is a composite with framing structure of cobalt, titanium and tungsten carbides in the coatings.

  9. THE METHOD OF ROLL SURFACE QUALITY MEASUREMENT FOR CONTINUOUS HOT DIP ZINC COATED STEEL SHEET PRODUCTION LINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Yong Choi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper describes a developed analyzing system of roll surface during the process of continuous hot dip zinc coated steel sheet production line, in particular, adhering problem by transferred inclusions from roll to steel sheet surface during annealing process so called the pickup. The simulated test machine for coated roll surface in processing line has been designed and performed. The system makes it possible to analyze roll surface condition according to pickup phenomena from various roll coatings concerning operating conditions of hearth rolls in annealing furnace. The algorithm of fast pickup detection on surface is developed on the base of processing of several optical images of surface. The parameters for quality estimation of surface with pickups were developed. The optical system for images registration and image processing electronics may be used in real time and embed in processing line.

  10. Zr-based conversion layer on Zn-Al-Mg alloy coated steel sheets: insights into the formation mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lostak, Thomas; Maljusch, Artjom; Klink, Björn; Krebs, Stefan; Kimpel, Matthias; Flock, Jörg; Schulz, Stephan; Schuhmann, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Zr-based conversion layers are considered as environmentally friendly alternatives replacing trication phosphatation in the automotive industry. Based on excellent electronic barrier properties they provide an effective corrosion protection of the metallic substrate. In this work, thin protective layers were grown on novel Zn-Al-Mg alloy coated steel sheets by increasing the local pH-value at the sample surface leading to deposition of a Zr-based conversion layer. For this purpose Zn-Al-Mg alloy (ZM) coated steel sheets were treated in an aqueous model conversion solution containing well-defined amounts of hexafluorozirconic acid (H 2 ZrF 6 ) and characterized after different immersion times with SKPFM and field emission SEM (FE-SEM)/EDX techniques. A deposition mechanism of Zr-based conversion coatings on microstructural heterogeneous Zn-Al-Mg alloy surfaces was proposed

  11. Plastic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong Gi Hyeon

    1987-04-01

    This book deals with plastic, which includes introduction for plastic, chemistry of high polymers, polymerization, speciality and structure of a high molecule property of plastic, molding, thermosetting plastic, such as polyethylene, polyether, polyamide and polyvinyl acetyl, thermal plastic like phenolic resins, xylene resins, melamine resin, epoxy resin, alkyd resin and poly urethan resin, new plastic like ionomer and PPS resin, synthetic laminated tape and synthetic wood, mixed materials in plastic, reprocessing of waste plastic, polymer blend, test method for plastic materials and auxiliary materials of plastic.

  12. SU-F-T-550: Radiochromic Plastic Thin Sheet Dosimeter: Initial Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, K [London Regional Cancer Program, London, ON (United Kingdom); Adamovics, J [John Adamovics, Skillman, NJ (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Thin sheets, of a high sensitivity formulation of radiochromic dosimeter, Presage were prepared and evaluated for optical readout. Methods: Sheets of radiochromic polyurethane, 12 cm long, 10 cm wide and 0.2 cm thick were prepared with leuco crystal violet as the reporter molecule. Sample transmission was evaluated at a wavelength of 590 nm with in-house constructed instruments: optical cone beam laser CT scanner, fixed and scanning spot densitometers. Sample sequential irradiations to a total dose of 40 Gy were conducted with a modified, Theratron 60, cobalt radiotherapy machine at dose rates of 1 or 0.25 Gy per minute. Exposure to ambient and readout light was minimized to limit background photochromic signals. Samples were stored at 4°C. Optical activity was assessed from linearly polarized transmission images. Comparison sensitivity measurements with EBT3 film were conducted. Results: Samples were transparent, smooth and pale purple before irradiation. Radiochromic reaction was completed in less than 5 minutes. A linear dose response with a sensitivity of 0.5 cm-1Gy-1 was observed. Micrometer measurements found sheet thickness variations up to 20%. Uniform dose, 2 Gy attenuation images, correlated with local sheet thicknesses. Comparable measurements with EBT3 film were 3 times more sensitive at 1 Gy but above 15 Gy, EBT3 film had lower sensitivity than 0.2 cm thick Presage sheet dosimeter due to its non-linear response. Conclusion: Dose sensitivity provided a 10% decrease in transmission for a 1 Gy dose. Improvements in mold design are expected to allow production of sheets with less than 5% variation in thickness. Above, 10 Gy, Presage sheet dosimeter performance expected to exceed EBT3 film based on linearity, sensitivity, transparency and smoothness of samples. J Adamovics is owner of Heuris Inc.

  13. Preparation and Characterization of Coating Solution Based on Waterborne Polyurethane Dispersion containing Fluorine for Primer on Electro Galvanized Steel Sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Chung Keun; Lim, Sung Hyung

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to synthesize fluorine modified waterborne polyurethane dispersion (F-WPU) by soap-free (internal emulsifier) emulsion polymerization techniques, to prepare coating solution based on fluorine modified waterborne polyurethane dispersion (F-WPU) and to compare the chemical and thermo-mechanical properties on the electrogalvanized steel sheet. Environmentally friendly F-WPU was prepared with a fluorinated polyol containing 60 wt% of fluorine. There are various ways of combining a wide variety of fluorinated polyols and diisocyanate to exhibit novel properties of waterborne polyurethane dispersion. Components of coating solution were largely divided into 4 kinds i.e., F-WPU, acrylic emulsion, silane coupling agent, and colloidal silicate. F-WPU coating solution on the electro-galvanized steel sheet showed excellent properties of corrosion resistance, alkali resistance and heat resistance, as compared to other coating solutions using a general waterborne resin. The F-WPU coating solution's reliable effects are possibly due to the fluorine atoms incorporated even in a small amount of F-WPU

  14. Preparation and Characterization of Coating Solution Based on Waterborne Polyurethane Dispersion containing Fluorine for Primer on Electro Galvanized Steel Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Chung Keun; Lim, Sung Hyung [Buhmwoo Institute of Technology Research, Hwaseong (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The purpose of this research was to synthesize fluorine modified waterborne polyurethane dispersion (F-WPU) by soap-free (internal emulsifier) emulsion polymerization techniques, to prepare coating solution based on fluorine modified waterborne polyurethane dispersion (F-WPU) and to compare the chemical and thermo-mechanical properties on the electrogalvanized steel sheet. Environmentally friendly F-WPU was prepared with a fluorinated polyol containing 60 wt% of fluorine. There are various ways of combining a wide variety of fluorinated polyols and diisocyanate to exhibit novel properties of waterborne polyurethane dispersion. Components of coating solution were largely divided into 4 kinds i.e., F-WPU, acrylic emulsion, silane coupling agent, and colloidal silicate. F-WPU coating solution on the electro-galvanized steel sheet showed excellent properties of corrosion resistance, alkali resistance and heat resistance, as compared to other coating solutions using a general waterborne resin. The F-WPU coating solution's reliable effects are possibly due to the fluorine atoms incorporated even in a small amount of F-WPU.

  15. Improved Plasticity of Ti-Based Bulk Metallic Glass at Room Temperature by Electroless Thin Nickel Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available By restricting the dilated deformation, surface modification can stimulate multiple shear banding and improve the plasticity of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs. Aimed at modifying the surface of BMGs by thin layers, a crystalline Ni coating with ultrafine grains was coated on the surface of a Ti-based BMG by electroless plating. With a thickness of about 10 μm, the prepared thin coating could effectively limit the fast propagation of primary shear bands and stimulate the nucleation of multiple shear bands. As a result, the compression plasticity of the coated Ti-based BMG was improved to about 3.7% from near 0% of the non-coated BMG. Except for a small amount of Ni coating was adhered to the BMG substrate after fracture, most of the coatings were peeled off from the surface. It can be attributed to the abnormal growth of some coarse grains/particles in local region of the coating, which induces a large tensile stress at the interface between the coating and the BMG substrate. It is suggested that, for electroless nickel plating, improving the adhesive bonding strength between the coating and the substrate has a better geometric restriction effect than simply increasing the thickness of the coating.

  16. Porous honeycomb structures formed from interconnected MnO2 sheets on CNT-coated substrates for flexible all-solid-state supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Wen-Yin; Chen, You-Feng; Lu, Ke-Ming; Lin, Kuan-Jiuh

    2016-01-01

    The use of lightweight and easily-fabricated MnO2/carbon nanotube (CNT)-based flexible networks as binder-free electrodes and a polyvinyl alcohol/H2SO4 electrolyte for the formation of stretchable solid-state supercapacitors was examined. The active electrodes were fabricated from 3D honeycomb porous MnO2 assembled from cross-walled and interconnected sheet-architectural MnO2 on CNT-based plastic substrates (denoted as honeycomb MnO2/CNT textiles).These substrates were fabricated through a simple two-step procedure involving the coating of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) onto commercial textiles by a dipping-drying process and subsequent electrodeposition of the interconnected MnO2 sheets onto the MWCNT-coated textile. With such unique MnO2 architectures integrated onto CNT flexible films, good performance was achieved with a specific capacitance of 324 F/g at 0.5 A/g. A maximum energy density of 7.2 Wh/kg and a power density as high as 3.3 kW/kg were exhibited by the honeycomb MnO2/CNT network device, which is comparable to the performance of other carbon-based and metal oxide/carbon-based solid-state supercapacitor devices. Specifically, the long-term cycling stability of this material is excellent, with almost no loss of its initial capacitance and good Coulombic efficiency of 82% after 5000 cycles. These impressive results identify these materials as a promising candidate for use in environmentally friendly, low-cost, and high-performance flexible energy-storage devices. PMID:26726724

  17. Protection of active implant electronics with organosilicon open air plasma coating for plastic overmolding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeppenfeld Matthias

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available To overcome challenges for manufacturing of modern smart medical plastic parts by injection molding, e.g. for active implants, the optimization of the interface between electronics and the polymer component concerning adhesion and diffusion behavior is crucial. Our results indicate that a nano-sized SiOxCyHz layer formed by plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PE-CVD via open air atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ and by use of a hexamthyldisiloxane (HMDSO precursor can form a non-corrosive, anti-permeable and biocompatible coating. Due to the open air character of the APPJ process an inline coating before overmolding could be an easy applicable method and a promising advancement.

  18. Effect of material scatter on the plastic behavior and stretchability in sheet metal forming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiebenga, J.H.; Atzema, E.H.; Atzema, E.H.; An, Y.G.; Vegter, H.; van den Boogaard, Antonius H.

    2014-01-01

    Robust design of forming processes is gaining attention throughout the industry. To analyze the robustness of a sheet metal forming process using Finite Element (FE) simulations, an accurate input in terms of parameter scatter is required. This paper presents a pragmatic, accurate and economic

  19. Influences of plasticity on a sheet pile phased stochastic FE analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, A. de; Waarts, P.H.

    2000-01-01

    The paper deals with the stochastic analysis of the stability of a sheet pile soil structure. Most areas in the Netherlands have layered soil conditions. The decisive parameter in the nonlinear FE analysis is the behaviour of the soil. For layered soil conditions, the correct modelling of the

  20. Thin-sheet zinc-coated and carbon steels laser welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peças, P.

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the results of a research on CO2 laser welding of thin-sheet carbon steels (zinccoated and uncoated, at several thicknesses combinations. Laser welding has an high potential to be applied on sub-assemblies welding before forming to the automotive industry-tailored blanks. The welding process is studied through the analysis of parameters optimization, metallurgical quality and induced distortions by the welding process. The clamping system and the gas protection system developed are fully described. These systems allow the minimization of common thin-sheet laser welding defects like misalignement, and zinc-coated laser welding defects like porous and zinc volatilization. The laser welding quality is accessed by DIN 8563 standard, and by tensile, microhardness and corrosion tests.

    Este artigo descreve os resultados da investigação da soldadura laser de CO2 de chapa fina de acó carbono (simples e galvanizado, em diferentes combinações de espessura. A soldadura laser é um processo de elevado potencial no fabrico de tailored-blanks (sub-conjuntos para posterior enformação, constituidos por varias partes de diferentes materiais e espessuras para a indústria automóvel. São analisados os aspectos de optimização paramétrica, de qualidade metalúrgica da junta soldada e das deformações resultantes da soldadura. São descritos os mecanismos desenvolvidos de fixação das chapas e protecção gasosa, por forma a minimizar os defeitos típicos na soldadura laser de chapa fina como o desalinhamento e da soldadura laser de chapa galvanizada como os poros e a volatilização do zinco. Por fim apresentam-se resultados da avaliação da qualidade da soldadura do ponto de vista qualitativo através da norma DIN 8563, e do pontos de vista quantitativo através de ensaios de tracção, dureza e corrosão.

  1. Sol-gel coatings on large area glass sheets for electrochromic devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroon, Z.A.E.P.; Spee, C.I.M.A.

    1997-01-01

    The preparation of vanadium and tungsten oxide coatings is described using vanadium oxide tri-2-propoxide/2-propanol and tungsten penta-ethoxide/2-propanol solutions. These solutions are dip coated onto K-glass substrates and cured. For vanadium oxide coatings it is shown that sol-gel/dip coat

  2. Surface investigation and tribological mechanism of a sulfate-based lubricant deposited on zinc-coated steel sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timma, Christian, E-mail: christian.timma@thyssenkrupp.com [ThyssenKrupp Steel Europe AG, Technology & Innovation, Kaiser-Wilhelm Str. 100, 47166 Duisburg (Germany); University of Duisburg-Essen, Faculty of Chemistry, CENIDE, Universitätsstraße 7, 45141 Essen (Germany); Lostak, Thomas; Janssen, Stella; Flock, Jörg [ThyssenKrupp Steel Europe AG, Technology & Innovation, Kaiser-Wilhelm Str. 100, 47166 Duisburg (Germany); Mayer, Christian [University of Duisburg-Essen, Faculty of Chemistry, CENIDE, Universitätsstraße 7, 45141 Essen (Germany)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • Skin-passed hot-dip galvanized (HDG-) steel sheets were coated with (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4} in a common roll-coating method. • A formation of (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}Zn(SO{sub 4}) * xH{sub 2}O was observed and the reaction mainly occurred in the skin-passed areas of the surface. • Sulfate coated samples reveal a superior friction behaviour in oil-like conditions compared non-sulfated specimen. - Abstract: Phosphatation is a well-known technique to improve friction and wear behaviour of zinc coated steel, but has a variety of economic and ecologic limitations. In this study an alternative coating based on ammonium sulfate ((NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}) is applied on skin-passed hot-dip galvanized steel sheets in order to investigate its surface chemical and tribological behaviour in a Pin-on-Disk Tribometer. Raman- and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic results revealed a formation of ammonium zinc sulfate ((NH{sub 4}){sub 2}Zn(SO{sub 4}){sub 2} * xH{sub 2}O) on the surface, which is primarily located in the skin-passed areas of the steel material. Sulfate coated samples exhibited a superior friction behaviour in Pin-on-Disk Tests using squalane as a model substance for oil-like lubricated conditions and a formation of a thin lubrication film is obtained in the wear track. Squalane acts as a carrier substance for ammonium zinc sulfate, leading to an effective lubrication film in the wear track.

  3. Influence of the film thickness on the structure, optical and electrical properties of ITO coatings deposited by sputtering at room temperature on glass and plastic substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillén, C; Herrero, J

    2008-01-01

    Transparent and conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) films with thickness between 0.2 and 0.7 µm were deposited by sputtering at room temperature on glass and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates. All films were polycrystalline, with crystallite size increasing and lattice distortion decreasing when the film thickness was increased. Besides, transmission in the near-infrared region is found to be decreasing and carrier concentration increasing when the film thickness was increased. For the same thickness, the lattice distortion is slightly lower and the carrier concentration higher for the layers grown on PET substrates. A direct relationship between the lattice distortion and the free carrier concentration has been established, applying to the films grown on glass and plastic substrates. By adjusting ITO coating thickness, sheet resistance below 15 Ω sq −1 and average visible transmittance about 90% have been achieved by sputtering at room temperature

  4. On Necking, Fracture and Localization of Plastic Flow in Austenitic Stainless Steel Sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korhonen, A. S.; Manninen, T.; Kanervo, K.

    2007-01-01

    The forming limits of austenitic stainless steel sheets were studied in this work. It was found that the observed limit of straining in stretch forming, when both of the principal stresses are positive, is not set by localized necking, but instead by inclined shearing fracture in the through thickness direction. It appears that the forming limits of austenitic stainless steels may be predicted fairly well by using the classical localized and diffuse necking criteria developed by Hill. The strain path-dependence may be accounted for by integrating the effective strain along the strain path. The fracture criteria of Rice and Tracey and Cockcroft, Latham and Oh were also studied. The results were in qualitative agreement with the experimental observations. Recent experiments with high-velocity electrohydraulic forming of austenitic stainless steels revealed localized necks in stretch formed parts, which are not commonly observed in conventionally formed sheet metal parts

  5. Technical note: preservation of tissues and gastrointestinal tract portions by plastic coating or plastination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pond, K R; Holladay, S D; Luginbuhl, J M

    1992-04-01

    Two methods to preserve gastrointestinal tract (GIT) organs and tissues, plastic coating (PC) and plastination (PN), were investigated and compared. Specimens to be preserved were removed from animals within 2 h of death and immediately cleaned with water. Digesta contents were removed by flushing desired portions of GIT with water until the exiting water was clear. In the PC method, cleaned specimens were dehydrated by immersion in an isopropanol solution, dried with forced air after positioning and orientation as in situ, and finally coated on the outer and inner surfaces with a clear plastic material. In the PN procedure, specimens were filled with, and submerged in, a low-formaldehyde fixative, then dehydrated by immersion in a cold acetone solution. Dehydrated specimens were immersed in silicone and placed in a freeze drier for impregnation under low vacuum, followed by overnight gas curing with a silicone crosslinker. Finally, viewing windows were cut out with a scalpel in GIT preserved by both methods. Preserved GIT and tissues had an appearance similar to their appearance in vivo. The PC method was simple and inexpensive. Plastinated specimens were more flexible, durable, and lifelike than those preserved by the PC method. In addition, many body parts, such as muscles, nerves, bones, ligaments, and central nervous system specimens, were preserved by PN. Both methods were found to be useful tools for postmortem studies of tissues and GIT organs.

  6. An analysis of heat field of metal sheet during elastic-plastic deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, S.X.; Huang, Y.; Shih, C.H.

    1985-08-01

    This paper describes the application of the finite element analysis to calculate the temperature distribution generated during the process of elastic-plastic deformation. A better agreement is found between the results of heat field computed by use of the finite element analysis and that measured by use of an infrared camera. The results indicate that the method of finite element analysis used for heat field evaluation is reliable. (author)

  7. Bridging Redox Species-Coated Graphene Oxide Sheets to Electrode for Extending Battery Life Using Nanocomposite Electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi Fu; Ruan, Wen Hong; Lin, Dong Ling; Zhang, Ming Qiu

    2017-01-11

    Substituting conventional electrolyte for redox electrolyte has provided a new intriguing method for extending battery life. The efficiency of utilizing the contained redox species (RS) in the redox electrolyte can benefit from increasing the specific surface area of battery electrodes from the electrode side of the electrode-electrolyte interface, but is not limited to that. Herein, a new strategy using nanocomposite electrolyte is proposed to enlarge the interface with the aid of nanoinclusions from the electrolyte side. To do this, graphene oxide (GO) sheets are first dispersed in the electrolyte solution of tungstosilicic salt/lithium sulfate/poly(vinyl alcohol) (SiWLi/Li 2 SO 4 /PVA), and then the sheets are bridged to electrode, after casting and evaporating the solution on the electrode surface. By applying in situ conductive atomic force microscopy and Raman spectra, it is confirmed that the GO sheets doped with RS of SiWLi/Li 2 SO 4 can be bridged and electrically reduced as an extended electrode-electrolyte interface. As a result, the RS-coated GO sheets bridged to LiTi 2 (PO 4 ) 3 //LiMn 2 O 4 battery electrodes are found to deliver extra energy capacity (∼30 mAh/g) with excellent electrochemical cycling stability, which successfully extends the battery life by over 50%.

  8. Multi-scale contact modeling of coated steels for sheet metal forming applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shisode, Meghshyam; Hazrati Marangalou, Javad; Mishra, Tanmaya; De Rooij, Matthijn; Van Den Boogaard, Ton; Bay, Niels; Nielsen, Chris V.

    2018-01-01

    Friction in sheet metal forming is a local phenomenon which depends on continuously evolving contact conditions during the forming process. This is mainly influenced by local contact pressure, surface textures of the sheet metal as well as the forming tool surface profile and material behavior. The

  9. Interpretation of quasi-static and dynamic tensile behavior by digital image correlation technique in TWinning Induced Plasticity (TWIP) and low-carbon steel sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Minju; Park, Jaeyeong; Sohn, Seok Su; Kim, Hyoung Seop [Center for Advanced Aerospace Materials, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Nack J. [Graduate Institute of Ferrous Technology, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sunghak, E-mail: shlee@postech.ac.kr [Center for Advanced Aerospace Materials, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-02

    In this study, dynamic tensile tests were conducted on TWinning Induced Plasticity (TWIP) and low-carbon (LC) steel sheets at a strain rate of 1500–2000/s by using a split Hopkinson tensile bar, and deformation mechanisms related with improvement of dynamic tensile properties were investigated by a digital image correlation (DIC) technique. The dynamic tensile strength was higher than the quasi-static tensile strength in both TWIP and LC sheets, while the dynamic elongation was same to the quasi-static elongation in the TWIP sheet and was much lower than the quasi-static elongation in the LC sheet. According to the DIC results of the dynamically tensioned TWIP sheet, the homogeneous deformation occurred before the necking at the strain of 47.4%. This indicated that the dynamic deformation processes were almost similar to the quasi-static ones as the TWIP sheet was homogeneously deformed in the initial and intermediate deformation stages. This could be explained by deformation mechanisms including twinning, in consideration of favorable effect of increased twinning on tensile properties under the dynamic loading. On the other hand, the dynamically tensioned LC sheet was rapidly deformed and fractured as the necking was intensified in a narrow strain-concentrated region. The present DIC technique is an outstanding method for detailed dynamic deformation analyses, and provides an important idea for practical safety analyses of automotive steel sheets.

  10. Analysis of Welding Zinc Coated Steel Sheets in Zero Gap Configuration by 3D Simulations and High Speed Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Holger; Kägeler, Christian; Otto, Andreas; Schmidt, Michael

    Welding of zinc coated sheets in zero gap configuration is of eminent interest for the automotive industry. This Laser welding process would enable the automotive industry to build auto bodies with a high durability in a plain manufacturing process. Today good welding results can only be achieved by expensive constructive procedures such as clamping devices to ensure a defined gad. The welding in zero gap configuration is a big challenge because of the vaporised zinc expelled from the interface between the two sheets. To find appropriate welding parameters for influencing the keyhole and melt pool dynamics, a three dimensional simulation and a high speed imaging system for laser keyhole welding have been developed. The obtained results help to understand the process of the melt pool perturbation caused by vaporised zinc.

  11. In-Situ Subsurface Coating of Corroded Steel Sheet Pile Structures: Final Report on Project F08-AR06

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    shrink cement grout or epoxy resin in the gap between old and new steel , shown in Figure 19. This was the reason why the perforated piles needed to...be made liquid-tight with cement grout or epoxy. Other- wise, the material injected between the old and new steel would be lost be- hind the old steel ...ER D C/ CE RL T R- 17 -3 5 DoD Corrosion Prevention and Control Program In-Situ Subsurface Coating of Corroded Steel Sheet Pile

  12. Investigations of phosphate coatings of galvanized steel sheets by a surface-analytical multi-method approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bubert, H.; Garten, R.; Klockenkaemper, R.; Puderbach, H.

    1983-01-01

    Corrosion protective coatings on galvanized steel sheets have been studied by a combination of SEM, EDX, AES, ISS and SIMS. Analytical statements concerning such rough, poly-crystalline and contaminated surfaces of technical samples are quite difficult to obtain. The use of a surface-analytical multi-method approach overcomes, the intrinsic limitations of the individual method applied, thus resulting in a consistent picture of those technical surfaces. Such results can be used to examine technical faults and to optimize the technical process. (Author)

  13. Manufacturability of Wood Plastic Composite Sheets on the Basis of the Post-Processing Cooling Curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Matthews

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Extruded wood-plastic composites (WPCs are increasingly regarded as promising materials for future manufacturing industries. It is necessary to select and tune the post-processing methods to be able to utilize these materials fully. In this development, temperature-related material properties and the cooling rate are important indicators. This paper presents the results of natural cooling in a factory environment fit into a cooling curve function with temperature zones for forming, cutting, and packaging overlaid using a WPC material. This information is then used in the evaluation of manufacturability and productivity in terms of cost effectiveness and technical quality by comparing the curve to actual production time data derived from a prototype post-process forming line. Based on this information, speed limits for extrusion are presented. This paper also briefly analyzes techniques for controlling material cooling to counter the heat loss before post-processing.

  14. Memory effect, resolution, and efficiency measurements of an Al2O3 coated plastic scintillator used for radioxenon detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bläckberg, L.; Fritioff, T.; Mårtensson, L.; Nielsen, F.; Ringbom, A.; Sjöstrand, H.; Klintenberg, M.

    2013-01-01

    A cylindrical plastic scintillator cell, used for radioxenon monitoring within the verification regime of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, has been coated with 425 nm Al 2 O 3 using low temperature Atomic Layer Deposition, and its performance has been evaluated. The motivation is to reduce the memory effect caused by radioxenon diffusing into the plastic scintillator material during measurements, resulting in an elevated detection limit. Measurements with the coated detector show both energy resolution and efficiency comparable to uncoated detectors, and a memory effect reduction of a factor of 1000. Provided that the quality of the detector is maintained for a longer period of time, Al 2 O 3 coatings are believed to be a viable solution to the memory effect problem in question

  15. Memory effect, resolution, and efficiency measurements of an Al2O3 coated plastic scintillator used for radioxenon detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bläckberg, L.; Fritioff, T.; Mårtensson, L.; Nielsen, F.; Ringbom, A.; Sjöstrand, H.; Klintenberg, M.

    2013-06-01

    A cylindrical plastic scintillator cell, used for radioxenon monitoring within the verification regime of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, has been coated with 425 nm Al2O3 using low temperature Atomic Layer Deposition, and its performance has been evaluated. The motivation is to reduce the memory effect caused by radioxenon diffusing into the plastic scintillator material during measurements, resulting in an elevated detection limit. Measurements with the coated detector show both energy resolution and efficiency comparable to uncoated detectors, and a memory effect reduction of a factor of 1000. Provided that the quality of the detector is maintained for a longer period of time, Al2O3 coatings are believed to be a viable solution to the memory effect problem in question.

  16. Crack formation mechanisms during micro and macro indentation of diamond-like carbon coatings on elastic-plastic substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, N.B.; Fischer-Cripps, A.C.; Swain, M.V.

    1998-01-01

    of cracking and the fracture mechanisms taking place. In the study various diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings deposited onto stainless steel and tool steel were investigated. Results primarily for one DLC system will be presented here. (C) 1998 Published by Elsevier Science S.A. All rights reserved.......In the present study crack formation is investigated on both micro and macro scale using spherical indenter tips. in particular, systems consisting of elastic coatings that are well adhered to elastic-plastic substrates are studied. Depth sensing indentation is used on the micro scale and Rockwell...... indentation on the macro scale. The predominant driving force for coating failure and crack formation during indentation is plastic deformation of the underlying substrate. The aim is to relate the mechanisms creating both delamination and cohesive cracking on both scales with fracture mechanical models...

  17. Effects of different plastic sheet coverings on microclimate and berry ripening of table grape cv "Matilde"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorino Novello

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Two types of plastic cover (LDPE + EVA and LDPE + HDPE were tested to assess their radiometric properties and the influence on the vegetative and reproductive performances of ‘Matilde’ table grape. Films showed the same transmittance to short infrared waves, but LDPE + EVA had a higher transmissivity to visible, PAR and short infrared wavelength ranges of solar radiation, especially as for the « direct » light component. In comparison to the open field, covering increased GDD accumulation and advanced budbreak by 12 days (LDPE + HDPE or 20 days (LDPE + EVA. Commercial ripening (14 °Brix was advanced by 8 and 22 days, respectively. Must acidity was higher in open field than under LDPE + EVA. Yield per vine increased under LDPE + EVA, although not at a significant level; bunch mass was higher under LDPE + EVA than in open field. Berry mass was maximum under LDPE + EVA and progressively decreased under LDPE + HDPE and in open field. Under covering, the pruning cane mass increased by 63% with LDPE + EVA and 43% with LDPE + HDPE.

  18. Extruded expanded polystyrene sheets coated by TiO{sub 2} as new photocatalytic materials for foodstuffs packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loddo, V.; Marci, G. [Schiavello-Grillone Photocatalysis Group - Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica, Elettronica e delle Telecomunicazioni, di tecnologie Chimiche, Automatica e modelli Matematici - Universita degli Studi di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze (Ed. 6) - 90128 Palermo (Italy); Palmisano, G., E-mail: giovanni_palmisano@yahoo.it [Schiavello-Grillone Photocatalysis Group - Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica, Elettronica e delle Telecomunicazioni, di tecnologie Chimiche, Automatica e modelli Matematici - Universita degli Studi di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze (Ed. 6) - 90128 Palermo (Italy); Yurdakal, S. [Kimya Boeluemue, Fen-Edebiyat Fakueltesi, Afyon Kocatepe Ueniversitesi - Ahmet Necdet Sezer Kampuesue - 03200 Afyon (Turkey); Brazzoli, M.; Garavaglia, L. [Sirap-Gema S.p.A. - Via Industriale, 1/3 - 25028 Verolanuova (Brescia) (Italy); Palmisano, L., E-mail: leonardo.palmisano@unipa.it [Schiavello-Grillone Photocatalysis Group - Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica, Elettronica e delle Telecomunicazioni, di tecnologie Chimiche, Automatica e modelli Matematici - Universita degli Studi di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze (Ed. 6) - 90128 Palermo (Italy)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An extruded polystyrene has been functionalised by TiO{sub 2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A photocatalytic polymer has been developed via a sol-gel method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermoformed packagings for foodstuffs application have been prepared. - Abstract: Nanostructured, photoactive anatase TiO{sub 2} sol prepared under very mild conditions using titanium tetraisopropoxide as the precursor is used to functionalise extruded expanded polystyrene (XPS) sheets by spray-coating resulting in stable and active materials functionalised by TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. Photocatalytic tests of these sheets performed in a batch reactor in gas-solid system under UV irradiation show their successful activity in degrading probe molecules (2-propanol, trimethylamine and ethene). Raman spectra ensure the deposition of TiO{sub 2} as crystalline anatase phase on the polymer surface. The presence of TiO{sub 2} with respect to polymer surface can be observed in SEM images coupled to EDAX mapping allowing to monitor the surface morphology and the distribution of TiO{sub 2} particles. Finally thermoforming of these sheets in industrial standard equipment leads to useful containers for foodstuffs.

  19. Study on the method of predicting service life of coated steel sheets, (5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeshima, Eiki; Kawano, Toshinori; Takamura, Hisao; Awa, Katsumasa

    1983-01-01

    Study was made of the coating effect of chrome yellow when applied as a coloring pigment for a polyvinyl chloride resin film and also of the applicability of an X-ray radiation test as an accelerated deterioration test of polyvinyl chloride resin. The results show that: (1) As compared with the non-coating chrome yellow not subjected to coating treatment, the heavy-coating chrome yellow with the surface coated with alumina and silica is chemically stable. The coating effect is evaluated by the generation of coating crack, discoloring, decomposition of the chrome yellow and generation of lead chloride in the X-ray radiation test and the dew cycle weatherometer test. (2) In the X-ray radiation test, dew cycle weatherometer test and outdoor weathering test, the decomposition of polyvinyl chloride resing changed with time exponentially, indicating a correlation among them. In the X-ray radiation test, the polyvinyl chloride resin decomposed at a rate 10 4 times higher than in the outdoor weathering test, which indicates that it is possible by the X-ray radiation test of a very short time to estimate the decomposition rate of polyvinyl chloride resin in the dew cycle weatherometer test or outdoor weathering test. (author)

  20. Analytical and Experimental Draft Force Evaluation of Plastic Coated Chisel Tines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Barzegar Tabrizi

    2017-10-01

    predicted a significant improvement (13% in draft force for the UHMW-PE coated tines. According to the experimental results, the improvement of the draft force was about 27%, which was almost twice as predicted. Although the McKyes-Ali’s model could predict an improvement for draft force of the UHMW-PE coated tine, but the actual improvement was about twice of the prediction. According to analytical and experimental results, applying a layer of UHMW-PE plastic on furrower tines can improve the draft force significantly.

  1. Design of conveyor utilization monitoring system: a case study of powder coating line in sheet metal fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyo, Hoedi; Sugiarto, Yohanes; Nur Rosyidi, Cucuk

    2018-03-01

    Conveyor is a very useful equipment to replace manpower in transporting the goods. It highly influences the productivity, production capacity utilization and eventually the production cost. This paper proposes a system to monitor the utilization of conveyor at a low cost through a case study at powder coating process line in a sheet metal fabrication. Preliminary observation was conducted to identify the problems. The monitoring system was then built and executed. The system consists of two sub systems. First is sub system for collecting and transmitting the required data and the second is sub system for displaying the data. The system utilizes sensors, wireless data transfer and windows-based application. The test results showed that the whole system works properly. By this system, the productivity and status of the conveyor can be monitored in real time. This research enriches the development of conveyor monitoring system especially for implementation in small and medium enterprises.

  2. Disk Laser Welding of Car Body Zinc Coated Steel Sheets / Spawanie Laserem Dyskowym Blach Ze Stali Karoseryjnej Ocynkowanej

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisiecki A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Autogenous laser welding of 0.8 mm thick butt joints of car body electro-galvanized steel sheet DC04 was investigated. The Yb:YAG disk laser TruDisk 3302 with the beam spot diameter of 200 μm was used. The effect of laser welding parameters and technological conditions on weld shape, penetration depth, process stability, microstructure and mechanical performance was determined. It was found that the laser beam spot focused on the top surface of a butt joint tends to pass through the gap, especially in the low range of heat input and high welding speed. All test welds were welded at a keyhole mode, and the weld metal was free of porosity. Thus, the keyhole laser welding of zinc coated steel sheets in butt configuration provides excellent conditions to escape for zinc vapours, with no risk of porosity. Microstructure, microhardness and mechanical performance of the butt joints depend on laser welding conditions thus cooling rate and cooling times. The shortest cooling time t8/5 was calculated for 0.29 s.

  3. Structuring of Functional Spider Silk Wires, Coatings, and Sheets by Self-Assembly on Superhydrophobic Pillar Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Linnea; Jansson, Ronnie; Hedhammar, My; van der Wijngaart, Wouter

    2018-01-01

    Spider silk has recently become a material of high interest for a large number of biomedical applications. Previous work on structuring of silk has resulted in particles (0D), fibers (1D), films (2D), and foams, gels, capsules, or microspheres (3D). However, the manufacturing process of these structures is complex and involves posttreatment of chemicals unsuitable for biological applications. In this work, the self-assembly of recombinant spider silk on micropatterned superhydrophobic surfaces is studied. For the first time, structuring of recombinant spider silk is achieved using superhydrophobic surfaces under conditions that retain the bioactivity of the functionalized silk. By tuning the superhydrophobic surface geometry and the silk solution handling parameters, this approach allows controlled generation of silk coatings, nanowires, and sheets. The underlying mechanisms and governing parameters are discussed. It is believed that the results of this work pave the way for fabrication of silk formations for applications including vehicles for drug delivery, optical sensing, antimicrobial coatings, and cell culture scaffolds. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Plastic Deformation Induced by Nanoindentation Test Applied on ZrN/Si3N4 Multilayer Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengtao Wu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ZrN/Si3N4 multilayer coating that alternates with either nanocrystalline ZrN or amorphous Si3N4 interlayers was fabricated by reactively magnetron sputtering in an Ar-N2 mixture atmosphere. The thicknesses of the nanocrystalline ZrN and the amorphous Si3N4 interlayers are ~12.5 and 2.5 nm, respectively. The ZrN/Si3N4 coating exhibits a promoted hardness of 28.6 ± 1.2 GPa when compared to the binary ZrN. Microstructure evolution just underneath the nanoindentation impression of the ZrN/Si3N4 multilayer coating has been investigated. The result indicates that both ZrN nanograin rotations and plastic flow of the Si3N4 interlayers contribute to the permanent deformation of the multilayer coating induced by the nanoindentation. In addition, the introduction of the a-Si3N4 interlayers hinders both the initiation and propagation of microcracks when the multilayer coating was applied to the scratch test. The propagation deflection of the microcracks was observed attributed to the heterogenous interface, which produces the hardness promotion of the multilayer coating eventually.

  5. Ionizing radiation thickness meters for materials in the form of sheets, coatings or laminates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-04-01

    The draft standard deals with definitions and test methods for all measuring instruments used in connection with ionizing radiation, either for continuous operation or for discontinuous control measurements of plane materials or coating. It applies to systems where the signal relates directly to the measured value as well as to systems where the signal refers to the deviation from a given rated value. (orig./RW) [de

  6. Experimental evaluation of coating delamination in vinyl coated metal forming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Young Ki; Lee, Chan Joo; Kim, Byung Min; Lee, Jung Min; Byoen, Sang Doek; Lee, Soen Bong

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a new evaluation and prediction method for coating delamination during sheet metal forming is presented. On the basis of the forming limit diagram (FLD), the current study evaluates the delamination of PET coating by using a cross cut specimen, dome test, and rectangular cup drawing test. Dome test specimens were subjected to biaxial, plane strain, and uniaxial deformation modes. Rectangular cup drawing test specimens were subjected to the deep drawing deformation mode, and compression deformation mode. A vinyl coated metal (VCM) sheet consists of three layers of polymer on the sheet metals: a protective film, a PET layer and a PVC layer. The areas with coating delamination were identified, and the results of the evaluation were plotted according to major and minor strain values, depicting coating delamination. The constructed delamination limit diagram (DLD) can be used to determine the forming limit of VCM during the complex press forming process. ARGUS (GOM) was employed to identify the strain value and deformation mode of the delaminated surface after the press forming. After identifying the areas of delamination, the DLD of the PET coating can be constructed in a format similar to that of the FLD. The forming limit of the VCM sheet can be evaluated using the superimposition of the delamination limit strain of the coating onto the FLD of VCM sheet. The experimental results showed that the proposed test method will support the sheet metal forming process design for VCM sheets. The assessment method presented in this study can be used to determine the delamination limit strain under plastic deformation of other polymer coated metals. The experimental results suggested that the proposed testing method is effective in evaluating delamination for specific applications

  7. Experimental evaluation of coating delamination in vinyl coated metal forming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Young Ki; Lee, Chan Joo; Kim, Byung Min [Pusan National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Min [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Byoen, Sang Doek [HA Digital Engineering Gr., Seongsan Gu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Soen Bong [Keimyung Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    In this paper, a new evaluation and prediction method for coating delamination during sheet metal forming is presented. On the basis of the forming limit diagram (FLD), the current study evaluates the delamination of PET coating by using a cross cut specimen, dome test, and rectangular cup drawing test. Dome test specimens were subjected to biaxial, plane strain, and uniaxial deformation modes. Rectangular cup drawing test specimens were subjected to the deep drawing deformation mode, and compression deformation mode. A vinyl coated metal (VCM) sheet consists of three layers of polymer on the sheet metals: a protective film, a PET layer and a PVC layer. The areas with coating delamination were identified, and the results of the evaluation were plotted according to major and minor strain values, depicting coating delamination. The constructed delamination limit diagram (DLD) can be used to determine the forming limit of VCM during the complex press forming process. ARGUS (GOM) was employed to identify the strain value and deformation mode of the delaminated surface after the press forming. After identifying the areas of delamination, the DLD of the PET coating can be constructed in a format similar to that of the FLD. The forming limit of the VCM sheet can be evaluated using the superimposition of the delamination limit strain of the coating onto the FLD of VCM sheet. The experimental results showed that the proposed test method will support the sheet metal forming process design for VCM sheets. The assessment method presented in this study can be used to determine the delamination limit strain under plastic deformation of other polymer coated metals. The experimental results suggested that the proposed testing method is effective in evaluating delamination for specific applications.

  8. Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19115 on ham steak by tea bioactive compounds incorporated into chitosan-coated plastic films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vodnar Dan C

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The consumer demands for better quality and safety of food products have given rise to the development and implementation of edible films. The use of antimicrobial films can be a promising tool for controlling L. monocytogenes on ready to eat products. The aim of this study was to develop effective antimicrobial films incorporating bioactive compounds from green and black teas into chitosan, for controlling L. monocytogenes ATCC 19115 on vacuum-packaged ham steak. The effectiveness of these antimicrobial films was evaluated at room temperature (20°C for 10 days and at refrigerated temperature (4°C for 8 weeks. Results The HPLC results clearly show that relative concentrations of catechins and caffeine in green tea ranked EGCG>EGC>CAF>ECG>EC>C while in black tea extracts ranked CAF>EGCG>ECG>EGC>EC>C. The chitosan-coated plastic films incorporating green tea and black tea extracts shows specific markers identified by FTIR. Incorporating natural extracts into chitosan showed that the growth of L monocytogenes ATCC 19115 was inhibited. The efficacy of antimicrobial effect of tea extracts incorporated into chitosan-coated plastic film was dose dependent. However, chitosan-coated films without addition of tea extracts did not inhibit the growth of L. monocytogenes ATCC 19115. Chitosan-coated plastic films incorporating 4% Green tea extract was the most effective antimicrobial, reducing the initial counts from 3.2 to 2.65 log CFU/cm2 during room temperature storage and from 3.2 to 1–1.5 log CFU/cm2 during refrigerated storage. Conclusions Incorporation of tea extracts into the chitosan-coated films considerably enhanced their effectiveness against L. monocytogenes ATCC 19115. 4% Green tea incorporated into chitosan-coated plastic film had a better antilisterial effect than 2% green tea or 2% and 4% black tea. Data from this study would provide new formulation options for developing antimicrobial packaging films using tea

  9. Theoretical Analysis and Experimental Study on the Coating Removal from Passenger-Vehicle Plastics for Recycling by Using Water Jet Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongshen; Chen, Ming

    2015-11-01

    The recovery and utilization of automotive plastics are a global concern because of the increasing number of end-of-life vehicles. In-depth studies on technologies for the removal of coatings from automotive plastics can contribute to the high value-added levels of the recycling and utilization of automotive plastic. The liquid waste generated by removing chemical paint by using traditional methods is difficult to handle and readily produces secondary pollution. Therefore, new, clean, and highly efficient techniques of paint removal must be developed. In this article, a method of coating removal from passenger-vehicle plastics was generated based on high-pressure water jet technology to facilitate the recycling of these plastics. The established technology was theoretically analyzed, numerically simulated, and experimentally studied. The high-pressure water jet equipment for the removal of automotive-plastic coatings was constructed through research and testing, and the detailed experiments on coating removal rate were performed by using this equipment. The results showed that high-pressure water jet technology can effectively remove coatings on the surfaces of passenger-vehicle plastics. The research also revealed that the coating removal rate increased as jet pressure ( P) increased and then decreased when jet moving speed ( Vn) increased. The rate decreased as the distance from nozzle to work piece ( S nw ) and the nozzle angle ( Φ) increased. The mathematical model for the rate of removal of coatings from bumper surfaces by water jet was derived based on the experiment data and can effectively predict coating removal rate under different operating conditions.

  10. Sheet resistance, transmittance, and chromatic property of CNTs coated with PEDOT:PSS films for transparent electrodes of touch screen panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bu-Jong; Han, Sang-Hoon; Park, Jin-Seok

    2014-01-01

    This study demonstrates hybrid-type transparent electrodes based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) that possess characteristics desirable for touch screen panels. This has been accomplished by depositing CNTs via spray-coating and then depositing thin conductive polymer (such as PEDOT:PSS) films on the CNTs via spin-coating. For all of the samples such as CNTs, PEDOT:PSS, and hybrid (i.e., PEDOT:PSS-coated CNTs), their surface morphologies, sheet resistances, visible transmittances, and chromatic properties are characterized as functions of their preparation conditions. In the PEDOT:PSS-coated CNTs, the PEDOT:PSS particles fill up the voids between tubes in CNTs, forming a conduction bridge for electron transfer and eventually decreasing the sheet resistance of the hybrid electrode. Also, the hybrid electrode reveals a superior color property compared with that of CNTs or the PEDOT:PSS single electrode due to the complementary color relation between CNTs and PEDOT:PSS. Experimental results show that the fabricated hybrid-type electrodes can simultaneously satisfy the requirements necessary for transparent electrodes of touch screen panels such as the sheet resistance requiring to be lower than 100 Ω/sq, visible transmittance higher than 80%, and yellowness approaching to zero. - Highlights: • Hybrid-type (PEDOT:PSS-coated CNTs) electrodes for touch panels are fabricated. • PEDOT:PSS films are coated via spin-coating on spray-deposited CNTs. • Hybrid electrodes are fabricated by varying the thickness of CNTs and PEDOT:PSS. • The resistance, transmittance, and color properties have been analyzed. • Hybrid electrodes satisfy electrical and optical properties for touch panels

  11. Sheet resistance, transmittance, and chromatic property of CNTs coated with PEDOT:PSS films for transparent electrodes of touch screen panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bu-Jong; Han, Sang-Hoon; Park, Jin-Seok

    2014-12-01

    This study demonstrates hybrid-type transparent electrodes based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) that possess characteristics desirable for touch screen panels. This has been accomplished by depositing CNTs via spray-coating and then depositing thin conductive polymer (such as PEDOT:PSS) films on the CNTs via spin-coating. For all of the samples such as CNTs, PEDOT:PSS, and hybrid (i.e., PEDOT:PSS-coated CNTs), their surface morphologies, sheet resistances, visible transmittances, and chromatic properties are characterized as functions of their preparation conditions. In the PEDOT:PSS-coated CNTs, the PEDOT:PSS particles fill up the voids between tubes in CNTs, forming a conduction bridge for electron transfer and eventually decreasing the sheet resistance of the hybrid electrode. Also, the hybrid electrode reveals a superior color property compared with that of CNTs or the PEDOT:PSS single electrode due to the complementary color relation between CNTs and PEDOT:PSS. Experimental results show that the fabricated hybrid-type electrodes can simultaneously satisfy the requirements necessary for transparent electrodes of touch screen panels such as the sheet resistance requiring to be lower than 100 Ω/sq, visible transmittance higher than 80%, and yellowness approaching to zero. - Highlights: • Hybrid-type (PEDOT:PSS-coated CNTs) electrodes for touch panels are fabricated. • PEDOT:PSS films are coated via spin-coating on spray-deposited CNTs. • Hybrid electrodes are fabricated by varying the thickness of CNTs and PEDOT:PSS. • The resistance, transmittance, and color properties have been analyzed. • Hybrid electrodes satisfy electrical and optical properties for touch panels.

  12. Liquid phase diffusion bonding of A1070 by using metal formate coated Zn sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, K.; Koyama, S.; shohji, I.

    2017-05-01

    Aluminium alloy have high strength and easily recycle due to its low melting point. Therefore, aluminium is widely used in the manufacturing of cars and electronic devices. In recent years, the most common way for bonding aluminium alloy is brazing and friction stir welding. However, brazing requires positional accuracy and results in the formation of voids by the flax residue. Moreover, aluminium is an excellent heat radiating and electricity conducting material; therefore, it is difficult to bond together using other bonding methods. Because of these limitations, liquid phase diffusion bonding is considered to the suitable method for bonding aluminium at low temperature and low bonding pressure. In this study, the effect of metal formate coating processing of zinc surface on the bond strength of the liquid phase diffusion bonded interface of A1070 has been investigated by SEM observation of the interfacial microstructures and fractured surfaces after tensile test. Liquid phase diffusion bonding was carried out under a nitrogen gas atmosphere at a bonding temperature of 673 K and 713 K and a bonding load of 6 MPa (bonding time: 15 min). As a result of the metal formate coating processing, a joint having the ultimate tensile strength of the base aluminium was provided. It is hypothesized that this is because metallic zinc is generated as a result of thermal decomposition of formate in the bonded interface at lower bonding temperatures.

  13. Wear resistance of thick diamond like carbon coatings against polymeric materials used in single screw plasticizing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitzenbacher, G.; Liu, K.; Forsich, C.; Heim, D.

    2015-05-01

    Wear on the screw and barrel surface accompany polymer single screw plasticizing technology from the beginning. In general, wear on screws can be reduced by using nitrided steel surfaces, fused armour alloys on the screw flights and coatings. However, DLC-coatings (Diamond Like Carbon) comprise a number of interesting properties such as a high hardness, a low coefficient of friction and an excellent corrosion resistance due to their amorphous structure. The wear resistance of about 50 µm thick DLC-coatings against polyamide 6.6, polybutylene terephthalate and polypropylene is investigated in this paper. The tribology in the solids conveying zone of a single screw extruder until the beginning of melting is evaluated using a pin on disc tribometer and a so called screw tribometer. The polymeric pins are pressed against coated metal samples using the pin on disc tribometer and the tests are carried out at a defined normal force and sliding velocity. The screw tribometer is used to perform tribological experiments between polymer pellets and rotating coated metal shafts simulating the extruder screw. Long term experiments were performed to evaluate the wear resistance of the DLC-coating. A reduction of the coefficient of friction can be observed after a frictional distance of about 20 kilometers using glass fibre reinforced polymeric materials. This reduction is independent on the polymer and accompanied by a black layer on the wear surface of the polymeric pins. The DLC-coated metal samples show an up to 16 µm deep wear track after the 100 kilometer test period against the glass fiber filled materials only.

  14. The M-band transmission flux of the plastic foil with a coated layer of silicon or germanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Liling; Zhang, Lu; Jiang, Shaoen; Guo, Liang; Qing, Bo; Li, Zhichao; Zhang, Jiyan; Yang, Jiamin; Ding, Yongkun

    2014-01-01

    Silicon (Si) and Germanium (Ge) can be used as the dopant in the ablator material for the purpose of reducing preheating in indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion. Their performances in reducing preheating are quite different. A method to evaluate the difference of these two kinds of dopants has been presented in this letter. In the Shenguang-II high power laser facility, the M-band (1.6–4.4 keV) transmission flux of Si-coated plastic (CH) and Ge-coated plastic (CH) has been measured by using the M-band x-ray diode. In the experiment, we find that the Si-coated CH can absorb more M-band x-rays and thus reduce the preheating of the fuel in our experiment condition. By using the radiation hydrodynamic code MULTI-1D, we got the simulation result which was well suited for the experiment. The comparison of their opacities (T e = 60–100 eV and ρ = 0.1–0.5 g/cm 3 ) also shows that the opacity of Si is higher than that of Ge almost in the whole range of 1.6–4.4 keV

  15. Corrosion resistance and protection mechanism of hot-dip Zn-Al-Mg alloy coated steel sheet under accelerated corrosion environment; Yoyu Zn-Al-Mg kei gokin mekki koban no sokushin fushoku kankyoka ni okeru taishokusei toi boshoku kiko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsu, A.; Izutani, H.; Tsujimura, T.; Ando, A.; Kittaka, T. [NKK Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-08-01

    Corrosion behavior of hot-dip Zn-6%Al 0-3%Mg alloy coated steel sheets in cyclic corrosion test (CCT) has been investigated. The corrosion resistance was improved with increasing Mg content in the coating layer, and the highest corrosion resistance was observed at 3% Mg. In Zn-6%Al-3%Mg alloy coated steel sheet, the formations of zinc carbonate hydroxide and zinc oxide were suppressed for longer duration compared with Zn-0.2%Al and Zn-4.5%Al-0.l%Mg alloy coated steel sheets. As a result, zinc chloride hydroxide existed stable on the surface of the coating layer. From the polarization behaviors in 5% NaCl aqueous solution after CCT, it was found that the corrosion current density of Zn-6%At-3%Mg alloy coated steel sheet was much smaller than those of Zn-0.2%Al and Zn-4.5%Al-0.1%Mg alloy coated steel sheets. As zinc carbonate hydroxide and zinc oxide had poor adhesion to the coating layer and had porous structures, these corrosion products were considered to have little protective action for the coating layer. Therefore, it was concluded that Mg suppressed the formation of such nonprotective corrosion products. resulting in the remarkable improvement of corrosion resistance. (author)

  16. Experimental investigations of the geomechanical behaviour of plastic sealing sheets for sealing dumps. Final report; Experimentelle Untersuchungen zum geomechanischen Verhalten von Kunststoffdichtungsbahnen in Dichtungssystemen fuer Deponiebasisabdichtungen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreyer, J; Wiesbaum, E

    1991-12-01

    Due to more severe environmental requirements, dumps have to be largely sealed to prevent harmful substances escaping into the environment and according to the state of technology, this is done by the combination of clay and plastic sealing tracks. Building on the knowledge from a completed research project `On the investigation of possibilities related to applications of a process for testing the mechanical behaviour of dump base seals made from sealing sheets`, the test processes described there were developed further and proposals were worked out for standardized execution of experiments. With the aid of a large number of experiments, minimum requirements were determined, which should serve to define the geo-mechanical properties of the plastic sealing sheets and to determine binding limits. (BBR). [Deutsch] Aufgrund schaerferer Umweltschutzauflagen muessen Deponien zur Verhinderung des Schadstoffaustritts in die Umwelt weitgehend abgedichtet werden, dem Stand der Technik entsprechend durch die Kombination von Tonen und Kunststoffdichtungsbahnen. Aufbauend auf den Erkenntnissen eines bereits abgeschlossenen Forschungsvorhabens `Zur Untersuchung der anwendungsbezogenen Moeglichkeiten eines Verfahrens zur Pruefung des mechanischen Verhaltens von Deponiebasisabdichtungen aus Dichtungsbahnen` wurden die dort beschriebenen Pruefverfahren fortentwickelt und Vorschlaege zur standardisierten Versuchsdurchfuehrung ausgearbeitet. Mit Hilfe einer groesseren Anzahl von Versuchen wurden Mindestanforderungen bestimmt, die dazu dienen sollen, geomechanische Eigenschaften der Kunststoffdichtungsbahnen zu definieren und verbindliche Grenzwerte festzulegen. (BBR).

  17. Investigate earing of TWIP steel sheet during deep-drawing process by using crystal plasticity constitutive model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available By combining the nonlinear finite element analysis techniques and crystal plasticity theory, the macroscopic mechanical behaviour of crystalline material, the texture evolution and earing-type characteristics are simulated accurately. In this work, a crystal plasticity model exhibiting deformation twinning is introduced based on crystal plasticity theory and saturation-type hardening laws for FCC metal Fe-22Mn-0.6C TWIP steel. Based on the CPFE model and parameters which have been determined for TWIP steel, a simplified finite element model for deep drawing is promoted by using crystal plasticity constitutive model. The earing characteristics in typical deep-drawing process are simulated well. Further, the drawing forces are calculated and compared to the experimental results from reference. Meanwhile, the impacts of drawing coefficient and initial texture on the earing characteristics are investigated for controlling the earing.

  18. Analysis of plastic deformation in cortical bone after insertion of coated and non-coated self-tapping orthopaedic screws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koistinen, A P; Korhonen, H; Kiviranta, I; Kröger, H; Lappalainen, R

    2011-07-01

    Insertion of internal fracture fixation devices, such as screws, mechanically weakens the bone. Diamond-like carbon has outstanding tribology properties which may decrease the amount of damage in tissue. The purpose of this study was to investigate methods for quantification of cortical bone damage after orthopaedic bone screw insertion and to evaluate the effect of surface modification on tissue damage. In total, 48 stainless steel screws were inserted into cadaver bones. Half of the screws were coated with a smooth amorphous diamond coating. Geometrical data of the bones was determined by peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Thin sections of the bone samples were prepared after screw insertion, and histomorphometric evaluation of damage was performed on images obtained using light microscopy. Micro-computed tomography and scanning electron microscopy were also used to examine tissue damage. A positive correlation was found between tissue damage and the geometric properties of the bone. The age of the cadaver significantly affected the bone mineral density, as well as the damage perimeter and diameter of the screw hole. However, the expected positive effect of surface modification was probably obscured by large variations in the results and, thus, statistically significant differences were not found in this study. This can be explained by natural variability in bone tissue, which also made automated image analysis difficult.

  19. Development of a coating technique for inertial confinement fusion plastic targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, U.; Tsubakihara, H.

    1986-01-01

    Deuterated polystyrene as a target material offers several advantages over other polymers because of the following: (1) it is chemically and physically stable at ordinary conditions, (2) it can be easily formed into spherical shells, and (3) it has a very high fraction of D 2 /H 2 (above approx.99%). As in our previous studies, the fabrication method was basically a utilization of the emulsion technique. This method is well suited to mass-producing the polymer targets without microprocessing techniques. We have developed a fabrication method for single shell targets and an extension of this technique also enables us to fabricate double shell targets. This new method is faster and less labor intensive than previous techniques. The development of ICF experiments requires multilayer structure targets; we have developed, moreover, a new fabrication technique called the multicoating method. The polymer coating can be fabricated by the application of an emulsion technique. On the other hand, with metal coating, a nonelectroplating method was used, and nickel was employed as the coating metal. The thickness of the polymer coating layer can be controlled with the rotational speed of a stirrer in the emulsion. In the case of nickel coating, it is achieved by controlling the plating bath temperature and immersion time during the plating process. The experiment resulted in the development of a new technique for the fabrication of multilayer targets and low density, thick polymer-layer-coated targets

  20. Improving the Wear Resistance of Moulds for the Injection of Glass Fibre–Reinforced Plastics Using PVD Coatings: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Silva

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that injection of glass fibre–reinforced plastics (GFRP causes abrasive wear in moulds’ cavities and runners. Physical vapour deposition (PVD coatings are intensively used to improve the wear resistance of different tools, also being one of the most promising ways to increase the moulds’ lifespan, mainly when used with plastics strongly reinforced with glass fibres. This work compares four different thin, hard coatings obtained using the PVD magnetron sputtering process: TiAlN, TiAlSiN, CrN/TiAlCrSiN and CrN/CrCN/DLC. The first two are monolayer coatings while the last ones are nanostructured and consist of multilayer systems. In order to carry out the corresponding tribological characterization, two different approaches were selected: A laboratorial method, using micro-abrasion wear tests based on a ball-cratering configuration, and an industrial mode, analysing the wear resistance of the coated samples when inserted in a plastic injection mould. As expected, the wear phenomena are not equivalent and the results between micro-abrasion and industrial tests are not similar due to the different means used to promote the abrasion. The best wear resistance performance in the laboratorial wear tests was attained by the TiAlN monolayer coating while the best performance in the industrial wear tests was obtained by the CrN/TiAlCrSiN nanostructured multilayer coating.

  1. Water Vapor Permeation of Metal Oxide/Polymer Coated Plastic Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numata, Yukihiro; Oya, Toshiyuki; Kuwahara, Mitsuru; Ito, Katsuya

    Barrier performance to water vapor permeation of ceramic coated layers deposited on flexible polymer films is of great interest to food packaging, medical device packaging and flat panel display industries. In this study, a new type film in which a ceramic layer is deposited on a polymer coated film was proposed for lower water vapor permeation. It is important how to control interfacial properties between each layer and film for good barrier performance. Several kinds of polymer coated materials were prepared for changing surface free energy of the films before and after depositing the ceramic layer. The ceramic layer, which is composed of mixed material of SiO2 and Al2O3, was adopted under the same conditions. The following results were obtained; 1) Water vapor permeation is not related to the surface energy of polymer coated films, 2) After depositing the ceramic layer, however, a strong correlation is observed between the water vapor permeation and surface free energy. 3) The phenomenon is considered that the polarity of the polymer layers plays a key role in changing the structure of ceramic coated layers.

  2. Plasticization of Poly (lactic) acid Film as a Potential Coating Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ping; Li, Hua; Liu, Qingsong; Dong, Hongbiao; Duan, Yafei; Zhang, Jiasong

    2018-01-01

    PLA-based composite films with different plasticizers, such as polyethylene glycol (PEG) and Tributyl citrate (TBC), were prepared using a solvent casting method and their machanical, water absorbency and NO3 --N permeability properties were tested. Tensile strength, elongation at break, water absorbency and NO3 --N permeability of neat PLA film were 1.99 ± 0.04 MPa, 2.7 ± 0.46%, 29.33 ± 0.3% and 216.03 ± 19.92 mg·L-1·m-2·h-1, respectively. After the addition of plasticizers the tensile strength were decreased, tensile strength of flims added 40wt% TBC and PEG decreased by 59.3% and 52.26%. While the elongation at break of the PLA film gradually increased. The elongation at break reached the value of 23.96±0.48% and 38.55±1.66% for the films added PEG and TBC respectively at the concentration of 40wt%. Water absorbency decreased as the increase of plasticizers. The NO3 --N permeability attained a maximum of 300.05±10.47 and 270.97±14.54 mg·L-1·m-2·h-1 for films added PEG and TBC at the concentration of 10 wt % respectively. Considered the NO3 --N permeability, PEG at 10wt% seemed the better plasticizer for PLA used in control release of fertilizer.

  3. Adhesion, resistivity and structural, optical properties of molybdenum on steel sheet coated with barrier layer done by sol–gel for CIGS solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amouzou, Dodji, E-mail: dodji.amouzou@fundp.ac.be [Research Centre in Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR), University of Namur (FUNDP), Rue de Bruxelles 61, 5000 Namur (Belgium); Dumont, Jacques [Research Centre in Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR), University of Namur (FUNDP), Rue de Bruxelles 61, 5000 Namur (Belgium); Fourdrinier, Lionel; Richir, Jean-Baptiste; Maseri, Fabrizio [CRM-Group, Boulevard de Colonster, B 57, 4000 Liège (Belgium); Sporken, Robert [Research Centre in Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR), University of Namur (FUNDP), Rue de Bruxelles 61, 5000 Namur (Belgium)

    2013-03-01

    Molybdenum films are investigated on stainless steel substrates coated with polysilazane based sol–gel and SiO{sub x} layers for flexible CIGS solar cell applications. Thermal stability of the multilayer has been studied. The thickness of polysilazane films are significantly reduced (17%) after heat treatment suggesting a thermal degradation. Four different microstructures were found for Mo films by varying argon total pressure from 2.6 × 10{sup −1} Pa to 2.6 Pa. It was shown that continuous films, low sheet resistance (0.5 Ω/□) and well facetted grains can be achieved when Mo films are deposited on heated substrates at homologous temperature, T of 0.2. - Highlights: ► Steel sheet is functionalized for Cu[Inx,Ga(1 − x)Se2] solar cells. ► Varying deposition pressure impacts the microstructure of Mo films. ► High thermal stability of the sol gel based barrier layer has been investigated. ► Low sheet resistance and continuous Mo films have been obtained at 550°C. ► Thermal stability of functionalized steel sheets at 550°C has been investigated.

  4. Effect of Presence and Concentration of Plasticizers, Vegetable Oils, and Surfactants on the Properties of Sodium-Alginate-Based Edible Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugce Senturk Parreidt

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Achieving high quality of a coated food product is mostly dependent on the characteristics of the food material to be coated, the properties of the components in the coating solution, and the obtained coating material. In the present study, usability and effectiveness of various components as well as their concentrations were assessed to produce an effective coating material. For this purpose, different concentrations of gelling agent (sodium alginate 0–3.5%, w/w, plasticizers (glycerol and sorbitol (0–20%, w/w, surfactants (tween 40, tween 80, span 60, span 80, lecithin (0–5%, w/w, and vegetable oils (sunflower oil, olive oil, rapeseed oil (0–5%, w/w were used to prepare edible coating solutions. Formulations were built gradually, and characteristics of coatings were evaluated by analyzing surface tension values and its polar and dispersive components, emulsion droplet size, and optical appearance in microscopic scale. The results obtained showed that 1.25% sodium alginate, 2% glycerol, 0.2% sunflower oil, 1% span 80, and 0.2% tween 40 or tween 80 can be used in formulation to obtain an effective coating for hydrophobic food surfaces. Three formulations were designed, and their stability (emulsion droplet size, optical characteristics, and creaming index and wettability tests on strawberry showed that they could be successfully used in coating applications.

  5. Effect of Presence and Concentration of Plasticizers, Vegetable Oils, and Surfactants on the Properties of Sodium-Alginate-Based Edible Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Michael; Müller, Kajetan

    2018-01-01

    Achieving high quality of a coated food product is mostly dependent on the characteristics of the food material to be coated, the properties of the components in the coating solution, and the obtained coating material. In the present study, usability and effectiveness of various components as well as their concentrations were assessed to produce an effective coating material. For this purpose, different concentrations of gelling agent (sodium alginate 0–3.5%, w/w), plasticizers (glycerol and sorbitol (0–20%, w/w), surfactants (tween 40, tween 80, span 60, span 80, lecithin (0–5%, w/w), and vegetable oils (sunflower oil, olive oil, rapeseed oil (0–5%, w/w) were used to prepare edible coating solutions. Formulations were built gradually, and characteristics of coatings were evaluated by analyzing surface tension values and its polar and dispersive components, emulsion droplet size, and optical appearance in microscopic scale. The results obtained showed that 1.25% sodium alginate, 2% glycerol, 0.2% sunflower oil, 1% span 80, and 0.2% tween 40 or tween 80 can be used in formulation to obtain an effective coating for hydrophobic food surfaces. Three formulations were designed, and their stability (emulsion droplet size, optical characteristics, and creaming index) and wettability tests on strawberry showed that they could be successfully used in coating applications. PMID:29509669

  6. Memory effect, resolution, and efficiency measurements of an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coated plastic scintillator used for radioxenon detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bläckberg, L., E-mail: lisa.blackberg@physics.uu.se [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Fritioff, T.; Mårtensson, L.; Nielsen, F.; Ringbom, A. [Division of Defence and Security Systems, Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), SE-17290 Stockholm (Sweden); Sjöstrand, H.; Klintenberg, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2013-06-21

    A cylindrical plastic scintillator cell, used for radioxenon monitoring within the verification regime of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, has been coated with 425 nm Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} using low temperature Atomic Layer Deposition, and its performance has been evaluated. The motivation is to reduce the memory effect caused by radioxenon diffusing into the plastic scintillator material during measurements, resulting in an elevated detection limit. Measurements with the coated detector show both energy resolution and efficiency comparable to uncoated detectors, and a memory effect reduction of a factor of 1000. Provided that the quality of the detector is maintained for a longer period of time, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coatings are believed to be a viable solution to the memory effect problem in question.

  7. Calculation of fast neutron dose in plastic-coated optical fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siebert, B.R.L.; Henschel, H.

    1998-01-01

    The dose of fast neutrons in optical fibers with hydrogen-containing coating materials is considerably increased by energetic recoil protons. Their contribution to the dose in a SiO 2 fiber core is calculated by the Monte Carlo method for different fiber geometries and a fiber optic cable. With 14 MeV neutrons the dose in a single fiber is increased by about 21%, whereas in fiber bundles the dose increase can reach about 170%. Maximum dose enhancement in fiber bundles (about 610%) occurs at neutron energies around 5.5 MeV. The dose increase caused by 14 MeV neutrons in the fiber of a typical laboratory cable is about 124%

  8. Effect of the Die Temperature and Blank Thickness on the Formability of a Laser-Welded Blank of a Boron Steel Sheet with Removing Al-Si Coating Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Lee

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Reducing carbon emissions has been a major focus in the automobile industry to address various environmental issues. In particular, studies on parts comprised of high strength sheets and light car bodies are ongoing. Accordingly, this study examined the use of boron steel, which is commonly used in high strength sheets. Boron steel is a type of sheet used for hot stamping parts. Although it has high strength, the elongation is inferior, which reduces its crash energy absorption capacity. To solve this problem, two sheets of different thickness were welded so the thin sheet would absorb crash energy and the thick sheet would work as a support. Boron steel, however, may show weakening at the welding spot due to the Al-Si coating layer used to prevent oxidation from occurring during the welding process. Therefore, a certain part of the coating layer of a double-thickness boron steel sheet that is welded in the hot stamping process is removed through laser ablation, and the formability of the hot-work was examined.

  9. Influence of polymeric subcoats on the drug release properties of tablets powder-coated with pre-plasticized Eudragit L 100-55.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Dorothea; Watts, Alan B; Coots, Lonique B; Zheng, Weijia C; McGinity, James W

    2009-02-09

    The aim of the study was to investigate the properties of sodium valproate tablets that were dry powder-coated with pre-plasticized Eudragit L 100-55. Polyethylene glycol 3350 (PEG 3350) was used as primer to facilitate initial coating powder adhesion. Solubility parameters were employed to determine the wetting properties of the PEG 3350 primer. Additional PEG 3350 within the powder coating formulation was required to enable powder adhesion to the tablet cores. The application of a subcoat of either Eudragit E PO or Eudragit RL PO facilitated adhesion of the enteric polymer to the tablet cores and reduced the amount PEG 3350 required in the coating formulation. Since reduction of the PEG 3350 content produced less water-vapor permeable films, the enteric coating level necessary to control the drug release was decreased. PEG 3350 and Methocel K4M were incorporated in both Eudragit E PO and Eudragit RL PO subcoating formulations as pore forming agents. The influence of the pore forming excipients on physicochemical properties of free powder-cast films was investigated. The miscibility of the PEG 3350 and Methocel K4M in the film coating was correlated with their ability to function as pore forming agent.

  10. Preparation and Research of Coloured UV Curable Plastic Coatings%有色UV固化塑料涂料的制备与研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方博; 钟伟山; 李国军; 黄海庆

    2015-01-01

    In the view of present situation of UV curable plastic coatings,the coloured UV curable plastic coatings with the high efficiency productivity,energy saving and reducing consumption,and good appearance and excellent performances was introduced. The selection of UV resin,photoinitiator,active diluent,wetting leveling agent and environmentally-friendly solvent for the coating system,and the influence of light energy on the film properties were discussed.%针对UV固化塑料涂料的现状,介绍一种高效生产率、节能降耗,且具有良好外观与优异性能的有色UV固化塑料涂料。讨论了该涂料体系用UV树脂、光引发剂、活性稀释剂、润湿流平剂和环保溶剂的选择,以及光能量对涂膜性能的影响。

  11. Selectively reflective transparent sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waché, Rémi; Florescu, Marian; Sweeney, Stephen J.; Clowes, Steven K.

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the possibility to selectively reflect certain wavelengths while maintaining the optical properties on other spectral ranges. This is of particular interest for transparent materials, which for specific applications may require high reflectivity at pre-determined frequencies. Although there exist currently techniques such as coatings to produce selective reflection, this work focuses on new approaches for mass production of polyethylene sheets which incorporate either additives or surface patterning for selective reflection between 8 to 13 μ m. Typical additives used to produce a greenhouse effect in plastics include particles such as clays, silica or hydroxide materials. However, the absorption of thermal radiation is less efficient than the decrease of emissivity as it can be compared with the inclusion of Lambertian materials. Photonic band gap engineering by the periodic structuring of metamaterials is known in nature for producing the vivid bright colors in certain organisms via strong wavelength-selective reflection. Research to artificially engineer such structures has mainly focused on wavelengths in the visible and near infrared. However few studies to date have been carried out to investigate the properties of metastructures in the mid infrared range even though the patterning of microstructure is easier to achieve. We present preliminary results on the diffuse reflectivity using FDTD simulations and analyze the technical feasibility of these approaches.

  12. Magneto-hydrodynamics of coupled fluid–sheet interface with mass suction and blowing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, R.

    2016-01-01

    the sheet. • The movement of an electrically conducting fluid over an elastic sheet is much slower as compared to a stretching sheet. • A high viscous fluid such as oil has slow down the ow over an elastic stretching sheet and, as a result, the electrically conducting fluid having high viscosity will appear to coat the sheet, whereas the viscosity of water has rapidly increased the motion of an electrically conducting fluid over an elastic stretching sheet. • The study is applicable to a system involving fluid flow over various types of soft surfaces such as synthetic plastics, soft synthetic rubber sheet and fibres. Thus, the main contribution of this study is the depth of fluid flow analysis on the fluid–sheet interface and it's applications in engineering, which attract the readers.

  13. Multi function Finishing and Pigment Printing of UV Cured Cotton/Polyester Fabrics Coated with Plasticized Epoxy Resin/ZnO Formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, M.S.; Mousaa, I.M.; Ali, N.M.

    2015-01-01

    Cotton/ Polyester fabrics were coated with epoxy acrylate (EA) formulations plasticized by castor oil (CO), in the presence of benzophenone as initiator, ZnO (antibacterial agent) and pigment printing. Ultra violet (UV) irradiation was used as a curing system. The effect of UV irradiation time and CO percentage on the mechanical and crease recovery properties were investigated. The effect of the coating process on the cross-section feature by using scanning electron microscope (SEM), the antibacterial properties, water retardance, colour difference and the durability for washing of the coated fabrics were also investigated. From the results, it was found that the crease recovery and antibacterial properties were enhanced. Also, the colour durability against multiple washing cycles gave adequate results after application of the investigated coating formulation. The most fitting castor oil per cent was found to be 45%, while the 3% ZnO recorded the best antibacterial and mechanical properties. The pigment per cent that gave the highest durability and adequate colour strength was 0.6%.

  14. Constitutive Modeling for Sheet Metal Forming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlat, Frederic

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews aspects of the plastic behaviour common in sheet metals. Macroscopic and microscopic phenomena occurring during plastic deformation are described succinctly. Constitutive models of plasticity suitable for applications to forming, are discussed in a very broad manner. Approaches to plastic anisotropy are described in a somewhat more detailed manner

  15. [The safety data sheets of the paint and coatings sector: analysis of the items of most interest to health and safety in the workplace].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boniardi, Luca; Canti, Zulejka; Cantoni, Susanna; Fustinoni, Silvia

    2014-07-15

    The interlinked REACH-CLP regulations promote the sharing of knowledge regarding the risks and hazards of chemicals throughout the supply chain. The safety data sheet (SDS) is the main instrument to achieve this goal. to study 100 SDS of paints and coatings sector in order to highlight major criticisms related to health and safety of workers. Using the criteria prescribed by Regulation 453/2010/EC and preparing a suitable check list, some items of the sections 1 "Identification of the substance/mixture and of the company", 2 "Hazards identification", 3 "Composition/information on ingredients", the first part of section 7 "Precautions for safe handling", sections 8 "Exposure controls/personal protection" and 16 "Other information", were therefore evaluated for their appropriateness. Seven SDS were written in a foreign language and were excluded from further analysis. Of the remaining 93 SDS, only 23% had a proportion of adequate items greater than 80%, 49 % had adequate items between 60 and 80%, and 28% had less than 60% adequate items. The most critical sections were those relating to workers' safe handling and exposure controls and protection. In conclusion, from the analysis of SDS we found high percentages of inadequacy, especially in sections 7 and 8, the most relevant for the protection of the health and safety of workers.

  16. A photochemical approach designed to improve the coating of nanoscale silver films onto food plastic wrappings intended to control bacterial hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustatea, Gabriel; Vidal, Loïc; Calinescu, Ioan; Dobre, Alina; Ionescu, Mariana; Balan, Lavinia

    2015-01-01

    Plasmonic silver film was directly generated on a variety of substrates through a facile and environmentally friendly method, which involves a UV-photoreduction process without any reducing or stabilizing agent and requiring no thermal step. Top-coated films of unprotected silver nanoparticles (3–11 nm) were generated from hydroalcoholic AgNO 3 solution and directly on glass substrates or food packaging plastic wraps, low density polyethylene film, and polyvinyl chloride. The natural antibacterial activity of the material was evaluated. The correlation between silver migration and antimicrobial activity of silver-functionalized substrates against pure strains of gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli) and gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus) was demonstrated. By way of illustration, food plastic wraps top-coated in this way exhibited a high antibacterial activity. The metal nanoparticle film obtained in this way was characterized and the influence of several parameters (fluence, exposure, silver nitrate concentration, and nature of the free radicals generator) on their formation was studied. Moreover, by shaping the actinic beam with an appropriate device, it is very easy to pattern the brown yellow silver nanofilm or to print messages in plain text

  17. A photochemical approach designed to improve the coating of nanoscale silver films onto food plastic wrappings intended to control bacterial hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustatea, Gabriel [University Politehnica of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science (Romania); Vidal, Loïc [Institut de Sciences des Matériaux de Mulhouse, CNRS UMR 7361 (France); Calinescu, Ioan [University Politehnica of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science (Romania); Dobre, Alina; Ionescu, Mariana [National Research and Development Institute for Food Bioresources – IBA Bucharest (Romania); Balan, Lavinia, E-mail: lavinia.balan@uha.fr [Institut de Sciences des Matériaux de Mulhouse, CNRS UMR 7361 (France)

    2015-01-15

    Plasmonic silver film was directly generated on a variety of substrates through a facile and environmentally friendly method, which involves a UV-photoreduction process without any reducing or stabilizing agent and requiring no thermal step. Top-coated films of unprotected silver nanoparticles (3–11 nm) were generated from hydroalcoholic AgNO{sub 3} solution and directly on glass substrates or food packaging plastic wraps, low density polyethylene film, and polyvinyl chloride. The natural antibacterial activity of the material was evaluated. The correlation between silver migration and antimicrobial activity of silver-functionalized substrates against pure strains of gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli) and gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus) was demonstrated. By way of illustration, food plastic wraps top-coated in this way exhibited a high antibacterial activity. The metal nanoparticle film obtained in this way was characterized and the influence of several parameters (fluence, exposure, silver nitrate concentration, and nature of the free radicals generator) on their formation was studied. Moreover, by shaping the actinic beam with an appropriate device, it is very easy to pattern the brown yellow silver nanofilm or to print messages in plain text.

  18. A photochemical approach designed to improve the coating of nanoscale silver films onto food plastic wrappings intended to control bacterial hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustatea, Gabriel; Vidal, Loïc; Calinescu, Ioan; Dobre, Alina; Ionescu, Mariana; Balan, Lavinia

    2015-01-01

    Plasmonic silver film was directly generated on a variety of substrates through a facile and environmentally friendly method, which involves a UV-photoreduction process without any reducing or stabilizing agent and requiring no thermal step. Top-coated films of unprotected silver nanoparticles (3-11 nm) were generated from hydroalcoholic AgNO3 solution and directly on glass substrates or food packaging plastic wraps, low density polyethylene film, and polyvinyl chloride. The natural antibacterial activity of the material was evaluated. The correlation between silver migration and antimicrobial activity of silver-functionalized substrates against pure strains of gram-negative bacteria ( Escherichia coli) and gram-positive bacteria ( Staphylococcus aureus) was demonstrated. By way of illustration, food plastic wraps top-coated in this way exhibited a high antibacterial activity. The metal nanoparticle film obtained in this way was characterized and the influence of several parameters (fluence, exposure, silver nitrate concentration, and nature of the free radicals generator) on their formation was studied. Moreover, by shaping the actinic beam with an appropriate device, it is very easy to pattern the brown yellow silver nanofilm or to print messages in plain text.

  19. Scale-up of Nano-Engineered Anti-Reflection Coating Process for Large Plastic Optics, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In a recently completed NASA SBIR program, Agiltron and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology developed a novel nanoporous UV anti-reflection coating technology...

  20. Examination of tapered plastic multimode fiber-based sensor performance with silver coating for different concentrations of calcium hypochlorite by soft computing methodologies--a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Rozalina; Sheng, Ong Yong; Wern, Kam; Shamshirband, Shahaboddin; Wahab, Ainuddin Wahid Abdul; Petković, Dalibor; Saboohi, Hadi

    2014-05-01

    A soft methodology study has been applied on tapered plastic multimode sensors. This study basically used tapered plastic multimode fiber [polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)] optics as a sensor. The tapered PMMA fiber was fabricated using an etching method involving deionized water and acetone to achieve a waist diameter and length of 0.45 and 10 mm, respectively. In addition, a tapered PMMA probe, which was coated by silver film, was fabricated and demonstrated using a calcium hypochlorite (G70) solution. The working mechanism of such a device is based on the observation increment in the transmission of the sensor that is immersed in solutions at high concentrations. As the concentration was varied from 0 to 6 ppm, the output voltage of the sensor increased linearly. The silver film coating increased the sensitivity of the proposed sensor because of the effective cladding refractive index, which increases with the coating and thus allows more light to be transmitted from the tapered fiber. In this study, the polynomial and radial basis function (RBF) were applied as the kernel function of the support vector regression (SVR) to estimate and predict the output voltage response of the sensors with and without silver film according to experimental tests. Instead of minimizing the observed training error, SVR_poly and SVR_rbf were used in an attempt to minimize the generalization error bound so as to achieve generalized performance. An adaptive neuro-fuzzy interference system (ANFIS) approach was also investigated for comparison. The experimental results showed that improvements in the predictive accuracy and capacity for generalization can be achieved by the SVR_poly approach in comparison to the SVR_rbf methodology. The same testing errors were found for the SVR_poly approach and the ANFIS approach.

  1. Response of duplex Cr(N)/S and Cr(C)/S coatings on 316L stainless steel to tribocorrosion in 0.89% NaCl solution under plastic contact conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Y; Dearnley, P A; Mallia, Bertram

    2017-08-01

    Two duplex coatings, Cr(N)/S and Cr(C)/S, were deposited on 316 L stainless steel by magnetron sputtering. The effectiveness of these duplex coatings in improving the tribocorrosion behavior of medical alloys under elastic contact conditions has been demonstrated in a recent publication. The present work focused on the response of these duplex coatings to tribocorrosion under plastic contact conditions. Tribocorrosion tests were conducted in 0.89% NaCl solution at 37°C at an initial contact pressure of 740 MPa and under unidirectional sliding conditions for sliding duration up to 24 h. The results showed that during sliding in the corrosive solution, the duplex coatings were plastically deformed into the substrate to a depth about 1 μm. The Cr(C)/S duplex coating had sufficient ductility to accommodate the deformation without cracking, such that it was worn through gradually, leading to the gradual increase in open circuit potential (OCP) and coefficient of friction (COF). On the other hand, the Cr(N)/S duplex coating suffered from cracking at all tested potentials, leading to coating blistering after prolonged sliding at OCP and stable pit formation in the substrate beneath the coating at applied anodic potentials. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 1503-1513, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Sheet-like Li3V2(PO4)3 nanocomposite coated by SiO2 + C with better electrochemical properties for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Chunyan; Wu, Tingting; Wang, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Sheet-like Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 nanocomposite coated by SiO 2  + C layer was synthesized with one-step solid-state method. Dihydroxydiphenylsilane (DPSD) was used as the source of SiO 2 and C. The sheet-like Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 nanocomposite has a thickness in the range of 20–30 nm. Because of the SiO 2  + C-coated layer and the sheet-like morphology, the Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 /(SiO 2  + C) composites show better stability and higher capacity than pure Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 material and granular Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 /(SiO 2  + C) composites. The best sample, Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 /(SiO 2  + C)(2:8), shows a discharge capacity of 193.7 mAh g −1 at 1C within the voltage range of 3.0–4.8 V and retains almost 90 % of the capacity after 50 cycles.

  3. Radiation protecting sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makiguchi, Hiroshi.

    1989-01-01

    As protection sheets used in radioactivity administration areas, a thermoplastic polyurethane composition sheet with a thickness of less 0.5 mm, solid content (ash) of less than 5% and a shore D hardness of less than 60 is used. A composite sheet with thickness of less than 0.5 mm laminated or coated with such a thermoplastic polyurethane composition as a surface layer and the thermoplastic polyurethane composition sheet applied with secondary fabrication are used. This can satisfy all of the required properties, such as draping property, abrasion resistance, high breaking strength, necking resistance, endurance strength, as well as chemical resistance and easy burnability in burning furnace. Further, by forming uneveness on the surface by means of embossing, etc. safety problems such as slippage during operation and walking can be overcome. (T.M.)

  4. Non normal and non quadratic anisotropic plasticity coupled with ductile damage in sheet metal forming: Application to the hydro bulging test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badreddine, Houssem; Saanouni, Khemaies; Dogui, Abdelwaheb

    2007-01-01

    In this work an improved material model is proposed that shows good agreement with experimental data for both hardening curves and plastic strain ratios in uniaxial and equibiaxial proportional loading paths for steel metal until the final fracture. This model is based on non associative and non normal flow rule using two different orthotropic equivalent stresses in both yield criterion and plastic potential functions. For the plastic potential the classical Hill 1948 quadratic equivalent stress is considered while for the yield criterion the Karafillis and Boyce 1993 non quadratic equivalent stress is used taking into account the non linear mixed (kinematic and isotropic) hardening. Applications are made to hydro bulging tests using both circular and elliptical dies. The results obtained with different particular cases of the model such as the normal quadratic and the non normal non quadratic cases are compared and discussed with respect to the experimental results

  5. Decontamination sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Emiko; Kanesaki, Ken.

    1995-01-01

    The decontamination sheet of the present invention is formed by applying an adhesive on one surface of a polymer sheet and releasably appending a plurality of curing sheets. In addition, perforated lines are formed on the sheet, and a decontaminating agent is incorporated in the adhesive. This can reduce the number of curing operation steps when a plurality steps of operations for radiation decontamination equipments are performed, and further, the amount of wastes of the cured sheets, and operator's exposure are reduced, as well as an efficiency of the curing operation can be improved, and propagation of contamination can be prevented. (T.M.)

  6. Radiation processing in the plastics industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, C.B.

    1988-01-01

    The interaction of ionizing radiation with organic substrates to produce useful physical and chemical changes is the basis of the radiation processing industry for plastics. Electron beam (EB) accelerators dominate the industry; however, there are a few small applications that use gamma radiation. The five general product categories that account for over 95% of the worldwide EB capacity used for plastics production are the following: wire and cable insulation; heat-shrinkable film, tubes and pipes; radiation-curable coatings; rubber products; and polyolefin foam. A total of 6.1% of the yearly production of these products in the United States is EB treated. The United States accounts for 59% of the total worldwide EB capacity of 20.5 MW (1984), followed by Europe (16%) and Japan (15%). There are 469 to 479 individual EB units worldwide used for the production of plastics and rubber. The average annual rate of growth (AARG) for the EB processing of plastics in Japan, from 1977 to 1987, was 13.3%. The AARG for Japan has decreased from 20% for 1977 to 198, to 6.4% for 1984 to 1987. Radiation cross-linking, of power cable insulation (cable rating ≥75 kV), thick polyolefin and rubber sheet (≥15 mm), and thick-walled tubing is one fo the potential applications for a 5- to 10-MeV EB system. Other products such as coatings, films and wire insulation may be economically EB-treated using a 5 to 10 MeV accelerator, if several layers of the product could be irradiated simultaneously. Two general product categories that require more study to determine the potential of high-energy EB processing are moulded plastics and composite materials. 32 refs

  7. Radiation processing of wood-plastic composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czvikovszky, T.

    1992-01-01

    There are three main types of radiation-processed composite material derived from plastics and fibrous natural polymers. The first are the monomer-impregnated, radiation-treated wood-plastic composites (WPC). They became a commercial success in the early 1970s. More recently, work has focused on improving the WPCs by creating in them interpenetrating network (IPN) systems by the use of appropriate multifunctional oligomers and monomers. The main kinetic features of radiation-initiated chain polymerization remain applicable even in impregnated wood. The second type are the plastics filled or reinforced with dispersed wood fiber or other cellulosics (WFRP). In their case, radiation processing offers a new opportunity to apply radiation-reactive adhesion promoters between wood or cellulosic fibers and the thermoplastic matrices. The third type are the laminar composites made by electron beam coating of wood-based agglomerate sheets and boards. This chapter reviews the industrial applications and the radiation processing of the three types of the wood-plastic composites and indicates future trends. (orig.)

  8. Storage of Buffy-coat-derived platelets in additive solutions: in vitro effects on platelets prepared by the novel TACSI system and stored in plastic containers with different gas permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandgren, P; Hild, M; Sjödin, A; Gulliksson, H

    2010-11-01

    The novel TACSI system is designed for automated preparation of platelets (PLTs) from pooled buffy coats (BCs). One TACSI device will handle 6 units at the same time. The aim of our in vitro study is to investigate the effects of using this automated equipment with subsequent storage in two different plastic containers and to compare these results with PLTs prepared by the OrbiSac system. Buffy-coat-derived PLTs (n=8) were prepared by using the TACSI system, including storage in polyvinyl chloride (PVC)-based plastic containers with di, n-decyl phthalate (DnDP) (TACSI R) and BTHC (TACSI T)-based plasticizers. As a reference, the OrbiSac System was used to prepare PLTs (n=8) with subsequent storage in a PVC plastic container with a citrate-based plasticizer (BTHC). In total, 16 TACSI and eight reference units, supplied by approximately 30% plasma and 70% SSP+, were analysed for various in vitro variables during the 7-day storage period. No significant difference in PLT counts, LDH, mean platelet volume (MPV) and adenosine triphosphate between the groups was detected. Glucose was lower (P6·8 (day 7) and swirling remained at the highest level (score=2) for all units throughout storage. Platelets prepared by the TACSI system with subsequent storage in two different PVC-based plastic containers were equivalent to reference PLTs with regard to in vitro characteristics during 7 days of storage. © 2010 The Author(s). Vox Sanguinis © 2010 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  9. Ion Diffusion-Directed Assembly Approach to Ultrafast Coating of Graphene Oxide Thick Multilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoli; Gao, Weiwei; Yao, Weiquan; Jiang, Yanqiu; Xu, Zhen; Gao, Chao

    2017-10-24

    The layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly approach has been widely used to fabricate multilayer coatings on substrates with multiple cycles, whereas it is hard to access thick films efficiently. Here, we developed an ion diffusion-directed assembly (IDDA) strategy to rapidly make multilayer thick coatings in one step on arbitrary substrates. To achieve multifunctional coatings, graphene oxide (GO) and metallic ions were selected as the typical building blocks and diffusion director in IDDA, respectively. With diffusion of metallic ions from substrate to negatively charged GO dispersion spontaneously (i.e., from high-concentration region to low-concentration region), GO was assembled onto the substrate sheet-by-sheet via sol-gel transformation. Because metallic ions with size of subnanometers can diffuse directionally and freely in the aqueous dispersion, GO was coated on the substrate efficiently, giving rise to films with desired thickness up to 10 μm per cycle. The IDDA approach shows three main merits: (1) high efficiency with a μm-scale coating rate; (2) controllability over thickness and evenness; and (3) generality for substrates of plastics, metals and ceramics with any shapes and morphologies. With these merits, IDDA strategy was utilized in the efficient fabrication of functional graphene coatings that exhibit outstanding performance as supercapacitors, electromagnetic interference shielding textiles, and anticorrosion coatings. This IDDA approach can be extended to other building blocks including polymers and colloidal nanoparticles, promising for the scalable production and application of multifunctional coatings.

  10. Effect of a hard coat layer on buckle delamination of thin ITO layers on a compliant elasto-plastic substrate: an experimental–numerical approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, van der O.; Abdallah, Amir; Bouten, P.C.P.; Timmermans, P.H.M.; Toonder, den J.M.J.; With, de G.

    2011-01-01

    Layer buckling and delamination is a common interfacial failure phenomenon in thin film multi-layer structures that are used in flexible display applications. Typically, the substrate is coated on both sides with a hybrid coating, calleda hard coat (HC), which acts as a gas barrier and also

  11. Plastics control paraffin buildup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1965-06-01

    Paraffin buildup in producing oil wells has been virtually eliminated by the use of plastic-coated sucker rods. The payout of the plasticing process is generally reached in less than a year, and the paraffin buildup may be inhibited for 10 yr or longer. Most of the plants applying plastic coatings to sucker rods are now fully automated, though a few still offer the hand-sprayed coating that some operators prefer. The several steps involved are described. The ideal plastic for the job is resistant to chemicals at high and low temperatures, flexible, has good adhesion, abrasion resistance, impact resistance, and a smooth glossy finish. The phenol aldehyde and epoxy resins presently offered by the industry fulfill these specifications very well; the multicoating and multibaking techniques improve their performance. Due to wide variations in the severity of the paraffin problem from one oil field to another, there is no general rule to estimate the possible savings from using plastic-coated sucker rods. The process, however, does appear to do a remarkable job in controlling paraffin buildup wherever it is a problem in producing oil by pump.

  12. Use of Plastic Mulch for Vegetable Production

    OpenAIRE

    Maughan, Tiffany; Drost, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Plastic mulches are used commercially for both vegetables and small fruit crops. Vegetable crops well suited for production with plastic mulch are typically high value row crops. This fact sheet describes the advantages, disadvantages, installation, and planting considerations. It includes sources for plastic and equipment.

  13. Grain Interactions in Crystal Plasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, K.P.; Curtin, W.A.

    2005-01-01

    The plastic response of a sheet metal is governed by the collective response of the underlying grains. Intragranular plasticity depends on intrinsic variables such as crystallographic orientation and on extrinsic variables such as grain interactions; however, the role of the latter is not well understood. A finite element crystal plasticity formulation is used to investigate the importance of grain interactions on intragranular plastic deformation in initially untextured polycrystalline aggregates. A statistical analysis reveals that grain interactions are of equal (or more) importance for determining the average intragranular deviations from the applied strain as compared to the orientation of the grain itself. Furthermore, the influence of the surrounding grains is found to extend past nearest neighbor interactions. It is concluded that the stochastic nature of the mesoscale environment must be considered for a proper understanding of the plastic response of sheet metals at the grain-scale

  14. Single layer broadband anti-reflective coatings for plastic substrates produced by full wafer and roll-to-roll step-and-flash nano-imprint lithography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burghoorn, M.M.A.; Roosen-Melsen, D.A.; Riet, J.F.J. de; Sabik, S.; Vroon, Z.A.E.P.; Yakimets, I.; Buskens, P.J.P.

    2013-01-01

    Anti-reflective coatings (ARCs) are used to lower the reflection of light on the surface of a substrate. Here, we demonstrate that the two main drawbacks of moth eye-structured ARCs-i.e., the lack of suitable coating materials and a process for large area, high volume applications-can be largely

  15. Plastics and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avenas, P.

    1996-01-01

    Synthetic organic polymers, such as plastics, PVC, polyamides etc are considered less ecological than natural materials such as wood. Other artificial materials such as metals, glass or biodegradable plastics have also a better image than petroleum products. This short paper demonstrates that the manufacturing or the transport of every material uses energy and that the complete energy balance sheet of a plastic bottle, for instance, is more favourable than the one of a glass bottle. Plastic materials are also easily valorized and recycled and part of the energy spent during manufacturing can be recovered during incineration for district heating. During the life-cycle of such a synthetic material, the same petroleum quantity can be used twice which leads to less negative effects on the environment. Finally, the paper focusses on the problem of biodegradable materials which are not degradable when buried under several meters of wastes and which are a nuisance to recycling. (J.S.)

  16. Plastic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Plastic Surgery KidsHealth / For Teens / Plastic Surgery What's in ... her forehead lightened with a laser? What Is Plastic Surgery? Just because the name includes the word " ...

  17. Development of a Plastic Recycling Machine

    OpenAIRE

    I. A. Daniyan,

    2017-01-01

    Plastics are not degradable materials, therefore improper disposal after use constitute environmental problem. The developed plastic recycler was fabricated using 1.5 mm mild metal sheet punched and rolled into cylindrical form. The outer peeling drum was punched inward and fixed to the machine frame while the inner peeling drum was punched outward. The inner drum was constructed using 1.5 mm galvanized metal sheet while the die was constructed using carbon steel. It has an outer diameter of ...

  18. Predicting Hot Deformation of AA5182 Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, John T.; Carpenter, Alexander J.; Jodlowski, Jakub P.; Taleff, Eric M.

    Aluminum 5000-series alloy sheet materials exhibit substantial ductilities at hot and warm temperatures, even when grain size is not particularly fine. The relatively high strain-rate sensitivity exhibited by these non-superplastic materials, when deforming under solute-drag creep, is a primary contributor to large tensile ductilities. This active deformation mechanism influences both plastic flow and microstructure evolution across conditions of interest for hot- and warm-forming. Data are presented from uniaxial tensile and biaxial bulge tests of AA5182 sheet material at elevated temperatures. These data are used to construct a material constitutive model for plastic flow, which is applied in finite-element-method (FEM) simulations of plastic deformation under multiaxial stress states. Simulation results are directly compared against experimental data to explore the usefulness of this constitutive model. The effects of temperature and stress state on plastic response and microstructure evolution are discussed.

  19. Plasticity theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lubliner, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    The aim of Plasticity Theory is to provide a comprehensive introduction to the contemporary state of knowledge in basic plasticity theory and to its applications. It treats several areas not commonly found between the covers of a single book: the physics of plasticity, constitutive theory, dynamic plasticity, large-deformation plasticity, and numerical methods, in addition to a representative survey of problems treated by classical methods, such as elastic-plastic problems, plane plastic flow, and limit analysis; the problem discussed come from areas of interest to mechanical, structural, and

  20. Transfer of fibroblast sheets cultured on thermoresponsive dishes with membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawecki, Marek; Kraut, Małgorzata; Klama-Baryła, Agnieszka; Łabuś, Wojciech; Kitala, Diana; Nowak, Mariusz; Glik, Justyna; Sieroń, Aleksander L; Utrata-Wesołek, Alicja; Trzebicka, Barbara; Dworak, Andrzej; Szweda, Dawid

    2016-06-01

    In cell or tissue engineering, it is essential to develop a support for cell-to-cell adhesion, which leads to the generation of cell sheets connected by extracellular matrix. Such supports must be hydrophobic and should result in a detachable cell sheet. A thermoresponsive support that enables the cultured cell sheet to detach using only a change in temperature could be an interesting alternative in regenerative medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate plates covered with thermoresponsive polymers as supports for the formation of fibroblast sheets and to develop a damage-free procedure for cell sheet transfer with the use of membranes as transfer tools. Human skin fibroblasts were seeded on supports coated with a thermoresponsive polymer: commercial UpCell™ dishes (NUNC™) coated with thermoresponsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) and dishes coated with thermoresponsive poly(tri(ethylene glycol) monoethyl ether methacrylate) (P(TEGMA-EE)). Confluent fibroblast sheets were effectively cultured and harvested from both commercial PNIPAM-coated dishes and laboratory P(TEGMA-EE)-coated dishes. To transfer a detached cell sheet, two membranes, Immobilon-P(®) and SUPRATHEL(®), were examined. The use of SUPRATHEL for relocating the cell sheets opens a new possibility for the clinical treatment of wounds. This study established the background for implementing thermoresponsive supports for transplanting in vitro cultured fibroblasts.

  1. 1998 Annual Study Report. Standardization of corrosion resistance testing/evaluation methods for coated steel sheets; 1998 nendo seika hokokusho. Hyomen shori koban no taishokusei shiken hyoka hoho no hyojunka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    In order to develop the evaluation methods for reappearing corrosion characteristics of coated steel sheets in a short time, acid rain composition and artificial acid rain composition for the accelerated test were studied, and the cyclic corrosion tests were conducted. The literature survey shows that the main ionic species present in acid rain are Ca{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, and Cl{sup -}, of which the acid rain components are SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and NO{sub 3}{sup -}, their equivalent ratio (NO{sub 3}{sup -}/ SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}) in the Far Eastern area being 0.2 to 0.3. Therefore, the solution specified by ASTM 1141 is diluted 30 times with water to prepare the base solution for the accelerated tests, where its acidity is adjusted with a mixed acid of NO{sub 3}{sup -}/ SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} = 0.2 to 0.3 (pH: 3.0 to 4.0). Two sets of preliminary cyclic corrosion tests were conducted, one involving acid rain spraying, drying and humidification in this order, and the other acid rain spraying, humidification and drying. Analysis of the test data indicates that difference between these test cycles in corrosion rate is within a deviation range caused by different testing tools. Therefore, the former condition is adopted as the basis for the accelerated tests, because of its smaller deviation caused by different testing tools. (NEDO)

  2. Chlamydia - CDC Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Archive STDs Home Page Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) Chlamydia Gonorrhea Genital Herpes Hepatitis HIV/AIDS & STDs Human Papillomavirus ( ... sheet Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) – CDC fact sheet Gonorrhea – CDC fact sheet STDs Home Page Bacterial Vaginosis ( ...

  3. Barrier properties of plastic films coated with an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer by roll-to-toll atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirvikorpi, Terhi, E-mail: Terhi.Hirvikorpi@picosun.com [Picosun Oy, Tietotie 3, FI-02150 Espoo (Finland); Laine, Risto, E-mail: Risto.Laine@picosun.com [Picosun Oy, Tietotie 3, FI-02150 Espoo (Finland); Vähä-Nissi, Mika, E-mail: Mika.Vaha-Nissi@vtt.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Biologinkuja 7, Espoo, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT (Finland); Kilpi, Väinö, E-mail: Vaino.Kilpi@picosun.com [Picosun Oy, Tietotie 3, FI-02150 Espoo (Finland); Salo, Erkki, E-mail: Erkki.Salo@vtt.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Biologinkuja 7, Espoo, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT (Finland); Li, Wei-Min, E-mail: Wei-Min.Li@picosun.com [Picosun Oy, Tietotie 3, FI-02150 Espoo (Finland); Lindfors, Sven, E-mail: Sven.Lindfors@picosun.com [Picosun Oy, Tietotie 3, FI-02150 Espoo (Finland); Vartiainen, Jari, E-mail: Jari.Vartiainen@vtt.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Biologinkuja 7, Espoo, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT (Finland); Kenttä, Eija, E-mail: Eija.Kentta@vtt.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Biologinkuja 7, Espoo, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT (Finland); Nikkola, Juha, E-mail: Juha.Nikkola@vtt.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1300, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland); Harlin, Ali, E-mail: Ali.Harlin@vtt.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Biologinkuja 7, Espoo, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT (Finland); Kostamo, Juhana, E-mail: Juhana.Kostamo@picosun.com [Picosun Oy, Tietotie 3, FI-02150 Espoo (Finland)

    2014-01-01

    Thin (30–40 nm) and highly uniform Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coatings have been deposited at relatively low temperature of 100 °C onto various polymeric materials employing the atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique, both batch and roll-to-roll (R2R) mode. The applications for ALD have long been limited those feasible for batch processing. The work demonstrates that R2R ALD can deposit thin films with properties that are comparable to the film properties fabricated by in batch. This accelerates considerably the commercialization of many products, such as flexible, printed electronics, organic light-emitting diode lighting, third generation thin film photovoltaic devices, high energy density thin film batteries, smart textiles, organic sensors, organic/recyclable packaging materials, and flexible displays, to name a few. - Highlights: • Thin and uniform Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coatings have been deposited onto polymers materials. • Batch and roll-to-roll (R2R) atomic layer deposition (ALD) have been employed. • Deposition with either process improved the barrier properties. • Sensitivity of coated films to defects affects barrier obtained with R2R ALD.

  4. Laminin-521 Promotes Rat Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell Sheet Formation on Light-Induced Cell Sheet Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwei Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell sheets (rBMSC sheets are attractive for cell-based tissue engineering. However, methods of culturing rBMSC sheets are critically limited. In order to obtain intact rBMSC sheets, a light-induced cell sheet method was used in this study. TiO2 nanodot films were coated with (TL or without (TN laminin-521. We investigated the effects of laminin-521 on rBMSCs during cell sheet culturing. The fabricated rBMSC sheets were subsequently assessed to study cell sheet viability, reattachment ability, cell sheet thickness, collagen type I deposition, and multilineage potential. The results showed that laminin-521 could promote the formation of rBMSC sheets with good viability under hyperconfluent conditions. Cell sheet thickness increased from an initial 26.7 ± 1.5 μm (day 5 up to 47.7 ± 3.0 μm (day 10. Moreover, rBMSC sheets maintained their potential of osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic differentiation. This study provides a new strategy to obtain rBMSC sheets using light-induced cell sheet technology.

  5. GASN sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-12-01

    This document gathers around 50 detailed sheets which describe and present various aspects, data and information related to the nuclear sector or, more generally to energy. The following items are addressed: natural and artificial radioactive environment, evolution of energy needs in the world, radioactive wastes, which energy for France tomorrow, the consequences in France of the Chernobyl accident, ammunitions containing depleted uranium, processing and recycling of used nuclear fuel, transport of radioactive materials, seismic risk for the basic nuclear installations, radon, the precautionary principle, the issue of low doses, the EPR, the greenhouse effect, the Oklo nuclear reactors, ITER on the way towards fusion reactors, simulation and nuclear deterrence, crisis management in the nuclear field, does nuclear research put a break on the development of renewable energies by monopolizing funding, nuclear safety and security, the plutonium, generation IV reactors, comparison of different modes of electricity production, medical exposure to ionizing radiations, the control of nuclear activities, food preservation by ionization, photovoltaic solar collectors, the Polonium 210, the dismantling of nuclear installations, wind energy, desalination and nuclear reactors, from non-communication to transparency about nuclear safety, the Jules Horowitz reactor, CO 2 capture and storage, hydrogen, solar energy, the radium, the subcontractors of maintenance of the nuclear fleet, biomass, internal radio-contamination, epidemiological studies, submarine nuclear propulsion, sea energy, the Three Mile Island accident, the Chernobyl accident, the Fukushima accident, the nuclear after Fukushima

  6. Absorptive coating for aluminum solar panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmet, D.; Jason, A.; Parr, A.

    1979-01-01

    Method for coating forming coating of copper oxide from copper component of sheet aluminum/copper alloy provides strong durable solar heat collector panels. Copper oxide coating has solar absorption characteristics similar to black chrome and is much simpler and less costly to produce.

  7. Comparative Study of Antireflection Coating Materials for Solar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    yaog

    2017-01-17

    Jan 17, 2017 ... Locally available absorber and antireflection coating materials for ... However, a black painted steel sheet metal costs less and is readily available in local ..... Testing of a new solar coating for solar water heating applications.

  8. PROCESS AND APPARATUS FOR SEPARATING INDIVIDUAL PANES FROM A LAMINATED GLASS SHEET

    OpenAIRE

    Kübler, R.; Rist, T.; Hoetger, B.

    2011-01-01

    The invention relates to a process for separating at least one individual pane of predefined size and edge form from a laminated glass sheet, which has at least two laminated glass sheet panes which are arranged one above another in adjacent form and between which there is arranged a plastic film, which permanently bonds the laminated glass sheet panes to one another, wherein - a laser track channel which at least weakens the plastic structure of the plastic film is laid into the plastic film...

  9. Effects of transverse temperature field nonuniformity on stress in silicon sheet growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mataga, P. A.; Hutchinson, J. W.; Chalmers, B.; Bell, R. O.; Kalejs, J. P.

    1987-01-01

    Stress and strain rate distributions are calculated using finite element analysis for steady-state growth of thin silicon sheet temperature nonuniformities imposed in the transverse (sheet width) dimension. Significant reductions in residual stress are predicted to occur for the case where the sheet edge is cooled relative to its center provided plastic deformation with high creep rates is present.

  10. Flow Injection Potentiometric Determination of Cd2+ Ions Using a Coated Graphite Plasticized PVC-Membrane Electrode Based on 1, 3-Bis(2-cyanobenzene)triazene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Sahari, Shokat; Payehghadr, Mahmood; Alizadeh, Kamal

    2011-09-01

    1, 3-Bis(2-cyanobenzene)triazene, L, was used as a suitable ionophore for the fabrication of a new PVC-based polymeric membrane coated graphite electrode for selective sensing of Cd2+ ion. The electrode exhibited a selective linear Nernstian response to Cd2+ ion at an optimal pH range of 6-9 with a limit of detection of 8.0 × 10-6 M and a fast response time of about 2 s. The electrode was used as a proper detection system in flow-injection potentiometry of cadmium ion and resulted in well defined peaks for cadmium ions with stable baseline, excellent reproducibility and high sampling rates of over 100 injections per hour. It showed good stability, reproducibility and fast response time. The practical utility of the proposed system has also been reported.

  11. Heat transfer modeling in asymmetrical sheet rolling of aluminium alloys with ultra high shear strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pesin Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetrical sheet rolling is a method of severe plastic deformation (SPD for production of aluminium alloys with UFG structure. Prediction of sheet temperature during SPD is important. The temperature of sheet is changed due to the conversion of mechanical work into heat through sliding on contact surfaces and high shear strain. Paper presents the results of FEM simulation of the effect of contact friction, rolling speed and rolls speed ratio on the heating of aluminium sheets during asymmetrical rolling.

  12. Highly transparent and UV-resistant superhydrophobic SiO2-coated ZnO nanorod arrays

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Yangqin

    2014-02-26

    Highly transparent and UV-resistant superhydrophobic arrays of SiO 2-coated ZnO nanorods are prepared in a sequence of low-temperature (<150 C) steps on both glass and thin sheets of PET (2 × 2 in. 2), and the superhydrophobic nanocomposite is shown to have minimal impact on solar cell device performance under AM1.5G illumination. Flexible plastics can serve as front cell and backing materials in the manufacture of flexible displays and solar cells. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  13. Extruding plastic scintillator at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pla-Dalmau, Anna; Bross, Alain D.; Rykalin, Viktor V.

    2003-01-01

    An understanding of the costs involved in the production of plastic scintillators and the development of a less expensive material have become necessary with the prospects of building very large plastic scintillation detectors. Several factors contribute to the high cost of plastic scintillating sheets, but the principal reason is the labor-intensive nature of the manufacturing process. In order to significantly lower the costs, the current casting procedures had to be abandoned. Since polystyrene is widely used in the consumer industry, the logical path was to investigate the extrusion of commercial-grade polystyrene pellets with dopants to yield high quality plastic scintillator. This concept was tested and high quality extruded plastic scintillator was produced. The D0 and MINOS experiments are already using extruded scintillator strips in their detectors. An extrusion line has recently been installed at Fermilab in collaboration with NICADD (Northern Illinois Center for Accelerator and Detector Development). This new facility will serve to further develop and improve extruded plastic scintillator. This paper will discuss the characteristics of extruded plastic scintillator and its raw materials, the different manufacturing techniques and the current R andD program at Fermilab

  14. 49 CFR 178.518 - Standards for woven plastic bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for woven plastic bags. 178.518 Section... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.518 Standards for woven plastic bags. (a) The following are identification codes for woven plastic bags: (1) 5H1 for an unlined or non-coated...

  15. The influence of mechanical clearance reduction between plug (m1- m.e. version) and tube sheet simulator, at its experimental installation using a high speed plastic deformation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyongyosi, T.; Panaitescu, V. N.; Prisecaru, I.

    2013-01-01

    The steam generator has to keep its structural integrity during entire operation lifetime. The isolation at both ends of the defective tube, from the primary heat transport system, is made of special shape plugs, using a plastic deformation technique. In the paper, after a brief introduction, are presented the technique developed experimentally for plugging of the steam generator defective tubes followed by a description of the tests performed, the results analysis get and conclusions. The paper is dedicated to the specialists working in the research and technological engineering. (authors)

  16. Numerical simulation of large deformation polycrystalline plasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inal, K.; Neale, K.W.; Wu, P.D.; MacEwen, S.R.

    2000-01-01

    A finite element model based on crystal plasticity has been developed to simulate the stress-strain response of sheet metal specimens in uniaxial tension. Each material point in the sheet is considered to be a polycrystalline aggregate of FCC grains. The Taylor theory of crystal plasticity is assumed. The numerical analysis incorporates parallel computing features enabling simulations of realistic models with large number of grains. Simulations have been carried out for the AA3004-H19 aluminium alloy and the results are compared with experimental data. (author)

  17. Plastics for corrosion inhibition

    CERN Document Server

    Goldade, Victor A; Makarevich, Anna V; Kestelman, Vladimir N

    2005-01-01

    The development of polymer composites containing inhibitors of metal corrosion is an important endeavour in modern materials science and technology. Corrosion inhibitors can be located in a polymer matrix in the solid, liquid or gaseous phase. This book details the thermodynamic principles for selecting these components, their compatibility and their effectiveness. The various mechanisms of metal protection – barrier, inhibiting and electromechanical – are considered, as are the conflicting requirements placed on the structure of the combined material. Two main classes of inhibited materials (structural and films/coatings) are described in detail. Examples are given of structural plastics used in friction units subjected to mechano-chemical wear and of polymer films/coatings for protecting metal objects against corrosion.

  18. Plastic dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Shiro; Matsuda, Kohji.

    1988-01-01

    The report outlines major features and applications of plastic dosimeters. Some plastic dosimeters, including the CTA and PVC types, detect the response of the plastic material itself to radiations while others, such as pigment-added plastic dosimeters, contain additives as radiation detecting material. Most of these dosimeters make use of color centers produced in the dosimeter by radiations. The PMMA dosimeter is widely used in the field of radiation sterilization of food, feed and medical apparatus. The blue cellophane dosimeter is easy to handle if calibrated appropriately. The rad-color dosimeter serves to determine whether products have been irradiated appropriately. The CTA dosimeter has better damp proofing properties than the blue cellophane type. The pigment-added plastic dosimeter consists of a resin such as nylon, CTA or PVC that contains a dye. Some other plastic dosimeters are also described briefly. Though having many advantages, these plastic dosimeter have disadvantages as well. Some of their major disadvantages, including fading as well as large dependence on dose, temperature, humidity and anviroment, are discussed. (Nogami, K.)

  19. Coatings and Tints of Spectacle Lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Zeki Büyükyıldız

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Spectacle lenses are made of mineral or organic (plastic materials. Various coatings and tints are applied to the spectacle lenses according to the characteristic of the lens material, and for the personal needs and cosmetic purpose. The coatings may be classified in seven groups: 1 Anti-reflection coatings, 2 Hard coatings, 3 Clean coat, 4 Mirror coatings, 5 Color tint coating (one of coloring processes, 6 Photochromic coating (one of photochromic processes, and 7 Anti-fog coatings. Anti-reflection coatings reduce unwanted reflections from the lens surfaces and increase light transmission. Hard coatings are applied for preventing the plastic lens surface from scratches and abrasion. Hard coatings are not required for the mineral lenses due to their hardness. Clean coat makes the lens surface smooth and hydrophobic. Thus, it prevents the adherence of dust, tarnish, and dirt particles on the lens surface. Mirror coatings are applied onto the sunglasses for cosmetic purpose. Color tinted and photochromic lenses are used for sun protection and absorption of the harmful UV radiations. Anti-fog coatings make the lens surface hydrophilic and prevent the coalescence of tiny water droplets on the lens surface that reduces light transmission. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: 359-69

  20. Laser direct joining of metal and plastic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayama, Seiji; Kawahito, Yousuke

    2008-01-01

    We have developed an innovative rapid laser direct joining process of metal and plastic lap plates without adhesives or glues. The joints made between a Type 304 stainless steel plate and a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic sheet of 30 mm width possessed tensile shear loads of about 3000 N. Transmission electron microscope photographs of the joint demonstrated that Type 304 and the PET were bonded on the atomic, molecular or nanostructural level through a Cr oxide film

  1. PLASTIC SURGERY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Sefako Makgatho Health Science University, ... We report on a pilot study on the use of a circumareolar excision and the use of .... and 1 gynecomastia patient) requested reduction in NAC size.

  2. Plastic Fishes

    CERN Multimedia

    Trettnak, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    In terms of weight, the plastic pollution in the world’s oceans is estimated to be around 300,000 tonnes. This plastic comes from both land-based and ocean-based sources. A lecture at CERN by chemist Wolfgang Trettnak addressed this issue and highlighted the role of art in raising people’s awareness. The slideshow below gives you a taste of the artworks by Wolfgang Trettnak and Margarita Cimadevila.

  3. CHARACTERIZATION AND PERFORMANCE OF DUPLEX-COATINGS ON Cr-V COLD WORK TOOL STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Jurči

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Specimens made of Vanadis 6 steel were heat treated, plasma nitrided and coated with Cr2N. The microstructure, phase constitution and mechanical properties of plasma nitrided areas and duplex-coatings have been investigated using the light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and microhardness measurements. The adhesion of the coatings and the wear performance were studied using the scratch test and ring-on-plate tribological testing. Worn surfaces were examined by scanning electron microscopy. Nitrided areas formed at lower temperature were free of compound “white” layer while hose developed at higher temperatures contained as the white layer so the nitrided network. Significant increase in substrate hardness was detected due to the nitriding. Beneficial effect of the nitriding on the adhesion of Cr2N coatings was clearly determined whereas the extent in improvement of the adhesion depends on the presence/no presence of “white” layer on the surface. The extent of beneficial effect of plasma nitriding on the wear performance follows the impact of the constitution of nitrided areas on the adhesion. The amelioration of wear performance of Cr2N coatings can be attributed to the supporting effect of hard nitrided intermediate region, which provides excellent resistance of the substrate against plastic deformation, under heavy loading in particular. Practical testing demonstrated many times prolonged service-time of duplex-treated tools for sheet metal working.

  4. GREEN PLASTIC: A NEW PLASTIC FOR PACKAGING

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. Pankaj Kumar*, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    This paper gives a brief idea about a new type of plastic called as bio-plastic or green plastic. Plastic is used as a packaging material for various products, but this plastic is made up of non renewable raw materials. There are various disadvantages of using conventional plastic like littering, CO2 production, non-degradable in nature etc. To overcome these problems a new type of plastic is discovered called bio-plastic or green plastic. Bio-plastic is made from renewable resources and also...

  5. Rolling induced size effects in elastic–viscoplastic sheet metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kim Lau

    2015-01-01

    sheet rolling, where a non-homogeneous material deformation takes place between the rollers. Large strain gradients develop where the rollers first come in contact with the sheet, and a higher order plasticity model is employed to illustrate their influence at small scales. The study reveals...... presented revolves around the rolling induced effect of visco-plasticity (ranging hot and cold rolling) in combination with strain gradient hardening – including both dissipative and energetic contributions. To bring out first order effects on rolling at small scale, the modeling efforts are limited to flat...

  6. Valorisation of waste plastic bags in cement-mortar composites as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-01-07

    Jan 7, 2015 ... Keywords: Waste plastic bags, cement-plastic-mortar composite, aggregates coating ..... and closely attached to the aggregate by physical bonds and ... transformation steps, known as fusing material behaviour. In fact,.

  7. Tearing resistance of some co-polyester sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ho Sung; Karger-Kocsis, Jozsef

    2004-01-01

    A three-zone model consisting of initial, evolutionary and stabilised plastic zones for tearing resistance was proposed for polymer sheets. An analysis with the model, based on the essential work of fracture (EWF) approach, was demonstrated to be capable for predicting specific total work of fracture along the tear path across all the plastic zones although accuracy of specific essential work of fracture is subject to improvement. Photo-elastic images were used for identification of plastic deformation sizes and profiles. Fracture mode change during loading was described in relation with the three zones. Tearing fracture behaviour of extruded mono- and bi-layer sheets of different types of amorphous co-polyesters and different thicknesses was investigated. Thick material exhibited higher specific total work of tear fracture than thin mono-layer sheet in the case of amorphous polyethylene terephthalate (PET). This finding was explained in terms of plastic zone size formed along the tear path, i.e., thick material underwent larger plastic deformation than thin material. When PET and polyethylene terephthalate glycol (PETG) were laminated with each other, specific total work of fracture of the bi-layer sheets was not noticeably improved over that of the constituent materials

  8. Determining the coating speed limitations for organic photovoltaic inks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakubka, Florian; Heyder, Madeleine; Machui, Florian

    2013-01-01

    To determine the output capability of present organic photovoltaic (OPV) materials, it is important to know the theoretical maximum coating speeds of the used semiconductor formulations. Here, we present a comprehensive investigation of the coating stability window of several prototype organic...... semiconductor inks relevant for organic solar cells. The coating stability window was first determined experimentally by a sheet to sheet coater at velocities of up to 10 m/min. A numerical simulation model based on the Coating Window Suite 2010 software was established to give insight into the coating...

  9. A large area plastic Cherenkov detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernabei, R.; Bidoli, V.; Zorzi, G. de; Biagio, A. di

    1978-01-01

    A large area Cherenkov counter has been built up using as a radiator a sheet of Pilot 425 plastic, (180x20)cm 2 x2.5 cm. Experimental tests performed with a pion beam in order to measure the average number of photoelectrons collected by photomultipliers and the scintillation to Cherenkov light ratio. (Auth.)

  10. Plastic condoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-01-01

    Only simple equipment, simple technology and low initial capital investment are needed in their manufacture. The condoms can be made by people who were previously unskilled or only semi-skilled workers. Plastic condoms differ from those made of latex rubber in that the nature of the plastic film allows unlimited shelf-life. Also, the plastic has a higher degree of lubricity than latex rubber; if there is a demand for extra lubrication in a particular market, this can be provided. Because the plastic is inert, these condoms need not be packaged in hermetically sealed containers. All these attributes make it possible to put these condoms on the distributors' shelves in developing countries competitively with rubber condoms. The shape of the plastic condom is based on that of the lamb caecum, which has long been used as luxury-type condom. The plastic condom is made from plastic film (ethylene ethyl acrilate) of 0.001 inch (0.0254 mm.) thickness. In addition, a rubber ring is provided and sealed into the base of the condom for retention during coitus. The advantage of the plastic condom design and the equipment on which it is made is that production can be carried out either in labour-intensive economy or with varying degrees of mechanization and automation. The uniform, finished condom if made using previously untrained workers. Training of workers can be done in a matter of hours on the two machines which are needed to produce and test the condoms. The plastic film is provided on a double wound roll, and condom blanks are prepared by means of a heat-sealing die on the stamping machine. The rubber rings are united to the condom blanks on an assembly machine, which consists of a mandrel and heat-sealing equipment to seal the rubber ring to the base of the condom. Built into the assembly machine is a simple air-testing apparatus that can detect the smallest pinhole flaw in a condom. The manufacturing process is completed by unravelling the condom from the assembly

  11. Reinforced Plastic Composites Production: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    National emissions standards for hazardous air pollutants for reinforced plastic composites production facilities. Regulates production and ancillary processes used to manufacture products with thermoset resins and gel coats.

  12. A Modified Porous Titanium Sheet Prepared by Plasma-Activated Sintering for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukimichi Tamaki

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop a contamination-free porous titanium scaffold by a plasma-activated sintering within an originally developed TiN-coated graphite mold. The surface of porous titanium sheet with or without a coated graphite mold was characterized. The cell adhesion property of porous titanium sheet was also evaluated in this study. The peak of TiC was detected on the titanium sheet processed with the graphite mold without a TiN coating. Since the titanium fiber elements were directly in contact with the carbon graphite mold during processing, surface contamination was unavoidable event in this condition. The TiC peak was not detectable on the titanium sheet processed within the TiN-coated carbon graphite mold. This modified plasma-activated sintering with the TiN-coated graphite mold would be useful to fabricate a contamination-free titanium sheet. The number of adherent cells on the modified titanium sheet was greater than that of the bare titanium plate. Stress fiber formation and the extension of the cells were observed on the titanium sheets. This modified titanium sheet is expected to be a new tissue engineering material in orthopedic bone repair.

  13. Magical Engineering Plastic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Gwang Ung

    1988-01-15

    This book introduces engineering plastic about advantage of engineering plastic, plastic material from processing method, plastic shock, plastic until now, background of making of engineering plastic, wonderful engineering plastic science such as a high molecule and molecule, classification of high molecule, difference between metal and high molecule, heat and high molecule materials, and property of surface, engineering plastic of dream like from linseed oil to aramid, small dictionary of engineering plastic.

  14. Magical Engineering Plastic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gwang Ung

    1988-01-01

    This book introduces engineering plastic about advantage of engineering plastic, plastic material from processing method, plastic shock, plastic until now, background of making of engineering plastic, wonderful engineering plastic science such as a high molecule and molecule, classification of high molecule, difference between metal and high molecule, heat and high molecule materials, and property of surface, engineering plastic of dream like from linseed oil to aramid, small dictionary of engineering plastic.

  15. A flexible thermoresponsive cell culture substrate for direct transfer of keratinocyte cell sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen, Wulligundam; Madathil, Bernadette K; Sajin Raj, R S; Kumary, T V; Anil Kumar, P R

    2017-10-25

    Most cell sheet engineering systems require a support or carrier to handle the harvested cell sheets. In this study, polyethylene terephthalate-based overhead projection transparency sheets (OHPS) were subjected to surface hydrolysis by alkali treatment to increase pliability and hydrophilicity and enable poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-glycidylmethacrylate) copolymer (NGMA) coating to impart thermoresponsiveness. NGMA was applied on the modified OHPS by the technique of spin coating using an indigenously designed spin coater. The spin coating had the advantage of using low volumes of the polymer and a reduced coating time. The surface chemistry and thermoresponsive coating was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and water contact angle. Human keratinocyte cells were cultured on the spin coated surface and scaffold-free cell sheets were successfully harvested by simple variation of temperature. These cell sheets were found to be viable, exhibited epithelial characteristic and cell-cell contact as confirmed by positive immunostaining for ZO-1. The integrity and morphology of the cell sheet was confirmed by stereomicroscopy and E-SEM. These results highlight the potential of the NGMA spin coated modified OHPS to serve as a thermoresponsive culture surface-cum-flexible transfer tool.

  16. Mixed plastics recycling technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hegberg, Bruce

    1995-01-01

    Presents an overview of mixed plastics recycling technology. In addition, it characterizes mixed plastics wastes and describes collection methods, costs, and markets for reprocessed plastics products.

  17. Pervasive plastic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-05-01

    Human manipulation of hydrocarbons — as fuel and raw materials for modern society — has changed our world and the indelible imprint we will leave in the rock record. Plastics alone have permeated our lives and every corner of our planet.

  18. Plastic fish

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    In terms of weight, the plastic pollution in the world’s oceans is estimated to be around 300,000 tonnes. This plastic comes from both land-based and ocean-based sources. A lecture at CERN by chemist Wolfgang Trettnak addressed this issue and highlighted the role of art in raising people’s awareness.   Artwork by Wolfgang Trettnak. Packaging materials, consumer goods (shoes, kids’ toys, etc.), leftovers from fishing and aquaculture activities… our oceans and beaches are full of plastic litter. Most of the debris from beaches is plastic bottles. “PET bottles have high durability and stability,” explains Wolfgang Trettnak, a chemist by education and artist from Austria, who gave a lecture on this topic organised by the Staff Association at CERN on 26 May. “PET degrades very slowly and the estimated lifetime of a bottle is 450 years.” In addition to the beach litter accumulated from human use, rivers bring several ki...

  19. Plastic deformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sitter, de L.U.

    1937-01-01

    § 1. Plastic deformation of solid matter under high confining pressures has been insufficiently studied. Jeffreys 1) devotes a few paragraphs to deformation of solid matter as a preface to his chapter on the isostasy problem. He distinguishes two properties of solid matter with regard to its

  20. Compression deformation behaviors of sheet metals at various clearances and side forces

    OpenAIRE

    Zhan Mei; Wang Xianxian; Cao Jian; Yang He

    2015-01-01

    Modeling sheet metal forming operations requires understanding of plastic behaviors of sheet metals along non-proportional strain paths. The plastic behavior under reversed uniaxial loading is of particular interest because of its simplicity of interpretation and its application to material elements drawn over a die radius and underwent repeated bending. However, the attainable strain is limited by failures, such as buckling and in-plane deformation, dependent on clearances and side forces. I...

  1. Ice sheet in peril

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidberg, Christine Schøtt

    2016-01-01

    Earth's large ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica are major contributors to sea level change. At present, the Greenland Ice Sheet (see the photo) is losing mass in response to climate warming in Greenland (1), but the present changes also include a long-term response to past climate transitions...

  2. Mobility Balance Sheet 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorritsma, P.; Derriks, H.; Francke, J.; Gordijn, H.; Groot, W.; Harms, L.; Van der Loop, H.; Peer, S.; Savelberg, F.; Wouters, P.

    2009-06-01

    The Mobility Balance Sheet provides an overview of the state of the art of mobility in the Netherlands. In addition to describing the development of mobility this report also provides explanations for the growth of passenger and freight transport. Moreover, the Mobility Balance Sheet also focuses on a topical theme: the effects of economic crises on mobility. [nl

  3. Tuning the mechanical properties of vertical graphene sheets through atomic layer deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davami, Keivan; Jiang, Yijie; Cortes, John; Lin, Chen; Turner, Kevin T; Bargatin, Igor; Shaygan, Mehrdad

    2016-01-01

    We report the fabrication and characterization of graphene nanostructures with mechanical properties that are tuned by conformal deposition of alumina. Vertical graphene (VG) sheets, also called carbon nanowalls (CNWs), were grown on copper foil substrates using a radio-frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (RF-PECVD) technique and conformally coated with different thicknesses of alumina (Al_2O_3) using atomic layer deposition (ALD). Nanoindentation was used to characterize the mechanical properties of pristine and alumina-coated VG sheets. Results show a significant increase in the effective Young’s modulus of the VG sheets with increasing thickness of deposited alumina. Deposition of only a 5 nm thick alumina layer on the VG sheets nearly triples the effective Young’s modulus of the VG structures. Both energy absorption and strain recovery were lower in VG sheets coated with alumina than in pure VG sheets (for the same peak force). This may be attributed to the increase in bending stiffness of the VG sheets and the creation of connections between the sheets after ALD deposition. These results demonstrate that the mechanical properties of VG sheets can be tuned over a wide range through conformal atomic layer deposition, facilitating the use of VG sheets in applications where specific mechanical properties are needed. (paper)

  4. Photolithographic Synthesis of High-Density DNA and RNA Arrays on Flexible, Transparent, and Easily Subdivided Plastic Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Matthew T; Carter, Matthew C D; Wu, Cheng-Hsien; Wolfer, Jamison; Codner, Eric; Sussman, Michael R; Lynn, David M; Smith, Lloyd M

    2015-11-17

    The photolithographic fabrication of high-density DNA and RNA arrays on flexible and transparent plastic substrates is reported. The substrates are thin sheets of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) coated with cross-linked polymer multilayers that present hydroxyl groups suitable for conventional phosphoramidite-based nucleic acid synthesis. We demonstrate that by modifying array synthesis procedures to accommodate the physical and chemical properties of these materials, it is possible to synthesize plastic-backed oligonucleotide arrays with feature sizes as small as 14 μm × 14 μm and feature densities in excess of 125 000/cm(2), similar to specifications attainable using rigid substrates such as glass or glassy carbon. These plastic-backed arrays are tolerant to a wide range of hybridization temperatures, and improved synthetic procedures are described that enable the fabrication of arrays with sequences up to 50 nucleotides in length. These arrays hybridize with S/N ratios comparable to those fabricated on otherwise identical arrays prepared on glass or glassy carbon. This platform supports the enzymatic synthesis of RNA arrays and proof-of-concept experiments are presented showing that the arrays can be readily subdivided into smaller arrays (or "millichips") using common laboratory-scale laser cutting tools. These results expand the utility of oligonucleotide arrays fabricated on plastic substrates and open the door to new applications for these important bioanalytical tools.

  5. Printed energy storage devices by integration of electrodes and separators into single sheets of paper

    KAUST Repository

    Hu, Liangbing; Wu, Hui; Cui, Yi

    2010-01-01

    We report carbon nanotube thin film-based supercapacitors fabricated with printing methods, where electrodes and separators are integrated into single sheets of commercial paper. Carbon nanotube films are easily printed with Meyer rod coating or ink

  6. Biocompatibility of Niobium Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Olivares-Navarrete

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Niobium coatings deposited by magnetron sputtering were evaluated as a possible surface modification for stainless steel (SS substrates in biomedical implants. The Nb coatings were deposited on 15 mm diameter stainless steel substrates having an average surface roughness of 2 mm. To evaluate the biocompatibility of the coatings three different in vitro tests, using human alveolar bone derived cells, were performed: cellular adhesion, proliferation and viability. Stainless steel substrates and tissue culture plastic were also studied, in order to give comparative information. No toxic response was observed for any of the surfaces, indicating that the Nb coatings act as a biocompatible, bioinert material. Cell morphology was also studied by immune-fluorescence and the results confirmed the healthy state of the cells on the Nb surface. X-ray diffraction analysis of the coating shows that the film is polycrystalline with a body centered cubic structure. The surface composition and corrosion resistance of both the substrate and the Nb coating were also studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and potentiodynamic tests. Water contact angle measurements showed that the Nb surface is more hydrophobic than the SS substrate.

  7. plastic waste recycling

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Ahmed

    incinerators is increasing around the world. Discarded plastic products ... Agency (EPA) estimated that the amount of plastics throw away is. 50 % greater in the ... The waste plastics were identified using the Society of the Plastic. Industry (SPI) ...

  8. A Collaborative Design Curriculum for Reviving Sheet Metal Handicraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Patrick K. C.

    2015-01-01

    Galvanised sheet metal was a popular and important material for producing handmade home utensils in Hong Kong from the 1930s onwards. It was gradually replaced by new materials like stainless steel and plastic because similar goods made with these are cheaper, more standardised, more durable and of much better quality. The handicrafts behind sheet…

  9. Fracture of niobium-base silicide coated alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davydova, A.D.; Zotov, Yu.P.; Ivashchenko, O.V.; Kushnareva, N.P.; Yarosh, I.P.

    1990-01-01

    Mechanical properties and character of fracture of Nb-W-Mo-Zr-C alloy composition with complex by composition and structure silicide coating under different states of stage-by-stage coating are studied. Structural features, character of fracture from ductile to quasibrittle transcrystalline one and, respectively, the composition plasticity level are defined by interrelation of fracture processes in coating, matrix plastic flow and possibility and way of stress relaxation on their boundary

  10. Tablet coating by injection molding technology - Optimization of coating formulation attributes and coating process parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Parind M; Puri, Vibha; Brancazio, David; Halkude, Bhakti S; Hartman, Jeremy E; Wahane, Aniket V; Martinez, Alexander R; Jensen, Keith D; Harinath, Eranda; Braatz, Richard D; Chun, Jung-Hoon; Trout, Bernhardt L

    2018-01-01

    We developed and evaluated a solvent-free injection molding (IM) coating technology that could be suitable for continuous manufacturing via incorporation with IM tableting. Coating formulations (coating polymers and plasticizers) were prepared using hot-melt extrusion and screened via stress-strain analysis employing a universal testing machine. Selected coating formulations were studied for their melt flow characteristics. Tablets were coated using a vertical injection molding unit. Process parameters like softening temperature, injection pressure, and cooling temperature played a very important role in IM coating processing. IM coating employing polyethylene oxide (PEO) based formulations required sufficient room humidity (>30% RH) to avoid immediate cracks, whereas other formulations were insensitive to the room humidity. Tested formulations based on Eudrajit E PO and Kollicoat IR had unsuitable mechanical properties. Three coating formulations based on hydroxypropyl pea starch, PEO 1,000,000 and Opadry had favorable mechanical (35% elongation, >95×10 4 J/m 3 toughness) and melt flow (>0.4g/min) characteristics, that rendered acceptable IM coats. These three formulations increased the dissolution time by 10, 15 and 35min, respectively (75% drug release), compared to the uncoated tablets (15min). Coated tablets stored in several environmental conditions remained stable to cracking for the evaluated 8-week time period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Carbon sheet pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyabu, N.; Sagara, A.; Kawamura, T.; Motojima, O.; Ono, T.

    1993-07-01

    A new hydrogen pumping scheme has been proposed which controls recycling of the particles for significant improvement of the energy confinement in toroidal magnetic fusion devices. In this scheme, a part of the vacuum vessel surface near the divertor is covered with carbon sheets of a large surface area. Before discharge initiation, the sheets are baked up to 700 ∼ 1000degC to remove the previously trapped hydrogen atoms. After being cooled down to below ∼ 200degC, the unsaturated carbon sheets trap high energy charge exchange hydrogen atoms effectively during a discharge and overall pumping efficiency can be as high as ∼ 50 %. (author)

  12. Laser Indirect Shock Welding of Fine Wire to Metal Sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Huang, Tao; Luo, Yapeng; Liu, Huixia

    2017-09-12

    The purpose of this paper is to present an advanced method for welding fine wire to metal sheet, namely laser indirect shock welding (LISW). This process uses silica gel as driver sheet to accelerate the metal sheet toward the wire to obtain metallurgical bonding. A series of experiments were implemented to validate the welding ability of Al sheet/Cu wire and Al sheet/Ag wire. It was found that the use of a driver sheet can maintain high surface quality of the metal sheet. With the increase of laser pulse energy, the bonding area of the sheet/wire increased and the welding interfaces were nearly flat. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) results show that the intermetallic phases were absent and a short element diffusion layer which would limit the formation of the intermetallic phases emerging at the welding interface. A tensile shear test was used to measure the mechanical strength of the welding joints. The influence of laser pulse energy on the tensile failure modes was investigated, and two failure modes, including interfacial failure and failure through the wire, were observed. The nanoindentation test results indicate that as the distance to the welding interface decreased, the microhardness increased due to the plastic deformation becoming more violent.

  13. The crack growth resistance of thin steel sheets under eccentric ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ľ AMBRIŠKO

    2018-03-10

    Mar 10, 2018 ... of zinc-coated automotive steel sheets (IF – deep drawing interstitial free steel ..... to determine; therefore, the Ji was determined for observ- able crack initiation .... M R S, da Silva L F M and de Castro P M S T 2011. Analysis of ...

  14. Anesthesia Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education About NIGMS NIGMS Home > Science Education > Anesthesia Anesthesia Tagline (Optional) Middle/Main Content Area En español ... Version (464 KB) Other Fact Sheets What is anesthesia? Anesthesia is a medical treatment that prevents patients ...

  15. Structural Biology Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NIGMS NIGMS Home > Science Education > Structural Biology Structural Biology Tagline (Optional) Middle/Main Content Area PDF Version (688 KB) Other Fact Sheets What is structural biology? Structural biology is the study of how biological ...

  16. Global ice sheet modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, T.J.; Fastook, J.L.

    1994-05-01

    The University of Maine conducted this study for Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as part of a global climate modeling task for site characterization of the potential nuclear waste respository site at Yucca Mountain, NV. The purpose of the study was to develop a global ice sheet dynamics model that will forecast the three-dimensional configuration of global ice sheets for specific climate change scenarios. The objective of the third (final) year of the work was to produce ice sheet data for glaciation scenarios covering the next 100,000 years. This was accomplished using both the map-plane and flowband solutions of our time-dependent, finite-element gridpoint model. The theory and equations used to develop the ice sheet models are presented. Three future scenarios were simulated by the model and results are discussed

  17. Rapid Prototyping by Single Point Incremental Forming of Sheet Metal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjødt, Martin

    2008-01-01

    . The process is incremental forming since plastic deformation takes place in a small local zone underneath the forming tool, i.e. the sheet is formed as a summation of the movement of the local plastic zone. The process is slow and therefore only suited for prototypes or small batch production. On the other...... in the plastic zone. Using these it is demonstrated that the growth rate of accumulated damage in SPIF is small compared to conventional sheet forming processes. This combined with an explanation why necking is suppressed is a new theory stating that SPIF is limited by fracture and not necking. The theory...... SPIF. A multi stage strategy is presented which allows forming of a cup with vertical sides in about half of the depth. It is demonstrated that this results in strain paths which are far from straight, but strains are still limited by a straight fracture line in the principal strain space. The multi...

  18. Direct electroplating of plastic for advanced electrical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Tang, Peter Torben

    2017-01-01

    Electrodeposition or electroplating is predominantly applied to metallic components. Electroplating of plastics is possible in some cases where an initial electroless plating layer of nickel or copper is made to provide a conductive surface on the plastic part. This paper proposes a method...... for direct electroplating of plastic eliminating the need for slow and expensive processes like electroless metal deposition, PVD coating, painting with conductive inks etc. The results obtained from the test demonstrate the potential of direct electroplating of plastic to enhance the electrical conductivity...... and the use of electroplated plastics for advanced applications like Moulded Interconnect Devices (MIDs)....

  19. Energy information sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the public. The Energy Information Sheets was developed to provide general information on various aspects of fuel production, prices, consumption, and capability. Additional information on related subject matter can be found in other Energy Information Administration (EIA) publications as referenced at the end of each sheet.

  20. Introduction to Computational Plasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, P

    2006-01-01

    The focus of the book on computational plasticity embodies techniques of relevance not only to academic researchers, but also of interest to industrialists engaged in the production of components using bulk or sheet forming processes. Of particular interest is the guidance on how to create modules for use with the commercial system Abaqus for specific types of material behaviour. The book is in two parts, the first of which contains six chapters, starting with microplasticity, but predominantly on continuum plasticity. The first chapter on microplasticty gives a brief description of the grain structure of metals and the existence of slip systems within the grains. This provides an introduction to the concept of incompressibility during plastic deformation, the nature of plastic yield and the importance of the critically resolved shear stress on the slip planes (Schmid's law). Some knowledge of the notation commonly used to describe slip systems is assumed, which will be familiar to students of metallurgy, but anyone with a more general engineering background may need to undertake additional reading to understand the various descriptions. Chapter two introduces one of several yield criteria, that normally attributed to von Mises (though historians of mechanics might argue over who was first to develop the theory of yielding associated with strain energy density), and its two or three-dimensional representation as a yield surface. The expansion of the yield surface during plastic deformation, its translation due to kinematic hardening and the Bauschinger effect in reversed loading are described with a direct link to the material stress-strain curve. The assumption, that the increment of strain is normal to the yield surface, the normality principle, is introduced. Uniaxial loading of an elastic-plastic material is used as an example in which to develop expressions to describe increments in stress and strain. The full presentation of numerous expressions, tensors and

  1. Damage Prediction in Sheet Metal Forming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saanouni, Khemais; Badreddine, Houssem

    2007-01-01

    Ductile (or plastic) damage often occurs during sheet metal forming processes due to the large plastic flow localization. Accordingly, it is crucial for numerical tools, used in the simulation of that processes, to use fully coupled constitutive equations accounting for both hardening and damage. This can be used in both cases, namely to overcome the damage initiation during some sheet metal forming processes as deep drawing, ... or to enhance the damage initiation and growth as in sheet metal cutting. In this paper, a fully coupled constitutive equations accounting for combined isotropic and kinematic hardening as well as the ductile damage is implemented into the general purpose Finite Element code for metal forming simulation. First, the fully coupled anisotropic constitutive equations in the framework of Continuum Damage Mechanics are presented. Attention is paid to the strong coupling between the main mechanical fields as elasto-viscoplasticity, mixed hardening, ductile isotropic damage and contact with friction. The anisotropy of the plastic flow is taken into account using various kinds of quadratic or non quadratic yield criteria in the framework of non associative finite plasticity theory with two types of normality rules. The associated numerical aspects concerning both the local integration of the coupled constitutive equations as well as the (global) equilibrium integration schemes are presented. The local integration is outlined thanks to the Newton iterative scheme applied to a reduced system of 2 equations. For the global resolution of the initial and boundary value problem, the classical dynamic explicit (DE) scheme with an adaptive time step control is used. The numerical implementation of the damage is made in such a manner that calculations can be executed with or without damage effect, i.e. fully coupled or uncoupled calculations. For the 2D processes an advanced adaptive meshing procedure is used in order to enhance the numerical solution and

  2. Core Characteristics Deterioration due to Plastic Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaido, Chikara; Arai, Satoshi

    This paper discusses the effect of plastic deformation at core manufacturing on the characteristics of cores where non-oriented electrical steel sheets are used as core material. Exciting field and iron loss increase proportionally to plastic deformation in the case of rPeddy currents increase because plastic deformations of crystalline grains are distributed and then the flux distribution is induced. In the case of rP>20, the deterioration tend to saturate, and the increases in magnetic field and iron loss are 1000 to 1500A/m and 2 to 4W/kg. They are related to grain size, and high grade with larger grain may have lager field increase and smaller iron loss increase. Anomalous eddy current losses scarcely increase in this region. In actual motors, the plastic deformation affects iron loss increase although exciting current increases a little.

  3. Bead beavior in a non-continues slot die coating regime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langen, A.; Senes, A.; Vries, I. de; Groen, P.

    2015-01-01

    Sheet-to-sheet slot die coating is a crucial intermediate technique to bring organic and large area electronics (e.g. OLED and Flexible OPV) towards mass roll-to-roll productions. The coating on substrate has to be uniform within nanometers. Additional settings are added to the slot die coater for a

  4. Fiscal 1997 report on the results on the international standardization R and D. Development of chemical methods to analyze/evaluate metallic coatings of surface treated steel coating sheets; 1997 nendo seika hokokusho kokusai hyojun soseigata kenkyu kaihatsu. Hyomen shori koban mekkiso no kagaku bunseki hyoka hoho no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper studied the international standardization of the chemical analysis method and glow discharge optical emission spectrometry. Chemical composition and coating thickness (g/m{sup 2}) of 14 kinds of specimens including alloy coatings and organic coating with zinc and aluminum as base were analyzed by the above-mentioned methods to examine the relation between the both. As the chemical analysis method, used was inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. To study the relation between the methods, it was found to be necessary to recognize morphology at the boundary between the coating and base steel using, for example, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and electro-probe micro-analysis (EPMA). To measure traceability of the analysis method, with the chemical analysis method as a judgement method, it is necessary to make reference materials by coating materials, to use the calibration graph confirmed by the materials and to adopt the glow discharge optical emission spectrometry. On the basis of such way of thinking, drafts were worked out for the international standardization of the chemical analysis method and glow discharge optical emission spectrometry. 7 refs., 117 figs., 33 tabs.

  5. Coating of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, F.

    1978-01-01

    A method is described for coating the surface of an article of Ti, Zr or Ta, or an alloy thereof, with a tinning metal or alloy, the article having a shape other than that of a sheet. The method comprises contacting the surface of the article at an elevated temperature with the molten tinning metal and moving an ultrasonically excited probe over the surface to be coated, the probe being in contact with the surface of the article and with the tinning metal. The tinning metal may be Sn or Zn or a binary alloy of Sn with Zn, Cd or Bi at a temperature of 300 0 to 450 0 C. The head of the probe may be shaped to conform with the surface of the article. The method may be used to form composite articles, and may be applied to a pre-tinned steel article. (U.K.)

  6. Tribo-systems for Sheet Metal Forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels

    2009-01-01

    The present paper gives an overview of more than 10 years work by the author’s research group through participation in national as well as international framework programmes on developing and testing environmentally friendly lubricants and tool materials and coatings inhibiting galling. Partners ......’s research group has especially been involved in the development of a system of tribo-tests for sheet metal forming and in testing and modelling of friction and limits of lubrication of new, environmentally friendly lubricants and tool materials....

  7. Plastic scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreeshchev, E.A.; Kilin, S.F.; Kavyrzina, K.A.

    1978-01-01

    A plastic scintillator for ionizing radiation detectors with high time resolution is suggested. To decrease the scintillation pulse width and to maintain a high light yield, the 4 1 , 4 5 -dibromo-2 1 , 2 5 , 5 1 , 5 5 -tetramethyl-n-quinquiphenyl (Br 2 Me 4 Ph) in combination with n-terphenyl (Ph 3 ) or 2, 5-diphenyloxadiazol-1, 3, 4 (PPD) is used as a luminescent addition. Taking into consideration the results of a special study, it is shown, that the following ratio of ingradients is the optimum one: 3-4 mass% Ph 3 or 4-7 mas% PPD + 2-5 mass% Br 2 Me 4 Ph + + polymeric base. The suggested scintillator on the basis of polystyrene has the light yield of 0.23-0.26 arbitrary units and the scintillation pulse duration at half-height is 0.74-0.84 ns

  8. Dense nanostructured t-ZrO2 coatings at low temperatures via modified emulsion precipitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woudenberg, F.C.M.; Sager, W.F.C.; Sibelt, N.G.M.; Verweij, H.

    2001-01-01

    Nanostructured coatings on metals, plastics, and textiles have numerous applications, for example, as antifogging and self-cleaning coatings as well as protective coatings against corrosion, heat, or wear. Here the preparation at low temperature of dense nanostructured tetragonal ZrO2 coatings via a

  9. A simple coated-tube assay for alpha-foeto protein for clinical use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dakubu, S.; Ahene, I.S.; Foli, A.K.

    1977-01-01

    A standard method for coating plastic tubes with antiserum has been applied to coat tubes with rabbit antiserum to human alpha-foeto protein. The coated plastic tubes have been used to set up a radioimmunoassay system which is sensitive and convenient for use on the occasional clinical sample. For a successful coated-tube assay, it was found necessary to modify the final incubation mixture from what was suitable in a standard double antibody assay system. (orig.) [de

  10. Disintegration of liquid sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Adel; Chigier, Norman

    1990-01-01

    The development, stability, and disintegration of liquid sheets issuing from a two-dimensional air-assisted nozzle is studied. Detailed measurements of mean drop size and velocity are made using a phase Doppler particle analyzer. Without air flow the liquid sheet converges toward the axis as a result of surface tension forces. With airflow a quasi-two-dimensional expanding spray is formed. The air flow causes small variations in sheet thickness to develop into major disturbances with the result that disruption starts before the formation of the main break-up region. In the two-dimensional variable geometry air-blast atomizer, it is shown that the air flow is responsible for the formation of large, ordered, and small chaotic 'cell' structures.

  11. Safety advice sheets

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2013-01-01

    You never know when you might be faced with questions such as: when/how should I dispose of a gas canister? Where can I find an inspection report? How should I handle/store/dispose of a chemical substance…?   The SI section of the DGS/SEE Group is primarily responsible for safety inspections, evaluating the safety conditions of equipment items, premises and facilities. On top of this core task, it also regularly issues “Safety Advice Sheets” on various topics, designed to be of assistance to users but also to recall and reinforce safety rules and procedures. These clear and concise sheets, complete with illustrations, are easy to display in the appropriate areas. The following safety advice sheets have been issued so far: Other sheets will be published shortly. Suggestions are welcome and should be sent to the SI section of the DGS/SEE Group. Please send enquiries to general-safety-visits.service@cern.ch.

  12. The interfacial chemistry of metallized, oxide coated, and nanocomposite coated polymer films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, C.P. [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry; Kochem, K.H. [HOECHST Aktiengesellschaft, Werk Kalle/Albert, Geschaftsbereich H, Rheingaustrasse 190-196, D-65174 Wiesbaden (Germany); Revell, K.M. [CAMVAC (Europe) Ltd., Burrell Way, Thetford, Norfolk IP24 3QY (United Kingdom); Kelly, R.S.A. [CAMVAC (Europe) Ltd., Burrell Way, Thetford, Norfolk IP24 3QY (United Kingdom); Badyal, J.P.S. [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry

    1995-02-15

    Aluminium, aluminium oxide, and aluminium/aluminium oxide nanocomposite coated polymer substrates have been characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, argon ion sputter depth profiling, and gas permeation measurements. A comparison of the similarities and differences between these coatings has provided a detailed insight into the physicochemical origins of gas barrier associated with metallized plastics. Keywords: Aluminium; Aluminium oxide; Coatings; X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy ((orig.))

  13. Ice Sheets & Ice Cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Troels Bøgeholm

    Since the discovery of the Ice Ages it has been evident that Earth’s climate is liable to undergo dramatic changes. The previous climatic period known as the Last Glacial saw large oscillations in the extent of ice sheets covering the Northern hemisphere. Understanding these oscillations known....... The first part concerns time series analysis of ice core data obtained from the Greenland Ice Sheet. We analyze parts of the time series where DO-events occur using the so-called transfer operator and compare the results with time series from a simple model capable of switching by either undergoing...

  14. Energy information sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-02

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the general public. Written for the general public, the EIA publication Energy Information Sheets was developed to provide information on various aspects of fuel production, prices, consumption and capability. The information contained herein pertains to energy data as of December 1991. Additional information on related subject matter can be found in other EIA publications as referenced at the end of each sheet.

  15. Toxicological Threats of Plastic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plastics pose both physical (e.g., entanglement, gastrointestinal blockage, reef destruction) and chemical threats (e.g., bioaccumulation of the chemical ingredients of plastic or toxic chemicals sorbed to plastics) to wildlife and the marine ecosystem.

  16. Delivery of antagomiR204-conjugated gold nanoparticles from PLGA sheets and its implication in promoting osseointegration of titanium implant in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu X

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Xiangwei Liu,1,* Naiwen Tan,1,* Yuchao Zhou,1 Hongbo Wei,1,* Shuai Ren,1 Fan Yu,2 Hui Chen,3 Chengming Jia,4 Guodong Yang,5 Yingliang Song1 1State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology & National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases & Shaanxi Engineering Research Center for Dental Materials and Advanced Manufacture, Department of Implant Dentistry, 2Department of Prosthodontics, School of Stomatology, 3Department of Plastic Surgery, Tangdu Hospital, 4Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Xijing Hospital, 5Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an, China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Impaired osseointegration of the implant remains the big hurdle for dental implant therapy in diabetic patients. In this study, the authors first identified that miR204 was strikingly highly expressed in the bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs of diabetic rats. Forced expression of miR204 repressed the osteogenic potential of BMSCs, while inhibition of miR204 significantly increased the osteogenic capacity. Moreover, the miR204 inhibitor was conjugated with gold nanoparticles (AuNP-antagomiR204 and dispersed them in the poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA solution. The AuNP-antagomiR204 containing PLGA solution was applied for coating the surface of titanium implant. Electron microscope revealed that an ultrathin sheet was formed on the surface of the implant, and the AuNPs were evenly dispersed in the coated PLGA sheet. Cellular experiments revealed that these encapsulated AuNP-antagomiR204 were able to be released from the PLGA sheet and uptaken by adherent BMSCs. In vivo animal study further confirmed that the AuNP-antagomiR204 released from PLGA sheet promoted osseointegration, as revealed by microcomputerized tomography (microCT reconstruction and histological assay. Taken together, this study established that miR204 misexpression accounted for the deficient

  17. Collisionless current sheet equilibria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neukirch, T.; Wilson, F.; Allanson, O.

    2018-01-01

    Current sheets are important for the structure and dynamics of many plasma systems. In space and astrophysical plasmas they play a crucial role in activity processes, for example by facilitating the release of magnetic energy via processes such as magnetic reconnection. In this contribution we will focus on collisionless plasma systems. A sensible first step in any investigation of physical processes involving current sheets is to find appropriate equilibrium solutions. The theory of collisionless plasma equilibria is well established, but over the past few years there has been a renewed interest in finding equilibrium distribution functions for collisionless current sheets with particular properties, for example for cases where the current density is parallel to the magnetic field (force-free current sheets). This interest is due to a combination of scientific curiosity and potential applications to space and astrophysical plasmas. In this paper we will give an overview of some of the recent developments, discuss their potential applications and address a number of open questions.

  18. Cholera Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news-room/fact-sheets/detail/cholera","@context":"http://schema.org","@type":"Article"}; العربية 中文 français русский español ... that includes feedback at the local level and information-sharing at the global level. Cholera cases are ...

  19. Pseudomonas - Fact Sheet

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2012-01-01

    Fact sheet on Pseudomonas, including:What is Pseudomonas?What infections does it cause?Who is susceptible to pseudomonas infection?How will I know if I have pseudomonas infection?How can Pseudomonas be prevented from spreading?How can I protect myself from Pseudomonas?How is Pseudomonas infection treated?

  20. NTPR Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    History Documents US Underground Nuclear Test History Reports NTPR Radiation Exposure Reports Enewetak Atoll Cleanup Documents TRAC About Who We Are Our Values History Locations Our Leadership Director Support Center Contact Us FAQ Sheet Links Success Stories Contracts Business Opportunities Current

  1. Production (information sheets)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2007-01-01

    Documentation sheets: Geo energy 2 Integrated System Approach Petroleum Production (ISAPP) The value of smartness 4 Reservoir permeability estimation from production data 6 Coupled modeling for reservoir application 8 Toward an integrated near-wellbore model 10 TNO conceptual framework for "E&P

  2. Hibernia fact sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    This fact sheet gives details of the Hibernia oil field including its location, discovery date, oil company's interests in the project, the recoverable reserves of the two reservoirs, the production system used, capital costs of the project, and overall targets for Canadian benefit. Significant dates for the Hibernia project are listed. (UK)

  3. Ethanol Basics (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  4. Electron beam curing of coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujioka, S.; Fujikawa, Z.

    1974-01-01

    Electron beam curing (EBC) method, by which hardened coating film is obtained by polymerizing and cross-linking paint with electron beam, has finally reached industrialized stage. While about seven items such as short curing time, high efficiency of energy consumption, and homogeneous curing are enumerated as the advantages of EBC method, it has limitations of the isolation requirement from air needing the injection of inert gas, and considerable amount of initial investment. In the electron accelerators employed in EBC method, the accelerating voltage is 250 to 750 kV, and the tube current is several tens of mA to 200 mA. As an example of EBC applications, EBC ''Erio'' steel sheet was developed by the cooperative research of Nippon Steel Corp., Dai-Nippon Printing Co. and Toray Industries, Inc. It is a high-class pre-coated metal product made from galvanized steel sheets, and the flat sheets with cured coating are sold, and final products are fabricated by being worked in various shapes in users. It seems necessary to develop the paint which enables to raise added value by adopting the EBC method. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  5. One-step surface modification for irreversible bonding of various plastics with a poly(dimethylsiloxane) elastomer at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing; Lee, Nae Yoon

    2014-05-07

    Here, we introduce a simple and facile method for bonding poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) to various plastics irreversibly via a one-step chemical treatment at room temperature. This was mediated by poly[dimethylsiloxane-co-(3-aminopropyl)methylsiloxane] (amine-PDMS linker), a chemical composed of a PDMS backbone incorporating an amine side group. Room temperature anchoring of the linker was achieved via a reaction between the amine functionality of the linker and the carbon backbone of the plastics, thereby producing urethane bonds. This resulted in the PDMS functionality being exposed on the plastic surface, mimicking the surface properties of bulk PDMS. Following corona treatment of the PDMS-modified plastic and a sheet of PDMS, the two surfaces were placed in contact with each other and heated at 80 °C for 1 h. This resulted in permanent bonding between PDMS and the plastic. To examine the effectiveness of the amine-PDMS linker coating procedure, the surfaces were characterized by measuring water contact angles and by employing X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Polycarbonate (PC), poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), poly(vinylchloride) (PVC), and polyimide (PI) were bonded successfully to PDMS using this method, with bond strengths of PC, PET, and PVC with PDMS measured to be approximately 428.5 ± 17.9, 361.7 ± 31.2, and 430.0 ± 14.9 kPa, respectively. The bond strength of a PC-PC homogeneous assembly, also realized using the proposed method, was measured to be approximately 343.9 ± 7.4 kPa. Delamination tests revealed that the PC-PC assembly was able to withstand intense introduction of a liquid whose per-minute injection volume was approximately 278 times greater than the total internal volume of the microchannel fabricated in PC. This demonstrated the robustness of the seal formed using the proposed technique.

  6. Spallation products induced by energetic neutrons in plastic detector material

    CERN Document Server

    Grabisch, K; Enge, W; Scherzer, R

    1977-01-01

    Cellulose nitrate plastic detector sheets were irradiated with secondary neutrons of the 22 GeV/c proton beam at the CERN accelerator. He, Li and Be particles which are produced in nuclear interactions of the neutrons with the target elements C, N and O of the plastic detector material are measured. Preliminary angle and range distributions and isotropic abundances of the secondary particles are discussed. (6 refs).

  7. Peculiar features of determination of plastic properties in bimetals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voronin, A.V.; Zhadan, V.T.; Osadchij, V.A.; Rumyantsev, A.V.

    1993-01-01

    Method for calculating relative elongation of sheet bimetal on the basis of data of plastic characteristics of bimetal components has been developed. Results of calculation according to suggested method differ slightly from experimental values. It was shown analytically and supported by experiments (taking St3+12Kh18N10T samples, 45+Kh12 steel as examples), that the value of bimetal area reduction coincides with the value of area reduction of less plastic component

  8. Rubella - Fact Sheet for Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and 4 through 6 years Fact Sheet for Parents Color [2 pages] Español: Rubéola The best way ... according to the recommended schedule. Fact Sheets for Parents Diseases and the Vaccines that Prevent Them Chickenpox ...

  9. Analysis and comparison of magnetic sheet insulation tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion-Péra, M. C.; Kedous-Lebouc, A.; Cornut, B.; Brissonneau, P.

    1994-05-01

    Magnetic circuits of electrical machines are divided into coated sheets in order to limit eddy currents. The surface insulation resistance of magnetic sheets is difficult to evaluate because it depends on parameters like pressure and covers a wide range of values. Two methods of measuring insulation resistance are analyzed: the standardized 'Franklin device' and a tester developed by British Steel Electrical. Their main drawback is poor local repeatability. The Franklin method allows better quality control of industrial process because it measures only one insulating layer at a time. It also gives more accurate images of the distribution of possible defects. Nevertheless, both methods lead to similar classifications of insulation efficiency.

  10. Theoretical Predictions of Freestanding Honeycomb Sheets of Cadmium Chalcogenides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Jia [ORNL; Huang, Jingsong [ORNL; Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL; Kent, Paul R [ORNL; Xie, Yu [ORNL; Terrones Maldonado, Humberto [ORNL; Smith, Sean C [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) nanocrystals of CdX (X = S, Se, Te) typically grown by colloidal synthesis are coated with organic ligands. Recent experimental work on ZnSe showed that the organic ligands can be removed at elevated temperature, giving a freestanding 2D sheet of ZnSe. In this theoretical work, freestanding single- to few-layer sheets of CdX, each possessing a pseudo honeycomb lattice, are considered by cutting along all possible lattice planes of the bulk zinc blende (ZB) and wurtzite (WZ) phases. Using density functional theory, we have systematically studied their geometric structures, energetics, and electronic properties. A strong surface distortion is found to occur for all of the layered sheets, and yet all of the pseudo honeycomb lattices are preserved, giving unique types of surface corrugations and different electronic properties. The energetics, in combination with phonon mode calculations and molecular dynamics simulations, indicate that the syntheses of these freestanding 2D sheets could be selective, with the single- to few-layer WZ110, WZ100, and ZB110 sheets being favored. Through the GW approximation, it is found that all single-layer sheets have large band gaps falling into the ultraviolet range, while thicker sheets in general have reduced band gaps in the visible and ultraviolet range. On the basis of the present work and the experimental studies on freestanding double-layer sheets of ZnSe, we envision that the freestanding 2D layered sheets of CdX predicted herein are potential synthesis targets, which may offer tunable band gaps depending on their structural features including surface corrugations, stacking motifs, and number of layers.

  11. Synthesis of biodegradable plastic from tapioca with N-Isopropylacrylamid and chitosan using glycerol as plasticizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syaubari; Safwani, S.; Riza, M.

    2018-04-01

    One of natural polymers that can be used as raw material in the manufacture of biodegradable plastic is tapioca and chitosan. The addition of other compounds such as glycerol as plasticizer is to improve the characteristics of the plastic that already produced. N- Isopropylacrylamid (NIPAm) is an organic compound that can be synthesized into a polymer or polymer grafting which also biodegradable too. This research aims tostudy the synthesis of biodegradable plastics from tapioca with the addition of chitosan, NIPAm, poly(NIPAm) and analyze the characteristics of biodegradable plastics that already produced. This research was done in three stages, there are (1) polymerization NIPAm, (2) the grafting of chitosan-poly NIPAm and (3) the synthesis of biodegradable plastics from starch mixture with variation of addition chitosan, NIPAm, poly(NIPAm), chitosan-graft-poly(NIPAm) and also variations of glycerol as plasticizer. The results of this research is a thin sheet of plastic which is will get analyzed for the characteristics of functional groups, mechanical, morphological and its biodegradability. FTIR spectra showed the grafting process with the new group formation of CO single-bond at 850 cm-1. Plastic with the addition of NIPAm and 1 ml glycerol has the highest tensile strength value about 31.1 MPa. Plastic with poly(NIPAm) and 4 ml glycerol produces the highest elongation value about 153.72%. Plastic with Chitosan-graft-poly(NIPAm) with 1 ml glycerol has the longest biodegradation because of the small mass-loss for six weeks which is about 6.6%.

  12. Microbial Enzymatic Degradation of Biodegradable Plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roohi; Bano, Kulsoom; Kuddus, Mohammed; Zaheer, Mohammed R; Zia, Qamar; Khan, Mohammed F; Ashraf, Ghulam Md; Gupta, Anamika; Aliev, Gjumrakch

    2017-01-01

    The renewable feedstock derived biodegradable plastics are important in various industries such as packaging, agricultural, paper coating, garbage bags and biomedical implants. The increasing water and waste pollution due to the available decomposition methods of plastic degradation have led to the emergence of biodegradable plastics and biological degradation with microbial (bacteria and fungi) extracellular enzymes. The microbes utilize biodegradable polymers as the substrate under starvation and in unavailability of microbial nutrients. Microbial enzymatic degradation is suitable from bioremediation point of view as no waste accumulation occurs. It is important to understand the microbial interaction and mechanism involved in the enzymatic degradation of biodegradable plastics under the influence of several environmental factors such as applied pH, thermo-stability, substrate molecular weight and/or complexity. To study the surface erosion of polymer film is another approach for hydrolytic degradation characteristion. The degradation of biopolymer is associated with the production of low molecular weight monomer and generation of carbon dioxide, methane and water molecule. This review reported the degradation study of various existing biodegradable plastics along with the potent degrading microbes (bacteria and fungi). Patents available on plastic biodegradation with biotechnological significance is also summarized in this paper. This paper assesses that new disposal technique should be adopted for the degradation of polymers and further research is required for the economical production of biodegradable plastics along with their enzymatic degradation. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. Recycling of Plastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2011-01-01

    Plastic is produced from fossil oil. Plastic is used for many different products. Some plastic products like, for example, wrapping foil, bags and disposable containers for food and beverage have very short lifetimes and thus constitute a major fraction of most waste. Other plastic products like...

  14. Film sheet cassette

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    A novel film sheet cassette is described for handling CAT photographic films under daylight conditions and facilitating their imaging. A detailed description of the design and operation of the cassette is given together with appropriate illustrations. The resulting cassette is a low-cost unit which is easily constructed and yet provides a sure light-tight seal for the interior contents of the cassette. The individual resilient fingers on the light-trap permit the ready removal of the slide plate for taking pictures. The stippled, non-electrostatic surface of the pressure plate ensures an air layer and free slidability of the film for removal and withdrawal of the film sheet. The advantage of the daylight system is that a darkroom need not be used for inserting and removing the film in and out of the cassette resulting in a considerable time saving. (U.K.)

  15. Research on Liquid Forming Process of Nickel Superalloys Thin Sheet Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyrcza-Michalska M.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the study of drawability of thin sheet metals made of a nickel superalloy Inconel type. The manufacturing process of axisymmetric cup – cone and a closed section profile in the form of a circular tube were designed and analyzed. In both cases, working fluid-oil was used in place of the rigid tools. The process of forming liquid is currently the only alternative method for obtaining complex shapes, coatings, and especially if we do it with high-strength materials. In the case of nickel superalloys the search for efficient methods to manufacture of the shaped shell is one of the most considerable problems in aircraft industry [1-5]. However, the automotive industries have the same problem with so-called advanced high-strength steels (AHSS. Due to this, both industrial problems have been examined and the emphasis have been put on the process of liquid forming (hydroforming. The study includes physical tests and the corresponding numerical simulations performed, using the software Eta/Dynaform 5.9. Numerical analysis of the qualitative and quantitative forecasting enables the formability of materials with complex and unusual characteristics of the mechanical properties and forming technology. It has been found that only the computer aided design based on physical and numerical modeling, makes efficient plastic processing possible using a method of hydroforming. Drawability evaluation based on the determination of the mechanical properties of complex characteristics is an indispensable element of this design in the best practice of industrial manufacturing products made of thin sheet metals.

  16. Clean Cities Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-01-01

    This fact sheet explains the Clean Cities Program and provides contact information for all coalitions and regional offices. It answers key questions such as: What is the Clean Cities Program? What are alternative fuels? How does the Clean Cities Program work? What sort of assistance does Clean Cities offer? What has Clean Cities accomplished? What is Clean Cities International? and Where can I find more information?

  17. Information sheets on energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    These sheets, presented by the Cea, bring some information, in the energy domain, on the following topics: the world energy demand and the energy policy in France and in Europe, the part of the nuclear power in the energy of the future, the greenhouse gases emissions and the fight against the greenhouse effect, the carbon dioxide storage cost and the hydrogen economy. (A.L.B.)

  18. Biomolecular Science (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-04-01

    A brief fact sheet about NREL Photobiology and Biomolecular Science. The research goal of NREL's Biomolecular Science is to enable cost-competitive advanced lignocellulosic biofuels production by understanding the science critical for overcoming biomass recalcitrance and developing new product and product intermediate pathways. NREL's Photobiology focuses on understanding the capture of solar energy in photosynthetic systems and its use in converting carbon dioxide and water directly into hydrogen and advanced biofuels.

  19. Sheet pinch devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, O.A.; Baker, W.R.; Ise, J. Jr.; Kunkel, W.B.; Pyle, R.V.; Stone, J.M.

    1958-01-01

    Three types of sheet-like discharges are being studied at Berkeley. The first of these, which has been given the name 'Triax', consists of a cylindrical plasma sleeve contained between two coaxial conducting cylinders A theoretical analysis of the stability of the cylindrical sheet plasma predicts the existence of a 'sausage-mode' instability which is, however, expected to grow more slowly than in the case of the unstabilized linear pinch (by the ratio of the radial dimensions). The second pinch device employs a disk shaped discharge with radial current guided between flat metal plates, this configuration being identical to that of the flat hydromagnetic capacitor without external magnetic field. A significant feature of these configurations is the absence of a plasma edge, i.e., there are no regions of sharply curved magnetic field lines anywhere in these discharges. The importance of this fact for stability is not yet fully investigated theoretically. As a third configuration a rectangular, flat pinch tube has been constructed, and the behaviour of a flat plasma sheet with edges is being studied experimentally

  20. Black molecular adsorber coatings for spaceflight applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Nithin S.; Hasegawa, Mark M.; Straka, Sharon A.

    2014-09-01

    The molecular adsorber coating is a new technology that was developed to mitigate the risk of on-orbit molecular contamination on spaceflight missions. The application of this coating would be ideal near highly sensitive, interior surfaces and instruments that are negatively impacted by outgassed molecules from materials, such as plastics, adhesives, lubricants, epoxies, and other similar compounds. This current, sprayable paint technology is comprised of inorganic white materials made from highly porous zeolite. In addition to good adhesion performance, thermal stability, and adsorptive capability, the molecular adsorber coating offers favorable thermal control characteristics. However, low reflectivity properties, which are typically offered by black thermal control coatings, are desired for some spaceflight applications. For example, black coatings are used on interior surfaces, in particular, on instrument baffles for optical stray light control. Similarly, they are also used within light paths between optical systems, such as telescopes, to absorb light. Recent efforts have been made to transform the white molecular adsorber coating into a black coating with similar adsorptive properties. This result is achieved by optimizing the current formulation with black pigments, while still maintaining its adsorption capability for outgassing control. Different binder to pigment ratios, coating thicknesses, and spray application techniques were explored to develop a black version of the molecular adsorber coating. During the development process, coating performance and adsorption characteristics were studied. The preliminary work performed on black molecular adsorber coatings thus far is very promising. Continued development and testing is necessary for its use on future contamination sensitive spaceflight missions.

  1. LPG based all plastic pressure sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundalo, Ivan-Lazar; Lwin, R.; Leon-Saval, S.

    2015-01-01

    A prototype all-plastic pressure sensor is presented and characterized for potential use as an endoscope. The sensor is based on Long Period Gratings (LPG) inscribed with a CO2 laser in 6-ring microstructured PMMA fiber. Through a latex coated, plastic 3D-printed transducer pod, external pressure...... is converted to longitudinal elongation of the pod and therefore of the fiber containing the LPG. The sensor has been characterised for pressures of up to 160 mBar in an in-house built pressure chamber. Furthermore, the influence of the fiber prestrain, fiber thickness and the effect of different glues...

  2. Silicone-acrylic hybrid aqueous dispersions of core–shell particle structure and corresponding silicone-acrylic nanopowders designed for modification of powder coatings and plastics. Part III: Effect of modification with selected silicone-acrylic nanopowders on properties of polyurethane powder coatings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pilch-Pitera, B.; Kozakiewicz, J.; Ofat, I.; Trzaskowska, J.; Špírková, Milena

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 78, January (2015), s. 429-436 ISSN 0300-9440 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polyurethanes * powder coatings * blocked polyisocyanates Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.632, year: 2015

  3. A nanoindentation study of magnetron co-sputtered nanocrystalline ternary nitride coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeung W.Y.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoindentation testing was used to determine the hardness, elastic modulus and plasticity parameter of three newly developed ternary nitride coatings with nano-sized grains. With decreasing nitrogen deposition pressure, grain diameter of the coatings decreases that leads to both higher nanohardness and elastic modulus with conservation of satisfactory values of plasticity characteristic.

  4. Surfactant-free electrodeposition of reduced graphene oxide/copper composite coatings with enhanced wear resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Y. J.; Zhou, M. P.; Ling, H. J.; Chen, F. X.; Lian, W. Q.; Jie, X. H.

    2018-03-01

    How to uniformly disperse graphene sheets into the electrolyte is one of the main challenges to synthesize graphene enhanced nanocomposites by electrodeposition. A surfactant-free colloidal solution comprised of copper (II)-ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid ([CuIIEDTA]2-) complexes and graphene oxide (GO) sheets is proposed to electrodeposit reduced graphene oxide/copper (RGO/Cu) composite coatings. Anionic [CuIIEDTA]2- complexes stably coexist with negatively charged GO sheets due to the electrostatic repulsion between them, facilitating the electrochemical reduction and uniform dispersion of GO sheets into the copper matrix. The RGO/Cu composite coatings are well characterized by XRD, Raman, SEM and XPS. Their tribological behavior as a function of RGO content in composite coatings and normal loads are investigated. Also the chemical composition and topography of the wear tracks for the composite coatings are analyzed to deduce the lubricating and anti-wear mechanism of RGO/Cu composite coatings.

  5. Effect of Intermediate Annealing on Microstructure and Property of 5182 Aluminum Alloy Sheet for Automobile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Yu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Effect of intermediate annealing on the microstructure and properties of 5182 aluminum alloy sheet with full annealed state (5182-O was investigated by means of optical microscope, scanning electron microscope and universal testing machine. The results indicate that compared with 5182-O sheet without intermediate annealing, 5182-O sheet with intermediate annealing possesses too fine grain size, intermetallic compounds not broken enough, larger size intermetallic particles, less dispersed phase. Yield strength and ultimate tensile strength, work hardening exponent and normal anisotropy of plastic strain ratio decrease but planner anisotropy of plastic strain ratio increases. The mechanical properties and forming ability of 5182-O aluminum alloy sheet and its microstructure are not improved significantly after intermediate annealing.

  6. Quantifying stretching and rearrangement in epithelial sheet migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Rachel M; Nordstrom, Kerstin N; Losert, Wolfgang; Kelley, Douglas H; Ouellette, Nicholas T

    2013-01-01

    Although understanding the collective migration of cells, such as that seen in epithelial sheets, is essential for understanding diseases such as metastatic cancer, this motion is not yet as well characterized as individual cell migration. Here we adapt quantitative metrics used to characterize the flow and deformation of soft matter to contrast different types of motion within a migrating sheet of cells. Using a finite-time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) analysis, we find that—in spite of large fluctuations—the flow field of an epithelial cell sheet is not chaotic. Stretching of a sheet of cells (i.e. positive FTLE) is localized at the leading edge of migration and increases when the cells are more highly stimulated. By decomposing the motion of the cells into affine and non-affine components using the metric D m in 2 , we quantify local plastic rearrangements and describe the motion of a group of cells in a novel way. We find an increase in plastic rearrangements with increasing cell densities, whereas inanimate systems tend to exhibit less non-affine rearrangements with increasing density. (paper)

  7. Coated Conductors under Tensile Stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonevici, Anca; Villaume, Alain; Villard, Catherine; Sulpice, Andre; Maron, Pierre Brosse; Bourgault, Daniel; Porcar, Laureline

    2006-01-01

    Critical current dependence versus strain is obtained for in-situ axial stress experiments on ISD YBCO and DyBCO coated conductors. The drop of critical current due to the apparition of first cracks in the superconducting ceramics is related to the passage in the plastic region of the substrate for a strain of about 0.3% and a stress higher then 500MPa. The superconductivity is preserved between the cracks

  8. New type of nonglossy image-receiving sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aono, Toshiaki; Shibata, Takeshi; Nakamura, Yoshisada

    1990-07-01

    We have developed a new type of non-glossy surface of an image receiving sheet for a photothermographic color hardcopy system. There is a basic conflict in realizing uniform dye transfer with use of a receiving sheet having a matted surface, because when the degree of roughness exceeds a certain extent, uneven dye transfer readily takes place. It: has been solved by use of "microscopic" phase separation of a certain water-soluble polymer blend which constitutes the surface layer of the image receiving sheet. One of the preferable polymer blends for our purpose proved to be a ternary system, consisting of sodium salt of polymethacrylic acid (PMAA-Na), ammonium salt of polyacrylic acid (PAA-NH4) and water. Phase separation, which proceeded during the evaporation of water from the coated mixture, turned out to be of a spinodal decomposition type and thus capable of stably providing a desirable non-glossy surface.

  9. Effects of nanoscale coatings on reliability of MEMS ohmic contact switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremper, Amber Leigh

    This thesis examines how the electrical and mechanical behavior of Au thin films is altered by the presence of ultra-thin metallic coatings. To examine the mechanical behavior, nanoindentation, nano-scratch, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) testing was performed. The electrical behavior was evaluated through Kelvin probe contact resistance measurements. This thesis shows that ultra-thin, hard, ductile coatings on a softer, ductile underlying layer (such as Ru or Pt on Au) had a significant effect on mechanical behavior of the system, and can be tailored to control the deformation resistance of the thin film system. Despite Ru and Pt having a higher hardness and plane strain modulus than Au, the Ru and Pt coatings decreased both the hardness and plane strain modulus of the layered system when the indentation depth was on the order of the coating thickness. Alternately, when the indentation depth was several times the coating thickness, the ductile, plastically hard, elastically stiff layer significantly hardened the contact response. These results correlate well with membrane stress theoretical predictions, and demonstrate that membrane theory can be applied even when the ratio of indentation depth, h, to coating thickness, t, is very large ( h/telectrical behavior of the Ru-coated Au films was examined, it was found that all the measured resistances of the Au-only film and Ru-coated systems were several orders of magnitude larger than those predicted by Holm's law, but were still in good agreement with previously reported values in the literature. Previous studies attributed the high contact resistances to a variety of causes, including the buildup of an insulating contamination layer. This thesis determined the cause of the deviations to be large sheet resistance contributions to the total measured resistance. Further, studies on aged samples (with thicker contamination layers) conclusively showed that, while contamination increases the contact resistance, it

  10. Dense sheet Z-pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetsu, Miyamoto

    1999-01-01

    The steady state and quasi-steady processes of infinite- and finite-width sheet z-pinches are studied. The relations corresponding to the Bennett relation and Pease-Braginskii current of cylindrical fiber z-pinches depend on a geometrical factor in the sheet z-pinches. The finite-width sheet z-pinch is approximated by a segment of infinite-width sheet z-pinch, if it is wide enough, and corresponds to a number of (width/thickness) times fiber z-pinch plasmas of the diameter that equals the sheet thickness. If the sheet current equals this number times the fiber current, the plasma created in the sheet z-pinches is as dense as in the fiber z-pinches. The total energy of plasma and magnetic field per unit mass is approximately equal in both pinches. Quasi-static transient processes are different in several aspects from the fiber z-pinch. No radiation collapse occurs in the sheet z-pinch. The stability is improved in the sheet z-pinches. The fusion criterions and the experimental arrangements to produce the sheet z-pinches are also discussed. (author)

  11. Perforation of metal sheets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenstrup, Jens Erik

    simulation is focused on the sheet deformation. However, the effect on the tool and press is included. The process model is based on the upper bound analysis in order to predict the force progress and hole characteristics etc. Parameter analyses are divided into two groups, simulation and experimental tests......The main purposes of this project are:1. Development of a dynamic model for the piercing and performation process2. Analyses of the main parameters3. Establishing demands for process improvements4. Expansion of the existing parameter limitsThe literature survey describes the process influence...

  12. Nanostructured thin film coatings with different strengthening effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panfilov Yury

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of articles on strengthening thin film coatings were analyzed and a lot of unusual strengthening effects, such as super high hardness and plasticity simultaneously, ultra low friction coefficient, high wear-resistance, curve rigidity increasing of drills with small diameter, associated with process formation of nanostructured coatings by the different thin film deposition methods were detected. Vacuum coater with RF magnetron sputtering system and ion-beam source and arc evaporator for nanostructured thin film coating manufacture are represented. Diamond Like Carbon and MoS2 thin film coatings, Ti, Al, Nb, Cr, nitride, carbide, and carbo-nitride thin film materials are described as strengthening coatings.

  13. Fabrication of InGaZnO Nonvolatile Memory Devices at Low Temperature of 150 degrees C for Applications in Flexible Memory Displays and Transparency Coating on Plastic Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanh, Nguyen Hong; Jang, Kyungsoo; Yi, Junsin

    2016-05-01

    We directly deposited amorphous InGaZnO (a-IGZO) nonvolatile memory (NVM) devices with oxynitride-oxide-dioxide (OOO) stack structures on plastic substrate by a DC pulsed magnetron sputtering and inductively coupled plasma chemical vapor deposition (ICPCVD) system, using a low-temperature of 150 degrees C. The fabricated bottom gate a-IGZO NVM devices have a wide memory window with a low operating voltage during programming and erasing, due to an effective control of the gate dielectrics. In addition, after ten years, the memory device retains a memory window of over 73%, with a programming duration of only 1 ms. Moreover, the a-IGZO films show high optical transmittance of over 85%, and good uniformity with a root mean square (RMS) roughness of 0.26 nm. This film is a promising candidate to achieve flexible displays and transparency on plastic substrates because of the possibility of low-temperature deposition, and the high transparent properties of a-IGZO films. These results demonstrate that the a-IGZO NVM devices obtained at low-temperature have a suitable programming and erasing efficiency for data storage under low-voltage conditions, in combination with excellent charge retention characteristics, and thus show great potential application in flexible memory displays.

  14. Mechanical and tribological property of single layer graphene oxide reinforced titanium matrix composite coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zengrong; Li, Yue; Fan, Xueliang; Chen, Feng; Xu, Jiale

    2018-04-01

    Single layer grapheme oxide Nano sheets and Nano titanium powder were dispersed in deionized water by ultrasonic dispersion. Then the mixed solution was pre-coating on AISI4140 substrate. Using laser sintering process to fabricated grapheme oxide and Ti composite coating. Microstructures and composition of the composite coating was studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), x-ray diffract meter (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. Raman spectrum, XRD pattern and SEM results proved that grapheme oxide sheets were dispersed in the composite coating. The composite coating had much higher average Vickers hardness values than that of pure Ti coating. The tribological performance of the composite coatings became better while the suitable GO content was selected. For the 2.5wt. % GO content coating, the friction coefficient was reduced to near 0.1.

  15. Experiments on sheet metal shearing

    OpenAIRE

    Gustafsson, Emil

    2013-01-01

    Within the sheet metal industry, different shear cutting technologies are commonly used in several processing steps, e.g. in cut to length lines, slitting lines, end cropping etc. Shearing has speed and cost advantages over competing cutting methods like laser and plasma cutting, but involves large forces on the equipment and large strains in the sheet material.Numerical models to predict forces and sheared edge geometry for different sheet metal grades and different shear parameter set-ups a...

  16. Toward Plastic Smart Windows: Optimization of Indium Tin Oxide Electrodes for the Synthesis of Electrochromic Devices on Polycarbonate Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurenti, Marco; Bianco, Stefano; Castellino, Micaela; Garino, Nadia; Virga, Alessandro; Pirri, Candido F; Mandracci, Pietro

    2016-03-01

    Plastic smart windows are becoming one of the key elements in view of the fabrication of inexpensive, lightweight electrochromic (EC) devices to be integrated in the new generation of high-energy-efficiency buildings and automotive applications. However, fabricating electrochromic devices on polymer substrates requires a reduction of process temperature, so in this work we focus on the development of a completely room-temperature deposition process aimed at the preparation of ITO-coated polycarbonate (PC) structures acting as transparent and conductive plastic supports. Without providing any substrate heating or surface activation pretreatments of the polymer, different deposition conditions are used for growing indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films by the radiofrequency magnetron sputtering technique. According to the characterization results, the set of optimal deposition parameters is selected to deposit ITO electrodes having high optical transmittance in the visible range (∼90%) together with low sheet resistance (∼8 ohm/sq). The as-prepared ITO/PC structures are then successfully tested as conductive supports for the fabrication of plastic smart windows. To this purpose, tungsten trioxide thin films are deposited by the reactive sputtering technique on the ITO/PC structures, and the resulting single electrode EC devices are characterized by chronoamperometric experiments and cyclic voltammetry. The fast switching response between colored and bleached states, together with the stability and reversibility of their electrochromic behavior after several cycling tests, are considered to be representative of the high quality of the EC film but especially of the ITO electrode. Indeed, even if no adhesion promoters, additional surface activation pretreatments, or substrate heating were used to promote the mechanical adhesion among the electrode and the PC surface, the observed EC response confirmed that the developed materials can be successfully employed for the

  17. Wood-plastic combination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaudy, R.

    1978-02-01

    A review on wood-plastic combinations is given including the production (wood and plastic component, radiation hardening, curing), the obtained properties, present applications and prospects for the future of these materials. (author)

  18. DESIGNERS’ KNOWLEDGE IN PLASTICS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Kaare

    2013-01-01

    The Industrial designers’ knowledge in plastics materials and manufacturing principles of polymer products is very important for the innovative strength of the industry, according to a group of Danish plastics manufacturers, design students and practicing industrial designers. These three groups ...

  19. Eudragit L/HPMCAS blend enteric-coated lansoprazole pellets: enhanced drug stability and oral bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yu; Wang, Guozheng; Zhang, Rong; Liu, Zhihua; Liu, Zhenghua; Wu, Xiaohui; Cao, Deying

    2014-06-01

    The objectives of the present work were to use blends of Eudragit L and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS) as enteric film coatings for lansoprazole (LSP) pellets. The enteric-coated pellets were prepared with a fluid-bed coater. The influence of the blend ratio, type of plasticizer, plasticizer level, coating level, and curing conditions on gastric stability in vitro drug release and drug stability was evaluated. Furthermore, the bioavailability of the blend-coated pellets in beagle dogs was also performed. The blend-coated pellets exhibited significant improvement of gastric stability and drug stability compared to the pure polymer-coated pellets. Moreover, the AUC values of blend-coated pellets were greater than that of the pure polymer-coated pellets. It was concluded that the using blends of Eudragit L and HPMCAS as enteric film coatings for LSP pellets improved the drug stability and oral bioavailability.

  20. A paper sheet phantom for scintigraphic planar imaging. Usefulness of pouch-laminated paper source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaki, Akihiro; Soma, Tsutomu; Murase, Kenya; Teraoka, Satomi; Murakami, Tomonori; Kojima, Akihiro; Matsumoto, Masanori

    2007-01-01

    In order to perform experimental measurements for evaluation of imaging device's performance, data acquisition technique, and clinical images on scintigraphic imaging, many kinds of phantoms are employed. However, since these materials are acrylic and plastic, the thickness and quality of those materials cause attenuation and scatter in itself. We developed a paper sheet phantom sealed with a pouch laminator, which can be a true radioactive source in air. In this study, the paper sheet phantom was compared to the acrylic liver phantom, with the thickness of 2 cm, which is commercially available. The results showed that although some scatter counts were contained within the image of the acrylic liver phantom, there were few scattered photons in the paper sheet phantom image. Furthermore, this laminated paper sheet phantom made handling of the source and its waste easier. If the paper sheet phantom will be designed more sophisticatedly, it becomes a useful tool for planar imaging experiments. (author)

  1. Doctor Blade-Coated Polymer Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Cho, Nam Chul

    2016-10-25

    In this work, we report polymer solar cells based on blade-coated P3HT:PC71BM and PBDTTT-EFT:PC71BM bulk heterojunction photoactive layers. Enhanced power conversion efficiency of 2.75 (conventional structure) and 3.03% (inverted structure) with improved reproducibility was obtained from blade-coated P3HT:PC71BM solar cells, compared to spin-coated ones. Furthermore, by demonstrating 3.10% efficiency flexible solar cells using blade-coated PBDTTT-EFT:PC71BM films on the plastic substrates, we suggest the potential applicability of blade coating technique to the high throughput roll-to-roll fabrication systems.

  2. Flexible shielding material sheet for radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokan, Susumu; Fukuoka, Masasuke.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To provide a soft sheet of shielding material for radioactive rays without involving no problem such as environmental contamination, without generating intense second radioactive rays such as conventional cadmium. Structure: 100 weight parts of boron compound (boron carbide, boric acid anhydride) and 5 to 60 weight parts of low molecular-weight polyethylene resin, of which average molecular weight is less than 8000, are agitated in a mixer and during agitation are increased in temperature to a level above a softening temperature of the polyethylene resin to obtain a mixture in which the boron compound is coated with the low molecular-weight polyethylene. Next, 3 to 200 weight parts of the resultant mixture and 100 weight parts of olefin group resin (ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer, styrene-butadiene random copolymer) are evenly mixed within an agitator such as a tumbler to form a sheet having the desired thickness and dimension. The thus obtained shielding material generates no capture gamma radiation. (Kamimura, M.)

  3. Universal Rim Thickness in Unsteady Sheet Fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Dandekar, R.; Bustos, N.; Poulain, S.; Bourouiba, L.

    2018-05-01

    Unsteady fragmentation of a fluid bulk into droplets is important for epidemiology as it governs the transport of pathogens from sneezes and coughs, or from contaminated crops in agriculture. It is also ubiquitous in industrial processes such as paint, coating, and combustion. Unsteady fragmentation is distinct from steady fragmentation on which most theoretical efforts have been focused thus far. We address this gap by studying a canonical unsteady fragmentation process: the breakup from a drop impact on a finite surface where the drop fluid is transferred to a free expanding sheet of time-varying properties and bounded by a rim of time-varying thickness. The continuous rim destabilization selects the final spray droplets, yet this process remains poorly understood. We combine theory with advanced image analysis to study the unsteady rim destabilization. We show that, at all times, the rim thickness is governed by a local instantaneous Bond number equal to unity, defined with the instantaneous, local, unsteady rim acceleration. This criterion is found to be robust and universal for a family of unsteady inviscid fluid sheet fragmentation phenomena, from impacts of drops on various surface geometries to impacts on films. We discuss under which viscous and viscoelastic conditions the criterion continues to govern the unsteady rim thickness.

  4. Soft Costs Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-05-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the systems integration subprogram at the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. Soft costs can vary significantly as a result of a fragmented energy marketplace. In the U.S., there are 18,000 jurisdictions and 3,000 utilities with different rules and regulations for how to go solar. The same solar equipment may vary widely in its final installation price due to process and market variations across jurisdictions, creating barriers to rapid industry growth. SunShot supports the development of innovative solutions that enable communities to build their local economies and establish clean energy initiatives that meet their needs, while at the same time creating sustainable solar market conditions.

  5. Photovoltaics Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-02-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the Photovoltaics (PV) subprogram at the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Solar Energy Technologies Office works with industry, academia, national laboratories, and other government agencies to advance solar PV, which is the direct conversion of sunlight into electricity by a semiconductor, in support of the goals of the SunShot Initiative. SunShot supports research and development to aggressively advance PV technology by improving efficiency and reliability and lowering manufacturing costs. SunShot’s PV portfolio spans work from early-stage solar cell research through technology commercialization, including work on materials, processes, and device structure and characterization techniques.

  6. Systems Integration Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the Systems Integration subprogram at the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. The Systems Integration subprogram enables the widespread deployment of safe, reliable, and cost-effective solar energy technologies by addressing the associated technical and non-technical challenges. These include timely and cost-effective interconnection procedures, optimal system planning, accurate prediction of solar resources, monitoring and control of solar power, maintaining grid reliability and stability, and many more. To address the challenges associated with interconnecting and integrating hundreds of gigawatts of solar power onto the electricity grid, the Systems Integration program funds research, development, and demonstration projects in four broad, interrelated focus areas: grid performance and reliability, dispatchability, power electronics, and communications.

  7. Hyperspectral light sheet microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahr, Wiebke; Schmid, Benjamin; Schmied, Christopher; Fahrbach, Florian O.; Huisken, Jan

    2015-09-01

    To study the development and interactions of cells and tissues, multiple fluorescent markers need to be imaged efficiently in a single living organism. Instead of acquiring individual colours sequentially with filters, we created a platform based on line-scanning light sheet microscopy to record the entire spectrum for each pixel in a three-dimensional volume. We evaluated data sets with varying spectral sampling and determined the optimal channel width to be around 5 nm. With the help of these data sets, we show that our setup outperforms filter-based approaches with regard to image quality and discrimination of fluorophores. By spectral unmixing we resolved overlapping fluorophores with up to nanometre resolution and removed autofluorescence in zebrafish and fruit fly embryos.

  8. Hard coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dan, J.P.; Boving, H.J.; Hintermann, H.E.

    1993-01-01

    Hard, wear resistant and low friction coatings are presently produced on a world-wide basis, by different processes such as electrochemical or electroless methods, spray technologies, thermochemical, CVD and PVD. Some of the most advanced processes, especially those dedicated to thin film depositions, basically belong to CVD or PVD technologies, and will be looked at in more detail. The hard coatings mainly consist of oxides, nitrides, carbides, borides or carbon. Over the years, many processes have been developed which are variations and/or combinations of the basic CVD and PVD methods. The main difference between these two families of deposition techniques is that the CVD is an elevated temperature process (≥ 700 C), while the PVD on the contrary, is rather a low temperature process (≤ 500 C); this of course influences the choice of substrates and properties of the coating/substrate systems. Fundamental aspects of the vapor phase deposition techniques and some of their influences on coating properties will be discussed, as well as the very important interactions between deposit and substrate: diffusions, internal stress, etc. Advantages and limitations of CVD and PVD respectively will briefly be reviewed and examples of applications of the layers will be given. Parallel to the development and permanent updating of surface modification technologies, an effort was made to create novel characterisation methods. A close look will be given to the coating adherence control by means of the scratch test, at the coating hardness measurement by means of nanoindentation, at the coating wear resistance by means of a pin-on-disc tribometer, and at the surface quality evaluation by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Finally, main important trends will be highlighted. (orig.)

  9. Plastic value chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baxter, John; Wahlstrom, Margareta; Zu Castell-Rüdenhausen, Malin

    2014-01-01

    Optimizing plastic value chains is regarded as an important measure in order to increase recycling of plastics in an efficient way. This can also lead to improved awareness of the hazardous substances contained in plastic waste, and how to avoid that these substances are recycled. As an example......, plastics from WEEE is chosen as a Nordic case study. The project aims to propose a number of improvements for this value chain together with representatives from Nordic stakeholders. Based on the experiences made, a guide for other plastic value chains shall be developed....

  10. Biodegradability of Plastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Tokiwa

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Plastic is a broad name given to different polymers with high molecular weight, which can be degraded by various processes. However, considering their abundance in the environment and their specificity in attacking plastics, biodegradation of plastics by microorganisms and enzymes seems to be the most effective process. When plastics are used as substrates for microorganisms, evaluation of their biodegradability should not only be based on their chemical structure, but also on their physical properties (melting point, glass transition temperature, crystallinity, storage modulus etc.. In this review, microbial and enzymatic biodegradation of plastics and some factors that affect their biodegradability are discussed.

  11. Biodegradability of plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokiwa, Yutaka; Calabia, Buenaventurada P; Ugwu, Charles U; Aiba, Seiichi

    2009-08-26

    Plastic is a broad name given to different polymers with high molecular weight, which can be degraded by various processes. However, considering their abundance in the environment and their specificity in attacking plastics, biodegradation of plastics by microorganisms and enzymes seems to be the most effective process. When plastics are used as substrates for microorganisms, evaluation of their biodegradability should not only be based on their chemical structure, but also on their physical properties (melting point, glass transition temperature, crystallinity, storage modulus etc.). In this review, microbial and enzymatic biodegradation of plastics and some factors that affect their biodegradability are discussed.

  12. Settlement during vibratory sheet piling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijers, P.

    2007-01-01

    During vibratory sheet piling quite often the soil near the sheet pile wall will settle. In many cases this is not a problem. For situations with houses, pipelines, roads or railroads at relative short distance these settlements may not be acceptable. The purpose of the research described in this

  13. Challenges in plastics recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Jakobsen, L. G.; Eriksen, Marie Kampmann

    2015-01-01

    Recycling of waste plastics still remains a challenging area in the waste management sector. The current and potential goals proposed on EU or regional levels are difficult to achieve, and even to partially fullfil them the improvements in collection and sorting should be considerable. A study...... was undertaken to investigate the factors affecting quality in plastics recycling. The preliminary results showed factors primarily influencing quality of plastics recycling to be polymer cross contamination, presence of additives, non-polymer impurities, and polymer degradation. Deprivation of plastics quality......, with respect to recycling, has been shown to happen throughout the plastics value chain, but steps where improvements may happen have been preliminary identified. Example of Cr in plastic samples analysed showed potential spreading and accumulation of chemicals ending up in the waste plastics. In order...

  14. Plasma dynamics in current sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanov, S.Yu.; Drejden, G.V.; Kirij, N.P.; AN SSSR, Leningrad

    1992-01-01

    Plasma dynamics in successive stages of current sheet evolution is investigated on the base of analysis of time-spatial variations of electron density and electrodynamic force fields. Current sheet formation is realized in a two-dimensional magnetic field with zero line under the action of relatively small initial disturbances (linear regimes). It is established that in the limits of the formed sheet is concentrated dense (N e ∼= 10 16 cm -3 ) (T i ≥ 100 eV, bar-Z i ≥ 2) hot pressure of which is balanced by the magnetic action of electrodynamic forces is carried out both plasma compression in the sheet limits and the acceleration along the sheet surface from a middle to narrow side edges

  15. Protective Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    General Magnaplate Corporation's pharmaceutical machine is used in the industry for high speed pressing of pills and capsules. Machine is automatic system for molding glycerine suppositories. These machines are typical of many types of drug production and packaging equipment whose metal parts are treated with space spinoff coatings that promote general machine efficiency and contribute to compliance with stringent federal sanitation codes for pharmaceutical manufacture. Collectively known as "synergistic" coatings, these dry lubricants are bonded to a variety of metals to form an extremely hard slippery surface with long lasting self lubrication. The coatings offer multiple advantages; they cannot chip, peel or be rubbed off. They protect machine parts from corrosion and wear longer, lowering maintenance cost and reduce undesired heat caused by power-robbing friction.

  16. Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... website Submit Search NIH Office of Dietary Supplements Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets Search the list ... Supplements: Background Information Botanical Dietary Supplements: Background Information Vitamin and Mineral Fact Sheets Botanical Supplement Fact Sheets ...

  17. Lead contamination of inexpensive plastic jewelry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yost, Jamie L. [Department of Chemistry, Ashland University, Ashland, Ohio (United States); Weidenhamer, Jeffrey D. [Department of Chemistry, Ashland University, Ashland, Ohio (United States)], E-mail: jweiden@ashland.edu

    2008-04-15

    The neurological hazards of lead to children are well-known. As a result of recent documented cases of lead poisoning, regulatory attention in the United States has focused on the lead content of children's metal jewelry. By contrast, little is known about the possible hazards of plastic jewelry items. The objective of this study was to determine whether inexpensive plastic jewelry is a possible source of toxic lead for children. Samples of more than 100 inexpensive plastic jewelry items were analyzed for lead content. Beads were screened by soaking in 1 M nitric acid. Nine items found to release more than 30 {mu}g of lead per bead were further tested for accessible lead, and scrapings of the bead coatings were analyzed for total lead content. The maximum accessible lead found was 49 {mu}g per bead, which is below the current US Consumer Product Safety Commission limit of 175 {mu}g. However, when the number of beads in each item was taken into account, six of the nine leaded samples contained more than 175 {mu}g accessible lead per item. The lead in these items appears to be associated with lead-based paints used to produce glossy coatings on imitation pearls and similar items. Coatings obtained by scraping individual beads contained 3.5-23% lead, which far exceeds the US regulatory limit of 0.06% lead in paints on items intended for children. Our results demonstrate that plastic jewelry items merit the attention of public health and consumer protection agencies seeking to limit the exposure of children to lead.

  18. Lead contamination of inexpensive plastic jewelry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yost, Jamie L.; Weidenhamer, Jeffrey D.

    2008-01-01

    The neurological hazards of lead to children are well-known. As a result of recent documented cases of lead poisoning, regulatory attention in the United States has focused on the lead content of children's metal jewelry. By contrast, little is known about the possible hazards of plastic jewelry items. The objective of this study was to determine whether inexpensive plastic jewelry is a possible source of toxic lead for children. Samples of more than 100 inexpensive plastic jewelry items were analyzed for lead content. Beads were screened by soaking in 1 M nitric acid. Nine items found to release more than 30 μg of lead per bead were further tested for accessible lead, and scrapings of the bead coatings were analyzed for total lead content. The maximum accessible lead found was 49 μg per bead, which is below the current US Consumer Product Safety Commission limit of 175 μg. However, when the number of beads in each item was taken into account, six of the nine leaded samples contained more than 175 μg accessible lead per item. The lead in these items appears to be associated with lead-based paints used to produce glossy coatings on imitation pearls and similar items. Coatings obtained by scraping individual beads contained 3.5-23% lead, which far exceeds the US regulatory limit of 0.06% lead in paints on items intended for children. Our results demonstrate that plastic jewelry items merit the attention of public health and consumer protection agencies seeking to limit the exposure of children to lead

  19. Radiation processing of plastics for decorative purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knizhnik, R.I.; Onisko, A.D.

    1982-01-01

    Methods are reviewed for the radiation processing of polymeric films, sheets, plates and panels to form patterns, drawings, images and decorative finishing which have been recently developed in various countries. Methods of beam and radiation processing of transparent plastics are described for making a decorative article with a pattern inside the volume; advantages and shortcomings of the methods are shown. The method of radiation processing of transparent dielectric plastics by electron beam of a Microtron is considered in detail. It provides an economical method of fabrication of large-size highly artistic decorative articles with an original pattern inside the volume. Radiation processing operations are presented which are aimed at creation and visualization of regions of extended thermalized electron space charges stored by irradiation of dielectric. Examples are presented of large-size highly artistic decorative articles of polymethylmethacrylate which were used in interior of buildings and demonstrated at home and international exhibitions. (author)

  20. Composite plastic coatings and face rolled materials technology, energy- and environment-saving, based on irradiation of liquid monomers by broad and high-current electron beams in vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaisburd, David

    1994-05-01

    The technology is based on the well-known process of hardening some organic liquid monomers and oligomers (resins and lacquers) under the action of ionizing radiation, i.e. electron, ion, ultra-violet, laser, and X-ray beams. The main mechanism of hardening is 3D polymerization of initial monomers induced by irradiation. First of all 1D polymer chains are created. And the next stage is cross-linking of them. Numerical attempts to apply such a process for plastic materials production met some earnest difficulties. Our decision to perform the whole processing in vacuum changed radically the main properties of radiation induced hardening technology. The inhibition of polymerization by reactive oxygen became unessential. The output window foil of accelerator became unnecessary. Application of super broad beams such as 1 sq.m became possible. The entire efficiency of grid electricity was increased to 60% and it was not the limit. One of the main advantages is that the processing carried out in vacuum may satisfy the highest ecological standards. The technology developed is contamination free and environment-saving.

  1. Effects of debonds and face sheet damage in GRP sandwich panels in naval ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayman, B.; Berggreen, Christian; Quispitupa, Amilcar

    2009-01-01

    Sandwich construction with face sheets of fibre-reinforced plastics (FRP) and a core of polymer foam or balsa wood offer a lightweight construction that is well suited to naval and other vessels for high-speed operation or where payload considerations require that the structural weight be minimised...

  2. Compression deformation behaviors of sheet metals at various clearances and side forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan Mei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Modeling sheet metal forming operations requires understanding of plastic behaviors of sheet metals along non-proportional strain paths. The plastic behavior under reversed uniaxial loading is of particular interest because of its simplicity of interpretation and its application to material elements drawn over a die radius and underwent repeated bending. However, the attainable strain is limited by failures, such as buckling and in-plane deformation, dependent on clearances and side forces. In this study, a finite element (FE model was established for the compression process of sheet specimens, to probe the deformation behavior. The results show that: With the decrease of the clearance from a very large value to a very small value, four defects modes, including plastic t-buckling, micro-bending, w-buckling, and in-plane compression deformation will occur. With the increase of the side force from a very small value to a very large value, plastic t-buckling, w-buckling, uniform deformation, and in-plane compression will occur. The difference in deformation behaviors under these two parameters indicates that the successful compression process without failures for sheet specimens only can be carried out under a reasonable side force.

  3. Finite element simulation of aluminum sheet warm forming using alflow hardening model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurukuri, S.; van den Boogaard, Antonius H.; Huetink, Han

    2007-01-01

    In order to accurately model the plastic deformation of Aluminum sheet at elevated temperatures, a model is required that incorporate the temperature and strain rate dependency of the material. In this article, two physically based models are compared: Bergstr¨om and Alflow model. Although both

  4. 76 FR 51922 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Maryland; Adoption of Plastic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-19

    ... Technology Transfer and Advancement Act of 1995 (15 U.S.C. 272 note) because application of those... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Maryland; Adoption of Plastic Parts and Business Machines..., Plastic Parts and Business Machines Coating. Maryland's SIP revision meets the requirement to adopt...

  5. Spectral and directional radiation characteristics of thin-film coated isothermal semitransparent plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, R P; Viskanta, R

    1975-01-01

    An analysis is presented for predicting the effective spectral directional radiation characteristics of an isothermal, semitransparent sheet surrounded on both sides by massive dielectrics. The sheet can be coated with an optically thin film and used as selective cover plates for solar collectors. Directional and polarization effects and the spectral transmittance and reflectance are considered. Sample results for candidate materials are presented.

  6. Mechanical properties of molybdenum coated with titanium carbide film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shikama, T.; Shinno, H.; Fukutomi, M.; Fujitsuka, M.; Okada, M.

    1983-01-01

    TiC-coated molybdenum is mechanically tensile tested. The 6 μm thick TiC-coated molybdenum has a higher 0.2% proof strength with a slight decrease in uniform and rupture elongation than the uncoated one. This strengthening effect of the TiC coating can be explained by the constrained effect of the high strength TiC film. The 1.2 μm thick TiC-coated molybdenum starts its plastic deformation at a lower stress than the uncoated one. Also, the coating makes the stress-strain curve more smooth. These effects are attributed to the surface effect, namely, that the interface between the molybdenum substrate and the strong and brittle TiC film acts as a strong dislocation source. The compressive stress in the TiC film will also help the start of plastic deformation at lower external stresses. (author)

  7. Superfund fact sheet: The remedial program. Fact sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    The fact sheet describes what various actions the EPA can take to clean up hazardous wastes sites. Explanations of how the criteria for environmental and public health risk assessment are determined and the role of state and local governments in site remediation are given. The fact sheet is one in a series providing reference information about Superfund issues and is intended for readers with no formal scientific training

  8. Handbook of Plastic Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul

    The purpose of this document is to summarize the information about the laser welding of plastic. Laser welding is a matured process nevertheless laser welding of micro dimensional plastic parts is still a big challenge. This report collects the latest information about the laser welding of plastic...... materials and provides an extensive knowhow on the industrial plastic welding process. The objectives of the report include: - Provide the general knowhow of laser welding for the beginners - Summarize the state-of-the-art information on the laser welding of plastics - Find the technological limits in terms...... of design, materials and process - Find the best technology, process and machines adaptive to Sonion’s components - Provide the skills to Sonion’s Design Engineers for successful design of the of the plastic components suitable for the laser welding The ultimate goal of this report is to serve...

  9. Our plastic age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Richard C; Swan, Shanna H; Moore, Charles J; vom Saal, Frederick S

    2009-07-27

    Within the last few decades, plastics have revolutionized our daily lives. Globally we use in excess of 260 million tonnes of plastic per annum, accounting for approximately 8 per cent of world oil production. In this Theme Issue of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, we describe current and future trends in usage, together with the many benefits that plastics bring to society. At the same time, we examine the environmental consequences resulting from the accumulation of waste plastic, the effects of plastic debris on wildlife and concerns for human health that arise from the production, usage and disposal of plastics. Finally, we consider some possible solutions to these problems together with the research and policy priorities necessary for their implementation.

  10. Our plastic age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Richard C.; Swan, Shanna H.; Moore, Charles J.; vom Saal, Frederick S.

    2009-01-01

    Within the last few decades, plastics have revolutionized our daily lives. Globally we use in excess of 260 million tonnes of plastic per annum, accounting for approximately 8 per cent of world oil production. In this Theme Issue of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, we describe current and future trends in usage, together with the many benefits that plastics bring to society. At the same time, we examine the environmental consequences resulting from the accumulation of waste plastic, the effects of plastic debris on wildlife and concerns for human health that arise from the production, usage and disposal of plastics. Finally, we consider some possible solutions to these problems together with the research and policy priorities necessary for their implementation. PMID:19528049

  11. Adhesion along metal-polymer interfaces during plastic deformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tijum, R.; Vellinga, W. P.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.

    In this paper a numerical study is presented that concentrates on the influence of the interface roughness that develops during plastic deformation of a metal, on the work of adhesion and on the change of interface energy upon contact with a glassy polymer. The polymer coating is described with a

  12. Plastic Pollution from Ships

    OpenAIRE

    Čulin, Jelena; Bielić, Toni

    2016-01-01

    The environmental impact of shipping on marine environment includes discharge of garbage. Plastic litter is of particular concern due to abundance, resistance to degradation and detrimental effect on marine biota. According to recently published studies, a further research is required to assess human health risk. Monitoring data indicate that despite banning plastic disposal at sea, shipping is still a source of plastic pollution. Some of the measures to combat the problem are discussed.

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE-PLASTIC

    OpenAIRE

    Sunita Shakle

    2017-01-01

    Polythene is the most common plastic, the annual global production is approximately 60 million tones, and its primary use is in packing. Plastic bags pollute soil and waters and kill thousands of marine generalize plastic bags are not biodegradable they clog water ways, spoil the land scape and end up in landfills. Where they may take 1000 year or more to break down into ever smaller particals that continue to pollution the soil and water.

  14. Our plastic age

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Richard C.; Swan, Shanna H.; Moore, Charles J.; vom Saal, Frederick S.

    2009-01-01

    Within the last few decades, plastics have revolutionized our daily lives. Globally we use in excess of 260 million tonnes of plastic per annum, accounting for approximately 8 per cent of world oil production. In this Theme Issue of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, we describe current and future trends in usage, together with the many benefits that plastics bring to society. At the same time, we examine the environmental consequences resulting from the accumulation of waste pl...

  15. Preparation of Graphene Sheets by Electrochemical Exfoliation of Graphite in Confined Space and Their Application in Transparent Conductive Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Wei, Can; Zhu, Kaiyi; Zhang, Yu; Gong, Chunhong; Guo, Jianhui; Zhang, Jiwei; Yu, Laigui; Zhang, Jingwei

    2017-10-04

    A novel electrochemical exfoliation mode was established to prepare graphene sheets efficiently with potential applications in transparent conductive films. The graphite electrode was coated with paraffin to keep the electrochemical exfoliation in confined space in the presence of concentrated sodium hydroxide as the electrolyte, yielding ∼100% low-defect (the D band to G band intensity ratio, I D /I G = 0.26) graphene sheets. Furthermore, ozone was first detected with ozone test strips, and the effect of ozone on the exfoliation of graphite foil and the microstructure of the as-prepared graphene sheets was investigated. Findings indicate that upon applying a low voltage (3 V) on the graphite foil partially coated with paraffin wax that the coating can prevent the insufficiently intercalated graphite sheets from prematurely peeling off from the graphite electrode thereby affording few-layer (graphene sheets in a yield of as much as 60%. Besides, the ozone generated during the electrochemical exfoliation process plays a crucial role in the exfoliation of graphite, and the amount of defect in the as-prepared graphene sheets is dependent on electrolytic potential and electrode distance. Moreover, the graphene-based transparent conductive films prepared by simple modified vacuum filtration exhibit an excellent transparency and a low sheet resistance after being treated with NH 4 NO 3 and annealing (∼1.21 kΩ/□ at ∼72.4% transmittance).

  16. Development of Multi-Scale Finite Element Analysis Codes for High Formability Sheet Metal Generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nnakamachi, Eiji; Kuramae, Hiroyuki; Ngoc Tam, Nguyen; Nakamura, Yasunori; Sakamoto, Hidetoshi; Morimoto, Hideo

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the dynamic- and static-explicit multi-scale finite element (F.E.) codes are developed by employing the homogenization method, the crystalplasticity constitutive equation and SEM-EBSD measurement based polycrystal model. These can predict the crystal morphological change and the hardening evolution at the micro level, and the macroscopic plastic anisotropy evolution. These codes are applied to analyze the asymmetrical rolling process, which is introduced to control the crystal texture of the sheet metal for generating a high formability sheet metal. These codes can predict the yield surface and the sheet formability by analyzing the strain path dependent yield, the simple sheet forming process, such as the limit dome height test and the cylindrical deep drawing problems. It shows that the shear dominant rolling process, such as the asymmetric rolling, generates ''high formability'' textures and eventually the high formability sheet. The texture evolution and the high formability of the newly generated sheet metal experimentally were confirmed by the SEM-EBSD measurement and LDH test. It is concluded that these explicit type crystallographic homogenized multi-scale F.E. code could be a comprehensive tool to predict the plastic induced texture evolution, anisotropy and formability by the rolling process and the limit dome height test analyses

  17. Plasticity: modeling & computation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Borja, Ronaldo Israel

    2013-01-01

    .... "Plasticity Modeling & Computation" is a textbook written specifically for students who want to learn the theoretical, mathematical, and computational aspects of inelastic deformation in solids...

  18. Synaptic Plasticity and Nociception

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChenJianguo

    2004-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity is one of the fields that progresses rapidly and has a lot of success in neuroscience. The two major types of synaptie plasticity: long-term potentiation ( LTP and long-term depression (LTD are thought to be the cellular mochanisms of learning and memory. Recently, accumulating evidence suggests that, besides serving as a cellular model for learning and memory, the synaptic plasticity involves in other physiological or pathophysiological processes, such as the perception of pain and the regulation of cardiovascular system. This minireview will focus on the relationship between synaptic plasticity and nociception.

  19. Plastics and health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halden, Rolf U

    2010-01-01

    By 2010, the worldwide annual production of plastics will surpass 300 million tons. Plastics are indispensable materials in modern society, and many products manufactured from plastics are a boon to public health (e.g., disposable syringes, intravenous bags). However, plastics also pose health risks. Of principal concern are endocrine-disrupting properties, as triggered for example by bisphenol A and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). Opinions on the safety of plastics vary widely, and despite more than five decades of research, scientific consensus on product safety is still elusive. This literature review summarizes information from more than 120 peer-reviewed publications on health effects of plastics and plasticizers in lab animals and humans. It examines problematic exposures of susceptible populations and also briefly summarizes adverse environmental impacts from plastic pollution. Ongoing efforts to steer human society toward resource conservation and sustainable consumption are discussed, including the concept of the 5 Rs--i.e., reduce, reuse, recycle, rethink, restrain--for minimizing pre- and postnatal exposures to potentially harmful components of plastics.

  20. Characterization of the behaviour of electro-galvanised steel sheets in terms of corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finoly, Guylene

    1992-01-01

    This research thesis reports the development of a test method for the characterization of the behaviour of electro-galvanised steel sheets (i.e. zinc coated steel sheets as those used in the automotive industry) with respect to corrosion, and the definition of a classification of these materials with respect to their surface activity. After an overview of the different existing methods of determination of corrosion rate, the author reports the development of an experimental device adapted to the electrochemical study of electro-galvanised sheets, i.e. adapted to their low thickness (0,7 mm) and coating characteristics (10 μm thick). This device is then used in the case of solid zinc. The authors reports the study of the behaviour of sheets in a NaCl solution in order to meet industrial conditions used to activate the surface before the phosphate conversion process which aims at ensuring paint adherence. A test is proposed and validated by comparison with other electrochemical or chemical methods, and used to study the behaviour of electro-galvanised sheets submitted to a phosphate conversion coating process [fr

  1. 2012 Swimming Season Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help beachgoers make informed decisions about swimming at U.S. beaches, EPA annually publishes state-by-state data about beach closings and advisories for the previous year's swimming season. These fact sheets summarize that information by state.

  2. State Fact Sheets on COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit Search The CDC Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . COPD Homepage Data and Statistics Fact Sheets Publications Publications ...

  3. Prediction of formability of aluminum alloy 5454 sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chan Il; Yang, Seung Han; Kim, Young Suk

    2012-01-01

    In the automobile industry, reducing the weight is the most important objective for reducing air pollution and improving the fuel efficiency. For this reason, the application of aluminum sheets is increasing. When the sheets are applied to the automobile, using inappropriate variables for the material, product design, and press processing can generate tearing, wrinkling, and spring back problems, which are the main types of failure in the manufacturing process. Therefore, it is necessary to reduce these failures by harmonizing the many variables and strictly managing the processes. In this research, we study the theoretical plasticity instability of Al5454 and obtain the forming limit diagram (FLD) using MATLAB. Moreover, we compare the theoretical FLD with an experimental FLD obtained from a stretching test

  4. Multi Scale Models for Flexure Deformation in Sheet Metal Forming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Pasquale Edmondo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of multi scale techniques to the simulation of sheet metal forming using the one-step method. When a blank flows over the die radius, it undergoes a complex cycle of bending and unbending. First, we describe an original model for the prediction of residual plastic deformation and stresses in the blank section. This model, working on a scale about one hundred times smaller than the element size, has been implemented in SIMEX, one-step sheet metal forming simulation code. The utilisation of this multi-scale modeling technique improves greatly the accuracy of the solution. Finally, we discuss the implications of this analysis on the prediction of springback in metal forming.

  5. Australian Government Balance Sheet Management

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson Au-Yeung; Jason McDonald; Amanda Sayegh

    2006-01-01

    Since almost eliminating net debt, the Australian Government%u2019s attention has turned to the financing of broader balance sheet liabilities, such as public sector superannuation. Australia will be developing a significant financial asset portfolio in the %u2018Future Fund%u2019 to smooth the financing of expenses through time. This raises the significant policy question of how best to manage the government balance sheet to reduce risk. This paper provides a framework for optimal balance sh...

  6. Energy information sheets, July 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the public. The Energy Information Sheets was developed to provide general information on various aspects of fuel production, prices, consumption, and capability. Additional information on related subject matter can be found in other Energy Information Administration (EIA) publications as referenced at the end of each sheet.

  7. Energy information sheets, September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the public. The Energy Information Sheets was developed to provide general information on various aspects of fuel production, prices, consumption, and capability. Additional information on related subject matter can be found in other Energy Information Administration (EIA) publications as referenced at the end of each sheet.

  8. A very thin light sheet technique used to investigate meniscus shapes by laser induced fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper a light sheet technique is described to accurately (50 μm) measure meniscus profiles in film formation problems. The use of a slit to create the thin (0.1 mm) laser sheet makes the technique easy to implement, and allows tunable sheet thickness. The low light intensity obtained through the slit is compensated by the induced fluorescence of the tested fluid, which provides good picture contrast. After video recording through a microscope, the actual meniscus is recovered by image processing and proper calibration. The efficiency of the technique is demonstrated on a coating flow experiment. Due to its good accuracy and ease of use, this technique is expected to provide useful quantitative information about meniscus problems, in particular for the validation of computational fluid dynamics CFD solutions of coating flows. (author)

  9. Mechanical characterization and constitutive modeling of Mg alloy sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mekonen, M. Nebebe; Steglich, D.; Bohlen, J.; Letzig, D.; Mosler, J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Material characterization of the Mg alloys AZ31 and ZE10 at elevated temperatures. ► Distortion of the yield locus does not depend on the strain rate. ► Novel constitutive model suitable for the analysis of sheet forming of magnesium. ► Strain-dependent r-values are included within the model. ► The model is thermodynamically consistent and accounts for distortional hardening. - Abstract: In this paper, an experimental mechanical characterization of the magnesium alloys ZE10 and AZ31 is performed and a suitable constitutive model is established. The mechanical characterization is based on uniaxial tensile tests. In order to avoid poor formability at room temperature, the tests were conducted at elevated temperature (200 °C). The uniaxial tensile tests reveal sufficient ductility allowing sheet forming processes at this temperature. The differences in yield stresses and plastic strain ratios (r-values) confirm the anisotropic response of the materials under study. The constitutive model is established so that the characteristic mechanical features observed in magnesium alloys such as anisotropy and compression-tension asymmetry can be accommodated. This model is thermodynamically consistent, incorporates rate effect, is formulated based on finite strain plasticity theory and is applicable in sheet forming simulations of magnesium alloys. More precisely, a model originally proposed by Cazacu and Barlat in 2004 and later modified to account for the evolution of the material anisotropy is rewritten in a thermodynamically consistent framework. The calibrated constitutive model is shown to capture the characteristic mechanical features observed in magnesium alloy sheets.

  10. The properties of electrodeposited Zn-Co coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahieu, J.; de Wit, K.; de Cooman, B. C.; de Boeck, A.

    1999-10-01

    The possibility of increasing the corrosion resistance of automotive sheet steel by electrodepositing with Zn-Co alloy coatings was investigated. Process variables during electrodeposition such as current density, electrolyte flow rate, and pH were varied in order to examine their influence on the electroplating process. Cobalt contents varying from 0.2 to 7 wt% were easily obtained. The influence of these process parameters on the characteristics of the coating could be related to the hydroxide suppression mechanism for anomalous codeposition. The structure and the morphology of the coatings were determined using SEM and XRD analysis. Application properties important for coating systems used in the automotive industry, such as friction behavior, adhesion, and corrosion behavior, were investigated on coatings with varying cobalt content. The corrosion resistance of the Zn-Co alloy layers was found to be better than that of pure zinc coatings.

  11. 3,4-Dihydro-1,3-2H-benzoxazines: Novel reducing agents through one electron donation mechanism and their application as the formation of nano-metallic silver coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaewvilai, Attaphon [Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kasetsart University, Chatuchak, Bangkok, 10900 (Thailand); Wattanathana, Worawat [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Chatuchak, Bangkok, 10900 (Thailand); Jongrungruangchok, Suchada [Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Rangsit University, Pathumthani, 12000 (Thailand); Veranitisagul, Chatchai [Department of Material and Metallurgical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Rajamangala University of Technology Thanyaburi, Klong 6, Thanyaburi, Pathumthani, 12110 (Thailand); Koonsaeng, Nattamon [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Chatuchak, Bangkok, 10900 (Thailand); Laobuthee, Apirat, E-mail: fengapl@ku.ac.th [Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kasetsart University, Chatuchak, Bangkok, 10900 (Thailand)

    2015-11-01

    3,4-dihydro-1,3-2H-benzoxazines as novel one-electron donators for silver(I) ion into nano-metallic silver was firstly found and reported. The silver formation from nano-spherical particles to coral-like and dendrite-like structures was presented. With respect to the characterization results, the feasible reaction mechanism of the silver formation was proposed as an electron donated from benzoxazine to silver(I) ion, resulting in a radical cationic species of benzoxazine and silver(0). Based on this reduction process, a new approach for nano-silver coating on various surfaces such as fumed silica (SiO{sub 2}), titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}), carbon black (CB), chitosan (CS) including plastic sheet (polycarbonate, PC) and pellet (polyvinyl alcohol, PVA), was also revealed. Besides the nano-silver coated products were applied as antimicrobials fillers for Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Micrococcus luteus ATCC 9341, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 2785 and Candida albicans ATCC 10231. - Highlights: • Benzoxazines were discovered to be novel reducing agents for silver(I) ion. • The speculated mechanism of the one electron donation process was investigated. • Dendrite structure of silver was formed from spherical silver nanoparticles. • A new approach for nano metallic-silver coating on various surfaces was revealed. • The nano-silver coated products were applied as antimicrobials fillers.

  12. 3,4-Dihydro-1,3-2H-benzoxazines: Novel reducing agents through one electron donation mechanism and their application as the formation of nano-metallic silver coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaewvilai, Attaphon; Wattanathana, Worawat; Jongrungruangchok, Suchada; Veranitisagul, Chatchai; Koonsaeng, Nattamon; Laobuthee, Apirat

    2015-01-01

    3,4-dihydro-1,3-2H-benzoxazines as novel one-electron donators for silver(I) ion into nano-metallic silver was firstly found and reported. The silver formation from nano-spherical particles to coral-like and dendrite-like structures was presented. With respect to the characterization results, the feasible reaction mechanism of the silver formation was proposed as an electron donated from benzoxazine to silver(I) ion, resulting in a radical cationic species of benzoxazine and silver(0). Based on this reduction process, a new approach for nano-silver coating on various surfaces such as fumed silica (SiO_2), titanium dioxide (TiO_2), carbon black (CB), chitosan (CS) including plastic sheet (polycarbonate, PC) and pellet (polyvinyl alcohol, PVA), was also revealed. Besides the nano-silver coated products were applied as antimicrobials fillers for Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Micrococcus luteus ATCC 9341, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 2785 and Candida albicans ATCC 10231. - Highlights: • Benzoxazines were discovered to be novel reducing agents for silver(I) ion. • The speculated mechanism of the one electron donation process was investigated. • Dendrite structure of silver was formed from spherical silver nanoparticles. • A new approach for nano metallic-silver coating on various surfaces was revealed. • The nano-silver coated products were applied as antimicrobials fillers.

  13. FDTD modeling of thin impedance sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luebbers, Raymond J.; Kunz, Karl S.

    1991-01-01

    Thin sheets of resistive or dielectric material are commonly encountered in radar cross section calculations. Analysis of such sheets is simplified by using sheet impedances. In this paper it is shown that sheet impedances can be modeled easily and accurately using Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) methods.

  14. Manufacture of rings of 08Kh18N10T sheet for internal structures of WWER type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fojta, A.; Nitka, B.

    1984-01-01

    Technology is presented of the manufacture of rings for the jacket, shaft, core catcher and shaft bottom of WWER-440 reactors produced by Vitkovice Steel Works. The rings are manufactured from sheets of austenitic steel 08Kh18N10T. The materials and technology problems are discussed of sheet production, ring welding technology and annealing following welding. The plastic properties are assessed of the welded joints and problems are outlined of ring production for WWER-1000 reactors. (B.S.)

  15. Bimetallic low thermal-expansion panels of Co-base and silicide-coated Nb-base alloys for high-temperature structural applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhein, R.K.; Novak, M.D.; Levi, C.G.; Pollock, T.M.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Low net thermal expansion bimetallic structural lattice constructed. → Temperatures on the order of 1000 deg. C reached. → Improved silicide coating for niobium alloy developed. - Abstract: The fabrication and high temperature performance of low thermal expansion bimetallic lattices composed of Co-base and Nb-base alloys have been investigated. A 2D sheet lattice with a coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) lower than the constituent materials of construction was designed for thermal cycling to 1000 deg. C with the use of elastic-plastic finite element analyses. The low CTE lattice consisted of a continuous network of the Nb-base alloy C-103 with inserts of high CTE Co-base alloy Haynes 188. A new coating approach wherein submicron alumina particles were incorporated into (Nb, Cr, Fe) silicide coatings was employed for oxidation protection of the Nb-base alloy. Thermal gravimetric analysis results indicate that the addition of submicron alumina particles reduced the oxidative mass gain by a factor of four during thermal cycling, increasing lifetime. Bimetallic cells with net expansion of 6 x 10 -6 /deg. C and 1 x 10 -6 /deg. C at 1000 deg. C were demonstrated and their measured thermal expansion characteristics were consistent with analytical models and finite element analysis predictions.

  16. Carbon nanotube-coated silicone as a flexible and electrically conductive biomedical material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Makoto; Akasaka, Tsukasa; Totsuka, Yasunori; Watari, Fumio

    2012-01-01

    Artificial cell scaffolds that support cell adhesion, growth, and organization need to be fabricated for various purposes. Recently, there have been increasing reports of cell patterning using electrical fields. We fabricated scaffolds consisting of silicone sheets coated with single-walled (SW) or multi-walled (MW) carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and evaluated their electrical properties and biocompatibility. We also performed cell alignment with dielectrophoresis using CNT-coated sheets as electrodes. Silicone coated with 10 μg/cm 2 SWCNTs exhibited the least sheet resistance (0.8 kΩ/sq); its conductivity was maintained even after 100 stretching cycles. CNT coating also improved cell adhesion and proliferation. When an electric field was applied to the cell suspension introduced on the CNT-coated scaffold, the cells became aligned in a pearl-chain pattern. These results indicate that CNT coating not only provides electro-conductivity but also promotes cell adhesion to the silicone scaffold; cells seeded on the scaffold can be organized using electricity. These findings demonstrate that CNT-coated silicone can be useful as a biocompatible scaffold. - Highlights: ► We fabricated a CNT-coated silicone which has conductivity and biocompatibility. ► The conductivity was maintained after 100 cycles of stretching. ► CNT coatings enabled C2C12 cells adhere to the silicone surface. ► Cells were aligned with dielectrophoresis between CNT-coated silicone surfaces.

  17. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Gg of... - Specialty Coating Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... electromagnetic energy spectrum, such as the ultraviolet, visible, infrared, or microwave regions. Uses include... compatible, flexible substrate over bonded sheet rubber and rubber-type coatings as well as a flexible bridge... coating with a low reflectance in the infrared and visible wavelength ranges, which is used for anti...

  18. Effects of Graphene Monolayer Coating on the Optical Performance of Remote Phosphors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yazdan Mehr, M.; Vollebregt, S.; van Driel, W.D.; Zhang, G.Q.

    2017-01-01

    A graphene monolayer has been successfully coated on one side of a bisphenol-A-polycarbonate (BPA-PC) plate, used as a substrate for remote phosphor applications in light-emitting diode (LED)-based products. Using a photoresist transferring method, graphene sheet has been coated on BPA-PC plates.

  19. On Jovian plasma sheet structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khurana, K.K.; Kivelson, M.G.

    1989-01-01

    The authors evaluate several models of Jovian plasma sheet structure by determining how well they organize several aspects of the observed Voyager 2 magnetic field characteristics as a function of Jovicentric radial distance. It is shown that in the local time sector of the Voyager 2 outbound pass (near 0300 LT) the published hinged-magnetodisc models with wave (i.e., models corrected for finite wave velocity effects) are more successful than the published magnetic anomaly model in predicting locations of current sheet crossings. They also consider the boundary between the plasma sheet and the magnetotail lobe which is expected to vary slowly with radial distance. They use this boundary location as a further test of the models of the magnetotail. They show that the compressional MHD waves have much smaller amplitude in the lobes than in the plasma sheet and use this criterion to refine the identification of the plasma-sheet-lobe boundary. When the locations of crossings into and out of the lobes are examined, it becomes evident that the magnetic-anomaly model yields a flaring plasma sheet with a halfwidth of ∼ 3 R J at a radial distance of 20 R J and ∼ 12 R J at a radial distance of 100 R J . The hinged-magnetodisc models with wave, on the other hand, predict a halfwidth of ∼ 3.5 R J independent of distance beyond 20 R J . New optimized versions of the two models locate both the current sheet crossings and lobe encounters equally successfully. The optimized hinged-magnetodisc model suggests that the wave velocity decreases with increasing radial distance. The optimized magnetic anomaly model yields lower velocity contrast than the model of Vasyliunas and Dessler (1981)

  20. Automobile sheet metal part production with incremental sheet forming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail DURGUN

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, effect of global warming is increasing drastically so it leads to increased interest on energy efficiency and sustainable production methods. As a result of adverse conditions, national and international project platforms, OEMs (Original Equipment Manufacturers, SMEs (Small and Mid-size Manufacturers perform many studies or improve existing methodologies in scope of advanced manufacturing techniques. In this study, advanced manufacturing and sustainable production method "Incremental Sheet Metal Forming (ISF" was used for sheet metal forming process. A vehicle fender was manufactured with or without die by using different toolpath strategies and die sets. At the end of the study, Results have been investigated under the influence of method and parameters used.Keywords: Template incremental sheet metal, Metal forming

  1. Development of dynamic explicit crystallographic homogenization finite element analysis code to assess sheet metal formability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Yasunori; Tam, Nguyen Ngoc; Ohata, Tomiso; Morita, Kiminori; Nakamachi, Eiji

    2004-01-01

    The crystallographic texture evolution induced by plastic deformation in the sheet metal forming process has a great influence on its formability. In the present study, a dynamic explicit finite element (FE) analysis code is newly developed by introducing a crystallographic homogenization method to estimate the polycrystalline sheet metal formability, such as the extreme thinning and 'earing'. This code can predict the plastic deformation induced texture evolution at the micro scale and the plastic anisotropy at the macro scale, simultaneously. This multi-scale analysis can couple the microscopic crystal plasticity inhomogeneous deformation with the macroscopic continuum deformation. In this homogenization process, the stress at the macro scale is defined by the volume average of those of the corresponding microscopic crystal aggregations in satisfying the equation of motion and compatibility condition in the micro scale 'unit cell', where the periodicity of deformation is satisfied. This homogenization algorithm is implemented in the conventional dynamic explicit finite element code by employing the updated Lagrangian formulation and the rate type elastic/viscoplastic constitutive equation.At first, it has been confirmed through a texture evolution analyses in cases of typical deformation modes that Taylor's 'constant strain homogenization algorithm' yields extreme concentration toward the preferred crystal orientations compared with our homogenization one. Second, we study the plastic anisotropy effects on 'earing' in the hemispherical cup deep drawing process of pure ferrite phase sheet metal. By the comparison of analytical results with those of Taylor's assumption, conclusions are drawn that the present newly developed dynamic explicit crystallographic homogenization FEM shows more reasonable prediction of plastic deformation induced texture evolution and plastic anisotropy at the macro scale

  2. Uranium mining sites - Thematic sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    A first sheet proposes comments, data and key numbers about uranium extraction in France: general overview of uranium mining sites, status of waste rock and tailings after exploitation, site rehabilitation. The second sheet addresses the sources of exposure to ionizing radiations due to ancient uranium mining sites: discussion on the identification of these sources associated with these sites, properly due to mining activities or to tailings, or due to the transfer of radioactive substances towards water and to the contamination of sediments, description of the practice and assessment of radiological control of mining sites. A third sheet addresses the radiological exposure of public to waste rocks, and the dose assessment according to exposure scenarios: main exposure ways to be considered, studied exposure scenarios (passage on backfilled path and grounds, stay in buildings built on waste rocks, keeping mineralogical samples at home). The fourth sheet addresses research programmes of the IRSN on uranium and radon: epidemiological studies (performed on mine workers; on French and on European cohorts, French and European studies on the risk of lung cancer associated with radon in housing), study of the biological effects of chronic exposures. The last sheet addresses studies and expertises performed by the IRSN on ancient uranium mining sites in France: studies commissioned by public authorities, radioactivity control studies performed by the IRSN about mining sites, participation of the IRSN to actions to promote openness to civil society

  3. Characterizing Grain-Oriented Silicon Steel Sheet Using Automated High-Resolution Laue X-ray Diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Peter; Barnett, Matthew; Stevenson, Andrew; Hutchinson, Bevis

    2017-11-01

    Controlling texture in grain-oriented (GO) silicon steel sheet is critical for optimization of its magnetization performance. A new automated laboratory system, based on X-ray Laue diffraction, is introduced as a rapid method for large scale grain orientation mapping and texture measurement in these materials. Wide area grain orientation maps are demonstrated for both macroetched and coated GO steel sheets. The large secondary grains contain uniform lattice rotations, the origins of which are discussed.

  4. Collective epithelial cell sheet adhesion and migration on polyelectrolyte multilayers with uniform and gradients of compliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Jessica S.; Schlenoff, Joseph B.; Keller, Thomas C.S.

    2016-01-01

    Polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMUs) are tunable thin films that could serve as coatings for biomedical implants. PEMUs built layer by layer with the polyanion poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) modified with a photosensitive 4-(2-hydroxyethoxy) benzophenone (PAABp) group and the polycation poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) are mechanically tunable by UV irradiation, which forms covalent bonds between the layers and increases PEMU stiffness. PAH-terminated PEMUs (PAH-PEMUs) that were uncrosslinked, UV-crosslinked to a uniform stiffness, or UV-crosslinked with an edge mask or through a neutral density optical gradient filter to form continuous compliance gradients were used to investigate how differences in PEMU stiffness affect the adhesion and migration of epithelial cell sheets from scales of the fish Poecilia sphenops (Black Molly) and Carassius auratus (Comet Goldfish). During the progressive collective cell migration, the edge cells (also known as ‘leader’ cells) in the sheets on softer uncrosslinked PEMUs and less crosslinked regions of the gradient formed more actin filaments and vinculin-containing adherens junctions and focal adhesions than formed in the sheet cells on stiffer PEMUs or glass. During sheet migration, the ratio of edge cell to internal cell (also known as ‘follower’ cells) motilities were greater on the softer PEMUs than on the stiffer PEMUs or glass, causing tension to develop across the sheet and periods of retraction, during which the edge cells lost adhesion to the substrate and regions of the sheet retracted toward the more adherent internal cell region. These retraction events were inhibited by the myosin II inhibitor Blebbistatin, which reduced the motility velocity ratios to those for sheets on the stiffer PEMUs. Blebbistatin also caused disassembly of actin filaments, reorganization of focal adhesions, increased cell spreading at the leading edge, as well as loss of edge cell-cell connections in epithelial cell sheets on all

  5. Collective epithelial cell sheet adhesion and migration on polyelectrolyte multilayers with uniform and gradients of compliance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Jessica S. [Department of Biological Science, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States); Schlenoff, Joseph B. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States); Keller, Thomas C.S., E-mail: tkeller@bio.fsu.edu [Department of Biological Science, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMUs) are tunable thin films that could serve as coatings for biomedical implants. PEMUs built layer by layer with the polyanion poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) modified with a photosensitive 4-(2-hydroxyethoxy) benzophenone (PAABp) group and the polycation poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) are mechanically tunable by UV irradiation, which forms covalent bonds between the layers and increases PEMU stiffness. PAH-terminated PEMUs (PAH-PEMUs) that were uncrosslinked, UV-crosslinked to a uniform stiffness, or UV-crosslinked with an edge mask or through a neutral density optical gradient filter to form continuous compliance gradients were used to investigate how differences in PEMU stiffness affect the adhesion and migration of epithelial cell sheets from scales of the fish Poecilia sphenops (Black Molly) and Carassius auratus (Comet Goldfish). During the progressive collective cell migration, the edge cells (also known as ‘leader’ cells) in the sheets on softer uncrosslinked PEMUs and less crosslinked regions of the gradient formed more actin filaments and vinculin-containing adherens junctions and focal adhesions than formed in the sheet cells on stiffer PEMUs or glass. During sheet migration, the ratio of edge cell to internal cell (also known as ‘follower’ cells) motilities were greater on the softer PEMUs than on the stiffer PEMUs or glass, causing tension to develop across the sheet and periods of retraction, during which the edge cells lost adhesion to the substrate and regions of the sheet retracted toward the more adherent internal cell region. These retraction events were inhibited by the myosin II inhibitor Blebbistatin, which reduced the motility velocity ratios to those for sheets on the stiffer PEMUs. Blebbistatin also caused disassembly of actin filaments, reorganization of focal adhesions, increased cell spreading at the leading edge, as well as loss of edge cell-cell connections in epithelial cell sheets on all

  6. Polymer Coatings Reduce Electro-osmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herren, Blair J.; Snyder, Robert; Shafer, Steven G.; Harris, J. Milton; Van Alstine, James M.

    1989-01-01

    Poly(ethylene glycol) film controls electrostatic potential. Electro-osmosis in quartz or glass chambers reduced or reversed by coating inside surface of chambers with monomacromolecular layers of poly(ethylene glycol). Stable over long times. Electrostatic potential across surface of untreated glass or plastic chamber used in electro-phoresis is negative and attracts cations in aqueous electrolyte. Cations solvated, entrains flow of electrolyte migrating toward cathode. Electro-osmotic flow interferes with desired electrophoresis of particles suspended in electrolyte. Polymer coats nontoxic, transparent, and neutral, advantageous for use in electrophoresis.

  7. A Novel Method of Modeling the Deformation Resistance for Clad Sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Jianliang; Yi Youping; Xie Mantang

    2011-01-01

    Because of the excellent thermal conductivity, the clad sheet (3003/4004/3003) of aluminum alloy is extensively used in various heat exchangers, such as radiator, motorcar air conditioning, evaporator, and so on. The deformation resistance model plays an important role in designing the process parameters of hot continuous rolling. However, the complex behaviors of the plastic deformation of the clad sheet make the modeling very difficult. In this work, a novel method for modeling the deformation resistance of clad sheet was proposed by combining the finite element analysis with experiments. The deformation resistance model of aluminum 3003 and 4004 was proposed through hot compression test on the Gleeble-1500 thermo-simulation machine. And the deformation resistance model of clad sheet was proposed through finite element analysis using DEFORM-2D software. The relationship between cladding ratio and the deformation resistance was discussed in detail. The results of hot compression simulation demonstrate that the cladding ratio has great effects on the resistance of the clad sheet. Taking the cladding ratio into consideration, the mathematical model of the deformation resistance for clad sheet has been proved to have perfect forecasting precision of different cladding ratio. Therefore, the presented model can be used to predict the rolling force of clad sheet during the hot continuous rolling process.

  8. Surface Morphology and Bending Deformation of 2024-T3 Thin Sheets with Laser Peen Forming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Junfeng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Laser peen forming (LPF is a pure mechanical forming method through accumulated plastic strain, which has been successfully applied in wing components. Experimental investigation has been performed to understand the effect of process parameters such as constraint conditions, sheet thickness and laser energy on surface morphology and bending deformation of 2024-T3 thin sheets of dimensions of 76 mm ×19 mm (length × width. The research results indicated that bulges on the aluminum foil were generated at the bottom surface and not generated at the topmost surface. It was different for transition value of two-way bending deformations of thin sheets after LPF with different constraint conditions. Remain flat thicknesses of thin sheets after LPF were about 1 mm ~ 2 mm for 20 J, 25 J and 30 J. Arc heights and curvatures of 3 mm thickness sheets increased with laser energy and those of 2 mm thickness sheets only made little change. It was found that convex deformation, flat, concave deformation and laser deep drawing for thin sheets with different thicknesses after LPF.

  9. Waterborne UV coating for industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, I.N.

    2007-01-01

    (Full Text): Solvent borne industrial coatings are being replaced by environment friendly coatings like Ultra Violet (UV) or Electron Beam (Eb) cured coatings, Powder coatings and Waterborne coatings. Waterborne systems enjoy the biggest share from this shift. UV and EB coatings provide the advantages of instant cure at room temperature, high scratch and abrasion resistance combined with excellent chemical resistance. Polyurethane (PU) chemistry is the dominant chemistry in Industrial coatings as they provide a very high level of performance. Most PU coatings are solvent based 2-component systems comprising of a resin and a cross linker. Polyurethane dispersions (PUD) in water in single pack are available but mainly addresses the Do It Yourself (DIY) market because of their slow drying speeds. Performance of PUD in most cases is inferior to solvent borne 2-component PU systems.Therefore the combination of PU dispersion and UV/EB curable technology has led to new innovative waterborne polymers called UV curable polyurethane dispersions (UVPUD). UVPUD are zero VOC systems as they are coalescent free. They are higher in molecular weight than standard UV curable products resulting in lower shrinkage coatings and provide good adhesion to substrates. Their low-viscosity makes them suitable for application by spray, curtain coater and even roller coater, without having to use monomers. UVPUD display superior chemical and mechanical properties necessary to protect high quality surface from the challenging usage conditions. UVPUD resins are therefore tailor-made to address performance needs like excellence in outdoor durability, scratch resistance, stain resistance, adhesion etc. UVPUD technology is now growing rapidly in industrial coatings for applications such as resilient flooring, wooden parquet flooring, automotive interior plastics, mobile phones etc. (Author)

  10. Pattern formation in plastic liquid films on elastomers by ratcheting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiangshui; Yang, Jiawei; Jin, Lihua; Clarke, David R; Suo, Zhigang

    2016-04-20

    Plastic liquids, also known as Bingham liquids, retain their shape when loads are small, but flow when loads exceed a threshold. We discovered that plastic liquid films coated on elastomers develop wavy patterns under cyclic loads. As the number of cycles increases, the wavelength of the patterns remains unchanged, but the amplitude of the patterns increases and then saturates. Because the patterns develop progressively under cyclic loads, we call this phenomenon as "patterning by ratcheting". We observe the phenomenon in plastic liquids of several kinds, and studied the effects of thickness, the cyclic frequency of the stretch, and the range of the stretch. Finite element simulations show that the ratcheting phenomenon can occur in materials described by a commonly used model of elastic-plastic deformation.

  11. Root-growth-inhibiting sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, F.G.; Cataldo, D.A.; Cline, J.F.; Skiens, W.E.; Van Voris, P.

    1993-01-26

    In accordance with this invention, a porous sheet material is provided at intervals with bodies of a polymer which contain a 2,6-dinitroaniline. The sheet material is made porous to permit free passage of water. It may be either a perforated sheet or a woven or non-woven textile material. A particularly desirable embodiment is a non-woven fabric of non-biodegradable material. This type of material is known as a geotextile'' and is used for weed control, prevention of erosion on slopes, and other landscaping purposes. In order to obtain a root repelling property, a dinitroaniline is blended with a polymer which is attached to the geotextile or other porous material.

  12. Optimal swimming of a sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro-Johnson, Thomas D; Lauga, Eric

    2014-06-01

    Propulsion at microscopic scales is often achieved through propagating traveling waves along hairlike organelles called flagella. Taylor's two-dimensional swimming sheet model is frequently used to provide insight into problems of flagellar propulsion. We derive numerically the large-amplitude wave form of the two-dimensional swimming sheet that yields optimum hydrodynamic efficiency: the ratio of the squared swimming speed to the rate-of-working of the sheet against the fluid. Using the boundary element method, we show that the optimal wave form is a front-back symmetric regularized cusp that is 25% more efficient than the optimal sine wave. This optimal two-dimensional shape is smooth, qualitatively different from the kinked form of Lighthill's optimal three-dimensional flagellum, not predicted by small-amplitude theory, and different from the smooth circular-arc-like shape of active elastic filaments.

  13. Root-growth-inhibiting sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Frederick G.; Cataldo, Dominic A.; Cline, John F.; Skiens, W. Eugene; Van Voris, Peter

    1993-01-01

    In accordance with this invention, a porous sheet material is provided at intervals with bodies of a polymer which contain a 2,6-dinitroaniline. The sheet material is made porous to permit free passage of water. It may be either a perforated sheet or a woven or non-woven textile material. A particularly desirable embodiment is a non-woven fabric of non-biodegradable material. This type of material is known as a "geotextile" and is used for weed control, prevention of erosion on slopes, and other landscaping purposes. In order to obtain a root repelling property, a dinitroaniline is blended with a polymer which is attached to the geotextile or other porous material.

  14. A study of DLC coatings for ironing of stainless steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sulaiman, Mohd Hafis Bin; Christiansen, Peter; Bay, Niels Oluf

    2017-01-01

    Stamping of sheet metal components without lubrication or using minimum amount of hazard free lubricant is a possible solution to diminish health hazards to personnel and environmental impact and to reduce production costs. This paper studies the application of diamond-like coating (DLC) under...

  15. Passivation coating for flexible substrate mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, C. Edwin; Benson, David K.

    1990-01-01

    A protective diffusion barrier for metalized mirror structures is provided by a layer or coating of silicon nitride which is a very dense, transparent, dielectric material that is impervious to water, alkali, and other impurities and corrosive substances that typically attack the metal layers of mirrors and cause degradation of the mirrors' reflectivity. The silicon nitride layer can be deposited on the substrate before metal deposition thereon to stabilize the metal/substrate interface, and it can be deposited over the metal to encapsulate it and protect the metal from corrosion or other degradation. Mirrors coated with silicon nitride according to this invention can also be used as front surface mirrors. Also, the silver or other reflective metal layer on mirrors comprising thin, lightweight, flexible substrates of metal or polymer sheets coated with glassy layers can be protected with silicon nitride according to this invention.

  16. Surface roughness reduction using spray-coated hydrogen silsesquioxane reflow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cech, Jiri; Pranov, Henrik; Kofod, Guggi

    2013-01-01

    Surface roughness or texture is the most visible property of any object, including injection molded plastic parts. Roughness of the injection molding (IM) tool cavity directly affects not only appearance and perception of quality, but often also the function of all manufactured plastic parts. So...... called “optically smooth” plastic surfaces is one example, where low roughness of a tool cavity is desirable. Such tool surfaces can be very expensive to fabricate using conventional means, such as abrasive diamond polishing or diamond turning. We present a novel process to coat machined metal parts...... are reduced 10 and 3 times respectively. We completed more than 10,000 injection molding cycles without detectable degradation of the HSQ coating. This result opens new possibilities for molding of affordable plastic parts with perfect surface finish....

  17. Coating and Characterization of Mock and Explosive Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily M. Hunt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This project develops a method of manufacturing plastic-bonded explosives by using use precision control of agglomeration and coating of energetic powders. The energetic material coating process entails suspending either wet or dry energetic powders in a stream of inert gas and contacting the energetic powder with atomized droplets of a lacquer composed of binder and organic solvent. By using a high-velocity air stream to pneumatically convey the energetic powders and droplets of lacquer, the energetic powders are efficiently wetted while agglomerate drying begins almost immediately. The result is an energetic powder uniformly coated with binder, that is, a PBX, with a high bulk density suitable for pressing. Experiments have been conducted using mock explosive materials to examine coating effectiveness and density. Energetic materials are now being coated and will be tested both mechanically and thermally. This allows for a comprehensive comparison of the morphology and reactivity of the newly coated materials to previously manufactured materials.

  18. An Approximate Solution to the Plastic Indentation of Circular Sandwich Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Z.

    2018-05-01

    The plastic indentation response of circular sandwich panels loaded by the flat end of a cylinder is investigated employing a velocity field model. Using the principles of virtual velocities and minimum work, an expression for the indenter load in relation to the indenter displacement and displacement field of the deformed face sheet is derived. The analytical solutions obtained are in good agreement with those found by simulations using the ABAQUS code. The radial tensile strain of the deformed face sheet and the ratio of energy absorption rate of the core to that of the face sheet are discussed.

  19. Ice sheet hydrology - a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, Peter; Naeslund, Jens-Ove [Dept. of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden); Rodhe, Lars [Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2007-03-15

    This report summarizes the theoretical knowledge on water flow in and beneath glaciers and ice sheets and how these theories are applied in models to simulate the hydrology of ice sheets. The purpose is to present the state of knowledge and, perhaps more importantly, identify the gaps in our understanding of ice sheet hydrology. Many general concepts in hydrology and hydraulics are applicable to water flow in glaciers. However, the unique situation of having the liquid phase flowing in conduits of the solid phase of the same material, water, is not a commonly occurring phenomena. This situation means that the heat exchange between the phases and the resulting phase changes also have to be accounted for in the analysis. The fact that the solidus in the pressure-temperature dependent phase diagram of water has a negative slope provides further complications. Ice can thus melt or freeze from both temperature and pressure variations or variations in both. In order to provide details of the current understanding of water flow in conjunction with deforming ice and to provide understanding for the development of ideas and models, emphasis has been put on the mathematical treatments, which are reproduced in detail. Qualitative results corroborating theory or, perhaps more often, questioning the simplifications made in theory, are also given. The overarching problem with our knowledge of glacier hydrology is the gap between the local theories of processes and the general flow of water in glaciers and ice sheets. Water is often channelized in non-stationary conduits through the ice, features which due to their minute size relative to the size of glaciers and ice sheets are difficult to incorporate in spatially larger models. Since the dynamic response of ice sheets to global warming is becoming a key issue in, e.g. sea-level change studies, the problems of the coupling between the hydrology of an ice sheet and its dynamics is steadily gaining interest. New work is emerging

  20. Modelling the Antarctic Ice Sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Olaf Pepke; Holm, A.

    2015-01-01

    to sea level high stands during past interglacial periods. A number of AIS models have been developed and applied to try to understand the workings of the AIS and to form a robust basis for future projections of the AIS contribution to sea level change. The recent DCESS (Danish Center for Earth System......The Antarctic ice sheet is a major player in the Earth’s climate system and is by far the largest depository of fresh water on the planet. Ice stored in the Antarctic ice sheet (AIS) contains enough water to raise sea level by about 58 m, and ice loss from Antarctica contributed significantly...

  1. Ice sheet hydrology - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansson, Peter; Naeslund, Jens-Ove; Rodhe, Lars

    2007-03-01

    This report summarizes the theoretical knowledge on water flow in and beneath glaciers and ice sheets and how these theories are applied in models to simulate the hydrology of ice sheets. The purpose is to present the state of knowledge and, perhaps more importantly, identify the gaps in our understanding of ice sheet hydrology. Many general concepts in hydrology and hydraulics are applicable to water flow in glaciers. However, the unique situation of having the liquid phase flowing in conduits of the solid phase of the same material, water, is not a commonly occurring phenomena. This situation means that the heat exchange between the phases and the resulting phase changes also have to be accounted for in the analysis. The fact that the solidus in the pressure-temperature dependent phase diagram of water has a negative slope provides further complications. Ice can thus melt or freeze from both temperature and pressure variations or variations in both. In order to provide details of the current understanding of water flow in conjunction with deforming ice and to provide understanding for the development of ideas and models, emphasis has been put on the mathematical treatments, which are reproduced in detail. Qualitative results corroborating theory or, perhaps more often, questioning the simplifications made in theory, are also given. The overarching problem with our knowledge of glacier hydrology is the gap between the local theories of processes and the general flow of water in glaciers and ice sheets. Water is often channelized in non-stationary conduits through the ice, features which due to their minute size relative to the size of glaciers and ice sheets are difficult to incorporate in spatially larger models. Since the dynamic response of ice sheets to global warming is becoming a key issue in, e.g. sea-level change studies, the problems of the coupling between the hydrology of an ice sheet and its dynamics is steadily gaining interest. New work is emerging

  2. Sheet Beam Klystron Instability Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bane, K.

    2009-01-01

    Using the principle of energy balance we develop a 2D theory for calculating growth rates of instability in a two-cavity model of a sheet beam klystron. An important ingredient is a TE-like mode in the gap that also gives a longitudinal kick to the beam. When compared with a self-consistent particle-in-cell calculation, with sheet beam klystron-type parameters, agreement is quite good up to half the design current, 65 A; at full current, however, other, current-dependent effects come in and the results deviate significantly

  3. The social balance sheet 2004

    OpenAIRE

    Ph. Delhez; P. Heuse

    2005-01-01

    Each year, in the 4th quarter’s Economic Review, the National Bank examines the provisional results of the social balance sheets. As all the social balance sheets are not yet available for 2004, the study is based on a limited population of enterprises, compiled according to the principle of a constant sample. This population is made up of 38,530 enterprises employing around 1,331,000 workers in 2004. The main results of the analysis, in terms of employment, working hours, labour cost and tra...

  4. An evolutionary yield function based on Barlat 2000 yield function for the superconducting niobium sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbandi, Payam; Pourboghrat, Farhang

    2011-08-01

    Superconducting radio frequency (SRF) niobium cavities are widely used in high-energy physics to accelerate particle beams in particle accelerators. The performance of SRF cavities is affected by the microstructure and purity of the niobium sheet, surface quality, geometry, etc. Following optimum strain paths in the forming of these cavities can significantly control these parameters. To select these strain paths, however, information about the mechanical behavior, microstructure, and formability of the niobium sheet is required. In this study the Barlat 2000 yield function has been used as a yield function for high purity niobium. Results from this study showed that, due to intrinsic behavior, it is necessary to evolve the anisotropic coefficients of Barlat's yield function in order to properly model the plastic behavior of the niobium sheet. The accuracy of the newly developed evolutionary yield function was verified by applying it to the modeling of the hydrostatic bulging of the niobium sheet. Also, in a separate attempt crystal plasticity finite element method was use to model the behavior of the polycrystalline niobium sheet with a particular initial texture.

  5. An evolutionary yield function based on Barlat 2000 yield function for the superconducting niobium sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darbandi, Payam; Pourboghrat, Farhang

    2011-01-01

    Superconducting radio frequency (SRF) niobium cavities are widely used in high-energy physics to accelerate particle beams in particle accelerators. The performance of SRF cavities is affected by the microstructure and purity of the niobium sheet, surface quality, geometry, etc. Following optimum strain paths in the forming of these cavities can significantly control these parameters. To select these strain paths, however, information about the mechanical behavior, microstructure, and formability of the niobium sheet is required. In this study the Barlat 2000 yield function has been used as a yield function for high purity niobium. Results from this study showed that, due to intrinsic behavior, it is necessary to evolve the anisotropic coefficients of Barlat's yield function in order to properly model the plastic behavior of the niobium sheet. The accuracy of the newly developed evolutionary yield function was verified by applying it to the modeling of the hydrostatic bulging of the niobium sheet. Also, in a separate attempt crystal plasticity finite element method was use to model the behavior of the polycrystalline niobium sheet with a particular initial texture.

  6. On the interfacial degradation mechanisms of thermal barrier coating systems: Effects of bond coat composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, R.T., E-mail: WU.Rudder@nims.go.jp [International Center for Young Scientists, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba City, Ibaraki (Japan); Wang, X.; Atkinson, A. [Department of Materials, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BP (United Kingdom)

    2010-10-15

    Thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems based on an electron beam physical vapour deposited, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) top coat and a substrate material of CMSX-4 superalloy were identically prepared to systematically study the behaviour of different bond coats. The three bond coat systems investigated included two {beta}-structured Pt-Al types and a {gamma}-{gamma}' type produced by Pt diffusion without aluminizing. Progressive evolution of stress in the thermally grown aluminium oxide (TGO) upon thermal cycling, and its relief by plastic deformation and fracture, were studied using luminescence spectroscopy. The TBCs with the LT Pt-Al bond coat failed by a rumpling mechanism that generated isolated cracks at the interface between the TGO and the YSZ. This reduced adhesion at this interface and the TBC delaminated when it could no longer resist the release of the stored elastic energy of the YSZ, which stiffened with time due to sintering. In contrast, the TBCs with Pt diffusion bond coats did not rumple, and the adhesion of interfaces in the coating did not obviously degrade. It is shown that the different failure mechanisms are strongly associated with differences in the high-temperature mechanical properties of the bond coats.

  7. Up-scaling perovskite solar cell manufacturing from sheet-to-sheet to roll-to-roll: challenges and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giacomo, Francesco; Galagan, Yulia; Shanmugam, Santhosh; Gorter, Harrie; van den Bruele, Fieke; Kirchner, Gerwin; de Vries, Ike; Fledderus, Henri; Lifka, Herbert; Veenstra, Sjoerd; Aernouts, Tom; Groen, Pim; Andrissen, Ronn

    2017-08-01

    Organometallic halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) are extremely promising novel materials for thin-film photovoltaics, exhibiting efficiencies over 22% on glass and over 17% on foil 1, 2 . First, a sheet-to-sheet (S2S) production of PSCs and modules on 152x152 mm2 substrates was established, using a combination of sputtering, e-beam evaporation, slot die coating and thermal evaporation (average PCE of 14.6 +/- 1.3 % over 64 devices, more than 10% initial PCE on modules). Later the steps towards a roll-to-roll production will be investigated, starting from the optimization of the stack to make it compatible with a faster production at low temperature. A water based SnOx nanoparticles dispersion was used as solution processable ETL, and the deposition process was scaled-up from spin coating to R2R slot die coating on a 300 mm wide roll of PET/ITO. R2R production is often carried out in ambient atmosphere and involve the use of large volumes of materials, thus a first point is the development of a green solvent and precursor system for the perovskite layer to prevent the emission of toxic compound in the environment. The first results on device fabrication are encouraging, which allow partial R2R manufacturing of flexible PSC (R2R coating of SnOx and perovskite, S2S for Spiro-OMeTAD and gold) with stabilized PCE of 12.6%, a remarkable value for these novel devices. This result can be considered an important milestone towards the production of efficient, low cost, lightweight, flexible PSC on large area.

  8. Stem cell plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmipathy, Uma; Verfaillie, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    The central dogma in stem cell biology has been that cells isolated from a particular tissue can renew and differentiate into lineages of the tissue it resides in. Several studies have challenged this idea by demonstrating that tissue specific cell have considerable plasticity and can cross-lineage restriction boundary and give rise to cell types of other lineages. However, the lack of a clear definition for plasticity has led to confusion with several reports failing to demonstrate that a single cell can indeed differentiate into multiple lineages at significant levels. Further, differences between results obtained in different labs has cast doubt on some results and several studies still await independent confirmation. In this review, we critically evaluate studies that report stem cell plasticity using three rigid criteria to define stem cell plasticity; differentiation of a single cell into multiple cell lineages, functionality of differentiated cells in vitro and in vivo, robust and persistent engraft of transplanted cells.

  9. Plastics: Friend or foe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O P Gupta

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastics has been playing a very significant role in our life. Being light weight, inexpensive and heving good insulating properties it is being used in all aspects of life, from clothes to contact lenses and from mobile phones to automobiles as well as in medical equipments, However it is not biodegradable, and while degrading to fragments it gets converted in to microplastics and nanoplastics The plastic waste is being recognized as an environmental hazard, since these micr- and nanoplastics find way from landfills to water and foods, It is said that we are not only using, but we are eating, drinking and even braething the plastics. These microplastics in body release certain hazardous chemicals and found to be disrupting functions of certain endocrine organs. Whether the rising prevalence of Diabetes, thyroid disorders or infirtility etc., are realated to the plastics?

  10. Recycling of plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminsky, W; Menzel, J; Sinn, H

    1976-01-01

    Considering the shortage of raw materials and environmental pollution, the recycling of plastic waste is a very important topic. Pilot plants for research in Funabashi Japan, Franklin (Ohio) U.S.A., and the R 80-process of Krauss Maffei, W. Germany, have demonstrated the possibility of reclaiming plastics from refuse. Old tires and waste from the plastic producing and manufacturing industries are readily available. The pyrolysis of plastic yields gaseous and liquid products, and the exploitation of this cracking reaction has been demonstrated by pilot plants in Japan and Great Britain. Further laboratory scale experiments are taking place in W. Germany. In continuous fluidized beds and in molten salts, polyethylene, polypropylene, polyvinylchloride, polystyrene and rubber are pyrolysed and better than 98 percent conversion is obtained. Up to 40 percent of the feed can be obtained as aromatic compounds, and a pilot plant is under construction. As a first step PVC-containing material can be almost quantitatively dehydrochlorinated.

  11. A Plastic Menagerie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Mary Jane

    2010-01-01

    Bobble heads had become quite popular, depicting all sorts of sports figures, animals, and even presidents. In this article, the author describes how her fourth graders made bobble head sculptures out of empty plastic drink bottles. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  12. Art and Plastic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Julio Wilson; Metka, Susanne

    2016-04-01

    The roots of science and art of plastic surgery are very antique. Anatomy, drawing, painting, and sculpting have been very important to the surgery and medicine development over the centuries. Artistic skills besides shape, volume, and lines perception can be a practical aid to the plastic surgeons' daily work. An overview about the interactions between art and plastic surgery is presented, with a few applications to rhinoplasty, cleft lip, and other reconstructive plastic surgeries. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266.

  13. Coating materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozeki, Takao; Kimura, Tadashi; Kobayashi, Juichi; Maeda, Yutaka; Nakamoto, Hideo.

    1969-01-01

    A non-solvent type coating material composition having properties as good as thermosetting acrylic or amino alkid resins is provided by employing active energy irradiation, particularly electron beams, using a radically polymerizable low molecular compound (A) (hereafter called an oligomer) containing at least two vinyl radicals in one molecule. This oligomer is produced by reacting an epoxy-containing vinyl monomer with alpha-, beta-ethylene unsaturated carboxylic acids or their anhydrides. The composition (I) contains 10% - 100% of this oligomer. In embodiments, an oligomer having a fiberous trivinyl construction is produced by reacting 180 parts by weight of glycidyl methacrylate ester with 130 parts of itaconic acid in the presence of a polymerization-inhibitor and an addition reaction catalyst at 90 0 C for 6 hours. In practice, the coating material compositions (1), consist of the whole oligomer [I-1]; (2), consist of 10-90% of (A) component and 90%-10% of vinyl monomers containing at least 30% (meth) acrylic monomer [I-2]; (3), 10%-90% of component (A) and 90%-10% of other monomers containing at least two vinyl radicals [I-3]; (4), a mixture of (I-2) and (I-3), [I-4]; and (5), consist of 50% or less unsaturated polyester of 500-5,000 molecular weight range or drying oil, or alkyd resin of 500-5,000 molecular weight range modified by drying oil, [I-5]. As a catalyst a tertiary amino vinyl compound is preferred. Five examples are given. (Iwakiri, K.)

  14. Elasto-plastic bond mechanics of embedded fiber optic sensors in concrete under uniaxial tension with strain localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingbin; Li, Guang; Wang, Guanglun

    2003-12-01

    Brittleness of the glass core inside fiber optic sensors limits their practical usage, and therefore they are coated with low-modulus softer protective materials. Protective coatings absorb a portion of the strain, and hence part of the structural strain is sensed. The study reported here corrects for this error through development of a theoretical model to account for the loss of strain in the protective coating of optical fibers. The model considers the coating as an elasto-plastic material and formulates strain transfer coefficients for elastic, elasto-plastic and strain localization phases of coating deformations in strain localization in concrete. The theoretical findings were verified through laboratory experimentation. The experimental program involved fabrication of interferometric optical fiber sensors, embedding within mortar samples and tensile tests in a closed-loop servo-hydraulic testing machine. The elasto-plastic strain transfer coefficients were employed for correction of optical fiber sensor data and results were compared with those of conventional extensometers.

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF PLASTIC SURGERY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pećanac, Marija Đ

    2015-01-01

    Plastic surgery is a medical specialty dealing with corrections of defects, improvements in appearance and restoration of lost function. Ancient times. The first recorded account of reconstructive plastic surgery was found in ancient Indian Sanskrit texts, which described reconstructive surgeries of the nose and ears. In ancient Greece and Rome, many medicine men performed simple plastic cosmetic surgeries to repair damaged parts of the body caused by war mutilation, punishment or humiliation. In the Middle Ages, the development of all medical braches, including plastic surgery was hindered. New age. The interest in surgical reconstruction of mutilated body parts was renewed in the XVIII century by a great number of enthusiastic and charismatic surgeons, who mastered surgical disciplines and became true artists that created new forms. Modern era. In the XX century, plastic surgery developed as a modern branch in medicine including many types of reconstructive surgery, hand, head and neck surgery, microsurgery and replantation, treatment of burns and their sequelae, and esthetic surgery. Contemporary and future plastic surgery will continue to evolve and improve with regenerative medicine and tissue engineering resulting in a lot of benefits to be gained by patients in reconstruction after body trauma, oncology amputation, and for congenital disfigurement and dysfunction.

  16. Recycling of packing plastics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gintenreiter-Koegl, S.

    2001-05-01

    The ordinance on the avoidance of packaging waste was a serious intervention in the public and private waste management in Austria. Above all the high expenses for an overall packaging waste collection and the recycling of packaging plastics were criticized. The landfill ordinance comes into force in 2004 and this means another major change in the Austrian waste management system. In the course of this change the overall collection and the recycling and recovery of waste streams, especially of the high caloric plastics waste, have to be discussed again. The goal of this work was on the one hand to develop and adapt the hydrocracking process for the recovery of mixed plastics waste and to show a possible application in Austria. On the other hand the work shows the technical, ecological and economical conditions for packaging plastics recycling and recovery in order to find optimum applications for the processes and to examine their contribution to a sustainable development. A hydrocracking test plant for the processing of mixed plastic wastes was built and had been running for about three years. The tests were carried out successfully and the suitability of the technology for the recovery of packaging plastics could be shown. Results show at least a 35 % yield of fuel. The hydrocracking technology is quite common in the oil industries and therefore an integration on a refinery site is suggested. (author)

  17. Contact-free sheet resistance determination of large area graphene layers by an open dielectric loaded microwave cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaforost, O.; Wang, K.; Adabi, M.; Guo, Z.; Hanham, S.; Klein, N.; Goniszewski, S.; Gallop, J.; Hao, L.

    2015-01-01

    A method for contact-free determination of the sheet resistance of large-area and arbitrary shaped wafers or sheets coated with graphene and other (semi) conducting ultrathin layers is described, which is based on an open dielectric loaded microwave cavity. The sample under test is exposed to the evanescent resonant field outside the cavity. A comparison with a closed cavity configuration revealed that radiation losses have no significant influence of the experimental results. Moreover, the microwave sheet resistance results show good agreement with the dc conductivity determined by four-probe van der Pauw measurements on a set of CVD samples transferred on quartz. As an example of a practical application, correlations between the sheet resistance and deposition conditions for CVD graphene transferred on quartz wafers are described. Our method has a high potential as measurement standard for contact-free sheet resistance measurement and mapping of large area graphene samples

  18. Coatings and Corrosion Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The mission of the Coatings and Corrosion Laboratory is to develop and analyze the effectiveness of innovative coatings test procedures while evaluating the...

  19. Learning from Balance Sheet Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanlamai, Uthai; Soongswang, Oranuj

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study examines alternative visuals and their effect on the level of learning of balance sheet users. Executive and regular classes of graduate students majoring in information technology in business were asked to evaluate the extent of acceptance and enhanced capability of these alternative visuals toward their learning…

  20. Off-Balance Sheet Financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Matthew C.

    1998-01-01

    Examines off-balance sheet financing, the facilities use of outsourcing for selected needs, as a means of saving operational costs and using facility assets efficiently. Examples of using outside sources for energy supply and food services, as well as partnering with business for facility expansion are provided. Concluding comments address tax…

  1. Work of plastic deformation in local zone of crack apex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gol'tsev, V.Yu.; Matvienko, Yu.G.; Rivkin, E.Yu.

    1981-01-01

    For substantiating application of criteria of viscous fracture and deeoer understanding of this. process one should know strain distribution and energy consumption for plastic deformation in crack top zone. For this purpose plane samples of 300x70x1.5 mm dimension with central notch of 23, 36 and 46 mm length have been subjected to tensile testing. The samples have been cut out from sheet steel 1Kh18N9T perpendicularly to the rolling direction. It is shown that the suggested viscous fracture conception ensures general approach to the viscous and elastoplastic fracture based on the concept on specific work of plastic deformation in the localized zone νsub(l). The νsub(l) value characterizes maximum plastic material energy consumption and may serve as criterion of viscous material fracture parallel to the critical opening of the deltasub(c) crack top

  2. Studies in Cup Drawing Behavior of Polymer Laminated Sheet Metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnagmi, M.; Jain, M.; Bruhis, M.; Nielsen, K.

    2011-08-01

    Axisymmetric deep drawing behavior of a polymer laminated sheet metal (PLSM) is investigated using an axisymmetric cup drawing test. PLSMs are of interest as a replacement for painted finishes for automotive applications as they have the potential to achieve good quality long lasting and aesthetically appealing surfaces on stamped parts. However, there is limited understanding of PLSMs in automotive deep drawing situations to produce complex 3-D parts. The tests are carried out using well-controlled, laboratory-based, dual-action, servo-hydraulic forming presses under blank-holder force and punch displacement control conditions. An optical strain mapping system is used to measure the surface strains (and to construct 3D strain maps) from the film side of the deformed samples for a range of forming conditions. Deep drawing characteristics such as punch load versus punch displacement traces, strain distribution along the cup profile, flange wrinkling and fracture characteristics are experimentally assessed for stainless steel-plastic film laminated sheet materials. Also the effect of lamination pressure on wrinkling and delamination is investigated for a decorative pressure sensitive adhesive film affixed to the stainless steel sheet.

  3. The coating of surfaces for use in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This Code of Practice provides general advice to designers and others on the factors affecting the choice of coating for use within the nuclear industry. It itemises those design features, which are pertinent to facilitating decontamination and specifies the optimum generic types of coating for a variety of working conditions. Data sheets on commercially available products are included in Section 6 of the Code under the appropriate generic type. Information provided on the data sheets includes a measure of the ease of decontamination of the coating using the accepted method of testing (currently as specified in BS 4247 Part 1) and other nuclear information, where available, i.e. radiation resistance, exhalation rate for radionuclide gases radon and thoron. It also indicates the more important conventional properties of the product. (author)

  4. Graphene Coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoot, Adam Carsten; Camilli, Luca; Bøggild, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Owing to its remarkable electrical and mechanical properties, graphene has been attracting tremendous interest in materials science. In particular, its chemical stability and impermeability make it a promising protective membrane. However, recent investigations reveal that single layer graphene...... cannot be used as a barrier in the long run, due to galvanic corrosion phenomena arising when oxygen or water penetrate through graphene cracks or domain boundaries. Here, we overcome this issue by using a multilayered (ML) graphene coating. Our lab- as well as industrial-scale tests demonstrate that ML...... graphene can effectively protect Ni in harsh environments, even after long term exposure. This is made possible by the presence of a high number of graphene layers, which can efficiently mask the cracks and domain boundaries defects found in individual layers of graphene. Our findings thus show...

  5. Coating materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozeki, Takao; Kimura, Tadashi; Kobayashi, Juichi; Maeda, Yutaka; Nakamoto, Hideo.

    1969-01-01

    A non-solvent type coating material composition is provided which can be hardened by irradiation with active energy, particularly electron beams, using a composition which contains 10%-100% of a radically polymerizable low molecular compound (A), (hereafter called an oligomer), having at least two vinyl radicals in one molecule. These compositions have a high degree of polymerization and characteristics equivalent to thermosetting acrylic or amino alkyd resin. The oligomer (A) is produced by reacting an epoxy-containing vinyl monomer with saturated polycarboxylic acids or anhydrides. In one embodiment, 146 parts by weight of adipic acid and 280 parts of glycidyl methacrylate ester undergo addition reaction in the presence of a polymerization-inhibitor and a catalyst at 90 0 C for 6 hours to produce an oligomer having a fiberous divinyl construction. The coating composition utilizes this oligomer in the forms of (I-1), a whole oligomer; (I-2), 0%-90% of this oligomer and 90%-10% of a vinyl monomer containing at least 30% of (meth) acrylic monomer; (I-3), 10%-90% of such oligomer and 90%-10% of other monomers containing at least two vinyl radicals in one molecule; (I-4), a mixture of (I-2) and (I-3) in proportion of 1/9 to 9/1, and (I-5), above four compositions each containing 50% or less unsaturated polyester or drying oil having 500-5,000 molecules or a drying oil-modified alkyd resin having 500-5,000 molecules. Four examples are given. (Iwakiri, K.)

  6. Free-form nanostructured tools for plastic injection moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafka, Jan; Sonne, Mads Rostgaard; Lam, Yee Cheong

    realized and successfully transferred to plastic parts during injection moulding.As an example, we present theory and results regarding the imprint of pillar nanostructures on a semi-spherical mold surface, followed by injection molding of the same. The deformation of the flexible stamp is characterized...... by measurement of inter-pillar distance on various points on the sphere, and compared to predictions provided by a geometrical model. Moulded plastic parts show good replication of the pillar structure.There are various practical advantages to the new process: the application of the coating is possible on both...

  7. A Conservative Formulation for Plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    concepts that apply to a broad class of macroscopic models: plastic deformation and plastic flow rule. CONSERVATIVE PLASTICITY 469 3a. Plastic Defrrnation...temperature. We illustrate these concepts with a model that has been used to describe high strain-rate plastic flow in metals [11, 31, 32]. In the case...JOURDREN, AND P. VEYSSEYRE. Un Modele ttyperelastique- Plastique Euldrien Applicable aux Grandes Dtformations: Que/ques R~sultats 1-D. preprint, 1991. 2. P

  8. Graphene: powder, flakes, ribbons, and sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Dustin K; Tour, James M

    2013-10-15

    Graphene's unique physical and electrical properties (high tensile strength, Young's modulus, electron mobility, and thermal conductivity) have led to its nickname of "super carbon." Graphene research involves the study of several different physical forms of the material: powders, flakes, ribbons, and sheets and others not yet named or imagined. Within those forms, graphene can include a single layer, two layers, or ≤10 sheets of sp² carbon atoms. The chemistry and applications available with graphene depend on both the physical form of the graphene and the number of layers in the material. Therefore the available permutations of graphene are numerous, and we will discuss a subset of this work, covering some of our research on the synthesis and use of many of the different physical and layered forms of graphene. Initially, we worked with commercially available graphite, with which we extended diazonium chemistry developed to functionalize single-walled carbon nanotubes to produce graphitic materials. These structures were soluble in common organic solvents and were better dispersed in composites. We developed an improved synthesis of graphene oxide (GO) and explored how the workup protocol for the synthesis of GO can change the electronic structure and chemical functionality of the GO product. We also developed a method to remove graphene layers one-by-one from flakes. These powders and sheets of GO can serve as fluid loss prevention additives in drilling fluids for the oil industry. Graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) combine small width with long length, producing valuable electronic and physical properties. We developed two complementary syntheses of GNRs from multiwalled carbon nanotubes: one simple oxidative method that produces GNRs with some defects and one reductive method that produces GNRs that are less defective and more electrically conductive. These GNRs can be used in low-loss, high permittivity composites, as conductive reinforcement coatings on Kevlar

  9. Scalable Coating and Properties of Transparent, Flexible, Silver Nanowire Electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Hu, Liangbing

    2010-05-25

    We report a comprehensive study of transparent and conductive silver nanowire (Ag NW) electrodes, including a scalable fabrication process, morphologies, and optical, mechanical adhesion, and flexibility properties, and various routes to improve the performance. We utilized a synthesis specifically designed for long and thin wires for improved performance in terms of sheet resistance and optical transmittance. Twenty Ω/sq and ∼ 80% specular transmittance, and 8 ohms/sq and 80% diffusive transmittance in the visible range are achieved, which fall in the same range as the best indium tin oxide (ITO) samples on plastic substrates for flexible electronics and solar cells. The Ag NW electrodes show optical transparencies superior to ITO for near-infrared wavelengths (2-fold higher transmission). Owing to light scattering effects, the Ag NW network has the largest difference between diffusive transmittance and specular transmittance when compared with ITO and carbon nanotube electrodes, a property which could greatly enhance solar cell performance. A mechanical study shows that Ag NW electrodes on flexible substrates show excellent robustness when subjected to bending. We also study the electrical conductance of Ag nanowires and their junctions and report a facile electrochemical method for a Au coating to reduce the wire-to-wire junction resistance for better overall film conductance. Simple mechanical pressing was also found to increase the NW film conductance due to the reduction of junction resistance. The overall properties of transparent Ag NW electrodes meet the requirements of transparent electrodes for many applications and could be an immediate ITO replacement for flexible electronics and solar cells. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  10. Scalable Coating and Properties of Transparent, Flexible, Silver Nanowire Electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Hu, Liangbing; Kim, Han Sun; Lee, Jung-Yong; Peumans, Peter; Cui, Yi

    2010-01-01

    We report a comprehensive study of transparent and conductive silver nanowire (Ag NW) electrodes, including a scalable fabrication process, morphologies, and optical, mechanical adhesion, and flexibility properties, and various routes to improve the performance. We utilized a synthesis specifically designed for long and thin wires for improved performance in terms of sheet resistance and optical transmittance. Twenty Ω/sq and ∼ 80% specular transmittance, and 8 ohms/sq and 80% diffusive transmittance in the visible range are achieved, which fall in the same range as the best indium tin oxide (ITO) samples on plastic substrates for flexible electronics and solar cells. The Ag NW electrodes show optical transparencies superior to ITO for near-infrared wavelengths (2-fold higher transmission). Owing to light scattering effects, the Ag NW network has the largest difference between diffusive transmittance and specular transmittance when compared with ITO and carbon nanotube electrodes, a property which could greatly enhance solar cell performance. A mechanical study shows that Ag NW electrodes on flexible substrates show excellent robustness when subjected to bending. We also study the electrical conductance of Ag nanowires and their junctions and report a facile electrochemical method for a Au coating to reduce the wire-to-wire junction resistance for better overall film conductance. Simple mechanical pressing was also found to increase the NW film conductance due to the reduction of junction resistance. The overall properties of transparent Ag NW electrodes meet the requirements of transparent electrodes for many applications and could be an immediate ITO replacement for flexible electronics and solar cells. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  11. Whooping Cough (Pertussis) - Fact Sheet for Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... months 4 through 6 years Fact Sheet for Parents Color [2 pages] Español: Tosferina (pertussis) The best ... according to the recommended schedule. Fact Sheets for Parents Diseases and the Vaccines that Prevent Them Chickenpox ...

  12. Design of surface texture for improved control of friction and formability of aluminum sheet products for automotive applications. Final technical report for period September 15, 1996 - July 14, 2000; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anand, L.

    2001-01-01

    The frictional properties of interfaces are of interest in a broad range of applications. We have formulated a new plasticity model for interface friction and applied it to represent the frictional characteristics of A16111-T4 sheet against D2 tool steel for sheet forming applications

  13. Plastic Optical Fiber Sensing of Alcohol Concentration in Liquors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Morisawa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple optical fiber sensing system of alcohol concentration in liquors has been studied. In this sensor head, a mixture polymer of novolac resin and polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF with a ratio of 9 : 1 was coated as a sensitive cladding layer on the plastic fiber core made of polystyrene-(PS-coated polycarbonate (PC. Using this sensor head and a green LED light source, it was confirmed that alcohol concentration in several kinds of liquors from beer to whisky can easily be measured with a fast response time less than 1 minute.

  14. Plastic Optical Fiber Sensing of Alcohol Concentration in Liquors

    OpenAIRE

    Masayuki Morisawa; Shinzo Muto

    2012-01-01

    A simple optical fiber sensing system of alcohol concentration in liquors has been studied. In this sensor head, a mixture polymer of novolac resin and polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF) with a ratio of 9 : 1 was coated as a sensitive cladding layer on the plastic fiber core made of polystyrene-(PS-)coated polycarbonate (PC). Using this sensor head and a green LED light source, it was confirmed that alcohol concentration in several kinds of liquors from beer to whisky can easily be measured with a...

  15. Transfer coating by electron initiated polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nablo, S.V.

    1984-01-01

    The high speed and depth of cure possible with electron initiated monomer/oligomer coating systems provide many new opportunities for approaches to product finishing. Moreover, the use of transfer or cast coating using films or metallic surfaces offers the ability to precisely control the surface topology of liquid film surfaces during polymerization. Transfer coating such as with textiles has been a commercial process for many years and the synergistic addition of EB technology permits the manufacture of unusual new products. One of these, the casting paper used in the manufacture of vinyl and urethane fabrics, is the first EB application to use a drum surface for pattern replication in the coating. In this case the coated paper is cured against, and then released from, an engraved drum surface. Recent developments in the use of plastic films for transfer have been applied to the manufacture of transfer metallized and coated paper and paperboard products for packaging. Details of these and related processes are presented as well as a discussion of the typical product areas (e.g. photographic papers, release papers, magnetic media) using this high speed transfer technology

  16. Transfer coating by electron initiated polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nablo, S.V.

    1985-01-01

    The high speed and depth of cure possible with electron initiated monomer/oligomer coating systems provide many new opportunities for approaches to product finishing. Moreover, the use of transfer or cast coating using films or metallic surfaces offers the ability to precisely control the surface topology of liquid film surfaces during polymerization. Transfer coating such as with textiles has been a commercial process for many years and the synergistic addition of EB technology permits the manufacture of unusual new products. One of these, the casting paper used in the manufacture of vinyl and urethane fabrics, is the first EB application to use a drum surface for pattern replication in the coating. In this case the coated paper is cured against, and then released from, an engraved drum surface. Recent developments in the use of plastic films for transfer have been applied to the manufacture of transfer metallized and coated paper and paperboard products for packaging. Details of these and related processes will be presented as well as a discussion of the typical product areas using this high speed transfer technology. (author)

  17. Bio-Based Coatings for Paper Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibhore Kumar Rastogi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The barrier resistance and wettability of papers are commonly controlled by the application of petroleum-based derivatives such as polyethylene, waxes and/or fluor- derivatives as coating. While surface hydrophobicity is improved by employing these polymers, they have become disfavored due to limitations in fossil-oil resources, poor recyclability, and environmental concerns on generated waste with lack of biodegradation. Alternatively, biopolymers including polysaccharides, proteins, lipids and polyesters can be used to formulate new pathways for fully bio-based paper coatings. However, difficulties in processing of most biopolymers may arise due to hydrophilicity, crystallization behavior, brittleness or melt instabilities that hinder a full exploitation at industrial scale. Therefore, blending with other biopolymers, plasticizers and compatibilizers is advantageous to improve the coating performance. In this paper, an overview of barrier properties and processing of bio-based polymers and their composites as paper coating will be discussed. In particular, recent technical advances in nanotechnological routes for bio-based nano- composite coatings will be summarized, including the use of biopolymer nanoparticles, or nanofillers such as nanoclay and nanocellulose. The combination of biopolymers along with surface modification of nanofillers can be used to create hierarchical structures that enhance hydrophobicity, complete barrier protection and functionalities of coated papers.

  18. Effect of strain path change on limits to ductility of anisotropic metal sheets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuroda, M.; Tvergaard, Viggo

    2000-01-01

    of the anisotropic plasticity models, and it is shown that elastic straining plays a large role, as the stresses quickly move from one point of the yield surface to another. When the load is removed between steps, the stress point moves in a different manner, which results in quite different flow localization......Localized necking in thin metal sheets is analyzed by using the M-K-model approach, and the effect of a number of different non-proportional strain paths prior to the occurrence flow localization are considered. The analyses account for plastic anisotropy, using four different anisotropic...

  19. Forming limit diagrams for anisotropic metal sheets with different yield criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuroda, M.; Tvergaard, Viggo

    2000-01-01

    For thin metal sheets subject to stretching under various in-plane tensile stress histories, localized necking is analyzed by using the M-K-model approach, and forming limit diagrams are drawn based on the critical strains for localization. The analyses account for plastic anisotropy......, and predictions are shown based on four different anisotropic plasticity models, which have all been fitted to agree with the same set of experimental data. Situations where the tensile axis is along one of the orthotropic axes of the anisotropy are studied, as well as situations where the tensile axis...

  20. Rupture of nanoscaled water sheets in the presence of an applied electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopan, Nandu, E-mail: nandug@jncasr.ac.in [Engineering Mechanics Unit, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Jakkur, Bangalore-560 064 (India)

    2016-12-15

    Understanding the behaviour of water sheets is relevant in numerous areas, such as thin film coating and atomisation. The rupture of planar liquid sheets are interesting due to the fact that they are objects of co-dimension 1. Previous work seems to suggest that a generic route to liquid structure fragmentation is via liquid sheets. The interplay between inertia, surface tension and viscosity is crucial in determining the dynamics of liquid sheets at a macro scale. At the nanoscale, where thermal fluctuations are expected to play a dominant role, the dynamics become more interesting. The stability and rupture dynamics of nanoscaled water sheets, at constant temperature, are studied using constrained molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The SPC/E potential with long range electrostatics is used to simulate water molecules. The effect of an applied electric field on the stability of the nanoscaled water sheet forms the focus of this study. The effect of the initial configuration is studied by changing the random seed values used for velocity initialisation. The effect of sheet thickness on the rupture dynamics is also explored. It is seen that when large electric fields (5 V/nm) act across very thin sheets (1 layer), then breakup into multiple ellipsoidal structures is a possibility, and the response of the fluid structure to the applied electric field is non-linear. Furthermore, it is seen that Taylor's predictions for the critical electric field intensity, based on classical electro-hydrodynamics for the onset of instability in macroscopic drops, scales surprisingly well for the case of nanoscaled sheets. (paper)

  1. Enhanced ductility in thermally sprayed titania coating synthesized using a nanostructured feedstock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, R.S.; Marple, B.R.

    2005-01-01

    Nanostructured and conventional titania (TiO 2 ) feedstock powders were thermally sprayed via high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF). The microstructure, porosity, Vickers hardness, crack propagation resistance, bond strength (ASTM C633), abrasion behavior (ASTM G65) and the wear scar characteristics of these two types of coatings were analyzed and compared. The coating made from the nanostructured feedstock exhibited a bimodal microstructure, with regions containing particles that were fully molten (conventional matrix) and regions with embedded particles that were semi-molten (nanostructured zones) during the thermal spraying process. The bimodal coating also exhibited higher bond strength and higher wear resistance when compared to the conventional coating. By comparing the wear scars of both coatings (via scanning electron microscopy and roughness measurements) it was observed that when the coatings were subjected to the same abrasive conditions the wear scar of the bimodal coating was smoother, with more plastically deformed regions than the conventional coating. It was concluded that this enhanced ductility of the bimodal coating was caused by its higher toughness. The results suggest that nanostructured zones randomly distributed in the microstructure of the bimodal coating act as crack arresters, thereby enhancing toughness and promoting higher critical depth of cut, which provides a broader plastic deformation range than that exhibited by the conventional coating. This work provides evidence that the enhanced ductility of the bimodal coating is a nanostructured-related property, not caused by any other microstructural artifact

  2. Electrocurtain coating process for coating solar mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabagambe, Benjamin; Boyd, Donald W.; Buchanan, Michael J.; Kelly, Patrick; Kutilek, Luke A.; McCamy, James W.; McPheron, Douglas A.; Orosz, Gary R.; Limbacher, Raymond D.

    2013-10-15

    An electrically conductive protective coating or film is provided over the surface of a reflective coating of a solar mirror by flowing or directing a cation containing liquid and an anion containing liquid onto the conductive surface. The cation and the anion containing liquids are spaced from, and preferably out of contact with one another on the surface of the reflective coating as an electric current is moved through the anion containing liquid, the conductive surface between the liquids and the cation containing liquid to coat the conductive surface with the electrically conductive coating.

  3. The plasticity of clays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Group, F.F.

    1905-01-01

    (1) Sand injures plasticity little at first because the grains are suspended in a plastic mass. It is only when grains are abundant enough to come in contact with their neighbors, that the effect becomes serious, and then both strength and amount of possible flow are injured. (2) Certain rare organic colloids increase the plasticity by rendering the water viscous. (3) Fineness also tends to increase plasticity. (4) Plane surfaces (plates) increase the amount of possible flow. They also give a chance for lubrication by thinner films, thus increasing the friction of film, and the strength of the whole mass. The action of plates is thus twofold ; but fineness may be carried to such an extent as to break up plate-like grains into angular fragments. The beneficial effects of plates are also decreased by the fact that each is so closely surrounded by others in the mass. (5) Molecular attraction is twofold in increasing plasticity. As the attraction increases, the coherence and strength of the mass increase, and the amount of possible deformation before crumbling also increases. Fineness increases this action by requiring more water. Colloids and crystalloids in solution may also increase the attraction. It is thus seen to be more active than any other single factor.

  4. 21 CFR 880.5180 - Burn sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Burn sheet. 880.5180 Section 880.5180 Food and... Burn sheet. (a) Identification. A burn sheet is a device made of a porous material that is wrapped aroung a burn victim to retain body heat, to absorb wound exudate, and to serve as a barrier against...

  5. Manifold free multiple sheet superplastic forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, John W.; Bridges, Robert L.

    2004-01-13

    Fluid-forming compositions in a container attached to enclosed adjacent sheets are heated to relatively high temperatures to generate fluids (gases) that effect inflation of the sheets. Fluid rates to the enclosed space between the sheets can be regulated by the canal from the container. Inflated articles can be produced by a continuous, rather than batch-type, process.

  6. On the possible eigenoscillations of neutral sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, W.A.; Costa, J.M. da; Aruquipa, E.G.; Sudano, J.P.

    1974-12-01

    A neutral sheet model with hyperbolic tangent equilibrium magnetic field and hyperbolic square secant density profiles is considered. It is shown that the equation for small oscillations takes the form of an eigenvalue oscillation problem. Computed eigenfrequencies of the geomagnetic neutral sheet were found to be in the range of the resonant frequencies of the geomagnetic plasma sheet computed by other authors

  7. Plastic evolution behavior of H340LAD-Z steel by an optical method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Nan; Liang, Jin; Yu, Qiang; Qian, Boxing

    2017-02-01

    An optical method based on digital image correlation (DIC) technology was proposed to measure the plastic evolution of the high-strength low alloy steel H340LAD-Z. The basic principle of DIC technology is introduced, and then, the use of a 3D deformation measurement system and electronic universal testing machine to dynamically measure plastic evolution during the tensile yield stage is described. Through the full-field full-process measurement of plastic deformation during the yield stage in the 0°, 45° and 90° loading directions, the plastic evolution law was revealed. The results demonstrate that the proposed 3D DIC method can accurately reveal the starting and ending times for plastic evolution. The specimens in the three directions exhibit different plastic evolution behaviors, although they have similar yield strengths and yield times. The specimens in the 45° and 90° loading directions began to enter plastic deformation from bottom to top and the plastic area was maintained in a constant deformed state, while the evolution behavior in the 0° direction transited from both sides to the middle and plastic deformation was uneven. It is important to study plastic evolution of a metal sheet to determine the material properties and to provide an accurate basis for finite element modeling.

  8. Plastic evolution behavior of H340LAD-Z steel by an optical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Nan; Liang, Jin; Yu, Qiang; Qian, Boxing

    2017-01-01

    An optical method based on digital image correlation (DIC) technology was proposed to measure the plastic evolution of the high-strength low alloy steel H340LAD-Z. The basic principle of DIC technology is introduced, and then, the use of a 3D deformation measurement system and electronic universal testing machine to dynamically measure plastic evolution during the tensile yield stage is described. Through the full-field full-process measurement of plastic deformation during the yield stage in the 0°, 45° and 90° loading directions, the plastic evolution law was revealed. The results demonstrate that the proposed 3D DIC method can accurately reveal the starting and ending times for plastic evolution. The specimens in the three directions exhibit different plastic evolution behaviors, although they have similar yield strengths and yield times. The specimens in the 45° and 90° loading directions began to enter plastic deformation from bottom to top and the plastic area was maintained in a constant deformed state, while the evolution behavior in the 0° direction transited from both sides to the middle and plastic deformation was uneven. It is important to study plastic evolution of a metal sheet to determine the material properties and to provide an accurate basis for finite element modeling.

  9. Hard coatings by plasma CVD on polycarbonate for automotive and optical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmauder, T.; Nauenburg, K.-D.; Kruse, K.; Ickes, G.

    2006-01-01

    In many applications, plastic surfaces need coatings as a protection against abrasion or weathering. Leybold Optics is developing Plasma CVD processes and machinery for transparent hard coatings (THC) for polycarbonate parts. In this paper we present the current features and remaining challenges of this technique. The coatings generally show excellent adhesion. Abrasion resistance is superior to commonly used lacquers. Climate durability of the coating has been improved to pass the tests demanded by automotive specifications. Current activities are focused on improving the durability under exposure to UV radiation. Estimations show that our high-rate plasma CVD hard coating process is also economically competitive to lacquering

  10. Finite element analysis of interface stress between neutron absorption coating and chop disk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Changliang; Zhang Xiaozhang; Jiang Lei; Dai Xingjian

    2012-01-01

    The performance of disk chopper is directly affected by bond strength between neutron absorption coating and chop disk. Based on the finite element analysis software ANSYS, the interface stress distribution under high speed centrifugal load was calculated, which was to investigate the effects of coating's elastic modulus, poisson ratio and coating thickness on the interfacial stress distribution. The results show that soft and tough coating can reduce the peak stress effectively, and coating thickness reducing is helpful to avoid the plastic failure of opening in the disk under high speed centrifugal load. (authors)

  11. Low Temperature Powder Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) • Legacy primers contain hexavalent chrome • Conventional powder coatings...coatings both in laboratory and field service evaluations • LTCPC allows environmental cost reductions through VOC/HAP elimination and hexavalent ... chrome reduction. • The LTCPC process greatly shortens the coating operation (LTCPC cures much more rapidly then conventional wet coatings) resulting in

  12. Parameter optimization and stretch enhancement of AISI 316 sheet using rapid prototyping technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moayedfar, M.; Rani, A. M.; Hanaei, H.; Ahmad, A.; Tale, A.

    2017-10-01

    Incremental sheet forming is a flexible manufacturing process which uses the indenter point-to-point force to shape the sheet metal workpiece into manufactured parts in batch production series. However, the problem sometimes arising from this process is the low plastic point in the stress-strain diagram of the material which leads the low stretching amount before ultra-tensile strain point. Hence, a set of experiments is designed to find the optimum forming parameters in this process for optimum sheet thickness distribution while both sides of the sheet are considered for the surface quality improvement. A five-axis high-speed CNC milling machine is employed to deliver the proper motion based on the programming system while the clamping system for holding the sheet metal was a blank mould. Finally, an electron microscope and roughness machine are utilized to evaluate the surface structure of final parts, illustrate any defect may cause during the forming process and examine the roughness of the final part surface accordingly. The best interaction between parameters is obtained with the optimum values which lead the maximum sheet thickness distribution of 4.211e-01 logarithmic elongation when the depth was 24mm with respect to the design. This study demonstrates that this rapid forming method offers an alternative solution for surface quality improvement of 65% avoiding the low probability of cracks and low probability of crystal structure changes.

  13. Experimental study of fiber-glass plastic work pieces contour milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trushin, N. N.; Lisitsin, V. N.

    2018-03-01

    The article represents the results of study of cut and feed speed influence on wear of monolithic hard alloy end milling cutter during cutting of foiled fiber-glass plastic sheets, used for printed-circuit boards’ production. The peculiarities and problems of cutting layered materials are described. The most effective feed and cut speed values are determined by cutter wear analysis.

  14. Plastic Coatings and Wraps for New Marine Timber Piling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-01

    1985 Tema Nauclea diderrichii - (F.F.K. Ampong) June 1985 Sekondi untreated 4 ITALY Pinus sylvestris (Anna Gambetta) untreated Follonica 5 Malaysia...West) (K. DaIjeet Singh) 6 Malaysia (East) (C. Chan) 7 NEW ZEALAND April 1986 Pinus radiata sapwood (D.V. Plackett) (See IRG/WP/4121). Tauranga Harbour...interfering with final curing process. CLEANING: Tools and equipment should be cleaned prior to curing of the product with methylene chloride, methyl ethyl

  15. Replacing fossil based plastic performance products by bio-based plastic products-Technical feasibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Oever, Martien; Molenveld, Karin

    2017-07-25

    Larger scale market introduction of new bio-based products requires a clear advantage regarding sustainability, as well as an adequate techno-economic positioning relative to fossil based products. In a previous paper [Broeren et al., 2016], LCA results per kg and per functionality equivalent of bio-based plastics were presented, together with economic considerations. The present paper discusses the mechanical and thermal properties of a range of commercially available bio-based plastics based on polylactic acid (PLA), cellulose esters, starch and polyamides, and the feasibility of replacing fossil-based counterparts based on performance. The evaluation is approached from an end user perspective. First, potentially suitable bio-based plastics are selected based on manufacturers' specifications in technical data sheets, then a first experimental evaluation is performed on injection moulded ISO specimens, and finally a further selection of plastics is tested on large 50×70cm panels. This technical feasibility study indicates that so far bio-based plastics do not completely match the properties of high performance materials like flame retardant V-0 PC/ABS blends used in electronic devices. The performance gap is being decreased by the development of stereocomplex PLA and hybrid PLA blends with polycarbonate, which offer clearly improved properties with respect to maximum usage temperature and toughness. In addition, several materials meet the V-0 flammability requirements needed in specific durable applications. On the other hand, improving these properties so far has negative consequences for the bio-based content. This study also shows that replacement of bulk polymers like PS is feasible using PLA compounds with a bio-based content as high as 85%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Prediction Of Formability In Sheet Metal Forming Processes Using A Local Damage Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, P.; Santos, Abel; Cesar Sa, J.; Andrade Pires, F.; Barata da Rocha, A.

    2007-01-01

    The formability in sheet metal forming processes is mainly conditioned by ductile fracture resulting from geometric instabilities due to necking and strain localization. The macroscopic collapse associated with ductile failure is a result of internal degradation described throughout metallographic observations by the nucleation, growth and coalescence of voids and micro-cracks. Damage influences and is influenced by plastic deformation and therefore these two dissipative phenomena should be coupled at the constitutive level. In this contribution, Lemaitre's ductile damage model is coupled with Hill's orthotropic plasticity criterion. The coupling between damaging and material behavior is accounted for within the framework of Continuum Damage Mechanics (CDM). The resulting constitutive equations are implemented in the Abaqus/Explicit code, for the prediction of fracture onset in sheet metal forming processes. The damage evolution law takes into account the important effect of micro-crack closure, which dramatically decreases the rate of damage growth under compressive paths

  17. Applications of thin carbon coatings and films in injection molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Eusebio Duarte

    In this research, the technical feasibility of two novel applications of thin carbon coatings is demonstrated. The first application consists of using thin carbon coatings on molds for molding ultra-thin plastic parts (graphene coating with carbide bonding to the mold surface. The coating resulted in a significant decrease of surface friction and consequently easiness of flow when compared to their uncoated counterparts. Thermoplastic polymers and their composites are a very attractive alternative but are hindered by the non-conductive nature of polymers. There are two general approaches used to date to achieve EMI shielding for plastic products. One is to spray a conductive metal coating onto the plastic surface forming a layer that must maintain its shielding effectiveness (SE), and its adhesion to the plastic throughout the expected life of the product. However, metal coatings add undesirable weight and tend to corrode over time. Furthermore, scratching the coating may create shielding failure; therefore, a protective topcoat may be required. The other approach is to use polymer composites filled with conductive fillers such as carbon black (CB), carbon nanofiber (CNF), and carbon nanotube (CNT). While conductive fillers may increase the electrical conductivity of polymer composites, the loading of such fillers often cannot reach a high level (painting using carbon black (CB). Such process can also be applied to injection molding for creating a top conductive layer. Increasing the amount of CB will increase the surface conductivity of the coated part, thus improving the paint transfer efficiency. However the CB levels needed to achieve the conductivity levels required for achieving EMI shielding would make the coating viscosity too large for proper coating. Nanopaper based composites are excellent candidates for EMI shielding because of the nanopaper's high concentration of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) (~2 wt% to 10 wt% depending on nanopaper/thermoplastic thickness

  18. Geometry of thin liquid sheet flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, Donald L.; Calfo, Frederick D.; Mcconley, Marc W.; Mcmaster, Matthew S.; Afjeh, Abdollah A.

    1994-01-01

    Incompresible, thin sheet flows have been of research interest for many years. Those studies were mainly concerned with the stability of the flow in a surrounding gas. Squire was the first to carry out a linear, invicid stability analysis of sheet flow in air and compare the results with experiment. Dombrowski and Fraser did an experimental study of the disintegration of sheet flows using several viscous liquids. They also detected the formulation of holes in their sheet flows. Hagerty and Shea carried out an inviscid stability analysis and calculated growth rates with experimental values. They compared their calculated growth rates with experimental values. Taylor studied extensively the stability of thin liquid sheets both theoretically and experimentally. He showed that thin sheets in a vacuum are stable. Brown experimentally investigated thin liquid sheet flows as a method of application of thin films. Clark and Dumbrowski carried out second-order stability analysis for invicid sheet flows. Lin introduced viscosity into the linear stability analysis of thin sheet flows in a vacuum. Mansour and Chigier conducted an experimental study of the breakup of a sheet flow surrounded by high-speed air. Lin et al. did a linear stability analysis that included viscosity and a surrounding gas. Rangel and Sirignano carried out both a linear and nonlinear invisid stability analysis that applies for any density ratio between the sheet liquid and the surrounding gas. Now there is renewed interest in sheet flows because of their possible application as low mass radiating surfaces. The objective of this study is to investigate the fluid dynamics of sheet flows that are of interest for a space radiator system. Analytical expressions that govern the sheet geometry are compared with experimental results. Since a space radiator will operate in a vacuum, the analysis does not include any drag force on the sheet flow.

  19. Ice sheet hydrology from observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, Peter [Dept. of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm Univ-, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2010-11-15

    The hydrological systems of ice sheets are complex. Our view of the system is split, largely due to the complexity of observing the systems. Our basic knowledge of processes have been obtained from smaller glaciers and although applicable in general to the larger scales of the ice sheets, ice sheets contain features not observable on smaller glaciers due to their size. The generation of water on the ice sheet surface is well understood and can be satisfactorily modeled. The routing of water from the surface down through the ice is not complicated in terms of procat has been problematic is the way in which the couplings between surface and bed has been accomplished through a kilometer of cold ice, but with the studies on crack propagation and lake drainage on Greenland we are beginning to understand also this process and we know water can be routed through thick cold ice. Water generation at the bed is also well understood but the main problem preventing realistic estimates of water generation is lack of detailed information about geothermal heat fluxes and their geographical distribution beneath the ice. Although some average value for geothermal heat flux may suffice, for many purposes it is important that such values are not applied to sub-regions of significantly higher fluxes. Water generated by geothermal heat constitutes a constant supply and will likely maintain a steady system beneath the ice sheet. Such a system may include subglacial lakes as steady features and reconfiguration of the system is tied to time scales on which the ice sheet geometry changes so as to change pressure gradients in the basal system itself. Large scale re-organization of subglacial drainage systems have been observed beneath ice streams. The stability of an entirely subglacially fed drainage system may hence be perturbed by rapid ice flow. In the case of Antarctic ice streams where such behavior has been observed, the ice streams are underlain by deformable sediments. It is

  20. Periodic folding of viscous sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribe, Neil M.

    2003-09-01

    The periodic folding of a sheet of viscous fluid falling upon a rigid surface is a common fluid mechanical instability that occurs in contexts ranging from food processing to geophysics. Asymptotic thin-layer equations for the combined stretching-bending deformation of a two-dimensional sheet are solved numerically to determine the folding frequency as a function of the sheet’s initial thickness, the pouring speed, the height of fall, and the fluid properties. As the buoyancy increases, the system bifurcates from “forced” folding driven kinematically by fluid extrusion to “free” folding in which viscous resistance to bending is balanced by buoyancy. The systematics of the numerically predicted folding frequency are in good agreement with laboratory experiments.

  1. Ice sheet hydrology from observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansson, Peter

    2010-11-01

    The hydrological systems of ice sheets are complex. Our view of the system is split, largely due to the complexity of observing the systems. Our basic knowledge of processes have been obtained from smaller glaciers and although applicable in general to the larger scales of the ice sheets, ice sheets contain features not observable on smaller glaciers due to their size. The generation of water on the ice sheet surface is well understood and can be satisfactorily modeled. The routing of water from the surface down through the ice is not complicated in terms of procat has been problematic is the way in which the couplings between surface and bed has been accomplished through a kilometer of cold ice, but with the studies on crack propagation and lake drainage on Greenland we are beginning to understand also this process and we know water can be routed through thick cold ice. Water generation at the bed is also well understood but the main problem preventing realistic estimates of water generation is lack of detailed information about geothermal heat fluxes and their geographical distribution beneath the ice. Although some average value for geothermal heat flux may suffice, for many purposes it is important that such values are not applied to sub-regions of significantly higher fluxes. Water generated by geothermal heat constitutes a constant supply and will likely maintain a steady system beneath the ice sheet. Such a system may include subglacial lakes as steady features and reconfiguration of the system is tied to time scales on which the ice sheet geometry changes so as to change pressure gradients in the basal system itself. Large scale re-organization of subglacial drainage systems have been observed beneath ice streams. The stability of an entirely subglacially fed drainage system may hence be perturbed by rapid ice flow. In the case of Antarctic ice streams where such behavior has been observed, the ice streams are underlain by deformable sediments. It is

  2. Using Statistical Analysis Software to Advance Nitro Plasticizer Wettability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shear, Trevor Allan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-29

    Statistical analysis in science is an extremely powerful tool that is often underutilized. Additionally, it is frequently the case that data is misinterpreted or not used to its fullest extent. Utilizing the advanced software JMP®, many aspects of experimental design and data analysis can be evaluated and improved. This overview will detail the features of JMP® and how they were used to advance a project, resulting in time and cost savings, as well as the collection of scientifically sound data. The project analyzed in this report addresses the inability of a nitro plasticizer to coat a gold coated quartz crystal sensor used in a quartz crystal microbalance. Through the use of the JMP® software, the wettability of the nitro plasticizer was increased by over 200% using an atmospheric plasma pen, ensuring good sample preparation and reliable results.

  3. Investigation into Plastic Cards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neringa Stašelytė

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the strength of laminating plastic cards at different lamination temperatures. For investigation purposes, two types of plastic substrate and films have been used. Laminate strength has been tested (CMYK to establish the impact of colours on the strength of laminate. The paper compares inks supplied by two different producers. The colour characteristics of CIE L*a*b* space before and after the lamination process have been found. According to lamination strength and characteristics of the colours, the most suitable inks, temperature and films have been chosen.

  4. Joining by plastic deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mori, Ken-ichiro; Bay, Niels; Fratini, Livan

    2013-01-01

    As the scale and complexity of products such as aircraft and cars increase, demand for new functional processes to join mechanical parts grows. The use of plastic deformation for joining parts potentially offers improved accuracy, reliability and environmental safety as well as creating opportuni......As the scale and complexity of products such as aircraft and cars increase, demand for new functional processes to join mechanical parts grows. The use of plastic deformation for joining parts potentially offers improved accuracy, reliability and environmental safety as well as creating...

  5. Elastic plastic fracture mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, L.A.

    1978-07-01

    The application of linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) to crack stability in brittle structures is now well understood and widely applied. However, in many structural materials, crack propagation is accompanied by considerable crack-tip plasticity which invalidates the use of LEFM. Thus, present day research in fracture mechanics is aimed at developing parameters for predicting crack propagation under elastic-plastic conditions. These include critical crack-opening-displacement methods, the J integral and R-curve techniques. This report provides an introduction to these concepts and gives some examples of their applications. (author)

  6. Load Test in Sheet Pile

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Orlando Ibanez

    2016-01-01

    In this work, are discussed experiences in the use of mathematical modeling and testing in hydraulic engineering structures. For this purpose the results of load tests in sheet pile, evaluating horizontal and vertical deformations that occur in the same exposed. Comparisons between theoretical methods for calculating deformations and mathematical models based on the Finite Element Method are established. Finally, the coincidence between the numerical model and the results of the load test ful...

  7. Ohm's law for a current sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, L. R.; Speiser, T. W.

    1985-01-01

    The paper derives an Ohm's law for single-particle motion in a current sheet, where the magnetic field reverses in direction across the sheet. The result is considerably different from the resistive Ohm's law often used in MHD studies of the geomagnetic tail. Single-particle analysis is extended to obtain a self-consistency relation for a current sheet which agrees with previous results. The results are applicable to the concept of reconnection in that the electric field parallel to the current is obtained for a one-dimensional current sheet with constant normal magnetic field. Dissipated energy goes directly into accelerating particles within the current sheet.

  8. Demonstration Of A Nanomaterial-Modified Primer For Use In Corrosion-Inhibiting Coating Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    resin packages/binders, can cause a high-build coating thickness that can be prone to chipping and “mud cracking ” if not properly applied. The...for all non-magnetic coatings on a ferrous (magnetic) substrate, e.g. paint, plastic, enamel , powder, rubber, ceramic, galvanising, zinc, sprayed... cracking during the scribing process due to the brittle coating system on the intermediate primer coupons (16 and 22) as well as coupon 11. Mildew

  9. Ultra-low temperature process by ion shower doping technique for poly-Si TFTs on plastics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong-Man; Lim, Huck; Kim, Do-Young; Jung, Ji-Sim; Kwon, Jang-Yeon; Hong, Wan-Shick; Noguchi, Takashi

    2006-01-01

    An ion doping process was performed by using a basic ion shower system. After ion doping and subsequent activation of the dopants in the Si film by excimer laser annealing (ELA), we studied the crystallinity of the Si surface using UV-reflectance spectroscopy and the sheet resistance by using 4-point probe measurements. To prevent excessive temperature increase on the plastic substrate during ion shower doping, the plasma shower was applied in a series of short pulses. As a result, dopant ions were efficiently incorporated and were activated into the a-Si film on plastic substrate after ELA. The sheet resistance decreased with increase of actual doping time, which corresponds to the incorporated dose. Also, we confirmed a distinct relationship between the crystallinity and the sheet resistance. This work shows that pulsed ion shower doping is a promising technique for ultra-low-temperature poly-Si TFTs on plastic substrates.

  10. Investigation of shinning Spot Defect on Hot-Dip Galvanized Steel Sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonggang, Liu; Lei, Cui

    2014-01-01

    Shinning spot defects on galvanized steel sheets were studied by optical microscope, scanning electron microscope(SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS) and Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy Original Position Statistic Distribution Analysis (LIBSOPA) in this study. The research shows that the coating thickness of shinning spot defects which caused by the substrate defect is much lower than normal area, and when skin passed, the shinning spot defect area can not touch with skin pass roll which result in the surface of shinning spot is flat while normal area is rough. The different coating morphologies have different effects on the reflection of light, which cause the shinning spot defects more brighter than normal area

  11. Experimental formability analysis of bondal sandwich sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kami, Abdolvahed; Banabic, Dorel

    2018-05-01

    Metal/polymer/metal sandwich sheets have recently attracted the interests of industries like automotive industry. These sandwich sheets have superior properties over single-layer metallic sheets including good sound and vibration damping and light weight. However, the formability of these sandwich sheets should be enhanced which requires more research. In this paper, the formability of Bondal sheet (DC06/viscoelastic polymer/DC06 sandwich sheet) was studied through different types of experiments. The mechanical properties of Bondal were determined by uniaxial tensile tests. Hemispherical punch stretching and hydraulic bulge tests were carried out to determine the forming limit diagram (FLD) of Bondal. Furthermore, cylindrical and square cup drawing tests were performed in dry and oil lubricated conditions. These tests were conducted at different blank holding forces (BHFs). An interesting observation about Bondal sheet deep drawing was obtaining of higher drawing depths at dry condition in comparison with oil-lubricated condition.

  12. Buckling and stretching of thin viscous sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kiely, Doireann; Breward, Chris; Griffiths, Ian; Howell, Peter; Lange, Ulrich

    2016-11-01

    Thin glass sheets are used in smartphone, battery and semiconductor technology, and may be manufactured by producing a relatively thick glass slab and subsequently redrawing it to a required thickness. The resulting sheets commonly possess undesired centerline ripples and thick edges. We present a mathematical model in which a viscous sheet undergoes redraw in the direction of gravity, and show that, in a sufficiently strong gravitational field, buckling is driven by compression in a region near the bottom of the sheet, and limited by viscous resistance to stretching of the sheet. We use asymptotic analysis in the thin-sheet, low-Reynolds-number limit to determine the centerline profile and growth rate of such a viscous sheet.

  13. Biodegradable Paper Sheeting as Agricultural Covering with Incorporation of Bamboo Pulp Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-Gui Wang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the manufacturing process for biodegradable paper sheeting with incorporation of bamboo paper sludge, fibers of poplar woods, and viscose fibers by wet-laid nonwoven technology. The best process conditions included a basis weight of 30 g/m2, a bamboo paper sludge content of 10 wt%, and a polyvinyl alcohol concentration of 4 wt%. The burst strength, tearing resistance, tensile properties, resistance to water, and degradation rate were 220.65 kPa, 60.00 N, 46.10 N, 153 Pa, and 56.18%, respectively, under the best process conditions. The biodegradable paper sheeting can satisfy the demand for replacement of agricultural plastic sheeting used for such purposes as moisture retention of soil and promotion of plant growth.

  14. Development of parallel benchmark code by sheet metal forming simulator 'ITAS'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Shintaro; Minami, Kazuo

    1999-03-01

    This report describes the development of parallel benchmark code by sheet metal forming simulator 'ITAS'. ITAS is a nonlinear elasto-plastic analysis program by the finite element method for the purpose of the simulation of sheet metal forming. ITAS adopts the dynamic analysis method that computes displacement of sheet metal at every time unit and utilizes the implicit method with the direct linear equation solver. Therefore the simulator is very robust. However, it requires a lot of computational time and memory capacity. In the development of the parallel benchmark code, we designed the code by MPI programming to reduce the computational time. In numerical experiments on the five kinds of parallel super computers at CCSE JAERI, i.e., SP2, SR2201, SX-4, T94 and VPP300, good performances are observed. The result will be shown to the public through WWW so that the benchmark results may become a guideline of research and development of the parallel program. (author)

  15. Studies of deformation-induced texture development in sheet materials using diffraction techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banovic, S.W.; Vaudin, M.D.; Gnaeupel-Herold, T.H.; Saylor, D.M.; Rodbell, K.P

    2004-01-01

    Crystallographic texture measurements were made on a series of rolled aluminum sheet specimens deformed in equi-biaxial tension up to a strain level of 0.11. The measurement techniques used were neutron diffraction with a 4-circle goniometer, electron backscatter diffraction, conventional powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and XRD using an area detector. Results indicated a complex texture orientation distribution function which altered in response to the applied plastic deformation. Increased deformation caused the {1 1 0} planes, to align parallel to the plane of the sheet. The different techniques produced results that were very consistent with each other. The advantages and disadvantages of the various methods are discussed, with particular consideration of the time taken for each method, the range of orientation space accessible, the density of data that can be obtained, and the statistical significance of each data set with respect to rolled sheet product

  16. Curvature-induced stiffness and the spatial variation of wavelength in wrinkled sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Joseph D; Hohlfeld, Evan; King, Hunter; Huang, Jiangshui; Qiu, Zhanlong; Russell, Thomas P; Menon, Narayanan; Vella, Dominic; Davidovitch, Benny

    2016-02-02

    Wrinkle patterns in compressed thin sheets are ubiquitous in nature and technology, from the furrows on our foreheads to crinkly plant leaves, from ripples on plastic-wrapped objects to the protein film on milk. The current understanding of an elementary descriptor of wrinkles--their wavelength--is restricted to deformations that are parallel, spatially uniform, and nearly planar. However, most naturally occurring wrinkles do not satisfy these stipulations. Here we present a scheme that quantitatively explains the wrinkle wavelength beyond such idealized situations. We propose a local law that incorporates both mechanical and geometrical effects on the spatial variation of wrinkle wavelength. Our experiments on thin polymer films provide strong evidence for its validity. Understanding how wavelength depends on the properties of the sheet and the underlying liquid or elastic subphase is crucial for applications where wrinkles are used to sculpt surface topography, to measure properties of the sheet, or to infer forces applied to a film.

  17. Recent developments in laser-fusion target coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fries, R.J.; Catlett, D.S.; Fossey, D.; Mayer, A.; McCreary, W.J.; Powell, B.W.; Simonsic, G.A.

    1976-01-01

    Techniques to fabricate hollow, spherical, multilayered laser-fusion targets are described. The first is a glow discharge polymerization process for plastic coating. A chemical vapor deposition process for depositing Mo/Re alloys is also discussed along with some new techniques for electrodeless plating and for electroplating a wide variety of metals

  18. Electrolytic coating of microparticles for laser fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, A.; Catlett, D.S.

    1977-04-01

    An electroplating apparatus for applying uniform metallic coatings that have excellent surface finishes to discrete microparticles is described. The device is used to electrodeposit metals onto thin-walled metal, metallized glass, or plastic mandrels. The apparatus and process were developed for fabrication of microsphere pressure vessels to be used as targets in laser fusion research

  19. Radiation cure technology used in inks and coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravijst, J.-P.

    1995-01-01

    The radiation cure technology in inks and coatings by ultraviolet light (UV) and electron beam (EB) was introduced. The technology is the only one which meets the 3-E rules. An advantage of this technology is that a wide range of substrates can be printed such as paper, card, metal and even heat sensitive plastics

  20. Thermal input control and enhancement for laser based residual stress measurements using liquid temperature indicating coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechersky, Martin J.

    1999-01-01

    An improved method for measuring residual stress in a material comprising the steps of applying a spot of temperature indicating coating to the surface to be studied, establishing a speckle pattern surrounds the spot of coating with a first laser then heating the spot of coating with a far infrared laser until the surface plastically deforms. Comparing the speckle patterns before and after deformation by subtracting one pattern from the other will produce a fringe pattern that serves as a visual and quantitative indication of the degree to which the plasticized surface responded to the stress during heating and enables calculation of the stress.

  1. Plastic flashtube chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frisken, W.R.

    1977-01-01

    A brief discussion is given of the use and operation of plastic flashtube chambers. Gas leaks, electric pulsing, the glow discharge, and readout methods are considered. Three distinct problems with high rate applications deal with resolving time, dead time, and polarization/neutralization of the chamber

  2. Plastic Surgery: Tackling Misconceptions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    will succeed. First impressions tend to last, and if young people's first impression of plastic surgeons is that they spend much of their time doing cosmetic surgery then this is a first impression that might be long ... Res 2014;4 Suppl S3:169‑70. Access this article online. Quick Response Code: Website: www.amhsr.org. DOI:.

  3. Biobased Plastics 2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolck, C.H.; Ravenstijn, J.; Molenveld, K.; Harmsen, P.F.H.

    2011-01-01

    Dit boek geeft inzicht in de huidige op de markt verkrijgbare biobased plastics en de te verwachten ontwikkelingen. Er wordt gekeken naar zowel thermoplastische als thermohardende materialen. Het boek biedt inzicht in de productie, verwerking en eigenschappen van de verschillende types. Daarnaast

  4. New plastic recycling technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greater than 60% of the total plastic content of municipal solid waste is comprised of polyolefins (high-density, low-density, and linear polyethylene and polypropylene. Polyethylene (PE) is the largest-volume component but presents a challenge due to the absence of low-energy de...

  5. Reliability of Plastic Slabs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    1989-01-01

    In the paper it is shown how upper and lower bounds for the reliability of plastic slabs can be determined. For the fundamental case it is shown that optimal bounds of a deterministic and a stochastic analysis are obtained on the basis of the same failure mechanisms and the same stress fields....

  6. Individual differences in behavioural plasticities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamps, Judy A

    2016-05-01

    Interest in individual differences in animal behavioural plasticities has surged in recent years, but research in this area has been hampered by semantic confusion as different investigators use the same terms (e.g. plasticity, flexibility, responsiveness) to refer to different phenomena. The first goal of this review is to suggest a framework for categorizing the many different types of behavioural plasticities, describe examples of each, and indicate why using reversibility as a criterion for categorizing behavioural plasticities is problematic. This framework is then used to address a number of timely questions about individual differences in behavioural plasticities. One set of questions concerns the experimental designs that can be used to study individual differences in various types of behavioural plasticities. Although within-individual designs are the default option for empirical studies of many types of behavioural plasticities, in some situations (e.g. when experience at an early age affects the behaviour expressed at subsequent ages), 'replicate individual' designs can provide useful insights into individual differences in behavioural plasticities. To date, researchers using within-individual and replicate individual designs have documented individual differences in all of the major categories of behavioural plasticities described herein. Another important question is whether and how different types of behavioural plasticities are related to one another. Currently there is empirical evidence that many behavioural plasticities [e.g. contextual plasticity, learning rates, IIV (intra-individual variability), endogenous plasticities, ontogenetic plasticities) can themselves vary as a function of experiences earlier in life, that is, many types of behavioural plasticity are themselves developmentally plastic. These findings support the assumption that differences among individuals in prior experiences may contribute to individual differences in behavioural

  7. Reducing the cost of MWT module technology based on conductive back-sheet foils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, I.J.; Goris, M.J.A.A.; Eerenstein, W. [ECN Solar Energy, P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-10-15

    MWT cell and module technology has shown to result in modules with a higher power output than H-pattern modules and to be suitable for use with thin and fragile cells. In this work, the use of low-cost module materials and their effect on module performance and reliability has been assessed. These materials include a conductive back-sheet patterned by milling with no silver plating at the contacts on the foil and no isolation coating on the copper and a low-silver content conductive adhesive. The sensitivity of module performance for the anti-corrosion coating on the copper of the conductive back-sheet is measured, as is the reliability in climate chamber testing of mini-modules made with these materials. The results show that these low cost materials can be used to manufacture module with good performance and reliability. Options are given for further cost reduction.

  8. Fire coral clones demonstrate phenotypic plasticity among reef habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, Caroline E; Boissin, Emilie; Maynard, Jeffrey A; Planes, Serge

    2017-08-01

    Clonal populations are often characterized by reduced levels of genotypic diversity, which can translate into lower numbers of functional phenotypes, both of which impede adaptation. Study of partially clonal animals enables examination of the environmental settings under which clonal reproduction is favoured. Here, we gathered genotypic and phenotypic information from 3,651 georeferenced colonies of the fire coral Millepora platyphylla in five habitats with different hydrodynamic regimes in Moorea, French Polynesia. In the upper slope where waves break, most colonies grew as vertical sheets ("sheet tree") making them more vulnerable to fragmentation. Nearly all fire corals in the other habitats are encrusting or massive. The M. platyphylla population is highly clonal (80% of the colonies are clones), while characterized by the highest genotype diversity ever documented for terrestrial or marine populations (1,064 genotypes). The proportion of clones varies greatly among habitats (≥58%-97%) and clones (328 clonal lineages) are distributed perpendicularly from the reef crest, perfectly aligned with wave energy. There are six clonal lineages with clones dispersed in at least two adjacent habitats that strongly demonstrate phenotypic plasticity. Eighty per cent of the colonies in these lineages are "sheet tree" on the upper slope, while 80%-100% are encrusting or massive on the mid slope and back reef. This is a unique example of phenotypic plasticity among reef-building coral clones as corals typically have wave-tolerant growth forms in high-energy reef areas. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Microstructural investigations of the trimmed edge of DP980 steel sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, S.; Green, D. E.; Sohmshetty, R.; Alpas, A. T.

    2017-10-01

    In order to reduce vehicle weight while maintaining crashworthiness, advanced high strength steels (AHSSs), such as DP980, are extensively used for manufacturing automotive body components. During trimming operations, the high tensile strength of DP980 sheets tends to cause damage of the trim edge of D2 die inserts, which result in deterioration of the edge quality. The objective of this work is to study the damage microstructures at the trimmed edge of DP980 steel sheets as a function of the number of trimming cycles. A mechanical press equipped with AISI D2 tool steel inserts was used to continuously trim 1.4 mm thick sheets of DP980 at a rate of 30 strokes/min. Cross-sectional SEM images of the trimmed edges revealed that the sheared edge quality of the DP980 sheets decreased, indicated by an increase in the burr width, with an increase in the number of trims from 40,000 to 70,000. Plastic strains were estimated using the displacements of the martensite plates within plastic flow fields of ferrite. Site-specific cross-sectional TEM samples, excised from the trimmed edge using the in-situ `lift-out' technique by focused ion-beam (FIB)-milling, revealed cracking at the ferrite/martensite interfaces after 70,000 cycles indicating an increase in the depth of deformation zone possibly due to trimming with a chipped and blunted die edge.

  10. Hard Coat Layers by PE-CVD Process for the Top Surface of Touch Panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okunishi, T; Sato, N; Yazawa, K

    2013-01-01

    In order to protect surface from damages, the high pencil hardness and the high abrasion resistance are required for the hard coat layers on polyethylene telephthalate (PET) films for the application of touch panel surface. We have already found that the UV-curing-hard-coat-polymer (UHP) coated PET films show the poor abrasion resistance, while they have the high pencil hardness. It reveals that the abrasion resistance of hard coat layers of the UHP is not simply dependent on the pencil hardness. In this work, we have studied to improve the abrasion resistance of SiOC films as hard coat layers, which were formed by PE-CVD process on UHP coated PET. The abrasion resistance was evaluated by Taber abrasion test. PE-CVD hard coat layers which formed on UHP coater PET films have showed the better abrasion resistance and have the possibility of substitution to the thin glass sheets for touch panel application.

  11. Flow coating apparatus and method of coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanumanthu, Ramasubrahmaniam; Neyman, Patrick; MacDonald, Niles; Brophy, Brenor; Kopczynski, Kevin; Nair, Wood

    2014-03-11

    Disclosed is a flow coating apparatus, comprising a slot that can dispense a coating material in an approximately uniform manner along a distribution blade that increases uniformity by means of surface tension and transfers the uniform flow of coating material onto an inclined substrate such as for example glass, solar panels, windows or part of an electronic display. Also disclosed is a method of flow coating a substrate using the apparatus such that the substrate is positioned correctly relative to the distribution blade, a pre-wetting step is completed where both the blade and substrate are completed wetted with a pre-wet solution prior to dispensing of the coating material onto the distribution blade from the slot and hence onto the substrate. Thereafter the substrate is removed from the distribution blade and allowed to dry, thereby forming a coating.

  12. Wear of Shaped Surfaces of PVD Coated Dies for Clinching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Džupon

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A clinching method that uses a simple toolset consisting of a punch and a die, is utilized for joining lightweight materials. This paper is aimed at investigating the wear of the die cavity of a clinching tool. A clinching tool with a specially shaped cavity was used for joining thin hot-dip galvanized steel sheets. Various types of physical vapour deposition (PVD coatings such as ZrN, CrN and TiCN were deposited on the shaped surface of the die using Lateral Rotating Arc-Cathodes technology. Hot-dip galvanized steel sheets were used for testing the clinching tool. The material properties of PVD coatings that were deposited on the shaped part of the clinching die were evaluated. Finite Element Analysis was used to localize the area of the shaped part of the die and the part of surface area of the cylindrical die cavity of ϕ 5.0 mm, in which high contact pressure values were predicted. The prediction of the start of the wear cycle was verified experimentally by the clinching of 300 samples of hot-dip galvanized steel sheets. Unlike the CrN and ZrN coatings, the TiCN coating remained intact on the entire surface of the die.

  13. Mechanical particle coating using polymethacrylate nanoparticle agglomerates for the preparation of controlled release fine particles: The relationship between coating performance and the characteristics of various polymethacrylates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Keita; Kato, Shinsuke; Niwa, Toshiyuki

    2017-10-30

    We aimed to understand the factors controlling mechanical particle coating using polymethacrylate. The relationship between coating performance and the characteristics of polymethacrylate powders was investigated. First, theophylline crystals were treated using a mechanical powder processor to obtain theophylline spheres (grindability of the agglomerates were attributed to differences in particle structure, resulting from consolidation between colloidal particles. High-grindability agglomerates exhibited higher pulverization as their glass transition temperature (T g ) increased and the further pulverization promoted coating. We therefore conclude that the minimization of polymethacrylate powder by pulverization is an important factor in mechanical particle coating using polymethacrylate with low deformability. Meanwhile, when product temperature during coating approaches T g of polymer, polymethacrylate was soften to show high coating performance by plastic deformation. The effective coating by this mechanism may be accomplished by adjusting the temperature in the processor to the T g . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Plasticity characteristic obtained by indentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mil'man, Yu.V.; Chugunova, S.I.; Goncharova, I.V.

    2011-01-01

    Methods for determination plasticity characteristic δH in the measurement of hardness and nanohardness are considered. Parameter δH characterizes the plasticity of a material by the part of plastic deformation in the total elastic-plastic deformation. The value of δH is defined for metals with different types of crystal lattice, covalent and partially covalent crystals, intermetallics, metallic glasses and quasicrystals. It is discussed the dependence of the plasticity characteristic δH on structural factors and temperature. Parameter δH allows to analyze and compare the plasticity of materials which are brittle at standard mechanical tests. The combination of hardness H, as the strength characteristic, and the plasticity characteristic δH makes possible the better characterization of mechanical behavior of materials than only the hardness H. The examples of plasticity characteristic δH application are represented.

  15. Testing and modelling of new tribo-systems for industrial sheet forming of stainless steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Søe; Friis, Kasper Storgaard; Bay, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Sheet metal forming of stainless steels is known to be tribologically demanding. To ensure satisfactory production without pick-up and galling, lubrication with environmentally hazardous chlorinated paraffin oil is normally required and in the most severe cases combined with ceramic tool coatings...... as well as the production test in order to estimate the critical interface temperature for lubricant film breakdown. Simulation results show good agreement with experimental measurements of tool temperature close to the interface....

  16. Ultraviolet photodetection of flexible ZnO nanowire sheets in polydimethylsiloxane polymer

    OpenAIRE

    Jinzhang Liu; Nunzio Motta; Soonil Lee

    2012-01-01

    Summary ZnO nanowires are normally exposed to an oxygen atmosphere to achieve high performance in UV photodetection. In this work we present results on a UV photodetector fabricated using a flexible ZnO nanowire sheet embedded in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), a gas-permeable polymer, showing reproducible UV photoresponse and enhanced photoconduction. PDMS coating results in a reduced response speed compared to that of a ZnO nanowire film in air. The rising speed is slightly reduced, while the ...

  17. Plastic pollutants in water environment

    OpenAIRE

    Mrowiec Bożena

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, wide applications of plastics result in plastic waste being present in the water environment in a wide variety of sizes. Plastic wastes are in water mainly as microplastics (the size range of 1 nm to < 5 mm). Microplastics have been recognized as an emerging threat, as well as ecotoxicological and ecological risk for water ecosystems. In this review are presented some of the physicochemical properties of plastic materials that determine their toxic effect on the aquatic environment....

  18. Temporal Dynamics of Bacterial and Fungal Colonization on Plastic Debris in the North Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Tender, Caroline; Devriese, Lisa I; Haegeman, Annelies; Maes, Sara; Vangeyte, Jürgen; Cattrijsse, André; Dawyndt, Peter; Ruttink, Tom

    2017-07-05

    Despite growing evidence that biofilm formation on plastic debris in the marine environment may be essential for its biodegradation, the underlying processes have yet to be fully understood. Thus, far, bacterial biofilm formation had only been studied after short-term exposure or on floating plastic, yet a prominent share of plastic litter accumulates on the seafloor. In this study, we explored the taxonomic composition of bacterial and fungal communities on polyethylene plastic sheets and dolly ropes during long-term exposure on the seafloor, both at a harbor and an offshore location in the Belgian part of the North Sea. We reconstructed the sequence of events during biofilm formation on plastic in the harbor environment and identified a core bacteriome and subsets of bacterial indicator species for early, intermediate, and late stages of biofilm formation. Additionally, by implementing ITS2 metabarcoding on plastic debris, we identified and characterized for the first time fungal genera on plastic debris. Surprisingly, none of the plastics exposed to offshore conditions displayed the typical signature of a late stage biofilm, suggesting that biofilm formation is severely hampered in the natural environment where most plastic debris accumulates.

  19. Electron beam curing of coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, J.; Mai, H.

    1986-01-01

    Modern low-energy electron beam processors offer the possibility for high-speed curing of coatings on paper, plastics, wood and metal. Today the electron beam curing gets more importance due to the increasing environmental problems and the rising cost of energy. For an effective curing process low-energy electron beam processors as well as very reactive binders are necessary. Generally such binders consist of acrylic-modified unsaturated polyester resins, polyacrylates, urethane acrylates or epoxy acrylates and vinyl monomers, mostly multifunctional acrylates. First results on the production of EBC binders on the base of polyester resins and vinyl monomers are presented. The aim of our investigations is to obtain binders with curing doses ≤ 50 kGy. In order to reduce the curing dose we studied mixtures of resins and acrylates. (author)

  20. PENGARUH PLASTICIZER PADA KARAKTERISTIK EDIBLE FILM DARI PEKTIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Kompiang Wirawan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available EFFECT OF PLASTICIzER ON THE PECTINIC EDIBLE FILM CHARACTERISTICS. The peel of Balinese Citrus contains high concentration of pectin which can be further processed to be edible films. The edible films can be utilized as a food coating which protects the food from any external mass transports such as humid, oxygen, and soluble material and can be served as a carrier to improve the mechanical-handing properties of the food. Edible films made of organic polymers tend to be brittle and thus addition of a plasticizer is required during the process. The work studies the effect of the type and the concentration of plasticizers on the tensile strength, the elongation of break, and the water vapor permeabilty of the edible film. Sorbitol and glycerol were used as plasticizers. Albedo from the citrus was hydrolized with hydrochloride acid 0.1 N to get pectinate substance. Pectin was then dissolved in water dan mixed with the plasticizers and CaCl2.2H2O solution. The concentrations of the plasticizers were 0, 0.03, 0.05, 0.1, and 0.15 mL/mL of solution. The results showed that increasing the concentration of plasticizers will decrease the tensile strength, but increase the elongation and film permeability. Sorbitol-plasticized films are more brittle, however exhibited higher tensile strength and water vapor permeability than of glycerol-plasticized film. The results suggested that glycerol is better plasticizer than sorbitol.  Kulit jeruk bali banyak mengandung pektin yang dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai bahan baku edible film. Edible film bisa digunakan untuk melapisi bahan makanan, melindungi makanan dari transfer massa eksternal seperti kelembaban, oksigen, dan zat terlarut, serta dapat digunakan sebagai carrier untuk meningkatkan penanganan mekanik produk makanan. Film yang terbuat dari bahan polimer organik ini cenderung rapuh sehingga diperlukan penambahan plasticizer. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh kadar dan jenis

  1. Curing mechanism of flexible aqueous polymeric coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irfan, Muhammad; Ahmed, Abid Riaz; Kolter, Karl; Bodmeier, Roland; Dashevskiy, Andriy

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study was to explain curing phenomena for pellets coated with a flexible polymeric coating based on poly(vinyl acetate) (Kollicoat® SR 30D) with regard to the effect of starter cores, thickness of drug layer, adhesion of coating to drug-layered-cores as well as coating properties. In addition, appropriate approaches to eliminate the curing effect were identified. Sugar or MCC cores were layered with the model drugs carbamazepine, theophylline, propranolol HCl, tramadol HCl and metoprolol HCl using HPMC (5 or 25% w/w, based on drug) as a binder. Drug-layered pellets were coated with Kollicoat® SR 30D in a fluidized bed coater using TEC (10% w/w) as plasticizer and talc (35-100% w/w) as anti-tacking agent. Drug release, pellet properties (morphology, water uptake-weight loss and osmolality) and adhesion of the coating to the drug layer were investigated as a function of curing at 60°C or 60°C/75% RH for 24h. The film formation of the aqueous dispersion of Kollicoat® SR 30D was complete, and therefore, a strong curing effect (decrease in drug release) at elevated temperature and humidity (60°C/75% RH) could not be explained by the well-known hydroplasticization and the further gradual coalescence of the colloidal polymer particles. According to the provided mechanistic explanation, the observed curing effect was associated with (1) high flexibility of coating, (2) adhesion between coating and drug layer, (3) water retaining properties of the drug layer, and (4) osmotically active cores. Unwanted curing effects could be minimized/eliminated by the addition of talc or/and pore-forming water soluble polymers in the coating, increasing binder amount or applying an intermediate coating, by increasing the thickness of drug layer or using non-osmotic cores. A new insight into curing phenomena mainly associated with the adhesion between drug layer and coating was provided. Appropriate approaches to avoid unwanted curing effect were identified

  2. Strontium-90 fluoride data sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fullam, H.T.

    1981-06-01

    This report is a compilation of available data and appropriate literature references on the properties of strontium-90 fluoride and nonradioactive strontium fluoride. The objective of the document is to compile in a single source pertinent data to assist potential users in the development, licensing, and use of /sup 90/SrF/sub 2/-fueled radioisotope heat sources for terrestrial power conversion and thermal applications. The report is an update of the Strontium-90 Fluoride Data Sheet (BNWL-2284) originally issued in April 1977.

  3. Vietnamese Hurricane Response Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Các tờ dữ kiện được cung cấp nơi đây mô tả vai trò của EPA trong việc đáp ứng với bão và cách các chương trình cụ thể cung cấp sự hỗ trợ. The Vietnamese fact sheets provided here describe EPA's role in a hurricane response.

  4. Factors affecting the hot-dip zinc coatings structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sere, P.R.; Cuclcasi, J.D.; Elsner, C.I.; Sarli, A.R.

    1997-01-01

    Coating solidification during hot-dip galvanizing is a very complex process due to Al-Fe, Al-Fe-Zn and Fe-Zn intermetallic compounds development . Fe-Zn intermetallics are brittle and detrimental for the coating ductility, while the diffusion towards the surface of a segregated insoluble alloying such as antimonium causes the sheet darkness. Steel of different roughness were hot-dip galvanized under different operation conditions using a laboratory scale simulator. The effect of steel roughness and process parameters upon coating characteristics were analysed. Experimental results showed that the steel roughness affects the coating thickness, zinc grain size and texture as well as the out-bursts development, while the process parameters affects the Fe 2 Al 5 morphology and antimonium segregation. (Author) 11 refs

  5. A study of DLC coatings for ironing of stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, M. H.; Christiansen, P.; Bay, N.

    2017-09-01

    Stamping of sheet metal components without lubrication or using minimum amount of hazard free lubricant is a possible solution to diminish health hazards to personnel and environmental impact and to reduce production costs. This paper studies the application of diamond-like coating (DLC) under severe lubrication conditions by adopting strip reduction testing to replicate industrial ironing production of deep drawn, stainless steel cans. Three DLC coatings are investigated; multi-layer, double layer and single layer. Experiments revealed that the double layer coating worked successful, i.e. with no sign of galling using no lubrication even at elevated tool temperature, while the other two coatings peeled off and resulted in severe galling unless lubrication was applied.

  6. Combining ZnO/microwave treatment for changing wettability of WEEE styrene plastics (ABS and HIPS) and their selective separation by froth flotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh Truc, Nguyen Thi; Lee, Byeong-Kyu

    2017-10-01

    This study reports a simple froth flotation method to separate plastic wastes of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) and high impact polystyrene (HIPS) after initial hydrophilization by coating the plastics with ZnO and microwave treatment. ABS and HIPS are typical styrene-based WEEE plastics having similar density and hydrophobicity, which hinders their separation for recycling. After coating with ZnO, 2-min microwave treatment rearranged the ABS surface and thus changed its molecular mobility and increased its hydrophilicity. The combined ZnO coating/microwave treatment facilitated the selective separation of ABS and HIPS with 100% and 95.2% recovery and 95.4% and 100% purity in froth flotation, respectively. The combination of ZnO coating-microwave treatment and froth flotation can be utilized as a selective ABS/HIPS separation technique for improved recycling of WEEE plastics.

  7. Formability Prediction Of Aluminum Sheet In Automotive Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leppin, Christian; Daniel, Dominique; Shahani, Ravi; Gese, Helmut; Dell, Harry

    2007-01-01

    In the following paper, a full mechanical characterization of the AA6016 T4 aluminum alloy car body sheet DR100 is presented. A comprehensive experimental program was performed to identify and model the orthotopic elasto-plastic deformation behavior of the material and its fracture characteristics including criteria for localized necking, ductile fracture and shear fracture. The commercial software package MF GenYld + CrachFEM in combination with the explicit finite element code Ls-Dyna is used to validate the quality of the material model with experiments, namely, prediction of the FLD, deep drawing with a cross-shaped punch and finally, analysis of a simplified hemming process using a solid discretization of the problem. The focus is on the correct prediction of the limits of the material in such processes

  8. Plasticity modeling & computation

    CERN Document Server

    Borja, Ronaldo I

    2013-01-01

    There have been many excellent books written on the subject of plastic deformation in solids, but rarely can one find a textbook on this subject. “Plasticity Modeling & Computation” is a textbook written specifically for students who want to learn the theoretical, mathematical, and computational aspects of inelastic deformation in solids. It adopts a simple narrative style that is not mathematically overbearing, and has been written to emulate a professor giving a lecture on this subject inside a classroom. Each section is written to provide a balance between the relevant equations and the explanations behind them. Where relevant, sections end with one or more exercises designed to reinforce the understanding of the “lecture.” Color figures enhance the presentation and make the book very pleasant to read. For professors planning to use this textbook for their classes, the contents are sufficient for Parts A and B that can be taught in sequence over a period of two semesters or quarters.

  9. AI applications in sheet metal forming

    CERN Document Server

    Hussein, Hussein

    2017-01-01

    This book comprises chapters on research work done around the globe in the area of artificial intelligence (AI) applications in sheet metal forming. The first chapter offers an introduction to various AI techniques and sheet metal forming, while subsequent chapters describe traditional procedures/methods used in various sheet metal forming processes, and focus on the automation of those processes by means of AI techniques, such as KBS, ANN, GA, CBR, etc. Feature recognition and the manufacturability assessment of sheet metal parts, process planning, strip-layout design, selecting the type and size of die components, die modeling, and predicting die life are some of the most important aspects of sheet metal work. Traditionally, these activities are highly experience-based, tedious and time consuming. In response, researchers in several countries have applied various AI techniques to automate these activities, which are covered in this book. This book will be useful for engineers working in sheet metal industri...

  10. Dynamics of Radially Expanding Liquid Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Nayanika; Tirumkudulu, Mahesh S.

    2018-04-01

    The process of atomization often involves ejecting thin liquid sheets at high speeds from a nozzle that causes the sheet to flap violently and break up into fine droplets. The flapping of the liquid sheet has long been attributed to the sheet's interaction with the surrounding gas phase. Here, we present experimental evidence to the contrary and show that the flapping is caused by the thinning of the liquid sheet as it spreads out from the nozzle exit. The measured growth rates of the waves agree remarkably well with the predictions of a recent theory that accounts for the sheet's thinning but ignores aerodynamic interactions. We anticipate these results to not only lead to more accurate predictions of the final drop-size distribution but also enable more efficient designs of atomizers.

  11. Sub-nanosecond plastic scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, P.B.; Caldwell, S.E.; Hocker, L.P.; Crandall, D.G.; Zagarino, P.A.; Cheng, J.; Tirsell, G.; Hurlbut, C.R.

    1977-01-01

    Quenched plastic scintillators have been developed that yield much faster short decay components and greatly reduced long decay components compared to conventional plastic scintillators. The plastics are produced through the addition of selected quench agents to NE111 plastic scintillator that result in reduced total light output. Eight different agents have been studied. Benzophenone and piperidine are two of the most effective quench agents. Data are presented both for short and long decay components. The plastics are expected to make significant contributions in areas of plasma diagnostics

  12. Sub-nanosecond plastic scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, P.B.; Caldwell, S.E.; Hocker, L.P.; Crandall, D.G.; Zagarino, P.A.; Cheng, J.; Tirsell, G.; Hurlbut, C.R.

    1976-01-01

    Quenched plastic scintillators have been developed that yield much faster short decay components and greatly reduced long decay components compared to conventional plastic scintillators. The plastics are produced through the addition of selected quench agents to NE111 plastic scintillator that result in reduced total light output. Eight different agents have been studied. Benzophenone and piperidine are two of the most effective quench agents. Data are presented both for short and long decay components. The plastics are expected to make significant contributions in areas of plasma diagnostics

  13. Compensatory plasticity: time matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latifa eLazzouni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Plasticity in the human and animal brain is the rule, the base for development, and the way to deal effectively with the environment for making the most efficient use of all the senses. When the brain is deprived of one sensory modality, plasticity becomes compensatory: the exception that invalidates the general loss hypothesis giving the opportunity of effective change. Sensory deprivation comes with massive alterations in brain structure and function, behavioural outcomes, and neural interactions. Blind individuals do as good as the sighted and even more, show superior abilities in auditory, tactile and olfactory processing. This behavioural enhancement is accompanied with changes in occipital cortex function, where visual areas at different levels become responsive to non-visual information. The intact senses are in general used more efficiently in the blind but are also used more exclusively. New findings are disentangling these two aspects of compensatory plasticity. What is due to visual deprivation and what is dependent on the extended use of spared modalities? The latter seems to contribute highly to compensatory changes in the congenitally blind. Short term deprivation through the use of blindfolds shows that cortical excitability of the visual cortex is likely to show rapid modulatory changes after few minutes of light deprivation and therefore changes are possible in adulthood. However, reorganization remains more pronounced in the congenitally blind. Cortico-cortical pathways between visual areas and the areas of preserved sensory modalities are inhibited in the presence of vision, but are unmasked after loss of vision or blindfolding as a mechanism likely to drive cross-modal information to the deafferented visual cortex. Plasticity in the blind is also accompanied with neurochemical and morphological changes; both intrinsic connectivity and functional coupling at rest are altered but are likewise dependent on different sensory

  14. Mesocycles in conserving plastics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shashoua, Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    driven by the need to balance the requirements for reversibility in conservation practices with the artist’s intent and significance. Developments within each of the three mesocycles from the 1990s to date are discussed in this article. Environmental science and toxicology of waste plastics offer a novel...... source of information about real time degradation in terrestrial and marine microenvironments that seems likely to contribute to the conservation of similar materials in contemporary artworks....

  15. European coatings conference - Marine coatings. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This volume contains 13 lectures (manuscripts or powerpoint foils) with the following topics: 1. Impact of containerization on polyurethane and polyurea in marine and protective coatings (Malte Homann); 2. The application of combinatorial/high-throughput methods to the development of marine coatings (Bret Chisholm); 3. Progress and perspectives in the AMBIO (advanced nanostructured surfaces for the control of biofouling) Project (James Callow); 4. Release behaviour due to shear and pull-off of silicone coatings with a thickness gradient (James G. Kohl); 5. New liquid rheology additives for high build marine coatings (Andreas Freytag); 6. Effective corrosion protection with polyaniline, polpyrrole and polythiophene as anticorrosice additives for marine paints (Carlos Aleman); 7. Potential applications of sol gel technology for marine applications (Robert Akid); 8: Performance of biocide-free Antifouling Coatings for leisure boats (Bernd Daehne); 9. Novel biocidefree nanostructured antifouling coatings - can nano do the job? (Corne Rentrop); 10. One component high solids, VOC compliant high durability finish technology (Adrian Andrews); 11. High solid coatings - the hybrid solution (Luca Prezzi); 12. Unique organofunctional silicone resins for environmentally friendly high-performance coatings (Dieter Heldmann); 13. Silicone-alkyd paints for marine applications: from battleship-grey to green (Thomas Easton).

  16. Separation of polyethylene terephthalate from municipal waste plastics by froth flotation for recycling industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chong-Qing; Wang, Hui; Liu, You-Nian

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Factors of NaOH treatment were studied by orthogonal and single factor experiments. • Mechanism of alkaline treatment for facilitating flotation was manifested. • Flotation separation of PET was achieved with high purity and efficiency. • A flow sheet of purification PET from MWP was designed. - Abstract: Recycling is an effective way to manage plastic wastes and receives considerable attention. Since plastic mixtures are difficult to recycle because of their intrinsic characteristics, separation of mixed plastics is the key problem for recycling. Separation of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) from municipal waste plastics (MWP) by froth flotation combined with alkaline pretreatment was investigated for recycling industry. The effect of process variables was estimated by L 9 (3 4 ) orthogonal array of experiments and single factor experiments. The optimum conditions of alkaline pretreatment are 10 wt% sodium hydroxide, 20 min and 70 °C. After alkaline pretreatment under optimum conditions, flotation separation PET from acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene, polystyrene, polycarbonate or polyvinyl chloride was achieved with high purity and efficiency. The purity of PET is up to 98.46% and the recovery is above 92.47%. A flow sheet of separation PET from MWP by a combination of froth flotation and sink float separation was designed. This study facilitates industrial application of plastics flotation and provides technical insights into recycling of waste plastics

  17. Separation of polyethylene terephthalate from municipal waste plastics by froth flotation for recycling industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chong-Qing; Wang, Hui, E-mail: huiwang1968@163.com; Liu, You-Nian

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Factors of NaOH treatment were studied by orthogonal and single factor experiments. • Mechanism of alkaline treatment for facilitating flotation was manifested. • Flotation separation of PET was achieved with high purity and efficiency. • A flow sheet of purification PET from MWP was designed. - Abstract: Recycling is an effective way to manage plastic wastes and receives considerable attention. Since plastic mixtures are difficult to recycle because of their intrinsic characteristics, separation of mixed plastics is the key problem for recycling. Separation of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) from municipal waste plastics (MWP) by froth flotation combined with alkaline pretreatment was investigated for recycling industry. The effect of process variables was estimated by L{sub 9} (3{sup 4}) orthogonal array of experiments and single factor experiments. The optimum conditions of alkaline pretreatment are 10 wt% sodium hydroxide, 20 min and 70 °C. After alkaline pretreatment under optimum conditions, flotation separation PET from acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene, polystyrene, polycarbonate or polyvinyl chloride was achieved with high purity and efficiency. The purity of PET is up to 98.46% and the recovery is above 92.47%. A flow sheet of separation PET from MWP by a combination of froth flotation and sink float separation was designed. This study facilitates industrial application of plastics flotation and provides technical insights into recycling of waste plastics.

  18. Plastic footwear for leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antia, N H

    1990-03-01

    The anaesthetic foot in leprosy poses the most major problem in the rehabilitation of its patients. Various attempts have been made to produce protective footwear such as the microcellular rubber-car-tyre sandals. Unfortunately these attempts have had little success on a large scale because of the inability to produce them in large numbers and the stigma attached to such unusual footwear. While such footwear may be superior to the 'tennis' shoe in protecting the foot from injury by the penetration of sharp objects, it fails to distribute the weight-bearing forces which is the major cause of plantar damage and ulceration in the anaesthetic foot. This can be achieved by providing rigidity to the sole, as demonstrated by the healing of ulcers in plaster of paris casts or the rigid wooden clog. A new type of moulded plastic footwear has been evolved in conjunction with the plastic footwear industry which provides footwear that can be mass produced at a low price and which overcomes the stigma of leprosy. Controlled rigidity is provided by the incorporation of a spring steel shank between the sponge insole and the hard wearing plastic sole. Trials have demonstrated both the acceptability of the footwear and its protective effects as well as its hard wearing properties.

  19. Plastic waste disposal apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kito, S

    1972-05-01

    A test plant plastic incinerator was constructed by the Takuma Boiler Manufacturing Co. for Sekisui Chemical Industries, and the use of a continuous feed spreader was found to be most effective for prevention of black smoke, and the use of a venturi scrubber proved to be effective for elimination of hydrogen chloride gas. The incinerator was designed for combustion of polyvinyl chloride exclusively, but it is also applicable for combustion of other plastics. When burning polyethylene, polypropylene, or polystyrene, (those plastics which do not produce toxic gases), the incinerator requires no scrubber for the combustion gas. The system may or may not have a pretreatment apparatus. For an incinerator with a pretreatment system, the flow chart comprises a pit, a supply crane, a vibration feeder, a metal eliminator, a rotation shredder, a continuous screw feeder with a quantitative supply hopper, a pretreatment chamber (300 C dry distillation), a quantitative supply hopper, and the incinerator. The incinerator is a flat non-grid type combustion chamber with an oil burner and many air nozzles. From the incinerator, ashes are sent by an ash conveyor to an ash bunker. The combustion gas goes to the boiler, and the water supplied the boiler water pump creates steam. The heat from the gas is sent back to the pretreatment system through a heat exchanger. The gas then goes to a venturi scrubber and goes out from a stack.

  20. Electro-thermo-mechanical coupling analysis of deep drawing with resistance heating for aluminum matrix composites sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kaifeng; Zhang, Tuoda; Wang, Bo

    2013-05-01

    Recently, electro-plastic forming to be a focus of attention in materials hot processing research area, because it is a sort of energy-saving, high efficient and green manufacturing technology. An electro-thermo-mechanical model can be adopted to carry out the sequence simulation of aluminum matrix composites sheet deep drawing via electro-thermal coupling and thermal-mechanical coupling method. The first step of process is resistance heating of sheet, then turn off the power, and the second step is deep drawing. Temperature distribution of SiCp/2024Al composite sheet by resistance heating and sheet deep drawing deformation were analyzed. During the simulation, effect of contact resistances, temperature coefficient of resistance for electrode material and SiCp/2024Al composite on temperature distribution were integrally considered. The simulation results demonstrate that Sicp/2024Al composite sheet can be rapidly heated to 400° in 30s using resistances heating and the sheet temperature can be controlled by adjusting the current density. Physical properties of the electrode materials can significantly affect the composite sheet temperature distribution. The temperature difference between the center and the side of the sheet is proportional to the thermal conductivity of the electrode, the principal cause of which is that the heat transfers from the sheet to the electrode. SiCp/2024Al thin-wall part can be intactly manufactured at strain rate of 0.08s-1 and the sheet thickness thinning rate is limited within 20%, which corresponds well to the experimental result.